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Sample records for flax response tensile

  1. A study of the tensile behaviour of flax tows and their potential for composite processing

    Moothoo, J.; Allaoui, S.; Ouagne, P.; Soulat, D.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Flax tows are characterised by tensile testing under various conditions. • The tensile properties and their dispersion are dependent on the gauge length. • The distribution of the fibres length in specimens commands the tensile behaviour. • Packs of fibre bundle debonding failure mode are observed by image correlation. • Interesting tensile properties are obtained on epoxy impregnated and cured tows. - Abstract: To study the potential of flax tows in composite processing as an alternative to flax spun yarns, a flat flax tow consisting of aligned fibre bundles held together by a natural binder was used and characterised in tension under various conditions. The effect of the gauge length was studied on the dry reinforcement. The experimental results showed that the mechanical properties and failure mechanism varied significantly depending on the gauge length and are discussed in relation to the distribution of elementary fibres within the tow. A characteristic length as from which the mechanical properties are stable has been identified. At this length, the effect of the strain rate on the tensile properties was measured and their sensitivity to the strain rate suggests a viscous effect in the behaviour of the flax tow. To approach process conditions such as wet filament winding, a batch of specimens was impregnated with epoxy prior to tensile testing. The tensile properties under wet conditions were found to be close to the properties under dry conditions and shows that the tow can withstand typical processing tensions. Finally, tensile tests on cured-impregnated tows showed interesting mechanical properties for composite application

  2. Tensile and Flexural Properties of Cement Composites Reinforced with Flax Nonwoven Fabrics

    Josep Claramunt

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to develop a process to produce high-performance cement-based composites reinforced with flax nonwoven fabrics, analyzing the influence of the fabric structure—thickness and entanglement—on mechanical behavior under flexural and tensile loadings. For this purpose, composite with flax nonwoven fabrics with different thicknesses were first prepared and their cement infiltration was evaluated with backscattered electron (BSE images. The nonwoven fabrics with the optimized thickness were then subjected to a water treatment to improve their stability to humid environments and the fiber-matrix adhesion. For a fixed thickness, the effect of the nonwoven entanglement on the mechanical behavior was evaluated under flexural and direct tension tests. The obtained results indicate that the flax nonwoven fabric reinforcement leads to cement composites with substantial enhancement of ductility.

  3. The test of Tensile Properties and Water Resistance of a Novel Cross-linked Starch Prepared by Adding Oil-Flax

    Shi, Dawei; Wang, Rui

    2017-12-01

    In this study, to solve the poor water resistance and the low mechanical properties of starch, a mixed-starch composite matrix which including glycerol, sorbitol, and urea, were prepared via single-crew extrusion, then adding oil-flax to improve its physical mechanical and used to a source of biodegradable plastics material. The composite matrix was systematically characterized using various analytic tools including XRD, SEM and TG. The composite showed a maximum tensile strength of 18.11Mpa and moisture absorption 17.67%, while the original starch matrix was only 12.51 Mpa and 24.98%, respectively.

  4. Differential gene expression in response to Fusarium oxysporum infection in resistant and susceptible genotypes of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.).

    Dmitriev, Alexey A; Krasnov, George S; Rozhmina, Tatiana A; Novakovskiy, Roman O; Snezhkina, Anastasiya V; Fedorova, Maria S; Yurkevich, Olga Yu; Muravenko, Olga V; Bolsheva, Nadezhda L; Kudryavtseva, Anna V; Melnikova, Nataliya V

    2017-12-28

    Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) is a crop plant used for fiber and oil production. Although potentially high-yielding flax varieties have been developed, environmental stresses markedly decrease flax production. Among biotic stresses, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lini is recognized as one of the most devastating flax pathogens. It causes wilt disease that is one of the major limiting factors for flax production worldwide. Breeding and cultivation of flax varieties resistant to F. oxysporum is the most effective method for controlling wilt disease. Although the mechanisms of flax response to Fusarium have been actively studied, data on the plant response to infection and resistance gene candidates are currently very limited. The transcriptomes of two resistant and two susceptible flax cultivars with respect to Fusarium wilt, as well as two resistant BC 2 F 5 populations, which were grown under control conditions or inoculated with F. oxysporum, were sequenced using the Illumina platform. Genes showing changes in expression under F. oxysporum infection were identified in both resistant and susceptible flax genotypes. We observed the predominant overexpression of numerous genes that are involved in defense response. This was more pronounced in resistant cultivars. In susceptible cultivars, significant downregulation of genes involved in cell wall organization or biogenesis was observed in response to F. oxysporum. In the resistant genotypes, upregulation of genes related to NAD(P)H oxidase activity was detected. Upregulation of a number of genes, including that encoding beta-1,3-glucanase, was significantly greater in the cultivars and BC 2 F 5 populations resistant to Fusarium wilt than in susceptible cultivars in response to F. oxysporum infection. Using high-throughput sequencing, we identified genes involved in the early defense response of L. usitatissimum against the fungus F. oxysporum. In response to F. oxysporum infection, we detected changes in the

  5. Effects of synthetic Zn chelates on flax response and soil Zn status

    Gonzalez, D.; Almendros, P.; Alvarez, J.M.

    2016-11-01

    Throughout the world, flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) is often grown in Zn-deficient soils, but appropriate fertilizer management can optimize both crop yield and micronutrient content. A greenhouse experiment was conducted on Typic Haploxeralf (pH 6.1) and Typic Calcixerept (pH 8.1) soils to study the relative efficiency of chelated Zn using two application rates of three different Zn sources [Zn-EDDHSA, ethylenediamine-di-(2-hydroxy-5-sulfophenylacetate of Zn); Zn-HEDTA, N-2-hydroxyethyl-ethylenediaminetriacetate of Zn; and Zn-EDTA, ethylenediaminetetraacetate of Zn]. Dry matter /DM) yield, Zn concentration, chlorophyll content, crude fiber and tensile properties were monitored and the soil-Zn status (available-Zn, Zn-fractions and total-Zn) was assessed. Zinc chelate applications increased the most labile forms of Zn in soils and Zn concentrations in plants. The low rate of Zn generally had a beneficial effect on DM yield and tensile properties. The exception was Zn-EDTA in the weakly acidic soil, where the highest Zn concentrations were observed in leaves and whole shoots; this coincided with the largest concentrations of labile Zn in soil. The most efficient fertilizers were Zn-EDDHSA (in both soils) and Zn-EDTA (in the calcareous soil). The relatively large amounts of labile and available Zn present in both of the soils fertilized with Zn-EDTA points to the applying this chelate at lower rate than 5 mg Zn/kg; this should, in turn, reduce the cost of Zn fertilization and minimize environmental pollution risk. (Author)

  6. Aligned flax fibre/polylactate composites

    Madsen, Bo; Lilholt, Hans; Thygesen, Anders

    2008-01-01

    The potential of biocomposites in engineering applications is demonstrated by using aligned flax fibre/polylactate composites as a materials model system. The failure stress of flax fibres is measured by tensile testing of single fibres and fibre bundles. For both fibre configurations, it is found...... that failure stress is decreased by increasing the tested fibre volume. Based on two types of flax fibre preforms: carded sliver and unidirectional non-crimp fabric, aligned flax fibre/polylactate composites were fabricated with variable fibre content. The volumetric composition and tensile properties...... of the composite were measured. For composites with a fibre content of 37 % by volume, stiffness is about 20 GPa and failure stress is about 180 MPa. The tensile properties of the composites are analysed with a modified rule of mixtures model, which includes the effect of porosity. The experimental results...

  7. RNA-seq Transcriptome Response of Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) to the Pathogenic Fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lini.

    Galindo-González, Leonardo; Deyholos, Michael K

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lini is a hemibiotrophic fungus that causes wilt in flax. Along with rust, fusarium wilt has become an important factor in flax production worldwide. Resistant flax cultivars have been used to manage the disease, but the resistance varies, depending on the interactions between specific cultivars and isolates of the pathogen. This interaction has a strong molecular basis, but no genomic information is available on how the plant responds to attempted infection, to inform breeding programs on potential candidate genes to evaluate or improve resistance across cultivars. In the current study, disease progression in two flax cultivars [Crop Development Center (CDC) Bethune and Lutea], showed earlier disease symptoms and higher susceptibility in the later cultivar. Chitinase gene expression was also divergent and demonstrated and earlier molecular response in Lutea. The most resistant cultivar (CDC Bethune) was used for a full RNA-seq transcriptome study through a time course at 2, 4, 8, and 18 days post-inoculation (DPI). While over 100 genes were significantly differentially expressed at both 4 and 8 DPI, the broadest deployment of plant defense responses was evident at 18 DPI with transcripts of more than 1,000 genes responding to the treatment. These genes evidenced a reception and transduction of pathogen signals, a large transcriptional reprogramming, induction of hormone signaling, activation of pathogenesis-related genes, and changes in secondary metabolism. Among these, several key genes that consistently appear in studies of plant-pathogen interactions, had increased transcript abundance in our study, and constitute suitable candidates for resistance breeding programs. These included: an induced R PMI-induced protein kinase; transcription factors WRKY3, WRKY70, WRKY75, MYB113 , and MYB108 ; the ethylene response factors ERF1 and ERF14 ; two genes involved in auxin/glucosinolate precursor synthesis ( CYP79B2 and CYP79B3 ); the flavonoid

  8. RNA-seq Transcriptome Response of Flax (Linum usitatissimum L. to the Pathogenic Fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lini.

    Leonardo Miguel Galindo-González

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lini is a hemibiotrophic fungus that causes wilt in flax. Along with rust, fusarium wilt has become an important factor in flax production worldwide. Resistant flax cultivars have been used to manage the disease, but the resistance varies, depending on the interactions between specific cultivars and isolates of the pathogen. This interaction has a strong molecular basis, but no genomic information is available on how the plant responds to attempted infection, to inform breeding programs on potential candidate genes to evaluate or improve resistance across cultivars. In the current study, disease progression in two flax cultivars (CDC Bethune and Lutea, showed earlier disease symptoms and higher susceptibility in the later cultivar. Chitinase gene expression was also divergent and demonstrated and earlier molecular response in Lutea. The most resistant cultivar (CDC Bethune was used for a full RNA-seq transcriptome study through a time-course at 2, 4, 8 and 18 days post-inoculation (DPI. While over 100 genes were significantly differentially expressed at both 4 and 8 DPI, the broadest deployment of plant defense responses was evident at 18 DPI with transcripts of more than 1,000 genes responding to the treatment. These genes evidenced a reception and transduction of pathogen signals, a large transcriptional reprogramming, induction of hormone signalling, activation of pathogenesis-related (PR genes, and changes in secondary metabolism. Among these several key genes, that consistently appear in studies of plant-pathogen interactions, had increased transcript abundance in our study, and constitute suitable candidates for resistance breeding programs. These included: an induced RPMI-induced protein kinase (RIPK; transcription factors WRKY3, WRKY70, WRKY75, MYB113 and MYB108; the ethylene response factors ERF1 and ERF14; two genes involved in auxin/glucosinolate precursor synthesis (CYP79B2 and CYP79B3; the flavonoid

  9. RESPONSE SURFACE METHODOLOGY FOR OPTIMIZATION OF THE EXTRACTION OF FLAX (LINUM USITATISSIMUM SEED OIL

    Tibor Maliar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Flax seed is an important source of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids essential for human physiology. The aim of this paper is to investigate the effects of major parameters of the lipid extraction from flax seed, in relation to the recovery of oil as well as the oil quality properties. The independent variables of extraction were proposed as: organic solvents, temperature, extraction time and solid-liquid ratio. The following quantitative and qualitative parameters were chosen as dependent variables: yield of the lipid fraction, acid value of oil and the absorbance at 490 nm. After calculating the optimal values of the extraction, the validation analysis was carried out and it was found out that the predicted and experimentally verified dependent variables were in agreement with the optimal extraction parameters.doi:10.5219/168

  10. miR319, miR390, and miR393 Are Involved in Aluminum Response in Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.).

    Dmitriev, Alexey A; Kudryavtseva, Anna V; Bolsheva, Nadezhda L; Zyablitsin, Alexander V; Rozhmina, Tatiana A; Kishlyan, Natalya V; Krasnov, George S; Speranskaya, Anna S; Krinitsina, Anastasia A; Sadritdinova, Asiya F; Snezhkina, Anastasiya V; Fedorova, Maria S; Yurkevich, Olga Yu; Muravenko, Olga V; Belenikin, Maxim S; Melnikova, Nataliya V

    2017-01-01

    Acid soils limit agricultural production worldwide. Major reason of crop losses in acid soils is the toxicity of aluminum (Al). In the present work, we investigated expression alterations of microRNAs in flax ( Linum usitatissimum L.) plants under Al stress. Flax seedlings of resistant (TMP1919 and G1071/4_k) and sensitive (Lira and G1071/4_o) to Al cultivars and lines were exposed to AlCl 3 solution for 4 and 24 hours. Twelve small RNA libraries were constructed and sequenced using Illumina platform. In total, 97 microRNAs from 18 conserved families were identified. miR319, miR390, and miR393 revealed expression alterations associated with Al treatment of flax plants. Moreover, for miR390 and miR393, the alterations were distinct in sensitive and resistant to Al genotypes. Expression level changes of miR319 and miR390 were confirmed using qPCR analysis. In flax, potential targets of miR319 are TCPs, miR390-TAS3 and GRF5, and miR393-AFB2-coding transcripts. TCPs, TAS3, GRF5, and AFB2 participate in regulation of plant growth and development. The involvement of miR319, miR390, and miR393 in response to Al stress in flax was shown here for the first time. We speculate that these microRNAs play an important role in Al response via regulation of growth processes in flax plants.

  11. Dynamic tensile response of alumina-Al composites

    Atisivan, R.; Bandyopadhyay, A.; Gupta, Y. M.

    2002-01-01

    Plate impact experiments were carried out to examine the high strain-rate tensile response of alumina-aluminum (Al) composites with tailored microstructures. A novel processing technique was used to fabricate interpenetrating phase alumina-aluminum composites with controlled microstructures. Fused deposition modeling (FDM), a commercially available rapid prototyping technique, was used to produce the controlled porosity mullite ceramic preforms. Alumina-Al composites were then processed via reactive metal infiltration of porous mullite ceramics. With this approach, both the micro as well as the macro structures can be designed via computer aided design (CAD) to tailor the properties of the composites. Two sets of dynamic tensile experiments were performed. In the first, the metal content was varied between 23 and 39 wt. percent. In the second, the microstructure was varied while holding the metal content nearly constant. Samples with higher metal content, as expected, displayed better spall resistance. For a given metal content, samples with finer metal diameter showed better spall resistance. Relationship of the microstructural parameters on the dynamic tensile response of the structured composites is discussed here

  12. Effect of soaking seeds of flax on the ultimate strength of flaxes

    E. I. Ponomareva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There are one of ways to save peoples heath is eating food, what rich in fiber. To the recovery of polyunsarurated fatty acids, protein, mineral substances, fibers it recommended to eat flax seeds and its products. One of these products are flaxes. The purpose of the work was a rational choice of the duration of soaking seeds, providing strong reception of finished products. Founds that when hydrated of 10 to 30 minutes of the study setting almost unchanged. After 30 minutes soaking the tensile strength increased, and then decreased. The maximum value observed in the samples in which lasted 40 minutes soaking. Probably, due to the fact that upon contact with water 30 minutes before the moisture is adsorbed on the surface of flax seed are thus formed in a small amount of mucus. From 30 to 40 minutes soaking carbohydrates undergo hydrolysis inner layers of the endosperm and seed shell. While the water absorption capacity of flax reaches limits. Also increases the amount of mucus, and after 40 minutes soaking becomes excessive, resulting in reduced tensile strength of the finished product. Therefore, rational while soaking flax 40 minutes, providing the maximum value of the parameter under study. Flux thus, thanks to the ability of flax seed soaking and store slime forming after drying alpha-linolenic acid is a source of polyunsaturated fatty acids, dietary fibers, vitamins, minerals.

  13. Study of flax hybrid preforms reinforced epoxy composites

    Muralidhar, B. A

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • We examine the thermal, viscoelastic and mechanical behaviour of flax preform hybrid composites. • The thermal stability of the matrix decrease with increasing volume fraction of flax preforms. • The effect of number of preform layers and the lay-up architecture were studied.. • Morphological study on the fractured surface of the composite laminate is carried out. - Abstracts: This study investigates the thermal, mechanical and thermomechanical properties of flax hybrid preform reinforced epoxy composites. Flax plain weave fabric and 1 × 1 weft rib knitted structures were together used as reinforcements and the composites were produced using hand lay-up technique. Specimen preparation and testing were carried out as per ASTM standards. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) indicates a decrease in thermal stability of the matrix polymer with the incorporation of flax hybrid preform. The dynamic mechanical analysis revealed a shift in the T g with the addition of flax hybrid preforms. Mechanical data obtained showed that tensile strength and stiffness is a product of the fibre/matrix synergy, whereas the compressive strength and stiffness are contributed by the reinforcing matrix. Additionally, investigation show that laminate with knitted preform as skin layer exhibits superior mechanical properties. However, improved tensile properties at lower fibre volume fraction, reinforces the opinion that hybrid preform composites can offer significant benefits in terms of performance, weight and overall cost. The failure mechanism was analysed, by scanning electron microscope (SEM)

  14. Properties and performance of flax yarn/thermoplastic polyester composites

    Madsen, Bo; Mehmood, Shahid

    2012-01-01

    Aiming at demonstrating the potential of unidirectional natural fiber-reinforced thermoplastic composites in structural applications, textile flax yarn/thermoplastic polyester composites with variable fiber volume fractions have been manufactured by a filament-winding process followed by a vacuum......-assisted compression molding process. The microstructure of the composites shows that the flax fiber yarns are well impregnated by the polyester matrix, and this supports the measured low porosity content of the composites. The experimental tensile modulus and ultimate tensile stress of the composites in the axial...

  15. New biocomposites based on bioplastic flax fibers and biodegradable polymers.

    Wróbel-Kwiatkowska, Magdalena; Czemplik, Magdalena; Kulma, Anna; Zuk, Magdalena; Kaczmar, Jacek; Dymińska, Lucyna; Hanuza, Jerzy; Ptak, Maciej; Szopa, Jan

    2012-01-01

    A new generation of entirely biodegradable and bioactive composites with polylactic acid (PLA) or poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL) as the matrix and bioplastic flax fibers as reinforcement were analyzed. Bioplastic fibers contain polyhydroxybutyrate and were obtained from transgenic flax. Biochemical analysis of fibers revealed presence of several antioxidative compounds of hydrophilic (phenolics) and hydrophobic [cannabidiol (CBD), lutein] nature, indicating their high antioxidant potential. The presence of CBD and lutein in flax fibers is reported for the first time. FTIR analysis showed intermolecular hydrogen bonds between the constituents in composite PLA+flax fibers which were not detected in PCL-based composite. Mechanical analysis of prepared composites revealed improved stiffness and a decrease in tensile strength. The viability of human dermal fibroblasts on the surface of composites made of PLA and transgenic flax fibers was the same as for cells cultured without composites and only slightly lower (to 9%) for PCL-based composites. The amount of platelets and Escherichia coli cells aggregated on the surface of the PLA based composites was significantly lower than for pure polymer. Thus, composites made of PLA and transgenic flax fibers seem to have bacteriostatic, platelet anti-aggregated, and non-cytotoxic effect. Copyright © 2012 American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE).

  16. USDA Flax fiber utilization research

    The United States is pursuing natural fibers as sustainable, environmentally friendly sources for a variety of industrial applications. Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) fiber offers many possibilities towards this goal. Research on flax fiber production, processing, and standards development is urgen...

  17. Tensile mechanical response of polyethylene – clay nanocomposites.

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work we report on the microstructural and the mechanical characteristics of high density polyethylene (HDPE-clay nanocomposites, with particular attention to the creep behaviour. The samples were prepared through melt compounding, using two high-density polyethylenes with different melt flow rate (MFR, two different organo-modified clays, and changing the relative amount of a polyethylene grafted with maleic anhydride (PEgMA compatibilizer. The intercalation process is more effective as the matrix melt viscosity decreases (higher MFR, while the clay interlamellar spacing increases as the compatibilizer amount increases. The relative stiffness of the nanocomposites increases with the addition of clay, with a limited enhancement of the relative yield stress. The better intercalation obtained by the addition of the compatibilizer is not accompanied by a concurrent improvement of the tensile mechanical properties. The creep resistance is enhanced by the introduction of clay, with an appreciable dependence on both the polyethylene and the clay type.

  18. To improve impact damage response of single and multi-delaminated FRP composites using natural Flax yarn

    Ghasemnejad, H.; Soroush, V.R.; Mason, P.J.; Weager, B.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► To study the impact resistance of delaminated composite structures. ► To improve the impact resistance of delaminated composite structures using natural Flax yarn. ► To investigate the effect of z-pinning on the damage process of composite materials. ► To develop FE techniques to model the impact process of composite structures using LSDYNA. -- Abstract: The ply delamination which is known as a principle mode of failure of layered composites due to separation along the interfaces of the layers is one of the main concerns in designing of composite material structures. In this regard, the effect of hybrid laminate lay-up in multi-delaminated composite beam was investigated. The Charpy impact test was chosen to study the energy absorbing capability of delaminated composite beam. Hybrid composite beams were fabricated from combination of glass/epoxy and carbon/epoxy composites. To improve the impact behaviour of multi-delaminated composite beams the laminated hybrid composite beams were pinned using Flax yarns before curing process. It was shown that the multi-delaminated composite beams which are pinned in z-direction are able to arrest the crack propagation and consequently absorb more energy in comparison with simple ones in hybrid composite beams. The Charpy impact test of delaminated composite beams was also simulated by finite element software LS-DYNA and the results were verified with the relevant experimental results.

  19. The loci controlling plasticity in flax

    Bickel CL

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Cory L Bickel, Marshall Lukacs, Christopher A CullisCase Western Reserve University, Cleveland OH, USAAbstract: Flax undergoes heritable genomic changes in response to nutrient stress, including changes in total DNA content, rDNA copy number variation, and the appearance of Linum Insertion Sequence 1 (LIS-1. The nature of the genomic changes suggests a very different mechanism, which is not yet understood, from that of other DNA changes in response to stress, such as the activation of transposable elements. To identify the genes that control genomic changes in response to stress in flax, reciprocal crosses were made between a responsive flax line, Stormont cirrus, and an unresponsive line, Bethune. The ability of the F2 generation (from selfed F1 plants to respond to nutrient stress was assayed using the insertion of LIS-1 as the criteria for responsiveness. Twenty-nine out of 89 F2s responded at 5 weeks, suggesting that 3-4 dominant loci were all necessary for early LIS-1 insertion. Seventy out of 76 responded at 10 weeks, indicating two dominant loci independently capable of initiating LIS-1 insertion under prolonged nutrient stress. F1 plants and their progeny with either P1 or Bethune as the maternal parent were capable of responding with LIS-1 insertion, indicating that LIS-1 insertion is under nuclear genetic control and does not involve maternal factors. Thus, a small number of loci within the genome of Stormont cirrus appear to control the ability to respond to nutrient stress with LIS-1 insertion. A genetic map of the flax genome is currently under construction, and will be used to identify these loci within the genome.Keywords: nutrient stress, genomic plasticity, flax, Linum usitatissimum, LIS-1 

  20. Biomechanical response of human spleen in tensile loading.

    Kemper, Andrew R; Santago, Anthony C; Stitzel, Joel D; Sparks, Jessica L; Duma, Stefan M

    2012-01-10

    Blunt splenic injuries are most frequently caused as a result of motor vehicle collisions and are associated with high mortality rates. In order to accurately assess the risk of automotive related spleen injuries using tools such as finite element models, tissue level tolerance values and suitable material models must be developed and validated based on appropriate biomechanical data. This study presents a total of 41 tension tests performed on spleen parenchyma coupons and 29 tension tests performed on spleen capsule/parenchyma coupons. Standard dog-bone coupons were obtained from fresh human spleen and tested within 48 h of death. Each coupon was tested once to failure at one of the four loading rates to investigate the effects of rate dependence. Load and acceleration data were obtained at each of the specimen grips. High-speed video and optical markers placed on the specimens were used to measure local displacement. Failure stress and strain were calculated at the location of failure in the gage length of the coupon. The results of the study showed that both the spleen parenchyma and the capsule are rate dependent, with higher loading rates yielding higher failure stresses and lower failure strains. The results also show that the failure stress of the splenic capsule is significantly greater than that of the underlying parenchyma. Overall, this study provides novel biomechanical data that demonstrate the rate dependent tissue level tolerance values of human spleen tissue in tensile loading, which can aid in the improvement of finite element models used to assess injury risk in blunt trauma. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Chemical modification of flax reinforced polypropylene composites

    Jacob John, Maya

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental study on the static and dynamic mechanical properties of nonwoven based flax fibre reinforced polypropylene composites. The effect of zein modification on flax fibres is also reported. Flax nonwovens were treated...

  2. POTENTIAL USE OF GRAFT COPOLYMERS OF MERCERIZED FLAX AS FILLER IN POLYSTYRENE COMPOSITE MATERIALS

    Susheel Kalia

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Graft copolymerization of binary vinyl monomers onto mercerized flax fiber was carried out for the enhancement of mechanical properties of polystyrene composites. Binary vinyl monomer mixture of AA+AN has been found to show maximum grafting (33.55% onto mercerized flax. Graft copolymers thus synthesized were characterized with FT-IR spectroscopy, SEM, and TGA techniques. Mercerized flax (MF showed maximum thermal stability in comparison to graft copolymers. It has been found that polystyrene composites reinforced with graft copolymers showed improvement in mechanical properties such as wear resistance, compressive strength, and tensile strength.

  3. Characterisation of Flax Fibres and Flax Fibre Composites. Being cellulose based sources of materials

    Aslan, Mustafa

    -melting temperature polyethylene terephthalate (LPET) filaments were aligned in assemblies of different fibre weight fractions in the range 0.24 to 0.83 to manufacture unidirectional composites using two different consolidation pressures of 1.67 and 4.10 MPa. The maximum attainable fibre volume fraction is found...... to be 47% for the low pressure composites, whereas it is found to be 60% for the high pressure composites. The stiffness of the flax fibre/LPET composites is measured to be in the range 16 to 33 GPa depending on the volumetric composition of the composites. The high pressure composites are found to have...... a similar microstructure at low fibre weight fractions. However, when the fibre content is increased, a difference in porosity content can be observed from the composite cross sections. The nominal tensile strength of the unidirectional flax fibre/LPET composites is measured in the range 180 to 340 MPa...

  4. Tensile responses of treated Cissus populnea fibers | Azeez ...

    acetic acid (EDTA), respectively, were used for fiber treatment and optimi zed with variable parameters (concentration and time) using response surface methodology (RSM) with central composite design. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with ...

  5. Tempering response to different morphologies of martensite in tensile deformation of dual-phase steel

    Ahmad, E.; Manzoor, T.; Sarwar, M.; Arif, M.; Hussain, N.

    2011-01-01

    A low alloy steel containing 0.2% C was heat treated with three cycles of heat treatments with the aim to acquire different morphologies of martensite in dual phase microstructure. Microscopic examination revealed that the morphologies consisting of grain boundary growth, scattered laths and bulk form of martensite were obtained. These morphologies have their distinct patterns of distribution in the matrix (ferrite). In tensile properties observations the dual phase steel with bulk morphology of martensite showed minimum of ductility but high tensile strength as compared to other two morphologies. This may be due to poor alignments of bulk martensite particles along tensile axes during deformation. Tempering was employed with various holding times at 550 deg. C to induce ductility in the heat treated material. The tempering progressively increased the ductility by increasing holding time. However, tempering response to strengths and ductilities was different to all three morphologies of martensite. (author)

  6. Optimum processing parameters for the fabrication of twill flax fabric-reinforced polypropylene (PP) composites

    Zuhudi, Nurul Zuhairah Mahmud; Minhat, Mulia; Shamsuddin, Mohd Hafizi; Isa, Mohd Dali; Nur, Nurhayati Mohd

    2017-12-01

    In recent years, natural fabric thermoplastic composites such as flax have received much attention due to its attractive capabilities for structural applications. It is crucial to study the processing of flax fabric materials in order to achieve good quality and cost-effectiveness in fibre reinforced composites. Though flax fabric has been widely utilized for several years in composite applications due to its high strength and abundance in nature, much work has been concentrated on short flax fibre and very little work focused on using flax fabric. The effectiveness of the flax fabric is expected to give higher strength performance due to its structure but the processing needs to be optimised. Flax fabric composites were fabricated using compression moulding due to its simplicity, gives good surface finish and relatively low cost in terms of labour and production. Further, the impregnation of the polymer into the fabric is easier in this process. As the fabric weave structure contributes to the impregnation quality which leads to the overall performance, the processing parameters of consolidation i.e. pressure, time, and weight fraction of fabric were optimized using the Taguchi method. This optimization enhances the consolidation quality of the composite by improving the composite mechanical properties, three main tests were conducted i.e. tensile, flexural and impact test. It is observed that the processing parameter significantly affected the consolidation and quality of composite.

  7. Apparent interfacial shear strength of short-flax-fiber/starch acetate composites

    Andersons, J.; Modniks, J.; Joffe, R.

    2016-01-01

    The paper deals with an indirect industry-friendly method for identification of the interfacial shear strength (IFSS) in a fully bio-based composite. The IFSS of flax fiber/starch acetate is evaluated by a modified Bowyer and Bader method based on an analysis of the stress-strain curve of a short......-fiber-reinforced composite in tension. A shear lag model is developed for the tensile stress-strain response of short-fiber-reinforced composites allowing for an elastic-perfectly plastic stress transfer. Composites with different fiber volume fractions and a variable content of plasticizer have been analyzed. The apparent...... IFSS of flax/starch acetate is within the range of 5.5-20.5 MPa, depending on composition of the material. The IFSS is found to be greater for composites with a higher fiber loading and to decrease with increasing content of plasticizer. The IFSS is equal or greater than the yield strength of the neat...

  8. Static Tensile and Transient Dynamic Response of Cracked Aluminum Plate Repaired with Composite Patch - Numerical Study

    Khalili, S. M. R.; Shariyat, M.; Mokhtari, M.

    2014-06-01

    In this study, the central cracked aluminum plates repaired with two sided composite patches are investigated numerically for their response to static tensile and transient dynamic loadings. Contour integral method is used to define and evaluate the stress intensity factors at the crack tips. The reinforcement for the composite patches is carbon fibers. The effect of adhesive thickness and patch thickness and configuration in tensile loading case and pre-tension, pre-compression and crack length effect on the evolution of the mode I stress intensity factor (SIF) (KI) of the repaired structure under transient dynamic loading case are examined. The results indicated that KI of the central cracked plate is reduced by 1/10 to 1/2 as a result of the bonded composite patch repair in tensile loading case. The crack length and the pre-loads are more effective in repaired structure in transient dynamic loading case in which, the 100 N pre-compression reduces the maximum KI for about 40 %, and the 100 N pre-tension reduces the maximum KI after loading period, by about 196 %.

  9. Engineering and characterisation of the interface in flax/polypropylene composite materials

    Zafeiropoulos, Nikolaos Evangelos

    2001-01-01

    The main objectives of the present PhD project were to study the interface in flax/iPP composites, to develop and optimise an appropriate surface treatment for improving the interface in flax/iPP composites, and to assess the effect of the applied surface treatments on the properties of flax fibres (both physical and chemical). Two surface treatments, acetylation and stearation, were developed and optimised in the present study. The effect of these two surface treatments upon the structure of flax fibres was studied using XRD, SEM, ATR-FTIR, ToF-SIMS, XPS, IGC, DVS and single fibre tensile testing. It was found that the treatments did not significantly change the fibre strength, but they altered the fibre surface characteristics (chemical and physical). The water absorption was also significantly reduced after treatment, especially for green (as-received) flax, as was shown using DVS. In all cases the fibre surfaces were found to be very heterogeneous (from a chemistry point of view). The effect of the treatments and the processing conditions on the interfacial bond was studied using the single fibre fragmentation test, and it was shown that both treatments resulted in a stronger interface. The development of transcrystallinity was also found to produce a stronger interface, along with the use of slower cooling rates. However, an examination of the tensile properties of short flax fibre composites revealed that acetylation did not significantly change the tensile strength, in comparison with the untreated fibres, probably due to the manufacturing route followed in the present study that resulted in fibre lengths lower than the critical length. SEM post-mortem examination of the composites' fractured surfaces revealed that acetylation improved adhesion with iPP. (author)

  10. Dynamic Strain Aging Phenomena and Tensile Response of Medium-Mn TRIP Steel

    Field, Daniel M.; Van Aken, David C.

    2018-04-01

    Dynamic strain aging (DSA) and rapid work hardening are typical behaviors observed in medium-Mn transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) steel. Three alloys with manganese ranging from 10.2 to 13.8 wt pct with calculated room temperature stacking fault energies varying from - 2.1 to 0.7 mJ/m2 were investigated. Significant serrations were observed in the stress-strain behavior for two of the steels and the addition of 4.6 wt pct chromium was effective in significantly reducing the occurrence of DSA. Addition of chromium to the alloy reduced DSA by precipitation of M23(C,N)6 during batch annealing at 873 K (600 °C) for 20 hours. Three distinct DSA mechanisms were identified: one related to manganese ordering in stacking faults associated with ɛ-martensite and austenite interface, with activation energies for the onset and termination of DSA being 145 and 277 kJ/mol. A second mechanism was associated with carbon diffusion in γ-austenite where Mn-C bonding added to the total binding energy, and activation energies of 88 and 155 kJ/mol were measured for the onset and termination of DSA. A third mechanism was attributed to dislocation pinning and unpinning by nitrogen in α-ferrite with activation energies of 64 and 123 kJ/mol being identified. Tensile behaviors of the three medium manganese steels were studied in both the hot band and batch annealed after cold working conditions. Ultimate tensile strengths ranged from 1310 to 1404 MPa with total elongation of 24.1 to 34.1 pct. X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to determine the transformation response of the steels using interrupted tensile tests at room temperature. All three of the processed steels showed evidence of two-stage TRIP where γ-austenite first transformed to ɛ-martensite, and subsequently transformed to α-martensite.

  11. Elastin governs the mechanical response of medial collateral ligament under shear and transverse tensile loading.

    Henninger, Heath B; Valdez, William R; Scott, Sara A; Weiss, Jeffrey A

    2015-10-01

    Elastin is a highly extensible structural protein network that provides near-elastic resistance to deformation in biological tissues. In ligament, elastin is localized between and along the collagen fibers and fascicles. When ligament is stretched along the primary collagen axis, elastin supports a relatively high percentage of load. We hypothesized that elastin may also provide significant load support under elongation transverse to the primary collagen axis and shear along the collagen axis. Quasi-static transverse tensile and shear material tests were performed to quantify the mechanical contributions of elastin during deformation of porcine medial collateral ligament. Dose response studies were conducted to determine the level of elastase enzymatic degradation required to produce a maximal change in the mechanical response. Maximal changes in peak stress occurred after 3h of treatment with 2U/ml porcine pancreatic elastase. Elastin degradation resulted in a 60-70% reduction in peak stress and a 2-3× reduction in modulus for both test protocols. These results demonstrate that elastin provides significant resistance to elongation transverse to the collagen axis and shear along the collagen axis while only constituting 4% of the tissue dry weight. The magnitudes of the elastin contribution to peak transverse and shear stress were approximately 0.03 MPa, as compared to 2 MPa for axial tensile tests, suggesting that elastin provides a highly anisotropic contribution to the mechanical response of ligament and is the dominant structural protein resisting transverse and shear deformation of the tissue. Copyright © 2015 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Experimental Analysis of Repaired Masonry Elements with Flax-FRCM and PBO-FRCM Composites Subjected to Axial Bending Loads

    Oscar A. Cevallos

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In the construction industry, the use of natural fabrics as a reinforcement for cement-based composites has shown great potential. The use of these sustainable composites to provide strengthening or repair old masonry structures that exhibit structural problems mainly due to a poor tensile strength of the mortar/brick joints is revealed to be a promising area of research. One of the most significant load conditions affecting the mechanical response of masonry structures occurs when axial bending loads are applied on the resistant cross-section. In this study, three different types of masonry elements were built using clay bricks and a lime-based mortar. After 28 days, the samples were subjected to concentric and eccentric compressive loads. In order to produce significant bending effects, the compressive loads were applied with large eccentricity, and a sudden failure characterized the behavior of the unreinforced masonry (URM elements. The tested masonry specimens were repaired using fabric-reinforced cementitious matrix (FRCM composites produced using bi-directional flax and polyparaphenylene benzobisoxazole (PBO fabrics. The mechanical behavior of the URM and repaired samples was compared in terms of load-displacement and moment-curvature responses. Furthermore, the results achieved using flax-FRCM composites were compared with those of using PBO-FRCM composites.

  13. Cannabinoid-like anti-inflammatory compounds from flax fiber.

    Styrczewska, Monika; Kulma, Anna; Ratajczak, Katarzyna; Amarowicz, Ryszard; Szopa, Jan

    2012-09-01

    Flax is a valuable source of fibers, linseed and oil. The compounds of the latter two products have already been widely examined and have been proven to possess many health-beneficial properties. In the course of analysis of fibers extract from previously generated transgenic plants overproducing phenylpropanoids a new terpenoid compound was discovered.The UV spectra and the retention time in UPLC analysis of this new compound reveal similarity to a cannabinoid-like compound, probably cannabidiol (CBD). This was confirmed by finding two ions at m/z 174.1 and 231.2 in mass spectra analysis. Further confirmation of the nature of the compound was based on a biological activity assay. It was found that the compound affects the expression of genes involved in inflammatory processes in mouse and human fibroblasts and likely the CBD from Cannabis sativa activates the specific peripheral cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) gene expression. Besides fibers, the compound was also found in all other flax tissues. It should be pointed out that the industrial process of fabric production does not affect CBD activity.The presented data suggest for the first time that flax products can be a source of biologically active cannabinoid-like compounds that are able to influence the cell immunological response. These findings might open up many new applications for medical flax products, especially for the fabric as a material for wound dressing with anti-inflammatory properties.

  14. Effect of Elastin Digestion on the Quasi-static Tensile Response of Medial Collateral Ligament

    Henninger, Heath B.; Underwood, Clayton J.; Romney, Steven J.; Davis, Grant L.; Weiss, Jeffrey A.

    2014-01-01

    Elastin is a structural protein that provides resilience to biological tissues. We examined the contributions of elastin to the quasi-static tensile response of porcine medial collateral ligament through targeted disruption of the elastin network with pancreatic elastase. Elastase concentration and treatment time were varied to determine a dose response. Whereas elastin content decreased with increasing elastase concentration and treatment time, the change in peak stress after cyclic loading reached a plateau above 1 U/ml elastase and 6 hr treatment. For specimens treated with 2 U/ml elastase for 6 hr, elastin content decreased approximately 35%. Mean peak tissue strain after cyclic loading (4.8%, p≥0.300), modulus (275 MPa, p≥0.114) and hysteresis (20%, p≥0.553) were unaffected by elastase digestion, but stress decreased significantly after treatment (up to 2 MPa, p≤0.049). Elastin degradation had no effect on failure properties, but tissue lengthened under the same pre-stress. Stiffness in the linear region was unaffected by elastase digestion, suggesting that enzyme treatment did not disrupt collagen. These results demonstrate that elastin primarily functions in the toe region of the stress-strain curve, yet contributes load support in the linear region. The increase in length after elastase digestion suggests that elastin may pre-stress and stabilize collagen crimp in ligaments. PMID:23553827

  15. Effect of ethnicity and treatments on in situ tensile response and morphological changes of human hair characterized by atomic force microscopy

    Seshadri, Indira P. [Nanotribology Laboratory for Information Storage and MEMS/NEMS (NLIM), 201 W. 19th Avenue, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Bhushan, Bharat [Nanotribology Laboratory for Information Storage and MEMS/NEMS (NLIM), 201 W. 19th Avenue, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)], E-mail: bhushan.2@osu.edu

    2008-08-15

    Human hair fibers experience tensile forces during grooming and styling processes. The tensile response of hair is hence of considerable interest to the cosmetics industry. In this study, in situ tensile characterization studies have been carried out in an atomic force microscope (AFM) on different hair under different conditions. A custom-built AFM sample stage allows hair fibers to be loaded in tension. A technique to locate and image the same control area at different strains has been developed to study the changes in morphology that occur with deformation. Virgin Caucasian, Asian and African hair were studied to understand the differences between different ethnic hair types. Also, the tensile response and morphological changes of virgin, chemically damaged and conditioner-treated Caucasian hair after soaking were compared against the corresponding dry tensile response. Finally, virgin, damaged and treated Caucasian hair fibers were subjected to fatigue cycling to simulate combing/detangling, and their tensile response studied.

  16. Effect of ethnicity and treatments on in situ tensile response and morphological changes of human hair characterized by atomic force microscopy

    Seshadri, Indira P.; Bhushan, Bharat

    2008-01-01

    Human hair fibers experience tensile forces during grooming and styling processes. The tensile response of hair is hence of considerable interest to the cosmetics industry. In this study, in situ tensile characterization studies have been carried out in an atomic force microscope (AFM) on different hair under different conditions. A custom-built AFM sample stage allows hair fibers to be loaded in tension. A technique to locate and image the same control area at different strains has been developed to study the changes in morphology that occur with deformation. Virgin Caucasian, Asian and African hair were studied to understand the differences between different ethnic hair types. Also, the tensile response and morphological changes of virgin, chemically damaged and conditioner-treated Caucasian hair after soaking were compared against the corresponding dry tensile response. Finally, virgin, damaged and treated Caucasian hair fibers were subjected to fatigue cycling to simulate combing/detangling, and their tensile response studied

  17. Glass interface effect on high-strain-rate tensile response of a soft polyurethane elastomeric polymer material

    Fan, J.T.; Weerheijm, J.; Sluys, L.J.

    2015-01-01

    The glass interface effect on dynamic tensile response of a soft polyurethane elastomeric polymer material has been investigated by subjecting a glass-polymer system of this polymer material matrix embedded a single 3 mm-diameter glass particle to impact loading in a split Hopkinson tension bar

  18. Numerical Modelling of the Compressive and Tensile Response of Glass and Ceramic under High Pressure Dynamic Loading

    Clegg, Richard A.; Hayhurst, Colin J.

    1999-06-01

    Ceramic materials, including glass, are commonly used as ballistic protection materials. The response of a ceramic to impact, perforation and penetration is complex and difficult and/or expensive to instrument for obtaining detailed physical data. This paper demonstrates how a hydrocode, such as AUTODYN, can be used to aid in the understanding of the response of brittle materials to high pressure impact loading and thus promote an efficient and cost effective design process. Hydrocode simulations cannot be made without appropriate characterisation of the material. Because of the complexitiy of the response of ceramic materials this often requires a number of complex material tests. Here we present a methodology for using the results of flyer plate tests, in conjunction with numerical simulations, to derive input to the Johnson-Holmquist material model for ceramics. Most of the research effort in relation to the development of hydrocode material models for ceramics has concentrated on the material behaviour under compression and shear. While the penetration process is dominated by these aspects of the material response, the final damaged state of the material can be significantly influenced by the tensile behaviour. Modelling of the final damage state is important since this is often the only physical information which is available. In this paper we present a unique implementation, in a hydrocode, for improved modelling of brittle materials in the tensile regime. Tensile failure initiation is based on any combination of principal stress or strain while the post-failure tensile response of the material is controlled through a Rankine plasticity damaging failure surface. The tensile failure surface can be combined with any of the traditional plasticity and/or compressive damage models. Finally, the models and data are applied in both traditional grid based Lagrangian and Eulerian solution techniques and the relativley new SPH (Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics) meshless

  19. The long range migration of hydrogen through Zircaloy in response to tensile and compressive stress gradients

    Kammenzind, B.F.; Berquist, B.M.; Bajaj, R.; Kreyns, P.H.; Franklin, D.G.

    1998-01-01

    Zircaloy-4, which is used widely as a core structural material in pressurized water reactors (PWRs), picks up hydrogen during service. Hydrogen solubility in Zircaloy-4 is low and zirconium hydride phases precipitate after the Zircaloy-4 lattice becomes supersaturated with hydrogen. These hydrides embrittle the Zircaloy-4, degrading its mechanical performance as a structural material. Because hydrogen can move rapidly through the Zircaloy-4 lattice, the potential exists for large concentrations of hydride to accumulate in local regions of a Zircaloy component remote from its point of entry into the component. Much has been reported in the literature regarding the long range migration of hydrogen through Zircaloy under concentration gradients and temperature gradients. Relatively little has been reported, however, regarding the long range migration of hydrogen under stress gradients. This paper presents experimental results regarding the long range migration of hydrogen through Zircaloy in response to both tensile and compressive stress gradients. The importance of this driving force for hydrogen migration relative to concentration and thermal gradients is discussed

  20. Abaca fibre reinforced PP composites and comparison with jute and flax fibre PP composites

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abaca fibre reinforced PP composites were fabricated with different fibre loadings (20, 30, 40, 50wt% and in some cases 35 and 45 wt%. Flax and jute fibre reinforced PP composites were also fabricated with 30 wt% fibre loading. The mechanical properties, odour emission and structure properties were investigated for those composites. Tensile, flexural and Charpy impact strengths were found to increase for fibre loadings up to 40 wt% and then decreased. Falling weight impact tests were also carried out and the same tendency was observed. Owing to the addition of coupling agent (maleated polypropylene -MAH-PP, the tensile, flexural and falling weight impact properties were found to increase in between 30 to 80% for different fibre loadings. When comparing jute and flax fibre composites with abaca fibre composites, jute fibre composites provided best tensile properties but abaca fibre polypropylene composites were shown to provide best notch Charpy and falling weight impact properties. Odours released by flax fibre composites were smaller than jute and abaca fibre composites.

  1. Gene expression profiling of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) under edaphic stress.

    Dmitriev, Alexey A; Kudryavtseva, Anna V; Krasnov, George S; Koroban, Nadezhda V; Speranskaya, Anna S; Krinitsina, Anastasia A; Belenikin, Maxim S; Snezhkina, Anastasiya V; Sadritdinova, Asiya F; Kishlyan, Natalya V; Rozhmina, Tatiana A; Yurkevich, Olga Yu; Muravenko, Olga V; Bolsheva, Nadezhda L; Melnikova, Nataliya V

    2016-11-16

    Cultivated flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) is widely used for production of textile, food, chemical and pharmaceutical products. However, various stresses decrease flax production. Search for genes, which are involved in stress response, is necessary for breeding of adaptive cultivars. Imbalanced concentration of nutrient elements in soil decrease flax yields and also results in heritable changes in some flax lines. The appearance of Linum Insertion Sequence 1 (LIS-1) is the most studied modification. However, LIS-1 function is still unclear. High-throughput sequencing of transcriptome of flax plants grown under normal (N), phosphate deficient (P), and nutrient excess (NPK) conditions was carried out using Illumina platform. The assembly of transcriptome was performed, and a total of 34924, 33797, and 33698 unique transcripts for N, P, and NPK sequencing libraries were identified, respectively. We have not revealed any LIS-1 derived mRNA in our sequencing data. The analysis of high-throughput sequencing data allowed us to identify genes with potentially differential expression under imbalanced nutrition. For further investigation with qPCR, 15 genes were chosen and their expression levels were evaluated in the extended sampling of 31 flax plants. Significant expression alterations were revealed for genes encoding WRKY and JAZ protein families under P and NPK conditions. Moreover, the alterations of WRKY family genes differed depending on LIS-1 presence in flax plant genome. Besides, we revealed slight and LIS-1 independent mRNA level changes of KRP2 and ING1 genes, which are adjacent to LIS-1, under nutrition stress. Differentially expressed genes were identified in flax plants, which were grown under phosphate deficiency and excess nutrition, on the basis of high-throughput sequencing and qPCR data. We showed that WRKY and JAS gene families participate in flax response to imbalanced nutrient content in soil. Besides, we have not identified any mRNA, which could be

  2. Gene expression profiling of flax (Linum usitatissimum L. under edaphic stress

    Alexey A. Dmitriev

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cultivated flax (Linum usitatissimum L. is widely used for production of textile, food, chemical and pharmaceutical products. However, various stresses decrease flax production. Search for genes, which are involved in stress response, is necessary for breeding of adaptive cultivars. Imbalanced concentration of nutrient elements in soil decrease flax yields and also results in heritable changes in some flax lines. The appearance of Linum Insertion Sequence 1 (LIS-1 is the most studied modification. However, LIS-1 function is still unclear. Results High-throughput sequencing of transcriptome of flax plants grown under normal (N, phosphate deficient (P, and nutrient excess (NPK conditions was carried out using Illumina platform. The assembly of transcriptome was performed, and a total of 34924, 33797, and 33698 unique transcripts for N, P, and NPK sequencing libraries were identified, respectively. We have not revealed any LIS-1 derived mRNA in our sequencing data. The analysis of high-throughput sequencing data allowed us to identify genes with potentially differential expression under imbalanced nutrition. For further investigation with qPCR, 15 genes were chosen and their expression levels were evaluated in the extended sampling of 31 flax plants. Significant expression alterations were revealed for genes encoding WRKY and JAZ protein families under P and NPK conditions. Moreover, the alterations of WRKY family genes differed depending on LIS-1 presence in flax plant genome. Besides, we revealed slight and LIS-1 independent mRNA level changes of KRP2 and ING1 genes, which are adjacent to LIS-1, under nutrition stress. Conclusions Differentially expressed genes were identified in flax plants, which were grown under phosphate deficiency and excess nutrition, on the basis of high-throughput sequencing and qPCR data. We showed that WRKY and JAS gene families participate in flax response to imbalanced nutrient content in soil

  3. Genome-wide analysis of drought induced gene expression changes in flax (Linum usitatissimum).

    Dash, Prasanta K; Cao, Yongguo; Jailani, Abdul K; Gupta, Payal; Venglat, Prakash; Xiang, Daoquan; Rai, Rhitu; Sharma, Rinku; Thirunavukkarasu, Nepolean; Abdin, Malik Z; Yadava, Devendra K; Singh, Nagendra K; Singh, Jas; Selvaraj, Gopalan; Deyholos, Mike; Kumar, Polumetla Ananda; Datla, Raju

    2014-01-01

    A robust phenotypic plasticity to ward off adverse environmental conditions determines performance and productivity in crop plants. Flax (linseed), is an important cash crop produced for natural textile fiber (linen) or oilseed with many health promoting products. This crop is prone to drought stress and yield losses in many parts of the world. Despite recent advances in drought research in a number of important crops, related progress in flax is very limited. Since, response of this plant to drought stress has not been addressed at the molecular level; we conducted microarray analysis to capture transcriptome associated with induced drought in flax. This study identified 183 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) associated with diverse cellular, biophysical and metabolic programs in flax. The analysis also revealed especially the altered regulation of cellular and metabolic pathways governing photosynthesis. Additionally, comparative transcriptome analysis identified a plethora of genes that displayed differential regulation both spatially and temporally. These results revealed co-regulated expression of 26 genes in both shoot and root tissues with implications for drought stress response. Furthermore, the data also showed that more genes are upregulated in roots compared to shoots, suggesting that roots may play important and additional roles in response to drought in flax. With prolonged drought treatment, the number of DEGs increased in both tissue types. Differential expression of selected genes was confirmed by qRT-PCR, thus supporting the suggested functional association of these intrinsic genes in maintaining growth and homeostasis in response to imminent drought stress in flax. Together the present study has developed foundational and new transcriptome data sets for drought stress in flax.

  4. Tensile testing

    2004-01-01

    A complete guide to the uniaxial tensile test, the cornerstone test for determining the mechanical properties of materials: Learn ways to predict material behavior through tensile testing. Learn how to test metals, alloys, composites, ceramics, and plastics to determine strength, ductility and elastic/plastic deformation. A must for laboratory managers, technicians, materials and design engineers, and students involved with uniaxial tensile testing. Tensile Testing , Second Edition begins with an introduction and overview of the test, with clear explanations of how materials properties are determined from test results. Subsequent sections illustrate how knowledge gained through tensile tests, such as tension properties to predict the behavior (including strength, ductility, elastic or plastic deformation, tensile and yield strengths) have resulted in improvements in materals applications. The Second Edition is completely revised and updated. It includes expanded coverage throughout the volume on a variety of ...

  5. Manipulating cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) expression in flax affects fibre composition and properties

    2014-01-01

    Background In recent decades cultivation of flax and its application have dramatically decreased. One of the reasons for this is unpredictable quality and properties of flax fibre, because they depend on environmental factors, retting duration and growing conditions. These factors have contribution to the fibre composition, which consists of cellulose, hemicelluloses, lignin and pectin. By far, it is largely established that in flax, lignin reduces an accessibility of enzymes either to pectin, hemicelluloses or cellulose (during retting or in biofuel synthesis and paper production). Therefore, in this study we evaluated composition and properties of flax fibre from plants with silenced CAD (cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase) gene, which is key in the lignin biosynthesis. There is evidence that CAD is a useful tool to improve lignin digestibility and/or to lower the lignin levels in plants. Results Two studied lines responded differentially to the introduced modification due to the efficiency of the CAD silencing. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that flax CAD belongs to the “bona-fide” CAD family. CAD down-regulation had an effect in the reduced lignin amount in the flax fibre cell wall and as FT-IR results suggests, disturbed lignin composition and structure. Moreover introduced modification activated a compensatory mechanism which was manifested in the accumulation of cellulose and/or pectin. These changes had putative correlation with observed improved fiber’s tensile strength. Moreover, CAD down-regulation did not disturb at all or has only slight effect on flax plants’ development in vivo, however, the resistance against flax major pathogen Fusarium oxysporum decreased slightly. The modification positively affected fibre possessing; it resulted in more uniform retting. Conclusion The major finding of our paper is that the modification targeted directly to block lignin synthesis caused not only reduced lignin level in fibre, but also affected amount and

  6. The influence of gamma irradiation on natural dyeing properties of cotton and flax fabrics

    Chirila, Laura; Popescu, Alina; Cutrubinis, Mihalis; Stanculescu, Ioana; Moise, Valentin Ioan

    2018-04-01

    Fabrics made of 100% cotton and 100% flax respectively were exposed at ambient temperature to gamma radiation doses, from 5 to 40 kGy, using a Co-60 research irradiator. After the irradiation treatment the fabrics were subjected to dyeing process with Itodye Nat Pomegranate commercial natural dye. The influence of gamma irradiation treatment on the physical-mechanical properties, dyeing and surface morphology of natural fibres were investigated. Gamma ray treatment of 40 kGy was the most effective in the case of fabrics made from 100% cotton, enhancing the colour strength as evidenced by K/S value. The results obtained from the mechanical properties of fabrics made of 100% flax indicated that the dose of 40 kGy leads to a decrease of tensile strength up of to 41.5%. Infrared spectroscopy was used to monitor chemical and structural changes in cellulosic fibres induced during processing. Crystallinity indices calculated from various bands ratio showed insignificant variations for cotton and small variations in the case of flax. The surface morphology of irradiated cotton fabrics did not show significant changes even at the highest dose of 40 kGy, while the low doses applied on flax fabrics led to an appearance of small changes of surface morphology. The gamma irradiation increased the uptake of natural dyes on natural cellulosic fibres.

  7. Effect of hybrid polymer coating of Bioglass® foams on mechanical response during tensile loading

    Bertolla, Luca; Chlup, Zdeněk; Stratil, Luděk; Boccaccini, A. R.; Dlouhý, Ivo

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 114, SEP (2015), S63-S68 ISSN 1743-6753 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0068 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 264526 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Bioceramics * Bioglass scaffolds * Polymer coating * Composite coating * Mechanical properties * Cellulose * Tensile strength Subject RIV: JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass Impact factor: 1.162, year: 2015

  8. Tensile and Compressive Responses of Ceramic and Metallic Nanoparticle Reinforced Mg Composites

    Quy Bau Nguyen

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, room temperature mechanical properties of pure magnesium, Mg/ZrO2 and Mg/(ZrO2 + Cu composites with various compositions are investigated. Results revealed that the use of hybrid (ZrO2 + Cu reinforcements in Mg led to enhanced mechanical properties when compared to that of single reinforcement (ZrO2. Marginal reduction in mechanical properties of Mg/ZrO2 composites were observed mainly due to clustering of ZrO2 particles in Mg matrix and lack of matrix grain refinement. Addition of hybrid reinforcements led to grain size reduction and uniform distribution of hybrid reinforcements, globally and locally, in the hybrid composites. Macro- and micro- hardness, tensile strengths and compressive strengths were all significantly increased in the hybrid composites. With respect to unreinforced magnesium, failure strain was almost unchanged under tensile loading while it was reduced under compressive loading for both Mg/ZrO2 and Mg/(ZrO2 + Cu composites.

  9. Population-based resequencing revealed an ancestral winter group of cultivated flax: implication for flax domestication processes

    Fu, Yong-Bi

    2012-01-01

    Cultivated flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) is the earliest oil and fiber crop and its early domestication history may involve multiple events of domestication for oil, fiber, capsular indehiscence, and winter hardiness. Genetic studies have demonstrated that winter cultivated flax is closely related to oil and fiber cultivated flax and shows little relatedness to its progenitor, pale flax (L. bienne Mill.), but winter hardiness is one major characteristic of pale flax. Here, we assessed the genetic relationships of 48 Linum samples representing pale flax and four trait-specific groups of cultivated flax (dehiscent, fiber, oil, and winter) through population-based resequencing at 24 genomic regions, and revealed a winter group of cultivated flax that displayed close relatedness to the pale flax samples. Overall, the cultivated flax showed a 27% reduction of nucleotide diversity when compared with the pale flax. Recombination frequently occurred at these sampled genomic regions, but the signal of selection and bottleneck was relatively weak. These findings provide some insight into the impact and processes of flax domestication and are significant for expanding our knowledge about early flax domestication, particularly for winter hardiness. PMID:22822439

  10. Expression analysis of cellulose synthase and main cytoskeletal protein genes in flax (Linum usitatissimum L.).

    Galinousky, Dmitry; Padvitski, Tsimafei; Bayer, Galina; Pirko, Yaroslav; Pydiura, Nikolay; Anisimova, Natallia; Nikitinskaya, Tatyana; Khotyleva, Liubov; Yemets, Alla; Kilchevsky, Aleksandr; Blume, Yaroslav

    2017-08-09

    Fiber flax is an important source of natural fiber and a comprehensive model for the plant fiber biogenesis studies. Cellulose-synthase (CesA) and cytoskeletal genes are known to be important for the cell wall biogenesis in general and for the biogenesis of flax fibers in particular. Currently, knowledge about activity of these genes during the plant growth is limited. In this study, we have investigated flax fiber biogenesis by measuring expression of CesA and cytoskeletal genes at two stages of the flax development (seedlings and stems at the rapid growth stage) in several flax subspecies (elongatum, mediterraneum, crepitans). RT-qPCR has been used to quantify the expression of LusСesA1, LusСesA4, LusСesA7, LusСesA6, Actin, and α-Tubulin genes in plant samples. We report that CesA genes responsible for the secondary cell wall synthesis (LusCesA4, LusCesA7) have different expression pattern compared with CesA genes responsible for the primary cell wall synthesis (LusCesA1, LusCesA6): an average expression of LusCesA4 and LusCesA7 genes is relatively high in seedlings and further increases in stems at the rapid growth stage, whereas an average expression of LusCesA1 and LusCesA6 genes decreases. Interestingly, LusCesA1 is the only studied gene with different expression dynamics between the flax subspecies: its expression decreases by 5.2-10.7 folds in elongatum and mediterraneum but does not change in crepitans subspecies when the rapid growth stage and seedlings are compared. The expression of cytoskeleton genes (coding actin and α-tubulin) is relatively stable and significantly higher than the expression of cellulose-synthase genes in all the studied samples. © 2017 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  11. Rate-dependent response of superelastic Cu–Al–Mn alloy rods to tensile cyclic loads

    Araki, Yoshikazu; Maekawa, Nao; Omori, Toshihiro; Sutou, Yuji; Kainuma, Ryosuke; Ishida, Kiyohito

    2012-01-01

    We report the results of tensile cyclic loading tests conducted to examine the dependence of constitutive relations for superelastic Cu–Al–Mn alloy rods on loading rates. Recently, Cu–Al–Mn alloy rods with diameters up to 8 mm have been developed by the authors, and it has been demonstrated that these rods have excellent superelastic strains of more than 8%, which is comparable to Ni–Ti alloys and far superior to other Cu-based alloys. No information is available, however, on the rate dependence of constitutive relations for Cu–Al–Mn alloys. In this study, we prepare two Cu–Al–Mn alloy rod specimens, whose lengths and diameters are 150 mm and 8 mm, respectively. Their stress–strain relations are examined under the loading frequencies of 0.001, 0.5, and 1 Hz with constant strain amplitude of 4.5%. It was found from the tests that the maximum stress increase in Cu–Al–Mn alloys due to higher loading rate was less than 5%. Thermo-mechanical analysis predicts that stress increase in Cu–Al–Mn alloys is about 1/4 of that in Ni–Ti alloys, which agrees reasonably well with the experimental observations. Such low stress increase is highly desirable in the design of seismic devices such as dampers and isolators. (fast track communication)

  12. High strain rate mechanical response of buttress-grooved tensile specimens which have undergone environmental exposure

    Weirick, L.J.

    1976-07-01

    The purpose of the corrosion compatibility program was to identify the effect of corrosion on the mechanical performance of the buttress-grooved section of the 105-mm penetrator, a section which must sustain a load during launch. It is important that the environment not deteriorate the mechanical integrity of these grooves during long-term storage. Both coated and uncoated test specimens which simulate both geometrical shape and residual stress patterns were exposed to corrosive environments of moist air, distilled water, and salt water. Some of these tests also incorporated the galvanic coupling caused by the aluminum sabot. After exposure to the corrosive environments, the specimens were pulled on a high strain rate tensile machine which simulated launch conditions. Results show that the galvanic coupling due to the aluminum sabot caused no deterioration of mechanical properties. Results do indicate that the coating applied caused a significant reduction in the fracture load. There was a dichotomy in the results as affected by the environment. Uncoated test specimens showed no change in fracture load with increasing severity of corrosion environment, whereas the coated specimens indicated a trend of decreasing load-bearing ability with increasing corrosion

  13. The instability of the flax element LIS-1 in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana

    Bastaki NK

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Nasmah K Bastaki, Christopher A Cullis Department of Biology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, USA Background: The LIS-1 is an element that appears as a site-specific insertion event in some flax lines in response to certain growth conditions and can be transmitted to subsequent generations. The origin of LIS-1 in the flax genome is uncertain. One possibility is that since LIS-1 does not exist intact in the progenitor line, it is assembled from small sequences found scattered throughout the genome, and that, under stressful growth conditions, induction occurs and these sequences are rearranged and assembled to form the intact LIS-1 element. It is unknown whether the intact LIS-1 element would remain stably integrated in other plant species or if it would be destabilized from their genome. Results: In this study, Agrobacterium-mediated plant transformation via floral dipping was used to transform different accessions of the Columbia ecotype of Arabidopsis thaliana, with either LIS-1 or the target site into which LIS-1 integrates. The stability and the inheritance patterns of both elements were followed in subsequent generations. Our results indicate that, in the different transformed accessions, the target site of LIS-1 remains stable in the T1 and T2 generations. However, LIS-1 is not found intact in any transformed A. thaliana plants. Instead, it goes through multiple fragmentation events, which seem to be genotype dependent. In the process, the region originally flanking LIS-1 in the T-DNA construct can be converted to the same sequence found at the target site in flax, followed by complete excision of all the flax DNA in the construct. Conclusion: These results demonstrate that the processes by which LIS-1 is produced in flax are also present in A. thaliana because both plants are capable of destabilizing the intact LIS-1 element.Keywords: flax (Linum usitatissimum, Arabidopsis thaliana, plant transformation, Linum insertion

  14. Gene expression analysis of flax seed development

    2011-01-01

    Background Flax, Linum usitatissimum L., is an important crop whose seed oil and stem fiber have multiple industrial applications. Flax seeds are also well-known for their nutritional attributes, viz., omega-3 fatty acids in the oil and lignans and mucilage from the seed coat. In spite of the importance of this crop, there are few molecular resources that can be utilized toward improving seed traits. Here, we describe flax embryo and seed development and generation of comprehensive genomic resources for the flax seed. Results We describe a large-scale generation and analysis of expressed sequences in various tissues. Collectively, the 13 libraries we have used provide a broad representation of genes active in developing embryos (globular, heart, torpedo, cotyledon and mature stages) seed coats (globular and torpedo stages) and endosperm (pooled globular to torpedo stages) and genes expressed in flowers, etiolated seedlings, leaves, and stem tissue. A total of 261,272 expressed sequence tags (EST) (GenBank accessions LIBEST_026995 to LIBEST_027011) were generated. These EST libraries included transcription factor genes that are typically expressed at low levels, indicating that the depth is adequate for in silico expression analysis. Assembly of the ESTs resulted in 30,640 unigenes and 82% of these could be identified on the basis of homology to known and hypothetical genes from other plants. When compared with fully sequenced plant genomes, the flax unigenes resembled poplar and castor bean more than grape, sorghum, rice or Arabidopsis. Nearly one-fifth of these (5,152) had no homologs in sequences reported for any organism, suggesting that this category represents genes that are likely unique to flax. Digital analyses revealed gene expression dynamics for the biosynthesis of a number of important seed constituents during seed development. Conclusions We have developed a foundational database of expressed sequences and collection of plasmid clones that comprise

  15. Gene expression analysis of flax seed development

    Sharpe Andrew

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Flax, Linum usitatissimum L., is an important crop whose seed oil and stem fiber have multiple industrial applications. Flax seeds are also well-known for their nutritional attributes, viz., omega-3 fatty acids in the oil and lignans and mucilage from the seed coat. In spite of the importance of this crop, there are few molecular resources that can be utilized toward improving seed traits. Here, we describe flax embryo and seed development and generation of comprehensive genomic resources for the flax seed. Results We describe a large-scale generation and analysis of expressed sequences in various tissues. Collectively, the 13 libraries we have used provide a broad representation of genes active in developing embryos (globular, heart, torpedo, cotyledon and mature stages seed coats (globular and torpedo stages and endosperm (pooled globular to torpedo stages and genes expressed in flowers, etiolated seedlings, leaves, and stem tissue. A total of 261,272 expressed sequence tags (EST (GenBank accessions LIBEST_026995 to LIBEST_027011 were generated. These EST libraries included transcription factor genes that are typically expressed at low levels, indicating that the depth is adequate for in silico expression analysis. Assembly of the ESTs resulted in 30,640 unigenes and 82% of these could be identified on the basis of homology to known and hypothetical genes from other plants. When compared with fully sequenced plant genomes, the flax unigenes resembled poplar and castor bean more than grape, sorghum, rice or Arabidopsis. Nearly one-fifth of these (5,152 had no homologs in sequences reported for any organism, suggesting that this category represents genes that are likely unique to flax. Digital analyses revealed gene expression dynamics for the biosynthesis of a number of important seed constituents during seed development. Conclusions We have developed a foundational database of expressed sequences and collection of plasmid

  16. "Green" composites from renewable resources: preparation of epoxidized soybean oil and flax fiber composites.

    Liu, Zengshe; Erhan, Sevim Z; Akin, Danny E; Barton, Franklin E

    2006-03-22

    In recent years there has been considerable interest in using natural plant fibers as reinforcements for plastics. The motivation includes cost, performance enhancement, weight reduction, and environment concerns. High performance flax fiber could potentially substitute for glass or carbon fibers as reinforcements for plastics. This study reports the "green" composites obtained from a mixture of epoxidized soybean oil and epoxy resin, 1,1,1-tris(p-hydroxyphenyl)ethane triglycidyl ether (THPE-GE), reinforced with flax fiber. The compression molding method is used for making the composites. Curing agents triethylenetetramine and diethylenetriamine provide better physical properties of the composites than Jeffamine agents D-230 and EDR-148. Both the flexural modulus and the tensile modulus of the composites increase as the amount of THPE-GE increases. The flexural modulus increased at a fiber content of fiber content until a maximum at 13.5 wt %, and then it decreases. The flax fiber length affected the mechanical properties of the composites: the longer the fiber length, the better are the mechanical properties observed.

  17. Cyclic tensile response of Mo-27 at% Re and Mo-0.3 at% Si solid solution alloys

    Yu, X.J.; Kumar, K.S., E-mail: Sharvan_Kumar@brown.edu

    2016-10-31

    Stress-controlled uniaxial cyclic tensile tests were conducted on binary Mo-27 at% Re and Mo-0.3 at% Si solid solutions as a function of temperature and compared against the previously reported cyclic response of pure Mo. The Mo-27 at% Re alloy with a recrystallized grain size of ~30 µm was evaluated in the temperature range 25 °C–800 °C at R=0.1 and stress range that was 80% of the ultimate tensile strength (UTS); a peak in fatigue life was observed between 300 °C and 500 °C. The decrease in fatigue life at the higher temperatures of 700 °C and 800 °C is attributed to dynamic strain aging. Transmission electron microscopy of the cyclically-deformed alloy revealed parallel bands of dislocation at room temperature that transitioned to a uniform cell structure at 500 °C and back to orthogonal planar arrays at 800 °C. The as-extruded Mo-0.3 at% Si alloy was evaluated from 25 °C to 1200 °C and showed superior fatigue life and ratcheting strain resistance as compared to pure Mo and the Mo-27 at% Re alloy (within the temperature range where data were available for comparison). The superior resistance is attributed to the high density of dislocations within the material in this mostly unrecrystallized state rather than Si in solid solution. Above 800 °C, the ratcheting strain increases and fatigue life decreases rapidly with increasing temperature and is associated with dynamic recovery.

  18. Production of flax fibers for biocomposites

    Natural fibers for many and varied industrial uses are a current area of intense interest. Production of these fibers, furthermore, can add to farmer incomes and promote agricultural sustainability. Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.), which has been used for thousands of years, is unparalleled in supplyi...

  19. Mechanical characterisation of hybrid composite laminates based on basalt fibres in combination with flax, hemp and glass fibres manufactured by vacuum infusion

    Petrucci, R.; Santulli, C.; Puglia, D.; Sarasini, F.; Torre, L.; Kenny, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► For the first time, hybrid laminates with three different fibres were produced. ► Concerns are confirmed on the brittleness of hybrid laminates with basalt fibre core. ► An optimal configuration (FHB) for flexural properties was singled out. ► Differences between tensile and flexural properties of hybrids were identified. ► In general, the specific mechanical properties of the hybrids are quite high. - Abstract: This work concerns the production by vacuum infusion and the comparison of the properties of different hybrid composite laminates, based on basalt fibre composites as the inner core, and using also glass, flax and hemp fibre laminates to produce symmetrical configurations, all of them with a 21–23% fibre volume, in an epoxy resin. The laminates have been subjected to tensile, three-point flexural and interlaminar shear strength tests and their fracture surfaces have been characterised by scanning electron microscopy. The mechanical performance of all the hybrid laminates appears superior to pure hemp and flax fibre reinforced laminates and inferior to basalt fibre laminates. Among the hybrids, the best properties are offered by those obtained by adding glass and flax to basalt fibre reinforced laminates. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation of hybrid laminates showed the diffuse presence of fibre pull-out in hemp and flax fibre reinforced layers and a general trend of brittle failure

  20. Application of Electro-Technologies in Processing of Flax Fiber

    G. S. Vijaya Raghavan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Flax fibers used for various applications are obtained from flax stems. Retting followed by drying and mechanical separation leads to the production of fibers. This review article discusses the application of electro-technologies in the production of bast fibers from the flax stem. In these technologies, flax stems harvested from the field are subjected to microwave assisted retting, followed by electro–osmotic dewatering which reduces the water content of the stems. Dewatered stems are transferred to a microwave chamber for further drying, thus retted stems are obtained for further processing.

  1. Thermo-Mechanical Behaviour of Flax-Fibre Reinforced Epoxy Laminates for Industrial Applications

    Giuseppe Pitarresi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The present work describes the experimental mechanical characterisation of a natural flax fibre reinforced epoxy polymer composite. A commercial plain woven quasi-unidirectional flax fabric with spun-twisted yarns is employed in particular, as well as unidirectional composite panels manufactured with three techniques: hand-lay-up, vacuum bagging and resin infusion. The stiffness and strength behaviours are investigated under both monotonic and low-cycle fatigue loadings. The analysed material has, in particular, shown a typical bilinear behaviour under pure traction, with a knee yield point occurring at a rather low stress value, after which the material tensile stiffness is significantly reduced. In the present work, such a mechanism is investigated by a phenomenological approach, performing periodical loading/unloading cycles, and repeating tensile tests on previously “yielded” samples to assess the evolution of stiffness behaviour. Infrared thermography is also employed to measure the temperature of specimens during monotonic and cyclic loading. In the first case, the thermal signal is monitored to correlate departures from the thermoelastic behaviour with the onset of energy loss mechanisms. In the case of cyclic loading, the thermoelastic signal and the second harmonic component are both determined in order to investigate the extent of elastic behaviour of the material.

  2. Effect of Fungal Deterioration on Physical and Mechanical Properties of Hemp and Flax Natural Fiber Composites

    Bryn Crawford

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The development and application of bio-sourced composites have been gaining wide attention, yet their deterioration due to the growth of ubiquitous microorganisms during storage/manufacturing/in-service phases is still not fully understood for optimum material selection and design purposes. In this study, samples of non-woven flax fibers, hemp fibers, and mats made of co-mingled randomly-oriented flax or hemp fiber (50% and polypropylene fiber (50% were subjected to 28 days of exposure to (i no water-no fungi, (ii water only and (iii water along with the Chaetomium globosum fungus. Biocomposite samples were measured for weight loss over time, to observe the rate of fungal growth and the respiration of cellulose components in the fibers. Tensile testing was conducted to measure mechanical properties of the composite samples under different configurations. Scanning electron microscopy was employed to visualize fungal hyphal growth on the natural fibers, as well as to observe the fracture planes and failure modes of the biocomposite samples. Results showed that fungal growth significantly affects the dry mass as well as the tensile elastic modulus of the tested natural fiber mats and composites, and the effect depends on both the type and the length scale of fibers, as well as the exposure condition and time.

  3. Impact of secondary metabolites and related enzymes in flax ...

    Changes in various physiological defenses including secondary metabolites, proline, total soluble protein and antioxidant enzymes were investigated in leaves and stems of 18 flax lines either resistant or susceptible to powdery mildew. The results showed that the total alkaloids content in flax stems was significantly ...

  4. 7 CFR 201.56-8 - Flax family, Linaceae.

    2010-01-01

    ..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Germination Tests in the Administration of the Act § 201.56-8 Flax family, Linaceae. Kind of seed: Flax. (a) General description. (1) Germination habit: Epigeal dicot. (Due to the mucilaginous nature of...

  5. Doubled haploid production in Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.).

    Obert, Bohus; Zácková, Zuzana; Samaj, Jozef; Pretová, Anna

    2009-01-01

    There is a requirement of haploid and double haploid material and homozygous lines for cell culture studies and breeding in flax. Anther culture is currently the most successful method producing doubled haploid lines in flax. Recently, ovary culture was also described as a good source of doubled haploids. In this review we focus on tissue and plants regeneration using anther culture, and cultivation of ovaries containing unfertilized ovules. The effect of genotype, physiological status of donor plants, donor material pre-treatment and cultivation conditions for flax anthers and ovaries is discussed here. The process of plant regeneration from anther and ovary derived calli is also in the focus of this review. Attention is paid to the ploidy level of regenerated tissue and to the use of molecular markers for determining of gametic origin of flax plants derived from anther and ovary cultures. Finally, some future prospects on the use of doubled haploids in flax biotechnology are outlined here.

  6. Abscisic acid regulates pinoresinol-lariciresinol reductase gene expression and secoisolariciresinol accumulation in developing flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) seeds.

    Renouard, Sullivan; Corbin, Cyrielle; Lopez, Tatiana; Montguillon, Josiane; Gutierrez, Laurent; Lamblin, Frédéric; Lainé, Eric; Hano, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    Secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG), the main phytoestrogenic lignan of Linum usitatissimum, is accumulated in the seed coat of flax during its development and pinoresinol-lariciresinol reductase (PLR) is a key enzyme in flax for its synthesis. The promoter of LuPLR1, a flax gene encoding a pinoresinol lariciresinol reductase, contains putative regulatory boxes related to transcription activation by abscisic acid (ABA). Gel mobility shift experiments evidenced an interaction of nuclear proteins extracted from immature flax seed coat with a putative cis-acting element involved in ABA response. As ABA regulates a number of physiological events during seed development and maturation we have investigated its involvement in the regulation of this lignan synthesis by different means. ABA and SDG accumulation time courses in the seed as well as LuPLR1 expression were first determined in natural conditions. These results showed that ABA timing and localization of accumulation in the flax seed coat could be correlated with the LuPLR1 gene expression and SDG biosynthesis. Experimental modulations of ABA levels were performed by exogenous application of ABA or fluridone, an inhibitor of ABA synthesis. When submitted to exogenous ABA, immature seeds synthesized 3-times more SDG, whereas synthesis of SDG was reduced in immature seeds treated with fluridone. Similarly, the expression of LuPLR1 gene in the seed coat was up-regulated by exogenous ABA and down-regulated when fluridone was applied. These results demonstrate that SDG biosynthesis in the flax seed coat is positively controlled by ABA through the transcriptional regulation of LuPLR1 gene.

  7. studies agronomic and technological characteristics of fiber and oil flax types induced by irradiation treatments

    Amer, I.M.A.

    1984-01-01

    Thirty three entries of flax (Linum usitatissimum L-) were tested in seven field trails representing seven environmental conditions the experiments were carried out at the Agric. Res . center, Fac. of agric., cairo univ., giza, egypt, the 33-entries consisted of thirty promosing mutants plus three local cultivars(i.e., giza 4, giza 5 and giza 6) . The mutants were outcome of gamma rays irradiated local cultivar giza 4 flax. the entries in M 4 and M 5 were arranged in a randomized complete block design in six environments. in the last environment, the entries in M 6 were arranged in an augmented complete block design to study yield responses and stability indices for the selected mutant lines produced via irradiation treatments

  8. Methyl Salicylate Level Increase in Flax after Fusarium oxysporum Infection Is Associated with Phenylpropanoid Pathway Activation.

    Boba, Aleksandra; Kostyn, Kamil; Kostyn, Anna; Wojtasik, Wioleta; Dziadas, Mariusz; Preisner, Marta; Szopa, Jan; Kulma, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Flax ( Linum usitatissimum ) is a crop plant valued for its oil and fiber. Unfortunately, large losses in cultivation of this plant are caused by fungal infections, with Fusarium oxysporum being one of its most dangerous pathogens. Among the plant's defense strategies, changes in the expression of genes of the shikimate/phenylpropanoid/benzoate pathway and thus in phenolic contents occur. Among the benzoates, salicylic acid, and its methylated form methyl salicylate play an important role in regulating plants' response to stress conditions. Upon treatment of flax plants with the fungus we found that methyl salicylate content increased (4.8-fold of the control) and the expression profiles of the analyzed genes suggest that it is produced most likely from cinnamic acid, through the β-oxidative route. At the same time activation of some genes involved in lignin and flavonoid biosynthesis was observed. We suggest that increased methyl salicylate biosynthesis during flax response to F. oxysporum infection may be associated with phenylpropanoid pathway activation.

  9. Effect of Annealing on Strain-Temperature Response under Constant Tensile Stress in Cold-Worked NiTi Thin Wire

    Yan, Xiaojun; Van Humbeeck, Jan

    2011-01-01

    The present paper aims to understand the influence of annealing on the strain-temperature response of a cold-worked NiTi wire under constant tensile stress. It was found that transformation behavior, stress-strain relationship, and strain-temperature response of the cold-worked NiTi wire are strongly affected by the annealing temperature. Large martensitic strains can be reached even though the applied stress is below the plateau stress of the martensite phase. At all stress levels transforma...

  10. Locus-specific view of flax domestication history

    Fu, Yong-Bi; Diederichsen, Axel; Allaby, Robin G

    2012-01-01

    Crop domestication has been inferred genetically from neutral markers and increasingly from specific domestication-associated loci. However, some crops are utilized for multiple purposes that may or may not be reflected in a single domestication-associated locus. One such example is cultivated flax (Linum usitatissimum L.), the earliest oil and fiber crop, for which domestication history remains poorly understood. Oil composition of cultivated flax and pale flax (L. bienne Mill.) indicates that the sad2 locus is a candidate domestication locus associated with increased unsaturated fatty acid production in cultivated flax. A phylogenetic analysis of the sad2 locus in 43 pale and 70 cultivated flax accessions established a complex domestication history for flax that has not been observed previously. The analysis supports an early, independent domestication of a primitive flax lineage, in which the loss of seed dispersal through capsular indehiscence was not established, but increased oil content was likely occurred. A subsequent flax domestication process occurred that probably involved multiple domestications and includes lineages that contain oil, fiber, and winter varieties. In agreement with previous studies, oil rather than fiber varieties occupy basal phylogenetic positions. The data support multiple paths of flax domestication for oil-associated traits before selection of the other domestication-associated traits of seed dispersal loss and fiber production. The sad2 locus is less revealing about the origin of winter tolerance. In this case, a single domestication-associated locus is informative about the history of domesticated forms with the associated trait while partially informative on forms less associated with the trait. PMID:22408732

  11. Utilization of flax (Linum usitatissimum) cellulose nanocrystals as reinforcing material for chitosan films.

    Mujtaba, Muhammad; Salaberria, Asier M; Andres, María A; Kaya, Murat; Gunyakti, Ayse; Labidi, Jalel

    2017-11-01

    Use of plastic based packaging tools is causing both health and economic problems. To overcome this situation, researchers are focusing on the use of different biomaterials such as chitosan and cellulose. The current study was conducted to check the effect of flax (Linum usitatissimum) cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) on mechanical and barrier properties of chitosan-based films. CNC was incorporated in different concentrations (5, 10, 20 and 30%). CNC was isolated from flax fiber using acid hydrolysis method. Tensile strength (TS) and young modulus (YM) values increased with the increase of CNC concentration. Chitosan film with 20% CNC revealed the highest YM value as 52.35MPa. No significant improvement was recorded in water vapor permeability due to overall lower film crystallinity. All the films were observed to be transparent up to an acceptable level. SEM and AFM analysis confirmed the homogeneity of films. A gradual enhancement was recorded in the antimicrobial activity of chitosan/CNC composite films. No significant improvement revealed in the thermal stability of composites. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Pressure impact of autoclave treatment on water sorption and pectin composition of flax cellulosic-fibres.

    Alix, S; Colasse, L; Morvan, C; Lebrun, L; Marais, S

    2014-02-15

    The tensile properties of flax fibres might permit them to be used in composites as reinforcement in organic resin, as long as their mechanical properties are reproducible and their water sorption are reduced. In this study, to minimise the variability of mechanical properties, several samples of flax fibres were blended as a non-woven fabric. In order to reduce the water absorption of this non-woven technical fibres, an autoclave treatment was performed which was expected to remove the pectins and then to reduce the water sorption on their negative charges. The impact of autoclave pressure (0.5, 1 and 2 bars) on water sorption was investigated by using a gravimetric static equilibrium method. The Park model based on the three sorption modes: Langmuir, Henry's law and clustering, was successfully used to simulate the experimental sorption data. The lowest pressure treatments impacted only the Langmuir contribution while the 2 bar autoclave-treatment positively impacted the water resistance in the core of fibres by reducing Henry's absorption rate. This was shown to be related to the chemical modifications at the surface and in the core of fibres. A schematic model is presented relating the water sorption and the pectic composition of the fabric. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Water Absorption Behaviour and Its Effect on the Mechanical Properties of Flax Fibre Reinforced Bioepoxy Composites

    E. Muñoz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the context of sustainable development, considerable interest is being shown in the use of natural fibres like as reinforcement in polymer composites and in the development of resins from renewable resources. This paper focuses on eco-friendly and sustainable green composites manufacturing using resin transfer moulding (RTM process. Flax fibre reinforced bioepoxy composites at different weight fractions (40 and 55 wt% were prepared in order to study the effect of water absorption on their mechanical properties. Water absorption test was carried out by immersion specimens in water bath at room temperature for a time duration. The process of water absorption of these composites was found to approach Fickian diffusion behavior. Diffusion coefficients and maximum water uptake values were evaluated; the results showed that both increased with an increase in fibre content. Tensile and flexural properties of water immersed specimens were evaluated and compared to dry composite specimens. The results suggest that swelling of flax fibres due to water absorption can have positive effects on mechanical properties of the composite material. The results of this study showed that RTM process could be used to manufacture natural fibre reinforced composites with good mechanical properties even for potential applications in a humid environment.

  14. Exogenous salicylic acid protects phospholipids against cadmium stress in flax (Linum usitatissimum L.).

    Belkadhi, Aïcha; De Haro, Antonio; Obregon, Sara; Chaïbi, Wided; Djebali, Wahbi

    2015-10-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) promotes plant defense responses against toxic metal stresses. The present study addressed the hypothesis that 8-h SA pretreatment, would alter membrane lipids in a way that would protect against Cd toxicity. Flax seeds were pre-soaked for 8h in SA (0, 250 and 1000µM) and then subjected, at seedling stage, to cadmium (Cd) stress. At 100µM CdCl2, significant decreases in the percentages of phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylglycerol (PG), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG) and changes in their relative fatty acid composition were observed in Cd-treated roots in comparison with controls. However, in roots of 8-h SA pretreated plantlets, results showed that the amounts of PC and PE were significantly higher as compared to non-pretreated plantlets. Additionally, in both lipid classes, the proportion of linolenic acid (18:3) increased upon the pretreatment with SA. This resulted in a significant increase in the fatty acid unsaturation ratio of the root PC and PE classes. As the exogenous application of SA was found to be protective of flax lipid metabolism, the possible mechanisms of protection against Cd stress in flax roots were discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Fatty acid composition and desaturase gene expression in flax (Linum usitatissimum L.).

    Thambugala, Dinushika; Cloutier, Sylvie

    2014-11-01

    Little is known about the relationship between expression levels of fatty acid desaturase genes during seed development and fatty acid (FA) composition in flax. In the present study, we looked at promoter structural variations of six FA desaturase genes and their relative expression throughout seed development. Computational analysis of the nucleotide sequences of the sad1, sad2, fad2a, fad2b, fad3a and fad3b promoters showed several basic transcriptional elements including CAAT and TATA boxes, and several putative target-binding sites for transcription factors, which have been reported to be involved in the regulation of lipid metabolism. Using semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR, the expression patterns throughout seed development of the six FA desaturase genes were measured in six flax genotypes that differed for FA composition but that carried the same desaturase isoforms. FA composition data were determined by phenotyping the field grown genotypes over four years in two environments. All six genes displayed a bell-shaped pattern of expression peaking at 20 or 24 days after anthesis. Sad2 was the most highly expressed. The expression of all six desaturase genes did not differ significantly between genotypes (P = 0.1400), hence there were no correlations between FA desaturase gene expression and variations in FA composition in relatively low, intermediate and high linolenic acid genotypes expressing identical isoforms for all six desaturases. These results provide further clues towards understanding the genetic factors responsible for FA composition in flax.

  16. Osmotic stress alters the balance between organic and inorganic solutes in flax (Linum usitatissimum).

    Quéro, Anthony; Molinié, Roland; Elboutachfaiti, Redouan; Petit, Emmanuel; Pau-Roblot, Corinne; Guillot, Xavier; Mesnard, François; Courtois, Josiane

    2014-01-01

    Flax (Linum usitatissimum) is grown for its oil and its fiber. This crop, cultivated in temperate regions, has seen a renewed interest due to the presence of abundant molecules of interest for many applications. Little information is available about the behavior of flax during osmotic stress; yet this is considered a major stress that causes significant yield losses in most crops. To control the presence of this stress better, flax behavior was investigated following the application of osmotic stress and the response was examined by applying increasing concentrations of PEG 8000. This resulted in the reorganization of 32 metabolites and 6 mineral ions in the leaves. The analysis of these two types of solute highlighted the contrasting behavior between a higher metabolite content (particularly fructose, glucose and proline) and a decrease in mineral ions (especially nitrate and potassium) following PEG treatment. However, this reorganization did not lead to a greater accumulation of solutes, with the total amount remaining unchanged in leaves during osmotic stress. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Molecular Genetic Identification Of Some Flax Mutants

    AMER, I.M.; MOUSTAFA, H.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Five flax genotypes (Linum usitatissimum L.) i.e., commercial cultivar Sakha 2, the mother variety Giza 4 and three mutant types induced by gamma rays, were screened for their salinity tolerance in field experiments (salinity concentration was 8600 and 8300 ppm for soil and irrigation water, respectively). Mutation 6 was the most salt tolerant as compared to the other four genotypes.RAPD technique was used to detect some molecular markers associated with salt tolerance in flax (Mut 6), RAPD-PCR results using 12 random primers exhibited 149 amplified fragments; 91.9% of them were polymorphic and twelve molecular markers (8.1%) for salt tolerant (mutant 6) were identified with molecular size ranged from 191 to 4159 bp and only eight primers successes to amplify these specific markers. Concerning the other mutants, Mut 15 and Mut 25 exhibited 4.3% and 16.2% specific markers, respectively. The induced mutants exhibited genetic similarity to the parent variety were about 51%, 58.3% and 61.1% for Mut 25, Mut 6 and Mut 15, respectively. These specific markers (SM) are used for identification of the induced mutations and it is important for new variety registration.

  18. Role of Polysaccharides on Mechanical and Adhesion Properties of Flax Fibres in Flax/PLA Biocomposite

    Gijo Raj

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of alkali and enzymatic treatments on flax fibre morphology, mechanical, and adhesion properties was investigated. The multilength scale analysis allows for the correlation of the fibre's morphological changes induced by the treatments with mechanical properties to better explain the adherence properties between flax and PLA. The atomic force microscopy (AFM images revealed the removal of primary layers, upon treatments, down to cellulose microfibrils present in the secondary layers. The variation in mechanical properties was found to be dependent, apart from the crystalline content, on interaction between cellulose microfibrils and encrusting polysaccharides, pectins and hemicelluloses, in the secondary layers. Finally, microbond tests between the modified fibres and PLA emphasize the important role of the outer fibre's surface on the overall composite properties. It was observed here that gentle treatments of the fibres, down to the oriented microfibrils, are favourable to a better adherence with a PLA drop. This paper highlights the important role of amorphous polymers, hemicellulose and pectin, in the optimisation of the adhesion and mechanical properties of flax fibres in the biocomposite.

  19. Statistical data for the tensile properties of natural fibre composites

    J.P. Torres

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article features a large statistical database on the tensile properties of natural fibre reinforced composite laminates. The data presented here corresponds to a comprehensive experimental testing program of several composite systems including: different material constituents (epoxy and vinyl ester resins; flax, jute and carbon fibres, different fibre configurations (short-fibre mats, unidirectional, and plain, twill and satin woven fabrics and different fibre orientations (0°, 90°, and [0,90] angle plies. For each material, ~50 specimens were tested under uniaxial tensile loading. Here, we provide the complete set of stress–strain curves together with the statistical distributions of their calculated elastic modulus, strength and failure strain. The data is also provided as support material for the research article: “The mechanical properties of natural fibre composite laminates: A statistical study” [1].

  20. SCREENING OF COMMON FLAX FAD GENES BY PCR

    Veronika Štefúnová

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Currently, flax (Linum usitatissimum L. is an important crop from commercial and economical aspects. In the spotlight is the linseed oil as a source of α-linolenic acid. The aim of presented study was to analyse fatty acid desaturase (FAD genes in flax. Several genotypes of flax (Hohenheim, La Plata 1938, Redwing USA and Escalina were used. The primers described by Vrinten et al. (2005 were used for PCR amplification reactions. Two FAD3 genes, LuFAD3A and LuFAD3B, were identified in a genome of flax. Subsequently the nucleotide sequences between origins and genotypes of flax FAD genes were compared. Primarily were used the nucleotide sequences of FAD2 and FAD3C genes available in NCBI database. Differences were found using BLAST program in nucleotide sequences of FAD genes and the specific primers were designed to amplify a specific target sequences in a genome of flax. These primers were used in PCR amplification reactions to identification of FAD2 and FAD3C genes. The PCR products were separated by electrophoresis on agarose gel.

  1. Flax - Evaluation of composite flour and using in cereal products

    Marie Hrušková

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Two types of yellow and brown linseed, differing in granulation, were tested in form of wheat flour composites (additions 2.5% and 5.0% by using the Farinograph, the Extensigraph and the Rapid Visco Analyser (RVA apparatuses. Additions of brown and yellow flax fibre significantly affected Falling Number and Zeleny test values. Curves of farinograph were differed according to flax fibre type - finer flax (better terminology granulation meant somewhat stronger negative changes in dough stability and dough softening degree. Results of extensigraph test demonstrated changes in dough elasticity and extensibility due to lowering of gluten protein content. Appearance of the RVA profiles was verifiably different, reflecting diverse wheat and flax polysaccharides, added dietary fibre type and its granulation. Due to that, bread volume and shape was lowered up to one-half in case of golden flax composites. Similar tendencies with smaller negative influence caused the brown linseed. Fibre from flax is used for technical (textile use, but linseed dietary fibre addition affected quality of laboratory prepared cut-off biscuits and dried pasta differently, showing a dependence on the fibre type, granulation as well as addition level. Sensory profiles of all mentioned product types were acceptable.

  2. Economic interpretation of sustainable development of the flax complex

    Oleg Ivanovich Botkin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the definition of the notions “stability” and “stable development”, and analyzes the factors influencing the development stability. We suggest the definition of the flax complex stable development and its assessment. We also examine the factors causing the flax complex functioning instability. An integral index was proposed to determine the stability of flax complex; this index takes into account the rate of growth (or decline of major products manufacturing, commodities, profits from product sales, accounts receivable and accounts payable, investments into fixed capital, labor productivity, coefficient of manufacturing capacity utilization and updating of the basic funds. The paper deals with the problems of its development and modern state of flax sub-complex of agroindustrial complex, as well as with the matters of disproportions between the complex’s branches. It covers the causes of tolling schemes of flax processing businesses work and therole of thestatein native market of flax products formation. The necessity of industry diversification and innovation development is substantiated.

  3. Effect of severely thermal shocked MWCNT enhanced glass fiber reinforced polymer composite: An emphasis on tensile and thermal responses

    Mahato, K. K.; Fulmali, A. O.; Kattaguri, R.; Dutta, K.; Prusty, R. K.; Ray, B. C.

    2018-03-01

    Fiber reinforced polymeric (FRP) composite materials are exposed to diverse changing environmental temperatures during their in-service period. Current investigation is aimed to investigate the influence of thermal-shock exposure on the mechanical behavior of multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) enhanced glass fiber reinforced polymeric (GFRP) composites. The samples were exposed to +70°C for 36 hrs followed by further exposure to ‑ 60°C for the similar interval of time. Tensile tests were conducted in order to evaluate the results of thermal-shock on the mechanical behavior of the neat and conditioned samples at 1 mm/min loading rate. The polymer phase i.e. epoxy was modified with various MWCNT content. The ultimate tensile strength (UTS) was raised by 15.11 % with increase in the 0.1 % MWCNT content GFRP as related to the thermal-shocked neat GFRP conditioned samples. The possible reason may be attributed to the variation in the coefficients of thermal expansion at the time of conditioning. Also, upto some extent the pre-existing residual stresses allows uniform distribution of stress and hence the reason in enhanced mechanical properties of GFRP and MWCNT filled composites. In order to access the modifications in the glass transition temperature (Tg) due to the addition of MWCNT in GFRP composite and also due to the thermal shock temperature modulated differential scanning calorimeter (TMDSC) measurements are carried out. Scanning electron microscopy(SEM) was carried out to identify different modes of failures and strengthening morphology in the composites.

  4. Flame retardant treated flax fibre reinforced phenolic composites: Ageing and thermal characteristics

    Molaba, TP

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, flax composites were prepared from flax fabric and phenolic resin. Chemical treatments were imparted to the fabric to improve adhesion between the fabric and the phenolic matrix. Diammonium phosphate was applied to improve...

  5. Effect of UV and water spraying on the mechanical properties of flax fabric reinforced polymer composites used for civil engineering applications

    Yan, Libo; Chouw, Nawawi; Jayaraman, Krishnan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • UV weathering degraded mechanical properties of flax/epoxy composites. • SEM confirmed degradation in fibre/matrix interfacial bonding. • UV weathering caused discolouration, matrix erosion, microcracking. - Abstract: The lack of data related to durability is one major challenge that needed to be addressed prior to the widespread acceptance of natural fibre reinforced polymer composites for engineering applications. In this work, the combined effect of ultraviolet (UV) radiation and water spraying on the mechanical properties of flax fabric reinforced epoxy composite was investigated to assess the durability performance of this composite used for civil engineering applications. Specimens fabricated by hand lay-up process were exposed in an accelerated weathering chamber for 1500 h. Tensile and three-point bending tests were performed to evaluate the mechanical properties. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to analyse the microstructures of the composites. In addition, the durability performance of flax/epoxy composite was compared with synthetic (glass and carbon) and hybrid fibre reinforced composites. The test results show that the tensile strength/modulus of the weathered composites decreased 29.9% and 34.9%, respectively. The flexural strength/modulus reduced 10.0% and 10.2%, respectively. SEM study confirmed the degradation in fibre/matrix interfacial bonding after exposure. Comparisons with other composites implies that flax fabric/epoxy composite has potential to be used for civil engineering applications when taking its structural and durability performance into account. Proper treatments to enhance its durability performance will make it more comparable to synthetic fibre reinforced composites when considering as construction building materials

  6. Irrigation and cultivar effect on flax fiber and seed yield in the southeast USA

    Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) is a potential winter crop for the Southeast USA that can be grown for both seed and fiber. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of irrigation on flax straw, fiber, and seed yield of fiber-type and seed-type cultivars at different flax growth stage...

  7. A genome-wide analysis of the flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) dirigent protein family: from gene identification and evolution to differential regulation.

    Corbin, Cyrielle; Drouet, Samantha; Markulin, Lucija; Auguin, Daniel; Lainé, Éric; Davin, Laurence B; Cort, John R; Lewis, Norman G; Hano, Christophe

    2018-05-01

    Identification of DIR encoding genes in flax genome. Analysis of phylogeny, gene/protein structures and evolution. Identification of new conserved motifs linked to biochemical functions. Investigation of spatio-temporal gene expression and response to stress. Dirigent proteins (DIRs) were discovered during 8-8' lignan biosynthesis studies, through identification of stereoselective coupling to afford either (+)- or (-)-pinoresinols from E-coniferyl alcohol. DIRs are also involved or potentially involved in terpenoid, allyl/propenyl phenol lignan, pterocarpan and lignin biosynthesis. DIRs have very large multigene families in different vascular plants including flax, with most still of unknown function. DIR studies typically focus on a small subset of genes and identification of biochemical/physiological functions. Herein, a genome-wide analysis and characterization of the predicted flax DIR 44-membered multigene family was performed, this species being a rich natural grain source of 8-8' linked secoisolariciresinol-derived lignan oligomers. All predicted DIR sequences, including their promoters, were analyzed together with their public gene expression datasets. Expression patterns of selected DIRs were examined using qPCR, as well as through clustering analysis of DIR gene expression. These analyses further implicated roles for specific DIRs in (-)-pinoresinol formation in seed-coats, as well as (+)-pinoresinol in vegetative organs and/or specific responses to stress. Phylogeny and gene expression analysis segregated flax DIRs into six distinct clusters with new cluster-specific motifs identified. We propose that these findings can serve as a foundation to further systematically determine functions of DIRs, i.e. other than those already known in lignan biosynthesis in flax and other species. Given the differential expression profiles and inducibility of the flax DIR family, we provisionally propose that some DIR genes of unknown function could be involved in

  8. A genome-wide analysis of the flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) dirigent protein family: from gene identification and evolution to differential regulation.

    Corbin, Cyrielle; Drouet, Samantha; Markulin, Lucija; Auguin, Daniel; Laine, Eric; Davin, Laurence B.; Cort, John R.; Lewis, Norman G.; Hano, Christophe

    2018-04-30

    Identification of DIR encoding genes in flax genome. Analysis of phylogeny, gene/protein structures and evolution. Identification of new conserved motifs linked to biochemical functions. Investigation of spatio-temporal gene expression and response to stress. Dirigent proteins (DIRs) were discovered during 8-8' lignan biosynthesis studies, through identification of stereoselective coupling to afford either (+)- or (-)-pinoresinols from E-coniferyl alcohol. DIRs are also involved or potentially involved in terpenoid, allyl/propenyl phenol lignan, pterocarpan and lignin biosynthesis. DIRs have very large multigene families in different vascular plants including flax, with most still of unknown function. DIR studies typically focus on a small subset of genes and identification of biochemical/physiological functions. Herein, a genome-wide analysis and characterization of the predicted flax DIR 44-membered multigene family was performed, this species being a rich natural grain source of 8-8' linked secoisolariciresinol-derived lignan oligomers. All predicted DIR sequences, including their promoters, were analyzed together with their public gene expression datasets. Expression patterns of selected DIRs were examined using qPCR, as well as through clustering analysis of DIR gene expression. These analyses further implicated roles for specific DIRs in (-)-pinoresinol formation in seed-coats, as well as (+)-pinoresinol in vegetative organs and/or specific responses to stress. Phylogeny and gene expression analysis segregated flax DIRs into six distinct clusters with new cluster-specific motifs identified. We propose that these findings can serve as a foundation to further systematically determine functions of DIRs, i.e. other than those already known in lignan biosynthesis in flax and other species. Given the differential expression profiles and inducibility of the flax DIR family, we provisionally propose that some DIR genes of unknown function could be involved

  9. A study on the trans-crystallisation behaviour of flax fibre reinforced polypropylene composites and effect on mechanical properties

    George, J.; Garkhail, S.K.; Wieland, B.; Peijs, A.A.J.M.; Mattoso, L.H.C.

    2000-01-01

    The effect of flax fiber reinforcement on crystn. behavior of polypropylene (PP) was investigated using a hot-stage optical microscope. To follow the crystn. kinetics, cooling rate and crystn. temps. were varied. Flax fibers with different processing history e.g. green flax, Duralin flax, alkali and

  10. Identification, Expression Analysis, and Target Prediction of Flax Genotroph MicroRNAs Under Normal and Nutrient Stress Conditions

    Melnikova, Nataliya V.; Dmitriev, Alexey A.; Belenikin, Maxim S.; Koroban, Nadezhda V.; Speranskaya, Anna S.; Krinitsina, Anastasia A.; Krasnov, George S.; Lakunina, Valentina A.; Snezhkina, Anastasiya V.; Sadritdinova, Asiya F.; Kishlyan, Natalya V.; Rozhmina, Tatiana A.; Klimina, Kseniya M.; Amosova, Alexandra V.; Zelenin, Alexander V.; Muravenko, Olga V.; Bolsheva, Nadezhda L.; Kudryavtseva, Anna V.

    2016-01-01

    Cultivated flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) is an important plant valuable for industry. Some flax lines can undergo heritable phenotypic and genotypic changes (LIS-1 insertion being the most common) in response to nutrient stress and are called plastic lines. Offspring of plastic lines, which stably inherit the changes, are called genotrophs. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in a crucial regulatory mechanism of gene expression. They have previously been assumed to take part in nutrient stress response and can, therefore, participate in genotroph formation. In the present study, we performed high-throughput sequencing of small RNAs (sRNAs) extracted from flax plants grown under normal, phosphate deficient and nutrient excess conditions to identify miRNAs and evaluate their expression. Our analysis revealed expression of 96 conserved miRNAs from 21 families in flax. Moreover, 475 novel potential miRNAs were identified for the first time, and their targets were predicted. However, none of the identified miRNAs were transcribed from LIS-1. Expression of seven miRNAs (miR168, miR169, miR395, miR398, miR399, miR408, and lus-miR-N1) with up- or down-regulation under nutrient stress (on the basis of high-throughput sequencing data) was evaluated on extended sampling using qPCR. Reference gene search identified ETIF3H and ETIF3E genes as most suitable for this purpose. Down-regulation of novel potential lus-miR-N1 and up-regulation of conserved miR399 were revealed under the phosphate deficient conditions. In addition, the negative correlation of expression of lus-miR-N1 and its predicted target, ubiquitin-activating enzyme E1 gene, as well as, miR399 and its predicted target, ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2 gene, was observed. Thus, in our study, miRNAs expressed in flax plastic lines and genotrophs were identified and their expression and expression of their targets was evaluated using high-throughput sequencing and qPCR for the first time. These data provide new insights

  11. Flavonoid engineering of flax potentiate its biotechnological application

    Prescha Anna

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Flavonoids are a group of secondary plant metabolites important for plant growth and development. They show also a protective effect against colon and breast cancer, diabetes, hypercholesterolemic atherosclerosis, lupus nephritis, and immune and inflammatory reactions. Thus, overproduction of these compounds in flax by genetic engineering method might potentiate biotechnological application of these plant products. Results Flax plants of third generation overexpressing key genes of flavonoid pathway cultivated in field were used as plant material throughout this study. The biochemical properties of seed, oil and seedcake extracts and fibre from natural and transgenic flax plants were compared. The data obtained suggests that the introduced genes were stably inherited and expressed through plant generations. Overproduction of flavonoid compounds resulted in increase of fatty acids accumulation in oil from transgenic seeds due to protection from oxidation offered during synthesis and seed maturation. The biochemical analysis of seedcake extracts from seeds of transgenic flax revealed significant increase in flavonoids (kaempferol, phenolic acids (coumaric, ferulic, synapic acids and lignan content. Fibres, another product of flax plant showed increase in the level of catechine and acetylvanillone and decrease in phenolic acids upon flax modification. Biochemical analysis results were confirmed using IR spectroscopy. The integral intensities of IR bands have been used for identification of the component of phenylpropanoid pathway in oil, seedcake extract and fibre from control and transgenic flax. It was shown that levels of flavonoids, phenolic acids and lignans in oil and seedcake extract was higher in transgenic flax products compared to control. An FT-IR study of fibres confirmed the biochemical data and revealed that the arrangement of the cellulose polymer in the transgenic fibres differs from the control; in particular a

  12. Ontogeny of floral organs in flax (Linum usitatissimum; Linaceae).

    Schewe, Lauren C; Sawhney, Vipen K; Davis, Arthur R

    2011-07-01

    Flax (Linum usitatissimum) is an important crop worldwide; however, a detailed study on flower development of this species is lacking. Here we describe the pattern of initiation and a program of key developmental events in flax flower ontogeny. This study provides important fundamental information for future research in various aspects of flax biology and biotechnology. Floral buds and organs were measured throughout development and examined using scanning electron microscopy. Floral organs were initiated in the following sequence: sepals, stamens and petals, gynoecium, and nectaries. The five sepals originated in a helical pattern, followed evidently by simultaneous initiation of five stamens and five petals, the former opposite of the sepals and the latter alternate to them. The gynoecium, with five carpels, was produced from the remaining, central region of the floral apex. Stamens at early stages were dominated by anther growth but filaments elongated rapidly shortly before anthesis. Early gynoecium development occurred predominantly in the ovary, and ovule initiation began prior to enclosure of carpels. A characteristic feature was the twisted growth of styles, accompanied by the differentiation of papillate stigmas. Petal growth lagged behind that of other floral organs, but petals eventually grew rapidly to enclose the inner whorls after style elongation. Flask-shaped nectaries bearing stomata developed on the external surface of the filament bases. This is the first detailed study on flax floral organ development and has established a key of 12 developmental stages, which should be useful to flax researchers.

  13. Characterization of the dynamic behaviour of flax fibre reinforced composites using vibration measurements

    El-Hafidi, Ali; Birame Gning, Papa; Piezel, Benoit; Fontaine, Stéphane

    2017-10-01

    Experimental and numerical methods to identify the linear viscoelastic properties of flax fibre reinforced epoxy (FFRE) composite are presented in this study. The method relies on the evolution of storage modulus and loss factor as observed through the frequency response. Free-free symmetrically guided beams were excited on the dynamic range of 10 Hz to 4 kHz with a swept sine excitation focused around their first modes. A fractional derivative Zener model has been identified to predict the complex moduli. A modified ply constitutive law has been then implemented in a classical laminates theory calculation (CLT) routine.

  14. Assessing the Environmental Impact of Flax Fibre Reinforced Polymer Composite from a Consequential Life Cycle Assessment Perspective

    Yelin Deng; Yajun Tian

    2015-01-01

    The study implements the consequential life cycle assessment (CLCA) to provide a market based perspective on how overall environmental impact will change when shifting glass fibres to flax fibres as reinforcements in composite fabrication. With certain assumptions, the marginal flax fibre supply is identified to be a combination of Chinese flax fibre (70%) and French flax fibre (30%). Due to inferior cultivars and coal-fired electricity in Chinese flax cultivation, the CLCA study reveals that...

  15. Oxygen requirement of germinating flax seeds

    Kuznetsov, Oleg A.; Hasenstein, K. H.

    2003-05-01

    Plant experiments in earth orbit are typically prepared on the ground and germinated in orbit to study gravity effects on the developing seedlings. Germination requires the breakdown of storage compounds, and this metabolism depends upon respiration, making oxygen one of the limiting factors in seed germination. In microgravity lack of run-off of excess water requires careful testing of water dispensation and oxygen availability. In preparation for a shuttle experiment (MICRO on STS-107) we studied germination and growth of flax ( Linum usitatissimum L.) seedlings in the developed hardware (Magnetic Field Chamber, MFC). We tested between four to 32 seeds per chamber (air volume = 14 mL) and after 36 h measured the root length. At 90 μl O 2 per seed (32 seeds/chamber), the germination decreased from 94 to 69%, and the root length was reduced by 20%, compared to 8 seeds per chamber. Based on the percent germination and root length obtained in controlled gas mixtures between 3.6 and 21.6% O 2 we determined the lower limit of reliable germination to be 10 vol. % O 2 at atmospheric pressure. Although the oxygen available in the MFC's can support the intended number of seeds, the data show that seed storage and microgravity-related limitations may reduce germination.

  16. Oxygen requirement of germinating flax seeds

    Kuznetsov, Oleg A.; Hasenstein, K. H.; Hasentein, K. H. (Principal Investigator)

    2003-01-01

    Plant experiments in earth orbit are typically prepared on the ground and germinated in orbit to study gravity effects on the developing seedlings. Germination requires the breakdown of storage compounds, and this metabolism depends upon respiration, making oxygen one of the limiting factors in seed germination. In microgravity lack of run-off of excess water requires careful testing of water dispensation and oxygen availability. In preparation for a shuttle experiment (MICRO on STS-107) we studied germination and growth of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) seedlings in the developed hardware (Magnetic Field Chamber, MFC). We tested between four to 32 seeds per chamber (air volume=14 mL) and after 36 h measured the root length. At 90 microliters O2 per seed (32 seeds/chamber), the germination decreased from 94 to 69%, and the root length was reduced by 20%, compared to 8 seeds per chamber. Based on the percent germination and root length obtained in controlled gas mixtures between 3.6 and 21.6% O2 we determined the lower limit of reliable germination to be 10 vol. % O2 at atmospheric pressure. Although the oxygen available in the MFC's can support the intended number of seeds, the data show that seed storage and microgravity-related limitations may reduce germination. c2003 Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of COSPAR.

  17. Strength variability of single flax fibres

    Aslan, Mustafa; Chinga-Carrasco, G.; Sørensen, Bent F.

    2011-01-01

    (linear and nonlinear) of the fibres are found to be correlated with the amount of defects. The linear stress–strain curves tend to show a higher tensile strength, a higher Young’s modulus, and a lower strain to failure than the nonlinear curves. Finally, the fibres are found to fracture by a complex...

  18. Ex-post assessment of genetically modified, low level presence in Canadian flax.

    Booker, Helen M; Lamb, Eric G; Smyth, Stuart J

    2017-06-01

    Canada is the world's largest producer and exporter of flaxseed. In 2009, DNA from deregistered genetically modified (GM) CDC Triffid was detected in a shipment of Canadian flaxseed exported to Europe, causing a large decrease in the amount of flax planted in Canada and a major shift in export markets. The flax industry in Canada undertook major changes to ensure the removal of transgenic flax from the supply chain. To demonstrate compliance, Canada adopted a protocol involving testing grain samples (post-harvest) using an RT-PCR test for the construct found in CDC Triffid. Efforts to remove the presence of GM flax from the value chain included reconstituting major flax varieties from GM-free plants. The reconstituted varieties represented the majority of planting seed in 2014. This study re-evaluates GM flax presence in Canadian grain stocks for an updated dataset (2009-2015) using a previously described simulation model to estimate low-level GM presence. Additionally, losses to the Canadian economy resulting from the reduction in flax production and export opportunities, costs associated with reconstituting major flax varieties, and testing for the presence of GM flax along the flax value chain are estimated.

  19. Germination and elongation of flax in microgravity

    Levine, Howard G.; Anderson, Ken; Boody, April; Cox, Dave; Kuznetsov, Oleg A.; Hasenstein, Karl H.

    2003-05-01

    This experiment was conducted as part of a risk mitigation payload aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis on STS-101. The objectives were to test a newly developed water delivery system, and to determine the optimal combination of water volume and substrate for the imbibition and germination of flax ( Linum usitatissimum) seeds in space. Two different combinations of germination paper were tested for their ability to absorb, distribute, and retain water in microgravity. A single layer of thick germination paper was compared with one layer of thin germination paper under a layer of thick paper. Paper strips were cut to fit snugly into seed cassettes, and seeds were glued to them with the micropyle ends pointing outward. Water was delivered in small increments that traveled through the paper via capillary action. Three water delivery volumes were tested, with the largest (480 μL) outperforming the 400 μL, and 320 μL volumes for percent germination (90.6%) and root growth (mean = 4.1 mm) during the 34-hour spaceflight experiment. The ground control experiment yielded similar results, but with lower rates of germination (84.4%) and shorter root lengths (mean = 2.8 mm). It is not clear if the roots emerged more quickly in microgravity and/or grew faster than the ground controls. The single layer of thick germination paper generally exhibited better overall growth than the two layered option. Significant seed position effects were observed in both the flight and ground control experiments. Overall, the design of the water delivery system, seed cassettes and the germination paper strip concept was validated as an effective method for promoting seed germination and root growth under microgravity conditions.

  20. The oxygen requirement of germinating flax seeds

    Kuznetsov, O.; Hasenstein, K.

    Experiments for earth orbit are typically prepared on the ground and often germinated in orbit in order to study gravity effects on developing seedlings. Germination requires the breakdown of storage compounds and respiration. In orbit the formation of a water layer around the seed may further limit oxygen availability. Therefore, the oxygen content of the available gas volume is one of the limiting factors for seed germination. In preparation for an upcoming shuttle experiment (MICRO on STS-107) we studied germination and growth of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) seedlings in the developed hardware. We tested per seed chamber (gas volume = 14 mL, O2 = 2.9 mL) between 4 to 32 seeds glued to germination paper by 1% (w/v) gum guar. A lexan cover and a gasket hermetically sealed each of the eight chambers. For imbibition of the seeds a previously optimized amount of distilled water was dispensed through sealed inlets. The seedlings were allowed to grow for either 32 to 48 h on a clinostat or without microgravity simulation. Then their root length was measured. With 32 seeds per chamber, four times the intended number of seeds for the flight, the germination rate decreased from 94 to 69%, and the root length was reduced by 20%. Experiments on the germination and root length in controlled atmospheres (5, 10, 15 and 21% O2 ) suggest that germination and growth for two days requires about 200 :l of O (1 mL air) per seed. Our2 experiments correlate oxygen dependency from seed mass and germination temperature, and analyze accumulation of gaseous metabolites (supported by NASA grant NAG10-0190).

  1. Germination and elongation of flax in microgravity

    Levine, Howard G.; Anderson, Ken; Boody, April; Cox, Dave; Kuznetsov, Oleg A.; Hasenstein, Karl H.

    2003-01-01

    This experiment was conducted as part of a risk mitigation payload aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis on STS-101. The objectives were to test a newly developed water delivery system, and to determine the optimal combination of water volume and substrate for the imbibition and germination of flax (Linum usitatissimum) seeds in space. Two different combinations of germination paper were tested for their ability to absorb, distribute, and retain water in microgravity. A single layer of thick germination paper was compared with one layer of thin germination paper under a layer of thick paper. Paper strips were cut to fit snugly into seed cassettes, and seeds were glued to them with the micropyle ends pointing outward. Water was delivered in small increments that traveled through the paper via capillary action. Three water delivery volumes were tested, with the largest (480 microliters) outperforming the 400 microliters and 320 microliters volumes for percent germination (90.6%) and root growth (mean=4.1 mm) during the 34-hour spaceflight experiment. The ground control experiment yielded similar results, but with lower rates of germination (84.4%) and shorter root lengths (mean=2.8 mm). It is not clear if the roots emerged more quickly in microgravity and/or grew faster than the ground controls. The single layer of thick germination paper generally exhibited better overall growth than the two layered option. Significant seed position effects were observed in both the flight and ground control experiments. Overall, the design of the water delivery system, seed cassettes and the germination paper strip concept was validated as an effective method for promoting seed germination and root growth under microgravity conditions. c2003 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Molecular genetic studies in flax (Linum usitatissimum L.)

    Vromans, J.

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis five molecular genetic studies on flax ( Linum usitatissimum L.) are described, of which two chapters aim to characterize the genetic structure and the amount of genetic diversity in the primary and secondary gene pool of the crop species. Three chapters describe the development of

  3. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and Pseudomonas in reduce drought stress damage in flax (Linum usitatissimum L.): a field study.

    Rahimzadeh, Saeedeh; Pirzad, Alireza

    2017-08-01

    Drought stress, which is one of the most serious world environmental threats to crop production, might be compensated by some free living and symbiotic soil microorganisms. The physiological response of flax plants to inoculation with two species of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi (Funneliformis mosseae or Rhizophagus intraradices) and a phosphate solubilizing bacterium (Pseudomonas putida P13; PSB) was evaluated under different irrigation regimes (irrigation after 60, 120, and 180 mm of evaporation from Class A pan as well-watered, mild, and severe stress, respectively). A factorial (three factors) experiment was conducted for 2 years (2014-2015) based on a randomized complete block design with three replications at Urmia University, Urmia, located at North-West of Iran (37° 39' 24.82″ N44° 58' 12.42″ E). Water deficit decreased biomass, showing that flax was sensitive to drought, and AM root colonization improved the performance of the plant within irrigation levels. In all inoculated and non-inoculated control plants, leaf chlorophyll decreased with increasing irrigation intervals. Water deficit-induced oxidative damage (hydrogen peroxide, malondialdehyde, and electrolyte leakage) were significantly reduced in dual colonized plants. All enzymatic (catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase, and ascorbate peroxidase) and non-enzymatic (glutathione, ascorbic acid, total carotenoids) antioxidants were reduced by water-limiting irrigation. Dual inoculated plants with AM plus Pseudomonas accumulated more enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants than plants with bacterial or fungal inoculation singly. Dual colonized plants significantly decreased the water deficit-induced glycine betaine and proline in flax leaves. These bacterial-fungal interactions in enzymatic and non-enzymatic defense of flax plants demonstrated equal synergism with both AM fungi species. In conclusion, increased activity of enzymatic antioxidants and higher production of non

  4. Isolation of nuclear proteins from flax (Linum usitatissimum L. seed coats for gene expression regulation studies

    Renouard Sullivan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While seed biology is well characterized and numerous studies have focused on this subject over the past years, the regulation of seed coat development and metabolism is for the most part still non-elucidated. It is well known that the seed coat has an essential role in seed development and its features are associated with important agronomical traits. It also constitutes a rich source of valuable compounds such as pharmaceuticals. Most of the cell genetic material is contained in the nucleus; therefore nuclear proteins constitute a major actor for gene expression regulation. Isolation of nuclear proteins responsible for specific seed coat expression is an important prerequisite for understanding seed coat metabolism and development. The extraction of nuclear proteins may be problematic due to the presence of specific components that can interfere with the extraction process. The seed coat is a rich source of mucilage and phenolics, which are good examples of these hindering compounds. Findings In the present study, we propose an optimized nuclear protein extraction protocol able to provide nuclear proteins from flax seed coat without contaminants and sufficient yield and quality for their use in transcriptional gene expression regulation by gel shift experiments. Conclusions Routinely, around 250 μg of nuclear proteins per gram of fresh weight were extracted from immature flax seed coats. The isolation protocol described hereafter may serve as an effective tool for gene expression regulation and seed coat-focused proteomics studies.

  5. SOLID BURNT BRICKS’ TENSILE STRENGTH

    Aneta Maroušková

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with experimental testing of solid burnt bricks and mortar in pure (axial tension. The obtained working diagrams will be further use for a detailed numerical analysis of whole brick masonry column under concentric compressive load. Failure mechanism of compressed brick masonry column is characterized by the appearance and development of vertical tensile cracks in masonry units (bricks passing in the direction of principal stresses and is accompanied by progressive growth of horizontal deformations. These cracks are caused by contraction and interaction between two materials with different mechanical characteristics (brick and mortar. The aim of this paper is more precisely describe the response of quasi-brittle materials to uniaxial loading in tension (for now only the results from three point bending test are available. For these reasons, bricks and mortar tensile behavior is experimentally tested and the obtained results are discussed.

  6. Structural organization and classification of cytochrome P450 genes in flax (Linum usitatissimum L.).

    Babu, Peram Ravindra; Rao, Khareedu Venkateswara; Reddy, Vudem Dashavantha

    2013-01-15

    Flax CYPome analysis resulted in the identification of 334 putative cytochrome P450 (CYP450) genes in the cultivated flax genome. Classification of flax CYP450 genes based on the sequence similarity with Arabidopsis orthologs and CYP450 nomenclature, revealed 10 clans representing 44 families and 98 subfamilies. CYP80, CYP83, CYP92, CYP702, CYP705, CYP708, CYP728, CYP729, CYP733 and CYP736 families are absent in the flax genome. The subfamily members exhibited conserved sequences, length of exons and phasing of introns. Similarity search of the genomic resources of wild flax species Linum bienne with CYP450 coding sequences of the cultivated flax, revealed the presence of 127 CYP450 gene orthologs, indicating amplification of novel CYP450 genes in the cultivated flax. Seven families CYP73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 84 and 709, coding for enzymes associated with phenylpropanoid/fatty acid metabolism, showed extensive gene amplification in the flax. About 59% of the flax CYP450 genes were present in the EST libraries. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Fractographic observations of the microstructural characteristics of flax fibre composites

    Madsen, Bo; Asian, Mustafa; Lilholt, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Natural fibre composites possess a number of special microstructural characteristics, which need to be documented to aid in the further development of these materials. Using field emission scanning electron microscopy, fractographic observations of the microstructural characteristics of aligned f...... novel observations, measurements and interpretations to be used in the further analysis and understanding of the properties of natural fibre composites. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.......Natural fibre composites possess a number of special microstructural characteristics, which need to be documented to aid in the further development of these materials. Using field emission scanning electron microscopy, fractographic observations of the microstructural characteristics of aligned...... flax fibre/thermoplastic composites are presented. The findings are presented in relation to the three operational parts in composites: fibres, matrix and fibre/matrix interface. For the flax fibres, the striated structure on the fibre surface is shown to consist of cellulose macrofibrils oriented...

  8. Identification and characterization of miRNAs and targets in flax (Linum usitatissimum) under saline, alkaline, and saline-alkaline stresses.

    Yu, Ying; Wu, Guangwen; Yuan, Hongmei; Cheng, Lili; Zhao, Dongsheng; Huang, Wengong; Zhang, Shuquan; Zhang, Liguo; Chen, Hongyu; Zhang, Jian; Guan, Fengzhi

    2016-05-27

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play a critical role in responses to biotic and abiotic stress and have been characterized in a large number of plant species. Although flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) is one of the most important fiber and oil crops worldwide, no reports have been published describing flax miRNAs (Lus-miRNAs) induced in response to saline, alkaline, and saline-alkaline stresses. In this work, combined small RNA and degradome deep sequencing was used to analyze flax libraries constructed after alkaline-salt stress (AS2), neutral salt stress (NSS), alkaline stress (AS), and the non-stressed control (CK). From the CK, AS, AS2, and NSS libraries, a total of 118, 119, 122, and 120 known Lus-miRNAs and 233, 213, 211, and 212 novel Lus-miRNAs were isolated, respectively. After assessment of differential expression profiles, 17 known Lus-miRNAs and 36 novel Lus-miRNAs were selected and used to predict putative target genes. Gene ontology term enrichment analysis revealed target genes that were involved in responses to stimuli, including signaling and catalytic activity. Eight Lus-miRNAs were selected for analysis using qRT-PCR to confirm the accuracy and reliability of the miRNA-seq results. The qRT-PCR results showed that changes in stress-induced expression profiles of these miRNAs mirrored expression trends observed using miRNA-seq. Degradome sequencing and transcriptome profiling showed that expression of 29 miRNA-target pairs displayed inverse expression patterns under saline, alkaline, and saline-alkaline stresses. From the target prediction analysis, the miR398a-targeted gene codes for a copper/zinc superoxide dismutase, and the miR530 has been shown to explicitly target WRKY family transcription factors, which suggesting that these two micRNAs and their targets may significant involve in the saline, alkaline, and saline-alkaline stress response in flax. Identification and characterization of flax miRNAs, their target genes, functional annotations, and gene

  9. Karg, S. New projects within the FLAX Network. In: Karg S. (ed.) Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) - a natural resource for food and textiles for 8000 years. Cross-disciplinary investigations on the evolution and cultural history of flax and linen. Programme and abstracts of the second

    Karg, Sabine

    2010-01-01

    Karg, S. New projects within the FLAX Network. In: Karg S. (ed.) Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) - a natural resource for food and textiles for 8000 years. Cross-disciplinary investigations on the evolution and cultural history of flax and linen. Programme and abstracts of the second workshop 28...

  10. Flax fabric reinforced arylated soy protein composites: A brittle-matrix behaviour

    Kumar, R

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Biocomposites were successfully prepared by the reinforcement of soy protein isolate (SPI) with different weight fractions of woven flax fabric. The flax-fabric-reinforced SPI-based composites were then arylated with 2,2-diphenyl-2-hydroxyethanoic...

  11. Natural phenolics greatly increase flax (Linum usitatissimum) oil stability.

    Hasiewicz-Derkacz, Karolina; Kulma, Anna; Czuj, Tadeusz; Prescha, Anna; Żuk, Magdalena; Grajzer, Magdalena; Łukaszewicz, Marcin; Szopa, Jan

    2015-06-30

    Flaxseed oil is characterized by high content of essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) promoted as a human dietary supplement protecting against atherosclerosis. The disadvantage of the high PUFA content in flax oil is high susceptibility to oxidation, which can result in carcinogenic compound formation. Linola flax cultivar is characterized by high linoleic acid content in comparison to traditional flax cultivars rich in linolenic acid. The changes in fatty acid proportions increase oxidative stability of Linola oil and broaden its use as an edible oil for cooking. However one of investigated transgenic lines has high ALA content making it suitable as omega-3 source. Protection of PUFA oxidation is a critical factor in oil quality. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of phenylpropanoid contents on the oil properties important during the whole technological process from seed storage to grinding and oil pressing, which may influence health benefits as well as shelf-life, and to establish guidelines for the selection of new cultivars. The composition of oils was determined by chromatographic (GS-FID and LC-PDA-MS) methods. Antioxidant properties of secondary metabolites were analyzed by DPPH method. The stability of oils was investigated: a) during regular storage by measuring acid value peroxide value p-anisidine value malondialdehyde, conjugated dienes and trienes; b) by using accelerated rancidity tests by TBARS reaction; c) by thermoanalytical - differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). In one approach, in order to increase oil stability, exogenous substances added are mainly lipid soluble antioxidants from the isoprenoid pathway, such as tocopherol and carotene. The other approach is based on transgenic plant generation that accumulates water soluble compounds. Increased accumulation of phenolic compounds in flax seeds was achieved by three different strategies that modify genes coding for enzymes from the phenylpropanoid pathway. The three

  12. Evaluation of the significance of cell wall polymers in flax infected with a pathogenic strain of Fusarium oxysporum.

    Wojtasik, Wioleta; Kulma, Anna; Dymińska, Lucyna; Hanuza, Jerzy; Czemplik, Magdalena; Szopa, Jan

    2016-03-22

    Fusarium oxysporum infection leads to Fusarium-derived wilt, which is responsible for the greatest losses in flax (Linum usitatissimum) crop yield. Plants infected by Fusarium oxysporum show severe symptoms of dehydration due to the growth of the fungus in vascular tissues. As the disease develops, vascular browning and leaf yellowing can be observed. In the case of more virulent strains, plants die. The pathogen's attack starts with secretion of enzymes degrading the host cell wall. The main aim of the study was to evaluate the role of the cell wall polymers in the flax plant response to the infection in order to better understand the process of resistance and develop new ways to protect plants against infection. For this purpose, the expression of genes involved in cell wall polymer metabolism and corresponding polymer levels were investigated in flax seedlings after incubation with Fusarium oxysporum. This analysis was facilitated by selecting two groups of genes responding differently to the infection. The first group comprised genes strongly affected by the infection and activated later (phenylalanine ammonia lyase and glucosyltransferase). The second group comprised genes which are slightly affected (up to five times) and their expression vary as the infection progresses. Fusarium oxysporum infection did not affect the contents of cell wall polymers, but changed their structure. The results suggest that the role of the cell wall polymers in the plant response to Fusarium oxysporum infection is manifested through changes in expression of their genes and rearrangement of the cell wall polymers. Our studies provided new information about the role of cellulose and hemicelluloses in the infection process, the change of their structure and the expression of genes participating in their metabolism during the pathogen infection. We also confirmed the role of pectin and lignin in this process, indicating the major changes at the mRNA level of lignin metabolism genes

  13. Pollen-mediated gene flow in flax (Linum usitatissimum L.): can genetically engineered and organic flax coexist?

    Jhala, A J; Bhatt, H; Topinka, K; Hall, L M

    2011-04-01

    Coexistence allows growers and consumers the choice of producing or purchasing conventional or organic crops with known standards for adventitious presence of genetically engineered (GE) seed. Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) is multipurpose oilseed crop in which product diversity and utility could be enhanced for industrial, nutraceutical and pharmaceutical markets through genetic engineering. If GE flax were released commercially, pollen-mediated gene flow will determine in part whether GE flax could coexist without compromising other markets. As a part of pre-commercialization risk assessment, we quantified pollen-mediated gene flow between two cultivars of flax. Field experiments were conducted at four locations during 2006 and 2007 in western Canada using a concentric donor (20 × 20 m) receptor (120 × 120 m) design. Gene flow was detected through the xenia effect of dominant alleles of high α-linolenic acid (ALA; 18:3(cisΔ9,12,15)) to the low ALA trait. Seeds were harvested from the pollen recipient plots up to a distance of 50 m in eight directions from the pollen donor. High ALA seeds were identified using a thiobarbituric acid test and served as a marker for gene flow. Binomial distribution and power analysis were used to predict the minimum number of seeds statistically required to detect the frequency of gene flow at specific α (confidence interval) and power (1-β) values. As a result of the low frequency of gene flow, approximately 4 million seeds were screened to derive accurate quantification. Frequency of gene flow was highest near the source: averaging 0.0185 at 0.1 m but declined rapidly with distance, 0.0013 and 0.00003 at 3 and 35 m, respectively. Gene flow was reduced to 50% (O₅₀) and 90% (O₉₀) between 0.85 to 2.64 m, and 5.68 to 17.56 m, respectively. No gene flow was detected at any site or year > 35 m distance from the pollen source, suggesting that frequency of gene flow was ≤ 0.00003 (P = 0.95). Although it is not possible to

  14. Identification of differentially expressed genes in flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) under saline-alkaline stress by digital gene expression.

    Yu, Ying; Huang, Wengong; Chen, Hongyu; Wu, Guangwen; Yuan, Hongmei; Song, Xixia; Kang, Qinghua; Zhao, Dongsheng; Jiang, Weidong; Liu, Yan; Wu, Jianzhong; Cheng, Lili; Yao, Yubo; Guan, Fengzhi

    2014-10-01

    The salinization and alkalization of soil are widespread environmental problems, and alkaline salt stress is more destructive than neutral salt stress. Therefore, understanding the mechanism of plant tolerance to saline-alkaline stress has become a major challenge. However, little attention has been paid to the mechanism of plant alkaline salt tolerance. In this study, gene expression profiling of flax was analyzed under alkaline-salt stress (AS2), neutral salt stress (NSS) and alkaline stress (AS) by digital gene expression. Three-week-old flax seedlings were placed in 25 mM Na2CO3 (pH11.6) (AS2), 50mM NaCl (NSS) and NaOH (pH11.6) (AS) for 18 h. There were 7736, 1566 and 454 differentially expressed genes in AS2, NSS and AS compared to CK, respectively. The GO category gene enrichment analysis revealed that photosynthesis was particularly affected in AS2, carbohydrate metabolism was particularly affected in NSS, and the response to biotic stimulus was particularly affected in AS. We also analyzed the expression pattern of five categories of genes including transcription factors, signaling transduction proteins, phytohormones, reactive oxygen species proteins and transporters under these three stresses. Some key regulatory gene families involved in abiotic stress, such as WRKY, MAPKKK, ABA, PrxR and ion channels, were differentially expressed. Compared with NSS and AS, AS2 triggered more differentially expressed genes and special pathways, indicating that the mechanism of AS2 was more complex than NSS and AS. To the best of our knowledge, this was the first transcriptome analysis of flax in response to saline-alkaline stress. These data indicate that common and diverse features of saline-alkaline stress provide novel insights into the molecular mechanisms of plant saline-alkaline tolerance and offer a number of candidate genes as potential markers of tolerance to saline-alkaline stress. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Role of ascorbic acid and α tocopherol in alleviating salinity stress on flax plant (Linum usitatissimum L.

    Mervat Sh. Sadak

    2014-03-01

    with tap water, it was noted that ascorbic acid at 2.27 mM caused significant increase in oil content by 19.75 % in Giza 8 whereas α tocopherpl at 0.93 mM caused significant increase by 14.83% in Sakha 3 and 13.70% in Ariane. Regarding plants irrigated with saline solution (9.23 ds/m, it was found that α tocopherol at 0.93 mM caused significant increase in oil % by 30.84 %, 9.66 % and 35.62 % in Sakha 3, Giza 8 and Ariane cv. respectively. Responses of three flax cultivars to salt stress were more or less similar; since salinity stress caused marked increases in total saturated fatty acids accompanied by decreases in total unsaturated fatty acids as salinity levels increased. Myristic acid (C14:0 and oleic acid (C18:1 were the most affected saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in response to different salinity levels. The effect of ascorbic acid at 2.27 mM and tocopherol at 0.93 mM were found to be contrary to that of salinity as marked increases appeared in unsaturated fatty acids as compared with control plants. It could be concluded that foliar application of ascorbic acid and α tocopherol could play an enhancement role and alleviate the harmful effect of salinity stress on many metabolic and physiological processes of three flax cultivars that reflected in increasing seed yield quality and quantity.

  16. Proteome profiling of flax (Linum usitatissimum) seed: characterization of functional metabolic pathways operating during seed development.

    Barvkar, Vitthal T; Pardeshi, Varsha C; Kale, Sandip M; Kadoo, Narendra Y; Giri, Ashok P; Gupta, Vidya S

    2012-12-07

    Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) seeds are an important source of food and feed due to the presence of various health promoting compounds, making it a nutritionally and economically important plant. An in-depth analysis of the proteome of developing flax seed is expected to provide significant information with respect to the regulation and accumulation of such storage compounds. Therefore, a proteomic analysis of seven seed developmental stages (4, 8, 12, 16, 22, 30, and 48 days after anthesis) in a flax variety, NL-97 was carried out using a combination of 1D-SDS-PAGE and LC-MSE methods. A total 1716 proteins were identified and their functional annotation revealed that a majority of them were involved in primary metabolism, protein destination, storage and energy. Three carbon assimilatory pathways appeared to operate in flax seeds. Reverse transcription quantitative PCR of selected 19 genes was carried out to understand their roles during seed development. Besides storage proteins, methionine synthase, RuBisCO and S-adenosylmethionine synthetase were highly expressed transcripts, highlighting their importance in flax seed development. Further, the identified proteins were mapped onto developmental seed specific expressed sequence tag (EST) libraries of flax to obtain transcriptional evidence and 81% of them had detectable expression at the mRNA level. This study provides new insights into the complex seed developmental processes operating in flax.

  17. Development of Novel SSR Markers for Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) Using Reduced-Representation Genome Sequencing.

    Wu, Jianzhong; Zhao, Qian; Wu, Guangwen; Zhang, Shuquan; Jiang, Tingbo

    2016-01-01

    Flax ( Linum usitatissimum L.) is a major fiber and oil yielding crop grown in northeastern China. Identification of flax molecular markers is a key step toward improving flax yield and quality via marker-assisted breeding. Simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, which are based on genomic structural variation, are considered the most valuable type of genetic marker for this purpose. In this study, we screened 1574 microsatellites from Linum usitatissimum L. obtained using reduced representation genome sequencing (RRGS) to systematically identify SSR markers. The resulting set of microsatellites consisted mainly of trinucleotide (56.10%) and dinucleotide (35.23%) repeats, with each motif consisting of 5-8 repeats. We then evaluated marker sensitivity and specificity based on samples of 48 flax isolates obtained from northeastern China. Using the new SSR panel, the results demonstrated that fiber flax and oilseed flax varieties clustered into two well separated groups. The novel SSR markers developed in this study show potential value for selection of varieties for use in flax breeding programs.

  18. The influence of stages of maturity on the agronomic traits of fibre flax introduced varieties

    Jasminka Butorac

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The harvest time of fibre flax is influenced by climatic conditions, varieties, stages of maturity and the crop’s final use. In addition, the time of harvesting of fibre flax affects the quality of the fibres. Fibre flax can be harvested in few stages of maturity. So, this paper presents the influence of three stages of maturity (green, yellow and full ripening on the agronomic traits (stem yield, stem yield after retting, total fibre yield, share of total fibre, long fibre yield, share of long fibre of five fibre flax varieties. Varieties trials with fibre flax were set up in two years (2010-2011 and in two locations: at the experimental fields of the Faculty of Agriculture in Zagreb on eutric cambisol and of the College of Agriculture at Križevci on pseudogley on level terrain. The trials were carried out according to the randomized complete block design (RCBD with four replications. According to the results of the two-years research into the agronomic traits of fibre flax, significant differences were established among the varieties and among the stages of maturity under study. The varieties Agatha, Viola and Electra recorded higher values of investigated traits. All varieties achieved higher values of investigated traits at Križevci (production on heavier soil in which some of winter moisture remained available in spring months. The highest values of investigated traits were recorded when the fibre flax were harvested in the green ripening.

  19. Breaking sod or breaking even? Flax on the northern Great Plains and Prairies, 1889-1930.

    MacFayden, Joshua D

    2009-01-01

    A new thirst for paint and color in cities made extensive flax production profitable in the northern Great Plains and Prairies and contributed to the cultivation of the most fragile grassland ecosystems. The production of flax seed for linseed oil became an early spin-off of the Prairie wheat economy but, unlike wheat, flax vanished from old land after one or two rotations and reappeared in districts with the most new breaking. Officials explained the migrant crop as preparing native grasslands for cultivation or exhausting soil in old land, but farmers brought flax to their new breaking for other reasons. Producers would only put flax on any land when a range of economic and environmental conditions were in place. It was never sown without promise of adequately high prices or in the absence of affordable seed and other inputs. When price allowed, it usually appeared on new breaking because it could be planted later and transported further without upsetting the balance of other activities and without farmers learning many new techniques. Scientists discovered that diseased soil drove flax off old land, not soil exhaustion. Circumventing the disease was possible but costly, and farmers simply replaced flax with the next most lucrative commodity.

  20. Optimization of Phenolic Compounds Extraction from Flax Shives and Their Effect on Human Fibroblasts

    Magdalena Czemplik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to evaluate the most effective technique for extraction of phenolics present in flax shives and to assess their effect on human fibroblasts. Flax shives are by-products of fibre separation, but they were found to be a rich source of phenolic compounds and thus might have application potential. It was found that the optimal procedure for extraction of phenolics was hydrolysis enhanced by the ultrasound with NaOH for 24 h at 65°C and subsequent extraction with ethyl acetate. The influence of the flax shives extract on fibroblast growth and viability was assessed using the MTT and SRB tests. Moreover, the influence of flax shives extract on the extracellular matrix remodelling process was verified. The 20% increase of the viability was observed upon flax shives extract treatment and the decrease of mRNA collagen genes, an increase of matrix metalloproteinase gene expression, and reduction in levels of interleukin 6, interleukin 10, and suppressor of cytokinin signaling 1 mRNA were observed. Alterations in MCP-1 mRNA levels were dependent on flax shives extract concentration. Thus, we suggested the possible application of flax shives extract in the wound healing process.

  1. Biodegradation of flax fiber reinforced poly lactic acid

    Kumar, R

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available and dried in an oven at 60°C for 24 h to remove moisture. PLA pellets equivalent to 0.8 and 0.7 weight fractions of the nonwoven web and woven fabric, respectively were dissolved in chloroform. It is to be noted that nonwoven flax fiber requires higher... amount of PLA than woven ones. The dried nonwoven web/woven fabric was then placed inside a square metal frame mold of 15 cm×15 cm in dimensions and the PLA solution was poured over the nonwoven web or woven fab- ric. It was observed that 5 to 6 g...

  2. Characterization, Long-Term Behavior Evaluation and Thermomechanical Properties of Untreated and Treated Flax Fiber-Reinforced Composites

    Amiri, Ali

    In recent years there has been a resurgence of interest in the usage of natural fiber reinforced composites in more advanced structural applications. Consequently, the need for improving their mechanical properties as well as service life and long-term behavior modeling and predictions has arisen. In a step towards further development of these materials, in this study, two newly developed biobased resins, derived from soybean oil, methacrylated epoxidized sucrose soyate and double methacrylated epoxidized sucrose soyate are combined with untreated and alkaline treated flax fiber to produce novel biocomposites. Vinyl ester reinforced with flax fiber is used as control in addition to comparing properties of biobased composites against commercial pultruded composites. Effects of alkaline treatment of flax fiber as well as addition of 1% acrylic resin to vinyl ester and the two mentioned biobased resins on mechanical properties are studied. Properties are evaluated in short-term and also, after being exposed to accelerated weathering (i.e. UV and moisture). Moreover, long-term creep of these novel biobased composites and effect of fiber and matrix treatment on viscoelastic behavior is investigated using Time-temperature superposition (TTS) principle. Based on the results of this study, the TTS provides an accelerated method for evaluation of mechanical properties of biobased composites, and satisfactory master curves are achieved by use of this principle. Also, fiber and matrix treatments were effective in increasing mechanical properties of biobased composites in short-term, and treatments delayed the creep response and slowed the process of creep in composites under study in the steady state region. Overall, results of this study reveal the successful production of biocomposites having properties that meet or exceed those of conventional pultruded members while maintaining high biocontent. Composites using treated flax fiber and newly developed resins showed less

  3. A comparative study on cellulose nanocrystals extracted from bleached cotton and flax and used for casting films with glycerol and sorbitol plasticisers.

    Csiszár, Emilia; Nagy, Sebestyén

    2017-10-15

    Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) were released from bleached cotton and flax by a sulphuric acid hydrolysis with about 40 and 34% yield, respectively. The rod-like cotton-CNC particles were slightly longer and wider and had a less pronounced aggregation ability in aqueous suspension than the flax-CNC ones. Films were cast from the CNC suspensions with sorbitol and glycerol plasticisers. The concept behind this research was to explore how the plasticisers - with similar structure but different molecular weight - and their concentrations affect the perceptible and measured properties of CNC films. Results revealed that the type of plasticiser determined the morphology and the optical and tensile properties of films. The best quality CNC film with an averaged thickness of 50μm was obtained with 20% sorbitol from cotton-CNC. It was proved that behaviour of sorbitol and glycerol plasticisers in CNC films was very similar to that reported previously for starch films. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Genomic and expression analysis of the flax (Linum usitatissimum) family of glycosyl hydrolase 35 genes.

    Hobson, Neil; Deyholos, Michael K

    2013-05-23

    Several β-galactosidases of the Glycosyl Hydrolase 35 (GH35) family have been characterized, and many of these modify cell wall components, including pectins, xyloglucans, and arabinogalactan proteins. The phloem fibres of flax (Linum usitatissimum) have gelatinous-type cell walls that are rich in crystalline cellulose and depend on β-galactosidase activity for their normal development. In this study, we investigate the transcript expression patterns and inferred evolutionary relationships of the complete set of flax GH35 genes, to better understand the functions of these genes in flax and other species. Using the recently published flax genome assembly, we identified 43 β-galactosidase-like (BGAL) genes, based on the presence of a GH35 domain. Phylogenetic analyses of their protein sequences clustered them into eight sub-families. Sub-family B, whose members in other species were known to be expressed in developing flowers and pollen, was greatly under represented in flax (p-value < 0.01). Sub-family A5, whose sole member from arabidopsis has been described as its primary xyloglucan BGAL, was greatly expanded in flax (p-value < 0.01). A number of flax BGALs were also observed to contain non-consensus GH35 active sites. Expression patterns of the flax BGALs were investigated using qRT-PCR and publicly available microarray data. All predicted flax BGALs showed evidence of expression in at least one tissue. Flax has a large number of BGAL genes, which display a distinct distribution among the BGAL sub-families, in comparison to other closely related species with available whole genome assemblies. Almost every flax BGAL was expressed in fibres, the majority of which expressed predominately in fibres as compared to other tissues, suggesting an important role for the expansion of this gene family in the development of this species as a fibre crop. Variations displayed in the canonical GH35 active site suggest a variety of roles unique to flax, which will require

  5. Effect of Atmospheric Pressure Plasma and Subsequent Enzymatic Treatment on Flax Fabrics

    Zhong Shaofeng; Yang Bin; Ou Qiongrong

    2015-01-01

    The objective is to investigate the effect of atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge (APDBD) plasma and subsequent cellulase enzyme treatment on the properties of flax fabrics. The changes of surface morphology and structure, physico-mechanical properties, hydrophilicity, bending properties, whiteness, and dyeing properties of the treated substrate were investigated. The results indicated that atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge plasma pre-treatment and subsequent cellulase enzyme treatment could diminish the hairiness of flax fabrics, endowing the flax fabrics with good bending properties, water uptake and fiber accessibility while keeping their good mechanical properties compared with those treated with cellulase enzyme alone. (paper)

  6. Comparative Evaluation of Physical and Structural Properties of Water Retted and Non-retted Flax Fibers

    Vijaya Raghavan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Flax stems of Modran variety were subjected to water retting under laboratory conditions and its physical properties were compared with non-retted fibers. Physical properties including percentage of impurities, weighted average length, linear density, tenacity and elongation were analyzed and the results were compared. The analysis of retted and non-retted flax fibers showed that retting is the most important step in the processing of flax fibers and it directly affects quality attributes like strength, fineness, and homogeneity. Scanning Electron microscope images of fibers were also analyzed and the retted fibers showed much cleaner surface when compared to decorticated non-retted fibers.

  7. RNAi-mediated pinoresinol lariciresinol reductase gene silencing in flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) seed coat: consequences on lignans and neolignans accumulation.

    Renouard, Sullivan; Tribalatc, Marie-Aude; Lamblin, Frederic; Mongelard, Gaëlle; Fliniaux, Ophélie; Corbin, Cyrielle; Marosevic, Djurdjica; Pilard, Serge; Demailly, Hervé; Gutierrez, Laurent; Hano, Christophe; Mesnard, François; Lainé, Eric

    2014-09-15

    RNAi technology was applied to down regulate LuPLR1 gene expression in flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) seeds. This gene encodes a pinoresinol lariciresinol reductase responsible for the synthesis of (+)-secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG), the major lignan accumulated in the seed coat. If flax lignans biological properties and health benefits are well documented their roles in planta remain unclear. This loss of function strategy was developed to better understand the implication of the PLR1 enzyme in the lignan biosynthetic pathway and to provide new insights on the functions of these compounds. RNAi plants generated exhibited LuPLR1 gene silencing as demonstrated by quantitative RT-PCR experiments and the failed to accumulate SDG. The accumulation of pinoresinol the substrate of the PLR1 enzyme under its diglucosylated form (PDG) was increased in transgenic seeds but did not compensate the overall loss of SDG. The monolignol flux was also deviated through the synthesis of 8-5' linked neolignans dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol glucoside (DCG) and dihydro-dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol glucoside (DDCG) which were observed for the first time in flax seeds. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Improvement of Aluminum-Air Battery Performances by the Application of Flax Straw Extract.

    Grishina, Ekaterina; Gelman, Danny; Belopukhov, Sergey; Starosvetsky, David; Groysman, Alec; Ein-Eli, Yair

    2016-08-23

    The effect of a flax straw extract on Al corrosion inhibition in a strong alkaline solution was studied by using electrochemical measurements, weight-loss analysis, SEM, and FTIR spectroscopy. Flax straw extract added (3 vol %) to the 5 m KOH solution to act as a mixed-type Al corrosion inhibitor. The electrochemistry of Al in the presence of a flax straw extract in the alkaline solution, the effect of the extract on the Al morphology and surface films formed, and the corrosion inhibition mechanism are discussed. Finally, the Al-air battery discharge capacity recorded from a cell that used the flax straw extract in the alkaline electrolyte is substantially higher than that with only a pure alkaline electrolyte. This improved sustainability of the Al anode is attributed to Al corrosion inhibition and, consequently, to hydrogen evolution suppression. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. [Cellulose synthase genes that control the fiber formation of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.)].

    Galinovskiĭ, D V; Anisimova, N V; Raĭskiĭ, A P; Leont'ev, V N; Titok, V V; Hotyleva, L V

    2014-01-01

    Four cellulose synthase genes were identified by analysis of their class-specific regions (CSRII) in plants of fiber flax during the "rapid growth" stage. These genes were designated as LusCesA1, LusCesA4, LusCesA7 and LusCesA9. LusCesA4, LusCesA7, and LusCesA9 genes were expressed in the stem; LusCesA1 and LusCesA4 genes were expressed in the apex part of plants, and the LusCesA4 gene was expressed in the leaves of fiber flax. The expression of the LusCesA7 and LusCesA9 genes was specific to the stems of fiber flax. These genes may influence the quality of the flax fiber.

  10. QTL mapping and molecular characterization of the classical D locus controlling seed and flower color in Linum usitatissimum (flax).

    Sudarshan, Gurudatt Pavagada; Kulkarni, Manoj; Akhov, Leonid; Ashe, Paula; Shaterian, Hamid; Cloutier, Sylvie; Rowland, Gordon; Wei, Yangdou; Selvaraj, Gopalan

    2017-11-16

    The flowers of flax (linseed) are blue-hued, ephemeral and self-pollinating, and the seeds are typically brown. A century-old interest in natural yellow seed variants and a historical model point to recessive alleles in B1, D and G loci being responsible, but the functional aspects had remained unknown. Here, we characterized the "D" locus by quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping and identified a FLAVONOID 3'5' HYDROXYLASE (F3'5'H) gene therein. It does not belong to the F3'5'H clade, but resembles biochemically characterized F3'Hs (flavonoid 3' hydroxylase) but without F3'H activity. The genome lacks other F3'H or F3'H-like genes. The apparent neo-functionalization from F3'H is associated with a Thr 498  → Ser 498 substitution in a substrate recognition site (SRS). The yellow seed and white flower phenotypes of the classical d mutation was found to be due to one nucleotide deletion that would truncate the deduced product and remove three of the six potential SRS, negatively impacting delphinidin synthesis. Delphinidin is sporadic in angiosperms, and flax has no known pollination syndrome(s) with functional pollinator group(s) that are attracted to blue flowers, raising questions on the acquisition of F3'5'H. The appearance of d allele is suggestive of the beginning of the loss of F3'5'H in this species.

  11. Development and validation of a flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) gene expression oligo microarray.

    Fenart, Stéphane; Ndong, Yves-Placide Assoumou; Duarte, Jorge; Rivière, Nathalie; Wilmer, Jeroen; van Wuytswinkel, Olivier; Lucau, Anca; Cariou, Emmanuelle; Neutelings, Godfrey; Gutierrez, Laurent; Chabbert, Brigitte; Guillot, Xavier; Tavernier, Reynald; Hawkins, Simon; Thomasset, Brigitte

    2010-10-21

    Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) has been cultivated for around 9,000 years and is therefore one of the oldest cultivated species. Today, flax is still grown for its oil (oil-flax or linseed cultivars) and its cellulose-rich fibres (fibre-flax cultivars) used for high-value linen garments and composite materials. Despite the wide industrial use of flax-derived products, and our actual understanding of the regulation of both wood fibre production and oil biosynthesis more information must be acquired in both domains. Recent advances in genomics are now providing opportunities to improve our fundamental knowledge of these complex processes. In this paper we report the development and validation of a high-density oligo microarray platform dedicated to gene expression analyses in flax. Nine different RNA samples obtained from flax inner- and outer-stems, seeds, leaves and roots were used to generate a collection of 1,066,481 ESTs by massive parallel pyrosequencing. Sequences were assembled into 59,626 unigenes and 48,021 sequences were selected for oligo design and high-density microarray (Nimblegen 385K) fabrication with eight, non-overlapping 25-mers oligos per unigene. 18 independent experiments were used to evaluate the hybridization quality, precision, specificity and accuracy and all results confirmed the high technical quality of our microarray platform. Cross-validation of microarray data was carried out using quantitative qRT-PCR. Nine target genes were selected on the basis of microarray results and reflected the whole range of fold change (both up-regulated and down-regulated genes in different samples). A statistically significant positive correlation was obtained comparing expression levels for each target gene across all biological replicates both in qRT-PCR and microarray results. Further experiments illustrated the capacity of our arrays to detect differential gene expression in a variety of flax tissues as well as between two contrasted flax varieties

  12. Development and validation of a flax (Linum usitatissimum L. gene expression oligo microarray

    Gutierrez Laurent

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Flax (Linum usitatissimum L. has been cultivated for around 9,000 years and is therefore one of the oldest cultivated species. Today, flax is still grown for its oil (oil-flax or linseed cultivars and its cellulose-rich fibres (fibre-flax cultivars used for high-value linen garments and composite materials. Despite the wide industrial use of flax-derived products, and our actual understanding of the regulation of both wood fibre production and oil biosynthesis more information must be acquired in both domains. Recent advances in genomics are now providing opportunities to improve our fundamental knowledge of these complex processes. In this paper we report the development and validation of a high-density oligo microarray platform dedicated to gene expression analyses in flax. Results Nine different RNA samples obtained from flax inner- and outer-stems, seeds, leaves and roots were used to generate a collection of 1,066,481 ESTs by massive parallel pyrosequencing. Sequences were assembled into 59,626 unigenes and 48,021 sequences were selected for oligo design and high-density microarray (Nimblegen 385K fabrication with eight, non-overlapping 25-mers oligos per unigene. 18 independent experiments were used to evaluate the hybridization quality, precision, specificity and accuracy and all results confirmed the high technical quality of our microarray platform. Cross-validation of microarray data was carried out using quantitative qRT-PCR. Nine target genes were selected on the basis of microarray results and reflected the whole range of fold change (both up-regulated and down-regulated genes in different samples. A statistically significant positive correlation was obtained comparing expression levels for each target gene across all biological replicates both in qRT-PCR and microarray results. Further experiments illustrated the capacity of our arrays to detect differential gene expression in a variety of flax tissues as well

  13. [Effects of climate change on flax development and yield in Guyuan of Ningxia, Northwest China].

    Li, Shu-Zhen; Sun, Lin-Li; Ma, Yu-Ping; Ma, Yu-Ping; Xu, Yu-Dong; E, You-Hao

    2014-10-01

    Based on variations of the annual mean temperature and precipitation analyzed using ob- servation data in Guyuan of Ningxia, the effects of climate change on the local flax developmental process and yield were investigated. The results showed that the annual mean temperature had an increasing trend (0.3 °C · (10 a)-1) and the annual precipitation had a decreasing trend (-20 mm · (10 a) -1) from 1957 to 2012. While the increasing trend of mean temperature during growing season of flax was more obviously than that of the annual temperature, the decreasing trend of precipitation during growing season was similar to that of annual precipitation. With temperature increasing and precipitation decreasing, the flax development rate was accelerated, resulting in the reduced growing period. Seedling stage was advanced 0.7 d with 1 °C increase in temperature during the period from sowing to seedling emergence. The duration from seedling emergence to two pairs of needles was shortened by 0.8 d with 1 °C increase in temperature and 0.1 d with 1 mm decrease in precipitation. Maturity stage was advanced 1.8 d with 1 °C increase in temperature and 0.1 d with 1 mm decrease in precipitation during the period from technical maturity to maturity. The flax development was accelerated because of temperature increasing and precipitation decreasing in the vegetative growth phase, which was one of the main causes of flax yield reduction year by year. Meanwhile, flower bud differentiation and pollination of flax were influenced by temperature increasing in the reproductive growth phase, which would affect the number of capsules and the seed setting rate per plant and lead to the decrease of flax yield. Therefore, adjusting plant structure and enlarging the planting area of late or middle-late variety were the important measures to reduce the effects of climate change on local flax production.

  14. Colour of flax fibres in regard to different pretreatment and dyeing processes

    Fakin, Darinka; Ojstršek, Alenka

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this work was to compare the colour of different pretreated (alkaline, acidic and enzymatic) and dyed (conventional and ultrasonic-assisted) flax fibres, to establish the impact of various parameters on dyeing kinetics. Flax fibres were dyed using two direct dyes of different chemical structures and molecular mass. Diffusion profiles were established by the application of Fick's Law and dyeing behaviour was studied by means of online spectrophotometry. Finally, the dyed ...

  15. Role of protein farnesylation events in the ABA-mediated regulation of the Pinoresinol-Lariciresinol Reductase 1 (LuPLR1) gene expression and lignan biosynthesis in flax (Linum usitatissimum L.).

    Corbin, Cyrielle; Decourtil, Cédric; Marosevic, Djurdjica; Bailly, Marlène; Lopez, Tatiana; Renouard, Sullivan; Doussot, Joël; Dutilleul, Christelle; Auguin, Daniel; Giglioli-Guivarc'h, Nathalie; Lainé, Eric; Lamblin, Frédéric; Hano, Christophe

    2013-11-01

    A Linum usitatissimum LuERA1 gene encoding a putative ortholog of the ERA1 (Enhanced Response to ABA 1) gene of Arabidopsis thaliana (encoding the beta subunit of a farnesyltransferase) was analyzed in silico and for its expression in flax. The gene and the protein sequences are highly similar to other sequences already characterized in plants and all the features of a farnesyltransferase were detected. Molecular modeling of LuERA1 protein confirmed its farnesyltransferase nature. LuERA1 is expressed in the vegetative organs and also in the outer seedcoat of the flaxseed, where it could modulate the previously observed regulation operated by ABA on lignan synthesis. This effect could be mediated by the regulation of the transcription of a key gene for lignan synthesis in flax, the LuPLR1 gene, encoding a pinoresinol lariciresinol reductase. The positive effect of manumycin A, a specific inhibitor of farnesyltransferase, on lignan biosynthesis in flax cell suspension systems supports the hypothesis of the involvement of such an enzyme in the negative regulation of ABA action. In Arabidopsis, ERA1 is able to negatively regulate the ABA effects and the mutant era1 has an enhanced sensitivity to ABA. When expressed in an Arabidopsis cell suspension (heterologous system) LuERA1 is able to reverse the effect of the era1 mutation. RNAi experiments in flax targeting the farnesyltransferase β-subunit encoded by the LuERA1 gene led to an increase LuPLR1 expression level associated with an increased content of lignan in transgenic calli. Altogether these results strongly suggest a role of the product of this LuERA1 gene in the ABA-mediated upregulation of lignan biosynthesis in flax cells through the activation of LuPLR1 promoter. This ABA signaling pathway involving ERA1 probably acts through the ABRE box found in the promoter sequence of LuPLR1, a key gene for lignan synthesis in flax, as demonstrated by LuPLR1 gene promoter-reporter experiments in flax cells using wild

  16. Characterisation of mucilages extracted from seven Italian cultivars of flax.

    Kaewmanee, Thammarat; Bagnasco, Lucia; Benjakul, Soottawat; Lanteri, Silvia; Morelli, Carlo F; Speranza, Giovanna; Cosulich, M Elisabetta

    2014-04-01

    The chemical composition, physicochemical, functional and sensory properties of mucilages, extracted from seven Italian flax cultivars, were evaluated. All samples were composed of neutral and acidic sugars, with a low protein content. From the NMR data, a rhamnogalacturonan backbone could be inferred as a common structural feature for all the mucilages, with some variations depending on the cultivar. All the suspensions showed a poor stability, which was consistent with a low zeta potential absolute value. The viscosity seemed to be positively correlated with the neutral sugars and negatively with the amount of proteins. Functional properties were dependent on the cultivar. The sensory analysis showed that most mucilages are tasteless. All these outcomes could support the use of flaxseed mucilages for industrial applications. In particular, Solal and Festival cultivars could be useful as thickeners, due to their high viscosity, while Natural, Valoal and Kaolin as emulsifiers for their good surface-active properties. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Status of automated tensile machine

    Satou, M.; Hamilton, M.L.; Sato, S.; Kohyama, A.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this work is to develop the Monbusho Automated Tensile machine (MATRON) and install and operate it at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The machine is designed to provide rapid, automated testing of irradiated miniature tensile specimen in a vacuum at elevated temperatures. The MATRON was successfully developed and shipped to PNL for installation in a hot facility. The original installation plan was modified to simplify the current and subsequent installations, and the installation was completed. Detailed procedures governing the operation of the system were written. Testing on irradiated miniature tensile specimen should begin in the near future

  18. Genome-wide identification and characterization of microRNA genes and their targets in flax (Linum usitatissimum): Characterization of flax miRNA genes.

    Barvkar, Vitthal T; Pardeshi, Varsha C; Kale, Sandip M; Qiu, Shuqing; Rollins, Meaghen; Datla, Raju; Gupta, Vidya S; Kadoo, Narendra Y

    2013-04-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small (20-24 nucleotide long) endogenous regulatory RNAs that play important roles in plant growth and development. They regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level by translational repression or target degradation and gene silencing. In this study, we identified 116 conserved miRNAs belonging to 23 families from the flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) genome using a computational approach. The precursor miRNAs varied in length; while most of the mature miRNAs were 21 nucleotide long, intergenic and showed conserved signatures of RNA polymerase II transcripts in their upstream regions. Promoter region analysis of the flax miRNA genes indicated prevalence of MYB transcription factor binding sites. Four miRNA gene clusters containing members of three phylogenetic groups were identified. Further, 142 target genes were predicted for these miRNAs and most of these represent transcriptional regulators. The miRNA encoding genes were expressed in diverse tissues as determined by digital expression analysis as well as real-time PCR. The expression of fourteen miRNAs and nine target genes was independently validated using the quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR). This study suggests that a large number of conserved plant miRNAs are also found in flax and these may play important roles in growth and development of flax.

  19. Seed Yield of Long Fiber Flax (Linum usitatissimum L. Plants Depending on Rates of Sawing of Seed and Mineral Fertilization

    М. Ф. Рибак

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Impact of rates of sawing of seed and fertilization on seed productivity of Kameniar and Irma Long Fiber Flax in the conditions of Ukrainian Woodlands are highlighted. A trustworthy proportion is established of factors influence, in particular, of the sawing and fertilization rates, on Long Fiber Flax yield formation.

  20. Identification, characterization and distribution of transposable elements in the flax (Linum usitatissimum L. genome

    González Leonardo Galindo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Flax (Linum usitatissimum L. is an important crop for the production of bioproducts derived from its seed and stem fiber. Transposable elements (TEs are widespread in plant genomes and are a key component of their evolution. The availability of a genome assembly of flax (Linum usitatissimum affords new opportunities to explore the diversity of TEs and their relationship to genes and gene expression. Results Four de novo repeat identification algorithms (PILER, RepeatScout, LTR_finder and LTR_STRUC were applied to the flax genome assembly. The resulting library of flax repeats was combined with the RepBase Viridiplantae division and used with RepeatMasker to identify TEs coverage in the genome. LTR retrotransposons were the most abundant TEs (17.2% genome coverage, followed by Long Interspersed Nuclear Element (LINE retrotransposons (2.10% and Mutator DNA transposons (1.99%. Comparison of putative flax TEs to flax transcript databases indicated that TEs are not highly expressed in flax. However, the presence of recent insertions, defined by 100% intra-element LTR similarity, provided evidence for recent TE activity. Spatial analysis showed TE-rich regions, gene-rich regions as well as regions with similar genes and TE density. Monte Carlo simulations for the 71 largest scaffolds (≥ 1 Mb each did not show any regional differences in the frequency of TE overlap with gene coding sequences. However, differences between TE superfamilies were found in their proximity to genes. Genes within TE-rich regions also appeared to have lower transcript expression, based on EST abundance. When LTR elements were compared, Copia showed more diversity, recent insertions and conserved domains than the Gypsy, demonstrating their importance in genome evolution. Conclusions The calculated 23.06% TE coverage of the flax WGS assembly is at the low end of the range of TE coverages reported in other eudicots, although this estimate does not include

  1. [Genetic polymorphism of flax Linum usitatissimum based on use of molecular cytogenetic markers].

    Rachinskaia, O A; Lemesh, V A; Muravenko, O V; Iurkevich, O Iu; Guzenko, E V; Bol'sheva, N L; Bogdanova, M V; Samatadze, T E; Popov, K V; Malyshev, S V; Shostak, N G; Heller, K; Khotyleva, L V; Zelenin, A V

    2011-01-01

    Using a set of approaches based on the use of molecular cytogenetic markers (DAPI/C-banding, estimation of the total area of DAPI-positive regions in prophase nuclei, FISH with 26S and 5S rDNA probes) and the microsatellite (SSR-PCR) assay, we studied genomic polymorphism in 15 flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) varieties from different geographic regions belonging to three directions of selection (oil, fiber, and intermediate flaxes) and in the k-37 x Viking hybrid. All individual chromosomes have been identified in the karyotypes of these varieties on the basis of the patterns of differential DAPI/C-banding and the distribution of 26S and 5S rDNA, and idiograms of the chromosomes have been generated. Unlike the oil flax varieties, the chromosomes in the karyotypes of the fiber flax varieties have, as a rule, pericentromeric and telomeric DAPI-positive bands of smaller size, but contain larger intercalary regions. Two chromosomal rearrangements (chromosome 3 inversions) were discovered in the variety Luna and in the k-37 x Viking hybrid. In both these forms, no colocalization of 26S rDNA and 5S rDNA on the satellite chromosome was detected. The SSR assay with the use of 20 polymorphic pairs of primers revealed 22 polymorphic loci. Based on the SSR data, we analyzed genetic similarity of the flax forms studied and constructed a genetic similarity dendrogram. The genotypes studied here form three clusters. The oil varieties comprise an independent cluster. The genetically related fiber flax varieties Vita and Luna, as well as the landrace Lipinska XIII belonging to the intermediate type, proved to be closer to the oil varieties than the remaining fiber flax varieties. The results of the molecular chromosomal analysis in the fiber and oil flaxes confirm their very close genetic similarity. In spite of this, the combined use of the chromosomal and molecular markers has opened up unique possibilities for describing the genotypes of flax varieties and creating their genetic

  2. Identification, characterization and distribution of transposable elements in the flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) genome.

    González, Leonardo Galindo; Deyholos, Michael K

    2012-11-21

    Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) is an important crop for the production of bioproducts derived from its seed and stem fiber. Transposable elements (TEs) are widespread in plant genomes and are a key component of their evolution. The availability of a genome assembly of flax (Linum usitatissimum) affords new opportunities to explore the diversity of TEs and their relationship to genes and gene expression. Four de novo repeat identification algorithms (PILER, RepeatScout, LTR_finder and LTR_STRUC) were applied to the flax genome assembly. The resulting library of flax repeats was combined with the RepBase Viridiplantae division and used with RepeatMasker to identify TEs coverage in the genome. LTR retrotransposons were the most abundant TEs (17.2% genome coverage), followed by Long Interspersed Nuclear Element (LINE) retrotransposons (2.10%) and Mutator DNA transposons (1.99%). Comparison of putative flax TEs to flax transcript databases indicated that TEs are not highly expressed in flax. However, the presence of recent insertions, defined by 100% intra-element LTR similarity, provided evidence for recent TE activity. Spatial analysis showed TE-rich regions, gene-rich regions as well as regions with similar genes and TE density. Monte Carlo simulations for the 71 largest scaffolds (≥ 1 Mb each) did not show any regional differences in the frequency of TE overlap with gene coding sequences. However, differences between TE superfamilies were found in their proximity to genes. Genes within TE-rich regions also appeared to have lower transcript expression, based on EST abundance. When LTR elements were compared, Copia showed more diversity, recent insertions and conserved domains than the Gypsy, demonstrating their importance in genome evolution. The calculated 23.06% TE coverage of the flax WGS assembly is at the low end of the range of TE coverages reported in other eudicots, although this estimate does not include TEs likely found in unassembled repetitive regions of

  3. Functional analyses of cellulose synthase genes in flax (Linum usitatissimum) by virus-induced gene silencing.

    Chantreau, Maxime; Chabbert, Brigitte; Billiard, Sylvain; Hawkins, Simon; Neutelings, Godfrey

    2015-12-01

    Flax (Linum usitatissimum) bast fibres are located in the stem cortex where they play an important role in mechanical support. They contain high amounts of cellulose and so are used for linen textiles and in the composite industry. In this study, we screened the annotated flax genome and identified 14 distinct cellulose synthase (CESA) genes using orthologous sequences previously identified. Transcriptomics of 'primary cell wall' and 'secondary cell wall' flax CESA genes showed that some were preferentially expressed in different organs and stem tissues providing clues as to their biological role(s) in planta. The development for the first time in flax of a virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) approach was used to functionally evaluate the biological role of different CESA genes in stem tissues. Quantification of transcript accumulation showed that in many cases, silencing not only affected targeted CESA clades, but also had an impact on other CESA genes. Whatever the targeted clade, inactivation by VIGS affected plant growth. In contrast, only clade 1- and clade 6-targeted plants showed modifications in outer-stem tissue organization and secondary cell wall formation. In these plants, bast fibre number and structure were severely impacted, suggesting that the targeted genes may play an important role in the establishment of the fibre cell wall. Our results provide new fundamental information about cellulose biosynthesis in flax that should facilitate future plant improvement/engineering. © 2015 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Genome-wide identification, characterization, and expression profile of aquaporin gene family in flax (Linum usitatissimum).

    Shivaraj, S M; Deshmukh, Rupesh K; Rai, Rhitu; Bélanger, Richard; Agrawal, Pawan K; Dash, Prasanta K

    2017-04-27

    Membrane intrinsic proteins (MIPs) form transmembrane channels and facilitate transport of myriad substrates across the cell membrane in many organisms. Majority of plant MIPs have water transporting ability and are commonly referred as aquaporins (AQPs). In the present study, we identified aquaporin coding genes in flax by genome-wide analysis, their structure, function and expression pattern by pan-genome exploration. Cross-genera phylogenetic analysis with known aquaporins from rice, arabidopsis, and poplar showed five subgroups of flax aquaporins representing 16 plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs), 17 tonoplast intrinsic proteins (TIPs), 13 NOD26-like intrinsic proteins (NIPs), 2 small basic intrinsic proteins (SIPs), and 3 uncharacterized intrinsic proteins (XIPs). Amongst aquaporins, PIPs contained hydrophilic aromatic arginine (ar/R) selective filter but TIP, NIP, SIP and XIP subfamilies mostly contained hydrophobic ar/R selective filter. Analysis of RNA-seq and microarray data revealed high expression of PIPs in multiple tissues, low expression of NIPs, and seed specific expression of TIP3 in flax. Exploration of aquaporin homologs in three closely related Linum species bienne, grandiflorum and leonii revealed presence of 49, 39 and 19 AQPs, respectively. The genome-wide identification of aquaporins, first in flax, provides insight to elucidate their physiological and developmental roles in flax.

  5. Analysis of action of device with spring pins for picking up of retted flax straw

    V. G. Chernikov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Weather conditions in flax cultivation areas during harvesting time can be characterized with high rainfalls, relative humidity and, in some areas, extremely low temperature. Clogging of fields with stones, grass germination through flax swaths, often an absence of homogeneity on length and thickness of straw in swaths require working out new devices for straw lifting. Existing devices for picking up do not provide a high-quality lifting of flax swaths and have a low coefficient of reliability of the process. Researches and experimental-design works were carried out to create a constructive-technological scheme of the picking up device of cylindrical type with spring-loaded rigid pins. The mathematical model of the device operation when a pin touching an obstacle. The condition of balance of the mechanism under which the pin of a cilinder will operate technological process of picking up of retted flax straw without action of the safety device (spring was described. The offered method of calculation of operation of this device was introduced in a common flax swath lifter-turners

  6. Modification of flax fibres by radiation induced emulsion graft copolymerization of glycidyl methacrylate

    Moawia, Rihab Musaad; Nasef, Mohamed Mahmoud; Mohamed, Nor Hasimah; Ripin, Adnan

    2016-01-01

    Flax fibres were modified by radiation induced graft copolymerization of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) by pre-irradiation method in an emulsion medium. The effect of reaction parameters on the degree of grafting (DOG) such as concentration of bleaching agent, absorbed dose, monomer concentration, temperature and reaction time were investigated. The DOG was found to be dependent on the investigated parameters. The incorporation of poly(GMA) grafts in the bleached flax fibres was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The structural and mechanical changes were evaluated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and mechanical tester, respectively. The results revealed that reacting bleached flax fibres irradiated with 20 kGy with 5% GMA emulsion containing 0.5% polyoxyethylene-sorbitan monolaurate (Tween 20) surfactant at 40 °C for 1 h led to a maximum DOG of 148%. The grafted fibres showed sufficient mechanical strength and hydrophobicity which make them promising precursors for development of adsorbents after appropriate chemical treatments. - Highlights: • Flax fibers were modified by radiation induced emulsion grafting of GMA. • Bleaching with 0.7 wt% Na-chlorite was essential for achieving high DOGs. • Effect of reaction parameters on the degree of grafting were established. • The incorporation of poly-GMA grafts was proved by SEM, FTIR and XRD. • The obtained poly-GMA grafted flax fibers have potential for adsorbent making.

  7. Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Tensile Behavior of Copper

    Sainath, G.; Srinivasan, V. S.; Choudhary, B. K.; Mathew, M. D.; Jayakumar, T.

    2014-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations on tensile deformation of initially defect free single crystal copper nanowire oriented in {100} has been carried out at 10 K under adiabatic and isothermal loading conditions. The tensile behaviour was characterized by sharp rise in stress in elastic regime followed by sudden drop at the point of dislocation nucleation. The important finding is that the variation in dislocation density is correlated with the observed stress-strain response. Several interesting ...

  8. Tensile strength of woven yarn kenaf fiber reinforced polyester composites

    A.E. Ismail; M.A. Che Abdul Aziz

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the tensile strength of woven kenaf fiber reinforced polyester composites. The as-received yarn kenaf fiber is weaved and then aligned into specific fiber orientations before it is hardened with polyester resin. The composite plates are shaped according to the standard geometry and uni-axially loaded in order to investigate the tensile responses. Two important parameters are studied such as fiber orientations and number of layers. According to the results, it is shown that...

  9. IR and Raman studies of oil and seedcake extracts from natural and genetically modified flax seeds

    Żuk, M.; Dymińska, L.; Kulma, A.; Boba, A.; Prescha, A.; Szopa, J.; Mączka, M.; Zając, A.; Szołtysek, K.; Hanuza, J.

    2011-03-01

    Flax plant of the third generation (F3) overexpressing key genes of flavonoid pathway cultivated in field in 2008 season was used as the plant material throughout this study. The biochemical properties of seed, oil and seedcake extracts from natural and transgenic flax plants were compared. Overproduction of flavonoids (kaempferol), phenolic acids (coumaric, ferulic/synapic) and lignan-secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) in oil and extracts from transgenic seeds has been revealed providing a valuable source of these compounds for biotechnological application. The changes in fatty acids composition and increase in their stability against oxidation along three plant generations were also detected. The analysis of oil and seedcake extracts was performed using Raman and IR spectroscopy. The wavenumbers and integral intensities of Raman and IR bands were used to identify the components of phenylpropanoid pathway in oil and seedcake extracts from control and transgenic flax seeds. The spectroscopic data were compared to those obtained from biochemical analysis.

  10. Catalytic subcritical water liquefaction of flax straw for high yield of furfural

    Harry, Inibehe; Ibrahim, Hussameldin; Thring, Ron; Idem, Raphael

    2014-01-01

    There is substantial interest in the application of biomass as a renewable fuel or for production of chemicals. Flax straw can be converted into valuable chemicals and biofuels via liquefaction in sub-critical water. In this study, the yield of furfural and the kinetics of flax straw liquefaction under sub-critical water conditions were investigated using a high-pressure autoclave reactor. The liquefaction was conducted in the temperature range of 175–325 °C, pressure of 0.1 MPa–8 MPa, retention time in the range of 0 min–120 min, and flax straw mass fraction (w F ) of 5–20 %. Also, the effect of acid catalysts on furfural yield was studied. The kinetic parameters of flax straw liquefaction were determined using nonlinear regression of the experimental data, assuming second-order kinetics. The apparent activation energy was found to be 27.97 kJ mol −1 while the reaction order was 2.0. The optimum condition for furfural yield was at 250 °C, 6.0 MPa, w F of 5% and 0 retention time after reaching set conditions. An acid catalyst was found to selectively favour furfural yield with 40% flax straw conversion. - Highlights: • Flax straw liquefaction in subcritical water. • Creation of a reaction pathway that can be used to optimized furfural production. • Acid catalyst selectively favoured furfural yield with respect to other liquid products. • At the highest process temperature of 325 °C, a carbon conversion of 40% was achieved. • Activation energy and reaction order was 28 kJ/mol and 2.0 respectively

  11. Biodegradation of flax fiber reinforced poly lactic acid

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Woven and nonwoven flax fiber reinforced poly lactic acid (PLA biocomposites were prepared with amphiphilic additives as accelerator for biodegradation. The prepared composites were buried in farmland soil for biodegradability studies. Loss in weight of the biodegraded composite samples was determined at different time intervals. The surface morphology of the biodegraded composites was studied with scanning electron microscope (SEM. Results indicated that in presence of mandelic acid, the composites showed accelerated biodegradation with 20–25% loss in weight after 50–60 days. On the other hand, in presence of dicumyl peroxide (as additive, biodegradation of the composites was relatively slow as confirmed by only 5–10% loss in weight even after 80–90 days. This was further confirmed by surface morphology of the biodegraded composites. We have attempted to show that depending on the end uses, we can add different amphiphilic additives for delayed or accelerated biodegradability. This work gives us the idea of biodegradation of materials from natural fiber reinforced PLA composites when discarded carelessly in the environment instead of proper waste disposal site.

  12. Penetration of nanoparticles in flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) calli and regenerants.

    Kokina, Inese; Gerbreders, Vjačeslavs; Sledevskis, Eriks; Bulanovs, Andrejs

    2013-05-20

    We demonstrate a method for direct delivery of metal nanoparticles to flax calli and regenerant cells by vacuum deposition of metal nanolayers on powdered hormone followed by dispersal of the combined hormone-metal in medium. The penetration and location of the gold (AuNPs) and silver (AgNPs) nanoparticles in calli and in plant regenerants were confirmed by optical absorption spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. We detected a significant effect of the AuNPs and AgNPs on the regeneration type of flax calli. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Assessing the Environmental Impact of Flax Fibre Reinforced Polymer Composite from a Consequential Life Cycle Assessment Perspective

    Yelin Deng

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The study implements the consequential life cycle assessment (CLCA to provide a market based perspective on how overall environmental impact will change when shifting glass fibres to flax fibres as reinforcements in composite fabrication. With certain assumptions, the marginal flax fibre supply is identified to be a combination of Chinese flax fibre (70% and French flax fibre (30%. Due to inferior cultivars and coal-fired electricity in Chinese flax cultivation, the CLCA study reveals that flax mat-PP has 0.8–2 times higher environmental impact values than the glass mat-PP in most environmental impact categories over the production and end-of-life (EoL phases. For purpose of providing potential trajectories of marginal flax fibre supply, additional scenarios: the “all French fibre”, and “all Chinese fibre” are evaluated formulating the lower and upper boundaries in terms of environmental impact change, respectively. A “the attributional fibre supply mix” scenario is supplied as well. All of these scenarios are useful for policy analysis.

  14. Flavonoid C-glucosides derived from flax straw extracts reduce human breast cancer cell growth in vitro and induce apoptosis.

    Magdalena Czemplik

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Flax straw of flax varieties that are grown for oil production is a byproduct which represents a considerable biomass source. Therefore its potential application for human use is of high interest. Our research has revealed that flax straw is rich in flavonoid C-glucosides, including vitexin, orientin and isoorientin. The objective of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxicity and possible proapoptotic effect of flax straw derived C-glucosides of flavonoids in the human breast adenocarcinoma cell line (MCF-7. The effects of flax straw derived flavonoid C-glucosides on cell proliferation of MCF-7 cells were evaluated by 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT and sulforhodamine B (SRB assays. The expression of apoptosis-related genes was assessed by real-time PCR. Our data revealed that flax C-glucosides as well as pure compounds are cytotoxic towards MCF-7 cells and inhibit their proliferation. Moreover, the induction of apoptosis was correlated with the changes in the mRNA level of pro-apoptotic genes. Increased expression of bax and caspase-7, -8, and -9 and decreased mRNA expression of bcl-2 was observed, whereas the mRNA levels of p53 and mdm2 were not altered. These results clearly demonstrated that flax straw metabolites effectively induced growth inhibition and apoptosis in human breast adenocarcinoma cells.

  15. Tensile strength of woven yarn kenaf fiber reinforced polyester composites

    A.E. Ismail

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the tensile strength of woven kenaf fiber reinforced polyester composites. The as-received yarn kenaf fiber is weaved and then aligned into specific fiber orientations before it is hardened with polyester resin. The composite plates are shaped according to the standard geometry and uni-axially loaded in order to investigate the tensile responses. Two important parameters are studied such as fiber orientations and number of layers. According to the results, it is shown that fiber orientations greatly affected the ultimate tensile strength but it is not for modulus of elasticity for both types of layers. It is estimated that the reductions of both ultimate tensile strength and Young’s modulus are in the range of 27.7-30.9% and 2.4-3.7% respectively, if the inclined fibers are used with respect to the principal axis.

  16. PT-Flax (phenotyping and TILLinG of flax): development of a flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) mutant population and TILLinG platform for forward and reverse genetics.

    Chantreau, Maxime; Grec, Sébastien; Gutierrez, Laurent; Dalmais, Marion; Pineau, Christophe; Demailly, Hervé; Paysant-Leroux, Christine; Tavernier, Reynald; Trouvé, Jean-Paul; Chatterjee, Manash; Guillot, Xavier; Brunaud, Véronique; Chabbert, Brigitte; van Wuytswinkel, Olivier; Bendahmane, Abdelhafid; Thomasset, Brigitte; Hawkins, Simon

    2013-10-15

    Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) is an economically important fiber and oil crop that has been grown for thousands of years. The genome has been recently sequenced and transcriptomics are providing information on candidate genes potentially related to agronomically-important traits. In order to accelerate functional characterization of these genes we have generated a flax EMS mutant population that can be used as a TILLinG (Targeting Induced Local Lesions in Genomes) platform for forward and reverse genetics. A population of 4,894 M2 mutant seed families was generated using 3 different EMS concentrations (0.3%, 0.6% and 0.75%) and used to produce M2 plants for subsequent phenotyping and DNA extraction. 10,839 viable M2 plants (4,033 families) were obtained and 1,552 families (38.5%) showed a visual developmental phenotype (stem size and diameter, plant architecture, flower-related). The majority of these families showed more than one phenotype. Mutant phenotype data are organised in a database and can be accessed and searched at UTILLdb (http://urgv.evry.inra.fr/UTILLdb). Preliminary screens were also performed for atypical fiber and seed phenotypes. Genomic DNA was extracted from 3,515 M2 families and eight-fold pooled for subsequent mutant detection by ENDO1 nuclease mis-match cleavage. In order to validate the collection for reverse genetics, DNA pools were screened for two genes coding enzymes of the lignin biosynthesis pathway: Coumarate-3-Hydroxylase (C3H) and Cinnamyl Alcohol Dehydrogenase (CAD). We identified 79 and 76 mutations in the C3H and CAD genes, respectively. The average mutation rate was calculated as 1/41 Kb giving rise to approximately 9,000 mutations per genome. Thirty-five out of the 52 flax cad mutant families containing missense or codon stop mutations showed the typical orange-brown xylem phenotype observed in CAD down-regulated/mutant plants in other species. We have developed a flax mutant population that can be used as an efficient

  17. The cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD gene family in flax (Linum usitatissimum L.: Insight from expression profiling of cads induced by elicitors in cultured flax cells

    Eom Hee Seung

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD is a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of lignin and lignans as it catalyzes the final step of monolignol biosynthesis, using NADPH as a cofactor. In higher plants, CAD is encoded by a multigene family consisting of three major classes. Based on the recently released flax (Linum usitatissimum L. whole-genome sequences, in this study we identified six CAD family genes that contain an ADH_N domain and an ADH_zinc_N domain, which suggests that the putative flax CADs (LuCADs are zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenases and members of the plant CAD family. In addition, expression analysis using quantitative real-time PCR revealed spatial variations in the expression of LuCADs in different organs. Comparative analysis between LuCAD enzymatic activity and LuCAD transcripts indicates that the variation of LuCAD enzymatic activities by elicitors is reflected by transcription of LuCADs in flax suspension-cultured cells. Taken together, our genome-wide analysis of CAD genes and the expression profiling of these genes provide valuable information for understanding the function of CADs, and will assist future studies on the physiological role of monolignols associated with plant defense.

  18. Effect of water absorption on mechanical properties of flax fibre reinforced composites

    Guduri, BBR

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Scutched and line flax fibres, with mean linear density of about 19.5 decitex, were utilized for this study. Mechanical properties of fibre and resin were measured for assessing their contribution in the composite matrix. Polypropylene (PP)/ short...

  19. Pectinmethylesterases (PME) and pectinmethylesterase inhibitors (PMEI) enriched during phloem fiber development in flax (Linum usitatissimum).

    Pinzon-Latorre, David; Deyholos, Michael K

    2014-01-01

    Flax phloem fibers achieve their length by intrusive-diffusive growth, which requires them to penetrate the extracellular matrix of adjacent cells. Fiber elongation therefore involves extensive remodelling of cell walls and middle lamellae, including modifying the degree and pattern of methylesterification of galacturonic acid (GalA) residues of pectin. Pectin methylesterases (PME) are important enzymes for fiber elongation as they mediate the demethylesterification of GalA in muro, in either a block-wise fashion or in a random fashion. Our objective was to identify PMEs and PMEIs that mediate phloem fiber elongation in flax. For this purpose, we measured transcript abundance of candidate genes at nine different stages of stem and fiber development and found sets of genes enriched during fiber elongation and maturation as well as during xylem development. We expressed one of the flax PMEIs in E. coli and demonstrated that it was able to inhibit most of the native PME activity in the upper portion of the flax stem. These results identify key genetic components of the intrusive growth process and define targets for fiber engineering and crop improvement.

  20. Identification of cell wall proteins in the flax (Linum usitatissimum) stem.

    Day, Arnaud; Fénart, Stéphane; Neutelings, Godfrey; Hawkins, Simon; Rolando, Christian; Tokarski, Caroline

    2013-03-01

    Sequential salt (CaCl2 , LiCl) extractions were used to obtain fractions enriched in cell wall proteins (CWPs) from the stem of 60-day-old flax (Linum usitatissimum) plants. High-resolution FT-ICR MS analysis and the use of recently published genomic data allowed the identification of 11 912 peptides corresponding to a total of 1418 different proteins. Subcellular localization using TargetP, Predotar, and WoLF PSORT led to the identification of 152 putative flax CWPs that were classified into nine different functional classes previously established for Arabidopsis thaliana. Examination of different functional classes revealed the presence of a number of proteins known to be involved in, or potentially involved in cell-wall metabolism in plants. The flax stem cell wall proteome was also compared with transcriptomic data previously obtained on comparable samples. This study represents a major contribution to the identification of CWPs in flax and will lead to a better understanding of cell wall biology in this species. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. [BIOINFORMATIC SEARCH AND PHYLOGENETIC ANALYSIS OF THE CELLULOSE SYNTHASE GENES OF FLAX (LINUM USITATISSIMUM)].

    Pydiura, N A; Bayer, G Ya; Galinousky, D V; Yemets, A I; Pirko, Ya V; Podvitski, T A; Anisimova, N V; Khotyleva, L V; Kilchevsky, A V; Blume, Ya B

    2015-01-01

    A bioinformatic search of sequences encoding cellulose synthase genes in the flax genome, and their comparison to dicots orthologs was carried out. The analysis revealed 32 cellulose synthase gene candidates, 16 of which are highly likely to encode cellulose synthases, and the remaining 16--cellulose synthase-like proteins (Csl). Phylogenetic analysis of gene products of cellulose synthase genes allowed distinguishing 6 groups of cellulose synthase genes of different classes: CesA1/10, CesA3, CesA4, CesA5/6/2/9, CesA7 and CesA8. Paralogous sequences within classes CesA1/10 and CesA5/6/2/9 which are associated with the primary cell wall formation are characterized by a greater similarity within these classes than orthologous sequences. Whereas the genes controlling the biosynthesis of secondary cell wall cellulose form distinct clades: CesA4, CesA7, and CesA8. The analysis of 16 identified flax cellulose synthase gene candidates shows the presence of at least 12 different cellulose synthase gene variants in flax genome which are represented in all six clades of cellulose synthase genes. Thus, at this point genes of all ten known cellulose synthase classes are identify in flax genome, but their correct classification requires additional research.

  2. Genetic diversity of cultivated flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) germplasm assessed by retrotransposon-based markers.

    Smýkal, P; Bačová-Kerteszová, N; Kalendar, R; Corander, J; Schulman, A H; Pavelek, M

    2011-05-01

    Retrotransposon segments were characterized and inter-retrotransposon amplified polymorphism (IRAP) markers developed for cultivated flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) and the Linum genus. Over 75 distinct long terminal repeat retrotransposon segments were cloned, the first set for Linum, and specific primers designed for them. IRAP was then used to evaluate genetic diversity among 708 accessions of cultivated flax comprising 143 landraces, 387 varieties, and 178 breeding lines. These included both traditional and modern, oil (86), fiber (351), and combined-use (271) accessions, originating from 36 countries, and 10 wild Linum species. The set of 10 most polymorphic primers yielded 141 reproducible informative data points per accession, with 52% polymorphism and a 0.34 Shannon diversity index. The maximal genetic diversity was detected among wild Linum species (100% IRAP polymorphism and 0.57 Jaccard similarity), while diversity within cultivated germplasm decreased from landraces (58%, 0.63) to breeding lines (48%, 0.85) and cultivars (50%, 0.81). Application of Bayesian methods for clustering resulted in the robust identification of 20 clusters of accessions, which were unstratified according to origin or user type. This indicates an overlap in genetic diversity despite disruptive selection for fiber versus oil types. Nevertheless, eight clusters contained high proportions (70-100%) of commercial cultivars, whereas two clusters were rich (60%) in landraces. These findings provide a basis for better flax germplasm management, core collection establishment, and exploration of diversity in breeding, as well as for exploration of the role of retrotransposons in flax genome dynamics.

  3. Structural characterization of guaiacyl-rich lignins in flax (Linum usitatissimum) fibers and shives.

    del Río, José C; Rencoret, Jorge; Gutiérrez, Ana; Nieto, Lidia; Jiménez-Barbero, Jesús; Martínez, Ángel T

    2011-10-26

    The structural characteristics of the lignins from flax (Linum usitatissimum) fibers and shives were studied. Significant differences in the content and composition of the lignin from both parts were observed. The lignin contents were 3.8% in the fibers and 29.0% in the shives. Analysis by Py-GC/MS indicated a H:G:S molar ratio of 13:72:15 in the milled wood lignin (MWL) isolated from flax fibers and a molar ratio of 5:87:8 in the MWL isolated from flax shives. In addition, 2D-NMR showed a predominance of β-O-4' aryl ether linkages, followed by β-5' phenylcoumaran and β-β' resinol-type linkages in both MWLs, with a higher content of condensed linkages in flax shives. Thioacidolysis (followed by Raney nickel desulfurization) gave further information on the lignin units involved in the different linkages and confirmed the enrichment of G units. The thioacidolysis dimers released were similar from both lignins, with a predominance of the β-5' followed by β-1' and 5-5' structures.

  4. Effects of genetic modifications to flax (Linum usitatissimum) on arbuscular mycorrhiza and plant performance.

    Wróbel-Kwiatkowska, Magdalena; Turnau, Katarzyna; Góralska, Katarzyna; Anielska, Teresa; Szopa, Jan

    2012-10-01

    Although arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are known for their positive effect on flax growth, the impact of genetic manipulation in this crop on arbuscular mycorrhiza and plant performance was assessed for the first time. Five types of transgenic flax that were generated to improve fiber quality and resistance to pathogens, through increased levels of either phenylpropanoids (W92.40), glycosyltransferase (GT4, GT5), or PR2 beta-1,3-glucanase (B14) or produce polyhydroxybutyrate (M50), were used. Introduced genetic modifications did not change the degree of mycorrhizal colonization as compared to parent cultivars Linola and Nike. Arbuscules were well developed in each tested transgenic type (except M50). In two lines (W92.40 and B14), a higher abundance of arbuscules was observed when compared to control, untransformed flax plants. However, in some cases (W92.40, GT4, GT5, and B14 Md), the mycorrhizal dependency for biomass production of transgenic plants was slightly lower when compared to the original cultivars. No significant influence of mycorrhiza on the photosynthetic activity of transformed lines was found, but in most cases P concentration in mycorrhizal plants remained higher than in nonmycorrhizal ones. The transformed flax lines meet the demands for better quality of fiber and higher resistance to pathogens, without significantly influencing the interaction with AMF.

  5. Nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, and zinc in southeastern USA harvested flax

    Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) is a winter crop in the Southeast USA that has potential in double cropping systems. This research was conducted to provide estimates of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), and zinc (Zn) removal in the harvested portions of the cro...

  6. Pectinmethylesterases (PME and pectinmethylesterase inhibitors (PMEI enriched during phloem fiber development in flax (Linum usitatissimum.

    David Pinzon-Latorre

    Full Text Available Flax phloem fibers achieve their length by intrusive-diffusive growth, which requires them to penetrate the extracellular matrix of adjacent cells. Fiber elongation therefore involves extensive remodelling of cell walls and middle lamellae, including modifying the degree and pattern of methylesterification of galacturonic acid (GalA residues of pectin. Pectin methylesterases (PME are important enzymes for fiber elongation as they mediate the demethylesterification of GalA in muro, in either a block-wise fashion or in a random fashion. Our objective was to identify PMEs and PMEIs that mediate phloem fiber elongation in flax. For this purpose, we measured transcript abundance of candidate genes at nine different stages of stem and fiber development and found sets of genes enriched during fiber elongation and maturation as well as during xylem development. We expressed one of the flax PMEIs in E. coli and demonstrated that it was able to inhibit most of the native PME activity in the upper portion of the flax stem. These results identify key genetic components of the intrusive growth process and define targets for fiber engineering and crop improvement.

  7. Improved method for fibre content and quality analysis and their application to flax genetic diversity investigations

    Oever, van den M.J.A.; Bas, N.; Soest, van L.J.M.; Melis, C.; Dam, van J.E.G.

    2003-01-01

    Evaluation for fibre content and quality in a breeding selection program is time consuming and costly. Therefore, this study aims to develop a method for fast and reproducible fibre content analysis on small flax straw samples. A protocol has been developed and verified with fibre screening methods

  8. Cultivation of flax in spoil-bank clay: Mycorrhizal inoculation vs. high organic amendments

    Püschel, David; Rydlová, Jana; Sudová, Radka; Gryndler, Milan

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 171, č. 6 (2008), s. 872-877 ISSN 1436-8730 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0571 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516; CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi * compost * flax Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.284, year: 2008

  9. Composition and distribution of cell wall phenolic compounds in flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) stem tissues

    Gorshkova, T.A.; Salnikov, V.V.; Pogodina, N.M.; Chemikosova, S.B.; Yablokova, E.V.; Ulanov, A.V.; Ageeva, M.V.; Dam, van J.E.G.; Lozovaya, V.V.

    2000-01-01

    Cell wall phenolic compounds were analysed in xylem and bast fibre-rich peels of flax stems by biochemical, histochemical and ultrastructural approaches. Localization of cell wall phenolics by the enzyme-gold method using laccase revealed several gold particle distribution patterns. One of the major

  10. Report of a Working Group on Fibre Crops (Flax and Hemp)

    Bas, N.; Pavelek, M.; Maggioni, L.; Lipman, E.

    2007-01-01

    Members of the newly established ECPGR Working Group on Fibre Crops (Flax and Hemp), in the framework of Sugar, Starch and Fibre Crops Network, met for the first time at Wageningen, the Netherlands on 14–16 June 2006. Fifteen participants from the Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Latvia,

  11. Computer image analysis of seed shape and seed color for flax cultivar description

    Wiesnerová, Dana; Wiesner, Ivo

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 2 (2008), s. 126-135 ISSN 0168-1699 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA521/03/0019 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : image analysis * cultivar description * flax Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 1.273, year: 2008

  12. Thermal behavior of flax and jute reinforced in matrix acrylic composite

    Samal, Sneha Manjaree; Stuchlík, M.; Petrikova, I.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 131, č. 2 (2017), s. 1-6 ISSN 1388-6150 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : flax * jute * acrylic resin * composite * DMA * TG * FTIR Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 1.953, year: 2016

  13. Identification and characterization of cis-acting elements involved in the regulation of ABA- and/or GA-mediated LuPLR1 gene expression and lignan biosynthesis in flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) cell cultures.

    Corbin, Cyrielle; Renouard, Sullivan; Lopez, Tatiana; Lamblin, Frédéric; Lainé, Eric; Hano, Christophe

    2013-03-15

    Pinoresinol lariciresinol reductase 1, encoded by the LuPLR1 gene in flax (Linum usitatissimum L.), is responsible for the biosynthesis of (+)-secoisolariciresinol, a cancer chemopreventive phytoestrogenic lignan accumulated in high amount in the hull of flaxseed. Our recent studies have demonstrated a key role of abscisic acid (ABA) in the regulation of LuPLR1 gene expression and thus of the (+)-secoisolariciresinol synthesis during the flax seedcoat development. It is well accepted that gibberellins (GA) and ABA play antagonistic roles in the regulation of numerous developmental processes; therefore it is of interest to clarify their respective effects on lignan biosynthesis. Herein, using flax cell suspension cultures, we demonstrate that LuPLR1 gene expression and (+)-secoisolariciresinol synthesis are up-regulated by ABA and down-regulated by GA. The LuPLR1 gene promoter analysis and mutation experiments allow us to identify and characterize two important cis-acting sequences (ABRE and MYB2) required for these regulations. These results imply that a cross-talk between ABA and GA signaling orchestrated by transcription factors is involved in the regulation of lignan biosynthesis. This is particularly evidenced in the case of the ABRE cis-regulatory sequence of LuPLR1 gene promoter that appears to be a common target sequence of GA and ABA signals. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Genome wide SNP discovery in flax through next generation sequencing of reduced representation libraries

    Kumar Santosh

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Flax (Linum usitatissimum L. is a significant fibre and oilseed crop. Current flax molecular markers, including isozymes, RAPDs, AFLPs and SSRs are of limited use in the construction of high density linkage maps and for association mapping applications due to factors such as low reproducibility, intense labour requirements and/or limited numbers. We report here on the use of a reduced representation library strategy combined with next generation Illumina sequencing for rapid and large scale discovery of SNPs in eight flax genotypes. SNP discovery was performed through in silico analysis of the sequencing data against the whole genome shotgun sequence assembly of flax genotype CDC Bethune. Genotyping-by-sequencing of an F6-derived recombinant inbred line population provided validation of the SNPs. Results Reduced representation libraries of eight flax genotypes were sequenced on the Illumina sequencing platform resulting in sequence coverage ranging from 4.33 to 15.64X (genome equivalents. Depending on the relatedness of the genotypes and the number and length of the reads, between 78% and 93% of the reads mapped onto the CDC Bethune whole genome shotgun sequence assembly. A total of 55,465 SNPs were discovered with the largest number of SNPs belonging to the genotypes with the highest mapping coverage percentage. Approximately 84% of the SNPs discovered were identified in a single genotype, 13% were shared between any two genotypes and the remaining 3% in three or more. Nearly a quarter of the SNPs were found in genic regions. A total of 4,706 out of 4,863 SNPs discovered in Macbeth were validated using genotyping-by-sequencing of 96 F6 individuals from a recombinant inbred line population derived from a cross between CDC Bethune and Macbeth, corresponding to a validation rate of 96.8%. Conclusions Next generation sequencing of reduced representation libraries was successfully implemented for genome-wide SNP discovery from

  15. The genome of flax (Linum usitatissimum) assembled de novo from short shotgun sequence reads.

    Wang, Zhiwen; Hobson, Neil; Galindo, Leonardo; Zhu, Shilin; Shi, Daihu; McDill, Joshua; Yang, Linfeng; Hawkins, Simon; Neutelings, Godfrey; Datla, Raju; Lambert, Georgina; Galbraith, David W; Grassa, Christopher J; Geraldes, Armando; Cronk, Quentin C; Cullis, Christopher; Dash, Prasanta K; Kumar, Polumetla A; Cloutier, Sylvie; Sharpe, Andrew G; Wong, Gane K-S; Wang, Jun; Deyholos, Michael K

    2012-11-01

    Flax (Linum usitatissimum) is an ancient crop that is widely cultivated as a source of fiber, oil and medicinally relevant compounds. To accelerate crop improvement, we performed whole-genome shotgun sequencing of the nuclear genome of flax. Seven paired-end libraries ranging in size from 300 bp to 10 kb were sequenced using an Illumina genome analyzer. A de novo assembly, comprised exclusively of deep-coverage (approximately 94× raw, approximately 69× filtered) short-sequence reads (44-100 bp), produced a set of scaffolds with N(50) =694 kb, including contigs with N(50)=20.1 kb. The contig assembly contained 302 Mb of non-redundant sequence representing an estimated 81% genome coverage. Up to 96% of published flax ESTs aligned to the whole-genome shotgun scaffolds. However, comparisons with independently sequenced BACs and fosmids showed some mis-assembly of regions at the genome scale. A total of 43384 protein-coding genes were predicted in the whole-genome shotgun assembly, and up to 93% of published flax ESTs, and 86% of A. thaliana genes aligned to these predicted genes, indicating excellent coverage and accuracy at the gene level. Analysis of the synonymous substitution rates (K(s) ) observed within duplicate gene pairs was consistent with a recent (5-9 MYA) whole-genome duplication in flax. Within the predicted proteome, we observed enrichment of many conserved domains (Pfam-A) that may contribute to the unique properties of this crop, including agglutinin proteins. Together these results show that de novo assembly, based solely on whole-genome shotgun short-sequence reads, is an efficient means of obtaining nearly complete genome sequence information for some plant species. © 2012 The Authors. The Plant Journal © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Phylogenetic pinpointing of a paleopolyploidy event within the flax genus (Linum) using transcriptomics.

    Sveinsson, Saemundur; McDill, Joshua; Wong, Gane K S; Li, Juanjuan; Li, Xia; Deyholos, Michael K; Cronk, Quentin C B

    2014-04-01

    Cultivated flax (Linum usitatissimum) is known to have undergone a whole-genome duplication around 5-9 million years ago. The aim of this study was to investigate whether other whole-genome duplication events have occurred in the evolutionary history of cultivated flax. Knowledge of such whole-genome duplications will be important in understanding the biology and genomics of cultivated flax. Transcriptomes of 11 Linum species were sequenced using the Illumina platform. The short reads were assembled de novo and the DupPipe pipeline was used to look for signatures of polyploidy events from the age distribution of paralogues. In addition, phylogenies of all paralogues were assembled within an estimated age window of interest. These phylogenies were assessed for evidence of a paleopolyploidy event within the genus Linum. A previously unknown paleopolyploidy event that occurred 20-40 million years ago was discovered and shown to be specific to a clade within Linum containing cultivated flax (L. usitatissimum) and other mainly blue-flowered species. The finding was supported by two lines of evidence. First, a significant change of slope (peak) was shown in the age distribution of paralogues that was phylogenetically restricted to, and ubiquitous in, this clade. Second, a large number of paralogue phylogenies were retrieved that are consistent with a polyploidy event occurring within that clade. The results show the utility of multi-species transcriptomics for detecting whole-genome duplication events and demonstrate that that multiple rounds of polyploidy have been important in shaping the evolutionary history of flax. Understanding and characterizing these whole-genome duplication events will be important for future Linum research.

  17. Biomechanical properties of an advanced new carbon/flax/epoxy composite material for bone plate applications.

    Bagheri, Zahra S; El Sawi, Ihab; Schemitsch, Emil H; Zdero, Rad; Bougherara, Habiba

    2013-04-01

    This work is part of an ongoing program to develop a new carbon fiber/flax/epoxy (CF/flax/epoxy) hybrid composite material for use as an orthopaedic long bone fracture plate, instead of a metal plate. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the mechanical properties of this new novel composite material. The composite material had a "sandwich structure", in which two thin sheets of CF/epoxy were attached to each outer surface of the flax/epoxy core, which resulted in a unique structure compared to other composite plates for bone plate applications. Mechanical properties were determined using tension, three-point bending, and Rockwell hardness tests. Also, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to characterize the failure mechanism of specimens in tension and three-point bending tests. The results of mechanical tests revealed a considerably high ultimate strength in both tension (399.8MPa) and flexural loading (510.6MPa), with a higher elastic modulus in bending tests (57.4GPa) compared to tension tests (41.7GPa). The composite material experienced brittle catastrophic failure in both tension and bending tests. The SEM images, consistent with brittle failure, showed mostly fiber breakage and fiber pull-out at the fractured surfaces with perfect bonding at carbon fibers and flax plies. Compared to clinically-used orthopaedic metal plates, current CF/flax/epoxy results were closer to human cortical bone, making the material a potential candidate for use in long bone fracture fixation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Impact of Indian Mustard (Brassica juncea and Flax (Linum usitatissimum Seed Meal Applications on Soil Carbon, Nitrogen, and Microbial Dynamics

    Autumn S. Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a critical need to investigate how land application of dedicated biofuel oilseed meals affects soil ecosystems. In this study, mustard (Brassica juncea and flax (Linum usitatissimum seed meals and sorghum-sudangrass (Sorghum bicolor were added to soil at levels of 0, 1, 2.5, and 5% (w/w. Both the type of amendment and application rate affected soil organic C, total C & N, and C & N mineralization. Mustard meal amendment initially inhibited C mineralization as compared to flax, but >50% of mustard and flax organic C was mineralized within 51 d. Nitrogen mineralization was similar for flax and mustard, except for the 2.5% rate for which a lower proportion of mustard N was converted to nitrate. The mustard meal greatly impacted microbial community composition, appearing to select for specific fungal populations. The potential varying impacts of different oilseed meals on soil ecosystems should be considered when developing recommendations for land application.

  19. Damage-induced tensile instability

    Hult, J.

    1975-01-01

    The paper presents a unified description of ductile and brittle rupture phenomena in structural components under tensile loading with particular emphasis on creep rupture. Two structural elements are analyzed in detail: 1) the uniform tensile bar subject to a Heaviside history of tensile force and superimposed such loadings, i.e. staircase histories, and 2) the thinwalled spherical pressure vessel subject to a Heaviside history of internal pressure. For both these structures the conditions for instantaneous as well as delayed rupture are analysed. It is shown that a state of mechanical instability will be reached at a certain load or after a certain time. The cases of purely ductile rupture and purely brittle fracture are identified as two limiting cases of this general instability phenomenon. The Kachanov-Rabotnov damage law implies that a structural component will fail in tension only when it has reached a state of complete damage, i.e. zero load carrying capacity. The extended law predicts failure at an earlier stage of the deterioration process and is therefore more compatible with experimental observation. Further experimental support is offered by predictions for staircase loading histories, both step-up and step-down type. The presented damage theory here predicts strain histories which are in closer agreement with test data than predictions based on other phenomenological theories

  20. TENSILE RESPONSES OF TREATED CISSUS POPULNEA FIBERS

    HOD

    2 DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING, NNAMDI AZIKIWE ... (RSM) with central composite design. ... synthetic fibers for industrial applications partly ..... Cellulosic Fibers Using Eco-Friendly Compounds .... 1078 – 1097, 2017.

  1. The genome of flax (Linum usitatissimum) assembled de novo from short shotgun sequence reads

    Wang, Zhiwen; Hobson, Neil; Galindo, Leonardo

    2012-01-01

    Flax (Linum usitatissimum) is an ancient crop that is widely cultivated as a source of fiber, oil and medicinally relevant compounds. To accelerate crop improvement, we performed whole-genome shotgun sequencing of the nuclear genome of flax. Seven paired-end libraries ranging in size from 300 bp...... these results show that de novo assembly, based solely on whole-genome shotgun short-sequence reads, is an efficient means of obtaining nearly complete genome sequence information for some plant species....

  2. [Development of specific and degenerated primers to CesA genes encoding flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) cellulose synthase].

    Grushetskaia, Z E; Lemesh, V A; Khotyleva, L V

    2010-01-01

    Cellulose synthase catalytic subunit genes, CesA, have been discovered in several higher plant species, and it has been shown that the CesA gene family has multiple members. HVR2 fragment of these genes determine the class specificity of the CESA protein and its participation in the primary or secondary cell wall synthesis. The aim of this study was development of specific and degenerated primers to flax CesA gene fragments leading to obtaining the class specific HVR2 region of the gene. Two pairs of specific primers to the certain fragments of CesA-1 and CesA-6 genes and one pair of degenerated primers to HVR2 region of all flax CesA genes were developed basing on comparison of six CesA EST sequences of flax and full cDNA sequences of Arabidopsis, poplar, maize and cotton plants, obtained from GenBank. After amplification of flax cDNA, the bands of expected size were detected (201 and 300 b.p. for the CesA-1 and CesA-6, and 600 b.p. for the HVR2 region of CesA respectively). The developed markers can be used for cloning and sequencing of flax CesA genes, identifying their number in flax genome, tissue and stage specificity.

  3. Rheological properties of molten flax- and Tencel"®-polypropylene composites: Influence of fiber morphology and concentration

    Abdennadher, Ahmed; Vincent, Michel; Budtova, Tatiana

    2016-01-01

    The rheological properties of short fiber reinforced polypropylene were investigated. Flax and Tencel"® are two cellulose based fibers used in this study. Flax fibers are extracted from the bast of plants. They are composed of thin elementary fibers and rigid thick bundles made of elementary fibers “glued” together. Tencel"® is a man-made cellulosic fiber spun from cellulose solution, with a uniform diameter, thin, and flexible. First, fiber dimensions before and after compounding were analyzed. Both types of fibers were broken during compounding. Flax shows larger length and diameter than Tencel"®, but aspect ratio of flax is smaller. The reason is that after compounding flax remained in bundles. Dynamic viscosity, elastic and viscous moduli were studied as a function of fiber type, concentration (from 0 to 30 wt. %), and composite temperature (from 180 to 200 °C). All Tencel"®-based composites showed higher apparent yield stress, viscosity, and moduli compared to flax-based composites at the same fiber concentrations. The results are analyzed in terms of the influence of fiber type, aspect ratio, and flexibility. The importance of considering fiber morphology is demonstrated as far as it controls fiber flexibility and fiber-fiber interactions

  4. Selection of reference genes for quantitative gene expression normalization in flax (Linum usitatissimum L.

    Neutelings Godfrey

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR is currently the most accurate method for detecting differential gene expression. Such an approach depends on the identification of uniformly expressed 'housekeeping genes' (HKGs. Extensive transcriptomic data mining and experimental validation in different model plants have shown that the reliability of these endogenous controls can be influenced by the plant species, growth conditions and organs/tissues examined. It is therefore important to identify the best reference genes to use in each biological system before using qRT-PCR to investigate differential gene expression. In this paper we evaluate different candidate HKGs for developmental transcriptomic studies in the economically-important flax fiber- and oil-crop (Linum usitatissimum L. Results Specific primers were designed in order to quantify the expression levels of 20 different potential housekeeping genes in flax roots, internal- and external-stem tissues, leaves and flowers at different developmental stages. After calculations of PCR efficiencies, 13 HKGs were retained and their expression stabilities evaluated by the computer algorithms geNorm and NormFinder. According to geNorm, 2 Transcriptional Elongation Factors (TEFs and 1 Ubiquitin gene are necessary for normalizing gene expression when all studied samples are considered. However, only 2 TEFs are required for normalizing expression in stem tissues. In contrast, NormFinder identified glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GADPH as the most stably expressed gene when all samples were grouped together, as well as when samples were classed into different sub-groups. qRT-PCR was then used to investigate the relative expression levels of two splice variants of the flax LuMYB1 gene (homologue of AtMYB59. LuMYB1-1 and LuMYB1-2 were highly expressed in the internal stem tissues as compared to outer stem tissues and other samples. This result was confirmed with both ge

  5. Selection of reference genes for quantitative gene expression normalization in flax (Linum usitatissimum L.).

    Huis, Rudy; Hawkins, Simon; Neutelings, Godfrey

    2010-04-19

    Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) is currently the most accurate method for detecting differential gene expression. Such an approach depends on the identification of uniformly expressed 'housekeeping genes' (HKGs). Extensive transcriptomic data mining and experimental validation in different model plants have shown that the reliability of these endogenous controls can be influenced by the plant species, growth conditions and organs/tissues examined. It is therefore important to identify the best reference genes to use in each biological system before using qRT-PCR to investigate differential gene expression. In this paper we evaluate different candidate HKGs for developmental transcriptomic studies in the economically-important flax fiber- and oil-crop (Linum usitatissimum L). Specific primers were designed in order to quantify the expression levels of 20 different potential housekeeping genes in flax roots, internal- and external-stem tissues, leaves and flowers at different developmental stages. After calculations of PCR efficiencies, 13 HKGs were retained and their expression stabilities evaluated by the computer algorithms geNorm and NormFinder. According to geNorm, 2 Transcriptional Elongation Factors (TEFs) and 1 Ubiquitin gene are necessary for normalizing gene expression when all studied samples are considered. However, only 2 TEFs are required for normalizing expression in stem tissues. In contrast, NormFinder identified glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GADPH) as the most stably expressed gene when all samples were grouped together, as well as when samples were classed into different sub-groups.qRT-PCR was then used to investigate the relative expression levels of two splice variants of the flax LuMYB1 gene (homologue of AtMYB59). LuMYB1-1 and LuMYB1-2 were highly expressed in the internal stem tissues as compared to outer stem tissues and other samples. This result was confirmed with both geNorm-designated- and Norm

  6. UGT74S1 is the key player in controlling secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) formation in flax.

    Fofana, Bourlaye; Ghose, Kaushik; McCallum, Jason; You, Frank M; Cloutier, Sylvie

    2017-02-02

    Flax lignan, commonly known as secoisolariciresinol (SECO) diglucoside (SDG), has recently been reported with health-promoting activities, including its positive impact in metabolic diseases. However, not much was reported on the biosynthesis of SDG and its monoglucoside (SMG) until lately. Flax UGT74S1 was recently reported to sequentially glucosylate SECO into SMG and SDG in vitro. However, whether this gene is the only UGT achieving SECO glucosylation in flax was not known. Flax genome-wide mining for UGTs was performed. Phylogenetic and gene duplication analyses, heterologous gene expression and enzyme assays were conducted to identify family members closely related to UGT74S1 and to establish their roles in SECO glucosylation. A total of 299 different UGTs were identified, of which 241 (81%) were duplicated. Flax UGTs diverged 2.4-153.6 MYA and 71% were found to be under purifying selection pressure. UGT74S1, a single copy gene located on chromosome 7, displayed no evidence of duplication and was deemed to be under positive selection pressure. The phylogenetic analysis identified four main clusters where cluster 4, which included UGT74S1, was the most diverse. The duplicated UGT74S4 and UGT74S3, located on chromosomes 8 and 14, respectively, were the most closely related to UGT74S1 and were differentially expressed in different tissues. Heterologous expression levels of UGT74S1, UGT74S4 and UGT74S3 proteins were similar but UGT74S4 and UGT74S3 glucosylation activity towards SECO was seven fold less than UGT74S1. In addition, they both failed to produce SDG, suggesting neofunctionalization following their divergence from UGT74S1. We showed that UGT74S1 is closely related to two duplicated genes, UGT74S4 and UGT74S3 which, unlike UGT74S1, failed to glucosylate SMG into SDG. The study suggests that UGT74S1 may be the key player in controlling SECO glucosylation into SDG in flax although its closely related genes may also contribute to a minor extent in supplying

  7. Flammability and thermal properties studies of nonwoven flax reinforced acrylic based polyester composites

    Rasyid, M. F. Ahmad; Salim, M. S.; Akil, H. M.; Ishak, Z. A. Mohd.

    2017-12-01

    In the pursuit of green and more sustainable product, natural fibre reinforced composites originating from renewable resources has gained interest in recent years. These natural fibres exhibit good mechanical properties, low production costs, and good environmental properties. However, one of the disadvantages of natural fibre reinforced composites is their high flammability that limits their application in many fields. Within this research, the effect of sodium silicate on the flammability and thermal properties of flax reinforced acrylic based polyester composites has been investigated. Sodium silicate is applied as binder and flame retardant system in impregnation process of the natural flax fiber mats. The addition of sodium silicate significantly improved the flame retardant efficiency but reduced the degree of crosslinking of the composites.

  8. Effect of Genotypic and Environmental Differences on Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.)

    Amer, I.M; Moustafa, H.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    Genotype X environment (GE) interactions for some flax characters nd their effects on yield of three divergent mutant lines two local cultivars were studied over five environmental conditions (three years and different soils) at Inshas, Egypt. the obtained results reveled that the variance due to environmental conditions were greater than the variance due to genotypes, or GE interaction for all studied traits. the variances due to GE interactions were greater than the variances for genotypes in seed yield and its related traits and vice versa in straw yield and its related traits. the environmental conditions exhibited greater effect on the local cultivars than on mutant lines. the mutant line 25 gave the highest seeds and straw yield / plant over all environments. adaptability and performance stability of a line over years and sites are interested for flax producer for growing a cultivar with high yield and performance stability at his location

  9. High renewable content sandwich structures based on flax-basalt hybrids and biobased epoxy polymers

    Colomina, S.; Boronat, T.; Fenollar, O.; Sánchez-Nacher, L.; Balart, R.

    2014-05-01

    In the last years, a growing interest in the development of high environmental efficiency materials has been detected and this situation is more accentuated in the field of polymers and polymer composites. In this work, green composite sandwich structures with high renewable content have been developed with core cork materials. The base resin for composites was a biobased epoxy resin derived from epoxidized vegetable oils. Hybrid basalt-flax fabrics have been used as reinforcements for composites and the influence of the stacking sequence has been evaluated in order to optimize the appropriate laminate structure for the sandwich bases. Core cork materials with different thickness have been used to evaluate performance of sandwich structures thus leading to high renewable content composite sandwich structures. Results show that position of basalt fabrics plays a key role in flexural fracture of sandwich structures due to differences in stiffness between flax and basalt fibers.

  10. The effect of cytokinins on flax seed germination at low temperature

    Irena Niedźwiedź-Siegień

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Germination of flax seeds (Linum usitatissimum L., cv. Szafir at 5oC was enhanced by continuous white light, gibberellin A3 (GA3, kinetin and benzylaminopurine. GA3 and kinetin at physiological concentrations (10-8-10-6 M improved significantly germination in darkness. Stimulatory effect of benzylaminopurine was visible only in the light. Almost no effect of zeatin and isopentenyladenine (2iP on germination was observed. Possible causes of this differences were suggested.

  11. Outlier Loci and Selection Signatures of Simple Sequence Repeats (SSRs) in Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.).

    Soto-Cerda, Braulio J; Cloutier, Sylvie

    2013-01-01

    Genomic microsatellites (gSSRs) and expressed sequence tag-derived SSRs (EST-SSRs) have gained wide application for elucidating genetic diversity and population structure in plants. Both marker systems are assumed to be selectively neutral when making demographic inferences, but this assumption is rarely tested. In this study, three neutrality tests were assessed for identifying outlier loci among 150 SSRs (85 gSSRs and 65 EST-SSRs) that likely influence estimates of population structure in three differentiated flax sub-populations ( F ST  = 0.19). Moreover, the utility of gSSRs, EST-SSRs, and the combined sets of SSRs was also evaluated in assessing genetic diversity and population structure in flax. Six outlier loci were identified by at least two neutrality tests showing footprints of balancing selection. After removing the outlier loci, the STRUCTURE analysis and the dendrogram topology of EST-SSRs improved. Conversely, gSSRs and combined SSRs results did not change significantly, possibly as a consequence of the higher number of neutral loci assessed. Taken together, the genetic structure analyses established the superiority of gSSRs to determine the genetic relationships among flax accessions, although the combined SSRs produced the best results. Genetic diversity parameters did not differ statistically ( P  > 0.05) between gSSRs and EST-SSRs, an observation partially explained by the similar number of repeat motifs. Our study provides new insights into the ability of gSSRs and EST-SSRs to measure genetic diversity and structure in flax and confirms the importance of testing for the occurrence of outlier loci to properly assess natural and breeding populations, particularly in studies considering only few loci.

  12. SSR and morphological trait based population structure analysis of 130 diverse flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) accessions.

    Choudhary, Shashi Bhushan; Sharma, Hariom Kumar; Kumar, Arroju Anil; Maruthi, Rangappa Thimmaiah; Mitra, Jiban; Chowdhury, Isholeena; Singh, Binay Kumar; Karmakar, Pran Gobinda

    2017-02-01

    A total of 130 flax accessions of diverse morphotypes and worldwide origin were assessed for genetic diversity and population structure using 11 morphological traits and microsatellite markers (15 gSSRs and 7 EST-SSRs). Analysis performed after classifying these accessions on the basis of plant height, branching pattern, seed size, Indian/foreign origin into six categories called sub-populations viz. fibre type exotic, fibre type indigenous, intermediate type exotic, intermediate type indigenous, linseed type exotic and linseed type indigenous. The study assessed different diversity indices, AMOVA, population structure and included a principal coordinate analysis based on different marker systems. The highest diversity was exhibited by gSSR markers (SI=0.46; He=0.31; P=85.11). AMOVA based on all markers explained significant difference among fibre type, intermediate type and linseed type populations of flax. In terms of variation explained by different markers, EST-SSR markers (12%) better differentiated flax populations compared to morphological (9%) and gSSR (6%) markers at P=0.01. The maximum Nei's unbiased genetic distance (D=0.11) was observed between fibre type and linseed type exotic sub-populations based on EST-SSR markers. The combined structure analysis by using all markers grouped Indian fibre type accessions (63.4%) in a separate cluster along with the Indian intermediate type (48.7%), whereas Indian accessions (82.16%) of linseed type constituted an independent cluster. These findings were supported by the results of the principal coordinate analysis. Morphological markers employed in the study found complementary with microsatellite based markers in deciphering genetic diversity and population structure of the flax germplasm. Copyright © 2016 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Natural Hypolignification Is Associated with Extensive Oligolignol Accumulation in Flax Stems1[C][W

    Huis, Rudy; Morreel, Kris; Fliniaux, Ophélie; Lucau-Danila, Anca; Fénart, Stéphane; Grec, Sébastien; Neutelings, Godfrey; Chabbert, Brigitte; Mesnard, François; Boerjan, Wout; Hawkins, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Flax (Linum usitatissimum) stems contain cells showing contrasting cell wall structure: lignified in inner stem xylem tissue and hypolignified in outer stem bast fibers. We hypothesized that stem hypolignification should be associated with extensive phenolic accumulation and used metabolomics and transcriptomics to characterize these two tissues. 1H nuclear magnetic resonance clearly distinguished inner and outer stem tissues and identified different primary and secondary metabolites, including coniferin and p-coumaryl alcohol glucoside. Ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance-mass spectrometry aromatic profiling (lignomics) identified 81 phenolic compounds, of which 65 were identified, to our knowledge, for the first time in flax and 11 for the first time in higher plants. Both aglycone forms and glycosides of monolignols, lignin oligomers, and (neo)lignans were identified in both inner and outer stem tissues, with a preponderance of glycosides in the hypolignified outer stem, indicating the existence of a complex monolignol metabolism. The presence of coniferin-containing secondary metabolites suggested that coniferyl alcohol, in addition to being used in lignin and (neo)lignan formation, was also utilized in a third, partially uncharacterized metabolic pathway. Hypolignification of bast fibers in outer stem tissues was correlated with the low transcript abundance of monolignol biosynthetic genes, laccase genes, and certain peroxidase genes, suggesting that flax hypolignification is transcriptionally regulated. Transcripts of the key lignan genes Pinoresinol-Lariciresinol Reductase and Phenylcoumaran Benzylic Ether Reductase were also highly abundant in flax inner stem tissues. Expression profiling allowed the identification of NAC (NAM, ATAF1/2, CUC2) and MYB transcription factors that are likely involved in regulating both monolignol production and polymerization as well as (neo)lignan production. PMID:22331411

  14. Combined treatment of retting flax wastewater using Fenton oxidation and granular activated carbon

    Abou-Elela, Sohair I.; Ali, Mohammed Eid M.; Ibrahim, Hanan S.

    2016-01-01

    The process of retting flax produces a huge amount of wastewater which is characterized with bad unpleasant smell and high concentration of organic materials. Treatment of such waste had always been difficult because of the presence of refractory organic pollutants such as lignin. In this study, treatment of retting wastewater was carried out using combined system of Fenton oxidation process followed by adsorption on granular activated carbon (GAC). The effects of operating condition on Fento...

  15. Methyl Salicylate Level Increase in Flax after Fusarium oxysporum Infection Is Associated with Phenylpropanoid Pathway Activation

    Boba, Aleksandra; Kostyn, Kamil; Kostyn, Anna; Wojtasik, Wioleta; Dziadas, Mariusz; Preisner, Marta; Szopa, Jan; Kulma, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Flax (Linum usitatissimum) is a crop plant valued for its oil and fiber. Unfortunately, large losses in cultivation of this plant are caused by fungal infections, with Fusarium oxysporum being one of its most dangerous pathogens. Among the plant's defense strategies, changes in the expression of genes of the shikimate/phenylpropanoid/benzoate pathway and thus in phenolic contents occur. Among the benzoates, salicylic acid, and its methylated form methyl salicylate play an important role in re...

  16. Effect of gamma rays on yield , fiber and seed characteristics of flax

    Amer, I.M.A.

    1980-01-01

    The present investigation deals with effect of radiation on flex in two main experiments . In the first one which could be considered as a pilot experiment, the seeds of giza-4 (the dominating local variety of flax) were irradiated with gamma ray doses ranging from 2.5 to 200 Kr to find out the suitable doses for a long - term program of mutation breeding in flax. The finding of such preliminary program could be summarized in the following: a) A dose of 100 kr affected the germination rate and inhibited the growth of flax plants. b) A dose of 200 kr was shown to be a lethal one under the conditions of this experiment. c) Some deviations in plant and yield characteristics than the normal type ( i . e., plant and yield characteristics of Gaza 4) were observed at relatively low doses. These deviations were tested in the M2 generation . True mutations (i.e., deviations that proved to breed true) were selected and their seeds (M2- derived lines were tested in M3 generation). Data about these M2 -derived lines when tested in the M3 generation will be summarized with the data of the main experiment

  17. ANALYSIS OF STABILITY OF TRINUCLEOTIDE TTC MOTIFS IN COMMON FLAX PLANTED IN THE CHERNOBYL AREA

    Veronika Lancíková

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Flax (Linum usitatissimum L. is one of the oldest domesticated plants — it was cultivated as early as in ancient Egypt and Samaria 10,000 years ago to serve as a source of fiber and oil, whence it later spread around the world. Compared with other plants, the flax genome consists of a high number of repetitive sequences, middle repetitive sequences and small repetitive sequences of nucleotides. The aim of the study was to analyze the stability of the existing trinucleotides motifs of microsatellite DNA of the flax genome (genotype Kyivskyi, growing in the Chernobyl conditions. The Chernobyl area is the most extensive “natural” laboratory suitable for the study of radiation effects. Over the last 20 years, the researches collected important knowledge about the effects of low and high radiation doses on the DNA isolated from the plant material growing on the remediated fields near Chernobyl and the plant material from fields contaminated by radioactive cesium 137Cs and strontium 90Sr. Using eight pairs of microsatellite primers, we successfully amplified the samples from the remediated fields. For each primer in the control samples and remediated samples, we detected 1 to 3 fragments per locus, each in size up to 120 to 250 base pairs. The applied microsatellite primers confirmed the monomorphic condition of microsatellite loci.

  18. Integrated consensus genetic and physical maps of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.).

    Cloutier, Sylvie; Ragupathy, Raja; Miranda, Evelyn; Radovanovic, Natasa; Reimer, Elsa; Walichnowski, Andrzej; Ward, Kerry; Rowland, Gordon; Duguid, Scott; Banik, Mitali

    2012-12-01

    Three linkage maps of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) were constructed from populations CDC Bethune/Macbeth, E1747/Viking and SP2047/UGG5-5 containing between 385 and 469 mapped markers each. The first consensus map of flax was constructed incorporating 770 markers based on 371 shared markers including 114 that were shared by all three populations and 257 shared between any two populations. The 15 linkage group map corresponds to the haploid number of chromosomes of this species. The marker order of the consensus map was largely collinear in all three individual maps but a few local inversions and marker rearrangements spanning short intervals were observed. Segregation distortion was present in all linkage groups which contained 1-52 markers displaying non-Mendelian segregation. The total length of the consensus genetic map is 1,551 cM with a mean marker density of 2.0 cM. A total of 670 markers were anchored to 204 of the 416 fingerprinted contigs of the physical map corresponding to ~274 Mb or 74 % of the estimated flax genome size of 370 Mb. This high resolution consensus map will be a resource for comparative genomics, genome organization, evolution studies and anchoring of the whole genome shotgun sequence.

  19. Linen Most Useful: Perspectives on Structure, Chemistry, and Enzymes for Retting Flax

    Akin, Danny E.

    2013-01-01

    The components of flax (Linum usitatissimum) stems are described and illustrated, with reference to the anatomy and chemical makeup and to applications in processing and products. Bast fiber, which is a major economic product of flax along with linseed and linseed oil, is described with particular reference to its application in textiles, composites, and specialty papers. A short history of retting methods, which is the separation of bast fiber from nonfiber components, is presented with emphasis on water retting, field retting (dew retting), and experimental methods. Past research on enzyme retting, particularly by the use of pectinases as a potential replacement for the current commercial practice of field retting, is reviewed. The importance and mechanism of Ca2+ chelators with pectinases in retting are described. Protocols are provided for retting of both fiber-type and linseed-type flax stems with different types of pectinases. Current and future applications are listed for use of a wide array of enzymes to improve processed fibers and blended yarns. Finally, potential lipid and aromatic coproducts derived from the dust and shive waste streams of fiber processing are indicated. PMID:25969769

  20. Radiation-grafting of flame retardants on flax fabrics - A comparison between different flame retardant structures

    Teixeira, Marie; Sonnier, Rodolphe; Otazaghine, Belkacem; Ferry, Laurent; Aubert, Mélanie; Tirri, Teija; Wilén, Carl-Eric; Rouif, Sophie

    2018-04-01

    Three unsaturated compounds bearing respectively phosphate, aryl bromide and sulfenamide moieties were used as flame retardants (FR) for flax fabrics. Due to the presence of carbon-carbon double bonds, radiation-grafting was considered to covalently bond these FR onto fiber structure. Grafting efficiency and location of FR molecules were investigated by weight measurements and SEM-EDX observations. Flammability and especially self-extinguishment were assessed by thermogravimetric analysis, pyrolysis-combustion flow calorimetry and a non-standardized fire test already used in previous studies. All FRs were able to diffuse into elementary fiber bulk. Nevertheless only the phosphonated monomer (noted FR-P) was significantly grafted onto flax. Self-extinguishment was obtained for fabrics containing at least around 0.5 wt% of phosphorus. On the contrary the FR content of flax fibers after radiation-grafting procedure and washing was negligible for FR-S and FR-Br, evidencing that these molecules have not been grafted upon irradiation. Moreover, the combination of these molecules prevents the radiation-grafting of other molecules which showed good grafting rate when used alone.

  1. Comparative analysis of proteomic changes in contrasting flax cultivars upon cadmium exposure.

    Hradilová, Jana; Rehulka, Pavel; Rehulková, Helena; Vrbová, Miroslava; Griga, Miroslav; Brzobohatý, Bretislav

    2010-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is classified as a serious pollutant due to its high toxicity, high carcinogenicity, and widespread presence in the environment. Phytoremediation represents an effective low-cost approach for removing pollutants from contaminated soils, and a crop with significant phytoremediation potential is flax. However, significant differences in Cd accumulation and tolerance were previously found among commercial flax cultivars. Notably, cv. Jitka showed substantially higher tolerance to elevated Cd levels in soil and plant tissues than cv. Tábor. Here, significant changes in the expression of 14 proteins (related to disease/defense, metabolism, protein destination and storage, signal transduction, energy and cell structure) were detected by image and mass spectrometric analysis of two-dimensionally separated proteins extracted from Cd-treated cell suspension cultures derived from these contrasting cultivars. Further, two proteins, ferritin and glutamine synthetase (a key enzyme in glutathione biosynthesis), were only up-regulated by Cd in cv. Jitka, indicating that Cd tolerance mechanisms in this cultivar may include maintenance of low Cd levels at sensitive sites by ferritin and low-molecular weight thiol peptides binding Cd. The identified changes could facilitate marker-assisted breeding for Cd tolerance and the development of transgenic flax lines with enhanced Cd tolerance and accumulation capacities for phytoremediating Cd-contaminated soils.

  2. Modification of flax fibres by radiation induced emulsion graft copolymerization of glycidyl methacrylate

    Moawia, Rihab Musaad; Nasef, Mohamed Mahmoud; Mohamed, Nor Hasimah; Ripin, Adnan

    2016-05-01

    Flax fibres were modified by radiation induced graft copolymerization of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) by pre-irradiation method in an emulsion medium. The effect of reaction parameters on the degree of grafting (DOG) such as concentration of bleaching agent, absorbed dose, monomer concentration, temperature and reaction time were investigated. The DOG was found to be dependent on the investigated parameters. The incorporation of poly(GMA) grafts in the bleached flax fibres was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The structural and mechanical changes were evaluated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and mechanical tester, respectively. The results revealed that reacting bleached flax fibres irradiated with 20 kGy with 5% GMA emulsion containing 0.5% polyoxyethylene-sorbitan monolaurate (Tween 20) surfactant at 40 °C for 1 h led to a maximum DOG of 148%. The grafted fibres showed sufficient mechanical strength and hydrophobicity which make them promising precursors for development of adsorbents after appropriate chemical treatments.

  3. Study of ecologo-biological reactions of common flax to finely dispersed metallurgical wastes

    Zakharova, O.; Gusev, A.; Skripnikova, E.; Skripnikova, M.; Krutyakov, Yu; Kudrinsky, A.; Mikhailov, I.; Senatova, S.; Chuprunov, C.; Kuznetsov, D.

    2015-11-01

    Study was carried out on the influence of metallurgic industrial sludge on morphometric and biochemical indicators as well as productivity of common flax under laboratory and field conditions. In laboratory settings negative influence on seed germinating ability and positive influence on sprouts biomass production in water medium were observed. In sand medium suppression of biological productivity under the influence of sludge together with photosynthetic system II (FS II) activity stimulation were registered. Biochemical study showed peroxidase activity decrease in laboratory, while activity of polyphenol oxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase were given a mild boost under the influence of sludge. In the field trial, positive influence of sludge on flax photosynthetic apparatus was shown. Positive influence of sludge on vegetation and yield indicators was observed. The analysis of heavy metals content showed excess over maximum allowable concentration (MAC) of copper and zinc in control plants, it may point to the background soil pollution. In the plants from the trial groups receiving 0.5 and 2 ton/ha heavy metals content below the control values was registered. Application of 4 ton/ha led to the maximum content of copper and zinc in the plants among the trial groups. The analysis of soils from the test plots indicated no excess over maximum allowable concentrations of heavy metals. Thus, further study of possibilities of using metallurgic industrial sludge as a soil stimulator in flax cultivation at the application rate of 0.5 t/ha seems promising.

  4. Tensile properties of orthodontic elastomeric ligatures.

    Ahrari, F; Jalaly, T; Zebarjad, M

    2010-01-01

    Tensile properties of elastomeric ligatures become important when efficiency of orthodontic appliances is considered. The aim of this study was to compare tensile strength, extension to tensile strength, toughness and modulus of elasticity of elastomeric ligatures in both the as--received condition and after 28 days of immersion in the simulated oral environment. Furthermore, the changes that occurred in tensile properties of each brand of ligatures after 28 days were evaluated. Experimental-laboratory based. Elastomeric ligatures were obtained from different companies and their tensile properties were measured using Zwick testing machine in both the as-received condition and after 28 days of immersion in the simulated oral environment. The data were analyzed using independent sample t-tests, analysis of variance and Tukey tests. After 28 days, all the ligatures experienced a significant decrease in tensile strength, extension to tensile strength and toughness ( P tensile properties of different brands of ligatures in both conditions ( P tensile properties of different brands of ligatures, which should be considered during selection of these products.

  5. Characteristics of Lignin from Flax Shives as Affected by Extraction Conditions

    Ross, Kelly; Mazza, Giuseppe

    2010-01-01

    Lignin, a polyphenolic molecule, is a major constituent of flax shives. This polyphenolic molecular structure renders lignin a potential source of a variety of commercially viable products such as fine chemicals. This work compares the performance of different lignin isolation methods. Lignin from flax shive was isolated using both conventional alkaline extraction method and a novel experimental pressurized low polarity water (PLPW) extraction process. The lignin yields and chemical composition of the lignin fractions were determined. The conventional alkali treatment with 1.25 M NaOH, heated at 80 °C for 5 h, extracted 92 g lignin per kg flax shives, while lignin yields from the PLPW extracts ranged from 27 to 241 g lignin per kg flax shives. The purity and monomeric composition of the lignins obtained from the different extraction conditions was assessed via UV spectroscopy and alkaline nitrobenzene oxidation. Lignin obtained from conventional alkali treatment with 1.25 M NaOH, heated at 80 °C for 5 h was of low purity and exhibited the lowest yields of nitrobenzene oxidation products. With respect to alkali assisted PLPW extractions, temperature created an opposing effect on lignin yield and nitrobenzene oxidation products. More lignin was extracted as temperature increased, yet the yield of nitrobenzene oxidation products decreased. The low yield of nitrobenzene oxidation products may be attributed to either the formation of condensed structures or the selective dissolution of condensed structures of lignin during the pressurized alkaline high temperature treatment. Analytical pyrolysis, using pyroprobe GC-MS, was used to investigate the molecular composition of the lignin samples. The total yield of pyrolysis lignin products was 13.3, 64.7, and 30.5% for the 1.25 M NaOH extracted lignin, alkaline assisted PLPW extracted lignin, and the unprocessed flax shives, respectively. Key lignin derived compounds such as guaiacol, 4-vinyl guaiacol, 4-methyl guaiacol

  6. Improving retting of fibre through genetic modification of flax to express pectinases.

    Musialak, Magdalena; Wróbel-Kwiatkowska, Magdalena; Kulma, Anna; Starzycka, Eligia; Szopa, Jan

    2008-02-01

    Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) is a raw material used for important industrial products. Linen has very high quality textile properties, such as its strength, water absorption, comfort and feel. However, it occupies less than 1% of the total textile market. The major reason for this is the long and difficult retting process by which linen fibres are obtained. In retting, bast fibre bundles are separated from the core, the epidermis and the cuticle. This is accomplished by the cleavage of pectins and hemicellulose in the flax cell wall, a process mainly carried out by plant pathogens like filamentous fungi. The remaining bast fibres are mainly composed of cellulose and lignin. The aim of this study was to generate plants that could be retted more efficiently. To accomplish this, we employed the novel approach of transgenic flax plant generation with increased polygalacturonase (PGI ) and rhamnogalacturonase (RHA) activities. The constitutive expression of Aspergillus aculeatus genes resulted in a significant reduction in the pectin content in tissue-cultured and field-grown plants. This pectin content reduction was accompanied by a significantly higher (more than 2-fold) retting efficiency of the transgenic plant fibres as measured by a modified Fried's test. No alteration in the lignin or cellulose content was observed in the transgenic plants relative to the control. This indicates that the over-expression of the two enzymes does not affect flax fibre composition. The growth rate and soluble sugar and starch contents were in the range of the control levels. It is interesting to note that the RHA and PGI plants showed higher resistance to Fusarium culmorum and F. oxysporum attack, which correlates with the increased phenolic acid level. In this report, we demonstrate for the first time that over-expression of the A. aculeatus genes results in flax plants more readily usable for fibre production. The biochemical parameters of the cell wall components indicated that

  7. The biomedical potential of genetically modified flax seeds overexpressing the glucosyltransferase gene

    2012-01-01

    Background Flax (Linum usitatissimum) is a potential source of many bioactive components that can be found in its oil and fibers, but also in the seedcake, which is rich in antioxidants. To increase the levels of medically beneficial compounds, a genetically modified flax type (named GT) with an elevated level of phenylopropanoids and their glycoside derivatives was generated. In this study, we investigated the influence of GT seedcake extract preparations on human fibroblast proliferation and migration, and looked at the effect on a human skin model. Moreover, we verified its activity against bacteria of clinical relevance. Methods The GT flax used in this study is characterized by overexpression of the glucosyltransferase gene derived from Solanum sogarandinum. Five GT seedcake preparations were generated. Their composition was assessed using ultra pressure liquid chromatography and confirmed using the UPLC-QTOF method. For the in vitro evaluation, the influence of the GT seedcake preparations on normal human dermal fibroblast proliferation was assessed using the MTT test and the wound scratch assay. A human skin model was used to evaluate the potential for skin irritation. To assess the antimicrobial properties of GT preparations, the percentage of inhibition of bacterial growth was calculated. Results The GT seedcake extract had elevated levels of phenylopropanoid compounds in comparison to the control, non-transformed plants. Significant increases in the content of ferulic acid, p-coumaric acid and caffeic acid, and their glucoside derivatives, kaempferol, quercitin and secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) were observed in the seeds of the modified plants. The GT seedcake preparations were shown to promote the proliferation of normal human dermal fibroblasts and the migration of fibroblasts in the wound scratch assay. The superior effect of GT seedcake extract on fibroblast migration was observed after a 24-hour treatment. The skin irritation test indicated

  8. Molecular details of secretory phospholipase A2 from flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) provide insight into its structure and function.

    Gupta, Payal; Dash, Prasanta K

    2017-09-11

    Secretory phospholipase A 2 (sPLA 2 ) are low molecular weight proteins (12-18 kDa) involved in a suite of plant cellular processes imparting growth and development. With myriad roles in physiological and biochemical processes in plants, detailed analysis of sPLA 2 in flax/linseed is meagre. The present work, first in flax, embodies cloning, expression, purification and molecular characterisation of two distinct sPLA 2 s (I and II) from flax. PLA 2 activity of the cloned sPLA 2 s were biochemically assayed authenticating them as bona fide phospholipase A 2 . Physiochemical properties of both the sPLA 2 s revealed they are thermostable proteins requiring di-valent cations for optimum activity.While, structural analysis of both the proteins revealed deviations in the amino acid sequence at C- & N-terminal regions; hydropathic study revealed LusPLA 2 I as a hydrophobic protein and LusPLA 2 II as a hydrophilic protein. Structural analysis of flax sPLA 2 s revealed that secondary structure of both the proteins are dominated by α-helix followed by random coils. Modular superimposition of LusPLA 2 isoforms with rice sPLA 2 confirmed monomeric structural preservation among plant phospholipase A 2 and provided insight into structure of folded flax sPLA 2 s.

  9. Development of basic populations of plant species suitable for the production of fatty acids, especially considering linseed, false flax and poppy

    Seehuber, R.; Dambroth, M.

    1987-01-01

    Seed yields, oil contents and oil yields from experiments conducted over a four year period and at five locations are presented for linseed (linum usitatissimum), false flax (Camelina sativa) and oilseed poppy (Papaver somniferum). The influence of year and location on the yields was very high, but oil contents have been relatively stable. The highest oil yields in kg/ha as mean for four years were for linseed 898, for false flax 892 and for poppy 901. Yields and oil contents of winter false flax were slightly higher than in summer false flax. The variability in the collections of plant genetic resources of the presented crops is demonstrated at the example of the frequency distributions of plant height. First results of yield trials of crossing progenies in false flax and poppy show the large possibilities of increasing seed yields. (orig.)

  10. Non-contact tensile viscoelastic characterization of microscale biological materials

    Li, Yuhui; Hong, Yuan; Xu, Guang-Kui; Liu, Shaobao; Shi, Qiang; Tang, Deding; Yang, Hui; Genin, Guy M.; Lu, Tian Jian; Xu, Feng

    2018-06-01

    Many structures and materials in nature and physiology have important "meso-scale" structures at the micron length-scale whose tensile responses have proven difficult to characterize mechanically. Although techniques such as atomic force microscopy and micro- and nano-identation are mature for compression and indentation testing at the nano-scale, and standard uniaxial and shear rheometry techniques exist for the macroscale, few techniques are applicable for tensile-testing at the micrometre-scale, leaving a gap in our understanding of hierarchical biomaterials. Here, we present a novel magnetic mechanical testing (MMT) system that enables viscoelastic tensile testing at this critical length scale. The MMT system applies non-contact loading, avoiding gripping and surface interaction effects. We demonstrate application of the MMT system to the first analyses of the pure tensile responses of several native and engineered tissue systems at the mesoscale, showing the broad potential of the system for exploring micro- and meso-scale analysis of structured and hierarchical biological systems.

  11. Cavitation contributes substantially to tensile creep in silicon nitride

    Luecke, W.E.; Wiederhorn, S.M.; Hockey, B.J.; Krause, R.F. Jr.; Long, G.G.

    1995-01-01

    During tensile creep of a hot isostatically pressed (HIPed) silicon nitride, the volume fraction of cavities increases linearly with strain; these cavities produce nearly all of the measured strain. In contrast, compressive creep in the same stress and temperature range produces very little cavitation. A stress exponent that increases with stress (var-epsilon ∝ σ n , 2 < n < 7) characterizes the tensile creep response, while the compressive creep response exhibits a stress dependence of unity. Furthermore, under the same stress and temperature, the material creeps nearly 100 times faster in tension than in compression. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) indicates that the cavities formed during tensile creep occur in pockets of residual crystalline silicate phase located at silicon nitride multigrain junctions. Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) from crept material quantifies the size distribution of cavities observed in TEM and demonstrates that cavity addition, rather than cavity growth, dominates the cavitation process. These observations are in accord with a model for creep based on the deformation of granular materials in which the microstructure must dilate for individual grains t slide past one another. During tensile creep the silicon nitride grains remain rigid; cavitation in the multigrain junctions allows the silicate to flow from cavities to surrounding silicate pockets, allowing the dilation of the microstructure and deformation of the material. Silicon nitride grain boundary sliding accommodates this expansion and leads to extension of the specimen. In compression, where cavitation is suppressed, deformation occurs by solution-reprecipitation of silicon nitride

  12. LPTR irradiation of LLL vanadium tensile specimens and LLL Nb--1Zr tensile specimens

    MacLean, S.C.; Rowe, C.L.

    1977-01-01

    The LPTR irradiation of 14 LLL vanadium tensile specimens and 14 LLL Nb-1Zr tensile specimens is described. Sample packaging, the irradiation schedule and neutron fluences for three energy ranges are given

  13. Evolution of tensile design stresses for lumber

    William L. Galligan; C. C. Gerhards; R. L. Ethington

    1979-01-01

    Until approximately 1965, allowable design stresses for lumber in tension were taken as equal to those assigned for bending. As interest in tensile properties increased, testing machines were designed specifically to stress lumber in tension. Research results that accumulated on tensile tests of full-size lumber suggested lower design stresses for tension than for...

  14. Dilatometer for use in tensile tests

    Coumans, W.J.; Heikens, D.

    1980-01-01

    An accurate dilatometer is described which permits simultaneous and automatic recording of sample vol. change during tensile tests on a com. tester. Liq. displacements in the dilatometer capillary, which correspond to vol. changes of the sample, are detected by a cond. meter. Tensile load is

  15. Effect of N+Cr alloying on the microstructures and tensile properties of Hadfield steel

    Chen, C. [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Zhang, F.C., E-mail: zfc@ysu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); National Engineering Research Center for Equipment and Technology of Cold Strip Rolling, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Wang, F. [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Liu, H.; Yu, B.D. [China Railway Shanhaiguan Bridge Group Co. LTD, Qinhuangdao 066205 (China)

    2017-01-02

    The microstructures and tensile behaviors of traditional Hadfield steel, named Mn12 steel, and Hadfield steel alloyed with N+Cr, named Mn12CrN steel were studied through optical microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy, among others. Three different tensile strain rates of 5×10{sup −4}, 5×10{sup −3}, and 5×10{sup −2} s{sup −1} were selected in the tensile test. The deformation microstructures and fracture morphologies of the two steels after fracture in the tensile test were observed to analyze the tensile deformation response to different tensile strain rates. Results showed that the grain size of Mn12CrN steel was evidently refined after alloying with N+Cr. The grain would not become abnormally coarse even with increasing austenitizing temperature. During tensile deformation, the strength and plasticity of Mn12CrN steel were superior to those of Mn12 steel at the same strain rate. With increasing the strain rate, the changes in strength and plasticity of Mn12CrN steel were less sensitive to tensile strain rate compared with Mn12 steel. The effects of grain refinement and N+Cr alloying on dynamic strain aging and deformation twining behaviors were responsible for this lack of sensitivity to strain rate.

  16. Effect of N+Cr alloying on the microstructures and tensile properties of Hadfield steel

    Chen, C.; Zhang, F.C.; Wang, F.; Liu, H.; Yu, B.D.

    2017-01-01

    The microstructures and tensile behaviors of traditional Hadfield steel, named Mn12 steel, and Hadfield steel alloyed with N+Cr, named Mn12CrN steel were studied through optical microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy, among others. Three different tensile strain rates of 5×10 −4 , 5×10 −3 , and 5×10 −2 s −1 were selected in the tensile test. The deformation microstructures and fracture morphologies of the two steels after fracture in the tensile test were observed to analyze the tensile deformation response to different tensile strain rates. Results showed that the grain size of Mn12CrN steel was evidently refined after alloying with N+Cr. The grain would not become abnormally coarse even with increasing austenitizing temperature. During tensile deformation, the strength and plasticity of Mn12CrN steel were superior to those of Mn12 steel at the same strain rate. With increasing the strain rate, the changes in strength and plasticity of Mn12CrN steel were less sensitive to tensile strain rate compared with Mn12 steel. The effects of grain refinement and N+Cr alloying on dynamic strain aging and deformation twining behaviors were responsible for this lack of sensitivity to strain rate.

  17. Dynamic Tensile Experimental Techniques for Geomaterials: A Comprehensive Review

    Heard, W.; Song, B.; Williams, B.; Martin, B.; Sparks, P.; Nie, X.

    2018-01-01

    This review article is dedicated to the Dynamic Behavior of Materials Technical Division for celebrating the 75th anniversary of the Society for Experimental Mechanics (SEM). Understanding dynamic behavior of geomaterials is critical for analyzing and solving engineering problems of various applications related to underground explosions, seismic, airblast, and penetration events. Determining the dynamic tensile response of geomaterials has been a great challenge in experiments due to the nature of relatively low tensile strength and high brittleness. Various experimental approaches have been made in the past century, especially in the most recent half century, to understand the dynamic behavior of geomaterials in tension. In this review paper, we summarized the dynamic tensile experimental techniques for geomaterials that have been developed. The major dynamic tensile experimental techniques include dynamic direct tension, dynamic split tension, and spall tension. All three of the experimental techniques are based on Hopkinson or split Hopkinson (also known as Kolsky) bar techniques and principles. Uniqueness and limitations for each experimental technique are also discussed.

  18. Physical mapping and BAC-end sequence analysis provide initial insights into the flax (Linum usitatissimum L. genome

    Cloutier Sylvie

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Flax (Linum usitatissimum L. is an important source of oil rich in omega-3 fatty acids, which have proven health benefits and utility as an industrial raw material. Flax seeds also contain lignans which are associated with reducing the risk of certain types of cancer. Its bast fibres have broad industrial applications. However, genomic tools needed for molecular breeding were non existent. Hence a project, Total Utilization Flax GENomics (TUFGEN was initiated. We report here the first genome-wide physical map of flax and the generation and analysis of BAC-end sequences (BES from 43,776 clones, providing initial insights into the genome. Results The physical map consists of 416 contigs spanning ~368 Mb, assembled from 32,025 fingerprints, representing roughly 54.5% to 99.4% of the estimated haploid genome (370-675 Mb. The N50 size of the contigs was estimated to be ~1,494 kb. The longest contig was ~5,562 kb comprising 437 clones. There were 96 contigs containing more than 100 clones. Approximately 54.6 Mb representing 8-14.8% of the genome was obtained from 80,337 BES. Annotation revealed that a large part of the genome consists of ribosomal DNA (~13.8%, followed by known transposable elements at 6.1%. Furthermore, ~7.4% of sequence was identified to harbour novel repeat elements. Homology searches against flax-ESTs and NCBI-ESTs suggested that ~5.6% of the transcriptome is unique to flax. A total of 4064 putative genomic SSRs were identified and are being developed as novel markers for their use in molecular breeding. Conclusion The first genome-wide physical map of flax constructed with BAC clones provides a framework for accessing target loci with economic importance for marker development and positional cloning. Analysis of the BES has provided insights into the uniqueness of the flax genome. Compared to other plant genomes, the proportion of rDNA was found to be very high whereas the proportion of known transposable

  19. Physical mapping and BAC-end sequence analysis provide initial insights into the flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) genome.

    Ragupathy, Raja; Rathinavelu, Rajkumar; Cloutier, Sylvie

    2011-05-09

    Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) is an important source of oil rich in omega-3 fatty acids, which have proven health benefits and utility as an industrial raw material. Flax seeds also contain lignans which are associated with reducing the risk of certain types of cancer. Its bast fibres have broad industrial applications. However, genomic tools needed for molecular breeding were non existent. Hence a project, Total Utilization Flax GENomics (TUFGEN) was initiated. We report here the first genome-wide physical map of flax and the generation and analysis of BAC-end sequences (BES) from 43,776 clones, providing initial insights into the genome. The physical map consists of 416 contigs spanning ~368 Mb, assembled from 32,025 fingerprints, representing roughly 54.5% to 99.4% of the estimated haploid genome (370-675 Mb). The N50 size of the contigs was estimated to be ~1,494 kb. The longest contig was ~5,562 kb comprising 437 clones. There were 96 contigs containing more than 100 clones. Approximately 54.6 Mb representing 8-14.8% of the genome was obtained from 80,337 BES. Annotation revealed that a large part of the genome consists of ribosomal DNA (~13.8%), followed by known transposable elements at 6.1%. Furthermore, ~7.4% of sequence was identified to harbour novel repeat elements. Homology searches against flax-ESTs and NCBI-ESTs suggested that ~5.6% of the transcriptome is unique to flax. A total of 4064 putative genomic SSRs were identified and are being developed as novel markers for their use in molecular breeding. The first genome-wide physical map of flax constructed with BAC clones provides a framework for accessing target loci with economic importance for marker development and positional cloning. Analysis of the BES has provided insights into the uniqueness of the flax genome. Compared to other plant genomes, the proportion of rDNA was found to be very high whereas the proportion of known transposable elements was low. The SSRs identified from BES will be

  20. Production properties of flax (Linum usitatissimum L. cultivated in Strumica region, Republic of Macedonia

    P. Vuckov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The purpose of this research was to determine the production properties of 5 flax genotypes cultivated in agro-ecological conditions in the Strumica region, Republic of Macedonia.The research was conducted in a period of two years (2014 and 2015, on the research fields in Strumica at Uni Service - Agro, Faculty of Agriculture, University Goce Delchev, Stip.The research was conducted on 5 genotypes of flax, 4 of which are domestic intermediate genotypes (transitive flax (Velusina, Duferin, Belan, Belinka and one French introduced fiber flax variety (Viking. The experiment consisted of five variants in three iterations, divided by the method of random block system for each genotype.The number of fruit per plant in both years of testing is statistically different among different genotypes. In the first year of the examination (2014, the largest number of fruit per plant had genotype Velusina (156 and the lowest (70 3 genotype Belan. In the second year of the examination (2015, the largest number of fruit per plant had the genotype Velusina (102.3 and the lowest (54 7, genotype Belinka.There is no statistically significant difference in number of seeds in the fruit among the tested genotypes. In the first year of the examination (2014, the largest number of seeds in fruit had genotype Velusina (4 63 and the lowest (2 26 - genotype Viking. In the second year of the examination (2015, the largest number of seeds in fruit had genotype Belan (9.96 and the lowest (7.06 - genotype Duferin. In the first year of the examination (2014, the largest number of seed yield per plant in kg/ha had the genotype Viking (500 kg/ha and the lowest - genotype Belinka (210 kg/ha. In the second year of the examination (2015, the largest number of seed yield per plant in kg/ha had genotype Velusina (1100 kg/ha and the lowest - genotype Belinka (780 kg/ha. In both years of research (2014 and 2015 there were statistically significant differences on the level of

  1. Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) - a natural resource for food and textiles for 8000 years. Cross-disciplinary investigations on the evolution and cultural history of flax and linen. Programme and abstracts of the first workshop 24-26 November 2009 in the Carlsberg Academy Copenhagen, Denmark

    Karg, Sabine

    Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) - a natural resource for food and textiles for 8000 years. Cross-disciplinary investigations on the evolution and cultural history of flax and linen. Programme and abstracts of the first workshop 24-26 November 2009 in the Carlsberg Academy Copenhagen, Denmark...

  2. Karg S. (ed.) Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) - a natural resource for food and textiles for 8000 years. Cross-disciplinary investigations on the evolution and cultural history of flax and linen. Programme and abstracts of the second workshop 28-30 June 2010 at Sonnerupgaard and in the Land

    Karg, Sabine

    2010-01-01

    Karg S. (ed.) Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) - a natural resource for food and textiles for 8000 years. Cross-disciplinary investigations on the evolution and cultural history of flax and linen. Programme and abstracts of the second workshop 28-30 June 2010 at Sonnerupgaard and in the Land...

  3. Flax lignan concentrate attenuate hypertension and abnormal left ventricular contractility via modulation of endogenous biomarkers in two-kidney-one-clip (2K1C hypertensive rats

    Sameer Hanmantrao Sawant

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The present investigation was designed to study the effect of flax lignan concentrate obtained from Linum usitatissimum L., Linaceae, in two-kidney, one clip (2K1C hypertension model in Wistar rats. 2K1C Goldblatt model rats were divided randomly into six groups: sham, 2K1C control, captopril (30 mg/kg, flax lignan concentrate (200, 400 and 800 mg/kg. Flax lignan concentrate and captopril were administered daily for eight consecutive weeks. Sham-operated, and 2K1C control rats received the vehicle. Treatment with flax lignan concentrate (400 and 800 mg/kg significantly and dose-dependently restored the hemodynamic parameters systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial blood pressure and left ventricular functions. The flax lignan concentrate significantly restored the elevated hepatic, renal and cardiac marker enzymes in the serum. It also restored the organs weights (kidney and heart, serum electrolyte level and histological abnormalities. Furthermore, flax lignan concentrate significantly elevated the level of biochemical markers that is enzymatic antioxidants superoxide dismutase, glutathione and decreased malondialdehyde in the heart and kidney tissues. Meanwhile, we found that plasma nitric oxide and plasma nitric oxide synthase contents were significantly increased in the flax lignan concentrate-treated group, and plasma endothelin-1 and renal angiotensin-II levels were significantly lower than 2K1C hypertensive group. In conclusion, the antihypertensive and antioxidant effect of flax lignan concentrate were dose-dependent and at the highest dose (i.e. 800 mg/kg similar to those of captopril (30 mg/kg. It is suggested that flax lignan concentrate reduced blood pressure by reduction of renal angiotensin-II level, inhibition of plasma endothelin-1 production, induction of the nitric oxide, nitric oxide synthase and in vivo antioxidant defense system.

  4. Behaviour of eggshell membranes at tensile loading

    Strnková, M.J.; Nedomová, Š.; Trnka, Jan; Buchar, J.; Kumbár, V.

    46 B, December (2014), s. 44-48 ISSN 0324-1130 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : eggshell membrane * tensile loading * loading rate * stress * strain strength Subject RIV: GM - Food Processing Impact factor: 0.201, year: 2014

  5. Tensile Properties of Open Cell Ceramic Foams

    Dlouhý, Ivo; Řehořek, Lukáš; Chlup, Zdeněk

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 409, - (2009), s. 168-175 ISSN 1013-9826. [Fractography of Advanced Ceramics /3./. Stará Lesná, 07.09.2008-10.09.2008] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA106/06/0724; GA ČR GD106/05/H008 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : tensile test * ceramics foam * open porosity * tensile strength Subject RIV: JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass

  6. Tensile Behaviour of Open Cell Ceramic Foams

    Řehořek, Lukáš; Dlouhý, Ivo; Chlup, Zdeněk

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 4 (2009), s. 237-241 ISSN 0862-5468 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/09/1821; GA ČR GD106/09/H035 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : Tensile test * Ceramics foam * Open porosity * Tensile strength Subject RIV: JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass Impact factor: 0.649, year: 2009

  7. Tensile properties of unirradiated path A PCA

    Braski, D.N.; Maziasz, P.J.

    1983-01-01

    The tensile properties of PCA in the Al (solution annealed), A3 (25%-cold worked), and B2 (aged, cold worked, and reaged) conditions were determined from room temperature to 600 0 C. The tensile behavior of PCA-A1 and -A3 was generally similar to that of titanium-modified type 316 stainless steel with similar microstructures. The PCA-B2 was weaker than PCA-A3, especially above 500 0 C, but demonstrated slightly better ducility

  8. Digital gene expression profiling of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) stem peel identifies genes enriched in fiber-bearing phloem tissue.

    Guo, Yuan; Qiu, Caisheng; Long, Songhua; Chen, Ping; Hao, Dongmei; Preisner, Marta; Wang, Hui; Wang, Yufu

    2017-08-30

    To better understand the molecular mechanisms and gene expression characteristics associated with development of bast fiber cell within flax stem phloem, the gene expression profiling of flax stem peels and leaves were screened, using Illumina's Digital Gene Expression (DGE) analysis. Four DGE libraries (2 for stem peel and 2 for leaf), ranging from 6.7 to 9.2 million clean reads were obtained, which produced 7.0 million and 6.8 million mapped reads for flax stem peel and leave, respectively. By differential gene expression analysis, a total of 975 genes, of which 708 (73%) genes have protein-coding annotation, were identified as phloem enriched genes putatively involved in the processes of polysaccharide and cell wall metabolism. Differential expression genes (DEGs) was validated using quantitative RT-PCR, the expression pattern of all nine genes determined by qRT-PCR fitted in well with that obtained by sequencing analysis. Cluster and Gene Ontology (GO) analysis revealed that a large number of genes related to metabolic process, catalytic activity and binding category were expressed predominantly in the stem peels. The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis of the phloem enriched genes suggested approximately 111 biological pathways. The large number of genes and pathways produced from DGE sequencing will expand our understanding of the complex molecular and cellular events in flax bast fiber development and provide a foundation for future studies on fiber development in other bast fiber crops. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparative description of morphological features of flax oily (Linum usitatissimum L. different sorts in the conditions of Precarpathian

    Inessa F. Drozd

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains the results of investigation of meteorological conditions influence on morphological features of different flax oily sorts in the conditions of Precarpathian. The results confirm, that weather terms and the terms of the sowing have influence on the height of plants, number of capsules and seeds per plant.

  10. Low-Frequency Noise Reduction by Earmuffs with Flax Fibre-Reinforced Polypropylene Ear Cups

    Linus Yinn Leng Ang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Soldiers and supporting engineers are frequently exposed to high low-frequency (<500 Hz cabin noise in military vehicles. Despite the use of commercial hearing protection devices, the risk of auditory damage is still imminent because the devices may not be optimally customised for such applications. This study considers flax fibre-reinforced polypropylene (Flax-PP as an alternative to the material selection for the ear cups of commercial earmuffs, which are typically made of acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS. Different weaving configurations (woven and nonwoven and various noise environments (pink noise, cabin booming noise, and firing noise were considered to investigate the feasibility of the proposed composite earmuffs for low-frequency noise reduction. The remaining assembly components of the earmuff were kept consistent with those of a commercial earmuff, which served as a benchmark for results comparison. In contrast to the commercial earmuff, the composite earmuffs were shown to be better in mitigating low-frequency noise by up to 16.6 dB, while compromising midfrequency acoustical performance. Consequently, the proposed composite earmuffs may be an alternative for low-frequency noise reduction in vehicle cabins, at airports, and at construction sites involving heavy machineries.

  11. SEQUENCING OF FLAX LIS-1 INSERTION SITE IN THE ALBIDUM GENOTYPE

    Jana Žiarovská

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a methodology of identifying the insertion site of LIS-1-1 (Linum Insertion Sequence 1 element in flax Albidum variety when growing under the in vitro combined with environmental stress conditions. Abiotic stress was induced by a reduced nutrient content in a growth medium. The LIS-1 insertion site amplification was reaLIS-1ed using the forward LIS-L: 5'-GGG CAG TTT AAC TGT AAC GAA - 3 'and revers LIS-R: 5'-GCT TGG ATT TAG ACT TGG CAA C - 3' primers by PCR. PCR product was sequenced by direct sequencing method to proove the nucleotide sequence for matching with database LIS-1 sequence. A comparison has been matched with the sequence of the amplified segment in the database for all nucleotides except the 11-position in the 5'-3 ' direction, where instead of the three adenine pair is a couple in the Albidum variety. Changes caused by mobile elements or insertion sequences result in common flax in variability that can be used for the purposes of development of effective marker identification or environment based markers development.

  12. Bacterial succession and metabolite changes during flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) retting with Bacillus cereus HDYM-02.

    Zhao, Dan; Liu, Pengfei; Pan, Chao; Du, Renpeng; Ping, Wenxiang; Ge, Jingping

    2016-09-02

    High-throughput sequencing and GC-MS (gas chromatography-mass spectrometry) were jointly used to reveal the bacterial succession and metabolite changes during flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) retting. The inoculation of Bacillus cereus HDYM-02 decreased bacterial richness and diversity. This inoculum led to the replacement of Enterobacteriaceae by Bacillaceae. The level of aerobic Pseudomonadaceae (mainly Azotobacter) and anaerobic Clostridiaceae_1 gradually increased and decreased, respectively. Following the addition of B. cereus HDYM-02, the dominant groups were all degumming enzyme producers or have been proven to be involved in microbial retting throughout the entire retting period. These results could be verified by the metabolite changes, either degumming enzymes or their catalytic products galacturonic acid and reducing sugars. The GC-MS data showed a clear separation between flax retting with and without B. cereus HDYM-02, particularly within the first 72 h. These findings reveal the important bacterial groups that are involved in fiber retting and will facilitate improvements in the retting process.

  13. Turnover of galactans and other cell wall polysaccharides during development of flax plants

    Gorshkova, T.A.; Chemikosova, S.B.; Lozovaya, V.V.; Carpita, N.C.

    1997-01-01

    We investigated the synthesis and turnover of cell wall polysaccharides of the flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) plant during development of the phloem fibers. One-month-old flax plants were exposed to a 40-min pulse with 14CO2 followed by 8-h, 24-h, and 1-month periods of chase with ambient CO2, and radioactivity in cell wall sugars was determined in various plant parts. The relative radioactivity of glucose in noncellulosic polysaccharides was the highest compared with all other cell wall sugars immediately after the pulse and decreased substantially during the subsequent chase. The relative radioactivities of the other cell wall sugars changed with differing rates, indicating turnover of specific polysaccharides. Notably, after 1 month of chase there was a marked decrease in the proportional mass and total radioactivity in cell wall galactose, indicating a long-term turnover of the galactans enriched in the fiber-containing tissues. The ratio of radiolabeled xylose to arabinose also increased during the chase, indicating a turnover of arabinose-containing polymers and interconversion to xylose. The pattern of label redistribution differed between organs, indicating that the cell wall turnover processes are tissue- and cell-specific

  14. Enhanced impact properties of cementitious composites reinforced with pultruded flax/polymeric matrix fabric

    Magdi El-Messiry

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Fiber reinforced concrete (FRC has become increasingly applied in civil engineering in the last decades. Natural fiber fabric reinforced cement composites are considered to prevent damage resulting from an impact loading on the cementite plate. Flax woven fabric that has a high energy absorption capability was chosen. To increase the interfacial shear properties, the fabric was pultruded with different matrix properties that affect the strength and toughness of the pultruded fabric. In this study, three fabric structures are used to increase the anchoring of the cement in the fabric. The compressive strength and the impact energy were measured. The results revealed that pultruded fabric reinforced cement composite (PFRC absorbs much more impact energy. PFRC under impact loading has more micro cracks, while plain cement specimen shows brittle failure. The compressive test results of PFRC indicate that flax fiber fabric polymer enhanced compressive strength remarkably. Fiber reinforcement is a very effective in improving the impact resistance of PFRC. The study defines the influence factors that control the energy dissipation of the composite, which are the hardness of the polymer and the fabric cover factor. Significant correlation between impact energy and compressive strength was proved.

  15. A procedure for identifying textile bast fibres using microscopy: Flax, nettle/ramie, hemp and jute

    Bergfjord, Christian; Holst, Bodil

    2010-01-01

    Identifying and distinguishing between natural textile fibres is an important task in both archaeology and criminology. Wool, silk and cotton fibres can readily be distinguished from the textile bast fibres flax, nettle/ramie, hemp and jute. Distinguishing between the bast fibres is, however, not easily done and methods based on surface characteristics, chemical composition and cross section size and shape are not conclusive. A conclusive method based on X-ray microdiffraction exists, but as the method requires the use of a synchrotron it is not readily available. In this paper we present a simple procedure for identifying the above mentioned textile bast fibres. The procedure is based on measuring the fibrillar orientation with polarised light microscopy and detecting the presence of calcium oxalate crystals (CaC 2 O 4 ) in association with the fibres. To demonstrate the procedure, a series of fibre samples of flax, nettle, ramie, hemp and jute were investigated. The results are presented here. An advantage of the procedure is that only a small amount of fibre material is needed.

  16. A procedure for identifying textile bast fibres using microscopy: Flax, nettle/ramie, hemp and jute

    Bergfjord, Christian, E-mail: christian.bergfjord@uib.no [Institute for Physics and Technology, University of Bergen, Allegt. 55, 5007 Bergen (Norway); Holst, Bodil, E-mail: bodil.holst@uib.no [Institute for Physics and Technology, University of Bergen, Allegt. 55, 5007 Bergen (Norway)

    2010-08-15

    Identifying and distinguishing between natural textile fibres is an important task in both archaeology and criminology. Wool, silk and cotton fibres can readily be distinguished from the textile bast fibres flax, nettle/ramie, hemp and jute. Distinguishing between the bast fibres is, however, not easily done and methods based on surface characteristics, chemical composition and cross section size and shape are not conclusive. A conclusive method based on X-ray microdiffraction exists, but as the method requires the use of a synchrotron it is not readily available. In this paper we present a simple procedure for identifying the above mentioned textile bast fibres. The procedure is based on measuring the fibrillar orientation with polarised light microscopy and detecting the presence of calcium oxalate crystals (CaC{sub 2}O{sub 4}) in association with the fibres. To demonstrate the procedure, a series of fibre samples of flax, nettle, ramie, hemp and jute were investigated. The results are presented here. An advantage of the procedure is that only a small amount of fibre material is needed.

  17. Enzymatic grafting of simple phenols on flax and sisal pulp fibres using laccases.

    Aracri, Elisabetta; Fillat, Amanda; Colom, José F; Gutiérrez, Ana; Del Río, José C; Martínez, Angel T; Vidal, Teresa

    2010-11-01

    Flax and sisal pulps were treated with two laccases (from Pycnoporus cinnabarinus, PcL and Trametes villosa, TvL, respectively), in the presence of different phenolic compounds (syringaldehyde, acetosyringone and p-coumaric acid in the case of flax pulp, and coniferaldehyde, sinapaldehyde, ferulic acid and sinapic acid in the case of sisal pulp). In most cases the enzymatic treatments resulted in increased kappa number of pulps suggesting the incorporation of the phenols into fibres. The covalent binding of these compounds to fibres was evidenced by the analysis of the treated pulps, after acetone extraction, by pyrolysis coupled with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in the absence and/or in the presence of tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) as methylating agent. The highest extents of phenol incorporation were observed with the p-hydroxycinnamic acids, p-coumaric and ferulic acids. The present work shows for the first time the use of analytical pyrolysis as an effective approach to study fibre functionalization by laccase-induced grafting of phenols. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Fish oil in various doses or flax oil in pregnancy and timing of spontaneous delivery

    Knudsen, V.K.; Hansen, Harald S.; Østerdal, M.L.

    2006-01-01

    treatment. Setting: The Danish National Birth Cohort. Sample: A total of 3098 women allocated into six treatment groups and one control group. Methods: The six intervention groups were offered fish oil capsules in doses of 0.1, 0.3, 0.7, 1.4 and 2.8 g of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid per......Objectives: To test the earlier suggested hypothesis that intake of long-chain n-3 fatty acids from fish oil may delay the timing of spontaneous delivery and to test if alpha-linolenic acid, provided as flax oil capsules, shows the same effect. Design: Randomised controlled trial including women...... reporting low dietary fish intake. The women were allocated in the proportions of 1:1:1:1:1:1:2 into six treatment groups and a control group, respectively, from week 17-27 of gestation. The treatment groups received fish oil, in various doses, or flax oil, and the control group did not receive any...

  19. Floral-dip transformation of flax (Linum usitatissimum) to generate transgenic progenies with a high transformation rate.

    Bastaki, Nasmah K; Cullis, Christopher A

    2014-12-19

    Agrobacterium-mediated plant transformation via floral-dip is a widely used technique in the field of plant transformation and has been reported to be successful for many plant species. However, flax (Linum usitatissimum) transformation by floral-dip has not been reported. The goal of this protocol is to establish that Agrobacterium and the floral-dip method can be used to generate transgenic flax. We show that this technique is simple, inexpensive, efficient, and more importantly, gives a higher transformation rate than the current available methods of flax transformation. In summary, inflorescences of flax were dipped in a solution of Agrobacterium carrying a binary vector plasmid (T-DNA fragment plus the Linum Insertion Sequence, LIS-1) for 1 - 2 min. The plants were laid flat on their side for 24 hr. Then, plants were maintained under normal growth conditions until the next treatment. The process of dipping was repeated 2 - 3 times, with approximately 10 - 14 day intervals between dipping. The T1 seeds were collected and germinated on soil. After approximately two weeks, treated progenies were tested by direct PCR; 2 - 3 leaves were used per plant plus the appropriate T-DNA primers. Positive transformants were selected and grown to maturity. The transformation rate was unexpectedly high, with 50 - 60% of the seeds from treated plants being positive transformants. This is a higher transformation rate than those reported for Arabidopsis thaliana and other plant species, using floral-dip transformation. It is also the highest, which has been reported so far, for flax transformation using other methods for transformation.

  20. Simple sequence repeat marker development from bacterial artificial chromosome end sequences and expressed sequence tags of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.).

    Cloutier, Sylvie; Miranda, Evelyn; Ward, Kerry; Radovanovic, Natasa; Reimer, Elsa; Walichnowski, Andrzej; Datla, Raju; Rowland, Gordon; Duguid, Scott; Ragupathy, Raja

    2012-08-01

    Flax is an important oilseed crop in North America and is mostly grown as a fibre crop in Europe. As a self-pollinated diploid with a small estimated genome size of ~370 Mb, flax is well suited for fast progress in genomics. In the last few years, important genetic resources have been developed for this crop. Here, we describe the assessment and comparative analyses of 1,506 putative simple sequence repeats (SSRs) of which, 1,164 were derived from BAC-end sequences (BESs) and 342 from expressed sequence tags (ESTs). The SSRs were assessed on a panel of 16 flax accessions with 673 (58 %) and 145 (42 %) primer pairs being polymorphic in the BESs and ESTs, respectively. With 818 novel polymorphic SSR primer pairs reported in this study, the repertoire of available SSRs in flax has more than doubled from the combined total of 508 of all previous reports. Among nucleotide motifs, trinucleotides were the most abundant irrespective of the class, but dinucleotides were the most polymorphic. SSR length was also positively correlated with polymorphism. Two dinucleotide (AT/TA and AG/GA) and two trinucleotide (AAT/ATA/TAA and GAA/AGA/AAG) motifs and their iterations, different from those reported in many other crops, accounted for more than half of all the SSRs and were also more polymorphic (63.4 %) than the rest of the markers (42.7 %). This improved resource promises to be useful in genetic, quantitative trait loci (QTL) and association mapping as well as for anchoring the physical/genetic map with the whole genome shotgun reference sequence of flax.

  1. Identification and functional characterization of a flax UDP-glycosyltransferase glucosylating secoisolariciresinol (SECO) into secoisolariciresinol monoglucoside (SMG) and diglucoside (SDG).

    Ghose, Kaushik; Selvaraj, Kumarakurubaran; McCallum, Jason; Kirby, Chris W; Sweeney-Nixon, Marva; Cloutier, Sylvie J; Deyholos, Michael; Datla, Raju; Fofana, Bourlaye

    2014-03-28

    Lignans are a class of diphenolic nonsteroidal phytoestrogens often found glycosylated in planta. Flax seeds are a rich source of secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) lignans. Glycosylation is a process by which a glycosyl group is covalently attached to an aglycone substrate and is catalyzed by uridine diphosphate glycosyltransferases (UGTs). Until now, very little information was available on UGT genes that may play a role in flax SDG biosynthesis. Here we report on the identification, structural and functional characterization of 5 putative UGTs potentially involved in secoisolariciresinol (SECO) glucosylation in flax. Five UGT genes belonging to the glycosyltransferases' family 1 (EC 2.4.x.y) were cloned and characterized. They fall under four UGT families corresponding to five sub-families referred to as UGT74S1, UGT74T1, UGT89B3, UGT94H1, UGT712B1 that all display the characteristic plant secondary product glycosyltransferase (PSPG) conserved motif. However, diversity was observed within this 44 amino acid sequence, especially in the two peptide sequences WAPQV and HCGWNS known to play a key role in the recognition and binding of diverse aglycone substrates and in the sugar donor specificity. In developing flax seeds, UGT74S1 and UGT94H1 showed a coordinated gene expression with that of pinoresinol-lariciresinol reductase (PLR) and their gene expression patterns correlated with SDG biosynthesis. Enzyme assays of the five heterologously expressed UGTs identified UGT74S1 as the only one using SECO as substrate, forming SECO monoglucoside (SMG) and then SDG in a sequential manner. We have cloned and characterized five flax UGTs and provided evidence that UGT74S1 uses SECO as substrate to form SDG in vitro. This study allowed us to propose a model for the missing step in SDG lignan biosynthesis.

  2. Characterization of Bacterial and Fungal Community Dynamics by High-Throughput Sequencing (HTS Metabarcoding during Flax Dew-Retting

    Christophe Djemiel

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Flax dew-retting is a key step in the industrial extraction of fibers from flax stems and is dependent upon the production of a battery of hydrolytic enzymes produced by micro-organisms during this process. To explore the diversity and dynamics of bacterial and fungal communities involved in this process we applied a high-throughput sequencing (HTS DNA metabarcoding approach (16S rRNA/ITS region, Illumina Miseq on plant and soil samples obtained over a period of 7 weeks in July and August 2014. Twenty-three bacterial and six fungal phyla were identified in soil samples and 11 bacterial and four fungal phyla in plant samples. Dominant phyla were Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes (bacteria and Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, and Zygomycota (fungi all of which have been previously associated with flax dew-retting except for Bacteroidetes and Basidiomycota that were identified for the first time. Rare phyla also identified for the first time in this process included Acidobacteria, CKC4, Chlorobi, Fibrobacteres, Gemmatimonadetes, Nitrospirae and TM6 (bacteria, and Chytridiomycota (fungi. No differences in microbial communities and colonization dynamics were observed between early and standard flax harvests. In contrast, the common agricultural practice of swath turning affects both bacterial and fungal community membership and structure in straw samples and may contribute to a more uniform retting. Prediction of community function using PICRUSt indicated the presence of a large collection of potential bacterial enzymes capable of hydrolyzing backbones and side-chains of cell wall polysaccharides. Assignment of functional guild (functional group using FUNGuild software highlighted a change from parasitic to saprophytic trophic modes in fungi during retting. This work provides the first exhaustive description of the microbial communities involved in flax dew-retting and will provide a valuable benchmark in future studies aiming

  3. Making High-Tensile-Strength Amalgam Components

    Grugel, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Structural components made of amalgams can be made to have tensile strengths much greater than previously known to be possible. Amalgams, perhaps best known for their use in dental fillings, have several useful attributes, including room-temperature fabrication, corrosion resistance, dimensional stability, and high compressive strength. However, the range of applications of amalgams has been limited by their very small tensile strengths. Now, it has been discovered that the tensile strength of an amalgam depends critically on the sizes and shapes of the particles from which it is made and, consequently, the tensile strength can be greatly increased through suitable choice of the particles. Heretofore, the powder particles used to make amalgams have been, variously, in the form of micron-sized spheroids or flakes. The tensile reinforcement contributed by the spheroids and flakes is minimal because fracture paths simply go around these particles. However, if spheroids or flakes are replaced by strands having greater lengths, then tensile reinforcement can be increased significantly. The feasibility of this concept was shown in an experiment in which electrical copper wires, serving as demonstration substitutes for copper powder particles, were triturated with gallium by use of a mortar and pestle and the resulting amalgam was compressed into a mold. The tensile strength of the amalgam specimen was then measured and found to be greater than 10(exp 4) psi (greater than about 69 MPa). Much remains to be done to optimize the properties of amalgams for various applications through suitable choice of starting constituents and modification of the trituration and molding processes. The choice of wire size and composition are expected to be especially important. Perusal of phase diagrams of metal mixtures could give insight that would enable choices of solid and liquid metal constituents. Finally, whereas heretofore, only binary alloys have been considered for amalgams

  4. Badania nad patogenicznością grzyba Rhizoctonia solani Kühn na lnie [Investigations of Rhizoctonia solani Kühn pathogenicity to flax

    St. Sadowski

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The investigations on the pathogenicity of four Rhizoctonia solani isolates were carried out in relation to three varieties of flax; LCSD - 210, LCSD - 200 and Wiera. Variety LCSD - 210 was found to be the most resistant. Isolates obtaind from flax and potatoes were especially pathogenic. Rhizoctonia solani was parasitic during the whole vegetation season, but particularly in the course of emergence. Parasitism of this fungus is of great economical significance.

  5. The persistence of the gravity signal in flax roots

    Hasenstein, Karl H.

    Although the presentation time of gravitropism has been studied, no data exist as to how long a reorientation stimulus affects the gravitropic response of a root. We tested the duration of gravitropic curvature in roots of Linum usitatissimum after reversing a one hour, 90 degree gravistimulus by increasing time intervals in vertical orientation before clinorotating the roots and acquiring infrared digital images. Clinorotation was performed either parallel or perpendicular to the gravity vector. Under either condition the gravistimulus affected curvature during clinorotation only between two to three minutes. Maximal curvature after one minute of vertical reorientation was 15 degrees within one hour. After three minutes in vertical orientation the observed curvature was not statistically different from vertically growing roots. In both orientations, maximum curvature occurred after 1hr. Perpendicular (horizontal) clinorotation showed decreasing curvature with increasing reorientation time. Parallel (vertical) clinorotation resulted in greater variability to the reorientation time. These data indicate that the gravity stimulus operates essentially memory free and that clinorotation affects the gravity response. Therefore all aspects of clinorotation need to be studied before an assessment of clinostats for the simulation of microgravity is possible and a time limit for memory effects of mechanostimulation can be determined.

  6. Microstructure evolution of titanium after tensile test

    Wronski, S.; Wierzbanowski, K.; Jędrychowski, M.; Tarasiuk, J; Wronski, M.; Baczmanski, A.; Bacroix, B.

    2016-01-01

    The qualitative and quantitative behavior of titanium T40 during tensile loading with a special emphasis on the presence of deformation twins in the observed microstructures is described. The samples for tensile tests were cut out from the rolled titanium sheet along the rolling and transverse directions. Several microstructure maps were determined using Electron Backscatter Diffraction technique (EBSD). These data were used to obtain crystallographic textures, misorientation distributions, grain size, twin boundary length, grain orientation spread, low and high angle boundary fractions and Schmid and Taylor factors. The deformation mechanisms and microstructure characteristics are different in the samples stretched along rolling and transverse directions. A strong appearance of tensile twins was observed in the samples deformed along transverse direction. On the other hand, more frequent subgrain formation and higher orientation spread was observed in the sample deformed along rolling direction, which caused’‘orientation blurring’ leading to an increase of grain size with deformation, as determined from OIM analysis.

  7. In Situ Radiography During Tensile Tests

    Baaklini, George Y.; Bhatt, Ramakrishna T.

    1994-01-01

    Laboratory system for testing specimens of metal-, ceramic-, and intermetallic-matrix composite materials incorporates both electromechanical tensile-testing subsystem and either of two imaging subsystems that take x-ray photographs of specimens before, during, and after tensile tests. Used to test specimens of reaction-bonded silicon nitride reinforced with silicon carbide fibers (SiC/RBSN) considered for high-temperature service in advanced aircraft turbine engines. Provides data on effects of preexisting flaws (e.g., high-density impurities and local variations of density) on fracture behavior. Accumulated internal damage monitored during loading. X-ray source illuminates specimen in load frame while specimen is pulled. X-ray images on film correlated with stress-vs.-strain data from tensile test.

  8. Tensile behavior of dissimilar friction stir welded joints of aluminium alloys

    Shanmuga Sundaram, N.; Murugan, N.

    2010-01-01

    The heat treatable aluminium alloy AA2024 is used extensively in the aircraft industry because of its high strength to weight ratio and good ductility. The non-heat treatable aluminium alloy AA5083 possesses medium strength and high ductility and used typically in structural applications, marine, and automotive industries. When compared to fusion welding processes, friction stir welding (FSW) process is an emerging solid state joining process which is best suitable for joining these alloys. The friction stir welding parameters such as tool pin profile, tool rotational speed, welding speed, and tool axial force influence the mechanical properties of the FS welded joints significantly. Dissimilar FS welded joints are fabricated using five different tool pin profiles. Central composite design with four parameters, five levels, and 31 runs is used to conduct the experiments and response surface method (RSM) is employed to develop the model. Mathematical regression models are developed to predict the ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and tensile elongation (TE) of the dissimilar friction stir welded joints of aluminium alloys 2024-T6 and 5083-H321, and they are validated. The effects of the above process parameters and tool pin profile on tensile strength and tensile elongation of dissimilar friction stir welded joints are analysed in detail. Joints fabricated using Tapered Hexagon tool pin profile have the highest tensile strength and tensile elongation, whereas the Straight Cylinder tool pin profile have the lowest tensile strength and tensile elongation. The results are useful to have a better understanding of the effects of process parameters, to fabricate the joints with desired tensile properties, and to automate the FS welding process.

  9. Developing of tensile property database system

    Park, S. J.; Kim, D. H.; Jeon, J.; Ryu, W. S.

    2002-01-01

    The data base construction using the data produced from tensile experiment can increase the application of test results. Also, we can get the basic data ease from database when we prepare the new experiment and can produce high quality result by compare the previous data. The development part must be analysis and design more specific to construct the database and after that, we can offer the best quality to customers various requirements. In this thesis, the tensile database system was developed by internet method using JSP(Java Server pages) tool

  10. Ty1-copia elements reveal diverse insertion sites linked to polymorphisms among flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) accessions.

    Galindo-González, Leonardo; Mhiri, Corinne; Grandbastien, Marie-Angèle; Deyholos, Michael K

    2016-12-07

    Initial characterization of the flax genome showed that Ty1-copia retrotransposons are abundant, with several members being recently inserted, and in close association with genes. Recent insertions indicate a potential for ongoing transpositional activity that can create genomic diversity among accessions, cultivars or varieties. The polymorphisms generated constitute a good source of molecular markers that may be associated with phenotype if the insertions alter gene activity. Flax, where accessions are bred mainly for seed nutritional properties or for fibers, constitutes a good model for studying the relationship of transpositional activity with diversification and breeding. In this study, we estimated copy number and used a type of transposon display known as Sequence-Specific Amplification Polymorphisms (SSAPs), to characterize six families of Ty1-copia elements across 14 flax accessions. Polymorphic insertion sites were sequenced to find insertions that could potentially alter gene expression, and a preliminary test was performed with selected genes bearing transposable element (TE) insertions. Quantification of six families of Ty1-copia elements indicated different abundances among TE families and between flax accessions, which suggested diverse transpositional histories. SSAPs showed a high level of polymorphism in most of the evaluated retrotransposon families, with a trend towards higher levels of polymorphism in low-copy number families. Ty1-copia insertion polymorphisms among cultivars allowed a general distinction between oil and fiber types, and between spring and winter types, demonstrating their utility in diversity studies. Characterization of polymorphic insertions revealed an overwhelming association with genes, with insertions disrupting exons, introns or within 1 kb of coding regions. A preliminary test on the potential transcriptional disruption by TEs of four selected genes evaluated in three different tissues, showed one case of significant

  11. Finite Element Simulation of Aluminium/GFRP Fibre Metal Laminate under Tensile Loading

    Merzuki, M. N. M.; Rejab, M. R. M.; Romli, N. K.; Bachtiar, D.; Siregar, J.; Rani, M. F.; Salleh, Salwani Mohd

    2018-03-01

    The response of a fibre metal laminate (FML) model to the tensile loading is predicted through a computational approach. The FML consisted with layers of aluminum alloy and embedded with one layer of composite material, Glass fibre Reinforced Plastic (GFRP). The glass fibre and aluminium alloy 2024-0 was laminated by using thermoset epoxy. A compression moulding technique was used in the process of a FML fabrication. The aluminium has been roughen by a metal sanding method which to improve the bonding between the fibre and metal layer. The main objective of this paper is to determine the failure behaviour of the FML under the tensile loading. The responses on the FML under the tensile loading were numerically performed. The FML was modelled and analysed by using Abaqus/CAE 6.13 version. Based on the experimental and FE data of the tensile, the ultimate tensile stress is 120 MPa where delamination and fibre breakage happened. A numerical model was developed and agreed well with the experimental results. The laminate has an inelastic respond to increase the tensile loads which due to the plasticity of the aluminium layers.

  12. FLAX OIL FROM TRANSGENIC LINUM USITATISSIMUM SELECTIVELY INHIBITS IN VITRO PROLIFERATION OF HUMAN CANCER CELL LINES.

    Gebarowski, Tomasz; Gebczak, Katarzyna; Wiatrak, Benita; Kulma, Anna; Pelc, Katarzyna; Czuj, Tadeusz; Szopa, Jan; Gasiorowski, Kazimierz

    2017-03-01

    Emulsions made of oils from transgenic flaxseeds significantly decreased in vitro proliferation of six tested human cancer cell lines in 48-h cultures, as assessed with the standard sulforhodamine assay. However, the emulsions also increased proliferation rate of normal human dermal fibroblasts and, to a lower extend, of keratinocytes. Both inhibition of in vitro proliferation of human cancer cell lines and stimulation of proliferation of normal dermal fibroblasts and keratinocytes were especially strong with the emulsion type B and with emulsion type M. Oils from seeds of transgenic flax type B and M should be considered as valuable adjunct to standard cytostatic therapy of human cancers and also could be applied to improve the treatment of skin lesions in wound healing.

  13. Variability of flax characters, associated with fibre formation, and environmental influence on their expression

    Nina B Brach

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work the results of long-term evaluation of lines of flax genetic collection created in VIR are generalized. A wide variability of fibre productivity and quality characters, and also stability of their manifestation in varying environment is revealed. The genotypes possessing contrast traits of productivity, quality and stability of their display in different years are distinguished. Dependence of correlations between the evaluated characters on the environment parameters is detected. The described lines can serve as a material for profound studying of physiological processes of fibre formation, for the analysis of traits inheritance and successful breeding.

  14. Fatigue behaviour of uni-directional flax fibre/epoxy composites

    Ueki, Yosuke; Lilholt, Hans; Madsen, Bo

    2015-01-01

    A study related to the fatigue behaviour of natural fibre-reinforced composites was conducted to expand their range of product applications. A uni-directional flax-epoxy composite was fabricated and several conditions of tension-tension fatigue tests were performed. During fatigue testing......, the composite showed an increase of stiffness, a typical observation for natural fibre-reinforced composites, and this was found to be accompanied by accumulation of residual strain. A clear linear relationship was found between the stiffening effect and the residual strain. In addition, it was revealed...... that the fatigue behaviour was clearly influenced by the frequency of cyclic loading. Lower frequencies induced more significant stiffening and shorter fatigue life. These results suggest that fatigue damaging is progressing simultaneously with the stiffening effect in natural fibre-reinforced composites...

  15. The genome sequence and effector complement of the flax rust pathogen Melampsora lini

    Adnane eNemri

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Rust fungi cause serious yield reductions on crops, including wheat, barley, soybean, coffee, and represent real threats to global food security. Of these fungi, the flax rust pathogen Melampsora lini has been developed extensively over the past 80 years as a model to understand the molecular mechanisms that underpin pathogenesis. During infection, M. lini secretes virulence effectors to promote disease. The number of these effectors, their function and their degree of conservation across rust fungal species is unknown. To assess this, we sequenced and assembled de novo the genome of M. lini isolate CH5 into 21,130 scaffolds spanning 189 Mbp (scaffold N50 of 31 kbp. Global analysis of the DNA sequence revealed that repetitive elements, primarily retrotransposons, make up at least 45% of the genome. Using ab initio predictions, transcriptome data and homology searches, we identified 16,271 putative protein-coding genes. An analysis pipeline was then implemented to predict the effector complement of M. lini and compare it to that of the poplar rust, wheat stem rust and wheat stripe rust pathogens to identify conserved and species-specific effector candidates. Previous knowledge of four cloned M. lini avirulence effector proteins and two basidiomycete effectors was used to optimise parameters of the effector prediction pipeline. Markov clustering based on sequence similarity was performed to group effector candidates from all four rust pathogens. Clusters containing at least one member from M. lini were further analysed and prioritized based on features including expression in isolated haustoria and infected leaf tissue and conservation across rust species. Herein, we describe 200 of 940 clusters that ranked highest on our priority list, representing 725 flax rust candidate effectors. Our findings on this important model rust species provide insight into how effectors of rust fungi are conserved across species and how they may act to promote

  16. Genetic Variability of 27 Traits in a Core Collection of Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.).

    You, Frank M; Jia, Gaofeng; Xiao, Jin; Duguid, Scott D; Rashid, Khalid Y; Booker, Helen M; Cloutier, Sylvie

    2017-01-01

    Assessment of genetic variability of plant core germplasm is needed for efficient germplasm utilization in breeding improvement. A total of 391 accessions of a flax core collection, which preserves the variation present in the world collection of 3,378 accessions maintained by Plant Gene Resources of Canada (PGRC) and represents a broad range of geographical origins, different improvement statuses and two morphotypes, was evaluated in field trials in up to 8 year-location environments for 10 agronomic, eight seed quality, six fiber and three disease resistance traits. The large phenotypic variation in this subset was explained by morphotypes (22%), geographical origins (11%), and other variance components (67%). Both divergence and similarity between two basic morphotypes, namely oil or linseed and fiber types, were observed, whereby linseed accessions had greater thousand seed weight, seeds m -2 , oil content, branching capability and resistance to powdery mildew while fiber accessions had greater straw weight, plant height, protein content and resistance to pasmo and fusarium wilt diseases, but they had similar performance in many traits and some of them shared common characteristics of fiber and linseed types. Weak geographical patterns within either fiber or linseed accessions were confirmed, but specific trait performance was identified in East Asia for fiber type, and South Asia and North America for linseed type. Relatively high broad-sense heritability was obtained for seed quality traits, followed by agronomic traits and resistance to powdery mildew and fusarium wilt. Diverse phenotypic and genetic variability in the flax core collection constitutes a useful resource for breeding.

  17. Ion Torrent sequencing as a tool for mutation discovery in the flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) genome.

    Galindo-González, Leonardo; Pinzón-Latorre, David; Bergen, Erik A; Jensen, Dustin C; Deyholos, Michael K

    2015-01-01

    Detection of induced mutations is valuable for inferring gene function and for developing novel germplasm for crop improvement. Many reverse genetics approaches have been developed to identify mutations in genes of interest within a mutagenized population, including some approaches that rely on next-generation sequencing (e.g. exome capture, whole genome resequencing). As an alternative to these genome or exome-scale methods, we sought to develop a scalable and efficient method for detection of induced mutations that could be applied to a small number of target genes, using Ion Torrent technology. We developed this method in flax (Linum usitatissimum), to demonstrate its utility in a crop species. We used an amplicon-based approach in which DNA samples from an ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS)-mutagenized population were pooled and used as template in PCR reactions to amplify a region of each gene of interest. Barcodes were incorporated during PCR, and the pooled amplicons were sequenced using an Ion Torrent PGM. A pilot experiment with known SNPs showed that they could be detected at a frequency > 0.3% within the pools. We then selected eight genes for which we wanted to discover novel mutations, and applied our approach to screen 768 individuals from the EMS population, using either the Ion 314 or Ion 316 chips. Out of 29 potential mutations identified after processing the NGS reads, 16 mutations were confirmed using Sanger sequencing. The methodology presented here demonstrates the utility of Ion Torrent technology in detecting mutation variants in specific genome regions for large populations of a species such as flax. The methodology could be scaled-up to test >100 genes using the higher capacity chips now available from Ion Torrent.

  18. Accuracy of genomic selection in biparental populations of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.

    Frank M. You

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Flax is an important economic crop for seed oil and stem fiber. Phenotyping of traits such as seed yield, seed quality, stem fiber yield, and quality characteristics is expensive and time consuming. Genomic selection (GS refers to a breeding approach aimed at selecting preferred individuals based on genomic estimated breeding values predicted by a statistical model based on the relationship between phenotypes and genome-wide genetic markers. We evaluated the prediction accuracy of GS (rMP and the efficiency of GS relative to phenotypic selection (RE for three GS models: ridge regression best linear unbiased prediction (RR-BLUP, Bayesian LASSO (BL, and Bayesian ridge regression (BRR, for seed yield, oil content, iodine value, linoleic, and linolenic acid content with a full and a common set of genome-wide simple sequence repeat markers in each of three biparental populations. The three GS models generated similar rMP and RE, while BRR displayed a higher coefficient of determination (R2 of the fitted models than did RR-BLUP or BL. The mean rMP and RE varied for traits with different heritabilities and was affected by the genetic variation of the traits in the populations. GS for seed yield generated a mean RE of 1.52 across populations and marker sets, a value significantly superior to that for direct phenotypic selection. Our empirical results provide the first validation of GS in flax and demonstrate that GS could increase genetic gain per unit time for linseed breeding. Further studies for selection of training populations and markers are warranted.

  19. Genetics, structure, and prevalence of FP967 (CDC Triffid) T-DNA in flax.

    Young, Lester; Hammerlindl, Joseph; Babic, Vivijan; McLeod, Jamille; Sharpe, Andrew; Matsalla, Chad; Bekkaoui, Faouzi; Marquess, Leigh; Booker, Helen M

    2015-01-01

    The detection of T-DNA from a genetically modified flaxseed line (FP967, formally CDC Triffid) in a shipment of Canadian flaxseed exported to Europe resulted in a large decrease in the amount of flax planted in Canada. The Canadian flaxseed industry undertook major changes to ensure the removal of FP967 from the supply chain. This study aimed to resolve the genetics and structure of the FP967 transfer DNA (T-DNA). The FP967 T-DNA is thought to be inserted in at single genomic locus. The junction between the T-DNA and genomic DNA consisted of two inverted Right Borders with no Left Border (LB) flanking genomic DNA sequences recovered. This information was used to develop an event-specific quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay. This assay and an existing assay specific to the T-DNA construct were used to determine the genetics and prevalence of the FP967 T-DNA. These data supported the hypothesis that the T-DNA is present at a single location in the genome. The FP967 T-DNA is present at a low level (between 0.01 and 0.1%) in breeder seed lots from 2009 and 2010. None of the 11,000 and 16,000 lines selected for advancement through the Flax Breeding Program in 2010 and 2011, respectively, tested positive for the FP967 T-DNA, however. Most of the FP967 T-DNA sequence was resolved via PCR cloning and next generation sequencing. A 3,720 bp duplication of an internal portion of the T-DNA (including a Right Border) was discovered between the flanking genomic DNA and the LB. An event-specific assay, SAT2-LB, was developed for the junction between this repeat and the LB.

  20. Surface chemical and biological characterization of flax fabrics modified with silver nanoparticles for biomedical applications

    Paladini, F.; Picca, R.A.; Sportelli, M.C.; Cioffi, N.; Sannino, A.; Pollini, M.

    2015-01-01

    Silver nanophases are increasingly used as effective antibacterial agent for biomedical applications and wound healing. This work aims to investigate the surface chemical composition and biological properties of silver nanoparticle-modified flax substrates. Silver coatings were deposited on textiles through the in situ photo-reduction of a silver solution, by means of a large-scale apparatus. The silver-coated materials were characterized through X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), to assess the surface elemental composition of the coatings, and the chemical speciation of both the substrate and the antibacterial nanophases. A detailed investigation of XPS high resolution regions outlined that silver is mainly present on nanophases' surface as Ag 2 O. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were also carried out, in order to visualize the distribution of silver particles on the fibers. The materials were also characterized from a biological point of view in terms of antibacterial capability and cytotoxicity. Agar diffusion tests and bacterial enumeration tests were performed on Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria, namely Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. In vitro cytotoxicity tests were performed through the extract method on murine fibroblasts in order to verify if the presence of the silver coating affected the cellular viability and proliferation. Durability of the coating was also assessed, thus confirming the successful scaling up of the process, which will be therefore available for large-scale production. - Highlights: • Silver nanophases are increasingly used as effective antibacterial agent for biomedical applications. • Silver coatings were deposited on textiles through the in situ photo-reduction of a silver solution. • Flax fabrics were characterized from a biological and surface chemical point of view. • Scaling up of the process was confirmed

  1. The genome sequence and effector complement of the flax rust pathogen Melampsora lini.

    Nemri, Adnane; Saunders, Diane G O; Anderson, Claire; Upadhyaya, Narayana M; Win, Joe; Lawrence, Gregory J; Jones, David A; Kamoun, Sophien; Ellis, Jeffrey G; Dodds, Peter N

    2014-01-01

    Rust fungi cause serious yield reductions on crops, including wheat, barley, soybean, coffee, and represent real threats to global food security. Of these fungi, the flax rust pathogen Melampsora lini has been developed most extensively over the past 80 years as a model to understand the molecular mechanisms that underpin pathogenesis. During infection, M. lini secretes virulence effectors to promote disease. The number of these effectors, their function and their degree of conservation across rust fungal species is unknown. To assess this, we sequenced and assembled de novo the genome of M. lini isolate CH5 into 21,130 scaffolds spanning 189 Mbp (scaffold N50 of 31 kbp). Global analysis of the DNA sequence revealed that repetitive elements, primarily retrotransposons, make up at least 45% of the genome. Using ab initio predictions, transcriptome data and homology searches, we identified 16,271 putative protein-coding genes. An analysis pipeline was then implemented to predict the effector complement of M. lini and compare it to that of the poplar rust, wheat stem rust and wheat stripe rust pathogens to identify conserved and species-specific effector candidates. Previous knowledge of four cloned M. lini avirulence effector proteins and two basidiomycete effectors was used to optimize parameters of the effector prediction pipeline. Markov clustering based on sequence similarity was performed to group effector candidates from all four rust pathogens. Clusters containing at least one member from M. lini were further analyzed and prioritized based on features including expression in isolated haustoria and infected leaf tissue and conservation across rust species. Herein, we describe 200 of 940 clusters that ranked highest on our priority list, representing 725 flax rust candidate effectors. Our findings on this important model rust species provide insight into how effectors of rust fungi are conserved across species and how they may act to promote infection on their

  2. Tensile and shear strength of adhesives

    Stibolt, Kenneth A.

    1990-01-01

    This experiment is conducted in a freshman-level course: Introduction to Engineering Materials. There are no prerequisites for the course although students should have some knowledge of basic algebra. The objectives are to tension and shear test adhesives and to determine the tensile and shear properties of adhesives. Details of equipment of procedure are given.

  3. 7 CFR 29.3061 - Strength (tensile).

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strength (tensile). 29.3061 Section 29.3061 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official...

  4. 7 CFR 29.6040 - Strength (tensile).

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strength (tensile). 29.6040 Section 29.6040 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Definitions §...

  5. Tensile Strength of the Eggshell Membranes

    Strnková, J.; Nedomová, Š.; Kumbár, V.; Trnka, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 1 (2016), s. 159-164 ISSN 1211-8516 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : eggshell membrane * tesile test * loading rate * tensile strength * fracture strain Subject RIV: GM - Food Processing

  6. Evaluation of ring tensile test results

    Chatterjee, S.; Anantharaman, S.; Balakrishnan, K.S.; Sivaramakrish, K.S.

    1990-01-01

    Ring specimens of 5-mm width cut from Zircaloy-2 cladding of reactor operated fuel elements that had experienced 5000 to 15,000 MWD/T of fuel burnup were subjected to ring tensile testing. The true stress-true strain data points up to the onset of necking from the individual load-elongation curves of these specimens were used as input data in Voce's equation. The results reveal that the uniform elongation (UE) values generated using Voce's equation were within (UE-2)% of the experimental percent uniform elongation (UE%). The corresponding ultimate tensile strength values were within ±1%. The uncertainty inherently associated in the determination of gauge length introduces extraneous deformation in the rings tested. Previous results had shown that a 14% increase in cladding diameter caused the gauge length to increase by 40%. To simulate the contribution of extraneous deformation due to an increase in cladding diameter, an analysis of the variation of the tensile parameters (uniform elongation and ultimate tensile strength) due to increase in the gauge length in the range of 10 to 40% was carried out. The results are discussed

  7. Thermal properties of graphene under tensile stress

    Herrero, Carlos P.; Ramírez, Rafael

    2018-05-01

    Thermal properties of graphene display peculiar characteristics associated to the two-dimensional nature of this crystalline membrane. These properties can be changed and tuned in the presence of applied stresses, both tensile and compressive. Here, we study graphene monolayers under tensile stress by using path-integral molecular dynamics (PIMD) simulations, which allows one to take into account quantization of vibrational modes and analyze the effect of anharmonicity on physical observables. The influence of the elastic energy due to strain in the crystalline membrane is studied for increasing tensile stress and for rising temperature (thermal expansion). We analyze the internal energy, enthalpy, and specific heat of graphene, and compare the results obtained from PIMD simulations with those given by a harmonic approximation for the vibrational modes. This approximation turns out to be precise at low temperatures, and deteriorates as temperature and pressure are increased. At low temperature, the specific heat changes as cp˜T for stress-free graphene, and evolves to a dependence cp˜T2 as the tensile stress is increased. Structural and thermodynamic properties display non-negligible quantum effects, even at temperatures higher than 300 K. Moreover, differences in the behavior of the in-plane and real areas of graphene are discussed, along with their associated properties. These differences show up clearly in the corresponding compressibility and thermal expansion coefficient.

  8. Induction Heating on Dynamic Tensile Tests in CEA Saclay

    Averty, X.; Yvon, P.; Duguay, C.; Pizzanelli, J. P.; Basini, V.

    2001-01-01

    The LCMI (Laboratory for characterization of irradiated materials), located in CEA from Saclay, is in charge of the mechanical tests on irradiated materials. The dynamic tensile testing machine, in a hot cell equipped with two remote handling, has been first improved in 1995, to fulfill the French safety programs on Reactivity Initiated Accident (RIA). One objective of this machine is to obtain mechanical property data on current Zircaloy cladding types needed to quality the cladding's response under RIA or LOCA transient loading and thermal conditions. For the RIA, this means testing at strain rates up to 5 s' and heating rates up to 200 degree centigree-s''-1, while for Loss of Coolant Accidents (LOCA) testing at strain rates of 10''-3 s''-1 and heating rates of 20 degree centigree s''-1 would be appropriate. The tensile samples are machined with a spark erosion machine, directly from pieces of cladding previously de fueled. Two kinds of samples can be machined in the cladding. Axial samples in order to test axial mechanical characteristics Ring samples in order to test transverse mechanical characteristics, more representative of RIA conditions. On one hand, the axial tensile tests were performed using the Joule effect, and heating rates up to about 500 degree centigree .s''-1 were obtained. This enabled us to perform the axial tests in a satisfactory manner. On the other hand, the tensile ring were first performed in a vertical furnace with a heating rate about 0.2 degree centigree.s''-1 and a thermal stability about 1 degree centigree. For temperatures above 480 degree centigree, the mechanical characteristics showed a sharp drop which could be attributed to irradiation defect annealing. Therefore we have recently developed an induction heating system to reach heating rates high enough (200 degree centigree.s''-1) to prevent any significant annealing before performing the ring tensile tests. To apply a uniaxial tangential tension, two matching half

  9. Influence of Hybridizing Flax and Hemp-Agave Fibers with Glass Fiber as Reinforcement in a Polyurethane Composite

    Pankaj Pandey

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, six combinations of flax, hemp, and glass fiber were investigated for a hybrid reinforcement system in a polyurethane (PU composite. The natural fibers were combined with glass fibers in a PU composite in order to achieve a better mechanical reinforcement in the composite material. The effect of fiber hybridization in PU composites was evaluated through physical and mechanical properties such as water absorption (WA, specific gravity (SG, coefficient of linear thermal expansion (CLTE, flexural and compression properties, and hardness. The mechanical properties of hybridized samples showed mixed trends compared to the unhybridized samples, but hybridization with glass fiber reduced water absorption by 37% and 43% for flax and hemp-agave PU composites respectively.

  10. Integration of Physical, Genetic, and Cytogenetic Mapping Data for Cellulose Synthase (CesA Genes in Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.

    Olga Y. Yurkevich

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Flax, Linum usitatissimum L., is a valuable multi-purpose plant, and currently, its genome is being extensively investigated. Nevertheless, mapping of genes in flax genome is still remaining a challenging task. The cellulose synthase (CesA multigene family involving in the process of cellulose synthesis is especially important for metabolism of this fiber crop. For the first time, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH-based chromosomal localization of the CesA conserved fragment (KF011584.1, 5S, and 26S rRNA genes was performed in landrace, oilseed, and fiber varieties of L. usitatissimum. Intraspecific polymorphism in chromosomal distribution of KF011584.1 and 5S DNA loci was revealed, and the generalized chromosome ideogram was constructed. Using BLAST analysis, available data on physical/genetic mapping and also whole-genome sequencing of flax, localization of KF011584.1, 45S, and 5S rRNA sequences on genomic scaffolds, and their anchoring to the genetic map were conducted. The alignment of the results of FISH and BLAST analyses indicated that KF011584.1 fragment revealed on chromosome 3 could be anchored to linkage group (LG 11. The common LG for 45S and 5S rDNA was not found probably due to the polymorphic localization of 5S rDNA on chromosome 1. Our findings indicate the complexity of integration of physical, genetic, and cytogenetic mapping data for multicopy gene families in plants. Nevertheless, the obtained results can be useful for future progress in constructing of integrated physical/genetic/cytological maps in L. usitatissimum which are essential for flax breeding.

  11. Effect of cotyledons and epicotyl upon the activity of endogenous gibberellins in roots of flax (Linum usitatissimum L. seedlings

    Krystyna M. Janas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In 11-day-old flax seedlings, the level of endogenous gibberellins in roots decreased within 12 hours after the excision of cotyledons and the epicotyl; however, 24 to 48 hours after excision the gibberellin level increased again. The decrease in the gibberellin level within the first 12 hours after excision suggests a participation of the cotyledons and the epicotyl in the biosynthesis of endogenous gibberellins.

  12. Integration of Physical, Genetic, and Cytogenetic Mapping Data for Cellulose Synthase (CesA) Genes in Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.).

    Yurkevich, Olga Y; Kirov, Ilya V; Bolsheva, Nadezhda L; Rachinskaya, Olga A; Grushetskaya, Zoya E; Zoschuk, Svyatoslav A; Samatadze, Tatiana E; Bogdanova, Marina V; Lemesh, Valentina A; Amosova, Alexandra V; Muravenko, Olga V

    2017-01-01

    Flax, Linum usitatissimum L., is a valuable multi-purpose plant, and currently, its genome is being extensively investigated. Nevertheless, mapping of genes in flax genome is still remaining a challenging task. The cellulose synthase ( CesA ) multigene family involving in the process of cellulose synthesis is especially important for metabolism of this fiber crop. For the first time, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH)-based chromosomal localization of the CesA conserved fragment (KF011584.1), 5S, and 26S rRNA genes was performed in landrace, oilseed, and fiber varieties of L. usitatissimum . Intraspecific polymorphism in chromosomal distribution of KF011584.1 and 5S DNA loci was revealed, and the generalized chromosome ideogram was constructed. Using BLAST analysis, available data on physical/genetic mapping and also whole-genome sequencing of flax, localization of KF011584.1, 45S, and 5S rRNA sequences on genomic scaffolds, and their anchoring to the genetic map were conducted. The alignment of the results of FISH and BLAST analyses indicated that KF011584.1 fragment revealed on chromosome 3 could be anchored to linkage group (LG) 11. The common LG for 45S and 5S rDNA was not found probably due to the polymorphic localization of 5S rDNA on chromosome 1. Our findings indicate the complexity of integration of physical, genetic, and cytogenetic mapping data for multicopy gene families in plants. Nevertheless, the obtained results can be useful for future progress in constructing of integrated physical/genetic/cytological maps in L. usitatissimum which are essential for flax breeding.

  13. Computational identification and phylogenetic analysis of the oil-body structural proteins, oleosin and caleosin, in castor bean and flax.

    Hyun, Tae Kyung; Kumar, Dhinesh; Cho, Young-Yeol; Hyun, Hae-Nam; Kim, Ju-Sung

    2013-02-25

    Oil bodies (OBs) are the intracellular particles derived from oilseeds. These OBs store lipids as a carbon resource, and have been exploited for a variety of industrial applications including biofuels. Oleosin and caleosin are the common OB structural proteins which are enabling biotechnological enhancement of oil content and OB-based pharmaceutical formations via stabilizing OBs. Although the draft whole genome sequence information for Ricinus communis L. (castor bean) and Linum usitatissimum L. (flax), important oil seed plants, is available in public database, OB-structural proteins in these plants are poorly indentified. Therefore, in this study, we performed a comprehensive bioinformatic analysis including analysis of the genome sequence, conserved domains and phylogenetic relationships to identify OB structural proteins in castor bean and flax genomes. Using comprehensive analysis, we have identified 6 and 15 OB-structural proteins from castor bean and flax, respectively. A complete overview of this gene family in castor bean and flax is presented, including the gene structures, phylogeny and conserved motifs, resulting in the presence of central hydrophobic regions with proline knot motif, providing an evolutionary proof that this central hydrophobic region had evolved from duplications in the primitive eukaryotes. In addition, expression analysis of L-oleosin and caleosin genes using quantitative real-time PCR demonstrated that seed contained their maximum expression, except that RcCLO-1 expressed maximum in cotyledon. Thus, our comparative genomics analysis of oleosin and caleosin genes and their putatively encoded proteins in two non-model plant species provides insights into the prospective usage of gene resources for improving OB-stability. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Identification of a pair of phospholipid:diacylglycerol acyltransferases from developing flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) seed catalyzing the selective production of trilinolenin.

    Pan, Xue; Siloto, Rodrigo M P; Wickramarathna, Aruna D; Mietkiewska, Elzbieta; Weselake, Randall J

    2013-08-16

    The oil from flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) has high amounts of α-linolenic acid (ALA; 18:3(cis)(Δ9,12,15)) and is one of the richest sources of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3-PUFAs). To produce ∼57% ALA in triacylglycerol (TAG), it is likely that flax contains enzymes that can efficiently transfer ALA to TAG. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a systematic characterization of TAG-synthesizing enzymes from flax. We identified several genes encoding acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferases (DGATs) and phospholipid:diacylglycerol acyltransferases (PDATs) from the flax genome database. Due to recent genome duplication, duplicated gene pairs have been identified for all genes except DGAT2-2. Analysis of gene expression indicated that two DGAT1, two DGAT2, and four PDAT genes were preferentially expressed in flax embryos. Yeast functional analysis showed that DGAT1, DGAT2, and two PDAT enzymes restored TAG synthesis when produced recombinantly in yeast H1246 strain. The activity of particular PDAT enzymes (LuPDAT1 and LuPDAT2) was stimulated by the presence of ALA. Further seed-specific expression of flax genes in Arabidopsis thaliana indicated that DGAT1, PDAT1, and PDAT2 had significant effects on seed oil phenotype. Overall, this study indicated the existence of unique PDAT enzymes from flax that are able to preferentially catalyze the synthesis of TAG containing ALA acyl moieties. The identified LuPDATs may have practical applications for increasing the accumulation of ALA and other polyunsaturated fatty acids in oilseeds for food and industrial applications.

  15. Identification of a Pair of Phospholipid:Diacylglycerol Acyltransferases from Developing Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) Seed Catalyzing the Selective Production of Trilinolenin*

    Pan, Xue; Siloto, Rodrigo M. P.; Wickramarathna, Aruna D.; Mietkiewska, Elzbieta; Weselake, Randall J.

    2013-01-01

    The oil from flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) has high amounts of α-linolenic acid (ALA; 18:3cisΔ9,12,15) and is one of the richest sources of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3-PUFAs). To produce ∼57% ALA in triacylglycerol (TAG), it is likely that flax contains enzymes that can efficiently transfer ALA to TAG. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a systematic characterization of TAG-synthesizing enzymes from flax. We identified several genes encoding acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferases (DGATs) and phospholipid:diacylglycerol acyltransferases (PDATs) from the flax genome database. Due to recent genome duplication, duplicated gene pairs have been identified for all genes except DGAT2-2. Analysis of gene expression indicated that two DGAT1, two DGAT2, and four PDAT genes were preferentially expressed in flax embryos. Yeast functional analysis showed that DGAT1, DGAT2, and two PDAT enzymes restored TAG synthesis when produced recombinantly in yeast H1246 strain. The activity of particular PDAT enzymes (LuPDAT1 and LuPDAT2) was stimulated by the presence of ALA. Further seed-specific expression of flax genes in Arabidopsis thaliana indicated that DGAT1, PDAT1, and PDAT2 had significant effects on seed oil phenotype. Overall, this study indicated the existence of unique PDAT enzymes from flax that are able to preferentially catalyze the synthesis of TAG containing ALA acyl moieties. The identified LuPDATs may have practical applications for increasing the accumulation of ALA and other polyunsaturated fatty acids in oilseeds for food and industrial applications. PMID:23824186

  16. An effective uniaxial tensile stress-strain relationship for prestressed concrete

    Chitnuyanondh, L.; Rizkalla, S.; Murray, D.W.; MacGregor, J.G.

    1979-02-01

    This report evaluates the direct tensile strength and an equivalent uniaxial tensile stress-strain relationship for prestressed concrete using data from specimens tested at the University of Alberta which represent segments from the wall of a containment vessel. The stress-strain relationship, when used in conjunction with the BOSOR5 program, enables prediction of the response of prestressed concrete under any biaxial combination of compressive and/or tensile stresses. Comparisons between the experimental and analytical (BOSOR5) load-strain response of the wall segments are also presented. It is concluded that the BOSOR5 program is able to predict satisfactorily the response of the wall segments and multi-layered shell structures. (author)

  17. Relatedness of Indian flax genotypes (Linum usitatissimum L.): an inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) primer assay.

    Rajwade, Ashwini V; Arora, Ritu S; Kadoo, Narendra Y; Harsulkar, Abhay M; Ghorpade, Prakash B; Gupta, Vidya S

    2010-06-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the genetic relationships, using PCR-based ISSR markers, among 70 Indian flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) genotypes actively utilized in flax breeding programs. Twelve ISSR primers were used for the analysis yielding 136 loci, of which 87 were polymorphic. The average number of amplified loci and the average number of polymorphic loci per primer were 11.3 and 7.25, respectively, while the percent loci polymorphism ranged from 11.1 to 81.8 with an average of 63.9 across all the genotypes. The range of polymorphism information content scores was 0.03-0.49, with an average of 0.18. A dendrogram was generated based on the similarity matrix by the Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean (UPGMA), wherein the flax genotypes were grouped in five clusters. The Jaccard's similarity coefficient among the genotypes ranged from 0.60 to 0.97. When the omega-3 alpha linolenic acid (ALA) contents of the individual genotypes were correlated with the clusters in the dendrogram, the high ALA containing genotypes were grouped in two clusters. This study identified SLS 50, Ayogi, and Sheetal to be the most diverse genotypes and suggested their use in breeding programs and for developing mapping populations.

  18. Protective Effects of Flax Seed (Linum Usitatissimum) Hydroalcoholic Extract on Fetus Brain in Aged and Young Mice.

    Kamali, Mahsa; Bahmanpour, Soghra

    2016-05-01

    One of the major problems of the aged women or older than 35 is getting pregnant in the late fertility life. Fertility rates begin to decline gradually at the age of 30, more so at 35, and markedly at 40. Even with fertility treatments such as in vitro fertilization, women have more difficulty in getting pregnant or may deliver abnormal fetus. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of flax seed hydroalcoholic extract on the fetal brain of aged mice and its comparison with young mice. In this experimental study, 32 aged and 32 young mice were divided into 4 groups. Controls received no special treatment. The experimental mice groups, 3 weeks before mating, were fed with flax seed hydroalcoholic extract by oral gavages. After giving birth, the brains of the fetus were removed. Data analysis was performed by statistical test ANOVA using SPSS version 18 (P<0.05). The mean fetus brain weight of aged mother groups compared to the control group was increased significantly (P<0.05). This study showed that flax seed hydroalcoholic extract could improve fetal brain weights in the aged groups.

  19. The result of sunflower and flax breeding in the Agricultural and Technological Research Center Zaječar

    Stanković Vesna

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Agricultural & Technological Research Centar in Zajecar the work on improvement of sunflower were initiated in 1980s. Besides improvement, in relation to the main components of yield and high genetic potential for yield in improvement programmes of consuming genotypes of sunflower, there are some specific aims, such as: increasing the of 1000 seeds, reducing the portion of a shell, uniformity of the seed color and size. The latest achievements of the sunflower improvement carried out in the Centre in Zajecar are: obtaining the consuming-type hybrid PROTEINAC 94 (released in 1998, the hybrid JUNIOR (released in 2001, and the synthetic protein cultivar ZENIT (released in 2003. At the start of the 1990s, it was initiated the work on researching the agronomic characteristics of the existing assortment of oil-flax, as well as on preparation for plant improvement is to obtain high-yielding cultivars of brown and yellow seed color that can be used both for oil extraction and for consummation. During the research, a certain number of lines of oil-flax with positive characteristics were created. In 2003 the flax cultivar with the yellow color of seed, ZLATKO, was released. .

  20. Effects of photoperiod regimes and ultraviolet-C radiations on biosynthesis of industrially important lignans and neolignans in cell cultures of Linum usitatissimum L. (Flax).

    Anjum, Sumaira; Abbasi, Bilal Haider; Doussot, Joël; Favre-Réguillon, Alain; Hano, Christophe

    2017-02-01

    Lignans and neolignans are principal bioactive components of Linum usitatissimum L. (Flax), having multiple pharmacological activities. In present study, we are reporting an authoritative abiotic elicitation strategy of photoperiod regimes along with UV-C radiations. Cell cultures were grown in different photoperiod regimes (24h-dark, 24h-light and 16L/8D h photoperiod) either alone or in combination with various doses (1.8-10.8kJ/m 2 ) of ultraviolet-C (UV-C) radiations. Secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG), lariciresinol diglucoside (LDG), dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol glucoside (DCG), and guaiacylglycerol-β-coniferyl alcohol ether glucoside (GGCG) were quantified by using reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Results showed that the cultures exposed to UV-C radiations, accumulated higher levels of lignans, neolignans and other biochemical markers than cultures grown under different photoperiod regimes. 3.6kJ/m 2 dose of UV-C radiations resulted in 1.86-fold (7.1mg/g DW) increase in accumulation of SDG, 2.25-fold (21.6mg/g DW) in LDG, and 1.33-fold (9.2mg/g DW) in GGCG in cell cultures grown under UV+photoperiod than their respective controls. Furthermore, cell cultures grown under UV+dark showed 1.36-fold (60.0mg/g DW) increase in accumulation of DCG in response to 1.8kJ/m 2 dose of UV-C radiations. Smilar trends were observed in productivity of SDG, LDG and GGCG. Additionally, 3.6kJ/m 2 dose of UV-C radiations also resulted in 2.82-fold (195.65mg/l) increase in total phenolic production, 2.94-fold (98.9mg/l) in total flavonoid production and 1.04-fold (95%) in antioxidant activity of cell cultures grown under UV+photoperiod. These findings open new dimensions for feasible production of biologically active lignans and neolignans by Flax cell cultures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Optimization of tensile method and specimen geometry in modified ring tensile test

    Kitano, Koji; Fuketa, Toyoshi; Sasajima, Hideo; Uetsuka, Hiroshi

    2001-03-01

    Several techniques in ring tensile test are proposed in order to evaluate mechanical properties of cladding under hoop loading condition caused by pellet/cladding mechanical interaction (PCMI). In the modified techniques, variety of tensile methods and specimen geometry are being proposed in order to limit deformation within the gauge section. However, the tensile method and the specimen geometry were not determined in the modified techniques. In the present study, we have investigated the tensile method and the specimen geometry through finite element method (FEM) analysis of specimen deformation and tensile test on specimens with various gauge section geometries. In using two-piece tensile tooling, the mechanical properties under hoop loading condition can be correctly evaluated when deformation part (gauge section) is put on the top of a half-mandrel, and friction between the specimen and the half-mandrel is reduced with Teflon tape. In addition, we have shown the optimum specimen geometry for PWR 17 by 17 type cladding. (author)

  2. Three-dimensional development of tensile pre-strained annulus fibrosus cells for tissue regeneration: An in-vitro study

    Chuah, Yon Jin [School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 62 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637459 (Singapore); Lee, Wu Chean [University Hospital Conventry & Warwickshire NHS Trust, Clifford Bridge Road, West Midlands CV2, 2DX (United Kingdom); Wong, Hee Kit [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, National University Health System, NUHS Tower Block Level 11, 1E Kent Ridge Road, Singapore 119228 (Singapore); Kang, Yuejun, E-mail: yuejun.kang@ntu.edu.sg [School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 62 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637459 (Singapore); Hee, Hwan Tak, E-mail: HTHee@ntu.edu.sg [School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 62 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637459 (Singapore); Pinnacle Spine & Scoliosis Centre, 3 Mount Elizabeth, Mount Elizabeth Medical Centre, #04-07, Singapore 228510 (Singapore); School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 21 Nanyang Link, Singapore 637459 (Singapore)

    2015-02-01

    Prior research has investigated the immediate response after application of tensile strain on annulus fibrosus (AF) cells for the past decade. Although mechanical strain can produce either catabolic or anabolic consequences to the cell monolayer, little is known on how to translate these findings into further tissue engineering applications. Till to date, the application and effect of tensile pre-strained cells to construct a three-dimensional (3D) AF tissue remains unknown. This study aims to investigate the effect of tensile pre-strained exposure of 1 to 24 h on the development of AF pellet culture for 3 weeks. Equibiaxial cyclic tensile strain was applied on AF monolayer cells over a period of 24 h, which was subsequently developed into a cell pellet. Investigation on cellular proliferation, phenotypic gene expression, and histological changes revealed that tensile pre-strain for 24 h had significant and lasting effect on the AF tissue development, with enhanced cell proliferation, and up-regulation of collagen type I, II, and aggrecan expression. Our results demonstrated the regenerative ability of AF cell pellets subjected to 24 h tensile pre-straining. Knowledge on the effects of tensile pre-strain exposure is necessary to optimize AF development for tissue reconstruction. Moreover, the tensile pre-strained cells may further be utilized in either cell therapy to treat mild disc degeneration disease, or the development of a disc construct for total disc replacement. - Highlights: • Establishment of tensile pre-strained cell line population for annulus development. • Tensile strain limits collagen gene expression declination in monolayer culture. • Tensile pre-strained cells up-regulate their matrix protein in 3D pellet culture.

  3. Aspects of resistance of flax and linseed (Linum usitatissimum) to Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lini = Aspecten van de resistentie in vezel- en olievlas (Linum usitatissimum) tegen Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lini

    Kroes, I.

    1997-01-01

    In the thesis aspects have been described of the flax and linseed interaction to Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lini, the causal agent of flax wilt. Two in vitro tests were established to screen for resistance, to investigate race specificity

  4. Deformation features of aluminium in tensile tests

    Quadros, N.F. de.

    1984-01-01

    It is presented a method to analyse stress-strain curves. Plastic and elastic strains were studied. The strains were done by tensile tests in four types of materials: highly pure aluminium, pure aluminium, commercially pure aluminium and aluminium - uranium. The chemical compositions were obtained by spectroscopy analysis and neutron activation analysis. Tensile tests were carried out at three strain rates, at room temperature, 100,200, 300 and 400 0 C, with knives extensometer and strain-gages to studied the elastic strain region. A multiple spring model based on two springs model to analyse elastic strain caused by tests without extensometers, taking in account moduli of elasticity and, an interactive analysis system with graphic capability were developed. It was suggested a qualitative model to explain the quantized multielasticity of Bell. (M.C.K.) [pt

  5. High-Tensile Strength Tape Versus High-Tensile Strength Suture: A Biomechanical Study.

    Gnandt, Ryan J; Smith, Jennifer L; Nguyen-Ta, Kim; McDonald, Lucas; LeClere, Lance E

    2016-02-01

    To determine which suture design, high-tensile strength tape or high-tensile strength suture, performed better at securing human tissue across 4 selected suture techniques commonly used in tendinous repair, by comparing the total load at failure measured during a fixed-rate longitudinal single load to failure using a biomechanical testing machine. Matched sets of tendon specimens with bony attachments were dissected from 15 human cadaveric lower extremities in a manner allowing for direct comparison testing. With the use of selected techniques (simple Mason-Allen in the patellar tendon specimens, whip stitch in the quadriceps tendon specimens, and Krackow stitch in the Achilles tendon specimens), 1 sample of each set was sutured with a 2-mm braided, nonabsorbable, high-tensile strength tape and the other with a No. 2 braided, nonabsorbable, high-tensile strength suture. A total of 120 specimens were tested. Each model was loaded to failure at a fixed longitudinal traction rate of 100 mm/min. The maximum load and failure method were recorded. In the whip stitch and the Krackow-stitch models, the high-tensile strength tape had a significantly greater mean load at failure with a difference of 181 N (P = .001) and 94 N (P = .015) respectively. No significant difference was found in the Mason-Allen and simple stitch models. Pull-through remained the most common method of failure at an overall rate of 56.7% (suture = 55%; tape = 58.3%). In biomechanical testing during a single load to failure, high-tensile strength tape performs more favorably than high-tensile strength suture, with a greater mean load to failure, in both the whip- and Krackow-stitch models. Although suture pull-through remains the most common method of failure, high-tensile strength tape requires a significantly greater load to pull-through in a whip-stitch and Krakow-stitch model. The biomechanical data obtained in the current study indicates that high-tensile strength tape may provide better repair

  6. Genetic characterization of a core collection of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) suitable for association mapping studies and evidence of divergent selection between fiber and linseed types.

    Soto-Cerda, Braulio J; Diederichsen, Axel; Ragupathy, Raja; Cloutier, Sylvie

    2013-05-06

    Flax is valued for its fiber, seed oil and nutraceuticals. Recently, the fiber industry has invested in the development of products made from linseed stems, making it a dual purpose crop. Simultaneous targeting of genomic regions controlling stem fiber and seed quality traits could enable the development of dual purpose cultivars. However, the genetic diversity, population structure and linkage disequilibrium (LD) patterns necessary for association mapping (AM) have not yet been assessed in flax because genomic resources have only recently been developed. We characterized 407 globally distributed flax accessions using 448 microsatellite markers. The data was analyzed to assess the suitability of this core collection for AM. Genomic scans to identify candidate genes selected during the divergent breeding process of fiber flax and linseed were conducted using the whole genome shotgun sequence of flax. Combined genetic structure analysis assigned all accessions to two major groups with six sub-groups. Population differentiation was weak between the major groups (F(ST) = 0.094) and for most of the pairwise comparisons among sub-groups. The molecular coancestry analysis indicated weak relatedness (mean = 0.287) for most individual pairs. Abundant genetic diversity was observed in the total panel (5.32 alleles per locus), and some sub-groups showed a high proportion of private alleles. The average genome-wide LD (r²) was 0.036, with a relatively fast decay of 1.5 cM. Genomic scans between fiber flax and linseed identified candidate genes involved in cell-wall biogenesis/modification, xylem identity and fatty acid biosynthesis congruent with genes previously identified in flax and other plant species. Based on the abundant genetic diversity, weak population structure and relatedness and relatively fast LD decay, we concluded that this core collection is suitable for AM studies targeting multiple agronomic and quality traits aiming at the improvement of flax as a

  7. Fibres from flax overproducing β-1,3-glucanase show increased accumulation of pectin and phenolics and thus higher antioxidant capacity

    2013-01-01

    Background Recently, in order to improve the resistance of flax plants to pathogen infection, transgenic flax that overproduces β-1,3-glucanase was created. β-1,3-glucanase is a PR protein that hydrolyses the β-glucans, which are a major component of the cell wall in many groups of fungi. For this study, we used fourth-generation field-cultivated plants of the Fusarium -resistant transgenic line B14 to evaluate how overexpression of the β-1,3-glucanase gene influences the quantity, quality and composition of flax fibres, which are the main product obtained from flax straw. Results Overproduction of β-1,3-glucanase did not affect the quantity of the fibre obtained from the flax straw and did not significantly alter the essential mechanical characteristics of the retted fibres. However, changes in the contents of the major components of the cell wall (cellulose, hemicellulose, pectin and lignin) were revealed. Overexpression of the β-1,3-glucanase gene resulted in higher cellulose, hemicellulose and pectin contents and a lower lignin content in the fibres. Increases in the uronic acid content in particular fractions (with the exception of the 1 M KOH-soluble fraction of hemicelluloses) and changes in the sugar composition of the cell wall were detected in the fibres of the transgenic flax when compared to the contents for the control plants. The callose content was lower in the fibres of the transgenic flax. Additionally, the analysis of phenolic compound contents in five fractions of the cell wall revealed important changes, which were reflected in the antioxidant potential of these fractions. Conclusion Overexpression of the β-1,3-glucanase gene has a significant influence on the biochemical composition of flax fibres. The constitutive overproduction of β-1,3-glucanase causes a decrease in the callose content, and the resulting excess glucose serves as a substrate for the production of other polysaccharides. The monosaccharide excess redirects the phenolic

  8. Tensile creep of beta phase zircaloy-2

    Burton, B.; Reynolds, G.L.; Barnes, J.P.

    1977-08-01

    The tensile creep and creep rupture properties of beta-phase zircaloy-2 are studied under vacuum in the temperature and stress range 1300-1550 K and 0.5-2 MN/m 2 . The new results are compared with previously reported uniaxial and biaxial data. A small but systematic difference is noted between the uniaxial and biaxial creep data and reasons for this discrepancy are discussed. (author)

  9. Environmental behaviour of tensile membrane structures

    Elnokaly, Amira; Chilton, John; Wilson, Robin

    2002-01-01

    This paper considers the environmental properties of spaces enclosed by tensile membrane structures (TMS). Limitations in the understanding of the environmental and thermal performance of TMS have to some extent hindered their acceptance by building clients and the building industry. A review of the early attempts to model the thermal environment of spaces enclosed by TMS is given and their environmental and thermal properties are discussed. The lack of appropriate tools for the investigation...

  10. MISSE 6 Polymer Film Tensile Experiment

    Miller, Sharon K. R.; Dever, Joyce A.; Banks, Bruce A.; Waters, Deborah L.; Sechkar, Edward; Kline, Sara

    2010-01-01

    The Polymer Film Tensile Experiment (PFTE) was flown as part of Materials International Space Station Experiment 6 (MISSE 6). The purpose of the experiment was to expose a variety of polymer films to the low Earth orbital environment under both relaxed and tension conditions. The polymers selected are those commonly used for spacecraft thermal control and those under consideration for use in spacecraft applications such as sunshields, solar sails, and inflatable and deployable structures. The dog-bone shaped samples of polymers that were flown were exposed on both the side of the MISSE 6 Passive Experiment Container (PEC) that was facing into the ram direction (receiving atomic oxygen, ultraviolet (UV) radiation, ionizing radiation, and thermal cycling) and the wake facing side (which was supposed to have experienced predominantly the same environmental effects except for atomic oxygen which was present due to reorientation of the International Space Station). A few of the tensile samples were coated with vapor deposited aluminum on the back and wired to determine the point in the flight when the tensile sample broke as recorded by a change in voltage that was stored on battery powered data loggers for post flight retrieval and analysis. The data returned on the data loggers was not usable. However, post retrieval observation and analysis of the samples was performed. This paper describes the preliminary analysis and observations of the polymers exposed on the MISSE 6 PFTE.

  11. The Effect of Flax Seed (Linum Usitatissimum) Hydroalcoholic Extract on Brain, Weight and Plasma Sexual Hormone Levels in Aged and Young Mice.

    Bahmanpour, Soghra; Kamali, Mahsa

    2016-05-01

    Flax is a food and fiber crop that is grown in some regions of the world. Its value will account for its great popularity as a food, medical and cosmetic applications. Flax fibers are taken from the stem of the plant and are two to three times as strong as cotton. In this study, we compared brain weight and plasma sex hormone levels in young and aged mice after the administration of Linum usitatissimum (flax seed) hydro alcoholic extract. In this study, 32 aged and 32 young mice were divided into 4 groups. Controls remained untreated and experimental groups were fed with flax seed hydroalcoholic extract by oral gavages during 3 weeks. After 3 weeks, the brain was removed and blood samples were collected to measure sex hormone levels by ELISA. Data analysis was done by statistical ANOVA test using SPSS version 18 (P<0.05). The results of this study shows that the brain weight of mice did not change significantly, but the sex hormone levels in the experimental groups in comparison with the control groups increased significantly (P<0.05). The hydroalcoholic extract of flax seed had no effect on the brain weight, but this extract improved the sexual hormone levels.

  12. Hydroxyl radical-scavenging property of secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) isolated from flax-seed.

    Prasad, K

    1997-03-01

    Recently there has been a moderate resurgence in the use of flax-seed in a variety of ways including bread. The scientific basis of its use is very limited. There is some claim for beneficial effects in cancer and lupus nephritis. These claims could be due to its ability to scavenge oxygen radicals. However, its antioxidant activity is not known. Recently a method has been developed to isolate secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) from defatted flax-seed in large quantity (patent pending). We investigated the ability of SDG to scavenge .OH using high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. .OH was generated by photolysis of H2O2 (1.25-10.0 mumoles/ml) with ultraviolet light and was trapped with salicylic acid which is hydroxylated to produce .OH-adduct products 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHBA) and 2,5-DHBA. H2O2 produced a concentration-dependent .OH as estimated by 2,3-DHBA and 2,5-DHBA. A standard curve was constructed for known concentrations of 2,3-DHBA and 2,5-DHBA against corresponding area under the peaks which then was used for measurement of 2,3-DHBA and 2,5-DHBA generated by UV irradiation of H2O2 in the presence of salicylic acid. SDG in the concentration range of 25, 50, 100, 250, 500, 750, 1000 and 2000 micrograms/ml (36.4, 72.8, 145.6, 364.0, 728.0, 1092.0, 1456.0 and 2912.0 microM respectively) produced a concentration-dependent decrease in the formation of 2,3-DHBA and 2,5-DHBA, the inhibition being 4 and 4.65% respectively with 25 micrograms/ml (36.4 microM) and 82 and 74% respectively with 2000 micrograms/ml (2912.0 microM). The decrease in .OH-adduct products was due to scavenging of .OH and not by scavenging of formed 2,3-DHBA and 2,5-DHBA. SDG prevented the lipid peroxidation of liver homogenate in a concentration-dependent manner in the concentration range from 319.3-2554.4 microM. These results suggest that SDG scavenges .OH and therefore has an antioxidant activity.

  13. Tensile Strength of Water Exposed to Pressure Pulses

    Andersen, Anders Peter; Mørch, Knud Aage

    2012-01-01

    at an extended water-solid interface by imposing a tensile stress pulse which easily causes cavitation. Next, a compressive pulse of duration ~1 ms and a peak intensity of a few bar is imposed prior to the tensile stress pulse. A dramatic increase of the tensile strength is observed immediately after......It is well known that pressurization for an extended period of time increases the tensile strength of water, but little information is available on the effect of pressure pulses of short duration. This is addressed in the present paper where we first measure the tensile strength of water...

  14. Dynamic tensile behavior of two-dimensional carbon fiber reinforced silicon carbide matrix composites

    Chen Xuan; Li Yulong

    2011-01-01

    /SiC composites, the strain rate sensitivity of in-bundle interface is mainly responsible for the strain rate sensitivity of the tensile strength.

  15. Enhancement of the Mechanical Properties of a Polylactic Acid/Flax Fiber Biocomposite by WPU, WPU/Starch, and TPS Polyurethanes Using Coupling Additives

    Miskolczi, N.; Sedlarik, V.; Kucharczyk, P.; Riegel, E.

    2018-01-01

    This work is addressed to the synthesis of bio-based polymers and investigation of their application in a flax-fiber-reinforced polylactic acid. Polyurethane polymers were synthesized from polyphenyl-methane-diisocyanate, poly (ethylene oxide) glycol, and ricinoleic acid, and their structure was examined by the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and differential scanning calorimetry. It was established that the introduction of flax fibers and different compatibilizers into the polymers improved their mechanical properties. A vinyl-trimetoxy-silane and polyalkenyl-polymaleic-anhydride derivative with a high acid number produced the best effect on the properties, but samples without additives had the highest water absorption capacity. SEM micrographs showed a good correlation between the morphology of fracture structure of the composites and the mechanical properties of flax fibers.

  16. Experimental Analysis of Tensile Mechanical Properties of Sprayed FRP

    Zhao Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To study the tensile mechanical properties of sprayed FRP, 13 groups of specimens were tested through uniaxial tensile experiments, being analyzed about stress-strain curve, tensile strength, elastic modulus, breaking elongation, and other mechanical properties. Influencing factors on tensile mechanical properties of sprayed FRP such as fiber type, resin type, fiber volume ratio, fiber length, and composite thickness were studied in the paper too. The results show that both fiber type and resin type have an obvious influence on tensile mechanical properties of sprayed FRP. There will be a specific fiber volume ratio for sprayed FRP to obtain the best tensile mechanical property. The increase of fiber length can lead to better tensile performance, while that of composite thickness results in property degradation. The study can provide reference to popularization and application of sprayed FRP material used in structure reinforcement.

  17. Genome-wide identification, phylogenetic classification, and exon-intron structure characterisation of the tubulin and actin genes in flax (Linum usitatissimum).

    Pydiura, Nikolay; Pirko, Yaroslav; Galinousky, Dmitry; Postovoitova, Anastasiia; Yemets, Alla; Kilchevsky, Aleksandr; Blume, Yaroslav

    2018-06-08

    Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) is a valuable food and fiber crop cultivated for its quality fiber and seed oil. α-, β-, γ-tubulins and actins are the main structural proteins of the cytoskeleton. α- and γ-tubulin and actin genes have not been characterized yet in the flax genome. In this study, we have identified 6 α-tubulin genes, 13 β-tubulin genes, 2 γ-tubulin genes, and 15 actin genes in the flax genome and analysed the phylogenetic relationships between flax and A. thaliana tubulin and actin genes. Six α-tubulin genes are represented by 3 paralogous pairs, among 13 β-tubulin genes 7 different isotypes can be distinguished, 6 of which are encoded by two paralogous genes each. γ-tubulin is represented by a paralogous pair of genes one of which may be not functional. Fifteen actin genes represent 7 paralogous pairs - 7 actin isotypes and a sequentially duplicated copy of one of the genes of one of the isotypes. Exon-intron structure analysis has shown intron length polymorphism within the β-tubulin genes and intron number variation among the α-tubulin gene: 3 or 4 introns are found in two or four genes, respectively. Intron positioning occurs at conservative sites, as observed in numerous other plant species. Flax actin genes show both intron length polymorphisms and variation in the number of intron that may be 2 or 3. These data will be useful to support further studies on the specificity, functioning, regulation and evolution of the flax cytoskeleton proteins. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  18. Genome-Wide Association Study Identifying Candidate Genes Influencing Important Agronomic Traits of Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) Using SLAF-seq.

    Xie, Dongwei; Dai, Zhigang; Yang, Zemao; Sun, Jian; Zhao, Debao; Yang, Xue; Zhang, Liguo; Tang, Qing; Su, Jianguang

    2017-01-01

    Flax ( Linum usitatissimum L.) is an important cash crop, and its agronomic traits directly affect yield and quality. Molecular studies on flax remain inadequate because relatively few flax genes have been associated with agronomic traits or have been identified as having potential applications. To identify markers and candidate genes that can potentially be used for genetic improvement of crucial agronomic traits, we examined 224 specimens of core flax germplasm; specifically, phenotypic data for key traits, including plant height, technical length, number of branches, number of fruits, and 1000-grain weight were investigated under three environmental conditions before specific-locus amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq) was employed to perform a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for these five agronomic traits. Subsequently, the results were used to screen single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) loci and candidate genes that exhibited a significant correlation with the important agronomic traits. Our analyses identified a total of 42 SNP loci that showed significant correlations with the five important agronomic flax traits. Next, candidate genes were screened in the 10 kb zone of each of the 42 SNP loci. These SNP loci were then analyzed by a more stringent screening via co-identification using both a general linear model (GLM) and a mixed linear model (MLM) as well as co-occurrences in at least two of the three environments, whereby 15 final candidate genes were obtained. Based on these results, we determined that UGT and PL are candidate genes for plant height, GRAS and XTH are candidate genes for the number of branches, Contig1437 and LU0019C12 are candidate genes for the number of fruits, and PHO1 is a candidate gene for the 1000-seed weight. We propose that the identified SNP loci and corresponding candidate genes might serve as a biological basis for improving crucial agronomic flax traits.

  19. Genome-Wide Association Study Identifying Candidate Genes Influencing Important Agronomic Traits of Flax (Linum usitatissimum L. Using SLAF-seq

    Dongwei Xie

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Flax (Linum usitatissimum L. is an important cash crop, and its agronomic traits directly affect yield and quality. Molecular studies on flax remain inadequate because relatively few flax genes have been associated with agronomic traits or have been identified as having potential applications. To identify markers and candidate genes that can potentially be used for genetic improvement of crucial agronomic traits, we examined 224 specimens of core flax germplasm; specifically, phenotypic data for key traits, including plant height, technical length, number of branches, number of fruits, and 1000-grain weight were investigated under three environmental conditions before specific-locus amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq was employed to perform a genome-wide association study (GWAS for these five agronomic traits. Subsequently, the results were used to screen single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP loci and candidate genes that exhibited a significant correlation with the important agronomic traits. Our analyses identified a total of 42 SNP loci that showed significant correlations with the five important agronomic flax traits. Next, candidate genes were screened in the 10 kb zone of each of the 42 SNP loci. These SNP loci were then analyzed by a more stringent screening via co-identification using both a general linear model (GLM and a mixed linear model (MLM as well as co-occurrences in at least two of the three environments, whereby 15 final candidate genes were obtained. Based on these results, we determined that UGT and PL are candidate genes for plant height, GRAS and XTH are candidate genes for the number of branches, Contig1437 and LU0019C12 are candidate genes for the number of fruits, and PHO1 is a candidate gene for the 1000-seed weight. We propose that the identified SNP loci and corresponding candidate genes might serve as a biological basis for improving crucial agronomic flax traits.

  20. Tensile behavior of borated stainless steels

    Stephens, J.J. Jr.; Sorenson, K.B.

    1991-01-01

    Borated stainless steel tensile testing is being conducted at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The goal of the test program is to provide data to support a code case inquiry to the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section III. The adoption by ASME facilitates a material's qualification for structural use in transport cask applications. For transport cask basket applications, the potential advantage to using borated stainless steel arises from the fact that the structural and criticality control functions can be combined into one material. This can result in a decrease in net section thickness of the basket web (increased payload capacity) and eliminates the fabrication process and cost of attaching a discrete boron poison material to the basket web. In addition, adding borate stainless steel to the inventory of acceptable structural material provides the Department of Energy (DOE) and its cask contractors an alternative to current proposed materials which have not been qualified for structural service. The test program at SNL involves procuring material, machining test specimens, and conducting the tensile tests. From test measurements obtained so far, general trends indicate that tensile properties (yield strength and ultimate strength) increase with boron content and are in all cases superior to the minimum required properties established in A-240, Type 304, a typical grade of austenitic stainless steel. Therefore, in a designed basket, web thicknesses using borated stainless steel would be comparable to or thinner tan an equivalent basket manufactured from a typical stainless steel without boron additions. General trends from test results indicate that ductilities decrease with increasing boron content

  1. Bactericidal activities of GM flax seedcake extract on pathogenic bacteria clinical strains.

    Zuk, Magdalena; Dorotkiewicz-Jach, Agata; Drulis-Kawa, Zuzanna; Arendt, Malgorzata; Kulma, Anna; Szopa, Jan

    2014-07-29

    The antibiotic resistance of pathogenic microorganisms is a worldwide problem. Each year several million people across the world acquire infections with bacteria that are antibiotic-resistant, which is costly in terms of human health. New antibiotics are extremely needed to overcome the current resistance problem. Transgenic flax plants overproducing compounds from phenylpropanoid pathway accumulate phenolic derivatives of potential antioxidative, and thus, antimicrobial activity. Alkali hydrolyzed seedcake extract containing coumaric acid, ferulic acid, caffeic acid, and lignan in high quantities was used as an assayed against pathogenic bacteria (commonly used model organisms and clinical strains). It was shown that the extract components had antibacterial activity, which might be useful as a prophylactic against bacterial infection. Bacteria topoisomerase II (gyrase) inhibition and genomic DNA disintegration are suggested to be the main reason for rendering antibacterial action. The data obtained strongly suggest that the seedcake extract preparation is a suitable candidate for antimicrobial action with a broad spectrum and partial selectivity. Such preparation can be applied in cases where there is a risk of multibacterial infection and excellent answer on global increase in multidrug resistance in pathogenic bacteria.

  2. Proteomic analysis of flax seed grown in radioactive contaminated areas of Chernobyl

    Klubicova, K.; Danchenko, M.; Pretova, A.; Hajduch, M.; Skultety, L.; Rashydov, N.

    2010-01-01

    An explosion of one of the four reactors at the Chernobyl nuclear power occurring 26.4.1986, causing the worst nuclear disaster in human history. During the explosion is released into the environment are a number of different radioactive elements was also contaminated and much of Europe. Nowadays, after more than 20 years, the area located near the nuclear power plant is still contaminated by radioactive elements with long-lived, such as 90 Sr and 137 Cs. Despite the increased radiation in the environment of the plant not ceased to increase, that is, they have created a mechanism of adaptation. The aim of our work was to investigate the possible mechanisms involved in the adaptation of plants in the environment. During the first generation, we analyzed the mature seeds of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) grown in the control and in the contaminated zone. Proteins have separated and identified by mass spectrometry. Identified proteins (28) We were categorized into nine functional categories. We have designed a working model of adaptation of plants to elevated levels of radiation in the environment.

  3. Biological determinants of plant and crop productivity of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.

    Tadeusz Zając

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In Poland the cultivation of the fibrous form of flax (Linum usitatissimum L. is dying out, but the acreage of its oilseed form, linseed, which provides seed (Semen lini used in therapy and being a source of -linolenic acid, is expanding. Nowadays, linseed is grown in 64 countries of the world, but yield levels in these countries vary greatly. Under European conditions, seed yield of linseed shows high variation, which is evidence of little knowledge of the biology of this plant and the lack of precise cultivation solutions in agricultural technologies used. A major reason is the difficulty in obtaining optimal crop density. A sparse crop results in low above-ground biomass yield, which is translated into insufficient crop yields. The selection of highly productive domestic and foreign varieties can partially increase linseed yield; apart from some domestic varieties, the Canadian cultivar 'Flanders' and the Hungarian cultivar 'Barbara' are positive examples in this respect. There is a possibility of effective selection at early stages of linseed breeding, which bodes well for the prospect of obtaining highly productive varieties with normal or very low -linolenic acid content.

  4. Influence of cadmium and mycorrhizal fungi on the fatty acid profile of flax (Linum usitatissimum) seeds.

    Kaplan, Matthew E; Simmons, Ellen R; Hawkins, Jack C; Ruane, Lauren G; Carney, Jeffrey M

    2015-09-01

    The soil environment can affect not only the quantity of crops produced but also their nutritional quality. We examined the combined effects of below-ground cadmium (0, 5, and 15 ppm) and mycorrhizal fungi (presence and absence) on the concentration of five major fatty acids within flax seeds (Linum usitatissimum). Plants grown with mycorrhizal fungi produced seeds that contained higher concentrations of unsaturated (18:1, 18:2 and 18:3), but not saturated (16:0 and 18:0) fatty acids. The effects of mycorrhizal fungi on the concentration of unsaturated fatty acids in seeds were most pronounced when plant roots were exposed to 15 ppm Cd (i.e. the concentrations of 18:1, 18:2 and 18:3 increased by 169%, 370% and 150%, respectively). The pronounced effects of mycorrhizal fungi on the concentration of unsaturated fatty acids at 15 ppm Cd may have been due to the presence of elevated levels of Cd within seeds. Our results suggest that, once the concentration of cadmium within seeds reaches a certain threshold, this heavy metal may improve the efficiency of enzymes that convert saturated fatty acids to unsaturated fatty acids. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Proteomic analysis of flax seed grown in radioactive contaminated areas of Chernobyl

    Klubicova, K.; Danchenko, M.; Pretova, A.; Hajduch, M.; Skultety, L.; Rashydov, N.

    2010-01-01

    An explosion of one of the four reactors at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant occurred on 26 th April 1986, causing the worst nuclear disaster in human history. During the explosion a number of different radioactive elements were released into the environment which contaminated much of Europe. Nowadays, after more than 20 years, the area located near the nuclear power plant is still contaminated by radioactive long-lived elements, such as 90 Sr and 137 Cs. Despite increased radiation in the environment the plants did not stop increasing. It means that they have created a mechanism of adaptation . The aim of the work was to investigate the possible mechanisms involved in adaptation of plants in the environment. During the first generation, the authors analyzed the mature seeds of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) grown in control zone and in contaminated zone. Proteins were separated and identified by mass spectrometry. Identified proteins (28) were categorized into nine functional categories. The authors have designed a working model of adaptation of the plants to elevated level of radiation in the environment.

  6. Combined treatment of retting flax wastewater using Fenton oxidation and granular activated carbon

    Sohair I. Abou-Elela

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The process of retting flax produces a huge amount of wastewater which is characterized with bad unpleasant smell and high concentration of organic materials. Treatment of such waste had always been difficult because of the presence of refractory organic pollutants such as lignin. In this study, treatment of retting wastewater was carried out using combined system of Fenton oxidation process followed by adsorption on granular activated carbon (GAC. The effects of operating condition on Fenton oxidation process such as hydrogen peroxide and iron concentration were investigated. In addition, kinetic study of the adsorption process was elaborated. The obtained results indicated that degradation of organic matters follows a pseudo-first order reaction with regression coefficient of 0.98. The kinetic model suggested that the rate of reaction was highly affected by the concentration of hydrogen peroxide. Moreover, the results indicated that the treatment module was very efficient in removing the organic and inorganic pollutants. The average percentage removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD, total suspended solid (TSS, oil, and grease was 98.60%, 86.60%, and 94.22% with residual values of 44, 20, and 5 mg/L, respectively. The treated effluent was complying with the National Regulatory Standards for wastewater discharge into surface water or reuse in the retting process.

  7. Composite Materials Based on Hemp and Flax for Low-Energy Buildings

    Brzyski, Przemysław; Barnat-Hunek, Danuta; Suchorab, Zbigniew; Łagód, Grzegorz

    2017-01-01

    The article presents the results obtained in the course of a study on prospective application of flax/hemp wastes as a filling material of lime-based composites in the construction of low-energy buildings. The utilized filler comprised the hydrated lime with clay and Portland cement used as additives. The analysis involved evaluation of such properties as porosity, density, thermal conductivity, absorptivity, permeability, as well as compressive and flexural strength. Depending on the quantity of the filler, the properties of the composite changed. This, in turn, enabled to evaluate whether the utilized composite met the thermal requirements established for low-energy buildings. Afterwards, the obtained data were cross-referenced with the results gathered in the case of a room built of autoclaved aerated concrete. In order to prevent reaching the critical surface humidity, the internal surface temperature had to be calculated. Moreover, the chances of interstitial condensation occurring in the wall made of the analyzed lime–flax–hemp composite were determined as well. The study showed that the composite exhibits low strength, low density, low thermal conductivity, and high absorptivity. The external walls made of the lime–flax–hemp composite receive a limited exposure to condensation, but not significant enough to constitute any threat. The requirements established for low-energy buildings can be met by using the analyzed composite. PMID:28772871

  8. Performance and emission characteristics of compression ignition engine operating with false flax biodiesel and butanol blends

    Mustafa Atakan Akar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, fuel properties, engine performance, and emission characteristics of diesel fuel, false flax biodiesel, and their blends with butanol have been evaluated. Blend ratios used in this study were diesel–biodiesel–butanol (70% diesel–20% biodiesel–10% butanol and 60% diesel–20% biodiesel–20% butanol by volume and biodiesel–diesel (20% biodiesel–80% diesel and 100% biodiesel by volume. Experiments showed that 10% alcohol addition to diesel and biodiesel fuels caused a decrease in torque value up to 8.57%. When butanol ratio raised to 20%, torque value decreased to an average of 12.7% and power values decreased to an average of 13.57%. Specific fuel consumption increased to an average of 10.63% and 12.80% with 10% and 20% butanol addition, respectively. Alcohol addiction into conventional diesel and biodiesel fuel slightly increased NOX emissions. Supplement of alcohol decreased CO and CO2 emissions when it was entrained to diesel and increased it when it was added to biodiesel. It means that addition of alcohol to diesel changed CO and CO2 emissions.

  9. Effect of nitrogen fertilizer and gamma radiation on the morophological character and yield of flax

    Baker, R.H.; Salman, A.A.; El-Hariri, D.M.

    1984-01-01

    This work was carried out in the field of agriculture college, in split plot design to investigate the influence of different levels of fertilizer and different doses of gamma radiation on the morphological characters and yield of flax. The results could be summarized as follow:1-Plant height and number of basal branches/plant responded significantly to nitrogen. 2-Nitrogen at the rate of 80 and 60 Kg/ha increased both seed yield/donum and capsules yield/plant over control treatment and the superiority a mounted to 18.6 and 10.2 for seed yield while 16 and 36 for capsule yield. 3-Radiation caused stimulating significant effect on a number of capsules and weight of 1000 seeds. 4-Radiation significantly inhibited seed yield/donum and caused insignificant effect on total yield capsules yield and straw yield/plant. 5-Flowering zone length responded signicantly to the interraction of nitrogen and gamma doses and attained its maximum value at 80 Kg N/ha and 60 Kilorad of gamma radiation.(7 tabs., 23 refs.)

  10. Study of the time varying properties of flax fiber reinforced composites

    Stochioiu, Constantin; Chettah, Ameur; Piezel, Benoit; Fontaine, Stéphane; Gheorghiu, Horia-Miron

    2018-02-01

    Bio materials have seen an increase of interest from the scientific community and the industry as a possible future generation of mass produced materials, some of the main arguments being their renewability, low production costs and recyclability. The current work is focused on the experimental data required for the viscoelastic characterization of a composite material. Similar work has been conducted on different types of composite materials by Tuttle and Brinson [1] who verified for a carbon epoxy laminate the possibility of long term predicament of creep. Nordin et al [2] studied paper impregnated with phenol-formaldehyde under compression. Muliana [3] conducted experiments on E-glass/vinyl ester materials. Behavior characterization was based on a model presented by Schapery [4]. The main objective of this work is to understand the mechanical behaviors of bio-laminates structures subjected to long and severe operating conditions. The studied material is a bio composite laminate consisting in long flax fibers embedded in an epoxy resin system. The laminates were obtained from pre-impregnated unidirectional fibers, which were cured though a thermo-compression cycle followed by a post curing cycle. Test specimens were cut down to sizes, with the help of an electric saw. The concerned fiber direction was 0° with sample dimensions of 250x25x2 mm. First, testing consisted in quasi static mechanical tests. Second, to characterize linear viscoelastic behavior of the bio-laminates, creep - recovery tests with multiple load levels have been performed for the chosen fiber direction.

  11. Effect of nanoclay on durability and mechanical properties of flax fabric reinforced geopolymer composites

    H. Assaedi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The main concern of using natural fibres as reinforcement in geopolymer composites is the durability of the fibres. Geopolymers are alkaline in nature because of the alkaline solution that is required for activating the geopolymer reaction. The alkalinity of the matrix, however, is the key reason of the degradation of natural fibres. The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of nanoclay (NC loading on the mechanical properties and durability of flax fabric (FF reinforced geopolymer composites. The durability of composites after 4 and 32 weeks at ambient temperature is presented. The microstructure of geopolymer matrices was investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The results showed that the incorporation of NC has a positive impact on the physical properties, mechanical performance, and durability of FF reinforced geopolymer composites. The presence of NC has a positive impact through accelerating the geopolymerization, reducing the alkalinity of the system and increasing the geopolymer gel.

  12. Discrete analysis of clay layer tensile strength

    Le, T.N.H.; Ple, O.; Villard, P.; Gourc, J.P.

    2010-01-01

    The Discrete Element Method is used to investigate the tensile behaviour and cracks mechanisms of a clay material submitted to bending loading. It is the case of compacted clay liners in landfill cap cover application. Such as the soil tested in this study is plastic clay, the distinct elements model was calibrated with previous data results by taking into account cohesive properties. Various contact and cohesion laws are tested to show that the numerical model is able to reproduce the failure mechanism. Numerical results are extending to simulate a landfill cap cover and comparing to experimental large scale field bending tests achieved in a real site of storage. (authors)

  13. Welding wires for high-tensile steels

    Laz'ko, V.E.; Starova, L.L.; Koval'chuk, V.G.; Maksimovich, T.L.; Labzina, I.E.; Yadrov, V.M.

    1993-01-01

    Strength of welded joints in arc welding of high-tensile steels of mean and high thickness by welding wires is equal to approximately 1300 MPa in thermohardened state and approximately 600 MPa without heat treatment. Sv-15Kh2NMTsRA-VI (EhK44-VI) -Sv-30Kh2NMTsRA-VI (EkK47-VI) welding wires are suggested for welding of medium-carbon alloyed steels. These wires provide monotonous growth of ultimate strength of weld metal in 1250-1900 MPa range with increase of C content in heat-treated state

  14. Stability of germanene under tensile strain

    Kaloni, Thaneshwor P.

    2013-09-01

    The stability of germanene under biaxial tensile strain and the accompanying modifications of the electronic properties are studied by density functional theory. The phonon spectrum shows that up to 16% strain the germanene lattice is stable, where the Dirac cone shifts towards higher energy and hole-doped Dirac states are achieved. The latter is due to weakening of the Ge-Ge bonds and reduction of the s-p hybridization. Our calculated Grüneisen parameter shows a similar dependence on the strain as reported for silicene (which is different from that of graphene). © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Stability of germanene under tensile strain

    Kaloni, Thaneshwor P.; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2013-01-01

    The stability of germanene under biaxial tensile strain and the accompanying modifications of the electronic properties are studied by density functional theory. The phonon spectrum shows that up to 16% strain the germanene lattice is stable, where the Dirac cone shifts towards higher energy and hole-doped Dirac states are achieved. The latter is due to weakening of the Ge-Ge bonds and reduction of the s-p hybridization. Our calculated Grüneisen parameter shows a similar dependence on the strain as reported for silicene (which is different from that of graphene). © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparison of flax (Linum usitatissimum) and Salba-chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seeds on postprandial glycemia and satiety in healthy individuals: a randomized, controlled, crossover study.

    Vuksan, V; Choleva, L; Jovanovski, E; Jenkins, A L; Au-Yeung, F; Dias, A G; Ho, H V T; Zurbau, A; Duvnjak, L

    2017-02-01

    Flax and Salba-chia seeds have risen in popularity owing to their favorable nutrient composition, including a high fiber content. Despite having comparable nutritional profiles, preliminary observations suggest differences in gelling properties, an attribute that may alter the kinetics of food digestion. Thus, we compared the effect of two seeds on postprandial glycemia and satiety scores. Fifteen healthy participants (M/F: 5/10; age: 23.9±3 years; BMI: 22.2±0.8 kg/m 2 ) were randomized to receive a 50 g glucose challenge, alone or supplemented with either 25 g ground Salba-chia or 31.5 g flax, on three separate occasions. Blood glucose samples and satiety ratings were collected at fasting and over 2-h postprandially. In addition, in vitro viscosity of the beverages was assessed utilizing standard rheological methodology. Both Salba-chia and flax reduced blood glucose area under the curve over 120 min by 82.5±19.7 mmol/l (P<0.001) and 60.0±19.7 mmol/l (P=0.014), respectively, relative to a glucose control. Salba-chia reduced peak glucose (-0.64±0.24 mmol/l; P=0.030) and increased time to peak (11.3±3.8 min; P=0.015) compared with flax. Salba-chia significantly reduced the mean ratings of desire to eat (-7±2 mm; P=0.005), prospective consumption (-7±2 mm; P=0.010) and overall appetite score (-6±2 mm; P=0.012), when compared with flax. The viscosity of Salba-chia, flax and control was 49.9, 2.5, and 0.002 Pa·s, respectively. Despite the similarities in nutritional composition, Salba-chia appears to have the ability to convert glucose into a slow-release carbohydrate and affect satiety to a greater extent than flax, possibly due to the higher fiber viscosity. Incorporation of either flax or Salba-chia into the diet may be beneficial, although use of Salba-chia may confer additional benefit.

  17. Tensile and superelastic fatigue characterization of NiTi shape memory cables

    Sherif, Muhammad M.; Ozbulut, Osman E.

    2018-01-01

    This paper discusses the tensile response and functional fatigue characteristics of a NiTi shape memory alloy (SMA) cable with an outer diameter of 5.5 mm. The cable composed of multiple strands arranged as one inner core and two outer layers. The results of the tensile tests revealed that the SMA cable exhibits good superelastic behavior up to 10% strain. Fatigue characteristics were investigated under strain amplitudes ranging from 3% to 7% and a minimum of 2500 loading cycles. The evolutions of maximum tensile stress, residual strains, energy dissipation, and equivalent viscous damping under a number of loading cycles were analyzed. The fracture surface of a specimen subjected to 5000 loading cycles and 7% strain was discussed. Functional fatigue test results indicated a very high superelastic fatigue life cycle for the tested NiTi SMA cable.

  18. Electrically, Chemically, and Photonically Powered Torsional and Tensile Actuation of Hybrid Carbon Nanotube Yarn Muscles

    Lima, Márcio D.; Li, Na; Jung de Andrade, Mônica; Fang, Shaoli; Oh, Jiyoung; Spinks, Geoffrey M.; Kozlov, Mikhail E.; Haines, Carter S.; Suh, Dongseok; Foroughi, Javad; Kim, Seon Jeong; Chen, Yongsheng; Ware, Taylor; Shin, Min Kyoon; Machado, Leonardo D.; Fonseca, Alexandre F.; Madden, John D. W.; Voit, Walter E.; Galvão, Douglas S.; Baughman, Ray H.

    2012-11-01

    Artificial muscles are of practical interest, but few types have been commercially exploited. Typical problems include slow response, low strain and force generation, short cycle life, use of electrolytes, and low energy efficiency. We have designed guest-filled, twist-spun carbon nanotube yarns as electrolyte-free muscles that provide fast, high-force, large-stroke torsional and tensile actuation. More than a million torsional and tensile actuation cycles are demonstrated, wherein a muscle spins a rotor at an average 11,500 revolutions/minute or delivers 3% tensile contraction at 1200 cycles/minute. Electrical, chemical, or photonic excitation of hybrid yarns changes guest dimensions and generates torsional rotation and contraction of the yarn host. Demonstrations include torsional motors, contractile muscles, and sensors that capture the energy of the sensing process to mechanically actuate.

  19. Tensile and fracture behavior of polymer foams

    Kabir, Md. E.; Saha, M.C.; Jeelani, S.

    2006-01-01

    Tensile and mode-I fracture behavior of cross-linked polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and rigid polyurethane (PUR) foams are examined. Tension tests are performed using prismatic bar specimens and mode-I fracture tests are performed using single edge notched bend (SENB) specimens under three-point bending. Test specimens are prepared from PVC foams with three densities and two different levels of cross-linking, and PUR foam with one density. Tension and quasi-static fracture tests are performed using a Zwick/Rowell test machine. Dynamic fracture tests are performed using a DYNATUP model 8210 instrumented drop-tower test set up at three different impact energy levels. Various parameters such as specimen size, loading rate, foam density, cross-linking, crack length, cell orientation (flow and rise-direction) and solid polymer material are studied. It is found that foam density and solid polymer material have a significant effect on tensile strength, modulus, and fracture toughness of polymer foams. Level of polymer cross-linking is also found to have a significant effect on fracture toughness. The presence of cracks in the rise- and flow direction as well as loading rate has minimal effect. Dynamic fracture behavior is found to be different as compared to quasi-static fracture behavior. Dynamic fracture toughness (K d ) increases with impact energy. Examination of fracture surfaces reveals that the fracture occurs in fairly brittle manner for all foam materials

  20. Measurements of the tensile and compressive properties of micro-concrete used in the Winfrith missile impact experiments

    Wilson, P.A.

    1982-10-01

    Tests to determine the tensile and compressive properties of a micro-concrete mix are described. The material is a nominally 40MPa ultimate compressive strength concrete used in impact tests with scale models in the prediction of responses in prototype concrete structures. Compressive tests were intended to give complete stress-strain relationships beyond initial failure. Tensile properties were measured by the Brazilian splitting technique and direct tension dog-bone specimens for comparison reasons. (U.K.)

  1. Evolutionary characterization and transcript profiling of β-tubulin genes in flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) during plant development.

    Gavazzi, Floriana; Pigna, Gaia; Braglia, Luca; Gianì, Silvia; Breviario, Diego; Morello, Laura

    2017-12-08

    Microtubules, polymerized from alpha and beta-tubulin monomers, play a fundamental role in plant morphogenesis, determining the cell division plane, the direction of cell expansion and the deposition of cell wall material. During polarized pollen tube elongation, microtubules serve as tracks for vesicular transport and deposition of proteins/lipids at the tip membrane. Such functions are controlled by cortical microtubule arrays. Aim of this study was to first characterize the flax β-tubulin family by sequence and phylogenetic analysis and to investigate differential expression of β-tubulin genes possibly related to fibre elongation and to flower development. We report the cloning and characterization of the complete flax β-tubulin gene family: exon-intron organization, duplicated gene comparison, phylogenetic analysis and expression pattern during stem and hypocotyl elongation and during flower development. Sequence analysis of the fourteen expressed β-tubulin genes revealed that the recent whole genome duplication of the flax genome was followed by massive retention of duplicated tubulin genes. Expression analysis showed that β-tubulin mRNA profiles gradually changed along with phloem fibre development in both the stem and hypocotyl. In flowers, changes in relative tubulin transcript levels took place at anthesis in anthers, but not in carpels. Phylogenetic analysis supports the origin of extant plant β-tubulin genes from four ancestral genes pre-dating angiosperm separation. Expression analysis suggests that particular tubulin subpopulations are more suitable to sustain different microtubule functions such as cell elongation, cell wall thickening or pollen tube growth. Tubulin genes possibly related to different microtubule functions were identified as candidate for more detailed studies.

  2. Induced Mutagenesis in UGT74S1 Gene Leads to Stable New Flax Lines with Altered Secoisolariciresinol Diglucoside (SDG) Profiles.

    Fofana, Bourlaye; Ghose, Kaushik; Somalraju, Ashok; McCallum, Jason; Main, David; Deyholos, Michael K; Rowland, Gordon G; Cloutier, Sylvie

    2017-01-01

    Flax secoisolariciresinol (SECO) diglucoside (SDG) lignan is an emerging natural product purported to prevent chronic diseases in humans. SECO, the aglycone form of SDG, has shown higher intestinal cell absorption but it is not accumulated naturally in planta . Recently, we have identified and characterized a UDP-glucosyltransferase gene, UGT74S1 , that glucosylates SECO into its monoglucoside (SMG) and SDG forms when expressed in yeast. However, whether this gene is unique in controlling SECO glucosylation into SDG in planta is unclear. Here, we report on the use of UGT74S1 in reverse and forward genetics to characterize an ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS) mutagenized flax population from cultivar CDC Bethune and consisting of 1996 M2 families. EMS mutagenesis generated 73 SNP variants causing 79 mutational events in the UGT74S1 exonic regions of 93 M2 families. The mutation frequency in the exonic regions was determined to be one per 28 Kb. Of these mutations, 13 homozygous missense mutations and two homozygous nonsense mutations were observed and all were transmitted into the M3 and M4 generations. Forward genetics screening of the population showed homozygous nonsense mutants completely lacking SDG biosynthesis while the production of SMG was observed only in a subset of the M4 lines. Heterozygous or homozygous M4 missense mutants displayed a wide range of SDG levels, some being greater than those of CDC Bethune. No additional deleterious mutations were detected in these mutant lines using a panel of 10 other genes potentially involved in the lignan biosynthesis. This study provides further evidence that UGT74S1 is unique in controlling SDG formation from SECO and this is the first report of non-transgenic flax germplasm with simultaneous knockout of SDG and presence of SMG in planta .

  3. Induced Mutagenesis in UGT74S1 Gene Leads to Stable New Flax Lines with Altered Secoisolariciresinol Diglucoside (SDG Profiles

    Bourlaye Fofana

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Flax secoisolariciresinol (SECO diglucoside (SDG lignan is an emerging natural product purported to prevent chronic diseases in humans. SECO, the aglycone form of SDG, has shown higher intestinal cell absorption but it is not accumulated naturally in planta. Recently, we have identified and characterized a UDP-glucosyltransferase gene, UGT74S1, that glucosylates SECO into its monoglucoside (SMG and SDG forms when expressed in yeast. However, whether this gene is unique in controlling SECO glucosylation into SDG in planta is unclear. Here, we report on the use of UGT74S1 in reverse and forward genetics to characterize an ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS mutagenized flax population from cultivar CDC Bethune and consisting of 1996 M2 families. EMS mutagenesis generated 73 SNP variants causing 79 mutational events in the UGT74S1 exonic regions of 93 M2 families. The mutation frequency in the exonic regions was determined to be one per 28 Kb. Of these mutations, 13 homozygous missense mutations and two homozygous nonsense mutations were observed and all were transmitted into the M3 and M4 generations. Forward genetics screening of the population showed homozygous nonsense mutants completely lacking SDG biosynthesis while the production of SMG was observed only in a subset of the M4 lines. Heterozygous or homozygous M4 missense mutants displayed a wide range of SDG levels, some being greater than those of CDC Bethune. No additional deleterious mutations were detected in these mutant lines using a panel of 10 other genes potentially involved in the lignan biosynthesis. This study provides further evidence that UGT74S1 is unique in controlling SDG formation from SECO and this is the first report of non-transgenic flax germplasm with simultaneous knockout of SDG and presence of SMG in planta.

  4. Cadmium tolerance and accumulation characteristics of mature flax, cv. Hermes: Contribution of the basal stem compared to the root

    Douchiche, Olfa, E-mail: olfa.douchiche@hotmail.fr [Laboratory Glyco-MEV EA 4358, IFRMP 23, University of Rouen, 76821 Mont Saint Aignan Cedex (France); Laboratory Biologie et Physiologie Cellulaires Vegetales, Department of Biology, University of Tunis, 1060 Tunis (Tunisia); Chaiebi, Wided [Laboratory Biologie et Physiologie Cellulaires Vegetales, Department of Biology, University of Tunis, 1060 Tunis (Tunisia); Morvan, Claudine, E-mail: claudine.morvan@univ-rouen.fr [Laboratory PBS-UMR 6270 CNRS, FR 3038, University of Rouen, 76821 Mont Saint Aignan Cedex (France)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cd accumulated in stem bottom part exceeded the defined hyperaccumulator threshold. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer No toxic symptoms occurred and TI of all growth parameters ranged between 0.7 and 1. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The high level of Zn, Mn and Cu may contribute to the absence of chlorosis in stem. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cd/Ca synergistic effect observed in the stem may alleviate Cd toxicity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hermes variety accumulated more Cd than the other flax varieties ever described. - Abstract: The potential of mature flax plants (cv. Hermes) to tolerate and accumulate cadmium (Cd) was studied to determine which part of the plant would be the key organ for phytoremediation purposes. After 4 month-growth on sand substrate containing 0.1 mM Cd in a greenhouse, the roots and stems were separated and the stems were divided into three parts. The effects of Cd were studied on growth parameters, histology and mineral nutrition. No visible toxic symptoms were observed. Tolerance-index values calculated from growth parameters and nutrients remained relatively high, allowing the development of the plant until maturity and formation of seeds. The roots and bottom stem accumulated the highest quantity of Cd (750 and 360 mg/kg dry matter), values which largely exceeded the threshold defined for hyperaccumulators. On the other hand, basal stem had a high bioconcentration factor (BCF = 32) and translocation factor TF Prime (2.5) but a low TF (0.5), indicating that this basal part would play a major role in phytoremediation (phytostabilization rather than phytorextraction). Therefore, the high tolerance to Cd and accumulation capacity make possible to grow Hermes flax on Cd-polluted soils.

  5. The effect of sodium hypochlorite solutions on in vitro seedling growth and shoot regeneration of flax (Linum usitatissimum)

    Yildiz, Mustafa; Er, Celâl

    2002-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of concentration (40, 60, and 80%) and temperature (0, 10, 20, and 30°C) of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) solutions on seed germination, in vitro viability and growth of flax seedlings and regeneration capacity of hypocotyl explants. Results showed that seed germination, seedling growth and shoot regeneration were negatively affected by increasing concentration and temperature of disinfectant. The best results in seedling growth and shoot regeneration were obtained when 40% disinfectant concentration at 10°C was used.

  6. Effect of heavy metals on inhibition of root elongation in 23 cultivars of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.).

    Soudek, Petr; Katrusáková, Adéla; Sedlácek, Lukás; Petrová, Sárka; Kocí, Vladimír; Marsík, Petr; Griga, Miroslav; Vanek, Tomás

    2010-08-01

    The effect of toxic metals on seed germination was studied in 23 cultivars of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.). Toxicity of cadmium, cobalt, copper, zinc, nickel, lead, chromium, and arsenic at five different concentrations (0.01-1 mM) was tested by standard ecotoxicity test. Root length was measured after 72 h of incubation. Elongation inhibition, EC50 value, slope, and NOEC values were calculated. Results were evaluated by principal component analysis, a multidimensional statistical method. The results showed that heavy-metal toxicity decreased in the following order: As3+>or=As5+>Cu2+>Cd2+>Co2+>Cr6+>Ni2+>Pb2+>Cr3+>Zn2+.

  7. Characterization and transcript profiling of the pectin methylesterase (PME) and pectin methylesterase inhibitor (PMEI) gene families in flax (Linum usitatissimum).

    Pinzón-Latorre, David; Deyholos, Michael K

    2013-10-30

    Pectin methylesterases (PMEs) catalyze the demethylesterification of homogalacturonans in the cell wall; their activity is regulated in part by pectin methylesterase inhibitors (PMEIs). PME activity may result in either rigidification or loosening of the cell wall, depending on the mode of demethylesterification. The activity of PMEs in the middle lamella is expected to affect intrusive elongation of phloem fibers, and their adhesion to adjacent cells. Length and extractability of phloem fibers are qualities important for their industrial uses in textiles and composites. As only three flax PMEs had been previously described, we were motivated to characterize the PME and PMEI gene families of flax. We identified 105 putative flax PMEs (LuPMEs) and 95 putative PMEIs (LuPMEIs) within the whole-genome assembly. We found experimental evidence for the transcription of 77/105 LuPMEs and 83/95 LuPMEIs, and surveyed the transcript abundance of these in 12 different tissues and stages of development. Six major monophyletic groups of LuPMEs could be defined based on the inferred relationships of flax genes and their presumed orthologs from other species. We searched the LuPMEs and LuPMEIs for conserved residues previously reported to be important for their tertiary structure and function. In the LuPMEs, the most highly conserved residues were catalytic residues while in the LuPMEIs, cysteines forming disulfude bridges between helices α2 and α3 were most highly conserved. In general, the conservation of critical residues was higher in the genes with evidence of transcript expression than in those for which no expression was detected. The LuPMEs and LuPMEIs comprise large families with complex patterns of transcript expression and a wide range of physical characteristics. We observed that multiple PMEs and PMEIs are expressed in partially overlapping domains, indicative of several genes acting redundantly during most processes. The potential for functional redundancy was

  8. Properties of compression moulded new fully biobased thermoset composites with aligned flax fibre textiles

    Pohl, Th.; Bierer, M.; Natter, E.

    2011-01-01

    into composites using an industrial scale compression moulding machine, and their material properties were analysed. The density was calculated by using a computed microtomography system, and tensile tests were carried out. Besides the mechanical properties, the burning and the moisture absorption behaviour have...

  9. IMPACT OF FOLIAR APPLICATION OF ASCORBIC ACID AND α-TOCOPHEROL ON ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY AND SOME BIOCHEMICAL ASPECTS OF FLAX CULTIVARS UNDER SALINITY STRESS

    Hala M.S. El-Bassiouny

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The interactive effects of saline water (2000, 4000 and 6000 mg/l and foliar application of 400 mg/l of ascorbic acid (Asc or α – tocopherol (α-Toco on three flax cultivars (Sakha 3, Giza 8 and Ariane were conducted during two successive seasons (2011 and 2012. The results showed that, total soluble carbohydrates, free amino acids, proline contents were significantly increased with increasing salinity levels in all three tested cultivars except free amino acid content of Giza 8 which showed a non significant decrease. While, nucleic acids (DNA and RNA showed significant decreases compared with the corresponding controls. Moreover, applications of vitamins (Asc or α-Toco as foliar spraying increased all mentioned contents compared to the corresponding salinity levels. On the other hand, lipid peroxidation, and activity levels of polyphenol oxidase (PPO, peroxidase (POX and catalase (CAT enzymes showed progressive significant increases with increasing salinity levels of all tested three cultivars, while the behaviour of superoxide dismutase (SOD activity showed an opposite response as compared with the control in Sakha 3 and Giza 8. Treatments with Asc or α-Toco induced significant reduction in lipid peroxidation and activities of PPO and POX of all three tested cultivars. Meanwhile, SOD increased in all three cultivars, and CAT activities increased only in Sakha 3 cultivar under salt stress as compared with reference controls. Some modifications are observed in protein patterns hence some proteins were disappeared, while certain other proteins were selectively increased and synthesis of a new set of proteins were induced, some of these responses were observed under treatments and salinity, while others were induced by either treatments or salinity.

  10. Tensile-property characterization of thermally aged cast stainless steels

    Michaud, W.F.; Toben, P.T.; Soppet, W.K.; Chopra, O.K.

    1994-02-01

    The effect of thermal aging on tensile properties of cast stainless steels during service in light water reactors has been evaluated. Tensile data for several experimental and commercial heats of cast stainless steels are presented. Thermal aging increases the tensile strength of these steels. The high-C Mo-bearing CF-8M steels are more susceptible to thermal aging than the Mo-free CF-3 or CF-8 steels. A procedure and correlations are presented for predicting the change in tensile flow and yield stresses and engineering stress-vs.-strain curve of cast stainless steel as a function of time and temperature of service. The tensile properties of aged cast stainless steel are estimated from known material information, i.e., chemical composition and the initial tensile strength of the steel. The correlations described in this report may be used for assessing thermal embrittlement of cast stainless steel components

  11. Miniature tensile test specimens for fusion reactor irradiation studies

    Klueh, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    Three miniature sheet-type tensile specimens and a miniature rod-type specimen are being used to determine irradiated tensile properties for alloy development for fusion reactors. The tensile properties of type 316 stainless steel were determined with these different specimens, and the results were compared. Reasonably good agreement was observed. However, there were differences that led to recommendations on which specimens are preferred. 4 references, 9 figures, 6 tables

  12. Pyrolysis of flax straw: Characterization of char, liquid, and gas as fuel

    Tushar, Mohammad Shahed Hasan Khan

    The demand for energy continues to outstrip its supply and necessitates the development of renewable energy options. Biomass has been recognized as a major renewable energy source to supplement the declining fossil fuel source of energy. It is the most popular form of renewable energy and, currently, biofuel production is becoming more promising. Being carbon neutral, readily available, and low in sulphur content makes biomass a very promising source of renewable energy. In the present research, both the isothermal and non-isothermal pressurized pyrolysis of flax straw is studied for the first time. In case of isothermal pyrolysis, the influence of pyrolysis temperature and reaction time on char yield and morphology was investigated. The applied pyrolysis temperature was varied between 300 and 500°C. The reaction time was varied from 15 to 60 min. The char yield was found to decrease as pyrolysis temperature and reaction time increased. The char structure and surface morphology were thoroughly investigated by means of x-ray diffraction (XRD), temperature-programmed oxidation (TPO), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The degree of porosity and graphitization increased as pyrolysis temperature and time increased. In fact, the experiment performed at 500°C for 1h duration did not yield any char; only residual ash could be obtained. The TPO studies on the char samples corroborated the XRD findings and showed the presence of two types of carbon, namely, amorphous filamentous carbon and graphitic carbon. A thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) of the char was performed to gain an understanding of combustion kinetics and reactivity. It implied that the reactivity of the char decreases as temperature increases, and this finding is well supported by the TPO, TGA, SEM, and XRD characterization data. Furthermore, an empirical global model was devised based on the power law to estimate activation energy and other kinetic parameters. For the non-isothermal pressurized

  13. Microstructural evolution during tensile deformation of polypropylenes

    Dasari, A.; Rohrmann, J.; Misra, R.D.K.

    2003-01-01

    Tensile deformation processes occurring at varying strain rates in high and low crystallinity polypropylenes and ethylene-propylene di-block copolymers have been investigated by scanning electron microscopy. This is examined for both long and short chain polymeric materials. The deformation processes in different polymeric materials show striking dissimilarities in spite of the common propylene matrix. Additionally, the deformation behavior of long and their respective short chain polymers was different. Deformation mechanisms include crazing/tearing, wedging, ductile ploughing, fibrillation, and brittle fracture. The different modes of deformation are depicted in the form of strain rate-strain diagrams. At a constant strain rate, the strain to fracture follows the sequence: high crystallinity polypropylenes< low crystallinity polypropylenes< ethylene-propylene di-block copolymers, indicative of the trend in resistance to plastic deformation

  14. Association mapping of seed quality traits using the Canadian flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) core collection.

    Soto-Cerda, Braulio J; Duguid, Scott; Booker, Helen; Rowland, Gordon; Diederichsen, Axel; Cloutier, Sylvie

    2014-04-01

    The identification of stable QTL for seed quality traits by association mapping of a diverse panel of linseed accessions establishes the foundation for assisted breeding and future fine mapping in linseed. Linseed oil is valued for its food and non-food applications. Modifying its oil content and fatty acid (FA) profiles to meet market needs in a timely manner requires clear understanding of their quantitative trait loci (QTL) architectures, which have received little attention to date. Association mapping is an efficient approach to identify QTL in germplasm collections. In this study, we explored the quantitative nature of seed quality traits including oil content (OIL), palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid (LIO) linolenic acid (LIN) and iodine value in a flax core collection of 390 accessions assayed with 460 microsatellite markers. The core collection was grown in a modified augmented design at two locations over 3 years and phenotypic data for all seven traits were obtained from all six environments. Significant phenotypic diversity and moderate to high heritability for each trait (0.73-0.99) were observed. Most of the candidate QTL were stable as revealed by multivariate analyses. Nine candidate QTL were identified, varying from one for OIL to three for LIO and LIN. Candidate QTL for LIO and LIN co-localized with QTL previously identified in bi-parental populations and some mapped nearby genes known to be involved in the FA biosynthesis pathway. Fifty-eight percent of the QTL alleles were absent (private) in the Canadian cultivars suggesting that the core collection possesses QTL alleles potentially useful to improve seed quality traits. The candidate QTL identified herein will establish the foundation for future marker-assisted breeding in linseed.

  15. Fluidized-bed Fenton coupled with ceramic membrane separation for advanced treatment of flax wastewater.

    Fan, Dong; Ding, Lili; Huang, Hui; Chen, Mengtian; Ren, Hongqiang

    2017-10-15

    Fluidized-bed Fenton coupled with ceramic membrane separation to treat the flax secondary effluent was investigated. The operating variables, including initial pH, dosage of H 2 O 2 and Fe 0 , air flow rate, TMP and pore size, were optimized. The distributions of DOMs in the treatment process were analyzed. Under the optimum condition (600mgL -1 H 2 O 2 , 1.4gL -1 Fe 0 , pH=3, 300Lh -1 air flow rate and 15psi TMP), the highest TOC and color removal efficiencies were 84% and 94% in the coupled reactor with 100nm ceramic membrane, reducing 39% of total iron with similar removal efficiency compared with Fluidized-bed Fenton. Experimental results showed that the ceramic membrane could intercept catalyst particles (average particle size >100nm), 10.4% macromolecules organic matter (AMW>20000Da) and 12.53% hydrophobic humic-like component. EEM-PARAFAC identified four humic-like (M1-M4) and one protein-like components (M5), and the fluorescence intensities of M1-M5 in the secondary effluent were 63.27, 63.05, 33.41, 16.71 and 0.72 QSE, respectively. After the coupled treatment, the removal efficiencies of M1(81%), M2(86%) were higher than M3, M4(63%, 61%). Pearson correlation analysis suggested that M1, M2 and M3 were the major contributors to the cake layer, and M4, M5 might more easily lead to pore blockages. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A user's manual for managing database system of tensile property

    Ryu, Woo Seok; Park, S. J.; Kim, D. H.; Jun, I.

    2003-06-01

    This manual is written for the management and maintenance of the tensile database system for managing the tensile property test data. The data base constructed the data produced from tensile property test can increase the application of test results. Also, we can get easily the basic data from database when we prepare the new experiment and can produce better result by compare the previous data. To develop the database we must analyze and design carefully application and after that, we can offer the best quality to customers various requirements. The tensile database system was developed by internet method using Java, PL/SQL, JSP(Java Server Pages) tool

  17. Origin and evolution of group XI secretory phospholipase A2 from flax (Linum usitatissimum) based on phylogenetic analysis of conserved domains.

    Gupta, Payal; Saini, Raman; Dash, Prasanta K

    2017-07-01

    Phospholipase A 2 (PLA 2 ) belongs to class of lipolytic enzymes (EC 3.1.1.4). Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and free fatty acids (FFAs) are the products of PLA 2 catalyzed hydrolysis of phosphoglycerides at sn-2 position. LPA and FFA that act as second mediators involved in the development and maturation of plants and animals. Mining of flax genome identified two phospholipase A 2 encoding genes, viz., LusPLA 2 I and LusPLA 2 II (Linum usitatissimum secretory phospholipase A 2 ). Molecular simulation of LusPLA 2 s with already characterized plant sPLA 2 s revealed the presence of conserved motifs and signature domains necessary to classify them as secretory phospholipase A 2 . Phylogenetic analysis of flax sPLA 2 with representative sPLA 2 s from other organisms revealed that they evolved rapidly via gene duplication/deletion events and shares a common ancestor. Our study is the first report of detailed phylogenetic analysis for secretory phospholipase A 2 in flax. Comparative genomic analysis of two LusPLA 2 s with earlier reported plant sPLA 2 s, based on their gene architectures, sequence similarities, and domain structures are presented elucidating the uniqueness of flax sPLA 2 .

  18. Construction of an SNP-based high-density linkage map for flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) using specific length amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq) technology.

    Yi, Liuxi; Gao, Fengyun; Siqin, Bateer; Zhou, Yu; Li, Qiang; Zhao, Xiaoqing; Jia, Xiaoyun; Zhang, Hui

    2017-01-01

    Flax is an important crop for oil and fiber, however, no high-density genetic maps have been reported for this species. Specific length amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq) is a high-resolution strategy for large scale de novo discovery and genotyping of single nucleotide polymorphisms. In this study, SLAF-seq was employed to develop SNP markers in an F2 population to construct a high-density genetic map for flax. In total, 196.29 million paired-end reads were obtained. The average sequencing depth was 25.08 in male parent, 32.17 in the female parent, and 9.64 in each F2 progeny. In total, 389,288 polymorphic SLAFs were detected, from which 260,380 polymorphic SNPs were developed. After filtering, 4,638 SNPs were found suitable for genetic map construction. The final genetic map included 4,145 SNP markers on 15 linkage groups and was 2,632.94 cM in length, with an average distance of 0.64 cM between adjacent markers. To our knowledge, this map is the densest SNP-based genetic map for flax. The SNP markers and genetic map reported in here will serve as a foundation for the fine mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTLs), map-based gene cloning and marker assisted selection (MAS) for flax.

  19. Identification and functional analysis of two alternatively spliced transcripts of ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE3 (ABI3) in linseed flax (Linum usitatissimum L.).

    Wang, Yanyan; Zhang, Tianbao; Song, Xiaxia; Zhang, Jianping; Dang, Zhanhai; Pei, Xinwu; Long, Yan

    2018-01-01

    Alternative splicing is a popular phenomenon in different types of plants. It can produce alternative spliced transcripts that encode proteins with altered functions. Previous studies have shown that one transcription factor, ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE3 (ABI3), which encodes an important component in abscisic acid (ABA) signaling, is subjected to alternative splicing in both mono- and dicotyledons. In the current study, we identified two homologs of ABI3 in the genome of linseed flax. We screened two alternatively spliced flax LuABI3 transcripts, LuABI3-2 and LuABI3-3, and one normal flax LuABI3 transcript, LuABI3-1. Sequence analysis revealed that one of the alternatively spliced transcripts, LuABI3-3, retained a 6 bp intron. RNA accumulation analysis showed that all three transcripts were expressed during seed development, while subcellular localization and transgene experiments showed that LuABI3-3 had no biological function. The two normal transcripts, LuABI3-1 and LuABI3-2, are the important functional isoforms in flax and play significant roles in the ABA regulatory pathway during seed development, germination, and maturation.

  20. Stimulating effects of two plant growth-promoting bacteria, Enterobacter ludwigii Ez-185-17 and Raoultella terrigena Ez-555-6, on flax culture

    Sarron, Elodie; Clément, Nathalie; Pawlicki-Jullian, Nathalie; Gaillard, Isabelle; Boitel-Conti, Michèle

    2018-04-01

    Two bacteria, Enterobacter ludwigii Ez-185-17 and Raoultella terrigena Ez-555-6, isolated from root nodules of Medicago lupulina from the Chernobyl exclusion zone, were identified in a previous study and shown not to disturb plant growth. The main goal of this work is to elucidate the relationships between these bacteria and flax, in particular whether they display activities such as plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB) properties or modulation hairy root development. In order to better understand their role in plants, some known PGPB properties were determined in comparison with several control bacteria. The influence of these bacteria on Linum usitatissimum growth under hydroponic conditions was also investigated. Our study shows that both bacteria belong to PGPB since they were able to increase considerably the root surface area of flax, especially Raoultella terrigena Ez-555-6. Significant IAA production and phosphate solubilization of Enterobacter ludwigii Ez-185-17 were highlighted, which enabled these biochemical PGPB properties to be correlated with their effects on flax growth. However, Raoultella terrigena Ez-555-6 did not express high biochemical activities, suggesting that other PGPB abilities should be studied in order to establish the link with flax growth improvement.

  1. Identification and functional analysis of two alternatively spliced transcripts of ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE3 (ABI3 in linseed flax (Linum usitatissimum L..

    Yanyan Wang

    Full Text Available Alternative splicing is a popular phenomenon in different types of plants. It can produce alternative spliced transcripts that encode proteins with altered functions. Previous studies have shown that one transcription factor, ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE3 (ABI3, which encodes an important component in abscisic acid (ABA signaling, is subjected to alternative splicing in both mono- and dicotyledons. In the current study, we identified two homologs of ABI3 in the genome of linseed flax. We screened two alternatively spliced flax LuABI3 transcripts, LuABI3-2 and LuABI3-3, and one normal flax LuABI3 transcript, LuABI3-1. Sequence analysis revealed that one of the alternatively spliced transcripts, LuABI3-3, retained a 6 bp intron. RNA accumulation analysis showed that all three transcripts were expressed during seed development, while subcellular localization and transgene experiments showed that LuABI3-3 had no biological function. The two normal transcripts, LuABI3-1 and LuABI3-2, are the important functional isoforms in flax and play significant roles in the ABA regulatory pathway during seed development, germination, and maturation.

  2. The use of phosphomannose isomerase selection system for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of tobacco and flax aimed for phytoremediation.

    Hilgert, Jitka; Sura-De Jong, Martina; Fišer, Jiří; Tupá, Kateřina; Vrbová, Miroslava; Griga, Miroslav; Macek, Tomáš; Žiarovská, Jana

    2017-05-04

    A plant selection system based on the phosphomannose isomerase gene (pmi) as a selectable marker is often used to avoid selection using antibiotic resistance. Nevertheless, pmi gene is endogenous in several plant species and therefore difficult to use in such cases. Here we evaluated and compared Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Linum usitatissimum breeding line AGT-952 (without endogenous pmi gene) and Nicotiana tabacum var. WSC-38 (with endogenous pmi gene). Transformation was evaluated for vectors bearing transgenes that have the potential to be involved in improved phytoremediation of contaminated environment. Tobacco regenerants selection resulted in 6.8% transformation efficiency when using a medium supplemented with 30 g/L mannose with stepwise decrease of the sucrose concentration. Similar transformation efficiency (5.3%) was achieved in transformation of flax. Relatively low selection efficiency was achieved (12.5% and 34.8%, respectively). The final detection of efficient pmi selection was conducted using PCR and the non-endogenous genes; pmi transgene for flax and todC2 transgene for tobacco plants.

  3. Bone Regeneration after Treatment with Covering Materials Composed of Flax Fibers and Biodegradable Plastics: A Histological Study in Rats

    Gedrange, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the osteogenic potential of new flax covering materials. Bone defects were created on the skull of forty rats. Materials of pure PLA and PCL and their composites with flax fibers, genetically modified producing PHB (PLA-transgen, PCL-transgen) and unmodified (PLA-wt, PCL-wt), were inserted. The skulls were harvested after four weeks and subjected to histological examination. The percentage of bone regeneration by using PLA was less pronounced than after usage of pure PCL in comparison with controls. After treatment with PCL-transgen, a large amount of new formed bone could be found. In contrast, PCL-wt decreased significantly the bone regeneration, compared to the other tested groups. The bone covers made of pure PLA had substantially less influence on bone regeneration and the bone healing proceeded with a lot of connective tissue, whereas PLA-transgen and PLA-wt showed nearly comparable amount of new formed bone. Regarding the histological data, the hypothesis could be proposed that PCL and its composites have contributed to a higher quantity of the regenerated bone, compared to PLA. The histological studies showed comparable bone regeneration processes after treatment with tested covering materials, as well as in the untreated bone lesions. PMID:27597965

  4. Bone Regeneration after Treatment with Covering Materials Composed of Flax Fibers and Biodegradable Plastics: A Histological Study in Rats.

    Gredes, Tomasz; Kunath, Franziska; Gedrange, Tomasz; Kunert-Keil, Christiane

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the osteogenic potential of new flax covering materials. Bone defects were created on the skull of forty rats. Materials of pure PLA and PCL and their composites with flax fibers, genetically modified producing PHB (PLA-transgen, PCL-transgen) and unmodified (PLA-wt, PCL-wt), were inserted. The skulls were harvested after four weeks and subjected to histological examination. The percentage of bone regeneration by using PLA was less pronounced than after usage of pure PCL in comparison with controls. After treatment with PCL-transgen, a large amount of new formed bone could be found. In contrast, PCL-wt decreased significantly the bone regeneration, compared to the other tested groups. The bone covers made of pure PLA had substantially less influence on bone regeneration and the bone healing proceeded with a lot of connective tissue, whereas PLA-transgen and PLA-wt showed nearly comparable amount of new formed bone. Regarding the histological data, the hypothesis could be proposed that PCL and its composites have contributed to a higher quantity of the regenerated bone, compared to PLA. The histological studies showed comparable bone regeneration processes after treatment with tested covering materials, as well as in the untreated bone lesions.

  5. Bone Regeneration after Treatment with Covering Materials Composed of Flax Fibers and Biodegradable Plastics: A Histological Study in Rats

    Tomasz Gredes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the osteogenic potential of new flax covering materials. Bone defects were created on the skull of forty rats. Materials of pure PLA and PCL and their composites with flax fibers, genetically modified producing PHB (PLA-transgen, PCL-transgen and unmodified (PLA-wt, PCL-wt, were inserted. The skulls were harvested after four weeks and subjected to histological examination. The percentage of bone regeneration by using PLA was less pronounced than after usage of pure PCL in comparison with controls. After treatment with PCL-transgen, a large amount of new formed bone could be found. In contrast, PCL-wt decreased significantly the bone regeneration, compared to the other tested groups. The bone covers made of pure PLA had substantially less influence on bone regeneration and the bone healing proceeded with a lot of connective tissue, whereas PLA-transgen and PLA-wt showed nearly comparable amount of new formed bone. Regarding the histological data, the hypothesis could be proposed that PCL and its composites have contributed to a higher quantity of the regenerated bone, compared to PLA. The histological studies showed comparable bone regeneration processes after treatment with tested covering materials, as well as in the untreated bone lesions.

  6. Effects of cadmium and mycorrhizal fungi on growth, fitness, and cadmium accumulation in flax (Linum usitatissimum; Linaceae).

    Hancock, Laura M S; Ernst, Charlotte L; Charneskie, Rebecca; Ruane, Lauren G

    2012-09-01

    Agricultural soils have become contaminated with a variety of heavy metals, including cadmium. The degree to which soil contaminants affect plants may depend on symbiotic relationships between plant roots and soil microorganisms. We examined (1) whether mycorrhizal fungi counteract the potentially negative effects of cadmium on the growth and fitness of flax (Linum usitatissimum) and (2) whether mycorrhizal fungi affect the accumulation of cadmium within plant parts. Two flax cultivars (Linott and Omega) were grown in three soil cadmium environments (0, 5, and 15 ppm). Within each cadmium environment, plants were grown in either the presence or absence of mycorrhizal fungi. Upon senescence, we measured growth and fitness and quantified the concentration of cadmium within plants. Soil cadmium significantly decreased plant fitness, but did not affect plant growth. Mycorrhizal fungi, which were able to colonize roots of plants growing in all cadmium levels, significantly increased plant growth and fitness. Although mycorrhizal fungi counteracted the negative effects of cadmium on fruit and seed production, they also enhanced the concentration of cadmium within roots, fruits, and seeds. The degree to which soil cadmium affects plant fitness and the accumulation of cadmium within plants depended on the ability of plants to form symbiotic relationships with mycorrhizal fungi. The use of mycorrhizal fungi in contaminated agricultural soils may offset the negative effects of metals on the quantity of seeds produced, but exacerbate the accumulation of these metals in our food supply.

  7. Response of 45S5 Bioglasss foams to tensile loading

    Řehořek, Lukáš; Chlup, Zdeněk; Meng, D.; Yunos, D. M.; Boccaccini, A. R.; Dlouhý, Ivo

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 7 (2013), s. 8015-8020 ISSN 0272-8842 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/09/1821 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : 45S5 Bioglasss * Scaffolds * Foams * Openporosity * Tensilestrength Subject RIV: JH - Ceramic s, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass Impact factor: 2.086, year: 2013

  8. The LuWD40-1 gene encoding WD repeat protein regulates growth and pollen viability in flax (Linum Usitatissimum L..

    Santosh Kumar

    Full Text Available As a crop, flax holds significant commercial value for its omega-3 rich oilseeds and stem fibres. Canada is the largest producer of linseed but there exists scope for significant yield improvements. Implementation of mechanisms such as male sterility can permit the development of hybrids to assist in achieving this goal. Temperature sensitive male sterility has been reported in flax but the leakiness of this system in field conditions limits the production of quality hybrid seeds. Here, we characterized a 2,588 bp transcript differentially expressed in male sterile lines of flax. The twelve intron gene predicted to encode a 368 amino acid protein has five WD40 repeats which, in silico, form a propeller structure with putative nucleic acid and histone binding capabilities. The LuWD40-1 protein localized to the nucleus and its expression increased during the transition and continued through the vegetative stages (seed, etiolated seedling, stem while the transcript levels declined during reproductive development (ovary, anthers and embryonic morphogenesis of male fertile plants. Knockout lines for LuWD40-1 in flax failed to develop shoots while overexpression lines showed delayed growth phenotype and were male sterile. The non-viable flowers failed to open and the pollen grains from these flowers were empty. Three independent transgenic lines overexpressing the LuWD40-1 gene had ∼80% non-viable pollen, reduced branching, delayed flowering and maturity compared to male fertile genotypes. The present study provides new insights into a male sterility mechanism present in flax.

  9. The LuWD40-1 gene encoding WD repeat protein regulates growth and pollen viability in flax (Linum Usitatissimum L.).

    Kumar, Santosh; Jordan, Mark C; Datla, Raju; Cloutier, Sylvie

    2013-01-01

    As a crop, flax holds significant commercial value for its omega-3 rich oilseeds and stem fibres. Canada is the largest producer of linseed but there exists scope for significant yield improvements. Implementation of mechanisms such as male sterility can permit the development of hybrids to assist in achieving this goal. Temperature sensitive male sterility has been reported in flax but the leakiness of this system in field conditions limits the production of quality hybrid seeds. Here, we characterized a 2,588 bp transcript differentially expressed in male sterile lines of flax. The twelve intron gene predicted to encode a 368 amino acid protein has five WD40 repeats which, in silico, form a propeller structure with putative nucleic acid and histone binding capabilities. The LuWD40-1 protein localized to the nucleus and its expression increased during the transition and continued through the vegetative stages (seed, etiolated seedling, stem) while the transcript levels declined during reproductive development (ovary, anthers) and embryonic morphogenesis of male fertile plants. Knockout lines for LuWD40-1 in flax failed to develop shoots while overexpression lines showed delayed growth phenotype and were male sterile. The non-viable flowers failed to open and the pollen grains from these flowers were empty. Three independent transgenic lines overexpressing the LuWD40-1 gene had ∼80% non-viable pollen, reduced branching, delayed flowering and maturity compared to male fertile genotypes. The present study provides new insights into a male sterility mechanism present in flax.

  10. Fracture behavior of nuclear graphites under tensile impact loading

    Ugachi, Hirokazu; Ishiyama, Shintaro; Eto, Motokuni

    1994-01-01

    Impact tensile strength test was performed with two kinds of HTTR graphites, fine grained isotropic graphite, IG-11 and coarse grained near isotropic graphite, PGX and deformation and fracture behavior under the strain rate of over 100s -1 was measured and the following results were derived: (1) Tensile strength for IG-11 graphite does not depend on the strain rate less than 1 s -1 , but over 1 s -1 , tensile strength for IG-11 graphite increase larger than that measured under 1 s -1 . At the strain rate more than 100 s -1 , remarkable decrease of tensile strength for IG-11 graphite was found. Tensile strength of PGX graphite does not depend on the strain rate less than 1 s -1 , but beyond this value, the sharp tensile strength decrease occurs. (2) Under 100 s -1 , fracture strain for both graphites increase with increase of strain rate and over 100 s -1 , drastic increase of fracture strain for IG-11 graphite was found. (3) At the part of gage length, volume of specimen increase with increase of tensile loading level and strain rate. (4) Poisson's ratio for both graphites decrease with increase of tensile loading level and strain rate. (5) Remarkable change of stress-strain curve for both graphites under 100 s -1 was not found, but over 100 s -1 , the slope of these curve for IG-11 graphite decrease drastically. (author)

  11. Vacuum fused deposition modelling system to improve tensile ...

    In the printing process, the interlayer bonding is made too quick thus the layers are not fully fused together causing the reduced tensile strength. This paper presents a possible solution to this problem by incorporating vacuum technology in FDM system to improve tensile strength of 3D printed specimens. In this study, a ...

  12. Texture development during tensile deformation in Al-Mg alloys

    Ohtani, S.; Inagaki, H. [Shonan Inst. of Tech., Fujisawashi (Japan)

    2002-07-01

    Tensile tests were made on commercial A1050 pure Al, A5182 Al-4.4% Mg alloy and A2017 Al-4% Cu alloy by varying the test temperature and the strain rate. Textures developed at various stages of the tensile deformation were investigated with the orientation distribution function analysis. It was found that, during the tensile test of the 1050 pure Al with the strain rate of 3 x 10{sup -4}S{sup -1} at 20 C, tensile axis readily rotated toward left angle 111 right angle stable end orientation. However, such rotation occurred only at the latest stage of the tensile deformation near the ultimate tensile stress, where stress strain curve was almost flattened and work hardening was almost saturated. It was strongly suggested that, since fine and complex dislocation cell structures were developed in such a work-hardened state, smooth and long range dislocation glide such as assumed in the classical Taylor theory would not be possible. To explain the observed texture development, cooperative movement of the dislocations in the cell walls might be necessary. In fact, addition of Mg and Cu, which suppressed strongly the development of well defined cell structures due to P-L effect or dynamic strain ageing, significantly retarded the rotation of tensile axes toward left angle 111 right angle. Interesting enough, textures developed in all these materials investigated were not affected by the strain rate and the temperature of the tensile test. (orig.)

  13. Laser-induced generation of pure tensile stresses

    Niemz, M.H.; Lin, C.P.; Pitsillides, C.; Cui, J.; Doukas, A.G.; Deutsch, T.F.

    1997-01-01

    While short compressive stresses can readily be produced by laser ablation, the generation of pure tensile stresses is more difficult. We demonstrate that a 90 degree prism made of polyethylene can serve to produce short and pure tensile stresses. A compressive wave is generated by ablating a thin layer of strongly absorbing ink on one surface of the prism with a Q-switched frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser. The compressive wave driven into the prism is reflected as a tensile wave by the polyethylene-air interface at its long surface. The low acoustic impedance of polyethylene makes it ideal for coupling tensile stresses into liquids. In water, tensile stresses up to -200bars with a rise time of the order of 20 ns and a duration of 100 ns are achieved. The tensile strength of water is determined for pure tensile stresses lasting for 100 ns only. The technique has potential application in studying the initiation of cavitation in liquids and in comparing the effect of compressive and tensile stress transients on biological media. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  14. New Scanning Electron Microscope Used for Cryogenic Tensile Testing

    Maximilien Brice

    2013-01-01

    At CERN engineering department's installation for cryogenic tensile testing, the new scanning electron microscope (SEM) allows for detailed optical observations to be carried out. Using the SEM, surface coatings and tensile properties of materials can investigated in order to better understand how they behave under different conditions.

  15. Use of run statistics to validate tensile tests

    Eatherly, W.P.

    1981-01-01

    In tensile testing of irradiated graphites, it is difficult to assure alignment of sample and train for tensile measurements. By recording location of fractures, run (sequential) statistics can readily detect lack of randomness. The technique is based on partitioning binomial distributions

  16. Polystyrene cryostat facilitates testing tensile specimens under liquid nitrogen

    Shogan, R. P.; Skalka, R. J.

    1967-01-01

    Lightweight cryostat made of expanded polystyrene reduces eccentricity in a tensile system being tested under liquid nitrogen. The cryostat is attached directly to the tensile system by a special seal, reducing misalignment effects due to cryostat weight, and facilitates viewing and loading of the specimens.

  17. Influence of relative humidity on tensile and compressive creep of ...

    This paper presents an experimental study on the influence of ambient relative humidity on tensile creep of plain concrete amended with Ground Granulated Blast - furnace Slag and compares it with its influence on compressive creep. Tensile and compressive creep tests were carried out on concrete specimens of 34.49 ...

  18. Tensile behavior and tension stiffening of reinforced concrete

    Choun, Young Sun; Seo, Jeong Moon

    2001-03-01

    For the ultimate behavior analysis of containment buildings under severe accident conditions, a clear understanding of tensile behaviors of plain and reinforced concrete is necessary. Nonlinear models for tensile behaviors of concrete are also needed. This report describe following items: tensile behaviors of plain concrete, test results of reinforced concrete panels in uniaxial and biaxial tension, tension stiffening. The tensile behaviors of reinforced concrete are significantly influenced by the properties of concrete and reinforcing steel. Thus, for a more reliable evaluation of tensile behavior and ultimate pressure capacity of a reinforced or prestressed concrete containment building, an advanced concrete model which can be considered rebar-concrete interaction effects should be developed. In additions, a crack behavior analysis method and tension stiffening models, which are based on fracture mechanics, should be developed. The model should be based on the various test data from specimens considering material and sectional properties of the containment building

  19. Tensile properties of the modified 13Cr martensitic stainless steels

    Mabruri, Efendi, E-mail: effe004@lipi.go.id; Anwar, Moch Syaiful, E-mail: moch.syaiful.anwar@lipi.go.id; Prifiharni, Siska, E-mail: siska.prifiharni@lipi.go.id; Romijarso, Toni B.; Adjiantoro, Bintang [Research Center for Metallurgy and Materials, Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI) Kawasan Puspiptek Gd. 470 Serpong, Tangerang Selatan 15314 (Indonesia)

    2016-04-19

    This paper reports the influence of Mo and Ni on the tensile properties of the modified 13Cr martensitic stainless steels in tempered condition. Four steels with different content of Mo and Ni were prepared by induction melting followed by hot forging, quenching and tempering. The experimental results showed that the addition of about 1% and 3% Mo has a beneficial effect to increase both the tensile strength and the elongation of the steels. On the contrary, the addition of about 3% Ni into the martensitic stainless steel results in decreasing of both the tensile strength and the elongation. Among the alloys investigated the 13Cr3Mo type steel exhibited largest tensile strength of 1348 MPa and largest elongation of 12%. The observation on the tensile fractured surfaces by using scanning electron microscope supported these findings.

  20. Tensile properties of the modified 13Cr martensitic stainless steels

    Mabruri, Efendi; Anwar, Moch Syaiful; Prifiharni, Siska; Romijarso, Toni B.; Adjiantoro, Bintang

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports the influence of Mo and Ni on the tensile properties of the modified 13Cr martensitic stainless steels in tempered condition. Four steels with different content of Mo and Ni were prepared by induction melting followed by hot forging, quenching and tempering. The experimental results showed that the addition of about 1% and 3% Mo has a beneficial effect to increase both the tensile strength and the elongation of the steels. On the contrary, the addition of about 3% Ni into the martensitic stainless steel results in decreasing of both the tensile strength and the elongation. Among the alloys investigated the 13Cr3Mo type steel exhibited largest tensile strength of 1348 MPa and largest elongation of 12%. The observation on the tensile fractured surfaces by using scanning electron microscope supported these findings.

  1. Bending and tensile deformation of metallic nanowires

    McDowell, Matthew T; Leach, Austin M; Gall, Ken

    2008-01-01

    Using molecular statics simulations and the embedded atom method, a technique for bending silver nanowires and calculating Young's modulus via continuum mechanics has been developed. The measured Young's modulus values extracted from bending simulations were compared with modulus values calculated from uniaxial tension simulations for a range of nanowire sizes, orientations and geometries. Depending on axial orientation, the nanowires exhibit stiffening or softening under tension and bending as size decreases. Bending simulations typically result in a greater variation of Young's modulus values with nanowire size compared with tensile deformation, which indicates a loading-method-dependent size effect on elastic properties at sub-5 nm wire diameters. Since the axial stress is maximized at the lateral surfaces in bending, the loading-method-dependent size effect is postulated to be primarily a result of differences in nanowire surface and core elastic modulus. The divergence of Young's modulus from the bulk modulus in these simulations occurs at sizes below the range in which experiments have demonstrated a size scale effect on elastic properties of metallic nanowires. This difference indicates that other factors beyond native metallic surface properties play a role in experimentally observed nanowire elastic modulus size effects

  2. Tensile properties of irradiated TZM and tungsten

    Steichen, J.M.

    1975-04-01

    The effect of neutron irradiation on the elevated temperature tensile properties of TZM and tungsten has been experimentally determined. Specimens were irradiated at a temperature of approximately 720 0 F to fluences of 0.4 and 0.9 x 10 22 n/cm 2 (E greater than 0.1 MeV). Test parameters for both control and irradiated specimens included strain rates from 3 x 10 -4 to 1 s -1 and temperatures from 72 to 1700 0 F. The results of these tests were correlated with a rate-temperature parameter (T ln A/epsilon) to provide a concise description of material behavior over the range of deformation conditions of this study. The yield strength of the subject materials was significantly increased by decreasing temperature, increasing strain rate, and increasing fluence. Ductility was significantly reduced at any temperature or strain rate by increasing fluence. Cleavage fractures occurred in both unirradiated and irradiated specimens when the yield strength was elevated to the effective cleavage stress by temperature and/or strain rate. Neutron irradiation for the conditions of this study increased the ductile-to-brittle transition temperature of tungsten by approximately 300 0 F and TZM by approximately 420 0 F. (U.S.)

  3. Aging enhances the vulnerability of mesenchymal stromal cells to uniaxial tensile strain-induced apoptosis.

    McKayed, Katey; Prendergast, Patrick J; Campbell, Veronica A

    2016-02-08

    Mechanical priming can be employed in tissue engineering strategies to control the fate and differentiation pattern of mesenchymal stromal cells. This is relevant to regenerative medicine whereby mechanical cues can promote the regeneration of a specific tissue type from mesenchymal precursors. The ability of cells to respond to mechanical forces is dependent upon mechanotransduction pathways that involve membrane-associated proteins, such as integrins. During the aging process changes in the mechanotransduction machinery may influence how cells from aged individuals respond to mechanical priming. In this study mesenchymal stromal cells were prepared from young adult and aged rats and exposed to uniaxial tensile strain at 5% and 10% for 3 days, or 2.5% for 7 days. Application of 5% tensile strain had no impact on cell viability. In contrast, application of 10% tensile strain evoked apoptosis and the strain-induced apoptosis was significantly higher in the mesenchymal stromal cells prepared from the aged rats. In parallel to the age-related difference in cellular responsiveness to strain, an age-related decrease in expression of α2 integrin and actin, and enhanced lipid peroxidation was observed. This study demonstrates that mesenchymal stem cells from aged animals have an altered membrane environment, are more vulnerable to the pro-apoptotic effects of 10% tensile strain and less responsive to the pro-osteogenic effects of 2.5% tensile strain. Thus, it is essential to consider how aged cells respond to mechanical stimuli in order to identify optimal mechanical priming strategies that minimise cell loss, particularly if this approach is to be applied to an aged population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Study of tensile test behavior of austenitic stainless steel type 347 seamless thin-walled tubes in cold worked condition

    Terui, Clarice, E-mail: clarice.terui@marinha.mil.br [Centro Tecnológico da Marinha em São Paulo (CINA/CTMSP), Iperó, SP (Brazil). Centro Industrial Nuclear da Marinha; Lima, Nelson B. de, E-mail: nblima@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNE-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    These austenitic stainless steel type 347 seamless thin-walled tubes are potential candidates to be used in fuel elements of nuclear power plants (as PWR - Pressurized Water Reactor). So, their metallurgical condition and mechanical properties, as the tensile strength and yield strength, normally are very restrict in demanding project and design requirements. Several full size tensile tests at room temperature and high temperature (315 deg C) were performed in these seamless tubes in cold-worked condition. The results of specified tensile and yield strengths were achieved but the elongation of the tube, in the geometry of the component, could not be measured at high temperature due to unconventional mode of rupture (helical mode without separation of parts). The average value of elongation was obtained from stress-strain curves of hot tensile tests and was around 5%. The results obtained in this research show that this behavior of the full size tensile test samples of thin-walled tube (wall thickness less than 0.5 mm) in high temperature (315°C) is due to the combination of the manufacturing process, the material (crystallographic structure and chemical composition) and the final geometry of the component. In other words, the strong crystallographic texture of material induced by tube drawing process in addition with the geometry of the component are responsible for the behavior in hot uniaxial tensile tests. (author)

  5. Effect of process parameters on tensile strength of friction stir welding A356/C355 aluminium alloys joint

    Dwivedi, Shashi Prakash [Noida Institute of Engineering and Technology, Greater Noida (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-01-15

    In the present investigation, A356/C355 aluminium alloys are welded by friction stir welding by controlling various welding parameters. A356 and C355 aluminium alloys materials have a set of mechanical and physical properties that are ideally suited for application in aerospace and automobile industries and not widely used because of its poor weldebility. To overcome this barrier, weldebility analysis of A356 and C355 aluminium alloys with high speed steel (Wc-Co) tool has been investigated. An attempt has been made to investigate the influence of the rotational speed of the tools, the axial force and welding speed on tensile strength of A356/C355 aluminium alloys joint. The experiments were conducted on a milling machine. The main focus of investigation is to determine good tensile strength. Response surface methodology (box Behnken design) is chosen to design the optimum welding parameters leading to maximum tensile strength. The result shows that axial force increases, tensile strength decreases. Whereas tool rotational speed and welding speed increase, tensile strength increases. Optimum values of axial force (3 /KN), tool rotational speed (900 RPM) and welding speed (75 mm/min.) during welding of A356/C355 aluminium alloys joint to maximize the tensile strength (Predicted 223.2 MPa) have been find out.

  6. Effect of process parameters on tensile strength of friction stir welding A356/C355 aluminium alloys joint

    Dwivedi, Shashi Prakash

    2014-01-01

    In the present investigation, A356/C355 aluminium alloys are welded by friction stir welding by controlling various welding parameters. A356 and C355 aluminium alloys materials have a set of mechanical and physical properties that are ideally suited for application in aerospace and automobile industries and not widely used because of its poor weldebility. To overcome this barrier, weldebility analysis of A356 and C355 aluminium alloys with high speed steel (Wc-Co) tool has been investigated. An attempt has been made to investigate the influence of the rotational speed of the tools, the axial force and welding speed on tensile strength of A356/C355 aluminium alloys joint. The experiments were conducted on a milling machine. The main focus of investigation is to determine good tensile strength. Response surface methodology (box Behnken design) is chosen to design the optimum welding parameters leading to maximum tensile strength. The result shows that axial force increases, tensile strength decreases. Whereas tool rotational speed and welding speed increase, tensile strength increases. Optimum values of axial force (3 /KN), tool rotational speed (900 RPM) and welding speed (75 mm/min.) during welding of A356/C355 aluminium alloys joint to maximize the tensile strength (Predicted 223.2 MPa) have been find out.

  7. Effects of niobium addition on microstructure and tensile behavior of as-cast ductile iron

    Chen, Xiangru, E-mail: cxr16@shu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Special Steel & Shanghai Key Laboratory of Advanced Ferrometallurgy & School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Xu, Jie, E-mail: shuxujie@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Special Steel & Shanghai Key Laboratory of Advanced Ferrometallurgy & School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Hu, Henry, E-mail: huh@uwindsor.ca [Department of Mechanical, Automotive and Materials Engineering University of Windsor, 401 Sunset Avenue, Windsor, Ontario, Canada N9B 3P4 (Canada); Mohrbacher, Hardy, E-mail: hm@niobelcon.net [NiobelCon bvba, Swaenebeecklaan, 2970 Schilde (Belgium); Kang, Ming, E-mail: kangming@dfcv.com.cn [Dongfeng Commercial Vehicle Co., Ltd., Wuhan 430056 (China); Zhang, Wei, E-mail: zhangwei3@citic.com [CITIC Metal Co., Ltd., Beijing 100004 (China); Guo, Aimin, E-mail: guoam@citic.com [CITIC Metal Co., Ltd., Beijing 100004 (China); Zhai, Qijie, E-mail: qjzhai@shu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Special Steel & Shanghai Key Laboratory of Advanced Ferrometallurgy & School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China)

    2017-03-14

    The effects of niobium addition up to 0.11 wt% on the microstructure and tensile properties of as-cast ductile iron (ACDI) were investigated. Metallographic analyses by both optical microscopy (OM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) indicated that niobium (Nb) promoted the formation of pearlite, reduced pearlite lamellar spacing and decreased the extent of graphitization taking place in the Nb-alloyed ACDI. The nodularity and nodule counts of graphite changed insignificantly when the Nb content was less than 0.08 wt% in the ACDI. The analysis of precipitates by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that nano and micro sized (Nb, Ti)C carbides acted as nucleation site for graphites, and promoted the formation of large graphite nodules with low roundnesses as Nb content rose above 0.08 wt%. The results of tensile testing showed that the yield strength, ultimate tensile strength and elongation of the ACDI with 0.08 wt% Nb increased by 12.1%, 11.2% and 14.3% over those of the Nb-free ACDI, respectively. The optimum values of the yield strength, tensile strength and elongation of the Nb-alloyed ACDI were found to be 418 MPa, 746.0 MPa and 8.0%, respectively, at the Nb content of 0.08 wt%. The high strain hardening rates of the Nb-containing ACDIs implied that they were capable of spontaneously strengthening itself increasingly to a large extent, in response to a slight plastic deformation after yielding.

  8. Correlation of hot-microhardness with elevated-temperature tensile properties of low activation ferritic steel

    Hsu Chenyih

    1986-01-01

    Hot microhardness and elevated temperature tensile tests have been performed on 9Cr-2.5W-0.3V-0.15C(GA3X) low activation ferritic steel at temperatures from 20 0 C to 650 0 C. The uniform elongation of the tensile test correlated well with the ductility parameter of the microhardness test. The hot-microhardness test showed a sensitive response to the softening and changes in ductility of the GA3X steel. The ultimate tensile strength and 0.2% yield strength of this steel correlated well with hot microhardness data at test temperatures up to 400 0 C using Cahoon's expressions σ uts = (H/2.9)(n/0.217) n and σ ys = (H/3)(0.1) n , respectively, where H is the diamond pyramid hardness and n is the strain hardening exponent. A 20-30% underestimate of tensile strengths were obtained using Cahoon's expressions at temperatures above 400 0 C, which is probably attributed to creep deformation and may be improved by selecting a proper loading condition during the hardness test. (orig.)

  9. Tensile behavior of friction stir welded AA 6061-T4 aluminum alloy joints

    Heidarzadeh, A.; Khodaverdizadeh, H.; Mahmoudi, A.; Nazari, E.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Range of parameters for defect-free friction stir welded AA 6061-T4 was reached. ► A model was developed for predicting UTS and EL of friction stir welded AA 6061-T4. ► The maximum values of UTS and EL of joints were estimated by developed model. ► The optimum values of FSW process parameters were determined. -- Abstract: In this investigation response surface methodology based on a central composite rotatable design with three parameters, five levels and 20 runs, was used to develop a mathematical model predicting the tensile properties of friction stir welded AA 6061-T4 aluminum alloy joints at 95% confidence level. The three welding parameters considered were tool rotational speed, welding speed and axial force. Analysis of variance was applied to validate the predicted model. Microstructural characterization and fractography of joints were examined using optical and scanning electron microscopes. Also, the effects of the welding parameters on tensile properties of friction stir welded joints were analyzed in detail. The results showed that the optimum parameters to get a maximum of tensile strength were 920 rev/min, 78 mm/min and 7.2 kN, where the maximum of tensile elongation was obtained at 1300 rev/min, 60 mm/min and 8 kN.

  10. The Influence of Agroclimatic Factors on the Formation of Oil Content In Flax Seeds in the North of Kazakhstan

    Elena Gordeyeva

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Flax (Linum usitatissimum L. is one of the promising oil crops in the north of Kazakhstan. Over the last 10 years, the total area under this crop in the region has increased fourteen-fold, since flax is a very plastic crop for steppe and dry steppe conditions, and oil seeds are in high demand in the world market. Flaxseed oil, due to the content of polyunsaturated fatty acids, occupies one of the first positions among other edible vegetable oils. Depending on environmental conditions, the oil content of the crop may vary from 36.4% to 52.0%, while, as noted by many researchers, the change in oil content depends on genotypic characteristics. Therefore, the study aims to analyze the influence of the genotype and climatic conditions of cultivation on fat biosynthesis in flax seeds in the context of the dry steppe zone of Northern Kazakhstan on dark chestnut soils of the Akmola region. Field experiments were conducted in 2015-2017 with the study of nine oil flaxseed cultivars (of mid-season varieties sown on May 20 at the seeding rate of 7 million seeds/ha based on the traditional technology of cultivation recommended for the region. Climatic parameters were taken into account according to the meteorological service data. Fat content was determined by the extraction method using a Soxhlet apparatus in accordance with GOST (All-Union State Standard 10857-64, and moisture content was determined by the thermogravimetric method according to the National Standard of the Republic of Kazakhstan 2.195-2010, for recalculation of oil content for absolutely dry matter. It was found that the formation of oil depends on climatic parameters and on the sum of active temperatures during the ripening period, in particular. The evaluation of plasticity and stability of the cultivars (genotypes showed that VNIIMK 620, Lirina, Karabalyksky 7 can be considered highly valuable cultivars and Severny, Biryuza, Kazar, Ilyich – valuable cultivars in terms of oil content

  11. Ultrasound transmission measurements for tensile strength evaluation of tablets.

    Simonaho, Simo-Pekka; Takala, T Aleksi; Kuosmanen, Marko; Ketolainen, Jarkko

    2011-05-16

    Ultrasound transmission measurements were performed to evaluate the tensile strength of tablets. Tablets consisting of one ingredient were compressed from dibasic calcium phosphate dehydrate, two grades of microcrystalline cellulose and two grades of lactose monohydrate powders. From each powder, tablets with five different tensile strengths were directly compressed. Ultrasound transmission measurements were conducted on every tablet at frequencies of 2.25 MHz, 5 MHz and 10 MHz and the speed of sound was calculated from the acquired waveforms. The tensile strength of the tablets was determined using a diametrical mechanical testing machine and compared to the calculated speed of sound values. It was found that the speed of sound increased with the tensile strength for the tested excipients. There was a good correlation between the speed of sound and tensile strength. Moreover, based on the statistical tests, the groups with different tensile strengths can be differentiated from each other by measuring the speed of sound. Thus, the ultrasound transmission measurement technique is a potentially useful method for non-destructive and fast evaluation of the tensile strength of tablets. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of tensile stress on cavitation damage formation in mercury

    Naoe, Takashi, E-mail: naoe.takashi@jaea.go.j [J-PARC Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Kogawa, Hiroyuki [J-PARC Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Yamaguchi, Yoshihito [Nuclear Safety Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Futakawa, Masatoshi [J-PARC Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)

    2010-03-15

    Cavitation erosion or so called pitting damage was investigated under tensile stress conditions in mercury. In MW-class liquid metal spallation targets, pitting damage is a critical issue to satisfy required power and/or lifetime of the target vessel. Cavitation occurs by negative pressure which is induced through pressure wave propagation due to proton beam injection. Pitting damage is formed by microjet and/or shock wave during cavitation bubble collapse. A mercury target vessel suffers tensile stress due to thermal stress or welding. In order to investigate the effect of tensile stress on pitting damage formation, cavitation erosion tests were performed using stress imposed specimens in mercury. An ultrasonic vibratory horn and electro-Magnetic IMpact Testing Machine (MIMTM) were used to vary the cavitation intensity. In the incubation period of pitting damage, damaged area was slightly increased with increasing imposed tensile stress. In the steady state period, a mean depth of erosion was increased by the tensile stress. Additionally, in order to quantitatively evaluate the effect of tensile stress, an indentation test with Vickers indenter was carried out to quasi-statically simulate the impact load. From the measurement of the diagonal length of the indent aspect ratio and hardness, it is recognized that the threshold of the deformation, i.e. pitting damage formation, was decreased by the tensile stress.

  13. The tensile properties of single sugar palm (Arenga pinnata) fibre

    Bachtiar, D.; Sapuan, S. M.; Zainudin, E. S.; Khalina, A.; Dahlan, K. Z. M.

    2010-05-01

    This paper presents a brief description and characterization of the sugar palm fibres, still rare in the scientific community, compared to other natural fibres employed in polymeric composites. Sugar palm fibres are cellulose-based fibres extracted from the Arenga pinnata plant. The characterization consists of tensile test and the morphological examination. The average tensile properties results of fibres such as Young's modulus is equal to 3.69 GPa, tensile strength is equal to 190.29 MPa, and strain at failure is equal to 19.6%.

  14. The tensile properties of single sugar palm (Arenga pinnata) fibre

    Bachtiar, D; Sapuan, S M; Zainudin, E S; Khalina, A; Dahlan, K Z M

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a brief description and characterization of the sugar palm fibres, still rare in the scientific community, compared to other natural fibres employed in polymeric composites. Sugar palm fibres are cellulose-based fibres extracted from the Arenga pinnata plant. The characterization consists of tensile test and the morphological examination. The average tensile properties results of fibres such as Young's modulus is equal to 3.69 GPa, tensile strength is equal to 190.29 MPa, and strain at failure is equal to 19.6%.

  15. Elevated Temperature Tensile Tests on DU–10Mo Rolled Foils

    Schulthess, Jason [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Tensile mechanical properties for uranium-10 wt.% molybdenum (U–10Mo) foils are required to support modeling and qualification of new monolithic fuel plate designs. It is expected that depleted uranium-10 wt% Mo (DU–10Mo) mechanical behavior is representative of the low enriched U–10Mo to be used in the actual fuel plates, therefore DU-10Mo was studied to simplify material processing, handling, and testing requirements. In this report, tensile testing of DU-10Mo fuel foils prepared using four different thermomechanical processing treatments were conducted to assess the impact of foil fabrication history on resultant tensile properties.

  16. [Genetic transformation of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) with chimeric GFP-TUA6 gene for visualisation of microtubules].

    Shisha, E N; Korkhovoĭ, V I; Baer, G Ia; Guzenko, E V; Lemesh, V A; Kartel', N A; Emets, A I; Blium, Ia B

    2013-01-01

    The data of Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of some Linum usitatissimum cultivars zoned on the territories of Belarus and Ukraine with the plasmid carrying chimeric GFP-TUA6 gene and nptII gene as selectable marker conferring resistance to kanamycin are presented in this study. Transformation was affected by a number of factors including optical density (OD600), time of inoculation of explants with Agrobacterium and co-culture conditions. Transgenic nature of obtained lines was confirmed by PCR analysis. Expression of GFP-TUA6 gene was detected with confocal laser scanning microscopy. The obtained transgenic lines can be used for further functional studies the role of microtubules in the processes of building the flax fibres and resistance to wind.

  17. The exercise-induced biochemical milieu enhances collagen content and tensile strength of engineered ligaments.

    West, Daniel W D; Lee-Barthel, Ann; McIntyre, Todd; Shamim, Baubak; Lee, Cassandra A; Baar, Keith

    2015-10-15

    Exercise stimulates a dramatic change in the concentration of circulating hormones, such as growth hormone (GH), but the biological functions of this response are unclear. Pharmacological GH administration stimulates collagen synthesis; however, whether the post-exercise systemic milieu has a similar action is unknown. We aimed to determine whether the collagen content and tensile strength of tissue-engineered ligaments is enhanced by serum obtained post-exercise. Primary cells from a human anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) were used to engineer ligament constructs in vitro. Blood obtained from 12 healthy young men 15 min after resistance exercise contained GH concentrations that were ∼7-fold greater than resting serum (P Ligament constructs were treated for 7 days with medium supplemented with serum obtained at rest (RestTx) or 15 min post-exercise (ExTx), before tensile testing and collagen content analysis. Compared with RestTx, ExTx enhanced collagen content (+19%; 181 ± 33 vs. 215 ± 40 μg per construct P = 0.001) and ligament mechanical properties - maximal tensile load (+17%, P = 0.03 vs. RestTx) and ultimate tensile strength (+10%, P = 0.15 vs. RestTx). In a separate set of engineered ligaments, recombinant IGF-1, but not GH, enhanced collagen content and mechanics. Bioassays in 2D culture revealed that acute treatment with post-exercise serum activated mTORC1 and ERK1/2. In conclusion, the post-exercise biochemical milieu, but not recombinant GH, enhances collagen content and tensile strength of engineered ligaments, in association with mTORC1 and ERK1/2 activation. © 2015 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2015 The Physiological Society.

  18. Characterization of Tensile Mechanical Behavior of MSCs/PLCL Hybrid Layered Sheet

    Azizah Intan Pangesty

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A layered construct was developed by combining a porous polymer sheet and a cell sheet as a tissue engineered vascular patch. The primary objective of this study is to investigate the influence of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs sheet on the tensile mechanical properties of porous poly-(l-lactide-co-ε-caprolactone (PLCL sheet. The porous PLCL sheet was fabricated by the solid-liquid phase separation method and the following freeze-drying method. The MSCs sheet, prepared by the temperature-responsive dish, was then layered on the top of the PLCL sheet and cultured for 2 weeks. During the in vitro study, cellular properties such as cell infiltration, spreading and proliferation were evaluated. Tensile test of the layered construct was performed periodically to characterize the tensile mechanical behavior. The tensile properties were then correlated with the cellular properties to understand the effect of MSCs sheet on the variation of the mechanical behavior during the in vitro study. It was found that MSCs from the cell sheet were able to migrate into the PLCL sheet and actively proliferated into the porous structure then formed a new layer of MSCs on the opposite surface of the PLCL sheet. Mechanical evaluation revealed that the PLCL sheet with MSCs showed enhancement of tensile strength and strain energy density at the first week of culture which is characterized as the effect of MSCs proliferation and its infiltration into the porous structure of the PLCL sheet. New technique was presented to develop tissue engineered patch by combining MSCs sheet and porous PLCL sheet, and it is expected that the layered patch may prolong biomechanical stability when implanted in vivo.

  19. Influence of iron supply on toxic effects of manganese, molybdenum and vanadium on soybean, peas, and flax

    Warington, K

    1954-01-01

    The investigations were carried out in nutrient solution with iron as ferric citrate and nitrogen in the form of nitrate. The addition of 2.5 ppm vanadium to plants in which iron chlorosis was already established, either by a lack of iron or by excess manganese, failed to counteract the condition, and caused toxic symptoms. The reduction of the standard iron supply to 1/2 or 1/3 accentuated the toxicity of 2.5 or 5 ppm V to soybean and flax, but a similar reduction in phosphorus had no influence. The toxicity to peas, however, was increased when the phosphorus was reduced to 1/10, provided the iron level was high (20 ppm Fe). Raising the iron supply to 20 or 30 ppm counteracted the toxicity of manganese (10 ppm), molybdenum (40 ppm) and vanadium (2.5 ppm), but the result was less marked when these three elements were combined. Iron supplied in successive, small doses proved less efficient in overcoming molybdenum or vanadium, but not manganese excess, than the same amount of iron supplied in fewer and larger quantities. Varying the iron supply had little effect when the concentration of the three elements was low. When increased iron supply had reduced the chlorosis caused by high manganese or vanadium, it also reduced the manganese and vanadium contents of the shoot (ppm/dm), but the molybdenum content was only lowered by high iron when given in non-toxic concentrations (0.1 ppm Mo) combined with excess manganese. Yield data for soybean and flax indicated an interaction between manganese with both molybdenum and vanadium if the iron supply was low, but none between molybdenum and vanadium. The effect of all three metals was additive in respect to iron.

  20. In-situ electron microscopy studies on the tensile deformation mechanisms in aluminium 5083 alloy

    Motsi, G

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study tensile deformation mechanisms of aluminium alloy 5083 were investigated under observations made from SEM equipped with a tensile stage. Observations during tensile testing revealed a sequence of surface deformation events...

  1. Experimental Assessment of Tensile Failure Characteristic for Advanced Composite Laminates

    Lee, Myoung Keon [Agency for Defense Development, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong Won; Yoon, Dong Hyun; Kim, Jae Hoon [Chungnam Nat’l Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-10-15

    In recent years, major airplane manufacturers have been using the laminate failure theory to estimate the strain of composite structures for airplanes. The laminate failure theory uses the failure strain of the laminate to analyze composite structures. This paper describes a procedure for the experimental assessment of laminate tensile failure characteristics. Regression analysis was used as the experimental assessment method. The regression analysis was performed with the response variable being the laminate failure strain and with the regressor variables being two-ply orientation (0° and ±45°) variables. The composite material in this study is a carbon/epoxy unidirectional (UD) tape that was cured as a pre-preg at 177°C(350°F). A total of 149 tension tests were conducted on specimens from 14 distinct laminates that were laid up at standard angle layers (0°, 45°, -45°, and 90°). The ASTM-D-3039 standard was used as the test method.

  2. Tensile and compressive properties of fresh human carotid atherosclerotic plaques.

    Maher, Eoghan

    2009-12-11

    Accurate characterisation of the mechanical properties of human atherosclerotic plaque is important for our understanding of the role of vascular mechanics in the development and treatment of atherosclerosis. The majority of previous studies investigating the mechanical properties of human plaque are based on tests of plaque tissue removed following autopsy. This study aims to characterise the mechanical behaviour of fresh human carotid plaques removed during endarterectomy and tested within 2h. A total of 50 radial compressive and 17 circumferential tensile uniaxial tests were performed on samples taken from 14 carotid plaques. The clinical classification of each plaque, as determined by duplex ultrasound is also reported. Plaques were classified as calcified, mixed or echolucent. Experimental data indicated that plaques were highly inhomogeneous; with variations seen in the mechanical properties of plaque obtained from individual donors and between donors. The mean behaviour of samples for each classification indicated that calcified plaques had the stiffest response, while echolucent plaques were the least stiff. Results also indicated that there may be a difference in behaviour of samples taken from different anatomical locations (common, internal and external carotid), however the large variability indicates that more testing is needed to reach significant conclusions. This work represents a step towards a better understanding of the in vivo mechanical behaviour of human atherosclerotic plaque.

  3. Monolithic integration of nanoscale tensile specimens and MEMS structures

    Yilmaz, Mehmet; Kysar, Jeffrey W

    2013-01-01

    Nanoscale materials often have stochastic material properties due to a random distribution of material defects and an insufficient number of defects to ensure a consistent average mechanical response. Current methods to measure the mechanical properties employ MEMS-based actuators. The nanoscale specimens are typically mounted manually onto the load platform, so the boundary conditions have random variations, complicating the experimental measurement of the intrinsic stochasticity of the material properties. Here we show methods for monolithic integration of a nanoscale specimen co-fabricated with the loading platform. The nanoscale specimen is gold with dimensions of ∼40 nm thickness, 350 ± 50 nm width, and 7 μm length and the loading platform is an interdigitated electrode electrostatic actuator. The experiment is performed in a scanning electron microscope and digital image correlation is employed to measure displacements to determine stress and strain. The ultimate tensile strength of the nanocrystalline nanoscale specimen approaches 1 GPa, consistent with measurements made by other nanometer scale sample characterization methods on other material samples at the nanometer scale, as well as gold samples at the nanometer scale. The batch-compatible microfabrication method can be used to create nominally identical nanoscale specimens and boundary conditions for a broad range of materials. (paper)

  4. Experimental Assessment of Tensile Failure Characteristic for Advanced Composite Laminates

    Lee, Myoung Keon; Lee, Jeong Won; Yoon, Dong Hyun; Kim, Jae Hoon

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, major airplane manufacturers have been using the laminate failure theory to estimate the strain of composite structures for airplanes. The laminate failure theory uses the failure strain of the laminate to analyze composite structures. This paper describes a procedure for the experimental assessment of laminate tensile failure characteristics. Regression analysis was used as the experimental assessment method. The regression analysis was performed with the response variable being the laminate failure strain and with the regressor variables being two-ply orientation (0° and ±45°) variables. The composite material in this study is a carbon/epoxy unidirectional (UD) tape that was cured as a pre-preg at 177°C(350°F). A total of 149 tension tests were conducted on specimens from 14 distinct laminates that were laid up at standard angle layers (0°, 45°, -45°, and 90°). The ASTM-D-3039 standard was used as the test method.

  5. Using hardness to model yield and tensile strength

    Hawk, Jeffrey A.; Dogan, Omer N.; Schrems, Karol K.

    2005-02-01

    The current direction in hardness research is towards smaller and smaller loads as nano-scale materials are developed. There remains, however, a need to investigate the mechanical behavior of complex alloys for severe environment service. In many instances this entails casting large ingots and making numerous tensile samples as the bounds of the operating environment are explored. It is possible to gain an understanding of the tensile strength of these alloys using room and elevated temperature hardness in conjunction with selected tensile tests. The approach outlined here has its roots in the work done by Tabor for metals and low alloy and carbon steels. This research seeks to extend the work to elevated temperatures for multi-phase, complex alloys. A review of the approach will be given after which the experimental data will be examined. In particular, the yield stress and tensile strength will be compared to their corresponding hardness based values.

  6. Tensile properties of polymethyl methacrylate coated natural fabric Sterculia urens

    Jayaramudu, J

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available stress, Young's modulus and % elongation at break were determined using a Universal Testing Machine. The effect of alkali treatment and the polymethyl methacrylate coating on tensile properties of the fabric was studied. The morphology of the fabric...

  7. Mechanical properties of graphene nanoribbons under uniaxial tensile strain

    Yoneyama, Kazufumi; Yamanaka, Ayaka; Okada, Susumu

    2018-03-01

    Based on the density functional theory with the generalized gradient approximation, we investigated the mechanical properties of graphene nanoribbons in terms of their edge shape under a uniaxial tensile strain. The nanoribbons with armchair and zigzag edges retain their structure under a large tensile strain, while the nanoribbons with chiral edges are fragile against the tensile strain compared with those with armchair and zigzag edges. The fracture started at the cove region, which corresponds to the border between the zigzag and armchair edges for the nanoribbons with chiral edges. For the nanoribbons with armchair edges, the fracture started at one of the cove regions at the edges. In contrast, the fracture started at the inner region of the nanoribbons with zigzag edges. The bond elongation under the tensile strain depends on the mutual arrangement of covalent bonds with respect to the strain direction.

  8. swelling characteristics and tensile properties of natural fiber rei

    USER

    The swelling behavior and tensile strength of natural fiber-reinforced plastic in premium motor spirit (PMS), dual ... with fibers usually of glass fiber, Kevlar and carbon have gained ... NIGERIAN JOURNAL OF TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 27 NO.2 ...

  9. Ply Tensile Properties of Banana Stem and Banana Bunch Fibres ...

    Natural rubber composite lamina reinforced with BSF which were treated with a mixture of NaOH and Na2SO3 had a superior tensile strength of 4.0 MPa and Young's modulus of 147.34MPa over the untreated BSF with tensile strength and Young's Modulus of 3.7MPa and 84.30MPa respectively. Both the treated and ...

  10. Open-source micro-tensile testers via additive manufacturing for the mechanical characterization of thin films and papers.

    Nandy, Krishanu; Collinson, David W; Scheftic, Charlie M; Brinson, L Catherine

    2018-01-01

    The cost of specialized scientific equipment can be high and with limited funding resources, researchers and students are often unable to access or purchase the ideal equipment for their projects. In the fields of materials science and mechanical engineering, fundamental equipment such as tensile testing devices can cost tens to hundreds of thousands of dollars. While a research lab often has access to a large-scale testing machine suitable for conventional samples, loading devices for meso- and micro-scale samples for in-situ testing with the myriad of microscopy tools are often hard to source and cost prohibitive. Open-source software has allowed for great strides in the reduction of costs associated with software development and open-source hardware and additive manufacturing have the potential to similarly reduce the costs of scientific equipment and increase the accessibility of scientific research. To investigate the feasibility of open-source hardware, a micro-tensile tester was designed with a freely accessible computer-aided design package and manufactured with a desktop 3D-printer and off-the-shelf components. To our knowledge this is one of the first demonstrations of a tensile tester with additively manufactured components for scientific research. The capabilities of the tensile tester were demonstrated by investigating the mechanical properties of Graphene Oxide (GO) paper and thin films. A 3D printed tensile tester was successfully used in conjunction with an atomic force microscope to provide one of the first quantitative measurements of GO thin film buckling under compression. The tensile tester was also used in conjunction with an atomic force microscope to observe the change in surface topology of a GO paper in response to increasing tensile strain. No significant change in surface topology was observed in contrast to prior hypotheses from the literature. Based on this result obtained with the new open source tensile stage we propose an

  11. Open-source micro-tensile testers via additive manufacturing for the mechanical characterization of thin films and papers.

    Krishanu Nandy

    Full Text Available The cost of specialized scientific equipment can be high and with limited funding resources, researchers and students are often unable to access or purchase the ideal equipment for their projects. In the fields of materials science and mechanical engineering, fundamental equipment such as tensile testing devices can cost tens to hundreds of thousands of dollars. While a research lab often has access to a large-scale testing machine suitable for conventional samples, loading devices for meso- and micro-scale samples for in-situ testing with the myriad of microscopy tools are often hard to source and cost prohibitive. Open-source software has allowed for great strides in the reduction of costs associated with software development and open-source hardware and additive manufacturing have the potential to similarly reduce the costs of scientific equipment and increase the accessibility of scientific research. To investigate the feasibility of open-source hardware, a micro-tensile tester was designed with a freely accessible computer-aided design package and manufactured with a desktop 3D-printer and off-the-shelf components. To our knowledge this is one of the first demonstrations of a tensile tester with additively manufactured components for scientific research. The capabilities of the tensile tester were demonstrated by investigating the mechanical properties of Graphene Oxide (GO paper and thin films. A 3D printed tensile tester was successfully used in conjunction with an atomic force microscope to provide one of the first quantitative measurements of GO thin film buckling under compression. The tensile tester was also used in conjunction with an atomic force microscope to observe the change in surface topology of a GO paper in response to increasing tensile strain. No significant change in surface topology was observed in contrast to prior hypotheses from the literature. Based on this result obtained with the new open source tensile stage we

  12. Thermal and tensile properties of alumina filled PET nanocomposites

    Nikam, Pravin N.; Deshpande, Vineeta D.

    2018-05-01

    In the present investigation, nanocomposites of poly(ethylene terephathalate)(PET) with different content (0 to 5 wt.%) of alumina nanoparticles (n-Al2O3) were prepared by melt-extrusion technique. Morphological characterization of samples was examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Morphological analysis revealed that degree of dispersion of alumina nanoparticles (ANPs) was increased at lower content (i.e. upto 2 wt.%), which observed by TEM. Thermal and tensile measurements were carried out using and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and universal testing machine (UTM). The thermal analysis showed that the glass transition termperature (Tg), melting temperature (Tm), crystallization temperature (Tc) of PET/alumina nanocomposites (PNCs) were higher than neat PET (PET0). The heat enthalpy (ΔHm) of crystallization for PNCs was increased compared to PET0, which indicates that degree of crystallinity of PNCs also increased compared to PET0. The half-time (t0.5) of crystallization of PNCs were decreased compared to PET0 which indicates that the incorporation of ANPs nucleate the PET molecular chains and allowing the easily crystallization during nonisothermal process. The tensile analysis revealed that the tensile elastic modulus (i.e. Young's modulus) of PNCs increased almost linearly with increasing the content of ANPs while tensile elongation at break decreased nonlinearly. The tensile strength of PNCs increased with a 1 wt.% of ANPs whereas the higher content of ANPs decreased the tensile strength.

  13. Fracture toughness evaluation using circumferential notched tensile specimens by the tensile test and ANSYS software

    Meydanlik, N. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Trakya University, Edirne (Turkey)

    2013-07-01

    Fracture toughness (K{sub Ic} ) is the most important parameter that defines mechanical behaviour of the materials using machine design. Since, fracture tests are both difficult and time consuming, the researchers have been investigating for the easier evaluation of K{sub Ic} for many years. In this work; K{sub Ic} values have been obtained by using ANSYS software based on the experimental values evaluated in the previous studies. It was shown that there is no significant difference between the experimental ones and the ones obtained by ANSYS. This procedure can provide an important advantage on obtaining of the K{sub IC} values. Key words: Fracture toughness (K{sub Ic} ), circumferential notched tensile specimens, ANSYS.

  14. Characterization and modeling of tensile behavior of ceramic woven fabric composites

    Kuo, Wen-Shyong; Chen, Wennei Y.; Parvizi-Majidi, Azar; Chou, Tsu-Wei

    1991-01-01

    This paper examines the tensile behavior of SiC/SiC fabric composites. In the characterization effort, the stress-strain relation and damage evolution are studied with a series of loading and unloading tensile test experiments. The stress-strain relation is linear in response to the initial loading and becomes nonlinear when loading exceeds the proportional limit. Transverse cracking has been observed to be a dominant damage mode governing the nonlinear deformation. The damage is initiated at the inter-tow pores where fiber yarns cross over each other. In the modeling work, the analysis is based upon a fiber bundle model, in which fiber undulation in the warp and fill directions and gaps among fiber yarns have been taken into account. Two limiting cases of fabric stacking arrangements are studied. Closed form solutions are obtained for the composite stiffness and Poisson's ratio. Transverse cracking in the composite is discussed by applying a constant failure strain criterion.

  15. Effect of ageing on tensile behavior of ultrafine grained Al 6061 alloy

    Rao, P. Nageswara [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering & Centre of Nanotechnology, IIT Roorkee, Roorkee 247667 (India); Singh, Dharmendra [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Government Engineering College, Bikaner 304001 (India); Brokmeier, Heinz-Günter [Helmholtz Zentrum Geesthacht, Max Planck Straße 1, Geb 33, D-21502 Geesthacht (Germany); Jayaganthan, R., E-mail: rjayafmt@iitr.ernet.in [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering & Centre of Nanotechnology, IIT Roorkee, Roorkee 247667 (India)

    2015-08-12

    In the present investigation, the ageing behavior of ultrafine grained (UFG) Al 6061 alloy, processed through multi-directional forging (MDF) at cryogenic temperature was investigated. The evolution of microstructure was investigated through transmission electron microscopy and electron back scattered diffraction technique. The results indicate that homogeneous microstructure with an ultrafine grain morphology (average size 250 nm) was achieved through cryogenic forging of the alloy subjected to prior solutionising treatment. Tensile testing at room temperature revealed that MDFed material after ageing led to significant improvement in work hardening and its tensile ductility. Strengthening of the matrix through various mechanisms has been quantified with the existing models to estimate the yield strength of the as forged and peak aged material. The precipitation hardening response in UFG material is found to be 35% lower than that of the coarse grained material as observed in the present work.

  16. Combined spectrophotometry and tensile measurements of human connective tissues: potentials and limitations.

    Ernstberger, Markus; Sichting, Freddy; Baselt, Tobias; Hartmann, Peter; Aust, Gabriela; Hammer, Niels

    2013-06-01

    Strain-dependent transmission data of nine iliotibial tract specimens are determined using a custom-built optical setup with a halogen light source and an industrial norm material testing machine. Polarized light microscopy and hematoxylin-eosin staining indicated that lateral contraction of collagen structures is responsible for total intensity variations during a 20-cycle preconditioning and a 5-cycle tensile test. Tensile force progress is opposite to total transmission progress. Due to dehydration, wavelength-specific radiation intensity shifting is determined during the test, primarily noticeable in a water absorption band between 1400 and 1500 nm. The results show the capability of integrating spectrophotometry technology into biomechanics for determining structural alterations of human collagen due to applied strain. Being more sensitive to drying, spectrophotometry may likely serve as a quality control in stress-strain testing of biological structures.

  17. Enhancement of J estimation for typical nuclear pipes with a circumferential surface crack under tensile load

    Cho, Doo Ho; Woo, Seung Wan; Choi, Jae Boong; Kim, Young Jin; Chang, Yoon Suk; Jhung, Myung Jo; Choi, Young Hwan

    2010-01-01

    This paper is to report enhancement of engineering J estimation for semi-elliptical surface cracks under tensile load. Firstly, limitation of the sole solution suggested by Zahoor is shown for reliable structural integrity assessment of thin-walled nuclear pipes. An improved solution is then developed based on extensive 3D FE analyses employing deformation plasticity theory for typical nuclear piping materials. It takes over the structure of the existing solution but provides new tabulated plastic influence functions to cover a wide range of pipe geometry and crack shape. Furthermore, to facilitate easy prediction of the plastic influence function, an alternative simple equation is also developed by using a statistical response surface method. The proposed H 1 values can be used for elastic-plastic fracture analyses of thin-walled pipes with a circumferential surface crack subjected to tensile loading

  18. Enhancement of J estimation for typical nuclear pipes with a circumferential surface crack under tensile load

    Cho, Doo Ho; Woo, Seung Wan; Choi, Jae Boong; Kim, Young Jin [Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Yoon Suk [Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Jhung, Myung Jo; Choi, Young Hwan [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-03-15

    This paper is to report enhancement of engineering J estimation for semi-elliptical surface cracks under tensile load. Firstly, limitation of the sole solution suggested by Zahoor is shown for reliable structural integrity assessment of thin-walled nuclear pipes. An improved solution is then developed based on extensive 3D FE analyses employing deformation plasticity theory for typical nuclear piping materials. It takes over the structure of the existing solution but provides new tabulated plastic influence functions to cover a wide range of pipe geometry and crack shape. Furthermore, to facilitate easy prediction of the plastic influence function, an alternative simple equation is also developed by using a statistical response surface method. The proposed H{sub 1} values can be used for elastic-plastic fracture analyses of thin-walled pipes with a circumferential surface crack subjected to tensile loading

  19. Recovery of electrical resistance in copper films on polyethylene terephthalate subjected to a tensile strain

    Glushko, O.; Marx, V.M.; Kirchlechner, C.; Zizak, I.; Cordill, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    Substantial recovery (decrease) of electrical resistance during and after unloading is demonstrated for copper films on polyethylene terephthalate substrates subjected to a tensile strain with different peak values. Particularly, the films strained to 5% exhibit full resistance recovery after unloading despite clearly visible plastic deformation of the film. The recovery of electrical resistance in connection with the mechanical behavior of film/substrate couple is discussed with the help of in situ scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. - Highlights: • Tensile tests on 200 nm Cu films on PET substrate are performed. • Electrical resistance is recorded in-situ during loading and unloading. • Significant recovery (decrease) of resistance is observed during and after unloading. • Films strained to 5% demonstrate full resistance recovery. • Viscoelastic relaxation of PET is responsible for recovery of Cu film resistance

  20. Tensile and Creep-Rupture Evaluation of a New Heat of Haynes Alloy 25

    Shingledecker, J.P.; Glanton, D.B.; Martin, R.L.; Sparks, B.L.; Swindeman, R.W.

    2007-01-01

    From 1999 to 2006, a program was undertaken within the Materials Science and Technology Division, formerly the Metals and Ceramics Division, of Oak Ridge National Laboratory to characterize the tensile and creep-rupture properties of a newly produced heat of Haynes alloy 25 (L-605). Tensile properties from room temperature to 1100 C were evaluated for base material and welded joints aged up to 12,000 hours at 675 C. Creep and creep-rupture tests were conducted on base metal and cross-weldments from 650 to 950 C. Pressurized tubular creep tests were conducted to evaluate multiaxial creep-rupture response of the material. Over 800,000 hours of creep test data were generated during the test program with the longest rupture tests extending beyond 38,000 hours, and the longest creep-rate experiments exceeding 40,000 hours

  1. Ectopic Lignification in the Flax lignified bast fiber1 Mutant Stem Is Associated with Tissue-Specific Modifications in Gene Expression and Cell Wall Composition[C][W

    Chantreau, Maxime; Portelette, Antoine; Dauwe, Rebecca; Kiyoto, Shingo; Crônier, David; Morreel, Kris; Arribat, Sandrine; Neutelings, Godfrey; Chabi, Malika; Boerjan, Wout; Yoshinaga, Arata; Mesnard, François; Grec, Sebastien; Chabbert, Brigitte; Hawkins, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Histochemical screening of a flax ethyl methanesulfonate population led to the identification of 93 independent M2 mutant families showing ectopic lignification in the secondary cell wall of stem bast fibers. We named this core collection the Linum usitatissimum (flax) lbf mutants for lignified bast fibers and believe that this population represents a novel biological resource for investigating how bast fiber plants regulate lignin biosynthesis. As a proof of concept, we characterized the lbf1 mutant and showed that the lignin content increased by 350% in outer stem tissues containing bast fibers but was unchanged in inner stem tissues containing xylem. Chemical and NMR analyses indicated that bast fiber ectopic lignin was highly condensed and rich in G-units. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry profiling showed large modifications in the oligolignol pool of lbf1 inner- and outer-stem tissues that could be related to ectopic lignification. Immunological and chemical analyses revealed that lbf1 mutants also showed changes to other cell wall polymers. Whole-genome transcriptomics suggested that ectopic lignification of flax bast fibers could be caused by increased transcript accumulation of (1) the cinnamoyl-CoA reductase, cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase, and caffeic acid O-methyltransferase monolignol biosynthesis genes, (2) several lignin-associated peroxidase genes, and (3) genes coding for respiratory burst oxidase homolog NADPH-oxidases necessary to increase H2O2 supply. PMID:25381351

  2. Transcript profiling and gene characterization of three fatty acid desaturase genes in high, moderate, and low linolenic acid genotypes of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) and their role in linolenic acid accumulation.

    Banik, Mitali; Duguid, Scott; Cloutier, Sylvie

    2011-06-01

    Three genes encoding fatty acid desaturase 3 (fad3a, fad3b, and a novel fad3c) were cloned from four flax genotypes varying in linolenic acid content. Real-time PCR was used to quantify expression levels of the three fad3 genes during seed development. High amounts of both fad3a and fad3b transcripts were observed and reached their peak levels at 20 days after anthesis, except for fad3a from SP2047 where only low level expression was observed throughout seed development. Transcript accumulation of the novel fad3c gene was at similar background levels. The fatty acid composition was analysed for all genotypes and stages of development and compared with the fad3 gene expression patterns. α-Linolenic acid gradually accumulated during seed development, while linoleic acid was transient and decreased in M5791, UGG5-5, and AC McDuff. In contrast, the linolenic acid present in the early stages of development nearly completely disappeared in SP2047, while linoleic acid steadily accumulated. fad3a of the low linolenic acid line SP2047 encoded a truncated protein caused by a premature stop codon resulting from a single point mutation, and the low level of transcript accumulation in this genotype is likely due to nonsense-mediated mRNA decay caused by the premature termination of translation as a result of this early stop codon. Although substantial amounts of transcript accumulation occurred with fad3b of SP2047 genotype, cloning of the gene revealed a mutation in the first histidine box causing an amino acid change. Heterologous expression in yeast of the SP2047 and UGG5-5 fad3b genes showed that the mutation in the histidine box in SP2047 caused the enzyme inactivity. Taken together, these results showed that fad3a and fad3b are responsible for linolenic acid accumulation in flax seeds but did not support a major role for the novel fad3c. These observations were further supported by phenotypic and genotypic assessment of a doubled haploid population. Expression patterns

  3. Model for field-induced reorientation strain in magnetic shape memory alloy with tensile and compressive loads

    Zhu Yuping; Dui Guansuo

    2008-01-01

    A model based on the micromechanical and the thermodynamic theory is presented for field-induced martensite reorientation in magnetic shape memory alloy (MSMA) single crystals. The influence of variants morphology and the material property to constitutive behavior is considered. The nonlinear and hysteretic strain and magnetization response of MSMA are investigated for two main loading cases, namely the magnetic field-induced reorientation of variants under constant compressive stress and tensile stress. The predicted results have shown that increasing tensile loading reduces the required field for actuation, while increasing compressive loads result in the required magnetic field growing considerably. It is helpful to design the intelligent composite with MSMA fibers

  4. Meso-Scale Progressive Damage Behavior Characterization of Triaxial Braided Composites under Quasi-Static Tensile Load

    Ren, Yiru; Zhang, Songjun; Jiang, Hongyong; Xiang, Jinwu

    2018-04-01

    Based on continuum damage mechanics (CDM), a sophisticated 3D meso-scale finite element (FE) model is proposed to characterize the progressive damage behavior of 2D Triaxial Braided Composites (2DTBC) with 60° braiding angle under quasi-static tensile load. The modified Von Mises strength criterion and 3D Hashin failure criterion are used to predict the damage initiation of the pure matrix and fiber tows. A combining interface damage and friction constitutive model is applied to predict the interface damage behavior. Murakami-Ohno stiffness degradation scheme is employed to predict the damage evolution process of each constituent. Coupling with the ordinary and translational symmetry boundary conditions, the tensile elastic response including tensile strength and failure strain of 2DTBC are in good agreement with the available experiment data. The numerical results show that the main failure modes of the composites under axial tensile load are pure matrix cracking, fiber and matrix tension failure in bias fiber tows, matrix tension failure in axial fiber tows and interface debonding; the main failure modes of the composites subjected to transverse tensile load are free-edge effect, matrix tension failure in bias fiber tows and interface debonding.

  5. Impact of Flax Seed and Canola Oils Mixture Supplementation on The Physiological and Biochemical Changes Induced by Monosodium Glutamate in Rats

    Anwar, M.M.; Mohamed, N.E.

    2010-01-01

    One of the most important problems in the human health nutrition field is the use of food flavor. Monosodium glutamate is one of the main flavors used as an ingredient in various food products, however it produces physiological and biochemical changes. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the supplementation of flax seed and canola oils mixture against the physiological and biochemical changes induced by monosodium glutamate in rats. In addition to analyses the physical and chemical characteristics of flax seed and canola oil and fatty acids composition by using gas liquid chromatography. The results concerning that unsaturated fatty acids of flax seed oil were oleic (18:1) 22%, linoleic acid (18:2) 30 % and linolenic acid (18:3) 36%. Total unsaturated fatty acids percentage in flaxseed oil was 88% and total saturated fatty acids 12%. The unsaturated fatty acids of canola oil were oleic (18:1) 66%, linoleic acid (18:2) 18% and linolenic acid (18:3) 7%, total unsaturated fatty acids percentage in canola oil was 92% and total saturated fatty acids was 8%. On the other hand, treatment of rats with monosodium glutamate for ten consecutive days led to a decrease in RBCs, Hb, Hct % and increased platelet count with decrease in WBCs and undesirable changes in its differential count. There is also, high significant increase in testicular thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) which is accompanied with significant reduction in catalase (CAT) activity, reduced glutathione (GSH) content and serum testosterone level. These disturbances were associated with significant increase in the liver enzymes ALT,AST and ALP and increase in the level of total biluribin and glucose. Also, significant increase in urea, creatinine and uric acid were recorded. The supplementation with mixture of flax seed and canola oils mixture for one month after the injection of monosodium glutamate caused noticeable amelioration in the damage occurred as a result of this flavor. To

  6. Can Plant-Based Natural Flax Replace Basalt and E-Glass for Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Tubular Energy Absorbers? A Comparative Study on Quasi-Static Axial Crushing

    Libo Yan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Using plant-based natural fibers to substitute glass fibers as reinforcement of composite materials is of particular interest due to their economic, technical, and environmental significance. One potential application of plant-based natural fiber reinforced polymer (FRP composites is in automotive engineering as crushable energy absorbers. Current study experimentally investigated and compared the energy absorption efficiency of plant-based natural flax, mineral-based basalt, and glass FRP (GFRP composite tubular energy absorbers subjected to quasi-static axial crushing. The effects of number of flax fabric layer, the use of foam filler and the type of fiber materials on the crashworthiness characteristics, and energy absorption capacities were discussed. In addition, the failure mechanisms of the hollow and foam-filled flax, basalt, and GFRP tubes in quasi-static axial crushing were analyzed and compared. The test results showed that the energy absorption capabilities of both hollow and foam-filled energy absorbers made of flax were superior to the corresponding energy absorbers made of basalt and were close to energy absorbers made of glass. This study, therefore, indicated that flax fiber has the great potential to be suitable replacement of basalt and glass fibers for crushable energy absorber application.

  7. In vitro tensile strength of luting cements on metallic substrate.

    Orsi, Iara A; Varoli, Fernando K; Pieroni, Carlos H P; Ferreira, Marly C C G; Borie, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the tensile strength of crowns cemented on metallic substrate with four different types of luting agents. Twenty human maxillary molars with similar diameters were selected and prepared to receive metallic core castings (Cu-Al). After cementation and preparation the cores were measured and the area of crown's portion was calculated. The teeth were divided into four groups based on the luting agent used to cement the crowns: zinc phosphate cement; glass ionomer cement; resin cement Rely X; and resin cement Panavia F. The teeth with the crowns cemented were subjected to thermocycling and later to the tensile strength test using universal testing machine with a load cell of 200 kgf and a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. The load required to dislodge the crowns was recorded and converted to MPa/mm(2). Data were subjected to Kruskal-Wallis analysis with a significance level of 1%. Panavia F showed significantly higher retention in core casts (3.067 MPa/mm(2)), when compared with the other cements. Rely X showed a mean retention value of 1.877 MPa/mm(2) and the zinc phosphate cement with 1.155 MPa/mm(2). Glass ionomer cement (0.884 MPa/mm(2)) exhibited the lowest tensile strength value. Crowns cemented with Panavia F on cast metallic posts and cores presented higher tensile strength. The glass ionomer cement showed the lowest tensile strength among all the cements studied.

  8. Tensile strength of two soldered alloys (Minalux and Verabond2

    Mir Mohammad Rezaee S

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Recently. Minalux alloy, a base metal free from Be, has been presented on the market while no special soldering has been recommended for it. On the other hand, based on the manufacturer's claim, this alloy is similar to Verabond2. The aim of this study was to investigate the tensile strength of Minalux and Verabond2, soldered by Verasolder. Twelve standard dambble shape samples, with the length of 18 mm and the diameter of 3mm, were prepared from each alloy. Six samples of each alloy were divided into two pieces with carboradom disk. Soldering gap distance was 0.3mm, measured by a special jig and they were soldered by Verasolder alloy. Six other samples, of both Iranian and foreign unsoldered alloys were considered as control group. Then samples were examined under tensile force and their tensile strength was recorded. Two- way variance analysis showed that the tensile strength of Minalux alloy and Verabond2 were not statistically significant (Verasoler 686, Minalux 723, but after soldering, such difference became significant (Minalux 308, Verabond2 432. Verabond2 showed higher tensile strength after soldering.

  9. Tensile and shear methods for measuring strength of bilayer tablets.

    Chang, Shao-Yu; Li, Jian-Xin; Sun, Changquan Calvin

    2017-05-15

    Both shear and tensile measurement methods have been used to quantify interfacial bonding strength of bilayer tablets. The shear method is more convenient to perform, but reproducible strength data requires careful control of the placement of tablet and contact point for shear force application. Moreover, data obtained from the shear method depend on the orientation of the bilayer tablet. Although more time-consuming to perform, the tensile method yields data that are straightforward to interpret. Thus, the tensile method is preferred in fundamental bilayer tableting research to minimize ambiguity in data interpretation. Using both shear and tensile methods, we measured the mechanical strength of bilayer tablets made of several different layer combinations of lactose and microcrystalline cellulose. We observed a good correlation between strength obtained by the tensile method and carefully conducted shear method. This suggests that the shear method may be used for routine quality test of bilayer tablets during manufacturing because of its speed and convenience, provided a protocol for careful control of the placement of the tablet interface, tablet orientation, and blade is implemented. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Research on differences and correlation between tensile, compression and flexural moduli of cement stabilized macadam

    Yi Yang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to reveal the differences and conversion relations between the tensile, compressive and flexural moduli of cement stabilized macadam, in this paper, we develop a new test method for measuring three moduli simultaneously. By using the materials testing system, we test three moduli of the cement stabilized macadam under different loading rates, propose a flexural modulus calculation formula which considers the shearing effect, reveal the change rules of the tensile, compression and flexural moduli with the loading rate and establish the conversion relationships between the three moduli. The results indicate that: three moduli become larger with the increase of the loading rate, showing a power function pattern; with the shear effect considered, the flexural modulus is increased by 47% approximately over that in the current test method; the tensile and compression moduli of cement stabilized macadam are significantly different. Therefore, if only the compression modulus is used as the structural design parameter of asphalt pavement, there will be a great deviation in the analysis of the load response. In order to achieve scientific design and calculation, the appropriate design parameters should be chosen based on the actual stress state at each point inside the pavement structure.

  11. Enhancement of hydrophobicity and tensile strength of muga silk fiber by radiofrequency Ar plasma discharge

    Gogoi, D.; Choudhury, A.J.; Chutia, J.; Pal, A.R.; Dass, N.N.; Devi, D.; Patil, D.S.

    2011-01-01

    The hydrophobicity and tensile strength of muga silk fiber are investigated using radiofrequency (RF) Ar plasma treatment at various RF powers (10-30 W) and treatment times (5-20 min). The Ar plasma is characterized using self-compensated Langmuir and emissive probe. The ion energy is observed to play an important role in determining the tensile strength and hydrophobicity of the plasma treated fibers. The chemical compositions of the fibers are observed to be affected by the increase in RF power rather than treatment time. XPS study reveals that the ions that are impinging on the substrates are mainly responsible for the cleavage of peptide bond and side chain of amino acid groups at the surface of the fibers. The observed properties (tensile strength and hydrophobicity) of the treated fibers are found to be dependent on their variation in atomic concentration and functional composition at the surfaces. All the treated muga fibers exhibit almost similar thermal behavior as compared to the virgin one. At RF power of 10 W and treatment time range of 5-20 min, the treated fibers exhibit properties similar to that of the virgin one. Higher RF power (30 W) and the increase in treatment time deteriorate the properties of the fibers due to incorporation of more surface roughness caused by sufficiently high energetic ion bombardment. The properties of the plasma treated fibers are attempted to correlate with the XPS analysis and their surface morphologies.

  12. Strain rate dependent tensile behavior of advanced high strength steels: Experiment and constitutive modeling

    Kim, Ji-Hoon; Kim, Daeyong; Han, Heung Nam; Barlat, F.; Lee, Myoung-Gyu

    2013-01-01

    High strain rate tensile tests were conducted for three advanced high strength steels: DP780, DP980 and TRIP780. A high strain rate tensile test machine was used for applying the strain rate ranging from 0.1/s to 500/s. Details of the measured stress–strain responses were comparatively analyzed for the DP780 and TRIP780 steels which show similar microstructural feature and ultimate tensile strength, but different strengthening mechanisms. The experimental observations included: usual strain rate dependent plastic flow stress behavior in terms of the yield stress (YS), the ultimate tensile strength (UTS), the uniform elongation (UE) and the total elongation (TE) which were observed for the three materials. But, higher strain hardening rate at early plastic strain under quasi-static condition than that of some increased strain rates was featured for TRIP780 steel, which might result from more active transformation during deformation with lower velocity. The uniform elongation that explains the onset of instability and the total elongation were larger in case of TRIP steel than the DP steel for the whole strain rate range, but interestingly the fracture strain measured by the reduction of area (RA) method showed that the TRIP steel has lower values than DP steel. The fractographs using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) at the fractured surfaces were analyzed to relate measured fracture strain and the microstructural difference of the two materials during the process of fracture under various strain rates. Finally, constitutive modeling for the plastic flow stresses under various strain rates was provided in this study. The proposed constitutive law could represent both Hollomon-like and Voce-like hardening laws and the ratio between the two hardening types was efficiently controlled as a function of strain rate. The new strength model was validated successfully under various strain rates for several grades of steels such as mild steels, DP780, TRIP780, DP980 steels.

  13. Tensile strength of glulam laminations of Nordic spruce

    Hoffmeyer, Preben; Bräuner, Lise; Boström, Lars

    1999-01-01

    Design of glulam according to the European timber code Eurocode 5 is based on the standard document prEN1194 , according to which glulam beam strength is to be established either by full scale testing or by calculation. The calculation must be based on a knowledge of lamination tensile strength....... This knowledge may be obtained either by adopting a general rule that the characteristic tensile strength is sixty percent of the characteristic bending strength, or by performing tensile tests on an adequate number of laminations representative of the whole population. The present paper presents...... an investigation aimed at establishing such an adequate experimental background for the assignment of strength classes for glulam made of visually strength graded laminations from Nordic sawmills. The investigation includes more than 1800 boards (laminations) of Norway spruce (Picea abies) sampled from eight...

  14. Ab initio elastic properties and tensile strength of crystalline hydroxyapatite.

    Ching, W Y; Rulis, Paul; Misra, A

    2009-10-01

    We report elastic constant calculation and a "theoretical" tensile experiment on stoichiometric hydroxyapatite (HAP) crystal using an ab initio technique. These results compare favorably with a variety of measured data. Theoretical tensile experiments are performed on the orthorhombic cell of HAP for both uniaxial and biaxial loading. The results show considerable anisotropy in the stress-strain behavior. It is shown that the failure behavior of the perfect HAP crystal is brittle for tension along the z-axis with a maximum stress of 9.6 GPa at 10% strain. Biaxial failure envelopes from six "theoretical" loading tests show a highly anisotropic pattern. Structural analysis of the crystal under various stages of tensile strain reveals that the deformation behavior manifests itself mainly in the rotation of the PO(4) tetrahedron with concomitant movements of both the columnar and axial Ca ions. These results are discussed in the context of mechanical properties of bioceramic composites relevant to mineralized tissues.

  15. Handbook for tensile properties of austenitic stainless steel

    Kim, D. W.; Ryu, W. S.; Jang, J. S.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, W. G.; Chung, M. K.; Han, C. H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2000-03-01

    Database system of nuclear materials has not been developed and the physical and mechanical properties of materials used in nuclear power plant are not summarized systematically in Korea. Although Korea designs nuclear power plant, many materials used in nuclear power plant are imported because we do not have database system of nuclear material yet and it was hard to select a proper material for the structural materials of nuclear power plant. To develop database system of nuclear materials, data of mechanical, corrosion, irradiation properties are needed. Of theses properties, tensile properties are tested and summarized in this report. Tensile properties of stainless steel used in nuclear reactor internal were investigated. Data between Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute and foreign laboratory were compared to determine the precision of the result. To develope database system, materials, chemical composition, heat treatment, manufacturing process, and grain size were classified. Tensile properties were tested and summarized to use input data of database system. 9 figs., 9 tabs. (Author)

  16. Ratcheting Strain and Microstructure Evolution of AZ31B Magnesium Alloy under a Tensile-Tensile Cyclic Loading.

    Yan, Zhifeng; Wang, Denghui; Wang, Wenxian; Zhou, Jun; He, Xiuli; Dong, Peng; Zhang, Hongxia; Sun, Liyong

    2018-03-28

    In this paper, studies were conducted to investigate the deformation behavior and microstructure change in a hot-rolled AZ31B magnesium alloy during a tensile-tensile cyclic loading. The relationship between ratcheting effect and microstructure change was discussed. The ratcheting effect in the material during current tensile-tensile fatigue loading exceeds the material's fatigue limit and the development of ratcheting strain in the material experienced three stages: initial sharp increase stage (Stage I); steady stage (Stage II); and final abrupt increase stage (Stage III). Microstructure changes in Stage I and Stage II are mainly caused by activation of basal slip system. The Extra Geometrically Necessary Dislocations (GNDs) were also calculated to discuss the relationship between the dislocation caused by the basal slip system and the ratcheting strain during the cyclic loading. In Stage III, both the basal slip and the {11-20} twins are found active during the crack propagation. The fatigue crack initiation in the AZ31B magnesium alloy is found due to the basal slip and the {11-20} tensile twins.

  17. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION ON TENSILE STRENGTH OF JACQUARD KNITTED FABRICS

    BRAD Raluca

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available An objective approach to select the best fabric for technical and home textiles consists in mechanical properties evaluation. The goal of this study is to analyze the behavior of knitted fabrics undergoing stretch stress. In this respect, three types of 2 colors Rib structure (backstripes jacquard, twillback jacquard and double-layered 3x3 rib fabric have been presented and tested for tensile strength and elongation on three directions. First, the elasticity and the behavior of knitted Rib fabrics were described The fabrics were knitted using 100% PAN yarns with Nm 1/15x2 on a E5 CMS 330 Stoll V-bed knitting machine, and have been tested using INSTROM 5587 Tensile Testing Machine in respect of standards conditions. After a relaxation period, 15 specimens were prepared, being disposed at 0°, 45 and 90 angles to the wale direction on the flat knitted panel. The tensile strength and the elongation values were recorded and mean values were computed. After strength and tensile elongation testing for 3 types of rib based knitted fabrics, one can see that the double layer knit presents the best mechanical behavior, followed by birds-eyebacking 2 colors Jacquard and then back striped Jacquard. For tensile stress in bias direction, the twillbacking Jacquard has a good breakage resistance value due to the higher number of rib sinker loops in structure that are positioned on the same direction with the tensile force. The twillbacking Jacquard structure could be considered as an alternative for the base material for decorative and home textile products.

  18. Indigenous Design for Automatic Testing of Tensile Strength Using Graphical User Interface

    Ali Rafay; Junejo Faraz; Imtiaz Rafey; Shamsi Usama Sultan

    2016-01-01

    Tensile Testing is a fundamental material test to measure the tenacity and tensile strength. Tensile strength means ability to take tensile stress. This Universal Testing Machine is designed using Dual Cylinder Technique in order to comply with the maximun load (tensile force) with the reduction of minimum physical effort and minimized losses.It is to provide material testing opportunity to the students of different institutions, locally and globally, at lowest price; so that they can have a ...

  19. Electronic, mechanical and dielectric properties of silicane under tensile strain

    Jamdagni, Pooja; Sharma, Munish; Ahluwalia, P. K.; Kumar, Ashok; Thakur, Anil

    2015-01-01

    The electronic, mechanical and dielectric properties of fully hydrogenated silicene i.e. silicane in stable configuration are studied by means of density functional theory based calculations. The band gap of silicane monolayer can be flexibly reduced to zero when subjected to bi-axial tensile strain, leading to semi-conducting to metallic transition, whereas the static dielectric constant for in-plane polarization increases monotonically with increasing strain. Also the EEL function show the red shift in resonance peak with tensile strain. Our results offer useful insight for the application of silicane monolayer in nano-optical and electronics devices

  20. EFFECTS OF EDGE COVERING ON TENSILE STRENGTH OF MDF

    Yalçın ÖRS

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Dowels, 6, 8 and 10 mm ? diameters were bonded with PVAc adhesive on Medium Density Fiberboard (MDF. Edges were covered with 5, 8 and 12 mm beech wood materials, drilled 25 mm depth. Tensile strength measurments were made on the samples. The highest tensile strength value was given as 6 mm ? dowel and MDF covered with 8 mm thickness beech wood material (2.294 N/mm2, the lowest value was obtained with 10 mm ? dowel and with unprocessed MDF (1.314 N/mm2.

  1. Development of Tensile Softening Model for Plain Concrete

    Lee, S.K.; Song, Y.C. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    2002-07-01

    Large-scale direct tensile softenng tests using plate concrete specimens(4000, 5000psi) with notch were performed under uniaxial stress. There were presented the basic physical properties and the complete load-CMOD(Crack Mouth Opening Displacement) curves for them And them the fracture energy was evaluated using the complete load-CMOD curves respectively, and there was presents optimal tensile softening model which is modified by a little revision of an existing one. Therefore, here provided the real verification data through the tests for developing other nonlinear concrete finite element models. (author). 32 refs., 38 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Tensile tests of 2500-kip prestressing tendons for the PCRV

    Nicolayeff, V.

    1978-05-01

    A 2500-kip (11-MN) capacity prestressing tendon consisting of sixty 0.5-in. (12.7-mm) strands was designed and tested for General Atomic Company by VSL Corporation of Los Gatos, California. Results of the static tensile test described in this report, and of dynamic tensile tests conducted by VSL in 1968 and 1969, indicate that the tendon system satisfies the requirements of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section III, Division 2, and so can be used for prestressing concrete reactor vessels

  3. Analysis/design of tensile property database system

    Park, S. J.; Kim, D. H.; Jeon, I.; Lyu, W. S.

    2001-01-01

    The data base construction using the data produced from tensile experiment can increase the application of test results. Also, we can get the basic data ease from database when we prepare the new experiment and can produce high quality result by compare the previous data. The development part must be analysis and design more specific to construct the database and after that, we can offer the best quality to customers various requirements. In this thesis, the analysis and design was performed to develop the database for tensile extension property

  4. Effects of CO/sub 2/ and membranes on sporulation in axenic cultures of flax rust. [Melampsora lini

    Boasson, R.; Shaw, M.

    1985-01-01

    Uredospore production by axenically grown flax rust (Melampsora lini (Ehrenb.) Lev.) was measured as carotenoids (extinction units at 458 nm) per milligram protein. Sporulation was not affected by raising (flushing with 1-5% (v/v) CO/sub 2/ in air) or lowering (KOH well in culture flasks) the level of CO/sub 2/ in the air space above the cultures. Significant (two- to four-fold) increases in sporulation occurred beneath impermeable membranes of parafilm or Saran wrap placed on the surface of young (3 weeks from seeding) mycelial mats for 2 weeks. The stimulatory effect was confined strictly to those areas of the mycelial mats in contact with the membranes. Both Parafilm and Saran wrap were easily and cleanly peeled away from the mycelial mats. Permeable Unipore and HVHP membranes, to which the fungus adhered strongly, did not stimulate sporulation. The fungus did not adhere to Unipore or HVHP membranes treated with silicone or paraffin oil; membranes thus treated stimulated sporulation. The stimulatory effect of membranes on sporulation appears to depend on the nature of the contact between the membrane surface and the mycelium and to be unrelated to the effect of the membranes on the diffusion of gases or other volatile substances. 11 references, 2 figures, 4 tables.

  5. Development and validation of an efficient ultrasound assisted extraction of phenolic compounds from flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) seeds.

    Corbin, Cyrielle; Fidel, Thibaud; Leclerc, Emilie A; Barakzoy, Esmatullah; Sagot, Nadine; Falguiéres, Annie; Renouard, Sullivan; Blondeau, Jean-Philippe; Ferroud, Clotilde; Doussot, Joël; Lainé, Eric; Hano, Christophe

    2015-09-01

    Flaxseed accumulates in its seedcoat a macromolecular complex composed of lignan (secoisolariciresinol diglucoside, SDG), flavonol (herbacetin diglucoside, HDG) and hydroxycinnamic acids (p-couramic, caffeic and ferulic acid glucosides). Their antioxidant and/or cancer chemopreventive properties support their interest in human health and therefore, the demand for their extraction. In the present study, ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) of flaxseed phenolic compounds was investigated. Scanning Electron Microscopy imaging and histochemical analysis revealed the deep alteration of the seedcoat ultrastructure and the release of the mucilage following ultrasound treatment. Therefore, this method was found to be very efficient for the reduction of mucilage entrapment of flaxseed phenolics. The optimal conditions for UAE phenolic compounds extraction from flaxseeds were found to be: water as solvent supplemented with 0.2N of sodium hydroxide for alkaline hydrolysis of the SDG-HMG complex, an extraction time of 60 min at a temperature of 25°C and an ultrasound frequency of 30 kHz. Under these optimized and validated conditions, highest yields of SDG, HDG and hydroxycinnamic acid glucosides were detected in comparison to other published methods. Therefore, the procedure presented herein is a valuable method for efficient extraction and quantification of the main flaxseed phenolics. Moreover, this UAE is of particular interest within the context of green chemistry in terms of reducing energy consumption and valuation of flaxseed cakes as by-products resulting from the production of flax oil. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Determination of phenolic acids in seeds of black cumin, flax, pomegranate and pumpkin and their by-products

    Krimer-Malešević Vera M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ten phenolic acids, contained in the seeds of black cumin (Nigella sativa L., flax (Linum usitatissimum L., pomegranate (Punica granatum L. and pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L. and their oil industry by-products, separated into the free, esterified, and insoluble-bound forms, were quantitatively analysed by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detector. The chromatographic data were interpreted using Principal Component Analysis (PCA. The PCA model with three principal components (PC1-PC2-PC3 fitted well with 12 examined plant samples, allowing their division into groups according to their origin. The total phenolic variables could be represented by two PCs and for the pattern recognition of the analysed samples, 13 phenolic variables are sufficient, including: free, esterified and insoluble-bound forms of gallic and syringic acids, free vanillic, insoluble bound p-coumaric, esterified p-hydroxybenzaldehide, and free and insoluble-bound forms of p-hydroxybenzoic and trans-synapic acids. This might have potential application in simplified screening of phenolic compounds in seeds and their oil industry by-products or in food component analysis or authenticity detection in such plant materials.[Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 46010

  7. Effect of Cultivars and Planting Date on Yield, Oil Content, and Fatty Acid Profile of Flax Varieties (Linum usitatissimum L.

    Maricel Andrea Gallardo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the effect of cultivars and planting date on flax fatty acid profile, seed yield, and oil content, an assay with seven cultivars (Baikal, Prointa Lucero, Prointa Ceibal, Panambí INTA, Curundú INTA, Carapé INTA, and Tape INTA was carried out at Parana Agricultural Experimental Station, Argentina. Significant differences among cultivars were found for content of palmitic (5–7 g/100 g, stearic (5–8 g/100 g, linoleic (13–19 g/100 g, saturated (11–15 g/100 g, and unsaturated acids (92–96 g/100 g within the seven cultivars. The best seed yields were observed in Prointa Lucero and Carapé INTA varieties (2091.50 kg·ha−1 and 2183.34 kg·ha−1, respectively in the first planting date and in Carapé INTA and Prointa Lucero (1667 kg·ha−1 and 1886 kg·ha−1, respectively in the second planting date. A delayed planting date had a negative effect on seed yield (1950 kg·ha−1 and 1516 kg·ha−1 and oil content (845 kg·ha−1 and 644 kg·ha−1 but did not affect oil composition.

  8. Shear instabilities in perfect bcc crystals during simulated tensile tests

    Černý, M.; Šesták, P.; Pokluda, J.; Šob, Mojmír

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 87, č. 1 (2013), 014117/1-014117/4 ISSN 1098-0121 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/12/0311 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : instabilities * tensile test * bcc metals * ab initio calculations Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.664, year: 2013

  9. Tensile Strength of Finger Joints at Elevated Temperatures

    Nielsen, Peter C.; Olesen, Frits Bolonius

    A series of test s aimed a t establishing the effect of temperature upon the tensile strength parallel-to-grain of finger jointed laminae for glulam has been conducted in the Fire Research Laboratory at Aalborg University Centre. The objective of this report is to present the background...

  10. Evaluation of microtensile and tensile bond strength tests ...

    Objectives: The aim of the present study was to compare two different bond strength test methods (tensile and microtensile) in investing the influence of erbium, chromium: yttrium‑scandium‑gallium‑garnet (Er, Cr: YSGG) laser pulse frequency on resin‑enamel bonding. Materials and Methods: One‑hundred and twenty‑five ...

  11. Micro-tensile strength of a welded turbine disc superalloy

    Oluwasegun, K.M.; Cooper, C.; Chiu, Y.L.; Jones, I.P. [School of Metallurgy and Materials, University of Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Li, H.Y., E-mail: h.y.li.1@bham.ac.uk [School of Metallurgy and Materials, University of Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Baxter, G. [Rolls-Royce plc., P.O. Box 31, Derby DE24 8BJ (United Kingdom)

    2014-02-24

    A micro-tensile testing system coupled with focussed ion beam (FIB) machining was used to characterise the micro-mechanical properties of the weld from a turbine disc alloy. The strength variations between the weld and the base alloy are rationalised via the microstructure obtained.

  12. Swelling Characteristics and Tensile Properties of Natural Fiber ...

    The swelling behavior and tensile strength of natural fiber-reinforced plastic in premium motor spirit (PMS), dual purpose kerosene (DPK) and sea water have been studied. Composite formed by reinforcing polyester resin with Okam fibers was immersed in the selected solvents for 16 weeks (4 months). Swelling ...

  13. Surface, structural and tensile properties of proton beam irradiated zirconium

    Rafique, Mohsin; Chae, San; Kim, Yong-Soo, E-mail: yongskim@hanyang.ac.kr

    2016-02-01

    This paper reports the surface, structural and tensile properties of proton beam irradiated pure zirconium (99.8%). The Zr samples were irradiated by 3.5 MeV protons using MC-50 cyclotron accelerator at different doses ranging from 1 × 10{sup 13} to 1 × 10{sup 16} protons/cm{sup 2}. Both un-irradiated and irradiated samples were characterized using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM), X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Universal Testing Machine (UTM). The average surface roughness of the specimens was determined by using Nanotech WSxM 5.0 develop 7.0 software. The FESEM results revealed the formation of bubbles, cracks and black spots on the samples’ surface at different doses whereas the XRD results indicated the presence of residual stresses in the irradiated specimens. Williamson–Hall analysis of the diffraction peaks was carried out to investigate changes in crystallite size and lattice strain in the irradiated specimens. The tensile properties such as the yield stress, ultimate tensile stress and percentage elongation exhibited a decreasing trend after irradiation in general, however, an inconsistent behavior was observed in their dependence on proton dose. The changes in tensile properties of Zr were associated with the production of radiation-induced defects including bubbles, cracks, precipitates and simultaneous recovery by the thermal energy generated with the increase of irradiation dose.

  14. Porosity Defect Remodeling and Tensile Analysis of Cast Steel

    Linfeng Sun

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Tensile properties on ASTM A216 WCB cast steel with centerline porosity defect were studied with radiographic mapping and finite element remodeling technique. Non-linear elastic and plastic behaviors dependent on porosity were mathematically described by relevant equation sets. According to the ASTM E8 tensile test standard, matrix and defect specimens were machined into two categories by two types of height. After applying radiographic inspection, defect morphologies were mapped to the mid-sections of the finite element models and the porosity fraction fields had been generated with interpolation method. ABAQUS input parameters were confirmed by trial simulations to the matrix specimen and comparison with experimental outcomes. Fine agreements of the result curves between simulations and experiments could be observed, and predicted positions of the tensile fracture were found to be in accordance with the tests. Chord modulus was used to obtain the equivalent elastic stiffness because of the non-linear features. The results showed that elongation was the most influenced term to the defect cast steel, compared with elastic stiffness and yield stress. Additional visual explanations on the tensile fracture caused by void propagation were also given by the result contours at different mechanical stages, including distributions of Mises stress and plastic strain.

  15. Surface, structural and tensile properties of proton beam irradiated zirconium

    Rafique, Mohsin; Chae, San; Kim, Yong-Soo

    2016-02-01

    This paper reports the surface, structural and tensile properties of proton beam irradiated pure zirconium (99.8%). The Zr samples were irradiated by 3.5 MeV protons using MC-50 cyclotron accelerator at different doses ranging from 1 × 1013 to 1 × 1016 protons/cm2. Both un-irradiated and irradiated samples were characterized using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM), X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Universal Testing Machine (UTM). The average surface roughness of the specimens was determined by using Nanotech WSxM 5.0 develop 7.0 software. The FESEM results revealed the formation of bubbles, cracks and black spots on the samples' surface at different doses whereas the XRD results indicated the presence of residual stresses in the irradiated specimens. Williamson-Hall analysis of the diffraction peaks was carried out to investigate changes in crystallite size and lattice strain in the irradiated specimens. The tensile properties such as the yield stress, ultimate tensile stress and percentage elongation exhibited a decreasing trend after irradiation in general, however, an inconsistent behavior was observed in their dependence on proton dose. The changes in tensile properties of Zr were associated with the production of radiation-induced defects including bubbles, cracks, precipitates and simultaneous recovery by the thermal energy generated with the increase of irradiation dose.

  16. Tensile Strength of GFRP Reinforcing Bars with Hollow Section

    Young-Jun You

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fiber reinforced polymer (FRP has been proposed to replace steel as a reinforcing bar (rebar due to its high tensile strength and noncorrosive material properties. One obstacle in using FRP rebars is high price. Generally FRP is more expensive than conventional steel rebar. There are mainly two ways to reduce the cost. For example, one is making the price of each composition cost of FRP rebar (e.g., fibers, resin, etc. lower than steel rebar. Another is making an optimized design for cross section and reducing the material cost. The former approach is not easy because the steel price is very low in comparison with component materials of FRP. For the latter approach, the cost could be cut down by reducing the material cost. Therefore, an idea of making hollow section over the cross section of FRP rebar was proposed in this study by optimizing the cross section design with acceptable tensile performance in comparison with steel rebar. In this study, glass reinforced polymer (GFRP rebars with hollow section and 19 mm of outer diameter were manufactured and tested to evaluate the tensile performance in accordance with the hollowness ratio. From the test results, it was observed that the tensile strength decreased almost linearly with increase of hollowness ratio and the elastic modulus decreased nonlinearly.

  17. Measurement of the tensile forces during bone lengthening.

    Ohnishi, Isao; Kurokawa, Takahide; Sato, Wakyo; Nakamura, Kozo

    2005-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of lengthening frequency on mechanical environment in limb lengthening. Tensile forces were continuously monitored using a load sensor attached to a unilateral external fixator. Twenty patients were monitored. Ten patients were with acquired femoral shortening, and five of them underwent quasi-continuous lengthening of 1440 steps per day, and the other five received step lengthening twice a day. The other 10 patients were with achondropalsia. Five of them underwent the same quasi-continuous lengthening, and the other five received the same step lengthening. The circadian change and the daily course of the tensile forces were assessed and compared between quasi-continuous lengthening and step lengthening. As for circadian change, an acute increase in the force took place simultaneously with each step of lengthening in the step-lengthening group, but very little change of the baseline force level was seen during quasi-continuous lengthening. As for daily course of the tensile force, it increased almost linearly in both lengthening frequency groups in the initial stage of lengthening. No significant difference of the average force increment rate in this phase was recognized between the quasi-continuous and step lengthening groups irrespective of the etiologies. The lengthening frequency greatly affected the circadian change of the tensile force, but did not affect the increment rate of the force in the linear phase.

  18. Tensile testing grips are easily assembled under liquid nitrogen

    Skalka, R. J.; Vandergrift, E. F.

    1967-01-01

    Split-screw grips for tensile testing provide uniform loading on the specimen shoulders. Holes in the heads enable the screws and specimen to be threaded as an assembly into a grip body, closely controlled guides and seats afford positive seating, and precision machining of mating surfaces minimizes misalignment effects.

  19. Evaluation of microtensile and tensile bond strength tests ...

    2015-11-03

    Nov 3, 2015 ... Bond strength tests and Er,Cr:YSGG laser frequency. 586 ... power, 90% air pressure, 75% water pressure, 45 s irradiation ..... geometry on the measurement of the tensile bond strength to dentin. J Dent ... Bur‑cut enamel and.

  20. Strain distribution during tensile deformation of nanostructured aluminum samples

    Kidmose, Jacob; Lu, L.; Winther, Grethe

    2012-01-01

    To optimize the mechanical properties, especially formability, post-process deformation by cold rolling in the range 5–50 % reduction was applied to aluminum sheets produced by accumulative roll bonding to an equivalent strain of 4.8. During tensile testing high resolution maps of the strain...

  1. Statistical behavior of the tensile property of heated cotton fiber

    The temperature dependence of the tensile property of single cotton fiber was studied in the range of 160-300°C using Favimat test, and its statistical behavior was interpreted in terms of structural changes. The tenacity of control cotton fiber was well described by the single Weibull distribution,...

  2. Improvement in tensile properties of PVC–montmorillonite ...

    mechanical properties of PVC–montmorillonite materials are also currently of huge ... Its hard form can withstand a tensile stress in the order of 46–52 MPa before .... 2θ at 25 mA and 40 kV using Cu-Kα radiation. X-ray diffraction patterns of the ...

  3. Void nucleation in spheroidized steels during tensile deformation

    Fisher, J.R. Jr.

    1980-04-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine the effects of various mechanical and material parameters on void formation at cementite particles in axisymmetric tensile specimens of spheroidized plain carbon steels. Desired microstructures for each of three steel types were obtained. Observations of void morphology with respect to various microstructural features were made using optical and scanning electron microscopy

  4. Tensile and creep data on type 316 stainless steel

    Sikka, V. K.; Booker, B. L.P.; Booker, M. K.; McEnerney, J. W.

    1980-01-01

    This report summarizes tensile and creep data on 13 heats of type 316 stainless steel. It includes ten different product forms (three plates, four pipes, and three bars) of the reference heat tested at ORNL. Tensile data are presented in tabular form and analyzed as a function of temperature by the heat centering method. This method yielded a measure of variations within a single heat as well as among different heats. The upper and lower scatter bands developed by this method were wider at the lower temperatures than at the high temperatures (for strength properties), a trend reflected by the experimental data. The creep data on both unaged and aged specimens are presented in tabular form along with creep curves for each test. The rupture time data are compared with the ASME Code Case minimum curve at each test temperature in the range from 538 to 704{sup 0}C. The experimental rupture time data are also compared with the values predicted by using the rupture model based on elevated-temperature ultimate tensile strength. A creep ductility trend curve was developed on the basis of the reference heat data and those published in the literature on nitrogen effects. To characterize the data fully, information was also supplied on vendor, product form, fabrication method, material condition (mill-annealed vs laboratory annealed and aged), grain size, and chemical composition for various heats. Test procedures used for tensile and creep results are also discussed.

  5. Tensile and fatigue behavior of polymer composites reinforced with superelastic SMA strands

    Daghash, Sherif M.; Ozbulut, Osman E.

    2018-06-01

    This study explores the use of superelastic shape memory alloy (SMA) strands, which consist of seven individual small-diameter wires, in an epoxy matrix and characterizes the tensile and fatigue responses of the developed SMA/epoxy composites. Using a vacuum assisted hand lay-up technique, twelve SMA fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) specimens were fabricated. The developed SMA-FRP composites had a fiber volume ratio of 50%. Tensile response of SMA-FRP specimens were characterized under both monotonic loading and increasing amplitude loading and unloading cycles. The degradation in superelastic properties of the developed SMA-FRP composites during fatigue loading at different strain amplitudes was investigated. The effect of loading rate on the fatigue response of SMA-FRP composites was also explored. In addition, fractured specimens were examined using the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) technique to study the failure mechanisms of the tested specimens. A good interfacial bonding between the SMA strands and epoxy matrix was observed. The developed SMA-FRP composites exhibited good superelastic behavior at different strain amplitudes up to at least 800 cycle after which significant degradation occurred.

  6. Transport behaviors of anionic azo dyes at interface between surfactant-modified flax shives and aqueous solution: Synchrotron infrared and adsorption studies

    Wang, Wenxia [MOE Key Laboratory of Resources and Environmental Systems Optimization, Institute for Energy, Environment and Sustainability Research, UR-NCEPU, North China Electric Power University, Beijing, 102206 (China); Huang, Guohe, E-mail: huang@iseis.org [MOE Key Laboratory of Resources and Environmental Systems Optimization, Institute for Energy, Environment and Sustainability Research, UR-NCEPU, North China Electric Power University, Beijing, 102206 (China); An, Chunjiang; Xin, Xiaying [Institute for Energy, Environment and Sustainable Communities, University of Regina, Regina, S4S 0A2 (Canada); Zhang, Yan [MOE Key Laboratory of Resources and Environmental Systems Optimization, Institute for Energy, Environment and Sustainability Research, UR-NCEPU, North China Electric Power University, Beijing, 102206 (China); Liu, Xia [Canadian Light Source, Saskatoon, S7N 2V3 (Canada)

    2017-05-31

    Highlights: • Surfactant modified flax shives for removing anionic azo dyes. • The equilibrium and kinetic studies for the adsorption of anionic azo dyes. • The migration patterns of dye pollutants at flax shive-water interface. • New insights from synchrotron infrared-assisted characterization. • Potential as biomass adsorbent for the removal of dyes from wastewater. - Abstract: From the viewpoint of sustainability, biomass adsorbent has a high potential in pollution control and there is an emerging interest to investigate the behaviors of pollutants at the interface between biomass adsorbent and solution. This study investigated the performance of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide surfactant-modified flax shives (MFS) for removal of anionic azo dyes from aqueous solution. The equilibrium and kinetic analysis for the adsorption of Acid Orange 7 (AO-7), Acid Red 18 (AR-18) and Acid Black 1 (AB-1) on MFS were conducted. The surface of MFS was characterized by synchrotron infrared and SEM analysis. The absorbed amount of three anionic azo dyes varied with the change of adsorbent dosage, pH and ionic strength. The adsorption isotherm data well fit to the Langmuir model. The adsorption process followed the pseudo-second-order kinetics and the liquid film diffusion models. Thermodynamic studies indicated that the adsorption of three anionic azo dyes was spontaneous. The adsorption of AR-18 and AB-1 onto MFS was endothermic while the adsorption of AO-7 was exothermic. The results can help better understand the behaviors of organic pollutants at biomass adsorbent-water interface. They also present the potential of using MFS as a suitable adsorbent for the removal of anionic azo dyes from wastewater.

  7. Flax fibers as a raw material: How to bleach efficiently a non-woody plant to obtain high-quality pulp

    Fillat, Ursula; Pepio, Montserrat; Vidal, Teresa; Roncero, M. Blanca

    2010-01-01

    Fiber crops constitute a good alternative to wood fiber for manufacturing pulp and paper. In fact, fiber plants like flax surpass wood fiber in some technical respects and also in the environmental benignity of their processing. In this work, flax fiber was subjected to environmentally friendly bleaching sequences in order to obtain a high-quality pulp. The totally chlorine-free sequences (TCF) used for this purpose (LE and LRE) included an enzyme treatment with laccase in the presence of HBT as mediator (L stage), an alkaline extraction (E stage) and a reductive treatment with NaBH 4 (R stage). The operating conditions for the L stage (laccase and HBT doses, reaction time and oxygen pressure) were optimised by using a sequential statistical plan to assess their influence on pulp properties after the E stage. Mathematical models accurately predicting brightness and kappa number in terms of the previous four variables were developed based on which the most influential factors were the laccase and HBT rates, and treatment time. By contrast, oxygen pressures of 0.2-0.6 MPa in the reactor had no effect on brightness or kappa number. The flax pulp obtained contained some oxidized cellulose that was partially degraded in the alkaline extraction step and reduced viscosity as a result. The viscosity loss associated with the presence of oxidized cellulose in the control and enzyme-treated pulp samples was efficiently recovered by using a reductive stage with sodium borohydride. Effluent was also analysed in order to assess the environmental impact of the process.

  8. Chitinase-like (CTL) and cellulose synthase (CESA) gene expression in gelatinous-type cellulosic walls of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) bast fibers.

    Mokshina, Natalia; Gorshkova, Tatyana; Deyholos, Michael K

    2014-01-01

    Plant chitinases (EC 3.2.1.14) and chitinase-like (CTL) proteins have diverse functions including cell wall biosynthesis and disease resistance. We analyzed the expression of 34 chitinase and chitinase-like genes of flax (collectively referred to as LusCTLs), belonging to glycoside hydrolase family 19 (GH19). Analysis of the transcript expression patterns of LusCTLs in the stem and other tissues identified three transcripts (LusCTL19, LusCTL20, LusCTL21) that were highly enriched in developing bast fibers, which form cellulose-rich gelatinous-type cell walls. The same three genes had low relative expression in tissues with primary cell walls and in xylem, which forms a xylan type of secondary cell wall. Phylogenetic analysis of the LusCTLs identified a flax-specific sub-group that was not represented in any of other genomes queried. To provide further context for the gene expression analysis, we also conducted phylogenetic and expression analysis of the cellulose synthase (CESA) family genes of flax, and found that expression of secondary wall-type LusCESAs (LusCESA4, LusCESA7 and LusCESA8) was correlated with the expression of two LusCTLs (LusCTL1, LusCTL2) that were the most highly enriched in xylem. The expression of LusCTL19, LusCTL20, and LusCTL21 was not correlated with that of any CESA subgroup. These results defined a distinct type of CTLs that may have novel functions specific to the development of the gelatinous (G-type) cellulosic walls.

  9. Transport behaviors of anionic azo dyes at interface between surfactant-modified flax shives and aqueous solution: Synchrotron infrared and adsorption studies

    Wang, Wenxia; Huang, Guohe; An, Chunjiang; Xin, Xiaying; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Xia

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Surfactant modified flax shives for removing anionic azo dyes. • The equilibrium and kinetic studies for the adsorption of anionic azo dyes. • The migration patterns of dye pollutants at flax shive-water interface. • New insights from synchrotron infrared-assisted characterization. • Potential as biomass adsorbent for the removal of dyes from wastewater. - Abstract: From the viewpoint of sustainability, biomass adsorbent has a high potential in pollution control and there is an emerging interest to investigate the behaviors of pollutants at the interface between biomass adsorbent and solution. This study investigated the performance of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide surfactant-modified flax shives (MFS) for removal of anionic azo dyes from aqueous solution. The equilibrium and kinetic analysis for the adsorption of Acid Orange 7 (AO-7), Acid Red 18 (AR-18) and Acid Black 1 (AB-1) on MFS were conducted. The surface of MFS was characterized by synchrotron infrared and SEM analysis. The absorbed amount of three anionic azo dyes varied with the change of adsorbent dosage, pH and ionic strength. The adsorption isotherm data well fit to the Langmuir model. The adsorption process followed the pseudo-second-order kinetics and the liquid film diffusion models. Thermodynamic studies indicated that the adsorption of three anionic azo dyes was spontaneous. The adsorption of AR-18 and AB-1 onto MFS was endothermic while the adsorption of AO-7 was exothermic. The results can help better understand the behaviors of organic pollutants at biomass adsorbent-water interface. They also present the potential of using MFS as a suitable adsorbent for the removal of anionic azo dyes from wastewater.

  10. Relationship between surface area for adhesion and tensile bond strength--evaluation of a micro-tensile bond test.

    Sano, H; Shono, T; Sonoda, H; Takatsu, T; Ciucchi, B; Carvalho, R; Pashley, D H

    1994-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the null hypothesis that there is no relationship between the bonded surface area of dentin and the tensile strength of adhesive materials. The enamel was removed from the occlusal surface of extracted human third molars, and the entire flat surface was covered with resin composite bonded to the dentin to form a flat resin composite crown. Twenty-four hours later, the bonded specimens were sectioned parallel to the long axis of the tooth into 10-20 thin sections whose upper part was composed of resin composite with the lower half being dentin. These small sections were trimmed using a high speed diamond bur into an hourglass shape with the narrowest portion at the bonded interface. Surface area was varied by altering the specimen thickness and width. Tensile bond strength was measured using custom-made grips in a universal testing machine. Tensile bond strength was inversely related to bonded surface area. At surface areas below 0.4 mm2, the tensile bond strengths were about 55 MPa for Clearfil Liner Bond 2 (Kuraray Co., Ltd.), 38 MPa for Scotchbond MP (3M Dental Products), and 20 MPa for Vitremer (3M Dental Products). At these small surface areas all of the bond failures were adhesive in nature. This new method permits measurement of high bond strengths without cohesive failure of dentin. It also permits multiple measurements to be made within a single tooth.

  11. Effect of Pre-nutrion of Flax Seed Oil (Linum Usitatissimum on the amount of Cerebral ischemic lesion and motor nerve disorders in animal model rat.

    SV Hosseini

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Stroke is the third death agent (factor in industrial countries after cardiovascular disease and cancer. With regard to high content of antioxidant materials in flax seed oil like &alpha-linolenic acid, lignan as well as phenolic combinations like secoisolarisirsinol (SDG, this study performed for studding relationship between of cerebral ischemic lesion and motor-nerve disorders in model of stroke in rat. Methods: in the study, 35 male mice from strain Wistar divided to 5 groups. The groups included control, sham and 3 experimental groups. They received doses 0.25, 0.5 and 0.75 ml/kg from flax seed oil orally. By gavage for 30 days two control and sham groups received aqua distillate (distil water. Two hours after the last gavaged dose, overly group with 7 pieces operated for measurement of the amount of cerebral lesion and motor-nerve disorders. (Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion Model. Middle cerebral Artery Occlusion by the model resulted in local ischemic stroke in animal. Data analyzed by software SPSS, test ANOVA and disorders by test mann-Whitney. Findings: Average of records of motor-nerve disorders decreased significantly in group with dose 0.5 and 0.75 using flax seed oil (P<0.05. The amount of cerebral ischemic lesion in doses 0.5 and 0.75 than to control group is indicated meaning full different, but percent of the total cerebral lesion in control group in compared group with dose 0.25 is not indicated meaningful different. Percent of the amount of ischemic lesion in region penumbra in group 0.75 and 0.5 than to control group is indicated meaningful different, but percent of the amount of lesion in region penumbra in control group in compared region penumbra in group with dose 0.25 is not indicated meaning full different. Results: Findings of the study indicated that flax seed oil, particular in doses 0.5 and 0.75 resulted to decrease of the amount of cerebral ischemic lesion and decrease of motor-nerve disorders in

  12. Tensile and bending fatigue of the adhesive interface to dentin.

    Belli, Renan; Baratieri, Luiz Narciso; Braem, Marc; Petschelt, Anselm; Lohbauer, Ulrich

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the fatigue limits of the dentin-composite interfaces established either with an etch-and-rinse or an one-step self-etch adhesive systems under tensile and bending configurations. Flat specimens (1.2 mm×5 mm×35 mm) were prepared using a plexiglass mold where dentin sections from human third molars were bonded to a resin composite, exhibiting the interface centrally located. Syntac Classic and G-Bond were used as adhesives and applied according to the manufacturer's instructions. The fluorochrome Rhodamine B was added to the adhesives to allow for fractographic evaluation. Tensile strength was measured in an universal testing machine and the bending strength (n=15) in a Flex machine (Flex, University of Antwerp, Belgium), respectively. Tensile (TFL) and bending fatigue limits (BFL) (n=25) were determined under wet conditions for 10(4) cycles following a staircase approach. Interface morphology and fracture mechanisms were observed using light, confocal laser scanning and scanning electron microscopy. Statistical analysis was performed using three-way ANOVA (mod LSD test, pTensile and bending characteristic strengths at 63.2% failure probability for Syntac were 23.8 MPa and 71.5 MPa, and 24.7 MPa and 72.3 MPa for G-Bond, respectively. Regarding the applied methods, no significant differences were detected between adhesives. However, fatigue limits for G-Bond (TFL=5.9 MPa; BFL=36.2 MPa) were significantly reduced when compared to Syntac (TFL=12.6 MPa; BFL=49.7 MPa). Fracture modes of Syntac were generally of adhesive nature, between the adhesive resin and dentin, while G-Bond showed fracture planes involving the adhesive-dentin interface and the adhesive resin. Cyclic loading under tensile and bending configurations led to a significant strength degradation, with a more pronounced fatigue limit decrease for G-Bond. The greater decrease in fracture strength was observed in the tensile configuration. Copyright © 2010 Academy of

  13. Tensile deformation and failure of North American porcupine quills

    Chou, S.F.; Overfelt, R.A., E-mail: overfra@auburn.edu

    2011-12-01

    Although the mechanical properties of some keratin-based biological materials have been extensively studied (i.e., wool) and others are beginning to be studied (e.g., horn, hooves and avian quills), data on the properties of porcupine quill are less common. Porcupine quill is a keratin-based biological material composed of a cylindrical outer shell with an inner foam core. The present paper reports on the physical characteristics, tensile properties and fracture behavior of North American porcupine quills conditioned at relative humidities of 65% and 100%. Increasing the water content decreased the tensile stiffness and strength and increased the strain at fracture of the porcupine quills. The tensile fracture strength of porcupine quill was found to be 146 MPa at 65% RH and 60 MPa at 100% RH. Although these values compare favorably with reported values for African porcupine quill, reported values of the tensile strengths of wool with similar moisture contents are considerably higher. The initial moduli of porcupine quill (2700 MPa at 65% RH and 1000 MPa at 100% RH) compare favorably to those reported for wool but are considerably less than previous reports for African porcupine quill. The engineering strains at fracture were measured as 25% at 65% RH and 49% at 100% RH and these values are also comparable to other keratin-based mammalian materials. Scanning electron microscopy of the fracture surfaces of porcupine quills revealed that the cylindrical outer shells of quills are composed of 2-3 layers with distinctly different fracture characteristics, especially when the samples contain 100% RH. The outer layer of the porcupine quill shell appears to resist the plasticizing effects of moisture and appears to exhibit considerably less ductility than the inner layers, perhaps due to the presence of hydrophobic lipids in the outer layer. Highlights: {yields} We characterize the tensile properties of north American porcupine quill. {yields} Elastic modulus, tensile

  14. Infliximab treatment reduces tensile strength in intestinal anastomosis

    Jensen, Jonas Sanberg; Petersen, Nacie Bello; Biagini, Matteo

    2015-01-01

    :1) to receive either repeated IFX treatment or placebo. On day 15, three separate end-to-end anastomoses were performed on the jejunum. On postoperative day 5, tensile strength and bursting pressure for the anastomoses were tested and histologic changes examined. RESULTS: We found a significantly reduced...... as number of sutures in the tested anastomosis (coefficient = 0.51; P = 0.024). The general histologic score was significantly higher in the placebo group (5.00 +/- 1.26 versus 3.31 +/- 1.65, P = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: Repeated high-dose IFX treatment reduces tensile strength significantly in rabbits...... effect on the healing process in intestinal anastomosis. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of repeated IFX treatment on anastomotic strength and degree of inflammation in the anastomotic line in the small intestine of rabbits. METHODS: Thirty-two rabbits were randomized (2...

  15. Effect of River Indus Sand on Concrete Tensile Strength

    M. T. Lakhiar

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In the development of Pakistan construction industry, the utilization of River Indus sand in concrete as fine aggregate has expanded tremendously. The aim of this research is to study the effect of Indus River sand on the tensile strength of various grades of concrete when it is utilized as fine aggregate. Concrete Samples of M15, M20 and M25 grade concrete were cured for 7, 14, 21 and 28 days. Based on the results, it is found that concrete became less workable when Indus river sand was utilized. It is recorded that tensile strength of concrete is decreased from 5% up to 20% in comparison with hill sand. The results were derived from various concrete grades.

  16. Tensile Characterization of FRP Rods for Reinforced Concrete Structures

    Micelli, F.; Nanni, A.

    2003-07-01

    The application of FRP rods as an internal or external reinforcement in new or damaged concrete structures is based on the development of design equations that take into account the mechanical properties of FRP material systems.The measurement of mechanical characteristics of FRP requires a special anchoring and protocol, since it is well known that these characteristics depend on the direction and content of fibers. In this study, an effective tensile test method is described for the mechanical characterization of FRP rods. Twelve types of glass and carbon FRP specimens with different sizes and surface characteristics were tested to validate the procedure proposed. In all, 79 tensile tests were performed, and the results obtained are discussed in this paper. Recommendations are given for specimen preparation and test setup in order to facilitate the further investigation and standardization of the FRP rods used in civil engineering.

  17. Effect of helium on tensile properties of vanadium alloys

    Chung, H.M.; Billone, M.C.; Smith, D.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1997-08-01

    Tensile properties of V-4Cr-4Ti (Heat BL-47), 3Ti-1Si (BL-45), and V-5Ti (BL-46) alloys after irradiation in a conventional irradiation experiment and in the Dynamic Helium Charging Experiment (DHCE) were reported previously. This paper presents revised tensile properties of these alloys, with a focus on the effects of dynamically generated helium of ductility and work-hardening capability at <500{degrees}C. After conventional irradiation (negligible helium generation) at {approx}427{degrees}C, a 30-kg heat of V-4Cr-4Ti (BL-47) exhibited very low uniform elongation, manifesting a strong susceptibility to loss of work-hardening capability. In contrast, a 15-kg heat of V-3Ti-1Si (BL -45) exhibited relatively high uniform elongation ({approx}4%) during conventional irradiation at {approx}427{degrees}C, showing that the heat is resistant to loss of work-hardening capability.

  18. Tensile and fracture toughness test results of neutron irradiated beryllium

    Chaouadi, R.; Moons, F.; Puzzolante, J.L. [Centre d`Etude de l`Energie Nucleaire, Mol (Belgium)

    1998-01-01

    Tensile and fracture toughness test results of four Beryllium grades are reported here. The flow and fracture properties are investigated by using small size tensile and round compact tension specimens. Irradiation was performed at the BR2 material testing reactor which allows various temperature and irradiation conditions. The fast neutron fluence (>1 MeV) ranges between 0.65 and 2.45 10{sup 21} n/cm{sup 2}. In the meantime, un-irradiated specimens were aged at the irradiation temperatures to separate if any the effect of temperature from irradiation damage. Test results are analyzed and discussed, in particular in terms of the effects of material grade, test temperature, thermal ageing and neutron irradiation. (author)

  19. A Lateral Tensile Fracturing Model for Listric Fault

    Qiu, Z.

    2007-12-01

    The new discovery of a major seismic fault of the great 1976 Tangshan earthquake suggests a lateral tensile fracturing process at the seismic source. The fault is in listric shape but can not be explained with the prevailing model of listric fault. A double-couple of forces without moment is demonstrated to be applicable to simulate the source mechanism. Based on fracture mechanics, laboratory experiments as well as numerical simulations, the model is against the assumption of stick-slip on existing fault as the cause of the earthquake but not in conflict with seismological observations. Global statistics of CMT solutions of great earthquakes raises significant support to the idea that lateral tensile fracturing might account for not only the Tangshan earthquake but also others.

  20. Elevated temperature tensile properties of borated 304 stainless steel

    Stephens, J.J.; Sorenson, K.B.; McConnell, P.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison of the tensile properties of Powder Metallurgy (PM) 'Grade A' material with that of the conventional IM 'Grade B' material for two selected Types (i.e., boron contents) as defined by the ASTM A887 specification: Types 304B5 and 304B7. Tensile properties have been generated for these materials at temperatures ranging from room temperature to 400degC (752degF). The data at higher temperatures are required for ASME Code Case purposes, since the use temperature of a basket under 'worst case' cask conditions may be as high as 343degC (650degF), due to self-heating by the activated fuel elements. We will also discuss the current status of efforts aimed at obtaining an ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Case for selected grades of borated stainless steel covered by the ASTM A887 specification. (J.P.N.)

  1. The postirradiation tensile properties and microstructure of several vanadium alloys

    Braski, D.N.

    1988-01-01

    Tensile specimens of V-15Cr-5Ti, Vanstar-7, V-3Ti-1si, and V-20Ti were irradiated at 420/degrees/C in FFTF-MOTA to a damage level of 82 dpa. Helium was preimplanted to levels up to 480 appm in selected specimens using a modified tritium trick. Irradiation hardening was the dominant effect influencing the postirradiation tensile properties, and it markedly increased the yield strength and reduced the total elogation. The V-15Cr-5Ti alloy was very sensitive to helium embrittlement, but Vanstar-7 and V-3Ti-1Si were only slightly affected. Without helium, negligible swelling (<1%) were measured in V-3Ti-1Si and V-20Ti. Preimplanted helium increased swelling in V-3Ti-1Si by increasing cavity nucleation. 11 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs

  2. Osmotic pressure induced tensile forces in tendon collagen.

    Masic, Admir; Bertinetti, Luca; Schuetz, Roman; Chang, Shu-Wei; Metzger, Till Hartmut; Buehler, Markus J; Fratzl, Peter

    2015-01-22

    Water is an important component of collagen in tendons, but its role for the function of this load-carrying protein structure is poorly understood. Here we use a combination of multi-scale experimentation and computation to show that water is an integral part of the collagen molecule, which changes conformation upon water removal. The consequence is a shortening of the molecule that translates into tensile stresses in the range of several to almost 100 MPa, largely surpassing those of about 0.3 MPa generated by contractile muscles. Although a complete drying of collagen would be relevant for technical applications, such as the fabrication of leather or parchment, stresses comparable to muscle contraction already occur at small osmotic pressures common in biological environments. We suggest, therefore, that water-generated tensile stresses may play a role in living collagen-based materials such as tendon or bone.

  3. Data characterizing tensile behavior of cenosphere/HDPE syntactic foam.

    Kumar, B R Bharath; Doddamani, Mrityunjay; Zeltmann, Steven E; Gupta, Nikhil; Ramakrishna, Seeram

    2016-03-01

    The data set presented is related to the tensile behavior of cenosphere reinforced high density polyethylene syntactic foam composites "Processing of cenosphere/HDPE syntactic foams using an industrial scale polymer injection molding machine" (Bharath et al., 2016) [1]. The focus of the work is on determining the feasibility of using an industrial scale polymer injection molding (PIM) machine for fabricating syntactic foams. The fabricated syntactic foams are investigated for microstructure and tensile properties. The data presented in this article is related to optimization of the PIM process for syntactic foam manufacture, equations and procedures to develop theoretical estimates for properties of cenospheres, and microstructure of syntactic foams before and after failure. Included dataset contains values obtained from the theoretical model.

  4. Tensile Instability and Artificial Stresses in Impact Problems in SPH

    Mehra, Vishal; Sijoy C D; Mishra, Vinayak; Chaturvedi, Shashank

    2012-01-01

    The smooth particle hydrodynamics (SPH) is a meshless computational technique that is popular in the modeling of impact and penetration problems. However, SPH is liable to a tensile instability that manifests itself as a bunching of nodes and formation of artificial voids and no generally accepted formulation exists to counter this instability. We examine the performance of two methods that have been proposed to deal with the tensile instability— the Monaghan artificial stresses and the Godunov-type SPH. The impact and penetration of 0.5 cm radii steel spheres on 2 mm thick aluminium plate at 3.1 km/s is chosen for comparison. We show that the artificial void formation in St-Al impact is suppressed but not eliminated by using Monaghan stresses while the void formation is entirely eliminated by using Godunov-type formulation of SPH that was proposed by Parshikov and Medin.

  5. Bioproductive parameters and fatty acids profile of the meat from broilers treated with flax meal and grape seeds meal

    Margareta OLTEANU

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The 3-week feeding trial was conducted on 120, Cobb 500 chicks (14 days assigned to two groups (C, E. Compared to C diet formulation (corn, wheat, soybean meal and flax meal as basic ingredients, E diet formulation also included 3% grape seeds meal as natural antioxidant. The feed intake and the gains were not significantly (P>0.05 different between groups. Six broilers/group were slaughtered in the end of the trial and 6 samples of breast and thigh meat/group were formed and assayed for the feeding value. The proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA was significantly (P≤0.05 higher in group E than in group C, both for the chicken breast: 32.6±0.87g (E vs 29.29±0.96 g/100 g total fatty acids (C, and in the thigh: 37.68±2.07g (E vs 29.58±1.16 g/100g total fatty acids (C. The content of alfa linolenic acid (ALA was significantly (P≤0.05 higher also in group E, both in the breast meat: 0.99±0.02g (E vs 0.89±0.34g/100g total fatty acids (C, and in the thigh meat: 1.20±0.07g (E vs 0.90±0.0g/100g total fatty acids (C. The omega-3 PUFA content was the highest in the breast meat sample, 2.19±0.07g/100g total fatty acids (E, with no significant (P>0.05 differences between groups.

  6. A Novel Geometry for Shear Test Using Axial Tensile Setup

    Sibo Yuan

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies a novel geometry for the in-plane shear test performed with an axial electromechanical testing machine. In order to investigate the influence of the triaxiality rate on the mechanical behavior, different tests will be performed on the studied material: simple tensile tests, large tensile tests and shear tests. For the whole campaign, a common equipment should be employed to minimize the impact of the testing device. As a consequence, for the shear tests, the geometry of the specimen must be carefully designed in order to adapt the force value and make it comparable to the one obtained for the tensile tests. Like most of the existing shear-included tensile test specimens, the axial loading is converted to shear loading at a particular region through the effect of geometry. A symmetric shape is generally preferred, since it can restrict the in-plane rotation of the shear section, keep shear increasing in a more monotonic path and double the force level thanks to the two shear zones. Due to the specific experimental conditions, such as dimensions of the furnace and the clamping system, the position of the extensometer or the restriction of sheet thickness (related to the further studies of size effect at mesoscale and hot temperature, several geometries were brought up and evaluated in an iterative procedure via finite element simulations. Both the numerical and experimental results reveal that the final geometry ensures some advantages. For instance, a relatively low triaxiality in the shear zone, limited in-plane rotation and no necking are observed. Moreover, it also prevents any out-of-plane displacement of the specimen which seems to be highly sensitive to the geometry, and presents a very limited influence of the material and the thickness.

  7. Tensile creep behavior in an advanced silicon nitride

    Lofaj, F.

    2000-01-01

    Tensile creep behavior and changes in the microstructure of the advanced silicon nitride, SN 88M, were studied at temperatures from 1250 to 1400 C to reveal the creep resistance and lifetime-controlling processes. Assuming power law dependence of the minimum strain rate on stress, stress exponents from 6 to 8 and an apparent activation energy of 780 kJ/mol were obtained. Extensive electron microscopy observations revealed significant changes in the crystalline secondary phases and creep damage development. Creep damage was classified in two groups: 'inter-granular' defects in the amorphous boundary phases, and 'intra-granular' defects in silicon nitride grains. The inter-granular defects involved multigrain junction cavities, two-grain junction cavities, microcracks and cracks. The intra-granular defects included broken large grains, small symmetrical and asymmetrical cavities, and crack-like intragranular cavities. Cavities are generated continuously during the whole deformation starting from the threshold strain of ∝0.1%, and they contribute linearly to the tensile strain. Cavities produce more than 90% of the total tensile strain, and it is concluded that cavitation is the main creep mechanism in silicon nitride ceramics. The multigrain junction cavities are considered to be the most important for generating new volume and producing tensile strain. The Luecke and Wiederhorn (L and W) creep model, based on cavitation at multigrain junctions according to an exponential law, was proven to correspond to the stress dependence of the minimum strain rate. A qualitative model based on the L and W model was suggested and expanded to include intragranular cavitation. The basic mechanisms involve a repeating of the sequence grain boundary sliding (GBS) => cavitation at multigrain junctions => viscous flow and dissolution-precipitation. (orig.)

  8. Effect of machining damage on tensile properties of beryllium

    Hanafee, J.E.

    1976-01-01

    It is well established that damage introduced at the surface of beryllium during machining operations can lower its mechanical properties. Tensile tests were conducted to illustrate this on beryllium presently being used for parts in the W79 program and similar to the new powder-processed beryllium specified for production (tentative specification MEL 76-001319). The objective of this study is to quantitatively illuminate the importance of controlling machining damage in this particular grade of powder-processed beryllium

  9. Tensile and Flexural Test on Kenaf Hybrid Composites

    Salleh, Z.; Yunus, S.; Masdek, N. R. N. M.; Taib, Y. M.; Azhar, I. I. S.; Hyie, K. M.

    2018-03-01

    The widely use of synthetic materials like carbon and fiberglass in various industries such as automotive and aircraft has lead to human health and environment problems. Therefore, the use of natural fibres such as kenaf has received higher attention as reinforcement. Kenaf or the scientific name is Hibiscus Cannabinus. L is one of the group of Malvecea plant which in the early days, the application of kenaf served only rope and canvas. However, it has more advantages than synthetic materials such as; widely availaible, renewable, lightweight, non-abbrasiveness during processing, high specific strength, free from health hazard and biodegradeable. This study was carried out to investigate the effects of different arrangement of kenaf and fiberglass composites on Young’s Modulus. The material composite was hardened with polyester resin and their properties was characterized. The tensile and the flexural properties is determined using an Instron universal tensile testing machine and carried out by following ASTM D3039 for tensile and ASTM D790 for a flexural test. The experimental program was designed to correlate the flexural and tensile Young’s Modulus of kenaf and fiberglass composite under the same load condition but different arrangement of kenaf and fiberglass on the mold . The resistance to change in shape was described by the behavior and characteristic of the composite materials. The stiffness or the elastic modulus of the composite material was determined at the end of the experiment. The results obtained show that the [±90FG/0/90/90/0/±90FG] kenaf/fiberglass composite arrangement has the highest elastic value.

  10. Performance of Grouted Splice Sleeve Connector under Tensile Load

    A. Alias

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The grouted splice sleeve connector system takes advantage of the bond-slip resistance of the grout and the mechanical gripping of reinforcement bars to provide resistance to tensile force. In this system, grout acts as a load-transferring medium and bonding material between the bars and sleeve. This study adopted the end-to-end rebars connection method to investigate the effect of development length and sleeve diameter on the bonding performance of the sleeve connector. The end-to-end method refers to the condition where reinforcement bars are inserted into the sleeve from both ends and meet at the centre before grout is filled. Eight specimens of grouted splice sleeve connector were tested under tensile load to determine their performance. The sleeve connector was designed using 5 mm thick circular hollow section (CHS steel pipe and consisted of one external and two internal sleeves. The tensile test results show that connectors with a smaller external and internal sleeve diameter appear to provide better bonding performance. Three types of failure were observed in this research, which are bar fracture (outside the sleeve, bar pullout, and internal sleeve pullout. With reference to these failure types, the development length of 200 mm is the optimum value due to its bar fracture type, which indicates that the tensile capacity of the connector is higher than the reinforcement bar. It is found that the performance of the grouted splice sleeve connector is influenced by the development length of the reinforcement bar and the diameter of the sleeve.

  11. Evaluation of miniature tensile specimen fabrication techniques and performance

    Hamilton, M.L. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)); Blotter, M.A.; Edwards, D.J. (Missouri Univ., Rolla, MO (United States))

    1992-01-01

    The confident application of miniature tensile specimens requires adequate control over their fabrication and is facilitated by automated test and analysis techniques. Three fabrication processes -- punching, chemical, milling, and electrical discharge machining (EDM) -- were recently evaluated, leading to the replacement of the previously used punching technique with a wire EDM technique. The automated data acquisition system was upgraded, and an interactive data analysis program was developed.

  12. Evaluation of miniature tensile specimen fabrication techniques and performance

    Hamilton, M.L.; Blotter, M.A.; Edwards, D.J.

    1992-01-01

    The confident application of miniature tensile specimens requires adequate control over their fabrication and is facilitated by automated test and analysis techniques. Three fabrication processes -- punching, chemical, milling, and electrical discharge machining (EDM) -- were recently evaluated, leading to the replacement of the previously used punching technique with a wire EDM technique. The automated data acquisition system was upgraded, and an interactive data analysis program was developed

  13. Elastic-plastic analysis of the SS-3 tensile specimen

    Majumdar, S.

    1998-01-01

    Tensile tests of most irradiated specimens of vanadium alloys are conducted using the miniature SS-3 specimen which is not ASTM approved. Detailed elastic-plastic finite element analysis of the specimen was conducted to show that, as long as the ultimate to yield strength ratio is less than or equal to 1.25 (which is satisfied by many irradiated materials), the stress-plastic strain curve obtained by using such a specimen is representative of the true material behavior

  14. Assessment of the Tensile Properties for Single Fibers

    2018-02-01

    release; distribution is unlimited. 24 7. Conclusions A method for accurately characterizing the tensile material properties of single fibers...subject to any penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT...10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER(S) 12. DISTRIBUTION/ AVAILABILITY STATEMENT 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES

  15. Do cupins have a function beyond being seed storage proteins? An updated working model for the growth and reproductive success of flax (Linum usitatissimum) in a radio-contaminated environment

    Plants continue to flourish around the site of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant disaster. The ability of plants to transcend the radio-contaminated environment was not anticipated and is not well understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the proteome of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) durin...

  16. An electron microscopy appraisal of tensile fracture in metallic glasses

    Matthews, D.T.A.; Ocelik, V.; Bronsveld, P.M.; De Hosson, J.Th.M.

    2008-01-01

    Three glass-forming alloy compositions were chosen for ribbon production and subsequent electron microscopy studies. In situ tensile testing with transmission electron microscopy (TEM), followed by ex situ TEM and ex situ scanning electron microscopy (SEM), allowed the deformation processes in tensile fracture of metallic glasses to be analysed. In situ shear band propagation was found to be jump-like, with the jump sites correlating with the formation of secondary shear bands. The effect of structural relaxation by in situ heating is also discussed. Nanocrystallization near the fracture surface was observed; however, no crystallization was also reported in the same sample and the reasons for this are discussed. Both the TEM and the SEM observations confirmed the presence of a liquid-like layer on or near the fracture surface of the ribbons. The formation of a liquid-like layer was characterized by the vein geometries and vein densities on the fracture surfaces and its dependence on shear displacement, δ, is discussed. A simple model is adapted to relate the temperature rise during shear banding to the glass transition and melting temperatures and this is used to explain the variety of fracture surfaces which are developed for macroscopically identical tensile testing of metallic glasses together with features which exhibit local melting

  17. Effects of liquid lead on 316l tensile properties

    Ionescu, V.; Pitigoi, V.; Nitu, A.; Hororoi, M.; Voicu, F.; Cojocaru, V.

    2016-01-01

    The lead-cooled fast reactor (LFR) is one of the concepts of the Generation IV reactor systems. Compatibility of the candidate structural materials with the liquid lead is known to be one of the critical issues to allow development of the LFR reactors. In contact with the liquid metal, the mechanical integrity of the structural materials can be affected. The steel.s mechanical properties are assessed by tensile testing as a function of temperature in heavy liquid metal and in an air environment. RATEN ICN is involved in several European projects aimed to Generation IV research activities. In a first stage an Experimental Facility for Tensile Tests in Liquid Lead environment has been set up. This installation is adapted on the Instron testing machine, already existing in institute. 316L alloy is one of a candidate structural material for this type of reactor. This document presents the effect of liquid lead on tensile properties of 316L material tested in liquid lead (in static conditions) and in air environment at 500°C, without oxygen monitoring system. When solid metals are placed in contact to liquid metals and stress is applied, they may undergo abrupt brittle failure. Stress-strain curves of slow strain rate tests have been obtained in conformity with ASTM, E-8. Mechanical characteristics determined are in accordance with literature. (authors)

  18. Chain Ends and the Ultimate Tensile Strength of Polyethylene Fibers

    O'Connor, Thomas C.; Robbins, Mark O.

    Determining the tensile yield mechanisms of oriented polymer fibers remains a challenging problem in polymer mechanics. By maximizing the alignment and crystallinity of polyethylene (PE) fibers, tensile strengths σ ~ 6 - 7 GPa have been achieved. While impressive, first-principal calculations predict carbon backbone bonds would allow strengths four times higher (σ ~ 20 GPa) before breaking. The reduction in strength is caused by crystal defects like chain ends, which allow fibers to yield by chain slip in addition to bond breaking. We use large scale molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to determine the tensile yield mechanism of orthorhombic PE crystals with finite chains spanning 102 -104 carbons in length. The yield stress σy saturates for long chains at ~ 6 . 3 GPa, agreeing well with experiments. Chains do not break but always yield by slip, after nucleation of 1D dislocations at chain ends. Dislocations are accurately described by a Frenkel-Kontorova model, parametrized by the mechanical properties of an ideal crystal. We compute a dislocation core size ξ = 25 . 24 Å and determine the high and low strain rate limits of σy. Our results suggest characterizing such 1D dislocations is an efficient method for predicting fiber strength. This research was performed within the Center for Materials in Extreme Dynamic Environments (CMEDE) under the Hopkins Extreme Materials Institute at Johns Hopkins University. Financial support was provided by Grant W911NF-12-2-0022.

  19. The Effect of Corrosive Environment on Geopolymer Concrete Tensile Strength

    Bayuaji Ridho

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study has the purpose to explore the potential of geopolymer concrete tensile strength in particular on the effects of corrosive environments. Geopolymer concrete, concrete technology used no OPC that has advantages, one of which is durability, especially for corrosive seawater environment. In addition, geopolymer concrete with polymerization mechanism does not require large energy consumption or an environmentally friendly concept. Geopolymer concrete in this study is using a type C fly ash from PT. International Power Mitsui Operation & Maintenence Indonesia (IPMOMI Paiton. The type of alkaline activator used NaOH (14 molar and Na2SiO3. Coarse and fine aggregate used are local aggregate. Geopolymer concrete molded test specimen with dimensions of (10 × 20 cm cylinder, further heating and without heating, then maintained at room temperature and seawater up to 28 days. Then to determine the mechanical properties, the tensile strength testing is done with reference. This result of study indicates the curing of geopolymer concrete at 60 ° C for 24 hours to raise the tensile strength of geopolymer concrete.

  20. THE EFFECT OF PHASE CHANGE MATERIALS ON THE TENSILE STRENGTH

    HERROELEN Thomas

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available PCM’s need some important properties to have use such as high heat storage capacity, easy availability and low cost and can have different effects such as flavour, softness or exchange of heat. They are put inside of microcapsules, so they can be inbedded inside the strain, otherwise it wouldn’t be so effective. So basically the microcapsules consist of a core that’s the PCM and a polymer shell. This shell needs to be strong enough to hold the PCM and also withstand up to a certain level of heat and mechanical damage. This study investigates the tensile strength of fabrics composed by fibres, some of these fibres have benn inbedded phase change microcapsules (PCM’s. The investigated fabrics are divided by composition and by structure. By knitting the fabrics in different structures you could be able to investigate which knitting way could be the most effective to have a high tensile strength. Tensile strength tests are performed on specimens with different structures but also with different compositions which could indicate that some strains are tougher then others and more specifically if the PCM’s have a different effect on them.

  1. Effects of conventional welding and laser welding on the tensile strength, ultimate tensile strength and surface characteristics of two cobalt-chromium alloys: a comparative study.

    Madhan Kumar, Seenivasan; Sethumadhava, Jayesh Raghavendra; Anand Kumar, Vaidyanathan; Manita, Grover

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of laser welding and conventional welding on the tensile strength and ultimate tensile strength of the cobalt-chromium alloy. Samples were prepared with two commercially available cobalt-chromium alloys (Wironium plus and Diadur alloy). The samples were sectioned and the broken fragments were joined using Conventional and Laser welding techniques. The welded joints were subjected to tensile and ultimate tensile strength testing; and scanning electron microscope to evaluate the surface characteristics at the welded site. Both on laser welding as well as on conventional welding technique, Diadur alloy samples showed lesser values when tested for tensile and ultimate tensile strength when compared to Wironium alloy samples. Under the scanning electron microscope, the laser welded joints show uniform welding and continuous molt pool all over the surface with less porosity than the conventionally welded joints. Laser welding is an advantageous method of connecting or repairing cast metal prosthetic frameworks.

  2. In-situ observation of strain evolution in CP-Ti during uniaxial tensile loading

    Bettles, C. J.; Gibson, M. A.; Stevenson, A. W.; Tomus, D.; Lynch, P. A.

    2010-07-01

    First results are presented for in-situ tensile loading experiments performed on the Powder Diffraction beamline at the Australian Synchrotron facility. For direct measurement of strain evolution, the beamline was fitted with a uniaxial tensile stage and a high-resolution CCD detector. Precise calibration of the experimental diffraction geometry, taking into account slight misalignment of the detector (pitch, roll, yaw), was achieved by simulation of the ring patterns recorded from the standard reference material LaB 6 (660). The material examined was a commercially pure titanium strip, which from prior electron microscopy studies, was found to have an average grain size of ˜20-30 μm. Tensile specimens conformed to ASTM E8, with a gauge length of 25 mm. To probe the bulk material properties all experiments were performed at 20 keV. In these preliminary experiments, measurement of the relative change in the interplanar lattice spacing was used to monitor the elastic response in seven crystallographic orientations during the loading cycle. To overcome problems encountered with grain size and associated discontinuous Debye-Scherrer ring patterns, two strategies were implemented to measure the Bragg peak (2 θB) positions. In cases where the radial integration routine provided inconsistent results for peak determination, a new approach based on determining the averaged sum of 2 θB positions from individual spots making up the ring pattern was utilised. Results obtained for the diffraction elastic modulus were found to be in agreement with predictions based on the single-crystal and Neerfield-Hill crystal coupling models.

  3. Microstructure and dynamic tensile behavior of DP600 dual phase steel joint by laser welding

    Dong, Danyang, E-mail: dongdanyang@mail.neu.edu.cn [College of Science, Northeastern University, No. 11, Lane 3, WenHua Road, HePing District, Shenyang 110819 (China); Liu, Yang, E-mail: liuyang@mail.neu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Anisotropy and Texture of Materials, Ministry of Education, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Yang, Yuling, E-mail: yulingyang@mail.neu.edu.cn [College of Science, Northeastern University, No. 11, Lane 3, WenHua Road, HePing District, Shenyang 110819 (China); Li, Jinfeng, E-mail: lijinfengboda@163.com [College of Science, Northeastern University, No. 11, Lane 3, WenHua Road, HePing District, Shenyang 110819 (China); Ma, Min, E-mail: sharon6789@163.com [College of Science, Northeastern University, No. 11, Lane 3, WenHua Road, HePing District, Shenyang 110819 (China); Jiang, Tao, E-mail: tao.jiang906@yahoo.com [College of Science, Northeastern University, No. 11, Lane 3, WenHua Road, HePing District, Shenyang 110819 (China)

    2014-01-31

    Dual phase (DP) steels have been widely used in the automotive industry to reduce vehicle weight and improve car safety. In such applications welding and joining have to be involved, which would lead to a localized change of the microstructure and property, and create potential safety and reliable issues under dynamic loading. The aim of the present study is to examine the rate-dependent mechanical properties, deformation and fracture behavior of DP600 steel and its welded joint (WJ) produced by Nd:YAG laser welding over a wide range of strain rates (0.001–1133 s{sup −1}). Laser welding results in not only significant microhardness increase in the fusion zone (FZ) and inner heat-affected zone (HAZ), but also the formation of a softened zone in the outer HAZ. The yield strength (YS) of the DP600 steel increases and the ultimate tensile strength (UTS) remains almost unchanged, but the ductility decreases after welding. The DP600 base metal (BM) and WJ are of positive strain rate sensitivity and show similar stress–strain response at all studied strain rates. The enhanced ductility at strain rates ranging from 1 to 100 s{sup −1} is attributed to the retardation of the propagation of plastic strain localization due to the positive strain rate sensitivity and the thermal softening caused by deformation induced adiabatic temperature rise during dynamic tensile deformation. The tensile failure occurs in the inner HAZ of the joint and the distance of failure location from the weld centerline decreases with increasing strain rate. The mechanism for the changing failure location can be related to the different strain rate dependence of the plastic deformation behavior of the microstructures in various regions across the joint. The DP600 WJ absorbs more energy over the whole measured strain rates than that of the BM due to the higher strength at the same strain when the deformation only up to 10% is considered.

  4. Irradiation induced tensile property change of SA 508 Cl.3 reactor pressure vessel steels

    Chi, Se-Hwan; Hong, Jun-Hwa; Kuk, Il-Hiun

    1998-01-01

    Irradiation induced tensile property change of four kinds of reactor pressure vessel steels manufactured by different steel refining process was compared based on the differences in the unirradiated and irradiated microstructure. Microvickers hardness, indentation, and miniature tensile specimen tests were conducted for mechanical property measurement and optical microscope (OM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) were used for microstructural characterization. Specimens were 2 irradiated to a neutron fluence of 2.7x10 19 n/cm 2 (E ≥ 1 MeV) at 288 deg. C. Investigation on the unirradiated microstructures showed largely a same microstructure in that tempered acicular bainite and ferrite with bainitic phase prevailing in the unirradiated condition. Band-shaped segregations were also clearly observed except a kind of materials. A large difference in the unirradiated microstructure appeared in the grain size and carbide microstructure. Of carbide microstructures, noticeable differences were observed in the size and distribution of cementite, and bainitic lath microstructures. No noticeable changes were observed in the optical and thin film TEM microstructures after irradiation. Complicated microstructural. state of heat treated bainitic low alloy microstructure prevents easy quantification of microstructural changes due to irradiation. Apparent differences, however, were observed in the results of mechanical testing. Results of tensile testing and hardness measurement show that a steel refined by vacuum carbon deoxidation(VCD) method exhibits the highest radiation hardening behavior. Some of mechanical testing results on irradiated materials were possible to understand based on the initial microstructure, but further investigations using a wide array of sophisticated tools (for example, SANS, APFIM) are required to understand and characterize irradiation induced defects that are responsible for irradiation hardening behavior but are not revealed by

  5. Irradiation induced tensile property change of SA 508 Cl. 3 reactor pressure vessel steels

    Chi, Se Hwan; Hong, Jun Hwa; Kuk, Il Hiun

    1998-01-01

    Irradiation induced tensile property change of four kinds of reactor pressure vessel steels manufactured by different steel refining process was compared based on the differences in the miniature tensile specimen tests were conducted for mechanical property measurement and optical microscope (OM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) were used for microstructural characterization. Specimens were irradiated to a neutron fluence of 2.7 x 10 19 n/cm 2 (E ≥ 1 MeV) at 288 deg C. Investigation on the unirradiated microstructures showed largely a same microstructure in that tempered acicular bainite and ferrite with bainitic phase prevailing in the unirradiated condition. Ban-shaped segregations were also clearly observed except a kind of materials. A large difference in the unirradiated microstructure appeared in the grain size and carbide microstructure. Of carbide microstructures, noticeable differences were observed in the size and distribution of cementite, and bainitic lath microstructures. No noticeable changes were observed in the optical and thin film TEM microstructures after irradiation. Complicated microstructural state of heat treated bainitic low alloy microstructure prevents easy quantification of microstructural changes due to irradiation. Apparent differences, however, were observed in the results of mechanical testing. Results of tensile testing and hardness measurement show that a steel refined by vacuum carbon deoxidation (VCD) method exhibits the highest radiation hardening behavior. Some of mechanical testing results on irradiated materials were possible to understand based on the initial microstructure, but further investigations using a wide array of sophisticated tools (for example, SANS, APFIM) are required to understand and characterize irradiation induced defects that are responsible for irradiation hardening behavior but are not revealed by conventional TEM. (author)

  6. Does the oxidation of methionine residue precede the inactivation of the trypsin inhibitor (LUTI in germinating seeds of common flax (Linum usitatissimum?

    Irena Lorenc-Kubis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Antitrypsin activity in germinating common seeds of flax (Linum usitatissimum was investigated. At the early stage of germination an increase in antitrypsin activity was observed, followed by its decrease during the development of the seedlings. From 6-day-old seedlings a trypsin inhibitor (gerLUTI was purified. The purification procedure involved fractionation of proteins from seedling homogenate with alcohol and successive chromatography on CM-Sephadex C-25 on immobilised methylchymotrypsin in the presence of 5 M NaCl, and finally on a C18 column in RP-HPLC. The gerLUTI migrated in SDS PAGE as a single band, but in mass spectroscopy analysis it exhibited the presence of at least three forms with molecular masses of 7654 ± 3 Da, 7668/7670 ± 3 Da, and 7687 ± 3 Da. The preparation of LUTI isolated from resting seeds contained only one form, with a molecular mass of 7655 ± 3 Da. LUTI and gerLUTI differed also in methionine contents. LUTI contained two methionine residues, whereas in gerLUTI only a trace of methionine was detected. The obtained results might suggest that during flax seeds germination the inhibitor molecules undergo selective modification, e.g. oxidation at methionine residues, before being degraded by proteolytic enzymes.

  7. Effect of ethanolic flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) extracts on lipid oxidation and changes in nutritive value of frozen-stored meat products.

    Waszkowiak, Katarzyna; Szymandera-Buszka, Krystyna; Hęś, Marzanna

    2014-01-01

    Flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) is an important source of phenolic compounds, mainly lignans. Antioxidant capacities of flaxseed extracts that contain the compounds have been reported earlier. However, there is a lack of accessible information about their activity against lipid oxidation in meat products. Therefore, the effect of ethanolic flaxseed extracts (EFEs) on lipid stability and changes in nutritive value of frozen-stored meat products (pork meatballs and burgers) was determined. EFEs from three Polish flax varieties (Szafir, Oliwin, Jantarol) were applied in the study. During 150-day storage of meat products, the lipid oxidation (peroxide and TBARS value) and thiamine retention were periodically monitored, alongside with methionine and lysine availability and protein digestibility. The addition of EFEs significantly limited lipid oxidation in stored meatballs and burgers. EFE from brown seeds of Szafir var. was superior to the others from golden seeds of Jantarol and Oliwin. Moreover, the extracts reduced changes in thiamine and available lysine content, as well as protein digestibility, during storage time. The effect of EFE addition on available methionine retention was limited. The ethanolic flaxseed extracts exhibit antioxidant activity during frozen storage of meat products. They can be utilized to prolong shelf-life of the products by protecting them against lipid oxidation and deterioration of their nutritional quality. However, antioxidant efficiency of the extracts seems to depend on chemical composition of raw material (flax variety). Further investigations should be carried on to explain the issue.

  8. Sistema radicular do fórmio, sisal e bambu imperial Root systems of new zealand flax, sisal, and imperial bamboo

    Júlio César Medina

    1963-01-01

    Full Text Available Os autores apresentam e discutem os resultados de estudos preliminares sôbre o sistema radicular do fórmio (Phormium tenax Forster, sisal (Agave sisalana Perrine e bambu .imperial (Bambusa vulgaris Schrad. var. vittata A. ,& C, Riv.. Concluem, que o sistema radicular do fórmio é relativamente raso, o do sisal bastante superficial é o do bambu imperial se limitada às primeiras carnadas do solo.Results of preliminary studies on root-systems of New Zealand flax (Phormium tenax Forster, sisal (Agave sisalana Perrine, and imperial bamboo (Bambusa vulgaris Schrad. var. vittata A. & C. Riv. plants by the method of soil block, are apresented and discussed by the authors. According to local soil conditions, it is concluded that the root-system of New Zealand flax is relatively superficial, with the main concentration of roots in the 12 in. soil top layer. In sisal, the root-systems of the three plants investigated were found to occur in the soil surface layer, with more of 90% of the roots in the top 6 in. Finally, in the imperial bamboo clump atudied, the main concentration of roots was found in the layer 6-12 in. deep.

  9. Chalcone Synthase (CHS) Gene Suppression in Flax Leads to Changes in Wall Synthesis and Sensing Genes, Cell Wall Chemistry and Stem Morphology Parameters

    Zuk, Magdalena; Działo, Magdalena; Richter, Dorota; Dymińska, Lucyna; Matuła, Jan; Kotecki, Andrzej; Hanuza, Jerzy; Szopa, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The chalcone synthase (CHS) gene controls the first step in the flavonoid biosynthesis. In flax, CHS down-regulation resulted in tannin accumulation and reduction in lignin synthesis, but plant growth was not affected. This suggests that lignin content and thus cell wall characteristics might be modulated through CHS activity. This study investigated the possibility that CHS affects cell wall sensing as well as polymer content and arrangement. CHS-suppressed and thus lignin-reduced plants showed significant changes in expression of genes involved in both synthesis of components and cell wall sensing. This was accompanied by increased levels of cellulose and hemicellulose. CHS-reduced flax also showed significant changes in morphology and arrangement of the cell wall. The stem tissue layers were enlarged averagely twofold compared to the control, and the number of fiber cells more than doubled. The stem morphology changes were accompanied by reduction of the crystallinity index of the cell wall. CHS silencing induces a signal transduction cascade that leads to modification of plant metabolism in a wide range and thus cell wall structure. PMID:27446124

  10. The use of Co2+ for crystallization and structure determination, using a conventional monochromatic X-ray source, of flax rust avirulence protein

    Gunčar, Gregor; Wang, Ching-I A.; Forwood, Jade K.; Teh, Trazel; Catanzariti, Ann-Maree; Ellis, Jeffrey G.; Dodds, Peter N.; Kobe, Boštjan

    2007-01-01

    It is demonstrated that anomalous diffraction based on the signal from a cobalt ion measured on a conventional monochromatic X-ray source can be used to determine the structure of a protein with a novel fold (M. lini avirulence protein AvrL567-A). The approach could be applicable to many metal-binding proteins, particularly when synchrotron radiation is not readily available. Metal-binding sites are ubiquitous in proteins and can be readily utilized for phasing. It is shown that a protein crystal structure can be solved using single-wavelength anomalous diffraction based on the anomalous signal of a cobalt ion measured on a conventional monochromatic X-ray source. The unique absorption edge of cobalt (1.61 Å) is compatible with the Cu Kα wavelength (1.54 Å) commonly available in macromolecular crystallography laboratories. This approach was applied to the determination of the structure of Melampsora lini avirulence protein AvrL567-A, a protein with a novel fold from the fungal pathogen flax rust that induces plant disease resistance in flax plants. This approach using cobalt ions may be applicable to all cobalt-binding proteins and may be advantageous when synchrotron radiation is not readily available

  11. Deformation of a layered half-space due to a very long tensile fault

    The problem of the coseismic deformation of an earth model consisting of an elastic layer of uniform thickness overlying an elastic half-space due to a very long tensile fault in the layer is solved analytically. Integral expressions for the surface displacements are obtained for a vertical tensile fault and a horizontal tensile fault.

  12. In-Situ tensile testing of propellants in SEM: influence of temperature

    Di Benedetto, G.L.; Ramshorst, M.C.J.; Duvalois, W.; Hooijmeijer, P.; Heijden, A. van der

    2017-01-01

    A tensile module system placed within a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) was utilized to conduct insitu tensile testing of propellant samples. The tensile module system allows for real-time in-situ SEM analysis of the samples to determine the failure mechanism of the propellant material under

  13. Microstructure and tensile properties of tungsten at elevated temperatures

    Shen, Tielong [Laboratory for Nuclear Materials, Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Dai, Yong, E-mail: yong.dai@psi.ch [Laboratory for Nuclear Materials, Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Lee, Yongjoong [European Spallation Source, Tunavägen 24, 223 63 Lund (Sweden)

    2016-01-15

    In order to support the development of the 5 MW spallation target for the European Spallation Source, the effect of fabrication process on microstructure, ductile-to-brittle transition temperature (DBTT), tensile and fracture behaviour of powder-metallurgy pure tungsten materials has been investigated. A hot-rolled (HR) tungsten piece of 12 mm thickness and a hot-forged (HF) piece of about 80 mm thickness were used to simulate the thin and thick blocks in the target. The two tungsten pieces were characterized with metallography analysis, hardness measurement and tensile testing. The HR piece exhibits an anisotropic grain structure with an average size of about 330 × 140 × 40 μm in rolling, long transverse and short transverse (thickness) directions. The HF piece possesses a bimodal grain structure with about 310 × 170 × 70 μm grain size in deformed part and about 25 μm sized grains remained from sintering process. Hardness (HV0.2) of the HR piece is slightly greater than that of the HF one. The ductility of the HR tungsten specimens is greater than that of the HF tungsten. For the HF tungsten piece, specimens with small grains in gauge section manifest lower ductility but higher strength. The DBTT evaluated from the tensile results is 250–300 °C for the HR tungsten and about 350 °C for the HF tungsten. - Highlights: • This work was conducted to support the development of the 5 MW spallation target for the European Spallation Source. • The effect of fabrication process on microstructure, ductile-to-brittle transition temperature and tensile behaviour was studied with hot-rolled and hot-forged tungsten. • The tungsten materials were characterized with metallography analysis, hardness measurement and tensile test in a temperature range of 25–500 °C. • The results indicate that the HR tungsten has better mechanical properties in terms of greater ductility and lower ductile-to-brittle transition temperature.

  14. Tensile and Torsional Structural Properties of the Native Scapholunate Ligament.

    Pang, Eric Quan; Douglass, Nathan; Behn, Anthony; Winterton, Matthew; Rainbow, Michael J; Kamal, Robin N

    2018-02-17

    The ideal material for reconstruction of the scapholunate interosseous ligament (SLIL) should replicate the mechanical properties of the native SLIL to recreate normal kinematics and prevent posttraumatic arthritis. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the cyclic torsional and tensile properties of the native SLIL and load to failure tensile properties of the dorsal SLIL. The SLIL bone complex was resected from 10 fresh-frozen cadavers. The scaphoid and lunate were secured in polymethylmethacrylate and mounted on a test machine that incorporated an x-y stage and universal joint, which permitted translations perpendicular to the rotation/pull axis as well as nonaxial angulations. After a 1 N preload, specimens underwent cyclic torsional testing (±0.45 N m flexion/extension at 0.5 Hz) and tensile testing (1-50 N at 1 Hz) for 500 cycles. Lastly, the dorsal 10 mm of the SLIL was isolated and displaced at 10 mm/min until failure. During intact SLIL cyclic torsional testing, the neutral zone was 29.7° ± 6.6° and the range of rotation 46.6° ± 7.1°. Stiffness in flexion and extension were 0.11 ± 0.02 and 0.12 ± 0.02 N m/deg, respectively. During cyclic tensile testing, the engagement length was 0.2 ± 0.1 mm, the mean stiffness was 276 ± 67 N/mm, and the range of displacement was 0.4 ± 0.1 mm. The dorsal SLIL displayed a 0.3 ± 0.2 mm engagement length, 240 ± 65 N/mm stiffness, peak load of 270 ± 91 N, and displacement at peak load of 1.8 ± 0.3 mm. We report the torsional properties of the SLIL. Our novel test setup allows for free rotation and translation, which reduces out-of-plane force application. This may explain our observation of greater dorsal SLIL load to failure than previous reports. By matching the natural ligament with respect to its tensile and torsional properties, we believe that reconstructions will better restore the natural kinematics of the wrist and lead to improved outcomes. Future clinical studies should aim to investigate this

  15. Seismic characteristics of tensile fracture growth induced by hydraulic fracturing

    Eaton, D. W. S.; Van der Baan, M.; Boroumand, N.

    2014-12-01

    Hydraulic fracturing is a process of injecting high-pressure slurry into a rockmass to enhance its permeability. Variants of this process are used for unconventional oil and gas development, engineered geothermal systems and block-cave mining; similar processes occur within volcanic systems. Opening of hydraulic fractures is well documented by mineback trials and tiltmeter monitoring and is a physical requirement to accommodate the volume of injected fluid. Numerous microseismic monitoring investigations acquired in the audio-frequency band are interpreted to show a prevalence of shear-dominated failure mechanisms surrounding the tensile fracture. Moreover, the radiated seismic energy in the audio-frequency band appears to be a miniscule fraction (<< 1%) of the net injected energy, i.e., the integral of the product of fluid pressure and injection rate. We use a simple penny-shaped crack model as a predictive framework to describe seismic characteristics of tensile opening during hydraulic fracturing. This model provides a useful scaling relation that links seismic moment to effective fluid pressure within the crack. Based on downhole recordings corrected for attenuation, a significant fraction of observed microseismic events are characterized by S/P amplitude ratio < 5. Despite the relatively small aperture of the monitoring arrays, which precludes both full moment-tensor analysis and definitive identification of nodal planes or axes, this ratio provides a strong indication that observed microseismic source mechanisms have a component of tensile failure. In addition, we find some instances of periodic spectral notches that can be explained by an opening/closing failure mechanism, in which fracture propagation outpaces fluid velocity within the crack. Finally, aseismic growth of tensile fractures may be indicative of a scenario in which injected energy is consumed to create new fracture surfaces. Taken together, our observations and modeling provide evidence that

  16. Influences of hot-isostatic-pressing temperature on microstructure, tensile properties and tensile fracture mode of Inconel 718 powder compact

    Chang, Litao; Sun, Wenru; Cui, Yuyou; Yang, Rui

    2014-01-01

    Inconel 718 powders have been hot-isostatic-pressed (HIPed) at representative temperatures to investigate the variations in microstructure, tensile properties and tensile fracture mode of the powder compact. Microstructure of the powder compacts were characterized by optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and so on. The results showed that the interdendritic precipitates inherited from the powders were partially retained in the powder compacts when the powders were HIPed at or below 1210 °C but were eliminated when HIPed at and above 1260 °C. The grain size uniformity of the powder compacts first increases and then decreases with increasing HIPing temperature. Prior particle boundaries (PPBs) were observed in the powder compacts HIPed at and below 1260 °C but was eliminated when HIPed at 1275 °C. The PPBs were decorated with carbide particles, the amount of the carbide particles at the PPBs decreases with increasing HIPing temperature. Most of the PPBs were pinned by the carbide particles in the compacts HIPed at 1140 °C. When the HIPing temperature was increased to 1210 °C and 1260 °C, a large number of PPBs de-pinned and moved beyond the pinning carbide particles, leading to grain growth and leaving carbide particles at the site of the original PPBs within the new grains. With increasing HIPing temperature, the 0.2% yield strength of the powder compacts at 650 °C decreases, the tensile elongation increases, and the tensile fracture mode changed from inter-particle dominant fracture to fully dimple ductile fracture

  17. Influences of hot-isostatic-pressing temperature on microstructure, tensile properties and tensile fracture mode of Inconel 718 powder compact

    Chang, Litao [Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Sun, Wenru; Cui, Yuyou [Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang (China); Yang, Rui, E-mail: ryang@imr.ac.cn [Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang (China)

    2014-04-01

    Inconel 718 powders have been hot-isostatic-pressed (HIPed) at representative temperatures to investigate the variations in microstructure, tensile properties and tensile fracture mode of the powder compact. Microstructure of the powder compacts were characterized by optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and so on. The results showed that the interdendritic precipitates inherited from the powders were partially retained in the powder compacts when the powders were HIPed at or below 1210 °C but were eliminated when HIPed at and above 1260 °C. The grain size uniformity of the powder compacts first increases and then decreases with increasing HIPing temperature. Prior particle boundaries (PPBs) were observed in the powder compacts HIPed at and below 1260 °C but was eliminated when HIPed at 1275 °C. The PPBs were decorated with carbide particles, the amount of the carbide particles at the PPBs decreases with increasing HIPing temperature. Most of the PPBs were pinned by the carbide particles in the compacts HIPed at 1140 °C. When the HIPing temperature was increased to 1210 °C and 1260 °C, a large number of PPBs de-pinned and moved beyond the pinning carbide particles, leading to grain growth and leaving carbide particles at the site of the original PPBs within the new grains. With increasing HIPing temperature, the 0.2% yield strength of the powder compacts at 650 °C decreases, the tensile elongation increases, and the tensile fracture mode changed from inter-particle dominant fracture to fully dimple ductile fracture.

  18. Preliminary study on tensile properties and fractography of the recycled aluminum cast product

    Hishamuddin Hussain; Mohd Harun; Hafizal Yazid; Shaiful Rizam Shamsudin; Zaiton Selamat; Mohd Shariff Sattar

    2004-01-01

    Among many mechanical properties of materials, tensile properties are probably the most frequently considered, evaluated, and referred by the industry. This paper presents the result of preliminary study regarding the tensile properties and fractography of the recycled aluminum cast product. For this purpose, three sets of specimen were prepared for tensile testing by using permanent mold casting technique. The cast products are in durable shaped tensile specimens with the gauge length of 50mm. The tensile testing was conducted in accordance with BS EN 10002-1 and ISO 6892 standards. Fracture surface analysis was also conducted to understand materials behaviour. (Author)

  19. Strain Rate Effect on Tensile Flow Behavior and Anisotropy of a Medium-Manganese TRIP Steel

    Alturk, Rakan; Hector, Louis G.; Matthew Enloe, C.; Abu-Farha, Fadi; Brown, Tyson W.

    2018-06-01

    The dependence of the plastic anisotropy on the nominal strain rate for a medium-manganese (10 wt.% Mn) transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) steel with initial austenite volume fraction of 66% (balance ferrite) has been investigated. The material exhibited yield point elongation, propagative instabilities during hardening, and austenite transformation to α'-martensite either directly or through ɛ-martensite. Uniaxial strain rates within the range of 0.005-500 s-1 along the 0°, 45°, and 90° orientations were selected based upon their relevance to automotive applications. The plastic anisotropy ( r) and normal anisotropy ( r n) indices corresponding to each direction and strain rate were determined using strain fields obtained from stereo digital image correlation systems that enabled both quasistatic and dynamic measurements. The results provide evidence of significant, orientation-dependent strain rate effects on both the flow stress and the evolution of r and r n with strain. This has implications not only for material performance during forming but also for the development of future strain-rate-dependent anisotropic yield criteria. Since tensile data alone for the subject medium-manganese TRIP steel do not satisfactorily determine the microstructural mechanisms responsible for the macroscopic-scale behavior observed on tensile testing, additional tests that must supplement the mechanical test results presented herein are discussed.

  20. Effect of tensile mean stress on fatigue behavior of single-crystal and directionally solidified superalloys

    Kalluri, Sreeramesh; Mcgaw, Michael A.

    1990-01-01

    Two nickel base superalloys, single crystal PWA 1480 and directionally solidified MAR-M 246 + Hf, were studied in view of the potential usage of the former and usage of the latter as blade materials for the turbomachinery of the space shuttle main engine. The baseline zero mean stress (ZMS) fatigue life (FL) behavior of these superalloys was established, and then the effect of tensile mean stress (TMS) on their FL behavior was characterized. At room temperature these superalloys have lower ductilities and higher strengths than most polycrystalline engineering alloys. The cycle stress-strain response was thus nominally elastic in most of the fatigue tests. Therefore, a stress range based FL prediction approach was used to characterize both the ZMS and TMS fatigue data. In the past, several researchers have developed methods to account for the detrimental effect of tensile mean stress on the FL for polycrystalline engineering alloys. However, the applicability of these methods to single crystal and directionally solidified superalloys has not been established. In this study, these methods were applied to characterize the TMS fatigue data of single crystal PWA 1480 and directionally solidified MAR-M 246 + Hf and were found to be unsatisfactory. Therefore, a method of accounting for the TMS effect on FL, that is based on a technique proposed by Heidmann and Manson was developed to characterize the TMS fatigue data of these superalloys. Details of this method and its relationship to the conventionally used mean stress methods in FL prediction are discussed.