WorldWideScience

Sample records for flexible supercapacitor based

  1. Graphene-based materials for flexible supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Yuanlong; El-Kady, Maher F; Wang, Lisa J; Zhang, Qinghong; Li, Yaogang; Wang, Hongzhi; Mousavi, Mir F; Kaner, Richard B

    2015-06-07

    The demand for flexible/wearable electronic devices that have aesthetic appeal and multi-functionality has stimulated the rapid development of flexible supercapacitors with enhanced electrochemical performance and mechanical flexibility. After a brief introduction to flexible supercapacitors, we summarize current progress made with graphene-based electrodes. Two recently proposed prototypes for flexible supercapacitors, known as micro-supercapacitors and fiber-type supercapacitors, are then discussed. We also present our perspective on the development of graphene-based electrodes for flexible supercapacitors.

  2. Chemically modified graphene based supercapacitors for flexible and miniature devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Debasis; Kim, Sang Ouk

    2015-09-01

    Rapid progress in the portable and flexible electronic devises has stimulated supercapacitor research towards the design and fabrication of high performance flexible devices. Recent research efforts for flexible supercapacitor electrode materials are highly focusing on graphene and chemically modified graphene owing to the unique properties, including large surface area, high electrical and thermal conductivity, excellent mechanical flexibility, and outstanding chemical stability. This invited review article highlights current status of the flexible electrode material research based on chemically modified graphene for supercapacitor application. A variety of electrode architectures prepared from chemically modified graphene are summarized in terms of their structural dimensions. Novel prototypes for the supercapacitor aiming at flexible miniature devices, i.e. microsupercapacitor with high energy and power density are highlighted. Future challenges relevant to graphene-based flexible supercapacitors are also suggested. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  3. Flexible Supercapacitors Based on Carbon Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-26

    spray-coated directly onto either exible nonconductive substrates (e.g., plastic lm, cellulose paper, and office paper) as both the current electrode...1D carbon nanotubes, 2D graphene, and 3D mesoporous carbon, are promising as electrode materials for flexible supercapacitors due to their extremely...H2SO4 gels) between positive/negative electrodes supported with exible plastic substrates (e.g., polydimethylsi- loxane, PDMS).34–36 Unlike

  4. Flexible Supercapacitors Based on Polyaniline Arrays Coated Graphene Aerogel Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu; Xi, Yunlong; Li, Junzhi; Wei, Guodong; Klyui, N I; Han, Wei

    2017-12-01

    Flexible supercapacitors(SCs) made by reduced graphene oxide (rGO)-based aerogel usually suffer from the low energy density, short cycle life and bad flexibility. In this study, a new, synthetic strategy was developed for enhancing the electrochemical performances of rGO aerogel-based supercapacitor via electrodeposition polyaniline arrays on the prepared ultralight rGO aerogel. The novel hybrid composites with coated polyaniline (PANI) arrays growing on the rGO surface can take full advantage of the rich open-pore and excellent conductivity of the crosslinking framework structure of 3D rGO aerogel and high capacitance contribution from the PANI. The obtained hybrid composites exhibit excellent electrochemical performance with a specific capacitance of 432 F g -1 at the current density of 1 A g -1 , robust cycling stability to maintain 85% after 10,000 charge/discharge cycles and high energy density of 25 W h kg -1 . Furthermore, the flexible all-solid-state supercapacitor have superior flexibility and outstanding stability under different bending states from the straight state to the 90° status. The high-performance flexible all-solid-state SCs together with the lighting tests demonstrate it possible for applications in portable electronics.

  5. Inkjet-Printed Flexible Graphene-Based Supercapacitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ervin, Matthew H.; Le, Linh T.; Lee, Woo Y.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A flexible, inkjet-printed, graphene-based supercapacitor has been demonstrated with a graphene specific capacitance of up to 192 F/g. • Repeated bending of the device for hundreds of cycles resulted in a loss of capacitance of less than 5%. • The permeability of the Kapton packaging materials is a problem for the common aqueous and organic electrolytes, but ionic liquids appear to be well contained. - Abstract: A flexible supercapacitor is being developed for integrating with and powering flexible electronics for military and commercial applications. Graphene oxide dispersed in water was used as an ink for inkjet printing the electrode active material onto metal film on Kapton current collectors. After printing, the graphene oxide was thermally reduced at 200 °C to produce conductive graphene electrodes. These electrodes were heat sealed together with added electrolyte and separator, and the assembled supercapacitor performance was evaluated. The specific capacitance of the graphene is good, and the overall performance of the packaged device serves as a proof of concept. But in the future, thicker graphene electrodes and further package optimization will be required to obtain good device-level performance. A number of issues associated with using Kapton for packaging these devices are identified and discussed

  6. High-performance flexible supercapacitor based on porous array electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shieh, Jen-Yu; Tsai, Sung-Ying; Li, Bo-Yan [Institute of Electro-Optical and Materials Science, National Formosa University, 64 Wenhua Road, Huwei, Yunlin 63208, Taiwan (China); Yu, Hsin Her, E-mail: hhyu@nfu.edu.tw [Department of Biotechnology, National Formosa University, 64 Wenhua Road, Huwei, Yunlin 63208, Taiwan (China)

    2017-07-01

    In this study, an array of polystyrene (PS) spheres was synthesized by a dispersion-polymerization technique as a template onto which a porous polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microarray structure was fabricated by soft lithography. A conducting layer was coated on the surface of the microarray after a suspension of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) mixed with graphene (G) had been poured into the porous array. A PDMS-based porous supercapacitor was assembled by sandwiching a separator between two porous electrodes filled with a H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) gel electrolyte. The specific capacitance, electrochemical properties, and cycle stability of the porous electrode supercapacitors were explored. The porous PDMS-electrode-based supercapacitor exhibited high specific capacitance and good cycle stability, indicating its enormous potential for future applications in wearable and portable electronic products. - Highlights: • Porous electrode was prepared using an array of polystyrene spheres as template. • The porous electrodes provided increased contact area with the electrolyte. • A gel electrolyte averted problems with leakage and poor interfacial contact. • A larger separator pore size effectively reduced the internal resistance, iR{sub drop}. • Porous PDMS supercapacitor showed superior flexibility and cycling stability.

  7. Paper-based transparent flexible thin film supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Kezheng; Shao, Ziqiang; Wu, Xue; Wang, Xi; Zhang, Yunhua; Wang, Wenjun; Wang, Feijun

    2013-05-01

    Paper-based transparent flexible thin film supercapacitors were fabricated using CNF-[RGO]n hybrid paper as an electrode material and charge collector. Owing to the self-anti-stacking of distorted RGO nanosheets and internal electrolyte nanoscale-reservoirs, the device exhibited good electrochemical performance (about 1.73 mF cm-2), and a transmittance of about 56% (at 550 nm).Paper-based transparent flexible thin film supercapacitors were fabricated using CNF-[RGO]n hybrid paper as an electrode material and charge collector. Owing to the self-anti-stacking of distorted RGO nanosheets and internal electrolyte nanoscale-reservoirs, the device exhibited good electrochemical performance (about 1.73 mF cm-2), and a transmittance of about 56% (at 550 nm). Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental, TEM image, IR spectra, and XRD spectra of cellulose nanofibers, TEM image, and XRD spectra of RGO, graphite, GO nanosheets, CNF paper, and CNF-[RGO]20 hybrid paper, high-resolution C1s spectra of GO, Raman spectra of GO nanosheets, cross-sectional FESEM image of CNF-[RGO]20 hybrid paper and stress-strain curve of T-SC-20. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr00674c

  8. Supercapacitors based on flexible graphene/polyaniline nanofiber composite films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qiong; Xu, Yuxi; Yao, Zhiyi; Liu, Anran; Shi, Gaoquan

    2010-04-27

    Composite films of chemically converted graphene (CCG) and polyaniline nanofibers (PANI-NFs) were prepared by vacuum filtration the mixed dispersions of both components. The composite film has a layered structure, and PANI-NFs are sandwiched between CCG layers. Furthermore, it is mechanically stable and has a high flexibility; thus, it can be bent into large angles or be shaped into various desired structures. The conductivity of the composite film containing 44% CCG (5.5 x 10(2) S m(-1)) is about 10 times that of a PANI-NF film. Supercapacitor devices based on this conductive flexible composite film showed large electrochemical capacitance (210 F g(-1)) at a discharge rate of 0.3 A g(-1). They also exhibited greatly improved electrochemical stability and rate performances.

  9. Flexible all solid-state supercapacitors based on chemical vapor deposition derived graphene fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinming; Zhao, Tianshuo; Chen, Qiao; Li, Peixu; Wang, Kunlin; Zhong, Minlin; Wei, Jinquan; Wu, Dehai; Wei, Bingqing; Zhu, Hongwei

    2013-11-07

    Flexible all-solid-state supercapacitors based on graphene fibers are demonstrated in this study. Surface-deposited oxide nanoparticles are used as pseudo-capacitor electrodes to achieve high capacitance. This supercapacitor electrode has an areal capacitance of 42 mF cm(-2), which is comparable to the capacitance for fiber-based supercapacitors reported to date. During the bending and cycling of the fiber-based supercapacitor, the stability could be maintained without sacrificing the electrochemical performance, which provides a novel and simple way to develop flexible, lightweight and efficient graphene-based devices.

  10. Flexible Transparent Supercapacitors Based on Hierarchical Nanocomposite Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fanhong; Wan, Pengbo; Xu, Haijun; Sun, Xiaoming

    2017-05-31

    Flexible transparent electronic devices have recently gained immense popularity in smart wearable electronics and touch screen devices, which accelerates the development of the portable power sources with reliable flexibility, robust transparency and integration to couple these electronic devices. For potentially coupled as energy storage modules in various flexible, transparent and portable electronics, the flexible transparent supercapacitors are developed and assembled from hierarchical nanocomposite films of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and aligned polyaniline (PANI) nanoarrays upon their synergistic advantages. The nanocomposite films are fabricated from in situ PANI nanoarrays preparation in a blended solution of aniline monomers and rGO onto the flexible, transparent, and stably conducting film (FTCF) substrate, which is obtained by coating silver nanowires (Ag NWs) layer with Meyer rod and then coating of rGO layer on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate. Optimization of the transparency, the specific capacitance, and the flexibility resulted in the obtained all-solid state nanocomposite supercapacitors exhibiting enhanced capacitance performance, good cycling stability, excellent flexibility, and superior transparency. It provides promising application prospects for exploiting flexible, low-cost, transparent, and high-performance energy storage devices to be coupled into various flexible, transparent, and wearable electronic devices.

  11. Transparent, flexible, and solid-state supercapacitors based on graphene electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Y.; Zhou, Y. S.; Xiong, W.; Jiang, L. J.; Mahjouri-samani, M.; Thirugnanam, P.; Huang, X.; Wang, M. M.; Jiang, L.; Lu, Y. F.

    2013-07-01

    In this study, graphene-based supercapacitors with optical transparency and mechanical flexibility have been achieved using a combination of poly(vinyl alcohol)/phosphoric acid gel electrolyte and graphene electrodes. An optical transmittance of ˜67% in a wavelength range of 500-800 nm and a 92.4% remnant capacitance under a bending angle of 80° have been achieved for the supercapacitors. The decrease in capacitance under bending is ascribed to the buckling of the graphene electrode in compression. The supercapacitors with high optical transparency, electrochemical stability, and mechanical flexibility hold promises for transparent and flexible electronics.

  12. Transparent, flexible, and solid-state supercapacitors based on graphene electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Gao

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, graphene-based supercapacitors with optical transparency and mechanical flexibility have been achieved using a combination of poly(vinyl alcohol/phosphoric acid gel electrolyte and graphene electrodes. An optical transmittance of ∼67% in a wavelength range of 500-800 nm and a 92.4% remnant capacitance under a bending angle of 80° have been achieved for the supercapacitors. The decrease in capacitance under bending is ascribed to the buckling of the graphene electrode in compression. The supercapacitors with high optical transparency, electrochemical stability, and mechanical flexibility hold promises for transparent and flexible electronics.

  13. Mechanical and Electrochemical Performance of Graphene-Based Flexible Supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    pulling apart as the supercapacitor is bent. The degradation of ionic liquid based supercapacitors due to water permeation into the package also needs to...electrodes are assembled with an intervening frame of FEP-coated Kapton, c) electrodes are heat sealed face to face on three sides, d) the polypropylene ... liquid in thick Kapton/FEP, c) propylene carbonate in thick Kapton, d) water in thick Kapton covered with aluminum tape, e) water in thick Kapton/FEP

  14. Asymmetric Flexible Supercapacitor Stack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leela Mohana Reddy A

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractElectrical double layer supercapacitor is very significant in the field of electrical energy storage which can be the solution for the current revolution in the electronic devices like mobile phones, camera flashes which needs flexible and miniaturized energy storage device with all non-aqueous components. The multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs have been synthesized by catalytic chemical vapor deposition technique over hydrogen decrepitated Mischmetal (Mm based AB3alloy hydride. The polymer dispersed MWNTs have been obtained by insitu polymerization and the metal oxide/MWNTs were synthesized by sol-gel method. Morphological characterizations of polymer dispersed MWNTs have been carried out using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and HRTEM. An assymetric double supercapacitor stack has been fabricated using polymer/MWNTs and metal oxide/MWNTs coated over flexible carbon fabric as electrodes and nafion®membrane as a solid electrolyte. Electrochemical performance of the supercapacitor stack has been investigated using cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge-discharge, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.

  15. One step shift towards flexible supercapacitors based on carbon nanotubes - A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yar, A., E-mail: asfandyarhargan@gmail.com, E-mail: johndennis@petronas.com.my, E-mail: noranimuti-mohamed@petronas.com.my, E-mail: asad-032@yahoo.com, E-mail: imrancssp@gmail.com; Dennis, J. O., E-mail: asfandyarhargan@gmail.com, E-mail: johndennis@petronas.com.my, E-mail: noranimuti-mohamed@petronas.com.my, E-mail: asad-032@yahoo.com, E-mail: imrancssp@gmail.com; Mohamed, N. M., E-mail: asfandyarhargan@gmail.com, E-mail: johndennis@petronas.com.my, E-mail: noranimuti-mohamed@petronas.com.my, E-mail: asad-032@yahoo.com, E-mail: imrancssp@gmail.com; Mumtaz, A., E-mail: asfandyarhargan@gmail.com, E-mail: johndennis@petronas.com.my, E-mail: noranimuti-mohamed@petronas.com.my, E-mail: asad-032@yahoo.com, E-mail: imrancssp@gmail.com; Irshad, M. I., E-mail: asfandyarhargan@gmail.com, E-mail: johndennis@petronas.com.my, E-mail: noranimuti-mohamed@petronas.com.my, E-mail: asad-032@yahoo.com, E-mail: imrancssp@gmail.com [Department of Fundamental and Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS (Malaysia); Ahmad, F., E-mail: ahmad-1234farooq@yahoo.com [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS (Malaysia)

    2014-10-24

    Supercapacitors have emerged as prominent energy storage devices that offer high energy density compared to conventional capacitors and high power density which is not found in batteries. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) because of their high surface area and tremendous electrical properties are used as electrode material for supercapacitors. In this review we focused on the factors like surface area, role of the electrolyte and techniques adopted to improve performance of CNTs based supercapacitors. The supercapacitors are widely tested in liquid electrolytes which are normally hazardous in nature, toxic, flammable and their leakage has safety concerns. This review also focuses on research which is replacing these unsafe electrolytes by solid electrolytes with the combination of low cost CNTs deposited flexible supports for supercapacitors.

  16. One step shift towards flexible supercapacitors based on carbon nanotubes - A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yar, A.; Dennis, J. O.; Mohamed, N. M.; Mumtaz, A.; Irshad, M. I.; Ahmad, F.

    2014-10-01

    Supercapacitors have emerged as prominent energy storage devices that offer high energy density compared to conventional capacitors and high power density which is not found in batteries. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) because of their high surface area and tremendous electrical properties are used as electrode material for supercapacitors. In this review we focused on the factors like surface area, role of the electrolyte and techniques adopted to improve performance of CNTs based supercapacitors. The supercapacitors are widely tested in liquid electrolytes which are normally hazardous in nature, toxic, flammable and their leakage has safety concerns. This review also focuses on research which is replacing these unsafe electrolytes by solid electrolytes with the combination of low cost CNTs deposited flexible supports for supercapacitors.

  17. One step shift towards flexible supercapacitors based on carbon nanotubes - A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yar, A.; Dennis, J. O.; Mohamed, N. M.; Mumtaz, A.; Irshad, M. I.; Ahmad, F.

    2014-01-01

    Supercapacitors have emerged as prominent energy storage devices that offer high energy density compared to conventional capacitors and high power density which is not found in batteries. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) because of their high surface area and tremendous electrical properties are used as electrode material for supercapacitors. In this review we focused on the factors like surface area, role of the electrolyte and techniques adopted to improve performance of CNTs based supercapacitors. The supercapacitors are widely tested in liquid electrolytes which are normally hazardous in nature, toxic, flammable and their leakage has safety concerns. This review also focuses on research which is replacing these unsafe electrolytes by solid electrolytes with the combination of low cost CNTs deposited flexible supports for supercapacitors

  18. Transition-Metal-Free Biomolecule-Based Flexible Asymmetric Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yun; Wang, Hua; Hao, Rui; Guo, Lin

    2016-09-01

    A transition-metal-free asymmetric supercapacitor (ASC) is successfully fabricated based on an earth-abundant biomass derived redox-active biomolecule, named lawsone. Such an ASC exhibits comparable or even higher energy densities than most of the recently reported transition-metal-based ASCs, and this green ASC generation from renewable resources is promising for addressing current issues of electronic hazard processing, high cost, and unsustainability. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Bismuth oxide nanotubes-graphene fiber-based flexible supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalsamy, Karthikeyan; Xu, Zhen; Zheng, Bingna; Huang, Tieqi; Kou, Liang; Zhao, Xiaoli; Gao, Chao

    2014-07-01

    Graphene-bismuth oxide nanotube fiber as electrode material for constituting flexible supercapacitors using a PVA/H3PO4 gel electrolyte is reported with a high specific capacitance (Ca) of 69.3 mF cm-2 (for a single electrode) and 17.3 mF cm-2 (for the whole device) at 0.1 mA cm-2, respectively. Our approach opens the door to metal oxide-graphene hybrid fibers and high-performance flexible electronics.Graphene-bismuth oxide nanotube fiber as electrode material for constituting flexible supercapacitors using a PVA/H3PO4 gel electrolyte is reported with a high specific capacitance (Ca) of 69.3 mF cm-2 (for a single electrode) and 17.3 mF cm-2 (for the whole device) at 0.1 mA cm-2, respectively. Our approach opens the door to metal oxide-graphene hybrid fibers and high-performance flexible electronics. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Equations and characterization. SEM images of GGO, XRD and XPS of Bi2O3 NTs, HRTEM images and EDX Spectra of Bi2O3 NT5-GF, CV curves of Bi2O3NT5-GF, Bi2O3 NTs and bismuth nitrate in three-electrode system (vs. Ag/AgCl). CV and GCD curves of Bi2O3 NT1-GF and Bi2O3 NT3-GF. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr02615b

  20. Flexible solid-state supercapacitors based on three-dimensional graphene hydrogel films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yuxi; Lin, Zhaoyang; Huang, Xiaoqing; Liu, Yuan; Huang, Yu; Duan, Xiangfeng

    2013-05-28

    Flexible solid-state supercapacitors are of considerable interest as mobile power supply for future flexible electronics. Graphene or carbon nanotubes based thin films have been used to fabricate flexible solid-state supercapacitors with high gravimetric specific capacitances (80-200 F/g), but usually with a rather low overall or areal specific capacitance (3-50 mF/cm(2)) due to the ultrasmall electrode thickness (typically a few micrometers) and ultralow mass loading, which is not desirable for practical applications. Here we report the exploration of a three-dimensional (3D) graphene hydrogel for the fabrication of high-performance solid-state flexible supercapacitors. With a highly interconnected 3D network structure, graphene hydrogel exhibits exceptional electrical conductivity and mechanical robustness to make it an excellent material for flexible energy storage devices. Our studies demonstrate that flexible supercapacitors with a 120 μm thick graphene hydrogel thin film can exhibit excellent capacitive characteristics, including a high gravimetric specific capacitance of 186 F/g (up to 196 F/g for a 42 μm thick electrode), an unprecedented areal specific capacitance of 372 mF/cm(2) (up to 402 mF/cm(2) for a 185 μm thick electrode), low leakage current (10.6 μA), excellent cycling stability, and extraordinary mechanical flexibility. This study demonstrates the exciting potential of 3D graphene macrostructures for high-performance flexible energy storage devices.

  1. All-solid-state flexible supercapacitors based on papers coated with carbon nanotubes and ionic-liquid-based gel electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Yu Jin; Kim, Woong; Chung, Haegeun; Han, Chi-Hwan

    2012-01-01

    All-solid-state flexible supercapacitors were fabricated using carbon nanotubes (CNTs), regular office papers, and ionic-liquid-based gel electrolytes. Flexible electrodes were made by coating CNTs on office papers by a drop-dry method. The gel electrolyte was prepared by mixing fumed silica nanopowders with ionic liquid, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([EMIM][NTf 2 ]). This supercapacitor showed high power and energy performance as a solid-state flexible supercapacitor. The specific capacitance of the CNT electrodes was 135 F g −1 at a current density of 2 A g −1 , when considering the mass of active materials only. The maximum power and energy density of the supercapacitors were 164 kW kg −1 and 41 Wh kg −1 , respectively. Interestingly, the solid-state supercapacitor with the gel electrolyte showed comparable performance to the supercapacitors with ionic-liquid electrolyte. Moreover, the supercapacitor showed excellent stability and flexibility. The CNT/paper- and gel-based supercapacitors may hold great potential for low-cost and high-performance flexible energy storage applications. (paper)

  2. Strong and Robust Polyaniline-Based Supramolecular Hydrogels for Flexible Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wanwan; Gao, Fengxian; Wang, Xiaoqian; Zhang, Ning; Ma, Mingming

    2016-08-01

    We report a supramolecular strategy to prepare conductive hydrogels with outstanding mechanical and electrochemical properties, which are utilized for flexible solid-state supercapacitors (SCs) with high performance. The supramolecular assembly of polyaniline and polyvinyl alcohol through dynamic boronate bond yields the polyaniline-polyvinyl alcohol hydrogel (PPH), which shows remarkable tensile strength (5.3 MPa) and electrochemical capacitance (928 F g(-1) ). The flexible solid-state supercapacitor based on PPH provides a large capacitance (306 mF cm(-2) and 153 F g(-1) ) and a high energy density of 13.6 Wh kg(-1) , superior to other flexible supercapacitors. The robustness of the PPH-based supercapacitor is demonstrated by the 100 % capacitance retention after 1000 mechanical folding cycles, and the 90 % capacitance retention after 1000 galvanostatic charge-discharge cycles. The high activity and robustness enable the PPH-based supercapacitor as a promising power device for flexible electronics. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Flexible supercapacitor electrodes based on real metal-like cellulose papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Yongmin; Kwon, Minseong; Bae, Wan Ki; Lee, Byeongyong; Lee, Seung Woo; Cho, Jinhan

    2017-09-14

    The effective implantation of conductive and charge storage materials into flexible frames has been strongly demanded for the development of flexible supercapacitors. Here, we introduce metallic cellulose paper-based supercapacitor electrodes with excellent energy storage performance by minimizing the contact resistance between neighboring metal and/or metal oxide nanoparticles using an assembly approach, called ligand-mediated layer-by-layer assembly. This approach can convert the insulating paper to the highly porous metallic paper with large surface areas that can function as current collectors and nanoparticle reservoirs for supercapacitor electrodes. Moreover, we demonstrate that the alternating structure design of the metal and pseudocapacitive nanoparticles on the metallic papers can remarkably increase the areal capacitance and rate capability with a notable decrease in the internal resistance. The maximum power and energy density of the metallic paper-based supercapacitors are estimated to be 15.1 mW cm -2 and 267.3 μWh cm -2 , respectively, substantially outperforming the performance of conventional paper or textile-type supercapacitors.With ligand-mediated layer-by-layer assembly between metal nanoparticles and small organic molecules, the authors prepare metallic paper electrodes for supercapacitors with high power and energy densities. This approach could be extended to various electrodes for portable/wearable electronics.

  4. A facile method to prepare a high performance solid-state flexible paper-based supercapacitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shieh, Jen-Yu; Zhang, Sheng-Hui; Wu, Cheng-Hung [Institute of Electro-Optical and Materials Science, National Formosa University, 64 Wenhua Road, Huwei, Yunlin 63208, Taiwan (China); Yu, Hsin Her, E-mail: hhyu@nfu.edu.tw [Department of Biotechnology, National Formosa University, 64 Wenhua Road, Huwei, Yunlin 63208, Taiwan (China)

    2014-09-15

    Graphical abstract: A flexible paper-based supercapacitor was assembled into a sandwich structure, which exhibits well-retained triangular-shaped curves. The cycle life stability of this device still retains about 96% of the initial capacitance after 2000 cycles at a scan rate of 400 mV/s. An as-fabricated paper-based supercapacitor could light a red LED well after charging at constant potential of 3 V. - Highlights: • A facile approach is proposed to fabricate paper-based supercapacitors. • Apple pectin is an excellent dispersant for MWCNTs. • Paper provides a strong binding and flexible characteristic for electrode. • A paper-based supercapacitor could light a red LED after charging. • This device shows excellent electrochemical performance and cycling stability. - Abstract: We propose a low cost and simple method to prepare a paper-based supercapacitor in this study. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were dispersed with a pectin solution under an ultrasonic homogenizer. Carbon nanotube suspension was prepared using a centrifuge to eliminate impurities. The dispersed MWCNTs suspension was dropped and dried onto the shallow surface of commercial copy paper. A paper-based conductive paper was formed as the electrodes. The electrical conductivity and dispersed morphology of the paper-based conductive paper were examined by four probes, atomic force microscope (AFM), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The solid-state electrolyte was prepared by casting a solution of phosphoric acid and polyvinyl alcohol onto a glass plate. The paper-based supercapacitor was constructed with one solid-state electrolyte inserted between two electrodes, which were assembled into a sandwich structure by hot press. The specific capacitance and cycle-life stability of the paper-based supercapacitor was investigated by cyclic voltammetry analysis.

  5. Fiber-based all-solid-state flexible supercapacitors for self-powered systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xu; Li, Tianqi; Yang, Peihua; Gao, Yuan; Jin, Huanyu; Ni, Weijian; Zhan, Wenhui; Zhang, Xianghui; Cao, Yuanzhi; Zhong, Junwen; Gong, Li; Yen, Wen-Chun; Mai, Wenjie; Chen, Jian; Huo, Kaifu; Chueh, Yu-Lun; Wang, Zhong Lin; Zhou, Jun

    2012-10-23

    All-solid-state flexible supercapacitors based on a carbon/MnO(2) (C/M) core-shell fiber structure were fabricated with high electrochemical performance such as high rate capability with a scan rate up to 20 V s(-1), high volume capacitance of 2.5 F cm(-3), and an energy density of 2.2 × 10(-4) Wh cm(-3). By integrating with a triboelectric generator, supercapacitors could be charged and power commercial electronic devices, such as a liquid crystal display or a light-emitting-diode, demonstrating feasibility as an efficient storage component and self-powered micro/nanosystems.

  6. Flexible symmetric supercapacitors based on vertical TiO2 and carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, C. J.; Chang, Pai-Chun; Lu, Jia G.

    2010-03-01

    Highly conducting and porous carbon nanotubes are widely used as electrodes in double-layer-effect supercapacitors. In this presentation, vertical TiO2 nanotube array is fabricated by anodization process and used as supercapacitor electrode utilizing its compact density, high surface area and porous structure. By spin coating carbon nanotube networks on vertical TiO2 nanotube array as electrodes with 1M H2SO4 electrolyte in between, the specific capacitance can be enhanced by 30% compared to using pure carbon nanotube network alone because of the combination of double layer effect and redox reaction from metal oxide materials. Based on cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge-discharge measurements, this type of hybrid electrode has proven to be suitable for high performance supercapacitor application and maintain desirable cycling stability. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy technique shows that the electrode has good electrical conductivity. Furthermore, we will discuss the prospect of extending this energy storage approach in flexible electronics.

  7. Flexible, high performance Two-Ply Yarn Supercapacitors based on irradiated Carbon Nanotube Yarn and PEDOT/PSS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Fenghua; Miao, Menghe

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Two-ply supercapacitors based on CNT yarn were prepared by a simple method. • The two-ply supercapacitors are high-performance, flexible and thread-like. • Gamma irradiation of CNT yarn improves the capacitance of the resulting supercapacitor. • PEDOT/PSS coated on the yarn surface further improve the capacitance of supercapacitors. • The two-ply supercapacitors can be easily woven or knitted into conventional textile fabrics. - Abstract: We present a simple design and a fabrication method for a high-performance, flexible, two-ply yarn supercapacitor based on irradiated CNT yarn and conductive polymer Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT/PSS). The CNT yarn is treated with gamma irradiation and the yarn surface is coated with the PEDOT/PSS to improve the energy storage capacitance of the as-spun yarn supercapacitor. A layer of PVA gel is coated on the surfaces of the CNT yarn and the composite yarn to form a separation layer containing electrolyte. The results show that the gamma irradiation greatly increases the electrical conductivity and improved the gram capacitance of the as-spun CNT two-ply yarn supercapacitor. The coating of PEDOT/PSS on the surface of the pure and irradiated CNT yarns further significantly improves the capacitance of the supercapacitors. The two-ply yarn supercapacitor constructed from the irradiation CNT yarn coated by PEDOT/PSS exhibits the large capacitance and high cyclic charge-discharge stability. Moreover, these two-ply yarn supercapacitors with fine diameters are highly flexible and can be easily woven or knitted into textile fabrics for uses in wearable electronics

  8. Flexible solid-state supercapacitors based on carbon nanoparticles/MnO2 nanorods hybrid structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Longyan; Lu, Xi-Hong; Xiao, Xu; Zhai, Teng; Dai, Junjie; Zhang, Fengchao; Hu, Bin; Wang, Xue; Gong, Li; Chen, Jian; Hu, Chenguo; Tong, Yexiang; Zhou, Jun; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2012-01-24

    A highly flexible solid-state supercapacitor was fabricated through a simple flame synthesis method and electrochemical deposition process based on a carbon nanoparticles/MnO(2) nanorods hybrid structure using polyvinyl alcohol/H(3)PO(4) electrolyte. Carbon fabric is used as a current collector and electrode (mechanical support), leading to a simplified, highly flexible, and lightweight architecture. The device exhibited good electrochemical performance with an energy density of 4.8 Wh/kg at a power density of 14 kW/kg, and a demonstration of a practical device is also presented, highlighting the path for its enormous potential in energy management. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  9. High-performance flexible supercapacitors based on electrochemically tailored three-dimensional reduced graphene oxide networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purkait, Taniya; Singh, Guneet; Kumar, Dinesh; Singh, Mandeep; Dey, Ramendra Sundar

    2018-01-12

    A simple approach for growing porous electrochemically reduced graphene oxide (pErGO) networks on copper wire, modified with galvanostatically deposited copper foam is demonstrated. The as-prepared pErGO networks on the copper wire are directly used to fabricate solid-state supercapacitor. The pErGO-based supercapacitor can deliver a specific capacitance (C sp ) as high as 81±3 F g -1 at 0.5 A g -1 with polyvinyl alcohol/H 3 PO 4 gel electrolyte. The C sp per unit length and area are calculated as 40.5 mF cm -1 and 283.5 mF cm -2 , respectively. The shape of the voltammogram retained up to high scan rate of 100 V s -1 . The pErGO-based supercapacitor device exhibits noticeably high charge-discharge cycling stability, with 94.5% C sp retained even after 5000 cycles at 5 A g -1 . Nominal change in the specific capacitance, as well as the shape of the voltammogram, is observed at different bending angles of the device even after 5000 cycles. The highest energy density of 11.25 W h kg -1 and the highest power density of 5 kW kg -1 are also achieved with this device. The wire-based supercapacitor is scalable and highly flexible, which can be assembled with/without a flexible substrate in different geometries and bending angles for illustrating promising use in smart textile and wearable device.

  10. Significantly enhanced robustness and electrochemical performance of flexible carbon nanotube-based supercapacitors by electrodepositing polypyrrole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanli; Du, Lianhuan; Yang, Peihua; Sun, Peng; Yu, Xiang; Mai, Wenjie

    2015-08-01

    Here, we report robust, flexible CNT-based supercapacitor (SC) electrodes fabricated by electrodepositing polypyrrole (PPy) on freestanding vacuum-filtered CNT film. These electrodes demonstrate significantly improved mechanical properties (with the ultimate tensile strength of 16 MPa), and greatly enhanced electrochemical performance (5.6 times larger areal capacitance). The major drawback of conductive polymer electrodes is the fast capacitance decay caused by structural breakdown, which decreases cycling stability but this is not observed in our case. All-solid-state SCs assembled with the robust CNT/PPy electrodes exhibit excellent flexibility, long lifetime (95% capacitance retention after 10,000 cycles) and high electrochemical performance (a total device volumetric capacitance of 4.9 F/cm3). Moreover, a flexible SC pack is demonstrated to light up 53 LEDs or drive a digital watch, indicating the broad potential application of our SCs for portable/wearable electronics.

  11. All-solid state flexible supercapacitors based on graphene/polymer composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jung Won; Choi, Bong Gill, E-mail: bgchoi@kangwon.ac.kr

    2015-06-01

    Recent advances in lightweight, flexible, and wearable electronic equipment has led to advancements in the development of sufficiently compact and flexible energy storage. A challenge remains to integrate the storage elements as closely as possible within a fully flexible device. Here, we demonstrate the fabrication of all-solid state flexible supercapacitors with the integration of two electrodes that consist of graphene/polymer composites. Robust conductive free-standing thin graphene/polymer composite electrodes were prepared through a simple “physical grinding” process. As-prepared composite electrodes store energy up to a reversible gravimetric capacitance of 90.6 F/g, at a constant current density of 0.5 A/g while also delivering long-term durability (90% retention) for excess of five-thousands of cycles. Notably, the enhancement of mechanical properties of supercapacitors enables them to maintain their electrochemical performance even when twisted or folded. This straightforward approach to the fabrication of fully flexible supercapacitors provides new design opportunities within wearable electronics and electrochemical applications. - Highlights: • All solid-sate supercapacitors were fabricated using graphene/polymer composite electrodes. • Supercapacitor devices show an excellent mechanical flexibility. • High electrochemical performances were demonstrated.

  12. All-solid state flexible supercapacitors based on graphene/polymer composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jung Won; Choi, Bong Gill

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in lightweight, flexible, and wearable electronic equipment has led to advancements in the development of sufficiently compact and flexible energy storage. A challenge remains to integrate the storage elements as closely as possible within a fully flexible device. Here, we demonstrate the fabrication of all-solid state flexible supercapacitors with the integration of two electrodes that consist of graphene/polymer composites. Robust conductive free-standing thin graphene/polymer composite electrodes were prepared through a simple “physical grinding” process. As-prepared composite electrodes store energy up to a reversible gravimetric capacitance of 90.6 F/g, at a constant current density of 0.5 A/g while also delivering long-term durability (90% retention) for excess of five-thousands of cycles. Notably, the enhancement of mechanical properties of supercapacitors enables them to maintain their electrochemical performance even when twisted or folded. This straightforward approach to the fabrication of fully flexible supercapacitors provides new design opportunities within wearable electronics and electrochemical applications. - Highlights: • All solid-sate supercapacitors were fabricated using graphene/polymer composite electrodes. • Supercapacitor devices show an excellent mechanical flexibility. • High electrochemical performances were demonstrated

  13. Flexible supercapacitors with high areal capacitance based on hierarchical carbon tubular nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haitao; Su, Hai; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Binbin; Chun, Fengjun; Chu, Xiang; He, Weidong; Yang, Weiqing

    2016-11-01

    Hierarchical structure design can greatly enhance the unique properties of primary material(s) but suffers from complicated preparation process and difficult self-assembly of materials with different dimensionalities. Here we report on the growth of single carbon tubular nanostructures with hierarchical structure (hCTNs) through a simple method based on direct conversion of carbon dioxide. Resorting to in-situ transformation and self-assembly of carbon micro/nano-structures, the obtained hCTNs are blood-like multichannel hierarchy composed of one large channel across the hCTNs and plenty of small branches connected to each other. Due to the unique pore structure and high surface area, these hCTN-based flexible supercapacitors possess the highest areal capacitance of ∼320 mF cm-2, as well as good rate-capability and excellent cycling stability (95% retention after 2500 cycles). It was established that this method can control the morphology, size, and density of hCTNs and effectively construct hCTNs well anchored to the various substrates. Our work unambiguously demonstrated the potential of hCTNs for large flexible supercapacitors and integrated energy management electronics.

  14. Graphene-cellulose paper flexible supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weng, Zhe; Su, Yang; Li, Feng; Du, Jinhong; Cheng, Hui-Ming [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China); Wang, Da-Wei [ARC Centre of Excellence for Functional Nanomaterials, Australian Institute for Bioengineering and Nanotechnology, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, Brisbane, Qld 4072 (Australia)

    2011-10-15

    A simple and scalable method to fabricate graphene-cellulose paper (GCP) membranes is reported; these membranes exhibit great advantages as freestanding and binder-free electrodes for flexible supercapacitors. The GCP electrode consists of a unique three-dimensional interwoven structure of graphene nanosheets and cellulose fibers and has excellent mechanical flexibility, good specific capacitance and power performance, and excellent cyclic stability. The electrical conductivity of the GCP membrane shows high stability with a decrease of only 6% after being bent 1000 times. This flexible GCP electrode has a high capacitance per geometric area of 81 mF cm{sup -2}, which is equivalent to a gravimetric capacitance of 120 F g{sup -1} of graphene, and retains >99% capacitance over 5000 cycles. Several types of flexible GCP-based polymer supercapacitors with various architectures are assembled to meet the power-energy requirements of typical flexible or printable electronics. Under highly flexible conditions, the supercapacitors show a high capacitance per geometric area of 46 mF cm{sup -2} for the complete devices. All the results demonstrate that polymer supercapacitors made using GCP membranes are versatile and may be used for flexible and portable micropower devices. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  15. Recent Progress on Flexible and Wearable Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Qi; Sun, Jinfeng; Huang, Yan; Zhu, Minshen; Pei, Zengxia; Li, Hongfei; Wang, Yukun; Li, Na; Zhang, Haiyan; Zhi, Chunyi

    2017-12-01

    Recently, wearable electronic devices including electrical sensors, flexible displays, and health monitors have received considerable attention and experienced rapid progress. Wearable supercapacitors attract tremendous attention mainly due to their high stability, low cost, fast charging/discharging, and high efficiency; properties that render them value for developing fully flexible devices. In this Concept, the recent achievements and advances made in flexible and wearable supercapacitors are presented, especially highlighting the promising performances of yarn/fiber-shaped and planar supercapacitors. On the basis of their working mechanism, electrode materials including carbon-based materials, metal oxide-based materials, and conductive polymers with an emphasis on the performance-optimization method are introduced. The latest representative techniques and active materials of recently developed supercapacitors with superior performance are summarized. Furthermore, the designs of 1D and 2D electrodes are discussed according to their electrically conductive supporting materials. Finally, conclusions, challenges, and perspective in optimizing and developing the electrochemical performance and function of wearable supercapacitors for their practical utility are addressed. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Functional flexible and wearable supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Yan; Zhi, Chunyi

    2017-01-01

    Substantial effort has been devoted to endowing flexible and wearable supercapacitors with desirable functions and solving urgent concerns regarding their practical application, particularly materials selection, air permeability, self-healability, shape memory, integration, and modularization. This gives rise to challenges with regard to both suitable materials and device fabrication. This review highlights the current state-of-the-art of these supercapacitors pertinent to materials, fabrication strategies, and performance. Challenges and solutions are also discussed to further improve their practicality. The aim of this review is to make a timely summary of this emerging field and discuss future opportunities and challenges. (topical review)

  17. Functional flexible and wearable supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yan; Zhi, Chunyi

    2017-07-01

    Substantial effort has been devoted to endowing flexible and wearable supercapacitors with desirable functions and solving urgent concerns regarding their practical application, particularly materials selection, air permeability, self-healability, shape memory, integration, and modularization. This gives rise to challenges with regard to both suitable materials and device fabrication. This review highlights the current state-of-the-art of these supercapacitors pertinent to materials, fabrication strategies, and performance. Challenges and solutions are also discussed to further improve their practicality. The aim of this review is to make a timely summary of this emerging field and discuss future opportunities and challenges.

  18. All-solid-state flexible ultrathin micro-supercapacitors based on graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Li; Liu, Lili; Zhu, Bowen; Dong, Haibo; Chen, Xiaodong

    2013-08-07

    Flexible, compact, ultrathin and all-solid-state micro-supercapacitors are prepared by coating H₃PO₄/PVA gel electrolyte onto micro-patterned rGO interdigitated electrodes prepared by combining photolithography with selective electrophoretic deposition. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Nanocarbon-Based Materials for Flexible All-Solid-State Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Tian; Liu, Mingxian; Zhu, Dazhang; Gan, Lihua; Chen, Tao

    2018-04-01

    Because of the rapid development of flexible electronics, it is important to develop high-performance flexible energy-storage devices, such as supercapacitors and metal-ion batteries. Compared with metal-ion batteries, supercapacitors exhibit higher power density, longer cycling life, and excellent safety, and they can be easily fabricated into all-solid-state devices by using polymer gel electrolytes. All-solid-state supercapacitors (ASSSCs) have the advantages of being lightweight and flexible, thus showing great potential to be used as power sources for flexible portable electronics. Because of their high specific surface area and excellent electrical and mechanical properties, nanocarbon materials (such as carbon nanotubes, graphene, carbon nanofibers, and so on) have been widely used as efficient electrode materials for flexible ASSSCs, and great achievements have been obtained. Here, the recent advances in flexible ASSSCs are summarized, from design strategies to fabrication techniques for nanocarbon electrodes and devices. Current challenges and future perspectives are also discussed. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. High Per formance and Flexible Supercapacitors based on Carbonized Bamboo Fibers for Wide Temperature Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zequine, Camila; Ranaweera, C. K.; Wang, Z.; Singh, Sweta; Tripathi, Prashant; Srivastava, O. N.; Gupta, Bipin Kumar; Ramasamy, K.; Kahol, P. K.; Dvornic, P. R.; Gupta, Ram K.

    2016-08-01

    High performance carbonized bamboo fibers were synthesized for a wide range of temperature dependent energy storage applications. The structural and electrochemical properties of the carbonized bamboo fibers were studied for flexible supercapacitor applications. The galvanostatic charge-discharge studies on carbonized fibers exhibited specific capacity of ~510F/g at 0.4 A/g with energy density of 54 Wh/kg. Interestingly, the carbonized bamboo fibers displayed excellent charge storage stability without any appreciable degradation in charge storage capacity over 5,000 charge-discharge cycles. The symmetrical supercapacitor device fabricated using these carbonized bamboo fibers exhibited an areal capacitance of ~1.55 F/cm2 at room temperature. In addition to high charge storage capacity and cyclic stability, the device showed excellent flexibility without any degradation to charge storage capacity on bending the electrode. The performance of the supercapacitor device exhibited ~65% improvement at 70 °C compare to that at 10 °C. Our studies suggest that carbonized bamboo fibers are promising candidates for stable, high performance and flexible supercapacitor devices.

  1. All-solid-state flexible supercapacitors based on highly dispersed polypyrrole nanowire and reduced graphene oxide composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chenfei; Ma, Peipei; Zhou, Xi; Wang, Anqi; Qian, Tao; Wu, Shishan; Chen, Qiang

    2014-10-22

    Highly dispersed polypyrrole nanowires are decorated on reduced graphene oxide sheets using a facile in situ synthesis route. The prepared composites exhibit high dispersibility, large effective surface area, and high electric conductivity. All-solid-state flexible supercapacitors are assembled based on the prepared composites, which show excellent electrochemical performances with a specific capacitance of 434.7 F g(-1) at a current density of 1 A g(-1). The as-fabricated supercapacitor also exhibits excellent cycling stability (88.1% capacitance retention after 5000 cycles) and exceptional mechanical flexibility. In addition, outstanding power and energy densities were obtained, demonstrating the significant potential of prepared material for flexible and portable energy storage devices.

  2. Flexible supercapacitor based on electrochemically synthesized pyrrole formyl pyrrole copolymer coated on carbon microfibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gholami, Mehrdad; Moozarm Nia, Pooria; Narimani, Leila; Sokhakian, Mehran; Alias, Yatimah

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A Flexible supercapacitor prepared by carbon microfibers coated with P(Py-co-FPy). • The variation of capacitance with different mole ratio of monomers is investigated. • The capacitance measured by different electrochemical methods. • This flexible supercapacitor can be discharged in higher currents for longer time. - Abstract: The main objective of this work is to prepare a flexible supercapacitor using electrochemically synthesized pyrrole formyl pyrrole copolymer P(Py-co-FPy) coated on the carbon microfibers. Due to difficulties of working with carbon microfibers, glassy carbon was used to find out optimized conditions by varying mole ratio of pyrrole and formyl pyrrole monomers on the capacitance value. The prepared electrodes were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) analysis, cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Then the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to characterize the optimized electrode. The specific capacitance is calculated using cyclic voltammetry, charge/discharge method, and impedance spectroscopy. The charge/discharge study reveals that the best specific capacitance is estimated to be 220.3 mF cm"−"2 for equal mole fraction of pyrrole and formyl pyrrole Py (0.1)-FP (0.1) at discharge current of 3 × 10"−"4 A. This optimized electrode keeps about 92% of its capacitance value in high current of discharging. The specific capacitances calculated by all the mentioned methods are in agreement with each other. Finally, the found optimized conditions were successfully applied to produce a flexible supercapacitor on the surface of carbon microfibers.

  3. Flexible supercapacitor based on electrochemically synthesized pyrrole formyl pyrrole copolymer coated on carbon microfibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gholami, Mehrdad, E-mail: mehrdad897@um.edu.my [University of Malaya center for ionic liquids, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Department of Chemistry, Marvdasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, P.O. Box 465, Marvdasht (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moozarm Nia, Pooria, E-mail: pooriamn@yahoo.com [University of Malaya center for ionic liquids, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Narimani, Leila, E-mail: Narimani.leila@gmail.com [University of Malaya center for ionic liquids, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Sokhakian, Mehran, E-mail: m.sokhakian@gmail.com [University of Malaya center for ionic liquids, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Alias, Yatimah, E-mail: yatimah70@um.edu.my [University of Malaya center for ionic liquids, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • A Flexible supercapacitor prepared by carbon microfibers coated with P(Py-co-FPy). • The variation of capacitance with different mole ratio of monomers is investigated. • The capacitance measured by different electrochemical methods. • This flexible supercapacitor can be discharged in higher currents for longer time. - Abstract: The main objective of this work is to prepare a flexible supercapacitor using electrochemically synthesized pyrrole formyl pyrrole copolymer P(Py-co-FPy) coated on the carbon microfibers. Due to difficulties of working with carbon microfibers, glassy carbon was used to find out optimized conditions by varying mole ratio of pyrrole and formyl pyrrole monomers on the capacitance value. The prepared electrodes were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) analysis, cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Then the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to characterize the optimized electrode. The specific capacitance is calculated using cyclic voltammetry, charge/discharge method, and impedance spectroscopy. The charge/discharge study reveals that the best specific capacitance is estimated to be 220.3 mF cm{sup −2} for equal mole fraction of pyrrole and formyl pyrrole Py (0.1)-FP (0.1) at discharge current of 3 × 10{sup −4} A. This optimized electrode keeps about 92% of its capacitance value in high current of discharging. The specific capacitances calculated by all the mentioned methods are in agreement with each other. Finally, the found optimized conditions were successfully applied to produce a flexible supercapacitor on the surface of carbon microfibers.

  4. High performance supercapacitors based on three-dimensional ultralight flexible manganese oxide nanosheets/carbon foam composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shuijian; Chen, Wei

    2014-09-01

    The syntheses and capacitance performances of ultralight and flexible MnO2/carbon foam (MnO2/CF) hybrids are systematically studied. Flexible carbon foam with a low mass density of 6.2 mg cm-3 and high porosity of 99.66% is simply obtained by carbonization of commercially available and low-cost melamine resin foam. With the high porous carbon foam as framework, ultrathin MnO2 nanosheets are grown through in situ redox reaction between KMnO4 and carbon foam. The three-dimensional (3D) MnO2/CF networks exhibit highly ordered hierarchical pore structure. Attributed to the good flexibility and ultralight weight, the MnO2/CF nanomaterials can be directly fabricated into supercapacitor electrodes without any binder and conductive agents. Moreover, the pseudocapacitance of the MnO2 nanosheets is enhanced by the fast ion diffusion in the three-dimensional porous architecture and by the conductive carbon foam skeleton as well as good contact of carbon/oxide interfaces. Supercapacitor based on the MnO2/CF composite with 3.4% weight percent of MnO2 shows a high specific capacitance of 1270.5 F g-1 (92.7% of the theoretical specific capacitance of MnO2) and high energy density of 86.2 Wh kg-1. The excellent capacitance performance of the present 3D ultralight and flexible nanomaterials make them promising candidates as electrode materials for supercapacitors.

  5. Eco-friendly wood-based solid-state flexible supercapacitors from wood transverse section slice and reduced graphene oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Shaoyi; Fu, Feng; Wang, Siqun; Huang, Jingda; Hu, La

    2015-07-01

    An interesting wood-based all-solid-state supercapacitor is produced using reduced graphene oxide (RGO) coated on wood transverse section slice (WTSS) as electrode material by means of a low-cost, eco-friendly, and simple method for the first time. The RGO-coated WTSS electrode has a porous 3D honeycomb framework due to the hierarchical cellular structure of the WTSS substrate and can function as an electrolyte reservoir. This special construction endows this novel electrode with good areal capacitance (102 mF cm-2) and excellent cyclic stability (capacitance retention of 98.9% after 5000 cycles). In addition, the supercapacitors exhibit good mechanical flexibility and preserve almost constant capacitive behavior under different bending conditions. Our study introduces a new and eco-friendly material design for electrodes in future flexible energy storage devices that closely resemble natural materials. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  6. Flexible, ionic liquid-based micro-supercapacitor produced by supersonic cluster beam deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bettini, L.G.; Piseri, P.; De Giorgio, F.; Arbizzani, C.; Milani, P.; Soavi, F.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We exploited Supersonic Cluster Beam Deposition for the fabrication of a flexible, planar micro-supercapacitor featuring nanostructured carbon electrodes deposited on a plastic Mylar substrate and N-trimethyl-N-propyl-ammonium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl) imide (N 1113 TFSI) ionic liquid electrolyte. • The micro-supercapacitor operates at 3 V above RT up to 80 °C with a capacitance density approaching 10 F cm −3 and delivering maximum specific energy and power densities of 10 mWh cm −3 and 8-10 W cm −3 . • The micro-supercapacitor features long cycling stability over 2x10 4 cycle on flat and bent configuration. -- Graphical abstract: Display Omitted -- Abstract: Power generation and storage in electronics require flexible, thin micro-electrochemical energy storage/conversion systems. Micro-supercapacitors (μSCs) with double-layer capacitance carbon electrodes are attracting much attention for their capability of delivering short power pulses with high stability over repeated charge/discharge cycling. Supersonic Cluster Beam Deposition (SCBD) is an effective strategy for the development of nanostructured, binder-free porous carbon electrodes on temperature sensitive substrates including polymers. We exploited SCBD for the development of a flexible, planar μSC featuring nanostructured carbon (ns-C) electrodes deposited on a plastic Mylar substrate and N-trimethyl-N-propyl-ammonium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl) imide (N 1113 TFSI) ionic liquid electrolyte. The electrochemical performance at different temperatures of the μSC which operates at 3 V above RT up to 80 °C with a capacitance density approaching 10 F cm −3 and delivering maximum specific energy and power densities of 10 mWh cm −3 and 8-10 W cm −3 with long cycling stability over 2 × 10 4 cycles is here reported and discussed

  7. Flexible Electrode Design: Fabrication of Freestanding Polyaniline-Based Composite Films for High-Performance Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosrozadeh, Ali; Darabi, Mohammad Ali; Xing, Malcolm; Wang, Quan

    2016-05-11

    Polyaniline (PANI) is a promising pseudocapacitance electrode material. However, its structural instability leads to low cyclic stability and limited rate capability which hinders its practical applications. In view of the limitations, flexible PANI-based composite films are developed to improve the electrochemical performance of electrode materials. We report in the research a facile and cost-effective approach for fabrication of a high-performance supercapacitor (SC) with excellent cyclic stability and tunable energy and power densities. SC electrode containing a very high mass loading of active materials is a flexible film of PANI, tissue wiper-based cellulose, graphite-based exfoliated graphite (ExG), and silver nanoparticles with potential applications in wearable electronics. The optimum preparation weight ratios of silver nitrate/aniline and ExG/aniline used in the research are estimated to be 0.18 and 0.65 (or higher), respectively. Our results show that an ultrahigh capacitance of 3.84 F/cm(2) (240.10 F/g) at a discharge rate of 5 mA can be achieved. In addition, our study shows that the power density can be increased from 1531.3 to 3000 W/kg by selecting the weight ratio of ExG/aniline to be more than 0.65, with a sacrifice in the energy density. The obtained promising electrochemical properties are found to be mainly attributed to an effective combination of PANI, ExG, cushiony cellulose scaffold, and silver as well as the porosity of the composite.

  8. High-performance flexible all-solid-state supercapacitors based on densely-packed graphene/polypyrrole nanoparticle papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Chao; Zhang, Liling [Key Laboratory for Thin Film and Microfabrication Technology of the Ministry of Education, School of Electronics, Information and Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Dong Chuan Road No. 800, Shanghai, 200240 (China); Hu, Nantao, E-mail: hunantao@sjtu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Thin Film and Microfabrication Technology of the Ministry of Education, School of Electronics, Information and Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Dong Chuan Road No. 800, Shanghai, 200240 (China); Yang, Zhi; Wei, Hao [Key Laboratory for Thin Film and Microfabrication Technology of the Ministry of Education, School of Electronics, Information and Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Dong Chuan Road No. 800, Shanghai, 200240 (China); Wang, Yanyan, E-mail: yywang@suda.edu.cn [College of Physics, Optoelectronics and Energy, Soochow University, Suzhou, 215006 (China); Zhang, Yafei, E-mail: yfzhang@sjtu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Thin Film and Microfabrication Technology of the Ministry of Education, School of Electronics, Information and Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Dong Chuan Road No. 800, Shanghai, 200240 (China)

    2016-11-30

    Highlights: • The addition of methyl orange can affect the size of polypyrrole nanoparticles. • The flexible hybrid paper has a highly-interconnected sandwich framework. • The hybrid paper shows a high areal and volumetric specific capacitance. • Flexible all-solid-state supercapacitor exhibits excellent capacitive performances. - Abstract: Graphene-based all-solid-state supercapacitors (ASSSCs) have received increasing attention. It’s a great challenge to fabricate high-performance flexible solid-state supercapacitors with high areal and volumetric energy storage capability, superior electron and ion conductivity, robust mechanical flexibility, as well as long term stability. Herein, we report a facile method to fabricate flexible ASSSCs based on densely-packed reduced graphene oxide (rGO)/polypyrrole nanoparticle (PPy NP) hybrid papers with a sandwich framework, which consists of well-separated and continuously-aligned rGO sheets. The incorporation of PPy NPs not only provides pseudocapacitance but also facilitates the infiltration of gel electrolyte. The assembled ASSSCs possess maximum areal and volumetric specific capacitances of 477 mF/cm{sup 2} and 94.9 F/cm{sup 3} at 0.5 mA/cm{sup 2}. They also exhibit little capacitance deviation under different bending states, excellent cycling stability, small leakage current and low self-discharge characteristics. Additionally, the maximum areal and volumetric energy densities of 132.5 μWh/cm{sup 2} and 26.4 mWh/cm{sup 3} are achieved, which indicate that this hybrid paper is a promising candidate for high-performance flexible energy storage devices.

  9. All solid-state V2O5-based flexible hybrid fiber supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huan; He, Jin; Cao, Xin; Kang, Liping; He, Xuexia; Xu, Hua; Shi, Feng; Jiang, Ruibin; Lei, Zhibin; Liu, Zong-Huai

    2017-12-01

    Vanadium pentoxide/single-walled carbon nanotube (V2O5-SWCNT) hybrid fibers with good electrochemical performance and flexibility are firstly prepared by using wet-spinning method. V2O5 nanobelt suspension is obtained by mixing V2O5 bulk, 30% H2O2, H2O and followed by hydrothermally treating at 190 °C for 15 h. SWCNT suspension is suspended into V2O5 nanobelt suspension under vigorous stirring, the V2O5-SWCNT homogenous suspension is obtained. It is injected into a coagulation bath composed of 5 wt % CaCl2 ethanol-water solution using syringe pump, V2O5-SWCNT hybrid fibers are prepared by washing with deionized water and drying at room temperature. Reduced graphene oxide (RGO)-SWCNT hybrid fibers are also prepared by the similar wet-spinning approach and followed by reducing GO-SWCNT hybrid fibers in an aqueous solution of hydriodic acid. All solid-state asymmetric V2O5/SWCNT//RGO/SWCNT fiber supercapacitors are assembled with V2O5-SWCNT fiber as positive electrode and RGO-SWCNT fiber as negative electrode by using PVA-H3PO4 as gel electrolyte. The assembled device not only shows maximum volumetric energy density of 1.95 mW h cm-3 at a volumetric power density of 7.5 mW cm-3, superior rate performance and cycling stability, but also exhibits remarkable flexibility to tolerate long-term and repeated bending. This work will open a new application filed of V2O5-based fibers in wearable energy storage devices.

  10. Flexible asymmetric supercapacitors based on ultrathin two-dimensional nanosheets with outstanding electrochemical performance and aesthetic property

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Shan; Xu, Chengjun; Yang, Cheng; Chen, Yanyi; Liu, Juanjuan; Kang, Feiyu

    2013-01-01

    Flexible asymmetric supercapacitors with excellent electrochemical performance and aesthetic property are realized by using ultrathin two-dimensional (2D) MnO2 and graphene nanosheets as cathode and anode materials, respectively. 2D MnO2 nanosheets (MSs) with a thickness of ca. 2 nm are synthesized with a soft template method for the first time, which achieve a high specific capacitance of 774 F g−1 even after 10000 cycles. Asymmetric supercapacitors based on ultrathin MSs and graphene exhibit a very high energy density up to 97.2 Wh kg−1 with no more than 3% capacitance loss after 10000 cycles in aqueous electrolyte. Most interestingly, we show that the energy storage device can have an aesthetic property. For instance, a “Chinese panda” supercapacitor is capable of lighting up a red light emitting diode. This work has another, quite different aspect that a supercapacitor is no longer a cold industry product, but could have the meaning of art. PMID:24008931

  11. Flexible strip supercapacitors for future energy storage

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, R-R; Xu, Y-M; Harrison, D; Fyson, J; Qiu, F-L; Southee, D

    2015-01-01

    Flexible strip supercapacitors are developed and their electrochemical properties are characterized. Activated carbon is used as the electrode material and it is found to have a good porous structure which provides a large surface area for energy storage. Furthermore, this activated carbon performs well. The manufacturing processes for the supercapacitors are described in detail and the preparation process has good reproducibility. The strip supercapacitors are combined in series and parallel...

  12. High-performance flexible electrode based on electrodeposition of polypyrrole/MnO2 on carbon cloth for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xingye; Wang, Xiaolei; Li, Ge; Yu, Aiping; Chen, Zhongwei

    2016-09-01

    A highly flexible electrodes based on electrodeposited MnO2 and polypyrrole composite on carbon cloth is designed and developed by a facile in-situ electrodeposition technique. Such flexible composite electrodes with multiply layered structure possess a high specific capacitance of 325 F g-1 at a current density of 0.2 A g-1, and an excellent rate capability with a capacitance retention of 70% at a high current density of 5.0 A g-1. The superior electrochemical performance is mainly due to the unique electrode with improved ion- and electron-transportation pathways as well as the efficient utilization of active materials and electrode robustness. The excellent electrochemical performance and the low cost property endow this flexible nanocomposite electrode with great promise in applications of flexible supercapacitors.

  13. High-performance flexible all-solid-state supercapacitors based on densely-packed graphene/polypyrrole nanoparticle papers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chao; Zhang, Liling; Hu, Nantao; Yang, Zhi; Wei, Hao; Wang, Yanyan; Zhang, Yafei

    2016-11-01

    Graphene-based all-solid-state supercapacitors (ASSSCs) have received increasing attention. It's a great challenge to fabricate high-performance flexible solid-state supercapacitors with high areal and volumetric energy storage capability, superior electron and ion conductivity, robust mechanical flexibility, as well as long term stability. Herein, we report a facile method to fabricate flexible ASSSCs based on densely-packed reduced graphene oxide (rGO)/polypyrrole nanoparticle (PPy NP) hybrid papers with a sandwich framework, which consists of well-separated and continuously-aligned rGO sheets. The incorporation of PPy NPs not only provides pseudocapacitance but also facilitates the infiltration of gel electrolyte. The assembled ASSSCs possess maximum areal and volumetric specific capacitances of 477 mF/cm2 and 94.9 F/cm3 at 0.5 mA/cm2. They also exhibit little capacitance deviation under different bending states, excellent cycling stability, small leakage current and low self-discharge characteristics. Additionally, the maximum areal and volumetric energy densities of 132.5 μWh/cm2 and 26.4 mWh/cm3 are achieved, which indicate that this hybrid paper is a promising candidate for high-performance flexible energy storage devices.

  14. Low-cost flexible supercapacitors based on laser reduced graphene oxide supported on polyethylene terephthalate substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoniem, Engy; Mori, Shinsuke; Abdel-Moniem, Ahmed

    2016-08-01

    A controlled high powered CO2 laser system is used to reduce and pattern graphene oxide (GO) film supported onto a flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate. The laser reduced graphene oxide (rGO) film is characterized and evaluated electrochemically in the absence and presence of an overlying anodicaly deposited thin film of pseuodcapactive MnO2 as electrodes for supercapacitor applications using aqueous electrolyte. The laser treatment of the GO film leads to an overlapped structure of defective multi-layer rGO sheets with an electrical conductivity of 273 S m-1. The rGO and MnO2/rGO electrodes exhibit specific capacitance in the range of 82-107 and 172-368 Fg-1 at applied current range of 0.1-1.0 mA cm-2 and retain 98 and 95% of their initial capacitances after 2000 cycles at a current density of 1.0 mA cm-2, respectively. Also, the rGO is assigned as an electrode material for flexible conventionally stacked and interdigitated in-plane supercapacitor structures using gel electrolyte. Three electrode architectures of 2, 4, and 6 sub-electrodes are studied for the interdigital in-plane design. The device with interdigital 6 sub-electrodes architecture I-PS(6) delivers power density of 537.1 Wcm-3 and an energy density of 0.45 mWh cm-3.

  15. Two dimensional nanomaterials for flexible supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xu; Peng, Lele; Wu, Changzheng; Xie, Yi

    2014-05-21

    Flexible supercapacitors, as one of most promising emerging energy storage devices, are of great interest owing to their high power density with great mechanical compliance, making them very suitable as power back-ups for future stretchable electronics. Two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials, including the quasi-2D graphene and inorganic graphene-like materials (IGMs), have been greatly explored to providing huge potential for the development of flexible supercapacitors with higher electrochemical performance. This review article is devoted to recent progresses in engineering 2D nanomaterials for flexible supercapacitors, which survey the evolution of electrode materials, recent developments in 2D nanomaterials and their hybrid nanostructures with regulated electrical properties, and the new planar configurations of flexible supercapacitors. Furthermore, a brief discussion on future directions, challenges and opportunities in this fascinating area is also provided.

  16. Flexible micro supercapacitors based on laser-scribed graphene/ZnO nanocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, Morteza Hassanpour; Namdar, Naser; Mashayekhi, Alireza; Ghasemi, Foad; Sanaee, Zeinab; Mohajerzadeh, Shams

    2016-08-01

    We report on the fabrication of graphene/Zno nanocomposite supercapacitor electrodes. Laser-scribing process was implemented in order to reduce the graphene oxide (GO)/ZnO mixture on a DVD disk. With reduced graphene oxide (rGO)/ZnO composite prepared by a mass ratio of 1:25 of Zn(NO3)2·6H2O to GO constituents, nanoparticles of ZnO with sizes ranging from 20 to 50 nm are obtained. Consequently, 12 times improvement in the specific capacitance was achieved at a current density of 0.1 mA/cm2 compared with pristine rGO electrodes. In addition, flexible microsupercapacitor was fabricated by spin coating of the gel electrolyte, showing high stack capacitance of 9 F/cm3 at a current density of 150 mA/cm2. This microsupercapacitor delivers power density of 70 mW/cm3 and energy density of 1.2 mWh/cm3. Furthermore, the performance of device was investigated at different bending angles. The resulted characteristics demonstrate that LSG/ZnO nanocomposite is a promising electrode material for high-performance supercapacitors.

  17. Flexible micro supercapacitors based on laser-scribed graphene/ZnO nanocomposite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amiri, Morteza Hassanpour; Namdar, Naser; Mashayekhi, Alireza; Ghasemi, Foad; Sanaee, Zeinab; Mohajerzadeh, Shams

    2016-01-01

    We report on the fabrication of graphene/Zno nanocomposite supercapacitor electrodes. Laser-scribing process was implemented in order to reduce the graphene oxide (GO)/ZnO mixture on a DVD disk. With reduced graphene oxide (rGO)/ZnO composite prepared by a mass ratio of 1:25 of Zn(NO_3)_2·6H_2O to GO constituents, nanoparticles of ZnO with sizes ranging from 20 to 50 nm are obtained. Consequently, 12 times improvement in the specific capacitance was achieved at a current density of 0.1 mA/cm"2 compared with pristine rGO electrodes. In addition, flexible microsupercapacitor was fabricated by spin coating of the gel electrolyte, showing high stack capacitance of 9 F/cm"3 at a current density of 150 mA/cm"2. This microsupercapacitor delivers power density of 70 mW/cm"3 and energy density of 1.2 mWh/cm"3. Furthermore, the performance of device was investigated at different bending angles. The resulted characteristics demonstrate that LSG/ZnO nanocomposite is a promising electrode material for high-performance supercapacitors.Graphical Abstract.

  18. Flexible micro supercapacitors based on laser-scribed graphene/ZnO nanocomposite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amiri, Morteza Hassanpour; Namdar, Naser [University of Tehran, Thin Film and Nano-electronic Laboratory, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mashayekhi, Alireza [University of Tehran, Nano-fabricated Energy Devices Laboratory, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghasemi, Foad [University of Tehran, Thin Film and Nano-electronic Laboratory, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sanaee, Zeinab [University of Tehran, Nano-fabricated Energy Devices Laboratory, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mohajerzadeh, Shams, E-mail: mohajer@ut.ac.ir [University of Tehran, Thin Film and Nano-electronic Laboratory, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-08-15

    We report on the fabrication of graphene/Zno nanocomposite supercapacitor electrodes. Laser-scribing process was implemented in order to reduce the graphene oxide (GO)/ZnO mixture on a DVD disk. With reduced graphene oxide (rGO)/ZnO composite prepared by a mass ratio of 1:25 of Zn(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}·6H{sub 2}O to GO constituents, nanoparticles of ZnO with sizes ranging from 20 to 50 nm are obtained. Consequently, 12 times improvement in the specific capacitance was achieved at a current density of 0.1 mA/cm{sup 2} compared with pristine rGO electrodes. In addition, flexible microsupercapacitor was fabricated by spin coating of the gel electrolyte, showing high stack capacitance of 9 F/cm{sup 3} at a current density of 150 mA/cm{sup 2}. This microsupercapacitor delivers power density of 70 mW/cm{sup 3} and energy density of 1.2 mWh/cm{sup 3}. Furthermore, the performance of device was investigated at different bending angles. The resulted characteristics demonstrate that LSG/ZnO nanocomposite is a promising electrode material for high-performance supercapacitors.Graphical Abstract.

  19. Flexible two-ply yarn supercapacitors based on carbon nanotube/stainless steel core spun yarns decorated with Co3O4 nanoparticles and MnOx composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Fenghua; Lyu, Xiaoming; Liu, Cansen; Miao, Menghe

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Carbon nanotube/stainless steel core-sheath yarns as electrode for two-ply supercapacitor. • The yarns were decorated with Co 3 O 4 nanoparticles and MnO x composites. • Yarn electrodes deposited on Co 3 O 4 and MnO x have excellent specific capacitance. • The two-ply yarn supercapacitor based on MnO x has high energy density and power density. • The yarn supercapacitors are highly flexible and strong for wearable electronics. - Abstract: High performance two-ply yarn supercapacitors are fabricated by electrodeposition of transition metal oxide pseudocapacitive materials on carbon nanotube/stainless steel (CNT/SS) core spun yarns. The SS core incorporated in the carbon nanotube yarn has dramatically improved the conductivity of the substrate and the efficiency of electrodeposition of metal oxides on the electrodes. The SS core acts as current collector in the final two-ply yarn supercapacitors with significantly improved specific capacitance and up-scaled length of supercapacitors. Manganese oxide and cobalt oxide electrodeposited on as-spun CNT/SS yarn are compared for their electrochemical performance in two-ply yarn supercapacitors. Both supercapacitors displayed improvement in capacitance, energy and power densities, especially MnO x /CNT/SS yarn supercapacitor. The solid-state supercapacitor based on MnO x /CNT/SS composite yarn shows excellent electrochemical properties with a specific capacitance of 217.61 F/cm 3 at 0.02 V/s and an energy density of 4.84 mWh/cm 3 at a power density of 435.22 mW/cm 3 .

  20. Fabric based supercapacitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yong, S; Tudor, M J; Beeby, S P; Owen, J R

    2013-01-01

    Flexible supercapacitors with electrodes coated on inexpensive fabrics by the dipping technique. This paper present details of the design, fabrication and characterisation of fabric supercapacitor. The sandwich structured supercapacitors can achieve specific capacitances of 11.1F/g, area capacitance 105 mF.cm −2 and maintain 95% of the initial capacitance after cycling the device for more than 15000 times

  1. Flexible and stretchable lithium-ion batteries and supercapacitors based on electrically conducting carbon nanotube fiber springs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ye; Bai, Wenyu; Cheng, Xunliang; Ren, Jing; Weng, Wei; Chen, Peining; Fang, Xin; Zhang, Zhitao; Peng, Huisheng

    2014-12-22

    The construction of lightweight, flexible and stretchable power systems for modern electronic devices without using elastic polymer substrates is critical but remains challenging. We have developed a new and general strategy to produce both freestanding, stretchable, and flexible supercapacitors and lithium-ion batteries with remarkable electrochemical properties by designing novel carbon nanotube fiber springs as electrodes. These springlike electrodes can be stretched by over 300 %. In addition, the supercapacitors and lithium-ion batteries have a flexible fiber shape that enables promising applications in electronic textiles. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Flexible and integrated supercapacitor with tunable energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Changxiang; Xu, Tong; Gao, Jian; Liang, Yuan; Zhao, Yang; Qu, Liangti

    2017-08-31

    A flexible integrated supercapacitor based on three dimensional reduced graphene oxide/graphene oxide/reduced graphene oxide (RGO-GO-RGO) foam has been fabricated via a laser direct writing strategy. The supercapacitor with outstanding mechanical properties shows a high capacitance performance which can be easily regulated by controlling the compressive state of the electrodes. This work provides a new platform for potential applications in the next-generation intelligent power supply of electronics.

  3. High-performance all-solid-state flexible supercapacitors based on two-step activated carbon cloth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shulan; Shi, Tielin; Zhan, Xiaobin; Long, Hu; Xi, Shuang; Hu, Hao; Tang, Zirong

    2014-12-01

    A simple and effective strategy is proposed to activate carbon cloth for the fabrication of flexible and high-performance supercapacitors. Firstly, the carbon cloth surface is exfoliated as nanotextures through wet chemical treatment, then an annealing process is applied at H2/N2 atmosphere to reduce the surface oxygen functional groups which are mainly introduced from the first step. The activated carbon cloth electrode shows excellent wettablity, large surface area and delivers remarkable electrochemical performance. A maximum areal capacitance of 485.64 mF cm-2 at the current density of 2 mA cm-2 is achieved for the activated carbon cloth electrode, which is considerably larger than the resported results for carbon cloth. Furthermore, the flexible all-solid-state supercapacitor, which is fabricated based on the activated carbon cloth electrodes, shows high areal capacitance, superior cycling stability as well as stable electrochemical performance even under constant bending or twisting conditions. An areal capacitance of 161.28 mF cm-2 is achieved at the current density of 12.5 mA cm-2, and 104% of its initial capacitance is retained after 30,000 charging/discharging cycles. This study would also provide an effective way to boost devices' electrochemical performance by accommodating other active materials on the activated carbon cloth.

  4. Solid-State High Performance Flexible Supercapacitors Based on Polypyrrole-MnO2-Carbon Fiber Hybrid Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Jiayou; Liu, Nishuang; Ma, Wenzhen; Ding, Longwei; Li, Luying; Su, Jun; Gao, Yihua

    2013-07-01

    A solid-state flexible supercapacitor (SC) based on organic-inorganic composite structure was fabricated through an ``in situ growth for conductive wrapping'' and an electrode material of polypyrrole (PPy)-MnO2 nanoflakes-carbon fiber (CF) hybrid structure was obtained. The conductive organic material of PPy greatly improved the electrochemical performance of the device. With a high specific capacitance of 69.3 F cm-3 at a discharge current density of 0.1 A cm-3 and an energy density of 6.16 × 10-3 Wh cm-3 at a power density of 0.04 W cm-3, the device can drive a commercial liquid crystal display (LCD) after being charged. The organic-inorganic composite active materials have enormous potential in energy management and the ``in situ growth for conductive wrapping'' method might be generalized to open up new strategies for designing next-generation energy storage devices.

  5. Hollow Few-Layer Graphene-Based Structures from Parafilm Waste for Flexible Transparent Supercapacitors and Oil Spill Cleanup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Duc Dung; Hsieh, Ping-Yen; Tsai, Meng-Ting; Lee, Chi-Young; Tai, Nyan-Hwa; To, Bao Dong; Vu, Duc Tu; Hsu, Chia Chen

    2017-11-22

    We report a versatile strategy to exploit parafilm waste as a carbon precursor for fabrication of freestanding, hollow few-layer graphene fiber mesh (HFGM) structures without use of any gaseous carriers/promoters via an annealing route. The freestanding HFGMs possess good mechanical flexibility, tailorable transparency, and high electrical conductivity, consequently qualifying them as promising electrochemical electrodes. Because of the hollow spaces, electrolyte ions can easily access into and contact with interior surfaces of the graphene fibers, accordingly increasing electrode/electrolyte interfacial area. As expected, solid-state supercapacitors based on the HFGMs exhibit a considerable enhancement in specific capacitance (20-30 fold) as compared to those employing chemical vapor deposition compact graphene films. Moreover, the parafilm waste is found to be beneficial for one-step fabrication of nanocarbon/few-layer graphene composite meshes with superior electrochemical performance, outstanding superhydrophobic property, good self-cleaning ability, and great promise for oil spill cleanup.

  6. All-solid state symmetric supercapacitors based on compressible and flexible free-standing 3D carbon nanotubes (CNTs)/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) sponge electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xin; Yang, Wenyao; Mao, Xiling; Xu, Lu; Zhou, Yujiu; Chen, Yan; Zhao, Yuetao; Yang, Yajie; Xu, Jianhua

    2018-02-01

    Flexible supercapacitors that maintain electrochemical performance under deformation have attracted much attention for the potential application in the flexible electronics market. A compressible and flexible free-standing electrodes sponge and all-solid-state symmetric supercapacitors based on as-prepared electrodes are presented. The carbon nanotubes (CNTs) framework is synthesized by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method, and then composited with poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) PEDOT by the electrodeposition. This CNTs/PEDOT sponge electrode shows highest mass-specific capacitance of 147 Fg-1 at 0.5 A g-1, tuned by the PEDOT mass loading, and exhibits good cyclic stability with the evidence that more than 95% of capacitance is remained after 3000 cycles. Furthermore, the symmetric supercapacitor shows the highest energy density of 12.6 Wh kg-1 under the power density of 1 kW kg-1 and highest power density of 10.2 kW kg-1 with energy density of 8 Wh kg-1, which exhibits both high energy density and power density. The electrochemical performance of composite electrode also indicates that the operate voltage of device could be extend to 1.4 V by the n-doping and p-doping process in different potential of PEDOT component. This flexible supercapacitor maintains stable electrochemical performance working on different bending condition, which shows promising prospect for wearable energy storage applications.

  7. Asymmetric Flexible MXene-Reduced Graphene Oxide Micro-Supercapacitor

    KAUST Repository

    Couly, Cedric

    2017-11-27

    Current microfabrication of micro-supercapacitors often involves multistep processing and delicate lithography protocols. In this study, simple fabrication of an asymmetric MXene-based micro-supercapacitor that is flexible, binder-free, and current-collector-free is reported. The interdigitated device architecture is fabricated using a custom-made mask and a scalable spray coating technique onto a flexible, transparent substrate. The electrode materials are comprised of titanium carbide MXene (Ti3C2Tx) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO), which are both 2D layered materials that contribute to the fast ion diffusion in the interdigitated electrode architecture. This MXene-based asymmetric micro-supercapacitor operates at a 1 V voltage window, while retaining 97% of the initial capacitance after ten thousand cycles, and exhibits an energy density of 8.6 mW h cm−3 at a power density of 0.2 W cm−3. Further, these micro-supercapacitors show a high level of flexibility during mechanical bending. Utilizing the ability of Ti3C2Tx-MXene electrodes to operate at negative potentials in aqueous electrolytes, it is shown that using Ti3C2Tx as a negative electrode and rGO as a positive one in asymmetric architectures is a promising strategy for increasing both energy and power densities of micro-supercapacitors.

  8. Flexible solid-state symmetric supercapacitors based on MnO2 nanofilms with high rate capability and long cyclability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lingxia; Li, Ruizhi; Guo, Junling; Zhou, Cheng; Zhang, Wenpei; Wang, Chong; Huang, Yu; Li, Yuanyuan; Liu, Jinping

    2013-08-01

    Flexible solid-state symmetric supercapacitor was fabricated using MnO2 nanofilms growing directly on carbon cloth as the electrodes and PVA/H3PO4 gel as the electrolyte/separator. The device can be operated at a stable cell-voltage up to 1.4 V, obviously larger than that of conventional solid-state symmetric supercapacitors (≤1 V). It exhibited excellent rate capability with a scan rate as high as 20 V s-1 and a long cyclability (˜60000 cycles) even under severe mechanical deformation. The charge storage mechanism at different scan rates was also quantitatively analyzed.

  9. Flexible solid-state symmetric supercapacitors based on MnO2 nanofilms with high rate capability and long cyclability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingxia Wu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Flexible solid-state symmetric supercapacitor was fabricated using MnO2 nanofilms growing directly on carbon cloth as the electrodes and PVA/H3PO4 gel as the electrolyte/separator. The device can be operated at a stable cell-voltage up to 1.4 V, obviously larger than that of conventional solid-state symmetric supercapacitors (≤1 V. It exhibited excellent rate capability with a scan rate as high as 20 V s−1 and a long cyclability (∼60000 cycles even under severe mechanical deformation. The charge storage mechanism at different scan rates was also quantitatively analyzed.

  10. Flexible all-solid-state asymmetric supercapacitors based on free-standing carbon nanotube/graphene and Mn3O4 nanoparticle/graphene paper electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hongcai; Xiao, Fei; Ching, Chi Bun; Duan, Hongwei

    2012-12-01

    We report the design of all-solid-state asymmetric supercapacitors based on free-standing carbon nanotube/graphene (CNTG) and Mn(3)O(4) nanoparticles/graphene (MG) paper electrodes with a polymer gel electrolyte of potassium polyacrylate/KCl. The composite paper electrodes with carbon nanotubes or Mn(3)O(4) nanoparticles uniformly intercalated between the graphene nanosheets exhibited excellent mechanical stability, greatly improved active surface areas, and enhanced ion transportation, in comparison with the pristine graphene paper. The combination of the two paper electrodes with the polymer gel electrolyte endowed our asymmetric supercapacitor of CNTG//MG an increased cell voltage of 1.8 V, a stable cycling performance (capacitance retention of 86.0% after 10,000 continuous charge/discharge cycles), more than 2-fold increase of energy density (32.7 Wh/kg) compared with the symmetric supercapacitors, and importantly a distinguished mechanical flexibility.

  11. Flexible solid-state supercapacitors based on freestanding electrodes of electrospun polyacrylonitrile@polyaniline core-shell nanofibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miao, Fujun; Shao, Changlu; Li, Xinghua; Lu, Na; Wang, Kexin; Zhang, Xin; Liu, Yichun

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Three-dimensional PAN@PANI nanofiberous networks as freestanding electrodes. • The novel architecture exhibits high specific capacitance of 577 F/g. • Influence of acid doping and mass loading of PANI on electrochemical properties. • Capacitor: an energy density of 12.6 Wh/kg at the power density of 2.3 kW/kg. • Excellent cycling stability: 98% capacitance retention after 1000 cycles - Abstract: Three-dimensional porous polyacrylonitrile/polyaniline core-shell (PAN@PANI) nanofibers are fabricated by electrospinning technique combining in situ chemical polymerization of aniline monomers. The obtained PAN@PANI nanofibers possess unique continuous and homogeneous core-shell nanostructures and high mass loading of PANI (∼60 wt%) as active materials, which have greatly improved the electrochemical performance with a specific capacitance up to 577 F/g at a scan rate of 5 mV/s. Moreover, the porous networks of randomly arrayed PAN@PANI nanofibers provide binder-free and freestanding electrodes for flexible solid-state supercapacitors. The obtained devices based on PAN@PANI networks present excellent electrochemical properties with an energy density of 12.6 Wh/kg at a power density of 2.3 kW/kg and good cycling stability with retaining more than 98% of the initial capacitance after 1000 charge/discharge cycles, showing the possibility for practical applications in flexible electronics

  12. Direct printing and reduction of graphite oxide for flexible supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Hanyung [Department of Nano Science and Technology, Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ve Cheah, Chang [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Namjo [Energy Materials and Convergence Research Department, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Junghoon, E-mail: jleenano@snu.ac.kr [Department of Nano Science and Technology, Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Division of WCU Multiscale Mechanical Design, School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-04

    We report direct printing and photo-thermal reduction of graphite oxide (GO) to obtain a highly porous pattern of interdigitated electrodes, leading to a supercapacitor on a flexible substrate. Key parameters optimized include the amount of GO delivered, the suitable photo-thermal energy level for effective flash reduction, and the substrate properties for appropriate adhesion after reduction. Tests with supercapacitors based on the printed-reduced GO showed performance comparable with commercial supercapacitors: the energy densities were 1.06 and 0.87 mWh/cm{sup 3} in ionic and organic electrolytes, respectively. The versatility in the architecture and choice of substrate makes this material promising for smart power applications.

  13. Direct printing and reduction of graphite oxide for flexible supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hanyung; Ve Cheah, Chang; Jeong, Namjo; Lee, Junghoon

    2014-08-01

    We report direct printing and photo-thermal reduction of graphite oxide (GO) to obtain a highly porous pattern of interdigitated electrodes, leading to a supercapacitor on a flexible substrate. Key parameters optimized include the amount of GO delivered, the suitable photo-thermal energy level for effective flash reduction, and the substrate properties for appropriate adhesion after reduction. Tests with supercapacitors based on the printed-reduced GO showed performance comparable with commercial supercapacitors: the energy densities were 1.06 and 0.87 mWh/cm3 in ionic and organic electrolytes, respectively. The versatility in the architecture and choice of substrate makes this material promising for smart power applications.

  14. Direct printing and reduction of graphite oxide for flexible supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Hanyung; Ve Cheah, Chang; Jeong, Namjo; Lee, Junghoon

    2014-01-01

    We report direct printing and photo-thermal reduction of graphite oxide (GO) to obtain a highly porous pattern of interdigitated electrodes, leading to a supercapacitor on a flexible substrate. Key parameters optimized include the amount of GO delivered, the suitable photo-thermal energy level for effective flash reduction, and the substrate properties for appropriate adhesion after reduction. Tests with supercapacitors based on the printed-reduced GO showed performance comparable with commercial supercapacitors: the energy densities were 1.06 and 0.87 mWh/cm 3 in ionic and organic electrolytes, respectively. The versatility in the architecture and choice of substrate makes this material promising for smart power applications

  15. High-Performance Flexible Asymmetric Supercapacitor Based on CoAl-LDH and rGO Electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuoshuo; Cheng, Pengpeng; Luo, Jiaxian; Zhou, Dan; Xu, Weiming; Li, Jingwei; Li, Ruchun; Yuan, Dingsheng

    2017-07-01

    A flexible asymmetric supercapacitor (ASC) based on a CoAl-layered double hydroxide (CoAl-LDH) electrode and a reduced graphene oxide (rGO) electrode was successfully fabricated. The CoAl-LDH electrode as a positive electrode was synthesized by directly growing CoAl-LDH nanosheet arrays on a carbon cloth (CC) through a facile hydrothermal method, and it delivered a specific capacitance of 616.9 F g-1 at a current density of 1 A g-1. The rGO electrode as a negative electrode was synthesized by coating rGO on the CC via a simple dip-coating method and revealed a specific capacitance of 110.0 F g-1 at a current density of 2 A g-1. Ultimately, the advanced ASC offered a broad voltage window (1.7 V) and exhibited a high superficial capacitance of 1.77 F cm-2 at 2 mA cm-2 and a high energy density of 0.71 mWh cm-2 at a power density of 17.05 mW cm-2, along with an excellent cycle stability (92.9% capacitance retention over 8000 charge-discharge cycles).

  16. Flexible all-solid-state high-performance supercapacitor based on electrochemically synthesized carbon quantum dots/polypyrrole composite electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jian, Xuan; Yang, Hui-min; Li, Jia-gang; Zhang, Er-hui; Cao, Le-le; Liang, Zhen-hai

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Porous nanostructure carbon quantum dots/polypyrrole composite film was successfully synthesized by direct electrochemical method. • A flexible all-solid-state supercapacitor device was fabricated using the carbon quantum dots/polypyrrole composite electrode. • The flexible supercapacitor exhibits high specific capacitance, excellent reliability and long cycling life. - Abstract: Recently, carbon quantum dots (CQDs) as a new zero-dimensional carbon nanomaterial have become a focus in electrochemical energy storage. In this paper, flexible all-solid-state supercapacitors (ASSSs) were electrochemically synthesized by on-step co-deposition of appropriate amounts of pyrrole monomer and CQDs in aqueous solution. The different electrodeposition time plays an important role in controlling morphologies of stainless steel wire meshes (SSWM)-supported CQDs/PPy composite film. The morphologies and compositions of the obtained CQDs/PPy composite electrodes were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectrum and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Furthermore, a novel flexible ASSS device was fabricated using CQDs/PPy composite as the electrode and separated by polyvinyl alcohol/LiCl gel electrolyte. Benefiting from superior electrochemical properties of CQDs and PPy, the as-prepared CQDs/PPy composite ASSSs exhibit outstanding electrochemical performance with the areal capacitance 315 mF cm −2 (corresponding to specific capacitance of 308 F g −1 ) at a current density of 0.2 mA cm −2 and long cycle life with 85.7% capacitance retention after 2 000 cycles.

  17. Flexible and High Performance Supercapacitors Based on NiCo2O4for Wide Temperature Range Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ram K.; Candler, John; Palchoudhury, Soubantika; Ramasamy, Karthik; Gupta, Bipin Kumar

    2015-10-01

    Binder free nanostructured NiCo2O4 were grown using a facile hydrothermal technique. X-ray diffraction patterns confirmed the phase purity of NiCo2O4. The surface morphology and microstructure of the NiCo2O4 analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed flower-like morphology composed of needle-like structures. The potential application of binder free NiCo2O4 as an electrode for supercapacitor devices was investigated using electrochemical methods. The cyclic voltammograms of NiCo2O4 electrode using alkaline aqueous electrolytes showed the presence of redox peaks suggesting pseudocapacitance behavior. Quasi-solid state supercapacitor device fabricated by sandwiching two NiCo2O4 electrodes and separating them by ion transporting layer. The performance of the device was tested using cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge-discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The device showed excellent flexibility and cyclic stability. The temperature dependent charge storage capacity was measured for their variable temperature applications. Specific capacitance of the device was enhanced by ~150% on raising the temperature from 20 to 60 °C. Hence, the results suggest that NiCo2O4 grown under these conditions could be a suitable material for high performance supercapacitor devices that can be operated at variable temperatures.

  18. Nanostructured graphene composite papers for highly flexible and foldable supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lili; Niu, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Li; Zhou, Weiya; Chen, Xiaodong; Xie, Sishen

    2014-07-23

    Reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and polyaniline (PANI) assemble onto the surface of cellulose fibers (CFs) and into the pores of CF paper, to form a hierarchical nanostructured PANI-rGO/CF composite paper. Based on these composite papers, flexible and foldable all-solid-state supercapacitors are achieved. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. A high performance flexible all solid state supercapacitor based on the MnO2 sphere coated macro/mesoporous Ni/C electrode and ionic conducting electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Jian; Reiser, Oliver; Wang, Youfu; Hu, Aiguo

    2016-06-01

    A high contact resistance between the active materials and the current collector, a low ionic conductivity of the gel electrolyte, and an impenetrable electrode structure are the three major barriers which greatly limit the capacitance of MnO2 in solid state supercapacitors. As a potential solution to these problems, in this work we report a novel electrode for solid state supercapacitors, based on a ternary system composed of hierarchical MnO2 spheres as the active material, macroporous Ni foam as gel penetrable skeletons and an ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) membrane as the charge-transport accelerating layer. By employing butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (BMIMCl) modified gels as the ionic conducting electrolyte, the utilization efficiency of MnO2 on the specific capacitance was enhanced up to 88% of the theoretical value, delivering a volumetric capacitance of 81 F cm-3, which is the highest value among MnO2 based solid state supercapacitors. Moreover, such a flexible device exhibits exceptional volumetric energy and power density (6.6 Wh L-1 and 549 W L-1, based on the whole device volume) combined with a small capacity loss of 8.5% after 6000 cycles under twisting. These encouraging findings unambiguously overcome the energy bottleneck of MnO2 in solid state supercapacitors, and open up a new application of macro/mesoporous materials in flexible devices.A high contact resistance between the active materials and the current collector, a low ionic conductivity of the gel electrolyte, and an impenetrable electrode structure are the three major barriers which greatly limit the capacitance of MnO2 in solid state supercapacitors. As a potential solution to these problems, in this work we report a novel electrode for solid state supercapacitors, based on a ternary system composed of hierarchical MnO2 spheres as the active material, macroporous Ni foam as gel penetrable skeletons and an ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) membrane as the charge-transport accelerating

  20. Highly flexible and all-solid-state paperlike polymer supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Chuizhou; Liu, Changhong; Chen, Luzhuo; Hu, Chunhua; Fan, Shoushan

    2010-10-13

    In recent years, much effort have been dedicated to achieve thin, lightweight and even flexible energy-storage devices for wearable electronics. Here we demonstrate a novel kind of ultrathin all-solid-state supercapacitor configuration with an extremely simple process using two slightly separated polyaniline-based electrodes well solidified in the H(2)SO(4)-polyvinyl alcohol gel electrolyte. The thickness of the entire device is much comparable to that of a piece of commercial standard A4 print paper. Under its highly flexible (twisting) state, the integrate device shows a high specific capacitance of 350 F/g for the electrode materials, well cycle stability after 1000 cycles and a leakage current of as small as 17.2 μA. Furthermore, due to its polymer-based component structure, it has a specific capacitance of as high as 31.4 F/g for the entire device, which is more than 6 times that of current high-level commercial supercapacitor products. These highly flexible and all-solid-state paperlike polymer supercapacitors may bring new design opportunities of device configuration for energy-storage devices in the future wearable electronic area.

  1. Ultrahigh-rate supercapacitors with large capacitance based on edge oriented graphene coated carbonized cellulous paper as flexible freestanding electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Guofeng; Li, Shiqi; Fan, Zhao-Xia; Hoque, Md Nadim Ferdous; Fan, Zhaoyang

    2016-09-01

    Large-capacitance and ultrahigh-rate electrochemical supercapacitors (UECs) with frequency response up to kilohertz (kHz) range are reported using light, thin, and flexible freestanding electrodes. The electrode is formed by perpendicularly edge oriented multilayer graphene/thin-graphite (EOG) sheets grown radially around individual fibers in carbonized cellulous paper (CCP), with cellulous carbonization and EOG deposition implemented in one step. The resulted ∼10 μm thick EOG/CCP electrode is light and flexible. The oriented porous structure of EOG with large surface area, in conjunction with high conductivity of the electrode, ensures ultrahigh-rate performance of the fabricated cells, with large areal capacitance of 0.59 mF cm-2 and 0.53 mF cm-2 and large phase angle of -83° and -80° at 120 Hz and 1 kHz, respectively. Particularly, the hierarchical EOG/CCP sheet structure allows multiple sheets stacked together for thick electrodes with almost linearly increased areal capacitance while maintaining the volumetric capacitance nearly no degradation, a critical merit for developing practical faraday-scale UECs. 3-layers of EOG/CCP electrode achieved an areal capacitance of 1.5 mF cm-2 and 1.4 mF cm-2 at 120 Hz and 1 kHz, respectively. This demonstration moves a step closer to the goal of bridging the frequency/capacitance gap between supercapacitors and electrolytic capacitors.

  2. A Highly Flexible Supercapacitor Based on MnO2/RGO Nanosheets and Bacterial Cellulose-Filled Gel Electrolyte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haojie Fei

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The flexible supercapacitors (SCs of the conventional sandwich-type structure have poor flexibility due to the large thickness of the final entire device. Herein, we have fabricated a highly flexible asymmetric SC using manganese dioxide (MnO2 and reduced graphene oxide (RGO nanosheet-piled hydrogel films and a novel bacterial cellulose (BC-filled polyacrylic acid sodium salt-Na2SO4 (BC/PAAS-Na2SO4 neutral gel electrolyte. Apart from being environmentally friendly, this BC/PAAS-Na2SO4 gel electrolyte has high viscosity and a sticky property, which enables it to combine two electrodes together. Meanwhile, the intertangling of the filled BC in the gel electrolyte hinders the decrease of the viscosity with temperature, and forms a separator to prevent the two electrodes from short-circuiting. Using these materials, the total thickness of the fabricated device does not exceed 120 μm. This SC device demonstrates high flexibility, where bending and even rolling have no obvious effect on the electrochemical performance. In addition, owing to the asymmetric configuration, the cell voltage of this flexible SC has been extended to 1.8 V, and the energy density can reach up to 11.7 Wh kg−1 at the power density of 441 W kg−1. This SC also exhibits a good cycling stability, with a capacitance retention of 85.5% over 5000 cycles.

  3. Sandwich-structured nanohybrid paper based on controllable growth of nanostructured MnO2 on ionic liquid functionalized graphene paper as a flexible supercapacitor electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yimin; Fang, Zheng; Wang, Chenxu; Ariyawansha, K R Rakhitha Malinga; Zhou, Aijun; Duan, Hongwei

    2015-05-07

    A sandwich-structured flexible supercapacitor electrode has been developed based on MnO2 nanonest (MNN) modified ionic liquid (IL) functionalized graphene paper (GP), which is fabricated by functionalizing graphene nanosheets with an amine-terminated IL (i.e., 1-(3-aminopropyl)-3-methylimidazolium bromide) to form freestanding IL functionalized GP (IL-GP), and then modifying IL-GP with a unique MNN structure via controllable template-free ultrasonic electrodeposition. The as-obtained MNN modified IL-GP (MNN/IL-GP) inherits the excellent pseudocapacity of the metal oxide, the high conductivity and electric double layer charging/discharging of IL-graphene composites, and therefore shows an enhanced supercapacitor performance. The maximum specific capacitance of 411 F g(-1) can be achieved by chronopotentiometry at a current density of 1 A g(-1). Meanwhile, the MNN/IL-GP electrode exhibits excellent rate capability and cycling stability, its specific capacitance is maintained at 70% as the current densities increase from 1 to 20 A g(-1) and 85% at a current density of 10 A g(-1) after 10 000 cycles. More importantly, the MNN/IL-GP displays distinguished mechanical stability and flexibility for device packaging, although its thickness is merely 8 μm. These features collectively demonstrate the potential of MNN/IL-GP as a high-performance paper electrode for flexible and lightweight and highly efficient electrochemical capacitor applications.

  4. Flexible all-fiber electrospun supercapacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinhua; Naylor Marlow, Max; Cooper, Samuel J.; Song, Bowen; Chen, Xiaolong; Brandon, Nigel P.; Wu, Billy

    2018-04-01

    We present an all-fiber flexible supercapacitor with composite nanofiber electrodes made via electrospinning and an electrospun separator. With the addition of manganese acetylacetonate (MnACAC) to polyacrylonitrile (PAN) as a precursor for the electrospinning process and subsequent heat treatment, the performance of pure PAN supercapacitors was improved from 90 F g-1 to 200 F g-1 (2.5 mV s-1) with possible mass loadings of MnACAC demonstrated as high as 40 wt%. X-ray diffraction measurements showed that after thermal treatment, the MnACAC was converted to MnO, meanwile, the thermal decomposition of MnACAC increased the graphitic degree of the carbonised PAN. Scanning electron microscopy and image processing showed that static electrospinning of pure PAN and PAN-Mn resulted in fiber diameters of 460 nm and 480 nm respectively after carbonisation. Further analysis showed that the fiber orientation exhibited a slight bias which was amplified with the addition of MnACAC. Use of focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy tomography also showed that MnO particles were evenly distributed through the fiber at low MnACAC concentrations, while at a 40 wt% loading the MnO particles were also visible on the surface. Comparison of the electrospun separators showed improved performance relative to a commercial Celgard separator (200 F g-1 vs 141 F g-1).

  5. Graphene-based fibers for supercapacitor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Lianlian; Zhao, Yang; Chen, Nan; Qu, Liangti; Liu, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Energy conversion and storage devices play an important role in industry and society with the rapid growth of energy consumption. Supercapacitors are very attractive due to their superior power density, fast charge/discharge rates and long cycle lifetime. Graphene fiber (GF), a fascinating material, has drawn considerable attention and shown great potential as an active material in the field of supercapacitors owing to its unique and tunable nanostructure, high electrical conductivity, excellent mechanical flexibility, light weight, and ease of functionalization. This review focuses on the recent significant advances in the fabrication and application of graphene-based fiber as electrode material in supercapacitors. The synthetic strategies and application in the supercapacitor are presented, accompanied with the summary and outlook for the future development of GFs. (topical review)

  6. In-situ growth of high-performance all-solid-state electrode for flexible supercapacitors based on carbon woven fabric/ polyaniline/ graphene composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yingxi; Zhang, Haiyan; Deng, Wentao; Zhang, Danfeng; Li, Na; Wu, Qibai; He, Chunhua

    2018-04-01

    For the development of wearable electronic devices, it is crucial to develop energy storage components combining high-capacity and flexibility. Herein, an all-solid-state supercapacitor is prepared through an in-situ "growth and wrapping" method. The electrode contains polyaniline deposited on a carbon woven fabric and wrapped with a graphene-based envelop. The hybrid electrode exhibits excellent mechanical and electrochemical performance. The optimized few layer graphene wrapping layer provides for a conductive network, which effectively enhances the cycling stability as 88.9% of the starting capacitance is maintained after 5000 charge/discharge cycles. Furthermore, the assembled device delivers a high areal capacity (of 790 F cm-2) at the current density of 1 A cm-2, a high areal energy (28.21 uWh cm-2) at the power densities of 0.12 mW cm-2 and shows no significant decrease in the performance with a bending angle of 180°. This unique flexible supercapacitor thus exhibits great potential for wearable electronics.

  7. Flexible supercapacitor yarns with coaxial carbon nanotube network electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smithyman, Jesse; Liang, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Fabricated flexible yarn supercapacitor with coaxial electrodes. • Use of multifunctional carbon nanotube network electrodes eliminates inactive components and enables high energy/power density. • Robust structure maintains >95% of energy/power while under deformation. - Abstract: Flexible supercapacitors with a yarn-like geometry were fabricated with coaxially arranged electrodes. Carbon nanotube (CNT) network electrodes enabled the integration of the electronic conductor and active material of each electrode into a single component. CNT yarns were employed as the inner electrode to provide the supporting structure of the device. These part integration strategies eliminated the need for inactive material, which resulted in device volumetric energy and power densities among the highest reported for flexible carbon-based EDLCs. In addition, the coaxial yarn cell design provided a robust structure able to undergo flexural deformation with minimal impact on the energy storage performance. Greater than 95% of the energy density and 99% of the power density were retained when wound around an 11 cm diameter cylinder. The electrochemical properties were characterized at stages throughout the fabrication process to provide insights and potential directions for further development of these novel cell designs

  8. Transparent and Flexible Supercapacitors with Networked Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiruthika, S; Sow, Chaitali; Kulkarni, G U

    2017-10-01

    Transparent and flexible energy storage devices have received immense attention due to their suitability for innovative electronics and displays. However, it remains a great challenge to fabricate devices with high storage capacity and high degree of transmittance. This study describes a simple process for fabrication of supercapacitors with ≈75% of visible transparency and areal capacitance of ≈3 mF cm -2 with high stability tested over 5000 cycles of charging and discharging. The electrodes consist of Au wire networks obtained by a simple crackle template method which are coated with MnO 2 nanostructures by electrodeposition process. Importantly, the membrane separator itself is employed as substrate to bring in the desired transparency and light weight while additionally exploiting its porous nature in enhancing the interaction of electrolyte with the active material from both sides of the substrate, thereby enhancing the storage capacity. The method opens up new ways for fabricating transparent devices. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Scalable transfer of vertical graphene nanosheets for flexible supercapacitor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Gopinath; Ghosh, Subrata; Polaki, S. R.; Mathews, Tom; Kamruddin, M.

    2017-10-01

    Vertical graphene nanosheets (VGN) are the material of choice for application in next-generation electronic devices. The growing demand for VGN-based flexible devices for the electronics industry brings in restriction on VGN growth temperature. The difficulty associated with the direct growth of VGN on flexible substrates can be overcome by adopting an effective strategy of transferring the well-grown VGN onto arbitrary flexible substrates through a soft chemistry route. In the present study, we report an inexpensive and scalable technique for the polymer-free transfer of VGN onto arbitrary substrates without disrupting its morphology, structure, and properties. After transfer, the morphology, chemical structure, and electrical properties are analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and four-probe resistive methods, respectively. The wetting properties are studied from the water contact angle measurements. The observed results indicate the retention of morphology, surface chemistry, structure, and electronic properties. Furthermore, the storage capacity of the transferred VGN-based binder-free and current collector-free flexible symmetric supercapacitor device is studied. A very low sheet resistance of 670 Ω/□ and excellent supercapacitance of 158 μF cm-2 with 86% retention after 10 000 cycles show the prospect of the damage-free VGN transfer approach for the fabrication of flexible nanoelectronic devices.

  10. All-solid state, flexible, high-energy integrated hybrid micro-supercapacitors based on 3D LSG/CoNi2S4 nanosheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosavifard, Seyyed Ebrahim; Shamsi, Javad; Altafi, Mohammad Kazem; Moosavifard, Zeinab Sadat

    2016-11-18

    3D LSG/CoNi 2 S 4 //LSG interdigitated microelectrodes have been firstly developed by a facile, scalable and low cost process for all-solid-state, flexible integrated asymmetric micro-supercapacitors. These devices can achieve energy densities of up to 49 W h l -1 which is comparable to those of lead acid batteries.

  11. Flexible Asymmetric Threadlike Supercapacitors Based on NiCo2 Se4 Nanosheet and NiCo2 O4 /Polypyrrole Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiufan; Ma, Yun; Wu, Yunlong; Zhang, Daohong; Miao, Menghe

    2017-04-10

    Flexible threadlike supercapacitors with improved performance are needed for many wearable electronics applications. Here, we report a high performance flexible asymmetric all-solid-state threadlike supercapacitor with a NiCo 2 Se 4 positive electrode and a NiCo 2 O 4 @PPy (PPy: polypyrrole) negative electrode. The as-prepared electrodes display outstanding volume specific capacitance (14.2 F cm -3 ) and excellent cycling performance (94 % retention after 5000 cycles at 0.6 mA) owing to their nanosheet and nanosphere structures. The asymmetric all-solid-state threadlike supercapacitor expanded the stability voltage window from 0-1.0 V to 0-1.7 V and exhibits high volume energy density (5.18 mWh cm -3 ) and superior flexibility under different bending conditions. This study provides a scalable method for fabricating high performance flexible supercapacitors from easily available materials for use in wearable and portable electronics. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Flexible asymmetric supercapacitors with high energy and high power density in aqueous electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yingwen; Zhang, Hongbo; Lu, Songtao; Varanasi, Chakrapani V.; Liu, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Supercapacitors with both high energy and high power densities are critical for many practical applications. In this paper, we discuss the design and demonstrate the fabrication of flexible asymmetric supercapacitors based on nanocomposite electrodes of MnO2, activated carbon, carbon nanotubes and graphene. The combined unique properties of each of these components enable highly flexible and mechanically strong films that can serve as electrodes directly without using any current collectors or binders. Using these flexible electrodes and a roll-up approach, asymmetric supercapacitors with 2 V working voltage were successfully fabricated. The fabricated device showed excellent rate capability, with 78% of the original capacitance retained when the scan rate was increased from 2 mV s-1 to 500 mV s-1. Owing to the unique composite structure, these supercapacitors were able to deliver high energy density (24 W h kg-1) under high power density (7.8 kW kg-1) conditions. These features could enable supercapacitor based energy storage systems to be very attractive for a variety of critical applications, such as the power sources in hybrid electric vehicles and the back-up powers for wind and solar energy, where both high energy density and high power density are required.Supercapacitors with both high energy and high power densities are critical for many practical applications. In this paper, we discuss the design and demonstrate the fabrication of flexible asymmetric supercapacitors based on nanocomposite electrodes of MnO2, activated carbon, carbon nanotubes and graphene. The combined unique properties of each of these components enable highly flexible and mechanically strong films that can serve as electrodes directly without using any current collectors or binders. Using these flexible electrodes and a roll-up approach, asymmetric supercapacitors with 2 V working voltage were successfully fabricated. The fabricated device showed excellent rate capability, with 78% of

  13. All-solid-state flexible supercapacitors fabricated with bacterial nanocellulose papers, carbon nanotubes, and triblock-copolymer ion gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yu Jin; Chun, Sang-Jin; Lee, Sung-Suk; Kim, Bo-Yeong; Kim, Jung Hyeun; Chung, Haegeun; Lee, Sun-Young; Kim, Woong

    2012-07-24

    We demonstrate all-solid-state flexible supercapacitors with high physical flexibility, desirable electrochemical properties, and excellent mechanical integrity, which were realized by rationally exploiting unique properties of bacterial nanocellulose, carbon nanotubes, and ionic liquid based polymer gel electrolytes. This deliberate choice and design of main components led to excellent supercapacitor performance such as high tolerance against bending cycles and high capacitance retention over charge/discharge cycles. More specifically, the performance of our supercapacitors was highly retained through 200 bending cycles to a radius of 3 mm. In addition, the supercapacitors showed excellent cyclability with C(sp) (~20 mF/cm(2)) reduction of only <0.5% over 5000 charge/discharge cycles at the current density of 10 A/g. Our demonstration could be an important basis for material design and development of flexible supercapacitors.

  14. Transparent, flexible supercapacitors from nano-engineered carbon films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hyun Young; Karimi, Majid B.; Hahm, Myung Gwan; Ajayan, Pulickel M.; Jung, Yung Joon

    2012-10-01

    Here we construct mechanically flexible and optically transparent thin film solid state supercapacitors by assembling nano-engineered carbon electrodes, prepared in porous templates, with morphology of interconnected arrays of complex shapes and porosity. The highly textured graphitic films act as electrode and current collector and integrated with solid polymer electrolyte, function as thin film supercapacitors. The nanostructured electrode morphology and the conformal electrolyte packaging provide enough energy and power density for the devices in addition to excellent mechanical flexibility and optical transparency, making it a unique design in various power delivery applications.

  15. Fabrication and Characterisation of Flexible Coaxial Thin Thread Supercapacitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulian Qiu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Flexible coaxial thin thread supercapacitors were fabricated semi-automatically using a dip coating method. A typical coaxial thin thread supercapacitor of a length of 70 cm demonstrated a specific length capacitance of 0.3 mF cm-1 (11.2 mF cm-2 and 2.18 F cm-3 at 5 mV s-1, the device exhibited good electrochemical performance with a high volume energy density of 0.22 mWh cm-3 at a power density of 22 mW cm-3. Thread supercapacitors were assembled in series and parallel combinations, the accepted models for series and parallel circuit combinations were obeyed for two coaxial thread supercapacitors. The thread shows high flexibility and uniformity of specific length capacitance, one integrated with a commercial solar cell could be charged and power a LED. The process is simple, robust and easy to scale up to make unlimited length thread supercapacitors for numerous miniaturized and flexible electronic applications.

  16. Fully-flexible supercapacitors using spray-deposited carbon-nanotube films as electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Churl Seung; Bae, Joonho

    2013-12-01

    Fully-flexible carbon-nanotube-based supercapacitors were successfully fabricated using a spray method. For electrodes, multiwalled carbon-nanotube films sprayed on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates were employed. Thin Al films on PET were used as current collectors. The electrolyte was 1 M KNO3. Cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge-discharge measurements on the flexible supercapacitors revealed that the area-specific capacitance was 0.11 mF/cm2. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy of the supercapacitors resulted in a low internal resistance (3.7 Ω). The energy density and the power density of the flexible supercapacitor were measured to be 3.06 × 10-8 Wh/cm2 and 2.65 × 10-7 W/cm2, respectively. The Bode | z| and phase-angle plots showed that the supercapacitors functioned close to ideal capacitors at the frequencies near 2 kHz. These results indicate that the spray deposition method of carbon nanotubes could be promising for fabricating flexible energy devices or electronics.

  17. Fiber supercapacitors utilizing pen ink for flexible/wearable energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yongping; Cai, Xin; Wu, Hongwei; Lv, Zhibin; Hou, Shaocong; Peng, Ming; Yu, Xiao; Zou, Dechun

    2012-11-08

    A novel type of flexible fiber/wearable supercapacitor that is composed of two fiber electrodes - a helical spacer wire and an electrolyte - is demonstrated. In the carbon-based fiber supercapacitor (FSC), which has high capacitance performance, commercial pen ink is directly utilized as the electrochemical material. FSCs have potential benefits in the pursuit of low-cost, large-scale, and efficient flexible/wearable energy storage systems. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Fiber supercapacitors utilizing pen ink for flexible/wearable energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Yongping; Cai, Xin; Wu, Hongwei; Lv, Zhibin; Hou, Shaocong; Peng, Ming; Yu, Xiao; Zou, Dechun [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, Key Laboratory of Polymer Chemistry and Physics of the Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing (China)

    2012-11-08

    A novel type of flexible fiber/wearable supercapacitor that is composed of two fiber electrodes - a helical spacer wire and an electrolyte - is demonstrated. In the carbon-based fiber supercapacitor (FSC), which has high capacitance performance, commercial pen ink is directly utilized as the electrochemical material. FSCs have potential benefits in the pursuit of low-cost, large-scale, and efficient flexible/wearable energy storage systems. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  19. Flexible asymmetric supercapacitors based upon Co9S8 nanorod//Co3O4@RuO2 nanosheet arrays on carbon cloth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing; Wang, Qiufan; Wang, Xiaowei; Xiang, Qingyi; Liang, Bo; Chen, Di; Shen, Guozhen

    2013-06-25

    We have successfully fabricated flexible asymmetric supercapacitors (ASCs) based on acicular Co9S8 nanorod arrays as positive materials and Co3O4@RuO2 nanosheet arrays as negative materials on woven carbon fabrics. Co9S8 nanorod arrays were synthesized by a hydrothermal sulfuration treatment of acicular Co3O4 nanorod arrays, while the RuO2 was directly deposited on the Co3O4 nanorod arrays. Carbon cloth was selected as both the substrate and the current collector for its good conductivity, high flexibility, good physical strength, and lightweight architecture. Both aqueous KOH solutions and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/KOH were employed as electrolyte for electrochemical measurements. The as-fabricated ASCs can be cycled reversibly in the range of 0-1.6 V and exhibit superior electrochemical performance with an energy density of 1.21 mWh/cm(3) at a power density of 13.29 W/cm(3) in aqueous electrolyte and an energy density of 1.44 mWh/cm(3) at the power density of 0.89 W/cm(3) in solid-state electrolyte, which are almost 10-fold higher than those reported in early ASC work. Moreover, they present excellent cycling performance at multirate currents and large currents after thousands of cycles. The high-performance nanostructured ASCs have significant potential applications in portable electronics and electrical vehicles.

  20. Comparative study on polyvinyl chloride film as flexible substrate for preparing free-standing polyaniline-based composite electrodes for supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongxing; Liu, Dong; Du, Pengcheng; Wei, Wenli; Wang, Qi; Liu, Peng

    2017-11-15

    The free-standing polyaniline (PANI)-based composite film electrodes were prepared with polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and the aniline modified PVC (PVC-An) films as flexible substrates for supercapacitors, via facile in-situ chemical oxidative polymerization of aniline, with conventional chemical oxidative polymerization or rapid-mixing chemical oxidative polymerization technique. Owing to the grafting of PANI from the PVC-An film as substrate and the suppression of the secondary growth of the primary PANI particles in the rapid-mixing chemical oxidative polymerization, the PVC-g-PANI-2 composite film with loose surface possessed better comprehensive performance, accompanying the high specific capacitance (645.3F/g at a current density of 1A/g), good rate capacitance (retaining 63.2% of original value at a current density of 10A/g and 52.0% at a scan rate of 100mV/s), good cycle stability (retaining 83.1% after 1000 cycles) and the improved internal resistance. Besides its excellent flexibility, it could retain 61.2% of its original specific capacitance under the stress of 8.66MPa for 1h, demonstrating a good tensile-resistance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Preparation and characterization of flexible asymmetric supercapacitors based on transition-metal-oxide nanowire/single-walled carbon nanotube hybrid thin-film electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Po-Chiang; Shen, Guozhen; Shi, Yi; Chen, Haitian; Zhou, Chongwu

    2010-08-24

    In the work described in this paper, we have successfully fabricated flexible asymmetric supercapacitors (ASCs) based on transition-metal-oxide nanowire/single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) hybrid thin-film electrodes. These hybrid nanostructured films, with advantages of mechanical flexibility, uniform layered structures, and mesoporous surface morphology, were produced by using a filtration method. Here, manganese dioxide nanowire/SWNT hybrid films worked as the positive electrode, and indium oxide nanowire/SWNT hybrid films served as the negative electrode in a designed ASC. In our design, charges can be stored not only via electrochemical double-layer capacitance from SWNT films but also through a reversible faradic process from transition-metal-oxide nanowires. In addition, to obtain stable electrochemical behavior during charging/discharging cycles in a 2 V potential window, the mass balance between two electrodes has been optimized. Our optimized hybrid nanostructured ASCs exhibited a superior device performance with specific capacitance of 184 F/g, energy density of 25.5 Wh/kg, and columbic efficiency of approximately 90%. In addition, our ASCs exhibited a power density of 50.3 kW/kg, which is 10-fold higher than obtained in early reported ASC work. The high-performance hybrid nanostructured ASCs can find applications in conformal electrics, portable electronics, and electrical vehicles.

  2. A facile approach to fabricate flexible all-solid-state supercapacitors based on MnFe2O4/graphene hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Weihua; Lai, Ting; Dai, Wanlin; Ye, Jianshan

    2014-06-01

    A critical challenge for the construction of flexible electrochemical capacitors is the preparation of flexible electrodes with large specific capacitance and robust mechanical strength. Here, we demonstrate a facile approach to make high performance and flexible electrodes by dropping MnFe2O4/graphene hybrid inks onto flexible graphite sheets (as current collectors and substrates) and drying under an infrared lamp. MnFe2O4/graphene hybrid inks are synthesized by immobilizing the MnFe2O4 microspheres on the graphene nanosheets via a simple solvothermal route. Electrochemical studies show that MnFe2O4/graphene exhibits a high capacitance of 300 F g-1 at a current density of 0.3 A g-1. In addition, the excellent electrochemical performance of a supercapacitor consisting of a sandwich structure of two pieces of MnFe2O4/graphene hybrids modified electrodes separated by polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-H2SO4 gel electrolyte is further explored. Our studies reveal that the flexible supercapacitor device with 227 μm thickness can achieve a maximum specific capacitance of 120 F g-1 at a current density of 0.1 A g-1 and excellent cycle performance retaining 105% capacitance after 5000 cycles. This research may offer a method for the fabrication of lightweight, stable, flexible and high performance energy storage devices.

  3. A Triblock Copolymer Design Leads to Robust Hybrid Hydrogels for High-Performance Flexible Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guangzhao; Chen, Yunhua; Deng, Yonghong; Wang, Chaoyang

    2017-10-18

    We report here an intriguing hybrid conductive hydrogel as electrode for high-performance flexible supercapacitor. The key is using a rationally designed water-soluble ABA triblock copolymer (termed as IAOAI) containing a central poly(ethylene oxide) block (A) and terminal poly(acrylamide) (PAAm) block with aniline moieties randomly incorporated (B), which was synthesized by reversible additional fragment transfer polymerization. The subsequent copolymerization of aniline monomers with the terminated aniline moieties on the IAOAI polymer generates a three-dimensional cross-linking hybrid network. The hybrid hydrogel electrode demonstrates robust mechanical flexibility, remarkable electrochemical capacitance (919 F/g), and cyclic stability (90% capacitance retention after 1000 cycles). Moreover, the flexible supercapacitor based on this hybrid hydrogel electrode presents a large specific capacitance (187 F/g), superior to most reported conductive hydrogel-based supercapacitors. With the demonstrated additional favorable cyclic stability and excellent capacitive and rate performance, this hybrid hydrogel-based supercapacitor holds great promise for flexible energy-storage device.

  4. Facilitated charge transport in ternary interconnected electrodes for flexible supercapacitors with excellent power characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wanjun; He, Yongmin; Li, Xiaodong; Zhou, Jinyuan; Zhang, Zhenxing; Zhao, Changhui; Gong, Chengshi; Li, Shuankui; Pan, Xiaojun; Xie, Erqing

    2013-11-01

    Flexible and high performance supercapacitors are very critical in modern society. In order to develop the flexible supercapacitors with high power density, free-standing and flexible three-dimensional graphene/carbon nanotubes/MnO2 (3DG/CNTs/MnO2) composite electrodes with interconnected ternary 3D structures were fabricated, and the fast electron and ion transport channels were effectively constructed in the rationally designed electrodes. Consequently, the obtained 3DG/CNTs/MnO2 composite electrodes exhibit superior specific capacitance and rate capability compared to 3DG/MnO2 electrodes. Furthermore, the 3DG/CNTs/MnO2 based asymmetric supercapacitor demonstrates the maximum energy and power densities of 33.71 W h kg-1 and up to 22 727.3 W kg-1, respectively. Moreover, the asymmetric supercapacitor exhibits excellent cycling stability with 95.3% of the specific capacitance maintained after 1000 cycle tests. Our proposed synthesis strategy to construct the novel ternary 3D structured electrodes can be efficiently applied to other high performance energy storage/conversion systems.Flexible and high performance supercapacitors are very critical in modern society. In order to develop the flexible supercapacitors with high power density, free-standing and flexible three-dimensional graphene/carbon nanotubes/MnO2 (3DG/CNTs/MnO2) composite electrodes with interconnected ternary 3D structures were fabricated, and the fast electron and ion transport channels were effectively constructed in the rationally designed electrodes. Consequently, the obtained 3DG/CNTs/MnO2 composite electrodes exhibit superior specific capacitance and rate capability compared to 3DG/MnO2 electrodes. Furthermore, the 3DG/CNTs/MnO2 based asymmetric supercapacitor demonstrates the maximum energy and power densities of 33.71 W h kg-1 and up to 22 727.3 W kg-1, respectively. Moreover, the asymmetric supercapacitor exhibits excellent cycling stability with 95.3% of the specific capacitance maintained

  5. Electrophoretic build-up of alternately multilayered films and micropatterns based on graphene sheets and nanoparticles and their applications in flexible supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Zhiqiang; Du, Jianjun; Cao, Xuebo; Sun, Yinghui; Zhou, Weiya; Hng, Huey Hoon; Ma, Jan; Chen, Xiaodong; Xie, Sishen

    2012-10-22

    Graphene nanosheets and metal nanoparticles (NPs) have been used as nano-building-blocks for assembly into macroscale hybrid structures with promising performance in electrical devices. However, in most graphene and metal NP hybrid structures, the graphene sheets and metal NPs (e.g., AuNPs) do not enable control of the reaction process, orientation of building blocks, and organization at the nanoscale. Here, an electrophoretic layer-by-layer assembly for constructing multilayered reduced graphene oxide (RGO)/AuNP films and lateral micropatterns is presented. This assembly method allows easy control of the nano-architecture of building blocks along the normal direction of the film, including the number and thickness of RGO and AuNP layers, in addition to control of the lateral orientation of the resultant multilayered structures. Conductivity of multilayered RGO/AuNP hybrid nano-architecture shows great improvement caused by a bridging effect of the AuNPs along the out-of-plane direction between the upper and lower RGO layers. The results clearly show the potential of electrophoretic build-up in the fabrication of graphene-based alternately multilayered films and patterns. Finally, flexible supercapacitors based on multilayered RGO/AuNP hybrid films are fabricated, and excellent performance, such as high energy and power densities, are achieved. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. CuO Nanoflowers growing on Carbon Fiber Fabric for Flexible High-Performance Supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Weina; Dai, Shuge; Liu, Guanlin; Xi, Yi; Hu, Chenguo; Wang, Xue

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: One of the best electrochemical performances for CuOelectrodes based supercapacitorisachieved by the CuOhierarchical structure growing on the carbon fiber fabric (CuO/CFF) in aqueous electrolyte. Meanwhile, a flexible solid-state supercapacitoris also fabricated as a promising candidate in energy storage for flexible, wearable and lightweight electronics. - Highlights: • The electrodes are fabricated by cupric oxide growing on carbon fiber fabric (CuO/CFF). • The capacitor performance is optimized by the mass loading. • One of the best electrochemical performances is achieved for CuO/CFF supercapacitor. • A highly flexible solid-state supercapacitor can power 3 light-emitting diodes for about 5 min. - Abstract: A hierarchical CuO nano-structure is prepared by directly growing CuO nanoflowers on carbon fiber fabric (CuO/CFF) via a hydrothermal method. The CuO/CFF is used as the electrode material of a supercapacitor for electrochemical energy storage. The supercapacitor displays superior electrochemical performance in aqueous electrolyte with the specific capacitance of 839.9 F/g at the scan rate of 1 mV/s, energy density of 10.05 Wh/kg and power density of 1798.5 W/kg, which are the highest values for the CuO/CFF electrodes. Moreover, a flexible symmetric solid-state symmetric supercapacitor is also fabricated by using the CuO/CFF as electrodes. The solid-state supercapacitor exhibits a specific capacitance of 131.34 F/g at the scan rate of 1 mV/s with a power density of 145.12 W/kg, and 95.8% capacitance retention after 2000 charge-discharge cycles.

  7. High-Performance Flexible Solid-State Carbon Cloth Supercapacitors Based on Highly Processible N-Graphene Doped Polyacrylic Acid/Polyaniline Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongguang; Tang, Shaochun; Vongehr, Sascha; Ali Syed, Junaid; Wang, Xiangyu; Meng, Xiangkang

    2016-01-01

    Improving the solubility of conductive polymers to facilitate processing usually decreases their conductivity, and they suffer from poor cycling stability due to swelling-shrinking during charging cycles. We circumvent these problems with a novel preparation method for nitrogen-doped graphene (NG) enhanced polyacrylic acid/polyaniline (NG-PAA/PANI) composites, ensuring excellent processibility for scalable production. The content of PANI is maximized under the constraint of still allowing defect-free coatings on filaments of carbon cloth (CC). The NG content is then adjusted to optimize specific capacitance. The optimal CC electrodes have 32 wt.% PANI and 1.3 wt.% NG, thus achieving a high capacitance of 521 F/g at 0.5 F/g. A symmetric supercapacitor made from 20 wt.% PANI CC electrodes has more than four times the capacitance (68 F/g at 1 A/g) of previously reported flexible capacitors based on PANI-carbon nanotube composites, and it retains the full capacitance under large bending angles. The capacitor exhibits high energy and power densities (5.8 Wh/kg at 1.1 kW/kg), a superior rate capability (still 81% of the 1 A/g capacitance at 10 A/g), and long-term electrochemical stability (83.2% retention after 2000 cycles). PMID:26883179

  8. Functionalized graphene hydrogel-based high-performance supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yuxi; Lin, Zhaoyang; Huang, Xiaoqing; Wang, Yang; Huang, Yu; Duan, Xiangfeng

    2013-10-25

    Functionalized graphene hydrogels are prepared by a one-step low-temperature reduction process and exhibit ultrahigh specific capacitances and excellent cycling stability in the aqueous electrolyte. Flexible solid-state supercapacitors based on functionalized graphene hydrogels are demonstrated with superior capacitive performances and extraordinary mechanical flexibility. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Facilitated ion transport in all-solid-state flexible supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Bong Gill; Hong, Jinkee; Hong, Won Hi; Hammond, Paula T; Park, HoSeok

    2011-09-27

    The realization of highly flexible and all-solid-state energy-storage devices strongly depends on both the electrical properties and mechanical integrity of the constitutive materials and the controlled assembly of electrode and solid electrolyte. Herein we report the preparation of all-solid-state flexible supercapacitors (SCs) through the easy assembly of functionalized reduced graphene oxide (f-RGO) thin films (as electrode) and solvent-cast Nafion electrolyte membranes (as electrolyte and separator). In particular, the f-RGO-based SCs (f-RGO-SCs) showed a 2-fold higher specific capacitance (118.5 F/g at 1 A/g) and rate capability (90% retention at 30 A/g) compared to those of all-solid-state graphene SCs (62.3 F/g at 1A/g and 48% retention at 30 A/g). As proven by the 4-fold faster relaxation of the f-RGO-SCs than that of the RGO-SCs and more capacitive behavior of the former at the low-frequency region, these results were attributed to the facilitated ionic transport at the electrical double layer by means of the interfacial engineering of RGO by Nafion. Moreover, the superiority of all-solid-state flexible f-RGO-SCs was demonstrated by the good performance durability under the 1000 cycles of charging and discharging due to the mechanical integrity as a consequence of the interconnected networking structures. Therefore, this research provides new insight into the rational design and fabrication of all-solid-state flexible energy-storage devices as well as the fundamental understanding of ion and charge transport at the interface. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  10. Flexible superior electrode architectures based on three-dimensional porous spinous α-Fe2O3 with a high performance as a supercapacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Honghong; Yu, Liutao; Ma, Wenqin; Geng, Baoyou; Zhang, Xiaojun

    2015-05-28

    Flexible supercapacitors have recently attracted increasing attention as they show unique promising advantages, such as flexibility and shape diversity, and they are light-weight and so on. Herein, we designed a series of 3D porous spinous iron oxide materials synthesized on a thin iron plate through a facile method under mild conditions. The unique nanostructural features endow them with excellent electrochemical performance. The electrochemical properties of the integrated electrodes as active electrode materials for supercapacitors have been investigated using different electrochemical techniques including cyclic voltammetry, and galvanostatic charge-discharge in Na2SO4 and LiPF6/EC : DEC electrolyte solutions. These integrated electrodes showed high specific capacitance (as high as 524.6 F g(-1) at the current density of 1 A g(-1)) in 1.0 M Na2SO4 (see Table S1). Moreover, the integrated electrodes also show high power densities and high energy densities in a LiPF6/EC : DEC electrolyte solution; for example, the energy densities were 319.3, 252.5, 152.1, 74.13 and 38.6 W h kg(-1) at different power densities of 8.81, 21.59, 56.65, 92.09 and 152.64 kW kg(-1), respectively. Additionally, the flexible superior electrode exhibited excellent stability with capacitance retention of 92.9% after 5000 cycles. Therefore, such flexible integrated devices might be used in smart and portable electronics.

  11. Flexible, lightweight and paper-like supercapacitors assembled from nitrogen-doped multi-dimensional carbon materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Xianyi; Duus, Jens Øllgaard; Chi, Qijin

    2017-01-01

    hydrophilicity. In this work, a facile approach is developed to prepare nitrogen-doped carbon based flexible and free-standing paper electrodes {N3CPs) built from three types of representative carbon materials in different dimensions {OD: carbon black nanoparticles (CBNPs); 10: carbon nanotubes {CNTs); 20: GRSs......Flexible supercapacitors have shown great potential to fulfill the increasing demand on wearable, miniature, lightweight, thin and highly efficient power supply systems for advanced portable electronics. Owing to its superior supercapacitive performances as well as high chemical stability...... and excellent mechanical flexibility, graphene {GR} based flexible supercapacitors have received much research attention in recent years. However, GR-based supercapacitors often suffer from GR restacking leading to capacitance attenuation. Therefore, some macromolecules, polymers and zero...

  12. Facilitated charge transport in ternary interconnected electrodes for flexible supercapacitors with excellent power characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wanjun; He, Yongmin; Li, Xiaodong; Zhou, Jinyuan; Zhang, Zhenxing; Zhao, Changhui; Gong, Chengshi; Li, Shuankui; Pan, Xiaojun; Xie, Erqing

    2013-12-07

    Flexible and high performance supercapacitors are very critical in modern society. In order to develop the flexible supercapacitors with high power density, free-standing and flexible three-dimensional graphene/carbon nanotubes/MnO2 (3DG/CNTs/MnO2) composite electrodes with interconnected ternary 3D structures were fabricated, and the fast electron and ion transport channels were effectively constructed in the rationally designed electrodes. Consequently, the obtained 3DG/CNTs/MnO2 composite electrodes exhibit superior specific capacitance and rate capability compared to 3DG/MnO2 electrodes. Furthermore, the 3DG/CNTs/MnO2 based asymmetric supercapacitor demonstrates the maximum energy and power densities of 33.71 W h kg(-1) and up to 22,727.3 W kg(-1), respectively. Moreover, the asymmetric supercapacitor exhibits excellent cycling stability with 95.3% of the specific capacitance maintained after 1000 cycle tests. Our proposed synthesis strategy to construct the novel ternary 3D structured electrodes can be efficiently applied to other high performance energy storage/conversion systems.

  13. Electropolymerized polyazulene as active material in flexible supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suominen, Milla; Lehtimäki, Suvi; Yewale, Rahul; Damlin, Pia; Tuukkanen, Sampo; Kvarnström, Carita

    2017-07-01

    We report the capacitive behavior of electrochemically polymerized polyazulene films in different ionic liquids. The ionic liquids in this study represent conventional imidazolium based ionic liquids with tetrafluoroborate and bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide anions as well as an unconventional choline based ionic liquid. The effect of different ionic liquids on the polymerization and capacitive performance of polyazulene films is demonstrated by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in a 3-electrode cell configuration. The films exhibit the highest capacitances in the lowest viscosity ionic liquid (92 mF cm-2), while synthesis in high viscosity ionic liquid shortens the conjugation length and results in lower electroactivity (25 mF cm-2). The obtained films also show good cycling stabilities retaining over 90% of their initial capacitance over 1200 p-doping cycles. We also demonstrate, for the first time, flexible polyazulene supercapacitors of symmetric and asymmetric configurations using the choline based ionic liquid as electrolyte. In asymmetric configuration, capacitance of 55 mF (27 mF cm-2) with an equivalent series resistance of 19 Ω is obtained at operating voltage of 1.5 V. Upon increasing the operating voltage up to 2.4 V, the capacitance increases to 72 mF (36 mF cm-2).

  14. Stretchable and semitransparent conductive hybrid hydrogels for flexible supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Guang-Ping; Hippauf, Felix; Oschatz, Martin; Wisser, Florian M; Leifert, Annika; Nickel, Winfried; Mohamed-Noriega, Nasser; Zheng, Zhikun; Kaskel, Stefan

    2014-07-22

    Conductive polymers showing stretchable and transparent properties have received extensive attention due to their enormous potential in flexible electronic devices. Here, we demonstrate a facile and smart strategy for the preparation of structurally stretchable, electrically conductive, and optically semitransparent polyaniline-containing hybrid hydrogel networks as electrode, which show high-performances in supercapacitor application. Remarkably, the stability can extend up to 35,000 cycles at a high current density of 8 A/g, because of the combined structural advantages in terms of flexible polymer chains, highly interconnected pores, and excellent contact between the host and guest functional polymer phase.

  15. Manganese Oxide on Carbon Fabric for Flexible Supercapacitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfeng Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the fabrication of uniform large-area manganese oxide (MnO2 nanosheets on carbon fabric which oxidized using O2 plasma treatment (MnO2/O2-carbon fabric via electrodeposition process and their implementation as supercapacitor electrodes. Electrochemical measurements demonstrated that MnO2/O2-carbon fabric exhibited capacitance as high as 275 F/g at a scan rate of 5 mV/s; in addition, it showed an excellent cycling performance (less than 20% capacitance loss after 10,000 cycles. All the results suggest that MnO2/O2-carbon fabric is a promising electrode material which has great potential for application on flexible supercapacitors.

  16. Nickel-based Nanomaterials for Electrochemical Supercapacitors

    KAUST Repository

    Alhebshi, Nuha A.

    2015-11-02

    The demand for energy storage technologies is rapidly increasing in portable electronics, transportation, and renewable energy systems. Thus, the objective of this research is to develop and enhance the performance of Ni-based electrochemical supercapacitors by optimizing synthesis conditions and design of the electrode materials. Conventional and on-chip supercapacitors were developed with notable performance enhancement. For conventional supercapacitors, a uniform and conformal coating process was developed to deposit Ni(OH)2 nanoflakes on carbon microfibers in-situ by a simple chemical bath deposition at room temperature. The microfibers conformally-coated with Ni(OH)2 make direct physical contacts with essentially every single nanoflakes, leading to more efficient electron transport. Using this strategy, we have achieved devices that exhibit five times higher specific capacitance compared to planar (non-conformal) Ni(OH)2 nanoflakes electrodes prepared by drop casting of Ni(OH)2 on the carbon microfibers (1416 F/g vs. 275 F/g). For on-chip storage applications, microfabricated supercapacitors were developed using a combination of top-down photolithography and bottom-up CBD. The resulting Ni(OH)2 micro-supercapacitors show high-rate redox activity up to 500 V/s and an areal cell capacitance of 16 mF/cm2 corresponding to a volumetric stack capacitance of 325 F/cm3. This volumetric capacitance is 2-fold higher than carbon and metal oxide based micro-supercapacitors. Furthermore, these micro-supercapacitors show a maximum energy density of 21 mWh/cm3, which is superior to the Li-based thin film batteries. To enhance cycling stability, Ni-Cu-OH and Ni-Co-OH ternary electrodes have been prepared with different Ni:Cu and Ni:Co ratios by CBD at room temperature on carbon microfibers. It is observed that the electrodes with Ni:Cu and Ni:Co composition ratio of 100:10 results in an optimum capacitance and cycling stability. For the optimum composition, Ni-Co-OH with

  17. In-situ chemical reduction produced graphene paper for flexible supercapacitors with impressive capacitive performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xingke; Zhu, Yucan; Tang, Zhonghua; Wan, Zhongquan; Jia, Chunyang

    2017-08-01

    For practical applications of graphene-based materials in flexible supercapacitors, a technological breakthrough is currently required to fabricate high-performance graphene paper by a facile method. Herein, highly conductive (∼6900 S m-1) graphene paper with loose multilayered structure is produced by a high-efficiency in-situ chemical reduction process, which assembles graphite oxide suspensions into film and simultaneously conducts chemical reduction. Graphene papers with different parameters (including different types and doses of reductants, different thicknesses and areas of films) are successfully fabricated through this in-situ chemical reduction method. Meanwhile, the influences of the graphene papers with different parameters upon the supercapacitor performance are systematically investigated. Flexible supercapacitor based on the graphene paper exhibits high areal capacitance (152.4 mF cm-2 at current density of 2.0 mA cm-2 in aqueous electrolyte), and excellent rate performance (88.7% retention at 8.0 mA cm-2). Furthermore, bracelet-shaped all-solid supercapacitor with fascinating cycling stability (96.6% retention after 10 000 cycles) and electrochemical stability (an almost negligible capacity loss under different bending states and 99.6% retention after 4000 bending cycles) is established by employing the graphene paper electrode material and polymer electrolyte.

  18. Flexible Pillared Graphene-Paper Electrodes for High-Performance Electrochemical Supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Gongkai; Sun, Xiang; Lu, Fengyuan; Sun, Hongtao; Yu, Mingpeng; Jiang, Weilin; Liu, Changsheng; Lian, Jie

    2011-12-08

    Flexible graphene paper (GP) pillared by carbon black (CB) nanoparticles using a simple vacuum filtration method is developed as a high-performance electrode material for supercapacitors. Through the introduction of CB nanoparticles as spacers, the self-restacking of graphene sheets during the filtration process is mitigated to a great extent. The pillared GP-based supercapacitors exhibit excellent electrochemical performances and cyclic stabilities compared with GP without the addition of CB nanoparticles. At a scan rate of 10 mV s-1, the specific capacitance of the pillared GP is 138 F g-1 and 83.2 F g-1 with negligible 3.85% and 4.35% capacitance degradation after 2000 cycles in aqueous and organic electrolytes, respectively. At an extremely fast scan rate of 500 mV s-1, the specific capacitance can reach 80 F g-1 in aqueous electrolyte. No binder is needed for assembling the supercapacitor cells and the pillared GP itself may serve as a current collector due to its intrinsic high electrical conductivity. Finally, the pillared GP has great potential in the development of promising flexible and ultralight-weight supercapacitors for electrochemical energy storage.

  19. Flexible pillared graphene-paper electrodes for high-performance electrochemical supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gongkai; Sun, Xiang; Lu, Fengyuan; Sun, Hongtao; Yu, Mingpeng; Jiang, Weilin; Liu, Changsheng; Lian, Jie

    2012-02-06

    Flexible graphene paper (GP) pillared by carbon black (CB) nanoparticles using a simple vacuum filtration method is developed as a high-performance electrode material for supercapacitors. Through the introduction of CB nanoparticles as spacers, the self-restacking of graphene sheets during the filtration process is mitigated to a great extent. The pillared GP-based supercapacitors exhibit excellent electrochemical performances and cyclic stabilities compared with GP without the addition of CB nanoparticles. At a scan rate of 10 mV s(-1) , the specific capacitance of the pillared GP is 138 F g(-1) and 83.2 F g(-1) with negligible 3.85% and 4.35% capacitance degradation after 2000 cycles in aqueous and organic electrolytes, respectively. At an extremely fast scan rate of 500 mV s (-1) , the specific capacitance can reach 80 F g(-1) in aqueous electrolyte. No binder is needed for assembling the supercapacitor cells and the pillared GP itself may serve as a current collector due to its intrinsic high electrical conductivity. The pillared GP has great potential in the development of promising flexible and ultralight-weight supercapacitors for electrochemical energy storage. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Polymorphous Supercapacitors Constructed from Flexible Three-Dimensional Carbon Network/Polyaniline/MnO2 Composite Textiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinjie; Dong, Liubing; Xu, Chengjun; Ren, Danyang; Ma, Xinpei; Kang, Feiyu

    2018-04-04

    Polymorphous supercapacitors were constructed from flexible three-dimensional carbon network/polyaniline (PANI)/MnO 2 composite textile electrodes. The flexible textile electrodes were fabricated through a layer-by-layer construction strategy: PANI, carbon nanotubes (CNTs), and MnO 2 were deposited on activated carbon fiber cloth (ACFC) in turn through an electropolymerization process, "dipping and drying" method, and in situ chemical reaction, respectively. In the fabricated ACFC/PANI/CNTs/MnO 2 textile electrodes, the ACFC/CNT hybrid framework serves as a porous and electrically conductive 3D network for the rapid transmission of electrons and electrolyte ions, where ACFC, PANI, and MnO 2 are high-performance supercapacitor electrode materials. In the electrolyte of H 2 SO 4 solution, the textile electrode-based symmetric supercapacitor delivers superior areal capacitance, energy density, and power density of 4615 mF cm -2 (for single electrode), 157 μW h cm -2 , and 10372 μW cm -2 , respectively, whereas asymmetric supercapacitor assembled with the prepared composite textile as the positive electrode and ACFC as the negative electrode exhibits an improved energy density of 413 μW h cm -2 and a power density of 16120 μW cm -2 . On the basis of the ACFC/PANI/CNTs/MnO 2 textile electrodes, symmetric and asymmetric solid-state textile supercapacitors with a PVA/H 2 SO 4 gel electrolyte were also produced. These solid-state textile supercapacitors exhibit good electrochemical performance and high flexibility. Furthermore, flexible solid-state fiber-like supercapacitors were prepared with fiber bundle electrodes dismantled from the above composite textiles. Overall, this work makes a meaningful exploration of the versatile applications of textile electrodes to produce polymorphous supercapacitors.

  1. Dioxythiophene-based polymer electrodes for supercapacitor modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, David Y; Reynolds, John R

    2010-12-01

    We report on the electrochemical and capacitive behaviors of poly(2,2-dimethyl-3,4-propylene-dioxythipohene) (PProDOT-Me2) films as polymeric electrodes in Type I electrochemical supercapacitors. The supercapacitor device displays robust capacitive charging/discharging behaviors with specific capacitance of 55 F/g, based on 60 μg of PProDOT-Me2 per electrode, that retains over 85% of its storage capacity after 32 000 redox cycles at 78% depth of discharge. Moreover, an appreciable average energy density of 6 Wh/kg has been calculated for the device, along with well-behaved and rapid capacitive responses to 1.0 V between 5 to 500 mV s(-1). Tandem electrochemical supercapacitors were assembled in series, in parallel, and in combinations of the two to widen the operating voltage window and to increase the capacitive currents. Four supercapacitors coupled in series exhibited a 4.0 V charging/discharging window, whereas assembly in parallel displayed a 4-fold increase in capacitance. Combinations of both serial and parallel assembly with six supercapacitors resulted in the extension of voltage to 3 V and a 2-fold increase in capacitive currents. Utilization of bipolar electrodes facilitated the encapsulation of tandem supercapacitors as individual, flexible, and lightweight supercapacitor modules.

  2. Unconventional supercapacitors from nanocarbon-based electrode materials to device configurations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lili; Niu, Zhiqiang; Chen, Jun

    2016-07-25

    As energy storage devices, supercapacitors that are also called electrochemical capacitors possess high power density, excellent reversibility and long cycle life. The recent boom in electronic devices with different functions in transparent LED displays, stretchable electronic systems and artificial skin has increased the demand for supercapacitors to move towards light, thin, integrated macro- and micro-devices with transparent, flexible, stretchable, compressible and/or wearable abilities. The successful fabrication of such supercapacitors depends mainly on the preparation of innovative electrode materials and the design of unconventional supercapacitor configurations. Tremendous research efforts have been recently made to design and construct innovative nanocarbon-based electrode materials and supercapacitors with unconventional configurations. We review here recent developments in supercapacitors from nanocarbon-based electrode materials to device configurations. The advances in nanocarbon-based electrode materials mainly include the assembly technologies of macroscopic nanostructured electrodes with different dimensions of carbon nanotubes/nanofibers, graphene, mesoporous carbon, activated carbon, and their composites. The electrodes with macroscopic nanostructured carbon-based materials overcome the issues of low conductivity, poor mechanical properties, and limited dimensions that are faced by conventional methods. The configurational design of advanced supercapacitor devices is presented with six types of unconventional supercapacitor devices: flexible, micro-, stretchable, compressible, transparent and fiber supercapacitors. Such supercapacitors display unique configurations and excellent electrochemical performance at different states such as bending, stretching, compressing and/or folding. For example, all-solid-state simplified supercapacitors that are based on nanostructured graphene composite paper are able to maintain 95% of the original capacity at

  3. Recent Advances in Flexible/Stretchable Supercapacitors for Wearable Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, La; Lou, Zheng; Chen, Di; Jiang, Kai; Han, Wei; Shen, Guozhen

    2017-11-22

    The popularization of personalized wearable devices has accelerated the development of flexible/stretchable supercapacitors (SCs) that possess remarkable features of miniaturization, high security, and easy integration to build an all-in-one integrated system, and realize the functions of comfortable, noninvasive and continuous health monitoring, motion records, and information acquisition, etc. This Review presents a brief phylogeny of flexible/stretchable SCs, represented by planar micro-supercapacitors (MSCs) and 1D fibrous SCs. The latest progress and advantages of different flexible/stretchable/self-healing substrate, solid-state electrolyte and electrode materials for the fabrication of wearable SCs devices are summarized. The various configurations used in planar MSCs and 1D fibrous SCs aiming at the improvement of performance are also discussed. In addition, from the viewpoint of practical value and large-scale production, a survey of integrated systems, from different types of SC powered wearable sensing (gas, pressure, tactile…) systems, wearable all-in-one systems (including energy harvest, storage, and functional groups), to device packaging is presented. Finally, the challenges and future perspectives of wearable SCs are also considered. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Synthesis and Investigation of Carbon-Based Nanocomposites for Supercapacitors

    OpenAIRE

    LI WAN

    2018-01-01

    Carbon-based nanocomposites were synthesized for high-performance supercapacitors. The coalition between each of the constituent in the nanocomposites and the performance was investigated. Continuous efforts have been put to improve the supercapacitor assembly techniques from conventional supercapacitor to all-solid-state supercapacitor and to binder-free supercapacitor.

  5. Nitrogen doped carbon derived from polyimide/multiwall carbon nanotube composites for high performance flexible all-solid-state supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae Kyom; Kim, Nam Dong; Park, Seung-Keun; Seong, Kwang-dong; Hwang, Minsik; You, Nam-Ho; Piao, Yuanzhe

    2018-03-01

    Flexible all-solid-state supercapacitors are desirable as potential energy storage systems for wearable technologies. Herein, we synthesize aminophenyl multiwall carbon nanotube (AP-MWCNT) grafted polyimide precursor by in situ polymerization method as a nitrogen-doped carbon precursor. Flexible supercapacitor electrodes are fabricated via a coating of carbon precursor on carbon cloth surface and carbonization at high temperature directly. The as-obtained electrodes, which can be directly used without any binders or additives, can deliver a high specific capacitance of 333.4 F g-1 at 1 A g-1 (based on active material mass) and excellent cycle stability with 103% capacitance retention after 10,000 cycles in a three-electrode system. The flexible all-solid-state supercapacitor device exhibits a high volumetric capacitance of 3.88 F cm-3 at a current density of 0.02 mA cm-3. And also the device can deliver a maximum volumetric energy density of 0.50 mWh cm-3 and presents good cycling stability with 85.3% capacitance retention after 10,000 cycles. This device cell can not only show extraordinary mechanical flexibilities allowing folding, twisting, and rolling but also demonstrate remarkable stable electrochemical performances under their forms. This work provides a novel approach to obtain carbon textile-based flexible supercapacitors with high electrochemical performance and mechanical flexibility.

  6. Freestanding mesoporous VN/CNT hybrid electrodes for flexible all-solid-state supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xu; Peng, Xiang; Jin, Huanyu; Li, Tianqi; Zhang, Chengcheng; Gao, Biao; Hu, Bin; Huo, Kaifu; Zhou, Jun

    2013-09-25

    High-performance all-solid-state supercapacitors (SCs) are fabricated based on thin, lightweight, and flexible freestanding MVNN/CNT hybrid electrodes. The device shows a high volume capacitance of 7.9 F/cm(3) , volume energy and power density of 0.54 mWh/cm(3) and 0.4 W/cm(3) at a current density of 0.025 A/cm(3) . By being highly flexible, environmentally friendly, and easily connectable in series and parallel, the all-solid-state SCs promise potential applications in portable/wearable electronics. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Nickel-based Nanomaterials for Electrochemical Supercapacitors

    KAUST Repository

    Alhebshi, Nuha

    2015-01-01

    To further increase energy density, Ni(OH)2//Graphene asymmetric supercapacitor were fabricated with areal capacitance of 253 mF/cm2 at 5 mA/cm2 which is higher than NiO//rGO prepared by hydrothermal method. Ni-Co-OH/G-CNF//Graphene asymmetric supercapacitor results in a maximum power of 23 mW within an operating voltage of 2.2 V which are higher than of Ni(OH)2//Graphene (15.94 mW within 1.8 V). Our asymmetric supercapacitors have flexible-electrodes, low-cost fabrication process and environmentally friendly materials.

  8. Ultrathin two-dimensional MnO2/graphene hybrid nanostructures for high-performance, flexible planar supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Lele; Peng, Xu; Liu, Borui; Wu, Changzheng; Xie, Yi; Yu, Guihua

    2013-05-08

    Planar supercapacitors have recently attracted much attention owing to their unique and advantageous design for 2D nanomaterials based energy storage devices. However, improving the electrochemical performance of planar supercapacitors still remains a great challenge. Here we report for the first time a novel, high-performance in-plane supercapacitor based on hybrid nanostructures of quasi-2D ultrathin MnO2/graphene nanosheets. Specifically, the planar structures based on the δ-MnO2 nanosheets integrated on graphene sheets not only introduce more electrochemically active surfaces for absorption/desorption of electrolyte ions, but also bring additional interfaces at the hybridized interlayer areas to facilitate charge transport during charging/discharging processes. The unique structural design for planar supercapacitors enables great performance enhancements compared to graphene-only devices, exhibiting high specific capacitances of 267 F/g at current density of 0.2 A/g and 208 F/g at 10 A/g and excellent rate capability and cycling stability with capacitance retention of 92% after 7000 charge/discharge cycles. Moreover, the high planar malleability of planar supercapacitors makes possible superior flexibility and robust cyclability, yielding capacitance retention over 90% after 1000 times of folding/unfolding. Ultrathin 2D nanomaterials represent a promising material platform to realize highly flexible planar energy storage devices as the power back-ups for stretchable/flexible electronic devices.

  9. Wafer-scale integrated micro-supercapacitors on an ultrathin and highly flexible biomedical platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeng, Jimin; Meng, Chuizhou; Irazoqui, Pedro P

    2015-02-01

    We present wafer-scale integrated micro-supercapacitors on an ultrathin and highly flexible parylene platform, as progress toward sustainably powering biomedical microsystems suitable for implantable and wearable applications. All-solid-state, low-profile (supercapacitors are formed on an ultrathin (~20 μm) freestanding parylene film by a wafer-scale parylene packaging process in combination with a polyaniline (PANI) nanowire growth technique assisted by surface plasma treatment. These micro-supercapacitors are highly flexible and shown to be resilient toward flexural stress. Further, direct integration of micro-supercapacitors into a radio frequency (RF) rectifying circuit is achieved on a single parylene platform, yielding a complete RF energy harvesting microsystem. The system discharging rate is shown to improve by ~17 times in the presence of the integrated micro-supercapacitors. This result suggests that the integrated micro-supercapacitor technology described herein is a promising strategy for sustainably powering biomedical microsystems dedicated to implantable and wearable applications.

  10. Uniformly coated highly porous graphene/MnO2 foams for flexible asymmetric supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drieschner, Simon; Seckendorff, Maximilian von; Corro, Elena Del; Wohlketzetter, Jörg; Blaschke, Benno M; Stutzmann, Martin; Garrido, Jose A

    2018-06-01

    Supercapacitors are called to play a prominent role in the newly emerging markets of electric vehicles, flexible displays and sensors, and wearable electronics. In order to compete with current battery technology, supercapacitors have to be designed with highly conductive current collectors exhibiting high surface area per unit volume and uniformly coated with pseudocapacitive materials, which is crucial to boost the energy density while maintaining a high power density. Here, we present a versatile technique to prepare thickness-controlled thin-film micro graphene foams (μGFs) with pores in the lower micrometer range grown by chemical vapor deposition which can be used as highly conductive current collectors in flexible supercapacitors. To fabricate the μGF, we use porous metallic catalytic substrates consisting of nickel/copper alloy synthesized on nickel foil by electrodeposition in an electrolytic solution. Changing the duration of the electrodeposition allows the control of the thickness of the metal foam, and thus of the μGF, ranging from a few micrometers to the millimeter scale. The resulting μGF with a thickness and pores in the micrometer regime exhibits high structural quality which leads to a very low intrinsic resistance of the devices. Transferred onto flexible substrates, we demonstrate a uniform coating of the μGFs with manganese oxide, a pseudocapacitively active material. Considering the porous structure and the thickness of the μGFs, square wave potential pulses are used to ensure uniform coverage by the oxide material boosting the volumetric and areal capacitance to 14 F cm -3 and 0.16 F cm -2 . The μGF with a thickness and pores in the micrometer regime in combination with a coating technique tuned to the porosity of the μGF is of great relevance for the development of supercapacitors based on state-of-the-art graphene foams.

  11. Uniformly coated highly porous graphene/MnO2 foams for flexible asymmetric supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drieschner, Simon; von Seckendorff, Maximilian; del Corro, Elena; Wohlketzetter, Jörg; Blaschke, Benno M.; Stutzmann, Martin; Garrido, Jose A.

    2018-06-01

    Supercapacitors are called to play a prominent role in the newly emerging markets of electric vehicles, flexible displays and sensors, and wearable electronics. In order to compete with current battery technology, supercapacitors have to be designed with highly conductive current collectors exhibiting high surface area per unit volume and uniformly coated with pseudocapacitive materials, which is crucial to boost the energy density while maintaining a high power density. Here, we present a versatile technique to prepare thickness-controlled thin-film micro graphene foams (μGFs) with pores in the lower micrometer range grown by chemical vapor deposition which can be used as highly conductive current collectors in flexible supercapacitors. To fabricate the μGF, we use porous metallic catalytic substrates consisting of nickel/copper alloy synthesized on nickel foil by electrodeposition in an electrolytic solution. Changing the duration of the electrodeposition allows the control of the thickness of the metal foam, and thus of the μGF, ranging from a few micrometers to the millimeter scale. The resulting μGF with a thickness and pores in the micrometer regime exhibits high structural quality which leads to a very low intrinsic resistance of the devices. Transferred onto flexible substrates, we demonstrate a uniform coating of the μGFs with manganese oxide, a pseudocapacitively active material. Considering the porous structure and the thickness of the μGFs, square wave potential pulses are used to ensure uniform coverage by the oxide material boosting the volumetric and areal capacitance to 14 F cm‑3 and 0.16 F cm‑2. The μGF with a thickness and pores in the micrometer regime in combination with a coating technique tuned to the porosity of the μGF is of great relevance for the development of supercapacitors based on state-of-the-art graphene foams.

  12. Free-standing graphene films prepared via foam film method for great capacitive flexible supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yucan; Ye, Xingke; Tang, Zhonghua; Wan, Zhongquan; Jia, Chunyang

    2017-11-01

    Recently, graphene films have always attracted attention due to their excellent characteristics in energy storage. In this work, a novel graphene oxide (GO) film with excellent mechanical properties, whose thickness was regulated simply via changing the concentration of the surfactant, was successfully prepared by foam film method. After chemical reduction, the reduced GO (rGO) films have excellent electrical conductivity of ∼172 S cm-1. Moreover, the supercapacitors based on the rGO films exhibit satisfied capacitive performance of ∼56 mF cm-2 at 0.2 mA cm-2 in 6 M KOH aqueous solution. Meanwhile, the flexible all solid state supercapacitors (FSSCs) based on the rGO films also show great volumetric capacitance of ∼2810 mF cm-3 at 12 mA cm-3 (∼1607 mF cm-3 at 613 mA cm-3) with polyvinyl alcohol-KOH gel electrolyte. Besides, after 10000 cycles and continuously bent to 180° for 300 times, the volumetric capacitance of the FSSC remains at 81.4% and 90.4% of its initial capacitance value, respectively. Therefore, the free-standing rGO films prepared via foam film method could be considered as promising electrode materials for high performance flexible supercapacitors.

  13. Three-Dimensional Networked Metal-Organic Frameworks with Conductive Polypyrrole Tubes for Flexible Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xingtao; Tang, Jing; Qian, Huayu; Hou, Shujin; Bando, Yoshio; Hossain, Md Shahriar A; Pan, Likun; Yamauchi, Yusuke

    2017-11-08

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with high porosity and a regular porous structure have emerged as a promising electrode material for supercapacitors, but their poor electrical conductivity limits their utilization efficiency and capacitive performance. To increase the overall electrical conductivity as well as the efficiency of MOF particles, three-dimensional networked MOFs are developed via using preprepared conductive polypyrrole (PPy) tubes as the support for in situ growth of MOF particles. As a result, the highly conductive PPy tubes that run through the MOF particles not only increase the electron transfer between MOF particles and maintain the high effective porosity of the MOFs but also endow the MOFs with flexibility. Promoted by such elaborately designed MOF-PPy networks, the specific capacitance of MOF particles has been increased from 99.2 F g -1 for pristine zeolitic imidazolate framework (ZIF)-67 to 597.6 F g -1 for ZIF-PPy networks, indicating the importance of the design of the ZIF-PPy continuous microstructure. Furthermore, a flexible supercapacitor device based on ZIF-PPy networks shows an outstanding areal capacitance of 225.8 mF cm -2 , which is far above other MOFs-based supercapacitors reported up to date, confirming the significance of in situ synthetic chemistry as well as the importance of hybrid materials on the nanoscale.

  14. A Flexible Stretchable Hydrogel Electrolyte for Healable All-in-One Configured Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ying; Zheng, Kaiqiang; Wan, Pengbo

    2018-04-01

    The development of integrated high-performance supercapacitors with all-in-one configuration, excellent flexibility and autonomously intrinsic self-healability, and without the extra healable film layers, is still tremendously challenging. Compared to the sandwich-like laminated structures of supercapacitors with augmented interfacial contact resistance, the flexible healable integrated supercapacitor with all-in-one structure could theoretically improve their interfacial contact resistance and energy densities, simplify the tedious device assembly process, prolong the lifetime, and avoid the displacement and delamination of multilayered configurations under deformations. Herein, a flexible healable all-in-one configured supercapacitor with excellent flexibility and reliable self-healing ability by avoiding the extra healable film substrates and the postassembled sandwich-like laminated structures is developed. The healable all-in-one configured supercapacitor is prepared from in situ polymerization and deposition of nanocomposites electrode materials onto the two-sided faces of the self-healing hydrogel electrolyte separator. The self-healing hydrogel film is obtained from the physically crosslinked hydrogel with enormous hydrogen bonds, which can endow the healable capability through dynamic hydrogen bonding. The assembled all-in-one configured supercapacitor exhibits enhanced capacitive performance, good cycling stability, reliable self-healing capability, and excellent flexibility. It holds broad prospects for obtaining various flexible healable all-in-one configured supercapacitors for working as portable energy storage devices in wearable electronics. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Flexible MXene/Graphene Films for Ultrafast Supercapacitors with Outstanding Volumetric Capacitance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Jun [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Harbin Engineering Univ., Harbin (China); Ren, Chang E. [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Maleski, Kathleen [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Hatter, Christine B. [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Anasori, Babak [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Urbankowski, Patrick [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Sarycheva, Asya [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Gogotsi, Yury G. [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2017-06-30

    A strategy to prepare flexible and conductive MXene/graphene (reduced graphene oxide, rGO) supercapacitor electrodes by using electrostatic self-assembly between positively charged rGO modified with poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) and negatively charged titanium carbide MXene nanosheets is presented. After electrostatic assembly, rGO nanosheets are inserted in-between MXene layers. As a result, the self-restacking of MXene nanosheets is effectively prevented, leading to a considerably increased interlayer spacing. Accelerated diffusion of electrolyte ions enables more electroactive sites to become accessible. The freestanding MXene/rGO-5 wt% electrode displays a volumetric capacitance of 1040 F cm–3 at a scan rate of 2 mV s–1, an impressive rate capability with 61% capacitance retention at 1 V s–1 and long cycle life. Moreover, the fabricated binder-free symmetric supercapacitor shows an ultrahigh volumetric energy density of 32.6 Wh L–1, which is among the highest values reported for carbon and MXene based materials in aqueous electrolytes. Furthermore, this work provides fundamental insight into the effect of interlayer spacing on the electrochemical performance of 2D hybrid materials and sheds light on the design of next-generation flexible, portable and highly integrated supercapacitors with high volumetric and rate performances.

  16. Flexible and freestanding supercapacitor based on nanostructured poly(m-aminophenol)/carbon nanofiber hybrid mats with high energy and power densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Arup; Dey, Baban; Sinha Mahapatra, Susanta; Kim, Doo-Won; Yang, Kap-Seung; Yang, Duck-Joo

    2018-04-01

    Nanostructured poly(m-aminophenol) (PmAP) coated freestanding carbon nanofiber (CNF) mats were fabricated through simple in situ rapid-mixing polymerization of m-aminophenol in the presence of a CNF mat for flexible solid-state supercapacitors. The surface compositions, morphology and pore structure of the hybrid mats were characterized by using various techniques, e.g., FTIR, Raman, XRD, FE-SEM, TEM, and N2 absorption. The results show that the PmAP nanoparticles were homogeneously deposited on CNF surfaces and formed a thin flexible hybrid mat, which were directly used to made electrodes for electrochemical analysis without using any binders or conductive additives. The electrochemical performances of the hybrid mats were easily tailored by varying the PmAP loading on a hybrid electrode. The PmAP/CNF-10 hybrid electrode with a relatively low PmAP loading (> 42 wt%) showed a high specific capacitance of 325.8 F g-1 and a volumetric capacitance of 273.6 F cm-3 at a current density of 0.5 A g-1, together with a specific capacitance retention of 196.2 F g-1 at 20 A g-1. The PmAP/CNF-10 hybrid electrode showed good cycling stability with 88.2% capacitance retention after 5000 cycles. A maximum energy density of 45.2 Wh kg-1 and power density of 20.4 kW kg-1 were achieved for the PmAP/CNF-10 hybrid electrode. This facile and cost-effective synthesis of a flexible binder-free PmAP/CNF hybrid mat with excellent capacitive performances encourages its possible commercial exploitation.

  17. Flexible supercapacitor electrodes with vertically aligned carbon nanotubes grown on aluminum foils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itir Bakis Dogru

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs grown on aluminum foils were used as flexible supercapacitor electrodes. Aluminum foils were used as readily available, cheap and conductive substrates, and VACNTs were grown directly on these foils through chemical vapor deposition (CVD method. Solution based ultrasonic spray pyrolysis (USP method was used for the deposition of the CNT catalyst. Direct growth of VACNTs on aluminum foils ruled out both the internal resistance of the supercapacitor electrodes and the charge transfer resistance between the electrode and electrolyte. A specific capacitance of 2.61 mF/cm2 at a scan rate of 800 mV/s was obtained from the fabricated electrodes, which is further improved through the bending cycles.

  18. Towards flexible solid-state supercapacitors for smart and wearable electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubal, Deepak P; Chodankar, Nilesh R; Kim, Do-Heyoung; Gomez-Romero, Pedro

    2018-03-21

    Flexible solid-state supercapacitors (FSSCs) are frontrunners in energy storage device technology and have attracted extensive attention owing to recent significant breakthroughs in modern wearable electronics. In this study, we review the state-of-the-art advancements in FSSCs to provide new insights on mechanisms, emerging electrode materials, flexible gel electrolytes and novel cell designs. The review begins with a brief introduction on the fundamental understanding of charge storage mechanisms based on the structural properties of electrode materials. The next sections briefly summarise the latest progress in flexible electrodes (i.e., freestanding and substrate-supported, including textile, paper, metal foil/wire and polymer-based substrates) and flexible gel electrolytes (i.e., aqueous, organic, ionic liquids and redox-active gels). Subsequently, a comprehensive summary of FSSC cell designs introduces some emerging electrode materials, including MXenes, metal nitrides, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), polyoxometalates (POMs) and black phosphorus. Some potential practical applications, such as the development of piezoelectric, photo-, shape-memory, self-healing, electrochromic and integrated sensor-supercapacitors are also discussed. The final section highlights current challenges and future perspectives on research in this thriving field.

  19. Titanium dioxide@polypyrrole core-shell nanowires for all solid-state flexible supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Minghao; Zeng, Yinxiang; Zhang, Chong; Lu, Xihong; Zeng, Chenghui; Yao, Chenzhong; Yang, Yangyi; Tong, Yexiang

    2013-10-01

    Herein, we developed a facile two-step process to synthesize TiO2@PPy core-shell nanowires (NWs) on carbon cloth and reported their improved electrochemical performance for flexible supercapacitors (SCs). The fabricated solid-state SC device based on TiO2@PPy core-shell NWs not only has excellent flexibility, but also exhibits remarkable electrochemical performance.Herein, we developed a facile two-step process to synthesize TiO2@PPy core-shell nanowires (NWs) on carbon cloth and reported their improved electrochemical performance for flexible supercapacitors (SCs). The fabricated solid-state SC device based on TiO2@PPy core-shell NWs not only has excellent flexibility, but also exhibits remarkable electrochemical performance. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details, XRD pattern, FT-IR absorption spectrum and CV curves of TiO2@PPy NWs, and SEM images of the PPy. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr03578f

  20. Scalable Synthesis of Freestanding Sandwich-structured Graphene/Polyaniline/Graphene Nanocomposite Paper for Flexible All-Solid-State Supercapacitor

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, Fei; Yang, Shengxiong; Zhang, Zheye; Liu, Hongfang; Xiao, Junwu; Wan, Lian; Luo, Jun; Wang, Shuai; Liu, Yunqi

    2015-01-01

    We reported a scalable and modular method to prepare a new type of sandwich-structured graphene-based nanohybrid paper and explore its practical application as high-performance electrode in flexible supercapacitor. The freestanding and flexible graphene paper was firstly fabricated by highly reproducible printing technique and bubbling delamination method, by which the area and thickness of the graphene paper can be freely adjusted in a wide range. The as-prepared graphene paper possesses a c...

  1. Au@MnO2 core-shell nanomesh electrodes for transparent flexible supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Tengfei; Luo, Bin; Giersig, Michael; Akinoglu, Eser Metin; Hao, Long; Wang, Xiangjun; Shi, Lin; Jin, Meihua; Zhi, Linjie

    2014-10-29

    A novel Au@MnO2 supercapacitor is presented. The sophisticated core-shell architecture combining an Au nanomesh core with a MnO2 shell on a flexible polymeric substrate is demonstrated as an electrode for high performance transparent flexible supercapacitors (TFSCs). Due to their unique structure, high areal/gravimetric capacitance and rate capability for TFSCs are achieved. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. One-step electrochemically expanded graphite foil for flexible all-solid supercapacitor with high rate performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Han-Yu; Yu, Yao; Liu, Lang; Liu, Lin; Wu, Yue

    2017-01-01

    Flexible solid-state supercapacitors (SSCs) as a candidate for energy storage source, have been attracting intensive attention. Graphene-based materials for SSCs have been widely studied. However, most reported preparation methods for graphene-based materials are energy-consuming, time-consuming and environmentally hazardous, what’s more, the assembling of SSCs need additives, such as current collectors, flexible substrates. So, it is necessary to develop simpler and greener attempts to achieve high-performance, cost-effective, substrates/additives-free and flexible electrodes for SSC devices. Herein, we reported a green and facile one-step process of electrochemical oxidation and expansion in salt solution to activate graphite foil (GF) for fabricating expanded graphite foil (EGF). The EGF electrode with unique structure and high conductivity showed high supercapacitor performance of 65 mF cm −2 , remarkable rate-capability maintaining at a level of 80% even at a current density of 20 mA cm −2 and excellent cycling stability with ∼95% capacitance remaining after 10000 cycles at a current density of 20 mA cm −2 . Moreover, a symmetric flexible all-solid supercapacitor (SSC) device was integrated using EGFs without any current collectors and additives. The flexible EGF-based device showed a high capacitance capacity of 30.5 mF cm −2 , excellent rate performance and good cycle stability which make it holds promise for applications in flexible, portable and wearable electronic devices.

  3. Pseudocapacitive Transparent/Flexible Supercapacitor based on Graphene wrapped Ni(OH)2 Nanosheet Transparent Film Produced using Scalable Bio-inspired Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Na; Huang, Xuankai; Li, Ruijian; Chen, Yiming; Li, Yunyong; Shi, Zhicong; Zhang, Haiyan

    2016-01-01

    High specific-capacity pseudocapacitive transition-metal-hydroxide (TMH) materials are desirable for future high performance transparent supercapacitors, but have been rarely reported previously. The successful synthesis of TMH materials with desired nanostructures is a key factor for their transparency. Here, Ni(OH) 2 nanosheet transparent film (NNS-TF) was developed simply through a gas-liquid diffusion method. The nanostructures were enwrapped in graphene shells (NNS@Gr-TF) for using as transparent electrodes. The unique encapsulation structures build up rapid three-dimensional electron and ion transport pathways together with the underlying ITO layer. The specific areal capacitance (18.9 mF/cm 2 at 0.1 mA/cm 2 ) was greatly improved, at least a thousand times higher than the reported value for transparent devices based on planer CVD graphene, and ten times as that for 3D micro-structured graphene membrane.

  4. Inkjet-Printed Electrodes on A4 Paper Substrates for Low-Cost, Disposable, and Flexible Asymmetric Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundriyal, Poonam; Bhattacharya, Shantanu

    2017-11-08

    Printed electronics is widely gaining much attention for compact and high-performance energy-storage devices because of the advancement of flexible electronics. The development of a low-cost current collector, selection, and utilization of the proper material deposition tool and improvement of the device energy density are major challenges for the existing flexible supercapacitors. In this paper, we have reported an inkjet-printed solid-state asymmetric supercapacitor on commercial A4 paper using a low-cost desktop printer (EPSON L130). The physical properties of all inks have been carefully optimized so that the developed inks are within the printable range, i.e., Fromm number of 4 electrode, and another such structure is printed with activated carbon ink to form a negative electrode. A combination of both of these electrodes is outlaid by fabricating an asymmetric supercapacitor. The assembled asymmetric supercapacitor with poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)-LiCl gel electrolyte shows a stable potential window of 0-2.0 V and exhibits outstanding flexibility, good cyclic stability, high rate capability, and high energy density. The fabricated paper-substrate-based flexible asymmetric supercapacitor also displays an excellent electrochemical performances, e.g., a maximum areal capacitance of 1.586 F/cm 2 (1023 F/g) at a current density of 4 mA/cm 2 , highest energy density of 22 mWh/cm 3 at a power density of 0.099 W/cm 3 , a capacity retention of 89.6% even after 9000 charge-discharge cycles, and a low charge-transfer resistance of 2.3 Ω. So, utilization of inkjet printing for the development of paper-based flexible electronics has a strong potential for embedding into the next generation low-cost, compact, and wearable energy-storage devices and other printed electronic applications.

  5. Oxygen-deficient hematite nanorods as high-performance and novel negative electrodes for flexible asymmetric supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xihong; Zeng, Yinxiang; Yu, Minghao; Zhai, Teng; Liang, Chaolun; Xie, Shilei; Balogun, Muhammad-Sadeeq; Tong, Yexiang

    2014-05-21

    Oxygen-deficient α-Fe2 O3 nanorods with outstanding capacitive performance are developed and demonstrated as novel negative electrodes for flexible asymmetric supercapacitors. The asymmetric-supercapacitor device based on the oxygen-deficient α-Fe2 O3 nanorod negative electrode and a MnO2 positive electrode achieves a maximum energy density of 0.41 mW·h/cm(3) ; it is also capable of charging a mobile phone and powering a light-emitting diode indicator. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. A self-standing hydrogel neutral electrolyte for high voltage and safe flexible supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batisse, N.; Raymundo-Piñero, E.

    2017-04-01

    The development of safe flexible supercapacitors implies the use of new non-liquid electrolytes for avoiding device leakage which combine mechanical properties and electrochemical performance. In this sense, hydrogel electrolytes composed of a solid non-conductive matrix holding an aqueous electrolytic phase are a reliable solution. In this work, we propose a green physical route for producing self-standing hydrogel films from a PVA polymer based on the freezing/thawing method without using chemical cross-linking agents. Moreover, a neutral electrolytic phase as Na2SO4 is used for reaching higher cell voltages than in an acidic or basic electrolyte. Such new PVA-Na2SO4 hydrogel electrolyte, which also acts as separator, allows reaching voltages windows as high as 1.8 V in a symmetric carbon/carbon supercapacitor with optimal capacitance retention through thousands of cycles. Additionally, in reason of the fast mobility of the ions inside of the polymeric matrix, the hydrogel electrolyte based supercapacitor keeps the power density of the liquid electrolyte device.

  7. Extremely Stable Polypyrrole Achieved via Molecular Ordering for Highly Flexible Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yan; Zhu, Minshen; Pei, Zengxia; Huang, Yang; Geng, Huiyuan; Zhi, Chunyi

    2016-01-27

    The cycling stability of flexible supercapacitors with conducting polymers as electrodes is limited by the structural breakdown arising from repetitive counterion flow during charging/discharging. Supercapacitors made of facilely electropolymerized polypyrrole (e-PPy) have ultrahigh capacitance retentions of more than 97, 91, and 86% after 15000, 50000, and 100000 charging/discharging cycles, respectively, and can sustain more than 230000 charging/discharging cycles with still approximately half of the initial capacitance retained. To the best of our knowledge, such excellent long-term cycling stability was never reported. The fully controllable electropolymerization shows superiority in molecular ordering, favoring uniform stress distribution and charge transfer. Being left at ambient conditions for even 8 months, e-PPy supercapacitors completely retain the good electrochemical performance. The extremely stable supercapacitors with excellent flexibility and scalability hold considerable promise for the commerical application of flexible and wearable electronics.

  8. Hierarchical TiN nanoparticles-assembled nanopillars for flexible supercapacitors with high volumetric capacitance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Ping; Li, Xingxing; Gao, Biao; Fu, Jijiang; Xia, Lu; Zhang, Xuming; Huo, Kaifu; Shen, Wenli; Chu, Paul K

    2018-05-10

    Titanium nitride (TiN) is an attractive electrode material in fast charging/discharging supercapacitors because of its excellent conductivity. However, the low capacitance and mechanical brittleness of TiN restricts its further application in flexible supercapacitors with high energy density. Thus, it is still a challenge to rationally design TiN electrodes with both high electrochemical and mechanical properties. Herein, the hierarchical TiN nanoparticles-assembled nanopillars (H-TiN NPs) array as binder free electrodes were obtained by nitriding of hierarchical titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanopillars, which was produced by a simple hydrothermal treatment of anodic TiO2 nanotubes (NTs) array in water. The porous TiN nanoparticles connected to each other to form ordered nanopillar arrays, effectively providing larger specific surface area and more active sites for charge storage. The H-TiN NPs delivered a high volumetric capacitance of 120 F cm-3 at 0.83 A cm-3, which is better than that of TiN NTs arrays (69 F cm-3 at 0.83 A cm-3). After assembling into all-solid-state devices, the H-TiN NPs based supercapacitors exhibited outstanding volumetric capacitance of 5.9 F cm-3 at 0.02 A cm-3 and a high energy density of 0.53 mW h cm-3. Our results reveal a new strategy to optimize the supercapacitive performance of metal nitrides.

  9. Supercapacitors based on pillared graphene nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jian; Zhong, Jiebin; Bao, Duoduo; Reiber-Kyle, Jennifer; Wang, Wei; Vullev, Valentine; Ozkan, Mihrimah; Ozkan, Cengiz S

    2012-03-01

    We describe the fabrication of highly conductive and large-area three dimensional pillared graphene nanostructure (PGN) films from assembly of vertically aligned CNT pillars on flexible copper foils for applications in electric double layer capacitors (EDLC). The PGN films synthesized via a one-step chemical vapor deposition process on flexible copper foils exhibit high conductivity with sheet resistance as low as 1.6 ohms per square and possessing high mechanical flexibility. Raman spectroscopy indicates the presence of multi walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) and their morphology can be controlled by the growth conditions. It was discovered that nitric acid treatment can significantly increase the specific capacitance of the devices. EDLC devices based on PGN electrodes (surface area of 565 m2/g) demonstrate enhanced performance with specific capacitance value as high as 330 F/g extracted from the current density-voltage (CV) measurements and energy density value of 45.8 Wh/kg. The hybrid graphene-CNT nanostructures are attractive for applications including supercapacitors, fuel cells and batteries.

  10. Flexible and Self-Healing Aqueous Supercapacitors for Low Temperature Applications: Polyampholyte Gel Electrolytes with Biochar Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinda; Liu, Li; Wang, Xianzong; Ok, Yong Sik; Elliott, Janet A W; Chang, Scott X; Chung, Hyun-Joong

    2017-05-10

    A flexible and self-healing supercapacitor with high energy density in low temperature operation was fabricated using a combination of biochar-based composite electrodes and a polyampholyte hydrogel electrolyte. Polyampholytes, a novel class of tough hydrogel, provide self-healing ability and mechanical flexibility, as well as low temperature operation for the aqueous electrolyte. Biochar is a carbon material produced from the low-temperature pyrolysis of biological wastes; the incorporation of reduced graphene oxide conferred mechanical integrity and electrical conductivity and hence the electrodes are called biochar-reduced-graphene-oxide (BC-RGO) electrodes. The fabricated supercapacitor showed high energy density of 30 Wh/kg with ~90% capacitance retention after 5000 charge-discharge cycles at room temperature at a power density of 50 W/kg. At -30 °C, the supercapacitor exhibited an energy density of 10.5 Wh/kg at a power density of 500 W/kg. The mechanism of the low-temperature performance excellence is likely to be associated with the concept of non-freezable water near the hydrophilic polymer chains, which can motivate future researches on the phase behaviour of water near polyampholyte chains. We conclude that the combination of the BC-RGO electrode and the polyampholyte hydrogel electrolyte is promising for supercapacitors for flexible electronics and for low temperature environments.

  11. Paper-based supercapacitors for self-powered nanosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Longyan; Xiao, Xu; Ding, Tianpeng; Zhong, Junwen; Zhang, Xianghui; Shen, Yue; Hu, Bin; Huang, Yunhui; Zhou, Jun; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2012-05-14

    Energy storage on paper: paper-based, all-solid-state, and flexible supercapacitors were fabricated, which can be charged by a piezoelectric generator or solar cells and then discharged to power a strain sensor or a blue-light-emitting diode, demonstrating its efficient energy management in self-powered nanosystems. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Selective wetting-induced micro-electrode patterning for flexible micro-supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Kon; Koo, Hyung-Jun; Lee, Aeri; Braun, Paul V

    2014-08-13

    Selective wetting-induced micro-electrode patterning is used to fabricate flexible micro-supercapacitors (mSCs). The resulting mSCs exhibit high performance, mechanical stability, stable cycle life, and hold great promise for facile integration into flexible devices requiring on-chip energy storage. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Polyaniline nanowire arrays aligned on nitrogen-doped carbon fabric for high-performance flexible supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Pingping; Li, Yingzhi; Yu, Xinyi; Zhao, Xin; Wu, Lihao; Zhang, Qinghua

    2013-09-24

    A combination of vertical polyaniline (PANI) nanowire arrays and nitrogen plasma etched carbon fiber cloths (eCFC) was fabricated to create 3D nanostructured PANI/eCFC composites. The small size of the highly ordered PANI nanowires can greatly reduce the scale of the diffusion length, allowing for the improved utilization of electrode materials. A two-electrode flexible supercapacitor based on PANI/eCFC demonstrates a high specific capacitance (1035 F g(-1) at a current density of 1 A g(-1)), good rate capability (88% capacity retention at 8 A g(-1)), and long-term cycle life (10% capacity loss after 5000 cycles). The lightweight, low-cost, flexible composites are promising candidates for use in energy storage device applications.

  14. Cellulose nanofibril/reduced graphene oxide/carbon nanotube hybrid aerogels for highly flexible and all-solid-state supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qifeng Zheng; Zhiyong Cai; Zhenqiang Ma; Shaoqin Gong

    2015-01-01

    A novel type of highly flexible and all-solid-state supercapacitor that uses cellulose nanofibril (CNF)/reduced graphene oxide (RGO)/carbon nanotube (CNT) hybrid aerogels as electrodes and H2SO4 poly (vinyl alcohol) PVA gel as the electrolyte was developed and is reported here. These flexible solid-state supercapacitors...

  15. Hybrid ternary rice paper-manganese oxide-carbon nanotube nanocomposites for flexible supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wenchao; Zhang, Kaixi; Wei, Li; Yu, Dingshan; Wei, Jun; Chen, Yuan

    2013-10-01

    Modern portable electronic devices create a strong demand for flexible energy storage devices. Paper based nanocomposites are attractive as sustainable materials for such applications. Here, we directly explored the hydroxyl chemistry of cellulose fibers to synthesize hybrid ternary nanocomposites, comprised of rice paper, single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and manganese oxide nanoparticles. The functional groups on cellulose fibers can react with adsorbed permanganate ions, resulting in uniform deposition of manganese oxide nanoparticles. SWCNTs coated on top of manganese oxide nanoparticles form a highly conductive network connecting individual manganese oxide particles. By using the hybrid ternary composites as electrodes, the assembled two-electrode supercapacitors demonstrated high capacitance (260.2 F g-1), energy (9.0 W h kg-1), power (59.7 kW kg-1), and cycle stability (12% drop after 3000 cycles). In addition, the nanocomposites show good strength and excellent mechanical flexibility, and their capacitance shows negligible changes after bending more than 100 times. These findings suggest that opportunities exist to further explore the rich chemistry of cellulose fibers for innovative energy applications.Modern portable electronic devices create a strong demand for flexible energy storage devices. Paper based nanocomposites are attractive as sustainable materials for such applications. Here, we directly explored the hydroxyl chemistry of cellulose fibers to synthesize hybrid ternary nanocomposites, comprised of rice paper, single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and manganese oxide nanoparticles. The functional groups on cellulose fibers can react with adsorbed permanganate ions, resulting in uniform deposition of manganese oxide nanoparticles. SWCNTs coated on top of manganese oxide nanoparticles form a highly conductive network connecting individual manganese oxide particles. By using the hybrid ternary composites as electrodes, the assembled two

  16. Flexible Hybrid Membranes with Ni(OH)2 Nanoplatelets Vertically Grown on Electrospun Carbon Nanofibers for High-Performance Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Longsheng; Ding, Qianwei; Huang, Yunpeng; Gu, Huahao; Miao, Yue-E; Liu, Tianxi

    2015-10-14

    The practical applications of transition metal oxides and hydroxides for supercapacitors are restricted by their intrinsic poor conductivity, large volumetric expansion, and rapid capacitance fading upon cycling, which can be solved by optimizing these materials to nanostructures and confining them within conductive carbonaceous frameworks. In this work, flexible hybrid membranes with ultrathin Ni(OH)2 nanoplatelets vertically and uniformly anchored on the electrospun carbon nanofibers (CNF) have been facilely prepared as electrode materials for supercapacitors. The Ni(OH)2/CNF hybrid membranes with three-dimensional macroporous architectures as well as hierarchical nanostructures can provide open and continuous channels for rapid diffusion of electrolyte to access the electrochemically active Ni(OH)2 nanoplatelets. Moreover, the carbon nanofiber can act both as a conductive core to provide efficient transport of electrons for fast Faradaic redox reactions of the Ni(OH)2 sheath, and as a buffering matrix to mitigate the local volumetric expansion/contraction upon long-term cycling. As a consequence, the optimized Ni(OH)2/CNF hybrid membrane exhibits a high specific capacitance of 2523 F g(-1) (based on the mass of Ni(OH)2, that is 701 F g(-1) based on the total mass) at a scan rate of 5 mV s(-1). The Ni(OH)2/CNF hybrid membranes with high mechanical flexibility, superior electrical conductivity, and remarkably improved electrochemical capacitance are condsidered as promising flexible electrode materials for high-performance supercapacitors.

  17. Controllable Synthesis of Atomically Thin Type-II Weyl Semimetal WTe2 Nanosheets: An Advanced Electrode Material for All-Solid-State Flexible Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Peng; Fu, Wei; Zeng, Qingsheng; Lin, Junhao; Yan, Cheng; Lai, Zhuangchai; Tang, Bijun; Suenaga, Kazu; Zhang, Hua; Liu, Zheng

    2017-09-01

    Compared with 2D S-based and Se-based transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), Te-based TMDs display much better electrical conductivities, which will be beneficial to enhance the capacitances in supercapacitors. However, to date, the reports about the applications of Te-based TMDs in supercapacitors are quite rare. Herein, the first supercapacitor example of the Te-based TMD is reported: the type-II Weyl semimetal 1Td WTe 2 . It is demonstrated that single crystals of 1Td WTe 2 can be exfoliated into the nanosheets with 2-7 layers by liquid-phase exfoliation, which are assembled into air-stable films and further all-solid-state flexible supercapacitors. The resulting supercapacitors deliver a mass capacitance of 221 F g -1 and a stack capacitance of 74 F cm -3 . Furthermore, they also show excellent volumetric energy and power densities of 0.01 Wh cm -3 and 83.6 W cm -3 , respectively, superior to the commercial 4V/500 µAh Li thin-film battery and the commercial 3V/300 µAh Al electrolytic capacitor, in association with outstanding mechanical flexibility and superior cycling stability (capacitance retention of ≈91% after 5500 cycles). These results indicate that the 1Td WTe 2 nanosheet is a promising flexible electrode material for high-performance energy storage devices. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Facile fabrication of ultrathin hybrid membrane for highly flexible supercapacitors via in-situ phase separation of polyethersulfone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaoning; Ran, Fen; Shen, Kuiwen; Yang, Yunlong; Wu, Jiayu; Niu, Xiaoqin; Kong, Lingbin; Kang, Long; Chen, Shaowei

    2016-10-01

    In this article, a facile method based on in-situ phase-separation was developed for the fabrication of ultrathin hybrid membranes for highly flexible supercapacitors. The structures and morphologies of the prepared electrodes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) measurements; and the electrochemical behaviors were examined in 2 M KOH solution. SEM and FTIR characterizations reveal that activated carbon was imbedded into the polymer membrane of polyethersulfone to form a uniform and flexible hybrid membrane. When the thin polymer-carbon membrane (PCM) was used as an electrode material for supercapacitor, a high specific capacitance of 169.4 Fg-1 was obtained at a current density of 0.5 Ag-1 along with good long-term cycle life of 94.6% capacity retention after 2000 charging-discharging cycles. Benefiting from these merits, the as-fabricated PCM//PCM cell shows an excellent electrochemical property. These results suggest a promising route towards the fabrication of highly flexible electrodes for high-performance supercapacitors.

  19. Wearable supercapacitors on polyethylene terephthalate fabrics with good wash fastness and high flexibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guixia; Babaahmadi, Vahid; He, Nanfei; Liu, Yixin; Pan, Qin; Montazer, Majid; Gao, Wei

    2017-11-01

    All solid-state micro-supercapacitors (MSC) have emerged as attractive energy-storage units for portable and wearable electronics. Here, we describe a textile-based solid-state MSC via laser scribing of graphene oxide (GO) coatings on a flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fabric. The laser-scribed graphene oxide layers (LGO) possess three-dimensionally porous structure suitable for electrochemical-double-layer formation. To improve the wash fastness and the flexibility of the as-prepared MSCs, glutaraldehyde (GA) was employed to crosslink the GO layers and PVA-gel electrolyte onto the PET fabric. The resultant all solid-state MSCs exhibited excellent flexibility, high areal specific capacitance (756 μF·cm-2 at 20 mV·s-1), and good rate capability when subject to bending and laundering. Furthermore, the MSC device showed a high power density of about 1.4 W·cm-3 and an energy density of 5.3 × 10-5 Wh·cm-3, and retained 98.3% of its initial capacitance after 1000 cycles at a current density of 0.5 mA·cm-2. This work is the first demonstration of in-plane MSCs on PET fabric surfaces with enhanced durability and flexibility.

  20. Transparent and flexible supercapacitors with single walled carbon nanotube thin film electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuksel, Recep; Sarioba, Zeynep; Cirpan, Ali; Hiralal, Pritesh; Unalan, Husnu Emrah

    2014-09-10

    We describe a simple process for the fabrication of transparent and flexible, solid-state supercapacitors. Symmetric electrodes made up of binder-free single walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) thin films were deposited onto polydimethylsiloxane substrates by vacuum filtration followed by a stamping method, and solid-state supercapacitor devices were assembled using a gel electrolyte. An optical transmittance of 82% was found for 0.02 mg of SWCNTs, and a specific capacitance of 22.2 F/g was obtained. The power density can reach to 41.5 kW · kg(-1) and shows good capacity retention (94%) upon cycling over 500 times. Fabricated supercapacitors will be relevant for the realization of transparent and flexible devices with energy storage capabilities, displays and touch screens in particular.

  1. Paper Electrodes Coated with Partially-Exfoliated Graphite and Polypyrrole for High-Performance Flexible Supercapacitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leping Huang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Flexible paper electrodes for supercapacitors were prepared with partially-exfoliated graphite and polypyrrole as the active materials. Graphite was coated on paper with pencil drawing and then electrochemically exfoliated using the cyclic voltammetry (CV technique to obtain the exfoliated graphite (EG-coated paper (EG-paper. Polypyrrole (PPy doped with β-naphthalene sulfonate anions was deposited on EG-paper through in-situ polymerization, leading to the formation of PPy-EG-paper. The as-prepared PPy-EG-paper showed a high electrical conductivity of 10.0 S·cm−1 and could be directly used as supercapacitor electrodes. The PPy-EG-paper electrodes gave a remarkably larger specific capacitance of 2148 F∙g−1 at a current density of 0.8 mA∙cm−2, compared to PPy-graphite-paper (848 F∙g−1. The capacitance value of PPy-EG-paper could be preserved by 80.4% after 1000 charge/discharge cycles. In addition, the PPy-EG-paper electrodes demonstrated a good rate capability and a high energy density of 110.3 Wh∙kg−1 at a power density of 121.9 W∙kg−1. This work will pave the way for the discovery of efficient paper-based electrode materials.

  2. Graphene-based electrochemical supercapacitors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Graphenes prepared by three different methods have been investigated as electrode materials in electrochemical supercapacitors. The samples prepared by exfoliation of graphitic oxide and by the transformation of nanodiamond exhibit high specific capacitance in aq. H2SO4, the value reaching up to 117 F/g. By using an ...

  3. Graphene-based electrochemical supercapacitors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WINTEC

    been great interest in graphene, which constitutes an entirely new class of carbon. Electrical characteriza- tion of single-layer graphene has been reported. 12,13. We have investigated the use of graphene as elec- trode material in electrochemical supercapacitors. For this purpose, we have employed graphene prepared.

  4. Ag/Au/Polypyrrole Core-shell Nanowire Network for Transparent, Stretchable and Flexible Supercapacitor in Wearable Energy Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Hyunjin; Lee, Habeom; Kwon, Jinhyeong; Suh, Young Duk; Kim, Dong Kwan; Ha, Inho; Yeo, Junyeob; Hong, Sukjoon; Ko, Seung Hwan

    2017-02-01

    Transparent and stretchable energy storage devices have attracted significant interest due to their potential to be applied to biocompatible and wearable electronics. Supercapacitors that use the reversible faradaic redox reaction of conducting polymer have a higher specific capacitance as compared with electrical double-layer capacitors. Typically, the conducting polymer electrode is fabricated through direct electropolymerization on the current collector. However, no research have been conducted on metal nanowires as current collectors for the direct electropolymerization, even though the metal nanowire network structure has proven to be superior as a transparent, flexible, and stretchable electrode platform because the conducting polymer’s redox potential for polymerization is higher than that of widely studied metal nanowires such as silver and copper. In this study, we demonstrated a highly transparent and stretchable supercapacitor by developing Ag/Au/Polypyrrole core-shell nanowire networks as electrode by coating the surface of Ag NWs with a thin layer of gold, which provide higher redox potential than the electropolymerizable monomer. The Ag/Au/Polypyrrole core-shell nanowire networks demonstrated superior mechanical stability under various mechanical bending and stretching. In addition, proposed supercapacitors showed fine optical transmittance together with fivefold improved areal capacitance compared to pristine Ag/Au core-shell nanowire mesh-based supercapacitors.

  5. Transparent and flexible electrodes and supercapacitors using polyaniline/single-walled carbon nanotube composite thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Jun; Cheng, Guanghui; Chen, Liwei

    2011-08-01

    Large-scale transparent and flexible electronic devices have been pursued for potential applications such as those in touch sensors and display technologies. These applications require that the power source of these devices must also comply with transparent and flexible features. Here we present transparent and flexible supercapacitors assembled from polyaniline (PANI)/single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) composite thin film electrodes. The ultrathin, optically homogeneous and transparent, electrically conducting films of the PANI/SWNT composite show a large specific capacitance due to combined double-layer capacitance and pseudo-capacitance mechanisms. A supercapacitor assembled using electrodes with a SWNT density of 10.0 µg cm-2 and 59 wt% PANI gives a specific capacitance of 55.0 F g-1 at a current density of 2.6 A g-1, showing its possibility for transparent and flexible energy storage.

  6. A facile one-step approach for the fabrication of polypyrrole nanowire/carbon fiber hybrid electrodes for flexible high performance solid-state supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Sanqing; Han, Yichuan; Lyu, Siwei; Lin, Wenzhen; Chen, Peishan; Fang, Shaoli

    2017-10-01

    Wearable electronics are in high demand, requiring that all the components are flexible. Here we report a facile approach for the fabrication of flexible polypyrrole nanowire (NPPy)/carbon fiber (CF) hybrid electrodes with high electrochemical activity using a low-cost, one-step electrodeposition method. The structure of the NPPy/CF electrodes can be easily controlled by the applied electrical potential and electrodeposition time. Our NPPy/CF-based electrodes showed high flexibility, conductivity, and stability, making them ideal for flexible all-solid-state fiber supercapacitors. The resulting NPPy/CF-based supercapacitors provided a high specific capacitance of 148.4 F g-1 at 0.128 A g-1, which is much higher than for supercapacitors based on polypyrrole film/CF (38.3 F g-1) and pure CF (0.6 F g-1) under the same conditions. The NPPy/CF-based supercapacitors also showed high bending and cycling stability, retaining 84% of the initial capacitance after 500 bending cycles, and 91% of the initial capacitance after 5000 charge/discharge cycles.

  7. A facile one-step approach for the fabrication of polypyrrole nanowire/carbon fiber hybrid electrodes for flexible high performance solid-state supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Sanqing; Han, Yichuan; Lyu, Siwei; Lin, Wenzhen; Chen, Peishan; Fang, Shaoli

    2017-10-27

    Wearable electronics are in high demand, requiring that all the components are flexible. Here we report a facile approach for the fabrication of flexible polypyrrole nanowire (NPPy)/carbon fiber (CF) hybrid electrodes with high electrochemical activity using a low-cost, one-step electrodeposition method. The structure of the NPPy/CF electrodes can be easily controlled by the applied electrical potential and electrodeposition time. Our NPPy/CF-based electrodes showed high flexibility, conductivity, and stability, making them ideal for flexible all-solid-state fiber supercapacitors. The resulting NPPy/CF-based supercapacitors provided a high specific capacitance of 148.4 F g -1 at 0.128 A g -1 , which is much higher than for supercapacitors based on polypyrrole film/CF (38.3 F g -1 ) and pure CF (0.6 F g -1 ) under the same conditions. The NPPy/CF-based supercapacitors also showed high bending and cycling stability, retaining 84% of the initial capacitance after 500 bending cycles, and 91% of the initial capacitance after 5000 charge/discharge cycles.

  8. PEDOT-based composites as electrode materials for supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Zhiheng; Richardson, Georgia F; Meng, Qingshi; Ma, Jun; Zhu, Shenmin; Kuan, Hsu-Chiang

    2016-01-01

    Poly (3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (denoted PEDOT) already has a brief history of being used as an active material in supercapacitors. It has many advantages such as low-cost, flexibility, and good electrical conductivity and pseudocapacitance. However, the major drawback is low stability, which means an obvious capacitance drop after a certain number of charge–discharge cycles. Another disadvantage is its limited capacitance and this becomes an issue for industrial applications. To solve these problems, there are several approaches including the addition of conducting nanofillers to increase conductivity, and mixing or depositing metal oxide to enhance capacitance. Furthermore, expanding the surface area of PEDOT is one of the main methods to improve its performance in energy storage applications through special processes; for example using a three-dimensional substrate or preparing PEDOT aerogel through freeze drying. This paper reviews recent techniques and outcomes of PEDOT based composites for supercapacitors, as well as detailed calculations about capacitances. Finally, this paper outlines the new direction and recent challenges of PEDOT based composites for supercapacitor applications. (topical review)

  9. Development of Graphene Based Supercapacitors

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida, António Carranca de

    2016-01-01

    The modern world is gasping for electrical energy, from our homes to our daily used devices such as phones, computers and even to our cars. Everything needs to be connected to a battery and the solution existent is becoming obsolete. The market is with a huge gap and supercapacitors are the answer for that space. Graphene assumes a role play in this field for its amazing surface area and its conductivity, making it a perfect candidate for the electrodes of this devices. In this work, two synt...

  10. Scalable Synthesis of Freestanding Sandwich-structured Graphene/Polyaniline/Graphene Nanocomposite Paper for Flexible All-Solid-State Supercapacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Fei; Yang, Shengxiong; Zhang, Zheye; Liu, Hongfang; Xiao, Junwu; Wan, Lian; Luo, Jun; Wang, Shuai; Liu, Yunqi

    2015-03-01

    We reported a scalable and modular method to prepare a new type of sandwich-structured graphene-based nanohybrid paper and explore its practical application as high-performance electrode in flexible supercapacitor. The freestanding and flexible graphene paper was firstly fabricated by highly reproducible printing technique and bubbling delamination method, by which the area and thickness of the graphene paper can be freely adjusted in a wide range. The as-prepared graphene paper possesses a collection of unique properties of highly electrical conductivity (340 S cm-1), light weight (1 mg cm-2) and excellent mechanical properties. In order to improve its supercapacitive properties, we have prepared a unique sandwich-structured graphene/polyaniline/graphene paper by in situ electropolymerization of porous polyaniline nanomaterials on graphene paper, followed by wrapping an ultrathin graphene layer on its surface. This unique design strategy not only circumvents the low energy storage capacity resulting from the double-layer capacitor of graphene paper, but also enhances the rate performance and cycling stability of porous polyaniline. The as-obtained all-solid-state symmetric supercapacitor exhibits high energy density, high power density, excellent cycling stability and exceptional mechanical flexibility, demonstrative of its extensive potential applications for flexible energy-related devices and wearable electronics.

  11. Freestanding three-dimensional graphene/MnO2 composite networks as ultralight and flexible supercapacitor electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yongmin; Chen, Wanjun; Li, Xiaodong; Zhang, Zhenxing; Fu, Jiecai; Zhao, Changhui; Xie, Erqing

    2013-01-22

    A lightweight, flexible, and highly efficient energy management strategy is needed for flexible energy-storage devices to meet a rapidly growing demand. Graphene-based flexible supercapacitors are one of the most promising candidates because of their intriguing features. In this report, we describe the use of freestanding, lightweight (0.75 mg/cm(2)), ultrathin (rate of 2 mV/s. With a view to practical applications, we have further optimized the MnO(2) content with respect to the entire electrode and achieved a maximum specific capacitance of 130 F/g. In addition, we have also explored the excellent electrochemical performance of a symmetrical supercapacitor (of weight less than 10 mg and thickness ~0.8 mm) consisting of a sandwich structure of two pieces of 3D graphene/MnO(2) composite network separated by a membrane and encapsulated in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) membranes. This research might provide a method for flexible, lightweight, high-performance, low-cost, and environmentally friendly materials used in energy conversion and storage systems for the effective use of renewable energy.

  12. Scalable synthesis of freestanding sandwich-structured graphene/polyaniline/graphene nanocomposite paper for flexible all-solid-state supercapacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Fei; Yang, Shengxiong; Zhang, Zheye; Liu, Hongfang; Xiao, Junwu; Wan, Lian; Luo, Jun; Wang, Shuai; Liu, Yunqi

    2015-03-23

    We reported a scalable and modular method to prepare a new type of sandwich-structured graphene-based nanohybrid paper and explore its practical application as high-performance electrode in flexible supercapacitor. The freestanding and flexible graphene paper was firstly fabricated by highly reproducible printing technique and bubbling delamination method, by which the area and thickness of the graphene paper can be freely adjusted in a wide range. The as-prepared graphene paper possesses a collection of unique properties of highly electrical conductivity (340 S cm(-1)), light weight (1 mg cm(-2)) and excellent mechanical properties. In order to improve its supercapacitive properties, we have prepared a unique sandwich-structured graphene/polyaniline/graphene paper by in situ electropolymerization of porous polyaniline nanomaterials on graphene paper, followed by wrapping an ultrathin graphene layer on its surface. This unique design strategy not only circumvents the low energy storage capacity resulting from the double-layer capacitor of graphene paper, but also enhances the rate performance and cycling stability of porous polyaniline. The as-obtained all-solid-state symmetric supercapacitor exhibits high energy density, high power density, excellent cycling stability and exceptional mechanical flexibility, demonstrative of its extensive potential applications for flexible energy-related devices and wearable electronics.

  13. Conducting polymer micro-supercapacitors for flexible energy storage and Ac line-filtering

    KAUST Repository

    Kurra, Narendra

    2015-04-01

    We propose a novel surfactant-mediated process to fabricate flexible microsupercapacitors (MSCs) combining conventional photolithography and electrochemical deposition. The anionic surfactant mediates the process of electropolymerisation at a lower anodic potential while causing template effects in producing porous conducting poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) electrodes. Using this strategy, PEDOT MSCs with remarkable performance in terms of tunable frequency response and energy density are achieved. Specifically, ultrahigh scan rate capability up to 500V/s is achieved with a crossover frequency of 400Hz at a phase angle of -45°. This is the first polymer-based redox microsupercapacitor with excellent frequency characteristics other than carbonaceous-based electrochemical double layer capacitors reported so far in the literature. Thus, the micro-supercapacitors exhibit maximum areal cell capacitance of 9mF/cm2 with a volumetric stack capacitance of 50F/cm3 in 1M H2SO4 aqueous electrolyte. The flexibility and stability of these PEDOT MSCs is tested in aqueous gel electrolyte which showed a capacitance retention up to 80% over 10,000 cycles with a Coulombic efficiency of 100%. The maximum energy density of solid state ion gel based PEDOT MSCs was found to be 7.7mWh/cm3, which is comparable to the lithium based thin film batteries and superior to the current state-of-the-art carbon and metal oxide based MSCs. Further, the tandem configuration of flexible solid state ion gel based PEDOT MSCs is employed to demonstrate it as a power source for glowing a red light emitting diode. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Thread-like supercapacitors based on one-step spun nanocomposite yarns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Qinghai; Wang, Kai; Guo, Wei; Fang, Jin; Wei, Zhixiang; She, Xilin

    2014-08-13

    Thread-like electronic devices have attracted great interest because of their potential applications in wearable electronics. To produce high-performance, thread-like supercapacitors, a mixture of stable dispersions of single-walled carbon nanotubes and conducting polyaniline nanowires are prepared. Then, the mixture is spun into flexible yarns with a polyvinyl alcohol outer sheath by a one-step spinning process. The composite yarns show excellent mechanical properties and high electrical conductivities after sufficient washing to remove surfactants. After applying a further coating layer of gel electrolyte, two flexible yarns are twisted together to form a thread-like supercapacitor. The supercapacitor based on these two yarns (SWCNTs and PAniNWs) possesses a much higher specific capacitance than that based only on pure SWCNTs yarns, making it an ideal energy-storage device for wearable electronics. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Hierarchical porous graphene/polyaniline composite film with superior rate performance for flexible supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Yuena; Wang, Kai; Zhang, Yajie; Wei, Zhixiang

    2013-12-23

    A highly flexible graphene free-standing film with hierarchical structure is prepared by a facile template method. With a porous structure, the film can be easily bent and cut, and forms a composite with another material as a scaffold. The 3D graphene film exhibits excellent rate capability and its capacitance is further improved by forming a composite with polyaniline nanowire arrays. The flexible hierarchical composite proves to be an excellent electrode material for flexible supercapacitors. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Aloe vera Derived Activated High-Surface-Area Carbon for Flexible and High-Energy Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnan, M; Subramani, K; Sudhan, N; Ilayaraja, N; Sathish, M

    2016-12-28

    Materials which possess high specific capacitance in device configuration with low cost are essential for viable application in supercapacitors. Herein, a flexible high-energy supercapacitor device was fabricated using porous activated high-surface-area carbon derived from aloe leaf (Aloe vera) as a precursor. The A. vera derived activated carbon showed mesoporous nature with high specific surface area of ∼1890 m 2 /g. A high specific capacitance of 410 and 306 F/g was achieved in three-electrode and symmetric two-electrode system configurations in aqueous electrolyte, respectively. The fabricated all-solid-state device showed a high specific capacitance of 244 F/g with an energy density of 8.6 Wh/kg. In an ionic liquid electrolyte, the fabricated device showed a high specific capacitance of 126 F/g and a wide potential window up to 3 V, which results in a high energy density of 40 Wh/kg. Furthermore, it was observed that the activation temperature has significant role in the electrochemical performance, as the activated sample at 700 °C showed best activity than the samples activated at 600 and 800 °C. The electron microscopic images (FE-SEM and HR-TEM) confirmed the formation of pores by the chemical activation. A fabricated supercapacitor device in ionic liquid with 3 V could power up a red LED for 30 min upon charging for 20s. Also, it is shown that the operation voltage and capacitance of flexible all-solid-state symmetric supercapacitors fabricated using aloe-derived activated carbon could be easily tuned by series and parallel combinations. The performance of fabricated supercapacitor devices using A. vera derived activated carbon in all-solid-state and ionic liquid indicates their viable applications in flexible devices and energy storage.

  17. Microporous Ni₁₁(HPO₃)₈(OH)₆ nanocrystals for high-performance flexible asymmetric all solid-state supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yanping; Zhao, Junhong; Run, Zhen; Zhang, Guangqin; Pang, Huan

    2014-12-07

    Microporous nickel phosphite [Ni11(HPO3)8(OH)6] nanocrystals were prepared using a hydrothermal method, and were successfully applied as a positive electrode in a flexible all solid-state asymmetric supercapacitor. Because of the specific micro/nanostructure, the flexible solid-state asymmetric supercapacitor can achieve a maximum energy density of 0.45 mW h cm(-3), which is higher than most reported supercapacitors. More importantly, the device performance remains efficient for 10,000 cycles.

  18. Coffee-Driven Green Activation of Cellulose and Its Use for All-Paper Flexible Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Donggue; Cho, Yoon-Gyo; Song, Hyun-Kon; Chun, Sang-Jin; Park, Sang-Bum; Choi, Don-Ha; Lee, Sun-Young; Yoo, JongTae; Lee, Sang-Young

    2017-07-12

    Cellulose, which is one of the most-abundant and -renewable natural resources, has been extensively explored as an alternative substance for electrode materials such as activated carbons. Here, we demonstrate a new class of coffee-mediated green activation of cellulose as a new environmentally benign chemical-activation strategy and its potential use for all-paper flexible supercapacitors. A piece of paper towel is soaked in espresso coffee (acting as a natural activating agent) and then pyrolyzed to yield paper-derived activated carbons (denoted as "EK-ACs"). Potassium ions (K + ), a core ingredient of espresso, play a viable role in facilitating pyrolysis kinetics and also in achieving a well-developed microporous structure in the EK-ACs. As a result, the EK-ACs show significant improvement in specific capacitance (131 F g -1 at a scan rate of 1.0 mV s -1 ) over control ACs (64 F g -1 ) obtained from the carbonization of a pristine paper towel. All-paper flexible supercapacitors are fabricated by assembling EK-ACs/carbon nanotube mixture-embedded paper towels (as electrodes), poly(vinyl alcohol)/KOH mixture-impregnated paper towels (as electrolytes), and polydimethylsiloxane-infiltrated paper towels (as packaging substances). The introduction of the EK-ACs (as an electrode material) and the paper towel (as a deformable and compliant substrate) enables the resulting all-paper supercapacitor to provide reliable and sustainable cell performance as well as exceptional mechanical flexibility. Notably, no appreciable loss in the cell capacitance is observed after repeated bending (over 5000 cycles) or multiple folding. The coffee-mediated green activation of cellulose and the resultant all-paper flexible supercapacitors open new material and system opportunities for eco-friendly high-performance flexible power sources.

  19. Tricobalt tetroxide nanoplate arrays on flexible conductive fabric substrate: Facile synthesis and application for electrochemical supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraju, Goli; Ko, Yeong Hwan; Yu, Jae Su

    2015-06-01

    Tricobalt tetroxide (Co3O4) nanoplate arrays (NPAs) were synthesized on flexible conductive fabric substrate (FCFs) by a facile two-electrode system based electrochemical deposition method, followed by a simple heat treatment process. Initially, cobalt hydroxide (Co(OH)2) NPAs were electrochemically deposited on FCFs by applying an external voltage of -1.5 V for 30 min. Then, the Co3O4 NPAs on FCFs was obtained by thermal treatment of as-deposited Co(OH)2 NPAs on FCFs at 200 °C for 2 h. From the analysis of morphological and crystal properties, the Co3O4 NPAs were well integrated and uniformly covered over the entire surface of substrate with good crystallinity in the cubic phase. Additionally, the fabricated sample was directly used as a binder-free electrode to examine the feasibility for electrochemical supercapacitors using cyclic voltammetry and galvanic charge-discharge measurements in 1 M KOH electrolyte solution. The Co3O4 NPAs coated FCFs electrode exhibited a maximum specific capacitance of 145.6 F/g at a current density of 1 A/g and an excellent rate capability after 1000 cycles at a current density of 3 A/g. This facile fabrication method for integrating the Co3O4 nanostructures on FCFs could be a promising approach for advanced flexible electronic and energy-storage device applications.

  20. Reduced graphene oxide-wrapped MoO3 composites prepared by using metal-organic frameworks as precursor for all-solid-state flexible supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xiehong; Zheng, Bing; Shi, Wenhui; Yang, Jian; Fan, Zhanxi; Luo, Zhimin; Rui, Xianhong; Chen, Bo; Yan, Qingyu; Zhang, Hua

    2015-08-26

    Reduced graphene oxide-wrapped MoO3M (rGO/MoO3 ) is prepared by a novel and simple method that is developed by using a metal-organic framework as the precursor. After a two-step annealing process, the obtained rGO/MoO3 composite is used for a high-performance supercapacitor electrode. Moreover, an all-solid-state flexible supercapacitor is fabricated based on the rGO/MoO3 composite, which shows stable performance under different bending states. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. All-textile flexible supercapacitors using electrospun poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) nanofibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laforgue, Alexis [Functional Polymer Systems Group, Industrial Materials Institute, National Research Council Canada, 75, de Mortagne Blvd, Boucherville, Quebec J4B 6Y4 (Canada)

    2011-01-01

    Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) nanofibers were obtained by the combination of electrospinning and vapor-phase polymerization. The fibers had diameters around 350 nm, and were soldered at most intersections, providing a strong dimensional stability to the mats. The nanofiber mats demonstrated very high conductivity (60 {+-} 10 S cm{sup -1}, the highest value reported so far for polymer nanofibers) as well as improved electrochemical properties, due to the ultraporous nature of the electrospun mats. The mats were incorporated into all-textile flexible supercapacitors, using carbon cloths as the current collectors and electrospun polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibrous membranes as the separator. The textile layers were stacked and embedded in a solid electrolyte containing an ionic liquid and PVDF-co-HFP as the host polymer. The resulting supercapacitors were totally flexible and demonstrated interesting and stable performances in ambient conditions. (author)

  2. Diamond-Based Supercapacitors: Realization and Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fang; Nebel, Christoph E

    2016-10-26

    In this Spotlight on Applications, we describe our recent progress on the fabrication of surface-enlarged boron-doped polycrystalline diamond electrodes, and evaluate their performance in supercapacitor applications. We begin with a discussion of the fabrication methods of porous diamond materials. The diamond surface enlargement starts with a top-down plasma etching method. Although the extra surface area provided by surface roughening or nanostructuring provides good outcome for sensing applications, a capacitance value <1 mF cm -2 or a surface-enlargement factor <100 fail to meet the requirement of a practical supercapacitor. Driven by the need for large surface areas, we recently focused on the tempated-growth method. We worked on both supported and free-standing porous diamond materials to enhance the areal capacitance to the "mF cm -2 " range. With our newly developed free-standing diamond paper, areal capacitance can be multiplied by stacking multilayers of the electrode material. Finally, considering the fact that there is no real diamond-based supercapacitor device up to now, we fabricated the first prototype pouch-cell device based on the free-standing diamond paper to evaluate its performance. The results reveal that the diamond paper is suitable for operation in high potential windows (up to 2.5 V) in aqueous electrolyte with a capacitance of 0.688 mF cm -2 per layer of paper (or 0.645 F g -1 ). Impedance spectroscopy revealed that the operation frequency of the device exceeds 30 Hz. Because of the large potential window and the ability to work at high frequency, the specific power of the device reached 1 × 10 5 W kg -1 . In the end, we made estimations on the future target performance of diamond supercapacitors based on the existing information.

  3. Wearable Solid-State Supercapacitors Operating at High Working Voltage with a Flexible Nanocomposite Electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoyan; Wang, Jun; Zhao, Yaping; Ge, Fengyan; Komarneni, Sridhar; Cai, Zaisheng

    2016-10-05

    The proposed approach for fabricating ultralight self-sustained electrodes facilitates the structural integration of highly flexible carbon nanofibers, amino-modified multiwalled carbon nanotubes (AM-MWNT), and MnO 2 nanoflakes for potential use in wearable supercapacitors. Because of the higher orientation of AM-MWNT and the sublimation of terephthalic acid (PTA) in the carbonization process, freestanding electrodes could be realized with high porosity and flexibility and could possess remarkable electrochemical properties without using polymer substrates. Wearable symmetric solid-state supercapacitors were further assembled using a LiCl/PVA gel electrolyte, which exhibit a maximum energy density of 44.57 Wh/kg (at a power density of 337.1 W/kg) and a power density of 13330 W/kg (at an energy density of 19.64 Wh/kg) with a working voltage as high as 1.8 V. Due to the combination of several favorable traits such as flexibility, high energy density, and excellent electrochemical cyclability, the presently developed wearable supercapacitors with wide potential windows are expected to be useful for new kinds of portable electric devices.

  4. Synthesis of Flexible Graphene/Polymer Composites for Supercapacitor Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Himangshu; Bhubna, Shuvam; Kumar, Praduman; Mahapatra, Rajat; Chatterjee, Somenath

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, the graphene was synthesized using biocompatible cellulosic component from onions. Onion epidermal cells were chosen as raw material. During heating at high temperature, the bonding among atoms in material was rearranged and forms two-dimensional hexagonal carbon layer (graphene). The characterization of synthesized graphene was done by x-ray diffractometer, Raman spectrometer and field emission scanning electron microscopy, respectively. An attempt has been taken to form the capacitors with two different current collector electrodes, anticipating the performance of the supercapacitors. The observed capacitance values as-obtained for Al and Au current collector were 1.3 μF and 6.08 μF, respectively. However, when thermally exfoliated graphene was used as an electrode on Al and Au current collector, the capacitance value was drastically increased and found to be 1.6 and 41.25 μF, respectively.

  5. All carbon coaxial supercapacitors based on hollow carbon nanotube sleeve structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zang, Xiaobei; Xu, Ruiqiao; Zhang, Yangyang; Zhang, Li; Wei, Jinquan; Wang, Kunlin; Zhu, Hongwei; Li, Xinming

    2015-01-01

    All carbon coaxial supercapacitors based on hollow carbon nanotube (CNT) sleeve structure are assembled and tested. The key advantage of the structure is that the inner core electrode is variable from CNT sleeve sponges, to CNT fibers, reduced graphene oxide fibers, and graphene woven fabrics. By changing core electrodes from sleeve sponges to CNT fibers, the electrochemical performance has been significantly enhanced. The capacitance based on sleeve sponge + CNT fiber double the capacitances of double-sleeve sponge supercapacitors thanks to reduction of the series and internal resistances. Besides, the coaxial sleeve structure possesses many other features, including high rate capacitance, long cycle life, and good flexibility. (paper)

  6. Graphene-based in-plane micro-supercapacitors with high power and energy densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhong–Shuai; Parvez, Khaled; Feng, Xinliang; Müllen, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Micro-supercapacitors are important on-chip micro-power sources for miniaturized electronic devices. Although the performance of micro-supercapacitors has been significantly advanced by fabricating nanostructured materials, developing thin-film manufacture technologies and device architectures, their power or energy densities remain far from those of electrolytic capacitors or lithium thin-film batteries. Here we demonstrate graphene-based in-plane interdigital micro-supercapacitors on arbitrary substrates. The resulting micro-supercapacitors deliver an area capacitance of 80.7 μF cm−2 and a stack capacitance of 17.9 F cm−3. Further, they show a power density of 495 W cm−3 that is higher than electrolytic capacitors, and an energy density of 2.5 mWh cm−3 that is comparable to lithium thin-film batteries, in association with superior cycling stability. Such microdevices allow for operations at ultrahigh rate up to 1,000 V s−1, three orders of magnitude higher than that of conventional supercapacitors. Micro-supercapacitors with an in-plane geometry have great promise for numerous miniaturized or flexible electronic applications. PMID:24042088

  7. Graphene-based in-plane micro-supercapacitors with high power and energy densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhong-Shuai; Parvez, Khaled; Feng, Xinliang; Müllen, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Micro-supercapacitors are important on-chip micro-power sources for miniaturized electronic devices. Although the performance of micro-supercapacitors has been significantly advanced by fabricating nanostructured materials, developing thin-film manufacture technologies and device architectures, their power or energy densities remain far from those of electrolytic capacitors or lithium thin-film batteries. Here we demonstrate graphene-based in-plane interdigital micro-supercapacitors on arbitrary substrates. The resulting micro-supercapacitors deliver an area capacitance of 80.7 μF cm⁻² and a stack capacitance of 17.9 F cm⁻³. Further, they show a power density of 495 W cm⁻³ that is higher than electrolytic capacitors, and an energy density of 2.5 mWh cm⁻³ that is comparable to lithium thin-film batteries, in association with superior cycling stability. Such microdevices allow for operations at ultrahigh rate up to 1,000 V s⁻¹, three orders of magnitude higher than that of conventional supercapacitors. Micro-supercapacitors with an in-plane geometry have great promise for numerous miniaturized or flexible electronic applications.

  8. Shape-Tailorable Graphene-Based Ultra-High-Rate Supercapacitor for Wearable Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Binghe; Yang, Cheng; Zhang, Zhexu; Zou, Peichao; Lin, Ziyin; Shi, Gaoquan; Yang, Quanhong; Kang, Feiyu; Wong, Ching-Ping

    2015-06-23

    With the bloom of wearable electronics, it is becoming necessary to develop energy storage units, e.g., supercapacitors that can be arbitrarily tailored at the device level. Although gel electrolytes have been applied in supercapacitors for decades, no report has studied the shape-tailorable capability of a supercapacitor, for instance, where the device still works after being cut. Here we report a tailorable gel-based supercapacitor with symmetric electrodes prepared by combining electrochemically reduced graphene oxide deposited on a nickel nanocone array current collector with a unique packaging method. This supercapacitor with good flexibility and consistency showed excellent rate performance, cycling stability, and mechanical properties. As a demonstration, these tailorable supercapacitors connected in series can be used to drive small gadgets, e.g., a light-emitting diode (LED) and a minimotor propeller. As simple as it is (electrochemical deposition, stencil printing, etc.), this technique can be used in wearable electronics and miniaturized device applications that require arbitrarily shaped energy storage units.

  9. Toward flexible polymer and paper-based energy storage devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyholm, Leif [Department of Materials Chemistry, The Aangstroem Laboratory, Uppsala University, Box 538, SE-751 21 Uppsala (Sweden); Nystroem, Gustav; Mihranyan, Albert; Stroemme, Maria [Nanotechnology and Functional Materials, Department of Engineering Sciences, The Aangstroem Laboratory, Uppsala University, Box 534, SE-751 21 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2011-09-01

    All-polymer and paper-based energy storage devices have significant inherent advantages in comparison with many currently employed batteries and supercapacitors regarding environmental friendliness, flexibility, cost and versatility. The research within this field is currently undergoing an exciting development as new polymers, composites and paper-based devices are being developed. In this report, we review recent progress concerning the development of flexible energy storage devices based on electronically conducting polymers and cellulose containing composites with particular emphasis on paper-based batteries and supercapacitors. We discuss recent progress in the development of the most commonly used electronically conducting polymers used in flexible device prototypes, the advantages and disadvantages of this type of energy storage devices, as well as the two main approaches used in the manufacturing of paper-based charge storage devices. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  10. Chemically Crosslinked Hydrogel Film Leads to Integrated Flexible Supercapacitors with Superior Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Zhang, Xiong; Li, Chen; Sun, Xianzhong; Meng, Qinghai; Ma, Yanwei; Wei, Zhixiang

    2015-12-02

    A high-strength poly(vinyl alcohol) chemical hydrogel (PCH) film is prepared by coupling covalent crosslinking with a film-casting process. Conducting polyaniline (PANI) is then embedded in the PCH film by in situ growth to form a composite film with a PANI-hydrogel-PANI configuration, which leads to a new conceptual flexible supercapacitor with all-in-one configuration that exhibits superior electrochemical performance and mechanical flexibility. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Polyaniline-Modified Oriented Graphene Hydrogel Film as the Free-Standing Electrode for Flexible Solid-State Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Pengcheng; Liu, Huckleberry C; Yi, Chao; Wang, Kai; Gong, Xiong

    2015-11-04

    In this study, we report polyaniline (PANI)-modified oriented graphene hydrogel (OGH) films as the free-standing electrode for flexible solid-state supercapacitors (SCs). The OGH films are prepared by a facile filtration method using chemically converted graphene sheets and then introduced to PANI on the surface of OGH films by in situ chemical polymerization. The PANI-modified OGH films possess high flexibility, high electrical conductivity, and mechanical robustness. The flexible solid-state SCs based on the PANI-modified OGH films exhibit a specific capacitance of 530 F/g, keeping 80% of its original value up to 10 000 charge-discharge cycles at the current density of 10 A/g. Remarkably, the flexible solid-state SCs maintain ∼100% capacitance retention bent at 180° for 250 cycles. Moreover, the flexible solid-state SCs are further demonstrated to be able to light up a red-light-emitting diode. These results indicate that the flexible solid-state SCs based on PANI-modified OGH films as the free-standing electrode have potential applications as energy-storage devices.

  12. Fully Packaged Carbon Nanotube Supercapacitors by Direct Ink Writing on Flexible Substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bolin; Jiang, Yizhou; Tang, Xiaohui; Pan, Yayue; Hu, Shan

    2017-08-30

    The ability to print fully packaged integrated energy storage components (e.g., supercapacitors) is of critical importance for practical applications of printed electronics. Due to the limited variety of printable materials, most studies on printed supercapacitors focus on printing the electrode materials but rarely the full-packaged cell. This work presents for the first time the printing of a fully packaged single-wall carbon nanotube-based supercapacitor with direct ink writing (DIW) technology. Enabled by the developed ink formula, DIW setup, and cell architecture, the whole printing process is mask free, transfer free, and alignment free with precise and repeatable control on the spatial distribution of all constituent materials. Studies on cell design show that a wider electrode pattern and narrower gap distance between electrodes lead to higher specific capacitance. The as-printed fully packaged supercapacitors have energy and power performances that are among the best in recently reported planar carbon-based supercapacitors that are only partially printed or nonprinted.

  13. Tailoring electrode/electrolyte interfacial properties in flexible supercapacitors by applying pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masarapu, Charan; Wang, Lian-Ping; Li, Xin; Wei, Bingqing [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States)

    2012-05-15

    Electrode/electrolyte interfacial properties of flexible supercapacitors assembled with nanostructured activated carbon fabric (ACF) electrodes can be tailored by applying a pressure and tuning electrolyte ion size relative to electrode pore size. Experimental results reveal that increasing pressure between the supercapacitor electrodes can significantly improve capacitive performance. The ratio of solvated ion size in the electrolyte to the pore size on the electrodes determines the minimum pressure necessary to achieve an optimum performance. For a specific electrode material, this minimum pressure for optimum performance is primarily governed by the size of the larger solvated ions (either the anions or cations), and is lower ({proportional_to}689 KPa) when the ratio of the solvated ion size to the pore size is higher than 0.6, and is higher (at least 1379 KPa) when the ratio is lower than 0.6. An analytical model capable of predicting the experimental performance data has been developed. These results together provide a fundamental understanding of pressure dependence of electrode/electrolyte interfacial properties and pave the way for practical applications of flexible supercapacitors. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  14. Enhancement of CNT/PET film adhesion by nano-scale modification for flexible all-solid-state supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yu Jin; Chung, Haegeun; Kim, Min-Seop; Kim, Woong

    2015-11-01

    We demonstrate the fabrication of high-integrity flexible supercapacitors using carbon nanotubes (CNTs), polyethylene terephthalate (PET) films, and ion gels. Although both CNTs and PET films are attractive materials for flexible electronics, they have poor adhesion properties. In this work, we significantly improve interfacial adhesion by introducing nanostructures at the interface of the CNT and PET layers. Simple reactive ion etching (RIE) of the PET substrates generates nano-scale roughness on the PET surface. RIE also induces hydrophilicity on the PET surface, which further enhances adhesive strength. The improved adhesion enables high integrity and excellent flexibility of the fabricated supercapacitors, demonstrated over hundreds of bending cycles. Furthermore, the supercapacitors show good cyclability with specific capacitance retention of 87.5% after 10,000 galvanostatic charge-discharge (GCD) cycles. Our demonstration may be important for understanding interfacial adhesion properties in nanoscale and for producing flexible, high-integrity, high-performance energy storage systems.

  15. The Preparation of Carbon Nanotube/MnO2 Composite Fiber and Its Application to Flexible Micro-Supercapacitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, flexible electronic devices pursued for potential applications. The design and the fabrication of a novel flexible nanoarchitecture by coating electrical conductive MWCNT fiber with ultrathin films of MnO2 to achieve high specific capacitance, for micro-supercapacitors electrode applications, are demonstrated here. The MWCNT/MnO2 composite fiber electrode was prepared by the electrochemical deposition which was carried out through using two different methods: cyclic voltammetry and potentiostatic methods. The cyclic voltammetry method can get “crumpled paper ball” morphology MnO2 which has bigger specific capacitances than that achieved by potentiostatic method. The flexible micro-supercapacitor was fabricated by twisting two aligned MWCNT fibers and showed an area specific capacitance of 2.43 mF/cm2. The flexible micro-supercapacitors also enable promising applications in various fields.

  16. Self-Standing Polypyrrole/Black Phosphorus Laminated Film: Promising Electrode for Flexible Supercapacitor with Enhanced Capacitance and Cycling Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Shaojuan; Zhao, Jinlai; Zou, Jifei; He, Zhiliang; Xu, Changwen; Liu, Fuwei; Huang, Yang; Dong, Lei; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Han

    2018-01-31

    With the rapid development of portable electronics, solid-state flexible supercapacitors (SCs) are considered as one of the promising energy devices in powering electronics because of their intrinsic advantages. Polypyrrole (PPy) is an ideal electrode material in constructing flexible SCs owing to its high electrochemical activity and inherent flexibility, although its relatively low capacitance and poor cycling stability are still worthy of improvement. Herein, through the innovative introduction of black phosphorus (BP) nanosheets, we developed a laminated PPy/BP self-standing film with enhanced capacitance and cycling stability via a facile one-step electrochemical deposition method. The film exhibits a high capacitance of 497.5 F g -1 (551.7 F cm -3 ) and outstanding cycling stability of 10 000 charging/discharging cycles, thanks to BP nanosheets inducing laminated assembly which hinder dense and disordered stacking of PPy during electrodeposition, consequently providing a precise pathway for ion diffusion and electron transport together with alleviation of the structural deterioration during charge/discharge. The flexible SC fabricated by laminated films delivers a high capacitance of 452.8 F g -1 (7.7 F cm -3 ) besides its remarkable mechanical flexibility and cycling stability. Our facile strategy paves the way to improve the electrochemical performance of PPy-based SC that could serve as promising flexible energy device for portable electronics.

  17. Flexible all-solid-state supercapacitors based on graphene/carbon black nanoparticle film electrodes and cross-linked poly(vinyl alcohol)-H2SO4 porous gel electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Haojie; Yang, Chongyang; Bao, Hua; Wang, Gengchao

    2014-11-01

    Flexible all-solid-state supercapacitors (SCs) are fabricated using graphene/carbon black nanoparticle (GCB) film electrodes and cross-linked poly(vinyl alcohol)-H2SO4 porous gel electrolytes (gPVAP-H2SO4). The GCB composite films, with carbon black (CB) nanoparticles uniformly distributed in the graphene nanosheets, greatly improve the active surface areas and ion transportation of pristine graphene film. The porous structure of as-prepared gPVAP-H2SO4 membrane improves the equilibrium swelling ratio in electrolyte and provides interconnected ion transport channels. The chemical crosslinking solves the fluidity problem of PVA-H2SO4 gel electrolyte at high temperature. As-fabricated GCB//gPVAP(20)-H2SO4//GCB flexible SC displays an increased specific capacitance (144.5 F g-1 at 0.5 A g-1) and a higher specific capacitance retention (67.9% from 0.2 to 4 A g-1). More importantly, the flexible SC possesses good electrochemical performance at high temperature (capacitance retention of 78.3% after 1000 cycles at 70 °C).

  18. Low-cost flexible supercapacitors with high-energy density based on nanostructured MnO2 and Fe2O3 thin films directly fabricated onto stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gund, Girish S.; Dubal, Deepak P.; Chodankar, Nilesh R.; Cho, Jun Y.; Gomez-Romero, Pedro; Park, Chan; Lokhande, Chandrakant D.

    2015-07-01

    The facile and economical electrochemical and successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) methods have been employed in order to prepare manganese oxide (MnO2) and iron oxide (Fe2O3) thin films, respectively with the fine optimized nanostructures on highly flexible stainless steel sheet. The symmetric and asymmetric flexible-solid-state supercapacitors (FSS-SCs) of nanostructured (nanosheets for MnO2 and nanoparticles for Fe2O3) electrodes with Na2SO4/Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) gel as a separator and electrolyte were assembled. MnO2 as positive and negative electrodes were used to fabricate symmetric SC, while the asymmetric SC was assembled by employing MnO2 as positive and Fe2O3 as negative electrode. Furthermore, the electrochemical features of symmetric and asymmetric SCs are systematically investigated. The results verify that the fabricated symmetric and asymmetric FSS-SCs present excellent reversibility (within the voltage window of 0-1 V and 0-2 V, respectively) and good cycling stability (83 and 91%, respectively for 3000 of CV cycles). Additionally, the asymmetric SC shows maximum specific capacitance of 92 Fg-1, about 2-fold of higher energy density (41.8 Wh kg-1) than symmetric SC and excellent mechanical flexibility. Furthermore, the “real-life” demonstration of fabricated SCs to the panel of SUK confirms that asymmetric SC has 2-fold higher energy density compare to symmetric SC.

  19. Low-cost flexible supercapacitors with high-energy density based on nanostructured MnO2 and Fe2O3 thin films directly fabricated onto stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gund, Girish S.; Dubal, Deepak P.; Chodankar, Nilesh R.; Cho, Jun Y.; Gomez-Romero, Pedro; Park, Chan; Lokhande, Chandrakant D.

    2015-01-01

    The facile and economical electrochemical and successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) methods have been employed in order to prepare manganese oxide (MnO2) and iron oxide (Fe2O3) thin films, respectively with the fine optimized nanostructures on highly flexible stainless steel sheet. The symmetric and asymmetric flexible-solid-state supercapacitors (FSS-SCs) of nanostructured (nanosheets for MnO2 and nanoparticles for Fe2O3) electrodes with Na2SO4/Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) gel as a separator and electrolyte were assembled. MnO2 as positive and negative electrodes were used to fabricate symmetric SC, while the asymmetric SC was assembled by employing MnO2 as positive and Fe2O3 as negative electrode. Furthermore, the electrochemical features of symmetric and asymmetric SCs are systematically investigated. The results verify that the fabricated symmetric and asymmetric FSS-SCs present excellent reversibility (within the voltage window of 0–1 V and 0–2 V, respectively) and good cycling stability (83 and 91%, respectively for 3000 of CV cycles). Additionally, the asymmetric SC shows maximum specific capacitance of 92 Fg−1, about 2-fold of higher energy density (41.8 Wh kg−1) than symmetric SC and excellent mechanical flexibility. Furthermore, the “real-life” demonstration of fabricated SCs to the panel of SUK confirms that asymmetric SC has 2-fold higher energy density compare to symmetric SC. PMID:26208144

  20. Facile green synthesis of silver nanodendrite/cellulose acetate thin film electrodes for flexible supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devarayan, Kesavan; Park, Jiyoung; Kim, Hak-Yong; Kim, Byoung-Suhk

    2017-05-01

    In this study, we present a highly efficient and economical solution called as 'in situ hydrogenation' for preparation of highly conductive thin film electrode based on silver nanodendrites. The silver nanodendrite (AgND)/cellulose acetate (CA) thin film electrodes exhibited sheet resistance ranging from 0.32ohm/sq to 122.1ohm/sq which could be controlled by changing the concentration of both silver and polymer. In addition, these electrodes exhibited outstanding toughness during the bending test. Further, these thin film electrodes have great potential for scale-up with an average weight of 3mg/cm 2 and can be also combined with active nanomaterials such as multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) to fabricate AgND/CA/MWCNTs thin film for high-performance flexible supercapacitor electrode. The AgND/CA/MWCNTs electrodes exhibited a maximum specific capacitance of 237F/g at a current density of 0.3A/g. After 1000 cycles, the AgND/MWCNT/CA exhibited a decrease of 16.0% of specific capacitance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Highly-wrinkled reduced graphene oxide-conductive polymer fibers for flexible fiber-shaped and interdigital-designed supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Cheng, Jianli; Wang, Zhuanpei; Li, Yinchuan; Ni, Wei; Wang, Bin

    2018-02-01

    Flexible supercapacitors have attracted great interest due to outstanding flexibility and light weight. Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) fibers have the great potential in using as electrodes for flexible supercapacitors due to the good flexibility. However, the reported conductivity and specific capacitance of these PEDOT: PSS fibers are not very high, which limit their electrochemical performances. In this work, composite fibers of reduced graphene oxide(rGO)-PEDOT: PSS with a highly-wrinkled structure on the surface and pores inside are prepared by wet spinning. The fibers with different ratios of graphene to PEDOT:PSS show a distinctly enhanced conductivity up to ca. 590 S·cm-1 and high strength up to ca. 18.4 MPa. Meanwhile, the composite fibers show an improved electrochemical performances, including a high specific areal capacitance of 131 mF cm-2 and high specific areal energy density of 4.55 μWh·cm-2. The flexible supercapacitors including fiber-shaped supercapacitors and interdigital designed supercapacitors not only could work in different bending states without obvious capacitance decay, but also have small leakage current. The interdigital design can further improve the performances of composite fibers with high capacitance and high utilization compared with traditional parallel connected structure.

  2. Fabricate BC/Fe3O4@PPy 3D nanofiber film as flexible electrode for supercapacitor application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Xvdan; Li, Guohui; Pang, Zengyuan; Li, Dawei; Lei, Luo; Lv, Pengfei; Mushtaq, Muhammad; Wei, Qufu

    2018-05-01

    For flexible film supercapacitor, high areal capacitance is a main evaluating indicator. In this paper, bacterial cellulose (BC) with special three-dimensional structure was used as the natural flexible base material. Fe3O4 nanoparticles with average diameter of 20 nm were synthesized on the surface of BC fibers. The conductive path polypyrrole (PPy) was introduced as shell of BC/Fe3O4 fibers to further improve the pseudo capacitance in 1 mol/L H2SO4 solution. Besides, the BC/Fe3O4@PPy was used for supercapacitor application in acid electrolyte, and delivered higher areal capacitance compared to other Fe3O4 composites in previous reports. The obtained BC/Fe3O4@PPy film showed excellent mechanical strength (tensile strength reached 11 MPa), high areal specific capacitance (5.4 F cm-2 at active mass of 8.4 mg cm-2), and long cycle life (1.95 F cm-2 over 3500 cycles).

  3. Asymmetric Flexible MXene-Reduced Graphene Oxide Micro-Supercapacitor

    KAUST Repository

    Couly, Cedric; Alhabeb, Mohamed; Van Aken, Katherine L.; Kurra, Narendra; Gomes, Luisa; Navarro-Suá rez, Adriana M.; Anasori, Babak; Alshareef, Husam N.; Gogotsi, Yury

    2017-01-01

    -collector-free is reported. The interdigitated device architecture is fabricated using a custom-made mask and a scalable spray coating technique onto a flexible, transparent substrate. The electrode materials are comprised of titanium carbide MXene (Ti3C2Tx) and reduced

  4. Flexible Black-Phosphorus Nanoflake/Carbon Nanotube Composite Paper for High-Performance All-Solid-State Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bingchao; Hao, Chunxue; Wen, Fusheng; Wang, Bochong; Mu, Congpu; Xiang, Jianyong; Li, Lei; Xu, Bo; Zhao, Zhisheng; Liu, Zhongyuan; Tian, Yongjun

    2017-12-27

    We proposed a simple route for fabrication of the flexible BP nanoflake/carbon nanotube (CNT) composite paper as flexible electrodes in all-solid-state supercapacitors. The highly conductive CNTs not only play a role as active materials but also increase conductivity of the hybrid electrode, enhance electrolyte shuttling and prevent the restacking between BP nanoflakes. The fabricated flexible all-solid-state supercapacitor (ASSP) device at the mass proportion of BP/CNTs 1:4 was found to deliver the highest volumetric capacitance of up to 41.1 F/cm 3 at 0.005 V/s, superior to the ASSP based on the bare graphene or BP. The BP/CNTs (1:4) device delivers a rapid charging/discharging up to 500 V/s, which exhibits the characteristic of a high power density of 821.62 W/cm 3 , while having outstanding mechanical flexibility and high cycling stability over 10 000 cycles (91.5% capacitance retained). Moreover the BP/CNTs (1:4) ASSP device still retains large volumetric capacitance (35.7 F/cm 3 at the scan rate of 0.005 V/s) even after 11 months. In addition, the ASSP of BP/CNTs (1:4) exhibits high energy density of 5.71 mWh/cm 3 and high power density of 821.62 W/cm 3 . As indicated in our work, the strategy of assembling stacked-layer composites films will open up novel possibility for realizing BP and CNTs in new-concept thin-film energy storage devices.

  5. Estimation of Supercapacitor Energy Storage Based on Fractional Differential Equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopka, Ryszard

    2017-12-22

    In this paper, new results on using only voltage measurements on supercapacitor terminals for estimation of accumulated energy are presented. For this purpose, a study based on application of fractional-order models of supercapacitor charging/discharging circuits is undertaken. Parameter estimates of the models are then used to assess the amount of the energy accumulated in supercapacitor. The obtained results are compared with energy determined experimentally by measuring voltage and current on supercapacitor terminals. All the tests are repeated for various input signal shapes and parameters. Very high consistency between estimated and experimental results fully confirm suitability of the proposed approach and thus applicability of the fractional calculus to modelling of supercapacitor energy storage.

  6. Enhancement of CNT/PET film adhesion by nano-scale modification for flexible all-solid-state supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Yu Jin; Chung, Haegeun; Kim, Min-Seop; Kim, Woong

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • High integrity supercapacitors are achieved by improving adhesion of CNTs on PET. • Nanostructures on PET substrate significantly enhances the adhesion strength. • A simple RIE process generates the nanostructures on PET surface. • RIE induces hydrophilicity on the PET and further enhances the adhesive strength. • The supercapacitors show good cyclability with high specific capacitance retention. - Abstract: We demonstrate the fabrication of high-integrity flexible supercapacitors using carbon nanotubes (CNTs), polyethylene terephthalate (PET) films, and ion gels. Although both CNTs and PET films are attractive materials for flexible electronics, they have poor adhesion properties. In this work, we significantly improve interfacial adhesion by introducing nanostructures at the interface of the CNT and PET layers. Simple reactive ion etching (RIE) of the PET substrates generates nano-scale roughness on the PET surface. RIE also induces hydrophilicity on the PET surface, which further enhances adhesive strength. The improved adhesion enables high integrity and excellent flexibility of the fabricated supercapacitors, demonstrated over hundreds of bending cycles. Furthermore, the supercapacitors show good cyclability with specific capacitance retention of 87.5% after 10,000 galvanostatic charge–discharge (GCD) cycles. Our demonstration may be important for understanding interfacial adhesion properties in nanoscale and for producing flexible, high-integrity, high-performance energy storage systems.

  7. Enhancement of CNT/PET film adhesion by nano-scale modification for flexible all-solid-state supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Yu Jin [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Haegeun [Department of Environmental Engineering, Konkuk University, Seoul 143-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Min-Seop [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Woong, E-mail: woongkim@korea.ac.kr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • High integrity supercapacitors are achieved by improving adhesion of CNTs on PET. • Nanostructures on PET substrate significantly enhances the adhesion strength. • A simple RIE process generates the nanostructures on PET surface. • RIE induces hydrophilicity on the PET and further enhances the adhesive strength. • The supercapacitors show good cyclability with high specific capacitance retention. - Abstract: We demonstrate the fabrication of high-integrity flexible supercapacitors using carbon nanotubes (CNTs), polyethylene terephthalate (PET) films, and ion gels. Although both CNTs and PET films are attractive materials for flexible electronics, they have poor adhesion properties. In this work, we significantly improve interfacial adhesion by introducing nanostructures at the interface of the CNT and PET layers. Simple reactive ion etching (RIE) of the PET substrates generates nano-scale roughness on the PET surface. RIE also induces hydrophilicity on the PET surface, which further enhances adhesive strength. The improved adhesion enables high integrity and excellent flexibility of the fabricated supercapacitors, demonstrated over hundreds of bending cycles. Furthermore, the supercapacitors show good cyclability with specific capacitance retention of 87.5% after 10,000 galvanostatic charge–discharge (GCD) cycles. Our demonstration may be important for understanding interfacial adhesion properties in nanoscale and for producing flexible, high-integrity, high-performance energy storage systems.

  8. Vacuum-Assisted Low-Temperature Synthesis of Reduced Graphene Oxide Thin-Film Electrodes for High-Performance Transparent and Flexible All-Solid-State Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aytug, Tolga; Rager, Matthew S; Higgins, Wesley; Brown, Forrest G; Veith, Gabriel M; Rouleau, Christopher M; Wang, Hui; Hood, Zachary D; Mahurin, Shannon M; Mayes, Richard T; Joshi, Pooran C; Kuruganti, Teja

    2018-04-04

    Simple and easily integrated design of flexible and transparent electrode materials affixed to polymer-based substrates hold great promise to have a revolutionary impact on the functionality and performance of energy storage devices for many future consumer electronics. Among these applications are touch sensors, roll-up displays, photovoltaic cells, health monitors, wireless sensors, and wearable communication devices. Here, we report an environmentally friendly, simple, and versatile approach to produce optically transparent and mechanically flexible all-solid-state supercapacitor devices. These supercapacitors were constructed on tin-doped indium oxide coated polyethylene terephthalate substrates by intercalation of a polymer-based gel electrolyte between two reduced graphene oxide (rGO) thin-film electrodes. The rGO electrodes were fabricated simply by drop-casting of graphene oxide (GO) films, followed by a novel low-temperature (≤250 °C) vacuum-assisted annealing approach for the in situ reduction of GO to rGO. A trade-off between the optical transparency and electrochemical performance is determined by the concentration of the GO in the initial dispersion, whereby the highest capacitance (∼650 μF cm -2 ) occurs at a relatively lower optical transmittance (24%). Notably, the all-solid-state supercapacitors demonstrated excellent mechanical flexibility with a capacity retention rate above 90% under various bending angles and cycles. These attributes underscore the potential of the present approach to provide a path toward the realization of thin-film-based supercapacitors as flexible and transparent energy storage devices for a variety of practical applications.

  9. Preparation of Supercapacitors on Flexible Substrates with Electrodeposited PEDOT/Graphene Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtimäki, Suvi; Suominen, Milla; Damlin, Pia; Tuukkanen, Sampo; Kvarnström, Carita; Lupo, Donald

    2015-10-14

    Composite films consisting of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) and graphene oxide (GO) were electrochemically polymerized by electrooxidation of EDOT in ionic liquid (BMIMBF4) onto flexible electrode substrates. Two polymerization approaches were compared, and the cyclic voltammetry (CV) method was found to be superior to potentiostatic polymerization for the growth of PEDOT/GO films. After deposition, incorporated GO was reduced to rGO by a rapid electrochemical method of repetitive cathodic potential cycling, without using any reducing reagents. The films were characterized in 3-electrode configuration in BMIMBF4. Symmetric supercapacitors with aqueous electrolyte were assembled from the composite films and characterized through cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic discharge tests. It was shown that PEDOT/rGO composites have better capacitive properties than pure PEDOT or the unreduced composite film. The cycling stability of the supercapacitors was also tested, and the results indicate that the specific capacitance still retains well over 90% of the initial value after 2000 consecutive charging/discharging cycles. The supercapacitors were demonstrated as energy storages in a room light energy harvester with a printed organic solar cell and printed electrochromic display. The results are promising for the development of energy-autonomous, low-power, and disposable electronics.

  10. Vanadium oxide nanowire-carbon nanotube binder-free flexible electrodes for supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perera, Sanjaya D.; Patel, Bijal; Seitz, Oliver; Ferraris, John P.; Balkus, Kenneth J. Jr. [Department of Chemistry and the Alan G. MacDiarmid Nanotech Institute, 800 West Campbell Rd, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, TX 75080 (United States); Nijem, Nour; Roodenko, Katy; Chabal, Yves J. [Laboratory for Surface and Nanostructure Modification, Department of Material Science and Engineering, 800 West Campbell Rd, University of Texas Dallas, Richardson, TX 75080 (United States)

    2011-10-15

    Vanadium pentoxide (V{sub 2}O{sub 5}) layered nanostructures are known to have very stable crystal structures and high faradaic activity. The low electronic conductivity of V{sub 2}O{sub 5} greatly limits the application of vanadium oxide as electrode materials and requires combining with conducting materials using binders. It is well known that the organic binders can degrade the overall performance of electrode materials and need carefully controlled compositions. In this study, we develop a simple method for preparing freestanding carbon nanotube (CNT)-V{sub 2}O{sub 5} nanowire (VNW) composite paper electrodes without using binders. Coin cell type (CR2032) supercapacitors are assembled using the nanocomposite paper electrode as the anode and high surface area carbon fiber electrode (Spectracarb 2225) as the cathode. The supercapacitor with CNT-VNW composite paper electrode exhibits a power density of 5.26 kW Kg{sup -1} and an energy density of 46.3 Wh Kg{sup -1}. (Li)VNWs and CNT composite paper electrodes can be fabricated in similar manner and show improved overall performance with a power density of 8.32 kW Kg{sup -1} and an energy density of 65.9 Wh Kg{sup -1}. The power and energy density values suggest that such flexible hybrid nanocomposite paper electrodes may be useful for high performance electrochemical supercapacitors. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  11. Scalable 2D Hierarchical Porous Carbon Nanosheets for Flexible Supercapacitors with Ultrahigh Energy Density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Lei; Wu, Qin; Zhang, Peixin; Zhang, Junmin; Wang, Dongrui; Li, Yongliang; Ren, Xiangzhong; Mi, Hongwei; Deng, Libo; Zheng, Zijian

    2018-03-01

    2D carbon nanomaterials such as graphene and its derivatives, have gained tremendous research interests in energy storage because of their high capacitance and chemical stability. However, scalable synthesis of ultrathin carbon nanosheets with well-defined pore architectures remains a great challenge. Herein, the first synthesis of 2D hierarchical porous carbon nanosheets (2D-HPCs) with rich nitrogen dopants is reported, which is prepared with high scalability through a rapid polymerization of a nitrogen-containing thermoset and a subsequent one-step pyrolysis and activation into 2D porous nanosheets. 2D-HPCs, which are typically 1.5 nm thick and 1-3 µm wide, show a high surface area (2406 m 2 g -1 ) and with hierarchical micro-, meso-, and macropores. This 2D and hierarchical porous structure leads to robust flexibility and good energy-storage capability, being 139 Wh kg -1 for a symmetric supercapacitor. Flexible supercapacitor devices fabricated by these 2D-HPCs also present an ultrahigh volumetric energy density of 8.4 mWh cm -3 at a power density of 24.9 mW cm -3 , which is retained at 80% even when the power density is increased by 20-fold. The devices show very high electrochemical life (96% retention after 10000 charge/discharge cycles) and excellent mechanical flexibility. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Thin, Flexible Supercapacitors Made from Carbon Nanofiber Electrodes Decorated at Room Temperature with Manganese Oxide Nanosheets

    OpenAIRE

    Nataraj, S. K.; Song, Q.; Al-Muhtaseb, S. A.; Dutton, S. E.; Zhang, Q.; Sivaniah, E.

    2013-01-01

    We report the fabrication and electrochemical performance of a flexible thin film supercapacitor with a novel nanostructured composite electrode. The electrode was prepared by in situ coprecipitation of two-dimensional (2D) MnO2 nanosheets at room temperature in the presence of carbon nanofibers (CNFs). The highest specific capacitance of 142 F/g was achieved for CNFs-MnO2 electrodes in sandwiched assembly with PVA-H4SiW12O40nH2O polyelectrolyte separator. Peer Reviewed

  13. Thin, Flexible Supercapacitors Made from Carbon Nanofiber Electrodes Decorated at Room Temperature with Manganese Oxide Nanosheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Nataraj

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the fabrication and electrochemical performance of a flexible thin film supercapacitor with a novel nanostructured composite electrode. The electrode was prepared by in situ coprecipitation of two-dimensional (2D MnO2 nanosheets at room temperature in the presence of carbon nanofibers (CNFs. The highest specific capacitance of 142 F/g was achieved for CNFs-MnO2 electrodes in sandwiched assembly with PVA-H4SiW12O40·nH2O polyelectrolyte separator.

  14. Sodium-Doped Mesoporous Ni2P2O7 Hexagonal Tablets for High-Performance Flexible All-Solid-State Hybrid Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Chengzhen; Cheng, Cheng; Wang, Shanshan; Xu, Yazhou; Wang, Jindi; Pang, Huan

    2015-08-01

    A simple hydrothermal method has been developed to prepare hexagonal tablet precursors, which are then transformed into porous sodium-doped Ni2P2O7 hexagonal tablets by a simple calcination method. The obtained samples were evaluated as electrode materials for supercapacitors. Electrochemical measurements show that the electrode based on the porous sodium-doped Ni2P2O7 hexagonal tablets exhibits a specific capacitance of 557.7 F g(-1) at a current density of 1.2 A g(-1) . Furthermore, the porous sodium-doped Ni2P2O7 hexagonal tablets were successfully used to construct flexible solid-state hybrid supercapacitors. The device is highly flexible and achieves a maximum energy density of 23.4 Wh kg(-1) and a good cycling stability after 5000 cycles, which confirms that the porous sodium-doped Ni2P2 O7 hexagonal tablets are promising active materials for flexible supercapacitors. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. High-performance supercapacitors of carboxylate-modified hollow carbon nanospheres coated on flexible carbon fibre paper: Effects of oxygen-containing group contents, electrolytes and operating temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phattharasupakun, Nutthaphon; Wutthiprom, Juthaporn; Suktha, Phansiri; Iamprasertkun, Pawin; Chanlek, Narong; Shepherd, Celine; Hadzifejzovic, Emina; Moloney, Mark G.; Foord, John S.; Sawangphruk, Montree

    2017-01-01

    Although functionalized carbon-based materials have been widely used as the supercapacitor electrodes, the optimum contents of the functional groups, the charge storage mechanisms, and the effects of electrolytes and operating temperature have not yet been clearly investigated. In this work, carboxylate-modified hollow carbon nanospheres (c-HCN) with different functional group contents synthesized by an oxidation process of carbon nanospheres with nitric acid were coated on flexible carbon fibre paper and used as the supercapacitor electrodes. An as-fabricated supercapacitor of the c-HCN with a finely tuned 6.2 atomic % of oxygen of the oxygen-containing groups in an ionic liquid electrolyte exhibits a specific capacitance of 390 F g"−"1, a specific energy of 115 Wh kg"−"1, and a maximum specific power of 13548 W kg"−"1 at 70 °C. The charge storage mechanism investigated is based on the chemical adsorption of the ionic liquid electrolyte on the c-HCN electrode. This process is highly reversible leading to high capacity retention. The supercapacitor in this work may be practically used in many high energy and power applications.

  16. High Frequency Supercapacitors for Piezo-based Energy Harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ervin, Matthew; Pereira, Carlos; Miller, John; Outlaw, Ronald; Rastegar, Jay; Murray, Richard

    2013-03-01

    Energy harvesting is being investigated as an alternative to batteries for powering munition guidance and fuzing functions during flight. A piezoelectric system that generates energy from the oscillation of a mass on a spring (set in motion by the launch acceleration) is being developed. Original designs stored this energy in an electrolytic capacitor for use during flight. Here we replace the electrolytic capacitor with a smaller, lighter, and potentially more reliable electrochemical double layer capacitor (aka, supercapacitor). The potential problems with using supercapacitors in this application are that the piezoelectric output greatly exceeds the supercapacitor electrolyte breakdown voltage, and the frequency greatly exceeds the operating frequency of commercial supercapacitors. Here we have investigated the use of ultrafast vertically oriented graphene array-based supercapacitors for storing the energy in this application. We find that the electrolyte breakdown is not a serious limitation as it is either kinetically limited by the relatively high frequency of the piezoelectric output, or it is overcome by the self-healing nature of supercapacitors. We also find that these supercapacitors have sufficient dynamic response to efficiently store the generated energy.

  17. Direct Synthesis of MnO2 Nanorods on Carbon Cloth as Flexible Supercapacitor Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Xi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available MnO2 nanorod/carbon cloth (MnO2/CC composites were prepared through in situ redox deposition as freestanding electrodes for flexible supercapacitors. The CC substrates possessing porous and interconnecting structures enable the uniform decoration of MnO2 nanorods on each fiber, thus forming conformal coaxial micro/nanocomposites. Three-dimensional CC can provide considerable specific surface area for high mass loading of MnO2, and the direct deposition process without using polymeric binders enables reliable electrical connection of MnO2 with CC. The effect of MnO2 decoration on the electrochemical performances was further investigated, indicating that the electrode prepared with 40 min deposition time shows high specific capacitance (220 F/g at a scan rate of 5 mV/s and good cycling property (90% of the initial specific capacitance was maintained after 2500 cycles in 1 M Na2SO4 aqueous solution. This enhanced electrochemical performance is ascribed to the synergistic effect of good conductivity of carbon substrates as well as outstanding pseudocapacitance of MnO2 nanorods. The obtained MnO2/CC compositing electrode with the advantages of low cost and easy fabrication is promising in applications of flexible supercapacitors.

  18. Electrode Materials for Ionic Liquid Based-Supercapacitors

    OpenAIRE

    Lazzari, Mariachiara

    2010-01-01

    The development of safe, high energy and power electrochemical energy-conversion systems can be a response to the worldwide demand for a clean and low-fuel-consuming transport. This thesis work, starting from a basic studies on the ionic liquid (IL) electrolytes and carbon electrodes and concluding with tests on large-size IL-based supercapacitor prototypes demonstrated that the IL-based asymmetric configuration (AEDLCs) is a powerful strategy to develop safe, high-energy supercapacitors that...

  19. Application of biomass-derived flexible carbon cloth coated with MnO2 nanosheets in supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shuijian; Chen, Wei

    2015-10-01

    Successful application of inexpensive energy storage devices lies in the exploitation of fabrication approaches that are based on cost-efficient materials and that can be easily scaled up. Here, inexpensive textile weaved by natural flax fiber is selected as raw material in preparing flexible and binder-free electrode material for supercapacitors. Although carbon fiber cloth obtained from the direct carbonization of flax textile exhibits a low specific capacitance of 0.78 F g-1, carbon fiber cloth electrode shows a very short relaxation time of 39.1 m s and good stability with almost 100% capacitance retaining after 104 cycles at 5 A g-1. To extend the application of the resulting carbon cloth in supercapacitor field, a layer of MnO2 nanosheets is deposited on the surface of carbon fiber via in situ redox reaction between carbon and KMnO4. The specific capacitance of MnO2 reaches 683.73 F g-1 at 2 A g-1 and still retains 269.04 F g-1 at 300 A g-1, indicating the excellent rate capacitance performance of the carbon cloth/MnO2 hybrids. The present study shows that carbon cloth derived from flax textile can provide a low-cost material platform for the facile, cost-efficient and large scale fabrication of binder-free electrode materials for energy storage devices.

  20. A nanoporous MXene film enables flexible supercapacitors with high energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Zhimin; Wang, Youshan; Xie, Zhimin; Xu, Xueqing; Yuan, Yin; Cheng, Zhongjun; Liu, Yuyan

    2018-05-14

    MXene films are attractive for use in advanced supercapacitor electrodes on account of their ultrahigh density and pseudocapacitive charge storage mechanism in sulfuric acid. However, the self-restacking of MXene nanosheets severely affects their rate capability and mass loading. Herein, a free-standing and flexible modified nanoporous MXene film is fabricated by incorporating Fe(OH)3 nanoparticles with diameters of 3-5 nm into MXene films and then dissolving the Fe(OH)3 nanoparticles, followed by low calcination at 200 °C, resulting in highly interconnected nanopore channels that promote efficient ion transport without compromising ultrahigh density. As a result, the modified nanoporous MXene film presents an attractive volumetric capacitance (1142 F cm-3 at 0.5 A g-1) and good rate capability (828 F cm-3 at 20 A g-1). Furthermore, it still displays a high volumetric capacitance of 749 F cm-3 and good flexibility even at a high mass loading of 11.2 mg cm-2. Therefore, this flexible and free-standing nanoporous MXene film is a promising electrode material for flexible, portable and compact storage devices. This study provides an efficient material design for flexible energy storage devices possessing high volumetric capacitance and good rate capability even at a high mass loading.

  1. Graphene oxide - Polyvinyl alcohol nanocomposite based electrode material for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Pranav Bhagwan; Shukla, Shobha; Saxena, Sumit

    2016-07-01

    Supercapacitors are high capacitive energy storage devices and find applications where rapid bursts of power are required. Thus materials offering high specific capacitance are of fundamental interest in development of these electrochemical devices. Graphene oxide based nanocomposites are mechanically robust and have interesting electronic properties. These form potential electrode materials efficient for charge storage in supercapacitors. In this perspective, we investigate low cost graphene oxide based nanocomposites as electrode material for supercapacitor. Nanocomposites of graphene oxide and polyvinyl alcohol were synthesized in solution phase by integrating graphene oxide as filler in polyvinyl alcohol matrix. Structural and optical characterizations suggest the formation of graphene oxide and polyvinyl alcohol nanocomposites. These nanocomposites were found to have high specific capacitance, were cyclable, ecofriendly and economical. Our studies suggest that nanocomposites prepared by adding 0.5% wt/wt of graphene oxide in polyvinyl alcohol can be used an efficient electrode material for supercapacitors.

  2. Supercapacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Donghai; Yi, Ran; Chen, Shuru

    2018-03-06

    Embodiments provide a hybrid supercapacitor exhibiting high energy and power densities enabled by a high-performance lithium-alloy anode coupled with a porous carbon cathode in an electrolyte containing lithium salt. Embodiments include a size reduced silicon oxide anode, a boron-doped silicon oxide anode, and/or a carbon coated silicon oxide anode, which may improve cycling stability and rate performance. Further embodiments include a hybrid supercapacitor system using a Li-active anode in an electrolyte including LiPF6 in a mixture of ethylene carbonate, diethyl carbonate, and dimethyl carbonate (EC:DEC:DMC, 2:1:2 by vol.) and 10 wt % fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC), which may reduce the self-discharge rate.

  3. Cellulose nanofibril/reduced graphene oxide/carbon nanotube hybrid aerogels for highly flexible and all-solid-state supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Qifeng; Cai, Zhiyong; Ma, Zhenqiang; Gong, Shaoqin

    2015-02-11

    A novel type of highly flexible and all-solid-state supercapacitor that uses cellulose nanofibril (CNF)/reduced graphene oxide (RGO)/carbon nanotube (CNT) hybrid aerogels as electrodes and H2SO4/poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) gel as the electrolyte was developed and is reported here. These flexible solid-state supercapacitors were fabricated without any binders, current collectors, or electroactive additives. Because of the porous structure of the CNF/RGO/CNT aerogel electrodes and the excellent electrolyte absorption properties of the CNFs present in the aerogel electrodes, the resulting flexible supercapacitors exhibited a high specific capacitance (i.e., 252 F g(-1) at a discharge current density of 0.5 A g(-1)) and a remarkable cycle stability (i.e., more than 99.5% of the capacitance was retained after 1000 charge-discharge cycles at a current density of 1 A g(-1)). Furthermore, the supercapacitors also showed extremely high areal capacitance, areal power density, and energy density (i.e., 216 mF cm(-2), 9.5 mW cm(-2), and 28.4 μWh cm(-2), respectively). In light of its excellent electrical performance, low cost, ease of large-scale manufacturing, and environmental friendliness, the CNF/RGO/CNT aerogel electrodes may have a promising application in the development of flexible energy-storage devices.

  4. Vertically Aligned Co9 S8 Nanotube Arrays onto Graphene Papers as High-Performance Flexible Electrodes for Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Dongbin; Li, Xifei; Bai, Zhimin; Li, Jianwei; Han, Yan; Li, Dejun

    2018-02-16

    Paper-like electrodes are emerging as a new category of advanced electrodes for flexible supercapacitors (SCs). Graphene, a promising two-dimensional material with high conductivity, can be easily processed into papers. Here, we report a rational design of flexible architecture with Co 9 S 8 nanotube arrays (NAs) grown onto graphene paper (GP) via a facile two-step hydrothermal method. When employed as flexible free-standing electrode for SCs, the proposed architectured Co 9 S 8 /GPs exhibits superior electrochemical performance with ultrahigh capacitance and outstanding rate capability (469 F g -1 at 10 A g -1 ). These results demonstrate that the new nanostructured Co 9 S 8 /GPs can be potentially applied in high performance flexible supercapacitors. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Scalable fabrication of high-power graphene micro-supercapacitors for flexible and on-chip energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Kady, Maher F.; Kaner, Richard B.

    2013-02-01

    The rapid development of miniaturized electronic devices has increased the demand for compact on-chip energy storage. Microscale supercapacitors have great potential to complement or replace batteries and electrolytic capacitors in a variety of applications. However, conventional micro-fabrication techniques have proven to be cumbersome in building cost-effective micro-devices, thus limiting their widespread application. Here we demonstrate a scalable fabrication of graphene micro-supercapacitors over large areas by direct laser writing on graphite oxide films using a standard LightScribe DVD burner. More than 100 micro-supercapacitors can be produced on a single disc in 30 min or less. The devices are built on flexible substrates for flexible electronics and on-chip uses that can be integrated with MEMS or CMOS in a single chip. Remarkably, miniaturizing the devices to the microscale results in enhanced charge-storage capacity and rate capability. These micro-supercapacitors demonstrate a power density of ~200 W cm-3, which is among the highest values achieved for any supercapacitor.

  6. Densely-packed graphene/conducting polymer nanoparticle papers for high-volumetric-performance flexible all-solid-state supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chao; Zhang, Liling; Hu, Nantao; Yang, Zhi; Wei, Hao; Xu, Zhichuan J.; Wang, Yanyan; Zhang, Yafei

    2016-08-01

    Graphene-based all-solid-state supercapacitors (ASSSCs) are one of the most ideal candidates for high-performance flexible power sources. The achievement of high volumetric energy density is highly desired for practical application of this type of ASSSCs. Here, we present a facile method to boost volumetric performances of graphene-based flexible ASSSCs through incorporation of ultrafine polyaniline-poly(4-styrenesulfonate) (PANI-PSS) nanoparticles in reduced graphene oxide (rGO) papers. A compact structure is obtained via intimate contact and π-π interaction between PANI-PSS nanoparticles and rGO sheets. The hybrid paper electrode with the film thickness of 13.5 μm, shows an extremely high volumetric specific capacitance of 272 F/cm3 (0.37 A/cm3 in a three-electrode cell). The assembled ASSSCs show a large volumetric specific capacitance of 217 F/cm3 (0.37 A/cm3 in a two-electrode cell), high volumetric energy and power density, excellent capacitance stability, small leakage current as well as low self-discharge characteristics, revealing the usefulness of this robust hybrid paper for high-performance flexible energy storage devices.

  7. Graphene based integrated tandem supercapacitors fabricated directly on separators

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Wei

    2015-04-09

    It is of great importance to fabricate integrated supercapacitors with extended operation voltages as high energy density storage devices. In this work, we develop a novel direct electrode deposition on separator (DEDS) process to fabricate graphene based integrated tandem supercapacitors for the first time. The DEDS process generates compact graphene-polyaniline electrodes directly on the separators to form integrated supercapacitors. The integrated graphene-polyaniline tandem supercapacitors demonstrate ultrahigh volumetric energy density of 52.5 Wh L^(−1) at power density of 6037 W L^(−1) and excellent gravimetric energy density of 26.1 Wh kg^(−1) at power density of 3002 W kg^(−1) with outstanding electrochemical stability for over 10000 cycles. This study show great promises for the future development of integrated energy storage devices.

  8. Flexible, silver nanowire network nickel hydroxide core-shell electrodes for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuksel, Recep; Coskun, Sahin; Kalay, Yunus Eren; Unalan, Husnu Emrah

    2016-10-01

    We present a novel one-dimensional coaxial architecture composed of silver nanowire (Ag NW) network core and nickel hydroxide (Ni(OH)2) shell for the realization of coaxial nanocomposite electrode materials for supercapacitors. Ag NWs are formed conductive networks via spray coating onto polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates and Ni(OH)2 is gradually electrodeposited onto the Ag NW network to fabricate core-shell electrodes for supercapacitors. Synergy of highly conductive Ag NWs and high capacitive Ni(OH)2 facilitate ion and electron transport, enhance electrochemical properties and result in a specific capacitance of 1165.2 F g-1 at a current density of 3 A g-1. After 3000 cycles, fabricated nanocomposite electrodes show 93% capacity retention. The rational design explored in this study points out the potential of nanowire based coaxial energy storage devices.

  9. Supercapacitors based on two dimensional VO2 nanosheet electrodes in organic gel electrolyte

    KAUST Repository

    Rakhi, R.B.

    2016-10-16

    VO2 is a low band-gap semiconductor with relatively high conductivity among transition metal oxides, which makes it an interesting material for supercapacitor electrode applications. The performance of VO2 as supercapacitor electrode in organic electrolytes has never been reported before. Herein, two-dimensional nanosheets of VO2 are prepared by the simultaneous solution reduction and exfoliation from bulk V2O5 powder by hydrothermal method. A specific capacitance of 405 Fg−1 is achieved for VO2 based supercapacitor in an organic electrolyte, in three electrode configuration. The symmetric capacitor based on VO2 nanosheet electrodes and the liquid organic electrolyte exhibits an energy density of 46 Wh kg−1 at a power density of 1.4 kW kg−1 at a constant current density of 1 Ag−1. Furthermore, flexible solid-state supercapacitors are fabricated using same electrode material and Alumina-silica based gel electrolyte. The solid-state device delivers a specific capacitance of 145 Fg−1 and a device capacitance of 36 Fg−1 at a discharge current density of 1 Ag−1. Series combination of three solid state capacitors is capable of lighting up a red LED for more than 1 minute.

  10. Fabrication and characterization of a sandpaper-based flexible energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shieh, Jen-Yu; Wu, Cheng-Hung; Tsai, Sung-Ying; Yu, Hsin Her

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A sandpaper-based supercapacitor was assembled from two graphene/CNTs-coated fine-sandpaper electrodes and a PVA porous separator enclosed with H_3PO_4/PVA gel electrolyte, then packaged between two PET sheets by hot pressing. The galvanostatic charge/discharge curves obtained at a current of 0.10 mA over about 3000 cycles. The capacitance retention rates remained over 91% after this period, indicating the electrochemical stability of the supercapacitor. Thus, the supercapacitor based on the fine sandpaper electrode has a long lifetime and good cycling stability. - Highlights: • Carbon nanotubes prevent stacking of graphene sheets and act as spacers and binders. • The sandpaper surface provides more electrode/electrolyte contact area. • The gel electrolyte can prevent contact discontinuity in a supercapacitor. • Sandpaper-based supercapacitors exhibit excellent flexibility and cycling stability. - Abstract: In this paper, graphene and carbon nanotubes dispersed in a pectin solution are examined as a precursor for electrode fabrication for supercapacitor applications. The carbon nanotubes not only prevent the stacking of graphene sheets, but also act as spacers and binders. Dropping the hybrid conductive suspension onto sandpaper is found to form a sandpaper-based electrode that improves the specific capacitance of a subsequently fabricated supercapacitor because of its high surface area. In particular, the large contact surface of the sandpaper allows it to absorb more electrolyte ions and increases the number of ions assembled on the electrode surface. For the supercapacitor fabrication, replacing the liquid or solid electrolyte with a gel electrolyte prevents leakage and contact discontinuity. Therefore, a high-performance supercapacitor can be constructed with one separator coated with a gel electrolyte inserted between two fine-sandpaper-based electrodes, which can be assembled into a sandwich structure by hot pressing

  11. Fabrication and characterization of a sandpaper-based flexible energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shieh, Jen-Yu; Wu, Cheng-Hung; Tsai, Sung-Ying [Institute of Electro-Optical and Materials Science, National Formosa University, 64 Wenhua Road, Huwei, Yunlin 63208, Taiwan (China); Yu, Hsin Her, E-mail: hhyu@nfu.edu.tw [Department of Biotechnology, National Formosa University, 64 Wenhua Road, Huwei, Yunlin 63208, Taiwan (China)

    2016-02-28

    Graphical abstract: A sandpaper-based supercapacitor was assembled from two graphene/CNTs-coated fine-sandpaper electrodes and a PVA porous separator enclosed with H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}/PVA gel electrolyte, then packaged between two PET sheets by hot pressing. The galvanostatic charge/discharge curves obtained at a current of 0.10 mA over about 3000 cycles. The capacitance retention rates remained over 91% after this period, indicating the electrochemical stability of the supercapacitor. Thus, the supercapacitor based on the fine sandpaper electrode has a long lifetime and good cycling stability. - Highlights: • Carbon nanotubes prevent stacking of graphene sheets and act as spacers and binders. • The sandpaper surface provides more electrode/electrolyte contact area. • The gel electrolyte can prevent contact discontinuity in a supercapacitor. • Sandpaper-based supercapacitors exhibit excellent flexibility and cycling stability. - Abstract: In this paper, graphene and carbon nanotubes dispersed in a pectin solution are examined as a precursor for electrode fabrication for supercapacitor applications. The carbon nanotubes not only prevent the stacking of graphene sheets, but also act as spacers and binders. Dropping the hybrid conductive suspension onto sandpaper is found to form a sandpaper-based electrode that improves the specific capacitance of a subsequently fabricated supercapacitor because of its high surface area. In particular, the large contact surface of the sandpaper allows it to absorb more electrolyte ions and increases the number of ions assembled on the electrode surface. For the supercapacitor fabrication, replacing the liquid or solid electrolyte with a gel electrolyte prevents leakage and contact discontinuity. Therefore, a high-performance supercapacitor can be constructed with one separator coated with a gel electrolyte inserted between two fine-sandpaper-based electrodes, which can be assembled into a sandwich structure by hot pressing

  12. Supercapacitors based on self-assembled graphene organogel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yiqing; Wu, Qiong; Shi, Gaoquan

    2011-10-14

    Self-assembled graphene organogel (SGO) with 3-dimensional (3D) macrostructure was prepared by solvothermal reduction of a graphene oxide (GO) dispersion in propylene carbonate (PC). This SGO was used as an electrode material for fabricating supercapacitors with a PC electrolyte. The supercapacitor can be operated in a wide voltage range of 0-3 V and exhibits a high specific capacitance of 140 F g(-1) at a discharge current density of 1 A g(-1). Furthermore, it can still keep a specific capacitance of 90 F g(-1) at a high current density of 30 A g(-1). The maximum energy density of the SGO based supercapacitor was tested to be 43.5 Wh kg(-1), and this value is higher than those of the graphene based supercapacitors with aqueous or PC electrolytes reported previously. Furthermore, at a high discharge current density of 30 A g(-1), the energy and power densities of the supercapacitor were measured to be 15.4 Wh kg(-1) and 16,300 W kg(-1), respectively. These results indicate that the supercapacitor has a high specific capacitance and power density, and excellent rate capability.

  13. Faradic redox active material of Cu7S4 nanowires with a high conductance for flexible solid state supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javed, Muhammad Sufyan; Dai, Shuge; Wang, Mingjun; Xi, Yi; Lang, Qiang; Guo, Donglin; Hu, Chenguo

    2015-08-01

    The exploration of high Faradic redox active materials with the advantages of low cost and low toxicity has been attracting great attention for producing high energy storage supercapacitors. Here, the high Faradic redox active material of Cu7S4-NWs coated on a carbon fiber fabric (CFF) is directly used as a binder-free electrode for a high performance flexible solid state supercapacitor. The Cu7S4-NW-CFF supercapacitor exhibits excellent electrochemical performance such as a high specific capacitance of 400 F g-1 at the scan rate of 10 mV s-1 and a high energy density of 35 Wh kg-1 at a power density of 200 W kg-1, with the advantages of a light weight, high flexibility and long term cycling stability by retaining 95% after 5000 charge-discharge cycles at a constant current of 10 mA. The high Faradic redox activity and high conductance behavior of the Cu7S4-NWs result in a high pseudocapacitive performance with a relatively high specific energy and specific power. Such a new type of pseudocapacitive material of Cu7S4-NWs with its low cost is very promising for actual application in supercapacitors.The exploration of high Faradic redox active materials with the advantages of low cost and low toxicity has been attracting great attention for producing high energy storage supercapacitors. Here, the high Faradic redox active material of Cu7S4-NWs coated on a carbon fiber fabric (CFF) is directly used as a binder-free electrode for a high performance flexible solid state supercapacitor. The Cu7S4-NW-CFF supercapacitor exhibits excellent electrochemical performance such as a high specific capacitance of 400 F g-1 at the scan rate of 10 mV s-1 and a high energy density of 35 Wh kg-1 at a power density of 200 W kg-1, with the advantages of a light weight, high flexibility and long term cycling stability by retaining 95% after 5000 charge-discharge cycles at a constant current of 10 mA. The high Faradic redox activity and high conductance behavior of the Cu7S4-NWs result in

  14. High-performance supercapacitors using flexible and freestanding MnOx/carbamide carbon nanofibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Edmund; Jo, Hong Seok; Joshi, Bhavana; Park, Hyun Goo; Kim, Yong Il; An, Seongpil; Swihart, Mark T.; Yun, Je Moon; Kim, Kwang Ho; Yoon, Sam S.

    2017-11-01

    We demonstrate the fabrication of a MnOx/carbamide carbon nanofiber (CCNF) composite consisting of MnO particles embedded in CCNFs as a highly flexible and freestanding electrode material for supercapacitors. A sacrificial polymer component, polymethylmethacrylate, included in the precursor solution, pyrolyzes during heating, resulting in pores in the fibers, some of which are filled by the MnO nanocrystals. Carbamide is added to control the size of the MnOx particles as well as to increase the carbon content of the composite and hence its conductivity. The X-ray diffraction and Raman spectra of the composite show that the MnO particles formed have low crystallinity. Transmission electron microscopy confirms that the MnO particles are distributed very uniformly over the CCNFs. Symmetric supercapacitors constructed using electrodes of this composite exhibit specific capacitances of 498 F•g-1 at a scan rate of 10 mV•s-1 and 271 F•g-1 at a current density of 1 A•g-1. They also exhibit excellent long-term cycling performance, retaining 93% of their initial capacity after 5000 cycles of galvanostatic charging/discharging.

  15. Highly conductive templated-graphene fabrics for lightweight, flexible and foldable supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ping; Zhang, Hanzhi; Yan, Casey; Zheng, Zijian; Yu, You

    2017-07-01

    The templated-rGO fabric, featuring high conductivity (<1.0 Ω □-1) and low density (160 mg cm-2), is prepared by a simple dip-coating technique with sequentially coating nickel via polymer-assisted metal deposition (PAMD) and reduced-graphene oxide (rGO) on textile fabric templates at very mild conditions and is used in the fabrication of energy storage devices. As a proof of concept, both the layered and planar supercapacitors (SCs) are successfully fabricated using the rGO fabrics as templates, and both exhibit excellent electrochemical performance, ultrahigh stability with 2000 charge-discharge cycles and mechanical flexibility at bending (r  =  3 mm) and even folding states. It is found that the material of textile fabric used has a profound effect on the electrochemical property of SCs. The comparison result reveals that loose natural cotton fabrics are more suitable than tight man-made nylon fabrics for preparing high-performance SCs. In addition, such supercapacitor can be sewed into commercial textiles and powers a LED light, indicating promising applications in wearable electronics.

  16. Conducting polymer nanocomposite-based supercapacitors

    OpenAIRE

    Liew, Soon Yee; Walsh, Darren A.; Chen, George Z.

    2016-01-01

    The use of nanocomposites of electronically-conducting polymers for supercapacitors has increased significantly over the past years, due to their high capacitances and abilities to withstand many charge-discharge cycles. We have recently been investigating the use of nanocomposites of electronically-conducting polymers containing conducting and non-conducting nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes and cellulose nanocrystals, for use in supercapacitors. In this contribution, we provide a summa...

  17. Graphene-Based Electrode for a Supercapacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bin (Inventor); Meyyappan, Meyya (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A supercapacitor electrode mechanism comprising an electrically conductive, porous substrate, having one or more metallic oxides deposited on a first surface and a chemically reduced graphene oxide deposited on a second surface, to thereby provide an electrical double layer associated with the substrate. The substrate may be carbon paper or a similar substance. The layers of the supercapacitor are optionally rolled into an approximately cylindrical structure.

  18. Printable Fabrication of Nanocoral-Structured Electrodes for High-Performance Flexible and Planar Supercapacitor with Artistic Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuanjing; Gao, Yuan; Fan, Zhiyong

    2017-11-01

    Planar supercapacitors with high flexibility, desirable operation safety, and high performance are considered as attractive candidates to serve as energy-storage devices for portable and wearable electronics. Here, a scalable and printable technique is adopted to construct novel and unique hierarchical nanocoral structures as the interdigitated electrodes on flexible substrates. The as-fabricated flexible all-solid-state planar supercapacitors with nanocoral structures achieve areal capacitance up to 52.9 mF cm -2 , which is 2.5 times that of devices without nanocoral structures, and this figure-of-merit is among the highest in the literature for the same category of devices. More interestingly, due to utilization of the inkjet-printing technique, excellent versatility on electrode-pattern artistic design is achieved. Particularly, working supercapacitors with artistically designed patterns are demonstrated. Meanwhile, the high scalability of such a printable method is also demonstrated by fabrication of large-sized artistic supercapacitors serving as energy-storage devices in a wearable self-powered system as a proof of concept. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Bamboo-like Composites of V2O5/Polyindole and Activated Carbon Cloth as Electrodes for All-Solid-State Flexible Asymmetric Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xi; Chen, Qiang; Wang, Anqi; Xu, Jian; Wu, Shishan; Shen, Jian

    2016-02-17

    A bamboo-like nanomaterial composed of V2O5/polyindole (V2O5/PIn) decorated onto the activated carbon cloth was fabricated for supercapacitors. The PIn could effectively enhance the electronic conductivity and prevent the dissolution of vanadium. And the activation of carbon cloth with functional groups is conducive to anchoring the V2O5 and improving surface area, which results in an enhancement of electrochemical performance and leads to a high specific capacitance of 535.5 F/g. Moreover, an asymmetric flexible supercapacitor based on V2O5/PIn@activate carbon cloth and reduced graphene oxide (rGO)@activate carbon cloth exhibits a high energy density (38.7 W h/kg) at a power density of 900 W/kg and good cyclic stability (capacitance retention of 91.1% after 5000 cycles). And the prepared device is shown to power the light-emitting diode bulbs efficiently.

  20. Towards Flexible Transparent Electrodes Based on Carbon and Metallic Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minghui Luo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Flexible transparent electrodes (FTEs with high stability and scalability are in high demand for the extremely widespread applications in flexible optoelectronic devices. Traditionally, thin films of indium thin oxide (ITO served the role of FTEs, but film brittleness and scarcity of materials limit its further application. This review provides a summary of recent advances in emerging transparent electrodes and related flexible devices (e.g., touch panels, organic light-emitting diodes, sensors, supercapacitors, and solar cells. Mainly focusing on the FTEs based on carbon nanomaterials (e.g., carbon nanotubes and graphene and metal materials (e.g., metal grid and metal nanowires, we discuss the fabrication techniques, the performance improvement, and the representative applications of these highly transparent and flexible electrodes. Finally, the challenges and prospects of flexible transparent electrodes will be summarized.

  1. Highly Flexible Freestanding Porous Carbon Nanofibers for Electrodes Materials of High-Performance All-Carbon Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Zhou, Jinyuan; Chen, Lulu; Zhang, Peng; Fu, Wenbin; Zhao, Hao; Ma, Yufang; Pan, Xiaojun; Zhang, Zhenxing; Han, Weihua; Xie, Erqing

    2015-10-28

    Highly flexible porous carbon nanofibers (P-CNFs) were fabricated by electrospining technique combining with metal ion-assistant acid corrosion process. The resultant fibers display high conductivity and outstanding mechanical flexibility, whereas little change in their resistance can be observed under repeatedly bending, even to 180°. Further results indicate that the improved flexibility of P-CNFs can be due to the high graphitization degree caused by Co ions. In view of electrode materials for high-performance supercapacitors, this type of porous nanostructure and high graphitization degree could synergistically facilitate the electrolyte ion diffusion and electron transportation. In the three electrodes testing system, the resultant P-CNFs electrodes can exhibit a specific capacitance of 104.5 F g(-1) (0.2 A g(-1)), high rate capability (remain 56.5% at 10 A g(-1)), and capacitance retention of ∼94% after 2000 cycles. Furthermore, the assembled symmetric supercapacitors showed a high flexibility and can deliver an energy density of 3.22 Wh kg(-1) at power density of 600 W kg(-1). This work might open a way to improve the mechanical properties of carbon fibers and suggests that this type of freestanding P-CNFs be used as effective electrode materials for flexible all-carbon supercapacitors.

  2. 2D Metal-Organic Frameworks Derived Nanocarbon Arrays for Substrate Enhancement in Flexible Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ximeng; Guan, Cao; Hu, Yating; Zhang, Lei; Elshahawy, Abdelnaby M; Wang, John

    2017-10-27

    Direct assembling of active materials on carbon cloth (CC) is a promising way to achieve flexible electrodes for energy storage. However, the overall surface area and electrical conductivity of such electrodes are usually limited. Herein, 2D metal-organic framework derived nanocarbon nanowall (MOFC) arrays are successfully developed on carbon cloth by a facile solution + carbonization process. Upon growth of the MOFC arrays, the sites for growth of the active materials are greatly increased, and the equivalent series resistance is decreased, which contribute to the enhancement of the bare CC substrate. After decorating ultrathin flakes of MnO 2 and Bi 2 O 3 on the flexible CC/MOFC substrate, the hierarchical electrode materials show an abrupt improvement of areal capacitances by around 50% and 100%, respectively, compared to those of the active materials on pristine carbon cloth. A flexible supercapacitor can be further assembled using two hierarchical electrodes, which demonstrates an energy density of 124.8 µWh cm -2 at the power density of 2.55 mW cm -2 . © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Electrochemical characteristics of flexible micro supercapacitors with reduced graphene oxide-carbon nanotubes composite electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kyungwhan; Cho, Kyoungah; Kim, Sangsig

    2018-06-01

    In this study, we fabricate solid-state flexible micro-supercapacitors (MSCs) with reduced graphene oxide-carbon nanotube (rGO-CNT) composite electrodes and investigate the electrochemical characteristics by comparing with those of an MSC with rGO electrodes. Regarding the resistance-capacitance time constant and IR drop, the addition of CNTs into the rGO electrodes shows a significant effect owing to both the decrease in the resistance and the increase in the permeability of the electrolytes. Compared to the rGO MSCs, the rGO-CNT MSCs show an excellent areal capacitance of 2.6 mF/cm2, a smaller IR drop of 11 mV, a lower RC time constant of 6 ms, and faster charging/discharging rates with a high scan rate ability up to 100 V/s. The mechanical stability of the flexible rGO-CNT MSCs is verified by 1000 bending cycles. In addition, the electrochemical characteristics of the flexible rGO-CNT MSCs are maintained regardless of the MSC array type.

  4. Highly flexible, all solid-state micro-supercapacitors from vertically aligned carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsia, Ben; Marschewski, Julian; Wang, Shuang; In, Jung Bin; Carraro, Carlo; Poulikakos, Dimos; Grigoropoulos, Costas P; Maboudian, Roya

    2014-02-07

    We report a highly flexible planar micro-supercapacitor with interdigitated finger electrodes of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs). The planar electrode structures are patterned on a thin polycarbonate substrate with a facile, maskless laser-assisted dry transfer method. Sputtered Ni is used to reduce the in-plane resistance of the VACNT electrodes. An ionogel, an ionic liquid in a semi-solid matrix, is used as an electrolyte to form a fully solid-state device. We measure a specific capacitance of 430 μF cm(-2) for a scan rate of 0.1 V s(-1) and achieve rectangular cyclic voltammograms at high scan rates of up to 100 V s(-1). Minimal change in capacitance is observed under bending. Mechanical fatigue tests with more than 1000 cycles confirm the high flexibility and durability of the novel material combination chosen for this device. Our results indicate that this scalable and facile fabrication technique shows promise for application in integrated energy storage for all solid-state flexible microdevices.

  5. The Pine-Needle-Inspired Structure of Zinc Oxide Nanorods Grown on Electrospun Nanofibers for High-Performance Flexible Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sami, Syed Kamran; Siddiqui, Saqib; Shrivastava, Sajal; Lee, Nae-Eung; Chung, Chan-Hwa

    2017-12-01

    Flexible supercapacitors with high electrochemical performance and stability along with mechanical robustness have gained immense attraction due to the substantial advancements and rampant requirements of storage devices. To meet the exponentially growing demand of microsized energy storage device, a cost-effective and durable supercapacitor is mandatory to realize their practical applications. Here, in this work, the fabrication route of novel electrode materials with high flexibility and charge-storage capability is reported using the hybrid structure of 1D zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods and conductive polyvinylidene fluoride-tetrafluoroethylene (P(VDF-TrFE)) electrospun nanofibers. The ZnO nanorods are conformably grown on conductive P(VDF-TrFE) nanofibers to fabricate the light-weighted porous electrodes for supercapacitors. The conductive nanofibers acts as a high surface area scaffold with significant electrochemical performance, while the addition of ZnO nanorods further enhances the specific capacitance by 59%. The symmetric cell with the fabricated electrodes presents high areal capacitance of 1.22 mF cm -2 at a current density of 0.1 mA cm -2 with a power density of more than 1600 W kg -1 . Furthermore, these electrodes show outstanding flexibility and high stability with 96% and 78% retention in specific capacitance after 1000 and 5000 cycles, respectively. The notable mechanical durability and robustness of the cell acquire both good flexibility and high performance. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Enrichment of Pyrrolic Nitrogen by Hole Defects in Nitrogen and Sulfur Co-Doped Graphene Hydrogel for Flexible Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Ngoc Quang; Kang, Bong Kyun; Woo, Moo Hyun; Yoon, Dae Ho

    2016-08-23

    The effect of the doping configuration and concentration of nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) on the electrochemical performance of 3 D N and S co-doped hole defect graphene hydrogel (NS-HGH) electrodes is investigated. Surprisingly, by introducing a hole defect on the graphene surface, the difference in the doping concentrations of N and S can be used to effectively modulate the electrochemical behavior of the NS-HGH. The hole defects provide a rapid ion diffusion path. Finally, we showed that the intriguing specific capacitance (536 F g(-1) ) of the NS-HGH could enhance the overall performance of the pseudocapacitance and electric double layer capacitance. The rational design of the NS-HGH-based flexible solid state supercapacitor results in not only outstanding electrochemical performance with a maximum energy density of 14.8 Wh kg(-1) and power density of 5.2 KW kg(-1) but also in extraordinary mechanical flexibility and excellent cycle stability. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Hybrid fibers made of molybdenum disulfide, reduced graphene oxide, and multi-walled carbon nanotubes for solid-state, flexible, asymmetric supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Gengzhi; Zhang, Xiao; Lin, Rongzhou; Yang, Jian; Zhang, Hua; Chen, Peng

    2015-04-07

    One of challenges existing in fiber-based supercapacitors is how to achieve high energy density without compromising their rate stability. Owing to their unique physical, electronic, and electrochemical properties, two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials, e.g., molybdenum disulfide (MoS2 ) and graphene, have attracted increasing research interest and been utilized as electrode materials in energy-related applications. Herein, by incorporating MoS2 and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanosheets into a well-aligned multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) sheet followed by twisting, MoS2 -rGO/MWCNT and rGO/MWCNT fibers are fabricated, which can be used as the anode and cathode, respectively, for solid-state, flexible, asymmetric supercapacitors. This fiber-based asymmetric supercapacitor can operate in a wide potential window of 1.4 V with high Coulombic efficiency, good rate and cycling stability, and improved energy density. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Extremely Durable, Flexible Supercapacitors with Greatly Improved Performance at High Temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Kon; Kim, Hae Jin; Lee, Jong-Chan; Braun, Paul V; Park, Ho Seok

    2015-08-25

    The reliability and durability of energy storage devices are as important as their essential characteristics (e.g., energy and power density) for stable power output and long lifespan and thus much more crucial under harsh conditions. However, energy storage under extreme conditions is still a big challenge because of unavoidable performance decays and the inevitable damage of components. Here, we report high-temperature operating, flexible supercapacitors (f-SCs) that can provide reliable power output and extreme durability under severe electrochemical, mechanical, and thermal conditions. The outstanding capacitive features (e.g., ∼40% enhancement of the rate capability and a maximum capacitances of 170 F g(-1) and 18.7 mF cm(-2) at 160 °C) are attributed to facilitated ion transport at elevated temperatures. Under high-temperature operation and/or a flexibility test in both static and dynamic modes at elevated temperatures >100 °C, the f-SCs showed extreme long-term stability of 100000 cycles (>93% of initial capacitance value) and mechanical durability after hundreds of bending cycles (at bend angles of 60-180°). Even at 120 °C, the versatile design of tandem serial and parallel f-SCs was demonstrated to provide both desirable energy and power requirements at high temperatures.

  9. Graphene based 2D-materials for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaniselvam, Thangavelu; Baek, Jong-Beom

    2015-09-01

    Ever-increasing energy demands and the depletion of fossil fuels are compelling humanity toward the development of suitable electrochemical energy conversion and storage devices to attain a more sustainable society with adequate renewable energy and zero environmental pollution. In this regard, supercapacitors are being contemplated as potential energy storage devices to afford cleaner, environmentally friendly energy. Recently, a great deal of attention has been paid to two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials, including 2D graphene and its inorganic analogues (transition metal double layer hydroxides, chalcogenides, etc), as potential electrodes for the development of supercapacitors with high electrochemical performance. This review provides an overview of the recent progress in using these graphene-based 2D materials as potential electrodes for supercapacitors. In addition, future research trends including notable challenges and opportunities are also discussed.

  10. Graphene based 2D-materials for supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palaniselvam, Thangavelu; Baek, Jong-Beom

    2015-01-01

    Ever-increasing energy demands and the depletion of fossil fuels are compelling humanity toward the development of suitable electrochemical energy conversion and storage devices to attain a more sustainable society with adequate renewable energy and zero environmental pollution. In this regard, supercapacitors are being contemplated as potential energy storage devices to afford cleaner, environmentally friendly energy. Recently, a great deal of attention has been paid to two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials, including 2D graphene and its inorganic analogues (transition metal double layer hydroxides, chalcogenides, etc), as potential electrodes for the development of supercapacitors with high electrochemical performance. This review provides an overview of the recent progress in using these graphene-based 2D materials as potential electrodes for supercapacitors. In addition, future research trends including notable challenges and opportunities are also discussed. (topical review)

  11. High Performance All-solid Supercapacitors Based on the Network of Ultralong Manganese dioxide/Polyaniline Coaxial Nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Junli; Yu, Lin; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Xiaodan; Mu, Wei; Du, Xu; Zhang, Zhe; Deng, Yulin

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, thin, lightweight and flexible solid supercapacitors are of considerable interest as energy storage devices. Here we demonstrated all-solid supercapacitors (SSCs) with high electrochemical properties, low self-discharge characteristics based on manganese dioxide/polyaniline (MNW/PANI) coaxial nanowire networks. The synergistic effect of MnO2/PANI plus the unique coaxial nanostructure of the ultralong nanowires with a highly interconnected network effectively enhance the conductivity and capacitive performance of the SSCs device. The MNW/PANI composite with 62.5% MnO2 exhibits an outstanding areal specific capacitance reaching 346 mF/cm2 at 5 mV s-1 which is significant higher than most previously reported solid supercapacitors (15.3 mF/cm2-109 mF/cm2) and is close to the that of the best graphene films solid state supercapacitors (372 mF/cm2). In contrast, only 190 mF/cm2 of areal specific capacitance was obtained for the pure MnO2 NW network. The supercapacitors also exhibited low leakage current as small as 20.1 μA, which demonstrated that the MNW/PANI SSCs have great potential for practical applications.

  12. Novel Integration of Perovskite Solar Cell and Supercapacitor Based on Carbon Electrode for Hybridizing Energy Conversion and Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhiyong; Zhong, Yan; Sun, Bo; Liu, Xingyue; Han, Jinghui; Shi, Tielin; Tang, Zirong; Liao, Guanglan

    2017-07-12

    Power packs integrating both photovoltaic parts and energy storage parts have gained great scientific and technological attention due to the increasing demand for green energy and the tendency for miniaturization and multifunctionalization in electronics industry. In this study, we demonstrate novel integration of perovskite solar cell and solid-state supercapacitor for power packs. The perovskite solar cell is integrated with the supercapacitor based on common carbon electrodes to hybridize photoelectric conversion and energy storage. The power pack achieves a voltage of 0.84 V when the supercapacitor is charged by the perovskite solar cell under the AM 1.5G white light illumination with a 0.071 cm 2 active area, reaching an energy storage proportion of 76% and an overall conversion efficiency of 5.26%. When the supercapacitor is precharged at 1.0 V, an instant overall output efficiency of 22.9% can be achieved if the perovskite solar cell and supercapacitor are connected in series, exhibiting great potential in the applications of solar energy storage and flexible electronics such as portable and wearable devices.

  13. High Performance All-solid Supercapacitors Based on the Network of Ultralong Manganese dioxide/Polyaniline Coaxial Nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Junli; Yu, Lin; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Xiaodan; Mu, Wei; Du, Xu; Zhang, Zhe; Deng, Yulin

    2015-12-08

    In recent years, thin, lightweight and flexible solid supercapacitors are of considerable interest as energy storage devices. Here we demonstrated all-solid supercapacitors (SSCs) with high electrochemical properties, low self-discharge characteristics based on manganese dioxide/polyaniline (MNW/PANI) coaxial nanowire networks. The synergistic effect of MnO2/PANI plus the unique coaxial nanostructure of the ultralong nanowires with a highly interconnected network effectively enhance the conductivity and capacitive performance of the SSCs device. The MNW/PANI composite with 62.5% MnO2 exhibits an outstanding areal specific capacitance reaching 346 mF/cm(2) at 5 mV s(-1) which is significant higher than most previously reported solid supercapacitors (15.3 mF/cm(2)-109 mF/cm(2)) and is close to the that of the best graphene films solid state supercapacitors (372 mF/cm(2)). In contrast, only 190 mF/cm(2) of areal specific capacitance was obtained for the pure MnO2 NW network. The supercapacitors also exhibited low leakage current as small as 20.1 μA, which demonstrated that the MNW/PANI SSCs have great potential for practical applications.

  14. Gas-Phase Functionalization of Macroscopic Carbon Nanotube Fiber Assemblies: Reaction Control, Electrochemical Properties, and Use for Flexible Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, Daniel; Senokos, Evgeny; Alemán, Belén; Cabana, Laura; Navío, Cristina; Marcilla, Rebeca; Prato, Maurizio; Vilatela, Juan J; Marchesan, Silvia

    2018-02-14

    The assembly of aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) into fibers (CNTFs) is a convenient approach to exploit and apply the unique physico-chemical properties of CNTs in many fields. CNT functionalization has been extensively used for its implementation into composites and devices. However, CNTF functionalization is still in its infancy because of the challenges associated with preservation of CNTF morphology. Here, we report a thorough study of the gas-phase functionalization of CNTF assemblies using ozone which was generated in situ from a UV source. In contrast with liquid-based oxidation methods, this gas-phase approach preserves CNTF morphology, while notably increasing its hydrophilicity. The functionalized material is thoroughly characterized by Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. Its newly acquired hydrophilicity enables CNTF electrochemical characterization in aqueous media, which was not possible for the pristine material. Through comparison of electrochemical measurements in aqueous electrolytes and ionic liquids, we decouple the effects of functionalization on pseudocapacitive reactions and quantum capacitance. The functionalized CNTF assembly is successfully used as an active material and a current collector in all-solid supercapacitor flexible devices with an ionic liquid-based polymer electrolyte.

  15. Polyampholyte hydrogel electrolytes for flexible and self-healing aqueous supercapacitor for low temperature applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hyun-Joong; Li, Xinda

    Quenched polyampholytes provide a novel class of tough hydrogel that has self-healing ability, strong adhesion, and mechanical flexibility. In this study, we show that the polyampholyte hydrogels can be utilized as an aqueous gel electrolyte material that is especially useful for low temperature operations; at -30 °C, energy density of 10.5 Wh/kg at a power density of 500 W/kg was achieved. The high performance at the low temperature is associated to the concept of non-freezable water near the hydrophilic polymer chains. A comparison between differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurements for polyampholytes that contained KOH and neat KOH solution revealed that increased amount of water molecules become non-freezable when the solution is contained in the hydrogel networks. In addition, the crosslinked network structure of the polyampholyte chains disrupts the crystalline growth of ice, resulting in `slush-like' ice formation. The interplay between the increased amount of unfrozen water and the limited growth of ice crystals leads to the enhanced supercapacitor performance at low temperatures.

  16. Self-supporting activated carbon/carbon nanotube/reduced graphene oxide flexible electrode for high performance supercapacitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xing; Tang, Yao; Song, Junhua; Yang, Wei; Wang, Mingshan; Zhu, Chengzhou; Zhao, Wengao; Zheng, Jianming; Lin, Yuehe

    2018-04-30

    A self-supporting and flexible activated carbon/carbon nanotube/reduced graphene oxide (AC/CNT/RGO) film has been rationally designed for constructing high- performance supercapacitor. The AC/CNT/RGO film is prepared by anchoring the AC particles with a 3D and porous framework built by hierarchically weaving the 1 D CNT and 2D RGO using their intrinsic van der Waals force. The CNT network is beneficial for improving the electronic conductivity of the electrode, while the AC particles could effectively suppress the aggregation of RGO and CNT due to their blocking effect. The synergistic effects among the AC, CNT and RGO validate the AC/CNT/RGO as a promising electrode for supercapacitor, exhibiting greatly enhanced electrochemical performances in comparison with the pure RGO film, pure CNT film and AC electrode. The AC/CNT/RGO electrode delivers a high specific capacitance of 101 F g-1 at the current density of 0.2 A g-1, offering a maximum energy density of 30.0 W h kg-1 in organic electrolyte at the cut-off voltage range of 0.001~3.0 V. The findings of this work open a new avenue for the design of self-supporting electrodes for the development of flexible and light weight energy storage supercapacitor.

  17. Carbon nanotube/metal-sulfide composite flexible electrodes for high-performance quantum dot-sensitized solar cells and supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muralee Gopi, Chandu V V; Ravi, Seenu; Rao, S Srinivasa; Eswar Reddy, Araveeti; Kim, Hee-Je

    2017-04-19

    Carbon nanotubes (CNT) and metal sulfides have attracted considerable attention owing to their outstanding properties and multiple application areas, such as electrochemical energy conversion and energy storage. Here we describes a cost-effective and facile solution approach to the preparation of metal sulfides (PbS, CuS, CoS, and NiS) grown directly on CNTs, such as CNT/PbS, CNT/CuS, CNT/CoS, and CNT/NiS flexible electrodes for quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs) and supercapacitors (SCs). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy confirmed that the CNT network was covered with high-purity metal sulfide compounds. QDSSCs equipped with the CNT/NiS counter electrode (CE) showed an impressive energy conversion efficiency (η) of 6.41% and remarkable stability. Interestingly, the assembled symmetric CNT/NiS-based polysulfide SC device exhibited a maximal energy density of 35.39 W h kg -1 and superior cycling durability with 98.39% retention after 1,000 cycles compared to the other CNT/metal-sulfides. The elevated performance of the composites was attributed mainly to the good conductivity, high surface area with mesoporous structures and stability of the CNTs and the high electrocatalytic activity of the metal sulfides. Overall, the designed composite CNT/metal-sulfide electrodes offer an important guideline for the development of next level energy conversion and energy storage devices.

  18. Recycling supercapacitors based on shredding and mild thermal treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Guozhan; Pickering, Stephen J

    2016-02-01

    Supercapacitors are widely used in electric and hybrid vehicles, wind farm and low-power equipment due to their high specific power density and huge number of charge-discharge cycles. Waste supercapacitors should be recycled according to EU directive 2002/96/EC on waste electric and electronic equipment. This paper describes a recycling approach for end-of-life supercapacitors based on shredding and mild thermal treatment. At first, supercapacitors are shredded using a Retsch cutting mill. The shredded mixture is then undergone thermal treatment at 200°C to recycle the organic solvent contained in the activated carbon electrodes. After the thermal treatment, the mixture is roughly separated using a fluidized bed method to remove the aluminium foil particles and paper particles from the activated carbon particles, which is subsequently put into water for a wet shredding into fine particles that can be re-used. The recycled activated carbon has a BET surface area of up to 1200m(2)/g and the recycled acetonitrile has a high purity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Graphene-polyethylenedioxythiophene conducting polymer nanocomposite based supercapacitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvi, Farah; Ram, Manoj K.; Basnayaka, Punya A.; Stefanakos, Elias; Goswami, Yogi; Kumar, Ashok

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Schematic diagrams of an electrochemical double layer type capacitor showing the charged (left) and discharged (right) states. Highlights: → The Graphene-PEDOT nanocomposite based smart coating has shown the excellent redox properties in acidic, organic electrolytes, which is promising for suprecapcitor application. → The electrochemical impedance studies have also been estimated which clearly indicates the high conductivity and less charge transfer resistance in the synthesized material. → The specific capacitance of 380F/g have been calculated for G-Pedot material, also it shows the columbic efficiency of 95% for 800 cycles, which tells the remarkable stability of synthesized material. - Abstract: We present here the synthesis, characterization and application of graphene (G)-polyethylenedioxythiophene (PEDOT) nanocomposites as electrode material for supercapacitor applications. The G-PEDOT nanocomposite was synthesized using a chemical oxidative polymerization technique, and characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman spectroscopy, FTIR spectroscopy, X-ray-diffraction, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and cyclic voltammetry (CV) techniques. The electrochemical charge/discharge characteristics of G-PEDOT nanocomposites were investigated in different electrolytic media, and the specific discharge capacitance was estimated to be 374 Farad/gram (F/gm). This manuscript presents the capacitance studies on supercapacitor G-PEDOT electrode with respect to stability of material, specific capacitance, electrical conductivity and specific charge/discharge properties of the supercapacitor electrodes. Our study has revealed that the G-PEDOT nanocomposite could be a transformable and viable electrode material for supercapacitor applications.

  20. Self-Stacked Reduced Graphene Oxide Nanosheets Coated with Cobalt-Nickel Hydroxide by One-Step Electrochemical Deposition toward Flexible Electrochromic Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grote, Fabian; Yu, Zi-You; Wang, Jin-Long; Yu, Shu-Hong; Lei, Yong

    2015-09-01

    The implementation of an optical function into supercapacitors is an innovative approach to make energy storage devices smarter and to meet the requirements of smart electronics. Here, it is reported for the first time that nickel-cobalt hydroxide on reduced graphene oxide can be utilized for flexible electrochromic supercapacitors. A new and straightforward one-step electrochemical deposition process is introduced that is capable of simultaneously reducing GO and depositing amorphous Co(1-x)Ni(x)(OH)2 on the rGO. It is shown that the rGO nanosheets are homogeneously coated with metal hydroxide and are vertically stacked. No high temperature processes are used so that flexible polymer-based substrates can be coated. The synthesized self-stacked rGO-Co(1-x)Ni(x)(OH)2 nanosheet material exhibits pseudocapacitive charge storage behavior with excellent rate capability, high Columbic efficiency, and nondiffusion limited behavior. It is shown that the electrochemical behavior of the Ni(OH)2 can be modulated, by simultaneously depositing nickel and cobalt hydroxide, into broad oxidization and reduction bands. Further, the material exhibits electrochromic property and can switch between a bleached and transparent state. Literature comparison reveals that the performance characteristics of the rGO-Co(1-x)Ni(x)(OH)2 nanosheet material, in terms of gravimetric capacitance, areal capacitance, and long-term cycling stability, are among the highest reported values of supercapacitors with electrochromic property. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Coaxial CoMoO4 nanowire arrays with chemically integrated conductive coating for high-performance flexible all-solid-state asymmetric supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yaping; Liu, Borui; Liu, Qi; Wang, Jun; Li, Zhanshuang; Jing, Xiaoyan; Liu, Lianhe

    2015-09-01

    Flexible all-solid-state supercapacitors have offered promising applications as novel energy storage devices based on their merits, such as small size, low cost, light weight and high wearability for high-performance portable electronics. However, one major challenge to make flexible all-solid-state supercapacitors depends on the improvement of electrode materials with higher electrical conductivity properties and longer cycling stability. In this article, we put forward a simple strategy to in situ synthesize 1D CoMoO4 nanowires (NWs), using highly conductive CC and an electrically conductive PPy wrapping layer on CoMoO4 NW arrays for high performance electrode materials. The results show that the CoMoO4/PPy hybrid NW electrode exhibits a high areal specific capacitance of ca. 1.34 F cm-2 at a current density of 2 mA cm-2, which is remarkably better than the corresponding values for a pure CoMoO4 NW electrode of 0.7 F cm-2. An excellent cycling performance of nanocomposites of up to 95.2% (ca. 1.12 F cm-2) is achieved after 2000 cycles compared to pristine CoMoO4 NWs. In addition, we fabricate flexible all-solid-state ASC which can be cycled reversibly in the voltage range of 0-1.7 V, and exhibits a maximum energy density of 104.7 W h kg-1 (3.522 mW h cm-3), demonstrating great potential for practical applications in flexible energy storage electronics.Flexible all-solid-state supercapacitors have offered promising applications as novel energy storage devices based on their merits, such as small size, low cost, light weight and high wearability for high-performance portable electronics. However, one major challenge to make flexible all-solid-state supercapacitors depends on the improvement of electrode materials with higher electrical conductivity properties and longer cycling stability. In this article, we put forward a simple strategy to in situ synthesize 1D CoMoO4 nanowires (NWs), using highly conductive CC and an electrically conductive PPy wrapping layer on

  2. A Comparison of Electrolytic Capacitors and Supercapacitors for Piezo-Based Energy Harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    A Comparison of Electrolytic Capacitors and Supercapacitors for Piezo-Based Energy Harvesting by Matthew H. Ervin, Carlos M. Pereira, John R...Capacitors and Supercapacitors for Piezo-Based Energy Harvesting Matthew H. Ervin Sensors and Electronic Devices Directorate, ARL Carlos M. Pereira... Supercapacitors for Piezo-Based Energy Harvesting 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Matthew H

  3. Graphene-Based Linear Tandem Micro-Supercapacitors with Metal-Free Current Collectors and High-Voltage Output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiaoyu; Wu, Zhong-Shuai; Qin, Jieqiong; Zheng, Shuanghao; Wang, Sen; Zhou, Feng; Sun, Chenglin; Bao, Xinhe

    2017-11-01

    Printable supercapacitors are regarded as a promising class of microscale power source, but are facing challenges derived from conventional sandwich-like geometry. Herein, the printable fabrication of new-type planar graphene-based linear tandem micro-supercapacitors (LTMSs) on diverse substrates with symmetric and asymmetric configuration, high-voltage output, tailored capacitance, and outstanding flexibility is demonstrated. The resulting graphene-based LTMSs consisting of 10 micro-supercapacitors (MSs) present efficient high-voltage output of 8.0 V, suggestive of superior uniformity of the entire integrated device. Meanwhile, LTMSs possess remarkable flexibility without obvious capacitance degradation under different bending states. Moreover, areal capacitance of LTMSs can be sufficiently modulated by incorporating polyaniline-based pseudocapacitive nanosheets into graphene electrodes, showing enhanced capacitance of 7.6 mF cm -2 . To further improve the voltage output and energy density, asymmetric LTMSs are fabricated through controlled printing of linear-patterned graphene as negative electrodes and MnO 2 nanosheets as positive electrodes. Notably, the asymmetric LTMSs from three serially connected MSs are easily extended to 5.4 V, triple voltage output of the single cell (1.8 V), suggestive of the versatile applicability of this technique. Therefore, this work offers numerous opportunities of graphene and analogous nanosheets for one-step scalable fabrication of flexible tandem energy storage devices integrating with printed electronics on same substrate. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Porous honeycomb structures formed from interconnected MnO2 sheets on CNT-coated substrates for flexible all-solid-state supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Wen-Yin; Chen, You-Feng; Lu, Ke-Ming; Lin, Kuan-Jiuh

    2016-01-01

    The use of lightweight and easily-fabricated MnO2/carbon nanotube (CNT)-based flexible networks as binder-free electrodes and a polyvinyl alcohol/H2SO4 electrolyte for the formation of stretchable solid-state supercapacitors was examined. The active electrodes were fabricated from 3D honeycomb porous MnO2 assembled from cross-walled and interconnected sheet-architectural MnO2 on CNT-based plastic substrates (denoted as honeycomb MnO2/CNT textiles).These substrates were fabricated through a simple two-step procedure involving the coating of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) onto commercial textiles by a dipping-drying process and subsequent electrodeposition of the interconnected MnO2 sheets onto the MWCNT-coated textile. With such unique MnO2 architectures integrated onto CNT flexible films, good performance was achieved with a specific capacitance of 324 F/g at 0.5 A/g. A maximum energy density of 7.2 Wh/kg and a power density as high as 3.3 kW/kg were exhibited by the honeycomb MnO2/CNT network device, which is comparable to the performance of other carbon-based and metal oxide/carbon-based solid-state supercapacitor devices. Specifically, the long-term cycling stability of this material is excellent, with almost no loss of its initial capacitance and good Coulombic efficiency of 82% after 5000 cycles. These impressive results identify these materials as a promising candidate for use in environmentally friendly, low-cost, and high-performance flexible energy-storage devices. PMID:26726724

  5. Flexible Fe3O4@Carbon Nanofibers Hierarchically Assembled with MnO2 Particles for High-Performance Supercapacitor Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Nousheen; Wang, Xianfeng; Babar, Aijaz Ahmed; Zainab, Ghazala; Yu, Jianyong; Ding, Bin

    2017-11-09

    Increasing use of wearable electronic devices have resulted in enhanced demand for highly flexible supercapacitor electrodes with superior electrochemical performance. In this study, flexible composite membranes with electrosprayed MnO 2 particles uniformly anchored on Fe 3 O 4 doped electrospun carbon nanofibers (Fe 3 O 4 @CNF Mn ) have been prepared as flexible electrodes for high-performance supercapacitors. The interconnected porous beaded structure ensures free movement of electrolyte within the composite membranes, therefore, the developed supercapacitor electrodes not only offer high specific capacitance of ~306 F/g, but also exhibit good capacitance retention of ~85% after 2000 cycles, which certify that the synthesized electrodes offer high and stable electrochemical performance. Additionally, the supercapacitors fabricated from our developed electrodes well maintain their performance under flexural stress and exhibit a very minute change in specific capacitance even up to 180° bending angle. The developed electrode fabrication strategy integrating electrospinning and electrospray techniques paves new insights into the development of potential functional nanofibrous materials for light weight and flexible wearable supercapacitors.

  6. Supercapacitors based on graphene/pseudocapacitive materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sačer Denis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Composites of graphene and SnO2 were successfully prepared by a single step simultaneous synthesis of SnO2 and reduction of graphene oxide (GO. Three different compositions of precursor solution resulted in different composite materials containing graphene and SnO2. The reaction was realized by microwave-assisted hydrothermal synthesis. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX gave insight into the morphology and composition of the obtained materials. Good capacitive/pseudocapacitive properties of the obtained material suitable for supercapacitor application were registered by cyclic voltammetry, from where specific capacitance values up to 93 F g-1 were determined. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 172060

  7. Interface control in BaTiO3 based supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maglione, Mario; Elissalde, Catherine; Chung, U.-Chan

    2010-03-01

    Core shell BaTiO3 based particles sintered using advanced processes provide a high control of grain boundaries in bulk composites. As a result, supercapacitor behavior was evidenced which came from the balance between inner grain conductivity and grain boundary dielectric barrier. Thanks to the core-shell structure of the starting particles, improved control of the effective dielectric parameters can be achieved.

  8. WO{sub 3-x} rate at Au rate at MnO{sub 2} core-shell nanowires on carbon fabric for high-performance flexible supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Xihong; Zhai, Teng [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics (WNLO), College of Optoelectronic Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST), Wuhan (China); School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Zhang, Xianghui; Shen, Yongqi; Yuan, Longyan; Hu, Bin; Gao, Yihua; Zhou, Jun [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics (WNLO), College of Optoelectronic Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST), Wuhan (China); Gong, Li; Chen, Jian [Instrumental Analysis and Research Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Tong, Yexiang [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Wang, Zhong Lin [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics (WNLO), College of Optoelectronic Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST), Wuhan (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia (United States)

    2012-02-14

    WO{sub 3-x} rate at Au rate at MnO{sub 2} core-shell nanowires (NWs) are synthesized on a flexible carbon fabric and show outstanding electrochemical performance in supercapacitors such as high specific capacitance, good cyclic stability, high energy density, and high power density. These results suggest that the WO{sub 3-x} rate at Au rate at MnO{sub 2} NWs have promising potential for use in high-performance flexible supercapacitors. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  9. WO3–x@Au@MnO2 core–shell nanowires on carbon fabric for high-performance flexible supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xihong; Zhai, Teng; Zhang, Xianghui; Shen, Yongqi; Yuan, Longyan; Hu, Bin; Gong, Li; Chen, Jian; Gao, Yihua; Zhou, Jun; Tong, Yexiang; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2012-02-14

    WO3–x@Au@MnO2 core–shell nanowires (NWs) are synthesized on a flexible carbon fabric and show outstanding electrochemical performance in supercapacitors such as high specific capacitance, good cyclic stability, high energy density, and high power density. These results suggest that the WO3–x@Au@MnO2 NWs have promising potential for use in high-performance flexible supercapacitors. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. A systematic optimization for graphene-based supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deuk Lee, Sung; Lee, Han Sung; Kim, Jin Young; Jeong, Jaesik; Kahng, Yung Ho

    2017-08-01

    Increasing the energy-storage density for supercapacitors is critical for their applications. Many researchers have attempted to identify optimal candidate component materials to achieve this goal, but investigations into systematically optimizing their mixing rate for maximizing the performance of each candidate material have been insufficient, which hinders the progress in their technology. In this study, we employ a statistically systematic method to determine the optimum mixing ratio of three components that constitute graphene-based supercapacitor electrodes: reduced graphene oxide (rGO), acetylene black (AB), and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF). By using the extreme-vertices design, the optimized proportion is determined to be (rGO: AB: PVDF  =  0.95: 0.00: 0.05). The corresponding energy-storage density increases by a factor of 2 compared with that of non-optimized electrodes. Electrochemical and microscopic analyses are performed to determine the reason for the performance improvements.

  11. Carbon-Based Fibrous EDLC Capacitors and Supercapacitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Lekakou

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates electrochemical double-layer capacitors (EDLCs including two alternative types of carbon-based fibrous electrodes, a carbon fibre woven fabric (CWF and a multiwall carbon nanotube (CNT electrode, as well as hybrid CWF-CNT electrodes. Two types of separator membranes were also considered. An organic gel electrolyte PEO-LiCIO4-EC-THF was used to maintain a high working voltage. The capacitor cells were tested in cyclic voltammetry, charge-discharge, and impedance tests. The best separator was a glass fibre-fine pore filter. The carbon woven fabric electrode and the corresponding supercapacitor exhibited superior performance per unit area, whereas the multiwall carbon nanotube electrode and corresponding supercapacitor demonstrated excellent specific properties. The hybrid CWF-CNT electrodes did not show a combined improved performance due to the lack of carbon nanotube penetration into the carbon fibre fabric.

  12. Transparent and Stretchable High-Performance Supercapacitors Based on Wrinkled Graphene Electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-18

    2, 870–875. 38. Chen, T.; Dai, L. Carbon Nanomaterials for High- Performance Supercapacitors . Mater. Today 2013, 16, 272–280. 39. Stoller, M. D...High-Performance Supercapacitors Based onWrinkledGraphene Electrodes Tao Chen,† Yuhua Xue,† Ajit K. Roy,‡ and Liming Dai†,* †Center of Advanced Science...electrodes and the associated supercapacitor cells cannot be both trans- parent and stretchable.1318 It is highly desirable to integrate the

  13. Hierarchical polypyrrole based composites for high performance asymmetric supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gao-Feng; Liu, Zhao-Qing; Lin, Jia-Ming; Li, Nan; Su, Yu-Zhi

    2015-06-01

    An advanced asymmetric supercapacitor with high energy density, exploiting hierarchical polypyrrole (PPy) based composites as both the anode [three dimensional (3D) chuzzle-like Ni@PPy@MnO2] and (3D cochleate-like Ni@MnO2@PPy) cathode, has been developed. The ultrathin PPy and flower-like MnO2 orderly coating on the high-conductivity 3D-Ni enhance charge storage while the unique 3D chuzzle-like and 3D cochleate-like structures provide storage chambers and fast ion transport pathways for benefiting the transport of electrolyte ions. The 3D cochleate-like Ni@MnO2@PPy possesses excellent pseudocapacitance with a relatively negative voltage window while preserved EDLC and free transmission channels conducive to hold the high power, providing an ideal cathode for the asymmetric supercapacitor. It is the first report of assembling hierarchical PPy based composites as both the anode and cathode for asymmetric supercapacitor, which exhibits wide operation voltage of 1.3-1.5 V with maximum energy and power densities of 59.8 Wh kg-1 and 7500 W kg-1.

  14. Solid-state supercapacitors with ionic liquid gel polymer electrolyte based on poly (3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene), carbon nanotubes, and metal oxides nanocomposites for electrical energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeidat, Amr M.

    studied in solid-state design based on PEDOT and graphene electrodes that produced areal capacitance density of 198.26 mF cm-2. Symmetrical PEDOT-manganese oxide nanocomposites were synthesized by co-deposition and dip-coating techniques to fabricate solid-state supercapacitor systems achieving areal capacitance density of 122.08 mF cm-2 credited to the PEDOT-MnO2 supercapacitor that was synthesized by dipping the PEDOT electrode in pure KMnO4 solution. The electrochemical performance of PEDOT-carbon nanotube solid-state supercapacitors was also investigated in both acetonitrile and aqueous medium showing good dispersion characteristics with optimum CNT content of 1 mg. The PEDOT-CNT solid-state supercapacitor system synthesized in acetonitrile displayed areal capacitance density of 297.43 mF cm-2. PEDOT-Fe2O3 nanocomposites were synthesized by single-step co-deposition techniques, and these were used to fabricate solid-state supercapacitors achieving areal capacitance density of 96.89 mF cm-2. Furthermore, some of these thin flexible solid-state supercapacitors were integrated with solar cells for direct storage of solar electricity, which proved to be promising as autonomous power source for flexible and wearable electronics. This dissertation describes the electrode synthesis, design and properties of solid-state supercapacitors, and their electrochemical performance in the storage of electrical energy.

  15. Core-Shell Composite Fibers for High-Performance Flexible Supercapacitor Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaoyan; Shen, Chen; Zhang, Zeyang; Barrios, Elizabeth; Zhai, Lei

    2018-01-31

    Core-shell nanofibers containing poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and manganese oxide nanoparticles as the core and polypyrrole (PPy) as the shell were fabricated through electrospinning the solution of PAA and manganese ions (PAA/Mn 2+ ). The obtained nanofibers were stabilized by Fe 3+ through the interaction between Fe 3+ ions and carboxylate groups. Subsequent oxidation of Mn 2+ by KMnO 4 produced uniform manganese dioxide (MnO 2 ) nanoparticles in the fibers. A PPy shell was created on the fibers by immersing the fibers in a pyrrole solution where the Fe 3+ ions in the fiber polymerized the pyrrole on the fiber surfaces. In the MnO 2 @PAA/PPy core-shell composite fibers, MnO 2 nanoparticles function as high-capacity materials, while the PPy shell prevents the loss of MnO 2 during the charge/discharge process. Such a unique structure makes the composite fibers efficient electrode materials for supercapacitors. The gravimetric specific capacity of the MnO 2 @PAA/PPy core-shell composite fibers was 564 F/g based on cyclic voltammetry curves at 10 mV/s and 580 F/g based on galvanostatic charge/discharge studies at 5 A/g. The MnO 2 @PAA/PPy core-shell composite fibers also present stable cycling performance with 100% capacitance retention after 5000 cycles.

  16. Flexible Nb2O5 nanowires/graphene film electrode for high-performance hybrid Li-ion supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hao; Fu, Jijiang; Ding, Kang; Huang, Chao; Wu, Kai; Zhang, Xuming; Gao, Biao; Huo, Kaifu; Peng, Xiang; Chu, Paul K.

    2016-10-01

    The hybrid Li-ion electrochemical supercapacitor (Li-HSC) combining the battery-like anode with capacitive cathode is a promising energy storage device boasting large energy and power densities. Orthorhombic Nb2O5 is a good anode material in Li-HSCs because of its large pseudocapacitive Li-ion intercalation capacity. Herein, we report a high-performance, binder-free and flexible anode consisting of long Nb2O5 nanowires and graphene (L-Nb2O5 NWs/rGO). The paper-like L-Nb2O5 NWs/rGO film electrode has a large mass loading of Nb2O5 of 93.5 wt% as well as short solid-state ion diffusion length, and enhanced conductivity (5.1 S cm-1). The hybrid L-Nb2O5 NWs/rGO paper electrode shows a high reversible specific capacity of 160 mA h g-1 at a current density of 0.2 A g-1, superior rate capability with capacitance retention of 60% when the current density increases from 0.2 to 5 A g-1, as well as excellent cycle stability. The Li-HSC device based on the L-Nb2O5/rGO anode and the cathode of biomass-derived carbon nanosheets delivers an energy density of 106 Wh kg-1 at 580 W kg-1 and 32 Wh kg-1 at a large power density of 14 kW kg-1. Moreover, the Li-HSC device exhibits excellent cycling performance without obvious capacitance decay after 1000 cycles.

  17. Ultrathin porous NiCo2O4 nanosheet arrays on flexible carbon fabric for high-performance supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jun; Zhou, Gang; Zhang, Haiming; Cheng, Chao; Ma, Jianmin; Wei, Weifeng; Chen, Libao; Wang, Taihong

    2013-08-14

    NiCo2O4 with higher specific capacitance is an excellent pseudocapacitive material. However, the bulk NiCo2O4 material prevents the achievement of high energy desity and great rate performance due to the limited electroactive surface area. In this work, NiCo2O4 nanosheet arrays were deposited on flexible carbon fabric (CF) as a high-performance electrode for supercapacitors. The NiCo2O4 arrays were constructed by interconnected ultrathin nanosheets (10 nm) with many interparticle pores. The porous feature of NiCo2O4 nanosheets increases the amount of electroactive sites and facilitates the electrolyte penetration. Hence, the NiCo2O4/CF composites exhibited a high specific capacitance of 2658 F g(-1) (2 A g(-1)), good rate performance, and superior cycling life, suggesting the NiCo2O4/CF is a promising electrode material for flexible electrochemical capacitors.

  18. Interconnecting Carbon Fibers with the In-situ Electrochemically Exfoliated Graphene as Advanced Binder-free Electrode Materials for Flexible Supercapacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yuqin; Wang, Shuangyin

    2015-07-07

    Flexible energy storage devices are highly demanded for various applications. Carbon cloth (CC) woven by carbon fibers (CFs) is typically used as electrode or current collector for flexible devices. The low surface area of CC and the presence of big gaps (ca. micro-size) between individual CFs lead to poor performance. Herein, we interconnect individual CFs through the in-situ exfoliated graphene with high surface area by the electrochemical intercalation method. The interconnected CFs are used as both current collector and electrode materials for flexible supercapacitors, in which the in-situ exfoliated graphene act as active materials and conductive "binders". The in-situ electrochemical intercalation technique ensures the low contact resistance between electrode (graphene) and current collector (carbon cloth) with enhanced conductivity. The as-prepared electrode materials show significantly improved performance for flexible supercapacitors.

  19. Highly Stretchable Supercapacitors Based on Aligned Carbon Nanotube/Molybdenum Disulfide Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Tian; Yao, Yao; Li, Ning; Chen, Tao

    2016-08-01

    Stretchable supercapacitors that can sustain their performance under unpredictable tensile force are important elements for practical applications of various portable and wearable electronics. However, the stretchability of most reported supercapacitors was often lower than 100 % because of the limitation of the electrodes used. Herein we developed all-solid-state supercapacitors with a stretchability as high as 240 % by using aligned carbon nanotube composites with compact structure as electrodes. By combined with pseudocapacitive molybdenum disulfide nanosheets, the newly developed supercapacitor showed a specific capacitance of 13.16 F cm(-3) , and also showed excellent cycling retention (98 %) after 10 000 charge-discharge cycles. This work also presents a general and effective approach in developing high-performance electrodes for flexible and stretchable electronics. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Assembling nitrogen and oxygen co-doped graphene quantum dots onto hierarchical carbon networks for all-solid-state flexible supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Zhen; Li, Yanfeng; Wang, Liang; Cao, Ling; Liu, Xiang; Chen, Zhiwen; Pan, Dengyu; Wu, Minghong

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The all-carbon ternary flexible electrodes have been fabricated by the electrode deposition of nitrogen and oxygen co-doped single-crystalline GQDs. • The flexible electrodes deliver ultrahigh specific capacitance (461 mF cm"−"2) by inducing a high concentration of active nitrogen and oxygen at edge. • Symmetrical N-O-GQD/CNT/CC all-solid-state flexible supercapacitors offer energy density up to 32 μWh cm"−"2 and demonstrate the good stability, high flexibility, and folding ability under different deformations. • Nitrogen and oxygen co-doped GQDs can function as a highly active, solution-processable pseudocapacitive materials applicable to high-performance supercapacitors. - Abstract: We present a novel approach for hierarchical fabrication of high-performance, all-solid-state, flexible supercapacitors from environmentally friendly all-carbon materials. Three-dimensional carbon nanotube/carbon cloth network (CNT/CC) is used as a conductive, flexible and free-standing scaffold for the electro-deposition of highly N/O co-doped graphene quantum dots to form the high-activity, all-carbon electrodes. The hierarchical structure of the CNT/CC network with high electrical conductivity and high surface area provides improved conductive pathways for the efficient activation of GQDs with high pseudocapacitance and electrical double layer capacitance. The obtained N-O-GQD/CNT/CC electrodes for all-solid-state flexible supercapacitors exhibit an ultrahigh areal capacitance of up to 461 mF cm"−"2 at a current density of 0.5 mA cm"−"2, while keeping high rate and cyclic performances. This work highlights the great potential of highly active GQDs in the construction of high-performance flexible energy-storage devices.

  1. Recent progress in hollow sphere-based electrodes for high-performance supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Chen, Min; Wu, Limin

    2016-08-01

    Hollow spheres have drawn much attention in the area of energy storage and conversion, especially in high-performance supercapacitors owing to their well-defined morphologies, uniform size, low density and large surface area. And quite some significant breakthroughs have been made in advanced supercapacitor electrode materials with hollow sphere structures. In this review, we summarize and discuss the synthesis and application of hollow spheres with controllable structure and morphology as electrode materials for supercapacitors. First, we briefly introduce the fabrication strategies of hollow spheres for electrode materials. Then, we discuss in detail the recent advances in various hollow sphere-based electrode materials for supercapacitors, including single-shelled, yolk-shelled, urchin-like, double-shelled, multi-shelled, and mesoporous hollow structure-based symmetric and asymmetric supercapacitor devices. We conclude this review with some perspectives on the future research and development of the hollow sphere-based electrode materials.

  2. Recent progress in hollow sphere-based electrodes for high-performance supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Chen, Min; Wu, Limin

    2016-08-26

    Hollow spheres have drawn much attention in the area of energy storage and conversion, especially in high-performance supercapacitors owing to their well-defined morphologies, uniform size, low density and large surface area. And quite some significant breakthroughs have been made in advanced supercapacitor electrode materials with hollow sphere structures. In this review, we summarize and discuss the synthesis and application of hollow spheres with controllable structure and morphology as electrode materials for supercapacitors. First, we briefly introduce the fabrication strategies of hollow spheres for electrode materials. Then, we discuss in detail the recent advances in various hollow sphere-based electrode materials for supercapacitors, including single-shelled, yolk-shelled, urchin-like, double-shelled, multi-shelled, and mesoporous hollow structure-based symmetric and asymmetric supercapacitor devices. We conclude this review with some perspectives on the future research and development of the hollow sphere-based electrode materials.

  3. Carbon nanotube network film directly grown on carbon cloth for high-performance solid-state flexible supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Cheng; Liu, Jinping

    2014-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have received increasing attention as electrode materials for high-performance supercapacitors. We herein present a straightforward method to synthesize CNT films directly on carbon cloths as electrodes for all-solid-state flexible supercapacitors (AFSCs). The as-made highly conductive electrodes possess a three-dimensional (3D) network architecture for fast ion diffusion and good flexibility, leading to an AFSC with a specific capacitance of 106.1 F g −1 , an areal capacitance of 38.75 mF cm −2 , an ultralong cycle life of 100 000 times (capacitance retention: 99%), a good rate capability (can scan at 1000 mV s −1 , at which the capacitance is still ∼37.8% of that at 5 mV s −1 ), a high energy density (2.4 μW h cm −2 ) and a high power density (19 mW cm −2 ). Moreover, our AFSC maintains excellent electrochemical attributes even with serious shape deformation (bending, folding, etc), high mechanical pressure (63 kPa) and a wide temperature window (up to 100 ° C). After charging for only 5 s, three such AFSC devices connected in series can efficiently power a red round LED for 60 s. Our work could pave the way for the design of practical AFSCs, which are expected to be used for various flexible portable/wearable electronic devices in the future. (paper)

  4. A novel flexible capacitive touch pad based on graphene oxide film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, He; Yang, Yi; Xie, Dan; Ren, Tian-Ling; Shu, Yi; Zhou, Chang-Jian; Sun, Hui; Liu, Xuan; Zhang, Cang-Hai

    2013-01-01

    Recently, graphene oxide (GO) supercapacitors with ultra-high energy densities have received significant attention. In addition to energy storage, GO capacitors might also have broad applications in renewable energy engineering, such as vibration and sound energy harvesting. Here, we experimentally create a macroscopic flexible capacitive touch pad based on GO film. An obvious touch ``ON'' to ``OFF'' voltage ratio up to ~60 has been observed. Moreover, we tested the capacitor structure on both flat and curved surfaces and it showed high response sensitivity under fast touch rates. Collectively, our results raise the exciting prospect that the realization of macroscopic flexible keyboards with large-area graphene based materials is technologically feasible, which may open up important applications in control and interface design for solar cells, speakers, supercapacitors, batteries and MEMS systems.

  5. A novel flexible capacitive touch pad based on graphene oxide film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, He; Yang, Yi; Xie, Dan; Ren, Tian-Ling; Shu, Yi; Zhou, Chang-Jian; Sun, Hui; Liu, Xuan; Zhang, Cang-Hai

    2013-02-07

    Recently, graphene oxide (GO) supercapacitors with ultra-high energy densities have received significant attention. In addition to energy storage, GO capacitors might also have broad applications in renewable energy engineering, such as vibration and sound energy harvesting. Here, we experimentally create a macroscopic flexible capacitive touch pad based on GO film. An obvious touch "ON" to "OFF" voltage ratio up to ∼60 has been observed. Moreover, we tested the capacitor structure on both flat and curved surfaces and it showed high response sensitivity under fast touch rates. Collectively, our results raise the exciting prospect that the realization of macroscopic flexible keyboards with large-area graphene based materials is technologically feasible, which may open up important applications in control and interface design for solar cells, speakers, supercapacitors, batteries and MEMS systems.

  6. Cable-type supercapacitors of three-dimensional cotton thread based multi-grade nanostructures for wearable energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Nishuang; Ma, Wenzhen; Tao, Jiayou; Zhang, Xianghui; Su, Jun; Li, Luying; Yang, Congxing; Gao, Yihua; Golberg, Dmitri; Bando, Yoshio

    2013-09-20

    A novel cable-type flexible supercapacitor with excellent performance is fabricated using 3D polypyrrole(PPy)-MnO2 -CNT-cotton thread multi-grade nanostructure-based electrodes. The multiple supercapacitors with a high areal capacitance 1.49 F cm(-2) at a scan rate of 1 mV s(-1) connected in series and in parallel can successfully drive a LED segment display. Such an excellent performance is attributed to the cumulative effect of conducting single-walled carbon nanotubes on cotton thread, active mesoporous flower-like MnO2 nanoplates, and PPy conductive wrapping layer improving the conductivity, and acting as pseudocapacitance material simultaneously. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Graphene-based materials for supercapacitor electrodes – A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingqing Ke

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The graphene-based materials are promising for applications in supercapacitors and other energy storage devices due to the intriguing properties, i.e., highly tunable surface area, outstanding electrical conductivity, good chemical stability and excellent mechanical behavior. This review summarizes recent development on graphene-based materials for supercapacitor electrodes, based on their macrostructural complexity, i.e., zero-dimensional (0D (e.g. free-standing graphene dots and particles, one-dimensional (1D (e.g. fiber-type and yarn-type structures, two-dimensional (2D (e.g. graphenes and graphene-based nanocomposite films, and three-dimensional (3D (e.g. graphene foam and hydrogel-based nanocomposites. There are extensive and on-going researches on the rationalization of their structures at varying scales and dimensions, development of effective and low cost synthesis techniques, design and architecturing of graphene-based materials, as well as clarification of their electrochemical performance. It is indicated that future studies should focus on the overall device performance in energy storage devices and large-scale process in low costs for the promising applications in portable and wearable electronic, transport, electrical and hybrid vehicles.

  8. Flexible experimental FPGA based platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Karsten Holm; Nymand, Morten

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental flexible Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) based platform for testing and verifying digital controlled dc-dc converters. The platform supports different types of control strategies, dc-dc converter topologies and switching frequencies. The controller platform...... interface supporting configuration and reading of setup parameters, controller status and the acquisition memory in a simple way. The FPGA based platform, provides an easy way within education or research to use different digital control strategies and different converter topologies controlled by an FPGA...

  9. Improvement of system capacitance via weavable superelastic biscrolled yarn supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Changsoon; Kim, Kang Min; Kim, Keon Jung; Lepró, Xavier; Spinks, Geoffrey M.; Baughman, Ray H.; Kim, Seon Jeong

    2016-12-01

    Yarn-based supercapacitors having improved performance are needed for existing and emerging wearable applications. Here, we report weavable carbon nanotube yarn supercapacitors having high performance because of high loadings of rapidly accessible charge storage particles (above 90 wt% MnO2). The yarn electrodes are made by a biscrolling process that traps host MnO2 nanoparticles within the galleries of helically scrolled carbon nanotube sheets, which provide strength and electrical conductivity. Despite the high loading of brittle metal oxide particles, the biscrolled solid-state yarn supercapacitors are flexible and can be made elastically stretchable (up to 30% strain) by over-twisting to produce yarn coiling. The maximum areal capacitance of the yarn electrodes were up to 100 times higher than for previously reported fibres or yarn supercapacitors. Similarly, the energy density of complete, solid-state supercapacitors made from biscrolled yarn electrodes with gel electrolyte coating were significantly higher than for previously reported fibre or yarn supercapacitors.

  10. Editable Supercapacitors with Customizable Stretchability Based on Mechanically Strengthened Ultralong MnO2 Nanowire Composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Zhisheng; Luo, Yifei; Tang, Yuxin; Wei, Jiaqi; Zhu, Zhiqiang; Zhou, Xinran; Li, Wenlong; Zeng, Yi; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Yanyan; Qi, Dianpeng; Pan, Shaowu; Loh, Xian Jun; Chen, Xiaodong

    2018-01-01

    Although some progress has been made on stretchable supercapacitors, traditional stretchable supercapacitors fabricated by predesigning structured electrodes for device assembling still lack the device-level editability and programmability. To adapt to wearable electronics with arbitrary configurations, it is highly desirable to develop editable supercapacitors that can be directly transferred into desirable shapes and stretchability. In this work, editable supercapacitors for customizable shapes and stretchability using electrodes based on mechanically strengthened ultralong MnO 2 nanowire composites are developed. A supercapacitor edited with honeycomb-like structure shows a specific capacitance of 227.2 mF cm -2 and can be stretched up to 500% without degradation of electrochemical performance, which is superior to most of the state-of-the-art stretchable supercapacitors. In addition, it maintains nearly 98% of the initial capacitance after 10 000 stretch-and-release cycles under 400% tensile strain. As a representative of concept for system integration, the editable supercapacitors are integrated with a strain sensor, and the system exhibits a stable sensing performance even under arm swing. Being highly stretchable, easily programmable, as well as connectable in series and parallel, an editable supercapacitor with customizable stretchability is promising to produce stylish energy storage devices to power various portable, stretchable, and wearable devices. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Graphene-based supercapacitor with carbon nanotube film as highly efficient current collector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notarianni, Marco; Liu, Jinzhang; Motta, Nunzio; Mirri, Francesca; Pasquali, Matteo

    2014-01-01

    Flexible graphene-based thin film supercapacitors were made using carbon nanotube (CNT) films as current collectors and graphene films as electrodes. The graphene sheets were produced by simple electrochemical exfoliation, while the graphene films with controlled thickness were prepared by vacuum filtration. The solid-state supercapacitor was made by using two graphene/CNT films on plastic substrates to sandwich a thin layer of gelled electrolyte. We found that the thin graphene film with thickness <1 μm can greatly increase the capacitance. Using only CNT films as electrodes, the device exhibited a capacitance as low as ∼0.4 mF cm −2 , whereas by adding a 360 nm thick graphene film to the CNT electrodes led to a ∼4.3 mF cm −2 capacitance. We experimentally demonstrated that the conductive CNT film is equivalent to gold as a current collector while it provides a stronger binding force to the graphene film. Combining the high capacitance of the thin graphene film and the high conductivity of the CNT film, our devices exhibited high energy density (8–14 Wh kg −1 ) and power density (250–450 kW kg −1 ). (paper)

  12. A self-healable and highly stretchable supercapacitor based on a dual crosslinked polyelectrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yan; Zhong, Ming; Huang, Yang; Zhu, Minshen; Pei, Zengxia; Wang, Zifeng; Xue, Qi; Xie, Xuming; Zhi, Chunyi

    2015-12-01

    Superior self-healability and stretchability are critical elements for the practical wide-scale adoption of personalized electronics such as portable and wearable energy storage devices. However, the low healing efficiency of self-healable supercapacitors and the small strain of stretchable supercapacitors are fundamentally limited by conventional polyvinyl alcohol-based acidic electrolytes, which are intrinsically neither self-healable nor highly stretchable. Here we report an electrolyte comprising polyacrylic acid dual crosslinked by hydrogen bonding and vinyl hybrid silica nanoparticles, which displays all superior functions and provides a solution to the intrinsic self-healability and high stretchability problems of a supercapacitor. Supercapacitors with this electrolyte are non-autonomic self-healable, retaining the capacitance completely even after 20 cycles of breaking/healing. These supercapacitors are stretched up to 600% strain with enhanced performance using a designed facile electrode fabrication procedure.

  13. New insights on laser-induced graphene electrodes for flexible supercapacitors: tunable morphology and physical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamberti, Andrea; Perrucci, Francesco; Caprioli, Matteo; Serrapede, Mara; Fontana, Marco; Bianco, Stefano; Ferrero, Sergio; Tresso, Elena

    2017-04-28

    In certain polymers the graphenization of carbon atoms can be obtained by laser writing owing to the easy absorption of long-wavelength radiation, which generates photo-thermal effects. On a polyimide surface this process allows the formation of a nanostructured and porous carbon network known as laser-induced graphene (LIG). Herein we report on the effect of the process parameters on the morphology and physical properties of LIG nanostructures. We show that the scan speed and the frequency of the incident radiation affect the gas evolution, inducing different structure rearrangements, an interesting nitrogen self-doping phenomenon and consequently different conduction properties. The materials were characterized by infrared and Raman spectroscopy, XPS elemental analysis, electron microscopy and electrical/electrochemical measurements. In particular the samples were tested as interdigitated electrodes into electrochemical supercapacitors and the optimized LIG arrangement was tested in parallel and series supercapacitor configurations to allow power exploitation.

  14. A flexible graphene/multiwalled carbon nanotube film as a high performance electrode material for supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiangjun, Lu [College of Material Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Yudao Street 29, Nanjing 210016, Jiangsu (China); Dou Hui, E-mail: dh_msc@nuaa.edu.cn [College of Material Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Yudao Street 29, Nanjing 210016, Jiangsu (China); Bo, Gao [College of Material Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Yudao Street 29, Nanjing 210016, Jiangsu (China); Changzhou, Yuan [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Anhui University of Technology, Maanshan 243002 (China); Yang, Sudong; Liang, Hao; Laifa, Shen [College of Material Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Yudao Street 29, Nanjing 210016, Jiangsu (China); Zhang Xiaogang, E-mail: azhangxg@nuaa.edu.cn [College of Material Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Yudao Street 29, Nanjing 210016, Jiangsu (China)

    2011-05-30

    Highlights: > A flexible graphene/multiwalled carbon nanotube (GN/MWCNT) film fabricated by flow-directed assembly and hydrazine to reduce. > The MWCNTs in the obtained composite film not only efficiently increase the basal spacing but also bridge the defects for electron transfer between GN sheets. > The freestanding GN/MWCNT film has a potential application in flexible energy storage devices. - Abstract: A flexible graphene/multiwalled carbon nanotube (GN/MWCNT) film has been fabricated by flow-directed assembly from a complex dispersion of graphite oxide (GO) and pristine MWCNTs followed by the use of gas-based hydrazine to reduce the GO into GN sheets. The GN/MWCNT (16 wt.% MWCNTs) film characterized by Fourier transformation infrared spectra, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope has a layered structure with MWCNTs uniformly sandwiched between the GN sheets. The MWCNTs in the obtained composite film not only efficiently increase the basal spacing but also bridge the defects for electron transfer between GN sheets, increasing electrolyte/electrode contact area and facilitating transportation of electrolyte ion and electron into the inner region of electrode. Electrochemical data demonstrate that the GN/MWCNT film possesses a specific capacitance of 265 F g{sup -1} at 0.1 A g{sup -1} and a good rate capability (49% capacity retention at 50 A g{sup -1}), and displays an excellent specific capacitance retention of 97% after 2000 continuous charge/discharge cycles. The results of electrochemical measurements indicate that the freestanding GN/MWCNT film has a potential application in flexible energy storage devices.

  15. A flexible graphene/multiwalled carbon nanotube film as a high performance electrode material for supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Xiangjun; Dou Hui; Gao Bo; Yuan Changzhou; Yang, Sudong; Hao Liang; Shen Laifa; Zhang Xiaogang

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → A flexible graphene/multiwalled carbon nanotube (GN/MWCNT) film fabricated by flow-directed assembly and hydrazine to reduce. → The MWCNTs in the obtained composite film not only efficiently increase the basal spacing but also bridge the defects for electron transfer between GN sheets. → The freestanding GN/MWCNT film has a potential application in flexible energy storage devices. - Abstract: A flexible graphene/multiwalled carbon nanotube (GN/MWCNT) film has been fabricated by flow-directed assembly from a complex dispersion of graphite oxide (GO) and pristine MWCNTs followed by the use of gas-based hydrazine to reduce the GO into GN sheets. The GN/MWCNT (16 wt.% MWCNTs) film characterized by Fourier transformation infrared spectra, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope has a layered structure with MWCNTs uniformly sandwiched between the GN sheets. The MWCNTs in the obtained composite film not only efficiently increase the basal spacing but also bridge the defects for electron transfer between GN sheets, increasing electrolyte/electrode contact area and facilitating transportation of electrolyte ion and electron into the inner region of electrode. Electrochemical data demonstrate that the GN/MWCNT film possesses a specific capacitance of 265 F g -1 at 0.1 A g -1 and a good rate capability (49% capacity retention at 50 A g -1 ), and displays an excellent specific capacitance retention of 97% after 2000 continuous charge/discharge cycles. The results of electrochemical measurements indicate that the freestanding GN/MWCNT film has a potential application in flexible energy storage devices.

  16. Graphene-Based Materials for Lithium-Ion Hybrid Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yanfeng; Chang, Huicong; Zhang, Miao; Chen, Yongsheng

    2015-09-23

    Lithium-ion hybrid supercapacitors (LIHSs), also called Li-ion capacitors, have attracted much attention due to the combination of the rapid charge-discharge and long cycle life of supercapacitors and the high energy-storage capacity of lithium-ion batteries. Thus, LIHSs are expected to become the ultimate power source for hybrid and all-electric vehicles in the near future. As an electrode material, graphene has many advantages, including high surface area and porous structure, high electric conductivity, and high chemical and thermal stability, etc. Compared with other electrode materials, such as activated carbon, graphite, and metal oxides, graphene-based materials with 3D open frameworks show higher effective specific surface area, better control of channels, and higher conductivity, which make them better candidates for LIHS applications. Here, the latest advances in electrode materials for LIHSs are briefly summarized, with an emphasis on graphene-based electrode materials (including 3D graphene networks) for LIHS applications. An outlook is also presented to highlight some future directions. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Efficiently dense hierarchical graphene based aerogel electrode for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Lu, Chengxing; Peng, Huifen; Zhang, Xin; Wang, Zhenkun; Wang, Gongkai

    2016-08-01

    Boosting gravimetric and volumetric capacitances simultaneously at a high rate is still a discrepancy in development of graphene based supercapacitors. We report the preparation of dense hierarchical graphene/activated carbon composite aerogels via a reduction induced self-assembly process coupled with a drying post treatment. The compact and porous structures of composite aerogels could be maintained. The drying post treatment has significant effects on increasing the packing density of aerogels. The introduced activated carbons play the key roles of spacers and bridges, mitigating the restacking of adjacent graphene nanosheets and connecting lateral and vertical graphene nanosheets, respectively. The optimized aerogel with a packing density of 0.67 g cm-3 could deliver maximum gravimetric and volumetric capacitances of 128.2 F g-1 and 85.9 F cm-3, respectively, at a current density of 1 A g-1 in aqueous electrolyte, showing no apparent degradation to the specific capacitance at a current density of 10 A g-1 after 20000 cycles. The corresponding gravimetric and volumetric capacitances of 116.6 F g-1 and 78.1 cm-3 with an acceptable cyclic stability are also achieved in ionic liquid electrolyte. The results show a feasible strategy of designing dense hierarchical graphene based aerogels for supercapacitors.

  18. Silver nanowires as the current collector for a flexible in-plane micro-supercapacitor via a one-step, mask-free patterning strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lang; Li, Han-Yu; Yu, Yao; Liu, Lin; Wu, Yue

    2018-02-01

    The fabrication of a current collector-contained in-plane micro-supercapacitor (MSC) usually requires the patterning of the current collector first and then subsequent patterning of the active material with the assistance of a photoresist and mask. However, this two-step patterning process is too complicated and the photoresist used is harmful to the properties of nanomaterials. Here, we demonstrate a one-step, mask-free strategy to pattern the current collector and the active material at the same time, for the fabrication of an all-solid-state flexible in-plane MSC. Silver nanowires (AgNWs) are used as the current collector. An atmospheric pressure pulsed cold micro-plasma-jet is used to realize the one-step, mask-free production of interdigitated multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)/AgNW electrodes. Remarkably, the fabricated MWCNT/AgNW-based MSC shows good flexibility and excellent rate capability. Moreover, the performance of properties including cyclic stability, equivalent series resistance, relaxation time and energy/power densities of the MWCNT/AgNW-based MSC are significantly enhanced by the presence of the AgNW current collector.

  19. Impurity effects on ionic-liquid-based supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Kun; Lian, Cheng; Henderson, Douglas; Wu, Jianzhong

    2016-01-01

    Small amounts of an impurity may affect the key properties of an ionic liquid and such effects can be dramatically amplified when the electrolyte is under confinement. Here the classical density functional theory is employed to investigate the impurity effects on the microscopic structure and the performance of ionic-liquid-based electrical double-layer capacitors, also known as supercapacitors. Using a primitive model for ionic species, we study the effects of an impurity on the double layer structure and the integral capacitance of a room temperature ionic liquid in model electrode pores and find that an impurity strongly binding to the surface of a porous electrode can significantly alter the electric double layer structure and dampen the oscillatory dependence of the capacitance with the pore size of the electrode. Meanwhile, a strong affinity of the impurity with the ionic species affects the dependence of the integral capacitance on the pore size. Up to 30% increase in the integral capacitance can be achieved even at a very low impurity bulk concentration. As a result, by comparing with an ionic liquid mixture containing modified ionic species, we find that the cooperative effect of the bounded impurities is mainly responsible for the significant enhancement of the supercapacitor performance.

  20. Impurity effects on ionic-liquid-based supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kun; Lian, Cheng; Henderson, Douglas; Wu, Jianzhong

    2017-02-01

    Small amounts of an impurity may affect the key properties of an ionic liquid and such effects can be dramatically amplified when the electrolyte is under confinement. Here the classical density functional theory is employed to investigate the impurity effects on the microscopic structure and the performance of ionic-liquid-based electrical double-layer capacitors, also known as supercapacitors. Using a primitive model for ionic species, we study the effects of an impurity on the double layer structure and the integral capacitance of a room temperature ionic liquid in model electrode pores and find that an impurity strongly binding to the surface of a porous electrode can significantly alter the electric double layer structure and dampen the oscillatory dependence of the capacitance with the pore size of the electrode. Meanwhile, a strong affinity of the impurity with the ionic species affects the dependence of the integral capacitance on the pore size. Up to 30% increase in the integral capacitance can be achieved even at a very low impurity bulk concentration. By comparing with an ionic liquid mixture containing modified ionic species, we find that the cooperative effect of the bounded impurities is mainly responsible for the significant enhancement of the supercapacitor performance.

  1. Flexible and Transparent Plastic Electrodes Composed of Reduced Graphene Oxide/Polyaniline Films for Supercapacitor Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarker, Ashis K.; Hong, Jongdal

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we described about the preparation and electrochemical properties of a flexible energy storage system based on a plastic polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate. The PET treated with UV/ozone was fabricated with multilayer films composed of 30 polyaniline (PANi)/graphene oxide (GO) bilayers using layerby-layer assembly of positively charged PANi and negatively charged GO. The conversion of GO to the reduced graphene oxide (RGO) in the multilayer film was achieved using hydroiodic acid vapor at 100 .deg. C, whereby PANi structure remained nearly unchanged except a little reduction of doping state. Cyclic voltammetry and charge/discharge curves of 30 PANi/RGO bilayers on PET substrate (shorten to PANi-RGO 30 /PET) exhibited an excellent volumetric capacitance, good cycling stability, and rapid charge/discharge rates despite no use of any metal current collectors. The specific capacitance from charge/discharge curve of the PANi-RGO 30 /PET electrode was found to be 529 F/cm 3 at a current density of 3 A/cm 3 , which is one of the best values yet achieved among carbon-based materials including conducting polymers. Furthermore, the intrinsic electrical resistance of the PANi-RGO 30 /PET electrodes varied within 20% range during 200 bending cycles at a fixed bend radius of 2.2 mm, indicating the increase in their flexibility by a factor of 225 compared with the ITO/PET electrode

  2. All solid supercapacitor based on polyaniline and crosslinked sulfonated poly[ether ether ketone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivaraman, P.; Kushwaha, R.K.; Shashidhara, K.; Hande, V.R.; Thakur, A.P.; Samui, A.B.; Khandpekar, M.M.

    2010-01-01

    All solid supercapacitor based on polyaniline (PANI) and crosslinked sulfonated poly[ether ether ketone] (XSPEEK,) is reported in this paper. The crosslinker used for sulfonated poly[ether ether ketone] (SPEEK) is 1,4-bis(hydroxymethyl) benzene. The XSPEEK is used as both solid electrolyte and separator membrane. Supercapacitors are fabricated using various PANI/XSPEEK weight ratios. These are characterized by cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge-discharge studies. The supercapacitor with PANI/XSPEEK weight ratio 1:0.5, exhibit a specific capacitance of 480 F g -1 of PANI. To the best of authors' knowledge, the value reported here is the highest for a supercapacitor based on a proton conducting solid polymer electrolyte and PANI. Detailed electrochemical impedance spectroscopy analysis is carried out. The analysis shows that the complex capacitance of the supercapacitor depends on the XSPEEK content. The time constant (t 0 ), derived from the imaginary part of complex capacitance decreases with increase in the XSPEEK content in the supercapacitor. Cycle life characteristics of the supercapacitor show a decrease in specific capacitance during initial cycles and get stabilized during later cycles.

  3. MnO2 Based Nanostructures for Supercapacitor Energy Storage Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Wei

    2013-11-01

    Nanostructured materials provide new and exciting approaches to the development of supercapacitor electrodes for high-performance electrochemical energy storage applications. One of the biggest challenges in materials science and engineering, however, is to prepare the nanomaterials with desirable characteristics and to engineer the structures in proper ways. This dissertation presents the successful preparation and application of very promising materials in the area of supercapacitor energy storage, including manganese dioxide and its composites, polyaniline and activated carbons. Attention has been paid to understanding their growth process and performance in supercapacitor devices. The morphological and electrochemical cycling effects, which contribute to the understanding of the energy storage mechanism of MnO2 based supercapacitors is thoroughly investigated. In addition, MnO2 based binary (MnO2-carbon nanocoils, MnO2-graphene) and ternary (MnO2-carbon nanotube-graphene) nanocomposites, as well as two novel electrodes (MnO2-carbon nanotube-textile and MnO2-carbon nanotube-sponge) have been studied as supercapacitor electrode materials, showing much improved electrochemical storage performance with good energy and power densities. Furthermore, a general chemical route was introduced to synthesize different conducting polymers and activated carbons by taking the MnO2 nanostructures as reactive templates. The electrochemical behaviors of the polyaniline and activated nanocarbon supercapacitors demonstrate the morphology-dependent enhancement of capacitance. Excellent energy and power densities were obtained from the template-derived polyaniline and activated carbon based supercapacitors, indicating the success of our proposed chemical route toward the preparation of high performance supercapacitor materials. The work discussed in this dissertation conclusively showed the significance of the preparation of desirable nanomaterials and the design of effective

  4. A high-capacitance solid-state supercapacitor based on free-standing film of polyaniline and carbon particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khosrozadeh, A.; Xing, M.; Wang, Q.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The solid-state supercapacitor has high energy density and good cyclic stability. • The electrode is a freestanding composite film of polyaniline and carbon particles. • The impregnation of electrodes with gel electrolyte facilitates high capacitance. • The supercapacitor is lightweight, thin, flexible, and environmental friendly. - Abstract: Polyaniline tends to degrade with cycling in aqueous electrolytes and it can be alleviated using gel electrolytes. A low-cost solid-state supercapacitor of high energy density and good cyclic stability is fabricated with a facile method. The electrodes of the supercapacitor are made of a freestanding composite film of polyaniline and acid-treated carbon particles using phytic acid as a crosslinker, and the gel electrolyte is composed of sulfuric acid and polyvinyl alcohol. The electrochemical performances of the as-fabricated supercapacitor are investigated with cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge/discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Our results show that a maximum capacitance of 272.6 F/g (3.63 F/cm 2 ) at a current density of 0.63 A/g can be achieved by the supercapacitor, which is significantly higher than most solid-state ones reported in the literature. The ability to achieve a high-capacitance supercapacitor with good cyclic stability is mainly attributed to excellent infiltration of the gel electrolyte into the electrodes. The developed lightweight, thin, flexible, and environmental friendly supercapacitor would have potential applications in various energy storage devices, such as wearable electronics and hybrid electric vehicles

  5. Silver Fiber Fabric as the Current Collector for Preparation of Graphene- Based Supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehrabi-Matin, Bahareh; Shahrokhian, Saeed; Iraji-zad, Azam

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • For the first time, silver fiber fabric (SFF) is employed as a current collector.. • rGO is electrophoretically deposited on the surface of SFF. • The electrodes are prepared in various EP deposition times. • The rGO/SFF-10 shows a higher capacitive performance of 172 mF/cm 2 at 4 mA/cm 2 . • The rGO/SFF-10 exhibits of 97% capacitance retention after 5000 cycles. - Abstract: During the past few years, a considerable attention has been devoted to the development of textile- based energy storage devices and wearable electronics applications. In this paper, for the first time, we report a flexible high performance graphene-based supercapacitor using silver fiber fabric as the current collector. The silver fiber fabric offers remarkable advantages such as light weight, mechanical flexibility and ease of integration with electronic textiles, which well-suited for wearable energy storage devices. A new hybrid material of graphene-silver fiber fabric (rGO/SFF) was prepared through a facile electrophoretic deposition of graphene and being used as a binder-free flexible supercapacitor electrode. In order to obtain the optimum condition, the effect of deposition time was investigated and a duration time of 10 minute was selected as an optimum condition. The as-prepared binder-free electrode based on rGO/SFF-10 showed excellent electrochemical performance in the three-electrode configuration using KOH (3 M) as the supporting electrolyte, with the highest capacity of 172 mF/cm 2 at 4 mA/cm 2 and a capacitance retention of 97% after 5000 charge−discharge cycles. The high performance of rGO/SFF electrode is associated to the superior conductivity, high mechanical flexibility as well as good electrochemical stability of the silver fiber fabrics. The results suggest that the prepared electrode is a promising candidate for wearable energy storage applications due to its advantageous properties and the ease of preparation.

  6. Recent advances in graphene-based planar micro-supercapacitors for on-chip energy storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong-Shuai Wu; Xinliang Feng; Hui-Ming Cheng

    2014-01-01

    The current development trend towards miniaturized portable electronic devices has signiicantly increased the demand for ultrathin, lexible and sustainable on-chip micro-supercapacitors that have enormous potential to complement, or even to replace, micro-bateries and electrolytic capacitors. In this regard,graphene-based micro-supercapacitors with a planar geometry are promising micro-electrochemical energy-storage devices that can take full advantage of planar coniguration and unique features of graphene.his review summarizes the latest advances in on-chip graphene-based planar interdigital micro-supercapacitors, from the history of their development, representative graphene-based materials(graphene sheets, graphene quantum dots and graphene hybrids) for their manufacture, typical microfabrication strategies(photolithography techniques, electrochemical methods, laser writing, etc.),electrolyte(aqueous, organic, ionic and gel), to device coniguration(symmetric and asymmetric). Finally,the perspectives and possible development directions of future graphene-based micro-supercapacitors are briely discussed.

  7. Non-aqueous nanoporous gold based supercapacitors with high specific energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, Ying; Chen, Luyang; Hirata, Akihiko; Fujita, Takeshi; Chen, Mingwei

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we report that the supercapacitor performance of polypyrrole (PPy) in non-aqueous electrolytes can be dramatically improved by highly conductive nanoporous gold which acts as both the support of active PPy and the current collector of supercapacitors. The excellent electronic conductivity, rich porous structure and large surface area of the nanoporous electrodes give rise to a high specific capacitance and low internal resistance in non-aqueous electrolytes. Combining with a wide working potential window of ~ 2 V, the non-aqueous PPy-based supercapacitors show an extraordinary energy density and power density.

  8. A model of large volumetric capacitance in graphene supercapacitors based on ion clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Brian; Fogler, Michael; Shklovskii, Boris

    2012-02-01

    Electric double layer supercapacitors are promising devices for high-power energy storage based on the reversible absorption of ions into porous, conducting electrodes. Graphene is a particularly good candidate for the electrode material in supercapacitors due to its high conductivity and large surface area. In this paper we consider supercapacitor electrodes made from a stack of graphene sheets with randomly-inserted ``spacer" molecules. We show that the large volumetric capacitances C > 100 F/cm^3 observed experimentally can be understood as a result of collective intercalation of ions into the graphene stack and the accompanying nonlinear screening by graphene electrons that renormalizes the charge of the ion clusters.

  9. Highly compressible and all-solid-state supercapacitors based on nanostructured composite sponge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Zhiqiang; Zhou, Weiya; Chen, Xiaodong; Chen, Jun; Xie, Sishen

    2015-10-21

    Based on polyaniline-single-walled carbon nanotubes -sponge electrodes, highly compressible all-solid-state supercapacitors are prepared with an integrated configuration using a poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)/H2 SO4 gel as the electrolyte. The unique configuration enables the resultant supercapacitors to be compressed as an integrated unit arbitrarily during 60% compressible strain. Furthermore, the performance of the resultant supercapacitors is nearly unchanged even under 60% compressible strain. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Supercapacitors Based on Metal Electrodes Prepared from Nanoparticle Mixtures at Room Temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakanishi, Hideyuki [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Grzybowski, Bartosz A. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Films comprising Au and Ag nanoparticles are transformed into porous metal electrodes by desorption of weak organic ligands followed by wet chemical etching of silver. Thus prepared electrodes provide the basis for supercapacitors whose specific capacitances approach 70 F/g. Cyclic voltammetry measurement yield “rectangular” I-V curves even at high scan rates, indicating that the supercapacitors have low internal resistance. Owing to this property, the supercapacitors have a high power density ~12 kW/kg, comparable with that of the state-of-the-art carbon-based devices. The entire assembly protocol does not require high-temperature processing or the use of organic binders.

  11. High Operating Voltage Supercapacitor Using PPy/AC Composite Electrode Based on Simple Dipping Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoungho Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As various wearable devices are emerging, self-generated power sources, such as piezoelectric generators, triboelectric generators, and thermoelectric generators, are of interest. To adapt self-generated power sources for application devices, a supercapacitor is necessary because of the short generation times (1–10 ms and low generated power (1–100 μW of self-generated power sources. However, to date, supercapacitors are too large to be adapted for wearable devices. There have been many efforts to reduce the size of supercapacitors by using polypyrrole (PPy for high energy supercapacitor electrodes. However, these supercapacitors have several disadvantages, such as a low operating voltage due to the use of an aqueous electrolyte, and complex manufacturing methods, such as the hydrogel and aerosol methods. In particular, the low operating voltage (~1.0 V is a significant issue because most electronic components operate above 3.0 V. In this study, we successfully demonstrated the high operating voltage (3.0 V of a supercapacitor using a PPy/activated carbon (AC composite electrode based on the chemical polymerization of the PPy by simple dipping. In addition, a twofold enhancement of its energy density was achieved compared with conventional supercapacitors using AC electrodes.

  12. Supercapacitor performance evaluation in replacing battery based on charging and discharging current characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sani, A.; Siahaan, S.; Mubarakah, N.; Suherman

    2018-02-01

    Supercapacitor is a new device of energy storage, which has much difference between ordinary capacitors and batteries. Supercapacitor have higher capacitance and energy density than regular capacitors. The supercapacitor also has a fast charging time, as well as a long life. To be used as a battery replacement please note the internal parameters of the battery to be replaced. In this paper conducted a simulation study to utilize supercapacitor as a replacement battery. The internal parameters of the battery and the supercapacitor are obtained based on the characteristics of charging and discharging current using a predefined equivalent circuit model. The battery to be replaced is a 12-volt lead-acid type, 6.5 Ah which is used on motorcycles with 6A charging and discharging currents. Super capacitor replacement capacitor is a capacity of 1600F, 2.7V which is connected in series as many as 6 pieces with 16.2 volt terminal voltage and charging current 12A. To obtain the same supercapacitor characteristic as the battery characteristic to be replaced, modification of its internal parameters is made. The results show that the super-capacitor can replace the battery function for 1000 seconds.

  13. Carbon Textile Decorated with Pseudocapacitive VC/Vx Oy for High-Performance Flexible Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Lam, Do; Shim, Hyung Cheoul; Kim, Jae-Hyun; Lee, Hak-Joo; Lee, Seung-Mo

    2017-11-01

    It is demonstrated that, via V 2 O 5 coating by low temperature atomic layer deposition and subsequent pyrolysis, ubiquitous cotton textile can readily turn into high-surface-area carbon textile fully decorated with pseudocapacitive V x O y /VC widely usable as electrodes of high-performance supercapacitor. It is found that carbothermic reduction of V 2 O 5 (C + V 2 O 5 → C' + VC + CO/CO 2 (g)) leads to chemical/mechanical activation of carbon textile, thereby producing high-surface-area conductive carbon textile. In addition, sequential phase transformation and carbide formation (V 2 O 5 → V x O y → VC) occurred by carbothermic reduction trigger decoration of the carbon textile with redox-active V x O y /VC. Thanks to the synergistic effect of electrical double layer and pseudocapacitance, the supercapacitors made of the hybrid carbon textile exhibit far better energy density (over 30-fold increase) with excellent cycling stability than the carbon textile simply undergone pyrolysis. The method can open up a promising and facile way to synthesize hybrid electrode materials for electrochemical energy storages possessing advantages of both electrical double layer and pseudocapacitive material. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Vapor-phase polymerization of poly(3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene) nanofibers on carbon cloth as electrodes for flexible supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xin; Dong, Mengyang; Zhang, Junxian; Li, Yingzhi; Zhang, Qinghua

    2016-09-01

    In this study, an evaporative vapor-phase polymerization approach was employed to fabricate vertically aligned poly(3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) nanofibers on the surface of carbon cloth (CC). Optimized reaction conditions can obtain well distributed and uniform layers of high-aspect-ratio PEDOT nanofibers on CC. The hierarchical PEDOT/CC structure as a freestanding electrode exhibits good electrochemical properties. As a flexible symmetric supercapacitor, the PEDOT/CC hybrid electrode displays a specific areal capacitance of 201.4 mF cm-2 at 1 mA cm-2, good flexibility with a higher value (204.6 mF cm-2) in the bending state, and a good cycling stability of 92.4% after 1000 cycles. Moreover, the device shows a maximum energy density of 4.0 Wh kg-1 (with a power density of 3.2 kW kg-1) and a maximum power density of 4.2 kW kg-1 (with an energy density of 3.1 Wh kg-1). The results demonstrate that PEDOT may be a promising material for storage devices through a simple and efficient vapor-phase polymerization process with precisely controlled reaction conditions.

  15. DNA hydrogel-based supercapacitors operating in physiological fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Jaehyun; Im, Kyuhyun; Hwang, Sekyu; Choi, ByoungLyong; Kim, Sungjee; Hwang, Sungwoo; Park, Nokyoung; Kim, Kinam

    2013-01-01

    DNA nanostructures have been attractive due to their structural properties resulting in many important breakthroughs especially in controlled assemblies and many biological applications. Here, we report a unique energy storage device which is a supercapacitor that uses nanostructured DNA hydrogel (Dgel) as a template and layer-by-layer (LBL)-deposited polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEMs) as conductors. Our device, named as PEM-Dgel supercapacitor, showed excellent performance in direct contact with physiological fluids such as artificial urine and phosphate buffered saline without any need of additional electrolytes, and exhibited almost no cytotoxicity during cycling tests in cell culture medium. Moreover, we demonstrated that the PEM-Dgel supercapacitor has greater charge-discharge cycling stability in physiological fluids than highly concentrated acid electrolyte solution which is normally used for supercapacitor operation. These conceptually new supercapacitors have the potential to be a platform technology for the creation of implantable energy storage devices for packageless applications directly utilizing biofluids. PMID:23412432

  16. Supercapacitors based on high-quality graphene scrolls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Fanyan; Kuang, Yafei; Liu, Gaoqin; Liu, Rui; Huang, Zhongyuan; Fu, Chaopeng; Zhou, Haihui

    2012-06-01

    High-quality graphene scrolls (GSS) with a unique scrolled topography are designed using a microexplosion method. Their capacitance properties are investigated by cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge-discharge and electrical impedance spectroscopy. Compared with the specific capacity of 110 F g-1 for graphene sheets, a remarkable capacity of 162.2 F g-1 is obtained at the current density of 1.0 A g-1 in 6 M KOH aqueous solution owing to the unique scrolled structure of GSS. The capacity value is increased by about 50% only because of the topological change of graphene sheets. Meanwhile, GSS exhibit excellent long-term cycling stability along with 96.8% retained after 1000 cycles at 1.0 A g-1. These encouraging results indicate that GSS based on the topological structure of graphene sheets are a kind of promising material for supercapacitors.

  17. 1D Co2.18Ni0.82Si2O5(OH)4 architectures assembled by ultrathin nanoflakes for high-performance flexible solid-state asymmetric supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Junhong; Zheng, Mingbo; Run, Zhen; Xia, Jing; Sun, Mengjun; Pang, Huan

    2015-07-01

    1D Co2.18Ni0.82Si2O5(OH)4 architectures assembled by ultrathin nanoflakes are synthesized for the first time by a hydrothermal method. We present a self-reacting template method to synthesize 1D Co2.18Ni0.82Si2O5(OH)4 architectures using Ni(SO4)0.3(OH)1.4 nanobelts. A high-performance flexible asymmetric solid-state supercapacitor can be successfully fabricated based on the 1D Co2.18Ni0.82Si2O5(OH)4 architectures and graphene nanosheets. Interestingly, the as-assembled 1D Co2.18Ni0.82Si2O5(OH)4 architectures//Graphene nanosheets asymmetric solid-state supercapacitor can achieve a maximum energy density of 0.496 mWh cm-3, which is higher than most of reported solid state supercapacitors. Additionally, the device shows high cycle stability for 10,000 cycles. These features make the 1D Co2.18Ni0.82Si2O5(OH)4 architectures as one of the most promising candidates for high-performance energy storage devices.

  18. Preparation and supercapacitor performance of assembled graphene fiber and foam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Li

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Graphene-based materials have been full of vigor and tremendous potentiality for application in supercapacitors due to its variety of unique properties such as electronic properties, simple synthesis, etc. In developing new macroscopic nanostructured graphene materials for supercapacitors, considerable efforts have been made by the scientist including our research group. In this account, we describe our development of the construction of the assembled graphene especially fiber and foam, which have great potential in addressing the challenges in the synthesis of graphene-based electrode materials for supercapacitors. As the supercapacitors are reviewed in this article, they are accordant with the rapid development of flexible, lightweight, and wearable-electronic devices, overcoming the major some drawbacks of conventional bulk supercapacitors. We hope that this summary will benefit the further research of graphene-based materials for the applications in electrochemical energy storage devices and beyond.

  19. Hierarchical mesoporous nickel cobaltite nanoneedle/carbon cloth arrays as superior flexible electrodes for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Hierarchical mesoporous NiCo2O4 nanoneedle arrays on carbon cloth have been fabricated by a simple hydrothermal approach combined with a post-annealing treatment. Such unique array nanoarchitectures exhibit remarkable electrochemical performance with high capacitance and desirable cycle life at high rates. When evaluated as an electrode material for supercapacitors, the NiCo2O4 nanoneedle arrays supported on carbon cloth was able to deliver high specific capacitance of 660 F g-1 at current densities of 2 A g-1 in 2 M KOH aqueous solution. In addition, the composite electrode shows excellent mechanical behavior and long-term cyclic stability (91.8% capacitance retention after 3,000 cycles). The fabrication method presented here is facile, cost-effective, and scalable, which may open a new pathway for real device applications. PMID:24661431

  20. Asymmetric electrochemical supercapacitor, based on polypyrrole coated carbon nanotube electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Y.; Zhitomirsky, I.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Polypyrrole (PPy) coated multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) were prepared. • New method is based on the use of new electrochemically active dopants for PPy. • The dopans provided dispersion of MWCNT and promoted PPy coating formation. • Symmetric PPy–MWCNT supercapacitors showed high capacitance and low resistance. • Asymmetric PPy–MWCNT/VN–MWCNT devices and modules allowed larger voltage window. - Abstract: Conductive polypyrrole (PPy) polymer – multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) composites were synthesized using sulfanilic acid azochromotrop (SPADNS) and sulfonazo III sodium salt (CHR-BS) as anionic dopants for chemical polymerization of PPy. The composites were tested for application in electrodes of electrochemical supercapacitors (ES). Sedimentation tests, electrophoretic deposition experiments and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) investigations showed that strong adsorption of anionic CHR-BS on MWCNT provided MWCNT dispersion. The analysis of scanning and transmission electron microscopy data demonstrated that the use of CHR-BS allowed the formation of PPy coatings on MWCNT. As a result, the composites, prepared using CHR-BS, showed higher capacitance, compared to the composites, prepared using SPADNS. The electrodes, containing MWCNT, coated with PPy showed a capacitance of 179 F g −1 for active mass loading of 10 mg cm −2 , good capacitance retention at scan rates in the range of 2–100 mV s −1 and excellent cyclic stability. Asymmetric ES devices, containing positive PPy–MWCNT electrodes and negative vanadium nitride (VN)–MWCNT electrodes showed significant improvement in energy storage performance, compared to the symmetric ES due to the larger voltage window. The low impedance and high capacitance of the individual cells paved the way to the development of modules with higher voltage, which showed good electrochemical performance

  1. Supercapacitors based on 3D network of activated carbon nanowhiskers wrapped-on graphitized electrospun nanofibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shuijian; Chen, Linlin; Xie, Chencheng; Hu, Huan; Chen, Shuiliang; Hanif, Muddasir; Hou, Haoqing

    2013-12-01

    Due to their cycling stability and high power density, the supercapacitors bridge the power/energy gap between traditional dielectric capacitors and batteries/fuel cells. Electrode materials are key components for making high performance supercapacitors. An activated carbon nanowhiskers (ACNWs) wrapped-on graphitized electrospun nanofiber (GENF) network (ACNWs/GENFN) with 3D porous structure is prepared as a new type of binder-free electrode material for supercapacitors. The supercapacitor based on the ACNWs/GENFN composite material displays an excellent performance with a specific capacitance of 176.5 F g-1 at current density of 0.5 A g-1, an ultrahigh power density of 252.8 kW kg-1 at current density of 800 A g-1 and an outstanding cycling stability of no capacitance loss after 10,000 charge/discharge cycles.

  2. Nanoarchitectured graphene-based supercapacitors for next-generation energy-storage applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salunkhe, Rahul R; Lee, Ying-Hui; Chang, Kuo-Hsin; Li, Jing-Mei; Simon, Patrice; Tang, Jing; Torad, Nagy L; Hu, Chi-Chang; Yamauchi, Yusuke

    2014-10-20

    Tremendous development in the field of portable electronics and hybrid electric vehicles has led to urgent and increasing demand in the field of high-energy storage devices. In recent years, many research efforts have been made for the development of more efficient energy-storage devices such as supercapacitors, batteries, and fuel cells. In particular, supercapacitors have great potential to meet the demands of both high energy density and power density in many advanced technologies. For the last half decade, graphene has attracted intense research interest for electrical double-layer capacitor (EDLC) applications. The unique electronic, thermal, mechanical, and chemical characteristics of graphene, along with the intrinsic benefits of a carbon material, make it a promising candidate for supercapacitor applications. This Review focuses on recent research developments in graphene-based supercapacitors, including doped graphene, activated graphene, graphene/metal oxide composites, graphene/polymer composites, and graphene-based asymmetric supercapacitors. The challenges and prospects of graphene-based supercapacitors are also discussed. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. NiCo2O4-Based Supercapacitor Nanomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenggang Wang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the research on supercapacitors has ushered in an explosive growth, which mainly focuses on seeking nano-/micro-materials with high energy and power densities. Herein, this review will be arranged from three aspects. We will summarize the controllable architectures of spinel NiCo2O4 fabricated by various approaches. Then, we introduce their performances as supercapacitors due to their excellent electrochemical performance, including superior electronic conductivity and electrochemical activity, together with the low cost and environmental friendliness. Finally, the review will be concluded with the perspectives on the future development of spinel NiCo2O4 utilized as the supercapacitor electrodes.

  4. NiCo2O4-Based Supercapacitor Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chenggang; Zhou, E; He, Weidong; Deng, Xiaolong; Huang, Jinzhao; Ding, Meng; Wei, Xianqi; Liu, Xiaojing; Xu, Xijin

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, the research on supercapacitors has ushered in an explosive growth, which mainly focuses on seeking nano-/micro-materials with high energy and power densities. Herein, this review will be arranged from three aspects. We will summarize the controllable architectures of spinel NiCo2O4 fabricated by various approaches. Then, we introduce their performances as supercapacitors due to their excellent electrochemical performance, including superior electronic conductivity and electrochemical activity, together with the low cost and environmental friendliness. Finally, the review will be concluded with the perspectives on the future development of spinel NiCo2O4 utilized as the supercapacitor electrodes. PMID:28336875

  5. Graphene based integrated tandem supercapacitors fabricated directly on separators

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Wei; Xia, Chuan; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2015-01-01

    It is of great importance to fabricate integrated supercapacitors with extended operation voltages as high energy density storage devices. In this work, we develop a novel direct electrode deposition on separator (DEDS) process to fabricate graphene

  6. DNA hydrogel-based supercapacitors operating in physiological fluids

    OpenAIRE

    Hur, Jaehyun; Im, Kyuhyun; Hwang, Sekyu; Choi, ByoungLyong; Kim, Sungjee; Hwang, Sungwoo; Park, Nokyoung; Kim, Kinam

    2013-01-01

    DNA nanostructures have been attractive due to their structural properties resulting in many important breakthroughs especially in controlled assemblies and many biological applications. Here, we report a unique energy storage device which is a supercapacitor that uses nanostructured DNA hydrogel (Dgel) as a template and layer-by-layer (LBL)-deposited polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEMs) as conductors. Our device, named as PEM-Dgel supercapacitor, showed excellent performance in direct contact ...

  7. Carbonization of SU-8 Based Electrode for MEMS Supercapacitors

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yang

    2014-01-01

    Supercapacitors are more sustainable and environmentally friendly energy sources than traditional ones. To achieve the supercapacitors with both energy density and power density that mainly depend on the effective surface area of theelectrodes, SU-8 can be used for electrode material to fabricate 3D microstructures as the electrodes that increase the effective surface area significantly. The objective of this project is to fabricate the reliable electrodes of large surface area for supercapac...

  8. NiCo2O4-Based Supercapacitor Nanomaterials

    OpenAIRE

    Chenggang Wang; E Zhou; Weidong He; Xiaolong Deng; Jinzhao Huang; Meng Ding; Xianqi Wei; Xiaojing Liu; Xijin Xu

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, the research on supercapacitors has ushered in an explosive growth, which mainly focuses on seeking nano-/micro-materials with high energy and power densities. Herein, this review will be arranged from three aspects. We will summarize the controllable architectures of spinel NiCo2O4 fabricated by various approaches. Then, we introduce their performances as supercapacitors due to their excellent electrochemical performance, including superior electronic conductivity and electr...

  9. Vanadium based materials as electrode materials for high performance supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yan; Li, Bing; Guo, Wei; Pang, Huan; Xue, Huaiguo

    2016-10-01

    As a kind of supercapacitors, pseudocapacitors have attracted wide attention in recent years. The capacitance of the electrochemical capacitors based on pseudocapacitance arises mainly from redox reactions between electrolytes and active materials. These materials usually have several oxidation states for oxidation and reduction. Many research teams have focused on the development of an alternative material for electrochemical capacitors. Many transition metal oxides have been shown to be suitable as electrode materials of electrochemical capacitors. Among them, vanadium based materials are being developed for this purpose. Vanadium based materials are known as one of the best active materials for high power/energy density electrochemical capacitors due to its outstanding specific capacitance and long cycle life, high conductivity and good electrochemical reversibility. There are different kinds of synthetic methods such as sol-gel hydrothermal/solvothermal method, template method, electrospinning method, atomic layer deposition, and electrodeposition method that have been successfully applied to prepare vanadium based electrode materials. In our review, we give an overall summary and evaluation of the recent progress in the research of vanadium based materials for electrochemical capacitors that include synthesis methods, the electrochemical performances of the electrode materials and the devices.

  10. Manganese oxide-based materials as electrochemical supercapacitor electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Weifeng; Cui, Xinwei; Chen, Weixing; Ivey, Douglas G

    2011-03-01

    Electrochemical supercapacitors (ECs), characteristic of high power and reasonably high energy densities, have become a versatile solution to various emerging energy applications. This critical review describes some materials science aspects on manganese oxide-based materials for these applications, primarily including the strategic design and fabrication of these electrode materials. Nanostructurization, chemical modification and incorporation with high surface area, conductive nanoarchitectures are the three major strategies in the development of high-performance manganese oxide-based electrodes for EC applications. Numerous works reviewed herein have shown enhanced electrochemical performance in the manganese oxide-based electrode materials. However, many fundamental questions remain unanswered, particularly with respect to characterization and understanding of electron transfer and atomic transport of the electrochemical interface processes within the manganese oxide-based electrodes. In order to fully exploit the potential of manganese oxide-based electrode materials, an unambiguous appreciation of these basic questions and optimization of synthesis parameters and material properties are critical for the further development of EC devices (233 references).

  11. Flexible Fe2O3 and V2O5 nanofibers as binder-free electrodes for high-performance all-solid-state asymmetric supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, He; Niu, Hao; Yang, Xue; Sun, Zhiqin; Li, Fuzhi; Wang, Qian; Qu, Fengyu

    2018-04-16

    Flexible highly porous Fe2O3 and V2O5 nanofibers are synthesized by a facile electrospinning method followed by calcination treatment and directly used as binder-free electrodes for high-performance supercapacitors. These Fe2O3 and V2O5 nanofibers interconnect with each other and construct three-dimensional hierarchical porous films with high specific surface area. Benefiting from the unique structural features, the intriguing binder-free Fe2O3 and V2O5 porous nanofiber electrodes possess high specific capacitance of 255 F g-1 and 256 F g-1 at 2 mV s-1 in 1 M Na2SO4 electrolyte, respectively. An all-solid-state asymmetric supercapacitor is fabricated using Fe2O3 and V2O5 nanofibers as negative and positive electrodes, respectively, and the all-solid-state asymmetric supercapacitor can be operated up to 1.8 V attributed to the wide and opposite potential window of both electrodes. The assembled all-solid-state asymmetric supercapacitor achieves a high energy density up to 32.2 Wh kg-1 at an average power density of 128.7 W kg-1 as well as excellent cycling stability and power capability. The effective and facile synthesis method and superior electrochemical performance provided in this work make electrospun Fe2O3 and V2O5 nanofibers promising electrode materials for high performance asymmetric supercapacitors. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Ultraflexible and tailorable all-solid-state supercapacitors using polyacrylamide-based hydrogel electrolyte with high ionic conductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huili; Lv, Tian; Li, Ning; Yao, Yao; Liu, Kai; Chen, Tao

    2017-11-30

    Hydrogels with high ionic conductivity consisting of a cross-linked polymer network swollen in water are very promising to be used as an electrolyte for all-solid-state supercapacitors. However, there are rather few flexible supercapacitors using ionic conducting hydrogel electrolytes reported to date. In this work, highly flexible and ionic conducting polyacrylamide hydrogels were synthesized through a simple approach. On using the ionic hydrogels as the electrolyte, the resulting supercapacitors not only exhibited a high specific capacitance but also showed a long self-discharge time (over 10 hours to the half of original open-circuit voltage) and a low leakage current. These newly-developed all-solid-state supercapacitors can be bent, knot, and kneaded for 5000 cycles without performance decay, suggesting excellent flexibility and mechanical stability. These all-solid-state supercapacitors can also be easily tailored into strip-like supercapacitors without a short circuit, which provides an efficient approach to fabricate wearable energy storage devices.

  13. Effect of distribution, interface property and density of hydrogel-embedded vertically aligned carbon nanotube arrays on the properties of a flexible solid state supercapacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qi; Yuan, Xietao; Zhu, Yihao; Ni, Jiangfeng; Zhang, Xiaohua; Yang, Zhaohui

    2018-05-01

    In this paper we fabricate a robust flexible solid-state supercapacitor (FSC) device by embedding a conductive poly(vinyl alcohol) hydrogel into aligned carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays. We carefully investigate the effect of distribution, interface properties and densification of CNTs in the gel matrix on the electrochemical properties of an FSC. The total electrochemical capacitance of the device is measured to be 227 mF cm‑3 with a maximum energy density of 0.02 mWh cm‑3, which is dramatically enhanced compared with a similar device composed of non-parallel CNTs. Additionally, controllable in situ electrochemical oxidation greatly improved the compatibility between the hydrophobic CNTs and the hydrophilic hydrogel, which decreased the resistance of the device and introduced extra pseudocapacitance. After such oxidation treatment the energy storage ability further doubled to 430 mF cm‑3 with a maximum energy density of 0.04 mWh cm‑3 . The FSCs based on densified CNT arrays exhibited a much higher volumetric capacitance of 1140 mF cm‑3 and a larger energy density of 0.1 mWh cm‑3, with a large power density of 14 mW cm‑3. All devices show excellent stability of capacitance after at least 10 000 charge–discharge cycles with a loss of less than 2%. These easy-to-assemble hybrid arrays thus potentially provide a new method for manufacturing wearable devices and implantable medical devices.

  14. Layer Structured Bismuth Selenides of Bi2Se3 and Bi3Se4 for High Energy and Flexible All-Solid-State Micro-Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Chunxue; Wang, Lidan; Wen, Fusheng; Xiang, Jianyong; Li, Lei; Hu, Wentao; Liu, Zhongyuan

    2017-12-20

    Bismuth selenides (Bi2Se3 and Bi3Se4), both of which have the layered rhombohedral crystal structure, and found to be useful as electrode materials for supercapacitor application in this work. Bi2Se3 nanoplates as electrode material exhibit much better performance than that of Bi3Se4 nanoparticles in liquid electrolyte system (6 M KOH), which delivers a higher specific capacitance (272.9 F/g) than that of Bi3Se4 (193.6 F/g) at 5 mV/s. This result would may be attributed to that Bi2Se3 nanoplates possess more active electrochemical surfaces for the reversible surface redox reactions owing to its planar quintuple stacked layers (septuple layers for Bi3Se4). For the demand of electronic skin, we used a novel flexible annular interdigital structure electrode applying for all-solid-state micro-supercapacitors (AMSCs). Bi2Se3 AMSCs device delivers a much more excellent supercapacitor performance, exhibits a large stack capacitance 89.5 F/cm3 (Bi3Se4: 79.1 F/cm3) at 20 mV/s, a high energy density 17.9 mWh/cm3 and high power density 18.9 W/cm3. The bismuth selenides also exhibit good cycle stability, retention 95.5% (90.3%) after 1000 c for Bi2Se3 (Bi3Se4). Obviously, Bi2Se3 nanoplates can be promising electrode materials for flexible annular interdigital all-solid-sate supercapacitor. © 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  15. Alternative methods of flexible base compaction acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    "This report presents the results from the second year of research work investigating issues with flexible base acceptance testing within the Texas Department of Transportation. This second year of work focused on shadow testing non-density-based acc...

  16. Supercapacitors based on modified graphene electrodes with poly(ionic liquid)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigueiro, João Paulo C.; Lavall, Rodrigo L.; Silva, Glaura G.

    2014-06-01

    The improved accessibility of the electrolyte to the surface of carbon nanomaterials is a challenge to be overcome in supercapacitors based on ionic liquid electrolytes. In this study, we report the preparation of supercapacitors based on reduced graphene oxide (RGO) electrodes and ionic liquid as the electrolyte (specifically, 1-methyl-1-propylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide or [MPPy][TFSI]). Two types of electrodes were compared: the RGO-based electrode and a poly(ionic liquid)-modified RGO electrode (PIL:RGO). The supercapacitor produced with the PIL:RGO electrode and [MPPy][TFSI] showed an electrochemical stability of 3 V and provided a capacitance of 71.5 F g-1 at room temperature; this capacitance is 130% higher with respect to the RGO-based supercapacitor. The decrease of the specific capacitance after 2000 cycles is only 10% for the PIL:RGO-based device. The results revealed the potential of the PIL:RGO material as an electrode for supercapacitors. This composite electrode increases the compatibility with the ionic liquid electrolyte compared to an RGO electrode, promoting an increase in the effective surface area of the electrode accessible to the electrolyte ions.

  17. Performance assessment of a power loaded supercapacitor based on manufacturer data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mellincovsky, Martin; Kuperman, Alon; Lerman, Chaim; Aharon, Ilan; Reichbach, Noam; Geula, Gal; Nakash, Ronen

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Analytic performance of a power loaded supercapacitor is derived. • Power and energy capabilities based on manufacturer data are obtained. • Power limitations based on depth of discharge are presented. - Abstract: Analytical derivation of constant power loaded supercapacitor behavior is presented in the paper. Simple RC model based on manufacturer datasheet extracted parameters is employed. Power and energy related figures of merit are obtained from the derived expressions and compared to the datasheet provided values. It is revealed that some of the performance characteristics provided in most of the datasheets are theoretical and cannot be achieved in practice. The process of a realistic Ragone plot derivation based on the proposed method is described in the paper as well. It is shown that the lower limit of supercapacitor voltage imposes certain limits on power and energy capabilities of the device. Extended simulation and experimental results are provided in order to reinforce the proposed method and justify the selected RC model for describing the supercapacitor performance. By appropriate comparison of simulations and experiments it is proven that the selected model, while being oversimplified and low order, may be used to predict supercapacitor behavior with reasonable accuracy to perform at least an initial design

  18. Supercapacitor Electrode Based on Activated Carbon Wool Felt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Claudia Pina

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available An electrical double-layer capacitor (EDLC is based on the physical adsorption/desorption of electrolyte ions onto the surface of electrodes. Due to its high surface area and other properties, such as electrochemical stability and high electrical conductivity, carbon materials are the most widely used materials for EDLC electrodes. In this work, we study an activated carbon felt obtained from sheep wool felt (ACF’f as a supercapacitor electrode. The ACF’f was characterized by elemental analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, textural analysis, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS. The electrochemical behaviour of the ACF’f was tested in a two-electrode Swagelok®-type, using acidic and basic aqueous electrolytes. At low current densities, the maximum specific capacitance determined from the charge-discharge curves were 163 F·g−1 and 152 F·g−1, in acidic and basic electrolytes, respectively. The capacitance retention at higher current densities was better in acidic electrolyte while, for both electrolytes, the voltammogram of the sample presents a typical capacitive behaviour, being in accordance with the electrochemical results.

  19. Polypyrrole/carbon nanotube nanocomposite enhanced the electrochemical capacitance of flexible graphene film for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiangjun; Dou, Hui; Yuan, Changzhou; Yang, Sudong; Hao, Liang; Zhang, Fang; Shen, Laifa; Zhang, Luojiang; Zhang, Xiaogang

    2012-01-01

    The flexible electrodes have important potential applications in energy storage of portable electronic devices for their powerful structural properties. In this work, unique flexible films with polypyrrole/carbon nanotube (PPy/CNT) composite homogeneously distributed between graphene (GN) sheets are successfully prepared by flow-assembly of the mixture dispersion of GN and PPy/CNT. In such layered structure, the coaxial PPy/CNT nanocables can not only enlarge the space between GN sheets but also provide pseudo-capacitance to enhance the total capacitance of electrodes. According to the galvanostatic charge/discharge analysis, the mass and volume specific capacitances of GN-PPy/CNT (52 wt% PPy/CNT) are 211 F g-1 and 122 F cm-3 at a current density of 0.2 A g-1, higher than those of the GN film (73 F g-1 and 79 F cm-3) and PPy/CNT (164 F g-1 and 67 F cm-3). Significantly, the GN-PPy/CNT electrode shows excellent cycling stability (5% capacity loss after 5000 cycles) due to the flexible GN layer and the rigid CNT core synergistical releasing the intrinsic differential strain of PPy chains during long-term charge/discharge cycles.

  20. Electroactive nanoparticle directed assembly of functionalized graphene nanosheets into hierarchical structures with hybrid compositions for flexible supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Bong Gill; Huh, Yun Suk; Hong, Won Hi; Erickson, David; Park, Ho Seok

    2013-04-01

    Hierarchical structures of hybrid materials with the controlled compositions have been shown to offer a breakthrough for energy storage and conversion. Here, we report the integrative assembly of chemically modified graphene (CMG) building blocks into hierarchical complex structures with the hybrid composition for high performance flexible pseudocapacitors. The formation mechanism of hierarchical CMG/Nafion/RuO2 (CMGNR) microspheres, which is triggered by the cooperative interplay during the in situ synthesis of RuO2 nanoparticles (NPs), was extensively investigated. In particular, the hierarchical CMGNR microspheres consisting of the aggregates of CMG/Nafion (CMGN) nanosheets and RuO2 NPs provided large surface area and facile ion accessibility to storage sites, while the interconnected nanosheets offered continuous electron pathways and mechanical integrity. The synergistic effect of CMGNR hybrids on the supercapacitor (SC) performance was derived from the hybrid composition of pseudocapacitive RuO2 NPs with the conductive CMGNs as well as from structural features. Consequently, the CMGNR-SCs showed a specific capacitance as high as 160 F g-1, three-fold higher than that of conventional graphene SCs, and a capacitance retention of >95% of the maximum value even after severe bending and 1000 charge-discharge tests due to the structural and compositional features.Hierarchical structures of hybrid materials with the controlled compositions have been shown to offer a breakthrough for energy storage and conversion. Here, we report the integrative assembly of chemically modified graphene (CMG) building blocks into hierarchical complex structures with the hybrid composition for high performance flexible pseudocapacitors. The formation mechanism of hierarchical CMG/Nafion/RuO2 (CMGNR) microspheres, which is triggered by the cooperative interplay during the in situ synthesis of RuO2 nanoparticles (NPs), was extensively investigated. In particular, the hierarchical CMGNR

  1. An overview of the applications of graphene-based materials in supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi; Liang, Jiajie; Chen, Yongsheng

    2012-06-25

    Due to their unique 2D structure and outstanding intrinsic physical properties, such as extraordinarily high electrical conductivity and large surface area, graphene-based materials exhibit great potential for application in supercapacitors. In this review, the progress made so far for their applications in supercapacitors is reviewed, including electrochemical double-layer capacitors, pseudo-capacitors, and asymmetric supercapacitors. Compared with traditional electrode materials, graphene-based materials show some novel characteristics and mechanisms in the process of energy storage and release. Several key issues for improving the structure of graphene-based materials and for achieving better capacitor performance, along with the current outlook for the field, are also discussed. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Research Progress in MnO2 -Carbon Based Supercapacitor Electrode Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qun-Zheng; Zhang, Dian; Miao, Zong-Cheng; Zhang, Xun-Li; Chou, Shu-Lei

    2018-04-30

    With the serious impact of fossil fuels on the environment and the rapid development of the global economy, the development of clean and usable energy storage devices has become one of the most important themes of sustainable development in the world today. Supercapacitors are a new type of green energy storage device, with high power density, long cycle life, wide temperature range, and both economic and environmental advantages. In many industries, they have enormous application prospects. Electrode materials are an important factor affecting the performance of supercapacitors. MnO 2 -based materials are widely investigated for supercapacitors because of their high theoretical capacitance, good chemical stability, low cost, and environmental friendliness. To achieve high specific capacitance and high rate capability, the current best solution is to use MnO 2 and carbon composite materials. Herein, MnO 2 -carbon composite as supercapacitor electrode materials is reviewed including the synthesis method and research status in recent years. Finally, the challenges and future development directions of an MnO 2 -carbon based supercapacitor are summarized. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Advanced Asymmetrical Supercapacitors Based on Graphene Hybrid Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Hailiang; Liang, Yongye; Mirfakhrai, Tissaphern; Chen, Zhuo; Casalongue, Hernan Sanchez; Dai, Hongjie

    2011-01-01

    Supercapacitors operating in aqueous solutions are low cost energy storage devices with high cycling stability and fast charging and discharging capabilities, but have suffered from low energy densities. Here, we grow Ni(OH)2 nanoplates and RuO2 nanoparticles on high quality graphene sheets to maximize the specific capacitances of these materials. We then pair up a Ni(OH)2/graphene electrode with a RuO2/graphene electrode to afford a high performance asymmetrical supercapacitor with high ener...

  4. High-performance supercapacitors based on hierarchically porous graphite particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Zheng; Wen, Jing; Yan, Chunzhu; Rice, Lynn; Sohn, Hiesang; Lu, Yunfeng [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Shen, Meiqing [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072 (China); Cai, Mei [General Motor R and D Center, Warren, MI 48090 (United States); Dunn, Bruce [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2011-07-15

    Hierarchically porous graphite particles are synthesized using a continuous, scalable aerosol approach. The unique porous graphite architecture provides the particles with high surface area, fast ion transportation, and good electronic conductivity, which endows the resulting supercapacitors with high energy and power densities. This work provides a new material platform for high-performance supercapacitors with high packing density, and is adaptable to battery electrodes, fuel-cell catalyst supports, and other applications. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  5. Supercapacitor electrodes based on polyaniline-silicon nanoparticle composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Qiang; Yau, Siu-Tung [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Cleveland State University, 2121 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44115 (United States); Nayfeh, Munir H. [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)

    2010-06-15

    A composite material formed by dispersing ultrasmall silicon nanoparticles in polyaniline has been used as the electrode material for supercapacitors. Electrochemical characterization of the composite indicates that the nanoparticles give rise to double-layer capacitance while polyaniline produces pseudocapacitance. The composite shows significantly improved capacitance compared to that of polyaniline. The enhanced capacitance results in high power (220 kW kg{sup -1}) and energy-storage (30 Wh kg{sup -1}) capabilities of the composite material. A prototype supercapacitor using the composite as the charge storage material has been constructed. The capacitor showed the enhanced capacitance and good device stability during 1000 charging/discharging cycles. (author)

  6. Ultra-fine CuO Nanoparticles Embedded in Three-dimensional Graphene Network Nano-structure for High-performance Flexible Supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yanrong; Wang, Xue; Yang, Qi; Javed, Muhammad Sufyan; Liu, Qipeng; Xu, Weina; Hu, Chenguo; Wei, Dapeng

    2017-01-01

    High conductivity, large specific surface area and excellent performance redox materials are urgently desired for improving electrochemical energy storage. However, with single redox material it is hard to achieve these properties. Herein, we develop ultra-fine CuO nanoparticles embedded in three-dimensional graphene network grown on carbon cloth (CuO/3DGN/CC) to construct a novel electrode material with advantages of high conductivity, large specific area and excellent redox activity for supercapacitor application. The CuO/3DGN/CC with different CuO mass ratios are utilized to fabricate supercapacitors and the optimized mass loading achieves the high areal capacitance of 2787 mF cm"−"2 and specific capacitance of 1539.8 F g"−"1 at current density of 6 mA cm"−"2 with good stability. In addition, a high-flexible solid-state symmetric supercapacitor is also fabricated by using this CuO/3DGN/CC composite. The device shows excellent electrochemical performance even at various bending angles indicating a promising application for wearable electronic devices, and two devices with area 2 × 4 cm"2 in series can light nine light emitting diodes for more than 3 minutes.

  7. Mixture design procedure for flexible base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    This document provides information on mixture design requirements for a flexible base course. Sections : design requirements, job mix formula, contractor's responsibility, and engineer's responsibility. Tables : material requirements; requirements fo...

  8. Biaxially stretchable supercapacitors based on the buckled hybrid fiber electrode array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nan; Zhou, Weiya; Zhang, Qiang; Luan, Pingshan; Cai, Le; Yang, Feng; Zhang, Xiao; Fan, Qingxia; Zhou, Wenbin; Xiao, Zhuojian; Gu, Xiaogang; Chen, Huiliang; Li, Kewei; Xiao, Shiqi; Wang, Yanchun; Liu, Huaping; Xie, Sishen

    2015-07-01

    In order to meet the growing need for smart bionic devices and epidermal electronic systems, biaxial stretchability is essential for energy storage units. Based on porous single-walled carbon nanotube/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (SWCNT/PEDOT) hybrid fiber, we designed and fabricated a biaxially stretchable supercapacitor, which possesses a unique configuration of the parallel buckled hybrid fiber array. Owing to the reticulate SWCNT film and the improved fabrication technique, the hybrid fiber retained its porous architecture both outwardly and inwardly, manifesting a superior capacity of 215 F g-1. H3PO4-polyvinyl alcohol gel with an optimized component ratio was introduced as both binder and stretchable electrolyte, which contributed to the regularity and stability of the buckled fiber array. The buckled structure and the quasi one-dimensional character of the fibers endow the supercapacitor with 100% stretchability along all directions. In addition, the supercapacitor exhibited good transparency, as well as excellent electrochemical properties and stability after being stretched 5000 times.In order to meet the growing need for smart bionic devices and epidermal electronic systems, biaxial stretchability is essential for energy storage units. Based on porous single-walled carbon nanotube/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (SWCNT/PEDOT) hybrid fiber, we designed and fabricated a biaxially stretchable supercapacitor, which possesses a unique configuration of the parallel buckled hybrid fiber array. Owing to the reticulate SWCNT film and the improved fabrication technique, the hybrid fiber retained its porous architecture both outwardly and inwardly, manifesting a superior capacity of 215 F g-1. H3PO4-polyvinyl alcohol gel with an optimized component ratio was introduced as both binder and stretchable electrolyte, which contributed to the regularity and stability of the buckled fiber array. The buckled structure and the quasi one-dimensional character of the

  9. Polyaniline/partially exfoliated multi-walled carbon nanotubes based nanocomposites for supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potphode, Darshna D.; Sivaraman, P.; Mishra, Sarada P.; Patri, Manoranjan

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, polyaniline (PANI)/partially exfoliated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (Px-MWCNT) nanocomposites were investigated for supercapacitor application. Nanocomposites with varying weight/weight ratio of PANI and Px-MWCNT were prepared by in-situ polymerization of aniline over Px-MWCNT. Transmission and scanning electron microscopic analysis showed that the MWCNT was partial unzipped along the length of tubes. The morphology of PANI/Px-MWCNT nanocomposites exhibited wrapping of PANI over Px-MWCNT. Symmetric supercapacitors containing PANI/Px-MWCNT nanocomposites as the electrode material were fabricated. The electrochemical characterization of the nanocomposites was carried by two electrode method (unit cell configuration). Cyclic voltammetric analysis showed a synergistic increase in specific capacitance of the nanocomposites. Charge-discharge cycle study indicated that nanocomposites have greater charge-discharge rate capability than pure PANI. The observed result is attributed to the shorter diffusion length of ions in the nanocomposites as compared to that of pure PANI. The electrochemical impedance spectra of supercapacitors were resolved into real and losscapacitances. The loss capacitance indicated that the time constant of the nanocomposites decreases with increase in the Px-MWCNT content. The supercapacitors showed enhanced stability during continuous charge-discharge cycling as the PX-MWCNT content in the nanocomposites increased. PANI-50 and PANI-25 nanocomposites based supercapacitors exhibited 91% and 93% capacitive retention after 2000 charge-discharge cycle while pure PANI showed only 67% capacitance retention for the same number of cycles

  10. Three dimensional MEMS supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Wei

    2011-10-15

    and the specific power of 0.58 mWcm-2 at 20mVs-1 scan rate. The 3D MEMS supercapacitor fabricated in this project has the specific capacitance and the specific power of 0.029 F cm-2 and 2.2 mWcm-2 respectively at a relative large discharge rate of 5 m Acm-2. It is also found vi that the supercapacitors have the performance of broad frequency range up to 300Hz. For DRIE based 3D MEMS supercapacitor, the innovative designs were developed based on silicon micromachining process flow which includes the key processes such as thermal oxidation, RF sputtering, wet etching, DRIE, electroless plating and P Py polymerization. The optimized P Py electrode doping with Tos- performed ideal super capacitor properties in NaCl electrolyte. The single PPy electrode of the 3D MEMS supercapacitors can provide 0.128 F cm-2 specific capacitance and 1.28 mWcm-2 specific power at 20 mvs-1 scan rate. The specific capacitance of the 3D MEMS supercapacitors equals 0.056 F cm-2, and the specific power at 20 mvs-1 scan rate equals 0.56 mWcm-2. In addition, novel supercapacitors based on wafer level process are designed for flexible integration in applications such as high temperature electronics and hybrid power system for electric vehicles. Experimental work on TiO2 anodic oxidation, which enables the fabrication of the one of these designs, has been carried out. Dense TiO2 nano holes with diameters ranged from about 90 to 270 nm were obtained in 0.05 wt% HF aqueous solutions with two-step anodic oxidation method. Comparing to the published specific capacitance (about 2 mFcm-2) for microsupercapacitors [33], I have achieved much larger specific capacitance (typically 0.029 to 0.056 F cm-2) for 3D MEMS supercapacitors. The above results have been presented in 3 international conferences. Total 4 journal articles have been published, and one has been submitted. The article in the Journal of Power Source (appendix 3) has been cited 9 times after published in April 2009, and the article in

  11. CAPACITANCE OF SUPERCAPACITORS WITH ELECTRODES BASED ON CARBON NANOCOMPOSITE MATERIAL

    OpenAIRE

    S.L Revo; B.I Rachiy; S Hamamda; T.G Avramenko; K.O Ivanenko

    2012-01-01

    This work presents the results of our research of the structure and practically important characteristics of a nanocomposite material on the basis of nanoporous carbon and thermally exfoliated graphite. This work shows that the use of the abovementioned composition in electrodes for supercapacitors allows to attain the level of their specific electrical capacitance at (155...160) F/g.

  12. Effect of the ionic conductivity on the performance of polyelectrolyte-based supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wee, Grace; Srinivasan, Madhavi; Mhaisalkar, Subodh [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Energy Research Institute rate at NTU (ERI rate at N), Research Techno Plaza, 5th Storey, 50 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637553 (Singapore); Larsson, Oscar; Berggren, Magnus; Crispin, Xavier [Department of Science and Technology, Organic Electronics, Linkoeping University, SE-601 74 Norrkoeping (Sweden)

    2010-12-21

    In the emerging technology field of printed electronics, circuits are envisioned to be powered with printed energy sources, such as printed batteries and printed supercapacitors (SCs). For manufacturing and reliability issues, solid electrolytes are preferred instead of liquid electrolytes. Here, a solid-state, polyanionic proton conducting electrolyte, poly(styrenesulfonic acid) (PSS:H), is demonstrated for the first time as an effective ion conducting electrolyte medium in SCs with electrodes based on carbon nanotube (CNT) networks. The effect of the ionic conductivity in the PSS:H film of those SCs is studied at different levels of relative humidity (RH) with impedance spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, and galvanostatic charge-discharge techniques. High capacitance values (85 F g{sup -1} at 80% RH) are obtained for these SCs due to the extremely high effective electrode area of the CNTs and the enhanced ionic conductivity of the PSS:H film at increasing RH level. The charging dynamics are primarily limited by the ionic conductivity of the electrolyte rather than a poor contact between the electrolyte and the CNT electrodes. The use of polyelectrolytes in SCs provides high mechanical strength and flexibility, while maintaining a high capacitance value, enabling a new generation of printable solid-state charge storage devices. (Copyright copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  13. Carbon nanotubes as nanotexturing agents for high power supercapacitors based on seaweed carbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymundo-Piñero, Encarnación; Cadek, Martin; Wachtler, Mario; Béguin, François

    2011-07-18

    The advantages provided by multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as backbones for composite supercapacitor electrodes are discussed. This paper particularly highlights the electrochemical properties of carbon composites obtained by pyrolysis of seaweed/CNTs blends. Due to the nanotexturing effect of CNTs, supercapacitors fabricated with electrodes from these composites exhibit enhanced electrochemical performances compared with CNT-free carbons. The cell resistance is dramatically reduced by the excellent conductivity of CNTs and by the good propagation of ions favored by the presence of opened mesopores. As a consequence, the specific power of supercapacitors based on these nanocomposites is very high. Another advantage related to the presence of CNTs is a better life cycle of the systems. The composite electrodes are resilient during the charge/discharge of capacitors; these are able to perfectly accommodate the dimensional changes appearing in the active material without mechanical damages. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. High-performance supercapacitors based on vertically aligned carbon nanotubes and nonaqueous electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byungwoo; Chung, Haegeun; Kim, Woong

    2012-04-01

    We demonstrate the high performance of supercapacitors fabricated with vertically aligned carbon nanotubes and nonaqueous electrolytes such as ionic liquids and conventional organic electrolytes. Specific capacitance, maximum power and energy density of the supercapacitor measured in ionic liquid were ˜75 F g-1, ˜987 kW kg-1 and ˜27 W h kg-1, respectively. The high power performance was consistently indicated by a fast relaxation time constant of 0.2 s. In addition, electrochemical oxidation of the carbon nanotubes improved the specific capacitance (˜158 F g-1) and energy density (˜53 W h kg-1). Both high power and energy density could be attributed to the fast ion transport realized by the alignment of carbon nanotubes and the wide operational voltage defined by the ionic liquid. The demonstrated carbon-nanotube- and nonaqueous-electrolyte-based supercapacitors show great potential for the development of high-performance energy storage devices.

  15. Supercapacitors based on graphene-supported iron nanosheets as negative electrode materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Conglai; Wei, Tong; Yan, Jun; Jiang, Lili; Fan, Zhuangjun

    2013-12-23

    We report a facile strategy to prepare iron nanosheets directly grown on graphene sheets nanocomposite (C-PGF) through the carbonization of iron ions adsorbed onto polyaniline nanosheet/graphene oxide hybrid material. Because of the synergistic effect of iron nanosheets and graphene sheets, the as-obtained C-PGF exhibits an ultrahigh capacitance of ca. 720 F g(-1) in 6 M KOH aqueous solution. Additionally, the assembled asymmetric supercapacitor (C-PGF//Ni(OH)2/CNTs) delivers a remarkable high power density and a noticeable ultrahigh energy density of ca. 140 Wh kg(-1) (based on the total mass of active materials) and an acceptable cycling performance of 78% retention after 2000 cycles. Therefore, the designed supercapacitors with high energy density, comparable to rechargeable lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), offer an important guideline for future design of advanced next-generation supercapacitors for both industrial and consumer applications.

  16. High Performance and Economic Supercapacitors for Energy Storage Based on Carbon Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuilov, Vladimir; Farshid, Behzad; Frenkel, Alexander; Sensor CAT at Stony Brook Team

    2015-03-01

    We designed and manufactured very inexpensive prototypes of supercapacitors for energy storage based on carbon nanomaterials comprised of: reduced graphene oxide (RGOs) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as electrodes filled with polymer gel electrolytes. The electrochemical properties of supercapacitors made using these materials were compared and analyzed. A significant tradeoff between the energy density and the power density was determined; RGO electrodes demonstrated the highest energy density, while composite RGO/CNT electrodes showed the highest power density. The thickness of the RGO electrode was varied to determine its effect on the power density of the supercapacitor and results showed that with decreasing electrode thickness power density would increase. The specific capacitances of over 600 F/g were observed.

  17. High-performance supercapacitors based on vertically aligned carbon nanotubes and nonaqueous electrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byungwoo; Chung, Haegeun; Kim, Woong

    2012-04-20

    We demonstrate the high performance of supercapacitors fabricated with vertically aligned carbon nanotubes and nonaqueous electrolytes such as ionic liquids and conventional organic electrolytes. Specific capacitance, maximum power and energy density of the supercapacitor measured in ionic liquid were ~75 F g(-1), ~987 kW kg(-1) and ~27 W h kg(-1), respectively. The high power performance was consistently indicated by a fast relaxation time constant of 0.2 s. In addition, electrochemical oxidation of the carbon nanotubes improved the specific capacitance (~158 F g(-1)) and energy density (~53 W h kg(-1)). Both high power and energy density could be attributed to the fast ion transport realized by the alignment of carbon nanotubes and the wide operational voltage defined by the ionic liquid. The demonstrated carbon-nanotube- and nonaqueous-electrolyte-based supercapacitors show great potential for the development of high-performance energy storage devices. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd

  18. Mechanically delaminated few layered MoS2 nanosheets based high performance wire type solid-state symmetric supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamoorthy, Karthikeyan; Pazhamalai, Parthiban; Veerasubramani, Ganesh Kumar; Kim, Sang Jae

    2016-07-01

    Two dimensional nanostructures are increasingly used as electrode materials in flexible supercapacitors for portable electronic applications. Herein, we demonstrated a ball milling approach for achieving few layered molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) via exfoliation from their bulk. Physico-chemical characterizations such as X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscope, and laser Raman analyses confirmed the occurrence of exfoliated MoS2 sheets with few layers from their bulk via ball milling process. MoS2 based wire type solid state supercapacitors (WSCs) are fabricated and examined using cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and galvanostatic charge discharge (CD) measurements. The presence of rectangular shaped CV curves and symmetric triangular shaped CD profiles suggested the mechanism of charge storage in MoS2 WSC is due to the formation of electrochemical double layer capacitance. The MoS2 WSC device delivered a specific capacitance of 119 μF cm-1, and energy density of 8.1 nW h cm-1 with better capacitance retention of about 89.36% over 2500 cycles, which ensures the use of the ball milled MoS2 for electrochemical energy storage devices.

  19. Layer structured bismuth selenides Bi2Se3 and Bi3Se4 for high energy and flexible all-solid-state micro-supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Chunxue; Wang, Lidan; Wen, Fusheng; Xiang, Jianyong; Li, Lei; Hu, Wentao; Liu, Zhongyuan

    2018-02-01

    In this work, bismuth selenides (Bi2Se3 and Bi3Se4), both of which have a layered rhombohedral crystal structure, have been found to be useful as electrode materials for supercapacitor applications. In a liquid electrolyte system (6M KOH), Bi2Se3 nanoplates exhibit much better performance as an electrode material than Bi3Se4 nanoparticles do, delivering a higher specific capacitance (272.9 F g-1) than that of Bi3Se4 (193.6 F g-1) at 5 mV s-1. This result may be attributed to the fact that Bi2Se3 nanoplates possess more active electrochemical surfaces for the reversible surface redox reactions owing to their planar quintuple stacked layers (septuple layers for Bi3Se4). To meet the demands of electronic skin, we used a novel flexible annular interdigital structure electrode to support the all-solid-state micro-supercapacitors (AMSCs). The Bi2Se3 AMSC device delivers a much better supercapacitor performance, exhibits a large stack capacitance of 89.5 F cm-3 at 20 mV s-1 (Bi3Se4: 79.1 F cm-3), a high energy density of 17.9 mWh cm-3 and a high power density of 18.9 W cm-3. The bismuth selenides also exhibit good cycle stability, with 95.5% retention after 1000 c for Bi2Se3 (Bi3Se4:90.3%). Clearly, Bi2Se3 nanoplates can be promising electrode materials for flexible annular interdigital AMSCs.

  20. High performance, flexible, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) supercapacitors achieved by doping redox mediators in organogel electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huanhuan; Li, Jinyu; Gu, Cheng; Yao, Mingming; Yang, Bing; Lu, Ping; Ma, Yuguang

    2016-11-01

    The relatively low energy density is now a central issue hindering the development of supercapacitors as energy storage devices. Various approaches are thus developed to enhance the energy density, mainly centering on the fabrication of electrode materials or optimization of cell configurations. Compared with these approaches, modifications in electrolytes are much simple and versatile. Herein, we integrate the wide voltages endowed by organic electrolytes and the additional capacitances brought by redox mediators, to fabricate high energy density supercapacitors. On the basis of this idea, supercapacitors with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) as electrode material exhibit extended operating voltage of 1.5 V, extraordinary capacitance of 363 F g-1 and high energy density of 27.4 Wh kg-1. The redox mediators reported here, ferrocene and 4-oxo-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidinooxy, are the first time being applied in supercapacitors, especially in the gel state. While providing additional faradaic capacitances, they also exhibit synergistic interaction with PEDOT and improve the cycling stability of supercapacitors.

  1. Cross-linking of polymer and ionic liquid as high-performance gel electrolyte for flexible solid-state supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong, Xiongwei; Tang, Jun; Cao, Lujie; Kong, Weiguang; Sun, Zheng; Cheng, Hua; Lu, Zhouguang; Pan, Hui; Xu, Baomin

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •A facile method to prepare gel polymer electrolyte with high conductivity is proposed. •A flexible symmetric capacitor based on the prepared GPE shows ultra-flexibility. •The capacitor with high voltage can power up a 3.0 V LED even bended to a angle of 180°. -- Abstract: It is highly desirable to develop flexible solid-state electrochemical double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) with non-liquid electrolyte. However, it is still a great challenge to prepare gel polymer electrolyte (GPE) possessing high ionic conductivity and good mechanical property. In this work, a simple and novel method to improve the conductivity and mechanical properties of GPE film for their applications as electrolyte and separator in EDLC is presented. The GPE film is prepared by cross-linking ionic liquid (IL) with poly (ethylene oxide) (PEO) and benzophenone (Bp) followed by ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. Then, a non-woven cellulose separator (FPC) is used to absorb the GPE. By tuning the mass ratio (n) between IL and PEO, the flexible EDLC cooperated with low-cost active carbon and the electrolyte film with n = 10 has a high capacitance of 70.84 F∙g −1 , a wide and stable electrochemical window of 3.5 V, an energy density of 30.13 Wh∙kg −1 and a power density of 874.8 W∙kg −1 at a current density of 1 A∙g −1 , which can drive a 3.0 V light-emitting diode (LED). Importantly, the excellent performance of the flexible and low-cost EDLC can be maintained at a bending angle up to 180°, indicating the ultra-flexibility. It is expected that the IL-PEO-FPC electrolyte film is a promising candidate of GPE for flexible devices and energy storage systems.

  2. Fabrication and characterisation of fabric supercapacitor

    OpenAIRE

    Yong, Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Fabric supercapacitor is a flexible electrochemical device for energy storage application. It is designed to power up flexible electronic systems used for, for example, information sensing, data computation and communication. The development of a flexible supercapacitor is important for e-textiles since supercapacitor can achieve higher energy density than a standard parallel plate capacitor and a larger power density compared with a battery. This research area is currently facing barriers on...

  3. Mass Optimization of Battery/Supercapacitors Hybrid Systems Based on a Linear Programming Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, Benoit; Labbe, Julien

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this paper is to show that, on a specific launcher-type mission profile, a 40% gain of mass is expected using a battery/supercapacitors active hybridization instead of a single battery solution. This result is based on the use of a linear programming optimization approach to perform the mass optimization of the hybrid power supply solution.

  4. Estimation of Curve Tracing Time in Supercapacitor based PV Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu Pal, Sudipta; Das Bhattacharya, Konika; Mukherjee, Dipankar; Paul, Debkalyan

    2017-08-01

    Smooth and noise-free characterisation of photovoltaic (PV) generators have been revisited with renewed interest in view of large size PV arrays making inroads into the urban sector of major developing countries. Such practice has recently been observed to be confronted by the use of a suitable data acquisition system and also the lack of a supporting theoretical analysis to justify the accuracy of curve tracing. However, the use of a selected bank of supercapacitors can mitigate the said problems to a large extent. Assuming a piecewise linear analysis of the V-I characteristics of a PV generator, an accurate analysis of curve plotting time has been possible. The analysis has been extended to consider the effect of equivalent series resistance of the supercapacitor leading to increased accuracy (90-95%) of curve plotting times.

  5. Carbon-Based Supercapacitors Produced by Activation of Graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Y.; Su, D.; Murali, S.; Stoller, M.D.; Ganesh, K.J.; Cai, W.; Ferreira, P.J.; Pirkle, A.; Wallace, R.M.; Cychosz, K.A., Thommes, M.; Stach, E.A.; Ruoff, R.S.

    2011-06-24

    Supercapacitors, also called ultracapacitors or electrochemical capacitors, store electrical charge on high-surface-area conducting materials. Their widespread use is limited by their low energy storage density and relatively high effective series resistance. Using chemical activation of exfoliated graphite oxide, we synthesized a porous carbon with a Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area of up to 3100 square meters per gram, a high electrical conductivity, and a low oxygen and hydrogen content. This sp{sup 2}-bonded carbon has a continuous three-dimensional network of highly curved, atom-thick walls that form primarily 0.6- to 5-nanometer-width pores. Two-electrode supercapacitor cells constructed with this carbon yielded high values of gravimetric capacitance and energy density with organic and ionic liquid electrolytes. The processes used to make this carbon are readily scalable to industrial levels.

  6. Carbon-Based Supercapacitors Produced by Activation of Graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yanwu; Murali, Shanthi; Stoller, Meryl D.; Ganesh, K. J.; Cai, Weiwei; Ferreira, Paulo J.; Pirkle, Adam; Wallace, Robert M.; Cychosz, Katie A.; Thommes, Matthias; Su, Dong; Stach, Eric A.; Ruoff, Rodney S.

    2011-06-01

    Supercapacitors, also called ultracapacitors or electrochemical capacitors, store electrical charge on high-surface-area conducting materials. Their widespread use is limited by their low energy storage density and relatively high effective series resistance. Using chemical activation of exfoliated graphite oxide, we synthesized a porous carbon with a Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area of up to 3100 square meters per gram, a high electrical conductivity, and a low oxygen and hydrogen content. This sp2-bonded carbon has a continuous three-dimensional network of highly curved, atom-thick walls that form primarily 0.6- to 5-nanometer-width pores. Two-electrode supercapacitor cells constructed with this carbon yielded high values of gravimetric capacitance and energy density with organic and ionic liquid electrolytes. The processes used to make this carbon are readily scalable to industrial levels.

  7. Carbon-based Supercapacitors Produced by Activation of Graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y Zhu; S Murali; M Stoller; K Ganesh; W Cai; P Ferreira; A Pirkle; R Wallace; K Cychosz; et al.

    2011-12-31

    Supercapacitors, also called ultracapacitors or electrochemical capacitors, store electrical charge on high-surface-area conducting materials. Their widespread use is limited by their low energy storage density and relatively high effective series resistance. Using chemical activation of exfoliated graphite oxide, we synthesized a porous carbon with a Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area of up to 3100 square meters per gram, a high electrical conductivity, and a low oxygen and hydrogen content. This sp{sup 2}-bonded carbon has a continuous three-dimensional network of highly curved, atom-thick walls that form primarily 0.6- to 5-nanometer-width pores. Two-electrode supercapacitor cells constructed with this carbon yielded high values of gravimetric capacitance and energy density with organic and ionic liquid electrolytes. The processes used to make this carbon are readily scalable to industrial levels.

  8. Supercapacitors Based on Nickel Oxide/Carbon Materials Composites

    OpenAIRE

    Lota, Katarzyna; Sierczynska, Agnieszka; Lota, Grzegorz

    2011-01-01

    In the thesis, the properties of nickel oxide/active carbon composites as the electrode materials for supercapacitors are discussed. Composites with a different proportion of nickel oxide/carbon materials were prepared. A nickel oxide/carbon composite was prepared by chemically precipitating nickel hydroxide on an active carbon and heating the hydroxide at 300 ∘C in the air. Phase compositions of the products were characterized using X-ray diffractometry (XRD). The morphology of the composite...

  9. Mechanochemical synthesis of carbon-based nanocomposites for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateyshina, Yuliya G.; Ulihin, Artem S.; Uvarov, Nikolai F.

    2014-12-01

    New nanoporous carbon-SiO2 composite materials were synthesized from organic raw materials (rice shells) and their electrochemical properties were investigated by cyclic voltammetry in liquid electrolytes (6 M KOH or 1 M H2SO4). A correlation between specific capacitance and specific surface area was observed. Due to high specific capacitance of 90 F/g the carbon materials under study may be regarded as promising electrode materials for electrochemical supercapacitors.

  10. Mechanochemical synthesis of carbon-based nanocomposites for supercapacitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateyshina Yuliya G.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available New nanoporous carbon-SiO2 composite materials were synthesized from organic raw materials (rice shells and their electrochemical properties were investigated by cyclic voltammetry in liquid electrolytes (6 M KOH or 1 M H2SO4. A correlation between specific capacitance and specific surface area was observed. Due to high specific capacitance of 90 F/g the carbon materials under study may be regarded as promising electrode materials for electrochemical supercapacitors.

  11. Carbon nanotube based composites for electricity storage in supercapacitors

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Shengwen

    2010-01-01

    In the context of fossil-fuel shortage and climate change, the production, conversion, storage and distribution of energy have become the focus of today's world. Supercapacitors, with their unique energy and power density specifications, cover the application gap between batteries and conventional capacitors and hence making valuable contributions in energy storage and distribution. Caron nanotubes (CNTs), with their unique aspect ratio and other distinctive physical, electrochemical and...

  12. An investigation of an uninterruptible power supply (UPS) based on supercapacitor and liquid nitrogen hybridization system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xinjing; Xue, Haobai; Xu, Yujie; Chen, Haisheng; Tan, Chunqing

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A hybrid UPS based on supercapacitor and liquid nitrogen engine is proposed. • The dynamic modelling of the hybrid UPS system is conducted. • The dynamic working performance is obtained and analysed based on the simulation. • The hybrid UPS enjoys environmental benignity, long life and easy maintenance. • It is a highly possible solution to replace conventional UPS systems. - Abstract: An uninterruptible power supply (UPS) system based on supercapacitor and liquid nitrogen (LN 2 ) hybridization is first introduced in this paper. Of the newly designed UPS, the supercapacitor reacts instantaneously once the main supply fails, and it also starts the LN 2 power system to produce continuing electricity for the customer. This hybrid UPS system is of environment cleanness, long life time, easy maintenaince, etc. A 10 kW model is analyzed in this study. A two-stage nitrogen expander is designed with the rated speed of 900 rpm as the long time power generation device of the LN 2 cycle. The UPS starting process calculation is carried out. The results reveal that commercial supercapacitors could fulfill this request. This UPS could be a competent choice for the UPS application. Further discussion indicates the LN 2 power system could be used widely from UPS to low carbon vehicles

  13. Significant Performance Enhancement in Asymmetric Supercapacitors based on Metal Oxides, Carbon nanotubes and Neutral Aqueous Electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Arvinder; Chandra, Amreesh

    2015-10-01

    Amongst the materials being investigated for supercapacitor electrodes, carbon based materials are most investigated. However, pure carbon materials suffer from inherent physical processes which limit the maximum specific energy and power that can be achieved in an energy storage device. Therefore, use of carbon-based composites with suitable nano-materials is attaining prominence. The synergistic effect between the pseudocapacitive nanomaterials (high specific energy) and carbon (high specific power) is expected to deliver the desired improvements. We report the fabrication of high capacitance asymmetric supercapacitor based on electrodes of composites of SnO2 and V2O5 with multiwall carbon nanotubes and neutral 0.5 M Li2SO4 aqueous electrolyte. The advantages of the fabricated asymmetric supercapacitors are compared with the results published in the literature. The widened operating voltage window is due to the higher over-potential of electrolyte decomposition and a large difference in the work functions of the used metal oxides. The charge balanced device returns the specific capacitance of ~198 F g-1 with corresponding specific energy of ~89 Wh kg-1 at 1 A g-1. The proposed composite systems have shown great potential in fabricating high performance supercapacitors.

  14. Conducting Polymeric Hydrogel Electrolyte Based on Carboxymethylcellulose and Polyacrylamide/Polyaniline for Supercapacitor Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suganya, N.; Jaisankar, V.; Sivakumar, E. K. T.

    Conducting polymer hydrogels represent a unique class of materials that possess enormous application in flexible electronic devices. In the present work, conducting carboxymethylcellulose (CMC)-co-polyacrylamide (PAAm)/polyaniline was synthesized by a two-step interpenetrating network solution polymerization technique. The synthesized CMC-co-PAAm/polyaniline with interpenetrating network structure was prepared by in situ polymerization of aniline to enhance conductivity. The molecular structure and morphology of the copolymer hydrogels were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The novel conducting polymer hydrogels show good electrical and electrochemical behavior, which makes them potentially useful in electronic devices such as supercapacitors, biosensors, bioelectronics, solar cells and memory devices.

  15. Integrating Desalination and Energy Storage using a Saltwater-based Hybrid Sodium-ion Supercapacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhaowei; Ma, Yuanyuan; Dong, Xiaoli; Hou, Mengyan; Wang, Yonggang; Xia, Yongyao

    2018-06-11

    Ever-increasing freshwater scarcity and energy crisis problems require efficient seawater desalination and energy storage technologies; however, each target is generally considered separately. Herein, a hybrid sodium-ion supercapacitor, involving a carbon-coated nano-NaTi 2 (PO 4 ) 3 -based battery anode and an activated-carbon-based capacitive cathode, is developed to combine desalination and energy storage in one device. On charge, the supercapacitor removes salt in a flowing saltwater electrolyte through Cl - electrochemical adsorption at the cathode and Na + intercalation at the anode. Discharge delivers useful electric energy and regenerates the electrodes. This supercapacitor can be used not only for energy storage with promising electrochemical performance (i.e., high power, high efficiency, and long cycle life), but also as a desalination device with desalination capacity of 146.8 mg g -1 , much higher than most reported capacitive and battery desalination devices. Finally, we demonstrate renewables to usable electric energy and desalted water through combining commercial photovoltaics and this hybrid supercapacitor. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Solid-state supercapacitors with ionic liquid based gel polymer electrolyte: Effect of lithium salt addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, G. P.; Hashmi, S. A.

    2013-12-01

    Performance characteristics of the solid-state supercapacitors fabricated with ionic liquid (IL) incorporated gel polymer electrolyte and acid treated multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) electrodes have been studied. The effect of Li-salt (LiPF6) addition in the IL (1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tris(pentafluoroethyl) trifluorophosphate, EMImFAP) based gel electrolyte on the performance of supercapacitors has been specifically investigated. The LiPF6/IL/poly(vinylidine fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVdF-HFP) gel electrolyte film possesses excellent electrochemical window of 4 V (from -2.0 to 2.0 V), high ionic conductivity ∼2.6 × 10-3 S cm-1 at 20 °C and high enough thermal stability. The comparative performance of supercapacitors employing electrolytes with and without lithium salt has been evaluated by impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetric studies. The acid-treated MWCNT electrodes show specific capacitance of ∼127 F g-1 with IL/LiPF6 containing gel polymer electrolyte as compared to that with the gel polymer electrolyte without Li-salt, showing the value of ∼76 F g-1. The long cycling stability of the solid state supercapacitor based on the Li-salt containing gel polymer electrolyte confirms the electrochemical stability of the electrolyte.

  17. Nanoarchitectured current collector for high rate capability of polyaniline based supercapacitor electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumboja, Afriyanti; Wang Xu; Yan Jian; Lee, Pooi See

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Preparation of organic/inorganic coaxial nanowires. ► Modifying current collector to improve both capacitance and rate capability simultaneously. ► Improvement in the charge transport process resulted in the superior rate capability. - Abstract: Indium tin oxide (ITO) nanowires array was used as current collector and building block for polyaniline based supercapacitor. Thin polyaniline coating was deposited on the nanowires and resulted in the formation of polyaniline ITO coaxial nanowires. This hybrid heterostructure design improved the specific capacitance, rate capability, and cycling stability of the supercapacitor electrode. Good conductivity harnessed by these directly grown ITO nanowires is useful to improve the charge transport during the charge discharge processes which were confirmed by the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurement. Electrochemical test in 1 M H 2 SO 4 at 4 A g −1 delivered specific capacitance as high as 738 F g −1 . In addition, sub-micron size of the intercoaxial nanowires spacing ensures the fast penetration of electrolyte ions which resulted in the superior rate capability (98% capacitance retention when applied current was varied from 4 to 25 A g −1 ). The capacitance retention is significantly higher as compared to other polyaniline composite electrodes and it is one of the best reported performances to date for polyaniline based supercapacitor electrodes. This work illustrates a promising platform that can be adopted for other redox nanocomposite materials while reaping the benefit as low cost and binder free electrode material for supercapacitor application.

  18. Manganese dioxide decoration of macroscopic carbon nanotube fibers: From high-performance liquid-based to all-solid-state supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendashteh, Afshin; Senokos, Evgeny; Palma, Jesus; Anderson, Marc; Vilatela, Juan J.; Marcilla, Rebeca

    2017-12-01

    Supercapacitors capable of providing high voltage, energy and power density but yet light, low volume occupying, flexible and mechanically robust are highly interesting and demanded for portable applications. Herein, freestanding flexible hybrid electrodes based on MnO2 nanoparticles grown on macroscopic carbon nanotube fibers (CNTf-MnO2) were fabricated, without the need of any metallic current collector. The CNTf, a support with excellent electrical conductivity, mechanical stability, and appropriate pore structure, was homogeneously decorated with porous akhtenskite ɛ-MnO2 nanoparticles produced via electrodeposition in an optimized organic-aqueous mixture. Electrochemical properties of these decorated fibers were evaluated in different electrolytes including a neutral aqueous solution and a pure 1-butyl-3-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ionic liquid (PYR14TFSI). This comparison helps discriminate the various contributions to the total capacitance: (surface) Faradaic and non-Faradaic processes, improved wetting by aqueous electrolytes. Accordingly, symmetric supercapacitors with PYR14TFSI led to a high specific energy of 36 Wh· kgMnO2-1 (16 Wh·kg-1 including the weight of CNTf) and real specific power of 17 kW· kgMnO2-1 (7.5 kW kg-1) at 3.0 V with excellent cycling stability. Moreover, flexible all solid-state supercapacitors were fabricated using PYR14TFSI-based polymer electrolyte, exhibiting maximum energy density of 21 Wh·kg-1 and maximum power density of 8 kW kg-1 normalized by total active material.

  19. Electrochemical supercapacitors based on novel hybrid materials made of carbon nanotubes and polyoxometalates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuentas-Gallegos, Ana Karina; Martinez-Rosales, Rosa; Rincon, Marina E. [Centro de Investigacion en Energia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Priv. Xochicalco s/n, Col. Centro, C.P. 62580 Temixco, Mor (Mexico); Baibarac, Mihaela; Gomez-Romero, Pedro [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Barcelona, CSIC, Campus de la UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain)

    2007-08-15

    We have characterized symmetric solid-state supercapacitors in swagelok cells using film electrodes made of novel hybrid materials based on multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNT) and phosphomolybdate polyanion (Cs-PMo12) with PVA as binder. These hybrid materials were carried out by Cs-PMo12 adhesion onto previously functionalized CNT, in order to disperse both components at a molecular level and use Cs-PMo12 as energy density enhancer in supercapacitor cells. Our results show high capacitance values (up to 285 F/g at I = 200 mA/g) due to the contribution of Cs-PMo12, which was revealed on the higher energy density values compared to pure CNT electrodes. Additionally, good stability was observed during 500 charge-discharge cycles for most hybrid electrodes. These preliminary results show a new approach to enhance energy density of double layer supercapacitor cells through the introduction of Cs-PMo12, whereas from a material science point of view these materials are innovative, and open the way to search for diverse applications aside from supercapacitors (sensors, catalysts, photovoltaic cells, etc.). (author)

  20. Stretchable supercapacitors based on highly stretchable ionic liquid incorporated polymer electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamilarasan, P.; Ramaprabhu, S., E-mail: ramp@iitm.ac.in

    2014-11-14

    Mechanical stability of electrolyte in all-solid-state supercapacitor attains immense attention as it addresses safety aspects. In this study, we have demonstrated, the fabrication of stretchable supercapacitor based on stretchable electrolyte and hydrogen exfoliated graphene electrode. We synthesized ionic liquid incorporated stretchable Poly(methyl methacrylate) electrolyte which plays dual role as electrolyte and stretchable support for electrode material. The molecular vibration studies show composite nature of the electrolyte. At least four-fold stretchability has been observed along with good ionic conductivity (0.78 mS cm{sup −1} at 28 °C) for this polymer electrolyte. This stretchable supercapacitor shows a low equivalent series resistance (16 Ω) due to the compatibility at electrode–electrolyte interface. The performance of the device has been determined under strain as well. - Highlights: • A stretchable supercapacitor has been fabricated using stretchable electrolyte. • Here ionic liquid incorporated polymer plays dual role as electrolyte and stretchable support. • The developed device shows low equivalent series resistance. • The device has specific capacitance of 83 F g{sup −1}, at the specific current of 2.67 A g{sup −1}. • The energy density and power density of 25.7 Wh kg{sup −1} and 35.2 kW kg{sup −1}, respectively.

  1. Energy-density enhancement of carbon-nanotube-based supercapacitors with redox couple in organic electrolyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jinwoo; Kim, Byungwoo; Yoo, Young-Eun; Chung, Haegeun; Kim, Woong

    2014-11-26

    We demonstrate for the first time that the incorporation of a redox-active molecule in an organic electrolyte can increase the cell voltage of a supercapacitor. The redox molecule also contributes to increasing the cell capacitance by a faradaic redox reaction, and therefore the energy density of the supercapacitor can be significantly increased. More specifically, the addition of redox-active decamethylferrocene in an organic electrolyte results in an approximately 27-fold increase in the energy density of carbon-nanotube-based supercapacitors. The resulting high energy density (36.8 Wh/kg) stems from the increased cell voltage (1.1 V→2.1 V) and cell capacitance (8.3 F/g→61.3 F/g) resulting from decamethylferrocene addition. We found that the voltage increase is associated with the potential of the redox species relative to the electrochemical stability window of the supporting electrolyte. These results will be useful in identifying new electrolytes for high-energy-density supercapacitors.

  2. Review on α-Fe2O3 based negative electrode for high performance supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nithya, V. D.; Arul, N. Sabari

    2016-09-01

    Supercapacitor is an electrochemical energy storage device which has drawn attention of the researchers in recent years due to its high power density and long cycle life. Recently, an enormous effort has been imposed to improve the energy density of supercapacitor and might be attained through asymmetric cell configuration that offer wider potential window. Until now, a significant advancement has been achieved in the fabrication of positive electrodes for asymmetric cell. Nevertheless, the electrochemical performance of negative electrode materials is less explored, especially Hematite (α-Fe2O3). The α-Fe2O3 has been proved to be a promising negative electrode in supercapacitor application due to its wide operating potential, high redox activity, low cost, abundant availability and eco-friendliness. In this review, we have chosen α-Fe2O3 as the negative electrode and discussed its latest research progress with emphasis on various surface engineering synthesis strategies such as, carbon, polymer, metal-metal oxide, and ternary based α-Fe2O3 composites for supercapacitor. Besides, the importance of their synergistic effects over the supercapacitive performance in terms of specific capacitance, energy density, power density, cycling life and rate capability are highlighted. Also, an extensive analysis of the literature about its symmetric/asymmetric cell performance is explored.

  3. Transition Metal Ions Enable the Transition from Electrospun Prolamin Protein Fibers to Nitrogen-Doped Freestanding Carbon Films for Flexible Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yixiang; Yang, Jingqi; Du, Rongbing; Chen, Lingyun

    2017-07-19

    Flexible carbon ultrafine fibers are highly desirable in energy storage and conversion devices. Our previous finding showed that electrospun hordein/zein fibers stabilized by Ca 2+ were successfully transferred into nitrogen-doped carbon ultrafine fibers for supercapacitors. However, their relatively brittle nature needed to be improved. Inspired by this stabilizing effect of Ca 2+ , in this work, four transition metal divalent cations were used to assist the formation of flexible hordein/zein-derived carbon ultrafine fibers. Without alteration of the electrospinnability, adequate amounts of zinc acetate and cobalt acetate supported the fibrous structure during pyrolysis. This resulted in flexible freestanding carbon films consisting of well-defined fibers with nitrogen-doped graphitic layers and hierarchical pores. These carbon films were easily cut into small square pieces and directly applied as working electrode in the three-electrode testing system without the need for polymer binders or conducting agents. Notably, the hz-Zn0.3-p electrode, synthesized with 0.3 mol/L Zn 2+ and post-acid treatment, exhibited a specific capacitance of 393 F/g (at 1 A/g), a large rate capability (72.3% remained at 20 A/g), and a capacitance retention of ∼98% after 2000 charging-discharging cycles at 10 A/g. These superior electrochemical properties were attributed to the synergistic effects of the well-developed graphitic layers induced by Zn 2+ , the nitrogen-decorated carbon structure, and the interconnected channels generated by HCl treatment. This research advances potential applications for prolamin proteins as nitrogen-containing raw materials in developing carbon structures for high-performance supercapacitors.

  4. Flexible optical fiber sensor based on polyurethane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaysir, Md Rejvi; Stefani, Alessio; Lwin, Richard

    Polyurethane (PU) based hollow core fibers are investigated as optical sensors. The flexibility of PU fibers makes it suitable for sensing mechanical perturbations. We fabricated a PU fiber using the fiber drawing method, characterized the fiber and experimentally demonstrated a simple way...... to measure deformation, in the form of applied pressure....

  5. Three-dimensional skeleton networks of graphene wrapped polyaniline nanofibers: an excellent structure for high-performance flexible solid-state supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Nantao; Zhang, Liling; Yang, Chao; Zhao, Jian; Yang, Zhi; Wei, Hao; Liao, Hanbin; Feng, Zhenxing; Fisher, Adrian; Zhang, Yafei; Xu, Zhichuan J.

    2016-01-01

    Thin, robust, lightweight, and flexible supercapacitors (SCs) have aroused growing attentions nowadays due to the rapid development of flexible electronics. Graphene-polyaniline (PANI) hybrids are attractive candidates for high performance SCs. In order to utilize them in real devices, it is necessary to improve the capacitance and the structure stability of PANI. Here we report a hierarchical three-dimensional structure, in which all of PANI nanofibers (NFs) are tightly wrapped inside reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanosheet skeletons, for high-performance flexible SCs. The as-fabricated film electrodes with this unique structure showed a highest gravimetric specific capacitance of 921 F/g and volumetric capacitance of 391 F/cm3. The assembled solid-state SCs gave a high specific capacitance of 211 F/g (1 A/g), a high area capacitance of 0.9 F/cm2, and a competitive volumetric capacitance of 25.6 F/cm3. The SCs also exhibited outstanding rate capability (~75% retention at 20 A/g) as well as excellent cycling stability (100% retention at 10 A/g for 2000 cycles). Additionally, no structural failure and loss of performance were observed under the bending state. This structure design paves a new avenue for engineering rGO/PANI or other similar hybrids for high performance flexible energy storage devices. PMID:26795067

  6. Facile synthesis of amorphous FeOOH/MnO2 composites as screen-printed electrode materials for all-printed solid-state flexible supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qiang; Liu, Li; Yang, Shuanglei; Liu, Jun; Tian, Qingyong; Yao, Weijing; Xue, Qingwen; Li, Mengxiao; Wu, Wei

    2017-09-01

    More convenience and intelligence life lead by flexible/wearable electronics requires innovation and hommization of power sources. Here, amorphous FeOOH/MnO2 composite as screen-printed electrode materials for supercapacitors (SCs) is synthesized by a facile method, and solid-state flexible SCs with aesthetic design are fabricated by fully screen-printed process on different substrates, including PET, paper and textile. The amorphous FeOOH/MnO2 composite shows a high specific capacitance and a good rate capability (350.2 F g-1 at a current density of 0.5 A g-1 and 159.5 F g-1 at 20 A g-1). It also possesses 95.6% capacitance retention even after 10 000 cycles. Moreover, the all-printed solid-state flexible SC device exhibits a high area specific capacitance of 5.7 mF cm-2 and 80% capacitance retention even after 2000 cycles. It also shows high mechanical flexibility. Simultaneously, these printed SCs on different substrates in series are capable to light up a 1.9 V yellow light emitting diode (LED), even after bending and stretching.

  7. Voltage dependence of carbon-based supercapacitors for pseudocapacitance quantification

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz Ruiz, Vanesa; Roldán Luna, Silvia; Villar Masetto, Isabel; Blanco Rodríguez, Clara; Santamaría Ramírez, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    In order to understand the participation of electrical double layer and pseudocapacitance to the overall behavior of supercapacitors, a new approach to the analysis of the electrochemical data is proposed. Both the variation of the specific capacitance values and the dependence of these values with the operating voltage window (varying from 0–0.2 V to 0–1 V) were evaluated and used to quantify the contribution arising from each mechanism of energy storage to the total capacitance of the syste...

  8. Embedded Ag quantum dots into interconnected Co3O4 nanosheets grown on 3D graphene networks for high stable and flexible supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Junya; Dou, Wei; Zhang, Xuetao; Han, Weihua; Mu, Xuemei; Zhang, Yue; Zhao, Xiaohua; Chen, Youxin; Yang, Zhiwei; Su, Qing; Xie, Erqing; Lan, Wei; Wang, Xinran

    2017-01-01

    High stable, flexible and interconnected Co 3 O 4 nanosheets with embedded Ag quantum dots (AgQDs) were uniformly grown on three dimensional graphene (3DG) networks and served as supercapacitor electrode to enhance the pseudocapacitance performance. The AgQDs were used to facilitate the growth of the Co 3 O 4 nanosheets and improve the electrical conductivity of the hybrid electrode by forming a good ohmic contact and provide direct and stable pathways for rapid electron transport. The AgQDs contribute to produce an improved areal capacitance of 421 mF cm −2 (1052.5 F g −1 ) and 53.3 mF cm −2 for the Ag/Co 3 O 4 /3DG hybrid, for both the three- and the two-electrode configuration, respectively. These values are about three times higher compared to a pristine Co 3 O 4 /3DG electrode. The capacitance retention of ∼120% after 10 4 cycles shows that a Ag/Co 3 O 4 /3DG hybrid can provide a long and stable cycle performance with a high specific capacitance. This study provides an effective strategy to improve the performance of electrode materials for supercapacitors with a high efficiency and long life, which makes them promising candidates for future energy-storage applications.

  9. A flexible and portable powerpack by solid-state supercapacitor and dye-sensitized solar cell integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalia, Alberto; Bella, Federico; Lamberti, Andrea; Bianco, Stefano; Gerbaldi, Claudio; Tresso, Elena; Pirri, Candido Fabrizio

    2017-08-01

    The recent need to benefit from electricity in every moment of daily life, particularly when the access to the electric grid is limited, is forcing the scientific and industrial community to an intensive effort towards the production of integrated energy harvesting and storage devices able to drive low power electronics. In this framework, flexibility represents a mandatory requirement to cover non-planar or bendable surfaces, more and more common in nowadays-electronic devices. To this purpose, here we present an innovative device consisting of a TiO2 nanotube-based dye sensitized solar cell and a graphene-based electrical double layer capacitor integrated in a flexible architecture. Both the units are obtained by easily scalable fabrication processes exploiting photopolymer membranes as electrolytes and metal grids as current collectors. The performance of the two units and of the integrated system are thoroughly investigated by electrochemical measurements also under different irradiation conditions. To the best of our knowledge, this work shows the highest energy conversion and storage efficiency (1.02%) ever attained under 1 Sun irradiation condition for a flexible dye-sensitized-based non-wired photocapacitor. Noteworthy, this value dramatically increases while lowering the illumination condition to 0.3 Sun, achieving a remarkable value of 1.46%, thus showing optimal performances in real operation conditions.

  10. Enhanced tolerance to stretch-induced performance degradation of stretchable MnO2-based supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yan; Huang, Yang; Meng, Wenjun; Zhu, Minshen; Xue, Hongtao; Lee, Chun-Sing; Zhi, Chunyi

    2015-02-04

    The performance of many stretchable electronics, such as energy storage devices and strain sensors, is highly limited by the structural breakdown arising from the stretch imposed. In this article, we focus on a detailed study on materials matching between functional materials and their conductive substrate, as well as enhancement of the tolerance to stretch-induced performance degradation of stretchable supercapacitors, which are essential for the design of a stretchable device. It is revealed that, being widely utilized as the electrode material of the stretchable supercapacitor, metal oxides such as MnO2 nanosheets have serious strain-induced performance degradation due to their rigid structure. In comparison, with conducting polymers like a polypyrrole (PPy) film as the electrochemically active material, the performance of stretchable supercapacitors can be well preserved under strain. Therefore, a smart design is to combine PPy with MnO2 nanosheets to achieve enhanced tolerance to strain-induced performance degradation of MnO2-based supercapacitors, which is realized by fabricating an electrode of PPy-penetrated MnO2 nanosheets. The composite electrodes exhibit a remarkable enhanced tolerance to strain-induced performance degradation with well-preserved performance over 93% under strain. The detailed morphology and electrochemical impedance variations are investigated for the mechanism analyses. Our work presents a systematic investigation on the selection and matching of electrode materials for stretchable supercapacitors to achieve high performance and great tolerance to strain, which may guide the selection of functional materials and their substrate materials for the next-generation of stretchable electronics.

  11. A single-walled carbon nanotubes/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate)/copper hexacyanoferrate hybrid film for high-volumetric performance flexible supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianmin; Li, Haizeng; Li, Jiahui; Wu, Guiqing; Shao, Yuanlong; Li, Yaogang; Zhang, Qinghong; Wang, Hongzhi

    2018-05-01

    Volumetric energy density is generally considered to be detrimental to the actual application of supercapacitors, which has provoked a range of research work on increasing the packing density of electrodes. Herein, we fabricate a free-standing single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs)/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS)/copper hexacyanoferrate (CuHCF) nanoparticles (NPs) composite supercapacitor electrode, with a high packing density of 2.67 g cm-3. The pseudocapacitive CuHCF NPs are decorated onto the SWCNTs/PEDOT:PSS networks and filled in interspace to increase both of packing density and specific capacitance. This hybrid electrode exhibits a series of outstanding performances, such as high electric conductivity, ultrahigh areal and volumetric capacitances (969.8 mF cm-2 and 775.2 F cm-3 at scan rate of 5 mV s-1), long cycle life and superior rate capability. The asymmetric supercapacitor built by using the SWCNTs/PEDOT:PSS/CuHCF film as positive electrode and Mo-doped WO3/SWCNTs film as negative electrode, can deliver a high energy density of 30.08 Wh L-1 with a power density of 4.25 kW L-1 based on the total volume of the device. The approach unveiled in this study could provide important insights to improving the volumetric performance of energy storage devices and help to reach the critical targets for high rate and high power density demand applications.

  12. Poly(Lactic Acid) Based Flexible Films

    OpenAIRE

    Fathilah binti Ali; Jamarosliza Jamaluddin; Arun Kumar Upadhyay

    2014-01-01

    Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) is a biodegradable polymer which has good mechanical properties, however, its brittleness limits its usage especially in packaging materials. Therefore, in this work, PLA based polyurethane films were prepared by synthesizing with different types of isocyanates; methylene diisocyanate (MDI) and hexamethylene diisocyanates (HDI). For this purpose, PLA based polyurethane must have good strength and flexibility. Therefore, polycaprolactone which has b...

  13. Novel polybenzoxazine-based carbon aerogel electrode for supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katanyoota, Porawee [Petroleum and Petrochemical College and National Center of Excellence for Petroleum, Petrochemicals and Advanced Materials, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Chaisuwan, Thayanlak, E-mail: thanyalak.c@hotmail.co [Petroleum and Petrochemical College and National Center of Excellence for Petroleum, Petrochemicals and Advanced Materials, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Wongchaisuwat, Atchana [Department of Chemistry, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 10900 (Thailand); Wongkasemjit, Sujitra, E-mail: dsujitra@chula.ac.t [Petroleum and Petrochemical College and National Center of Excellence for Petroleum, Petrochemicals and Advanced Materials, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand)

    2010-02-25

    In this study, polybenzoxazine, a new high performance thermosetting resin, was used to prepare carbon aerogels used as an electrode for supercapacitors. Two types of polybenzoxazines, derived from two different amines, aniline and triethylenetetramine, and denoted as BA-a and BA-teta, respectively, were chosen as the reactants for the organic precursor preparation. The surface area of carbon aerogels from both BA-a and BA-teta was 391 and 368 m{sup 2}/g, respectively. The pore size of each carbon aerogel was in the range of 2-5 nm, which is a suitable pore size for use as electrodes in electrochemical applications. The electrochemical properties of the obtained carbon aerogels showed good performance for supercapacitor applications with a specific capacitance of 55.78 and 20.53 F/g for BA-teta and BA-a, respectively. At low voltage scanning, 1 and 5 mV/s, the cyclic voltammogram of the carbon aerogel derived from BA-teta gave a better rectangular shape than that of the other carbon aerogel. The impedance spectra of both carbon aerogels confirmed the results of the capacitance and the cyclic voltammogram analyses.

  14. Novel polybenzoxazine-based carbon aerogel electrode for supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katanyoota, Porawee; Chaisuwan, Thayanlak; Wongchaisuwat, Atchana; Wongkasemjit, Sujitra

    2010-01-01

    In this study, polybenzoxazine, a new high performance thermosetting resin, was used to prepare carbon aerogels used as an electrode for supercapacitors. Two types of polybenzoxazines, derived from two different amines, aniline and triethylenetetramine, and denoted as BA-a and BA-teta, respectively, were chosen as the reactants for the organic precursor preparation. The surface area of carbon aerogels from both BA-a and BA-teta was 391 and 368 m 2 /g, respectively. The pore size of each carbon aerogel was in the range of 2-5 nm, which is a suitable pore size for use as electrodes in electrochemical applications. The electrochemical properties of the obtained carbon aerogels showed good performance for supercapacitor applications with a specific capacitance of 55.78 and 20.53 F/g for BA-teta and BA-a, respectively. At low voltage scanning, 1 and 5 mV/s, the cyclic voltammogram of the carbon aerogel derived from BA-teta gave a better rectangular shape than that of the other carbon aerogel. The impedance spectra of both carbon aerogels confirmed the results of the capacitance and the cyclic voltammogram analyses.

  15. Metal Phosphides and Phosphates-based Electrodes for Electrochemical Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Elshahawy, Abdelnaby M; Guan, Cao; Wang, John

    2017-10-01

    Phosphorus compounds, such as metal phosphides and phosphates have shown excellent performances and great potential in electrochemical energy storage, which are demonstrated by research works published in recent years. Some of these metal phosphides and phosphates and their hybrids compare favorably with transition metal oxides/hydroxides, which have been studied extensively as a class of electrode materials for supercapacitor applications, where they have limitations in terms of electrical and ion conductivity and device stability. To be specific, metal phosphides have both metalloid characteristics and good electric conductivity. For metal phosphates, the open-framework structures with large channels and cavities endow them with good ion conductivity and charge storage capacity. In this review, we present the recent progress on metal phosphides and phosphates, by focusing on their advantages/disadvantages and potential applications as a new class of electrode materials in supercapacitors. The synthesis methods to prepare these metal phosphides/phosphates are looked into, together with the scientific insights involved, as they strongly affect the electrochemical energy storage performance. Particular attentions are paid to those hybrid-type materials, where strong synergistic effects exist. In the summary, the future perspectives and challenges for the metal phosphides, phosphates and hybrid-types are proposed and discussed. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Low-cost superior solid-state symmetric supercapacitors based on hematite nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Shaomin; Yu, Lin; Lan, Bang; Sun, Ming; Cheng, Gao; Liao, Shuhuan; Cao, Han; Deng, Yulin

    2016-12-01

    We present a facile method for the fabrication of hematite nanocrystal-carbon cloth (Fe2O3-CC) composite. Hierarchical manganite is chosen as the sacrificial precursor, that does not contribute to the component of final iron oxide but can be in situ dissolved by the acid produced from the Fe3+ hydrolysis. This method effectively enhances the specific surface area and conductivity of hematite (Fe2O3) by attaching Fe2O3 nanocrystals (around 5 nm) firmly on the surface of carbon fibers. The obtained Fe2O3-CC can be directly used as a binder-free electrode for a supercapacitor. Interestingly, the composite electrode exhibits synergistic electrochemical capacitance (electrochemical double-layer capacitance and pseudo-capacitance). It manifests a very high areal capacitance of 1.66 F cm-2 (1660 F g-1) at 2 mA cm-2 and excellent cycling performance at large current densities (88.6% retention at 30 mA cm-2 after 5000 cycles) in a three-electrode testing system, which is among the best performances reported in the literature. Importantly, when fabricated as a solid-state flexible symmetric supercapacitor it still shows a maximum energy density of 8.74 mW h cm-3 and power density of 253.9 mW cm-3. Additionally, its good flexibility makes it suitable for portable devices.

  17. Ag/Au/Polypyrrole Core-shell Nanowire Network for Transparent, Stretchable and Flexible Supercapacitor in Wearable Energy Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Moon, Hyunjin; Lee, Habeom; Kwon, Jinhyeong; Suh, Young Duk; Kim, Dong Kwan; Ha, Inho; Yeo, Junyeob; Hong, Sukjoon; Ko, Seung Hwan

    2017-01-01

    Transparent and stretchable energy storage devices have attracted significant interest due to their potential to be applied to biocompatible and wearable electronics. Supercapacitors that use the reversible faradaic redox reaction of conducting polymer have a higher specific capacitance as compared with electrical double-layer capacitors. Typically, the conducting polymer electrode is fabricated through direct electropolymerization on the current collector. However, no research have been cond...

  18. Freestanding eggshell membrane-based electrodes for high-performance supercapacitors and oxygen evolution reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Jing; Wu, Hao; Al-Enizi, Abdullah M.; Elzatahry, Ahmed A.; Zheng, Gengfeng

    2015-08-01

    A type of freestanding, light-weight eggshell membrane-based electrode is demonstrated for supercapacitors and for oxygen evolution reaction (OER) catalysis. As a widely available daily waste, eggshell membranes have unique porous three-dimensional grid-like fibrous structures with relatively high surface area and abundant macropores, allowing for effective conjugation of carbon nanotubes and growth of NiCo2O4 nanowire arrays, an effective supercapacitor material and OER catalyst. The three-dimensional fibrous eggshell membrane frameworks with carbon nanotubes offer efficient pathways for charge transport, and the macropores between adjacent fibers are fully accessible for electrolytes and bubble evolution. As a supercapacitor, the eggshell membrane/carbon nanotube/NiCo2O4 electrode shows high specific capacitances at current densities from 1 to 20 A g-1, with excellent capacitance retention (>90%) at 10 A g-1 for over 10 000 cycles. When employed as an OER catalyst, this eggshell membrane-based electrode exhibits an OER onset potential of 1.53 V vs. the reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE), and a stable catalytic current density of 20 mA cm-2 at 1.65 V vs. the RHE.A type of freestanding, light-weight eggshell membrane-based electrode is demonstrated for supercapacitors and for oxygen evolution reaction (OER) catalysis. As a widely available daily waste, eggshell membranes have unique porous three-dimensional grid-like fibrous structures with relatively high surface area and abundant macropores, allowing for effective conjugation of carbon nanotubes and growth of NiCo2O4 nanowire arrays, an effective supercapacitor material and OER catalyst. The three-dimensional fibrous eggshell membrane frameworks with carbon nanotubes offer efficient pathways for charge transport, and the macropores between adjacent fibers are fully accessible for electrolytes and bubble evolution. As a supercapacitor, the eggshell membrane/carbon nanotube/NiCo2O4 electrode shows high specific

  19. Effect of conductive additives to gel electrolytes on activated carbon-based supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzegar, Farshad; Dangbegnon, Julien K.; Bello, Abdulhakeem; Momodu, Damilola Y.; Johnson, A. T. Charlie; Manyala, Ncholu

    2015-09-01

    This article is focused on polymer based gel electrolyte due to the fact that polymers are cheap and can be used to achieve extended potential window for improved energy density of the supercapacitor devices when compared to aqueous electrolytes. Electrochemical characterization of a symmetric supercapacitor devices based on activated carbon in different polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) based gel electrolytes was carried out. The device exhibited a maximum energy density of 24 Wh kg-1 when carbon black was added to the gel electrolyte as conductive additive. The good energy density was correlated with the improved conductivity of the electrolyte medium which is favorable for fast ion transport in this relatively viscous environment. Most importantly, the device remained stable with no capacitance lost after 10,000 cycles.

  20. Effect of conductive additives to gel electrolytes on activated carbon-based supercapacitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farshad Barzegar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article is focused on polymer based gel electrolyte due to the fact that polymers are cheap and can be used to achieve extended potential window for improved energy density of the supercapacitor devices when compared to aqueous electrolytes. Electrochemical characterization of a symmetric supercapacitor devices based on activated carbon in different polyvinyl alcohol (PVA based gel electrolytes was carried out. The device exhibited a maximum energy density of 24 Wh kg−1 when carbon black was added to the gel electrolyte as conductive additive. The good energy density was correlated with the improved conductivity of the electrolyte medium which is favorable for fast ion transport in this relatively viscous environment. Most importantly, the device remained stable with no capacitance lost after 10,000 cycles.

  1. Nickel cobaltite nanograss grown around porous carbon nanotube-wrapped stainless steel wire mesh as a flexible electrode for high-performance supercapacitor application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Mao-Sung; Zheng, Zhi-Bin; Lai, Yu-Sheng; Jow, Jiin-Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Nickel cobaltite nanograss with bimodal pore size distribution is grown around the carbon nanotube-wrapped stainless steel wire mesh as a high capacitance and stable electrode for high-performance and flexible supercapacitors. - Highlights: • NiCo 2 O 4 nanograss with bimodal pore size distribution is hydrothermally prepared. • Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) wrap around stainless steel (SS) wire mesh as a scaffold. • NiCo 2 O 4 grown on CNT-wrapped SS mesh shows excellent capacitive performance. • Porous CNT layer allows for rapid transport of electron and electrolyte. - Abstract: Nickel cobaltite nanograss with bimodal pore size distribution (small and large mesopores) is grown on various electrode substrates by one-pot hydrothermal synthesis. The small pores (<5 nm) in the nanograss of individual nanorods contribute to large surface area, while the large pore channels (>20 nm) between nanorods offer fast transport paths for electrolyte. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with high electrical conductivity wrap around stainless steel (SS) wire mesh by electrophoresis as an electrode scaffold for supporting the nickel cobaltite nanograss. This unique electrode configuration turns out to have great benefits for the development of supercapacitors. The specific capacitance of nickel cobaltite grown around CNT-wrapped SS wire mesh reaches 1223 and 1070 F g −1 at current densities of 1 and 50 A g −1 , respectively. CNT-wrapped SS wire mesh affords porous and conductive networks underneath the nanograss for rapid transport of electron and electrolyte. Flexible CNTs connect the nanorods to mitigate the contact resistance and the volume expansion during cycling test. Thus, this tailored electrode can significantly reduce the ohmic resistance, charge-transfer resistance, and diffusive impedance, leading to high specific capacitance, prominent rate performance, and good cycle-life stability.

  2. A Roadmap for Achieving Sustainable Energy Conversion and Storage: Graphene-Based Composites Used Both as an Electrocatalyst for Oxygen Reduction Reactions and an Electrode Material for a Supercapacitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peipei Huo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on its unique features including 2D planar geometry, high specific surface area and electron conductivity, graphene has been intensively studied as oxygen reduction reaction (ORR electrocatalyst and supercapacitor material. On the one hand, graphene possesses standalone electrocatalytic activity. It can also provide a good support for combining with other materials to generate graphene-based electrocatalysts, where the catalyst-support structure improves the stability and performance of electrocatalysts for ORR. On the other hand, graphene itself and its derivatives demonstrate a promising electrochemical capability as supercapacitors including electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs and pseudosupercapacitors. A hybrid supercapacitor (HS is underlined and the advantages are elaborated. Graphene endows many materials that are capable of faradaic redox reactions with an outstanding pseudocapacitance behavior. In addition, the characteristics of graphene-based composite are also utilized in many respects to provide a porous 3D structure, formulate a novel supercapacitor with innovative design, and construct a flexible and tailorable device. In this review, we will present an overview of the use of graphene-based composites for sustainable energy conversion and storage.

  3. Highly efficient growth of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes on Fe-Ni based metal alloy foils for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amalina Raja Seman, Raja Noor; Asyadi Azam, Mohd; Ambri Mohamed, Mohd

    2016-12-01

    Supercapacitors are highly promising energy devices with superior charge storage performance and a long lifecycle. Construction of the supercapacitor cell, especially electrode fabrication, is critical to ensure good performance in applications. This work demonstrates direct growth of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on Fe-Ni based metal alloy foils, namely SUS 310S, Inconel 600 and YEF 50, and their use in symmetric vertically aligned CNT supercapacitor electrodes. Alumina and cobalt thin film catalysts were deposited onto the foils, and then CNT growth was performed using alcohol catalytic chemical vapour deposition. By this method, vertically aligned CNTs were successfully grown and used directly as a binder-free supercapacitor electrode to deliver excellent electrochemical performance. The device showed relatively good specific capacitance, a superior rate capability and excellent cycle stability, maintaining about 96% capacitance up to 1000 cycles.

  4. Advances in research on 2D and 3D graphene-based supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensing, Johannes Ph.; Poochai, Chatwarin; Kerdpocha, Sadanan; Sriprachuabwong, Chakrit; Wisitsoraat, Anurat; Tuantranont, Adisorn

    2017-09-01

    Graphene-based materials in two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) configurations are promising as electrode materials for supercapacitors due to their large surface area, excellent electrical conductivity, high electrochemical activity and high stability. In this article recent advances in research on 2D and 3D graphene-based materials for supercapacitor electrodes are reviewed extensively in aspects of fabrication methods and electrochemical performances. From the survey, the performance of 2D and 3D graphene-based materials could be significantly enhanced by employing nanostructures of metal oxides, metals and polymers as well as doping graphene with hetero atoms such as nitrogen and boron. In addition, the charge storage performances were found to depend greatly on materials, preparation method and structural configuration. With similar material components, 3D graphene-based networks tended to exhibit superior supercapacitive performances. Therefore, future research should be focusing on further development of 3D graphene-based materials for supercapacitor applications. Invited talk at 5th Thailand International Nanotechnology Conference (Nano Thailand-2016), 27-29 November 2016, Nakhon Ratchasima, Thailand.

  5. Flexible Asymmetric Solid-State Supercapacitors by Highly Efficient 3D Nanostructured α-MnO2 and h-CuS Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Amar M; Lokhande, Abhishek C; Shinde, Pragati A; Lokhande, Chandrakant D

    2018-05-16

    A simplistic and economical chemical way has been used to prepare highly efficient nanostructured, manganese oxide (α-MnO 2 ) and hexagonal copper sulfide (h-CuS) electrodes directly on cheap and flexible stainless steel sheets. Flexible solid-state α-MnO 2 /flexible stainless steel (FSS)/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-LiClO 4 /h-CuS/FSS asymmetric supercapacitor (ASC) devices have been fabricated using PVA-LiClO 4 gel electrolyte. Highly active surface areas of α-MnO 2 (75 m 2 g -1 ) and h-CuS (83 m 2 g -1 ) electrodes contribute to more electrochemical reactions at the electrode and electrolyte interface. The ASC device has a prolonged working potential of +1.8 V and accomplishes a capacitance of 109.12 F g -1 at 5 mV s -1 , energy density of 18.9 Wh kg -1 , and long-term electrochemical cycling with a capacity retention of 93.3% after 5000 cycles. Additionally, ASC devices were successful in glowing seven white-light-emitting diodes for more than 7 min after 30 s of charging. Outstandingly, real practical demonstration suggests "ready-to-sell" products for industries.

  6. High Performance Flexible Pseudocapacitor based on Nano-architectured Spinel Nickel Cobaltite Anchored Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakir, Imran

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Two-step fabrication method for nano-architectured spinel nickel cobaltite (NiCo 2 O 4 ) anchored MWCNTs composite. • High performance flexible energy-storage devices. • The NiCo 2 O 4 anchored MWCNTs Exhibits 2032 Fg −1 capacitance which is 1.62 times greater than pristine NiCo 2 O 4 at 1 Ag −1 . - Abstract: We demonstrate a facile two-step fabrication method for nano-architectured spinel nickel cobaltite (NiCo 2 O 4 ) anchored multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) based electrodes for high performance flexible energy-storage devices. As electrode materials for flexible supercapacitors, the NiCo 2 O 4 anchored MWCNTs exhibits a high specific capacitance of 2032 Fg −1 , which is nearly 1.62 times greater than pristine NiCo 2 O 4 nanoflakes at 1 Ag −1 . The synthesized NiCo 2 O 4 anchored MWCNTs composite shows excellent rate performance (83.96% capacity retention at 30 Ag −1 ) and stability with coulombic efficiency over 96% after 5,000 cycles when being fully charged/discharged at 1 Ag −1 . Furthermore, NiCo 2 O 4 anchored MWCNTs achieve a maximum energy density of 48.32 Whkg −1 at a power density of 480 Wkg −1 which is 60% higher than pristine NiCo 2 O 4 electrode and significantly outperformed electrode materials based on NiCo 2 O 4 which are currently used in the state-of-the-art supercapacitors throughout the literature. This superior rate performance and high-capacity value offered by NiCo 2 O 4 anchored MWCNTs is mainly due to enhanced electronic and ionic conductivity, which provides a short diffusion path for ions and an easy access of electrolyte flow to nickel cobaltite redox centers besides the high conductivity of MWCNTs

  7. Mesoporous Carbon Design for Ionic Liquid-Based, Double-Layer Supercapacitors

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The use of pyrrolidinium-based ionic liquids (ILs) in asymmetric electric double-layer capacitors (AEDLC) with positive and negative carbon electrodes of different weight is a powerful strategy for developing safe, high specific-energy supercapacitors operating at > 3.5 V. The preparation and characterization of ordered (OTC) and disordered (DTC) template carbons, the latter obtained by a fast and low-cost method, are reported. The porosity and capacitance features of the ...

  8. Flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, L. Dennis

    1981-01-01

    Flexibility is an important aspect of all sports and recreational activities. Flexibility can be developed and maintained by stretching exercises. Exercises designed to develop flexibility in ankle joints, knees, hips, and the lower back are presented. (JN)

  9. Effect of electrode mass ratio on aging of activated carbon based supercapacitors utilizing organic electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cericola, D.; Kötz, R.; Wokaun, A.

    2011-03-01

    The accelerated degradation of carbon based supercapacitors utilizing 1 M Et4NBF4 in acetonitrile and in propylene carbonate as electrolyte is investigated for a constant cell voltage of 3.5 V as a function of the positive over total electrode mass ratio. The degradation rate of the supercapacitor using acetonitrile as a solvent can be decreased by increasing the mass of the positive electrode. With a mass ratio (positive electrode mass/total electrode mass) of 0.65 the degradation rate is minimum. For the capacitor utilizing propylene carbonate as a solvent a similar effect was observed. The degradation rate was smallest for a mass ratio above 0.5.

  10. All-solid-state micro-supercapacitors based on inkjet printed graphene electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiantong; Mishukova, Viktoriia; Östling, Mikael

    2016-09-01

    The all-solid-state graphene-based in-plane micro-supercapacitors are fabricated simply through reliable inkjet printing of pristine graphene in interdigitated structure on silicon wafers to serve as both electrodes and current collectors, and a following drop casting of polymer electrolytes (polyvinyl alcohol/H3PO4). Benefiting from the printing processing, an attractive porous electrode microstructure with a large number of vertically orientated graphene flakes is observed. The devices exhibit commendable areal capacitance over 0.1 mF/cm2 and a long cycle life of over 1000 times. The simple and scalable fabrication technique for efficient micro-supercapacitors is promising for on-chip energy storage applications in emerging electronics.

  11. New Supercapacitors Based on the Synergetic Redox Effect between Electrode and Electrolyte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You Zhang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Redox electrolytes can provide significant enhancement of capacitance for supercapacitors. However, more important promotion comes from the synergetic effect and matching between the electrode and electrolyte. Herein, we report a novel electrochemical system consisted of a polyanilline/carbon nanotube composite redox electrode and a hydroquinone (HQ redox electrolyte, which exhibits a specific capacitance of 7926 F/g in a three-electrode system when the concentration of HQ in H2SO4 aqueous electrolyte is 2 mol/L, and the maximum energy density of 114 Wh/kg in two-electrode symmetric configuration. Moreover, the specific capacitance retention of 96% after 1000 galvanostatic charge/discharge cycles proves an excellent cyclic stability. These ultrahigh performances of the supercapacitor are attributed to the synergistic effect both in redox polyanilline-based electrolyte and the redox hydroquinone electrode.

  12. Poly(ethylene terephthalate)-based carbons as electrode material in supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domingo-Garcia, M.; Almazan-Almazan, M.C.; Lopez-Garzon, F.J. [Dpto de Quimica Inorganica, Facultad de Ciencias, 18071 Granada (Spain); Fernandez, J.A.; Centeno, T.A. [Instituto Nacional del Carbon-CSIC, Apartado 73, 33080 Oviedo (Spain); Stoeckli, F. [Physics Department, University of Neuchatel, Rue Emile Argand 11, CH-2009 Neuchatel (Switzerland)

    2010-06-15

    A systematic study by complementary techniques shows that PET-waste from plastic vessels is a competitive precursor of carbon electrodes for supercapacitors. PET derived-activated carbons follow the general trends observed for highly porous carbons and display specific capacitances at low current density as high as 197 F g{sup -1} in 2 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} aqueous electrolyte and 98 F g{sup -1} in the aprotic medium 1 M (C{sub 2}H{sub 5}){sub 4}NBF{sub 4}/acetonitrile. Additionally, high performance has also been achieved at high current densities, which confirms the potential of this type of materials for electrical energy storage. A new method based on the basic solvolysis of PET-waste and the subsequent carbonization seems to be an interesting alternative to obtain porous carbons with enhanced properties for supercapacitors. (author)

  13. Passivity-Based Control applied to DC hybrid power source using fuel cell and supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayad, M.Y.; Wack, M.; Laghrouche, S. [SeT, UTBM, Belfort (cedex) 90010 (France); Becherif, M. [SeT, UTBM, Belfort (cedex) 90010 (France); FC-Lab, UTBM, Belfort (cedex) 90010 (France); Henni, A. [Alstom Power System, Energy Management Business, Alstom (France); Aboubou, A. [LMSE Laboratory, Biskra University, 07000 (Algeria)

    2010-07-15

    Nowadays, energy management becomes an absolute necessity. To reduce systems consumption, the idea is to recover energy when it is possible and to reuse it when the system is in need. Energy can be saved in peak power unit (electric double layer capacitors called supercapacitors). Those latter can absorb or supply power peaks. This paper deals with the conception of hybrid power sources using fuel cell as main source, a DC link and supercapacitors as transient power source. The whole system is modeled in state space equations. The energy management is reached using Passivity-Based Control (PBC). PBC is a very powerful nonlinear technique dealing with important system information like the system's total energy. Stability proof and simulation results are given. In this proposed control laws only few measurement are needed (two or three depending on the presented solutions one or two). (author)

  14. Instantaneous charging & discharging cycle analysis of a novel supercapacitor based energy harvesting circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, MD Shahrukh Adnan; Kuni, Sharsad Kara; Rajkumar, Rajprasad; Syed, Anas; Hawladar, Masum; Rahman, Md. Moshiur

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, an extensive effort has been made to design and develop a prototype in a laboratory setup environment in order to investigate experimentally the response of a novel Supercapacitor based energy harvesting circuit; particularly the phenomena of instantaneous charging and discharging cycle is analysed. To maximize battery lifespan and storage capacity, charging/discharging cycles need to be optimized in such a way, it ultimately enhances the system performances reliably. Keeping this into focus, an Arduino-MOSFET based control system is developed to charge the Supercapacitor from a low wind Vertical Axis Turbine (VAWT) and discharge it through a 6V battery. With a wind speed of 5m/s, the wind turbine requires approximately 8.1 hours to charge the 6V battery through Supercapacitor bank that constitutes 18 cycles in which each cycle consumes 27 minutes. The overall performance of the proposed system was quite convincing in a sense that the efficiency of the developed Energy Harvesting Circuit EHC raises to 19% in comparison to direct charging of the battery from the Vertical wind turbine. At low wind speed, such value of efficiency margin is quite encouraging which essentially validates the system design.

  15. Energy management strategy for fuel cell-supercapacitor hybrid vehicles based on prediction of energy demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carignano, Mauro G.; Costa-Castelló, Ramon; Roda, Vicente; Nigro, Norberto M.; Junco, Sergio; Feroldi, Diego

    2017-08-01

    Offering high efficiency and producing zero emissions Fuel Cells (FCs) represent an excellent alternative to internal combustion engines for powering vehicles to alleviate the growing pollution in urban environments. Due to inherent limitations of FCs which lead to slow transient response, FC-based vehicles incorporate an energy storage system to cover the fast power variations. This paper considers a FC/supercapacitor platform that configures a hard constrained powertrain providing an adverse scenario for the energy management strategy (EMS) in terms of fuel economy and drivability. Focusing on palliating this problem, this paper presents a novel EMS based on the estimation of short-term future energy demand and aiming at maintaining the state of energy of the supercapacitor between two limits, which are computed online. Such limits are designed to prevent active constraint situations of both FC and supercapacitor, avoiding the use of friction brakes and situations of non-power compliance in a short future horizon. Simulation and experimentation in a case study corresponding to a hybrid electric bus show improvements on hydrogen consumption and power compliance compared to the widely reported Equivalent Consumption Minimization Strategy. Also, the comparison with the optimal strategy via Dynamic Programming shows a room for improvement to the real-time strategies.

  16. Freestanding eggshell membrane-based electrodes for high-performance supercapacitors and oxygen evolution reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Jing; Wu, Hao; Al-Enizi, Abdullah M; Elzatahry, Ahmed A; Zheng, Gengfeng

    2015-09-14

    A type of freestanding, light-weight eggshell membrane-based electrode is demonstrated for supercapacitors and for oxygen evolution reaction (OER) catalysis. As a widely available daily waste, eggshell membranes have unique porous three-dimensional grid-like fibrous structures with relatively high surface area and abundant macropores, allowing for effective conjugation of carbon nanotubes and growth of NiCo2O4 nanowire arrays, an effective supercapacitor material and OER catalyst. The three-dimensional fibrous eggshell membrane frameworks with carbon nanotubes offer efficient pathways for charge transport, and the macropores between adjacent fibers are fully accessible for electrolytes and bubble evolution. As a supercapacitor, the eggshell membrane/carbon nanotube/NiCo2O4 electrode shows high specific capacitances at current densities from 1 to 20 A g(-1), with excellent capacitance retention (>90%) at 10 A g(-1) for over 10,000 cycles. When employed as an OER catalyst, this eggshell membrane-based electrode exhibits an OER onset potential of 1.53 V vs. the reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE), and a stable catalytic current density of 20 mA cm(-2) at 1.65 V vs. the RHE.

  17. Energy management of DC microgrid based on photovoltaic combined with diesel generator and supercapacitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Changjie; Wu, Hongwei; Locment, Fabrice; Sechilariu, Manuela

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy management strategy is based on hybridization of electrical sources. • Supercapacitor is used to complement a diesel generator during starting up. • Supercapacitor is used to supplement the limited electrochemical storage power. • DC microgrid dynamic and static performances are improved. • Experimental results evaluate the feasibility of the designed control strategy. - Abstract: Microgrid is promoted as an economical and efficient energy system in which different renewable sources and storage are interconnected to meet the load power demand at any time. It can operate in on-grid and off-grid mode. Since the electrical contribution of each renewable energy source is dependent on the variation of its resource and the load power demand changes time to time, it is possible that the microgrid cannot generate enough electricity at some time. Thus, especially in off-grid mode, a diesel generator is needed as another backup power. However, due to the slow dynamic behavior of the diesel generator start-up stage, the power quality is lowered down because of the shortage of power. Therefore, during the period of the diesel generator starting up, a supercapacitor is suggested to compensate the power balance because of its fast response and high power density. In addition, the supercapacitor can be also used to overcome the electrochemical storage limits like its state of charge and maximum current. This paper proposes a method for power balance control of a hybrid multisource DC microgrid system aiming to meet the load power demand with reliability and stabilizing the DC bus voltage. In order to realize this function, an experimental platform has been set up and the energy management strategy has been implemented into the control process. The experimental results show that the designed control strategy improves the DC microgrid dynamic and static performances under such operating conditions.

  18. High-performance supercapacitors based on vertically aligned carbon nanotubes and nonaqueous electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Byungwoo; Kim, Woong; Chung, Haegeun

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate the high performance of supercapacitors fabricated with vertically aligned carbon nanotubes and nonaqueous electrolytes such as ionic liquids and conventional organic electrolytes. Specific capacitance, maximum power and energy density of the supercapacitor measured in ionic liquid were ∼75 F g −1 , ∼987 kW kg −1 and ∼27 W h kg −1 , respectively. The high power performance was consistently indicated by a fast relaxation time constant of 0.2 s. In addition, electrochemical oxidation of the carbon nanotubes improved the specific capacitance (∼158 F g −1 ) and energy density (∼53 W h kg −1 ). Both high power and energy density could be attributed to the fast ion transport realized by the alignment of carbon nanotubes and the wide operational voltage defined by the ionic liquid. The demonstrated carbon-nanotube- and nonaqueous-electrolyte-based supercapacitors show great potential for the development of high-performance energy storage devices. (paper)

  19. Facile Synthesis of Free-Standing NiO/MnO2 Core-Shell Nanoflakes on Carbon Cloth for Flexible Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Shuang; Zhu, Yinlong; Yang, Yutu; Jiang, Shulan; Tang, Zirong

    2017-12-01

    Free-standing NiO/MnO 2 core-shell nanoflake structure was deposited on flexible carbon cloth (CC) used as electrode for high-performance supercapacitor (SC). The NiO core was grown directly on CC by hydrothermal process and the following annealing treatment. MnO 2 thin film was then covered on NiO structures via a self-limiting process in aqueous solution of 0.5 M KMnO 4 and 0.5 M Na 2 SO 4 with a carbon layer serving as the sacrificial layer. Both the core and shell materials are good pseudocapacitive materials, the compounds of binary metal oxides can provide the synergistic effect of all individual constituents, and thus enhance the performance of SC electrode. The obtained CC/NiO/MnO 2 heterostructure was directly used as SC electrodes, showing an enhanced electrochemical performance including areal capacitance of 316.37 mF/cm 2 and special gravimetric capacitance of 204.3 F/g at the scan rate of 50 mV/s. The electrode also shows excellent cycling stability, which retains 89% of its initial discharge capacitance after 2200 cycles with >97% Coulombic efficiency. The synthesized binder-free hierarchical composite electrode with superior electrochemical properties demonstrates enormous potential in the application of flexible SCs.

  20. Thin and flexible all-solid supercapacitor prepared from novel single wall carbon nanotubes/polyaniline thin films obtained in liquid-liquid interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Victor Hugo Rodrigues; Oliveira, Marcela Mohallem; Zarbin, Aldo José Gorgatti

    2014-08-01

    The present work describes for the first time the synthesis and characterization of single wall carbon nanotubes/polyaniline (SWNTs/PAni) nanocomposite thin films in a liquid-liquid interface, as well as the subsequent construction of a flexible all-solid supercapacitor. Different SWNTs/PAni nanocomposites were prepared by varying the ratio of SWNT to aniline, and the samples were characterized by scanning and transmission electron microscopy, Raman and UV-Vis spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The pseudo-capacitive behavior of the nanocomposites was evaluated by charge/discharge galvanostatic measurements. The presence of the SWNTs affected the electronic and vibrational properties of the polyaniline and also improved the pseudo-capacitive behavior of the conducting polymer. A very thin and flexible all-solid device was manufactured using two electrodes (polyethylene terephthalate-PET covered with the SWNT/PAni nanocomposite separated by a H2SO4-PVA gel electrolyte). The pseudo-capacitive behavior was characterized by a volumetric specific capacitance of approximately 76.7 F cm-3, even under mechanical deformation, indicating that this nanocomposite has considerable potential for application in new-generation energy storage devices.

  1. Supercapacitors Based on Nickel Oxide/Carbon Materials Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Lota

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the thesis, the properties of nickel oxide/active carbon composites as the electrode materials for supercapacitors are discussed. Composites with a different proportion of nickel oxide/carbon materials were prepared. A nickel oxide/carbon composite was prepared by chemically precipitating nickel hydroxide on an active carbon and heating the hydroxide at 300 ∘C in the air. Phase compositions of the products were characterized using X-ray diffractometry (XRD. The morphology of the composites was observed by SEM. The electrochemical performances of composite electrodes used in electrochemical capacitors were studied in addition to the properties of electrode consisting of separate active carbon and nickel oxide only. The electrochemical measurements were carried out using cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge/discharge, and impedance spectroscopy. The composites were tested in 6 M KOH aqueous electrolyte using two- and three-electrode Swagelok systems. The results showed that adding only a few percent of nickel oxide to active carbon provided the highest value of capacity. It is the confirmation of the fact that such an amount of nickel oxide is optimal to take advantage of both components of the composite, which additionally can be a good solution as a negative electrode in asymmetric configuration of electrode materials in an electrochemical capacitor.

  2. Graphene-Fiber-Based Supercapacitors Favor N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone/Ethyl Acetate as the Spinning Solvent/Coagulant Combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Nanfei; Pan, Qin; Liu, Yixin; Gao, Wei

    2017-07-26

    One-dimensional flexible fiber supercapacitors (FSCs) have attracted great interest as promising energy-storage units that can be seamlessly incorporated into textiles via weaving, knitting, or braiding. The major challenges in this field are to develop tougher and more efficient FSCs with a relatively easy and scalable process. Here, we demonstrate a wet-spinning process to produce graphene oxide (GO) fibers from GO dispersions in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP), with ethyl acetate as the coagulant. Upon chemical reduction of GO, the resulting NMP-based reduced GO (rGO) fibers (rGO@NMP-Fs) are twice as high in the surface area and toughness but comparable in tensile strength and conductivity as that of the water-based rGO fibers (rGO@H 2 O-Fs). When assembled into parallel FSCs, rGO@NMP-F-based supercapacitors (rGO@NMP-FSCs) offered a specific capacitance of 196.7 F cm -3 (147.5 mF cm -2 ), five times higher than that of rGO@H 2 O-F-based supercapacitors (rGO@H 2 O-FSCs) and also higher than most existing wet-spun rGO-FSCs, as well as those FSCs built with metal wires, graphene/carbon nanotube (CNT) fibers, or even pseudocapacitive materials. In addition, our rGO@NMP-FSCs can provide good bending and cycling stability. The energy density of our rGO@NMP-FSCs reaches ca. 6.8 mWh cm -3 , comparable to that of a Li thin-film battery (4 V/500 μAh).

  3. High-performance supercapacitors based on hollow polyaniline nanofibers by electrospinning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Yue-E; Fan, Wei; Chen, Dan; Liu, Tianxi

    2013-05-22

    Hollow polyaniline (PANI) nanofibers with controllable wall thickness are fabricated by in situ polymerization of aniline using the electrospun poly(amic acid) fiber membrane as a template. A maximum specific capacitance of 601 F g(-1) has been achieved at 1 A g(-1), suggesting the potential application of hollow PANI nanofibers for supercapacitors. The superior electrochemical performance of the hollow nanofibers is attributed to their hollow structure, thin wall thickness, and orderly pore passages, which can drastically facilitate the ion diffusion and improve the utilization of the electroactive PANI during the charge-discharge processes. Furthermore, the high flexibility of the self-standing fiber membrane template provides possibilities for the facile construction and fabrication of conducting polymers with hollow nanostructures, which may find potential applications in various high-performance electrochemical devices.

  4. Conducting polymer nanowire arrays for high performance supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Wu, Haiping; Meng, Yuena; Wei, Zhixiang

    2014-01-15

    This Review provides a brief summary of the most recent research developments in the fabrication and application of one-dimensional ordered conducting polymers nanostructure (especially nanowire arrays) and their composites as electrodes for supercapacitors. By controlling the nucleation and growth process of polymerization, aligned conducting polymer nanowire arrays and their composites with nano-carbon materials can be prepared by employing in situ chemical polymerization or electrochemical polymerization without a template. This kind of nanostructure (such as polypyrrole and polyaniline nanowire arrays) possesses high capacitance, superior rate capability ascribed to large electrochemical surface, and an optimal ion diffusion path in the ordered nanowire structure, which is proved to be an ideal electrode material for high performance supercapacitors. Furthermore, flexible, micro-scale, threadlike, and multifunctional supercapacitors are introduced based on conducting polyaniline nanowire arrays and their composites. These prototypes of supercapacitors utilize the high flexibility, good processability, and large capacitance of conducting polymers, which efficiently extend the usage of supercapacitors in various situations, and even for a complicated integration system of different electronic devices. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Supercapacitors based on two dimensional VO2 nanosheet electrodes in organic gel electrolyte

    KAUST Repository

    Baby, Rakhi Raghavan; Nagaraju, Doddahalli H.; Beaujuge, Pierre; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2016-01-01

    VO2 is a low band-gap semiconductor with relatively high conductivity among transition metal oxides, which makes it an interesting material for supercapacitor electrode applications. The performance of VO2 as supercapacitor electrode in organic

  6. Synthesis of layered birnessite-type manganese oxide thin films on plastic substrates by chemical bath deposition for flexible transparent supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu Yu; Zhu Hongwei; Wang Jun [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Chen Zhenxing, E-mail: chenzx65@mail.sysu.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China)

    2011-10-20

    Highlights: > Layered birnessite-type MnO{sub 2} thin films are fabricated on ITO/PET substrates through a facile chemical bath deposition at room temperature. > The transmittance of the MnO{sub 2} thin films at 550 nm is up to 77.4%. > MnO{sub 2} thin films exhibit a special capacitance of 229.2 F g{sup -1} and 9.2 mF cm{sup -2}. > MnO{sub 2} thin films show a capacitance retention ratio of 83% after 1000 CV cycles. > MnO{sub 2} thin film electrodes show great mechanical flexibility and electrochemical stability even after 200 tensile and compressive bending cycles. - Abstract: Layered birnessite-type manganese oxide thin films are successfully fabricated on indium tin oxide coated polyethylene terephthalate substrates for flexible transparent supercapacitors by a facile, effective and inexpensive chemical bath deposition technology from an alkaline KMnO{sub 4} aqueous solution at room temperature. The effects of deposition conditions, including KMnO{sub 4} concentration, initial molar ratio of NH{sub 3}.H{sub 2}O and KMnO{sub 4}, bath temperature, and reaction time, on the electrochemical properties of MnO{sub 2} thin films are investigated. Layered birnessite-type MnO{sub 2} thin films deposited under optimum conditions display three-dimensional porous morphology, high hydrophilicity, and a transmittance of 77.4% at 550 nm. A special capacitance of 229.2 F g{sup -1} and a capacitance retention ratio of 83% are obtained from the films after 1000 cycles at 10 mV s{sup -1} in 1 M Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. Compressive and tensile bending tests show that as-prepared MnO{sub 2} thin film electrodes possess excellent mechanical flexibility and electrochemical stability.

  7. Synthesis and Characterization of Self-Standing and Highly Flexible δ-MnO2@CNTs/CNTs Composite Films for Direct Use of Supercapacitor Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Peng; Cheng, Shuang; Yang, Lufeng; Lin, Zhiqiang; Gui, Xuchun; Ou, Xing; Zhou, Jun; Yao, Minghai; Wang, Mengkun; Zhu, Yuanyuan; Liu, Meilin

    2016-09-14

    Self-standing and flexible films worked as pseudocapacitor electrodes have been fabricated via a simple vacuum-filtration procedure to stack δ-MnO2@carbon nanotubes (CNTs) composite layer and pure CNT layer one by one with CNT layers ended. The lightweight CNTs layers served as both current collector and supporter, while the MnO2@CNTs composite layers with birnessite-type MnO2 worked as active layer and made the main contribution to the capacitance. At a low discharge current of 0.2 A g(-1), the layered films displayed a high areal capacitance of 0.293 F cm(-2) with a mass of 1.97 mg cm(-2) (specific capacitance of 149 F g(-1)) and thickness of only 16.5 μm, and hence an volumetric capacitance of about 177.5 F cm(-3). Moreover, the films also exhibited a good rate capability (only about 15% fading for the capacitance when the discharge current increased to 5 A g(-1) from 0.2 A g(-1)), outstanding cycling stability (about 90% of the initial capacitance was remained after 5,000 cycles) and high flexibility (almost no performance change when bended to different angles). In addition, the capacitance of the films increased proportionally with the stacked layers and the geometry area. E.g., when the stacked layers were three times many with a mass of 6.18 mg cm(-2), the areal capacitance of the films was increased to 0.764 F cm(-2) at 0.5 A g(-1), indicating a high electronic conductivity. It is not overstated to say that the flexible and lightweight layered films emerged high potential for future practical applications as supercapacitor electrodes.

  8. Graphene-based Electrochemical Energy Conversion and Storage: Fuel cells, Supercapacitors and Lithium Ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Junbo; Shao, Yuyan; Ellis, Michael A.; Moore, Robert; Yi, Baolian

    2011-09-14

    Graphene has attracted extensive research interest due to its strictly 2-dimensional (2D) structure, which results in its unique electronic, thermal, mechanical, and chemical properties and potential technical applications. These remarkable characteristics of graphene, along with the inherent benefits of a carbon material, make it a promising candidate for application in electrochemical energy devices. This article reviews the methods of graphene preparation, introduces the unique electrochemical behavior of graphene, and summarizes the recent research and development on graphene-based fuel cells, supercapacitors and lithium ion batteries. In addition, promising areas are identified for the future development of graphene-based materials in electrochemical energy conversion and storage systems.

  9. SnO2-Based Nanomaterials: Synthesis and Application in Lithium-Ion Batteries and Supercapacitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinqin Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tin dioxide (SnO2 is an important n-type wide-bandgap semiconductor, and SnO2-based nanostructures are presenting themselves as one of the most important classes due to their various tunable physicochemical properties. In this paper, we firstly outline the syntheses of phase-pure SnO2 hierarchical structures with different morphologies such as nanorods, nanosheets, and nanospheres, as well as their modifications by doping and compositing with other materials. Then, we reviewed the design of SnO2-based nanostructures with improved performance in the areas of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs and supercapacitors.

  10. Activated Biomass-derived Graphene-based Carbons for Supercapacitors with High Energy and Power Density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, SungHoon; Myung, Yusik; Kim, Bit Na; Kim, In Gyoo; You, In-Kyu; Kim, TaeYoung

    2018-01-30

    Here, we present a facile and low-cost method to produce hierarchically porous graphene-based carbons from a biomass source. Three-dimensional (3D) graphene-based carbons were produced through continuous sequential steps such as the formation and transformation of glucose-based polymers into 3D foam-like structures and their subsequent carbonization to form the corresponding macroporous carbons with thin graphene-based carbon walls of macropores and intersectional carbon skeletons. Physical and chemical activation was then performed on this carbon to create micro- and meso-pores, thereby producing hierarchically porous biomass-derived graphene-based carbons with a high Brunauer-Emmett-Teller specific surface area of 3,657 m 2  g -1 . Owing to its exceptionally high surface area, interconnected hierarchical pore networks, and a high degree of graphitization, this carbon exhibited a high specific capacitance of 175 F g -1 in ionic liquid electrolyte. A supercapacitor constructed with this carbon yielded a maximum energy density of 74 Wh kg -1 and a maximum power density of 408 kW kg -1 , based on the total mass of electrodes, which is comparable to those of the state-of-the-art graphene-based carbons. This approach holds promise for the low-cost and readily scalable production of high performance electrode materials for supercapacitors.

  11. High-performance Supercapacitors Based on Electrochemical-induced Vertical-aligned Carbon Nanotubes and Polyaniline Nanocomposite Electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guan; Tan, Pengfeng; Wang, Dongxing; Li, Zhe; Peng, Lu; Hu, Ying; Wang, Caifeng; Zhu, Wei; Chen, Su; Chen, Wei

    2017-03-01

    Supercapacitors, which store electrical energy through reversible ion on the surface of conductive electrodes have gained enormous attention for variously portable energy storage devices. Since the capacitive performance is mainly determined by the structural and electrochemical properties of electrodes, the electrodes become more crucial to higher performance. However, due to the disordered microstructure and low electrochemical activity of electrode for ion tortuous migration and accumulation, the supercapacitors present relatively low capacitance and energy density. Here we report a high-performance supercapacitor based on polyaniline/vertical-aligned carbon nanotubes (PANI/VA-CNTs) nanocomposite electrodes where the vertical-aligned-structure is formed by the electrochemical-induction (0.75 V). The supercapacitor displays large specific capacitance of 403.3 F g-1, which is 6 times higher than disordered CNTs in HClO4 electrolyte. Additionally, the supercapacitor can also present high specific capacitance (314.6 F g-1), excellent cycling stability (90.2% retention after 3000 cycles at 4 A g-1) and high energy density (98.1 Wh kg-1) in EMIBF4 organic electrolyte. The key to high-performance lies in the vertical-aligned-structure providing direct path channel for ion faster diffusion and high electrochemical capacitance of polyaniline for ion more accommodation.

  12. High-performance Supercapacitors Based on Electrochemical-induced Vertical-aligned Carbon Nanotubes and Polyaniline Nanocomposite Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guan; Tan, Pengfeng; Wang, Dongxing; Li, Zhe; Peng, Lu; Hu, Ying; Wang, Caifeng; Zhu, Wei; Chen, Su; Chen, Wei

    2017-03-08

    Supercapacitors, which store electrical energy through reversible ion on the surface of conductive electrodes have gained enormous attention for variously portable energy storage devices. Since the capacitive performance is mainly determined by the structural and electrochemical properties of electrodes, the electrodes become more crucial to higher performance. However, due to the disordered microstructure and low electrochemical activity of electrode for ion tortuous migration and accumulation, the supercapacitors present relatively low capacitance and energy density. Here we report a high-performance supercapacitor based on polyaniline/vertical-aligned carbon nanotubes (PANI/VA-CNTs) nanocomposite electrodes where the vertical-aligned-structure is formed by the electrochemical-induction (0.75 V). The supercapacitor displays large specific capacitance of 403.3 F g -1 , which is 6 times higher than disordered CNTs in HClO 4 electrolyte. Additionally, the supercapacitor can also present high specific capacitance (314.6 F g -1 ), excellent cycling stability (90.2% retention after 3000 cycles at 4 A g -1 ) and high energy density (98.1 Wh kg -1 ) in EMIBF 4 organic electrolyte. The key to high-performance lies in the vertical-aligned-structure providing direct path channel for ion faster diffusion and high electrochemical capacitance of polyaniline for ion more accommodation.

  13. Free-standing and mechanically flexible mats consisting of electrospun carbon nanofibers made from a natural product of alkali lignin as binder-free electrodes for high-performance supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chuilin; Zhou, Zhengping; Zhang, Lifeng; Wang, Xiaoxu; Zhou, Qixin; Zhao, Yong; Wang, Yechun; Wu, Xiang-Fa; Zhu, Zhengtao; Fong, Hao

    2014-02-01

    Mechanically flexible mats consisting of electrospun carbon nanofibers (ECNFs) were prepared by first electrospinning aqueous mixtures containing a natural product of alkali lignin together with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) into composite nanofiber mats followed by stabilization in air and carbonization in an inert environment. Morphological and structural properties, as well as specific surface area, total pore volume, average pore size, and pore size distribution, of the lignin-based ECNF mats were characterized; and their electrochemical performances (i.e., capacitive behaviors) were evaluated by cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge/discharge, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The lignin-based ECNF mats exhibited outstanding performance as free-standing and/or binder-free electrodes of supercapacitors. For example, the ECNFs made from the composite nanofibers with mass ratio of lignin/PVA being 70/30 (i.e., ECNFs (70/30)) had the average diameter of ∼100 nm and the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) specific surface area of ∼583 m2 g-1. The gravimetric capacitance of ECNFs (70/30) electrode in 6 M KOH aqueous electrolyte exhibited 64 F g-1 at current density of 400 mA g-1 and 50 F g-1 at 2000 mA g-1. The ECNFs (70/30) electrode also exhibited excellent cycling durability/stability, and the gravimetric capacitance merely reduced by ∼10% after 6000 cycles of charge/discharge.

  14. Model of large volumetric capacitance in graphene supercapacitors based on ion clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Brian; Fogler, M. M.; Shklovskii, B. I.

    2011-12-01

    Electric double-layer supercapacitors (SCs) are promising devices for high-power energy storage based on the reversible absorption of ions into porous conducting electrodes. Graphene is a particularly good candidate for the electrode material in SCs due to its high conductivity and large surface area. In this paper, we consider SC electrodes made from a stack of graphene sheets with randomly inserted spacer molecules. We show that the large volumetric capacitances C≳100F/cm3 observed experimentally can be understood as a result of collective intercalation of ions into the graphene stack and the accompanying nonlinear screening by graphene electrons that renormalizes the charge of the ion clusters.

  15. Electrodeposited nickel-cobalt sulfide nanosheet on polyacrylonitrile nanofibers: a binder-free electrode for flexible supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamran Sami, Syed; Siddiqui, Saqib; Tajmeel Feroze, Muhammad; Chung, Chan-Hwa

    2017-11-01

    To pursue high-performance energy storage devices with both high energy density and power density, one-dimensional (1D) nanostructures play a key role in the development of functional devices including energy conversion, energy storage, and environmental devices. The polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibers were obtained by the versatile electrospinning method. An ultra-thin nickel-cobalt sulfide (NiCoS) layer was conformably electrodeposited on a self-standing PAN nanofibers by cyclic voltammetry to fabricate the light-weighted porous electrodes for supercapacitors. The porous web of PAN nanofibers acts as a high-surface-area scaffold with significant electrochemical performance, while the electrodeposition of metal sulfide nanosheet further enhances the specific capacitance. The fabricated NiCoS on PAN (NiCoS/PAN) nanofibers exhibits a very high capacitance of 1513 F g-1 at 5 A g-1 in 1 M potassium chloride (KCl) aqueous electrolyte with superior rate capability and excellent electrochemical stability as a hybrid electrode. The high capacitance of the NiCoS is attributed to the large surface area of the electrospun PAN nanofibers scaffold, which has offered a large number of active sites for possible redox reaction of ultra-thin NiCoS layer. Benefiting from the compositional features and electrode architectures, the hybrid electrode of NiCoS/PAN nanofibers shows greatly improved electrochemical performance with an ultra-high capacitance (1124 F g-1 at 50 A g-1). Moreover, a binder-free asymmetric supercapacitor device is also fabricated by using NiCoS/PAN nanofibers as the positive electrode and activated carbon (MSP-20) on PAN nanofibers as the negative electrode; this demonstrates high energy density of 56.904 W h kg-1 at a power density of 1.445 kW kg-1, and it still delivers the energy density of 33.3923 W h kg-1 even at higher power density of 16.5013 kW kg-1.

  16. Flexible Pedagogies: Employer Engagement and Work-Based Learning. Flexible Pedagogies: Preparing for the Future Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettle, Jane

    2013-01-01

    This publication focuses on national and international policy initiatives to develop a better understanding of work-based learners and the types of flexibility that may well enhance their study especially pedagogically. As part of our five-strand research project "Flexible Pedagogies: preparing for the future" it: (1) highlights the…

  17. Judgement of Design Scheme Based on Flexible Constraint in ICAD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The conception of flexible constraint is proposed in the paper. The solution of flexible constraint is in special range, and maybe different in different instances of same design scheme. The paper emphasis on how to evaluate and optimize a design scheme with flexible constraints based on the satisfaction degree function defined on flexible constraints. The conception of flexible constraint is used to solve constraint conflict and design optimization in complicated constraint-based assembly design by the PFM parametrization assembly design system. An instance of gear-box design is used for verifying optimization method.

  18. Thermostable gel polymer electrolyte based on succinonitrile and ionic liquid for high-performance solid-state supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Gaind P.; Liu, Tao; Hancock, Cody; Li, Yonghui; Sun, Xiuzhi Susan; Li, Jun

    2016-10-01

    A flexible, free-standing, thermostable gel polymer electrolyte based on plastic crystalline succinonitrile (SN) and ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (BMImBF4) entrapped in copolymer poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVdF-HFP) is prepared and optimized for application in solvent-free solid-state supercapacitors. The synthesized gel polymer electrolyte exhibits a high ionic conductivity over a wide temperature range (from ∼5 × 10-4 S cm-1 at -30 °C up to ∼1.5 × 10-2 S cm-1 at 80 °C) with good electrochemical stability window (-2.9 to 2.5 V). Thermal studies confirm that the SN containing gel polymer electrolyte remains stable in the same gel phase over a wide temperature range from -30 to 90 °C. The electric double layer capacitors (EDLCs) have been fabricated using activated carbon as active materials and new gel polymer electrolytes. Electrochemical performance of the EDLCs is assessed through cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge-discharge cycling and impedance spectroscopy. The EDLC cells with the proper SN-containing gel polymer electrolyte has been found to give high specific capacitance 176 F g-1 at 0.18 A g-1 and 138 F g-1 at 8 A g-1. These solid-state EDLC cells show good cycling stability and the capability to retain ∼80% of the initial capacitance after 10,000 cycles.

  19. Utilizing a Novel Approach at the Fuzzy Front-End of New Product Development: A Case Study in a Flexible Fabric Supercapacitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwo-Tsuen Jou

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The fuzzy front-end plays a most crucial part in new product development (NPD, leading to the success of product development and product launch in the market. This study proposes a novel method, TTRI_MP, by combining Crawford and Di Benedetto’s model and Cooper’s model, to strengthen the management of the fuzzy front-end. The proposed method comprises four stages: market exploration and technology forecasting, idea generation and segmentation, portfolio analysis and technology roadmapping (TRM. In the first stage, SWOT was utilized to identify the key strategic areas, and the technology readiness level (TRL was adopted to position the level of developed technologies. In the second stage, the business concepts were required to go through the viability test and customers, collaborators, competitors and company (4C. In the third stage, the Strategic Position Analysis (SPAN and Financial Analysis (FAN developed by IBM were employed in the portfolio analysis to screen out potential NPD projects. In the last stage, the selected NPD projects were linked with their functions and technologies in the TRM chart. The method was successfully implemented by a research team working on a flexible fabric supercapacitor at the Taiwan Textile Research Institute (TTRI.

  20. Non-faradic carbon nanotube-based supercapacitors: state of the art. Analysis of all the main scientific contributions from 1997 to our days

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondavalli, P.; Pribat, D.; Schnell, J.-P.; Delfaure, C.; Gorintin, L.; Legagneux, P.; Baraton, L.; Galindo, C.

    2012-10-01

    This contribution deals with the state of the art of studies concerning the fabrication of electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) also called super- or ultracapacitors and obtained using carbon nanotubes (CNTs) without exploiting Faradic reactions. From the first work published in 1997, EDLCs fabricated using carbon nanotubes as constitutive material for electrodes showed very interesting characteristics. It appeared that they could potentially outperform traditional technologies based on activated carbon. Different methods to fabricate the CNT-based electrodes have been proposed in order to improve the performances (mainly energy densities and power densities), for example filtration, direct growth on metal collector or deposition using an air-brush technique. In this contribution we will introduce the main works in the field. Finally, we will point out an emerging interest for supercapacitors fabricated on flexible substrates, exploiting the outstanding mechanical performances of CNTs, for new kinds of applications such as portable electronics.

  1. Fabrication of flexible hierarchical porous nitrogen-doped carbon nanofiber films for application in binder-free supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Kaibing, E-mail: kbhuang8888@163.com; Yao, Yiyuan; Yang, Xiuwen; Chen, Zhenhua; Li, Min

    2016-02-01

    Hierarchical porous nitrogen-doped carbon nanofiber (HPNCNF) films were prepared via a simple electrospinning process, in which polyacrylonitrile and silicone surfactants were adopted as carbon source and porogen, respectively, followed by a thermal treatment. The morphology, chemical composition, and porosity of the HPNCNFs were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and nitrogen adsorption–desorption experiments. The as-prepared HPNCNFs with a specific surface area of 656 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}, a hierarchical pore structure, and a nitrogen content of 8.1 at% showed a specific capacitance of 289 F g{sup −1} in a 6 mol L{sup −1} KOH aqueous solution with excellent cycle durability, making HPNCNF films a promising electrode material for a future application in supercapacitors. - Highlights: • HPNCNF films are prepared by electrospinning followed by thermal treatment. • Silicone surfactants are adopted as porogen to prepare HPNCNF films. • The HPNCNF films show a specific capacitance of 289 F g{sup −1} at a current density of 0.2 A g{sup −1}.

  2. Fabrication of flexible hierarchical porous nitrogen-doped carbon nanofiber films for application in binder-free supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Kaibing; Yao, Yiyuan; Yang, Xiuwen; Chen, Zhenhua; Li, Min

    2016-01-01

    Hierarchical porous nitrogen-doped carbon nanofiber (HPNCNF) films were prepared via a simple electrospinning process, in which polyacrylonitrile and silicone surfactants were adopted as carbon source and porogen, respectively, followed by a thermal treatment. The morphology, chemical composition, and porosity of the HPNCNFs were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and nitrogen adsorption–desorption experiments. The as-prepared HPNCNFs with a specific surface area of 656 m"2 g"−"1, a hierarchical pore structure, and a nitrogen content of 8.1 at% showed a specific capacitance of 289 F g"−"1 in a 6 mol L"−"1 KOH aqueous solution with excellent cycle durability, making HPNCNF films a promising electrode material for a future application in supercapacitors. - Highlights: • HPNCNF films are prepared by electrospinning followed by thermal treatment. • Silicone surfactants are adopted as porogen to prepare HPNCNF films. • The HPNCNF films show a specific capacitance of 289 F g"−"1 at a current density of 0.2 A g"−"1.

  3. Electrochromic fiber-shaped supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuli; Lin, Huijuan; Deng, Jue; Zhang, Ye; Sun, Xuemei; Chen, Peining; Fang, Xin; Zhang, Zhitao; Guan, Guozhen; Peng, Huisheng

    2014-12-23

    An electrochromic fiber-shaped super-capacitor is developed by winding aligned carbon nanotube/polyaniline composite sheets on an elastic fiber. The fiber-shaped supercapacitors demonstrate rapid and reversible chromatic transitions under different working states, which can be directly observed by the naked eye. They are also stretchable and flexible, and are woven into textiles to display designed signals in addition to storing energy. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. High-Performance Ttransparent and Stretchable All-Solid Supercapacitors Based on Highly Aligned Carbon Nanotube Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-09

    supercapacitors based on poly ( ionic liquid )- modified graphene electrodes. ACS Nano 5, 436–442 (2011). 34. Denisa, H.-J. et al. Highly stable performance of...Niu, Z. et al. A repeated halving approach to fabricate ultrathin single-walled carbon nanotube films for transparent supercapacitors. Small 9, 518–524...PVA-H3PO4/CNT/PDMS multilayer film in either a parallel (Figure 1b) or cross (Figure 1c) configuration, leading to highly transparent devices to be

  5. Supercapacitors based on ordered mesoporous carbon derived from furfuryl alcohol: effect of the carbonized temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Xu, Jianxiong; Chen, Han; Wang, Xianyou

    2014-07-01

    Supercapacitors are successfully prepared from ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) synthesized by employing the mesoporous silica, SBA-15 as template and furfuryl alcohol as carbon source. It is found that the carbonized temperature greatly influences the physical properties of the synthesized mesoporous carbon materials. The optimal carbonized temperature is measured to be 600 degrees C under which OMC with the specific surface area of 1219 m2/g and pore volume of 1.31 cm3/g and average pore diameter of - 3 nm are synthesized. The OMC materials synthesized under different carbonized temperature are used as electrode material of supercapacitors and the electrochemical properties of the OMC materials are compared by using cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, galvanostatic charge-discharge and self-discharge tests. The results show that the electrochemical properties of the OMC materials are directly related to the specific surface area and pore volume of the mesoporous carbon and the electrode prepared from the OMC synthesized under the carbonized temperature of 600 degrees C (OMC-600) exhibits the most excellent electrochemical performance with the specific capacitance of 207.08 F/g obtained from cyclic voltammetry at the scan rate of 1 mV/s, small resistance and low self-discharge rate. Moreover, the supercapacitor based on the OMC-600 material exhibits good capacitance properties and stable cycle behavior with the specific capacitance of 105 F/g at the current density of 700 mA/g, and keeps a specific capacitance of 98 F/g after 20000 consecutive charge/discharge cycles.

  6. Nanocomposites based on hierarchical porous carbon fiber@vanadium nitride nanoparticles as supercapacitor electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Fen; Wu, Yage; Jiang, Minghuan; Tan, Yongtao; Liu, Ying; Kong, Lingbin; Kang, Long; Chen, Shaowei

    2018-03-28

    In this study, a hybrid electrode material for supercapacitors based on hierarchical porous carbon fiber@vanadium nitride nanoparticles is fabricated using the method of phase-separation mediated by the PAA-b-PAN-b-PAA tri-block copolymer. In the phase-separation procedure, the ionic block copolymer self-assembled on the surface of carbon nanofibers, and is used to adsorb NH 4 VO 3 . Thermal treatment at controlled temperatures under an NH 3  : N 2 atmosphere led to the formation of vanadium nitride nanoparticles that are distributed uniformly on the nanofiber surface. By changing the PAN to PAA-b-PAN-b-PAA ratio in the casting solution, a maximum specific capacitance of 240.5 F g -1 is achieved at the current density of 0.5 A g -1 with good rate capability at a capacitance retention of 72.1% at 5.0 A g -1 in an aqueous electrolyte of 6 mol L -1 KOH within the potential range of -1.10 to 0 V (rN/A = 1.5/1.0). Moreover, an asymmetric supercapacitor is assembled by using the hierarchical porous carbon fiber@vanadium nitride as the negative electrode and Ni(OH) 2 as the positive electrode. Remarkably, at the power density of 400 W kg -1 , the supercapacitor device delivers a better energy density of 39.3 W h kg -1 . It also shows excellent electrochemical stability, and thus might be used as a promising energy-storage device.

  7. Flexible Sensory Platform Based on Oxide-based Neuromorphic Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ning; Zhu, Li Qiang; Feng, Ping; Wan, Chang Jin; Liu, Yang Hui; Shi, Yi; Wan, Qing

    2015-12-11

    Inspired by the dendritic integration and spiking operation of a biological neuron, flexible oxide-based neuromorphic transistors with multiple input gates are fabricated on flexible plastic substrates for pH sensor applications. When such device is operated in a quasi-static dual-gate synergic sensing mode, it shows a high pH sensitivity of ~105 mV/pH. Our results also demonstrate that single-spike dynamic mode can remarkably improve pH sensitivity and reduce response/recover time and power consumption. Moreover, we find that an appropriate negative bias applied on the sensing gate electrode can further enhance the pH sensitivity and reduce the power consumption. Our flexible neuromorphic transistors provide a new-concept sensory platform for biochemical detection with high sensitivity, rapid response and ultralow power consumption.

  8. Flexible Sensory Platform Based on Oxide-based Neuromorphic Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ning; Zhu, Li Qiang; Feng, Ping; Wan, Chang Jin; Liu, Yang Hui; Shi, Yi; Wan, Qing

    2015-01-01

    Inspired by the dendritic integration and spiking operation of a biological neuron, flexible oxide-based neuromorphic transistors with multiple input gates are fabricated on flexible plastic substrates for pH sensor applications. When such device is operated in a quasi-static dual-gate synergic sensing mode, it shows a high pH sensitivity of ~105 mV/pH. Our results also demonstrate that single-spike dynamic mode can remarkably improve pH sensitivity and reduce response/recover time and power consumption. Moreover, we find that an appropriate negative bias applied on the sensing gate electrode can further enhance the pH sensitivity and reduce the power consumption. Our flexible neuromorphic transistors provide a new-concept sensory platform for biochemical detection with high sensitivity, rapid response and ultralow power consumption. PMID:26656113

  9. Printable Thin Film Supercapacitors Using Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    KAUST Repository

    Kaempgen, Martti

    2009-05-13

    Thin film supercapacitors were fabricated using printable materials to make flexible devices on plastic. The active electrodes were made from sprayed networks of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) serving as both electrodes and charge collectors. Using a printable aqueous gel electrolyte as well as an organic liquid electrolyte, the performances of the devices show very high energy and power densities (6 W h/kg for both electrolytes and 23 and 70 kW/kg for aqueous gel electrolyte and organic electrolyte, respectively) which is comparable to performance in other SWCNT-based supercapacitor devices fabricated using different methods. The results underline the potential of printable thin film supercapacitors. The simplified architecture and the sole use of printable materials may lead to a new class of entirely printable charge storage devices allowing for full integration with the emerging field of printed electronics. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  10. Electrochemical energy storage in montmorillonite K10 clay based composite as supercapacitor using ionic liquid electrolyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiti, Sandipan; Pramanik, Atin; Chattopadhyay, Shreyasi; De, Goutam; Mahanty, Sourindra

    2016-02-15

    Exploring new electrode materials is the key to realize high performance energy storage devices for effective utilization of renewable energy. Natural clays with layered structure and high surface area are prospective materials for electrical double layer capacitors (EDLC). In this work, a novel hybrid composite based on acid-leached montmorillonite (K10), multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) and manganese dioxide (MnO2) was prepared and its electrochemical properties were investigated by fabricating two-electrode asymmetric supercapacitor cells against activated carbon (AC) using 1.0M tetraethylammonium tetrafluroborate (Et4NBF4) in acetonitrile (AN) as electrolyte. The asymmetric supercapacitors, capable of operating in a wide potential window of 0.0-2.7V, showed a high energy density of 171Whkg(-1) at a power density of ∼1.98kWkg(-1). Such high EDLC performance could possibly be linked to the acid-base interaction of K10 through its surface hydroxyl groups with the tetraethylammonium cation [(C2H5)4N(+) or TEA(+)] of the ionic liquid electrolyte. Even at a very high power density of 96.4kWkg(-1), the cells could still deliver an energy density of 91.1Whkg(-1) exhibiting an outstanding rate capability. The present study demonstrates for the first time, the excellent potential of clay-based composites for high power energy storage device applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Enhancing Electrochemical Performance of Graphene Fiber-Based Supercapacitors by Plasma Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Jie; Nie, Wenqi; Zhang, Kun; Xu, Fujun; Ding, Xin; Wang, Shiren; Qiu, Yiping

    2018-04-25

    Graphene fiber-based supercapacitors (GFSCs) hold high power density, fast charge-discharge rate, ultralong cycling life, exceptional mechanical/electrical properties, and safe operation conditions, making them very promising to power small wearable electronics. However, the electrochemical performance is still limited by the severe stacking of graphene sheets, hydrophobicity of graphene fibers, and complex preparation process. In this work, we develop a facile but robust strategy to easily enhance electrochemical properties of all-solid-state GFSCs by simple plasma treatment. We find that 1 min plasma treatment under an ambient condition results in 33.1% enhancement of areal specific capacitance (36.25 mF/cm 2 ) in comparison to the as-prepared GFSC. The energy density reaches 0.80 μW h/cm 2 in polyvinyl alcohol/H 2 SO 4 gel electrolyte and 18.12 μW h/cm 2 in poly(vinylidene difluoride)/ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate electrolyte, which are 22 times of that of as-prepared ones. The plasma-treated GFSCs also exhibit ultrahigh rate capability (69.13% for 40 s plasma-treated ones) and superior cycle stability (96.14% capacitance retention after 20 000 cycles for 1 min plasma-treated ones). This plasma strategy can be extended to mass-manufacture high-performance carbonaceous fiber-based supercapacitors, such as graphene and carbon nanotube-based ones.

  12. Flexible energy-storage devices: design consideration and recent progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xianfu; Lu, Xihong; Liu, Bin; Chen, Di; Tong, Yexiang; Shen, Guozhen

    2014-07-23

    Flexible energy-storage devices are attracting increasing attention as they show unique promising advantages, such as flexibility, shape diversity, light weight, and so on; these properties enable applications in portable, flexible, and even wearable electronic devices, including soft electronic products, roll-up displays, and wearable devices. Consequently, considerable effort has been made in recent years to fulfill the requirements of future flexible energy-storage devices, and much progress has been witnessed. This review describes the most recent advances in flexible energy-storage devices, including flexible lithium-ion batteries and flexible supercapacitors. The latest successful examples in flexible lithium-ion batteries and their technological innovations and challenges are reviewed first. This is followed by a detailed overview of the recent progress in flexible supercapacitors based on carbon materials and a number of composites and flexible micro-supercapacitors. Some of the latest achievements regarding interesting integrated energy-storage systems are also reviewed. Further research direction is also proposed to surpass existing technological bottle-necks and realize idealized flexible energy-storage devices. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Flexible and Cellulose-based Organic Electronics

    OpenAIRE

    Edberg, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    Organic electronics is the study of organic materials with electronic functionality and the applications of such materials. In the 1970s, the discovery that polymers can be made electrically conductive led to an explosion within this field which has continued to grow year by year. One of the attractive features of organic electronic materials is their inherent mechanical flexibility, which has led to the development of numerous flexible electronics technologies such as organic light emitting ...

  14. Sizing for fuel cell/supercapacitor hybrid vehicles based on stochastic driving cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feroldi, Diego; Carignano, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A sizing procedure based on the fulfilment of real driving conditions is proposed. • A methodology to generate long-term stochastic driving cycles is proposed. • A parametric optimization of the real-time EMS is conducted. • A trade-off design is adopted from a Pareto front. • A comparison with optimal consumption via Dynamic Programming is performed. - Abstract: In this article, a methodology for the sizing and analysis of fuel cell/supercapacitor hybrid vehicles is presented. The proposed sizing methodology is based on the fulfilment of power requirements, including sustained speed tests and stochastic driving cycles. The procedure to generate driving cycles is also presented in this paper. The sizing algorithm explicitly accounts for the Equivalent Consumption Minimization Strategy (ECMS). The performance is compared with optimal consumption, which is found using an off-line strategy via Dynamic Programming. The sizing methodology provides guidance for sizing the fuel cell and the supercapacitor number. The results also include analysis on oversizing the fuel cell and varying the parameters of the energy management strategy. The simulation results highlight the importance of integrating sizing and energy management into fuel cell hybrid vehicles.

  15. Micro supercapacitors based on a 3D structure with symmetric graphene or activated carbon electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Siwei; Wang, Xiaohong; Xing, Hexin; Shen, Caiwei

    2013-11-01

    This paper presents three-dimensional (3D) micro supercapacitors with thick interdigital electrodes supported and separated by SU-8. Nanoporous carbon materials including graphene and activated carbon (AC) are used as active materials in self-supporting composites to build the electrodes. The SU-8 separators provide mechanical support for thick electrodes and allow a considerable amount of material to be loaded in a limited footprint area. The prototypes have been accomplished by a simple microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) fabrication process and sealed by polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) caps with ionic liquid electrolytes injected into the electrode area. Electrochemical tests demonstrate that the graphene-based prototype with 100 µm thick electrodes shows good power performance and provides a considerable specific capacitance of about 60 mF cm-2. Two AC-based prototypes show larger capacitance of 160 mF cm-2 and 311 mF cm-2 with 100 µm and 200 µm thick electrodes respectively, because of higher volume density of the material. The results demonstrate that both thick 3D electrode structure and volume capacitance of the electrode material are key factors for high-performance micro supercapacitors, which can be potentially used in specific applications such as power suppliers and storage components for harvesters.

  16. Graphene and maghemite composites based supercapacitors delivering high volumetric capacitance and extraordinary cycling stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Haitao; Zhang, Xiong; Lin, He; Wang, Kai; Sun, Xianzhong; Xu, Nansheng; Li, Chen; Ma, Yanwei

    2015-01-01

    Metal oxides (like MnO 2 , Fe 2 O 3 , and Co 3 O 4 , etc) based supercapacitors have disadvantages, such as low volumetric capacitance for thick-film electrodes, or short cycling life because a Faradaic process involves chemical changes of state of the reactant species. In the present work, we report that supercapacitors based on reduced graphene oxide and maghemite (γ-Fe 2 O 3 ) composites (GγM) exhibit superior performance. GγM electrodes with average electrode thickness up to ∼60 μm have a high volumetric capacitance of 230 F cm −3 , together with an outstanding electrode package density of 1.44 g cm −3 . Particularly, the GγM electrodes have excellent cycling performance of ∼90% capacitance retention over 100,000 galvanostatic charge–discharge cycles or voltage floating at 0.9 V for 300 h. No detectable change in phase and an effective inhibition of γ-Fe 2 O 3 refinement after cycle-life test are confirmed by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy

  17. Performance evaluation of symmetric supercapacitor based on cobalt hydroxide [Co(OH)2] thin film electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jagadale, A.D.; Kumbhar, V.S.; Dhawale, D.S.; Lokhande, C.D.

    2013-01-01

    In the present investigation, we have successfully assembled symmetric supercapacitor device based on cobalt hydroxide [Co(OH) 2 ] thin film electrodes using 1 M KOH as an electrolyte. Initially, potentiodynamic electrodeposition method is employed for the preparation of Co(OH) 2 thin films onto stainless steel substrate. These films are characterized for structural and morphological elucidations using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. The XRD reveals formation of β-Co(OH) 2 material with hexagonal crystal structure. The SEM images show formation of nanoflakes like microstructure with average flake width 100 nm. Electrochemical characterizations of Co(OH) 2 based symmetric supercapacitor cell are carried out using cyclic voltammetry, charge–discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques. In the performance evaluation the maximum values of specific capacitance, specific energy and specific power are encountered as 44 F g −1 , 3.96 Wh kg −1 and 42 kW kg −1 . The value of equivalent series resistance (ESR) is estimated as 2.3 Ω using EIS

  18. Fabrication of high-performance supercapacitors based on transversely oriented carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markoulidis, F.; Lei, C.; Lekakou, C.

    2013-04-01

    High-performance supercapacitors with organic electrolyte 1 M TEABF4 (tetraethyl ammonium tetrafluoroborate) in PC (propylene carbonate) were fabricated and tested, based on multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) deposited by electrophoresis on three types of alternative substrates: aluminium foil, ITO (indium tin oxide) coated PET (polyethylene terephthalate) film and PET film. In all cases, SEM (scanning electron microscopy) and STEM (scanning transmission electron microscopy) micrographs demonstrated that protruding, transversely oriented MWNT structures were formed, which should increase the transverse conductivity of these MWNT electrodes. The best supercapacitor cell of MWNT electrodes deposited on aluminium foil displayed good transverse orientation of the MWNT structures as well as an in-plane MWNT network at the feet of the protruding structures, which ensured good in-plane conductivity. Capacitor cells with MWNT electrodes deposited either on ITO-coated PET film or on PET film demonstrated lower but still very good performance due to the high density of transversely oriented MWNT structures (good transverse conductivity) but some in-plane inhomogeneities. Capacitor cells with drop-printed MWNTs on aluminium foil, without any transverse orientation, had 16-30 times lower specific capacitance and 5-40 times lower power density than the capacitor cells with the electrophoretically deposited MWNT electrodes.

  19. Preparation of 3D graphene-based architectures and their applications in supercapacitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuxian Yang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Three dimensional (3D graphene-based architectures such as 3D graphene-based hydrogels, aerogels, foams, and sponges have attracted huge attention owing to the combination of the structural interconnectivities and the outstanding properties of graphene which offer these interesting structures with low density, high porosity, large surface area, stable mechanical properties, fast mass and electron transport. They have been extensively studied for a wide range of applications including capacitors, batteries, sensors, catalyst, etc. There are several reviews focusing on the 3D graphene-based architectures and their applications. In this work, we only summarise the latest development on the preparation of 3D graphene-based architectures and their applications in supercapacitors, with emphasis on the preparation strategies.

  20. A "Tandem" Strategy to Fabricate Flexible Graphene/Polypyrrole Nanofiber Film Using the Surfactant-Exfoliated Graphene for Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Kewei; Chao, Yunfeng; Chou, Shulei; Wang, Caiyun; Zheng, Tian; Gambhir, Sanjeev; Wallace, Gordon G

    2018-06-19

    The surfactant-assisted liquid-phase exfoliation of expanded graphite can produce graphene sheets in large quantities with minimal defects. However, it is difficult to completely remove the surfactant from the final product, thus affecting the electrochemical properties of the produced graphene. In this article, a novel approach to fabricate flexible graphene/polypyrrole film was developed: using surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide as a template for growth of polypyrrole nanofibers (PPyNFs) instead of removal after the exfoliation process; followed by a simple filtration method. The introduction of PPyNF not only increases the electrochemical performance, but also ensures flexibility. This composite film electrode offers a capacitance up to 161 F g -1 along with a capacitance retention rate of over 80% after 5000 cycles.

  1. A facile prestrain-stick-release assembly of stretchable supercapacitors based on highly stretchable and sticky hydrogel electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Qianqiu; Chen, Mingming; Wang, Gengchao; Bao, Hua; Saha, Petr

    2015-06-01

    A facile prestrain-stick-release assembly strategy for the stretchable supercapacitor device is developed based on a novel Na2SO4-aPUA/PAAM hydrogel electrolyte, saving the stretchable rubber base conventionally used. The Na2SO4-aPUA/PAAM hydrogel electrolyte exhibits high stretchability (>1000%), electrical conductivity (0.036 S cm-1) and stickiness. Due to the unique features of the hydrogel electrolyte, the carbon nanotube@MnO2 film electrodes can be firmly stuck to two sides of the prestrained hydrogel electrolyte. Then, by releasing the hydrogel electrolyte, homogenous buckles are formed for the film electrodes to get a full stretchable supercapacitor device. Besides, the high stickiness of the hydrogel electrolyte ensures its strong adhesion with the film electrodes, facilitating ion and electronic transfer of the supercapacitor. As a result, excellent electrochemical performance is achieved with the specific capacitance of 478.6 mF cm-2 at 0.5 mA cm-2 (corresponding to 201.1 F g-1) and capacitance retention of 91.5% after 3000 charging-discharging cycles under 150% strain, which is the best for the stretchable supercapacitors.

  2. Three-dimensional hierarchical NiCo2O4 nanowire@Ni3S2 nanosheet core/shell arrays for flexible asymmetric supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Kong, Dezhi; Huang, Zhi Xiang; Mo, Runwei; Wang, Ye; Han, Zhaojun; Cheng, Chuanwei; Yang, Hui Ying

    2016-05-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) hierarchical NiCo2O4@Ni3S2 core/shell arrays on Ni foam were synthesized by a facile, stepwise synthesis approach. The 3D heterogeneous NiCo2O4 nanostructure forms an interconnected web-like scaffold and serves as the core for the Ni3S2 shell. The as-prepared NiCo2O4@Ni3S2 nanowire array (NWA) electrodes exhibited excellent electrochemical performance, such as high specific areal capacitance and excellent cycling stability. The specific areal capacitance of 3.0 F cm-2 at a current density of 5 mA cm-2 is among the highest values and the only 6.7% capacitance decay after 10 000 cycles demonstrates the excellent cycling stability. A flexible asymmetric supercapacitor (ASC) was fabricated with activated carbon (AC) as the anode and the obtained NiCo2O4@Ni3S2 NWAs as the cathode. The ASC device exhibited a high energy density of 1.89 mW h cm-3 at 5.81 W cm-3 and a high power density of 56.33 W cm-3 at 0.94 mW h cm-3. As a result, the hybrid nanoarchitecture opens a new way to design high performance electrodes for electrochemical energy storage applications.Three-dimensional (3D) hierarchical NiCo2O4@Ni3S2 core/shell arrays on Ni foam were synthesized by a facile, stepwise synthesis approach. The 3D heterogeneous NiCo2O4 nanostructure forms an interconnected web-like scaffold and serves as the core for the Ni3S2 shell. The as-prepared NiCo2O4@Ni3S2 nanowire array (NWA) electrodes exhibited excellent electrochemical performance, such as high specific areal capacitance and excellent cycling stability. The specific areal capacitance of 3.0 F cm-2 at a current density of 5 mA cm-2 is among the highest values and the only 6.7% capacitance decay after 10 000 cycles demonstrates the excellent cycling stability. A flexible asymmetric supercapacitor (ASC) was fabricated with activated carbon (AC) as the anode and the obtained NiCo2O4@Ni3S2 NWAs as the cathode. The ASC device exhibited a high energy density of 1.89 mW h cm-3 at 5.81 W cm-3 and a high power

  3. On-chip supercapacitors with ultrahigh volumetric performance based on electrochemically co-deposited CuO/polypyrrole nanosheet arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Tao; Zhou, Jinqiu; Xu, Na; Yang, Tingzhou; Shen, Xiaowei; Liu, Xuejun; Wu, Shishan; Yan, Chenglin

    2015-10-01

    We introduce a new method for fabricating unique on-chip supercapacitors based on CuO/polypyrrole core/shell nanosheet arrays by means of direct electrochemical co-deposition on interdigital-like electrodes. The prepared all-solid-state device demonstrates exceptionally high specific capacitance of 1275.5 F cm-3 (˜40 times larger than that of CuO-only supercapacitors) and high-energy-density of 28.35 mWh cm-3, which are both significantly greater than other solid-state supercapacitors. More importantly, the device maintains approximately 100% capacity retention at 2.5 A cm-3 after 3000 cycles. The in situ co-deposition of CuO/polypyrrole nanosheets on interdigital substrate enables effective charge transport, electrode fabrication integrity, and device integration. Because of their high energy, power density, and stable cycling stability, these newly developed on-chip supercapacitors permit fast, reliable applications in portable and miniaturized electronic devices.

  4. On-chip supercapacitors with ultrahigh volumetric performance based on electrochemically co-deposited CuO/polypyrrole nanosheet arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Tao; Zhou, Jinqiu; Xu, Na; Yang, Tingzhou; Shen, Xiaowei; Liu, Xuejun; Wu, Shishan; Yan, Chenglin

    2015-10-23

    We introduce a new method for fabricating unique on-chip supercapacitors based on CuO/polypyrrole core/shell nanosheet arrays by means of direct electrochemical co-deposition on interdigital-like electrodes. The prepared all-solid-state device demonstrates exceptionally high specific capacitance of 1275.5 F cm(-3) (∼40 times larger than that of CuO-only supercapacitors) and high-energy-density of 28.35 mWh cm(-3), which are both significantly greater than other solid-state supercapacitors. More importantly, the device maintains approximately 100% capacity retention at 2.5 A cm(-3) after 3000 cycles. The in situ co-deposition of CuO/polypyrrole nanosheets on interdigital substrate enables effective charge transport, electrode fabrication integrity, and device integration. Because of their high energy, power density, and stable cycling stability, these newly developed on-chip supercapacitors permit fast, reliable applications in portable and miniaturized electronic devices.

  5. On-chip supercapacitors with ultrahigh volumetric performance based on electrochemically co-deposited CuO/polypyrrole nanosheet arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian, Tao; Zhou, Jinqiu; Xu, Na; Yang, Tingzhou; Shen, Xiaowei; Liu, Xuejun; Yan, Chenglin; Wu, Shishan

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a new method for fabricating unique on-chip supercapacitors based on CuO/polypyrrole core/shell nanosheet arrays by means of direct electrochemical co-deposition on interdigital-like electrodes. The prepared all-solid-state device demonstrates exceptionally high specific capacitance of 1275.5 F cm"−"3 (∼40 times larger than that of CuO-only supercapacitors) and high-energy-density of 28.35 mWh cm"−"3, which are both significantly greater than other solid-state supercapacitors. More importantly, the device maintains approximately 100% capacity retention at 2.5 A cm"−"3 after 3000 cycles. The in situ co-deposition of CuO/polypyrrole nanosheets on interdigital substrate enables effective charge transport, electrode fabrication integrity, and device integration. Because of their high energy, power density, and stable cycling stability, these newly developed on-chip supercapacitors permit fast, reliable applications in portable and miniaturized electronic devices. (paper)

  6. Graphene-based electrochemical energy conversion and storage: fuel cells, supercapacitors and lithium ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Junbo; Shao, Yuyan; Ellis, Michael W; Moore, Robert B; Yi, Baolian

    2011-09-14

    Graphene has attracted extensive research interest due to its strictly 2-dimensional (2D) structure, which results in its unique electronic, thermal, mechanical, and chemical properties and potential technical applications. These remarkable characteristics of graphene, along with the inherent benefits of a carbon material, make it a promising candidate for application in electrochemical energy devices. This article reviews the methods of graphene preparation, introduces the unique electrochemical behavior of graphene, and summarizes the recent research and development on graphene-based fuel cells, supercapacitors and lithium ion batteries. In addition, promising areas are identified for the future development of graphene-based materials in electrochemical energy conversion and storage systems. This journal is © the Owner Societies 2011

  7. Self-Healable and Cold-Resistant Supercapacitor Based on a Multifunctional Hydrogel Electrolyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Feng; Qin, Liming; Wang, Zhikui; Pan, Qinmin

    2017-05-10

    Excellent self-healability and cold resistance are attractive properties for a portable/wearable energy-storage device. However, achieving the features is fundamentally dependent on an intrinsically self-healable electrolyte with high ionic conduction at low temperature. Here we report such a hydrogel electrolyte comprising sodium alginate cross-linked by dynamic catechol-borate ester bonding. Since its dynamically cross-linked alginate network can tolerate high-content inorganic salts, the electrolyte possesses excellent healing efficiency/cyclability but also high ionic conduction at both room temperature and low temperature. A supercapacitor with the multifunctional hydrogel electrolyte completely restores its capacitive properties even after breaking/healing for 10 cycles without external stimulus. At a low temperature of -10 °C, the capacitor is even able to maintain at least 80% of its room-temperature capacitance. Our investigations offer a strategy to assemble self-healable and cold-resistant energy storage devices by using a multifunctional hydrogel electrolyte with rationally designed polymeric networks, which has potential application in portable/wearable electronics, intelligent apparel or flexible robot, and so on.

  8. Development of a specification for flexible base construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) currently uses Item 247 Flexible Base to specify a : pavement foundation course. The goal of this project was to evaluate the current method of base course : acceptance and investigate methods to r...

  9. Characterization of Anodized Titanium Based Novel Paradigm Supercapacitors: Impact of Salt Identity and Frequency on Dielectric Values, Power, and Energy Densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    solution, sufficient charge carriers to counteract the applied but not cause ion- lock , are energy densities at their maximum. For the salt identities and...OF ANODIZED TITANIUM- BASED NOVEL PARADIGM SUPERCAPACITORS: IMPACT OF SALT IDENTITY AND FREQUENCY ON DIELECTRIC VALUES, POWER, AND ENERGY DENSITIES...SUBTITLE CHARACTERIZATION OF ANODIZED TITANIUM-BASED NOVEL PARADIGM SUPERCAPACITORS: IMPACT OF SALT IDENTITY AND FREQUENCY ON DIELECTRIC VALUES, POWER

  10. Flexible Piezoelectric Sensor-Based Gait Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngsu Cha

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Most motion recognition research has required tight-fitting suits for precise sensing. However, tight-suit systems have difficulty adapting to real applications, because people normally wear loose clothes. In this paper, we propose a gait recognition system with flexible piezoelectric sensors in loose clothing. The gait recognition system does not directly sense lower-body angles. It does, however, detect the transition between standing and walking. Specifically, we use the signals from the flexible sensors attached to the knee and hip parts on loose pants. We detect the periodic motion component using the discrete time Fourier series from the signal during walking. We adapt the gait detection method to a real-time patient motion and posture monitoring system. In the monitoring system, the gait recognition operates well. Finally, we test the gait recognition system with 10 subjects, for which the proposed system successfully detects walking with a success rate over 93 %.

  11. Carbon-based fibrous EDLC capacitors and supercapacitors

    OpenAIRE

    Lekakou, C; Moudam, O; Markoulidis, F; Andrews, T; Watts, JF; Reed, GT

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates electrochemical double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) including two alternative types of carbon-based fibrous electrodes, a carbon fibre woven fabric (CWF) and a multiwall carbon nanotube (CNT) electrode, as well as hybrid CWF-CNT electrodes. Two types of separator membranes were also considered. An organic gel electrolyte PEO-LiCIO4-EC-THF was used to maintain a high working voltage. The capacitor cells were tested in cyclic voltammetry, charge-discharge, and impedance test...

  12. Graphene oxide-based benzimidazole-crosslinked networks for high-performance supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yi; Cheng, Qian-Yi; Wu, Haiping; Wei, Zhixiang; Han, Bao-Hang

    2013-08-01

    The synthesis of graphene oxide (GO)-based benzimidazole-crosslinked network (GOBIN) materials is presented. These materials are prepared by the covalent crosslinking of GO sheets using a condensation reaction between the carboxylic acid moieties on the GO surface and the o-aminophenyl end groups of 3,3'-diaminobenzidine (or 1,2,4,5-benzenetetraamine tetrahydrochloride). An efficient one-pot catalyst- and template-free synthesis was performed. The obtained porous GO-based materials possess a Brunauer-Emmett-Teller specific surface area ranging from 260 to 920 m2 g-1. Electrochemical testing indicates that the GOBIN materials display a specific capacitance up to 370 F g-1 at a current density of 0.1 A g-1 and about 90% of the original capacitance is retained after 5000 cycles at a current density of 3 A g-1. Therefore, GOBIN materials can be employed as promising electrode materials for high-performance supercapacitors with outstanding cycling stability. Furthermore, owing to their significantly high specific surface area, these materials also show hydrogen uptake (up to 1.24 wt%, at 77 K and 1.0 bar) and carbon dioxide capture (up to 14.2 wt%, at 273 K and 1.0 bar) properties. As a result, these GO-based porous materials improve both the supercapacitor performance and gas sorption property, which demonstrate an excellent performance in the practical application of energy storage.The synthesis of graphene oxide (GO)-based benzimidazole-crosslinked network (GOBIN) materials is presented. These materials are prepared by the covalent crosslinking of GO sheets using a condensation reaction between the carboxylic acid moieties on the GO surface and the o-aminophenyl end groups of 3,3'-diaminobenzidine (or 1,2,4,5-benzenetetraamine tetrahydrochloride). An efficient one-pot catalyst- and template-free synthesis was performed. The obtained porous GO-based materials possess a Brunauer-Emmett-Teller specific surface area ranging from 260 to 920 m2 g-1. Electrochemical testing

  13. Tobacco Stem-Based Activated Carbons for High Performance Supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xiaohong; Liu, Hongbo; Shi, Lei; He, Yuede

    2012-09-01

    Tobacco stem-based activated carbons (TS-ACs) were prepared by simple KOH activation and their application as electrodes in the electrical double layer capacitor (EDLC) performed successfully. The BET surface area, pore volume, and pore size distribution of the TS-ACs were evaluated based on N2 adsorption isotherms at 77 K. The surface area of the obtained activated carbons varies over a wide range (1472.8-3326.7 m2/g) and the mesoporosity was enhanced significantly as the ratio of KOH to tobacco stem (TS) increased. The electrochemical behaviors of series TS-ACs were characterized by means of galvanostatic charging/discharging, cyclic voltammetry, and impedance spectroscopy. The correlation between electrochemical properties and pore structure was investigated. A high specific capacitance value as 190 F/g at 1 mA/cm2 was obtained in 1 M LiPF6-EC/DMC/DEC electrolyte solution. Furthermore, good performance is also achieved even at high current densities. A development of new use for TS into a valuable energy storage material is explored.

  14. Controllable growth of polyaniline nanowire arrays on hierarchical macro/mesoporous graphene foams for high-performance flexible supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Pingping; Zhao, Xin; Li, Yingzhi; Zhang, Qinghua

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Hierarchical porous graphene foam prepared by templating and embossing method.. • Vertically PANI nanowires aligned on interconnected porous graphene sheets. • The fRGO-F/PANI device exhibited 939 F g"−"1 at 1 A g"−"1. • ED and PD of fRGO-F/PANI device was 20.9 Wh kg"−"1 and 103.2 kW kg"−"1. - Abstract: Free-standing hierarchical macro/mesoporous flexible graphene foam have been constructed by rational intergration ofwell dispersed graphene oxide sheets and amino-modified polystyrene (PS) spheres through a facile “templating and embossing” technique. The three dimensional (3D) macro/mesoporous flexible graphene foam not only inherits the uniform porous structures of graphene foam, but also contains hierarchical macro/mesopores on the struts by sacrificing PS spheres and the activation of KOH, which could providing rapid pathways for ionic and electronic transport to high specific capacitance. Vertically polyaniline (PANI) nanowire arrays are then uniformly deposited onto the hierarchical macro/mesoporous graphene foam(fRGO-F/PANI) by a simple in situ polymerization, which show a high specific capacitance of 939 F g"−"1. Thanks to the synergistic function of 3D bicontinuous hierarchical porous structure of graphene foam and effective immobilization of PANI nanowires on the struts, the assembled symmetric supercapctior with fRGO-F/PANI as electrodes exhibits a maximum energy density and power density of 20.9 Wh kg"−"1 and 103.2 kW kg"−"1, respectively. Moreover, it also displays an excellent cyclic stability with a 88.7% retention after 5000 cycles.

  15. Controllable growth of polyaniline nanowire arrays on hierarchical macro/mesoporous graphene foams for high-performance flexible supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Pingping [State Key Laboratory for Modification of Chemical Fibers and Polymer Materials, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Department of Materials Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Zhao, Xin, E-mail: xzhao@dhu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Modification of Chemical Fibers and Polymer Materials, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Li, Yingzhi [State Key Laboratory for Modification of Chemical Fibers and Polymer Materials, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Zhang, Qinghua, E-mail: qhzhang@dhu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Modification of Chemical Fibers and Polymer Materials, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China)

    2017-01-30

    Highlights: • Hierarchical porous graphene foam prepared by templating and embossing method.. • Vertically PANI nanowires aligned on interconnected porous graphene sheets. • The fRGO-F/PANI device exhibited 939 F g{sup −1} at 1 A g{sup −1}. • ED and PD of fRGO-F/PANI device was 20.9 Wh kg{sup −1} and 103.2 kW kg{sup −1}. - Abstract: Free-standing hierarchical macro/mesoporous flexible graphene foam have been constructed by rational intergration ofwell dispersed graphene oxide sheets and amino-modified polystyrene (PS) spheres through a facile “templating and embossing” technique. The three dimensional (3D) macro/mesoporous flexible graphene foam not only inherits the uniform porous structures of graphene foam, but also contains hierarchical macro/mesopores on the struts by sacrificing PS spheres and the activation of KOH, which could providing rapid pathways for ionic and electronic transport to high specific capacitance. Vertically polyaniline (PANI) nanowire arrays are then uniformly deposited onto the hierarchical macro/mesoporous graphene foam(fRGO-F/PANI) by a simple in situ polymerization, which show a high specific capacitance of 939 F g{sup −1}. Thanks to the synergistic function of 3D bicontinuous hierarchical porous structure of graphene foam and effective immobilization of PANI nanowires on the struts, the assembled symmetric supercapctior with fRGO-F/PANI as electrodes exhibits a maximum energy density and power density of 20.9 Wh kg{sup −1} and 103.2 kW kg{sup −1}, respectively. Moreover, it also displays an excellent cyclic stability with a 88.7% retention after 5000 cycles.

  16. Molecular Simulation Results on Charged Carbon Nanotube Forest-Based Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muralidharan, Ajay; Pratt, Lawrence R; Hoffman, Gary G; Chaudhari, Mangesh I; Rempe, Susan B

    2018-05-03

    Electrochemical double-layer capacitances of charged carbon nanotube (CNT) forests with tetraethyl ammonium tetrafluoro borate electrolyte in propylene carbonate are studied on the basis of molecular dynamics simulation. Direct molecular simulation of the filling of pore spaces of the forest is feasible even with realistic, small CNT spacings. The numerical solution of the Poisson equation based on the extracted average charge densities then yields a regular experimental dependence on the width of the pore spaces, in contrast to the anomalous pattern observed in experiments on other carbon materials and also in simulations on planar slot-like pores. The capacitances obtained have realistic magnitudes but are insensitive to electric potential differences between the electrodes in this model. This agrees with previous calculations on CNT forest supercapacitors, but not with experiments which have suggested electrochemical doping for these systems. Those phenomena remain for further theory/modeling work. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. A copper-based layered coordination polymer: synthesis, magnetic properties and electrochemical performance in supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qi; Liu, Xiuxiu; Shi, Changdong; Zhang, Yanpeng; Feng, Xuejun; Cheng, Mei-Ling; Su, Seng; Gu, Jiande

    2015-11-28

    A copper-based layered coordination polymer ([Cu(hmt)(tfbdc)(H2O)]; hmt = hexamethylenetetramine, tfbdc = 2,3,5,6-tetrafluoroterephthalate; Cu-LCP) has been synthesized, and it has been structurally and magnetically characterized. The Cu-LCP shows ferromagnetic interactions between the adjacent copper(II) ions. Density functional theory calculations on the special model of Cu-LCP support the occurrence of ferromagnetic interactions. As an electrode material for supercapacitors, Cu-LCP exhibits a high specific capacitance of 1274 F g(-1) at a current density of 1 A g(-1) in 1 M LiOH electrolyte, and the capacitance retention is about 88% after 2000 cycles.

  18. Hierarchical activated mesoporous phenolic-resin-based carbons for supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhao; Zhou, Min; Chen, Hao; Jiang, Jingui; Guan, Shiyou

    2014-10-01

    A series of hierarchical activated mesoporous carbons (AMCs) were prepared by the activation of highly ordered, body-centered cubic mesoporous phenolic-resin-based carbon with KOH. The effect of the KOH/carbon-weight ratio on the textural properties and capacitive performance of the AMCs was investigated in detail. An AMC prepared with a KOH/carbon-weight ratio of 6:1 possessed the largest specific surface area (1118 m(2) g(-1)), with retention of the ordered mesoporous structure, and exhibited the highest specific capacitance of 260 F g(-1) at a current density of 0.1 A g(-1) in 1 M H2 SO4 aqueous electrolyte. This material also showed excellent rate capability (163 F g(-1) retained at 20 A g(-1)) and good long-term electrochemical stability. This superior capacitive performance could be attributed to a large specific surface area and an optimized micro-mesopore structure, which not only increased the effective specific surface area for charge storage but also provided a favorable pathway for efficient ion transport. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. 0-6621 : developing a mixture-based specification for flexible base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    The Texas Department of Transportation : (TxDOT) currently utilizes Item 247, Flexible : Base, to specify a foundation course of flexible : base utilized in a pavement. Base materials are : not allowed to be used by the contractors until : the ...

  20. CVD-Graphene-Based Flexible, Thermoelectrochromic Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Januszko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main idea behind this work was demonstrated in a form of a new thermoelectrochromic sensor on a flexible substrate using graphene as an electrically reconfigurable thermal medium (TEChrom™. Our approach relies on electromodulation of thermal properties of graphene on poly(ethylene terephthalate (PET via mechanical destruction of a graphene layer. Graphene applied in this work was obtained by chemical vapor deposition (CVD technique on copper substrate and characterized by Raman and scanning tunneling spectroscopy. Electrical parameters of graphene were evaluated by the van der Pauw method on the transferred graphene layers onto SiO2 substrates by electrochemical delamination method. Two configurations of architecture of sensors, without and with the thermochromic layer, were investigated, taking into account the increase of voltage from 0 to 50 V and were observed by thermographic camera to define heat energy. Current-voltage characteristics obtained for the sensor with damaged graphene layer are linear, and the resistivity is independent from the current applied. The device investigated under 1000 W/m2 exhibited rise of resistivity along with increased temperature. Flexible thermoelectrochromic device with graphene presented here can be widely used as a sensor for both the military and civil monitoring.

  1. Asymmetric Supercapacitors Based on Reduced Graphene Oxide with Different Polyoxometalates as Positive and Negative Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubal, Deepak P; Chodankar, Nilesh R; Vinu, Ajayan; Kim, Do-Heyoung; Gomez-Romero, Pedro

    2017-07-10

    Nanofabrication using a "bottom-up" approach of hybrid electrode materials into a well-defined architecture is essential for next-generation miniaturized energy storage devices. This paper describes the design and fabrication of reduced graphene oxide (rGO)/polyoxometalate (POM)-based hybrid electrode materials and their successful exploitation for asymmetric supercapacitors. First, redox active nanoclusters of POMs [phosphomolybdic acid (PMo 12 ) and phosphotungstic acid (PW 12 )] were uniformly decorated on the surface of rGO nanosheets to take full advantage of both charge-storing mechanisms (faradaic from POMs and electric double layer from rGO). The as-synthesized rGO-PMo 12 and rGO-PW 12 hybrid electrodes exhibited impressive electrochemical performances with specific capacitances of 299 (269 mF cm -2 ) and 370 F g -1 (369 mF cm -2 ) in 1 m H 2 SO 4 as electrolyte at 5 mA cm -2 . An asymmetric supercapacitor was then fabricated using rGO-PMo 12 as the positive and rGO-PW 12 as the negative electrode. This rGO-PMo 12 ∥rGO-PW 12 asymmetric cell could be successfully cycled in a wide voltage window up to 1.6 V and hence exhibited an excellent energy density of 39 Wh kg -1 (1.3 mWh cm -3 ) at a power density of 658 W kg -1 (23 mW cm -3 ). © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Flexible Graphene-Based Energy Storage Devices for Space Application

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of this project is to develop a graphene-based battery/ultra-capacitor prototype that is flexible, thin, lightweight, durable, low cost, and safe and...

  3. Developing a mixture design specification for flexible base construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    In the Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT), flexible base producers typically generate large stockpiles of material exclusively for TxDOT projects. This large state-only inventory often maintained by producers, along with time requiremen...

  4. Nanocomposites of Graphene Nanosheets/Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes as Electrodes for In-plane Supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trigueiro, João Paulo C.; Lavall, Rodrigo L.; Silva, Glaura G.

    2016-01-01

    Flexible supercapacitors with large power and energy densities, long life cycles and good operational safety are necessary devices for various applications. In this work, we demonstrate the integration of a composite based on graphene nanosheets/multiwalled carbon nanotubes in an in-plane supercapacitor configuration by using a straightforward preparation involving the filtration of nanomaterials to produce an electrode film. Reduced graphene oxide (RGO) received 15 wt % carbon nanotubes to act as a conducting additive, which led to a flexible and transferable thin film (RGO/MW) with an average conductivity of 20.0 S cm −1 . Three ionic liquids were tested as electrolytes for the supercapacitor, among which 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (EMITFSI) was observed to exhibit the best performance. The specific capacitance of the supercapacitor based on RGO/MW-EMITFSI reached 153.7 F g −1 at a current density of 0.2 A g −1 and exhibited a capacitance retention of 88% after 2000 cycles. The maximum energy and power densities were calculated to be 41.3 Wh kg −1 and 3.5 kW kg −1 , respectively, for the RGO/MW-EMITFSI supercapacitor.

  5. A study of novel regenerative braking system based on supercapacitor for electric vehicle driven by in-wheel motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-qiang Jin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Taking supercapacitor and battery pack as the energy storage unit, a novel type of regenerative braking system for electric vehicle driven by in-wheel motors is presented, and a braking energy regeneration control strategy is set up. Then, a co-simulation test based on CRUISE and Simulink is conducted. The results of simulation show that the novel type of system can ensure the safety of battery pack and significantly improve the rate of energy regeneration.

  6. Highly Sensitive Flexible Magnetic Sensor Based on Anisotropic Magnetoresistance Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiguang; Wang, Xinjun; Li, Menghui; Gao, Yuan; Hu, Zhongqiang; Nan, Tianxiang; Liang, Xianfeng; Chen, Huaihao; Yang, Jia; Cash, Syd; Sun, Nian-Xiang

    2016-11-01

    A highly sensitive flexible magnetic sensor based on the anisotropic magnetoresistance effect is fabricated. A limit of detection of 150 nT is observed and excellent deformation stability is achieved after wrapping of the flexible sensor, with bending radii down to 5 mm. The flexible AMR sensor is used to read a magnetic pattern with a thickness of 10 μm that is formed by ferrite magnetic inks. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. A Highly Stretchable and Washable All-Yarn-Based Self-Charging Knitting Power Textile Composed of Fiber Triboelectric Nanogenerators and Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Kai; Wang, Yi-Cheng; Deng, Jianan; Dai, Yejing; Zhang, Steven L; Zou, Haiyang; Gu, Bohong; Sun, Baozhong; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2017-09-26

    Rapid advancements in stretchable and multifunctional wearable electronics impose a challenge on corresponding power devices that they should have comparable portability and stretchability. Here, we report a highly stretchable and washable all-yarn-based self-charging knitting power textile that enables both biomechanical energy harvesting and simultaneously energy storing by hybridizing triboelectrical nanogenerator (TENG) and supercapacitor (SC) into one fabric. With the weft-knitting technique, the power textile is qualified with high elasticity, flexibility, and stretchability, which can adapt to complex mechanical deformations. The knitting TENG fabric is able to generate electric energy with a maximum instantaneous peak power density of ∼85 mW·m -2 and light up at least 124 light-emitting diodes. The all-solid-state symmetrical yarn SC exhibits lightweight, good capacitance, high flexibility, and excellent mechanical and long-term stability, which is suitable for wearable energy storage devices. The assembled knitting power textile is capable of sustainably driving wearable electronics (for example, a calculator or temperature-humidity meter) with energy converted from human motions. Our work provides more opportunities for stretchable multifunctional power sources and potential applications in wearable electronics.

  8. Smart Material-Actuated Flexible Tendon-Based Snake Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohiuddin Ahmed

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A flexible snake robot has better navigation ability compare with the existing electrical motor-based rigid snake robot, due to its excellent bending capability during navigation inside a narrow maze. This paper discusses the modelling, simulation and experiment of a flexible snake robot. The modelling consists of the kinematic analysis and the dynamic analysis of the snake robot. A platform based on the Incompletely Restrained Positioning Mechanism (IRPM is proposed, which uses the external force provided by a compliant flexible beam in each of the actuators. The compliant central column allows the configuration to achieve three degrees of freedom (3DOFs with three tendons. The proposed flexible snake robot has been built using smart material, such as electroactive polymers (EAPs, which can be activated by applying power to it. Finally, the physical prototype of the snake robot has been built. An experiment has been performed in order to justify the proposed model.

  9. In situ fabrication of Ni(OH){sub 2} nanofibers on polypyrrole-based carbon nanotubes for high-capacitance supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Jianzhang [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xinjiang University, Urumqi 830046 (China); Mi, Hongyu, E-mail: mmihongyu@163.com [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xinjiang University, Urumqi 830046 (China); Xu, Youlong, E-mail: ylxuxjtu@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Electronic Materials Research Laboratory, Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Gao, Bo [Xinjiang Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi 830011 (China)

    2013-03-15

    Highlights: ► Facile surface decoration approach to highly porous Ni(OH){sub 2}/CNT composites. ► Polypyrrole-based CNTs form three-dimensional electron-transport channels. ► A high capacitance of 1118 F g{sup −1} at 50 mA cm{sup −2} is delivered. ► Ni(OH){sub 2}/CNT composites exhibit high discharge capability. - Abstract: Large-scale nickel hydroxide–carbon [Ni(OH){sub 2}/CNT] networks with three-dimensional electron-transport channels are synthesized via a facile and general surface-decoration approach, using polypyrrole-derived CNTs as the support. Flexible Ni(OH){sub 2} nanofibers with a diameter of 5–10 nm and a length of 50–120 nm are intertwined and wrapped homogenously on carbon networks, leading to the formation of more complex networks. When used as supercapacitor electrodes, this designed architecture with large surface area, abundant pores and good electrical conductivity is very important in technology. It can promote the bulk accessibility of electrolyte OH{sup −} and diffusion rate within the redox phase. Consequently, an unusual specific capacitance of 1745 F g{sup −1} can be obtained for Ni(OH){sub 2}/CNT composite at 30 mA cm{sup −2}. Even at a high rate (50 mA cm{sup −2}), the composite can also deliver a specific capacitance as high as 1118 F g{sup −1}, exhibiting the potential application for supercapacitors.

  10. High-performance supercapacitors of Cu-based porous coordination polymer nanowires and the derived porous CuO nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Meng-Ke; Zhou, Jiao-Jiao; Yi, Fei-Yan; Chen, Chen; Li, Yan-Li; Li, Qin; Tao, Kai; Han, Lei

    2017-12-12

    Electrode materials for supercapacitors with one-dimensional porous nanostructures, such as nanowires and nanotubes, are very attractive for high-efficiency storage of electrochemical energy. Herein, ultralong Cu-based porous coordination polymer nanowires (copper-l-aspartic acid) were used as the electrode material for supercapacitors, for the first time. The as-prepared material exhibits a high specific capacitance of 367 F g -1 at 0.6 A g -1 and excellent cycling stability (94% retention over 1000 cycles). Moreover, porous CuO nanotubes were successfully fabricated by the thermal decomposition of this nanowire precursor. The CuO nanotube exhibits good electrochemical performance with high rate capacity (77% retention at 12.5 A g -1 ) and long-term stability (96% retention over 1000 cycles). The strategy developed here for the synthesis of porous nanowires and nanotubes can be extended to the construction of other electrode materials for more efficient energy storage.

  11. ElectroGraph - Graphene-based electrodes for application in supercapacitors

    OpenAIRE

    Kosidlo, Urszula

    2012-01-01

    The ElectroGraph project follows an integrated, technology driven approach in development of novel materials and components for realization of optimized supercapacitors. These are considered one of the newest innovations in the field of electrical energy storage. To design a supercapacitor with high energy and power density, it is crucial to select the correct electrode materials and the most suitable electrolytes. That is why ElectroGraph project focuses on development and use of graphene as...

  12. Molybdenum oxide nanowires based supercapacitors with enhanced capacitance and energy density in ethylammonium nitrate electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarfraz, Mansoor; Aboud, Mohamed F.A.; Shakir, Imran, E-mail: shakir@skku.edu

    2015-11-25

    Orthorhombic molybdenum trioxide (α-MoO{sub 3}) nanowires as an electrode for electrochemical supercapacitors in ethylammonium nitrate (EAN) electrolyte exhibits a high specific capacitance of 288 Fg{sup −1}, which is 8 times higher than the specific capacitance obtained from MoO{sub 3} nanowires in water based electrolyte. MoO{sub 3} nanowires in EAN electrolyte exhibit energy density of 46.32 Wh kg{sup −1} at a power density of 20.3 kW kg{sup −1} with outstanding cycling stability with specific capacitance retention of 96% over 3000 cycles. We believe that the superior performance of the MoO{sub 3} nanowires in EAN based electrolyte is primarily due to its relatively low viscosity (0.28 P at 25 °C), high electrical conductivity (20 mS cm{sup −1} at 25 °C) and large working voltage window. The results clearly demonstrate that EAN as electrolyte is one of the most promising electrolyte for high performance large scale energy storage devices. - Highlights: • Synthesis of single crystalline molybdenum oxide nanowires. • Ethylammonium Nitrate as an electrolyte for high performance large scale psuedocapacitor based energy storage devices. • Molybdenum oxide nanowires based electrodes shows 8 fold enhancement in Ethylammonium Nitrate electrolyte as compared to water based electrolytes. • The devices in Ethylammonium Nitrate exhibit excellent stability, retaining 96% of its initial capacity after 3000 cycles.

  13. Preparation of lignin-based carbon aerogels as biomaterials for nano-supercapacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bong Suk; Kang, Kyu-Young; Jeong, Myung-Joon

    2017-10-01

    Kraft and organosolv lignins, generally produced in chemical pulping and bio-refinery processes of lignocellulosic biomass, were used to prepare lignin-based carbon aerogels for supercapacitors as raw materials. The difference between lignins and lignin-based aerogels were compared by analyzing physical and chemical properties, including molecular weight, polydispersity, and reactivity with formaldehyde. Also, density, shrinkage, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area and scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of the lignin-based aerogel were investigated. Kraft lignin consisting of coniferyl alcohol (G) and p-coumaryl alcohol (H) increased the reactivity of formaldehyde, formed a hydrogel well (porosity > 0.45), and specific surface area higher than organosolv lignin. In the case of kraft lignin, there were irregular changes such as oxidation and condensation in the pulping process. However, reaction sites with aromatic rings in lignin impacted the production of aerogel and required a long gelation period. The molecular weight of lignin influences the gelation time in producing lignin-based aerogel, and lignin composition affects the BET surface area and pore structures of the lignin-based carbon aerogels.

  14. Micro-supercapacitors based on interdigital electrodes of reduced graphene oxide and carbon nanotube composites with ultrahigh power handling performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beidaghi, Majid; Wang, Chunlei [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Florida International University, 10555 W. Flagler St., EC 3463, FL 33174 (United States)

    2012-11-07

    A novel method for fabricating micro-patterned interdigitated electrodes based on reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and carbon nanotube (CNT) composites for ultra-high power handling micro-supercapacitor application is reported. The binder-free microelectrodes were developed by combining electrostatic spray deposition (ESD) and photolithography lift-off methods. Without typically used thermal or chemical reduction, GO sheets are readily reduced to rGO during the ESD deposition. Electrochemical measurements show that the in-plane interdigital design of the microelectrodes is effective in increasing accessibility of electrolyte ions in-between stacked rGO sheets through an electro-activation process. Addition of CNTs results in reduced restacking of rGO sheets and improved energy and power density. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) measurements show that the specific capacitance of the micro-supercapacitor based on rGO-CNT composites is 6.1 mF cm{sup -2} at 0.01 V s{sup -1}. At a very high scan rate of 50 V s{sup -1}, a specific capacitance of 2.8 mF cm{sup -2} (stack capacitance of 3.1 F cm{sup -3}) is recorded, which is an unprecedented performance for supercapacitors. The addition of CNT, electrolyte-accessible and binder-free microelectrodes, as well as an interdigitated in-plane design result in a high-frequency response of the micro-supercapacitors with resistive-capacitive time constants as low as 4.8 ms. These characteristics suggest that interdigitated rGO-CNT composite electrodes are promising for on-chip energy storage application with high power demands. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  15. Doped graphene supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashok Kumar, Nanjundan; Baek, Jong-Beom

    2015-12-01

    Heteroatom-doped graphitic frameworks have received great attention in energy research, since doping endows graphitic structures with a wide spectrum of properties, especially critical for electrochemical supercapacitors, which tend to complement or compete with the current lithium-ion battery technology/devices. This article reviews the latest developments in the chemical modification/doping strategies of graphene and highlights the versatility of such heteroatom-doped graphitic structures. Their role as supercapacitor electrodes is discussed in detail. This review is specifically focused on the concept of material synthesis, techniques for electrode fabrication and metrics of performance, predominantly covering the last four years. Challenges and insights into the future research and perspectives on the development of novel electrode architectures for electrochemical supercapacitors based on doped graphene are also discussed.

  16. Doped graphene supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Nanjundan Ashok; Baek, Jong-Beom

    2015-01-01

    Heteroatom-doped graphitic frameworks have received great attention in energy research, since doping endows graphitic structures with a wide spectrum of properties, especially critical for electrochemical supercapacitors, which tend to complement or compete with the current lithium-ion battery technology/devices. This article reviews the latest developments in the chemical modification/doping strategies of graphene and highlights the versatility of such heteroatom-doped graphitic structures. Their role as supercapacitor electrodes is discussed in detail. This review is specifically focused on the concept of material synthesis, techniques for electrode fabrication and metrics of performance, predominantly covering the last four years. Challenges and insights into the future research and perspectives on the development of novel electrode architectures for electrochemical supercapacitors based on doped graphene are also discussed. (topical review)

  17. Modeling and Sizing of Supercapacitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PETREUS, D.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Faced with numerous challenges raised by the requirements of the modern industries for higher power and higher energy, supercapacitors study started playing an important role in offering viable solutions for some of these requirements. This paper presents the surface redox reactions based modeling in order to study the origin of high capacity of EDLC (electrical double-layer capacitor for better understanding the working principles of supercapacitors. Some application-dependent sizing methods are also presented since proper sizing can increase the efficiency and the life cycle of the supercapacitor based systems.

  18. Mesoporous carbon design for ionic liquid-based, double-layer supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazzari, M.; Soavi, F.; Mastragostino, M. [Dipartimento di Scienza dei Metalli, Elettrochimica e Tecniche Chimiche, University of Bologna (Italy)

    2010-10-15

    The use of pyrrolidinium-based ionic liquids (ILs) in asymmetric electric double-layer capacitors (AEDLC) with positive and negative carbon electrodes of different weight is a powerful strategy for developing safe, high specific-energy supercapacitors operating at >3.5 V. The preparation and characterisation of ordered (OTC) and disordered (DTC) template carbons, the latter obtained by a fast and low-cost method, are reported. The porosity and capacitance features of the template carbons are discussed in view of their application in IL-based AEDLCs and compared with the properties of aero/cryo/xerogel carbons and a commercial activated carbon. The performance of an N-butyl-N-methyl pyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide-based AEDLC assembled with DTC carbon electrodes operating at 3.9 V featuring high specific energy of 47 Wh kg{sup -1} is then reported. The impact of porosity and surface chemistry of carbons on the electrode capacitive response in IL and on the performance of the IL-based AEDLC in terms of energy, power and weight distribution of module components is discussed. The effect of IL nature and carbon porosity on the time constant of the double-layer charging process was also investigated by voltammetric and impedance studies. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  19. Textile Supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost, Kristy Alana

    Innovative and interdisciplinary solutions to wearable textile energy storage are explored as power sources for wearable electronics and smart textiles. Due to their long cycle life, non-toxic and inexpensive materials, supercapacitors were converted into textiles. Textile supercapacitors were developed using scalable fabrication methods including screen-printing, yarn making, and 3D computerized knitting. The electrode materials reported in this thesis undergo thorough electrochemical analysis, and are capable of storing up to 0.5 F/cm2 which is on par with conventionally solid supercapacitors (0.6 F/cm2). Capacitive yarns are capable of storing up to 37 mF/cm and are shown to be knittable on industrial knitting equipment. Both are some of the highest reported capacitance for all-carbon systems in the field. Yet both are the only systems composed of inexpensive and non-toxic activated carbon, the most commonly used electrode material used in supercapacitors, opposed to carbon nanotubes or graphene, which are typically more 10-100 times more expensive. However, all of the fabrication techniques reported here are also capable of incorporating a wide variety of materials, ultimately broadening the applications of textile energy storage as a whole. Fully machine knitted supercapacitors are also explored and electrochemically characterized in order to determine how the textile structure affects the capacitance. In conclusion, a wide variety of fabrication techniques for making textile supercapacitors were successfully explored.

  20. Sodium-ion supercapacitors based on nanoporous pyroproteins containing redox-active heteroatoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Se Youn; Yoon, Hyeon Ji; Kim, Na Rae; Yun, Young Soo; Jin, Hyoung-Joon

    2016-10-01

    Nanostructured carbon-based materials fabricated via simple methods from renewable bio-resources have great potential in rechargeable energy storage systems. In this study, nanoporous pyroproteins containing a large amount of redox-active heteroatoms (H-NPs) were fabricated from silk fibroin by an in situ carbonization/activation method. The H-NPs have a large surface area of ∼3050 m2 g-1, which is mainly comprised of nanometer-scale pores. Also, these H-NPs have oxygen and nitrogen heteroatoms of 17.4 wt% and 2.9 wt%, respectively. Synergistic sodium ion storage behaviors originate from electrochemical double layer capacitance and pseudocapacitance, leading to very high electrochemical performances of H-NPs in aqueous and non-aqueous electrolyte systems. Sodium-ion supercapacitors (NISs) based on commercial graphite//H-NPs show a high specific power of ∼1900 W kg-1 at ∼77 Wh kg-1. Also, NISs based on commercial hard carbon//H-NPs exhibit a high specific energy of ∼217 Wh kg-1 at ∼42 W kg-1. In addition, outstanding cycling performances over 30,000 cycles are achieved for symmetric NISs.