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Sample records for flax genetic resources

  1. Spectroscopic characterization of genetically modified flax fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dymińska, L.; Gągor, A.; Hanuza, J.; Kulma, A.; Preisner, M.; Żuk, M.; Szatkowski, M.; Szopa, J.

    2014-09-01

    The principal goal of this paper is an analysis of flax fiber composition. Natural and genetically modified flax fibers derived from transgenic flax have been analyzed. Development of genetic engineering enables to improve the quality of fibers. Three transgenic plant lines with different modifications were generated based on fibrous flax plants as the origin. These are plants with: silenced cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) gene; overexpression of polygalacturonase (PGI); and expression of three genes construct containing β-ketothiolase (phb A), acetoacetyl-CoA reductase (phb B), and poly-3-hydroxybutyric acid synthase (phb C). Flax fibers have been studied by FT-IR spectroscopy. The integral intensities of the IR bands have been used for estimation of the chemical content of the normal and transgenic flaxes. The spectroscopic data were compared to those obtained from chemical analysis of flax fibers. X-ray studies have been used to characterize the changes of the crystalline structure of the flax cellulose fibers.

  2. Molecular genetic studies in flax (Linum usitatissimum L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vromans, J.

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis five molecular genetic studies on flax ( Linum usitatissimum L.) are described, of which two chapters aim to characterize the genetic structure and the amount of genetic diversity in the primary and secondary gene pool of the crop species. Three chapters describe the development of

  3. Genetic characterization of a core collection of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) suitable for association mapping studies and evidence of divergent selection between fiber and linseed types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Cerda, Braulio J; Diederichsen, Axel; Ragupathy, Raja; Cloutier, Sylvie

    2013-05-06

    Flax is valued for its fiber, seed oil and nutraceuticals. Recently, the fiber industry has invested in the development of products made from linseed stems, making it a dual purpose crop. Simultaneous targeting of genomic regions controlling stem fiber and seed quality traits could enable the development of dual purpose cultivars. However, the genetic diversity, population structure and linkage disequilibrium (LD) patterns necessary for association mapping (AM) have not yet been assessed in flax because genomic resources have only recently been developed. We characterized 407 globally distributed flax accessions using 448 microsatellite markers. The data was analyzed to assess the suitability of this core collection for AM. Genomic scans to identify candidate genes selected during the divergent breeding process of fiber flax and linseed were conducted using the whole genome shotgun sequence of flax. Combined genetic structure analysis assigned all accessions to two major groups with six sub-groups. Population differentiation was weak between the major groups (F(ST) = 0.094) and for most of the pairwise comparisons among sub-groups. The molecular coancestry analysis indicated weak relatedness (mean = 0.287) for most individual pairs. Abundant genetic diversity was observed in the total panel (5.32 alleles per locus), and some sub-groups showed a high proportion of private alleles. The average genome-wide LD (r²) was 0.036, with a relatively fast decay of 1.5 cM. Genomic scans between fiber flax and linseed identified candidate genes involved in cell-wall biogenesis/modification, xylem identity and fatty acid biosynthesis congruent with genes previously identified in flax and other plant species. Based on the abundant genetic diversity, weak population structure and relatedness and relatively fast LD decay, we concluded that this core collection is suitable for AM studies targeting multiple agronomic and quality traits aiming at the improvement of flax as a

  4. Effects of genetic modifications to flax (Linum usitatissimum) on arbuscular mycorrhiza and plant performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wróbel-Kwiatkowska, Magdalena; Turnau, Katarzyna; Góralska, Katarzyna; Anielska, Teresa; Szopa, Jan

    2012-10-01

    Although arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are known for their positive effect on flax growth, the impact of genetic manipulation in this crop on arbuscular mycorrhiza and plant performance was assessed for the first time. Five types of transgenic flax that were generated to improve fiber quality and resistance to pathogens, through increased levels of either phenylpropanoids (W92.40), glycosyltransferase (GT4, GT5), or PR2 beta-1,3-glucanase (B14) or produce polyhydroxybutyrate (M50), were used. Introduced genetic modifications did not change the degree of mycorrhizal colonization as compared to parent cultivars Linola and Nike. Arbuscules were well developed in each tested transgenic type (except M50). In two lines (W92.40 and B14), a higher abundance of arbuscules was observed when compared to control, untransformed flax plants. However, in some cases (W92.40, GT4, GT5, and B14 Md), the mycorrhizal dependency for biomass production of transgenic plants was slightly lower when compared to the original cultivars. No significant influence of mycorrhiza on the photosynthetic activity of transformed lines was found, but in most cases P concentration in mycorrhizal plants remained higher than in nonmycorrhizal ones. The transformed flax lines meet the demands for better quality of fiber and higher resistance to pathogens, without significantly influencing the interaction with AMF.

  5. Integration of Physical, Genetic, and Cytogenetic Mapping Data for Cellulose Synthase (CesA Genes in Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Y. Yurkevich

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Flax, Linum usitatissimum L., is a valuable multi-purpose plant, and currently, its genome is being extensively investigated. Nevertheless, mapping of genes in flax genome is still remaining a challenging task. The cellulose synthase (CesA multigene family involving in the process of cellulose synthesis is especially important for metabolism of this fiber crop. For the first time, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH-based chromosomal localization of the CesA conserved fragment (KF011584.1, 5S, and 26S rRNA genes was performed in landrace, oilseed, and fiber varieties of L. usitatissimum. Intraspecific polymorphism in chromosomal distribution of KF011584.1 and 5S DNA loci was revealed, and the generalized chromosome ideogram was constructed. Using BLAST analysis, available data on physical/genetic mapping and also whole-genome sequencing of flax, localization of KF011584.1, 45S, and 5S rRNA sequences on genomic scaffolds, and their anchoring to the genetic map were conducted. The alignment of the results of FISH and BLAST analyses indicated that KF011584.1 fragment revealed on chromosome 3 could be anchored to linkage group (LG 11. The common LG for 45S and 5S rDNA was not found probably due to the polymorphic localization of 5S rDNA on chromosome 1. Our findings indicate the complexity of integration of physical, genetic, and cytogenetic mapping data for multicopy gene families in plants. Nevertheless, the obtained results can be useful for future progress in constructing of integrated physical/genetic/cytological maps in L. usitatissimum which are essential for flax breeding.

  6. Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) - a natural resource for food and textiles for 8000 years. Cross-disciplinary investigations on the evolution and cultural history of flax and linen. Programme and abstracts of the first workshop 24-26 November 2009 in the Carlsberg Academy Copenhagen, Denmark. Communicating Culture. Workshop Info 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karg, Sabine

    Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) - a natural resource for food and textiles for 8000 years. Cross-disciplinary investigations on the evolution and cultural history of flax and linen. Programme and abstracts of the first workshop 24-26 November 2009 in the Carlsberg Academy Copenhagen, Denmark. Commu...

  7. Biochemical, mechanical, and spectroscopic analyses of genetically engineered flax fibers producing bioplastic (poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wróbel-Kwiatkowska, Magdalena; Skórkowska-Telichowska, Katarzyna; Dymińska, Lucyna; Maczka, Mirosław; Hanuza, Jerzy; Szopa, Jan

    2009-01-01

    The interest in biofibers has grown in recent years due to their expanding range of applications in fields as diverse as biomedical science and the automotive industry. Their low production costs, biodegradability, physical properties, and perceived eco-friendliness allow for their extensive use as composite components, a role in which they could replace petroleum-based synthetic polymers. We performed biochemical, mechanical, and structural analyses of flax stems and fibers derived from field-grown transgenic flax enriched with PHB (poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate). The analyses of the plant stems revealed an increase in the cellulose content and a decrease in the lignin and pectin contents relative to the control plants. However, the contents of the fibers' major components (cellulose, lignin, pectin) remain unchanged. An FT-IR study confirmed the results of the biochemical analyses of the flax fibers. However, the arrangement of the cellulose polymer in the transgenic fibers differed from that in the control, and a significant increase in the number of hydrogen bonds was detected. The mechanical properties of the transgenic flax stems were significantly improved, reflecting the cellulose content increase. However, the mechanical properties of the fibers did not change in comparison with the control, with the exception of the fibers from transgenic line M13. The generated transgenic flax plants, which produce both components of the flax/PHB composites (i.e., fibers and thermoplastic matrix in the same plant organ) are a source of an attractive and ecologically safe material for industry and medicine.

  8. IR and Raman studies of oil and seedcake extracts from natural and genetically modified flax seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żuk, M.; Dymińska, L.; Kulma, A.; Boba, A.; Prescha, A.; Szopa, J.; Mączka, M.; Zając, A.; Szołtysek, K.; Hanuza, J.

    2011-03-01

    Flax plant of the third generation (F3) overexpressing key genes of flavonoid pathway cultivated in field in 2008 season was used as the plant material throughout this study. The biochemical properties of seed, oil and seedcake extracts from natural and transgenic flax plants were compared. Overproduction of flavonoids (kaempferol), phenolic acids (coumaric, ferulic/synapic) and lignan-secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) in oil and extracts from transgenic seeds has been revealed providing a valuable source of these compounds for biotechnological application. The changes in fatty acids composition and increase in their stability against oxidation along three plant generations were also detected. The analysis of oil and seedcake extracts was performed using Raman and IR spectroscopy. The wavenumbers and integral intensities of Raman and IR bands were used to identify the components of phenylpropanoid pathway in oil and seedcake extracts from control and transgenic flax seeds. The spectroscopic data were compared to those obtained from biochemical analysis.

  9. Improved method for fibre content and quality analysis and their application to flax genetic diversity investigations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oever, van den M.J.A.; Bas, N.; Soest, van L.J.M.; Melis, C.; Dam, van J.E.G.

    2003-01-01

    Evaluation for fibre content and quality in a breeding selection program is time consuming and costly. Therefore, this study aims to develop a method for fast and reproducible fibre content analysis on small flax straw samples. A protocol has been developed and verified with fibre screening methods

  10. Improved method for fibre content and quality analysis and their application to flax genetic diversity investigations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oever, van den M.J.A.; Bas, N.; Soest, van L.J.M.; Melis, C.; Dam, van J.E.G.

    2003-01-01

    Evaluation for fibre content and quality in a breeding selection program is time consuming and costly. Therefore, this study aims to develop a method for fast and reproducible fibre content analysis on small flax straw samples. A protocol has been developed and verified with fibre screening methods

  11. Genetic toxicology: web resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Robert R

    2002-04-25

    Genetic toxicology is the scientific discipline dealing with the effects of chemical, physical and biological agents on the heredity of living organisms. The Internet offers a wide range of online digital resources for the field of Genetic Toxicology. The history of genetic toxicology and electronic data collections are reviewed. Web-based resources at US National Library of Medicine (NLM), including MEDLINE, PUBMED, Gateway, Entrez, and TOXNET, are discussed. Search strategies and Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) are reviewed in the context of genetic toxicology. The TOXNET group of databases are discussed with emphasis on those databases with genetic toxicology content including GENE-TOX, TOXLINE, Hazardous Substances Data Bank, Integrated Risk Information System, and Chemical Carcinogenesis Research Information System. Location of chemical information including chemical structure and linkage to health and regulatory information using CHEMIDPLUS at NLM and other databases is reviewed. Various government agencies have active genetic toxicology research programs or use genetic toxicology data to assist fulfilling the agency's mission. Online resources at the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the National Institutes of Environmental Health Sciences, and the National Toxicology Program (NTP) are outlined. Much of the genetic toxicology for pharmaceuticals, industrial chemicals and pesticides that is performed in the world is regulatory-driven. Regulatory web resources are presented for the laws mandating testing, guidelines on study design, Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) regulations, and requirements for electronic data collection and reporting. The Internet provides a range of other supporting resources to the field of genetic toxicology. The web links for key professional societies and journals in genetic toxicology are listed. Distance education, educational media resources, and job placement services are also

  12. Improving retting of fibre through genetic modification of flax to express pectinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musialak, Magdalena; Wróbel-Kwiatkowska, Magdalena; Kulma, Anna; Starzycka, Eligia; Szopa, Jan

    2008-02-01

    Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) is a raw material used for important industrial products. Linen has very high quality textile properties, such as its strength, water absorption, comfort and feel. However, it occupies less than 1% of the total textile market. The major reason for this is the long and difficult retting process by which linen fibres are obtained. In retting, bast fibre bundles are separated from the core, the epidermis and the cuticle. This is accomplished by the cleavage of pectins and hemicellulose in the flax cell wall, a process mainly carried out by plant pathogens like filamentous fungi. The remaining bast fibres are mainly composed of cellulose and lignin. The aim of this study was to generate plants that could be retted more efficiently. To accomplish this, we employed the novel approach of transgenic flax plant generation with increased polygalacturonase (PGI ) and rhamnogalacturonase (RHA) activities. The constitutive expression of Aspergillus aculeatus genes resulted in a significant reduction in the pectin content in tissue-cultured and field-grown plants. This pectin content reduction was accompanied by a significantly higher (more than 2-fold) retting efficiency of the transgenic plant fibres as measured by a modified Fried's test. No alteration in the lignin or cellulose content was observed in the transgenic plants relative to the control. This indicates that the over-expression of the two enzymes does not affect flax fibre composition. The growth rate and soluble sugar and starch contents were in the range of the control levels. It is interesting to note that the RHA and PGI plants showed higher resistance to Fusarium culmorum and F. oxysporum attack, which correlates with the increased phenolic acid level. In this report, we demonstrate for the first time that over-expression of the A. aculeatus genes results in flax plants more readily usable for fibre production. The biochemical parameters of the cell wall components indicated that

  13. Maize Genetic Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter describes the resources held at the Maize Genetics Cooperation • Stock Center in detail and also provides some information about the North Central Regional Plant Introduction Station (NCRPIS) in Ames, IA, Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maiz y Trigo (CIMMYT) in Mexico, and the N...

  14. Flax shive thermocatalytic processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulman, E. M.; Lugovoy, Yu. V.; Chalov, K. V.; Kosivtsov, Yu. Yu.; Stepacheva, A. A.; Shimanskaya, E. I.

    2016-11-01

    In the paper the thermogravimetric study of biomass waste thermodestruction process is presented. Metal chlorides have the highest influence on the flax shive thermodestruction. The results of kinetic modeling are also shown on the base of thermogravimetric analysis both of the samples of flax shive and flax shive with addition of 10% (wt.) nickel chloride at different heating rate.

  15. Effect of Dose and Administration Period of Seed Cake of Genetically Modified and Non-Modified Flax on Selected Antioxidative Activities in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matusiewicz, Magdalena; Kosieradzka, Iwona; Zuk, Magdalena; Szopa, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Flaxseed cake containing antioxidants is a valuable dietary component. Its nutritional effect may be diminished by the presence of anti-nutrients. The work was aimed at determining the effect of different contents of flaxseed cake in diets and their administration period on the development of rats and selected parameters of their health status. Diets with 15% and 30% addition of genetically modified (GM) flax seed cake with enhanced synthesis of polyphenols, as well as Linola non-GM flax were administered in short-term (33 days) and long-term (90 days) experiments. The 30% addition of flaxseed cake reduced digestibility of dietary nutrients, GM flaxseed cake lowered body weight gains. The relative weight of selected organs, hematological blood markers and serum activities of aspartate and alanine aminotransferases (AST, ALT) were not affected. Flaxseed cake consumption reduced serum concentration of albumins and increased globulins. Administration of 30% flaxseed cake improved plasma total antioxidant status and 30% GM flaxseed cake lowered liver thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. The activities of superoxide dismutase in erythrocytes, glutathione peroxidase in plasma and the liver concentration of 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine were not changed. Most morphometric parameters of the small intestine did not differ between feeding groups. The administration of diets with 30% addition of flaxseed cake for 90 days improved the antioxidant status in rats.

  16. GENETICS AND GENOMICS OF PLANT GENETIC RESOURCES

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    Börner A.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Plant genetic resources play a major role for global food security. The most significant and widespread mean of conserving plant genetic resources is ex situ conservation. Most conserved accessions are kept in specialized facilities known as genebanks maintained by public or private institutions. World-wide 7.4 million accessions are stored in about 1,500 ex situ genebanks.In addition, series of genetic stocks including chromosome substitution lines, alloplasmic lines, single chromosome recombinant lines, introgression lines, etc. have been created. Analysing these genetic stocks many qualitative and quantitative inherited traits were associated to certain chromosomes, chromosome arms or introgressed segments. Today, genetic stocks are supplemented by a huge number of genotyped mapping populations. Beside progenies of bi-parental crosses (doubled haploid lines, recombinant inbred lines, etc. panels for association mapping were created recently.In our presentation we give examples for the successful utilisation of genebank accessions and genetic stocks for genetic and genomic studies. Using both segregation and association mapping approaches, data on mapping of loci/marker trait associations for a range of different traits are presented.

  17. Genetic Resources of Watermelon

    Science.gov (United States)

    As a result of many years of domestication and selection for desirable fruit quality, watermelon cultivars (Citrullus lanatus) share a narrow genetic base. Africa is the center of origin and diversity of watermelon and is considered to be the central continent for collecting and conserving useful ge...

  18. Impact of CAD-deficiency in flax on biogas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wróbel-Kwiatkowska, Magdalena; Jabłoński, Sławomir; Szperlik, Jakub; Dymińska, Lucyna; Łukaszewicz, Marcin; Rymowicz, Waldemar; Hanuza, Jerzy; Szopa, Jan

    2015-12-01

    Global warming and the reduction in our fossil fuel reservoir have forced humanity to look for new means of energy production. Agricultural waste remains a large source for biofuel and bioenergy production. Flax shives are a waste product obtained during the processing of flax fibers. We investigated the possibility of using low-lignin flax shives for biogas production, specifically by assessing the impact of CAD deficiency on the biochemical and structural properties of shives. The study used genetically modified flax plants with a silenced CAD gene, which encodes the key enzyme for lignin synthesis. Reducing the lignin content modified cellulose crystallinity, improved flax shive fermentation and optimized biogas production. Chemical pretreatment of the shive biomass further increased biogas production efficiency.

  19. [Genetic resources of nodule bacteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumiantseva, M L

    2009-09-01

    Nodule bacteria (rhizobia) form highly specific symbiosis with leguminous plants. The efficiency of accumulation of biological nitrogen depends on molecular-genetic interaction between the host plant and rhizobia. Genetic characteristics of microsymbiotic strains are crucial in developing highly productive and stress-resistant symbiotic pairs: rhizobium strain-host plant cultivar (species). The present review considers the issue of studying genetic resources of nodule bacteria to identify genes and their blocks, responsible for the ability of rhizobia to form highly effective symbiosis in various agroecological conditions. The main approaches to investigation of intraspecific and interspecific genetic and genomic diversity of nodule bacteria are considered, from MLEE analysis to the recent methods of genomic DNA analysis using biochips. The data are presented showing that gene centers of host plants are centers of genetic diversification of nodule bacteria, because the intraspecific polymorphism of genetic markers of the core and the accessory rhizobial genomes is extremely high in them. Genotypic features of trapped and nodule subpopulations of alfalfa nodule bacteria are discussed. A survey of literature showed that the genomes of natural strains in alfalfa gene centers exhibit significant differences in genes involved in control of metabolism, replication, recombination, and the formation of defense response (hsd genes). Natural populations of rhizobia are regarded as a huge gene pool serving as a source of evolutionary innovations.

  20. GeneEd -- A Genetics Educational Resource

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    ... Javascript on. Feature: Genetics 101 GeneEd — A Genetics Educational Resource Past Issues / Summer 2013 Table of Contents Science ... The Hereditary Material of Life / GeneEd — A Genetics Educational Resource / Using The Genetics Home Reference Website / Understanding the ...

  1. Gene expression analysis of flax seed development

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    Sharpe Andrew

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Flax, Linum usitatissimum L., is an important crop whose seed oil and stem fiber have multiple industrial applications. Flax seeds are also well-known for their nutritional attributes, viz., omega-3 fatty acids in the oil and lignans and mucilage from the seed coat. In spite of the importance of this crop, there are few molecular resources that can be utilized toward improving seed traits. Here, we describe flax embryo and seed development and generation of comprehensive genomic resources for the flax seed. Results We describe a large-scale generation and analysis of expressed sequences in various tissues. Collectively, the 13 libraries we have used provide a broad representation of genes active in developing embryos (globular, heart, torpedo, cotyledon and mature stages seed coats (globular and torpedo stages and endosperm (pooled globular to torpedo stages and genes expressed in flowers, etiolated seedlings, leaves, and stem tissue. A total of 261,272 expressed sequence tags (EST (GenBank accessions LIBEST_026995 to LIBEST_027011 were generated. These EST libraries included transcription factor genes that are typically expressed at low levels, indicating that the depth is adequate for in silico expression analysis. Assembly of the ESTs resulted in 30,640 unigenes and 82% of these could be identified on the basis of homology to known and hypothetical genes from other plants. When compared with fully sequenced plant genomes, the flax unigenes resembled poplar and castor bean more than grape, sorghum, rice or Arabidopsis. Nearly one-fifth of these (5,152 had no homologs in sequences reported for any organism, suggesting that this category represents genes that are likely unique to flax. Digital analyses revealed gene expression dynamics for the biosynthesis of a number of important seed constituents during seed development. Conclusions We have developed a foundational database of expressed sequences and collection of plasmid

  2. Locus-specific view of flax domestication history.

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    Fu, Yong-Bi; Diederichsen, Axel; Allaby, Robin G

    2012-01-01

    Crop domestication has been inferred genetically from neutral markers and increasingly from specific domestication-associated loci. However, some crops are utilized for multiple purposes that may or may not be reflected in a single domestication-associated locus. One such example is cultivated flax (Linum usitatissimum L.), the earliest oil and fiber crop, for which domestication history remains poorly understood. Oil composition of cultivated flax and pale flax (L. bienne Mill.) indicates that the sad2 locus is a candidate domestication locus associated with increased unsaturated fatty acid production in cultivated flax. A phylogenetic analysis of the sad2 locus in 43 pale and 70 cultivated flax accessions established a complex domestication history for flax that has not been observed previously. The analysis supports an early, independent domestication of a primitive flax lineage, in which the loss of seed dispersal through capsular indehiscence was not established, but increased oil content was likely occurred. A subsequent flax domestication process occurred that probably involved multiple domestications and includes lineages that contain oil, fiber, and winter varieties. In agreement with previous studies, oil rather than fiber varieties occupy basal phylogenetic positions. The data support multiple paths of flax domestication for oil-associated traits before selection of the other domestication-associated traits of seed dispersal loss and fiber production. The sad2 locus is less revealing about the origin of winter tolerance. In this case, a single domestication-associated locus is informative about the history of domesticated forms with the associated trait while partially informative on forms less associated with the trait.

  3. Forest genetic resources to support global bioeconomy

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    Saša Orlović

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A biobased economy implies sustainable and effective use of the biomass. This includes new products from forestry. The sustainable production, use, consumption and waste management of biomass all contribute to a bioeconomy (The European Bioeconomy in 2030. In the context of bioeconomy the conservation of forest genetic resources assumes a key significance in overcoming global challenges such as climate change. Forests are expected to play a key role in climate change mitigation, but they will only be able to fulfil that role if the trees themselves are able to survive and adapt to changing climate conditions. Genetic diversity provides the fundamental basis for the evolution of forest tree species and for their adaptation to change. The enormous range of goods and services provided by trees and forests is both a function of and testimony to the genetic variability contained within them.  Conserving forest  genetic  resources  is  therefore  vital, as  they  constitute  a  unique  and  irreplaceable resource for the future, including for sustainable economic growth and progress and environmental adaption (The State of the Worlds Forest Genetic Resources 2014.Previous research of population characteristics and the effects of natural and artificial selection on the genetic structure of populations contribute to the conservation and enhancement of the gene pool of the native tree species. The balance model of the population genetic structure reveals the new properties of the populations and requires further investigations, especially of the relations of subpopulations, half-sib families and organisms and the effect of variable factors of the environment, on the exchange of genetic material within natural and cultural populations.Being of national and international significance, these resources require intensive protection and enhancement in situ and ex situ. In this paper a general introduction is given to conservation of forest genetic

  4. Poly-3-hydroxy butyric acid interaction with the transgenic flax fibers: FT-IR and Raman spectra of the composite extracted from a GM flax

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    Wróbel-Kwiatkowska, Magdalena; Żuk, Magdalena; Szopa, Jan; Dymińska, Lucyna; Mączka, Mirosław; Hanuza, Jerzy

    2009-07-01

    The FT-IR and FT-Raman studies have been performed on commercial 3-hydroxy-butyric acid, commercial poly-3-hydroxy butyric acid as well as poly-3-hydroxy butyric acid (PHB) produced by bacteria. The data were compared to those obtained for poly-3-hydroxy butyric acid extracted from natural and genetically modified flax. Genetically modified flax was generated by expression of three bacterial genes coding for synthesis of poly-3-hydroxy butyric acid. Thus transgenic flaxes were enhanced with different amount of the PHB. The discussion of polymer structure and vibrational properties has been done in order to get insight into differences among these materials. The interaction between the cellulose of flax fibers and embedded poly-3-hydroxybutyric acid has been also discussed. The spectroscopic data provide evidences for structural changes in cellulose and in PHB when synthesized in fibers. Based on this data it is suggesting that cellulose and PHB interact by hydrogen and ester bonds.

  5. Flavonoid engineering of flax potentiate its biotechnological application

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    Prescha Anna

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Flavonoids are a group of secondary plant metabolites important for plant growth and development. They show also a protective effect against colon and breast cancer, diabetes, hypercholesterolemic atherosclerosis, lupus nephritis, and immune and inflammatory reactions. Thus, overproduction of these compounds in flax by genetic engineering method might potentiate biotechnological application of these plant products. Results Flax plants of third generation overexpressing key genes of flavonoid pathway cultivated in field were used as plant material throughout this study. The biochemical properties of seed, oil and seedcake extracts and fibre from natural and transgenic flax plants were compared. The data obtained suggests that the introduced genes were stably inherited and expressed through plant generations. Overproduction of flavonoid compounds resulted in increase of fatty acids accumulation in oil from transgenic seeds due to protection from oxidation offered during synthesis and seed maturation. The biochemical analysis of seedcake extracts from seeds of transgenic flax revealed significant increase in flavonoids (kaempferol, phenolic acids (coumaric, ferulic, synapic acids and lignan content. Fibres, another product of flax plant showed increase in the level of catechine and acetylvanillone and decrease in phenolic acids upon flax modification. Biochemical analysis results were confirmed using IR spectroscopy. The integral intensities of IR bands have been used for identification of the component of phenylpropanoid pathway in oil, seedcake extract and fibre from control and transgenic flax. It was shown that levels of flavonoids, phenolic acids and lignans in oil and seedcake extract was higher in transgenic flax products compared to control. An FT-IR study of fibres confirmed the biochemical data and revealed that the arrangement of the cellulose polymer in the transgenic fibres differs from the control; in particular a

  6. ANIMAL GENETIC RESOURCES IN SLOVAK REPUBLIC

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    Peter Chrenek

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Importance of preservation (cryopreservation and use of the farm animals’ gene pool emerge from biological, economic, landscaping and cultural needs of each country that are realized using national gene banks. Availability of the animal genetic resources has an impact on the present and also future life quality and important effect on the food safety. Ratification of the Convention on the Biodiversity oblige Slovak Republic to protect biodiversity, to guarantee sustainable use of its components and fair and equal access to benefit sharing from genetic resources.

  7. Utilization and transfer of forest genetic resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koskela, Jarkko; Vinceti, Barbara; Dvorak, William

    2014-01-01

    Over the last 200 years, genetic resources of forest trees have been increasingly transferred, within and outside of species’ native distribution ranges, for forestry and for research and development (R&D). Transferred germplasm has been deployed to grow trees for numerous purposes, ranging from ...

  8. Grain legume genetic resources for allele mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sequencing capacities for higher throughput at significantly lower costs have enabled larger scale genotyping of plant genetic resources. One challenge to sequencing the USDA grain legume collections of pea, chickpea and lentil core accessions is the amount of heterogeneity in the landrace accessio...

  9. Forest Genetic Resources Conservation and Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ukendt, FAO; Ukendt, DFSC; Ukendt, ICRAF

    FAO, IPGRI/SAFORGEN, DFSCand ICRAF have cooperated on the compilation of17 booklets on the state of Forest Genetic Resources for thecountries listed below. When ordering your book please remember to write the country required on the email. Benin, Burkina Faso, Cote d\\Ivoire, Ethiopia, Gambia...

  10. Study of Siberian forest genetic resources

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    L. I. Milyutin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Forest genetic resources are the aggregate of genofonds of native and cultivar populations of forest woody plants, valuable really or potential for specific territory (A brief dictionary… 2014. Forest genetic resources are studied in practice in most cases on example of forest-forming woody plants. It is necessary to consider of study of these resources in two positions: taxonomic and geographic. Forest forming coniferous species are studied best of all from the taxonomic point of view taking into account biodiversity. Genetic polymorphism is studied most in detail with such species as Pinus sylvestris, Pinus sibirica, Larix sibirica, Larix sukaczevii, Picea obovata, Abies sibirica. Populations of Larix gmelinii, Larix cajanderi, Picea ajanensis are studied considerable worse. Materials about genetic polymorphism of forest forming foliage species – representative of genera Betula and Populus are absent. Caryological polymorphism is studied sufficiently well in all Siberian conifer species. It should be noted especially attached to examination of this problem, that individuals with B-chromosome were discovered first by gymnosperms as an example Picea obovata. Discovery in Siberia of triploid asp deserve special attention. Geographic variability is shown most broadly in the investigations of Pinus sylvestris, Pinus sibirica, Larix sibirica. These investigations were conducted both in natural populations and in provenance trials. Such investigations of another conifer and foliage species either are shown by separate fragments or are absent at all Geographic variability is shown in a large measure in the operative forest seed sources regionalization. Numerous investigations directed to the analysis of morphological variability are conducted by all forest forming species in the first place by conifers. Questions of hereditary determination of either signs remain in this problem. Similar questions concern the variability of other signs

  11. Overview on establishing flax industry

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Blouw, S

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available winter climate with temperature not less than 3°C. The life cycle of the flax plant consists of a 45 to 60 day vegetation period, a 15 to 25 day flowering period and a maturation period of 30 to 40 days. After the period of harvest fibre is separated...

  12. On the History of Cattle Genetic Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marleen Felius

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Cattle are our most important livestock species because of their production and role in human culture. Many breeds that differ in appearance, performance and environmental adaptation are kept on all inhabited continents, but the historic origin of the diverse phenotypes is not always clear. We give an account of the history of cattle by integrating archaeological record and pictorial or written sources, scarce until 300 years ago, with the recent contributions of DNA analysis. We describe the domestication of their wild ancestor, migrations to eventually all inhabited continents, the developments during prehistory, the antiquity and the Middle Ages, the relatively recent breed formation, the industrial cattle husbandry in the Old and New World and the current efforts to preserve the cattle genetic resources. Surveying the available information, we propose three main and overlapping phases during the development of the present genetic diversity: (i domestication and subsequent wild introgression; (ii natural adaptation to a diverse agricultural habitat; and (iii breed development.

  13. NCBI genetic resources supporting immunogenetic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feolo, M; Helmberg, W; Sherry, S; Maglott, D R

    2000-01-01

    The NCBI creates and maintains a set of integrated bibliographic, sequence, map, structure and other database resources to promote the efficient retrieval of information and the discovery of novel relationships. The connections made between elements of these resources permit researchers to start a search from a wide spectrum of entry points. These multiple dimensions of data can be roughly categorized by primary content as text or bibliographic (PubMed, PubMedCentral, OMIM, LocusLink), sequence (GenBank, Reference Sequence Project (RefSeq), dbSNP, MMDB), protein structure (MMDB) or map position (MapView). They can also becategorized by level of expert curation, which may range from validation of submissions from external groups (GenBank, PubMed, PubMedCentral,), to automatic computation (HomoloGene, UniGene), and to highly reviewed and corrected (LocusLink, MMDB, OMIM, RefSeq). Searches can be made by words (in an article title, key words, sequence annotation, database value, author) by sequence (BLAST or e-PCR against multiple sequence databases), or by map coordinates. By computing or curating bi-directional links between related objects, NCBI can represent content on the genetics, molecular biology, and clinical considerations of interest to immunogeneticists. There is also an emerging resource developed by the NCBI in collaboration with the IHWG devoted to the presentation of MHC data (dbMHC). How dbMHC will augment existing resources at the NCBI is described.

  14. Agrobiodiversity with emphasis on plant genetic resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Karl; Arrowsmith, Nancy; Gladis, Thomas

    2003-06-01

    The science of agrobiodiversity has emerged during the last 10 years. We review here the most important aspects of biodiversity for conservation. One of the aims of agrobiodiversity research is to introduce or to re-introduce into present-day agriculture and horticulture more diversity from gene banks, botanical or zoological gardens, and other secondary sources of diversity. To enlarge the basis of agricultural and horticultural resources for human and animal nutrition, a sustainable use of these native and cultivated resources is necessary, including animal and plant genetic resources. The total number of botanical plant species cultivated as agricultural or horticultural crops is estimated at almost 7,000. However, only 30 major crop species "feed the world". Comparable numbers of animal species have been lost. The reduction in crop species and variety diversity, in particular, has led to the establishment of germplasm collections, so called gene banks, or ex situ collections. Six million plant accessions are conserved in gene banks worldwide. All these accessions belong to a very limited number of species. About half of them are advanced cultivars or breeders' lines, and only a third are landraces or old cultivars. Approximately 15% are wild relatives of crop species and weeds. Among other obvious gaps, minor crops and underutilized species are underrepresented in these collections, particularly primitive cultivars and wild relatives from the centers of origin, diversity, and cultivation. To date, only a third of all gene bank accessions have been fully characterized.

  15. The economic value of coffee (Coffea arabica) genetic resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hein, L.G.; Gatzweiler, F.

    2006-01-01

    Whereas the economic value of genetic diversity is widely recognized there are, to date, relatively few experiences with the actual valuation of genetic resources. This paper presents an analysis of the economic value of Coffea arabica genetic resources contained in Ethiopian highland forests. The v

  16. Cognitive radio resource allocation based on coupled chaotic genetic algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zu Yun-Xiao; Zhou Jie; Zeng Chang-Chang

    2010-01-01

    A coupled chaotic genetic algorithm for cognitive radio resource allocation which is based on genetic algorithm and coupled Logistic map is proposed. A fitness function for cognitive radio resource allocation is provided. Simulations are conducted for cognitive radio resource allocation by using the coupled chaotic genetic algorithm, simple genetic algorithm and dynamic allocation algorithm respectively. The simulation results show that, compared with simple genetic and dynamic allocation algorithm, coupled chaotic genetic algorithm reduces the total transmission power and bit error rate in cognitive radio system, and has faster convergence speed.

  17. Cognitive radio resource allocation based on coupled chaotic genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zu, Yun-Xiao; Zhou, Jie; Zeng, Chang-Chang

    2010-11-01

    A coupled chaotic genetic algorithm for cognitive radio resource allocation which is based on genetic algorithm and coupled Logistic map is proposed. A fitness function for cognitive radio resource allocation is provided. Simulations are conducted for cognitive radio resource allocation by using the coupled chaotic genetic algorithm, simple genetic algorithm and dynamic allocation algorithm respectively. The simulation results show that, compared with simple genetic and dynamic allocation algorithm, coupled chaotic genetic algorithm reduces the total transmission power and bit error rate in cognitive radio system, and has faster convergence speed.

  18. Plant Genetic Resources: Selected Issues from Genetic Erosion to Genetic Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Hammer

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Plant Genetic Resources (PGR continue to play an important role in the development of agriculture. The following aspects receive a special consideration:1. Definition. The term was coined in 1970. The genepool concept served as an important tool in the further development. Different approaches are discussed.2. Values of Genetic Resources. A short introduction is highlighting this problem and stressing the economic usfulness of PGR.3. Genetic Erosion. Already observed by E. Baur in 1914, this is now a key issue within PGR. The case studies cited include Ethiopia, Italy, China, S Korea, Greece and S. Africa. Modern approaches concentrate on allelic changes in varieties over time but neglect the landraces. The causes and consequences of genetic erosion are discussed.4. Genetic Resources Conservation. Because of genetic erosion there is a need for conservation. PGR should be consigned to the appropriate method of conservation (ex situ, in situ, on-farm according to the scientific basis of biodiversity (genetic diversity, species diversity, ecosystem diversity and the evolutionary status of plants (cultivated plants, weeds, related wild plants (crop wild relatives.5. GMO. The impact of genetically engineered plants on genetic diversity is discussed.6. The Conclusions and Recommendations stress the importance of PGR. Their conservation and use are urgent necessities for the present development and future survival of mankind.

  19. Study on Dynamic Information of Animal Genetic Resources in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Yue-hui; XU Gui-fang; WANG Duan-yun; LIU Hai-liang; YANG Yan

    2003-01-01

    The dynamic information of 331 animal genetic resources in 17 important animal genetic re-source provinces (regions) was analyzed. According to the population inbreeding coefficient, combiningwith the information of population dynamic change trend and cross degree, these genetic resources forthreatened degrees were classified. The results indicated that the population size of 138 breeds had in-creased, 147 breeds had decreased, 3 breeds were constant, 7 breeds (or varieties) were extinct, 9 breeds(or varieties) were critically endangered and needed urgently conserve, 50 breeds (or varieties) were endan-gered and should be conserved. We put forward a conservation and utilization plan for animal genetic re-sources.

  20. Assessing genetic resources of summer truffle in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ján Gažo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A study of summer truffle genetic resources, their description and evaluation of economically important traits in Slovak natural truffiéres started since 2005. Draft of national descriptor list has been developed to manage truffle genetic resources collected in the information system "Tuber Aestivum/ Uncinatum Phenotype Data" (TAUPD. Revision was performed in TAUPD to increase effectiveness of truffle breeding process.

  1. Studies on Monitoring and Tracking Genetic Resources: An Executive Summary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garrity, GM; Thompson, LM; Ussery, David

    2009-01-01

    The principles underlying fair and equitable sharing of benefits derived from the utilization of genetic resources are set out in Article 15 of the UN Convention on Biological Diversity, which stipulate that access to genetic resources is subject to the prior informed consent of the country where...

  2. Property regime concerning genetic resources and traditional knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel R. Nemogá Soto

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an historical account of the changes that have taken place regarding ownership, control and access over genetic resources. Once considered the common heritage of humanity, rights over genetic resources, it is argued, have undergone radical transformations. The global legal framework regarding genetic resources has shifted to legitimize and promote their appropriation and monopolization. This transformation embraced the expansion of intellectual property rights over genetic material and information, including living organisms, through the World Trade Organization´s Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property (TRIPs. This was coupled by the adoption of the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity, which recognizes sovereign rights of the countries of origin over their genetic resources and, at the same time, obligates them to permit access to those resources. The Colombian Constitution of 1991 and unparalleled judicial decisions during the last decade reaffirmed sovereign rights over genetic resources in Colombia. Conversely, the genetic resources and the traditional knowledge of Indigenous peoples and local communities continue to be freely accessible resources within the current Colombian legal framework. 

  3. Manufacturing Resource Planning Technology Based on Genetic Programming Simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Shiwen; LIAO Wenhe; GUO Yu; LIU Jinshan; SU Yan

    2009-01-01

    Network-based manufacturing is a kind of distributed system, which enables manufacturers to finish production tasks as well as to grasp the opportunities in the market, even if manufacturing resources are insufficient. One of the main problems in network-based manufacturing is the allocation of resources and the assignment of tasks rationally, according to flexible resource distribution. The mapping rules and relations between production techniques and resources are proposed, followed by the definition of the resource unit. Ultimately, the genetic programming method for the optimization of the manufacturing system is put forward. A set of software for the optimization system of simulation process using genetic programming techniques has been developed, and the problems of manufacturing resource planning in network-based manufacturing are solved with the simulation of optimizing methods by genetic programming. The optimum proposal of hardware planning, selection of company and scheduling will be obtained in theory to help company managers in scientific decision-making.

  4. Plant genetic resources: Advancing conservation and use through ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Germplasm Conservation Scientist, International Plant Genetic Resources Institute, Regional Office for Sub-Saharan. Africa, P.O. ... In cacao (Theobroma cocoa), where collecting .... the advent of these new cryogenic procedures, especially.

  5. The importance and implication of genetic resources in agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milošević Mirjana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The maintenance and preservation of biodiversity is going through the processes of conservation and restoration of disturbed ecosystems and habitats, as well as the preservation and recovery of species. Genetic diversity means the variety and total number of genes contained in plant and animal species and microorganisms. Genetic diversity is the basic unit of diversity, which is responsible for differences between individuals, populations and species. Genetic diversity is very important for the preservation of biodiversity and can be saved in several ways. Part of the germplasm is maintained through breeding programs as they evaluate germplasm stored and used as a source of needed diversity. The Convention on Biological Diversity is one of the most important international agreements to protect nature and conserve genetic resources. International treaties governing the use of genetic resources for food and agriculture are a way to ensure the conservation and sustainable use of plant resources for food and agriculture, and to regulate the rights of farmers.

  6. Thai pigs and cattle production, genetic diversity of livestock and strategies for preserving animal genetic resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kesinee Gatphayak

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the current situation of livestock production in Thailand, genetic diversity and evaluation, as well as management strategies for animal genetic resources focusing on pigs and cattle. Sustainable conservation of indigenous livestock as a genetic resource and vital components within the agricultural biodiversity domain is a great challenge as well as an asset for the future development of livestock production in Thailand.

  7. Genetic resources: the basis for sustainable and competitive plant breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Lourenço Nass

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Plant genetic resources are the fuel for breeding, which in the search for higher yield and adapted genotypes, manipulates genes in order to meet the needs of farmers, and especially, of the current market. However, the use of accessions available in germplasm banks is low. Topics discussed in this paper emphasize the importance of plant genetic resources, and warn about problems related to genetic vulnerability; also, they discuss about aspects of costs involved in conservation and suggest recommendations for strengthening the area in Brazil.

  8. Saving Resources with Plagues in Genetic Algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Vega, F F; Cantu-Paz, E; Lopez, J I; Manzano, T

    2004-06-15

    The population size of genetic algorithms (GAs) affects the quality of the solutions and the time required to find them. While progress has been made in estimating the population sizes required to reach a desired solution quality for certain problems, in practice the sizing of populations is still usually performed by trial and error. These trials might lead to find a population that is large enough to reach a satisfactory solution, but there may still be opportunities to optimize the computational cost by reducing the size of the population. This paper presents a technique called plague that periodically removes a number of individuals from the population as the GA executes. Recently, the usefulness of the plague has been demonstrated for genetic programming. The objective of this paper is to extend the study of plagues to genetic algorithms. We experiment with deceptive trap functions, a tunable difficult problem for GAs, and the experiments show that plagues can save computational time while maintaining solution quality and reliability.

  9. Influence of the physical structure of flax fibres on the mechanical properties of flax fibre reinforced polypropylene composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oever, van den M.J.A.; Bos, H.L.; Kemenade, van M.J.J.M.

    2000-01-01

    This study investigates the influence of the physical structure of flax fibres on the mechanical properties of polypropylene (PP) composites. Due to their composite-like structure, flax fibres have relatively weak lateral bonds which are in particular present in flax fibres that are often used in na

  10. Conservation and utilization of rice genetic resources in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@Rice genetic resources presents variably in China. There are land races and wild species. cultivated lowland rice and upland rice, indica (Hsien) and japonica (Keng) riee. early, middle, and late rice as well as glutinous and non-glutinous rice. Up to February 2000, a total of 76, 646 rice accessions were catalogued,and 67. 444 base accessions were stored in the National Crop Gene Bank in the Institute of Crop Genetic Resources (ICGR) of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, China (Table 1). About 35,000 rice duplicates were stored in China National Rice Research Institute(CNRRI), Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province. China.

  11. Genetic resources of teak (Tectona grandis Linn. f.)—strong genetic structure among natural populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ole Kim; Changtragoon, Suchitra; Ponoy, Bundit;

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-nine provenances of teak (Tectona grandis Linn. f.) representing the full natural distribution range of the species were genotyped with microsatellite DNA markers to analyse genetic diversity and population genetic structure. Provenances originating from the semi-moist east coast of India...... had the highest genetic diversity while provenances from Laos showed the lowest. In the eastern part of the natural distribution area, comprising Myanmar, Thailand and Laos, there was a strong clinal decrease in genetic diversity the further east the provenance was located. Overall, the pattern...... of the findings for conservation and use of genetic resources of the species are discussed....

  12. Study on Dyeing Behavior of Modified Flax

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Lai-jiu; LI Hong; LIU Jian-yu

    2004-01-01

    The study of dyeability of the modified flax that uses dye-uptake to reflect its modifying effect is reported in this paper. The optimal technological condition is that the concentration of the modifying agent is 4g/l, and NaOH is 6g/l at liquor ratio of 1:30 for 60 min. at 85℃.Dyeability include uptake rate and color fastness. Dye-uptake of the modified flax is twice more than that of the unmodified. And their color fastness doesn't fall and some of them raise 0.5-1 level.

  13. Pectinmethylesterases (PME) and pectinmethylesterase inhibitors (PMEI) enriched during phloem fiber development in flax (Linum usitatissimum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinzon-Latorre, David; Deyholos, Michael K

    2014-01-01

    Flax phloem fibers achieve their length by intrusive-diffusive growth, which requires them to penetrate the extracellular matrix of adjacent cells. Fiber elongation therefore involves extensive remodelling of cell walls and middle lamellae, including modifying the degree and pattern of methylesterification of galacturonic acid (GalA) residues of pectin. Pectin methylesterases (PME) are important enzymes for fiber elongation as they mediate the demethylesterification of GalA in muro, in either a block-wise fashion or in a random fashion. Our objective was to identify PMEs and PMEIs that mediate phloem fiber elongation in flax. For this purpose, we measured transcript abundance of candidate genes at nine different stages of stem and fiber development and found sets of genes enriched during fiber elongation and maturation as well as during xylem development. We expressed one of the flax PMEIs in E. coli and demonstrated that it was able to inhibit most of the native PME activity in the upper portion of the flax stem. These results identify key genetic components of the intrusive growth process and define targets for fiber engineering and crop improvement.

  14. Pectinmethylesterases (PME and pectinmethylesterase inhibitors (PMEI enriched during phloem fiber development in flax (Linum usitatissimum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Pinzon-Latorre

    Full Text Available Flax phloem fibers achieve their length by intrusive-diffusive growth, which requires them to penetrate the extracellular matrix of adjacent cells. Fiber elongation therefore involves extensive remodelling of cell walls and middle lamellae, including modifying the degree and pattern of methylesterification of galacturonic acid (GalA residues of pectin. Pectin methylesterases (PME are important enzymes for fiber elongation as they mediate the demethylesterification of GalA in muro, in either a block-wise fashion or in a random fashion. Our objective was to identify PMEs and PMEIs that mediate phloem fiber elongation in flax. For this purpose, we measured transcript abundance of candidate genes at nine different stages of stem and fiber development and found sets of genes enriched during fiber elongation and maturation as well as during xylem development. We expressed one of the flax PMEIs in E. coli and demonstrated that it was able to inhibit most of the native PME activity in the upper portion of the flax stem. These results identify key genetic components of the intrusive growth process and define targets for fiber engineering and crop improvement.

  15. Plant DNA banks for genetic resources conservation (review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Н. Е. Волкова

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Literature review of DNA banks creation as the current strategy of plant genetic resources conservation. Results. The current state of plant genetic resources conservation was analyzed in the context of the threat of gene­tic erosion. The importance of DNA banks was shown which function is to store DNA samples and associated products and disseminate them for research purposes. The main DNA banks in the world were described, including the Republican DNA Bank of Human, Animals, Plants and Microorganisms at the Institute of Genetics and Cytology of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus. Stages of DNA banking were considered: tissue sampling (usually from leaves, cell destruction, DNA extraction, DNA storage. Different methods of tissue sampling, extraction and DNA storage were compared. The need for Plant DNA Bank creation in Ukraine was highlighted. Conclusions. DNA collections is an important resource in the global effort to overcome the crisis in biodiversity, for managing world genetic resources and maximi­zing their potential.

  16. Maize Genetic Resources Collections – Utilizing a Treasure Trove

    Science.gov (United States)

    The maize genetic resource collection managed by the USDA-ARS's National Plant Germplasm System is heavily utilized by researchers and educators. A collection of landraces, inbred lines from public and private sector sources, synthetics and key populations, it serves both as a living snapshot of th...

  17. Micropropagation and cryopreservation: alternative techniques for conserving plant genetic resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic resources of vegetatively propagated crops are maintained as growing plants and are often at risk of loss from disease, and environmental hazards. Micropropagation and cryopreservation are used for backup of the temperate fruit, nut and specialty crops held at the National Clonal Germplasm R...

  18. Strategies for management of animal genetic resources in Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    production level will be much higher in the developed countries (Delgado et al. 1999). ... farm animal genetic resources (AnGR) of major economic value comprised 6.3 million ... development of strategies for prudent management of AnGR and for a ... drain on the balance of terms of trade already weakened by declines in ...

  19. Harnessing the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    Agriculture is a landmark international agreement for ensuring food security .... developing countries which sought to correct the asymmetry of benefits accruing to .... strengthen the capacity to develop varieties particularly adaptable to social, .... of plant genetic resources for food and agriculture and carrying out scientific.

  20. Transferability of Cucurbita SSR markers for genetic diversity assessment of Turkish bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) genetic resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genetic diversity present in crop landraces represents a valuable genetic resource for breeding and genetic studies. Bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) landraces in Turkey are highly genetically diverse. However, the limited genomic resources available for this crop hinder the molecular characte...

  1. Thermal properties of flax fiber scoured by different methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Dong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal properties of flax roves untreated and treated were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and thermal gravity analyzer (TGA in order to understand their thermal behavior in more detail and to evaluate the effect of scouring processing on the thermal behavior. Flax roves were treated with six kinds of methods including biological scouring, one bath, two bath, bleaching, alkali scouring and industry chemical scouring as standards. Results showed that all treatments improved thermal stability of flax roves. The results indicated that glass transition temperature (Tg decreased after scouring besides the sample by directly bleaching. It is more difficult to determine the endothermic peak of flax treated by chemical scouring in industry because it takes a very flat course. A distinct endothermic peak was observed for the untreated flax rove, while a distinct exothermic peak in different temperature interval was revealed for other four treated flax rove samples. For TGA analysis, thermal degradation of flax roves studied consists of three regions of the initial, main, and char decomposition, and the third stage consists of secondary weight loss and carbonization for flax roves with biological scouring, one-bath and two-bath. Besides, different residue left indicates that the bio-scoured flax roves are lost with volatile products and does not contribute to char formation. These results provide valuable preferences for mechanism and top value added application of bio-scouring in flax roves.

  2. Seed quality in genetic resources conservation : a case study at the Centre for Genetic Resources, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, S.P.C.; Groot, de E.C.

    2008-01-01

    This report describes an analysis of the impact of workflow and storage conditions at the Centre for Genetic Resources the Netherlands (CGN) on the quality of seed samples in their genebank collection which is maintained under low temperature and low relative humidity conditions. Emphasis is placed

  3. Erosion of Brassica incana Genetic Resources: Causes and Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscolo, A.; Settineri, G.; Mallamaci, C.; Papalia, T.; Sidari, M.

    2017-07-01

    Brassica incana Ten., possessing a number of useful agronomic traits, represents a precious genetic resource to be used in plant breeding programs to broaden the genetic base in most Brassica crop species. B. incana that grows on limestone cliffs is at risk of genetic erosion for environmental constraints and human activities. We studied the pedological conditions of a Calabrian site where the B. incana grows, and we correlated the soil properties to the physiological and biochemical aspects of B. incana to identify the causes and effects of the genetic erosion of this species. Our results evidenced that physical soil conditions did not affect B. incana growth and nutraceutical properties; conversely, biological soil properties modified its properties. We identified leaf pigments and secondary metabolites that can be used routinely as early warning indicators of plant threat, to evaluate in a short term the dynamic behavior of plants leading to species extinction.

  4. Genome wide SNP discovery in flax through next generation sequencing of reduced representation libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Santosh

    2012-12-01

    flax. The genotyping-by-sequencing approach proved to be efficient for validation. The SNP resources generated in this work will assist in generating high density maps of flax and facilitate QTL discovery, marker-assisted selection, phylogenetic analyses, association mapping and anchoring of the whole genome shotgun sequence.

  5. Communicating Knowledge of Plant Genetic Resources to the Public

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Windfeldt, Louise

    , and their diversity as well as cooperation between them were found to enhance the potential of learning and learners. Recommendations are given to the work with plant genetic resources: It is important that international strategies and an overall national programme govern the conservation, growing and development......This thesis analyses how knowledge of plant genetic resources was communicated to the public through demonstration-projects in a governmental grant-scheme, which was part of the EU Rural Development Programme 2007 to 2013. The grant-receivers were museums and other Informal Learning Environments....... Three studies were made using frameworks from educational research, communication theory, and network theory: At first an analysis of the conditions influencing the formulation of the grant-scheme was made, secondly a study of the grant-receivers’ communication was conducted, and finally the cooperation...

  6. Fuzzy Flexible Resource Constrained Project Scheduling Based on Genetic Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    查鸿; 张连营

    2014-01-01

    Both fuzzy temporal constraint and flexible resource constraint are considered in project scheduling. In order to obtain an optimal schedule, we propose a genetic algorithm integrated with concepts on fuzzy set theory as well as specialized coding and decoding mechanism. An example demonstrates that the proposed approach can assist the project managers to obtain the optimal schedule effectively and make the correct decision on skill training before a project begins.

  7. Research and Conservation of Forest Genetic Resources in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The present situation of forest tree genetic germplasm resources research and conservation in China is introduced which including the background, decision-making of conservation strategies and principles, the plan of area division and tree species classification, the sample strategy of germplasm conservation, the advances in conservation pattern and related technologies research, the achievements of germplasm conservation and utilization in China, and the problems to be solved. The recent achievements a...

  8. Research on Flax Fiber Reinforced Polylactide Environmental Friendly Composite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Chun-hong; WANG Rui; LIU Ming; SHEN Lu; BIAN Dong-cai

    2006-01-01

    Biodegradable polylactide acid (PLA) resin can be combined with flax fibers to produce biodegradable composite materials. In our study, commercial PLA fibers were mixed with flax fibers by a non-woven method so as to make nonwoven pre-forms, which can be generated into flax fiber reinforced PLA environmental friendly composites by heat pressing technology. The tensile, flexural and impact properties are tested in order to evaluate the basic physical properties of the composites, and the influenced factors listed as making technology of the pre-forms, weight ratio of flax fibers and heat pressing technology are discussed and optimized, which can be described as weight ratio of flax fibers and PLA fibers is 50/50, heating temperature, time and pressure are respectively 195℃, 20 min and 12.5 Mpa.Preliminary results show that mechanical properties of the flax/PLA composites are quite promising compared with flax/PP composites in common commercial automotive use.Scanning electron microscope (SEM) is used to analyze the tensile specimen fracture surfaces, which shows voids and gaps occurring between flax fibers and PLA matrix and sign of fiber pull-out, the strength of flax/PLA interface can be further improved.

  9. Research on Intellectual Property Rights Protection of Agricultural Plant Genetic Resources in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of definition of agricultural plant genetic resources,this paper takes the two most important forms of intellectual property protection regarding agricultural plant genetic resources-patent rights and new plant variety rights as an example,to expound the current situation of intellectual property protection of agricultural plant genetic resources in China.It reveals the problems of intellectual property protection as follows:the awareness of intellectual property protection of agricultural plant genetic resources is weak;the system of laws and regulations is not sound;the protection system is not perfect;the management system lacks standardization.It further puts forward corresponding countermeasures and suggestions as follows:promote the protection awareness of agricultural plant genetic resources in whole society;enact special law system to protect agricultural plant genetic resources;improve the management system of agricultural plant genetic resources;strengthen the international protection of agricultural plant genetic resources in China.

  10. Optimisation of Resource Scheduling in VCIM Systems Using Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Son Duy Dao

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The concept of Virtual Computer-Integrated Manufacturing (VCIM has been proposed for one and a half decade with purpose of overcoming the limitation of traditional Computer-Integrated Manufacturing (CIM as it only works within an enterprise. VCIM system is a promising solution for enterprises to survive in the globally competitive market because it can exploit effectively locally as well as globally distributed resources. In this paper, a Genetic Algorithm (GA based approach for optimising resource scheduling in the VCIM system is proposed. Firstly, based on the latest concept of VCIM system, a class of resource scheduling problems in the system is modelled by using agent-based approach. Secondly, GA with new strategies of handling constraint, chromosome encoding, crossover and mutation is developed to search for optimal solution for the problem. Finally, a case study is given to demonstrate the robustness of the proposed approach.

  11. Dietary flax seed oil and/or Vitamin E improve sperm parameters of cloned goats following freezing-thawing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargar, Rohollah; Forouzanfar, Mohsen; Ghalamkari, Gholamreza; Nasr Esfahani, Mohammad Hossein

    2017-02-01

    Semen cryopreservation is affected by individual differences and use of clones animal from the same source is the main tool to eliminate genetic variation. Among many nutrients that are necessary for fertility, essential fatty acids and antioxidants are vital for production of healthy sperm by improving sperm membrane integrity and protecting sperm from oxidative stress. The goal of the current study was to investigate whether a flax seed oil or/and Vitamin E dietary supplementation could improve semen quality of cloned bucks following semen cryopreservation. Accordingly, eight adult cloned Bakhtiari bucks were divided randomly into four groups. Bucks were offered a base diet of hay and concentrate. The concentrate was enriched with flax seed oil, 30 gr/kg body weight/day (OIL), Vitamin E (VIT), 3 gr/kg body weight/day, or combined flax seed oil and the vitamin E (OIL-VIT). The concentrate with no supplements was considered as control group (CONT). Both flax seed oil and Vitamin E supplements were added to the total diet. The bucks were fed with their corresponding diets for a total of 9 weeks while sperm collection was carried out within 10-14 weeks. Ejaculates were diluted with Andromed(®) and were frozen in liquid nitrogen. Sperm parameters and reactive oxygen species (ROS) contents were evaluated following freezing/thawing. According to the results of our study, dietary supplementation with flax seed oil, or/and Vitamin E can improve sperm motility, vitality and number of sperm with intact plasma membrane following freezing-thawing. But the degree of improvement in these parameters was significantly higher when Flax seed oil and vitamin E were co-supplemented.

  12. FIBRE FLAX PREPLANT TREATMENT BASED ON SEED PELLETING AND ELECTROTECHNICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spiridonov A. B.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The method of fibre flax preplant seed treatment that includes pelleting in bionanosuspension and influence of electrophysical fields on the pellet is described in the article. Due to given treatment technology it is possible to increase the crop capacity and engineering performance of the flax production

  13. Communicating Knowledge of Plant Genetic Resources to the Public

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Windfeldt, Louise

    This thesis analyses how knowledge of plant genetic resources was communicated to the public through demonstration-projects in a governmental grant-scheme, which was part of the EU Rural Development Programme 2007 to 2013. The grant-receivers were museums and other Informal Learning Environments....... Three studies were made using frameworks from educational research, communication theory, and network theory: At first an analysis of the conditions influencing the formulation of the grant-scheme was made, secondly a study of the grant-receivers’ communication was conducted, and finally the cooperation...

  14. Physical mapping and BAC-end sequence analysis provide initial insights into the flax (Linum usitatissimum L. genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cloutier Sylvie

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Flax (Linum usitatissimum L. is an important source of oil rich in omega-3 fatty acids, which have proven health benefits and utility as an industrial raw material. Flax seeds also contain lignans which are associated with reducing the risk of certain types of cancer. Its bast fibres have broad industrial applications. However, genomic tools needed for molecular breeding were non existent. Hence a project, Total Utilization Flax GENomics (TUFGEN was initiated. We report here the first genome-wide physical map of flax and the generation and analysis of BAC-end sequences (BES from 43,776 clones, providing initial insights into the genome. Results The physical map consists of 416 contigs spanning ~368 Mb, assembled from 32,025 fingerprints, representing roughly 54.5% to 99.4% of the estimated haploid genome (370-675 Mb. The N50 size of the contigs was estimated to be ~1,494 kb. The longest contig was ~5,562 kb comprising 437 clones. There were 96 contigs containing more than 100 clones. Approximately 54.6 Mb representing 8-14.8% of the genome was obtained from 80,337 BES. Annotation revealed that a large part of the genome consists of ribosomal DNA (~13.8%, followed by known transposable elements at 6.1%. Furthermore, ~7.4% of sequence was identified to harbour novel repeat elements. Homology searches against flax-ESTs and NCBI-ESTs suggested that ~5.6% of the transcriptome is unique to flax. A total of 4064 putative genomic SSRs were identified and are being developed as novel markers for their use in molecular breeding. Conclusion The first genome-wide physical map of flax constructed with BAC clones provides a framework for accessing target loci with economic importance for marker development and positional cloning. Analysis of the BES has provided insights into the uniqueness of the flax genome. Compared to other plant genomes, the proportion of rDNA was found to be very high whereas the proportion of known transposable

  15. Promoting Utilization of Saccharum spp. Genetic Resources through Genetic Diversity Analysis and Core Collection Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Bhuvan; Ayala-Silva, Tomas; Yang, Xiping; Todd, James; Glynn, Neil C.; Kuhn, David N.; Glaz, Barry; Gilbert, Robert A.; Comstock, Jack C.; Wang, Jianping

    2014-01-01

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) and other members of Saccharum spp. are attractive biofuel feedstocks. One of the two World Collections of Sugarcane and Related Grasses (WCSRG) is in Miami, FL. This WCSRG has 1002 accessions, presumably with valuable alleles for biomass, other important agronomic traits, and stress resistance. However, the WCSRG has not been fully exploited by breeders due to its lack of characterization and unmanageable population. In order to optimize the use of this genetic resource, we aim to 1) genotypically evaluate all the 1002 accessions to understand its genetic diversity and population structure and 2) form a core collection, which captures most of the genetic diversity in the WCSRG. We screened 36 microsatellite markers on 1002 genotypes and recorded 209 alleles. Genetic diversity of the WCSRG ranged from 0 to 0.5 with an average of 0.304. The population structure analysis and principal coordinate analysis revealed three clusters with all S. spontaneum in one cluster, S. officinarum and S. hybrids in the second cluster and mostly non-Saccharum spp. in the third cluster. A core collection of 300 accessions was identified which captured the maximum genetic diversity of the entire WCSRG which can be further exploited for sugarcane and energy cane breeding. Sugarcane and energy cane breeders can effectively utilize this core collection for cultivar improvement. Further, the core collection can provide resources for forming an association panel to evaluate the traits of agronomic and commercial importance. PMID:25333358

  16. Promoting utilization of Saccharum spp. genetic resources through genetic diversity analysis and core collection construction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spurthi N Nayak

    Full Text Available Sugarcane (Saccharum spp. and other members of Saccharum spp. are attractive biofuel feedstocks. One of the two World Collections of Sugarcane and Related Grasses (WCSRG is in Miami, FL. This WCSRG has 1002 accessions, presumably with valuable alleles for biomass, other important agronomic traits, and stress resistance. However, the WCSRG has not been fully exploited by breeders due to its lack of characterization and unmanageable population. In order to optimize the use of this genetic resource, we aim to 1 genotypically evaluate all the 1002 accessions to understand its genetic diversity and population structure and 2 form a core collection, which captures most of the genetic diversity in the WCSRG. We screened 36 microsatellite markers on 1002 genotypes and recorded 209 alleles. Genetic diversity of the WCSRG ranged from 0 to 0.5 with an average of 0.304. The population structure analysis and principal coordinate analysis revealed three clusters with all S. spontaneum in one cluster, S. officinarum and S. hybrids in the second cluster and mostly non-Saccharum spp. in the third cluster. A core collection of 300 accessions was identified which captured the maximum genetic diversity of the entire WCSRG which can be further exploited for sugarcane and energy cane breeding. Sugarcane and energy cane breeders can effectively utilize this core collection for cultivar improvement. Further, the core collection can provide resources for forming an association panel to evaluate the traits of agronomic and commercial importance.

  17. Promoting utilization of Saccharum spp. genetic resources through genetic diversity analysis and core collection construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Spurthi N; Song, Jian; Villa, Andrea; Pathak, Bhuvan; Ayala-Silva, Tomas; Yang, Xiping; Todd, James; Glynn, Neil C; Kuhn, David N; Glaz, Barry; Gilbert, Robert A; Comstock, Jack C; Wang, Jianping

    2014-01-01

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) and other members of Saccharum spp. are attractive biofuel feedstocks. One of the two World Collections of Sugarcane and Related Grasses (WCSRG) is in Miami, FL. This WCSRG has 1002 accessions, presumably with valuable alleles for biomass, other important agronomic traits, and stress resistance. However, the WCSRG has not been fully exploited by breeders due to its lack of characterization and unmanageable population. In order to optimize the use of this genetic resource, we aim to 1) genotypically evaluate all the 1002 accessions to understand its genetic diversity and population structure and 2) form a core collection, which captures most of the genetic diversity in the WCSRG. We screened 36 microsatellite markers on 1002 genotypes and recorded 209 alleles. Genetic diversity of the WCSRG ranged from 0 to 0.5 with an average of 0.304. The population structure analysis and principal coordinate analysis revealed three clusters with all S. spontaneum in one cluster, S. officinarum and S. hybrids in the second cluster and mostly non-Saccharum spp. in the third cluster. A core collection of 300 accessions was identified which captured the maximum genetic diversity of the entire WCSRG which can be further exploited for sugarcane and energy cane breeding. Sugarcane and energy cane breeders can effectively utilize this core collection for cultivar improvement. Further, the core collection can provide resources for forming an association panel to evaluate the traits of agronomic and commercial importance.

  18. Molecular markers: a potential resource for ginger genetic diversity studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Nor Asiah; Rafii, M Y; Mahmud, T M M; Hanafi, M M; Miah, Gous

    2016-12-01

    Ginger is an economically important and valuable plant around the world. Ginger is used as a food, spice, condiment, medicine and ornament. There is available information on biochemical aspects of ginger, but few studies have been reported on its molecular aspects. The main objective of this review is to accumulate the available molecular marker information and its application in diverse ginger studies. This review article was prepared by combing material from published articles and our own research. Molecular markers allow the identification and characterization of plant genotypes through direct access to hereditary material. In crop species, molecular markers are applied in different aspects and are useful in breeding programs. In ginger, molecular markers are commonly used to identify genetic variation and classify the relatedness among varieties, accessions, and species. Consequently, it provides important input in determining resourceful management strategies for ginger improvement programs. Alternatively, a molecular marker could function as a harmonizing tool for documenting species. This review highlights the application of molecular markers (isozyme, RAPD, AFLP, SSR, ISSR and others such as RFLP, SCAR, NBS and SNP) in genetic diversity studies of ginger species. Some insights on the advantages of the markers are discussed. The detection of genetic variation among promising cultivars of ginger has significance for ginger improvement programs. This update of recent literature will help researchers and students select the appropriate molecular markers for ginger-related research.

  19. Study on the Ownership of Plant Genetic Resources on Farmers’ Land

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fuyou; WANG; Hongyan; SONG; Yuanyuan; HUANG

    2013-01-01

    In order to protect Chinese farmers’ sharing benefits and make legal preparation for accession to the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture, this paper analyzed differences between state sovereignty and ownership of genetic resources and between natural resources and plant genetic resources on farmers’ land. Then, it studied the regulations of the United States, European Union and Indian on the ownership of plant genetic resources on farmers’ land. On the basis of the analysis and study, the authors stated that the sovereignty of plant genetic resources can not replace the ownership system. The plant genetic resources on farmers’ (community) land should be in the possession of farmers or communities, which should be confirmed by the State.

  20. What lies underneath: conserving the oceans' genetic resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrieta, Jesús M; Arnaud-Haond, Sophie; Duarte, Carlos M

    2010-10-26

    The marine realm represents 70% of the surface of the biosphere and contains a rich variety of organisms, including more than 34 of the 36 living phyla, some of which are only found in the oceans. The number of marine species used by humans is growing at unprecedented rates, including the rapid domestication of marine species for aquaculture and the discovery of natural products and genes of medical and biotechnological interest in marine biota. The rapid growth in the human appropriation of marine genetic resources (MGRs), with over 18,000 natural products and 4,900 patents associated with genes of marine organisms, with the latter growing at 12% per year, demonstrates that the use of MGRs is no longer a vision but a growing source of biotechnological and business opportunities. The diversification of the use of marine living resources by humans calls for an urgent revision of the goals and policies of marine protected areas, to include the protection of MGRs and address emerging issues like biopiracy or benefit sharing. Specific challenges are the protection of these valuable resources in international waters, where no universally accepted legal framework exists to protect and regulate the exploitation of MGRs, and the unresolved issues on patenting components of marine life. Implementing steps toward the protection of MGRs is essential to ensure their sustainable use and to support the flow of future findings of medical and biotechnological interest.

  1. What lies underneath: Conserving the oceans’ genetic resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrieta, Jesús M.; Arnaud-Haond, Sophie; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2010-01-01

    The marine realm represents 70% of the surface of the biosphere and contains a rich variety of organisms, including more than 34 of the 36 living phyla, some of which are only found in the oceans. The number of marine species used by humans is growing at unprecedented rates, including the rapid domestication of marine species for aquaculture and the discovery of natural products and genes of medical and biotechnological interest in marine biota. The rapid growth in the human appropriation of marine genetic resources (MGRs), with over 18,000 natural products and 4,900 patents associated with genes of marine organisms, with the latter growing at 12% per year, demonstrates that the use of MGRs is no longer a vision but a growing source of biotechnological and business opportunities. The diversification of the use of marine living resources by humans calls for an urgent revision of the goals and policies of marine protected areas, to include the protection of MGRs and address emerging issues like biopiracy or benefit sharing. Specific challenges are the protection of these valuable resources in international waters, where no universally accepted legal framework exists to protect and regulate the exploitation of MGRs, and the unresolved issues on patenting components of marine life. Implementing steps toward the protection of MGRs is essential to ensure their sustainable use and to support the flow of future findings of medical and biotechnological interest. PMID:20837523

  2. The Structure of Trade in Genetic Resources: Implications for the International ABS Regime Negotiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikyung Yun

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The intensive exploitation of genetic resources at the international level has led to a negotiation of an international regime on Access and Benefit-Sharing (ABS of genetic resources. Due to lack of systematic data, little is known about the structure of trade in genetic resources to inform the negotiators. This study attempts to shed a greater insight into genetic resources trade in the pharmaceutical sector in Korea, mainly relying on interviews of industry practitioners and scientists in related fields. The study finds that Korea is mainly a genetic resource importer, but that pharmaceutical firms rarely carry out bioprospecting directly, relying on semi-processed biochemicals imports trough agents. Therefore, the impact of the to-be negotiated international ABS negotiation will be larger if derivatives are included in its scope. However, the general impact on the economy as a whole would be small, given the small share of genetic resources trade compared to total trade volumes.

  3. Genetic resources in the cultivated flora of the Apuseni Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila T. SZABO

    1982-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to detect genetic resources formed during specific relations between plant life and human activity in a sample territory situated in the North-Eastern border of the Apuseni Mountains (Transylvania, Romania 416 cultivated plant species were identified and reliable ethnobotanical material was collected. The influence of different geographical regions of the world on the flora of the territory was characterized by an influence index. The influence index "I" of the American, African and Australian species on the spontaneous flora of the sample territory was very low, (I1 = 2,01, but on the cultivated flora it was very high (I2 = 58,48, reflecting the strong impact of foreign floras and agricultures. The cultivated flora of the territory was characterized according to following descriptors: geographical origin, life form, main traditional usage, main place of cultivation, frequency of cultivation, degree of domestication, ethnobotanical knowledge related to different species, local variability, territorial dynamics (related to genetic erosion or sedimentation and territorial distribution.

  4. Genetic resources offer efficient tools for rice functional genomics research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Shuen-Fang; Fan, Ming-Jen; Hsing, Yue-Ie; Chen, Liang-Jwu; Chen, Shu; Wen, Ien-Chie; Liu, Yi-Lun; Chen, Ku-Ting; Jiang, Mirng-Jier; Lin, Ming-Kuang; Rao, Meng-Yen; Yu, Lin-Chih; Ho, Tuan-Hua David; Yu, Su-May

    2016-05-01

    Rice is an important crop and major model plant for monocot functional genomics studies. With the establishment of various genetic resources for rice genomics, the next challenge is to systematically assign functions to predicted genes in the rice genome. Compared with the robustness of genome sequencing and bioinformatics techniques, progress in understanding the function of rice genes has lagged, hampering the utilization of rice genes for cereal crop improvement. The use of transfer DNA (T-DNA) insertional mutagenesis offers the advantage of uniform distribution throughout the rice genome, but preferentially in gene-rich regions, resulting in direct gene knockout or activation of genes within 20-30 kb up- and downstream of the T-DNA insertion site and high gene tagging efficiency. Here, we summarize the recent progress in functional genomics using the T-DNA-tagged rice mutant population. We also discuss important features of T-DNA activation- and knockout-tagging and promoter-trapping of the rice genome in relation to mutant and candidate gene characterizations and how to more efficiently utilize rice mutant populations and datasets for high-throughput functional genomics and phenomics studies by forward and reverse genetics approaches. These studies may facilitate the translation of rice functional genomics research to improvements of rice and other cereal crops.

  5. Characterisation of Flax Fibres and Flax Fibre Composites. Being cellulose based sources of materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aslan, Mustafa

    that currently have the largest market share for composite applications. However, the most critical limitation in the use of cellulosic fibre composites for structural applications is the lack of well described fibre properties, in particular, the tensile strength. This is due to variations in fibre morphology...... of the internal cell wall structures. This is in contrast to the crack growth in brittle ceramic and glass fibres. Moreover, two typical stress-strain curves (linear and non-linear) measured for the flax fibres were found to be correlated with the amount of defected region in the fibres. The defects are induced...... a similar microstructure at low fibre weight fractions. However, when the fibre content is increased, a difference in porosity content can be observed from the composite cross sections. The nominal tensile strength of the unidirectional flax fibre/LPET composites is measured in the range 180 to 340 MPa...

  6. 亚麻种质对白粉病的抗性评价%Resistance Evaluation of Flax Varieties to Powdery Mildew

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔红霞; 陈娟

    2012-01-01

    The resistance evaluation of 53 flax varieties to powdery mildew in Qingyang region were conducted, the results showed that there were nearly no flax varieties with immune to powdery mildew, except for Xiji variety. There are very short of flax germplasm resources which are resistance to powdery mildew in Qingyang region.%对收集的53个亚麻种质进行了白粉病田间抗性评价,结果表明所调查的亚麻种质均无免疫(M)植株,仅西吉胡麻为抗(R)病品种,庆阳市抗白粉病亚麻资源材料较为匮乏.

  7. 7 CFR 201.56-8 - Flax family, Linaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...: Flax. (a) General description. (1) Germination habit: Epigeal dicot. (Due to the mucilaginous nature of... development within the test period. (4) Root system: A primary root, with secondary roots usually...

  8. Role of Polysaccharides on Mechanical and Adhesion Properties of Flax Fibres in Flax/PLA Biocomposite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gijo Raj

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of alkali and enzymatic treatments on flax fibre morphology, mechanical, and adhesion properties was investigated. The multilength scale analysis allows for the correlation of the fibre's morphological changes induced by the treatments with mechanical properties to better explain the adherence properties between flax and PLA. The atomic force microscopy (AFM images revealed the removal of primary layers, upon treatments, down to cellulose microfibrils present in the secondary layers. The variation in mechanical properties was found to be dependent, apart from the crystalline content, on interaction between cellulose microfibrils and encrusting polysaccharides, pectins and hemicelluloses, in the secondary layers. Finally, microbond tests between the modified fibres and PLA emphasize the important role of the outer fibre's surface on the overall composite properties. It was observed here that gentle treatments of the fibres, down to the oriented microfibrils, are favourable to a better adherence with a PLA drop. This paper highlights the important role of amorphous polymers, hemicellulose and pectin, in the optimisation of the adhesion and mechanical properties of flax fibres in the biocomposite.

  9. Genetic Distinctiveness of Rye In situ Accessions from Portugal Unveils a New Hotspot of Unexplored Genetic Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Filipa; Vidigal, Patrícia; Barros, André B; Monteiro, Ana; Oliveira, Hugo R; Viegas, Wanda

    2016-01-01

    Rye (Secale cereale L.) is a cereal crop of major importance in many parts of Europe and rye breeders are presently very concerned with the restrict pool of rye genetic resources available. Such narrowing of rye genetic diversity results from the presence of "Petkus" pool in most modern rye varieties as well as "Petkus" × "Carsten" heterotic pool in hybrid rye breeding programs. Previous studies on rye's genetic diversity revealed moreover a common genetic background on landraces (ex situ) and cultivars, regardless of breeding level or geographical origin. Thus evaluation of in situ populations is of utmost importance to unveil "on farm" diversity, which is largely undervalued. Here, we perform the first comprehensive assessment of rye's genetic diversity and population structuring using cultivars, ex situ landraces along a comprehensive sampling of in situ accessions from Portugal, through a molecular-directed analysis using SSRs markers. Rye genetic diversity and population structure analysis does not present any geographical trend but disclosed marked differences between genetic backgrounds of in situ accessions and those of cultivars/ex situ collections. Such genetic distinctiveness of in situ accessions highlights their unexplored potential as new genetic resources, which can be used to boost rye breeding strategies and the production of new varieties. Overall, our study successfully demonstrates the high prospective impact of comparing genetic diversity and structure of cultivars, ex situ, and in situ samples in ascertaining the status of plant genetic resources (PGR).

  10. Genetic distinctiveness of rye in situ accessions from Portugal unveils a new hotspot of unexplored genetic resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipa Monteiro

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Rye (Secale cereale L. is a cereal crop of major importance in many parts of Europe and rye breeders are presently very concerned with the restrict pool of rye genetic resources available. Such narrowing of rye genetic diversity results from the presence of ‘Petkus’ pool in most modern rye varieties as well as ‘Petkus’ x ‘Carsten’ heterotic pool in hybrid rye breeding programs. Previous studies on rye’s genetic diversity revealed moreover a common genetic background on landraces (ex situ and cultivars, regardless of breeding level or geographical origin. Thus evaluation of in situ populations is of utmost importance to unveil on farm diversity, which is largely undervalued.Here, we perform the first comprehensive assessment of rye’s genetic diversity and population structuring using cultivars, ex situ landraces along a comprehensive sampling of in situ accessions from Portugal, through a molecular-directed analysis using SSRs markers. Rye genetic diversity and population structure analysis does not present any geographical trend but disclosed marked differences between genetic backgrounds of in situ accessions and those of cultivars/ex situ collections. Such genetic distinctiveness of in situ accessions highlights their unexplored potential as new genetic resources, which can be used to boost rye breeding strategies and the production of new varieties. Overall, our study successfully demonstrates the high prospective impact of comparing genetic diversity and structure of cultivars, ex situ and in situ samples in ascertaining the status of plant genetic resources.

  11. Genetic Distinctiveness of Rye In situ Accessions from Portugal Unveils a New Hotspot of Unexplored Genetic Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Filipa; Vidigal, Patrícia; Barros, André B.; Monteiro, Ana; Oliveira, Hugo R.; Viegas, Wanda

    2016-01-01

    Rye (Secale cereale L.) is a cereal crop of major importance in many parts of Europe and rye breeders are presently very concerned with the restrict pool of rye genetic resources available. Such narrowing of rye genetic diversity results from the presence of “Petkus” pool in most modern rye varieties as well as “Petkus” × “Carsten” heterotic pool in hybrid rye breeding programs. Previous studies on rye's genetic diversity revealed moreover a common genetic background on landraces (ex situ) and cultivars, regardless of breeding level or geographical origin. Thus evaluation of in situ populations is of utmost importance to unveil “on farm” diversity, which is largely undervalued. Here, we perform the first comprehensive assessment of rye's genetic diversity and population structuring using cultivars, ex situ landraces along a comprehensive sampling of in situ accessions from Portugal, through a molecular-directed analysis using SSRs markers. Rye genetic diversity and population structure analysis does not present any geographical trend but disclosed marked differences between genetic backgrounds of in situ accessions and those of cultivars/ex situ collections. Such genetic distinctiveness of in situ accessions highlights their unexplored potential as new genetic resources, which can be used to boost rye breeding strategies and the production of new varieties. Overall, our study successfully demonstrates the high prospective impact of comparing genetic diversity and structure of cultivars, ex situ, and in situ samples in ascertaining the status of plant genetic resources (PGR). PMID:27630658

  12. Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... resources Alzheimer's - resources Anorexia nervosa - resources Arthritis - resources Asthma and allergy - resources Autism - resources Blindness - resources BPH - resources Breastfeeding - resources Bulimia - resources Burns - resources Cancer - resources Cerebral ...

  13. Economic interpretation of sustainable development of the flax complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Ivanovich Botkin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the definition of the notions “stability” and “stable development”, and analyzes the factors influencing the development stability. We suggest the definition of the flax complex stable development and its assessment. We also examine the factors causing the flax complex functioning instability. An integral index was proposed to determine the stability of flax complex; this index takes into account the rate of growth (or decline of major products manufacturing, commodities, profits from product sales, accounts receivable and accounts payable, investments into fixed capital, labor productivity, coefficient of manufacturing capacity utilization and updating of the basic funds. The paper deals with the problems of its development and modern state of flax sub-complex of agroindustrial complex, as well as with the matters of disproportions between the complex’s branches. It covers the causes of tolling schemes of flax processing businesses work and therole of thestatein native market of flax products formation. The necessity of industry diversification and innovation development is substantiated.

  14. SCREENING OF COMMON FLAX FAD GENES BY PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Štefúnová

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Currently, flax (Linum usitatissimum L. is an important crop from commercial and economical aspects. In the spotlight is the linseed oil as a source of α-linolenic acid. The aim of presented study was to analyse fatty acid desaturase (FAD genes in flax. Several genotypes of flax (Hohenheim, La Plata 1938, Redwing USA and Escalina were used. The primers described by Vrinten et al. (2005 were used for PCR amplification reactions. Two FAD3 genes, LuFAD3A and LuFAD3B, were identified in a genome of flax. Subsequently the nucleotide sequences between origins and genotypes of flax FAD genes were compared. Primarily were used the nucleotide sequences of FAD2 and FAD3C genes available in NCBI database. Differences were found using BLAST program in nucleotide sequences of FAD genes and the specific primers were designed to amplify a specific target sequences in a genome of flax. These primers were used in PCR amplification reactions to identification of FAD2 and FAD3C genes. The PCR products were separated by electrophoresis on agarose gel.

  15. New biocomposites based on bioplastic flax fibers and biodegradable polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wróbel-Kwiatkowska, Magdalena; Czemplik, Magdalena; Kulma, Anna; Zuk, Magdalena; Kaczmar, Jacek; Dymińska, Lucyna; Hanuza, Jerzy; Ptak, Maciej; Szopa, Jan

    2012-01-01

    A new generation of entirely biodegradable and bioactive composites with polylactic acid (PLA) or poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL) as the matrix and bioplastic flax fibers as reinforcement were analyzed. Bioplastic fibers contain polyhydroxybutyrate and were obtained from transgenic flax. Biochemical analysis of fibers revealed presence of several antioxidative compounds of hydrophilic (phenolics) and hydrophobic [cannabidiol (CBD), lutein] nature, indicating their high antioxidant potential. The presence of CBD and lutein in flax fibers is reported for the first time. FTIR analysis showed intermolecular hydrogen bonds between the constituents in composite PLA+flax fibers which were not detected in PCL-based composite. Mechanical analysis of prepared composites revealed improved stiffness and a decrease in tensile strength. The viability of human dermal fibroblasts on the surface of composites made of PLA and transgenic flax fibers was the same as for cells cultured without composites and only slightly lower (to 9%) for PCL-based composites. The amount of platelets and Escherichia coli cells aggregated on the surface of the PLA based composites was significantly lower than for pure polymer. Thus, composites made of PLA and transgenic flax fibers seem to have bacteriostatic, platelet anti-aggregated, and non-cytotoxic effect.

  16. Preparation, processing and properties of lignosulfonate-flax composite boards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Privas, Edwige; Navard, Patrick

    2013-03-01

    Hemp, hay, straw for animal litters, raffia and sisal stems, abaca and jute bleached pulp fibres, miscanthus stems and flax fibres were mixed to lignosulfonate at 70% filler concentration and compressed in the form of 5 cm-thick boards. Flax was found to give the best mechanical properties measured in bending mode and used for all tests. Several methods able to improve adhesion between matrix and flax fibres were studied. A treatment of flax fibres with NaOH-water was found to decrease the mechanical properties of composites. Ethanol or dichloromethane solvents that are known to dewax flax fibre surfaces improve the mechanical properties of final board. The addition of pectin to the lignosulfonate matrix was found to improve the mechanical properties in the same order of magnitude as with the ethanol treatment. Both methods improve the flexural strength by 60% while keeping the elastic modulus constant. Mechanical improvement shows that these two methods are increasing the lignosulfonate/flax fibre interfacial adhesion. The best compositions have mechanical properties above the normalized minimum required for wood-based boards.

  17. Estimation of countries’ interdependence in plant genetic resources provisioning national food supplies and production systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khoury, C.K.; Achicanoy, H.A.; Bjorkman, A.D.; Navarro-Racines, C.; Guarino, L.; Flores-Palacios, X.; Engels, J.M.M.; Wiersema, J.H.; Dempewolf, H.; Ramirez-Villegas, J.; Castaneda-Alvarez, N.P.; Fowler, C.; Jarvis, A.; Rieseberg, L.H.; Struik, P.C.

    2015-01-01

    The Contracting Parties of the International Treaty recognize that plant genetic resources for food and agriculture are a common concern of all countries, in that all countries depend largely on plant genetic resources for food and agriculture that originated elsewhere. Nearly 20 years ago, an

  18. Study for Trend of genetic Resource on Wild Yak in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bohui Yang; Ping Yan; Chunnian Liang; Xia Lang; Xiaoping Sun; Jian Guo; Xian Guo; Shengli Cheng

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, comprehensively studied inhabit environments, population size, population density and distribution regions on wild yak, the results showed that genetic resource of wild yak has been decreased from 1950' to 1980 ', after that, and its genetic resource began to show increasing trend in nature reserves due to protection measures strengthened.

  19. Developing educational resources for population genetics in R: An open and collaborative approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    The R computing and statistical language community has developed a myriad of resources for conducting populations genetic analyses. However, resources for learning how to carry out population genetic analyses in R are scattered and often incomplete, which can make acquiring this skill unnecessarily ...

  20. Marine Genetic Resources in Areas beyond National Jurisdiction: Access and Benefit Sharing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drankier, P.; Oude Elferink, A.G.; Visser, L.; Takács, T.

    2012-01-01

    This report examines whether it is possible for the research and use of marine genetic resources in areas beyond national jurisdiction (ABNJ) to follow an approach based on the system that is being used with plant genetic resources in areas within national jurisdiction, as developed by the Food and

  1. EUFORGEN as an instrument for the conservation of European forest genetic resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de S.M.G.

    2006-01-01

    Following the Ministerial Conference for the Protection of Forest in Europe, held in Strasbourg in 1990, and more specifically its Resolution No. 2 concerning the conservation of forest genetic resources EUFORGEN (European Forest Genetic Resources Programme) was established. EUFORGEN is a collaborat

  2. EUFORGEN as an instrument for the conservation of European forest genetic resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de S.M.G.

    2006-01-01

    Following the Ministerial Conference for the Protection of Forest in Europe, held in Strasbourg in 1990, and more specifically its Resolution No. 2 concerning the conservation of forest genetic resources EUFORGEN (European Forest Genetic Resources Programme) was established. EUFORGEN is a

  3. Proceedings of the third ISHS international symposium on plant genetic resources volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Third International ISHS Symposium on plant genetic resources occurred as Symposium 12 of the International Horticulture Congress in Lisbon, in August 2010. This symposium lasted4 days and emphasized new tools in plant genetic resource management. Six speakers gave invited presentations, and 30 ...

  4. Proceedings of the third ISHS international symposium of plant genetic resources volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Third International ISHS Symposium on plant genetic resources occurred as Symposium 12 of the International Horticulture Congress in Lisbon, in August 2010. This symposium lasted4 days and emphasized new tools in plant genetic resource management. Six speakers gave invited presentations, and 30 ...

  5. Laccase Functionalization of Flax and Coconut Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Herrero Acero

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Natural fibers have gained much attention as reinforcing components in composite materials. Despite several interesting characteristics like low cost, low density, high specific properties and biodegradability they show poor compatibility with the polymer matrix. We have shown that it is possible to use a laccase from Trametes hirsuta as a biocatalyst to attach different types of functional phenolic molecules onto the fibers. A 5% incorporation of the functional molecules was achieved as measured via X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS in flax although it was lower in coconut fibers. In combination with different mediators it was possible to broaden the activation scope and graft hydrophobic molecules like dimer fatty amines. Among the different mediators tested 1-hydroxybenzotriazole (HBT, 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-1-yloxy (TEMPO and 2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS, TEMPO were the most effective achieving a 10% increase in carbon as measured by XPS.

  6. Potential International Approaches to Ownership/Control of Human Genetic Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Catherine

    2016-09-01

    In its governance activities for genetic resources, the international community has adopted various approaches to their ownership, including: free access; common heritage of mankind; intellectual property rights; and state sovereign rights. They have also created systems which combine elements of these approaches. While governance of plant and animal genetic resources is well-established internationally, there has not yet been a clear approach selected for human genetic resources. Based on assessment of the goals which international governance of human genetic resources ought to serve, and the implications for how they will be accessed and utilised, it is argued that common heritage of mankind will be the most appropriate approach to adopt to their ownership/control. It does this with the aim of stimulating discussion in this area and providing a starting point for deeper consideration of how a common heritage of mankind, or similar, regime for human genetic resources would function and be implemented.

  7. Effect of consolidation pressure on volumetric composition and stiffness of unidirectional flax fibre composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aslan, Mustafa; Mehmood, S.; Madsen, Bo

    2013-01-01

    Unidirectional flax/polyethylene terephthalate composites are manufactured by filament winding, followed by compression moulding with low and high consolidation pressure, and with variable flax fibre content. The experimental data of volumetric composition and tensile stiffness are analysed with ...

  8. SOLUTION OF NONLINEAR PROBLEMS IN WATER RESOURCES SYSTEMS BY GENETIC ALGORITHM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet BAYLAR

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Genetic Algorithm methodology is a genetic process treated on computer which is considering evolution process in the nature. The genetic operations takes place within the chromosomes stored in computer memory. By means of various operators, the genetic knowledge in chromosomes change continuously and success of the community progressively increases as a result of these operations. The primary purpose of this study is calculation of nonlinear programming problems in water resources systems by Genetic Algorithm. For this purpose a Genetic Algoritm based optimization program were developed. It can be concluded that the results obtained from the genetic search based method give the precise results.

  9. Multi-user cognitive radio network resource allocation based on the adaptive niche immune genetic algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zu Yun-Xiao; Zhou Jie

    2012-01-01

    Multi-user cognitive radio network resource allocation based on the adaptive niche immune genetic algorithm is proposed,and a fitness function is provided.Simulations are conducted using the adaptive niche immune genetic algorithm,the simulated annealing algorithm,the quantum genetic algorithm and the simple genetic algorithm,respectively.The results show that the adaptive niche immune genetic algorithm performs better than the other three algorithms in terms of the multi-user cognitive radio network resource allocation,and has quick convergence speed and strong global searching capability,which effectively reduces the system power consumption and bit error rate.

  10. Multi-user cognitive radio network resource allocation based on the adaptive niche immune genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zu, Yun-Xiao; Zhou, Jie

    2012-01-01

    Multi-user cognitive radio network resource allocation based on the adaptive niche immune genetic algorithm is proposed, and a fitness function is provided. Simulations are conducted using the adaptive niche immune genetic algorithm, the simulated annealing algorithm, the quantum genetic algorithm and the simple genetic algorithm, respectively. The results show that the adaptive niche immune genetic algorithm performs better than the other three algorithms in terms of the multi-user cognitive radio network resource allocation, and has quick convergence speed and strong global searching capability, which effectively reduces the system power consumption and bit error rate.

  11. Conservation of forest genetic resources and sustainable forest management in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koskela, J.; Vries, de S.M.G.; Gil, L.; Mátyás, C.; Rusanen, M.; Paule, L.

    2004-01-01

    Considerable efforts have been made to enhance conservation of forest genetic resources and to promote sustainable forest management in Europe over the past decade. The need to enhance genetic conservation emerged from a concern about the impacts of environmental pollution and genetic erosion on for

  12. Conservation of forest genetic resources and sustainable forest management in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koskela, J.; Vries, de S.M.G.; Gil, L.; Mátyás, C.; Rusanen, M.; Paule, L.

    2004-01-01

    Considerable efforts have been made to enhance conservation of forest genetic resources and to promote sustainable forest management in Europe over the past decade. The need to enhance genetic conservation emerged from a concern about the impacts of environmental pollution and genetic erosion on

  13. Conservation and sustainable use of animal genetic resources

    OpenAIRE

    Hiemstra, S.J.

    2013-01-01

    Brochure over de activiteiten en contacten van het Centrum voor Genetische Bronnen, Nederland (CGN)Genetic diversity is the basis of agriculture. Adapting populations of domestic animals through breeding is impossible withot genetic diversity. Genetic diversity is part of the history of mankind and is essential for future improvements in agricultural production.

  14. Conservation and sustainable use of animal genetic resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, S.J.

    2013-01-01

    Brochure over de activiteiten en contacten van het Centrum voor Genetische Bronnen, Nederland (CGN)Genetic diversity is the basis of agriculture. Adapting populations of domestic animals through breeding is impossible withot genetic diversity. Genetic diversity is part of the history of mankind and

  15. Plant genetic resources: what can they contribute toward increased crop productivity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoisington, D; Khairallah, M; Reeves, T; Ribaut, J M; Skovmand, B; Taba, S; Warburton, M

    1999-05-25

    To feed a world population growing by up to 160 people per minute, with >90% of them in developing countries, will require an astonishing increase in food production. Forecasts call for wheat to become the most important cereal in the world, with maize close behind; together, these crops will account for approximately 80% of developing countries' cereal import requirements. Access to a range of genetic diversity is critical to the success of breeding programs. The global effort to assemble, document, and utilize these resources is enormous, and the genetic diversity in the collections is critical to the world's fight against hunger. The introgression of genes that reduced plant height and increased disease and viral resistance in wheat provided the foundation for the "Green Revolution" and demonstrated the tremendous impact that genetic resources can have on production. Wheat hybrids and synthetics may provide the yield increases needed in the future. A wild relative of maize, Tripsacum, represents an untapped genetic resource for abiotic and biotic stress resistance and for apomixis, a trait that could provide developing world farmers access to hybrid technology. Ownership of genetic resources and genes must be resolved to ensure global access to these critical resources. The application of molecular and genetic engineering technologies enhances the use of genetic resources. The effective and complementary use of all of our technological tools and resources will be required for meeting the challenge posed by the world's expanding demand for food.

  16. Selective breeding in fish and conservation of genetic resources for aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, C E; Ponzoni, R W; Nguyen, N H; Khaw, H L

    2012-08-01

    To satisfy increasing demands for fish as food, progress must occur towards greater aquaculture productivity whilst retaining the wild and farmed genetic resources that underpin global fish production. We review the main selection methods that have been developed for genetic improvement in aquaculture, and discuss their virtues and shortcomings. Examples of the application of mass, cohort, within family, and combined between-family and within-family selection are given. In addition, we review the manner in which fish genetic resources can be lost at the intra-specific, species and ecosystem levels and discuss options to best prevent this. We illustrate that fundamental principles of genetic management are common in the implementation of both selective breeding and conservation programmes, and should be emphasized in capacity development efforts. We highlight the value of applied genetics approaches for increasing aquaculture productivity and the conservation of fish genetic resources.

  17. Computational identification and phylogenetic analysis of the oil-body structural proteins, oleosin and caleosin, in castor bean and flax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Tae Kyung; Kumar, Dhinesh; Cho, Young-Yeol; Hyun, Hae-Nam; Kim, Ju-Sung

    2013-02-25

    Oil bodies (OBs) are the intracellular particles derived from oilseeds. These OBs store lipids as a carbon resource, and have been exploited for a variety of industrial applications including biofuels. Oleosin and caleosin are the common OB structural proteins which are enabling biotechnological enhancement of oil content and OB-based pharmaceutical formations via stabilizing OBs. Although the draft whole genome sequence information for Ricinus communis L. (castor bean) and Linum usitatissimum L. (flax), important oil seed plants, is available in public database, OB-structural proteins in these plants are poorly indentified. Therefore, in this study, we performed a comprehensive bioinformatic analysis including analysis of the genome sequence, conserved domains and phylogenetic relationships to identify OB structural proteins in castor bean and flax genomes. Using comprehensive analysis, we have identified 6 and 15 OB-structural proteins from castor bean and flax, respectively. A complete overview of this gene family in castor bean and flax is presented, including the gene structures, phylogeny and conserved motifs, resulting in the presence of central hydrophobic regions with proline knot motif, providing an evolutionary proof that this central hydrophobic region had evolved from duplications in the primitive eukaryotes. In addition, expression analysis of L-oleosin and caleosin genes using quantitative real-time PCR demonstrated that seed contained their maximum expression, except that RcCLO-1 expressed maximum in cotyledon. Thus, our comparative genomics analysis of oleosin and caleosin genes and their putatively encoded proteins in two non-model plant species provides insights into the prospective usage of gene resources for improving OB-stability.

  18. Conservation of forest genetic resources in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    B. St. Clair; S. Lipow; K. Vance-Borland; R. Johnson

    2007-01-01

    Conservation of genetic diversity is recognized as an important requirement of sustainable forest management. Gene conservation activities include in situ conservation of native stands in reserves and ex situ conservation in seed banks, genetic tests, seed and breeding orchards, and other plantations of known identity. We present an example from Oregon and Washington...

  19. Recent Development of Flax Fibres and Their Reinforced Composites Based on Different Polymeric Matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrushikesh Abhyankar

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This work describes flax fibre reinforced polymeric composites with recent developments. The properties of flax fibres, as well as advanced fibre treatments such as mercerization, silane treatment, acylation, peroxide treatment and coatings for the enhancement of flax/matrix incompatibility are presented. The characteristic properties and characterizations of flax composites on various polymers including polypropylene (PP and polylactic acid, epoxy, bio-epoxy and bio-phenolic resin are discussed. A brief overview is also given on the recent nanotechnology applied in flax composites.

  20. Putting the Pieces Together: Clinically Relevant Genetic and Genomic Resources for Hospitalists and Neonatologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Rebecca; Khromykh, Alina; Babcock, Holly; Jenevein, Callie; Solomon, Benjamin D

    2017-02-01

    Genetic conditions are individually rare but are common in aggregate, and they often present in the neonatal and early pediatric periods. These conditions are often severe, can be difficult to diagnose and manage, and may heavily affect patients, families, health care systems, and society. Because of recent technological advances, the availability and uptake of genetic and genomic testing are increasing rapidly. However, there is a dearth of trained geneticists and genetic counselors to help guide and explain these conditions and relevant tests. To help hospitalists, neonatologists, and related practitioners navigate this complex and evolving field, we have compiled a list of free (mostly Web-based) resources relevant to the diagnosis and management of genetic conditions and related disorders. These resources, which we describe individually, can be useful for nongeneticist clinicians, and some also include material that can be used to explain concepts and conditions to patients or families. The resources presented are divided into the following categories (which overlap): general information, databases of genetic conditions, resources that can help generate differential diagnoses, databases of genetic testing laboratories (to help with logistics of ordering tests), information on newborn screening, and other resources. We also include a separate list of helpful textbooks and manuals. We conclude with 2 examples describing how some of these resources would be used by a pediatric hospitalist or neonatologist during the inpatient management of a child with a suspected genetic condition. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  1. Comparison of genetic diversity structure analyses of SSR molecular marker data within apple (Malus×domestica) genetic resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patzak, Josef; Paprštein, František; Henychová, Alena; Sedlák, Jiří

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compare traditional hierarchical clustering techniques and principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) with the model-based Bayesian cluster analyses in relation to subpopulation differentiation based on breeding history and geographical origin of apple (Malus×domestica Borkh.) cultivars and landraces. We presented the use of a set of 10 microsatellite (SSR) loci for genetic diversity structure analyses of 273 apple accessions from national genetic resources. These SSR loci yielded a total of 113 polymorphic SSR alleles, with 5-18 alleles per locus. SSR molecular data were successfully used in binary and allelic input format for all genetic diversity analyses, but allelic molecular data did not reveal reliable results with the NTSYS-pc and BAPS softwares. A traditional cluster analysis still provided an easy and effective way for determining genetic diversity structure in the apple germplasm collection. A model-based Bayesian analysis also provided the clustering results in accordance to traditional cluster analysis, but the analyses were distorted by the presence of a dominant group of apple genetic resources owing to the narrow origin of the apple genome. PCoA confirmed that there were no noticeable differences in genetic diversity structure of apple genetic resources during the breeding history. The results of our analyses are useful in the context of enhancing apple collection management, sampling of core collections, and improving breeding processes.

  2. Flax and flaxseed oil: an ancient medicine & modern functional food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Ankit; Sharma, Vivek; Upadhyay, Neelam; Gill, Sandeep; Sihag, Manvesh

    2014-09-01

    Flaxseed is emerging as an important functional food ingredient because of its rich contents of α-linolenic acid (ALA, omega-3 fatty acid), lignans, and fiber. Flaxseed oil, fibers and flax lignans have potential health benefits such as in reduction of cardiovascular disease, atherosclerosis, diabetes, cancer, arthritis, osteoporosis, autoimmune and neurological disorders. Flax protein helps in the prevention and treatment of heart disease and in supporting the immune system. As a functional food ingredient, flax or flaxseed oil has been incorporated into baked foods, juices, milk and dairy products, muffins, dry pasta products, macaroni and meat products. The present review focuses on the evidences of the potential health benefits of flaxseed through human and animals' recent studies and commercial use in various food products.

  3. Governing the management and use of pooled microbial genetic resources: Lessons from the global crop commons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Halewood

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper highlights lessons learned over the last thirty years establishing a governance structure for the global crop commons that are of relevance to current champions of the microbial commons. It argues that the political, legal and biophysical situation in which microbial genetic resources (and their users are located today are similar to the situation of plant genetic resources in the mid-1990s, before the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources was negotiated. Consequently, the paper suggests that it may be useful to look to the model of global network of ex situ plant genetic resources collections as a precedent to follow – even if only loosely – in developing an intergovernmentally endorsed legal substructure and governance framework for the microbial commons.

  4. Resources to increase genetics and genomics capacity of oncology nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiello, Lisa B

    2015-03-01

    Since the completion of the Human Genome Project (HGP) in 2003, the understanding of genetics and its influence on disease, particularly cancer, has increased dramatically. The initial focus after the completion of HGP was on identifying single-gene disorders, such as many hereditary cancer syndromes (e.g., BRCA1, BRCA2, HNPCC). As research continues, the major impact that genetics and genomics have across the healthcare continuum is only beginning to become clear.

  5. Impacts of the Nagoya Protocol on access to plant genetic resources and benefit sharing in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianyong Wu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Nagoya Protocol (NP is an international legal framework for access to genetic resources and benefit-sharing. It opened for signature on February1, 2011, and was proposed to be in force 90 days after the date when the fiftieth country or regional organization had ratified it. By October 2013, the protocol had been signed by 92 countries and ratified by 26 countries. The protocol is now expected to be in force before the twelfth meeting of the Conference of the Parties (COP to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD in 2014. The Nagoya Protocol will change the current situation of unordered access to and free development of genetic resources. It will provide a premise and guarantee for the principle of national sovereignty of genetic resources and implementation of equitable sharing of benefits arising from their utilization. Analyses show that although genetic resources indigenous to China have been widely utilized by other developed countries, with patents taken out on some products, utilization in China has been poor owing to a weak capacity for independent innovation and underdeveloped biotechnology. China currently lacks a policy and regulatory system for access and benefit sharing (ABS to its genetic resources. It is, therefore, a pressing matter for China to improve the implementation of the NP by strengthening national and local policies and regulations on ABS. There is also a need to increase investment to support basic research capacity and develop biological technology to fully utilize genetic resources in China

  6. A Belated Green Revolution for Cannabis: Virtual Genetic Resources to Fast-Track Cultivar Development

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew Timothy Welling; Timothy Shapter; Terry James Rose; Lei Liu; Rhia Stanger; Graham John King

    2016-01-01

    Cannabis is a predominantly diecious phenotypically diverse domesticated genus with few if any extant natural populations. International narcotics conventions and associated legislation have constrained the establishment, characterization, and use of Cannabis genetic resource collections. This has resulted in the underutilization of genepool variability in cultivar development and has limited the inclusion of secondary genepools associated with genetic improvement strategies of the Green Revo...

  7. Effect of whole flax seed and carbohydrase enzymes on gastrointestinal morphology, muscle fatty acids, and production performance in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apperson, K Denise; Cherian, Gita

    2016-10-19

    Flax seed is a rich source of α-linolenic acid (18:3 n-3). Feeding broiler birds flax seed can increase n-3 fatty acids in meat tissues. However, non-starch polysaccharides in flax seed decrease nutrient digestibility and can have a negative impact on bird performance and muscle fatty acid content. Addition of carbohydrase enzymes to flax-based broiler diets can decrease the anti-nutritive effects of non-starch polysaccharides. An experiment was conducted to investigate on the effect of flax seed and carbohydrase enzyme foregut morphology, muscle tissue, fatty acids, and bird performance. A total of 112 five-day-old broiler chicks were assigned to one of four treatments: Flax10 (corn-soybean meal basal diet adjusted for 10% flax), Flax15 (basal diet adjusted for 15% flax), Flax10E (Flax10 + 0.05% enzyme), and Flax15E (Flax 15 + 0.05% enzyme). Addition of enzyme led to large increases in villi height and villi width in the jejunum of birds fed Flax10 and increases in crypt depth in the jejunum of birds fed Flax15 (P enzyme supplementation was minimal on the fatty acids measured in breast muscle except for total n-6 fatty acids which was higher (P acid, arachidonic acid, and total n-6 fatty acids were higher in birds fed Flax15 vs. Flax10. Feeding Flax15 led to a reduction in dry matter of excreta when compared to Flax10 (P enzyme addition (P > 0.05). © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  8. The Collaborative Cross, a community resource for the genetic analysis of complex traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Churchill, Gary A.; Jansen, Ritsert C.; Airey, D.C.; Allayee, H.; Angel, J.M.; Attie, A.D.; Beatty, J.; Beavis, W.D.; Belknap, J.K.; Bennett, B.; Berrettini, W.; Bleich, A.; Bogue, M.; Broman, K.W.; Buck, K.J.; Buckler, E.; Burmeister, M.; Chesler, E.J.; Cheverud, J.M.; Clapcote, S.; Cook, M.N.; Cox, R.D.; Crabbe, J.C.; Crusio, W.E.; Darvasi, A.; Deschnepper, C.F.; Doerge, R.W.; Farber, C.R.; Forejt, J.; Gaile, D.; Garlow, S.J.; Geiger, H.; Gershenfeld, H.; Gordon, T.; Gu, J.; Gu, W.K.; de Haan, G; Hayes, N.L.; Heller, C.; Himmelbauer, H.; Hitzemann, R.; Hunter, K.; Hsu, H.C.; Iraqi, F.A.; Ivandic, B.; Jacob, H.J.; Jjepsen, K.J.; Johnson, D.K.; Johnson, T.E.; Kempermann, G.; Kendziorski, C.; Kotb, M.; Kooy, R.F; Llamas, B.; Lammert, F.; Lassalle, J.M.; Lowenstein, P.R.; Lu, L.; Lusiss, A.; Manly, K.F.; Marcucio, R.; Matthews, D.; Medrano, J.F.; Miller, D.R.; Mittleman, G.; Mock, B.A.; Mogil, J.S.; Montagutelli, X.; Morahan, G.; Morris, D.G.; Mott, R; Nadeau, J.H.; Nagase, H.; Nowakowski, R.S.; O'Hara, B.F.; Osadchuk, A.V.; Page, G.P.; Paigen, B.; Paigen, K.; Palmer, Abraham A.; Pan, H.J.; Peltonen-Palotie, L.; Pomp, D.; Peirce, J.; Pravenec, M.; Prows, D.R.; Qi, Z.H.; Reeves, R.H.; Roder, J.; Rosen, G.D.; Schadt, E.E.; Schalkwyk, L.C.; Seltzer, Z.; Shimomura, K.; Shou, S.M.; Sillanpaa, M.J.; Siracusa, L.D.; Snoeck, H.W.; Spearow, J.L.; Deschepper, Christian F.; Jepsen, Karl J.; Lusis, Aldons; O’Hara, Bruce F.; Sillanpää, Mikko J.; Tarantino, Lisa M.; Svenson, Karen; Threadgill, David; Toth, Linda A.; Valdar, William; Pardo-Manuel de Villena, Fernando; Warden, Craig; Whatley, Steve; Williams, Robert W.; Wiltshire, Tim; Yi, Nengjun; Zhang, Dabao; Zhang, Min; Zou, Fei; Montagutelli, X.; Tarantino, LM; Toth, LA; de Villena, FPM; Yi, NJ; Zhang, DB; Williams, O.

    2004-01-01

    The goal of the Complex Trait Consortium is to promote the development of resources that can be used to understand, treat and ultimately prevent pervasive human diseases. Existing and proposed mouse resources that are optimized to study the actions of isolated genetic loci on a fixed background are

  9. The Collaborative Cross, a community resource for the genetic analysis of complex traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Churchill, Gary A.; Jansen, Ritsert C.; Airey, D.C.; Allayee, H.; Angel, J.M.; Attie, A.D.; Beatty, J.; Beavis, W.D.; Belknap, J.K.; Bennett, B.; Berrettini, W.; Bleich, A.; Bogue, M.; Broman, K.W.; Buck, K.J.; Buckler, E.; Burmeister, M.; Chesler, E.J.; Cheverud, J.M.; Clapcote, S.; Cook, M.N.; Cox, R.D.; Crabbe, J.C.; Crusio, W.E.; Darvasi, A.; Deschnepper, C.F.; Doerge, R.W.; Farber, C.R.; Forejt, J.; Gaile, D.; Garlow, S.J.; Geiger, H.; Gershenfeld, H.; Gordon, T.; Gu, J.; Gu, W.K.; de Haan, G; Hayes, N.L.; Heller, C.; Himmelbauer, H.; Hitzemann, R.; Hunter, K.; Hsu, H.C.; Iraqi, F.A.; Ivandic, B.; Jacob, H.J.; Jjepsen, K.J.; Johnson, D.K.; Johnson, T.E.; Kempermann, G.; Kendziorski, C.; Kotb, M.; Kooy, R.F; Llamas, B.; Lammert, F.; Lassalle, J.M.; Lowenstein, P.R.; Lu, L.; Lusiss, A.; Manly, K.F.; Marcucio, R.; Matthews, D.; Medrano, J.F.; Miller, D.R.; Mittleman, G.; Mock, B.A.; Mogil, J.S.; Montagutelli, X.; Morahan, G.; Morris, D.G.; Mott, R; Nadeau, J.H.; Nagase, H.; Nowakowski, R.S.; O'Hara, B.F.; Osadchuk, A.V.; Page, G.P.; Paigen, B.; Paigen, K.; Palmer, Abraham A.; Pan, H.J.; Peltonen-Palotie, L.; Pomp, D.; Peirce, J.; Pravenec, M.; Prows, D.R.; Qi, Z.H.; Reeves, R.H.; Roder, J.; Rosen, G.D.; Schadt, E.E.; Schalkwyk, L.C.; Seltzer, Z.; Shimomura, K.; Shou, S.M.; Sillanpaa, M.J.; Siracusa, L.D.; Snoeck, H.W.; Spearow, J.L.; Deschepper, Christian F.; Jepsen, Karl J.; Lusis, Aldons; O’Hara, Bruce F.; Sillanpää, Mikko J.; Tarantino, Lisa M.; Svenson, Karen; Threadgill, David; Toth, Linda A.; Valdar, William; Pardo-Manuel de Villena, Fernando; Warden, Craig; Whatley, Steve; Williams, Robert W.; Wiltshire, Tim; Yi, Nengjun; Zhang, Dabao; Zhang, Min; Zou, Fei; Montagutelli, X.; Tarantino, LM; Toth, LA; de Villena, FPM; Yi, NJ; Zhang, DB; Williams, O.

    2004-01-01

    The goal of the Complex Trait Consortium is to promote the development of resources that can be used to understand, treat and ultimately prevent pervasive human diseases. Existing and proposed mouse resources that are optimized to study the actions of isolated genetic loci on a fixed background are

  10. Water Absorption Behaviour and Its Effect on the Mechanical Properties of Flax Fibre Reinforced Bioepoxy Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Muñoz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the context of sustainable development, considerable interest is being shown in the use of natural fibres like as reinforcement in polymer composites and in the development of resins from renewable resources. This paper focuses on eco-friendly and sustainable green composites manufacturing using resin transfer moulding (RTM process. Flax fibre reinforced bioepoxy composites at different weight fractions (40 and 55 wt% were prepared in order to study the effect of water absorption on their mechanical properties. Water absorption test was carried out by immersion specimens in water bath at room temperature for a time duration. The process of water absorption of these composites was found to approach Fickian diffusion behavior. Diffusion coefficients and maximum water uptake values were evaluated; the results showed that both increased with an increase in fibre content. Tensile and flexural properties of water immersed specimens were evaluated and compared to dry composite specimens. The results suggest that swelling of flax fibres due to water absorption can have positive effects on mechanical properties of the composite material. The results of this study showed that RTM process could be used to manufacture natural fibre reinforced composites with good mechanical properties even for potential applications in a humid environment.

  11. The Current Status of Germplum Database: a Tool for Characterization of Plum Genetic Resources in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Harta

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In Romania, Prunus genetic resources are kept in collections of varieties, populations and biotypes, mainly located in research and development institutes or fruit growing stations and, in the last years, by some private enterprises. Creating the experimental model for the Germplum database based on phenotypic descriptors and SSR molecular markers analysis is an important and topical objective for the efficient characterization of genetic resources and also for establishing a public-private partnership for the effective management of plum germplasm resources in Romania. The technical development of the Germplum database was completed and data will be added continuously after characterizing each new accession.

  12. GESDB: a platform of simulation resources for genetic epidemiology studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Po-Ju; Chung, Ren-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Computer simulations are routinely conducted to evaluate new statistical methods, to compare the properties among different methods, and to mimic the observed data in genetic epidemiology studies. Conducting simulation studies can become a complicated task as several challenges can occur, such as the selection of an appropriate simulation tool and the specification of parameters in the simulation model. Although abundant simulated data have been generated for human genetic research, currently there is no public database designed specifically as a repository for these simulated data. With the lack of such a database, for similar studies, similar simulations may have been repeated, which resulted in redundant work. Thus, we created an online platform, the Genetic Epidemiology Simulation Database (GESDB), for simulation data sharing and discussion of simulation techniques for genetic epidemiology studies. GESDB consists of a database for storing simulation scripts, simulated data and documentation from published articles as well as a discussion forum, which provides a platform for discussion of the simulated data and exchanging simulation ideas. Moreover, summary statistics such as the simulation tools that are most commonly used and datasets that are most frequently downloaded are provided. The statistics will be informative for researchers to choose an appropriate simulation tool or select a common dataset for method comparisons. GESDB can be accessed at http://gesdb.nhri.org.twDatabase URL: http://gesdb.nhri.org.tw.

  13. Romanian Gene Bank: Perspectives and Aspects for Farm Animal Genetic Resources Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lelior Iacob

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Many European countries set up gene banks for farm animal genetic resources (FAnGR. This paper describes the current status of animal genetic resources cryobanking and the perspectives for in vitro conservation of endangered livestock breeds and populations. Conservation efforts in Romania are done by the National Agency for Animal Husbandry ``Prof. dr. G.K. Constantinescu``, which implements activities to aid the farm animal genetic resources conservation and to develop a gene bank. Following the examples provided by other European countries, some improvements in FAnGR management are needed, focusing on aspects and approaches such as genetic and genomic studies, assisted reproduction techniques (ART's and by strengthening collaboration with RD institutions and universities from Romania. The aim of the paper is to give a general overview on current the situation of ex situ conservation efforts of FAnGR in Romania.

  14. Does biopolymers composition in seeds contribute to the flax resistance against the Fusarium infection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitoun, Ahmed M; Preisner, Marta; Kulma, Anna; Dymińska, Lucyna; Hanuza, Jerzy; Starzycki, Michal; Szopa, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decades, the cultivation of fibrous flax declined heavily. There are number of reasons for that fact; one of them is flax susceptibility to the pathogen infection. Damages caused mainly by fungi from genus Fusarium lead to the significant losses when cultivating flax, which in turn discourage farmers to grow flax. Therefore, to launch the new products from flax with attractive properties there is a need to obtain new flax varieties with increased resistance to pathogens. In order to obtain the better quality of flax fiber, we previously generated flax with reduced pectin or lignin level (cell wall polymers). The modifications altered also plants' resistance to the Fusarium infection. Undoubtedly, the plant defense system is complex, however, in this article we aimed to investigate the composition of modified flax seeds and to correlate it with the observed changes in the flax resistance to the pathogen attack. In particular, we evaluated the content and composition of carbohydrates (cell wall polymers: pectin, cellulose, hemicelluloses and mucilage), and phenylpropanoid compounds (lignin, lignans, phenolics). From the obtained results we concluded that the observed changes in the vulnerability to pathogens putatively correlate with the antioxidant potential of phenylpropanoids accumulated in seeds, seco-isolariciresinol and coumaric acid diglycosides in particular, and with pectin level as a carbon source for pathogens. Surprisingly, relatively less important for the resistance was the physical barrier, including lignin and cellulose amount and cellulose structure. Certainly, the hypothesis should be verified on a larger number of genotypes.

  15. Mechanical properties of short-flax-fibre reinforced compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, H.L.; Müssig, J.; Oever, van den M.J.A.

    2006-01-01

    The mechanical properties of flax/polypropylene compounds, manufactured both with a batch kneading and an extrusion process were determined and compared with the properties of Natural fibre Mat Thermoplastic (NMT) composites. The fibre length and width distributions of the fibres from the compounds

  16. Biobleaching of flax by degradation of lignin with laccase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yotova, L. K.

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Research on lignin biodegradation has become of great interest, due to the fact that lignin is one of the most abundant renewable materials, next to cellulose. Lignin is also the substance that gives color to raw flax fibers. In order to bleach the flax and to keep its tenacity high enough for textile applications, it is necessary to remove the lignin and partially to preserve the pectin. Lignin and pectin are the main constituents of the layer which sticks the flax cells together within the multicellular technical fiber. White-rot fungi and their oxidative enzymes, laccases and peroxid-ases (lignin peroxidases and manganese peroxidases, are being applied for the biobleaching of papermaking pulp, thereby reducing the need for environmentally harmful chemicals. Some data also suggest that it is possible to use other phenolytic enzymes, such as pure laccase, for this purpose. The objective of the present work was to study the possibility of bleaching flax fibers by pure laccase and combined laccase peroxide treatment, aimed at obtaining fibers with high whiteness and well-preserved tenacity.

  17. A sustainable genetic algorithm for satellite resource allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, R. J.; Campbell, M. L.; Krenz, W. C.

    1995-01-01

    A hybrid genetic algorithm is used to schedule tasks for 8 satellites, which can be modelled as a robot whose task is to retrieve objects from a two dimensional field. The objective is to find a schedule that maximizes the value of objects retrieved. Typical of the real-world tasks to which this corresponds is the scheduling of ground contacts for a communications satellite. An important feature of our application is that the amount of time available for running the scheduler is not necessarily known in advance. This requires that the scheduler produce reasonably good results after a short period but that it also continue to improve its results if allowed to run for a longer period. We satisfy this requirement by developing what we call a sustainable genetic algorithm.

  18. A Belated Green Revolution for Cannabis: Virtual Genetic Resources to Fast-Track Cultivar Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welling, Matthew T; Shapter, Tim; Rose, Terry J; Liu, Lei; Stanger, Rhia; King, Graham J

    2016-01-01

    Cannabis is a predominantly diecious phenotypically diverse domesticated genus with few if any extant natural populations. International narcotics conventions and associated legislation have constrained the establishment, characterization, and use of Cannabis genetic resource collections. This has resulted in the underutilization of genepool variability in cultivar development and has limited the inclusion of secondary genepools associated with genetic improvement strategies of the Green Revolution. The structured screening of ex situ germplasm and the exploitation of locally-adapted intraspecific traits is expected to facilitate the genetic improvement of Cannabis. However, limited attempts have been made to establish the full extent of genetic resources available for pre-breeding. We present a thorough critical review of Cannabis ex situ genetic resources, and discuss recommendations for conservation, pre-breeding characterization, and genetic analysis that will underpin future cultivar development. We consider East Asian germplasm to be a priority for conservation based on the prolonged historical cultivation of Cannabis in this region over a range of latitudes, along with the apparent high levels of genetic diversity and relatively low representation in published genetic resource collections. Seed cryopreservation could improve conservation by reducing hybridization and genetic drift that may occur during Cannabis germplasm regeneration. Given the unique legal status of Cannabis, we propose the establishment of a global virtual core collection based on the collation of consistent and comprehensive provenance meta-data and the adoption of high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies. This would enable representative core collections to be used for systematic phenotyping, and so underpin breeding strategies for the genetic improvement of Cannabis.

  19. A Belated Green Revolution for Cannabis: Virtual Genetic Resources to Fast-track Cultivar Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Timothy Welling

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Cannabis is a predominantly diecious phenotypically diverse domesticated genus with few if any extant natural populations. International narcotics conventions and associated legislation have constrained the establishment, characterization and use of Cannabis genetic resource collections. This has resulted in the underutilization of genepool variability in cultivar development and has limited the inclusion of secondary genepools associated with genetic improvement strategies of the Green Revolution. The structured screening of ex situ germplasm and the exploitation of locally-adapted intraspecific traits is expected to facilitate the genetic improvement of Cannabis. However, limited attempts have been made to establish the full extent of genetic resources available for pre-breeding. We present a thorough critical review of Cannabis ex situ genetic resources, and discuss recommendations for conservation, pre-breeding characterization and genetic analysis that will underpin future cultivar development. We consider East Asian germplasm to be a priority for conservation based on the prolonged historical cultivation of Cannabis in this region over a range of latitudes, along with the apparent high levels of genetic diversity and relatively low representation in published genetic resource collections. Seed cryopreservation could improve conservation by reducing hybridization and genetic drift that may occur during Cannabis germplasm regeneration. Given the unique legal status of Cannabis, we propose the establishment of a global virtual core collection based on the collation of consistent and comprehensive provenance meta-data and the adoption of high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies. This would enable representative core collections to be used for systematic phenotyping, and so underpin breeding strategies for the genetic improvement of Cannabis.

  20. Technology assessment and resource allocation for predictive genetic testing: A study of the perspectives of Canadian genetic health care providers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Einsiedel Edna

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With a growing number of genetic tests becoming available to the health and consumer markets, genetic health care providers in Canada are faced with the challenge of developing robust decision rules or guidelines to allocate a finite number of public resources. The objective of this study was to gain Canadian genetic health providers' perspectives on factors and criteria that influence and shape resource allocation decisions for publically funded predictive genetic testing in Canada. Methods The authors conducted semi-structured interviews with 16 senior lab directors and clinicians at publically funded Canadian predictive genetic testing facilities. Participants were drawn from British Columbia, Alberta, Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec and Nova Scotia. Given the community sampled was identified as being relatively small and challenging to access, purposive sampling coupled with snowball sampling methodologies were utilized. Results Surveyed lab directors and clinicians indicated that predictive genetic tests were funded provincially by one of two predominant funding models, but they themselves played a significant role in how these funds were allocated for specific tests and services. They also rated and identified several factors that influenced allocation decisions and patients' decisions regarding testing. Lastly, participants provided recommendations regarding changes to existing allocation models and showed support for a national evaluation process for predictive testing. Conclusion Our findings suggest that largely local and relatively ad hoc decision making processes are being made in relation to resource allocations for predictive genetic tests and that a more coordinated and, potentially, national approach to allocation decisions in this context may be appropriate.

  1. The changes in pectin metabolism in flax infected with Fusarium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtasik, Wioleta; Kulma, Anna; Kostyn, Kamil; Szopa, Jan

    2011-08-01

    Fusarium culmorum and Fusarium oxysporum are the most common fungal pathogens of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.), thus leading to the greatest losses in crop yield. A subtractive cDNA library was constructed from flax seedlings exposed for two days to F. oxysporum. This revealed a set of genes that are potentially involved in the flax defense responses. Two of those genes directly participate in cell wall sugar polymer metabolism: UDP-D-glucuronate 4-epimerase (GAE; EC 5.1.3.6) and formate dehydrogenase (FDH; EC 1.2.1.2). GAE delivers the main substrate for pectin biosynthesis, and decreases were detected in its mRNA level after Fusarium infection. FDH participates in the metabolism of formic acid, and the expression level of its gene increased after Fusarium infection. However, metabolite profiling analysis disclosed that the pectin content in the infected plants remained unchanged, but that there were reductions in both the levels of the soluble sugars that serve as pectin precursors, and in the level of formic acid. Since formic acid is the product of pectin demethylesterification, the level of mRNAs coding for pectin methylesterase (EC 3.1.1.11) in the infected flax was measured, revealing a decrease in its expression upon plant infection. Transgenic flax plants overexpressing fungal polygalacturonase (EC 3.2.1.15) and rhamnogalacturonase (EC 3.2.1.-) showed a decrease in the pectin content and an elevated level of formic acid, but the level of expression of the FDH gene remained unchanged. It is suspected that the expression of the formate dehydrogenase gene is directly controlled by the pathogen in the early stage of infection, and additionally by pectin degradation in the later stages.

  2. Accuracy of genomic selection in biparental populations of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank M. You

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Flax is an important economic crop for seed oil and stem fiber. Phenotyping of traits such as seed yield, seed quality, stem fiber yield, and quality characteristics is expensive and time consuming. Genomic selection (GS refers to a breeding approach aimed at selecting preferred individuals based on genomic estimated breeding values predicted by a statistical model based on the relationship between phenotypes and genome-wide genetic markers. We evaluated the prediction accuracy of GS (rMP and the efficiency of GS relative to phenotypic selection (RE for three GS models: ridge regression best linear unbiased prediction (RR-BLUP, Bayesian LASSO (BL, and Bayesian ridge regression (BRR, for seed yield, oil content, iodine value, linoleic, and linolenic acid content with a full and a common set of genome-wide simple sequence repeat markers in each of three biparental populations. The three GS models generated similar rMP and RE, while BRR displayed a higher coefficient of determination (R2 of the fitted models than did RR-BLUP or BL. The mean rMP and RE varied for traits with different heritabilities and was affected by the genetic variation of the traits in the populations. GS for seed yield generated a mean RE of 1.52 across populations and marker sets, a value significantly superior to that for direct phenotypic selection. Our empirical results provide the first validation of GS in flax and demonstrate that GS could increase genetic gain per unit time for linseed breeding. Further studies for selection of training populations and markers are warranted.

  3. Permanent Genetic Resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 April 2010 – 31 May 2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andree, K.; Axtner, J.; Bagley, M.J.; Govers, F.; Jacobsen, E.; Mendes, O.; Lee, van der T.A.J.

    2010-01-01

    This article documents the addition of 396 microsatellite marker loci to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Anthocidaris crassispina, Aphis glycines, Argyrosomus regius, Astrocaryum sciophilum, Dasypus novemcinctus, Delomys sublineatus, Dermatemy

  4. Permanent Genetic Resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 April 2010 – 31 May 2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andree, K.; Axtner, J.; Bagley, M.J.; Govers, F.; Jacobsen, E.; Mendes, O.; Lee, van der T.A.J.

    2010-01-01

    This article documents the addition of 396 microsatellite marker loci to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Anthocidaris crassispina, Aphis glycines, Argyrosomus regius, Astrocaryum sciophilum, Dasypus novemcinctus, Delomys sublineatus,

  5. Permanent genetic resources added to molecular ecology resources database 1 August 2010 - 30 September 2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aggarwal, P.K.; Allainguillaume, J.; Bajay, M.M.; Belder, den E.; Elderson, J.; Esselink, G.D.; Smulders, M.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    This article documents the addition of 229 microsatellite marker loci to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Acacia auriculiformis × Acacia mangium hybrid, Alabama argillacea, Anoplopoma fimbria, Aplochiton zebra, Brevicoryne brassicae, Bruguiera

  6. Permanent genetic resources added to molecular ecology resources database 1 june 2011–31 july 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barker, F. Keith; Bell, James J.; Bogdanowicz, Steven M.

    2011-01-01

    This article documents the addition of 112 microsatellite marker loci and 24 pairs of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) sequencing primers to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Agelaius phoeniceus, Austrolittorina cincta, Circus cyaneus, Ci...

  7. Natural variation, an underexploited resource of genetic variation for plant genetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alonso-Blanco, C.; Koornneef, M.

    2000-01-01

    The definition of gene functions requires the phenotypic characterization of genetic variants. Currently, such functional analysis of Arabidopsis genes is based largely on laboratory-induced mutants that are selected in forward and reverse genetic studies. An alternative complementary source of gene

  8. Age-related decline in brain resources modulates genetic effects on cognitive functioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulman Lindenberger

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Individual differences in cognitive performance increase from early to late adulthood, likely reflecting influences of a multitude of factors. We hypothesize that losses in neurochemical and anatomical brain resources in normal aging modulate the effects of common genetic variations on cognitive functioning. Our hypothesis is based on the assumption that the function relating brain resources to cognition is nonlinear, so that genetic differences exert increasingly large effects on cognition as resources recede from high to medium levels in the course of aging.Direct empirical support for this hypothesis comes from a study by Nagel et al. (2008, who reported that the effects of the Catechol-O-Methyltransferase (COMT gene on cognitive performance are magnified in old age and interacted with the Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF gene. We conclude that common genetic polymorphisms contribute to the increasing heterogeneity of cognitive functioning in old age. Extensions of the hypothesis to other polymorphisms are discussed.

  9. Age-Related Decline in Brain Resources Modulates Genetic Effects on Cognitive Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindenberger, Ulman; Nagel, Irene E.; Chicherio, Christian; Li, Shu-Chen; Heekeren, Hauke R.; Bäckman, Lars

    2008-01-01

    Individual differences in cognitive performance increase from early to late adulthood, likely reflecting influences of a multitude of factors. We hypothesize that losses in neurochemical and anatomical brain resources in normal aging modulate the effects of common genetic variations on cognitive functioning. Our hypothesis is based on the assumption that the function relating brain resources to cognition is nonlinear, so that genetic differences exert increasingly large effects on cognition as resources recede from high to medium levels in the course of aging. Direct empirical support for this hypothesis comes from a study by Nagel et al. (2008), who reported that the effects of the Catechol-O-Methyltransferase (COMT) gene on cognitive performance are magnified in old age and interacted with the Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) gene. We conclude that common genetic polymorphisms contribute to the increasing heterogeneity of cognitive functioning in old age. Extensions of the hypothesis to other polymorphisms are discussed. (150 of 150 words) PMID:19225597

  10. Forest genetic resources in Serbia: State and recommendations for improvement in this area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šijačić-Nikolić Mirjana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Forest genetic resources, which represent genetic diversity contained in the thousands of forest tree species, take a significant place in total biodiversity of Serbia. The forest ecosystems of Serbia include about 250 indigenous tree species which, according to geographical-floral elements, belong to the Middle-European, Pontic and Mediterranean element. Within the available gene pool, special attention should be addressed to wild fruit tree species and those species which are relict, endemic, rare and endangered according to the IUCN categorization. The regulatory basis for conservation and directed utilization of forest genetic resources in Serbia can be found in the strategic and legal acts in the field of environmental protection, nature conservation and forestry. Previous activities in the conservation of forest genetic resources are insufficient, whereby the level of their endangerment is continuously increasing as a result of deforestation and climate change. This situation requires a clear definition of a national strategy of conservation and directed utilization of forest genetic resources in Serbia, as a basis for planning activities in this area based on best practices.

  11. Market organization and animal genetic resource management: a revealed preference analysis of sheep pricing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tindano, K; Moula, N; Leroy, P; Traoré, A; Antoine-Moussiaux, N

    2017-10-01

    Farm animal genetic resources are threatened worldwide. Participation in markets, while representing a crucial way out of poverty for many smallholders, affects genetic management choices with associated sustainability concerns. This paper proposes a contextualized study of the interactions between markets and animal genetic resources management, in the case of sheep markets in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. It focusses on the organization of marketing chains and the valuation of genetic characteristics by value chain actors. Marketing chain characterization was tackled through semi-structured interviews with 25 exporters and 15 butchers, both specialized in sheep. Moreover, revealed preference methods were applied to analyse the impact of animals' attributes on market pricing. Data were collected from 338 transactions during three different periods: Eid al-Adha, Christmas and New Year period, and a neutral period. The neutral period is understood as a period not close to any event likely to influence the demand for sheep. The results show that physical characteristics such as live weight, height at withers and coat colour have a strong influence on the animals' prices. Live weight has also had an increasing marginal impact on price. The different markets (local butcher, feasts, export market, sacrifices) represent distinct demands for genetic characteristics, entailing interesting consequences for animal genetic resource management. Any breeding programme should therefore take this diversity into account to allow this sector to contribute better to a sustainable development of the country.

  12. Permanent genetic resources added to molecular ecology resources database 1 august 2011-30 september 2011

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    This article documents the addition of 299 microsatellite marker loci and nine pairs of single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) EPIC primers to the Molecular Ecology Resources (MER) Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Alosa pseudoharengus, Alosa aestivalis, Aphis spiraecola, Argopecten purpuratus, Coreoleuciscus splendidus, Garra gotyla, Hippodamia convergens, Linnaea borealis, Menippe mercenaria, Menippe adina, Parus major, Pinus densiflora, Portunus trituberculatus, Procon...

  13. Permanent genetic resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 June 2012-31 July 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barat, Ashoktaru; Bravo, S P; Chandra, Suresh; Corrêa, A S; Giombini, M I; Guedes, R N C; Huailei, Ma; Lal, Kuldeep K; Liang, Lu; Matura, Rakesh; Mohindra, Vindhya; Oliveira, L O; Patangia, Ruchi; Qiyong, Liu; Sah, Rama Shankar; Singh, Akanksha; Singh, Birender Kumar; Singh, Rajeev K; Tosto, D S; Tripathi, Ratnesh K; Vinson, C C

    2012-11-01

    This article documents the addition of 96 microsatellite marker loci to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Clarias batrachus, Marmota himalayana, Schizothorax richardsonii, Sitophilus zeamais and Syagrus romanzoffiana. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Clarias dussumeri, Clarias gariepinus, Heteropneustus fossilis, Sitophilus granarius and Sitophilus oryzae.

  14. Plant genetic resources conservation and use in light of recent policy developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.S. Varaprasad and N. Sivaraj

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Plant genetic resources constitute our invaluable assets to meet the growing needs to increase crop production andproductivity. Plant genetic resources constitute a unique global heritage and their conservation and utilization is ofimmediate concern. Over six million accessions of crop germplasm are currently being conserved worldwide in gene banks.Despite its overall advantage and promotion by the international community, in-situ conservation is still inadequate.Various international conventions have addressed the topic of genetic erosion and declining use of agrobiodiversity inmodern agriculture. Concern about the future vulnerability of agricultural production, food security and environmentalstability has moved the conservation and sustainable use of plant genetic resources to the top of the internationaldevelopment agenda. Implications and impact of global conventions/ treaties/ agreements such as Convention on BiologicalDiversity, Trade related intellectual property rights and Sanitary and phytosanitary agreements under WTO, Internationalplant protection convention, Global plan of action, International treaty on plant genetic resources for food and agricultureConvention on international trade in endangered species of wild fauna and flora, Intergovernmental Committee onIntellectual Property and Genetic Resources, Traditional Knowledge and Folklore (ICGTK was set up in 2001, Internationalunion for protection of plant varieties, Global crop diversity trust and Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety on plant geneticresource activities are discussed. The changing national scenario in light of the above global developments particularly theprovisions under Biological diversity Act and Protection of plant varieties and farmers’ rights act are discussed.The status of PGR conservation, documentation and utilization at global and national level is briefly discussed. Measures topromote PGR utilization including core development, prebreeding, gene

  15. Naturally occurring variation in Arabidopsis: an underexploited resource for plant genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Blanco, C; Koornneef, M

    2000-01-01

    The definition of gene functions requires the phenotypic characterization of genetic variants. Currently, such functional analysis of Arabidopsis genes is based largely on laboratory-induced mutants that are selected in forward and reverse genetic studies. An alternative complementary source of genetic variation is available: the naturally occurring variation among accessions. The multigenic nature of most of this variation has limited its application until now. However, the use of genetic methods developed to map quantitative trait loci, in combination with the characteristics and resources available for molecular biology in Arabidopsis, allow this variation to be exploited up to the molecular level. Here, we describe the current tools available for the forward genetic analysis of this variation, and review the recent progress in the detection and mapping of loci and the cloning of large-effect genes.

  16. A Resource Scheduling Strategy in Cloud Computing Based on Multi-agent Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wuxue Jiang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Resource scheduling strategies in cloud computing are used either to improve system operating efficiency, or to improve user satisfaction. This paper presents an integrated scheduling strategy considering both resources credibility and user satisfaction. It takes user satisfaction as objective function and resources credibility as a part of the user satisfaction, and realizes optimal scheduling by using genetic algorithm. We integrate this scheduling strategy into Agent subsequently and propose a cloud computing system architecture based on Multi-agent. The numerical results show that this scheduling strategy improves not only the system operating efficiency, but also the user satisfaction.  

  17. Properties and performance of flax yarn/thermoplastic polyester composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Bo; Mehmood, Shahid

    2012-01-01

    and transverse directions are well simulated by rule of mixtures models. In the axial direction, at a fiber volume fraction of 0.50, the experimental tensile modulus and ultimate tensile stress are 32 GPa and 350 MPa, respectively. In comparison, for glass fiber composites at a fiber volume fraction of 0.......50, the tensile modulus and ultimate tensile stress are calculated to be 38 GPa and 1800 MPa, respectively. The flax yarn composites show better specific tensile modulus than the glass fiber composites with values of 23 GPa/g/cm3 and 20 GPa/g/cm3, respectively. An analysis of data from previous studies...... of unidirectional natural fibre composites demonstrates comparatively good reinforcement efficiency of the flax yarn fibers with an effective tensile modulus and ultimate tensile stress of the fibers in the area of 70 GPa and 800 MPa, respectively. Altogether, it is demonstrated that composites with high...

  18. Permanent genetic resources added to molecular ecology resources database 1 October 2012-30 November 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksoy, Serap; Almeida-Val, Vera Maria F; Azevedo, V C R; Baucom, Regina; Bazaga, Pilar; Beheregaray, L B; Bennetzen, Jeffrey L; Brassaloti, Ricardo A; Burgess, Treena I; Caccone, Adagisa; Chang, Shu-Mei; Ciampi, A Y; Ciancaleoni, S; Clímaco, Gisele T; Clouet, Cécil; Coimbra, Maria R M; Coutinho, Luiz L; Dantas, Hozana L; De Vega, Clara; Echodu, Richard; Enyaru, John; Figueira, Antonio; Filho, Manoel A G; Foltz, Britnie; Fressigné, L; Gadomski, Mateusz; Gauthier, Nathalie; Herrera, Carlos M; Hyseni, Chaz; Jorge, Erika C; Kaczmarczyk, Dariusz; Knott, Emily; Kuester, Adam; Lima, Ana P S; Lima, Maíra A; Lima, Marcos P; Longo, Ana Luiza B; Lor, Grant; Maggioni, Rodrigo; Marques, Thiago S; Martins, Aline R; Matoso, Daniele A; Medrano, Mónica; Mendonça, M A C; Mettler, Raeann; Nascimento, Priscila Roberta M; Negri, V; Oliveira, Karine K C; Oliveira, L O; Ovcarenko, Irina; Paula-Silva, Maria N; Raggi, L; Sandoval-Castillo, J; Santos, Carlos Henrique Dos Anjos; Martin Schaefer, H; Segelbacher, Gernot; Seino, Miyuki M; Sistrom, Mark; Taole, Matsepo M; Teske, P R; Tsagkarakou, Anastasia; Verdade, Luciano M; Villela, Priscilla M S; Vinson, C C; Wingfield, Brenda D; Wingfield, Michael J

    2013-03-01

    This article documents the addition of 153 microsatellite marker loci to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Brassica oleracea, Brycon amazonicus, Dimorphandra wilsonii, Eupallasella percnurus, Helleborus foetidus, Ipomoea purpurea, Phrynops geoffroanus, Prochilodus argenteus, Pyura sp., Sylvia atricapilla, Teratosphaeria suttonii, Trialeurodes vaporariorum and Trypanosoma brucei. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Dimorphandra coccicinea, Dimorphandra cuprea, Dimorphandra gardneriana, Dimorphandra jorgei, Dimorphandra macrostachya, Dimorphandra mollis, Dimorphandra parviflora and Dimorphandra pennigera.

  19. Crop Resources Ethic in Plant Genetic Engineering and Fortune Transfer Between Generations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiaowei; DING Guangzhou; LIANG Xueqing

    2006-01-01

    The relation between human and crop resources belongs to the ethic of resources exploitation. The purposes of discussing the ethic of crop resources are to protect the ecology and safety of crops, to gain sustainable development, furthermore, to choose and form the production structure that is favorable to saving crop resources and protecting the ecology of crops. Plant genetic engineering is the technology of molecule breeding of rearrangement of inheritance materials at the level of molecule directionally, of improving plant properties and of breeding high quality and yield varieties of crops. The prominent effects of the technology on the crop ecological system are human subjective factors increasing as well as violating the nature and intensifying the conflict between human being and nature.Therefore, in plant genetic engineering, crop resources exploitation should follow certain ethic principles. Under the theory of ethics of natural resources, by the means of biologioal statistics, the author systematically analyzed the possible model of crop resources transfer between generations as well as the transfer mode of magnitude of real materials and magnitude of value.

  20. Seeds, hands and lands : maize genetic resources of highland Guatemala in space and time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Etten, van J.

    2006-01-01

    Crop genetic resources are an important aspect of agricultural production. Agricultural innovation through plant breeding is generally seen as an efficient means to support food security and economic development in poor areas. Modern varieties of maize, a major cereal and the subject of this study,

  1. Gene banks a mechanism for harnessing animal genetic resources for food security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increased productivity for livestock is needed to sustainably meet growing consumer demands. Climate change places another layer of complexity on the raising animal productivity. To meet these challenges a wide variety of genetic resources is needed. But maintaining this variety in-situ can be costl...

  2. The Netherlands twin register biobank: A resource for genetic epidemiological studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemsen, G.; Geus, E.J.C. de; Bartels, M.; Beijsterveldt, C.E.M.T. van; Brooks, A.I.; Estourgie-van Burk, G.F.; Fugman, D.A.; Hoekstra, C.; Hottenga, J.-J.; Kluft, K.; Meijer, P.; Montgomery, G.W.; Rizzu, P.; Sondervan, D.; Smit, A.B.; Spijker, S.; Suchiman, H.E.D.; Tischfield, J.A.; Lehner, T.; Slagboom, P.E.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2010-01-01

    In 2004 the Netherlands Twin Register (NTR) started a large scale biological sample collection in twin families to create a resource for genetic studies on health, lifestyle and personality. Between January 2004 and July 2008, adult participants from NTR research projects were invited into the study

  3. U.S. Sorghum genetic resources collection: 15 years of progress (2001-2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. sorghum genetic resources collection at Griffin, GA, is one of the largest collections in the National Plant Germplasm System. In 2001, improved maintenance was greatly needed as accessions weren’t regenerated routinely, viability tests weren’t conducted, and most seed was stored in 4C inst...

  4. Vicissitudes of Benefit Sharing of Crop Genetic Resources: Downstream and Upstream

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, de B.; Korthals, M.J.J.A.A.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, we will first give a historic overview of the concept of benefit sharing and its appearance in official agreements, particularly with respect to crop genetic resources. It will become clear that, at present, benefit sharing is primarily considered as an instrument of compensation or

  5. Seeds, hands and lands : maize genetic resources of highland Guatemala in space and time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Etten, van J.

    2006-01-01

    Crop genetic resources are an important aspect of agricultural production. Agricultural innovation through plant breeding is generally seen as an efficient means to support food security and economic development in poor areas. Modern varieties of maize, a major cereal and the subject of this study,

  6. Innovation in conservation, how information technology tools improve the ex situ management of plant genetic resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hintum, van T.J.L.

    2012-01-01

    Many new technologies highly relevant to the PGR community have become available over the past years, especially in the fields of genomics and information technology. The effect of the second category of technologies on the ex situ manage-ment of plant genetic resources is explored. After a low init

  7. Variability in anthocyanin content among Abutilon theophrasti, and Urena lobata genetic resources .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plants contain bioactive phytochemicals and nutraceuticals to be utilized in the pharmaceutical and nutraceutical markets. Sixty-two accessions of Abutilon theophrasti, Basella alba, and Urena lobata are conserved at the USDA, ARS, Plant Genetic Resources Conservation Unit, Griffin, GA. Anthocyanins...

  8. The Forest Genetic Resources Working Group of the North American Forestry Commission (FAO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald C. Schmidtling

    2002-01-01

    The Forest Genetic Resources Working Group (FGRWG) is one of seven working groups established by the North American Forest Commission (NAFC). The NAFC is one of six Forest Commissions established by the Food and Agriculture Organization (F-40). The FGRWG was established by the NAFC in 1961 as the Working Group on Forest Tree Improvement but went through several-changes...

  9. The importance and utilization of the genetic resources of cultivated species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant genetic resources (PGR) have been utilized over the millennia to improve the human condition. Domestication of major crops such as corn, rice and soybean occurred between 5,000 and 10,000 years ago; more ancient domestication of potato occurred in the Andes and of tomato in Mesoamerica. Deve...

  10. Gene co-ops and the biotrade: translating genetic resource rights into sustainable development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, W V

    1996-04-01

    The 1992 Convention on Biological Diversity marks a basic change in the international status of genetic resources. Prior to the Convention, these resources were considered to be the "heritage of mankind.' Although the intent of this open access regime was to ensure the widespread availability of genetic resources for agriculture and industry, commercial use of the resources provided no additional economic incentive for conservation by source countries. The Biodiversity Convention corrects this policy failure by establishing that states have sovereign rights over their genetic resources, thereby enabling market incentives to complement various multilateral mechanisms that might directly fund biodiversity conservation. A number of obstacles face countries that are translating this broad right to regulate access into specific policies, laws, and regulations designed to meet conservation and development objectives. A review of these obstacles and of trends in technological development suggest that nations and developing country institutions should take a set of actions to develop access legislation and Material Transfer Agreements, establish biodiversity "cooperatives' and intermediary institutions to facilitate information exchange, develop minimum standards for access legislation, and require that prior informed consent of local communities be obtained by all biodiversity collectors.

  11. Mapping genetic diversity of cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill.: application of spatial analysis for conservation and use of plant genetic resources.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten van Zonneveld

    Full Text Available There is a growing call for inventories that evaluate geographic patterns in diversity of plant genetic resources maintained on farm and in species' natural populations in order to enhance their use and conservation. Such evaluations are relevant for useful tropical and subtropical tree species, as many of these species are still undomesticated, or in incipient stages of domestication and local populations can offer yet-unknown traits of high value to further domestication. For many outcrossing species, such as most trees, inbreeding depression can be an issue, and genetic diversity is important to sustain local production. Diversity is also crucial for species to adapt to environmental changes. This paper explores the possibilities of incorporating molecular marker data into Geographic Information Systems (GIS to allow visualization and better understanding of spatial patterns of genetic diversity as a key input to optimize conservation and use of plant genetic resources, based on a case study of cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill., a Neotropical fruit tree species. We present spatial analyses to (1 improve the understanding of spatial distribution of genetic diversity of cherimoya natural stands and cultivated trees in Ecuador, Bolivia and Peru based on microsatellite molecular markers (SSRs; and (2 formulate optimal conservation strategies by revealing priority areas for in situ conservation, and identifying existing diversity gaps in ex situ collections. We found high levels of allelic richness, locally common alleles and expected heterozygosity in cherimoya's putative centre of origin, southern Ecuador and northern Peru, whereas levels of diversity in southern Peru and especially in Bolivia were significantly lower. The application of GIS on a large microsatellite dataset allows a more detailed prioritization of areas for in situ conservation and targeted collection across the Andean distribution range of cherimoya than previous studies could

  12. Mapping Genetic Diversity of Cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill.): Application of Spatial Analysis for Conservation and Use of Plant Genetic Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zonneveld, Maarten; Scheldeman, Xavier; Escribano, Pilar; Viruel, María A.; Van Damme, Patrick; Garcia, Willman; Tapia, César; Romero, José; Sigueñas, Manuel; Hormaza, José I.

    2012-01-01

    There is a growing call for inventories that evaluate geographic patterns in diversity of plant genetic resources maintained on farm and in species' natural populations in order to enhance their use and conservation. Such evaluations are relevant for useful tropical and subtropical tree species, as many of these species are still undomesticated, or in incipient stages of domestication and local populations can offer yet-unknown traits of high value to further domestication. For many outcrossing species, such as most trees, inbreeding depression can be an issue, and genetic diversity is important to sustain local production. Diversity is also crucial for species to adapt to environmental changes. This paper explores the possibilities of incorporating molecular marker data into Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to allow visualization and better understanding of spatial patterns of genetic diversity as a key input to optimize conservation and use of plant genetic resources, based on a case study of cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill.), a Neotropical fruit tree species. We present spatial analyses to (1) improve the understanding of spatial distribution of genetic diversity of cherimoya natural stands and cultivated trees in Ecuador, Bolivia and Peru based on microsatellite molecular markers (SSRs); and (2) formulate optimal conservation strategies by revealing priority areas for in situ conservation, and identifying existing diversity gaps in ex situ collections. We found high levels of allelic richness, locally common alleles and expected heterozygosity in cherimoya's putative centre of origin, southern Ecuador and northern Peru, whereas levels of diversity in southern Peru and especially in Bolivia were significantly lower. The application of GIS on a large microsatellite dataset allows a more detailed prioritization of areas for in situ conservation and targeted collection across the Andean distribution range of cherimoya than previous studies could do, i.e. at

  13. Permanent Genetic Resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 October 2011 - 30 November 2011

    KAUST Repository

    Abreu, Aluana Gonçalves

    2012-02-01

    This article documents the addition of 139 microsatellite marker loci and 90 pairs of single-nucleotide polymorphism sequencing primers to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Aglaoctenus lagotis, Costus pulverulentus, Costus scaber, Culex pipiens, Dascyllus marginatus, Lupinus nanus Benth, Phloeomyzus passerini, Podarcis muralis, Rhododendron rubropilosum Hayata var. taiwanalpinum and Zoarces viviparus. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Culex quinquefasciatus, Rhododendron pseudochrysanthum Hay. ssp. morii (Hay.) Yamazaki and R. pseudochrysanthum Hayata. This article also documents the addition of 48 sequencing primer pairs and 90 allele-specific primers for Engraulis encrasicolus. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Permanent genetic resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 October 2011-30 November 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Aluana G; Albaina, A; Alpermann, Tilman J; Apkenas, Vanessa E; Bankhead-Dronnet, S; Bergek, Sara; Berumen, Michael L; Cho, Chang-Hung; Clobert, Jean; Coulon, Aurélie; DE Feraudy, D; Estonba, A; Hankeln, Thomas; Hochkirch, Axel; Hsu, Tsai-Wen; Huang, Tsurng-Juhn; Irigoien, X; Iriondo, M; Kay, Kathleen M; Kinitz, Tim; Kothera, Linda; LE Hénanff, Maxime; Lieutier, F; Lourdais, Olivier; Macrini, Camila M T; Manzano, C; Martin, C; Morris, Veronica R F; Nanninga, Gerrit; Pardo, M A; Plieske, Jörg; Pointeau, S; Prestegaard, Tore; Quack, Markus; Richard, Murielle; Savage, Harry M; Schwarcz, Kaiser D; Shade, Jessica; Simms, Ellen L; Solferini, Vera N; Stevens, Virginie M; Veith, Michael; Wen, Mei-Juan; Wicker, Florian; Yost, Jennifer M; Zarraonaindia, I

    2012-03-01

    This article documents the addition of 139 microsatellite marker loci and 90 pairs of single-nucleotide polymorphism sequencing primers to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Aglaoctenus lagotis, Costus pulverulentus, Costus scaber, Culex pipiens, Dascyllus marginatus, Lupinus nanus Benth, Phloeomyzus passerini, Podarcis muralis, Rhododendron rubropilosum Hayata var. taiwanalpinum and Zoarces viviparus. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Culex quinquefasciatus, Rhododendron pseudochrysanthum Hay. ssp. morii (Hay.) Yamazaki and R. pseudochrysanthum Hayata. This article also documents the addition of 48 sequencing primer pairs and 90 allele-specific primers for Engraulis encrasicolus.

  15. Permanent Genetic Resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 December 2009-31 January 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Cynthia M; Aparicio, Gallego J; Atangana, Alain R; Beaulieu, Jean; Bruford, M W; Cain, Forrest; Campos, T; Cariani, A; Carvalho, M A; Chen, Nan; Chen, P P; Clamens, A-L; Clark, Ann M; Coeur D'Acier, A; Connolly, Paul; Cordero-Rivera, Adolfo; Coughlan, James P; Cross, Thomas S; David, Bruno; DE Bruyn, Colin; DE Meyer, M; DE Ridder, Chantal; Delatte, H; Dettori, M T; Downer, S J; Dubreuil, Christine; Evans, K J; Fan, Bin; Ferrara, G; Gagné, André; Gaillard, Maria; Gigliarelli, L; Giovinazzi, J; Gomez, D R; Grünwald, N J; Hansson, Bengt; Huotari, T; Jank, L; Jousselin, E; Jungmann, L; Kaczmarek, M E; Khasa, Damase P; Kneebone, Jeff; Korpelainen, H; Kostamo, K; Lanfaloni, L; Lin, Haoran; Liu, Xiaochun; Lucentini, L; Maes, G E; Mahaffee, W F; Meng, Zining; Micali, S; Milano, I; Mok, H F; Morin, L; Neill, T M; Newton, Craig H; Gigi Ostrow, D; Palomba, A; Panara, F; Puletti, M E; Quarta, R; Quilici, S; Ramos, A K B; Rigaud, Thierry; Risterucci, A M; Salomon, Matthew P; Sánchez-Guillén, Rosa A; Sarver, Shane K; Sequeira, A S; Sforça, D A; Simiand, C; Smith, Brian; Sousa, A C B; Souza, A P; Stepien, C C; Stuckert, A J; Sulikowski, James; Tayeh, A; Tinti, F; Tsang, Paul C W; VAN Houdt, J K J; Vendramin, E; Verde, I; Virgilio, M; Wang, Huan L; Wang, L E; Wattier, Rémi A; Wellenreuther, Maren; Xie, Cong X; Zane, L; Zhang, Xiu J; Zhang, Yong; Zhuang, Zhimeng; Zucchi, M I

    2010-05-01

    This article documents the addition of 220 microsatellite marker loci to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Allanblackia floribunda, Amblyraja radiata, Bactrocera cucurbitae, Brachycaudus helichrysi, Calopogonium mucunoides, Dissodactylus primitivus, Elodea canadensis, Ephydatia fluviatilis, Galapaganus howdenae howdenae, Hoplostethus atlanticus, Ischnura elegans, Larimichthys polyactis, Opheodrys vernalis, Pelteobagrus fulvidraco, Phragmidium violaceum, Pistacia vera, and Thunnus thynnus. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Allanblackia gabonensis, Allanblackia stanerana, Neoceratitis cyanescens, Dacus ciliatus, Dacus demmerezi, Bactrocera zonata, Ceratitis capitata, Ceratitis rosa, Ceratits catoirii, Dacus punctatifrons, Ephydatia mülleri, Spongilla lacustris, Geodia cydonium, Axinella sp., Ischnura graellsii, Ischnura ramburii, Ischnura pumilio, Pistacia integerrima and Pistacia terebinthus.

  16. Aspects of resistance of flax and linseed (Linum usitatissimum) to Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lini.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroes, G.M.L.W.

    1997-01-01

    In the thesis aspects have been described of the flax and linseed interaction to Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lini, the causal agent of flax wilt. Two in vitro tests were established to screen for resistance, to investigate race specificity and to study infection and colonization patterns in a resistant

  17. Flax fabric reinforced arylated soy protein composites: A brittle-matrix behaviour

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kumar, R

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Biocomposites were successfully prepared by the reinforcement of soy protein isolate (SPI) with different weight fractions of woven flax fabric. The flax-fabric-reinforced SPI-based composites were then arylated with 2,2-diphenyl-2-hydroxyethanoic...

  18. Permanent Genetic Resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 April 2010 - 31 May 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andree, K; Axtner, Jan; Bagley, M J; Barlow, E J; Beebee, T J C; Bennetzen, Jeffrey L; Bermingham, Eldredge; Boisselier-Dubayle, M C; Bozarth, Christine A; Brooks, Christopher P; Brown, R P; Catanese, Gaetano; Cavers, S; Ceron-Souza, Ivania; Chak, Solomon T C; Chan, M N; Charles-Dominique, P; Chen, C Y; Chen, J D; Chinchilla, Leah; DA Silva, D; Dafreville, S; Daunt, F; Delatte, H; Dorge, T; Duncan, N; Durand, J D; Duvernell, D; Estep, Matt; Fan, Sigang; Fattahi, R; Villela, Oscar Flores; Fong, Yokking; Fréville, H; Funes, Victoria; Gallardo-Escarate, C; Ganeshaiah, K N; Ghaffari, M R; Girod, C; Gomez-Moliner, B J; Gonzalez-Porter, Gracia P; Gosa, A; Govers, F; Guérin, F; Guindo, Diarah; Hailer, Frank; Haye, P A; Hoelmer, Kim A; Hofmann, S; Hong, Yan; Hu, Chaoqun; Huang, S W; Humeau, L; Infante, Carlos; Jackson, S A; Jacobsen, E; Jowkar, A; Kafi, M; Kermani, M J; Kim, Hyojoong; Kim, Kyung Seok; Kim, Min-Young; Knibb, W; Koita, Ousmane A; Korpelainen, H; Lambourdiere, J; Lasso, Eloisa; Leblois, R; Lee, Hang; Lee, Seunghwan; Leung, F C C; Leung, Kenneth M Y; Li, Chunhong; Li, Y; Lieckfeldt, Dietmar; Lizana, M; Loughry, W J; Luo, Peng; Madeira, M J; Mahmoodi, P; Maldonado, Jesús E; Mardi, M; Mendes, O; Miehe, G; Muth, Peter; Nacci, D; Naveen Kumar, L; Ng, Wai-Chuen; Pailler, T; Parzies, Heiko K; Perez, Laura; Pfunder, M; Pietiläinen, M; Pirseyedi, S M; Porta, D; Porta, J; Porta, J M; Quilici, S; Rakotoarivelo, F P; Ramesha, B T; Ravikanth, G; Riéra, B; Risterucci, A M; Roberts, D A; Samadi, S; Sarasola-Puente, V; Sarrazin, E; Sarthou, C; Schmidt, Anke; Segovia, N I; Shen, K N; Simiand, C; Sman, Muhammad Hidayat Bin; Solhoy, T; Sommer, Simone; Sumangala, R C; Taubert, Ramona; Tejangkura, T; Telford, A; Testa, A; Tollon-Cordet, C; Tzeng, W N; Uma Shaanker, R; Van Der Lee, T A J; VAN Mourik, Thomas A; Vasudeva, R; Wai, T C; Wang, R L; Welch, Mark E; Weltzien, Eva; Whitehead, A; Woodard, Anastasia; Xia, Jianjun; Zeinolabedini, M; Zhang, Lvping

    2010-11-01

    This article documents the addition of 396 microsatellite marker loci to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Anthocidaris crassispina, Aphis glycines, Argyrosomus regius, Astrocaryum sciophilum, Dasypus novemcinctus, Delomys sublineatus, Dermatemys mawii, Fundulus heteroclitus, Homalaspis plana, Jumellea rossii, Khaya senegalensis, Mugil cephalus, Neoceratitis cyanescens, Phalacrocorax aristotelis, Phytophthora infestans, Piper cordulatum, Pterocarpus indicus, Rana dalmatina, Rosa pulverulenta, Saxifraga oppositifolia, Scomber colias, Semecarpus kathalekanensis, Stichopus monotuberculatus, Striga hermonthica, Tarentola boettgeri and Thermophis baileyi. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Aphis gossypii, Sooretamys angouya, Euryoryzomys russatus, Fundulus notatus, Fundulus olivaceus, Fundulus catenatus, Fundulus majalis, Jumellea fragrans, Jumellea triquetra Jumellea recta, Jumellea stenophylla, Liza richardsonii, Piper marginatum, Piper aequale, Piper darienensis, Piper dilatatum, Rana temporaria, Rana iberica, Rana pyrenaica, Semecarpus anacardium, Semecarpus auriculata, Semecarpus travancorica, Spondias acuminata, Holigarna grahamii, Holigarna beddomii, Mangifera indica, Anacardium occidentale, Tarentola delalandii, Tarentola caboverdianus and Thermophis zhaoermii. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Permanent genetic resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 August 2010-30 September 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Ramesh K; Allainguillaume, Joel; Bajay, M M; Barthwal, Santan; Bertolino, P; Chauhan, Priti; Consuegra, Sofia; Croxford, Adam; Dalton, Desiré L; den Belder, E; Díaz-Ferguson, E; Douglas, M R; Drees, Michael; Elderson, J; Esselink, G D; Fernández-Manjarrés, J F; Frascaria-Lacoste, N; Gäbler-Schwarz, Steffi; Garcia de Leaniz, Carlos; Ginwal, H S; Goodisman, Michael A D; Guo, Baoling; Hamilton, M B; Hayes, Paul K; Hong, Yan; Kajita, Tadashi; Kalinowski, Steven T; Keller, Laurent; Koop, Ben F; Kotzé, Antoinette; Lalremruata, Albert; Leese, Florian; Li, Chunhong; Liew, W Y; Martinelli, S; Matthews, Emily A; Medlin, Linda K; Messmer, Amber M; Meyer, Elisabeth I; Monteiro, M; Moyer, G R; Nelson, R John; Nguyen, Thuy T T; Omoto, C; Ono, Junya; Pavinato, V A C; Pearcy, Morgan; Pinheiro, J B; Power, L D; Rawat, Anita; Reusch, Thorsten B H; Sanderson, Dan; Sannier, J; Sathe, Santosh; Sheridan, C K; Smulders, M J M; Sukganah, A; Takayama, Koji; Tamura, Mariko; Tateishi, Yoichi; Vanhaecke, Delphine; Vu, Ninh V; Wickneswari, R; Williams, A S; Wimp, G M; Witte, Volker; Zucchi, M I

    2011-01-01

    This article documents the addition of 229 microsatellite marker loci to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Acacia auriculiformis × Acacia mangium hybrid, Alabama argillacea, Anoplopoma fimbria, Aplochiton zebra, Brevicoryne brassicae, Bruguiera gymnorhiza, Bucorvus leadbeateri, Delphacodes detecta, Tumidagena minuta, Dictyostelium giganteum, Echinogammarus berilloni, Epimedium sagittatum, Fraxinus excelsior, Labeo chrysophekadion, Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi, Paratrechina longicornis, Phaeocystis antarctica, Pinus roxburghii and Potamilus capax. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Acacia peregrinalis, Acacia crassicarpa, Bruguiera cylindrica, Delphacodes detecta, Tumidagena minuta, Dictyostelium macrocephalum, Dictyostelium discoideum, Dictyostelium purpureum, Dictyostelium mucoroides, Dictyostelium rosarium, Polysphondylium pallidum, Epimedium brevicornum, Epimedium koreanum, Epimedium pubescens, Epimedium wushanese and Fraxinus angustifolia. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Permanent genetic resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 December 2010-31 January 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agata, Kiyokazu; Alasaad, Samer; Almeida-Val, Vera Maria Fonseca; Alvarez-Dios, J A; Barbisan, F; Beadell, Jon S; Beltrán, J F; Benítez, M; Bino, G; Bleay, Colin; Bloor, P; Bohlmann, Jörg; Booth, Warren; Boscari, E; Caccone, Adalgisa; Campos, Tatiana; Carvalho, B M; Climaco, Gisele Torres; Clobert, Jean; Congiu, L; Cowger, Christina; Dias, G; Doadrio, I; Farias, Izeni Pires; Ferrand, N; Freitas, Patrícia D; Fusco, G; Galetti, Pedro M; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian; Gaunt, Michael W; Ocampo, Zaneli Gomez; Gonçalves, H; Gonzalez, E G; Haye, Pilar; Honnay, O; Hyseni, Chaz; Jacquemyn, H; Jowers, Michael J; Kakezawa, Akihiro; Kawaguchi, Eri; Keeling, Christopher I; Kwan, Ye-Seul; La Spina, Michelangelo; Lee, Wan-Ok; Leśniewska, M; Li, Yang; Liu, Haixia; Liu, Xiaolin; Lopes, S; Martínez, P; Meeus, S; Murray, Brent W; Nunes, Aline G; Okedi, Loyce M; Ouma, Johnson O; Pardo, B G; Parks, Ryan; Paula-Silva, Maria Nazaré; Pedraza-Lara, C; Perera, Omaththage P; Pino-Querido, A; Richard, Murielle; Rossini, Bruno C; Samarasekera, N Gayathri; Sánchez, Antonio; Sanchez, Juan A; Santos, Carlos Henrique Dos Anjos; Shinohara, Wataru; Soriguer, Ramón C; Sousa, Adna Cristina Barbosa; Sousa, Carolina Fernandes Da Silva; Stevens, Virginie M; Tejedo, M; Valenzuela-Bustamante, Myriam; Van de Vliet, M S; Vandepitte, K; Vera, M; Wandeler, Peter; Wang, Weimin; Won, Yong-Jin; Yamashiro, A; Yamashiro, T; Zhu, Changcheng

    2011-05-01

    This article documents the addition of 238 microsatellite marker loci to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Alytes dickhilleni, Arapaima gigas, Austropotamobius italicus, Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici, Cobitis lutheri, Dendroctonus ponderosae, Glossina morsitans morsitans, Haplophilus subterraneus, Kirengeshoma palmata, Lysimachia japonica, Macrolophus pygmaeus, Microtus cabrerae, Mytilus galloprovincialis, Pallisentis (Neosentis) celatus, Pulmonaria officinalis, Salminus franciscanus, Thais chocolata and Zootoca vivipara. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Acanthina monodon, Alytes cisternasii, Alytes maurus, Alytes muletensis, Alytes obstetricans almogavarii, Alytes obstetricans boscai, Alytes obstetricans obstetricans, Alytes obstetricans pertinax, Cambarellus montezumae, Cambarellus zempoalensis, Chorus giganteus, Cobitis tetralineata, Glossina fuscipes fuscipes, Glossina pallidipes, Lysimachia japonica var. japonica, Lysimachia japonica var. minutissima, Orconectes virilis, Pacifastacus leniusculus, Procambarus clarkii, Salminus brasiliensis and Salminus hilarii.

  1. Permanent genetic resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 February 2012 - 31 March 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andris, Malvina; Arias, M C; Barthel, Brandon L; Bluhm, Burton H; Bried, Joël; Canal, D; Chen, X M; Cheng, P; Chiappero, Marina B; Coelho, Manuela M; Collins, Angela B; Dash, M; Davis, Michelle C; Duarte, Margarida; Dubois, Marie-Pierre; Françoso, E; Galmes, M A; Gopal, Keshni; Jarne, Philippe; Kalbe, Martin; Karczmarski, Leszek; Kim, Hun; Martella, Mónica B; McBride, Richard S; Negri, Valeria; Negro, J J; Newell, Annakay D; Piedade, Ana F; Puchulutegui, Cecilia; Raggi, Lorenzo; Samonte, Irene E; Sarasola, J H; See, D R; Seyoum, Seifu; Silva, Mónica C; Solaro, C; Tolley, Krystal A; Tringali, Michael D; Vasemägi, A; Xu, L S; Zanón-Martínez, J I

    2012-07-01

    This article documents the addition of 171 microsatellite marker loci and 27 pairs of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) sequencing primers to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Bombus pauloensis, Cephalorhynchus heavisidii, Cercospora sojina, Harpyhaliaetus coronatus, Hordeum vulgare, Lachnolaimus maximus, Oceanodroma monteiroi, Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, Rhea americana, Salmo salar, Salmo trutta, Schistocephalus solidus, Sousa plumbea and Tursiops aduncus. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Aquila heliaca, Bulweria bulwerii, Buteo buteo, Buteo swainsoni, Falco rusticolus, Haliaeetus albicilla, Halobaena caerulea, Hieraaetus fasciatus, Oceanodroma castro, Puccinia graminis f. sp. Tritici, Puccinia triticina, Rhea pennata and Schistocephalus pungitii. This article also documents the addition of 27 sequencing primer pairs for Puffinus baroli and Bulweria bulwerii and cross-testing of these loci in Oceanodroma castro, Pelagodroma marina, Pelecanoides georgicus, Pelecanoides urinatrix, Thalassarche chrysostoma and Thalassarche melanophrys.

  2. Genetic and potential non-genetic benefits increase offspring fitness of polyandrous females in non-resource based mating system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peuhkuri Nina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The adaptive significance of female polyandry is currently under considerable debate. In non-resource based mating systems, indirect, i.e. genetic benefits have been proposed to be responsible for the fitness gain from polyandry. We studied the benefits of polyandry in the Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus using an experimental design in which the material investments by the sires and maternal environmental effects were controlled. Results Embryonic mortality showed a strong paternal genetic component, and it was lower in polyandrously fertilized offspring (sperm competition of two males than in monandrous fertilizations. We also found that high sperm velocity was associated with low offspring mortality, but not with the size of the offspring or their yolk volume. Although no male effect was found on the size of the offspring yolk reserves, yolk volume was higher in offspring from polyandrous matings than offspring of the either of the two males when mated monandrously. Conclusions In support of the "good sperm hypothesis, we found that sperm velocity was positively associated with offspring fitness. In addition, our results suggest that polyandrous females gain genetic advantage (higher offspring survival from this behavior, but that some benefits of polyandry (larger yolk volume may not be explained solely by the additive genetic effects. This suggests that sperm competition environment may intensify the selection on genetically superior sperm which in turn may produce offspring that have superior yolk reserves. However, as high sperm velocity was not associated with larger yolk volume, it is possible that also some other non-genetic effects may contribute to offspring fitness. The potential role of polyandrous mating in inbreeding avoidance is discussed.

  3. Power-Aware Resource Reconfiguration Using Genetic Algorithm in Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Deng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing enables scalable computation based on virtualization technology. However, current resource reallocation solution seldom considers the stability of virtual machine (VM placement pattern. Varied workloads of applications would lead to frequent resource reconfiguration requirements due to repeated appearance of hot nodes. In this paper, several algorithms for VM placement (multiobjective genetic algorithm (MOGA, power-aware multiobjective genetic algorithm (pMOGA, and enhanced power-aware multiobjective genetic algorithm (EpMOGA are presented to improve stability of VM placement pattern with less migration overhead. The energy consumption is also considered. A type-matching controller is designed to improve evolution process. Nondominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGAII is used to select new generations during evolution process. Our simulation results demonstrate that these algorithms all provide resource reallocation solutions with long stabilization time of nodes. pMOGA and EpMOGA also better balance the relationship of stabilization and energy efficiency by adding number of active nodes as one of optimal objectives. Type-matching controller makes EpMOGA superior to pMOGA.

  4. Animal genetic resources in Brazil: result of five centuries of natural selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariante, A da S; Egito, A A

    2002-01-01

    Brazil has various species of domestic animals, which developed from breeds brought by the Portuguese settlers soon after their discovery. For five centuries, these breeds have been subjected to natural selection in specific environments. Today, they present characteristics adapted to the specific Brazilian environmental conditions. These breeds developed in Brazil are known as "Crioulo," "local," or naturalized. From the beginning of the 20th century, some exotic breeds, selected in temperate regions, have begun to be imported. Although more productive, these breeds do not have adaptive traits, such as resistance to disease and parasites found in breeds considered to be "native." Even so, little by little, they replaced the native breeds, to such an extent that the latter are in danger of extinction. In 1983, to avoid the loss of this important genetic material, the National Research Center for Genetic Resources and Biotechnology (Cenargen) of the Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (Embrapa) decided to include conservation of animal genetic resources in its research program Conservation and Utilization of Genetic Resources. Until this time, they were only concerned with conservation of native plants. Conservation has been carried out by various research centers of Embrapa, universities, state research corporations, and private farmers, with a single coordinator at the national level, Cenargen. Specifically, conservation is being carried out by conservation nuclei, which are specific herds in which the animals are being conserved, situated in the habitats where the animals have been subjected to natural selection. This involves storage of semen and embryos from cattle, horses, buffaloes, donkeys, goats, sheep, and pigs. The Brazilian Animal Germplasm Bank is kept at Cenargen, which is responsible for the storage of semen and embryos of various breeds of domestic animals threatened with extinction, where almost 45,000 doses of semen and more than 200

  5. Pre-emptive resource-constrained multimode project scheduling using genetic algorithm: A dynamic forward approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aidin Delgoshaei

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The issue resource over-allocating is a big concern for project engineers in the process of scheduling project activities. Resource over-allocating drawback is frequently seen after scheduling of a project in practice which causes a schedule to be useless. Modifying an over-allocated schedule is very complicated and needs a lot of efforts and time. In this paper, a new and fast tracking method is proposed to schedule large scale projects which can help project engineers to schedule the project rapidly and with more confidence. Design/methodology/approach: In this article, a forward approach for maximizing net present value (NPV in multi-mode resource constrained project scheduling problem while assuming discounted positive cash flows (MRCPSP-DCF is proposed. The progress payment method is used and all resources are considered as pre-emptible. The proposed approach maximizes NPV using unscheduled resources through resource calendar in forward mode. For this purpose, a Genetic Algorithm is applied to solve. Findings: The findings show that the proposed method is an effective way to maximize NPV in MRCPSP-DCF problems while activity splitting is allowed. The proposed algorithm is very fast and can schedule experimental cases with 1000 variables and 100 resources in few seconds. The results are then compared with branch and bound method and simulated annealing algorithm and it is found the proposed genetic algorithm can provide results with better quality. Then algorithm is then applied for scheduling a hospital in practice. Originality/value: The method can be used alone or as a macro in Microsoft Office Project® Software to schedule MRCPSP-DCF problems or to modify resource over-allocated activities after scheduling a project. This can help project engineers to schedule project activities rapidly with more accuracy in practice.

  6. Permanent Genetic Resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 August 2009-30 September 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdoullaye, Doukary; Acevedo, I; Adebayo, Abisola A; Behrmann-Godel, Jasminca; Benjamin, R C; Bock, Dan G; Born, Céline; Brouat, Carine; Caccone, Adalgisa; Cao, Ling-Zhen; Casado-Amezúa, P; Catanéo, J; Correa-Ramirez, M M; Cristescu, Melania E; Dobigny, Gauthier; Egbosimba, Emmanuel E; Etchberger, Lianna K; Fan, Bin; Fields, Peter D; Forcioli, D; Furla, P; Garcia de Leon, F J; García-Jiménez, R; Gauthier, Philippe; Gergs, René; González, Clementina; Granjon, Laurent; Gutiérrez-Rodríguez, Carla; Havill, Nathan P; Helsen, P; Hether, Tyler D; Hoffman, Eric A; Hu, Xiangyang; Ingvarsson, Pär K; Ishizaki, S; Ji, Heyi; Ji, X S; Jimenez, M L; Kapil, R; Karban, R; Keller, Stephen R; Kubota, S; Li, Shuzhen; Li, Wansha; Lim, Douglas D; Lin, Haoran; Liu, Xiaochun; Luo, Yayan; Machordom, A; Martin, Andrew P; Matthysen, E; Mazzella, Maxwell N; McGeoch, Mélodie A; Meng, Zining; Nishizawa, M; O'Brien, Patricia; Ohara, M; Ornelas, Juan Francisco; Ortu, M F; Pedersen, Amy B; Preston, L; Ren, Qin; Rothhaupt, Karl-Otto; Sackett, Loren C; Sang, Qing; Sawyer, G M; Shiojiri, K; Taylor, Douglas R; Van Dongen, S; Van Vuuren, Bettine Jansen; Vandewoestijne, S; Wang, H; Wang, J T; Wang, L E; Xu, Xiang-Li; Yang, Guang; Yang, Yongping; Zeng, Y Q; Zhang, Qing-Wen; Zhang, Yongping; Zhao, Y; Zhou, Yan

    2010-01-01

    This article documents the addition of 238 microsatellite marker loci and 72 pairs of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) sequencing primers to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Adelges tsugae, Artemisia tridentata, Astroides calycularis, Azorella selago, Botryllus schlosseri, Botrylloides violaceus, Cardiocrinum cordatum var. glehnii, Campylopterus curvipennis, Colocasia esculenta, Cynomys ludovicianus, Cynomys leucurus, Cynomys gunnisoni, Epinephelus coioides, Eunicella singularis, Gammarus pulex, Homoeosoma nebulella, Hyla squirella, Lateolabrax japonicus, Mastomys erythroleucus, Pararge aegeria, Pardosa sierra, Phoenicopterus ruber ruber and Silene latifolia. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Adelges abietis, Adelges cooleyi, Adelges piceae, Pineus pini, Pineus strobi, Tubastrea micrantha, three other Tubastrea species, Botrylloides fuscus, Botrylloides simodensis, Campylopterus hemileucurus, Campylopterus rufus, Campylopterus largipennis, Campylopterus villaviscensio, Phaethornis longuemareus, Florisuga mellivora, Lampornis amethystinus, Amazilia cyanocephala, Archilochus colubris, Epinephelus lanceolatus, Epinephelus fuscoguttatus, Symbiodinium temperate-A clade, Gammarus fossarum, Gammarus roeselii, Dikerogammarus villosus and Limnomysis benedeni. This article also documents the addition of 72 sequencing primer pairs and 52 allele specific primers for Neophocaena phocaenoides. © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Permanent genetic resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 August 2011-30 September 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A'Hara, S W; Amouroux, P; Argo, Emily E; Avand-Faghih, A; Barat, Ashoktaru; Barbieri, Luiz; Bert, Theresa M; Blatrix, R; Blin, Aurélie; Bouktila, D; Broome, A; Burban, C; Capdevielle-Dulac, C; Casse, N; Chandra, Suresh; Cho, Kyung Jin; Cottrell, J E; Crawford, Charles R; Davis, Michelle C; Delatte, H; Desneux, Nicolas; Djieto-Lordon, C; Dubois, M P; El-Mergawy, R A A M; Gallardo-Escárate, C; Garcia, M; Gardiner, Mary M; Guillemaud, Thomas; Haye, P A; Hellemans, B; Hinrichsen, P; Jeon, Ji Hyun; Kerdelhué, C; Kharrat, I; Kim, Ki Hwan; Kim, Yong Yul; Kwan, Ye-Seul; Labbe, Ellen M; LaHood, Eric; Lee, Kyung Mi; Lee, Wan-Ok; Lee, Yat-Hung; Legoff, Isabelle; Li, H; Lin, Chung-Ping; Liu, S S; Liu, Y G; Long, D; Maes, G E; Magnoux, E; Mahanta, Prabin Chandra; Makni, H; Makni, M; Malausa, Thibaut; Matura, Rakesh; McKey, D; McMillen-Jackson, Anne L; Méndez, M A; Mezghani-Khemakhem, M; Michel, Andy P; Paul, Moran; Muriel-Cunha, Janice; Nibouche, S; Normand, F; Palkovacs, Eric P; Pande, Veena; Parmentier, K; Peccoud, J; Piatscheck, F; Puchulutegui, Cecilia; Ramos, R; Ravest, G; Richner, Heinz; Robbens, J; Rochat, D; Rousselet, J; Saladin, Verena; Sauve, M; Schlei, Ora; Schultz, Thomas F; Scobie, A R; Segovia, N I; Seyoum, Seifu; Silvain, J-F; Tabone, Elisabeth; Van Houdt, J K J; Vandamme, S G; Volckaert, F A M; Wenburg, John; Willis, Theodore V; Won, Yong-Jin; Ye, N H; Zhang, W; Zhang, Y X

    2012-01-01

    This article documents the addition of 299 microsatellite marker loci and nine pairs of single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) EPIC primers to the Molecular Ecology Resources (MER) Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Alosa pseudoharengus, Alosa aestivalis, Aphis spiraecola, Argopecten purpuratus, Coreoleuciscus splendidus, Garra gotyla, Hippodamia convergens, Linnaea borealis, Menippe mercenaria, Menippe adina, Parus major, Pinus densiflora, Portunus trituberculatus, Procontarinia mangiferae, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus, Schizothorax richardsonii, Scophthalmus rhombus, Tetraponera aethiops, Thaumetopoea pityocampa, Tuta absoluta and Ugni molinae. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Barilius bendelisis, Chiromantes haematocheir, Eriocheir sinensis, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Eucalyptus cladocalix, Eucalyptus globulus, Garra litaninsis vishwanath, Garra para lissorhynchus, Guindilla trinervis, Hemigrapsus sanguineus, Luma chequen. Guayaba, Myrceugenia colchagüensis, Myrceugenia correifolia, Myrceugenia exsucca, Parasesarma plicatum, Parus major, Portunus pelagicus, Psidium guayaba, Schizothorax richardsonii, Scophthalmus maximus, Tetraponera latifrons, Thaumetopoea bonjeani, Thaumetopoea ispartensis, Thaumetopoea libanotica, Thaumetopoea pinivora, Thaumetopoea pityocampa ena clade, Thaumetopoea solitaria, Thaumetopoea wilkinsoni and Tor putitora. This article also documents the addition of nine EPIC primer pairs for Euphaea decorata, Euphaea formosa, Euphaea ornata and Euphaea yayeyamana. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Permanent Genetic Resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 May 2009-31 July 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almany, Glenn R; DE Arruda, Maurício P; Arthofer, Wolfgang; Atallah, Z K; Beissinger, Steven R; Berumen, Michael L; Bogdanowicz, S M; Brown, S D; Bruford, Michael W; Burdine, C; Busch, Jeremiah W; Campbell, Nathan R; Carey, D; Carstens, Bryan C; Chu, K H; Cubeta, Marc A; Cuda, J P; Cui, Zhaoxia; Datnoff, L E; Dávila, J A; Davis, Emily S; Davis, R M; Diekmann, Onno E; Eizirik, Eduardo; Fargallo, J A; Fernandes, Fabiano; Fukuda, Hideo; Gale, L R; Gallagher, Elizabeth; Gao, Yongqiang; Girard, Philippe; Godhe, Anna; Gonçalves, Evonnildo C; Gouveia, Licinia; Grajczyk, Amber M; Grose, M J; Gu, Zhifeng; Halldén, Christer; Härnström, Karolina; Hemmingsen, Amanda H; Holmes, Gerald; Huang, C H; Huang, Chuan-Chin; Hudman, S P; Jones, Geoffrey P; Kanetis, Loukas; Karunasagar, Iddya; Karunasagar, Indrani; Keyghobadi, Nusha; Klosterman, S J; Klug, Page E; Koch, J; Koopman, Margaret M; Köppler, Kirsten; Koshimizu, Eriko; Krumböck, Susanne; Kubisiak, T; Landis, J B; Lasta, Mario L; Lee, Chow-Yang; Li, Qianqian; Li, Shou-Hsien; Lin, Rong-Chien; Liu, M; Liu, Na; Liu, W C; Liu, Yuan; Loiseau, A; Luan, Weisha; Maruthachalam, K K; McCormick, Helen M; Mellick, Rohan; Monnahan, P J; Morielle-Versute, Eliana; Murray, Tomás E; Narum, Shawn R; Neufeld, Katie; De Nova, P J G; Ojiambo, Peter S; Okamoto, Nobuaki; Othman, Ahmad Sofiman; Overholt, W A; Pardini, Renata; Paterson, Ian G; Patty, Olivia A; Paxton, Robert J; Planes, Serge; Porter, Carolyn; Pratchett, Morgan S; Püttker, Thomas; Rasic, Gordana; Rasool, Bilal; Rey, O; Riegler, Markus; Riehl, C; Roberts, John M K; Roberts, P D; Rochel, Elisabeth; Roe, Kevin J; Rossetto, Maurizio; Ruzzante, Daniel E; Sakamoto, Takashi; Saravanan, V; Sarturi, Cladinara Roberts; Schmidt, Anke; Schneider, Maria Paula Cruz; Schuler, Hannes; Serb, Jeanne M; Serrão, Ester T A; Shi, Yaohua; Silva, Artur; Sin, Y W; Sommer, Simone; Stauffer, Christian; Strüssmann, Carlos Augusto; Subbarao, K V; Syms, Craig; Tan, Feng; Tejedor, Eugenio Daniel; Thorrold, Simon R; Trigiano, Robert N; Trucco, María I; Tsuchiya-Jerep, Mirian Tieko Nunes; Vergara, P; Van De Vliet, Mirjam S; Wadl, Phillip A; Wang, Aimin; Wang, Hongxia; Wang, R X; Wang, Xinwang; Wang, Yan; Weeks, Andrew R; Wei, Fuwen; Werner, William J; Wiley, E O; Williams, D A; Wilkins, Richard J; Wisely, Samantha M; With, Kimberly A; Wu, Danhua; Yao, Cheng-Te; Yau, Cynthia; Yeap, Beng-Keok; Zhai, Bao-Ping; Zhan, Xiangjiang; Zhang, Guo-Yan; Zhang, S Y; Zhao, Ru; Zhu, Lifeng

    2009-11-01

    This article documents the addition of 512 microsatellite marker loci and nine pairs of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) sequencing primers to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Alcippe morrisonia morrisonia, Bashania fangiana, Bashania fargesii, Chaetodon vagabundus, Colletes floralis, Coluber constrictor flaviventris, Coptotermes gestroi, Crotophaga major, Cyprinella lutrensis, Danaus plexippus, Fagus grandifolia, Falco tinnunculus, Fletcherimyia fletcheri, Hydrilla verticillata, Laterallus jamaicensis coturniculus, Leavenworthia alabamica, Marmosops incanus, Miichthys miiuy, Nasua nasua, Noturus exilis, Odontesthes bonariensis, Quadrula fragosa, Pinctada maxima, Pseudaletia separata, Pseudoperonospora cubensis, Podocarpus elatus, Portunus trituberculatus, Rhagoletis cerasi, Rhinella schneideri, Sarracenia alata, Skeletonema marinoi, Sminthurus viridis, Syngnathus abaster, Uroteuthis (Photololigo) chinensis, Verticillium dahliae, Wasmannia auropunctata, and Zygochlamys patagonica. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Chaetodon baronessa, Falco columbarius, Falco eleonorae, Falco naumanni, Falco peregrinus, Falco subbuteo, Didelphis aurita, Gracilinanus microtarsus, Marmosops paulensis, Monodelphis Americana, Odontesthes hatcheri, Podocarpus grayi, Podocarpus lawrencei, Podocarpus smithii, Portunus pelagicus, Syngnathus acus, Syngnathus typhle,Uroteuthis (Photololigo) edulis, Uroteuthis (Photololigo) duvauceli and Verticillium albo-atrum. This article also documents the addition of nine sequencing primer pairs and sixteen allele specific primers or probes for Oncorhynchus mykiss and Oncorhynchus tshawytscha; these primers and assays were cross-tested in both species.

  9. Permanent Genetic Resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources database 1 January 2009-30 April 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abercrombie, L G; Anderson, C M; Baldwin, B G; Bang, I C; Beldade, R; Bernardi, G; Boubou, A; Branca, A; Bretagnolle, F; Bruford, M W; Buonamici, A; Burnett, R K; Canal, D; Cárdenas, H; Caullet, C; Chen, S Y; Chun, Y J; Cossu, C; Crane, C F; Cros-Arteil, S; Cudney-Bueno, R; Danti, R; Dávila, J A; Della Rocca, G; Dobata, S; Dunkle, L D; Dupas, S; Faure, N; Ferrero, M E; Fumanal, B; Gigot, G; González, I; Goodwin, S B; Groth, D; Hardesty, B D; Hasegawa, E; Hoffman, E A; Hou, M L; Jamsari, A F J; Ji, H J; Johnson, D H; Joseph, L; Justy, F; Kang, E J; Kaufmann, B; Kim, K S; Kim, W J; Koehler, A V; Laitung, B; Latch, P; Liu, Y D; Manjerovic, M B; Martel, E; Metcalfe, S S; Miller, J N; Midgley, J J; Migeon, A; Moore, A J; Moore, W L; Morris, V R F; Navajas, M; Navia, D; Neel, M C; De Nova, P J G; Olivieri, I; Omura, T; Othman, A S; Oudot-Canaff, J; Panthee, D R; Parkinson, C L; Patimah, I; Pérez-Galindo, C A; Pettengill, J B; Pfautsch, S; Piola, F; Potti, J; Poulin, R; Raimondi, P T; Rinehart, T A; Ruzainah, A; Sarver, S K; Scheffler, B E; Schneider, A R R; Silvain, J F; Siti Azizah, M N; Springer, Y P; Stewart, C N; Sun, W; Tiedemann, R; Tsuji, K; Trigiano, R N; Vendramin, G G; Wadl, P A; Wang, L; Wang, X; Watanabe, K; Waterman, J M; Weisser, W W; Westcott, D A; Wiesner, K R; Xu, X F; Yaegashi, S; Yuan, J S

    2009-09-01

    This article documents the addition of 283 microsatellite marker loci to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Agalinis acuta; Ambrosia artemisiifolia; Berula erecta; Casuarius casuarius; Cercospora zeae-maydis; Chorthippus parallelus; Conyza canadensis; Cotesia sesamiae; Epinephelus acanthistius; Ficedula hypoleuca; Grindelia hirsutula; Guadua angustifolia; Leucadendron rubrum; Maritrema novaezealandensis; Meretrix meretrix; Nilaparvata lugens; Oxyeleotris marmoratus; Phoxinus neogaeus; Pristomyrmex punctatus; Pseudobagrus brevicorpus; Seiridium cardinale; Stenopsyche marmorata; Tetranychus evansi and Xerus inauris. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Agalinis decemloba; Agalinis tenella; Agalinis obtusifolia; Agalinis setacea; Agalinis skinneriana; Cercospora zeina; Cercospora kikuchii; Cercospora sorghi; Mycosphaerella graminicola; Setosphaeria turcica; Magnaporthe oryzae; Cotesia flavipes; Cotesia marginiventris; Grindelia Xpaludosa; Grindelia chiloensis; Grindelia fastigiata; Grindelia lanceolata; Grindelia squarrosa; Leucadendron coniferum; Leucadendron salicifolium; Leucadendron tinctum; Leucadendron meridianum; Laodelphax striatellus; Sogatella furcifera; Phoxinus eos; Phoxinus rigidus; Phoxinus brevispinosus; Phoxinus bicolor; Tetranychus urticae; Tetranychus turkestani; Tetranychus ludeni; Tetranychus neocaledonicus; Tetranychus amicus; Amphitetranychus viennensis; Eotetranychus rubiphilus; Eotetranychus tiliarium; Oligonychus perseae; Panonychus citri; Bryobia rubrioculus; Schizonobia bundi; Petrobia harti; Xerus princeps; Spermophilus tridecemlineatus and Sciurus carolinensis.

  10. Cultural challenges to biotechnology: Native American genetic resources and the concept of cultural harm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsosie, Rebecca

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the intercultural context of issues related to genetic research on Native peoples. In particular, the article probes the disconnect between Western and indigenous concepts of property, ownership, and privacy, and examines the harms to Native peoples that may arise from unauthorized uses of blood and tissue samples or the information derived from such samples. The article concludes that existing legal and ethical frameworks are inadequate to address Native peoples' rights to their genetic resources and suggests an intercultural framework for accommodation based on theories of intergroup equality and fundamental human rights.

  11. Access to genetic resources in indigenous peoples and the Convention on Biological Diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Rocío Bernal Camargo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available After the Convention on Biological Diversity a deepening debate is taking place concerning the protection of genetic resources and traditional knowledge of indigenous peoples, which involves a discussion about the application of biotechnology and its impact on the protection of life and environment, and an analysis of the participation of these in the process of developing strategies to protect their resources and traditional knowledge, which gives rise to legal pluralism from the development of the different Conferences of the Parties, which today allows for a more comprehensive regulatory framework and a possibility of its strengthening.

  12. Semi-domesticated and Irreplaceable Genetic Resource Gayal ( Needs Effective Genetic Conservation in Bangladesh: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Rasel Uzzaman

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Several studies arduously reported that gayal (Bos frontalis is an independent bovine species. The population size is shrinking across its distribution. In Bangladesh, it is the only wild relative of domestic cattle and also a less cared animal. Their body size is much bigger than Bangladeshi native cattle and has prominent beef type characters along with the ability to adjust in any adverse environmental conditions. Human interactions and manipulation of biodiversity is affecting the habitats of gayals in recent decades. Besides, the only artificial reproduction center for gayals, Bangladesh Livestock Research Institute (BLRI, has few animals and could not carry out its long term conservation scheme due to a lack of an objective based scientific mission as well as financial support. This indicates that the current population is much more susceptible to stochastic events which might be natural catastrophes, environmental changes or mutations. Further reduction of the population size will sharply reduce genetic diversity. In our recent investigation with 80K indicine single nucleotide polymorphism chip, the FIS (within-population inbreeding value was reported as 0.061±0.229 and the observed (0.153±0.139 and expected (0.148±0.143 heterozygosities indicated a highly inbred and less diverse gayal population in Bangladesh. Prompt action is needed to tape the genetic information of this semi-domesticated bovine species with considerable sample size and try to investigate its potentials together with native zebu cattle for understanding the large phenotypic variations, improvement and conservation of this valuable creature.

  13. Strategy for the Conservation and Sustainable Use of Spanish Forest Genetic Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, P.; Diaz-Fernandez, P. M.; Iglesias, S.; Prada, A.; Garcia del Barrio, J. M.; Alba, N.; Alia, R.

    2009-07-01

    In the last decade, forestry policies in Spain have undergone changes needed to comply with the European and world directives on forest conservation. The elaboration of strategic plans has to take into account the State organization (Central and Autonomous Regional Governments share the responsibilities), resulting in agreed documents, effective at a national level and fulfilling the peculiarities and aspirations of each region. The most recent development has been the elaboration of a Strategy for Conservation and Sustainable Use of Forest Genetic Resources, which can be seen as a consequence of, among other factors, the implementation of the Spanish Strategy for Conservation and Sustainable Use of Biodiversity along with Spains participation in the European Forest Genetic Resources Programme. This document arose from the lack of approaches to the conservation of population diversity of forest species in the current policies, and as a means to promote and coordinate activities on conservation and use of genetic resources. The Strategy has been arranged through a participative process involving the Forest Administration, Research Centres and Universities. The document includes a definition of priorities and proposals of activities, which are mainly focused on optimising the efficiency of existing tools and infrastructures and on increasing synergy among different initiatives. Implementation of the Strategy is expected to occur through the development of National Action Plans. Finally, coordination mechanisms must be enhanced in order to maintain the levels of cooperation achieved during the elaboration process. (Author) 18 refs.

  14. Conservation and Use of Genetic Resources of Underutilized Crops in the Americas—A Continental Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gea Galluzzi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Latin America is home to dramatically diverse agroecological regions which harbor a high concentration of underutilized plant species, whose genetic resources hold the potential to address challenges such as sustainable agricultural development, food security and sovereignty, and climate change. This paper examines the status of an expert-informed list of underutilized crops in Latin America and analyses how the most common features of underuse apply to these. The analysis pays special attention to if and how existing international policy and legal frameworks on biodiversity and plant genetic resources effectively support or not the conservation and sustainable use of underutilized crops. Results show that not all minor crops are affected by the same degree of neglect, and that the aspects under which any crop is underutilized vary greatly, calling for specific analyses and interventions. We also show that current international policy and legal instruments have so far provided limited stimulus and funding for the conservation and sustainable use of the genetic resources of these crops. Finally, the paper proposes an analytical framework for identifying and evaluating a crop’s underutilization, in order to define the most appropriate type and levels of intervention (international, national, local for improving its status.

  15. Flexible Job-Shop Scheduling with Dual-Resource Constraints to Minimize Tardiness Using Genetic Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paksi, A. B. N.; Ma'ruf, A.

    2016-02-01

    In general, both machines and human resources are needed for processing a job on production floor. However, most classical scheduling problems have ignored the possible constraint caused by availability of workers and have considered only machines as a limited resource. In addition, along with production technology development, routing flexibility appears as a consequence of high product variety and medium demand for each product. Routing flexibility is caused by capability of machines that offers more than one machining process. This paper presents a method to address scheduling problem constrained by both machines and workers, considering routing flexibility. Scheduling in a Dual-Resource Constrained shop is categorized as NP-hard problem that needs long computational time. Meta-heuristic approach, based on Genetic Algorithm, is used due to its practical implementation in industry. Developed Genetic Algorithm uses indirect chromosome representative and procedure to transform chromosome into Gantt chart. Genetic operators, namely selection, elitism, crossover, and mutation are developed to search the best fitness value until steady state condition is achieved. A case study in a manufacturing SME is used to minimize tardiness as objective function. The algorithm has shown 25.6% reduction of tardiness, equal to 43.5 hours.

  16. A REVIEW ON INDIGENOUS CATTLE GENETIC RESOURCES IN ETHIOPIA: ADAPTATION, STATUS AND SURVIVAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Getinet MEKURIAW

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Ethiopia is endowed with different Indigenous cattle genetic resources with millions of people directly depending on them. However, despite the potentials of these diversified genetic resources, the huge loss of cattle genetic diversity is becoming a prominent challenge these days. The aim of this review is to show the current status and performance of some selected indigenous cattle breeds of Ethiopia for better understanding of the situation of these breeds for the collective efforts towards conserving and improving the breeds. Based on the review, there are persuasive evidences on the critical situation of the selected indigenous cattle breeds. The facts and figures of the past and current situation of the selected indigenous cattle of Ethiopia showed that the situation of these breeds is very critical. This situation therefore demands the need to devise strategies to conserve and improve the cattle breeds based on the challenges that threatens them. Use of new biological and information technologies is also imperative to facilitate the genetic restoration process. Besides, use of new biological and information technologies which can enhance the conservation and improvement program are crucial. Various ongoing development interventions like Artificial Insemination and introduction of genotypes into new environments that are exacerbating threat of the breeds should totally be avoided by revising and designing sound approaches for cattle Conservation and improvement programs. Strict regulations and by laws should also be in place for illegal movement of breeding cattle to the neighboring countries.

  17. Bone Regeneration after Treatment with Covering Materials Composed of Flax Fibers and Biodegradable Plastics: A Histological Study in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gredes, Tomasz; Kunath, Franziska; Gedrange, Tomasz; Kunert-Keil, Christiane

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the osteogenic potential of new flax covering materials. Bone defects were created on the skull of forty rats. Materials of pure PLA and PCL and their composites with flax fibers, genetically modified producing PHB (PLA-transgen, PCL-transgen) and unmodified (PLA-wt, PCL-wt), were inserted. The skulls were harvested after four weeks and subjected to histological examination. The percentage of bone regeneration by using PLA was less pronounced than after usage of pure PCL in comparison with controls. After treatment with PCL-transgen, a large amount of new formed bone could be found. In contrast, PCL-wt decreased significantly the bone regeneration, compared to the other tested groups. The bone covers made of pure PLA had substantially less influence on bone regeneration and the bone healing proceeded with a lot of connective tissue, whereas PLA-transgen and PLA-wt showed nearly comparable amount of new formed bone. Regarding the histological data, the hypothesis could be proposed that PCL and its composites have contributed to a higher quantity of the regenerated bone, compared to PLA. The histological studies showed comparable bone regeneration processes after treatment with tested covering materials, as well as in the untreated bone lesions.

  18. Bone Regeneration after Treatment with Covering Materials Composed of Flax Fibers and Biodegradable Plastics: A Histological Study in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedrange, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the osteogenic potential of new flax covering materials. Bone defects were created on the skull of forty rats. Materials of pure PLA and PCL and their composites with flax fibers, genetically modified producing PHB (PLA-transgen, PCL-transgen) and unmodified (PLA-wt, PCL-wt), were inserted. The skulls were harvested after four weeks and subjected to histological examination. The percentage of bone regeneration by using PLA was less pronounced than after usage of pure PCL in comparison with controls. After treatment with PCL-transgen, a large amount of new formed bone could be found. In contrast, PCL-wt decreased significantly the bone regeneration, compared to the other tested groups. The bone covers made of pure PLA had substantially less influence on bone regeneration and the bone healing proceeded with a lot of connective tissue, whereas PLA-transgen and PLA-wt showed nearly comparable amount of new formed bone. Regarding the histological data, the hypothesis could be proposed that PCL and its composites have contributed to a higher quantity of the regenerated bone, compared to PLA. The histological studies showed comparable bone regeneration processes after treatment with tested covering materials, as well as in the untreated bone lesions. PMID:27597965

  19. Agrobiodiversity and genetic erosion of crop varieties and plant resources in the Central Great Caucasus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maia Akhalkatsi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Kazbegi Municipality is located in the Central Great Caucasus at an altitude between 1250 and 5047 m a.s.l. Agriculture of this area is extreme internal variability and complexity, with a multiplicity of highly localized providing the habitats and agricultural lands for much genetic erosion of crop varieties, animals, plants, fungi, and other life forms for wild plant resources. Historically, Kazbegi producers had begun cultivating the land to prepare for planting in of distribution local varieties of wheat, barley, rye, oats, etc. In the only cereals, legumes, herbs and some fruits are cultivated in alpine zone as the upper limit till the location of 2160 m a.s.l. Genetic erosion has been determined historically of aboriginal crops from sheep and cattle grazing problem and reached extreme levels from 1970s in Kazbegi Municipality and causes a problem to maintain agriculture. Plant resources remained in forests and subalpine grasslands and shrub lands. The problems of these materials are habitat degradation by disturbance in many forest types with destroyed and burned. Tree seedlings are grazing by animals and forest is not restoring naturally. Forest planting is good relation for restoration of plant wild species resources. Investigation on exchange on mountain agriculture and plant resources will now be rapidly accelerated in the vital interests of mountain communities.

  20. International agreements on access to genetic resources, main obligations for Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Hernández Salgar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Genetic resources have acquired, in the last 20 years, strategic significance, not only due to their real or potential value, but also to their applications in several fields, such as research and industry. Different economic sectors have found in them a mechanism to meet the increasing demand, for example, in agriculture and pharmaceutical markets. On the other hand, it has become clear that these resources need to be used in such a way that sustainability and biodiversity be preserved. Other important issues have to do with their property. A rather polemical discussion has arisen in the international level regarding regulations that govern access to these resources in order to prevent impairing development and rather further the protection of biodiversity. This article aims at showing the international agreements so far reached on this matters, offering at the same time a clear overview of this subject.

  1. The effects of acetylation on properties of flax fibre and its polypropylene composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Flax fibre was modified with acetylation. The influence of the acetylation on the structure and properties of flax fibre were investigated as well as modified flax fibre reinforced polypropylene composites were also prepared. The catalyst was used to accelerate acetylation reaction rate. Flax fibre was characterised after modification. Surface morphology, moisture absorption property, components content, degree of polymerisation, crystallinity of cellulose and thermal stability of flax fibres were studied. Due to acetylation, the flax fibre surface morphology and moisture resistance properties improved remarkably. Flax fibre (modified and unmodified reinforced polypropylene composites were fabricated with 30 wt% fibre loading. The mechanical properties were investigated for those composites. Tensile and flexural strengths of composites were found to increase with increasing degree of acetylation up to 18% and then decreased. Charpy impact strengths of composites were found to decrease with increasing degree of acetylation. Owing to addition of coupling agent (maleated polypropylene -MAH, the tensile and flexural strength properties were found to increase in between 20 to 35% depending on degree of acetylation.

  2. Analysis of the bending behaviour of flax based reinforcements used in shape forming

    CERN Document Server

    Bassoumi, Amal; Gillibert, Jean; Hivet, G

    2013-01-01

    The bending behaviour of woven perform was investigated in order to better understand the formation of some defects during sheet forming such as wrinkling and tow buckling. The fabric composition considering hybrid and pure flax fabrics as well as some test conditions like relative humidity were examined. On the one hand, the results show a drop of the bending stiffness with flax/PLA commingled fabric. On the other hand, the study points out that moisture enhances the bending rigidity especially in the case of pure flax fabric. However, an excess of humidity, for instance 100% relative humidity, leads to an opposite effect.

  3. Application of Phanerochaete chrysosporium 1038 - Enzyme Complex and Laccase in Biobleaching of Flax Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yotova L.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Bleaching processes in textile industry require to keep fibers tenacity, partially to preserve the pectin and reducing the lignin content, that gives color to row flax fibers. The use of lignocellulose-degrading enzymes from basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium 1038 strain and pure Laccase from Biocatalyst in flax fibers treatment was studied. The whiteness of enzymatically-processed fibers was significantly improved and the residual quantity of nondegraded lignin was less than obtained with chemical processing. The structural changes in the flax fibers during enzyme treatment were determined with IR spectroscopy, which confirmed the lignin degradation.

  4. POTENTIAL USE OF GRAFT COPOLYMERS OF MERCERIZED FLAX AS FILLER IN POLYSTYRENE COMPOSITE MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susheel Kalia

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Graft copolymerization of binary vinyl monomers onto mercerized flax fiber was carried out for the enhancement of mechanical properties of polystyrene composites. Binary vinyl monomer mixture of AA+AN has been found to show maximum grafting (33.55% onto mercerized flax. Graft copolymers thus synthesized were characterized with FT-IR spectroscopy, SEM, and TGA techniques. Mercerized flax (MF showed maximum thermal stability in comparison to graft copolymers. It has been found that polystyrene composites reinforced with graft copolymers showed improvement in mechanical properties such as wear resistance, compressive strength, and tensile strength.

  5. Orbitide Composition of the Flax Core Collection (FCC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Peta-Gaye Gillian; Olivia, Clara Marisa; Okinyo-Owiti, Denis Paskal; Reaney, Martin John Tarsisius

    2016-06-29

    The flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) core collection (FCC) was regenerated in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan and Morden, Manitoba in 2009. Seed orbitide content and composition from successfully propagated plants of 391 accessions were analyzed using high-throughput analyses employing high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with reverse-phase monolithic HPLC columns and diode array detection (HPLC-DAD). Seed from plants regenerated in Morden had comparatively higher orbitide content than those grown in Saskatoon. Concentrations of orbitides encoded by contig AFSQ01016651.1 (1, 3, and 8) were higher than those encoded by AFSQ01025165.1 (6, 13, and 17) for most accessions in both locations. The cultivar 'Primus' from Poland and an unnamed accession (CN 101580 of unknown origin) exhibited the highest ratio of sum of [1,3,8] to a sum of [6,13,17]. Conversely, the lowest orbitide concentrations and ratio of [1,3,8] to [6,13,17] were observed in cultivars 'Hollandia' and 'Z 11637', both from The Netherlands. Orbitide expression did not correlate with flax morphological and other chemical traits.

  6. 76 FR 28209 - Notice of Intent To Reestablish the National Genetic Resources Advisory Council, and Request for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-16

    ... to genetic resources conservation. The Executive Director of the Research, Education, and Economics... development law, or management. The Secretary will appoint a Chairperson from the appointed members of the...

  7. MGIS: managing banana (Musa spp.) genetic resources information and high-throughput genotyping data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guignon, V.; Sempere, G.; Sardos, J.; Hueber, Y.; Duvergey, H.; Andrieu, A.; Chase, R.; Jenny, C.; Hazekamp, T.; Irish, B.; Jelali, K.; Adeka, J.; Ayala-Silva, T.; Chao, C.P.; Daniells, J.; Dowiya, B.; Effa effa, B.; Gueco, L.; Herradura, L.; Ibobondji, L.; Kempenaers, E.; Kilangi, J.; Muhangi, S.; Ngo Xuan, P.; Paofa, J.; Pavis, C.; Thiemele, D.; Tossou, C.; Sandoval, J.; Sutanto, A.; Vangu Paka, G.; Yi, G.; Van den houwe, I.; Roux, N.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Unraveling the genetic diversity held in genebanks on a large scale is underway, due to advances in Next-generation sequence (NGS) based technologies that produce high-density genetic markers for a large number of samples at low cost. Genebank users should be in a position to identify and select germplasm from the global genepool based on a combination of passport, genotypic and phenotypic data. To facilitate this, a new generation of information systems is being designed to efficiently handle data and link it with other external resources such as genome or breeding databases. The Musa Germplasm Information System (MGIS), the database for global ex situ-held banana genetic resources, has been developed to address those needs in a user-friendly way. In developing MGIS, we selected a generic database schema (Chado), the robust content management system Drupal for the user interface, and Tripal, a set of Drupal modules which links the Chado schema to Drupal. MGIS allows germplasm collection examination, accession browsing, advanced search functions, and germplasm orders. Additionally, we developed unique graphical interfaces to compare accessions and to explore them based on their taxonomic information. Accession-based data has been enriched with publications, genotyping studies and associated genotyping datasets reporting on germplasm use. Finally, an interoperability layer has been implemented to facilitate the link with complementary databases like the Banana Genome Hub and the MusaBase breeding database. Database URL: https://www.crop-diversity.org/mgis/

  8. The Collaborative Cross at Oak Ridge National Laboratory: developing a powerful resource for systems genetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chesler, Elissa J [ORNL; Branstetter, Lisa R [ORNL; Churchill, Gary A [Jackson Laboratory, The, Bar Harbor, ME; Culiat, Cymbeline T [ORNL; Galloway, Leslie D [ORNL; Jackson, Barbara L [ORNL; Johnson, Dabney K [ORNL; Miller, Darla R [ORNL; Philip, Vivek M [ORNL; Threadgill, David [University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill; Voy, Brynn H [ORNL; Williams, Robert [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis; Manly, Kenneth [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis

    2008-01-01

    Complex traits and disease co-morbidity in humans and in model organisms are the result of naturally occurring polymorphisms that interact with each other and with the environment. To ensure the availability of the resources needed to investigate biomolecular networks and ultimately systems level phenotypes, we have initiated breeding of a new genetic reference population of mice, the Collaborative Cross. This population has been designed to optimally support systems genetics analysis. Its novel and important features include high levels of genetic diversity, a large population size to ensure sufficient power in high-dimensional studies, and high mapping precision through accumulation of independent recombination events. Implementation of the Collaborative Cross has been in progress at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) since May 2005. This is achieved through a software assisted breeding program with fully traceable lineages, performed in a uniform environment. Currently, there are 650 lines in production with almost 200 lines over seven generations of inbreeding. Retired breeders enter a high-throughput phenotyping protocol and DNA samples are banked for analysis of recombination history, allele loss, and population structure. Herein we present a progress report of the Collaborative Cross breeding program at ORNL and a description of the kinds of investigations that this resource will support.

  9. Facilitating or Restraining Access To Genetic Resources? Procedural Dimensions In Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evanson Chege Kamau

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available States have the right to regulate access to biological resources subject to national legislations. Allowing, restricting or prohibiting access, however, requires a balance to avoid contravention of the objectives of the Convention on Biological Diversity. The Convention requires that, in regulating access, the measures adopted do not become a hindrance to access. In many instances, however, this has been the case. Overreaction to previous cases of bio-piracy and over-enthusiasm to tap into the benefits from discovered genetic resources have caused many provider countries to either over-regulate or extremely complicate access procedures, thus deterring access. In some instances, over-regulation and complex procedures are to be blamed on the users’ reluctance to collaborate with providers in minimising or eliminating abuse. Also, the need to protect certain rights over genetic resources or of an intellectual (property character, for example, might at times complicate regulation. While it is appreciated that such issues must also be taken into account in addressing and creating a balance in access and benefit sharing, a discussion embracing all these aspects cannot be captured within the ambit of this article. Focus is therefore laid on the procedural dimensions of access in Kenya and suggestions for improvement.

  10. Population Genetic Structure of Glycyrrhiza inflata B. (Fabaceae) Is Shaped by Habitat Fragmentation, Water Resources and Biological Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lulu; Chen, Jianjun; Hu, Weiming; Yang, Tianshun; Zhang, Yanjun; Yukiyoshi, Tamura; Zhou, Yanyang; Wang, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Background Habitat fragmentation, water resources and biological characteristics are important factors that shape the genetic structure and geographical distribution of desert plants. Analysis of the relationships between these factors and population genetic variation should help to determine the evolutionary potential and conservation strategies for genetic resources for desert plant populations. As a traditional Chinese herb, Glycyrrhiza inflata B. (Fabaceae) is restricted to the fragmented desert habitat in China and has undergone a dramatic decline due to long-term over-excavation. Determining the genetic structure of the G. inflata population and identifying a core collection could help with the development of strategies to conserve this species. Results We investigated the genetic variation of 25 G. inflata populations based on microsatellite markers. A high level of population genetic divergence (FST = 0.257), population bottlenecks, reduced gene flow and moderate genetic variation (HE = 0.383) were detected. The genetic distances between the populations significantly correlated with the geographical distances, and this suggests that habitat fragmentation has driven a special genetic structure of G. inflata in China through isolation by distance. STRUCTURE analysis showed that G. inflata populations were structured into three clusters and that the populations belonged to multiple water systems, which suggests that water resources were related to the genetic structure of G. inflata. In addition, the biological characteristics of the perennial species G. inflata, such as its long-lived seeds, asexual reproduction, and oasis ecology, may be related to its resistance to habitat fragmentation. A core collection of G. inflata, that included 57 accessions was further identified, which captured the main allelic diversity of G. inflata. Conclusions Recent habitat fragmentation has accelerated genetic divergence. The population genetic structure of G. inflata has been

  11. Population Genetic Structure of Glycyrrhiza inflata B. (Fabaceae) Is Shaped by Habitat Fragmentation, Water Resources and Biological Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lulu; Chen, Jianjun; Hu, Weiming; Yang, Tianshun; Zhang, Yanjun; Yukiyoshi, Tamura; Zhou, Yanyang; Wang, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Habitat fragmentation, water resources and biological characteristics are important factors that shape the genetic structure and geographical distribution of desert plants. Analysis of the relationships between these factors and population genetic variation should help to determine the evolutionary potential and conservation strategies for genetic resources for desert plant populations. As a traditional Chinese herb, Glycyrrhiza inflata B. (Fabaceae) is restricted to the fragmented desert habitat in China and has undergone a dramatic decline due to long-term over-excavation. Determining the genetic structure of the G. inflata population and identifying a core collection could help with the development of strategies to conserve this species. We investigated the genetic variation of 25 G. inflata populations based on microsatellite markers. A high level of population genetic divergence (FST = 0.257), population bottlenecks, reduced gene flow and moderate genetic variation (HE = 0.383) were detected. The genetic distances between the populations significantly correlated with the geographical distances, and this suggests that habitat fragmentation has driven a special genetic structure of G. inflata in China through isolation by distance. STRUCTURE analysis showed that G. inflata populations were structured into three clusters and that the populations belonged to multiple water systems, which suggests that water resources were related to the genetic structure of G. inflata. In addition, the biological characteristics of the perennial species G. inflata, such as its long-lived seeds, asexual reproduction, and oasis ecology, may be related to its resistance to habitat fragmentation. A core collection of G. inflata, that included 57 accessions was further identified, which captured the main allelic diversity of G. inflata. Recent habitat fragmentation has accelerated genetic divergence. The population genetic structure of G. inflata has been shaped by habitat

  12. GDR (Genome Database for Rosaceae: integrated web resources for Rosaceae genomics and genetics research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ficklin Stephen

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Peach is being developed as a model organism for Rosaceae, an economically important family that includes fruits and ornamental plants such as apple, pear, strawberry, cherry, almond and rose. The genomics and genetics data of peach can play a significant role in the gene discovery and the genetic understanding of related species. The effective utilization of these peach resources, however, requires the development of an integrated and centralized database with associated analysis tools. Description The Genome Database for Rosaceae (GDR is a curated and integrated web-based relational database. GDR contains comprehensive data of the genetically anchored peach physical map, an annotated peach EST database, Rosaceae maps and markers and all publicly available Rosaceae sequences. Annotations of ESTs include contig assembly, putative function, simple sequence repeats, and anchored position to the peach physical map where applicable. Our integrated map viewer provides graphical interface to the genetic, transcriptome and physical mapping information. ESTs, BACs and markers can be queried by various categories and the search result sites are linked to the integrated map viewer or to the WebFPC physical map sites. In addition to browsing and querying the database, users can compare their sequences with the annotated GDR sequences via a dedicated sequence similarity server running either the BLAST or FASTA algorithm. To demonstrate the utility of the integrated and fully annotated database and analysis tools, we describe a case study where we anchored Rosaceae sequences to the peach physical and genetic map by sequence similarity. Conclusions The GDR has been initiated to meet the major deficiency in Rosaceae genomics and genetics research, namely a centralized web database and bioinformatics tools for data storage, analysis and exchange. GDR can be accessed at http://www.genome.clemson.edu/gdr/.

  13. Study on genetic diversity and resource conservation of amphioxus(Branchiostoma balcheri Gray) population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Hantao; GAO Yuanyuan; CHEN Xu; YE Fan; LIAN Yuwu

    2005-01-01

    Amphioxus is the ancestor of vertebrates 5×108 a ago, it is a typical transitional sample of evolution from invertebrates to vertebrates.Inter simple sequence repeats (ISSRs) and random amplified polymorphic DNAs (RAPDs) technologies were applied to detect the genetic variation of 3 bulking samples and individually sampled populations in nowadays Xiamen sea areas (Xiekou, Nanxian and Huangcuo) where the amphioxuses are alive. For the bulking sampled populations, 5 ISSR and 10 RAPD primers generated 357bands, of which 181 (50.7%) were polymorphic. Nei index and UPGMA statistical analysis indicated that amphioxuses in these 3areas could be divided into 2 groups. The genetic distance between animals in Nanxian and Huangcuo areas was 0.07 and classified into 1 group, while the population in Xiekou belonged to another group because its genetic distances in Nanxian and Huangcuo were 0.12 and 0.14, respectively. The result was in accordance with the morphological comparison among animals from those areas. For individually sampled population, Shannon' s index of genetic diversity was used to partition the diversity of the animals among these 3sea areas, and the results showed that the indices in populations ofXiekou, Nanxian and Huangcuo, were 0.583, 0.482 and 0.374,respectively. The linear regression equation analysis for amphioxus' genetic diversity versus the environment factors revealed that granularity/sorting coefficient and water depth were the most important factors that affect amphioxus genetic diversity. On the basis of the results, the suggestions for amphioxus resource conservation in Xiamen sea areas are put forward.

  14. Genetic algorithm for autonomic joint radio resource management in end-to-end reconfigurable systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Xian; MA Tao; LIN Yue-wei; FENG Zhi-yong

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the genetic algorithm (GA) asan autonomic approach for the joint radio resource management(JRRM) amongst heterogeneous radio access technologies(RATs) in the end-to-end reconfigurable systems. The jointsession admission control (JOSAC) and the bandwidth allocationare combined as a specific decision made by the operations ofthe genetic algorithm with certain advisable modifications. Theproposed algorithm is triggered on the following two conditions.When a session is initiated, it is triggered for the session tocamp on the most appropriate RAT and select the most suitablebandwidth for the desired service. When a session terminates, itis also used to adjust the distribution of the ongoing sessionsthrough the handovers. This will increase the adjustmentfrequency of the JRRM controller for the best systemperformance. Simulation results indicate that the proposedautonomic JRRM scheme not only effectively reduces thehandover times, but also achieves well trade-off between thespectrum utility and the blocking probability.

  15. Pinoresinol-lariciresinol reductase gene expression and secoisolariciresinol diglucoside accumulation in developing flax (Linum usitatissimum) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hano, C; Martin, I; Fliniaux, O; Legrand, B; Gutierrez, L; Arroo, R R J; Mesnard, F; Lamblin, F; Lainé, E

    2006-11-01

    The transcription activity of the pinoresinol-lariciresinol reductase (PLR) gene of Linum usitatissimum (so-called LuPLR), a key gene in lignan synthesis, was studied by RT-PCR and promoter-reporter transgenesis. The promoter was found to drive transcription of a GUSint reporter gene in the seed coats during the flax seed development. This fitted well with the tissue localization monitored by semi-quantitative RT-PCR of LuPLR expression. Accumulation of the main flax lignan secoisolariciresinol diglucoside was coherent with LuPLR expression during seed development. This three-way approach demonstrated that the LuPLR gene is expressed in the seed coat of flax seeds, and that the synthesis of PLR enzyme occurs where flax main lignan is found stored in mature seeds, confirming its involvement in SDG synthesis.

  16. An Efficient Approach of Creating New Genetic Resources in Hybrid Rice Breeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@It is more and more important to create new genetic resources in hybrid rice breedding by using the tertiary and the forth gene pool through biotechnologic methods after the success of the utilization of inter-subspecific heterosis. We have established a simple procedure which is modified from that of Pena to transfer exogenous DAN into rice. When the recipient plant has undergone meiosis, exogenous DNA is injected into the upermost internode of a stem, the position just under the panicle base. In the next generation (D1), variants are found at a rate from 10-3to 10-1.

  17. Node ordinal encoded genetic algorithm for the optimal allocation of water resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xiaohua; YANG Zhifeng; SHEN Zhenyao; LI Jianqiang

    2005-01-01

    A new method, node ordinal encoded genetic algorithm (NOEGA), is proposed for solving water resources optimal allocation problems, in which the capacity of water resources is split into a number of smaller parts so that successive operations can be overlapped. Our objective is to maximize the whole benefit function. To overcome the "dimensionality and algorithm complexity curse" while searching for solutions and looking for an optimal solution, the operations of one-point crossover operator, gene exchange operator, gene random operator, gene shift operator and node ordinal strings are established. It is proved to be an effective optimal method in searching for global solutions. The NOEGA does not need a diversity of initial population, and it does not have the problem of immature convergence. The results of two cases show that using NOEGA to solve the optimal allocation model is very efficient and robust. In addition, the algorithm complexity of NOEGA is discussed.

  18. Genetic Modeling of GIS-Based Cell Clusters and Its Application in Mineral Resources Prediction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a synthetic analysis method for multi-sourced geological data from geographic information system (GIS). In the previous practices of mineral resources prediction, a usually adopted methodology has been statistical analysis of cells delimitated based on thoughts of random sampiing. That might lead to insufficient utilization of local spatial information, for a cell is treated as a point without internal structure. We now take "cell clusters", i. e. , spatial associations of cells, as basic units of statistics, thus the spatial configuration information of geological variables is easier to be detected and utilized, and the accuracy and reliability of prediction are improved. We build a linear multi-discriminating model for the clusters via genetic algorithm. Both the right-judgment rates and the in-class vs. between-class distance ratios are considered to form the evolutional adaptive values of the population. An application of the method in gold mineral resources prediction in east Xinjiang, China is presented.

  19. Development and validation of a flax (Linum usitatissimum L. gene expression oligo microarray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutierrez Laurent

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Flax (Linum usitatissimum L. has been cultivated for around 9,000 years and is therefore one of the oldest cultivated species. Today, flax is still grown for its oil (oil-flax or linseed cultivars and its cellulose-rich fibres (fibre-flax cultivars used for high-value linen garments and composite materials. Despite the wide industrial use of flax-derived products, and our actual understanding of the regulation of both wood fibre production and oil biosynthesis more information must be acquired in both domains. Recent advances in genomics are now providing opportunities to improve our fundamental knowledge of these complex processes. In this paper we report the development and validation of a high-density oligo microarray platform dedicated to gene expression analyses in flax. Results Nine different RNA samples obtained from flax inner- and outer-stems, seeds, leaves and roots were used to generate a collection of 1,066,481 ESTs by massive parallel pyrosequencing. Sequences were assembled into 59,626 unigenes and 48,021 sequences were selected for oligo design and high-density microarray (Nimblegen 385K fabrication with eight, non-overlapping 25-mers oligos per unigene. 18 independent experiments were used to evaluate the hybridization quality, precision, specificity and accuracy and all results confirmed the high technical quality of our microarray platform. Cross-validation of microarray data was carried out using quantitative qRT-PCR. Nine target genes were selected on the basis of microarray results and reflected the whole range of fold change (both up-regulated and down-regulated genes in different samples. A statistically significant positive correlation was obtained comparing expression levels for each target gene across all biological replicates both in qRT-PCR and microarray results. Further experiments illustrated the capacity of our arrays to detect differential gene expression in a variety of flax tissues as well

  20. Antioxidant capacity and chemical composition in seeds rich in omega-3: chia, flax, and perilla

    OpenAIRE

    Sheisa Cyléia Sargi; Beatriz Costa Silva; Hevelyse Munise Celestino Santos; Paula Fernandes Montanher; Joana Schuelter Boeing; Oscar Oliveira Santos Júnior; Nilson Evelázio de Souza; Jesuí Vergílio Visentainer

    2013-01-01

    The chemical composition and antioxidant capacity of five seeds, chia, golden flax, brown flax, white perilla, and brown perilla, were determined. The chemical properties analyzed included moisture, ash, crude protein, carbohydrates, total lipids, fatty acids, and antioxidant capacity (ABTS•+, DPPH•, and FRAP). The results showed the highest amounts of protein and total lipids in brown and white perilla. Perilla and chia showed higher amounts of alpha-linolenic fatty acid than those of flaxse...

  1. Global wild annual Lens collection: a potential resource for lentil genetic base broadening and yield enhancement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohar Singh

    Full Text Available Crop wild relatives (CWRs are invaluable gene sources for various traits of interest, yet these potential resources are themselves increasingly threatened by the impact of climate change as well as other anthropogenic and socio-economic factors. The prime goal of our research was to cover all aspects of wild Lens genetic resource management like species characterization, agro-morphological evaluation, diversity assessment, and development of representative sets for its enhanced utilization in lentil base broadening and yield improvement initiatives. We characterized and evaluated extensively, the global wild annual Lens taxa, originating from twenty seven counties under two agro-climatic conditions of India consecutively for three cropping seasons. Results on various qualitative and quantitative characters including two foliar diseases showed wide variations for almost all yield attributing traits including multiple disease resistance in the wild species, L. nigricans and L. ervoides accessions. The core set developed from the entire Lens taxa had maximum representation from Turkey and Syria, indicating rich diversity in accessions originating from these regions. Diversity analysis also indicated wide geographical variations across genepool as was reflected in the core set. Potential use of core set, as an initial starting material, for genetic base broadening of cultivated lentil was also suggested.

  2. Sugarcane production under smallholder farming systems: Farmers preferred traits, constraints and genetic resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esayas Tena

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Smallholder sugarcane production sector is under researched and underdeveloped with limited industrial link and support. The objectives of this study were to assess the current state of sugarcane production, farmers’ perceived production constraints and preferred traits, and to collect germplasm grown by smallholder farmers in southern Ethiopia for strategic breeding and conservation. The study was conducted across 16 administrative zones, 28 districts and 56 peasant associations involving 560 smallholder sugarcane growers in southern Ethiopia using a participatory rural appraisal (PRA approach. Sugarcane genetic resources were collected through structured sampling. Findings from this study indicated that monocropping was identified as the predominant sugarcane farming system. Respondent farmers prioritized drought tolerance (21%, increased cane yield (20%, early maturity (18%, marketability (17%, and high biomass (14% as the top preferred traits of sugarcane. Ninety diverse sugarcane landraces were collected from homesteads of smallholder farmers. Findings from this study would serve as baseline information towards sugarcane research and development emphasising the constraints and preferences of smallholder sugarcane growers in Ethiopia or similar agro-ecologies. This is the first study to report farmers preferred traits and constraints, and genetic resources of sugarcane under smallholder farming systems in Ethiopia.

  3. Intraspecific taxonomy of plant genetic resources – Important for differentiation of medicinal and aromatic plants?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lohwasser, Ulrike

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Taxonomy of plant genetic resources is an important input in characterising and evaluating cultivated plants and essential for identification and documentation of the diversity of genebank collections. In former times taxonomical determination was based only on morphological characters. Nowadays, new molecular and chemical methods and techniques are available for providing additional information. As examples, investigations of parsley (Petroselinum crispum [Mill.] Nyman, Apiaceae and opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L., Papaveraceae collections of the German genebank are demonstrated. In addition to morphological description, the molecular distance and the phylogenetic relationship of the accessions were performed with molecular marker analysis. Essential oil compound and content for parsley and the content of the five main alkaloids (morphine, codeine, thebaine, noscapine, papaverine for opium poppy were measured with GC (gas chromatography and HPLC (high pressure liquid chromatography, respectively. For parsley the results of the three methods support the existing taxonomy partly, a separation of root and leaf parsley was confirmed. However, the taxonomy of opium poppy should be revised because molecular and chemical data do not verify the morphological results. But nevertheless taxonomy of cultivated plants is an important tool to describe the variability of plant genetic resources.

  4. Identification and Retting Efficiencies of Fungi Isolated from Dew-Retted Flax in the United States and Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Henriksson, G.; Akin, D. E.; Hanlin, R. T.; Rodriguez, C.; Archibald, D. D.; Rigsby, L L; Eriksson, K. L.

    1997-01-01

    Seven strains of filamentous fungi and one yeast were isolated from flax that was dew retted in the United States. These filamentous fungi were subcultured to purity and identified, and six appear not to have been reported earlier as isolates from dew-retted flax. Five of the purified U.S. strains, two fungi isolated from flax that was dew retted in Europe, and a laboratory culture of Aspergillus sojae were tested for their ability to ret flax stems. The monocultures were evaluated for the de...

  5. The systems genetics resource: a web application to mine global data for complex disease traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Nas, Atila; Pan, Calvin; Ingram-Drake, Leslie A; Ghazalpour, Anatole; Drake, Thomas A; Sobel, Eric M; Papp, Jeanette C; Lusis, Aldons J

    2013-01-01

    The Systems Genetics Resource (SGR) (http://systems.genetics.ucla.edu) is a new open-access web application and database that contains genotypes and clinical and intermediate phenotypes from both human and mouse studies. The mouse data include studies using crosses between specific inbred strains and studies using the Hybrid Mouse Diversity Panel. SGR is designed to assist researchers studying genes and pathways contributing to complex disease traits, including obesity, diabetes, atherosclerosis, heart failure, osteoporosis, and lipoprotein metabolism. Over the next few years, we hope to add data relevant to deafness, addiction, hepatic steatosis, toxin responses, and vascular injury. The intermediate phenotypes include expression array data for a variety of tissues and cultured cells, metabolite levels, and protein levels. Pre-computed tables of genetic loci controlling intermediate and clinical phenotypes, as well as phenotype correlations, are accessed via a user-friendly web interface. The web site includes detailed protocols for all of the studies. Data from published studies are freely available; unpublished studies have restricted access during their embargo period.

  6. Allele mining in barley genetic resources reveals genes of race-nonspecific powdery mildew resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika eSpies

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Race-nonspecific, or quantitative, pathogen resistance is of high importance to plant breeders due to its expected durability. However, it is usually controlled by multiple quantitative trait loci (QTL and therefore difficult to handle in practice. Knowing the genes that underlie race-nonspecific resistance would allow its exploitation in a more targeted manner. Here, we performed an association-genetic study in a customized worlwide collection of spring barley accessions for candidate genes of race-nonspecific resistance to the powdery mildew fungus Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei (Bgh and combined data with results from QTL-mapping- as well as functional-genomics approaches. This led to the idenfication of 11 associated genes with converging evidence for an important role in race-nonspecific resistance in the presence of the Mlo-gene for basal susceptibility. Outstanding in this respect was the gene encoding the transcription factor WRKY2. The results suggest that unlocking plant genetic resources and integrating functional-genomic with genetic approaches accelerates the discovery of genes underlying race-nonspecific resistance in barley and other crop plants.

  7. Advances in ecological genomics in forest trees and applications to genetic resources conservation and breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holliday, Jason A; Aitken, Sally N; Cooke, Janice E K; Fady, Bruno; González-Martínez, Santiago C; Heuertz, Myriam; Jaramillo-Correa, Juan-Pablo; Lexer, Christian; Staton, Margaret; Whetten, Ross W; Plomion, Christophe

    2017-02-01

    Forest trees are an unparalleled group of organisms in their combined ecological, economic and societal importance. With widespread distributions, predominantly random mating systems and large population sizes, most tree species harbour extensive genetic variation both within and among populations. At the same time, demographic processes associated with Pleistocene climate oscillations and land-use change have affected contemporary range-wide diversity and may impinge on the potential for future adaptation. Understanding how these adaptive and neutral processes have shaped the genomes of trees species is therefore central to their management and conservation. As for many other taxa, the advent of high-throughput sequencing methods is expected to yield an understanding of the interplay between the genome and environment at a level of detail and depth not possible only a few years ago. An international conference entitled 'Genomics and Forest Tree Genetics' was held in May 2016, in Arcachon (France), and brought together forest geneticists with a wide range of research interests to disseminate recent efforts that leverage contemporary genomic tools to probe the population, quantitative and evolutionary genomics of trees. An important goal of the conference was to discuss how such data can be applied to both genome-enabled breeding and the conservation of forest genetic resources under land use and climate change. Here, we report discoveries presented at the meeting and discuss how the ecological genomic toolkit can be used to address both basic and applied questions in tree biology.

  8. Human Ageing Genomic Resources: integrated databases and tools for the biology and genetics of ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacutu, Robi; Craig, Thomas; Budovsky, Arie; Wuttke, Daniel; Lehmann, Gilad; Taranukha, Dmitri; Costa, Joana; Fraifeld, Vadim E; de Magalhães, João Pedro

    2013-01-01

    The Human Ageing Genomic Resources (HAGR, http://genomics.senescence.info) is a freely available online collection of research databases and tools for the biology and genetics of ageing. HAGR features now several databases with high-quality manually curated data: (i) GenAge, a database of genes associated with ageing in humans and model organisms; (ii) AnAge, an extensive collection of longevity records and complementary traits for >4000 vertebrate species; and (iii) GenDR, a newly incorporated database, containing both gene mutations that interfere with dietary restriction-mediated lifespan extension and consistent gene expression changes induced by dietary restriction. Since its creation about 10 years ago, major efforts have been undertaken to maintain the quality of data in HAGR, while further continuing to develop, improve and extend it. This article briefly describes the content of HAGR and details the major updates since its previous publications, in terms of both structure and content. The completely redesigned interface, more intuitive and more integrative of HAGR resources, is also presented. Altogether, we hope that through its improvements, the current version of HAGR will continue to provide users with the most comprehensive and accessible resources available today in the field of biogerontology.

  9. National Measures on Access to Genetic Resources and Benefit Sharing – The Case of the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aphrodite Smagadi

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the Convention on Biological Diversity stipulated at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (Rio de Janeiro, 1992 was not merely to promote the conservation and sustainable use of biological resources, but to ensure the fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from their utilisation. The Convention stresses the sovereignty that signatory states exert over the biological wealth within their jurisdiction and calls on them to enact national legislation that will contribute to fleshing out the provisions on access to genetic resources and benefit sharing. The Philippines was the first country to enact such legislation and has thus accrued a decade of experience in this field. The first and much-analysed access and benefit sharing instrument enacted by the Government of the Philippines, was Executive Order 247 of 1995. However, due to problems experienced during the implementation of the Order, draft guidelines based on the 2001 Implementing Rules to the Wildlife Act have been drafted and are expected to correct the failures of the previous law. This article takes the example of the Philippines to assess the extent to which laws regulating the access and benefit sharing of biological resources can be effective in any country.

  10. Human Ageing Genomic Resources: Integrated databases and tools for the biology and genetics of ageing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacutu, Robi; Craig, Thomas; Budovsky, Arie; Wuttke, Daniel; Lehmann, Gilad; Taranukha, Dmitri; Costa, Joana; Fraifeld, Vadim E.; de Magalhães, João Pedro

    2013-01-01

    The Human Ageing Genomic Resources (HAGR, http://genomics.senescence.info) is a freely available online collection of research databases and tools for the biology and genetics of ageing. HAGR features now several databases with high-quality manually curated data: (i) GenAge, a database of genes associated with ageing in humans and model organisms; (ii) AnAge, an extensive collection of longevity records and complementary traits for >4000 vertebrate species; and (iii) GenDR, a newly incorporated database, containing both gene mutations that interfere with dietary restriction-mediated lifespan extension and consistent gene expression changes induced by dietary restriction. Since its creation about 10 years ago, major efforts have been undertaken to maintain the quality of data in HAGR, while further continuing to develop, improve and extend it. This article briefly describes the content of HAGR and details the major updates since its previous publications, in terms of both structure and content. The completely redesigned interface, more intuitive and more integrative of HAGR resources, is also presented. Altogether, we hope that through its improvements, the current version of HAGR will continue to provide users with the most comprehensive and accessible resources available today in the field of biogerontology. PMID:23193293

  11. Gene expression profiling of flax (Linum usitatissimum L. under edaphic stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey A. Dmitriev

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cultivated flax (Linum usitatissimum L. is widely used for production of textile, food, chemical and pharmaceutical products. However, various stresses decrease flax production. Search for genes, which are involved in stress response, is necessary for breeding of adaptive cultivars. Imbalanced concentration of nutrient elements in soil decrease flax yields and also results in heritable changes in some flax lines. The appearance of Linum Insertion Sequence 1 (LIS-1 is the most studied modification. However, LIS-1 function is still unclear. Results High-throughput sequencing of transcriptome of flax plants grown under normal (N, phosphate deficient (P, and nutrient excess (NPK conditions was carried out using Illumina platform. The assembly of transcriptome was performed, and a total of 34924, 33797, and 33698 unique transcripts for N, P, and NPK sequencing libraries were identified, respectively. We have not revealed any LIS-1 derived mRNA in our sequencing data. The analysis of high-throughput sequencing data allowed us to identify genes with potentially differential expression under imbalanced nutrition. For further investigation with qPCR, 15 genes were chosen and their expression levels were evaluated in the extended sampling of 31 flax plants. Significant expression alterations were revealed for genes encoding WRKY and JAZ protein families under P and NPK conditions. Moreover, the alterations of WRKY family genes differed depending on LIS-1 presence in flax plant genome. Besides, we revealed slight and LIS-1 independent mRNA level changes of KRP2 and ING1 genes, which are adjacent to LIS-1, under nutrition stress. Conclusions Differentially expressed genes were identified in flax plants, which were grown under phosphate deficiency and excess nutrition, on the basis of high-throughput sequencing and qPCR data. We showed that WRKY and JAS gene families participate in flax response to imbalanced nutrient content in soil

  12. A new mutant genetic resource for tomato crop improvement by TILLING technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sozio Giovanni

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the last decade, the availability of gene sequences of many plant species, including tomato, has encouraged the development of strategies that do not rely on genetic transformation techniques (GMOs for imparting desired traits in crops. One of these new emerging technology is TILLING (Targeting Induced Local Lesions In Genomes, a reverse genetics tool, which is proving to be very valuable in creating new traits in different crop species. Results To apply TILLING to tomato, a new mutant collection was generated in the genetic background of the processing tomato cultivar Red Setter by treating seeds with two different ethylemethane sulfonate doses (0.7% and 1%. An associated phenotype database, LycoTILL, was developed and a TILLING platform was also established. The interactive and evolving database is available online to the community for phenotypic alteration inquiries. To validate the Red Setter TILLING platform, induced point mutations were searched in 7 tomato genes with the mismatch-specific ENDO1 nuclease. In total 9.5 kb of tomato genome were screened and 66 nucleotide substitutions were identified. The overall mutation density was estimated and it resulted to be 1/322 kb and 1/574 kb for the 1% EMS and 0.7% EMS treatment respectively. Conclusions The mutation density estimated in our collection and its comparison with other TILLING populations demonstrate that the Red Setter genetic resource is suitable for use in high-throughput mutation discovery. The Red Setter TILLING platform is open to the research community and is publicly available via web for requesting mutation screening services.

  13. COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH AND SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURAL INNOVATION: THE ROLE OF NON ABSORPTIVE INTERMEDIARY ACTORS. THE CASE OF INDUSTRIAL HEMP AND FLAX SECTORS IN FRANCE

    OpenAIRE

    Caron, Pauline; Barbier, Marc,

    2010-01-01

    N° ISBN - 978-2-7380-1284-5; International audience; Industrial hemp and flax have many uses (paper for hemp, textile for flax, but also fibre incorporation in biocomposites or lime blocks). They are facing great technological expectations with the "Green Future" objectives, both because of sustainable end-uses of hemp and flax and because of their respective sustainable cropping properties. With more than 8000 ha of hemp and 80 000 ha of flax cultivated, France is the biggest European produc...

  14. Biotechnologies for the management of genetic resources for food and agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidder, Preetmoninder; Sonnino, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the land area under agriculture has declined as also has the rate of growth in agricultural productivity while the demand for food continues to escalate. The world population now stands at 7 billion and is expected to reach 9 billion in 2045. A broad range of agricultural genetic diversity needs to be available and utilized in order to feed this growing population. Climate change is an added threat to biodiversity that will significantly impact genetic resources for food and agriculture (GRFA) and food production. There is no simple, all-encompassing solution to the challenges of increasing productivity while conserving genetic diversity. Sustainable management of GRFA requires a multipronged approach, and as outlined in the paper, biotechnologies can provide powerful tools for the management of GRFA. These tools vary in complexity from those that are relatively simple to those that are more sophisticated. Further, advances in biotechnologies are occurring at a rapid pace and provide novel opportunities for more effective and efficient management of GRFA. Biotechnology applications must be integrated with ongoing conventional breeding and development programs in order to succeed. Additionally, the generation, adaptation, and adoption of biotechnologies require a consistent level of financial and human resources and appropriate policies need to be in place. These issues were also recognized by Member States at the FAO international technical conference on Agricultural Biotechnologies for Developing Countries (ABDC-10), which took place in March 2010 in Mexico. At the end of the conference, the Member States reached a number of key conclusions, agreeing, inter alia, that developing countries should significantly increase sustained investments in capacity building and the development and use of biotechnologies to maintain the natural resource base; that effective and enabling national biotechnology policies and science-based regulatory frameworks can

  15. THE ROLE OF ORGANIC AGRICULTURE IN THE CONSERVATION OF GENETIC RESOURCES AND INCREASING AGRODIVERSITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana ROLJEVIC

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Organic agriculture is an ecological form of production that promotes natural processes and biological diversity, legallyregulated and is subject to inspection, which guarantees quality and health safety of food produced. Except producing healthyand quality food, the adoption of organic agriculture in recent decades has been indirectly established for saving species andvarieties of cultivated plants which is due to lack of use threat disappearance.This paper analyzes the state of the global andnational soil area under organic agriculture, as well as state of soil under organic production of grain crops as crucial for thefood security of almost all countries in the world.Furthermore, paper work presents the state of genetic resources of cereals andshow importance that organic agriculture has in process of preservation agro-diversity.

  16. Novel Genetic Resources in the Genus Vigna Unveiled from Gene Bank Accessions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Takahashi

    Full Text Available The genus Vigna (Fabaceae consists of five subgenera, and includes more than 100 wild species. In Vigna, 10 crops have been domesticated from three subgenera, Vigna, Plectrotropis, and Ceratotropis. The habitats of wild Vigna species are so diverse that their genomes could harbor various genes responsible for environmental stress adaptation, which could lead to innovations in agriculture. Since some of the gene bank Vigna accessions were unidentified and they seemed to be novel genetic resources, these accessions were identified based on morphological traits. The phylogenetic positions were estimated based on the DNA sequences of nuclear rDNA-ITS and chloroplast atpB-rbcL spacer regions. Based on the results, the potential usefulness of the recently described species V. indica and V. sahyadriana, and some wild Vigna species, i.e., V. aconitifolia, V. dalzelliana, V. khandalensis, V. marina var. oblonga, and V. vexillata, was discussed.

  17. Resources allocation in reproductive rabbit does: a review of feeding and genetic strategies for suitable performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Pascual

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present work is analysed how frequent feeding and selection programmes could be affecting resources allocation in reproductive rabbit does, and the possible consequences resulted from these changes, as well as the central role of body condition for a suitable female performance considering genetic level, health and welfare.  Resources allocation between functions, and consequently body condition, must be genetically driven.  Traditional view of body reserves mobilisation in reproductive rabbit does as a response of feed intake must be moved to an animal view, where feed intake must be considered more as an “output” consequence of the resources allocation in the female to ensure current and future litter viability.  To a great extent, future reproductive potential of reproductive rabbit females is decided before first partum.  There seems to be enough evidence of a possible threshold for the rabbit female birth weight to reach the beginning of reproductive life in a suitable body condition to maximise their future reproductive potential.  The moment of first mating could be identified the last ‘pure’ data of the animal, sign of the animal soma and probably related to their productive potential.  The choice of an adequate feeding system during rearing and first pregnancy also seems to be relevant in the reproductive performance of rabbit females in the short and long term. This should allow young females to reach first mating and late pregnancy with a good maturity level, but over-fattening must be avoided to reduce the risk of pregnancy toxaemia and reduced reproduction.  The body condition of the females changes during the reproductive cycle and throughout their reproductive life according to their genetically determined level.  The problems appear when the animals are forced to differ from this adequate level, increasing susceptibility to disease, other stress factors and eventual failure.  The body condition of young

  18. Deep-sea genetic resources: New frontiers for science and stewardship in areas beyond national jurisdiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden-Davies, Harriet

    2017-03-01

    The deep-sea is a large source of marine genetic resources (MGR), which have many potential uses and are a growing area of research. Much of the deep-sea lies in areas beyond national jurisdiction (ABNJ), including 65% of the global ocean. MGR in ABNJ occupy a significant gap in the international legal framework. Access and benefit sharing of MGR is a key issue in the development of a new international legally-binding instrument under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) for the conservation and sustainable use of marine biological diversity in ABNJ. This paper examines how this is relevant to deep-sea scientific research and identifies emerging challenges and opportunities. There is no internationally agreed definition of MGR, however, deep-sea genetic resources could incorporate any biological material including genes, proteins and natural products. Deep-sea scientific research is the key actor accessing MGR in ABNJ and sharing benefits such as data, samples and knowledge. UNCLOS provides the international legal framework for marine scientific research, international science cooperation, capacity building and marine technology transfer. Enhanced implementation could support access and benefit sharing of MGR in ABNJ. Deep-sea scientific researchers could play an important role in informing practical new governance solutions for access and benefit sharing of MGR that promote scientific research in ABNJ and support deep-sea stewardship. Advancing knowledge of deep-sea biodiversity in ABNJ, enhancing open-access to data and samples, standardisation and international marine science cooperation are significant potential opportunity areas.

  19. Juridical and sociocultural problems on the definition of a law concerning property, usage and access to genetic resources in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, R

    1996-04-01

    The property, usage, and access to genetic resources, is today one of the primary topics in international business, as a result of the strategic importance of the resources for the biotechnology industry. Internationally, the sovereignty that each country has over its natural patrimony is recognized. However, the new laws of international marketing have obligated countries in the process of development, such as Colombia, to adopt and copy a concept of intellectual property on living resources that does not have anything to do with the country's sociocultural identity, and sometimes even does not take into account its material enjoyment. The new juridical movement that treats genetic resources as private property produces a cultural conflict between indigenous populations, Afro-Americans and peasants, because for them the genetic resources are an element of community life. In these communities, knowledge is freely transmitted; it is an understanding that they have to conserve their agricultural customs and the relationship that they have with the environment. They do not recognize the term "property' according to patenting laws. These elements have to be considered, respected, and guaranteed in the laws that recognize the genetic resources in the country. On the other hand, not even countries that are pioneers in biotechnological development can adopt a concept about patents that is in agreement with the particularities that the living materials possess. This is obviously the reason for the numerous discussions on the legal interpretation, as well as complicated debates in court. Confronting that situation, there are countries rich in biodiversity, such as Colombia, but which do not have a proper concept and are not economically strong in the international context. These countries have to copy inadequate protection policies that do not take into account all their rights. This paper describes some of the technical, juridical, and sociocultural difficulties which

  20. The Evaluation Criteria of Some Botanical Quantitative Characters of Peach Genetic Resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Li-rong; ZHU Geng-rui; FANG Wei-chao

    2006-01-01

    There were two peach descriptors systems: one from IPRGI in 1980 and the other from China in 1990. The former had only reference cultivars without quantity grades; the latter had only a list of some characteristics. This makes it difficult sharing of genetic resource information for breeders. To describe the main quantitative characteristics, a new system was established. Ten characteristics of 346-476 peach cultivars were investigated from 1986 to 2002 in the National Peach Genetic Collection in Zhengzhou City, China. These characteristics and their coefficients of variation were as follows: flower diameter 19.55%, vertical diameter of fruit 14.24%, cheek diameter of fruit 10.36%, suture diameter of fruit 11.44%, stone length 19.04%, stone width 10.86%, stone thickness 11.19%, leaf length 7.9%, leaf width 10.55%, and leaf stalk length 19.03%, respectively. Grade index and reference cultivars were given by statistical data for peach description.These grade indexes were recorded on 1-5 grades, and the third grade as a middle one occupied 39% or more of the distribution. In general, two reference cultivars for each grade were chosen, one is USA cultivar and the other is Chinese cultivar. This paper tried to use them as the reference cultivars, which are planted or used widely by Chinese breeders.

  1. Evaluation and selection of the ship collaborative design resources based on AHP and genetic and simulated annealing algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The characteristics of the design resources in the ship collaborative design is described and the hierarchical model for the evaluation of the design resources is established. The comprehensive evaluation of the co-designers for the collaborative design resources has been done from different aspects using Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP),and according to the evaluation results,the candidates are determined. Meanwhile,based on the principle of minimum cost,and starting from the relations between the design tasks and the corresponding co-designers,the optimizing selection model of the collaborators is established and one novel genetic combined with simulated annealing algorithm is proposed to realize the optimization. It overcomes the defects of the genetic algorithm which may lead to the premature convergence and local optimization if used individually. Through the application of this method in the ship collaborative design system,it proves the feasibility and provides a quantitative method for the optimizing selection of the design resources.

  2. Genetic Transformation and Genomic Resources for Next-Generation Precise Genome Engineering in Vegetable Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardi, Teodoro; D’Agostino, Nunzio; Tripodi, Pasquale

    2017-01-01

    In the frame of modern agriculture facing the predicted increase of population and general environmental changes, the securement of high quality food remains a major challenge to deal with. Vegetable crops include a large number of species, characterized by multiple geographical origins, large genetic variability and diverse reproductive features. Due to their nutritional value, they have an important place in human diet. In recent years, many crop genomes have been sequenced permitting the identification of genes and superior alleles associated with desirable traits. Furthermore, innovative biotechnological approaches allow to take a step forward towards the development of new improved cultivars harboring precise genome modifications. Sequence-based knowledge coupled with advanced biotechnologies is supporting the widespread application of new plant breeding techniques to enhance the success in modification and transfer of useful alleles into target varieties. Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 system, zinc-finger nucleases, and transcription activator-like effector nucleases represent the main methods available for plant genome engineering through targeted modifications. Such technologies, however, require efficient transformation protocols as well as extensive genomic resources and accurate knowledge before they can be efficiently exploited in practical breeding programs. In this review, we revise the state of the art in relation to availability of such scientific and technological resources in various groups of vegetables, describe genome editing results obtained so far and discuss the implications for future applications. PMID:28275380

  3. Engineering and characterisation of the interface in flax/polypropylene composite materials

    CERN Document Server

    Zafeiropoulos, N E

    2001-01-01

    The main objectives of the present PhD project were to study the interface in flax/iPP composites, to develop and optimise an appropriate surface treatment for improving the interface in flax/iPP composites, and to assess the effect of the applied surface treatments on the properties of flax fibres (both physical and chemical). Two surface treatments, acetylation and stearation, were developed and optimised in the present study. The effect of these two surface treatments upon the structure of flax fibres was studied using XRD, SEM, ATR-FTIR, ToF-SIMS, XPS, IGC, DVS and single fibre tensile testing. It was found that the treatments did not significantly change the fibre strength, but they altered the fibre surface characteristics (chemical and physical). The water absorption was also significantly reduced after treatment, especially for green (as-received) flax, as was shown using DVS. In all cases the fibre surfaces were found to be very heterogeneous (from a chemistry point of view). The effect of the treatm...

  4. Experimental investigation on removal of suspended particles from water using flax fibre geotextiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbar, Bouamama; Alem, Abdellah; Pantet, Anne; Marcotte, Stéphane; Ahfir, Nasre-Dine; Duriatti, Davy

    2017-02-05

    Natural geotextiles are increasingly used in geotechnical applications such as bank protection and short-term soil reinforcement. This study aimed to highlight the behaviour of natural flax fibre geotextiles towards the retention of suspended particles (SP) present in urban runoff and often polluted. Indeed, it is well known that a large fraction of the heavy metals are often associated with the SP. Long-term filtration tests were performed on four laboratory filter designs. The objective was to study the influence of a nonwoven flax fibre geotextiles on SP transfer through a sandy porous media under saturated conditions. The experiments consisted of injecting SP in a column filled with sand with and without flax fibre geotextiles at a constant flow rate. The results showed that nonwoven flax fibre geotextiles can increase flow homogeneity. Retention efficiency of SP at column scale as well as spatial deposition profile was modified by the presence of geotextile. The use of flax fibre geotextiles increases considerably the durability of the filtration system. Particle size analysis of the particles retained in the sand medium and in geotextiles shows that the coarser particles are mainly deposited at the entrance of the column, and in the geotextiles.

  5. Biomechanical properties of an advanced new carbon/flax/epoxy composite material for bone plate applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri, Zahra S; El Sawi, Ihab; Schemitsch, Emil H; Zdero, Rad; Bougherara, Habiba

    2013-04-01

    This work is part of an ongoing program to develop a new carbon fiber/flax/epoxy (CF/flax/epoxy) hybrid composite material for use as an orthopaedic long bone fracture plate, instead of a metal plate. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the mechanical properties of this new novel composite material. The composite material had a "sandwich structure", in which two thin sheets of CF/epoxy were attached to each outer surface of the flax/epoxy core, which resulted in a unique structure compared to other composite plates for bone plate applications. Mechanical properties were determined using tension, three-point bending, and Rockwell hardness tests. Also, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to characterize the failure mechanism of specimens in tension and three-point bending tests. The results of mechanical tests revealed a considerably high ultimate strength in both tension (399.8MPa) and flexural loading (510.6MPa), with a higher elastic modulus in bending tests (57.4GPa) compared to tension tests (41.7GPa). The composite material experienced brittle catastrophic failure in both tension and bending tests. The SEM images, consistent with brittle failure, showed mostly fiber breakage and fiber pull-out at the fractured surfaces with perfect bonding at carbon fibers and flax plies. Compared to clinically-used orthopaedic metal plates, current CF/flax/epoxy results were closer to human cortical bone, making the material a potential candidate for use in long bone fracture fixation.

  6. Flax shive as a sources of activated carbon for metals remediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akin, D. E.

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Flax shive constitutes about 70% of the flax stem and has limited use. Because shive is a lignocellulosic by-product, it can potentially be pyrolyzed and activated to produce an activated carbon. The objective of this study was to create an activated carbon from flax shive by chemical activation in order to achieve significant binding of selected divalent cations (cadmium, calcium, copper, magnesium, nickel, zinc. Shive carbons activated by exposure to phosphoric acid and com-pressed air showed greater binding of cadmium, copper, nickel or zinc than a sulfuric acid-activated flax shive carbon reported in the literature and a commercial, wood-based carbon. Uptake of calcium from a drinking water sample by the shive carbon was similar to commercial drinking water filters that contained cation exchange resins. Magnesium removal by the shive carbon was greater than a commercial drinking water filtration carbon but less than for filters containing cation exchange resins. The results indicate that chemically activated flax shive carbon shows considerable promise as a component in industrial and residential water filtration systems for removal of divalent cations.

  7. Emulsions Made of Oils from Seeds of GM Flax Protect V79 Cells against Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Skorkowska-Telichowska

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyunsaturated fatty acids, sterols, and hydrophilic phenolic compounds are components of flax oil that act as antioxidants. We investigated the impact of flax oil from transgenic flax in the form of emulsions on stressed Chinese hamster pulmonary fibroblasts. We found that the emulsions protect V79 cells against the H2O2 and the effect is dose dependent. They reduced the level of intracellular reactive oxygen species and protected genomic DNA against damage. The rate of cell proliferation increased upon treatment with the emulsions at a low concentration, while at a high concentration it decreased significantly, accompanied by increased frequency of apoptotic cell death. Expression analysis of selected genes revealed the upregulatory impact of the emulsions on the histones, acetylases, and deacetylases. Expression of apoptotic, proinflammatory, and anti-inflammatory genes was also altered. It is thus suggested that flax oil emulsions might be useful as a basis for biomedical products that actively protect cells against inflammation and degeneration. The beneficial effect on fibroblast resistance to oxidative damage was superior in the emulsion made of oil from transgenic plants which was correlated with the quantity of antioxidants and squalene. The emulsions from transgenic flax are promising candidates for skin protection against oxidative damage.

  8. First National Report on Forest Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture,The Netherlands : country report for the FAO first state of the world's forest genetic resources for food and agriculture, Ministry of Economic Affairs, The Hague, November 2012

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buiteveld, J.

    2012-01-01

    The Dutch national report is designed to contribute to a regional and global sysnthesis of the state of forest genetic resources and in particular to examine trends over the past ten years. After a general introduction to the Dutch forest sector and the historical background of today's forests, it

  9. Genetic counselors and health literacy: the role of genetic counselors in developing a web-based resource about the Affordable Care Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Sylvia; Mui, Pauline; Boomsma, Jennifer; Hasegawa, Lianne

    2015-06-01

    The Western States Genetic Services Collaborative (WSGSC) recognized the need for clear and understandable information about the Affordable Care Act (ACA) for families throughout the life course. The genetic counselors working in the WSGSC developed, tested, and implemented a web resource ( http://www.westernstatesgenetics.org/ACA_home.htm ) to help families navigate information about the ACA tailored to their life situation. The training and experience of genetic counselors provide the skills needed to translate complicated information, like that of the ACA, into formats that the general public can comprehend. The website went public in October 2013, and it has been positively received. The development of this website is a good case study in how genetic counseling skills can be applied to public health education and improving health literacy.

  10. Utilization of farm animal genetic resources in a changing agro-ecological environment in the Nordic countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juha eKantanen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Livestock production is the most important component of northern European agriculture and contributes to and will be affected by climate change. Nevertheless, the role of farm animal genetic resources in the adaptation to new agro-ecological conditions and mitigation of animal production’s effects on climate change has been inadequately discussed despite there being several important associations between animal genetic resources and climate change issues. The sustainability of animal production systems and future food security require access to a wide diversity of animal genetic resources.There are several genetic questions that should be considered in strategies promoting adaptation to climate change and mitigation of environmental effects of livestock production. For example, it may become important to choose among breeds and even among farm animal species according to their suitability to a future with altered production systems. Some animals with useful phenotypes and genotypes may be more useful than others in the changing environment.Robust animal breeds with the potential to adapt to new agro-ecological conditions and tolerate new diseases will be needed. The key issue in mitigation of harmful greenhouse gas effects induced by livestock production is the reduction of methane (CH4 emissions from ruminants. There are differences in CH4 emissions among breeds and among individual animals within breeds that suggest a potential for improvement in the trait through genetic selection.Characterization of breeds and individuals with modern genomic tools should be applied to identify breeds that have genetically adapted to marginal conditions and to get critical information for breeding and conservation programmes for farm animal genetic resources. We conclude that phenotyping and genomic technologies and adoption of new breeding approaches, such as genomic selection introgression, will promote breeding for useful characters in livestock species.

  11. Effects of climate change on plant-insect interactions and prospects for resistance breeding using genetic resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pritchard, J.; Broekgaarden, C.; Vosman, B.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter describes the components (elevated CO2, temperature and drought) of climate change and their direct and indirect effects on plant-insect interactions. The genetic resources (such as wild relatives and traditional, locally adapted landraces) important for increasing pest/disease resistan

  12. Equitably sharing benefits from the utilization of natural genetic resources: the Brazilian interpretation of the Convention of Biological Diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pena-Neira, S.; Dieperink, C.; Addink, G.H.

    2002-01-01

    The utilization of natural genetic resources could yield great benefits. The Convention on Biological Diversity introduced a number of rules concerning the sharing of these benefits. However, the interpretation and application (legal implementation) of these rules is a matter of discussion among

  13. Effects of climate change on plant-insect interactions and prospects for resistance breeding using genetic resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pritchard, J.; Broekgaarden, C.; Vosman, B.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter describes the components (elevated CO2, temperature and drought) of climate change and their direct and indirect effects on plant-insect interactions. The genetic resources (such as wild relatives and traditional, locally adapted landraces) important for increasing pest/disease

  14. 76 FR 35396 - Notice of Intent To Reestablish the National Genetic Resources Advisory Council, and Request for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-17

    ... INFORMATION CONTACT: J. Robert Burk, 202-720-3684. Correction In the Federal Register of May 14, 2011, in FR... Agricultural Research Service Notice of Intent To Reestablish the National Genetic Resources Advisory Council... Request for Nominations. SUMMARY: The notice announced USD intent to reestablish the National...

  15. Integrating policies for the management of animal genetic resources with demand for livestock products and environmental sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recognition of the need to conserve animal genetic resources comes at a time when the global livestock sector faces significant challenges in meeting the growing demand for livestock products and the mitigation of negative environmental impacts caused by livestock. Outside of the U.S. it would seem ...

  16. An ultra-high-density map as a community resource for discerning the genetic basis of quantitative traits in maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, we generated a linkage map containing 1,151,856 high quality SNPs between Mo17 and B73, which were verified in the maize intermated B73'×'Mo17 (IBM) Syn10 population. This resource is an excellent complement to existing maize genetic maps available in an online database (iPlant, http:...

  17. Antioxidant capacity and chemical composition in seeds rich in omega-3: chia, flax, and perilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheisa Cyléia Sargi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition and antioxidant capacity of five seeds, chia, golden flax, brown flax, white perilla, and brown perilla, were determined. The chemical properties analyzed included moisture, ash, crude protein, carbohydrates, total lipids, fatty acids, and antioxidant capacity (ABTS•+, DPPH•, and FRAP. The results showed the highest amounts of protein and total lipids in brown and white perilla. Perilla and chia showed higher amounts of alpha-linolenic fatty acid than those of flaxseed varieties, ranging between 531.44 mg g-1 of lipids in brown perilla, 539.07 mg g-1 of lipids in white perilla, and 544.85 mg g-1 of lipis in chia seed. The antioxidant capacity of the seeds, evaluated with ABTS•+, DPPH• , and FRAP methods, showed that brown perilla had greater antioxidant capacity when compared with white perilla, flax, and chia seeds.

  18. Tensile and Flexural Properties of Cement Composites Reinforced with Flax Nonwoven Fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep Claramunt

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to develop a process to produce high-performance cement-based composites reinforced with flax nonwoven fabrics, analyzing the influence of the fabric structure—thickness and entanglement—on mechanical behavior under flexural and tensile loadings. For this purpose, composite with flax nonwoven fabrics with different thicknesses were first prepared and their cement infiltration was evaluated with backscattered electron (BSE images. The nonwoven fabrics with the optimized thickness were then subjected to a water treatment to improve their stability to humid environments and the fiber-matrix adhesion. For a fixed thickness, the effect of the nonwoven entanglement on the mechanical behavior was evaluated under flexural and direct tension tests. The obtained results indicate that the flax nonwoven fabric reinforcement leads to cement composites with substantial enhancement of ductility.

  19. Tensile and Flexural Properties of Cement Composites Reinforced with Flax Nonwoven Fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claramunt, Josep; Ventura, Heura; Fernández-Carrasco, Lucía J; Ardanuy, Mònica

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a process to produce high-performance cement-based composites reinforced with flax nonwoven fabrics, analyzing the influence of the fabric structure—thickness and entanglement—on mechanical behavior under flexural and tensile loadings. For this purpose, composite with flax nonwoven fabrics with different thicknesses were first prepared and their cement infiltration was evaluated with backscattered electron (BSE) images. The nonwoven fabrics with the optimized thickness were then subjected to a water treatment to improve their stability to humid environments and the fiber-matrix adhesion. For a fixed thickness, the effect of the nonwoven entanglement on the mechanical behavior was evaluated under flexural and direct tension tests. The obtained results indicate that the flax nonwoven fabric reinforcement leads to cement composites with substantial enhancement of ductility. PMID:28772573

  20. Biodegradation of flax fiber reinforced poly lactic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Woven and nonwoven flax fiber reinforced poly lactic acid (PLA biocomposites were prepared with amphiphilic additives as accelerator for biodegradation. The prepared composites were buried in farmland soil for biodegradability studies. Loss in weight of the biodegraded composite samples was determined at different time intervals. The surface morphology of the biodegraded composites was studied with scanning electron microscope (SEM. Results indicated that in presence of mandelic acid, the composites showed accelerated biodegradation with 20–25% loss in weight after 50–60 days. On the other hand, in presence of dicumyl peroxide (as additive, biodegradation of the composites was relatively slow as confirmed by only 5–10% loss in weight even after 80–90 days. This was further confirmed by surface morphology of the biodegraded composites. We have attempted to show that depending on the end uses, we can add different amphiphilic additives for delayed or accelerated biodegradability. This work gives us the idea of biodegradation of materials from natural fiber reinforced PLA composites when discarded carelessly in the environment instead of proper waste disposal site.

  1. Gravisensing in flax roots - results from STS-107

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasenstein, K. H.; Scherp, P.; Ma, Z.

    The goal of the experiment "magnetophoretic induction of curvature in roots" (MICRO) on STS-107 was the induction of curvature in roots by high-gradient magnetic fields (HGMF) in microgravity. The scientific objectives included investigating the growth/curvature pattern in response to a HGMF, the determination of amyloplasts as gravisensing/curvature-inducing structures, and a study of the effects of HGMF and microgravity on the plant cytoskeleton. Flax seeds were germinated in orbit in specially designed seed cassettes. The seeds were oriented so that the emerging roots grew away from the cassette. The magnetic system consisted of ferro-magnetic wedges, magnetized by permanent NdFeB magnets (coercivity > 32k Oe). The HGMF that results from the transition from the high magnetic field density at the wedge tips to air repels diamagnetic amyloplasts. As a result of the previously demonstrated internal displacement of the amyloplasts, the roots were expected to curve as if gravistimulated. Despite successful germination (>90%), the growth rate of the seedlings was significantly lower than comparable controls. Despite the slower growth rate, root curvature was enhanced and initiated earlier than in ground controls. The results indicate that microgravity-grown roots exhibit higher sensitivity for the HGMF than ground controls. The enhanced sensitivity of root curvature in microgravity suggests that the root gravisensing system responds to the displacement of amyloplasts. In the absence of gravity, the higher sensitivity might result from intracellular motion, which in microgravity is likely to be stronger than on the ground.

  2. Genetic resources of teak (Tectona grandis Linn. f.)—strong genetic structure among natural populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ole Kim; Changtragoon, Suchitra; Ponoy, Bundit

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-nine provenances of teak (Tectona grandis Linn. f.) representing the full natural distribution range of the species were genotyped with microsatellite DNA markers to analyse genetic diversity and population genetic structure. Provenances originating from the semi-moist east coast of India ...

  3. Polyamine Metabolism in Flax in Response to Treatment with Pathogenic and Non-pathogenic Fusarium Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wioleta eWojtasik

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Flax crop yield is limited by various environmental factors, but the largest crop losses worldwide are caused by Fusarium infection. Polyamines are one of the many metabolites possibly involved in the plant response to infection. However, in flax the polyamine composition, genes involved in polyamine synthesis, and their regulation, were previously unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the polyamine synthesis pathway in flax and its involvement in response to pathogen infection. It is well established that polyamines are essential for the growth and development of both plants and fungi, but their role in pathogen infection still remains unknown. In our study we correlated the expression of genes involved in polyamine metabolism with the polyamine levels in plant tissues and compared the results for flax seedlings treated with two pathogenic and one non-pathogenic strains of Fusarium. We observed an increase in the expression of genes participating in polyamine synthesis after fungal infection, and it was reflected in an increase of polyamine content in the plant tissues. The highest level of mRNA was characteristic for ornithine decarboxylase during infection with all tested Fusarium strains and the arginine decarboxylase gene during infection with the pathogenic strain of F. culmorum. The main polyamine identified in the flax was putrescine, and its level changed the most during infection. Moreover, the considerable increase in the cell wall-bound polyamines compared to the levels of free and conjugated polyamines may indicate that their main role during pathogen infection lies in strengthening of the cell wall. In vitro experiments showed that the polyamines inhibit Fusarium growth, which suggests that they play an important role in plant defence mechanisms. Furthermore, changes in metabolism and content of polyamines indicate different defence mechanisms activated in flax in response to infection by pathogenic and non

  4. Manipulating cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) expression in flax affects fibre composition and properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background In recent decades cultivation of flax and its application have dramatically decreased. One of the reasons for this is unpredictable quality and properties of flax fibre, because they depend on environmental factors, retting duration and growing conditions. These factors have contribution to the fibre composition, which consists of cellulose, hemicelluloses, lignin and pectin. By far, it is largely established that in flax, lignin reduces an accessibility of enzymes either to pectin, hemicelluloses or cellulose (during retting or in biofuel synthesis and paper production). Therefore, in this study we evaluated composition and properties of flax fibre from plants with silenced CAD (cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase) gene, which is key in the lignin biosynthesis. There is evidence that CAD is a useful tool to improve lignin digestibility and/or to lower the lignin levels in plants. Results Two studied lines responded differentially to the introduced modification due to the efficiency of the CAD silencing. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that flax CAD belongs to the “bona-fide” CAD family. CAD down-regulation had an effect in the reduced lignin amount in the flax fibre cell wall and as FT-IR results suggests, disturbed lignin composition and structure. Moreover introduced modification activated a compensatory mechanism which was manifested in the accumulation of cellulose and/or pectin. These changes had putative correlation with observed improved fiber’s tensile strength. Moreover, CAD down-regulation did not disturb at all or has only slight effect on flax plants’ development in vivo, however, the resistance against flax major pathogen Fusarium oxysporum decreased slightly. The modification positively affected fibre possessing; it resulted in more uniform retting. Conclusion The major finding of our paper is that the modification targeted directly to block lignin synthesis caused not only reduced lignin level in fibre, but also affected amount and

  5. Induced Mutations Unleash the Potentials of Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chikelu Mba

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The options for increasing food production by at least 70% over the next four decades so as to keep pace with a rapidly increasing human population are bedeviled by erratic climatic conditions, depleted arable lands, dwindling water resources and by the significant environmental and health costs for increasing the use of agrochemicals. Enhanced productivities through “smart” crop varieties that yield more with fewer inputs is a viable option. However, the genetic similarities amongst crop varieties—which render entire cropping systems vulnerable to the same stresses—coupled with unvarying parental materials limit the possibilities for uncovering novel alleles of genes and, hence, assembling new gene combinations to break yield plateaux and enhance resilience. Induced mutation unmasks novel alleles that are harnessed to breed superior crop varieties. The historical antecedents, theoretical and practical considerations, and the successes of induced mutations in crop improvement are reviewed along with how induced mutagenesis underpins plant functional genomics. The roles of cell and molecular biology techniques in enhancing the efficiencies for the induction, detection and deployment of mutation events are also reviewed. Also, the integration of phenomics into induced mutagenesis and the use of pre-breeding for facilitating the incorporation of mutants into crop improvement are advocated.

  6. Multilevel Association Rule Mining for Bridge Resource Management Based on Immune Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Ou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the problem of multilevel association rule mining for bridge resource management (BRM which is announced by IMO in 2010. The goal of this paper is to mine the association rules among the items of BRM and the vessel accidents. However, due to the indirect data that can be collected, which seems useless for the analysis of the relationship between items of BIM and the accidents, the cross level association rules need to be studied, which builds the relation between the indirect data and items of BRM. In this paper, firstly, a cross level coding scheme for mining the multilevel association rules is proposed. Secondly, we execute the immune genetic algorithm with the coding scheme for analyzing BRM. Thirdly, based on the basic maritime investigation reports, some important association rules of the items of BRM are mined and studied. Finally, according to the results of the analysis, we provide the suggestions for the work of seafarer training, assessment, and management.

  7. A molecular marker for in situ genetic resource conservation of Capsicum annuum var. acuminatum (Solanaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewdoungdee, N; Tanee, T

    2013-02-28

    The Thailand cultivar pepper 'phrik man bangchang' (Capsicum annuum var. acuminatum, Solanaceae) was originally cultivated in the Bangchang Subdistrict, Amphawa District in Samut Songkhram Province. The cultivated areas are limited; we verified its distribution in Thailand for in situ 'phrik man bangchang' genetic resource conservation. Samples were collected from the original cultivation area of Bangchang Subdistrict (Or) and were randomly explored in Ratchaburi Province (RB), Khon Kaen Province (KK), and Sakon Nakhon Province (SN). A pure line from The Tropical Vegetable Research Center at Kasetsart University was used as the standard indicator. Two more Capsicum species, C. chinensis and C. frutescens, and a species from another genus in the family, Solanum melongena, were included. A dendrogram constructed from random amplified polymorphic DNA fingerprints indicated that the Or, RB, KK, and SN samples were C. annuum var. acuminatum with supportive similarity coefficients of 0.79 to 0.98. Finally, DNA barcodes, from psbA-trnH spacer region, were provided for the 3 wild species, C. annuum var. acuminatum, C. chinensis, and C. frutescens under GenBank accession Nos. JQ087869-JQ087871. The nucleotide variations between species were 0.23 to 0.26. In summary, 'phrik man bangchang' is still being planted in Bangchang Subdistrict, but only in small areas. The distribution of planting areas is expected to be throughout Thailand.

  8. Assessment of genetic diversity in glandless cotton germplasm resources by using agronomic traits and molecular markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhikun LI; Xingfen WANG; Yan ZHANG; Guiyin ZHANG; Liqiang WU; Jina CHI; Zhiying MA

    2008-01-01

    Seventy-one glandless cotton germplasm resources were firstly evaluated genetically by using nine agronomic traits,33 simple sequence repeat (SSR) primers and ten amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP)primer combinations.Principal component analysis (PCA) of the agronomic traits showed that the first six principal components (PCs) explained a total of 86.352% of the phenotypic variation.A total of 329 alleles were amplified for 33 SSR primers,and 232 polymorphic bands in a total of 389 bands were obtained by using ten AFLP primer combinations.The average polymorphic information content (PIC) value was 0.80 and 0.18 for SSR primers and AFLP primer combinations,respectively.The DIST (average taxonomic distance) and DICE (Nei and Li's pairwise distance) coefficients ranged from 0.373 to 3.164 and 0.786 to 0.948,respectively,for agronomic traits and SSR & AFLP data based on UPGMA analysis.This suggested that there was a higher diversity in the evaluated population for both agronomic traits and molecular markers.The Mantel's test showed that the correlation between the dendrograms based on agronomic traits and SSR & AFLP data was non-significant.

  9. Mammary gene expression and activity of antioxidant enzymes and concentration of the mammalian lignan enterolactone in milk and plasma of dairy cows fed flax lignans and infused with flax oil in the abomasum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Côrtes, Cristiano; Palin, Marie-France; Gagnon, Nathalie; Benchaar, Chaouki; Lacasse, Pierre; Petit, Hélène V

    2012-10-28

    The objectives of the study were to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation of flax hulls and/or flax oil on the activity of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX)) in plasma and the mammary gland and the relative mRNA abundance of antioxidant genes in the mammary gland of dairy cows. A total of eight dairy cows were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design. There were four treatments: control with no flax hulls (CONT), 9·88% flax hulls in the DM (HULL), control with 500 g flax oil/d infused in the abomasum (COFO), 9·88% flax hulls in the DM and 500 g flax oil/d infused in the abomasum (HUFO). Plasma GPX activity tended to decrease with flax oil supplementation. Cows fed HULL had higher levels of CAT, GPX1 and SOD1 mRNA in the mammary gland and lower mRNA abundance of GPX3, SOD2 and SOD3 compared with those fed CONT. Abundance of CAT, GPX1, GPX3, SOD2 and SOD3 mRNA was down-regulated in the mammary gland of cows fed HUFO compared to those fed CONT. The mRNA abundance of CAT, GPX1, GPX3 and SOD3 was lower in the mammary gland of cows fed COFO than in the mammary gland of cows fed CONT. The present study demonstrates that flax hulls contribute to increasing the abundance of some antioxidant genes, which can contribute to protecting against oxidative stress damage occurring in the mammary gland and other tissues of dairy cows.

  10. Assessing the Environmental Impact of Flax Fibre Reinforced Polymer Composite from a Consequential Life Cycle Assessment Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yelin Deng

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The study implements the consequential life cycle assessment (CLCA to provide a market based perspective on how overall environmental impact will change when shifting glass fibres to flax fibres as reinforcements in composite fabrication. With certain assumptions, the marginal flax fibre supply is identified to be a combination of Chinese flax fibre (70% and French flax fibre (30%. Due to inferior cultivars and coal-fired electricity in Chinese flax cultivation, the CLCA study reveals that flax mat-PP has 0.8–2 times higher environmental impact values than the glass mat-PP in most environmental impact categories over the production and end-of-life (EoL phases. For purpose of providing potential trajectories of marginal flax fibre supply, additional scenarios: the “all French fibre”, and “all Chinese fibre” are evaluated formulating the lower and upper boundaries in terms of environmental impact change, respectively. A “the attributional fibre supply mix” scenario is supplied as well. All of these scenarios are useful for policy analysis.

  11. Fluctuation of Fusarium distribution in soil and the role of the forecrop in the control of Fusarium wilt of flax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Zarzycka

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The influence of crop rotation and wheather conditions on the Fusarium population in soil and on Fusarium wilt of flax was examined in the Institute of Native Natural Fibres in 1968-1975. The experiments were carried out in various regions of flax planting in Poland during 8 years. Crop rotation had a significant influence on the process of biological soil disinfestation. Fusarium population in soil increased after planting flax, wheat, barley and sugar-beet, and decreased or did not change after rape, hemp, potato and leguminous plants. The crop rotation significantly influenced the composition of the Fusarium population as far as species are concerned. The highest wilt infection of flax was found in plantings after flax, sugarbeet and wheat and the weakest in plantings after rape. A six-year crop rotation was sufficient to eliminate the wilt pathogen from infested soil. But on flax-sick soil the process of biological disinfestation proceeded more slowly and a seven-year interval between flax crops was too short.

  12. Flavonoid C-glucosides derived from flax straw extracts reduce human breast cancer cell growth in vitro and induce apoptosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Czemplik

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Flax straw of flax varieties that are grown for oil production is a byproduct which represents a considerable biomass source. Therefore its potential application for human use is of high interest. Our research has revealed that flax straw is rich in flavonoid C-glucosides, including vitexin, orientin and isoorientin. The objective of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxicity and possible proapoptotic effect of flax straw derived C-glucosides of flavonoids in the human breast adenocarcinoma cell line (MCF-7. The effects of flax straw derived flavonoid C-glucosides on cell proliferation of MCF-7 cells were evaluated by 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT and sulforhodamine B (SRB assays. The expression of apoptosis-related genes was assessed by real-time PCR. Our data revealed that flax C-glucosides as well as pure compounds are cytotoxic towards MCF-7 cells and inhibit their proliferation. Moreover, the induction of apoptosis was correlated with the changes in the mRNA level of pro-apoptotic genes. Increased expression of bax and caspase-7, -8, and -9 and decreased mRNA expression of bcl-2 was observed, whereas the mRNA levels of p53 and mdm2 were not altered. These results clearly demonstrated that flax straw metabolites effectively induced growth inhibition and apoptosis in human breast adenocarcinoma cells.

  13. Flavonoid C-glucosides Derived from Flax Straw Extracts Reduce Human Breast Cancer Cell Growth In vitro and Induce Apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czemplik, Magdalena; Mierziak, Justyna; Szopa, Jan; Kulma, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Flax straw of flax varieties that are grown for oil production is a by product which represents a considerable biomass source. Therefore, its potential application for human use is of high interest. Our research has revealed that flax straw is rich in flavonoid C-glucosides, including vitexin, orientin, and isoorientin. The objective of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxicity and possible proapoptotic effect of flax straw derived C-glucosides of flavonoids in the human breast adenocarcinoma cell line (MCF-7). The effects of flax straw derived flavonoid C-glucosides on cell proliferation of MCF-7 cells were evaluated by 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and sulforhodamine B assays. The expression of apoptosis-related genes was assessed by real-time PCR. Our data revealed that flax C-glucosides as well as pure compounds are cytotoxic toward MCF-7 cells and inhibit their proliferation. Moreover, the induction of apoptosis was correlated with the changes in the mRNA level of pro-apoptotic genes. Increased expression of bax and caspase-7, -8, and -9 and decreased mRNA expression of bcl-2 was observed, whereas the mRNA levels of p53 and mdm2 were not altered. These results clearly demonstrated that flax straw metabolites effectively induced growth inhibition and apoptosis in human breast adenocarcinoma cells. PMID:27630565

  14. Flavonoid C-glucosides Derived from Flax Straw Extracts Reduce Human Breast Cancer Cell Growth In vitro and Induce Apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czemplik, Magdalena; Mierziak, Justyna; Szopa, Jan; Kulma, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Flax straw of flax varieties that are grown for oil production is a by product which represents a considerable biomass source. Therefore, its potential application for human use is of high interest. Our research has revealed that flax straw is rich in flavonoid C-glucosides, including vitexin, orientin, and isoorientin. The objective of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxicity and possible proapoptotic effect of flax straw derived C-glucosides of flavonoids in the human breast adenocarcinoma cell line (MCF-7). The effects of flax straw derived flavonoid C-glucosides on cell proliferation of MCF-7 cells were evaluated by 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and sulforhodamine B assays. The expression of apoptosis-related genes was assessed by real-time PCR. Our data revealed that flax C-glucosides as well as pure compounds are cytotoxic toward MCF-7 cells and inhibit their proliferation. Moreover, the induction of apoptosis was correlated with the changes in the mRNA level of pro-apoptotic genes. Increased expression of bax and caspase-7, -8, and -9 and decreased mRNA expression of bcl-2 was observed, whereas the mRNA levels of p53 and mdm2 were not altered. These results clearly demonstrated that flax straw metabolites effectively induced growth inhibition and apoptosis in human breast adenocarcinoma cells.

  15. Ex situ conservation of genetic resources of field elm (Ulmus minor Mill and European white elm (Ulmus laevis Pall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksić Jelena

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Principles of the conservation of genetic resources of elms (Ulmus spp do not differ fundamentally from the general principles accepted for the conservation of genetic resources of other common Noble Hardwoods. Efficient conservation can best be achieved through appropriate combination of in situ and ex situ methods, which have distinct advantages. Besides that, ex situ conservation is employed when emergency measures are needed for rare endangered populations and when populations are too small to be managed in situ (e.g. risks of genetic drift and inbreeding. The aim of our research is ex situ conservation of genetic resources of field elm {Ulmus minor Mill and European white elm (Ulmus laevis Pall through establishment of field genebanks. Sampling was conducted in one population of field elm and one population of white elm. Plant material (buds from 8 trees of field elm and 10 trees of white elm was used for in vitro production of clones. Obtained clones will be used for establishment of field genebanks on the experimental estate of the Institute of Lowland Forestry and Environment.

  16. The Economics of Information, Studiously Ignored in the Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and Benefit Sharing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Henry Vogel et. al.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The economics of information has been studiously ignored in the ten Conferences of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity. Nevertheless, an academic literature exists which recognises genetic resources and associated traditional knowledge as natural and artificial information. Its unambiguous prescriptions would widen the scope of the Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and Benefit Sharing (ABS and resolve almost all of the contentious issues identified by Kamau et al. One begins with retroactivity: because biological resources exhibit tangible and intangible aspects, the latter can be conceptualised as a set of natural information where value currently added in a patent is access to a subset not previously accessed. The economics quickly leads to a justification for a biodiversity cartel among countries of origin, wholly analogous to monopoly intellectual property rights. To achieve such a sea change in policymaking, the justification must be accompanied by a narrative that can penetrate the social sphere, much as Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights achieved through the World Intellectual Property Organisation. Several examples of bio-discoveries drawn from a popular medium are analysed in terms of the contentious issues of the Protocol and the distinct ABS that would eventuate under cartelisation. History also offers an analogy. The Parties’ eighteen years of resistance (1993-2011 to applying the economics of information to genetic resources is reminiscent to the twenty-seven years that the British Parliament rebuffed David Ricardo’s economic analysis of the Corn Laws (1815-1842.

  17. Development of Flax Fibre based Textile Reinforcements for Composite Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goutianos, S.; Peijs, T.; Nystrom, B.; Skrifvars, M.

    2006-07-01

    Most developments in the area of natural fibre reinforced composites have focused on random discontinuous fibre composite systems. The development of continuous fibre reinforced composites is, however, essential for manufacturing materials, which can be used in load-bearing/structural applications. The current work aims to develop high-performance natural fibre composite systems for structural applications using continuous textile reinforcements like UD-tapes or woven fabrics. One of the main problems in this case is the optimisation of the yarn to be used to manufacture the textile reinforcement. Low twisted yarns display a very low strength when tested dry in air and therefore they cannot be used in processes such as pultrusion or textile manufacturing routes. On the other hand, by increasing the level of twist, a degradation of the mechanical properties is observed in impregnated yarns (e.g., unidirectional composites) similar to off-axis composites. Therefore, an optimum twist should be used to balance processability and mechanical properties. Subsequently, different types of fabrics (i.e., biaxial plain weaves, unidirectional fabrics and non-crimp fabrics) were produced and evaluated as reinforcement in composites manufactured by well established manufacturing techniques such as hand lay-up, vacuum infusion, pultrusion and resin transfer moulding (RTM). Clearly, as expected, the developed materials cannot directly compete in terms of strength with glass fibre composites. However, they are clearly able to compete with these materials in terms of stiffness, especially if the low density of flax is taken into account. Their properties are however very favourable when compared with non-woven glass composites.

  18. Genetic variations in marine natural population - Measurement and utility in resource management and conservation: A review

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Menezes, M.R.; Parulekar, A.H.

    the laboratory methods and genetic interpretation of gel phenotypes along with statistical methods for data analysis. The applications and perspectives for identifying and protecting genetic variation within and among marine populations are discussed in the light...

  19. Does local adaptation to resources explain genetic differentiation among Daphnia populations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Michael R; Thum, Ryan A; Cáceres, Carla E

    2010-08-01

    Substantial genetic differentiation is frequently observed among populations of cyclically parthenogenetic zooplankton despite their high dispersal capabilities and potential for gene flow. Local adaptation has been invoked to explain population genetic differentiation despite high dispersal, but several neutral models that account for basic life history features also predict high genetic differentiation. Here, we study genetic differentiation among four populations of Daphnia pulex in east central Illinois. As with other studies of Daphnia, we demonstrate substantial population genetic differentiation despite close geographic proximity (explain genetic differentiation among these Daphnia populations and that other factors related to extinction/colonization dynamics, a long approach to equilibrium F(ST) or substantial genetic drift due to a low number of individuals hatching from the egg bank each season may explain genetic differentiation.

  20. The cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD gene family in flax (Linum usitatissimum L.: Insight from expression profiling of cads induced by elicitors in cultured flax cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eom Hee Seung

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD is a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of lignin and lignans as it catalyzes the final step of monolignol biosynthesis, using NADPH as a cofactor. In higher plants, CAD is encoded by a multigene family consisting of three major classes. Based on the recently released flax (Linum usitatissimum L. whole-genome sequences, in this study we identified six CAD family genes that contain an ADH_N domain and an ADH_zinc_N domain, which suggests that the putative flax CADs (LuCADs are zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenases and members of the plant CAD family. In addition, expression analysis using quantitative real-time PCR revealed spatial variations in the expression of LuCADs in different organs. Comparative analysis between LuCAD enzymatic activity and LuCAD transcripts indicates that the variation of LuCAD enzymatic activities by elicitors is reflected by transcription of LuCADs in flax suspension-cultured cells. Taken together, our genome-wide analysis of CAD genes and the expression profiling of these genes provide valuable information for understanding the function of CADs, and will assist future studies on the physiological role of monolignols associated with plant defense.

  1. Experimental Investigation of the Effect of Short Flax Fibers on the Permeability Behavior of a New Unidirectional Flax/Paper Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Habibi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A new type of reinforcement for unidirectional natural fiber composites has been developed, where a paper layer is assembled with a layer of unidirectional flax yarns. The paper layer chemically and mechanically bonds to the loose yarns to maintain their alignment and enables better manipulability of the reinforcement during stacking in the mold. Unfortunately, the paper layer adversely affects the permeability of the whole reinforcement to liquid resin and thus limits the impregnation quality of the final part. In this paper, a technique is adopted to increase the impregnation performance by modifying the architecture of the fibrous network in the paper layer. In particular, a method has been developed to replace a proportion of the Kraft fibers by short flax fibers in the paper layer, in an attempt to open the structure and increase the paper permeability. Permeability measurements show a major improvement in global reinforcement permeability. Basic mechanical properties of resulting composites were also analysed. Results show a slight decrease in modulus and strength when the paper layer is present. This is compensated by an important reduction in variability. Furthermore, increasing the flax proportion in the paper layer limits the loss of mechanical properties, while reducing variability even further.

  2. Variability of some traits of flax seed in respect to genotype and climatic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maletić Radojka

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Beside its multiple use in oil producing and feed industry, flax seed is used also in pharmaceutical industry as additional medicinal component, whether as mono component or in tea mixtures. Results of a two-year cultivation of several flax genotypes are analyzed. The highest yield of seed in both study years was achieved in genotype "Z" and the lowest in standard cultivar "Mira". In regard to germination energy and total germination, the best value was determined for genotype "B" and the lowest for standard cultivar "Mira". The greatest swelling of flax seeds was established for genotype "B", and the least in the case of genotype "Z". Climatic conditions in the year of cultivation had effects on yield and quality of flax seed. During 2001. the year with high rainfall, higher yields were produced in all tested genotypes, and better germination energy, total germination and mass of 100 seeds established. In seed obtained in 2002, when average temperatures were higher, number of swollen seeds was higher. .

  3. Flax fiber reinforced PLA composites: studies on types of PLA and different methods of fabrication

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kumar, R

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available hand, injection molded flax fiber reinforced PLA specimens showed higher tensile modulus (TM) (3.0 GPa) than solution cast cum compression molded specimens (1.9 GPa). In addition, the properties of the composites depend on the nature of PLA used...

  4. Report of a Working Group on Fibre Crops (Flax and Hemp)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bas, N.; Pavelek, M.; Maggioni, L.; Lipman, E.

    2007-01-01

    Members of the newly established ECPGR Working Group on Fibre Crops (Flax and Hemp), in the framework of Sugar, Starch and Fibre Crops Network, met for the first time at Wageningen, the Netherlands on 14–16 June 2006. Fifteen participants from the Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lit

  5. Effects of seed coatings with thiamethoxam on germination and flea beetle control in flax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huiting, H F; Ester, A

    2007-01-01

    Flea beetles damage the seedlings before and after emergence and later the top of the plants as well, resulting in forking of the stem. This is unacceptable for the flax fibre industry, since it influences fibre quality negatively. Five field trials were carried out in 2001, 2003 and 2004 to assess the control of the flax flea beetles Longitarsus parvulus (Payk) and the large flax flea beetle Aphthona euphorbiae (Schrank) by film coating the seeds with thiamethoxam in fibre flax crops (Linum usitatissimum L.). Seed treatments were compared with untreated seeds and standard post emergence sprays with deltamethrin or parathion-methyl. Film coatings of the seeds with thiamethoxam formulated as 280 g/l, 350 g/l and 600 g/l were used. Thiamethoxam 350 g/l at rates of 9.1 and 18.2 g a.i./kg seed resulted in phytotoxicity, shown by a decrease of emergence. Application of thiamethoxam 350 g/l and 600 g/l at rates of 1.1 g a.i./kg seed and higher resulted in excellent flea beetle control. Application of thiamethoxam 280 g/l at a rate of 1.1 g a.i./kg seed showed no decrease of attack in comparison with the standard spray treatment. Seed treatment with thiamethoxam 600 g/l at 0.6 g a.i./kg showed insufficient protection.

  6. Apparent interfacial shear strength of short-flax-fiber/starch acetate composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersons, J.; Modniks, J.; Joffe, R.;

    2016-01-01

    The paper deals with an indirect industry-friendly method for identification of the interfacial shear strength (IFSS) in a fully bio-based composite. The IFSS of flax fiber/starch acetate is evaluated by a modified Bowyer and Bader method based on an analysis of the stress-strain curve of a short...

  7. The effect of processing on defects and tensile strength of single flax fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aslan, Mustafa; Mehmood, Shahid; Madsen, Bo

    2010-01-01

    This study is to investigate the influence of consecutive processing steps on the defects and the tensile strength of single flax fibres. It was found that each processing step leads to an increasing number of defects and larger defect sizes, as well as decreasing tensile strength of the fibres....

  8. [Senescence and apoptosis of protoplasts from flax fibers: an ultrastructural analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ageeva, M V; Chernova, T E; Gorshkova, T A

    2012-01-01

    Plant fibers represent specialized cells that perform a mechanical function. Their development includes the following phases, typical for the most plant cells: anlage, extension growth, specialization, senescence, and apoptosis. Ultrastructural analysis of these cells has been carried out at the late phases of their development (senescence and apoptosis) using flax phloem fibers, a classical object for the analysis of sclerenchyma fiber formation. The results of the performed analysis show that flax fiber protoplasts remain viable until the end ofa vegetation season. The ultrastructural analysis of flax phloem fibers has not revealed any typical apoptosis manifestations. Gradual degradation of the cytoplasm starts during the active thickening of a secondary cell wall and manifests via the intensification of autolytic processes, causing a partial loss of cell content. The final stage represents the breaking of tonoplast integrity. The obtained data allow us to suppose that the apoptosis of flax fibers occurs during their senescence, and its program is similar to the cell death program realized in the xylem fibers of woody plants.

  9. Effect of water absorption on mechanical properties of flax fibre reinforced composites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Guduri, BBR

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available flax fibre composites were prepared by compounding, extrusion and injection moulding techniques. Polypropylene-graft-Maleic anhydride (PP-g-MA, Grade: G-3015) and Polyethylene-graft-Maleic anhydride (PE-g-MA, Grade: G-2608) were used as compatibilizer...

  10. Effect of montmorillonite clay on flax fabric reinforced poly lactic acid composites with amphiphilic additives

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kumar, R

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bio-composites (PF) were successfully prepared by reinforcing poly lactic acid (PLA) with woven flax fibers (F) in the presence of mandelic acid, benzilic acid, dicumyl peroxide (DCP) and zein as dditives. To improve the mechanical properties...

  11. Reinforced Flax Mat/Modified Polylactide (PLA) Composites: Impact, Thermal, and Mechanical Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siengchin, S.

    2014-05-01

    Polylactide (PLA)/flax mat and modified PLA/flax mat composites were produced by the hot pressing technique. The dispersion of the flax mat in the composites was studied by the scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The PLA composites were subjected to an instrumented falling-weight impact test. The mechanical and thermal properties of the composites were determined by using tensile tests, a thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and a dynamic-mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA). It was found that the flat mat increased the impact resistance of PLA, but the tensile strength of the modified PLA/flax mat composite decreased slightly compared with that of PLA. Data on the elongation at break pointed to a higher ductility of the modified PLA and its composites. Moreover, the addition of a thermal modifier enhanced the thermal resistance below the processing temperature of PLA and had a marginal effect on its glass-transition temperature. The master curves of the storage modulus were constructed by employing the time-temperature superposition (TTS) principle. The principle of a linear viscoelastic material was fairly applicable to transition from the modulus to the creep compliance for all the systems studied.

  12. Fatigue behaviour of uni-directional flax fibre/epoxy composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ueki, Yosuke; Lilholt, Hans; Madsen, Bo

    2015-01-01

    A study related to the fatigue behaviour of natural fibre-reinforced composites was conducted to expand their range of product applications. A uni-directional flax-epoxy composite was fabricated and several conditions of tension-tension fatigue tests were performed. During fatigue testing...

  13. Influence cadmium ions on the synthesis of thiol compounds for flax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Krystofova

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of the effectiveness of phytoremediation technologies isvery difficult. One way to quickly and inexpensively identifyphytoremediation potential of plants is found easily detectablemarker. In our study, we examined the content of thiol compoundsin plants, of Flax effects of various concentrations of cadmium ions.

  14. The red coral (Corallium rubrum) transcriptome: a new resource for population genetics and local adaptation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratlong, M; Haguenauer, A; Chabrol, O; Klopp, C; Pontarotti, P; Aurelle, D

    2015-09-01

    The question of species survival and evolution in heterogeneous environments has long been a subject for study. Indeed, it is often difficult to identify the molecular basis of adaptation to contrasted environments, and nongenetic effects increase the difficulty to disentangle fixed effects, such as genetic adaptation, from variable effects, such as individual phenotypic plasticity, in adaptation. Nevertheless, this question is also of great importance for understanding the evolution of species in a context of climate change. The red coral (Corallium rubrum) lives in the Mediterranean Sea, where at depths ranging from 5 to 600 m, it meets very contrasted thermal conditions. The shallowest populations of this species suffered from mortality events linked with thermal anomalies that have highlighted thermotolerance differences between individuals. We provide here a new transcriptomic resource, as well as candidate markers for the study of local adaptation. We sequenced the transcriptome of six individuals from 5 m and six individuals from 40 m depth at the same site of the Marseilles bay, after a period of common garden acclimatization. We found differential expression maintained between the two depths even after common garden acclimatization, and we analysed the polymorphism pattern of these samples. We highlighted contigs potentially implicated in the response to thermal stress, which could be good candidates for the study of thermal adaptation for the red coral. Some of these genes are also involved in the response to thermal stress in other corals. Our method enables the identification of candidate loci of local adaptation useful for other nonmodel organisms.

  15. Italian animal genetic resources in the Domestic Animal Diversity Information System of FAO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Bittante

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to summarize the Italian Animal Genetic Resources (ItAnGR recorded in the Domestic Animal Diversity Information System (DAD-IS of FAO. The breed data sheets of ItAnGR were implemented by the Italian National Focal Point (ItNFP of FAO under the guidance of Prof. Donato Matassino and CONSDABI. The impressive amount of work done is documented by 299 breed data sheets. The average level of completeness of the data sheets is 48%, i.e. a value similar to the average for European Countries, and for half of ItAnGR updating is quite regular. The number of breeds/populations included is very high for cattle (61, sheep (84, goats (54, asses (15, horses (34 and pigs (45, while it is very low for chicken (6 and absent for the other species. The level of risk of ItAnGR described in DAD-IS is worrying as about one fifth of the breeds are yet extinct, one fifth is judged critical, almost one fifth is endangered and about two fifth are not at risk, transboundary breeds included. The priority for next years is to complete and update the existing data sheets, to implement new breed data sheets for avian species, buffaloes and shepherd and hunting dogs, and to implement the new PED (Production Environment Description module for all breeds/populations. It is evident that complete and updated database of ItAnGR is a prerequisite for the implementing of a sound National Plan of Action for the safeguarding of farm animal biodiversity.

  16. Current political commitments’ challenges for ex situ conservation of plant genetic resources for food and agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Mihaela ANTOFIE

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This article is an overview regarding capacity building needs for supporting political commitments’ implementation and furthermore, the development of new political, technical and scientific measures for ensuring the proper conservation of biodiversity and considering in a cost-effective way ex situ conservation tools and methods. Domesticated and wild species, threatened and not threatened native species belonging to the natural capital, due to anthropic pressure and climate change may be drastically affected for their status of conservation in their ecosystems of origin. Thus, ex situ conservation is important to be taken into consideration for ensuring the proper conservation of native species. Still, ex situ conservation is a tool which is in use for many activities for many years such as: research, trade, industry, medicine, pharmaceuticals and agriculture. Romania needs to further develop its specific legislation framework in specific domains such as trade of exotic and native threatened species as well as for other domains such as zoos and aquaria, seeds exchange between botanical gardens, bioprospecting, wild threatened species rescue, capture and reintroduction, collection, access for benefit sharing. Also for agriculture should be developed ex situ conservationmeasures closely connected with breeding programmes dedicated to plant genetic resources for food and agriculture (i.e. gene banks conservation, breeding programmes, on farm conservation. Only by harmonizing at the legal level, based on science, all these specific domains, extremely sensitive, dealing with ex situ conservation it will be possible in the future to secure food and ecosanogenesis ensuring the appropriate status of in situ conservation of biodiversity as a whole. As it is not possible to apply conservation measures, either in situ either ex situ either both, to all species it is appropriate to further develop strategic tools for prioritizing our efforts in a cost

  17. Marine-derived fungus Aspergillus cf. tubingensis LAMAI 31: a new genetic resource for xylanase production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Juliana A; Vieira, Juliana M F; Videira, Alexandre; Meirelles, Lucas A; Rodrigues, André; Taniwaki, Marta H; Sette, Lara D

    2016-03-01

    Marine-derived fungi have been reported as relevant producers of enzymes, which can have different properties in comparison with their terrestrial counterparts. The aim of the present study was to select from a collection of 493 marine-derived fungi the best producer of xylanase in order to evaluate the enzymatic production under different conditions. A total of 112 isolates produced xylanase in solid medium containing xylan as the carbon source, with 31 of them able to produce at least 10 U/mL of the enzyme. The best production (49.41 U/mL) was achieved by the strain LAMAI 31, identified as Aspergillus cf. tubingensis. After confirming the lack of pathogenicity (absence of ochratoxin A and fumonisin B2 production) this fungus was submitted to the experimental design in order to evaluate the effect of different variables on the enzymatic production, with the aim of optimizing culture conditions. Three experimental designs (two Plackett-Burman and one factorial fractional) were applied. The best condition for the enzymatic production was defined, resulting in an increase of 12.7 times in comparison with the initial production during the screening experiments. In the validation assay, the peak of xylanase production (561.59 U/mL) was obtained after 96 h of incubation, being the best specific activity achieved after 72 h of incubation. Xylanase from A. cf. tubingensis LAMAI 31 had optimum pH and temperature at 5.0 and 55 °C, respectively, and was shown to be stable at a range of 40-50 °C, and in pH from 3.6 to 7.0. Results from the present work indicate that A. cf. tubingensis LAMAI 31 can be considered as a new genetic resource for xylanase production.

  18. Genetic Diversity Strategy for the Management and Use of Rubber Genetic Resources: More than 1,000 Wild and Cultivated Accessions in a 100-Genotype Core Collection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Moura de Souza

    Full Text Available The rubber tree [Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex Adr. de Juss. Muell. Arg.] is the only plant species worldwide that is cultivated for the commercial production of natural rubber. This study describes the genetic diversity of the Hevea spp. complex that is available in the main ex situ collections of South America, including Amazonian populations that have never been previously described. Genetic data were analyzed to determine the genetic structure of the wild populations, quantify the allelic diversity and suggest the composition of a core collection to capture the maximum genetic diversity within a minimal sample size. A total of 1,117 accessions were genotyped with 13 microsatellite markers. We identified a total of 408 alleles, 319 of which were shared between groups and 89 that were private in different groups of accessions. In a population structure and principal component analysis, the level of clustering reflected a primary division into the following two subgroups: cluster 1, which consisted of varieties from the advanced breeding germplasm that originated from the Wickham and Mato Grosso accessions; and cluster 2, which consisted of the wild germplasm from the Acre, Amazonas, Pará and Rondônia populations and Hevea spp. The analyses revealed a high frequency of gene flow between the groups, with the genetic differentiation coefficient (GST estimated to be 0.018. Additionally, no distinct separation among the H. brasiliensis accessions and the other species from Amazonas was observed. A core collection of 99 accessions was identified that captured the maximum genetic diversity. Rubber tree breeders can effectively utilize this core collection for cultivar improvement. Furthermore, such a core collection could provide resources for forming an association panel to evaluate traits with agronomic and commercial importance. Our study generated a molecular database that should facilitate the management of the Hevea germplasm and its use for

  19. Genetic Diversity Strategy for the Management and Use of Rubber Genetic Resources: More than 1,000 Wild and Cultivated Accessions in a 100-Genotype Core Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerqueira-Silva, Carlos Bernardo Moreno; Silva, Carla Cristina; Mantello, Camila Campos; Conson, Andre Ricardo Oliveira; Vianna, João Paulo Gomes; Zucchi, Maria Imaculada; Scaloppi Junior, Erivaldo José; Fialho, Josefino de Freitas; de Moraes, Mario Luis Teixeira; Gonçalves, Paulo de Souza; de Souza, Anete Pereira

    2015-01-01

    The rubber tree [Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex Adr. de Juss.) Muell. Arg.] is the only plant species worldwide that is cultivated for the commercial production of natural rubber. This study describes the genetic diversity of the Hevea spp. complex that is available in the main ex situ collections of South America, including Amazonian populations that have never been previously described. Genetic data were analyzed to determine the genetic structure of the wild populations, quantify the allelic diversity and suggest the composition of a core collection to capture the maximum genetic diversity within a minimal sample size. A total of 1,117 accessions were genotyped with 13 microsatellite markers. We identified a total of 408 alleles, 319 of which were shared between groups and 89 that were private in different groups of accessions. In a population structure and principal component analysis, the level of clustering reflected a primary division into the following two subgroups: cluster 1, which consisted of varieties from the advanced breeding germplasm that originated from the Wickham and Mato Grosso accessions; and cluster 2, which consisted of the wild germplasm from the Acre, Amazonas, Pará and Rondônia populations and Hevea spp. The analyses revealed a high frequency of gene flow between the groups, with the genetic differentiation coefficient (GST) estimated to be 0.018. Additionally, no distinct separation among the H. brasiliensis accessions and the other species from Amazonas was observed. A core collection of 99 accessions was identified that captured the maximum genetic diversity. Rubber tree breeders can effectively utilize this core collection for cultivar improvement. Furthermore, such a core collection could provide resources for forming an association panel to evaluate traits with agronomic and commercial importance. Our study generated a molecular database that should facilitate the management of the Hevea germplasm and its use for subsequent genetic

  20. Direct sale as a means for promoting the sustainable use of plant genetic resources: the case of the Tuscany Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Naziri

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Similarly to other Northern countries, Italy has witnessed a growth in recent years of forms of direct sale of agri-food products. These so-called short supply chains often open new opportunities for the development and conservation of rural areas which are not merely economic in nature. The case study described here presents the results of a survey conducted in the Tuscany Region the purpose of which was to understand if and how direct sale has a part to play in promoting more diversified agricultural systems and in increasing or maintaining agrobiodiversity. The support that the institutions provide for direct sale in this context can be considered as a form of implementation of the FAO International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (ITPGRFA that Italy has ratified and which obliges its contracting parties to promote a sustainable use of plant genetic resources.

  1. Permanent Genetic Resources added to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 February 2010-31 March 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurelle, D; Baker, A J; Bottin, L; Brouat, C; Caccone, A; Chaix, A; Dhakal, P; Ding, Y; Duplantier, J M; Fiedler, W; Fietz, J; Fong, Y; Forcioli, D; Freitas, T R O; Gunnarsson, G H; Haddrath, O; Hadziabdic, D; Hauksdottir, S; Havill, N P; Heinrich, M; Heinz, T; Hjorleifsdottir, S; Hong, Y; Hreggvidsson, G O; Huchette, S; Hurst, J; Kane, M; Kane, N C; Kawakami, T; Ke, W; Keith, R A; Klauke, N; Klein, J L; Kun, J F J; Li, C; Li, G-Q; Li, J-J; Loiseau, A; Lu, L-Z; Lucas, M; Martins-Ferreira, C; Mokhtar-Jamaï, K; Olafsson, K; Pampoulie, C; Pan, L; Pooler, M R; Ren, J-D; Rinehart, T A; Roussel, V; Santos, M O; Schaefer, H M; Scheffler, B E; Schmidt, A; Segelbacher, G; Shen, J-D; Skirnisdottir, S; Sommer, S; Tao, Z-R; Taubert, R; Tian, Y; Tomiuk, J; Trigiano, R N; Ungerer, M C; Van Wormhoudt, A; Wadl, P A; Wang, D-Q; Weis-Dootz, T; Xia, Q; Yuan, Q-Y

    2010-07-01

    This article documents the addition of 228 microsatellite marker loci to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Anser cygnoides, Apodemus flavicollis, Athene noctua, Cercis canadensis, Glis glis, Gubernatrix cristata, Haliotis tuberculata, Helianthus maximiliani, Laricobius nigrinus, Laricobius rubidus, Neoheligmonella granjoni, Nephrops norvegicus, Oenanthe javanica, Paramuricea clavata, Pyrrhura orcesi and Samanea saman. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Apodemus sylvaticus, Laricobius laticollis and Laricobius osakensis (a proposed new species currently being described). © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Assessment of various strategies for the preservation of clonal genetic resources in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.)

    OpenAIRE

    Konan, K.E.; Rival, A.; Kouadio, Y. J.; Duval, Yves; Flori, A.; Adon, B.; Pene, C.; Gasselin, T.D.

    2006-01-01

    Three different approaches for the preservation of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) clonal genetic resources and their impacts on the induction of the « mantled » somaclonal variation were assessed. In vitro long term preservation of somatic embryos stock-cultures was studied : after a 5 year cultivation period, 75 % of clonal lines were still normal. Between 8 and 13 years of embryo cultures, half of the considered clonal lines were found to be « mantled ». Finally, 40 % were found t...

  3. Resources and strategies to integrate the study of ethical, legal, and social implications of genetics into the undergraduate curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Jinnie M; Triman, Kathleen L

    2009-01-01

    Gene therapy, genetically modified organisms, and the privacy of an individual's genetic information are just a few of the developments emerging from recent advances in molecular genetics that are controversial. Oversight and regulation of emerging technologies are the responsibility of both experts and the general public who both need to understand the science and the societal impact of its use. The study of ethical, legal, and social implications (ELSI) of advances in genetics provides a very powerful pedagogical tool to accomplish two goals. These are, first of all, to interest nonscientists in genetics and engage them in learning the science behind the ELSI developments they are considering, and secondly, to broaden the perspective of science students to consider the history and social consequences of the science they are studying. The resources and strategies presented in this chapter for teaching ELSI issues that arise in modern genetics are designed to aid in accomplishing these goals throughout the undergraduate curriculum. This chapter provides (1) a set of nine ELSI topic modules that can be incorporated into courses for both majors (from introductory to graduate level) and nonmajors and (2) examples of course pedagogy for specific classes.

  4. Characteristics of lignin from flax shives as affected by extraction conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Kelly; Mazza, Giuseppe

    2010-10-20

    Lignin, a polyphenolic molecule, is a major constituent of flax shives. This polyphenolic molecular structure renders lignin a potential source of a variety of commercially viable products such as fine chemicals. This work compares the performance of different lignin isolation methods. Lignin from flax shive was isolated using both conventional alkaline extraction method and a novel experimental pressurized low polarity water (PLPW) extraction process. The lignin yields and chemical composition of the lignin fractions were determined. The conventional alkali treatment with 1.25 M NaOH, heated at 80 °C for 5 h, extracted 92 g lignin per kg flax shives, while lignin yields from the PLPW extracts ranged from 27 to 241 g lignin per kg flax shives. The purity and monomeric composition of the lignins obtained from the different extraction conditions was assessed via UV spectroscopy and alkaline nitrobenzene oxidation. Lignin obtained from conventional alkali treatment with 1.25 M NaOH, heated at 80 °C for 5 h was of low purity and exhibited the lowest yields of nitrobenzene oxidation products. With respect to alkali assisted PLPW extractions, temperature created an opposing effect on lignin yield and nitrobenzene oxidation products. More lignin was extracted as temperature increased, yet the yield of nitrobenzene oxidation products decreased. The low yield of nitrobenzene oxidation products may be attributed to either the formation of condensed structures or the selective dissolution of condensed structures of lignin during the pressurized alkaline high temperature treatment. Analytical pyrolysis, using pyroprobe GC-MS, was used to investigate the molecular composition of the lignin samples. The total yield of pyrolysis lignin products was 13.3, 64.7, and 30.5% for the 1.25 M NaOH extracted lignin, alkaline assisted PLPW extracted lignin, and the unprocessed flax shives, respectively. Key lignin derived compounds such as guaiacol, 4-vinyl guaiacol, 4-methyl guaiacol

  5. Impact of Indian Mustard (Brassica juncea and Flax (Linum usitatissimum Seed Meal Applications on Soil Carbon, Nitrogen, and Microbial Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Autumn S. Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a critical need to investigate how land application of dedicated biofuel oilseed meals affects soil ecosystems. In this study, mustard (Brassica juncea and flax (Linum usitatissimum seed meals and sorghum-sudangrass (Sorghum bicolor were added to soil at levels of 0, 1, 2.5, and 5% (w/w. Both the type of amendment and application rate affected soil organic C, total C & N, and C & N mineralization. Mustard meal amendment initially inhibited C mineralization as compared to flax, but >50% of mustard and flax organic C was mineralized within 51 d. Nitrogen mineralization was similar for flax and mustard, except for the 2.5% rate for which a lower proportion of mustard N was converted to nitrate. The mustard meal greatly impacted microbial community composition, appearing to select for specific fungal populations. The potential varying impacts of different oilseed meals on soil ecosystems should be considered when developing recommendations for land application.

  6. Intellectual Property Rights on Plant Genetic Resources: Perspective from Economics%Intellectual Property Rights on Plant Genetic Resources: Perspective from Economics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Caixia; Zhou Yanping

    2012-01-01

    Given the existence of transaction costs, the location of property rights is an important factor in determining the incentives for efficient levels of investment at various levels of the industry. This paper applies some of the economic theories of property rights and industrial structure to the issues concerning the con- servation of biodiversity. Although the expansion of Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) systems into the area of genetic resources has increased private investment in R&D process of the agricul- ture, it does not generate enough incentives for in situ conservation of biodiversity. To solve this economic inefficiency, farmers' rights and other design of incentives and institutional arrangement should be reconsidered.

  7. Interspecific Chromosome Substitution Lines as Genetic Resources for Improvement,Trait Analysis and Genomic Inference

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RASKA Dwaine A; SAHA Sukumar; JENKINS Johnie N; MCCARTY Jack C; WU Ji-xiang; STELLY David M

    2008-01-01

    @@ The genetic base that cotton breeders commonly use to improve Upland cultivars is very narrow.The AD-genome species Gossypium barbadense,G.tomentosum,and G.mustelinum are part of the primary germplasm pool,too,and constitute genetic reservoirs of genes for resistance to abiotic stress,pests,and pathogens,as well as agronomic and fiber traits.

  8. Genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Inheritance; Heterozygous; Inheritance patterns; Heredity and disease; Heritable; Genetic markers ... The chromosomes are made up of strands of genetic information called DNA. Each chromosome contains sections of ...

  9. Rheological properties of molten flax- and Tencel{sup ®}-polypropylene composites: Influence of fiber morphology and concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdennadher, Ahmed; Vincent, Michel; Budtova, Tatiana, E-mail: Tatiana.Budtova@mines-paristech.fr [CEMEF-Centre de Mise en Forme des Matériaux, Mines ParisTech, PSL Research University, UMR CNRS 7635, CS 10207, 06904 Sophia Antipolis (France)

    2016-01-15

    The rheological properties of short fiber reinforced polypropylene were investigated. Flax and Tencel{sup ®} are two cellulose based fibers used in this study. Flax fibers are extracted from the bast of plants. They are composed of thin elementary fibers and rigid thick bundles made of elementary fibers “glued” together. Tencel{sup ®} is a man-made cellulosic fiber spun from cellulose solution, with a uniform diameter, thin, and flexible. First, fiber dimensions before and after compounding were analyzed. Both types of fibers were broken during compounding. Flax shows larger length and diameter than Tencel{sup ®}, but aspect ratio of flax is smaller. The reason is that after compounding flax remained in bundles. Dynamic viscosity, elastic and viscous moduli were studied as a function of fiber type, concentration (from 0 to 30 wt. %), and composite temperature (from 180 to 200 °C). All Tencel{sup ®}-based composites showed higher apparent yield stress, viscosity, and moduli compared to flax-based composites at the same fiber concentrations. The results are analyzed in terms of the influence of fiber type, aspect ratio, and flexibility. The importance of considering fiber morphology is demonstrated as far as it controls fiber flexibility and fiber-fiber interactions.

  10. [Development of specific and degenerated primers to CesA genes encoding flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) cellulose synthase].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grushetskaia, Z E; Lemesh, V A; Khotyleva, L V

    2010-01-01

    Cellulose synthase catalytic subunit genes, CesA, have been discovered in several higher plant species, and it has been shown that the CesA gene family has multiple members. HVR2 fragment of these genes determine the class specificity of the CESA protein and its participation in the primary or secondary cell wall synthesis. The aim of this study was development of specific and degenerated primers to flax CesA gene fragments leading to obtaining the class specific HVR2 region of the gene. Two pairs of specific primers to the certain fragments of CesA-1 and CesA-6 genes and one pair of degenerated primers to HVR2 region of all flax CesA genes were developed basing on comparison of six CesA EST sequences of flax and full cDNA sequences of Arabidopsis, poplar, maize and cotton plants, obtained from GenBank. After amplification of flax cDNA, the bands of expected size were detected (201 and 300 b.p. for the CesA-1 and CesA-6, and 600 b.p. for the HVR2 region of CesA respectively). The developed markers can be used for cloning and sequencing of flax CesA genes, identifying their number in flax genome, tissue and stage specificity.

  11. Old-growth Platycladus orientalis as a resource for reproductive capacity and genetic diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Zhu

    Full Text Available AIMS: Platycladus orientalis (Cupressaceae is an old-growth tree species which distributed in the imperial parks and ancient temples in Beijing, China. We aim to (1 examine the genetic diversity and reproductive traits of old-growth and young populations of P. orientalis to ascertain whether the older populations contain a higher genetic diversity, more private alleles and a higher reproductive output compared with younger populations; (2 determine the relationships between the age of the population and the genetic diversity and reproductive traits; and (3 determine whether the imperial parks and ancient temples played an important role in maintaining the reproductive capacity and genetic diversity of Platycladus orientalis. METHODS: Samples from seven young (younger than 100 yrs. and nine old-growth (older than 300 yrs. artificial populations were collected. For comparison, three young and two old-growth natural populations were also sampled. Nine microsatellite loci were used to analyze genetic diversity parameters. These parameters were calculated using FSTAT version 2.9.3 and GenAlex v 6.41. IMPORTANT FINDINGS: The old-growth artificial populations of P. orientalis have significantly higher genetic diversity than younger artificial populations and similar levels to those in extant natural populations. The imperial parks and ancient temples, which have protected these old-growth trees for centuries, have played an important role in maintaining the genetic diversity and reproductive capacity of this tree species.

  12. GERMINATE. A Generic Database for Integrating Genotypic and Phenotypic Information for Plant Genetic Resource Collections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, J.M.; Davenport, G.F.; Marshall, D.; Ellis, T.H.; Ambrose, M.J.; Dicks, J.; Hintum, van T.J.L.; Flavell, A.J.

    2005-01-01

    The extensive germplasm resource collections that are now available for major crop plants and their wild relatives will increasingly provide valuable biological and bioinformatics resources for plant physiologists and geneticists to dissect the molecular basis of key traits and to develop highly

  13. Selection of reference genes for quantitative gene expression normalization in flax (Linum usitatissimum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neutelings Godfrey

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR is currently the most accurate method for detecting differential gene expression. Such an approach depends on the identification of uniformly expressed 'housekeeping genes' (HKGs. Extensive transcriptomic data mining and experimental validation in different model plants have shown that the reliability of these endogenous controls can be influenced by the plant species, growth conditions and organs/tissues examined. It is therefore important to identify the best reference genes to use in each biological system before using qRT-PCR to investigate differential gene expression. In this paper we evaluate different candidate HKGs for developmental transcriptomic studies in the economically-important flax fiber- and oil-crop (Linum usitatissimum L. Results Specific primers were designed in order to quantify the expression levels of 20 different potential housekeeping genes in flax roots, internal- and external-stem tissues, leaves and flowers at different developmental stages. After calculations of PCR efficiencies, 13 HKGs were retained and their expression stabilities evaluated by the computer algorithms geNorm and NormFinder. According to geNorm, 2 Transcriptional Elongation Factors (TEFs and 1 Ubiquitin gene are necessary for normalizing gene expression when all studied samples are considered. However, only 2 TEFs are required for normalizing expression in stem tissues. In contrast, NormFinder identified glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GADPH as the most stably expressed gene when all samples were grouped together, as well as when samples were classed into different sub-groups. qRT-PCR was then used to investigate the relative expression levels of two splice variants of the flax LuMYB1 gene (homologue of AtMYB59. LuMYB1-1 and LuMYB1-2 were highly expressed in the internal stem tissues as compared to outer stem tissues and other samples. This result was confirmed with both ge

  14. Semi-domesticated and Irreplaceable Genetic Resource Gayal (Bos frontalis) Needs Effective Genetic Conservation in Bangladesh: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzzaman, Md Rasel; Bhuiyan, Md Shamsul Alam; Edea, Zewdu; Kim, Kwan-Suk

    2014-09-01

    Several studies arduously reported that gayal (Bos frontalis) is an independent bovine species. The population size is shrinking across its distribution. In Bangladesh, it is the only wild relative of domestic cattle and also a less cared animal. Their body size is much bigger than Bangladeshi native cattle and has prominent beef type characters along with the ability to adjust in any adverse environmental conditions. Human interactions and manipulation of biodiversity is affecting the habitats of gayals in recent decades. Besides, the only artificial reproduction center for gayals, Bangladesh Livestock Research Institute (BLRI), has few animals and could not carry out its long term conservation scheme due to a lack of an objective based scientific mission as well as financial support. This indicates that the current population is much more susceptible to stochastic events which might be natural catastrophes, environmental changes or mutations. Further reduction of the population size will sharply reduce genetic diversity. In our recent investigation with 80K indicine single nucleotide polymorphism chip, the F IS (within-population inbreeding) value was reported as 0.061±0.229 and the observed (0.153±0.139) and expected (0.148±0.143) heterozygosities indicated a highly inbred and less diverse gayal population in Bangladesh. Prompt action is needed to tape the genetic information of this semi-domesticated bovine species with considerable sample size and try to investigate its potentials together with native zebu cattle for understanding the large phenotypic variations, improvement and conservation of this valuable creature.

  15. Valuing goat genetic resources: a pro-poor growth strategy in the Kenyan semi-arid tropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omondi, I A; Baltenweck, I; Drucker, A G; Obare, G A; Zander, K K

    2008-12-01

    Goats, "the poor man's cow", provide very important genetic resources that can be exploited for continued improvements of the livelihoods of poor livestock keepers in the semi-arid tropics. This study presents the evaluation of the economic values of goat genetic resources (GGRs) in terms of the important non-market traits embedded in goats and how this information can be utilised to improve livelihoods in semi-arid regions. The results obtained from mixed logit models derived from stated choice data collected from 314 respondents in the semi-arid Marsabit district of Kenya reveal that disease resistance is the most highly valued trait whose resultant augmentation results into a welfare improvement of up to KShs.2899. Drought tolerance and milk traits were found to be implicitly valued at KShs.2620 and 1179 respectively. The study further revealed that improvement in milk trait in does, body size and disease resistance traits in bucks, and drought tolerance trait in both does and bucks will collectively improve the producers' welfare hence should be given priority. However, improvement in the reproduction and production ("overall body condition/ meatiness" trait) potential of goats will be worthwhile only if issues concerning access to pasture and water resources are addressed prior and simultaneously.

  16. Disease Tolerance in Helianthus petiolaris: A Genetic Resource for Sunflower Breeding

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gutierrez, Agustina; Cantamutto, Miguel; Poverene, Monica

    2012-01-01

    .... Controlled crosses of this species with sunflower demonstrated that H. petiolaris constitutes a valuable genetic variability source for sunflower breeding to improve tolerance to rust (Puccinia helianthi), white rust (Albugo tragopogonis...

  17. Amino acids and fatty acids profile of chia (Salvia hispanica L. and flax (Linum usitatissimum L. seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soňa Nitrayová

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The seeds of most plants are rich in various nutrients and can provide a lot of useful health benefits. The objective of this study was to determine and compare differences in fat, fatty acids, crude protein and amino acids concentrations for chia and flax seeds. Study was carried out using brown and gold seeds of Flax (Linum usitatissimum L. and Chia (Salvia hispanica L.. The mean protein content in tested seeds ranged from 211.8 to 252.5 g/kg dry matter and in chia seed was about 13.10% higher than the average value of crude protein content in brown and gold flax seed (223.25 g/kg dry matter. Differences in the content of individual amino acids among the seeds were not statistically significant (P <0.05, except that for glutamic acid. Percentage of the essential to the total amino acids, which is considered as indicator of protein quality, was 37.87%, 33.76% and 35.18%, for chia, brown and gold flax seed respectively, which demonstrates the high quality of these proteins. The average fat content of flax seeds was about 71.42 g/kg higher than that in chia seed (321.37 g/kg dry matter. The fatty acids composition showed the presence of palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic, α- linolenic and arachidic fatty acids in all tested samples. The α-linolenic acid constitutes on average 54.38% of the total fatty acids of flax seeds and 63.79% of chia seed, and for linoleic acid it was 15.30% and 18.89%. All seeds had low n-6 PUFA / n-3 PUFA ratio. Results of our study confirmed the excellent quality of protein and fat in chia seed, brown and gold flax seed samples. There was no significant effect of the flax seed coat colour for all measured values. Chia seed is the richest of n-3 PUFA α-linolenic fatty acid in the vegetable world. Both, flax seed and chia seed are the good choice of healthy food to maintain a balanced serum lipid profile. It must be pointed that flax seeds must be ground to release their nutrients, but chia seeds do not.

  18. The versatile worm: genetic and genomic resources for Caenorhabditis elegans research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoshechkin, Igor; Sternberg, Paul W

    2007-07-01

    Since its establishment as a model organism, Caenorhabditis elegans has been an invaluable tool for biological research. An immense spectrum of questions can be addressed using this small nematode, making it one of the most versatile and exciting model organisms. Although the many tools and resources developed by the C. elegans community greatly facilitate new discoveries, they can also overwhelm newcomers to the field. This Review aims to familiarize new worm researchers with the main resources, and help them to select the tools that are best suited for their needs. We also hope that it will be helpful in identifying new research opportunities and will promote the development of additional resources.

  19. Management of genetic resources in the nursery system of wild cherry (Prunus avium L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Proietti R

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of genetic and adaptive traits of reproductive materials used in the nursery system of wild cherry, could be an useful instrument to improve ecological and economic sustainability of plantation ecosystems. This work reports results from a research which the objectives were: 1 to study the genetic variation of a Prunus avium L. Population, used for seed harvesting, through its multi-locus genotypes detected by starch gel electrophoresis; 2 to analyze the level of genetic variation within and among different steps in a commercial nursery system (basic population and sub-populations, seedlings aged S1T1 and S1T2, plantation. Results showed low genetic variation levels of the basic population, similar to a reference system of other 12 wild cherry Italian populations and to other French and Caucasian materials. The genetic distances among Monte Baldo and some closer Lombardy provenances (Area Garda, Bosco Fontana, Valtellina were smaller than the Venice Region populations (Monti Lessini and Asiago. Number of alleles and percentage of polymorphic loci within the complex of Monte Baldo provenance and multiplication materials were similar, whilst a variable value of Fis was noted. Indeed, along with the nursery system until the plantation, heterozygosis initially (S1T1 increased, then decreased proceeding to the plantation. This fluctuation of FIS values could be determined by seed lots characterized initially by higher levels of variation, due to self-incompatibility. In the following steps, a possible selection pressure can affect randomly the genotypic structure of wild cherry by increasing the homozygosity. There is not among population a well defined geographic characterization, as suggested by genetic distances, therefore homogeneous seed harvest could be established an area larger than geographic and administrative borders. On this way we could have reproductive material with a wide genetic base and environmental adaptability. To

  20. Effect of Chemical Treatments on Flax Fibre Reinforced Polypropylene Composites on Tensile and Dome Forming Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wentian Wang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Tensile tests were performed on two different natural fibre composites (same constituent material, similar fibre fraction and thickness but different weave structure to determine changes in mechanical properties caused by various aqueous chemical treatments and whether any permanent changes remain on drying. Scanning electronic microscopic examinations suggested that flax fibres and the flax/polypropylene interface were affected by the treatments resulting in tensile property variations. The ductility of natural fibre composites was improved significantly under wet condition and mechanical properties (elongation-to-failure, stiffness and strength can almost retain back to pre-treated levels when dried from wet condition. Preheating is usually required to improve the formability of material in rapid forming, and the chemical treatments performed in this study were far more effective than preheating. The major breakthrough in improving the formability of natural fibre composites can aid in rapid forming of this class of material system.

  1. Isolation and structure elucidation of linolipins C and D, complex oxylipins from flax leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chechetkin, Ivan R; Blufard, Alexander S; Khairutdinov, Bulat I; Mukhitova, Fakhima K; Gorina, Svetlana S; Yarin, Andrey Y; Antsygina, Larisa L; Grechkin, Alexander N

    2013-12-01

    Two complex oxylipins (linolipins C and D) were isolated from the leaves of flax plants inoculated with phytopathogenic bacteria Pectobacterium atrosepticum. Their structures were elucidated based on UV, MS and NMR spectroscopic data. Both oxylipins were identified as digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG) molecular species. Linolipin C contains one residue of divinyl ether (ω5Z)-etherolenic acid and one α-linolenate residue at sn-1 and sn-2 positions, respectively. Linolipin D possesses two (ω5Z)-etherolenic acid residues at both sn-1 and sn-2 positions. The rapid formation (2-30min) of linolipins C and D alongside with linolipins A and B occurred in the flax leaves upon their damage by freezing-thawing.

  2. RESPONSE SURFACE METHODOLOGY APPROACH FOR OPTIMIZATION OF FLAX SEED OIL BLEACHING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Ondrejovič

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Flax seed is an important source of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids essential for human physiology. For low oxidation stability, specific taste and concomitant color compounds this oil is poorly applicable as nutraceutical additive. The aim of this study was optimization of flax seed oil bleaching. The optimal conditions for the bleaching process were determined using response surface methodology. A central composite design was used to investigate the effects of three independent variables, namely solid to liquid ratio, temperature and time, to output parameters of the bleaching process such as crude oil color expressed as optical density at 490 nm, acid and peroxide value. Calculated optimal conditions for the bleaching, expressed by the optical density of the oil were as follows: temperature 50°C, bleaching time 77 minutes and solid-liquid ratio 56 g of bleaching agent to 1 liter of oil.

  3. An important natural genetic resource of Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) threatened by aquaculture activities in Loboi drainage, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndiwa, Titus Chemandwa; Nyingi, Dorothy Wanja; Agnese, Jean-François

    2014-01-01

    The need to improve food security in Africa through culture of tilapias has led to transfer of different species from their natural ranges causing negative impacts on wild fish genetic resources. Loboi swamp in Kenya is fed by three hot springs: Lake Bogoria Hotel, Chelaba and Turtle Springs, hosting natural populations of Oreochromis niloticus. The present study aimed at better genetic characterization of these threatened populations. Partial mtDNA sequences of the D-loop region and variations at 16 microsatellite loci were assessed in the three hot spring populations and compared with three other natural populations of O. niloticus in the region. Results obtained indicated that the hot spring populations had mitochondrial and nuclear genetic variability similar to or higher than the large closely related populations. This may be attributed to the perennial nature of the hot springs, which do not depend on rainfall but rather receive permanent water supply from deep aquifers. The study also revealed that gene flow between the three different hot spring populations was sufficiently low thus allowing their differentiation. This differentiation was unexpected considering the very close proximity of the springs to each other. It is possible that the swamp creates a barrier to free movement of fish from one spring to the other thereby diminishing gene flow. Finally, the most surprising and worrying results were that the three hot spring populations are introgressed by mtDNA genes of O. leucostictus, while microsatellite analysis suggested that some nuclear genes may also have crossed the species barrier. It is very likely that the recent intensification of aquaculture activities in the Loboi drainage may be responsible for these introgressions. Taking into account the importance of these new genetic resources, protection and management actions of the Loboi swamp should be accorded top priority to prevent the loss of these spring populations.

  4. An important natural genetic resource of Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758 threatened by aquaculture activities in Loboi drainage, Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titus Chemandwa Ndiwa

    Full Text Available The need to improve food security in Africa through culture of tilapias has led to transfer of different species from their natural ranges causing negative impacts on wild fish genetic resources. Loboi swamp in Kenya is fed by three hot springs: Lake Bogoria Hotel, Chelaba and Turtle Springs, hosting natural populations of Oreochromis niloticus. The present study aimed at better genetic characterization of these threatened populations. Partial mtDNA sequences of the D-loop region and variations at 16 microsatellite loci were assessed in the three hot spring populations and compared with three other natural populations of O. niloticus in the region. Results obtained indicated that the hot spring populations had mitochondrial and nuclear genetic variability similar to or higher than the large closely related populations. This may be attributed to the perennial nature of the hot springs, which do not depend on rainfall but rather receive permanent water supply from deep aquifers. The study also revealed that gene flow between the three different hot spring populations was sufficiently low thus allowing their differentiation. This differentiation was unexpected considering the very close proximity of the springs to each other. It is possible that the swamp creates a barrier to free movement of fish from one spring to the other thereby diminishing gene flow. Finally, the most surprising and worrying results were that the three hot spring populations are introgressed by mtDNA genes of O. leucostictus, while microsatellite analysis suggested that some nuclear genes may also have crossed the species barrier. It is very likely that the recent intensification of aquaculture activities in the Loboi drainage may be responsible for these introgressions. Taking into account the importance of these new genetic resources, protection and management actions of the Loboi swamp should be accorded top priority to prevent the loss of these spring populations.

  5. Utilization of farm animal genetic resources in a changing agro-ecological environment in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kantanen, Juha; Løvendahl, Peter; Strandberg, Erling;

    2015-01-01

    Livestock production is the most important component of northern European agriculture and contributes to and will be affected by climate change. Nevertheless, the role of farm animal genetic resources in the adaptation to new agro-ecological conditions and mitigation of animal production’s effects...... to a future with altered production systems. Some animals with useful phenotypes and genotypes may be more useful than others in the changing environment. Robust animal breeds with the potential to adapt to new agro-ecological conditions and tolerate new diseases will be needed. The key issue in mitigation...

  6. Combined use of genetic and genomics resources to understand virus resistance and fruit quality traits in melon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argyris, Jason M; Pujol, Marta; Martín-Hernández, Ana Montserrat; Garcia-Mas, Jordi

    2015-09-01

    The availability of the genome sequence of many crop species during the past few years has opened a new era in plant biology, allowing for the performance of massive genomic studies in plant species other than the classical models Arabidopsis and rice. One of these crop species is melon (Cucumis melo), a cucurbit of high economic value that has become an interesting model for the study of biological processes such as fruit ripening, sex determination and phloem transport. The recent availability of the melon genome sequence, together with a number of genetic and genomic resources, provides powerful tools that can be used to assist in the main melon breeding targets, namely disease resistance and fruit quality. In this review, we will describe recent data obtained combining the use of a melon near isogenic line (NIL) population and genomic resources to gain insight into agronomically important traits as fruit ripening, resistance to Cucumber Mosaic virus (CMV) and the accumulation of sugars in fruits.

  7. InterStoreDB: A Generic Integration Resource for Genetic and Genomic Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christopher G.Love; Ambrose E.Andongabo; Jun Wang; Pierre W.C.Carion; Christopher J.Rawlings; Graham J.King

    2012-01-01

    Associating phenotypic traits and quantitative trait loci (QTL) to causative regions of the underlying genome is a key goal in agricultural research.InterStoreDB is a suite of integrated databases designed to assist in this process.The individual databases are species independent and generic in design,providing access to curated datasets relating to plant populations,phenotypic traits,genetic maps,marker loci and QTL,with links to functional gene annotation and genomic sequence data.Each component database provides access to associated metadata,including data provenance and parameters used in analyses,thus providing users with information to evaluate the relative worth of any associations identified.The databases include CropStoreDB,for management of population,genetic map,QTL and trait measurement data,SeqStoreDB for sequence-related data and AlignStoreDB,which stores sequence alignment information,and allows navigation between genetic and genomic datasets.Genetic maps are visualized and compared using the CMAP tool,and functional annotation from sequenced genomes is provided via an EnsEMBL-based genome browser.This framework facilitates navigation of the multiple biological domains involved in genetics and genomics research in a transparent manner within a single portal.We demonstrate the value of InterStoreDB as a tool for Brassica research.InterStoreDB is available from:http:llwww.interstoredb.org

  8. Exogenous salicylic acid protects phospholipids against cadmium stress in flax (Linum usitatissimum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkadhi, Aïcha; De Haro, Antonio; Obregon, Sara; Chaïbi, Wided; Djebali, Wahbi

    2015-10-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) promotes plant defense responses against toxic metal stresses. The present study addressed the hypothesis that 8-h SA pretreatment, would alter membrane lipids in a way that would protect against Cd toxicity. Flax seeds were pre-soaked for 8h in SA (0, 250 and 1000µM) and then subjected, at seedling stage, to cadmium (Cd) stress. At 100µM CdCl2, significant decreases in the percentages of phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylglycerol (PG), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG) and changes in their relative fatty acid composition were observed in Cd-treated roots in comparison with controls. However, in roots of 8-h SA pretreated plantlets, results showed that the amounts of PC and PE were significantly higher as compared to non-pretreated plantlets. Additionally, in both lipid classes, the proportion of linolenic acid (18:3) increased upon the pretreatment with SA. This resulted in a significant increase in the fatty acid unsaturation ratio of the root PC and PE classes. As the exogenous application of SA was found to be protective of flax lipid metabolism, the possible mechanisms of protection against Cd stress in flax roots were discussed.

  9. Methyl Salicylate Level Increase in Flax after Fusarium oxysporum Infection Is Associated with Phenylpropanoid Pathway Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boba, Aleksandra; Kostyn, Kamil; Kostyn, Anna; Wojtasik, Wioleta; Dziadas, Mariusz; Preisner, Marta; Szopa, Jan; Kulma, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Flax (Linum usitatissimum) is a crop plant valued for its oil and fiber. Unfortunately, large losses in cultivation of this plant are caused by fungal infections, with Fusarium oxysporum being one of its most dangerous pathogens. Among the plant's defense strategies, changes in the expression of genes of the shikimate/phenylpropanoid/benzoate pathway and thus in phenolic contents occur. Among the benzoates, salicylic acid, and its methylated form methyl salicylate play an important role in regulating plants' response to stress conditions. Upon treatment of flax plants with the fungus we found that methyl salicylate content increased (4.8-fold of the control) and the expression profiles of the analyzed genes suggest that it is produced most likely from cinnamic acid, through the β-oxidative route. At the same time activation of some genes involved in lignin and flavonoid biosynthesis was observed. We suggest that increased methyl salicylate biosynthesis during flax response to F. oxysporum infection may be associated with phenylpropanoid pathway activation. PMID:28163709

  10. THE REMOVAL OF REACTIVE RED 228 DYE FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS BY CHITOSAN-MODIFIED FLAX SHIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Feng,

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Flax shive (FS is a byproduct from flax fiber separation. The use of absorbent prepared from chitosan-modified flax shive (CFS has been studied for removal of reactive red dye (RR228 from aqueous solutions. CFS was characterized by the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET method, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, Fourier Transform Infrared spectrometry (FTIR, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS. A batch adsorption study was conducted under various contact time, initial concentration, solution pH, and adsorbent dosage. It was found that the BET and Langmuir surface area of CFS were 1.772 m2 g-1 and 3.057 m2 g-1, respectively. Results showed that CFS has the same pores as FS and that the –NH2 group on CFS is the main adsorption site for dye sorption. Equilibrium adsorption capacity could be reached within 480 min, and RR228 uptake was satisfactory at a pH of 2.0. The percentage removal were 100%, 100%, 90%, and 85% at pH 2.0 under dye concentrations of 10 mg/L, 20 mg/L, 30 mg/L, and 40 mg/L, respectively. The adsorption accurately fitted a pseudo-second-order kinetic model and a Langmuir isotherm model. It is proposed that CFS could be applied as a low-cost absorbent in removal of dyes from wastewater.

  11. Linen Most Useful: Perspectives on Structure, Chemistry, and Enzymes for Retting Flax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin, Danny E.

    2013-01-01

    The components of flax (Linum usitatissimum) stems are described and illustrated, with reference to the anatomy and chemical makeup and to applications in processing and products. Bast fiber, which is a major economic product of flax along with linseed and linseed oil, is described with particular reference to its application in textiles, composites, and specialty papers. A short history of retting methods, which is the separation of bast fiber from nonfiber components, is presented with emphasis on water retting, field retting (dew retting), and experimental methods. Past research on enzyme retting, particularly by the use of pectinases as a potential replacement for the current commercial practice of field retting, is reviewed. The importance and mechanism of Ca2+ chelators with pectinases in retting are described. Protocols are provided for retting of both fiber-type and linseed-type flax stems with different types of pectinases. Current and future applications are listed for use of a wide array of enzymes to improve processed fibers and blended yarns. Finally, potential lipid and aromatic coproducts derived from the dust and shive waste streams of fiber processing are indicated. PMID:25969769

  12. Effect of Fe Deficiency on Antioxidant System in Leaves of Three Flax Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeinab Abd El-Rahman SALAMA

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The potential role of antioxidant enzymes as well as antioxidant compounds in protecting plant from the deleterious effect of iron deficiency was examined in different flax Linum usitassimum L. cultivars. Three flax cultivars (Sakha 1, Sakha 2 and Giza 8 were grown in water culture with (Fe-sufficient plants, +Fe or without (Fe-deficient plants,-Fe iron supply for 40 days. The obtained results showed that, iron deficiency severely decreased dry weight and concentration of iron in all cultivars leaf tissue. Besides this, to verify whether iron deficiency could induce alteration in reactive oxygen species, high concentration of lipid peroxidation (TBARS and H2O2 content in leaves of flax cultivars were detected under (-Fe compared to (+Fe treatments. Iron deficiency can also modulate the content of glutathione (GSH level, which were significantly increased in Fe deficient treatment compared to Fe-sufficient treatment among cultivars. Activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD was increased under deficient treatment. In contrast, significant differences were observed between cultivars in the activity of Fe containing enzymes such as ascorbate peroxidase (APX, peroxidase (POD and catalase (CAT that was greater under Fe sufficient treatment, suggesting higher amounts of physiological iron in leaf tissue of all cultivars. In addition, some changes in POD isoenzyme profile was detected under iron stress.These results suggested that, these antioxidant compounds are the key compounds to protect cell from oxidative injury.

  13. ANALYSIS OF STABILITY OF TRINUCLEOTIDE TTC MOTIFS IN COMMON FLAX PLANTED IN THE CHERNOBYL AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Lancíková

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Flax (Linum usitatissimum L. is one of the oldest domesticated plants — it was cultivated as early as in ancient Egypt and Samaria 10,000 years ago to serve as a source of fiber and oil, whence it later spread around the world. Compared with other plants, the flax genome consists of a high number of repetitive sequences, middle repetitive sequences and small repetitive sequences of nucleotides. The aim of the study was to analyze the stability of the existing trinucleotides motifs of microsatellite DNA of the flax genome (genotype Kyivskyi, growing in the Chernobyl conditions. The Chernobyl area is the most extensive “natural” laboratory suitable for the study of radiation effects. Over the last 20 years, the researches collected important knowledge about the effects of low and high radiation doses on the DNA isolated from the plant material growing on the remediated fields near Chernobyl and the plant material from fields contaminated by radioactive cesium 137Cs and strontium 90Sr. Using eight pairs of microsatellite primers, we successfully amplified the samples from the remediated fields. For each primer in the control samples and remediated samples, we detected 1 to 3 fragments per locus, each in size up to 120 to 250 base pairs. The applied microsatellite primers confirmed the monomorphic condition of microsatellite loci.

  14. Abaca fibre reinforced PP composites and comparison with jute and flax fibre PP composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abaca fibre reinforced PP composites were fabricated with different fibre loadings (20, 30, 40, 50wt% and in some cases 35 and 45 wt%. Flax and jute fibre reinforced PP composites were also fabricated with 30 wt% fibre loading. The mechanical properties, odour emission and structure properties were investigated for those composites. Tensile, flexural and Charpy impact strengths were found to increase for fibre loadings up to 40 wt% and then decreased. Falling weight impact tests were also carried out and the same tendency was observed. Owing to the addition of coupling agent (maleated polypropylene -MAH-PP, the tensile, flexural and falling weight impact properties were found to increase in between 30 to 80% for different fibre loadings. When comparing jute and flax fibre composites with abaca fibre composites, jute fibre composites provided best tensile properties but abaca fibre polypropylene composites were shown to provide best notch Charpy and falling weight impact properties. Odours released by flax fibre composites were smaller than jute and abaca fibre composites.

  15. Tannin-based flax fibre reinforced composites for structural applications in vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, J.; Abhyankar, H.; Nassiopoulos, E.; Njuguna, J.

    2012-09-01

    Innovation is often driven by changes in government policies regulating the industries, especially true in case of the automotive. Except weight savings, the strict EU regulation of 95% recyclable material-made vehicles drives the manufactures and scientists to seek new 'green materials' for structural applications. With handing at two major drawbacks (production cost and safety), ECHOSHELL is supported by EU to develop and optimise structural solutions for superlight electric vehicles by using bio-composites made of high-performance natural fibres and resins, providing enhanced strength and bio-degradability characteristics. Flax reinforced tannin-based composite is selected as one of the candidates and were firstly investigated with different fabric lay-up angles (non-woven flax mat, UD, [0, 90°]4 and [0, +45°, 90°, -45°]2) through authors' work. Some of the obtained results, such as tensile properties and SEM micrographs were shown in this conference paper. The UD flax reinforced composite exhibits the best tensile performance, with tensile strength and modulus of 150 MPa and 9.6 MPa, respectively. It was observed that during tension the oriented-fabric composites showed some delamination process, which are expected to be eliminated through surface treatment (alkali treatment etc.) and nanotechnology, such as the use of nano-fibrils. Failure mechanism of the tested samples were identified through SEM results, indicating that the combination of fibre pull-out, fibre breakage and brittle resins failure mainly contribute to the fracture failure of composites.

  16. When Two Worlds Collide: Ownership of Genetic Resources unde rthe Convention on Biological Diversity and the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg K. Venbrux

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The rapid growth of the biotechnology industry over the past two decades led many countries to recognize the vast economic potential of their genetic resources and indigenous knowledge. 1  Pharmaceutical companies and plant breeders increasingly rely upon these resources to engineer plantderived drugs, disease-resistant crops, and biotechnical production processes.2 With increasing demand for new biotechnological products, the global community is struggling to strike a balance between the interests of host countries, who seek remuneration for supplying genetic resources and traditional knowledge, and biotechnological inventors, who are pressing for free access, open markets, and stronger intellectual property rights protection.

  17. The potential of cryopreservation and reproductive technologies for animal genetic resources conservation strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, S.J.; Lende, van der T.; Woelders, H.

    2006-01-01

    This chapter focuses on ex situ conservation. An overview of the state of the art cryopreservation and reproductive technology for farm animals and fish is followed by a discussion on the implications of ex situ conservation strategies. Ex situ conservation of genetic material from livestock and fis

  18. The potential of cryopreservation and reproductive technologies for animal genetic resources conservation strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, S.J.; Lende, van der T.; Woelders, H.

    2006-01-01

    This chapter focuses on ex situ conservation. An overview of the state of the art cryopreservation and reproductive technology for farm animals and fish is followed by a discussion on the implications of ex situ conservation strategies. Ex situ conservation of genetic material from livestock and fis

  19. 'HoneySweet' plum - a valuable genetically engineered fruit-tree cultivar and germplasm resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    ‘HoneySweet’ is a plum variety developed through genetic engineering to be highly resistant to plum pox potyvirus (PPV), the causal agent of sharka disease, that threatens stone-fruit industries world-wide and most specifically, in Europe. Field testing for over 15 years in Europe has demonstrated ...

  20. The potential of cryopreservation and reproductive technologies for animal genetic resources conservation strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, S.J.; Lende, van der T.; Woelders, H.

    2006-01-01

    This chapter focuses on ex situ conservation. An overview of the state of the art cryopreservation and reproductive technology for farm animals and fish is followed by a discussion on the implications of ex situ conservation strategies. Ex situ conservation of genetic material from livestock and

  1. The effects of resource availability and the demographic transition on the genetic correlation between number of children and grandchildren in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolund, E; Lummaa, V

    2017-02-01

    Studies of evolutionary change require an estimate of fitness, and lifetime reproductive success is widely used for this purpose. However, many species face a trade-off between the number and quality of offspring and in such cases number of grandoffspring may better represent the genetic contribution to future generations. Here, we apply quantitative genetic methods to a genealogical data set on humans from Finland to address how the genetic correlation between number of children and grandchildren is influenced by the severity of the trade-off between offspring quality and quantity, as estimated by different levels of resource access among individuals in the population. Further, we compare the genetic correlation before and after the demographic transition to low mortality and fertility rates. The genetic correlation was consistently high (0.79-0.92) with the strongest correlations occurring in individuals with higher access to resources and before the demographic transition, and a tendency for lower correlations in resource poor individuals and after the transition. These results indicate that number of grandoffspring is a slightly better predictor of long-term genetic fitness than number of offspring in a human population across a range of environmental conditions, and more generally, that patterns of resource availability need to be taken into account when estimating genetic covariances with fitness.

  2. Taxonomy of Plant Genetic Resources – Use of Morphological, Molecular and Phytochemical Data in Order to Verify Existing Classifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Lohwasser

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Taxonomy of plant genetic resources is an important input in characterising and evaluating cultivated plants and it is essential for identification and documentation of the diversity of genebank collections. In former times taxonomical determination was based only on morphological characters. Nowadays, new molecular and chemical methods and techniques are available for providing additional information. As examples of the interaction of morphological, molecular and phytochemical data, investigations of a parsley (Petroselinum crispum [Mill.] Nyman, Apiaceae and an opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L., Papaveraceae collection of the German genebank are demonstrated. 220 parsley and 300 opium poppy accessions were cultivated and described morphologically. In addition, the molecular distance and the phylogenetic relationship of the accessions were performed with molecular marker analysis. Essential oil compound and content for parsley and the content of the five main alkaloids (morphine, codeine, thebaine, noscapine, papaverine for opium poppy were measured with GC (gas chromatography and HPLC (high pressure liquid chromatography, respectively. For parsley the results of the three methods support the existing taxonomy partly, a separation of root and leaf parsley was confirmed. However, the taxonomy of opium poppy should be revised because molecular and chemical data do not verify the morphological results. But nevertheless taxonomy of cultivated plants is an important tool to describe the variability of plant genetic resources.

  3. Economic valuation of sheep genetic resources: implications for sustainable utilization in the Kenyan semi-arid tropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omondi, I; Baltenweck, I; Drucker, A G; Obare, G; Zander, K K

    2008-12-01

    Sheep, recognised as one of the important livestock species especially in the semi-arid tropics with high genetic resource potentials, can be exploited through sustainable utilization in order to improve livestock keepers' livelihoods. This study presents the evaluation of the economic values of sheep genetic resources (SGR) in terms of the important non-market traits embedded in sheep and how this information can be utilised to improve livelihoods in semi-arid regions. The results obtained from mixed logit models results derived from stated choice data collected from 157 respondents in the semi-arid Marsabit district of Kenya reveal that disease resistance is the most highly valued trait whose resultant increment results into a welfare improvement of up to KShs.1537. Drought tolerance and fat deposition traits were found to be implicitly valued at KShs.694 and 738 respectively. The results further point out that for livestock stakeholders to effectively improve the livelihoods of poor livestock-keepers, development strategies for improving the management and/or utilisation of SGR in terms of drought tolerance, should not only be tailor made to target regions that are frequently devastated by drought but should also succeed other strategies or efforts that would first lead to the improvement of producers' economic status.

  4. Characteristics of Lignin from Flax Shives as Affected by Extraction Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Ross

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Lignin, a polyphenolic molecule, is a major constituent of flax shives. This polyphenolic molecular structure renders lignin a potential source of a variety of commercially viable products such as fine chemicals. This work compares the performance of different lignin isolation methods. Lignin from flax shive was isolated using both conventional alkaline extraction method and a novel experimental pressurized low polarity water (PLPW extraction process. The lignin yields and chemical composition of the lignin fractions were determined. The conventional alkali treatment with 1.25 M NaOH, heated at 80 °C for 5 h, extracted 92 g lignin per kg flax shives, while lignin yields from the PLPW extracts ranged from 27 to 241 g lignin per kg flax shives. The purity and monomeric composition of the lignins obtained from the different extraction conditions was assessed via UV spectroscopy and alkaline nitrobenzene oxidation. Lignin obtained from conventional alkali treatment with 1.25 M NaOH, heated at 80 °C for 5 h was of low purity and exhibited the lowest yields of nitrobenzene oxidation products. With respect to alkali assisted PLPW extractions, temperature created an opposing effect on lignin yield and nitrobenzene oxidation products. More lignin was extracted as temperature increased, yet the yield of nitrobenzene oxidation products decreased. The low yield of nitrobenzene oxidation products may be attributed to either the formation of condensed structures or the selective dissolution of condensed structures of lignin during the pressurized alkaline high temperature treatment. Analytical pyrolysis, using pyroprobe GC-MS, was used to investigate the molecular composition of the lignin samples. The total yield of pyrolysis lignin products was 13.3, 64.7, and 30.5% for the 1.25 M NaOH extracted lignin, alkaline assisted PLPW extracted lignin, and the unprocessed flax shives, respectively. Key lignin derived compounds such as guaiacol, 4-vinyl guaiacol, 4

  5. Hybrid Genetic Crossover Based Swarm Intelligence Optimization for Efficient Resource Allocation in MIMO OFDM Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Sathish Kumar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Rapid development of wireless services, leads to ubiquitous personal connectivity in the world. The demand for multimedia interactivity is higher in the world which leads to the requirement of high data transmission rate. Multiple-Input Multiple-Output Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (MIMO-OFDM is a future wireless service which is used to overcome the existing service problems such as development of subscriber pool and higher throughput per user. Although it overcomes the problems in existing services, resource allocation becomes one of the major issues in the MIMO-OFDM systems. Resource allocation in MIMO-OFDM is the optimization of subcarrier and power allocation for the user. The overall performance of the system can be improved only with the efficient resource allocation approach. The user data rate is increased by efficient allocation of the subcarrier and power allocation for each user at the base station, which is subject to constraints on total power and bit error rate. In this study, the problem of resource allocation in MIMO-OFDM system is tackled using hybrid artificial bee colony optimization algorithm based on a crossover operation along with Poisson-Jensen in equation. The experimental results show that the proposed methodology is better than the existing techniques.

  6. Wild Barley,Hordeum spontaneum,a Genetic Resource for Crop Improvement in Cold and Arid Regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eviatar; Nevo

    2008-01-01

    Food security in cold and arid regions in the world is threatened by stressful and unpredictable environments.The sus-tainable and economically viable solution for increasing stability of food productivity in cold and arid regions is genetic improvement of crops towards high resistance to abiotic stresses,mainly cold and drought resistance.It is often empha-sized that crop genetic improvement lies in exploiting the gene pools of the wild relatives of the crop plant.Wild barley,H.spontaneum,the progenitor of cultivated barley,is a selfing annual grass of predominantly Mediterranean and Irano-Turanian distribution that penetrates into desert environments where it maintains stable populations.Wild barley is also found in cold regions,such as in Tibet.The adaptation of wild barley to the arid region in Israel and Jordan,and the cold region in Tibet has accumulated rich genetic diversities for drought,salt,and cold resistances in wild barley,which is the genetic resource for barley and other crop improvement in arid and cold regions.These genetic diversities are revealed by allozymes,DNA-based molecular markers,and morphological and physiological traits of wild barley plants.Quantita-tive trait loci(QTLs) related to drought resistance were identified in wild barley via the QTL mapping approach.Drought resistance genes such as dehydrins,hsdr4,and eibi1 were identified in wild barley based on the candidate gene approach,gene differential expression approach,and molecular genetic approach,respectively.Genetics and genomics of wild bar-ley cold resistance have not been exploited yet,remaining a huge treasure for future crop improvement of cold resistance.Advanced backcross QTL analysis,the introgression libraries based on wild barley as donors,a QTL approach based on wide crosses using wild barley,and positional cloning of natural QTLs will play prevailing roles to help us understand the molecular control of cold and drought tolerance.Integration of QTL information into a

  7. Dairy farms typology and management of animal genetic resources in the peri-urban zone of Bamako (Mali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdoulaye Toure

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Facing growth in demand, dairy production in peri-urban areas of developing countries is changing rapidly. To characterise this development around Bamako (Mali, this study establishes a typology of dairy production systems with a special focus on animal genetic resources. The survey included 52 dairy cattle farms from six peri-urban sites. It was conducted in 2011 through two visits, in the dry and harvest seasons. The median cattle number per farm was 17 (range 5–118 and 42% of farmers owned cropland (8.3± 7.3 ha, minimum 1 ha, maximum 25 ha. Feeding strategy was a crucial variable in farm characterisation, accounting for about 85% of total expenses. The use of artificial insemination and a regular veterinary follow-up were other important parameters. According to breeders’ answers, thirty genetic profiles were identified, from local purebreds to different levels of crossbreds. Purebred animals raised were Fulani Zebu (45.8 %, Maure Zebu (9.2 %, Holstein (3.0 %, Azawak Zebu (1.3 %, Mere Zebu (0.5% and Kuri taurine (0.1 %. Holstein crossbred represented 30.5% of the total number of animals (19.0% Fulani-Holstein, 11.2% Maure-Holstein and 0.3% Kuri-Holstein. Montbéliarde, Normande and Limousin crossbreds were also found (6.6 %, 0.7% and 0.3 %, respectively. A multivariate analysis helped disaggregate the diversity of management practices. The high diversity of situations shows the need for consideration of typological characteristics for an appropriate intervention. Although strongly anchored on local breeds, the peri-urban dairy systems included a diversity of exotic cattle, showing an uncoordinated quest of breeders for innovation. Without a public intervention, this dynamic will result in an irremediable erosion of indigenous animal genetic resources.

  8. REVIEW: The Characteristics of Genetic Resource of Bali Cattle (Bos-bibos banteng and the Alternative of It's Conservation Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ACHMAD NUR CHAMDI

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Bali cattle is an Indonesian native beef cattle, the result of domestication of Banteng (Bos-bibos banteng. The main problem faced in the development of Bali cattle is the low quality of breed, which is predicted as the effect of inbreeding or raising management. The affects of genetic and cross breeding which usually inflict a loss are the decreasing of cattle’s endurance, fertility and birth weight. Seeing the fact, the government effort to introduce a quality bull to the breed source areas, the determination of cattle release including the controll on the cutting of productive female cattle, and to exactly count the number of Bali cattle which can be released in order to do not disturb its population balance, so it is necessary to do conservation attempt by in-situ and ex-situ. The result of this study shows that the characteristics on genetic resource of Bali cattle which comprises documentation, evaluation on reproduction and production, and attempt in increasing Bali cattle’s genetic quality in Indonesia have been done, eventhough those are still limited.

  9. Root Glucosinolate Profiles for Screening of Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) Genetic Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Gibum; Lim, Sooyeon; Chae, Won Byoung; Park, Jeong Eun; Park, Hye Rang; Lee, Eun Jin; Huh, Jin Hoe

    2016-01-13

    Radish (Raphanus sativus L.), a root vegetable, is rich in glucosinolates (GLs), which are beneficial secondary metabolites for human health. To investigate the genetic variations in GL content in radish roots and the relationship with other root phenotypes, we analyzed 71 accessions from 23 different countries for GLs using HPLC. The most abundant GL in radish roots was glucoraphasatin, a GL with four-carbon aliphatic side chain. The content of glucoraphasatin represented at least 84.5% of the total GL content. Indolyl GL represented only 3.1% of the total GL at its maximum. The principal component analysis of GL profiles with various root phenotypes showed that four different genotypes exist in the 71 accessions. Although no strong correlation with GL content and root phenotype was observed, the varied GL content levels demonstrate the genetic diversity of GL content, and the amount that GLs could be potentially improved by breeding in radishes.

  10. Analysis of Genetic Polymorphic SSR Markers in Germplasm Resources of the Natural Colored Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ju-qin; LI Fu-zhen; QIU Xin-mian; BAO Li-sheng; LU Yan-ting

    2008-01-01

    @@ Short sequence repeats (microsatellite,SSR) and expressed sequence tags-SSR (EST-SSR) markers were employed to analyze the genetic diversity of natural colored cotton varieties.About 490 pairs of SSR markers spanning the 26 chromosomes were selected from the cotton microsatellite database,they were composed of the NAU,BNL,MUSS,and CIR markers,and there was one marker every 5 cM on average.

  11. Adaptive introgression as a resource for management and genetic conservation in a changing climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Jill A; Miller, Joshua M

    2016-02-01

    Current rates of climate change require organisms to respond through migration, phenotypic plasticity, or genetic changes via adaptation. We focused on questions regarding species' and populations' ability to respond to climate change through adaptation. Specifically, the role adaptive introgression, movement of genetic material from the genome of 1 species into the genome of another through repeated interbreeding, may play in increasing species' ability to respond to a changing climate. Such interspecific gene flow may mediate extinction risk or consequences of limited adaptive potential that result from standing genetic variation and mutation alone, enabling a quicker demographic recovery in response to changing environments. Despite the near dismissal of the potential benefits of hybridization by conservation practitioners, we examined a number of case studies across different taxa that suggest gene flow between sympatric or parapatric sister species or within species that exhibit strong ecotypic differentiation may represent an underutilized management option to conserve evolutionary potential in a changing environment. This will be particularly true where advanced-generation hybrids exhibit adaptive traits outside the parental phenotypic range, a phenomenon known as transgressive segregation. The ideas presented in this essay are meant to provoke discussion regarding how we maintain evolutionary potential, the conservation value of natural hybrid zones, and consideration of their important role in adaptation to climate.

  12. Resource allocation based on genetic algorithm for multi-hop OFDM system with non-regenerative relaying

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Jie; XU Wen-jun; HE Zhi-qiang; NIU Kai; WU Wei-ling

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates resource allocation in multi-hop orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) system with amplifying-and-forwarding relaying to maximize the end-to-end capacity. Most existing methods for multi-hop system focus on power allocation or subcarrier selection separately, but joint resource allocation is rarely considered due to the absence of effective interaction schemes. In this work, a novel joint resource allocation methodology is proposed based on Partheno genetic algorithm (PGA), which produces excellent subcarrier allocation set (referred to as individual in PGA) with higher capacity by evolution operator generation by generation. In addition, an adaptive power allocation is also designed to evaluate the fitness of PGA and further enhance the system capacity. Both theoretical analysis and simulated results show the effectiveness of the proposed joint strategy. It outperforms the traditional method by as much as 40% capacity improvement for 3-hop relaying system when system power is high, and obtains much more capacity enhancement percent under conditions of low system power.

  13. Designing of a Decision Support System (DSS for resource allocation with genetic algorithm approach (Case Study: Central Library of Tarbiat Modares University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Hasanzadeh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The allocation of information is one of the main responsibilities of a manager. In case there is a limitation in the available resources, the issue of resources allocation is raised. Universities and post graduate centers have faced limitations in accessing resources such as budget, human resources, physical space, etc. This problem results in inappropriate use of the approved budget in buying and sharing the different types of information resources, lack of easy access to information resources by users, and users’ dissatisfaction. This paper is intended to see whether the model of genetic algorithm can be used in helping library heads of university to develop a support system for the proper allocation of resources. The data of the central library of a university as the main core of DSS through using genetic algorithm in MATLAB was used in order to come up with a better distribution of effective resources. Research methodology used in this paper was field study and survey. The findings indicated that genetic algorithm was successful in achieving this end.

  14. Genetics of the hippocampal transcriptome in mouse: a systematic survey and online neurogenomics resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupert W Overall

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Differences in gene expression in the CNS influence behavior and disease susceptibility. To systematically explore the role of normal variation in expression on hippocampal structure and function, we generated an online microarray database for a diverse panel of strains of mice, including most common inbred strains and numerous recombinant inbred lines (www.genenetwork.org. Using this resource, coexpression networks for families of genes can be generated rapidly to test causal models related to function. The data set is optimized for quantitative trait locus (QTL mapping and was used to identify over 5500 QTLs that modulate mRNA levels. We describe a wide variety of analyses and novel synthetic approaches that take advantage of this resource, and demostrate how both the data and associated tools can be applied to the study of gene regulation in the hippocampus and relations to structure and function.

  15. Genetics of the hippocampal transcriptome in mouse: a systematic survey and online neurogenomics resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overall, Rupert W; Kempermann, Gerd; Peirce, Jeremy; Lu, Lu; Goldowitz, Dan; Gage, Fred H; Goodwin, Shirlean; Smit, August B; Airey, David C; Rosen, Glenn D; Schalkwyk, Leonard C; Sutter, Thomas R; Nowakowski, Richard S; Whatley, Stephen; Williams, Robert W

    2009-01-01

    Differences in gene expression in the CNS influence behavior and disease susceptibility. To systematically explore the role of normal variation in expression on hippocampal structure and function, we generated an online microarray database for a diverse panel of strains of mice, including most common inbred strains and numerous recombinant inbred lines (www.genenetwork.org). Using this resource, coexpression networks for families of genes can be generated rapidly to test causal models related to function. The data set is optimized for quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping and was used to identify over 5500 QTLs that modulate mRNA levels. We describe a wide variety of analyses and novel synthetic approaches that take advantage of this resource, and demonstrate how both the data and associated tools can be applied to the study of gene regulation in the hippocampus and relations to structure and function.

  16. The effect of Linola and W92/72 transgenic flax seeds on the rabbit caecal fermentation--in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miśta, D; Króliczewska, B; Zawadzki, W; Pecka, E; Steininger, M; Hull, S; Zuk, M; Szopa, J

    2011-01-01

    The effect of W92/72 transgenic flax seeds taken from a variety of Linola on the production of SCFA, ammonia and methane by bacteria inhabiting rabbit caecum was studied. The in vitro method was used where caecal contents from rabbits was incubated with W92/72 transgenic or Linola flax seeds, or without any additives (control samples). The total concentration of SCFA was higher in samples with the addition of flax seeds than in the control samples. The increase in concentrations of acetic, propionic and butyric acids was the highest in samples with Linola seeds added. A higher percentage of propionic and butyric acids was observed in the contents incubated with addition of flax seeds as compared to the control samples. This increase was the result of a percentage decrease in acetic acid. No differences were observed in the concentration of ammonia between fermented samples. Moreover, the addition of flax seeds resulted in slight decrease of pH in incubated samples. In gas samples, the methane level was higher in samples with flax seeds added, although the highest level was found in samples with transgenic seeds. In addition, gas pressure was significantly higher in samples with flax seeds added as compared to control samples, and this may indicate a higher intensity of microbiological fermentation processes. These studies suggest that neither Linola nor W92/72 flax seeds have any unfavorable effect on the caecal microflora activity of rabbits. A beneficial influence of flax seeds on the microbiological fermentation process in rabbit caecum was observed, based on an increase in percentage ratio of propionic acid in samples with flax seeds added.

  17. 东亚薏苡遗传资源研究%Studies on Job's tears genetic resources in East Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁云涛; 陈成斌; 徐志健; 黄娟; 曾华忠; 赖群珍; 梁世春; 罗毓喜; 黄仁健

    2008-01-01

    2004~2006年,通过对南宁、玉林、百色等广西部分地区薏苡种质资源进行考察,共收集到117份栽培和野生薏苡资源,并种植在试验地保存.通过对这些种质资源的农艺性状进行观察鉴定,并选择农艺特性好的材料进行育种,目前已育成3个品种,可应用于农业生产.为了了解来源于中国广西、日本、韩国的薏苡的多样性,对77份薏苡资源进行SSR分析,结果表明,按亲缘关系可将77份薏苡资源分为两大类群.其中3份来自韩国的薏苡资源遗传背景非常相似,组成一个大类群;其余薏苡资源则构成另一个大类群.研究还发现,种质材料的遗传差异与其地域来源没有明显的关系.%The germplasm resources of Job's tears were investigated in Nanning, Yulin, Baise cities from 2004 to 2006, and 117 accessions of cultivation and wild Job's tears were collected and planted in test field. The agronomic traits were observed and recorded, and the varieties with excellent agronomic traits were selected for breeding. Up to today, 3 varieties were got, which could be used in agricultural production. In order to know the genetic diversity of Job's tears in Guangxi of China, Japan and Korea more clearly, SSR analysis was carried out for 77 accessions from the 3 cities. The results showed that 77 accessions were sorted into two groups according to their genetic relation. Three accessions of Job's tears from Korea composed a group because their genetic background was very similar. Other Job's tears composed another group. Moreover, it was found that genetic diversity of Job's tears resources wasn't associated with their origin obviously.

  18. Development of high oleic oil crop platform in flax through RNAi-mediated multiple FAD2 gene silencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yurong; Zhou, Xue-Rong; Zhang, Zhi-Jun; Dribnenki, Paul; Singh, Surinder; Green, Allan

    2015-04-01

    Simultaneous gene silencing of both FAD2 genes in high linoleic acid flax leads to high level of oleic acid, which is stable across multiple generations. High oleic oil is one of the preferred traits in oil crop engineering due to its stability and multiple applications as an industrial feedstock. Flax possesses two isoforms of FAD2 enzymes that desaturate monounsaturated oleic acid to polyunsaturated linoleic acid. These two enzymes are encoded by two FAD2 genes. By simultaneous gene silencing both FAD2 genes in high linoleic acid flax, Linola, high level of oleic acid up to 80% was achieved in 69 silencing lines. The high oleic trait was stable across multiple generations with oleic acid reaching up to 77% in homozygote T3 progeny. The RNAi-mediated gene-silencing approach generated high oleic linseed oil, as well as a high oleic platform that can be exploited for further fatty acid engineering.

  19. The combined use of embryos and semen for cryogenic conservation of mammalian livestock genetic resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pizzi Flavia

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this empirical simulation study was to evaluate the use of a combination of semen and embryos in the creation of gene banks for reconstruction of an extinct breed. Such an approach was compared for banks with varying proportions of embryos on the basis of the amount of the material to be stored, time for reconstruction, maintenance of genetic variability, and probability of failure during reconstruction. Four types of populations were simulated, based on reproductive rate: single offspring, twinning, enhanced reproduction, and litter bearing. Reconstruction was simulated for banks consisting of different combinations of semen and reduced numbers of embryos (expressed as a percentage of the material needed for a bank containing exclusively embryos and ranging from 10 to 90%. The use of a combination of semen and embryos increased the number of insemination cycles needed for reconstruction and the level of genetic relatedness in the reconstructed population. The risk for extinction was unacceptably high when a very low proportion of embryos (

  20. Variability of yield traits and disease resistance in winter triticale genetic resources accessions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanda Kociuba

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A systematic gathering of winter triticale accessions was started in Poland in 1982 by the Institute of Genetics, Breeding and Seed Science at the Agricultural University in Lublin (at present its name is: Institute of Genetics, Breeding and Plant Biotechnology at the University of Life Sciences in Lublin. First, breeding lines obtained in local breeding stations were gathered. Next, accessions were imported from the following world gene banks: Beltsville, Gatersleben, and VIR. Interesting hybrid materials obtained in research centers were also included in the collection. Now, the collection includes 2349 accessions (1329 of winter triticale and 1020 of spring triticale. The evaluation is conducted in a 4-year cycle of field experiments using the same methods. The gathered accessions represent a large range of variability of both morphological and commercial traits. The large differentiation of accessions especially concerns traits such as: plant height, number and weight of grains per spi- ke, protein content in grain, field resistance to powdery mildew, brown rust and leaf and spike diseases.

  1. ParameciumDB: a community resource that integrates the Paramecium tetraurelia genome sequence with genetic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaiz, Olivier; Cain, Scott; Cohen, Jean; Sperling, Linda

    2007-01-01

    ParameciumDB (http://paramecium.cgm.cnrs-gif.fr) is a new model organism database associated with the genome sequencing project of the unicellular eukaryote Paramecium tetraurelia. Built with the core components of the Generic Model Organism Database (GMOD) project, ParameciumDB currently contains the genome sequence and annotations, linked to available genetic data including the Gif Paramecium stock collection. It is thus possible to navigate between sequences and stocks via the genes and alleles. Phenotypes, of mutant strains and of knockdowns obtained by RNA interference, are captured using controlled vocabularies according to the Entity-Attribute-Value model. ParameciumDB currently supports browsing of phenotypes, alleles and stocks as well as querying of sequence features (genes, UniProt matches, InterPro domains, Gene Ontology terms) and of genetic data (phenotypes, stocks, RNA interference experiments). Forms allow submission of RNA interference data and some bioinformatics services are available. Future ParameciumDB development plans include coordination of human curation of the near 40 000 gene models by members of the research community.

  2. Osteogenesis and cytotoxicity of a new Carbon Fiber/Flax/Epoxy composite material for bone fracture plate applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri, Zahra S; Giles, Erica; El Sawi, Ihab; Amleh, Asma; Schemitsch, Emil H; Zdero, Radovan; Bougherara, Habiba

    2015-01-01

    This study is part of an ongoing program to develop a new CF/Flax/Epoxy bone fracture plate to be used in orthopedic trauma applications. The purpose was to determine this new plate's in-vitro effects on the level of bone formation genes, as well as cell viability in comparison with a medical grade metal (i.e. stainless steel) commonly employed for fabrication of bone plates (positive control). Cytotoxicity and osteogenesis induced by wear debris of the material were assessed using Methyl Tetrazolium (MTT) assay and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for 3 osteogenesis specific gene markers, including bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP2), runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) and Osterix. Moreover, the Flax/Epoxy and CF/Epoxy composites were examined separately for their wettability properties by water absorption and contact angle (CA) tests using the sessile drop technique. The MTT results for indirect and direct assays indicated that the CF/Flax/Epoxy composite material showed comparable cell viability with no cytotoxicity at all incubation times to that of the metal group (p≥0.05). Osteogenesis test results showed that the expression level of Runx2 marker induced by CF/Flax/Epoxy were significantly higher than those induced by metal after 48 h (p=0.57). Also, the Flax/Epoxy composite revealed a hydrophilic character (CA=68.07°±2.05°) and absorbed more water up to 17.2% compared to CF/Epoxy, which reached 1.25% due to its hydrophobic character (CA=93.22°±1.95°) (p<0.001). Therefore, the new CF/Flax/Epoxy may be a potential candidate for medical applications as a bone fracture plate, as it showed similar cell viability with no negative effect on gene expression levels responsible for bone formation compared to medical grade stainless steel.

  3. Abscisic acid regulates pinoresinol-lariciresinol reductase gene expression and secoisolariciresinol accumulation in developing flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renouard, Sullivan; Corbin, Cyrielle; Lopez, Tatiana; Montguillon, Josiane; Gutierrez, Laurent; Lamblin, Frédéric; Lainé, Eric; Hano, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    Secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG), the main phytoestrogenic lignan of Linum usitatissimum, is accumulated in the seed coat of flax during its development and pinoresinol-lariciresinol reductase (PLR) is a key enzyme in flax for its synthesis. The promoter of LuPLR1, a flax gene encoding a pinoresinol lariciresinol reductase, contains putative regulatory boxes related to transcription activation by abscisic acid (ABA). Gel mobility shift experiments evidenced an interaction of nuclear proteins extracted from immature flax seed coat with a putative cis-acting element involved in ABA response. As ABA regulates a number of physiological events during seed development and maturation we have investigated its involvement in the regulation of this lignan synthesis by different means. ABA and SDG accumulation time courses in the seed as well as LuPLR1 expression were first determined in natural conditions. These results showed that ABA timing and localization of accumulation in the flax seed coat could be correlated with the LuPLR1 gene expression and SDG biosynthesis. Experimental modulations of ABA levels were performed by exogenous application of ABA or fluridone, an inhibitor of ABA synthesis. When submitted to exogenous ABA, immature seeds synthesized 3-times more SDG, whereas synthesis of SDG was reduced in immature seeds treated with fluridone. Similarly, the expression of LuPLR1 gene in the seed coat was up-regulated by exogenous ABA and down-regulated when fluridone was applied. These results demonstrate that SDG biosynthesis in the flax seed coat is positively controlled by ABA through the transcriptional regulation of LuPLR1 gene.

  4. Draft genome of the medaka fish: a comprehensive resource for medaka developmental genetics and vertebrate evolutionary biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Hiroyuki

    2008-06-01

    The medaka Oryzias latipes is a small egg-laying freshwater teleost, and has become an excellent model system for developmental genetics and evolutionary biology. The medaka genome is relatively small in size, approximately 800 Mb, and the genome sequencing project was recently completed by Japanese research groups, providing a high-quality draft genome sequence of the inbred Hd-rR strain of medaka. In this review, I present an overview of the medaka genome project including genome resources, followed by specific findings obtained with the medaka draft genome. In particular, I focus on the analysis that was done by taking advantage of the medaka system, such as the sex chromosome differentiation and the regional history of medaka species using single nucleotide polymorphisms as genomic markers.

  5. Amino acids and fatty acids profile of chia (Salvia hispanica L.) and flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) seed

    OpenAIRE

    Soňa Nitrayová; Matej Brestenský; Jaroslav Heger; Peter Patráš; Ján Rafay; Alexander Sirotkin

    2014-01-01

    The seeds of most plants are rich in various nutrients and can provide a lot of useful health benefits. The objective of this study was to determine and compare differences in fat, fatty acids, crude protein and amino acids concentrations for chia and flax seeds. Study was carried out using brown and gold seeds of Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) and Chia (Salvia hispanica L.). The mean protein content in tested seeds ranged from 211.8 to 252.5 g/kg dry matter and in chia seed was about 13.10% h...

  6. Genetic diversity and genomic resources available for the small millet crops to accelerate a New Green Revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travis Luc Goron

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Small millets are nutrient-rich food sources traditionally grown and consumed by subsistence farmers in Asia and Africa. They include finger millet (Eleusine coracana, foxtail millet (Setaria italica, kodo millet (Paspalum scrobiculatum, proso millet (Panicum miliaceum, barnyard millet (Echinochloa spp., and little millet (Panicum sumatrense. Local farmers value the small millets for their nutritional and health, tolerance to extreme stress including drought, and ability to grow under low nutrient input conditions, ideal in an era of climate change and steadily depleting natural resources. Little scientific attention has been paid to these crops, hence they have been termed orphan cereals. Despite this challenge, an advantageous quality of the small millets is that they continue to be grown in remote regions of the world which has preserved their biodiversity, providing breeders with unique alleles for crop improvement. The purpose of this review, first, is to highlight the diverse traits of each small millet species that are valued by farmers and consumers (e.g. nutritional quality which hold potential for selection, improvement or mechanistic study. For each species, the germplasm, genetic and genomic resources available will then be described as potential tools to exploit this biodiversity. The review will conclude with noting current trends and gaps in the literature and make recommendations on how to better preserve and utilize diversity within these species to accelerate a New Green Revolution for subsistence farmers in Asia and Africa.

  7. Genetic diversity and genomic resources available for the small millet crops to accelerate a New Green Revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goron, Travis L; Raizada, Manish N

    2015-01-01

    Small millets are nutrient-rich food sources traditionally grown and consumed by subsistence farmers in Asia and Africa. They include finger millet (Eleusine coracana), foxtail millet (Setaria italica), kodo millet (Paspalum scrobiculatum), proso millet (Panicum miliaceum), barnyard millet (Echinochloa spp.), and little millet (Panicum sumatrense). Local farmers value the small millets for their nutritional and health benefits, tolerance to extreme stress including drought, and ability to grow under low nutrient input conditions, ideal in an era of climate change and steadily depleting natural resources. Little scientific attention has been paid to these crops, hence they have been termed "orphan cereals." Despite this challenge, an advantageous quality of the small millets is that they continue to be grown in remote regions of the world which has preserved their biodiversity, providing breeders with unique alleles for crop improvement. The purpose of this review, first, is to highlight the diverse traits of each small millet species that are valued by farmers and consumers which hold potential for selection, improvement or mechanistic study. For each species, the germplasm, genetic and genomic resources available will then be described as potential tools to exploit this biodiversity. The review will conclude with noting current trends and gaps in the literature and make recommendations on how to better preserve and utilize diversity within these species to accelerate a New Green Revolution for subsistence farmers in Asia and Africa.

  8. Bio-Based Resin Reinforced with Flax Fiber as Thermorheologically Complex Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Amiri

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available With the increase in structural applications of bio-based composites, the study of long-term creep behavior of these materials turns into a significant issue. Because of their bond type and structure, natural fibers and thermoset resins exhibit nonlinear viscoelastic behavior. Time-temperature superposition (TTS provides a useful tool to overcome the challenge of the long time required to perform the tests. The TTS principle assumes that the effect of temperature and time are equivalent when considering the creep behavior, therefore creep tests performed at elevated temperatures may be converted to tests performed at longer times. In this study, flax fiber composites were processed with a novel liquid molding methacrylated epoxidized sucrose soyate (MESS resin. Frequency scans of flax/MESS composites were obtained at different temperatures and storage modulus and loss modulus were recorded and the application of horizontal and vertical shift factors to these viscoelastic functions were studied. In addition, short-term strain creep at different temperatures was measured and curves were shifted with solely horizontal, and with both horizontal and vertical shift factors. The resulting master curves were compared with a 24-h creep test and two extrapolated creep models. The findings revealed that use of both horizontal and vertical shift factors will result in a smoother master curves for loss modulus and storage modulus, while use of only horizontal shift factors for creep data provides acceptable creep strain master curves. Based on the findings of this study, flax/MESS composites can be considered as thermorheologically complex materials.

  9. Evaluation of Resistance to Ralstonia solanacearum in Tomato Genetic Resources at Seedling Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Gyu Kim

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial wilt of tomatoes caused by Ralstonia solanacearum is a devastating disease that limits the production of tomato in Korea. The best way to control this disease is using genetically resistant tomato plant. The resistance degree to R. solanacearum was evaluated for 285 tomato accessions conserved in the National Agrobiodiversity Center of Rural Development Administration. These accessions of tomato were originated from 23 countries. Disease severity of tomato accessions was investigated from 7 days to 14 days at an interval of 7 days after inoculation of R. solanacearum under greenhouse conditions. A total of 279 accessions of tomato germplasm were susceptible to R. solanacearum, resulting in wilt and death in 70 to 90% of these plants. Two tomato accessions were moderately resistant to R. solanacearum. Only four accessions showed high resistance against R. solanacearum. No distinct symptom of bacterial wilt appeared on the resistant tomato germplasms for up to 14 days after inoculation of R. solanacearum. Microscopy of resistant tomato stems infected with R. solanacearum revealed limited bacterial spread with thickening of pit membrane and gum production. Therefore, these four resistant tomato germplasms could be used in tomato breeding program against bacterial wilt.

  10. Evaluation of Resistance to Ralstonia solanacearum in Tomato Genetic Resources at Seedling Stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Gyu; Hur, On-Sook; Ro, Na-Young; Ko, Ho-Cheol; Rhee, Ju-Hee; Sung, Jung Sook; Ryu, Kyoung-Yul; Lee, Sok-Young; Baek, Hyung Jin

    2016-02-01

    Bacterial wilt of tomatoes caused by Ralstonia solanacearum is a devastating disease that limits the production of tomato in Korea. The best way to control this disease is using genetically resistant tomato plant. The resistance degree to R. solanacearum was evaluated for 285 tomato accessions conserved in the National Agrobiodiversity Center of Rural Development Administration. These accessions of tomato were originated from 23 countries. Disease severity of tomato accessions was investigated from 7 days to 14 days at an interval of 7 days after inoculation of R. solanacearum under greenhouse conditions. A total of 279 accessions of tomato germplasm were susceptible to R. solanacearum, resulting in wilt and death in 70 to 90% of these plants. Two tomato accessions were moderately resistant to R. solanacearum. Only four accessions showed high resistance against R. solanacearum. No distinct symptom of bacterial wilt appeared on the resistant tomato germplasms for up to 14 days after inoculation of R. solanacearum. Microscopy of resistant tomato stems infected with R. solanacearum revealed limited bacterial spread with thickening of pit membrane and gum production. Therefore, these four resistant tomato germplasms could be used in tomato breeding program against bacterial wilt.

  11. The human-induced pluripotent stem cell initiative—data resources for cellular genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streeter, Ian; Harrison, Peter W.; Faulconbridge, Adam; Flicek, Paul; Parkinson, Helen; Clarke, Laura

    2017-01-01

    The Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Initiative (HipSci) isf establishing a large catalogue of human iPSC lines, arguably the most well characterized collection to date. The HipSci portal enables researchers to choose the right cell line for their experiment, and makes HipSci's rich catalogue of assay data easy to discover and reuse. Each cell line has genomic, transcriptomic, proteomic and cellular phenotyping data. Data are deposited in the appropriate EMBL-EBI archives, including the European Nucleotide Archive (ENA), European Genome-phenome Archive (EGA), ArrayExpress and PRoteomics IDEntifications (PRIDE) databases. The project will make 500 cell lines from healthy individuals, and from 150 patients with rare genetic diseases; these will be available through the European Collection of Authenticated Cell Cultures (ECACC). As of August 2016, 238 cell lines are available for purchase. Project data is presented through the HipSci data portal (http://www.hipsci.org/lines) and is downloadable from the associated FTP site (ftp://ftp.hipsci.ebi.ac.uk/vol1/ftp). The data portal presents a summary matrix of the HipSci cell lines, showing available data types. Each line has its own page containing descriptive metadata, quality information, and links to archived assay data. Analysis results are also available in a Track Hub, allowing visualization in the context of public genomic annotations (http://www.hipsci.org/data/trackhubs). PMID:27733501

  12. The human-induced pluripotent stem cell initiative-data resources for cellular genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streeter, Ian; Harrison, Peter W; Faulconbridge, Adam; Flicek, Paul; Parkinson, Helen; Clarke, Laura

    2017-01-04

    The Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Initiative (HipSci) isf establishing a large catalogue of human iPSC lines, arguably the most well characterized collection to date. The HipSci portal enables researchers to choose the right cell line for their experiment, and makes HipSci's rich catalogue of assay data easy to discover and reuse. Each cell line has genomic, transcriptomic, proteomic and cellular phenotyping data. Data are deposited in the appropriate EMBL-EBI archives, including the European Nucleotide Archive (ENA), European Genome-phenome Archive (EGA), ArrayExpress and PRoteomics IDEntifications (PRIDE) databases. The project will make 500 cell lines from healthy individuals, and from 150 patients with rare genetic diseases; these will be available through the European Collection of Authenticated Cell Cultures (ECACC). As of August 2016, 238 cell lines are available for purchase. Project data is presented through the HipSci data portal (http://www.hipsci.org/lines) and is downloadable from the associated FTP site (ftp://ftp.hipsci.ebi.ac.uk/vol1/ftp). The data portal presents a summary matrix of the HipSci cell lines, showing available data types. Each line has its own page containing descriptive metadata, quality information, and links to archived assay data. Analysis results are also available in a Track Hub, allowing visualization in the context of public genomic annotations (http://www.hipsci.org/data/trackhubs). © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  13. An F2 pig resource population as a model for genetic studies of obesity and obesity-related diseases in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kogelman, Lisette; Kadarmideen, Haja; Mark, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is a rising worldwide public health problem. Difficulties to precisely measure various obesity traits and the genetic heterogeneity in human have been major impediments to completely disentangle genetic factors causing obesity. The pig is a relevant model for studying human obesity...... and obesity-related (OOR) traits. Using founder breeds divergent with respect to obesity traits we have created an F2 pig resource population (454 pigs), which has been intensively phenotyped for 36 OOR traits. The main rationale for our study is to characterize the genetic architecture of OOR traits in the F...

  14. Exploring resources for intrafamilial communication of cancer genetic risk: we still need to talk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClellan, Kelly A; Kleiderman, Erika; Black, Lee; Bouchard, Karine; Dorval, Michel; Simard, Jacques; Knoppers, Bartha M; Avard, Denise

    2013-09-01

    While the importance of intrafamilial communication of hereditary cancer risk has been acknowledged, the factors that promote and act as barriers to patients disclosing their information to their families are complex and emerging. This raises the question: How are patients guided in practice to contemplate intrafamilial communication? Focusing on breast cancer, we conducted an exploratory study examining current resources supporting patients and health-care professionals, and isolated the messages surrounding intrafamilial communication of cancer risk. We find the duty for health-care professionals to counsel patients regarding intrafamilial communication is acknowledged to varying degrees by multiple actors in the cancer care delivery landscape, including health-care professional associations, health service organizations, and patient groups. A range of medical, psychosocial, and other factors underlying intrafamilial communication are acknowledged in messages to patients. Patients, however, are often referred to a single group of health-care professionals to discuss their diverse and complex needs. At the same time, messages aimed at patients appear to place the emphasis on barriers that could exist for patients contemplating intrafamilial communication, while highlighting the benefits families derive from such communication. Taken together, this points to a lack of coherence within materials directed to patients and suggests the need to do coordinated research among stakeholders to address two related issues: (1) determining who are the actors best positioned to send messages surrounding intrafamilial communication to patients and (2) addressing the content of messages conveyed in patient materials.

  15. Flax lignan concentrate attenuate hypertension and abnormal left ventricular contractility via modulation of endogenous biomarkers in two-kidney-one-clip (2K1C hypertensive rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameer Hanmantrao Sawant

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The present investigation was designed to study the effect of flax lignan concentrate obtained from Linum usitatissimum L., Linaceae, in two-kidney, one clip (2K1C hypertension model in Wistar rats. 2K1C Goldblatt model rats were divided randomly into six groups: sham, 2K1C control, captopril (30 mg/kg, flax lignan concentrate (200, 400 and 800 mg/kg. Flax lignan concentrate and captopril were administered daily for eight consecutive weeks. Sham-operated, and 2K1C control rats received the vehicle. Treatment with flax lignan concentrate (400 and 800 mg/kg significantly and dose-dependently restored the hemodynamic parameters systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial blood pressure and left ventricular functions. The flax lignan concentrate significantly restored the elevated hepatic, renal and cardiac marker enzymes in the serum. It also restored the organs weights (kidney and heart, serum electrolyte level and histological abnormalities. Furthermore, flax lignan concentrate significantly elevated the level of biochemical markers that is enzymatic antioxidants superoxide dismutase, glutathione and decreased malondialdehyde in the heart and kidney tissues. Meanwhile, we found that plasma nitric oxide and plasma nitric oxide synthase contents were significantly increased in the flax lignan concentrate-treated group, and plasma endothelin-1 and renal angiotensin-II levels were significantly lower than 2K1C hypertensive group. In conclusion, the antihypertensive and antioxidant effect of flax lignan concentrate were dose-dependent and at the highest dose (i.e. 800 mg/kg similar to those of captopril (30 mg/kg. It is suggested that flax lignan concentrate reduced blood pressure by reduction of renal angiotensin-II level, inhibition of plasma endothelin-1 production, induction of the nitric oxide, nitric oxide synthase and in vivo antioxidant defense system.

  16. Genetic resources for methane production from biomass described with gene ontology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang ePurwantini

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Methane (CH4 is a valuable fuel, constituting 70-95% of natural gas, and a potent greenhouse gas. Release of CH4 into the atmosphere contributes to climate change. Biological CH4 production or methanogenesis is mostly performed by methanogens, a group of strictly anaerobic archaea. The direct substrates for methanogenesis are H2 plus CO2, acetate, formate, methylamines, methanol, methyl sulfides, and ethanol or a secondary alcohol plus CO2. In numerous anaerobic niches in nature, methanogenesis facilitates mineralization of complex biopolymers such as carbohydrates, lipids and proteins generated by primary producers. Thus, methanogens are critical players in the global carbon cycle. The same process is used in anaerobic treatment of municipal, industrial and agricultural wastes, reducing the biological pollutants in the wastes and generating methane. It also holds potential for commercial production of natural gas from renewable resources. This process operates in digestive systems of many animals, including cattle, and humans. In contrast, in deep-sea hydrothermal vents methanogenesis is a primary production process, allowing chemosynthesis of biomaterials from H2 plus CO2. In this report we present Gene Ontology (GO terms that can be used to describe processes, functions and cellular components involved in methanogenic biodegradation and biosynthesis of specialized coenzymes that methanogens use. Some of these GO terms were previously available and the rest were generated in our Microbial Energy Gene Ontology (MENGO project. A recently discovered non-canonical CH4 production process is also described. We have performed manual GO annotation of selected methanogenesis genes, based on experimental evidence, providing gold standards for machine annotation and automated discovery of methanogenesis genes or systems in diverse genomes. Most of the GO-related information presented in this report is available at the MENGO website (http://www.mengo.biochem.vt.edu/.

  17. The Effect of Flax Seed (Linum Usitatissimum) Hydroalcoholic Extract on Brain, Weight and Plasma Sexual Hormone Levels in Aged and Young Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Bahmanpour, Soghra; Kamali, Mahsa

    2016-01-01

    Background: Flax is a food and fiber crop that is grown in some regions of the world. Its value will account for its great popularity as a food, medical and cosmetic applications. Flax fibers are taken from the stem of the plant and are two to three times as strong as cotton. In this study, we compared brain weight and plasma sex hormone levels in young and aged mice after the administration of Linum usitatissimum (flax seed) hydro alcoholic extract. Methods: In this study, 32 aged and 32 you...

  18. Effect of dietary flax seed and oil on milk yield, gross composition, and fatty acid profile in dairy cows: A meta-analysis and meta-regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leduc, M; Létourneau-Montminy, M-P; Gervais, R; Chouinard, P Y

    2017-09-06

    Several experiments were conducted over the past few years to evaluate the feeding value of flax seed and oil in dairy cow diets. The current meta-analysis and meta-regression was undertaken to assess the overall effect of different forms of flax, as a source of trienoic (cis-9, cis-12, cis-15 18:3) fatty acids (FA), on lactation performance and on transfer efficiency of its constituent n-3 FA from diet to milk fat. Comparisons were first conducted with nonsupplemented controls or with diets containing either saturated (mainly 16:0 or 18:0 or both), monoenoic (mainly cis-9 18:1), or dienoic (mainly cis-9, cis-12 18:2) FA. Results indicate that supplementing flax seed and oil decreased dry matter intake, as well as actual and energy-corrected milk yield without affecting the efficiency of utilization of dietary dry matter or energy as compared with nonsupplemented iso-energetic controls. When compared with the other 3 types of dietary fat evaluated, flax rich in trienoic FA supported a yield of energy-corrected milk similar to supplements rich in saturated, monoenoic, or dienoic FA. Greater milk fat concentration and feed efficiency were observed with saturated supplements. However, milk fat concentration and yield were lower with dienoic FA than with flax supplements. Further analyses were conducted to compare the effect of different forms of flax oil, seed, or fractions of seed. Among the 6 categories evaluated, mechanically processed whole seed (rolled or ground) allowed the greatest yield of energy-corrected milk and the best feed efficiency when compared with free oil, intact or extruded whole seed, protected flax, and flax hulls. Feeding protected flax and flax hulls allowed the greatest milk fat concentration of cis-9, cis-12, cis-15 18:3. Moreover, the greatest transfer efficiencies of this fatty acid from diet to milk were recorded with the same 2 treatments, plus the mechanically processed whole seed. These results make this last category the most suitable

  19. Curating seeds and other genetic resources for ethnobiology. In: Salick,J.Konchar, K. and Nesbitt, M., editors. Curatring Biocultural Collections: A handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Center for Genetic Resources Preservation (NCGRP) is one of the largest genebanks in the world, currently safeguarding over 875,000 plant collections and 652,295 animal collections, most with agriculture emphasis. This number represents 7,474 different plant species of 1,274 genera. T...

  20. The dynamics of on-farm management of sorghum in Ethiopia: Implication for the conservation and improvement of plant genetic resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seboka, B.; Hintum, van T.J.L.

    2006-01-01

    On-farm conservation of plant genetic resources for food and agriculture has received strong support worldwide in recent years. It has been justified on appealing assumptions: it complements ex situ conservation, allows co-evolutionary interaction of host-pathogens and crop-weed complexes, and invol

  1. Digital gene expression profiling of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) stem peel identifies genes enriched in fiber-bearing phloem tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yuan; Qiu, Caisheng; Long, Songhua; Chen, Ping; Hao, Dongmei; Preisner, Marta; Wang, Hui; Wang, Yufu

    2017-08-30

    To better understand the molecular mechanisms and gene expression characteristics associated with development of bast fiber cell within flax stem phloem, the gene expression profiling of flax stem peels and leaves were screened, using Illumina's Digital Gene Expression (DGE) analysis. Four DGE libraries (2 for stem peel and 2 for leaf), ranging from 6.7 to 9.2 million clean reads were obtained, which produced 7.0 million and 6.8 million mapped reads for flax stem peel and leave, respectively. By differential gene expression analysis, a total of 975 genes, of which 708 (73%) genes have protein-coding annotation, were identified as phloem enriched genes putatively involved in the processes of polysaccharide and cell wall metabolism. Differential expression genes (DEGs) was validated using quantitative RT-PCR, the expression pattern of all nine genes determined by qRT-PCR fitted in well with that obtained by sequencing analysis. Cluster and Gene Ontology (GO) analysis revealed that a large number of genes related to metabolic process, catalytic activity and binding category were expressed predominantly in the stem peels. The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis of the phloem enriched genes suggested approximately 111 biological pathways. The large number of genes and pathways produced from DGE sequencing will expand our understanding of the complex molecular and cellular events in flax bast fiber development and provide a foundation for future studies on fiber development in other bast fiber crops. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The effect of dietary alfalfa and flax sprouts on rabbit meat antioxidant content, lipid oxidation and fatty acid composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Bosco, A; Castellini, C; Martino, M; Mattioli, S; Marconi, O; Sileoni, V; Ruggeri, S; Tei, F; Benincasa, P

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of dietary supplementation with flax and alfalfa sprouts on fatty acid, tocopherol and phytochemical contents of rabbit meat. Ninety weaned New Zealand White rabbits were assigned to three dietary groups: standard diet (S); standard diet+20g/d of alfalfa sprouts (A); and standard diet+20g/d of flax sprouts (F). In the F rabbits the Longissimus dorsi muscle showed a higher thio-barbituric acid-reactive value and at the same time significantly higher values of alpha-linolenic acid, total polyunsaturated and n-3 fatty acids. Additionally n-3/n-6 ratio and thrombogenic indices were improved. The meat of A rabbits showed intermediate values of the previously reported examined parameters. Dietary supplementation with sprouts produced meat with a higher total phytoestrogen content. The addition of fresh alfalfa and flax sprouts to commercial feed modified the fat content, fatty acid and phytochemical profile of the meat, but the flax ones worsened the oxidative status of meat.

  3. Nondestructive testing of externally reinforced structures for seismic retrofitting using flax fiber reinforced polymer (FFRP) composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra-Castanedo, C.; Sfarra, S.; Paoletti, D.; Bendada, A.; Maldague, X.

    2013-05-01

    Natural fibers constitute an interesting alternative to synthetic fibers, e.g. glass and carbon, for the production of composites due to their environmental and economic advantages. The strength of natural fiber composites is on average lower compared to their synthetic counterparts. Nevertheless, natural fibers such as flax, among other bast fibers (jute, kenaf, ramie and hemp), are serious candidates for seismic retrofitting applications given that their mechanical properties are more suitable for dynamic loads. Strengthening of structures is performed by impregnating flax fiber reinforced polymers (FFRP) fabrics with epoxy resin and applying them to the component of interest, increasing in this way the load and deformation capacities of the building, while preserving its stiffness and dynamic properties. The reinforced areas are however prompt to debonding if the fabrics are not mounted properly. Nondestructive testing is therefore required to verify that the fabric is uniformly installed and that there are no air gaps or foreign materials that could instigate debonding. In this work, the use of active infrared thermography was investigated for the assessment of (1) a laboratory specimen reinforced with FFRP and containing several artificial defects; and (2) an actual FFRP retrofitted masonry wall in the Faculty of Engineering of the University of L'Aquila (Italy) that was seriously affected by the 2009 earthquake. Thermographic data was processed by advanced signal processing techniques, and post-processed by computing the watershed lines to locate suspected areas. Results coming from the academic specimen were compared to digital speckle photography and holographic interferometry images.

  4. Thermo-Mechanical Behaviour of Flax-Fibre Reinforced Epoxy Laminates for Industrial Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Pitarresi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The present work describes the experimental mechanical characterisation of a natural flax fibre reinforced epoxy polymer composite. A commercial plain woven quasi-unidirectional flax fabric with spun-twisted yarns is employed in particular, as well as unidirectional composite panels manufactured with three techniques: hand-lay-up, vacuum bagging and resin infusion. The stiffness and strength behaviours are investigated under both monotonic and low-cycle fatigue loadings. The analysed material has, in particular, shown a typical bilinear behaviour under pure traction, with a knee yield point occurring at a rather low stress value, after which the material tensile stiffness is significantly reduced. In the present work, such a mechanism is investigated by a phenomenological approach, performing periodical loading/unloading cycles, and repeating tensile tests on previously “yielded” samples to assess the evolution of stiffness behaviour. Infrared thermography is also employed to measure the temperature of specimens during monotonic and cyclic loading. In the first case, the thermal signal is monitored to correlate departures from the thermoelastic behaviour with the onset of energy loss mechanisms. In the case of cyclic loading, the thermoelastic signal and the second harmonic component are both determined in order to investigate the extent of elastic behaviour of the material.

  5. A procedure for identifying textile bast fibres using microscopy: Flax, nettle/ramie, hemp and jute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergfjord, Christian, E-mail: christian.bergfjord@uib.no [Institute for Physics and Technology, University of Bergen, Allegt. 55, 5007 Bergen (Norway); Holst, Bodil, E-mail: bodil.holst@uib.no [Institute for Physics and Technology, University of Bergen, Allegt. 55, 5007 Bergen (Norway)

    2010-08-15

    Identifying and distinguishing between natural textile fibres is an important task in both archaeology and criminology. Wool, silk and cotton fibres can readily be distinguished from the textile bast fibres flax, nettle/ramie, hemp and jute. Distinguishing between the bast fibres is, however, not easily done and methods based on surface characteristics, chemical composition and cross section size and shape are not conclusive. A conclusive method based on X-ray microdiffraction exists, but as the method requires the use of a synchrotron it is not readily available. In this paper we present a simple procedure for identifying the above mentioned textile bast fibres. The procedure is based on measuring the fibrillar orientation with polarised light microscopy and detecting the presence of calcium oxalate crystals (CaC{sub 2}O{sub 4}) in association with the fibres. To demonstrate the procedure, a series of fibre samples of flax, nettle, ramie, hemp and jute were investigated. The results are presented here. An advantage of the procedure is that only a small amount of fibre material is needed.

  6. Fish oil in various doses or flax oil in pregnancy and timing of spontaneous delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, V.K.; Hansen, Harald S.; Østerdal, M.L.;

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: To test the earlier suggested hypothesis that intake of long-chain n-3 fatty acids from fish oil may delay the timing of spontaneous delivery and to test if alpha-linolenic acid, provided as flax oil capsules, shows the same effect. Design: Randomised controlled trial including women...... reporting low dietary fish intake. The women were allocated in the proportions of 1:1:1:1:1:1:2 into six treatment groups and a control group, respectively, from week 17-27 of gestation. The treatment groups received fish oil, in various doses, or flax oil, and the control group did not receive any...... treatment. Setting: The Danish National Birth Cohort. Sample: A total of 3098 women allocated into six treatment groups and one control group. Methods: The six intervention groups were offered fish oil capsules in doses of 0.1, 0.3, 0.7, 1.4 and 2.8 g of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid per...

  7. Apparent interfacial shear strength of short-flax-fiber/starch acetate composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersons, J.; Modniks, J.; Joffe, R.

    2016-01-01

    The paper deals with an indirect industry-friendly method for identification of the interfacial shear strength (IFSS) in a fully bio-based composite. The IFSS of flax fiber/starch acetate is evaluated by a modified Bowyer and Bader method based on an analysis of the stress-strain curve of a short......-fiber-reinforced composite in tension. A shear lag model is developed for the tensile stress-strain response of short-fiber-reinforced composites allowing for an elastic-perfectly plastic stress transfer. Composites with different fiber volume fractions and a variable content of plasticizer have been analyzed. The apparent...... IFSS of flax/starch acetate is within the range of 5.5-20.5 MPa, depending on composition of the material. The IFSS is found to be greater for composites with a higher fiber loading and to decrease with increasing content of plasticizer. The IFSS is equal or greater than the yield strength of the neat...

  8. A procedure for identifying textile bast fibres using microscopy: flax, nettle/ramie, hemp and jute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergfjord, Christian; Holst, Bodil

    2010-08-01

    Identifying and distinguishing between natural textile fibres is an important task in both archaeology and criminology. Wool, silk and cotton fibres can readily be distinguished from the textile bast fibres flax, nettle/ramie, hemp and jute. Distinguishing between the bast fibres is, however, not easily done and methods based on surface characteristics, chemical composition and cross section size and shape are not conclusive. A conclusive method based on X-ray microdiffraction exists, but as the method requires the use of a synchrotron it is not readily available. In this paper we present a simple procedure for identifying the above mentioned textile bast fibres. The procedure is based on measuring the fibrillar orientation with polarised light microscopy and detecting the presence of calcium oxalate crystals (CaC2O4) in association with the fibres. To demonstrate the procedure, a series of fibre samples of flax, nettle, ramie, hemp and jute were investigated. The results are presented here. An advantage of the procedure is that only a small amount of fibre material is needed. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. SEQUENCING OF FLAX LIS-1 INSERTION SITE IN THE ALBIDUM GENOTYPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Žiarovská

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a methodology of identifying the insertion site of LIS-1-1 (Linum Insertion Sequence 1 element in flax Albidum variety when growing under the in vitro combined with environmental stress conditions. Abiotic stress was induced by a reduced nutrient content in a growth medium. The LIS-1 insertion site amplification was reaLIS-1ed using the forward LIS-L: 5'-GGG CAG TTT AAC TGT AAC GAA - 3 'and revers LIS-R: 5'-GCT TGG ATT TAG ACT TGG CAA C - 3' primers by PCR. PCR product was sequenced by direct sequencing method to proove the nucleotide sequence for matching with database LIS-1 sequence. A comparison has been matched with the sequence of the amplified segment in the database for all nucleotides except the 11-position in the 5'-3 ' direction, where instead of the three adenine pair is a couple in the Albidum variety. Changes caused by mobile elements or insertion sequences result in common flax in variability that can be used for the purposes of development of effective marker identification or environment based markers development.

  10. Effect of Fiber Waviness on Tensile Strength of a Flax-Sliver-Reinforced Composite Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taweesak Piyatuchsananon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, a composite material made from natural fibers and biodegradable resin, “green composite,” is attracting attention as an alternative composite material for the replacement of glass fiber-reinforced plastics. Plant-based natural fibers such as kenaf and flax have already been used as composite reinforcement materials because they are more environmentally friendly and costless fibers than artificial fibers. A problem of using natural fibers is the fiber waviness, which affects the tensile properties. Fiber waviness is fluctuation in the fiber orientation that is inherent in the sliver morphology of plant-based natural fibers. This study was conducted to clarify the relation between quantified parameters of fiber waviness and a composite’s tensile strength. First, the fiber orientation angles on a flax-sliver-reinforced composite were measured. Then the angle distribution was quantified through spatial autocorrelation analysis methods: Local Moran’s I and Local Geary’s c. Finally, the relation between the resultant tensile strength and quantified parameters was discussed.

  11. Characteristics of starch-based biodegradable composites reinforced with date palm and flax fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Hamdy; Farag, Mahmoud; Megahed, Hassan; Mehanny, Sherif

    2014-01-30

    The aim of this work is to study the behavior of completely biodegradable starch-based composites containing date palm fibers in the range from 20 to 80 wt%. Hybrid composites containing date palm and flax fibers, 25 wt% each, were also examined. The composites were preheated and then hot pressed at 5 MPa and 160°C for 30 min. SEM investigation showed strong adhesion between fibers and matrix. Density measurements showed very small void fraction (less than 0.142%) for composites containing up to 50 wt% fiber content. Increasing fiber weight fraction up to 50 wt% increased the composite static tensile and flexural mechanical properties (stiffness and strength). Composite thermal stability, water uptake and biodegradation improved with increasing fiber content. The present work shows that starch-based composites with 50 wt% fibers content have the optimum mechanical properties. The hybrid composite of flax and date palm fibers, 25 wt% each, has good properties and provides a competitive eco-friendly candidate for various applications.

  12. Pressure impact of autoclave treatment on water sorption and pectin composition of flax cellulosic-fibres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alix, S; Colasse, L; Morvan, C; Lebrun, L; Marais, S

    2014-02-15

    The tensile properties of flax fibres might permit them to be used in composites as reinforcement in organic resin, as long as their mechanical properties are reproducible and their water sorption are reduced. In this study, to minimise the variability of mechanical properties, several samples of flax fibres were blended as a non-woven fabric. In order to reduce the water absorption of this non-woven technical fibres, an autoclave treatment was performed which was expected to remove the pectins and then to reduce the water sorption on their negative charges. The impact of autoclave pressure (0.5, 1 and 2 bars) on water sorption was investigated by using a gravimetric static equilibrium method. The Park model based on the three sorption modes: Langmuir, Henry's law and clustering, was successfully used to simulate the experimental sorption data. The lowest pressure treatments impacted only the Langmuir contribution while the 2 bar autoclave-treatment positively impacted the water resistance in the core of fibres by reducing Henry's absorption rate. This was shown to be related to the chemical modifications at the surface and in the core of fibres. A schematic model is presented relating the water sorption and the pectic composition of the fabric. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Genetic structure of the rattan Calamus thwaitesii in core, buffer and peripheral regions of three protected areas in centralWestern Ghats, India: do protected areas serve as refugia for genetic resources of economically important plants?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B. T. Ramesha; G. Ravikanth; M. Nageswara Rao; K. N. Ganeshaiah; R. Uma Shaanker

    2007-01-01

    Given the increasing anthropogenic pressures on forests, the various protected areas—national parks, sanctuaries, and biosphere reserves—serve as the last footholds for conserving biological diversity. However, because protected areas are often targeted for the conservation of selected species, particularly charismatic animals, concerns have been raised about their effectiveness in conserving nontarget taxa and their genetic resources. In this paper, we evaluate whether protected areas can serve as refugia for genetic resources of economically important plants that are threatened due to extraction pressures. We examine the population structure and genetic diversity of an economically important rattan, Calamus thwaitesii, in the core, buffer and peripheral regions of three protected areas in the central Western Ghats, southern India. Our results indicate that in all the three protected areas, the core and buffer regions maintain a better population structure, as well as higher genetic diversity, than the peripheral regions of the protected area. Thus, despite the escalating pressures of extraction, the protected areas are effective in conserving the genetic resources of rattan. These results underscore the importance of protected areas in conservation of nontarget species and emphasize the need to further strengthen the protected-area network to offer refugia for economically important plant species.

  14. Genetic and epigenetic alterations of Brassica nigra introgression lines from somatic hybridization: a resource for cauliflower improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guixiang Wang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Broad phenotypic variations were obtained previously in derivatives from the asymmetric somatic hybridization of cauliflower ‘Korso’ (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis, 2n = 18, CC genome and black mustard ‘G1/1’ (Brassica nigra, 2n = 16, BB genome. However, the mechanisms underlying these variations were unknown. In this study, 28 putative introgression lines (ILs were pre-selected according to a series of morphological (leaf shape and color, plant height and branching, curd features, and flower traits and physiological (black rot/club root resistance characters. Multi-color fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed that these plants contained 18 chromosomes derived from ‘Korso’. Molecular marker (65 simple sequence repeats and 77 amplified fragment length polymorphisms analysis identified the presence of ‘G1/1’ DNA segments (average 7.5%. Additionally, DNA profiling revealed many genetic and epigenetic differences among the ILs, including sequence alterations, deletions, and variation in patterns of cytosine methylation. The frequency of fragments lost (5.1% was significantly higher than presence of novel bands (1.4%, and the presence of fragments specific to B. carinata (BBCC 2n = 34 were common (average 15.5%. Methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism analysis indicated that methylation changes were common and that hypermethylation (12.4% was more frequent than hypomethylation (4.8%. Our results suggested that asymmetric somatic hybridization and alien DNA introgression induced genetic and epigenetic alterations. Thus, these ILs represent an important, novel germplasm resource for cauliflower improvement that can be mined for diverse traits of interest to breeders and researchers.

  15. Association of genetic loci with sleep apnea in European Americans and African-Americans: the Candidate Gene Association Resource (CARe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay R Patel

    Full Text Available Although obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is known to have a strong familial basis, no genetic polymorphisms influencing apnea risk have been identified in cross-cohort analyses. We utilized the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI Candidate Gene Association Resource (CARe to identify sleep apnea susceptibility loci. Using a panel of 46,449 polymorphisms from roughly 2,100 candidate genes on a customized Illumina iSelect chip, we tested for association with the apnea hypopnea index (AHI as well as moderate to severe OSA (AHI≥15 in 3,551 participants of the Cleveland Family Study and two cohorts participating in the Sleep Heart Health Study.Among 647 African-Americans, rs11126184 in the pleckstrin (PLEK gene was associated with OSA while rs7030789 in the lysophosphatidic acid receptor 1 (LPAR1 gene was associated with AHI using a chip-wide significance threshold of p-value<2×10(-6. Among 2,904 individuals of European ancestry, rs1409986 in the prostaglandin E2 receptor (PTGER3 gene was significantly associated with OSA. Consistency of effects between rs7030789 and rs1409986 in LPAR1 and PTGER3 and apnea phenotypes were observed in independent clinic-based cohorts.Novel genetic loci for apnea phenotypes were identified through the use of customized gene chips and meta-analyses of cohort data with replication in clinic-based samples. The identified SNPs all lie in genes associated with inflammation suggesting inflammation may play a role in OSA pathogenesis.

  16. Conservation of indigenous cattle genetic resources in Southern Africa’s smallholder areas: turning threats into opportunities — A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyamushamba, G. B.; Mapiye, C.; Tada, O.; Halimani, T. E.; Muchenje, V.

    2017-01-01

    The current review focuses on characterization and conservation efforts vital for the development of breeding programmes for indigenous beef cattle genetic resources in Southern Africa. Indigenous African cattle breeds were identified and characterized using information from refereed journals, conference papers and research reports. Results of this current review reviewed that smallholder beef cattle production in Southern Africa is extensive and dominated by indigenous beef cattle strains adaptable to the local environment. The breeds include Nguni, Mashona, Tuli, Malawi Zebu, Bovino de Tete, Angoni, Landim, Barotse, Twsana and Ankole. These breeds have important functions ranging from provision of food and income to socio-economic, cultural and ecological roles. They also have adaptive traits ranging from drought tolerant, resistance to ticks and tick borne diseases, heat tolerance and resistance to trypanosomosis. Stakeholders in the conservation of beef cattle were also identified and they included farmers, national government, research institutes and universities as well as breeding companies and societies in Southern Africa. Research efforts made to evaluate threats and opportunities of indigenous beef cattle production systems, assess the contribution of indigenous cattle to household food security and income, genetically and phenotypically characterize and conserve indigenous breeds, and develop breeding programs for smallholder beef production are highlighted. Although smallholder beef cattle production in the smallholder farming systems contributes substantially to household food security and income, their productivity is hindered by several constraints that include high prevalence of diseases and parasites, limited feed availability and poor marketing. The majority of the African cattle populations remain largely uncharacterized although most of the indigenous cattle breeds have been identified. PMID:27004814

  17. Conservation of indigenous cattle genetic resources in Southern Africa's smallholder areas: turning threats into opportunities - A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyamushamba, G B; Mapiye, C; Tada, O; Halimani, T E; Muchenje, V

    2017-05-01

    The current review focuses on characterization and conservation efforts vital for the development of breeding programmes for indigenous beef cattle genetic resources in Southern Africa. Indigenous African cattle breeds were identified and characterized using information from refereed journals, conference papers and research reports. Results of this current review reviewed that smallholder beef cattle production in Southern Africa is extensive and dominated by indigenous beef cattle strains adaptable to the local environment. The breeds include Nguni, Mashona, Tuli, Malawi Zebu, Bovino de Tete, Angoni, Landim, Barotse, Twsana and Ankole. These breeds have important functions ranging from provision of food and income to socio-economic, cultural and ecological roles. They also have adaptive traits ranging from drought tolerant, resistance to ticks and tick borne diseases, heat tolerance and resistance to trypanosomosis. Stakeholders in the conservation of beef cattle were also identified and they included farmers, national government, research institutes and universities as well as breeding companies and societies in Southern Africa. Research efforts made to evaluate threats and opportunities of indigenous beef cattle production systems, assess the contribution of indigenous cattle to household food security and income, genetically and phenotypically characterize and conserve indigenous breeds, and develop breeding programs for smallholder beef production are highlighted. Although smallholder beef cattle production in the smallholder farming systems contributes substantially to household food security and income, their productivity is hindered by several constraints that include high prevalence of diseases and parasites, limited feed availability and poor marketing. The majority of the African cattle populations remain largely uncharacterized although most of the indigenous cattle breeds have been identified.

  18. Genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kaare; McGue, Matt

    2016-01-01

    The sequenced genomes of individuals aged ≥80 years, who were highly educated, self-referred volunteers and with no self-reported chronic diseases were compared to young controls. In these data, healthy ageing is a distinct phenotype from exceptional longevity and genetic factors that protect...

  19. Propagation and conservation of native forest genetic resources of medicinal use by means of in vitro and ex vitro techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharry, Sandra; Adema, Marina; Basiglio Cordal, María A; Villarreal, Blanca; Nikoloff, Noelia; Briones, Valentina; Abedini, Walter

    2011-07-01

    In Argentina, there are numerous native species which are an important source of natural products and which are traditionally used in medicinal applications. Some of these species are going through an intense extraction process in their natural habitat which may affect their genetic diversity. The aim of this study was to establish vegetative propagation systems for three native forestal species of medicinal interest. This will allow the rapid obtainment of plants to preserve the germplasm. This study included the following species which are widely used in folk medicine and its applications: Erythrina crista-galli or "seibo" (astringent, used for its cicatrizant properties and for bronchiolitic problems); Acacia caven or "espinillo" (antirheumatic, digestive, diuretic and with cicatrizant properties) and Salix humboldtiana or "sauce criollo" (antipyretic, sedative, antispasmodic, astringent). The methodology included the micropropagation of seibo, macro and micropropagation of Salix humboldtiana and the somatic embryogenesis of Acacia caven. The protocol for seibo regeneration was adjusted from nodal sections of seedlings which were obtained from seeds germinated in vitro. The macropropagation through rooted cuttings of "sauce criollo" was achieved and complete plants of this same species were obtained through both direct and indirect organogenesis using in vitro cultures. The somatic embryogenesis for Acacia caven was optimized and this led to obtain a high percentage of embryos in different stages of development. We are able to support the conservation of native forest resources of medicinal use by means of vegetative propagation techniques.

  20. Evaluation of water resources system vulnerability based on co-operative co-evolutionary genetic algorithm and projection pursuit model under the DPSIR framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y.; Su, X. H.; Wang, M. H.; Li, Z. Y.; Li, E. K.; Xu, X.

    2017-08-01

    Water resources vulnerability control management is essential because it is related to the benign evolution of socio-economic, environmental and water resources system. Research on water resources system vulnerability is helpful to realization of water resources sustainable utilization. In this study, the DPSIR framework of driving forces-pressure–state–impact-response was adopted to construct the evaluation index system of water resources system vulnerability. Then the co-evolutionary genetic algorithm and projection pursuit were used to establish evaluation model of water resources system vulnerability. Tengzhou City in Shandong Province was selected as a study area. The system vulnerability was analyzed in terms of driving forces, pressure, state, impact and response on the basis of the projection value calculated by the model. The results show that the five components all belong to vulnerability Grade II, the vulnerability degree of impact and state were higher than other components due to the fierce imbalance in supply-demand and the unsatisfied condition of water resources utilization. It is indicated that the influence of high speed socio-economic development and the overuse of the pesticides have already disturbed the benign development of water environment to some extents. While the indexes in response represented lower vulnerability degree than the other components. The results of the evaluation model are coincident with the status of water resources system in the study area, which indicates that the model is feasible and effective.

  1. Badania nad patogenicznością grzyba Rhizoctonia solani Kühn na lnie [Investigations of Rhizoctonia solani Kühn pathogenicity to flax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    St. Sadowski

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The investigations on the pathogenicity of four Rhizoctonia solani isolates were carried out in relation to three varieties of flax; LCSD - 210, LCSD - 200 and Wiera. Variety LCSD - 210 was found to be the most resistant. Isolates obtaind from flax and potatoes were especially pathogenic. Rhizoctonia solani was parasitic during the whole vegetation season, but particularly in the course of emergence. Parasitism of this fungus is of great economical significance.

  2. Certified Genetic Counselors: A Crucial Clinical Resource in the Management of Patients with Suspected Hereditary Cancer Syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catts, Zohra Ali-Khan; Hampel, Heather

    2015-10-01

    The role of the cancer genetic counselor in the management of patients with cancer is discussed in this article. This includes explaining what a genetic counselor is trained to do and how they are credentialed and licensed. In addition, the article explains who to refer for cancer genetic counseling. Once referred, the article describes what actually happens in a pretest and posttest cancer genetic counseling session. Use of a cancer genetic registry and how it can help in practice is discussed. Finally, several mechanisms for identifying a cancer genetic counselor at one's institution or nearby are outlined.

  3. Advancing the STMS genomic resources for defining new locations on the intraspecific genetic linkage map of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaur, Rashmi; Sethy, Niroj K; Choudhary, Shalu; Shokeen, Bhumika; Gupta, Varsha; Bhatia, Sabhyata

    2011-02-17

    Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is an economically important cool season grain legume crop that is valued for its nutritive seeds having high protein content. However, several biotic and abiotic stresses and the low genetic variability in the chickpea genome have continuously hindered the chickpea molecular breeding programs. STMS (Sequence Tagged Microsatellite Sites) markers which are preferred for the construction of saturated linkage maps in several crop species, have also emerged as the most efficient and reliable source for detecting allelic diversity in chickpea. However, the number of STMS markers reported in chickpea is still limited and moreover exhibit low rates of both inter and intraspecific polymorphism, thereby limiting the positions of the SSR markers especially on the intraspecific linkage maps of chickpea. Hence, this study was undertaken with the aim of developing additional STMS markers and utilizing them for advancing the genetic linkage map of chickpea which would have applications in QTL identification, MAS and for de novo assembly of high throughput whole genome sequence data. A microsatellite enriched library of chickpea (enriched for (GT/CA)n and (GA/CT)n repeats) was constructed from which 387 putative microsatellite containing clones were identified. From these, 254 STMS primers were designed of which 181 were developed as functional markers. An intraspecific mapping population of chickpea, [ICCV-2 (single podded) × JG-62 (double podded)] and comprising of 126 RILs, was genotyped for mapping. Of the 522 chickpea STMS markers (including the double-podding trait, screened for parental polymorphism, 226 (43.3%) were polymorphic in the parents and were used to genotype the RILs. At a LOD score of 3.5, eight linkage groups defining the position of 138 markers were obtained that spanned 630.9 cM with an average marker density of 4.57 cM. Further, based on the common loci present between the current map and the previously published chickpea

  4. An F2 pig resource population as a model for genetic studies of obesity and obesity-related diseases in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kogelman, Lisette; Kadarmideen, Haja; Mark, Thomas;

    2013-01-01

    and obesity-related (OOR) traits. Using founder breeds divergent with respect to obesity traits we have created an F2 pig resource population (454 pigs), which has been intensively phenotyped for 36 OOR traits. The main rationale for our study is to characterize the genetic architecture of OOR traits in the F......2 pig design, by estimating heritabilities, genetic and phenotypic correlations using mixed- and multi-trait BLUP animal models. Our analyses revealed high coefficients of variation (15-42 per cent) and moderate to high heritabilities (0.22 - 0.81) in fatness traits, showing large phenotypic...

  5. Currently Situation, Some Cases and Implications of the Legislation on Access and Benefit-sharing to Biologi cal Genetic Resource in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Yi-ding

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Australia is one of the most abundant in biodiversity country of the global which located in Oceanian and became a signatory coun try of the Convention on Biodiversity, International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resource for Food and Agriculture, Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species. This country stipulated the Environmental Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act(EPBC, 1999 and Environmental Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Regulations, 2002. Queensland and the North Territory passed the Bio-discovery Act in 2004 and Biological Resource Act in 2006 separately. This paper firstly focus on current situation, characteristic of the legislation on ac cess and benefit-sharing to biological resource in the commonwealth and local place in Australia and then collected and analyzed the typical case of access and benefit-sharing in this country that could bring some experience to China in this field. The conclusion of this paper is that China should stipulated the specific legislation on access and benefit-sharing to biological genetic resource as like the Environmental Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act(EPBC, 1999 and establish the rule of procedure related to the access and benefit-sharing as like the Environmental Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Regulations, 2002, Bio-discovery Act in 2004, Queensland and the Biological Resource Act in 2006, the North Territory.

  6. The study to understand the genetics of the acute response to metformin and glipizide in humans (SUGAR-MGH: design of a pharmacogenetic resource for type 2 diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey A Walford

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies have uncovered a large number of genetic variants associated with type 2 diabetes or related phenotypes. In many cases the causal gene or polymorphism has not been identified, and its impact on response to anti-hyperglycemic medications is unknown. The Study to Understand the Genetics of the Acute Response to Metformin and Glipizide in Humans (SUGAR-MGH, NCT01762046 is a novel resource of genetic and biochemical data following glipizide and metformin administration. We describe recruitment, enrollment, and phenotyping procedures and preliminary results for the first 668 of our planned 1,000 participants enriched for individuals at risk of requiring anti-diabetic therapy in the future.All individuals are challenged with 5 mg glipizide × 1; twice daily 500 mg metformin × 2 days; and 75-g oral glucose tolerance test following metformin. Genetic variants associated with glycemic traits and blood glucose, insulin, and other hormones at baseline and following each intervention are measured.Approximately 50% of the cohort is female and 30% belong to an ethnic minority group. Following glipizide administration, peak insulin occurred at 60 minutes and trough glucose at 120 minutes. Thirty percent of participants experienced non-severe symptomatic hypoglycemia and required rescue with oral glucose. Following metformin administration, fasting glucose and insulin were reduced. Common genetic variants were associated with fasting glucose levels.SUGAR-MGH represents a viable pharmacogenetic resource which, when completed, will serve to characterize genetic influences on pharmacological perturbations, and help establish the functional relevance of newly discovered genetic loci to therapy of type 2 diabetes.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01762046.

  7. The study to understand the genetics of the acute response to metformin and glipizide in humans (SUGAR-MGH): design of a pharmacogenetic resource for type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walford, Geoffrey A; Colomo, Natalia; Todd, Jennifer N; Billings, Liana K; Fernandez, Marlene; Chamarthi, Bindu; Warner, A Sofia; Davis, Jaclyn; Littleton, Katherine R; Hernandez, Alicia M; Fanelli, Rebecca R; Lanier, Amelia; Barbato, Corinne; Ackerman, Rachel J; Khan, Sabina Q; Bui, Rosa; Garber, Laurel; Stolerman, Elliot S; Moore, Allan F; Huang, Chunmei; Kaur, Varinderpal; Harden, Maegan; Taylor, Andrew; Chen, Ling; Manning, Alisa K; Huang, Paul; Wexler, Deborah; McCarthy, Rita M; Lo, Janet; Thomas, Melissa K; Grant, Richard W; Goldfine, Allison; Hudson, Margo S; Florez, Jose C

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies have uncovered a large number of genetic variants associated with type 2 diabetes or related phenotypes. In many cases the causal gene or polymorphism has not been identified, and its impact on response to anti-hyperglycemic medications is unknown. The Study to Understand the Genetics of the Acute Response to Metformin and Glipizide in Humans (SUGAR-MGH, NCT01762046) is a novel resource of genetic and biochemical data following glipizide and metformin administration. We describe recruitment, enrollment, and phenotyping procedures and preliminary results for the first 668 of our planned 1,000 participants enriched for individuals at risk of requiring anti-diabetic therapy in the future. All individuals are challenged with 5 mg glipizide × 1; twice daily 500 mg metformin × 2 days; and 75-g oral glucose tolerance test following metformin. Genetic variants associated with glycemic traits and blood glucose, insulin, and other hormones at baseline and following each intervention are measured. Approximately 50% of the cohort is female and 30% belong to an ethnic minority group. Following glipizide administration, peak insulin occurred at 60 minutes and trough glucose at 120 minutes. Thirty percent of participants experienced non-severe symptomatic hypoglycemia and required rescue with oral glucose. Following metformin administration, fasting glucose and insulin were reduced. Common genetic variants were associated with fasting glucose levels. SUGAR-MGH represents a viable pharmacogenetic resource which, when completed, will serve to characterize genetic influences on pharmacological perturbations, and help establish the functional relevance of newly discovered genetic loci to therapy of type 2 diabetes. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01762046.

  8. The Study to Understand the Genetics of the Acute Response to Metformin and Glipizide in Humans (SUGAR-MGH): Design of a pharmacogenetic Resource for Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walford, Geoffrey A.; Colomo, Natalia; Todd, Jennifer N.; Billings, Liana K.; Fernandez, Marlene; Chamarthi, Bindu; Warner, A. Sofia; Davis, Jaclyn; Littleton, Katherine R.; Hernandez, Alicia M.; Fanelli, Rebecca R.; Lanier, Amelia; Barbato, Corinne; Ackerman, Rachel J.; Khan, Sabina Q.; Bui, Rosa; Garber, Laurel; Stolerman, Elliot S.; Huang, Chunmei; Kaur, Varinderpal; Harden, Maegan; Taylor, Andrew; Chen, Ling; Manning, Alisa K.; Huang, Paul; Wexler, Deborah; McCarthy, Rita M.; Lo, Janet; Thomas, Melissa K.; Grant, Richard W.; Goldfine, Allison; Hudson, Margo S.; Florez, Jose C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Genome-wide association studies have uncovered a large number of genetic variants associated with type 2 diabetes or related phenotypes. In many cases the causal gene or polymorphism has not been identified, and its impact on response to anti-hyperglycemic medications is unknown. The Study to Understand the Genetics of the Acute Response to Metformin and Glipizide in Humans (SUGAR-MGH, NCT01762046) is a novel resource of genetic and biochemical data following glipizide and metformin administration. We describe recruitment, enrollment, and phenotyping procedures and preliminary results for the first 668 of our planned 1,000 participants enriched for individuals at risk of requiring anti-diabetic therapy in the future. Methods All individuals are challenged with 5 mg glipizide × 1; twice daily 500 mg metformin × 2 days; and 75-g oral glucose tolerance test following metformin. Genetic variants associated with glycemic traits and blood glucose, insulin, and other hormones at baseline and following each intervention are measured. Results Approximately 50% of the cohort is female and 30% belong to an ethnic minority group. Following glipizide administration, peak insulin occurred at 60 minutes and trough glucose at 120 minutes. Thirty percent of participants experienced non-severe symptomatic hypoglycemia and required rescue with oral glucose. Following metformin administration, fasting glucose and insulin were reduced. Common genetic variants were associated with fasting glucose levels. Conclusions SUGAR-MGH represents a viable pharmacogenetic resource which, when completed, will serve to characterize genetic influences on pharmacological perturbations, and help establish the functional relevance of newly discovered genetic loci to therapy of type 2 diabetes. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01762046 PMID:25812009

  9. A novel degumming process of flax fiber%亚麻纤维的脱胶工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张毅; 郁崇文

    2011-01-01

    Wet spinning technique of flax is complex, the process is long, and blending with other fibers is difficult. For this reason, a new degumming process of flax fiber is suggested, which includes alkali-hydrogen peroxide one-bath degumming, soaking with swelling agent BK-100, and mechanical opening, treating flax fiber both physically and chemically. The experimental results indicate that the optimum technological parameters of flax degumming by alkali-hydrogen peroxide one bath method are as follows: dosage of NaOH is 3.5% (o.w.f) and H202 is 4% (o.w.f), boiling-off at 90 ℃ for 80 min. Dosage of BK-100 is 4 g/L, and soaking for 20 min. The optimal degumming result can be achieved after being soaked for 20 min under these conditions. After degumming, the breaking strength of the fiber can be up to 5.02 cN/dtex, and fineness 2 400 Nm. Compared with wet spinning process of flax, it improves the quality and spinning property of the fiber significantly, and has created certain conditions for dry spinning of flax fiber.%针对亚麻纤维湿纺工艺复杂、流程长、混纺纱困难等问题,探讨了一种亚麻纤维的新型脱胶工艺,通过碱氧一浴、BK-100膨松剂浸泡、机械开松3道工序,运用物理与化学相结合的方法对亚麻纤维进行处理.实验结果表明,碱氧一浴最佳T艺参数为:NaOH 3.5%(o.w.f),H2O24%(o.w.f),煮练温度90℃,煮练时间80 min,BK-100质量浓度4 g/L,浸泡时间20 min时,可达到最佳脱胶效果,脱胶后亚麻纤维断裂强度可达5.02 cN/dtex,细度可达2 400 Nm.与亚麻湿纺工艺相比,在可纺性指标上得以改善,为亚麻纤维的干纺工艺创造了一定的条件.

  10. The Global Multilateral Benefit-Sharing Mechanism: a new focus in genetic resources access and benefit-sharing negotiations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Xu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Global Multilateral Benefit-Sharing Mechanism (GMBSM is an important issue in the negotiations of access and benefit-sharing of genetic resources. The consultation in regard with need for and modalities of GMBSM were initiated after the adoption of the Nagoya Protocol. This paper reviews the development and the main content of the GMBSM and analyzes positions both from provider and user countries. African groups were not able to lead negotiations of these issues due to constraints in capacity, although it is in support of the GMBSM. Some provider countries such as Brazil did not provide their support because of the concern that the GMBSM is likely to be an obstacle to these countries’ sovereign rights. Representative for user countries delayed the process by raising many technical questions. These negotiations indicate that the GMBSM may become a focus of the Conference of Parties serving as the Meetings of Nagoya Protocol, or even have the potential to be a new supplementary protocol. Regardless of this result, the process will be difficult. Participation proposals for the GMBSM negotiations at diplomatic, legal and technical aspects are also provided as follows: (1 strengthening position coordination among major partners, in particular African group; (2 conducting legal research and evaluate the consistency between the GMBSM and other international treaties, such as the Convention on Biological Diversity, United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, and the Antarctic Treaty; (3 carrying out a series of domestic studies to provide support for participation of the GMBSM debate and negotiations.

  11. Advanced Technology for Decortication of Flax,Hemp and other Bast Fibre Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Munder,F; Fürll, Ch; Hempel,H

    2004-01-01

    Flax,linseed or hemp fibres can substitu1e wood,synthetic,carbon and glassfibres in a wide range of industrial products A complete new machine line for the processing of natural fibre plants was developed,which includes all process stagesfrom pick up and cutting of straw bales up tothe cleaning ofthefinal roducts,fbres and shives The processed fibres have afinenessin the range from 2 5to1 5tex.The length of the fibresis adjustablein the range from 50 to 200 mm These fibres can be shortened by additional cuttlngto a defined length from e g 4to 8 mm Practical applications of the fibres are the automotiveindustry,geo-textiles,thermal blankets,fibrous insulating material and composites, builging boards,coarse yarn,coarse textiles,and reinforcement of saveral composites and structural parts.

  12. The genome of flax (Linum usitatissimum) assembled de novo from short shotgun sequence reads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Zhiwen; Hobson, Neil; Galindo, Leonardo

    2012-01-01

    to 10 kb were sequenced using an Illumina genome analyzer. A de novo assembly, comprised exclusively of deep-coverage (approximately 94× raw, approximately 69× filtered) short-sequence reads (44-100 bp), produced a set of scaffolds with N(50) =694 kb, including contigs with N(50)=20.1 kb. The contig....... A total of 43384 protein-coding genes were predicted in the whole-genome shotgun assembly, and up to 93% of published flax ESTs, and 86% of A. thaliana genes aligned to these predicted genes, indicating excellent coverage and accuracy at the gene level. Analysis of the synonymous substitution rates (K...... these results show that de novo assembly, based solely on whole-genome shotgun short-sequence reads, is an efficient means of obtaining nearly complete genome sequence information for some plant species....

  13. 我國遺傳資源法立法之探討 The Aspect of Legislation of Genetic Resource Law in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    郭華仁 Warren H.J. Kuo

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available 自古以來,遺傳資源即被廣泛地運用在人類之食衣住行中,在農業及醫藥方面利用之機會更多。尤其是近代科學大量使用微生物與植物成分來生產生物製劑,不僅開發出許多新的藥品,也為醫藥工業帶來新的紀元。也因此,許多已開發國家乃積極投入大量資金,到遺傳資源豐富之國家進行探勘。然而這些探勘者一旦發現了特殊的遺傳資源後,往往在進一步或多或少的研發後,即以智慧財產權來確保其對這些遺傳物質及其所衍生的商業利益,對於遺傳資源來源者卻多未有任何之利益分享,形成所謂的「生物竊取」現象。為避免生物竊取案件之持續發生,並促進遺傳資源之保育及永續利用,許多國家乃著手制訂有關遺傳資源保護之法案。我國屬於遺傳資源豐富的國家,但外國人到國內進行探勘,尚無適當的規範加以管理,同時為促進我國遺傳資源之保育及永續利用,因此亟需儘速訂立有關之規範予以管理。有鑑於此,本文擬就「遺傳資源法」立法的必要性及主要規範架構加以探討之。 For centuries, genetic resources had been broadly used in human life, especially in agriculture and medicine. Recent science use plenty of microbes and ingredients of plants to produce biochemists; not only a large number of drugs are invented, but also has brought pharmaceutical industry to a new stage. For this reason, most enterprises of developed countries invest lots of time and money to survey in countries which possess rich genetic resources. However, once these surveyors find special genetic resources, after more or less researches, they usually hold intellectual properties of these genetic materials to protect their commercial benefits without sharing with sources of which generates benefits. This is so called “biopiracy.” In order to avoid biopiracies and to keep substantial

  14. The genome sequence and effector complement of the flax rust pathogen Melampsora lini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnane eNemri

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Rust fungi cause serious yield reductions on crops, including wheat, barley, soybean, coffee, and represent real threats to global food security. Of these fungi, the flax rust pathogen Melampsora lini has been developed extensively over the past 80 years as a model to understand the molecular mechanisms that underpin pathogenesis. During infection, M. lini secretes virulence effectors to promote disease. The number of these effectors, their function and their degree of conservation across rust fungal species is unknown. To assess this, we sequenced and assembled de novo the genome of M. lini isolate CH5 into 21,130 scaffolds spanning 189 Mbp (scaffold N50 of 31 kbp. Global analysis of the DNA sequence revealed that repetitive elements, primarily retrotransposons, make up at least 45% of the genome. Using ab initio predictions, transcriptome data and homology searches, we identified 16,271 putative protein-coding genes. An analysis pipeline was then implemented to predict the effector complement of M. lini and compare it to that of the poplar rust, wheat stem rust and wheat stripe rust pathogens to identify conserved and species-specific effector candidates. Previous knowledge of four cloned M. lini avirulence effector proteins and two basidiomycete effectors was used to optimise parameters of the effector prediction pipeline. Markov clustering based on sequence similarity was performed to group effector candidates from all four rust pathogens. Clusters containing at least one member from M. lini were further analysed and prioritized based on features including expression in isolated haustoria and infected leaf tissue and conservation across rust species. Herein, we describe 200 of 940 clusters that ranked highest on our priority list, representing 725 flax rust candidate effectors. Our findings on this important model rust species provide insight into how effectors of rust fungi are conserved across species and how they may act to promote

  15. Surface chemical and biological characterization of flax fabrics modified with silver nanoparticles for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paladini, F., E-mail: federica.paladini@unisalento.it [Department of Engineering for Innovation, University of Salento, Via per Monteroni, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Picca, R.A.; Sportelli, M.C.; Cioffi, N. [Department of Chemistry, University of Bari “Aldo Moro”, Via Orabona 4, 70126 Bari (Italy); Sannino, A.; Pollini, M. [Department of Engineering for Innovation, University of Salento, Via per Monteroni, 73100 Lecce (Italy)

    2015-07-01

    Silver nanophases are increasingly used as effective antibacterial agent for biomedical applications and wound healing. This work aims to investigate the surface chemical composition and biological properties of silver nanoparticle-modified flax substrates. Silver coatings were deposited on textiles through the in situ photo-reduction of a silver solution, by means of a large-scale apparatus. The silver-coated materials were characterized through X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), to assess the surface elemental composition of the coatings, and the chemical speciation of both the substrate and the antibacterial nanophases. A detailed investigation of XPS high resolution regions outlined that silver is mainly present on nanophases' surface as Ag{sub 2}O. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were also carried out, in order to visualize the distribution of silver particles on the fibers. The materials were also characterized from a biological point of view in terms of antibacterial capability and cytotoxicity. Agar diffusion tests and bacterial enumeration tests were performed on Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria, namely Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. In vitro cytotoxicity tests were performed through the extract method on murine fibroblasts in order to verify if the presence of the silver coating affected the cellular viability and proliferation. Durability of the coating was also assessed, thus confirming the successful scaling up of the process, which will be therefore available for large-scale production. - Highlights: • Silver nanophases are increasingly used as effective antibacterial agent for biomedical applications. • Silver coatings were deposited on textiles through the in situ photo-reduction of a silver solution. • Flax fabrics were characterized from a biological and surface chemical point of view. • Scaling up of the process was confirmed.

  16. The genome sequence and effector complement of the flax rust pathogen Melampsora lini

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemri, Adnane; Saunders, Diane G. O.; Anderson, Claire; Upadhyaya, Narayana M.; Win, Joe; Lawrence, Gregory J.; Jones, David A.; Kamoun, Sophien; Ellis, Jeffrey G.; Dodds, Peter N.

    2014-01-01

    Rust fungi cause serious yield reductions on crops, including wheat, barley, soybean, coffee, and represent real threats to global food security. Of these fungi, the flax rust pathogen Melampsora lini has been developed most extensively over the past 80 years as a model to understand the molecular mechanisms that underpin pathogenesis. During infection, M. lini secretes virulence effectors to promote disease. The number of these effectors, their function and their degree of conservation across rust fungal species is unknown. To assess this, we sequenced and assembled de novo the genome of M. lini isolate CH5 into 21,130 scaffolds spanning 189 Mbp (scaffold N50 of 31 kbp). Global analysis of the DNA sequence revealed that repetitive elements, primarily retrotransposons, make up at least 45% of the genome. Using ab initio predictions, transcriptome data and homology searches, we identified 16,271 putative protein-coding genes. An analysis pipeline was then implemented to predict the effector complement of M. lini and compare it to that of the poplar rust, wheat stem rust and wheat stripe rust pathogens to identify conserved and species-specific effector candidates. Previous knowledge of four cloned M. lini avirulence effector proteins and two basidiomycete effectors was used to optimize parameters of the effector prediction pipeline. Markov clustering based on sequence similarity was performed to group effector candidates from all four rust pathogens. Clusters containing at least one member from M. lini were further analyzed and prioritized based on features including expression in isolated haustoria and infected leaf tissue and conservation across rust species. Herein, we describe 200 of 940 clusters that ranked highest on our priority list, representing 725 flax rust candidate effectors. Our findings on this important model rust species provide insight into how effectors of rust fungi are conserved across species and how they may act to promote infection on their

  17. The “Bringing into Cultivation” Phase of the Plant Domestication Process and Its Contributions to In Situ Conservation of Genetic Resources in Benin

    OpenAIRE

    Vodouhè, R.; Dansi, A.

    2012-01-01

    All over the world, plant domestication is continually being carried out by local communities to support their needs for food, fibre, medicine, building materials, etc. Using participatory rapid appraisal approach, 150 households were surveyed in 5 villages selected in five ethnic groups of Benin, to investigate the local communities’ motivations for plant domestication and the contributions of this process to in situ conservation of genetic resources. The results indicated differences in pla...

  18. Physicochemical and Bacteriological Characteristics of Organic Sprouted Chia and Flax Seed Powders Implicated in a Foodborne Salmonellosis Outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamber, Sandeep; Swist, Eleonora; Oudit, Denise

    2016-05-01

    Despite the increasing popularity of sprouted chia and flax seed powders, no data have been reported on their intrinsic physicochemical properties and background microflora. Here, we report the moisture content, water activity, pH, and fatty acid methyl ester and bacteriological profiles of 19 sprouted chia and flax seed samples, 10 of which were associated with an outbreak of salmonellosis in Canada and the United States. The physicochemical parameters of the Salmonella-positive samples did not differ significantly from those of the negative samples. However, the higher Enterobacteriaceae and coliform levels on the contaminated powders were associated with the presence of Salmonella. Enumeration of Salmonella by the most probable number (MPN) method revealed concentrations ranging from 1 MPN per 3 g of powder to 1 MPN per 556 g of powder. The results of this study demonstrate that low numbers of Salmonella may be linked to foodborne outbreaks.

  19. Influence of Hybridizing Flax and Hemp-Agave Fibers with Glass Fiber as Reinforcement in a Polyurethane Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Pandey

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, six combinations of flax, hemp, and glass fiber were investigated for a hybrid reinforcement system in a polyurethane (PU composite. The natural fibers were combined with glass fibers in a PU composite in order to achieve a better mechanical reinforcement in the composite material. The effect of fiber hybridization in PU composites was evaluated through physical and mechanical properties such as water absorption (WA, specific gravity (SG, coefficient of linear thermal expansion (CLTE, flexural and compression properties, and hardness. The mechanical properties of hybridized samples showed mixed trends compared to the unhybridized samples, but hybridization with glass fiber reduced water absorption by 37% and 43% for flax and hemp-agave PU composites respectively.

  20. Effect of cotyledons and epicotyl upon the activity of endogenous gibberellins in roots of flax (Linum usitatissimum L. seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna M. Janas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In 11-day-old flax seedlings, the level of endogenous gibberellins in roots decreased within 12 hours after the excision of cotyledons and the epicotyl; however, 24 to 48 hours after excision the gibberellin level increased again. The decrease in the gibberellin level within the first 12 hours after excision suggests a participation of the cotyledons and the epicotyl in the biosynthesis of endogenous gibberellins.

  1. Effect of cotyledons and epicotyl upon the activity of endogenous gibberellins in roots of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) seedlings

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    In 11-day-old flax seedlings, the level of endogenous gibberellins in roots decreased within 12 hours after the excision of cotyledons and the epicotyl; however, 24 to 48 hours after excision the gibberellin level increased again. The decrease in the gibberellin level within the first 12 hours after excision suggests a participation of the cotyledons and the epicotyl in the biosynthesis of endogenous gibberellins.

  2. Flax Fiber Hydrophobic Extract Inhibits Human Skin Cells Inflammation and Causes Remodeling of Extracellular Matrix and Wound Closure Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Styrczewska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation is the basis of many diseases, with chronic wounds amongst them, limiting cell proliferation and tissue regeneration. Our previous preclinical study of flax fiber applied as a wound dressing and analysis of its components impact on the fibroblast transcriptome suggested flax fiber hydrophobic extract use as an anti-inflammatory and wound healing preparation. The extract contains cannabidiol (CBD, phytosterols, and unsaturated fatty acids, showing great promise in wound healing. In in vitro proliferation and wound closure tests the extract activated cell migration and proliferation. The activity of matrix metalloproteinases in skin cells was increased, suggesting activation of extracellular components remodeling. The expression of cytokines was diminished by the extract in a cannabidiol-dependent manner, but β-sitosterol can act synergistically with CBD in inflammation inhibition. Extracellular matrix related genes were also analyzed, considering their importance in further stages of wound healing. The extract activated skin cell matrix remodeling, but the changes were only partially cannabidiol- and β-sitosterol-dependent. The possible role of fatty acids also present in the extract is suggested. The study shows the hydrophobic flax fiber components as wound healing activators, with anti-inflammatory cannabidiol acting in synergy with sterols, and migration and proliferation promoting agents, some of which still require experimental identification.

  3. Flax Fiber Hydrophobic Extract Inhibits Human Skin Cells Inflammation and Causes Remodeling of Extracellular Matrix and Wound Closure Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styrczewska, Monika; Kostyn, Anna; Kulma, Anna; Majkowska-Skrobek, Grazyna; Augustyniak, Daria; Prescha, Anna; Czuj, Tadeusz; Szopa, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation is the basis of many diseases, with chronic wounds amongst them, limiting cell proliferation and tissue regeneration. Our previous preclinical study of flax fiber applied as a wound dressing and analysis of its components impact on the fibroblast transcriptome suggested flax fiber hydrophobic extract use as an anti-inflammatory and wound healing preparation. The extract contains cannabidiol (CBD), phytosterols, and unsaturated fatty acids, showing great promise in wound healing. In in vitro proliferation and wound closure tests the extract activated cell migration and proliferation. The activity of matrix metalloproteinases in skin cells was increased, suggesting activation of extracellular components remodeling. The expression of cytokines was diminished by the extract in a cannabidiol-dependent manner, but β-sitosterol can act synergistically with CBD in inflammation inhibition. Extracellular matrix related genes were also analyzed, considering their importance in further stages of wound healing. The extract activated skin cell matrix remodeling, but the changes were only partially cannabidiol- and β-sitosterol-dependent. The possible role of fatty acids also present in the extract is suggested. The study shows the hydrophobic flax fiber components as wound healing activators, with anti-inflammatory cannabidiol acting in synergy with sterols, and migration and proliferation promoting agents, some of which still require experimental identification.

  4. PART I. STUDY REGARDING THE OPTIMIZATION OF THE BIOSCOURING TREATMENT IN ULTRASOUND ON 60 % COTTON + 40 % COTTONISED FLAX MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PUSTIANU Monica

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the past years the commercial products for the bioscouring treatment were usually dedicated only for 100 % cotton or only for 100% lignocelluloses fabrics. The development of hemp/cotton or flax/cotton mixtures fabrics leds to the necessity of finding of the most apropiate products that could be used for different enzymatic treatments on these types of fabrics.The usage of the commercial product SERA ZYME C-PE for bioscouring treatment in ultrasound conditions on 60 % cotton + 40 % cottonised flax was studied in this work. The optimization of the Bioscouring treatment in ultrasound on 60 % cotton + 40 % hemp materials using the same commercial product was previous published. In order to assess more accurately the influence of some process parameters of the bioscouring treatment in a mathematical modeling of the process was made and a central compound rotatable program with two independent variable: x1 - the concentration of enzyme (% and x 2 - treatment time (minutes was used. The independent variable considered was y 1 – the weight loss. The aim of this study was to investigate the behaviour of cottonised flax/cotton mixtures for the same conditions of bioscouring treatment used as for hemp/cotton mixtures.

  5. Genetic differentiation and trade among populations of Peach Palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) in the Peruvian Amazon - implications for genetic resource management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adin, A.; Weber, J.C.; Sotelo Montes, C.; Vidaurre, H.; Vosman, B.J.; Smulders, M.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    Peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) is cultivated for fruit and 'heart of palm', and is an important component of agroforestry systems in the Peruvian Amazon. In this study, AFLP was used to compare genetic diversity among domesticated populations along the Paranapura and Cuiparillo rivers, which ar

  6. Role of genetic resources from different geographic and climatic regions in simultaneous breeding for high quality protein maize (HQPM and stress tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denic Miloje

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the low biological value of proteins of common maize, it was reinitiated breeding for high protein quality maize (HQPM using three genetic systems, namely: opaque-2 gene, endosperm modifier genes and enhancer genes, which are increasing lysine and tryptophan content in opaque-2 background In order to alleviate effect of abiotic and biotic stress factors, the genotypes with tolerance to those factors were included. Genetic resources originating from North, Central and South America, then West, Central and Southern Africa and gene bank of Maize Research Institute “Zemun Polje” were used. Combining breeding approaches in selection of genetic resources, field plot techniques and laboratory analysis, it was created large number of early QPM varieties, inbred lines and hybrids with modified endosperm and high yield potential under poor and good growing conditions. Created lines exhibited high combining ability in conventional and non-conventional hybrids. Yield trials showed that QPM hybrids are competing with commercial hybrids of common maize.

  7. Best practices for the use and exchange of invertebrate biological control genetic resources relevant for food and agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biological control is an important and environmentally preferred management option for invasive insect pests and weeds. Implementation of new international regulations governing exchange of genetic materials impacts the availability of candidate biocontrol agents, and exchange policies need to be ca...

  8. HmtDB, a Human Mitochondrial Genomic Resource Based on Variability Studies Supporting Population Genetics and Biomedical Research

    OpenAIRE

    Pappadà Graziano; Scioscia Gaetano; Lascaro Daniela; Santamaria Monica; Accetturo Matteo; Attimonelli Marcella; Russo Luigi; Zanchetta Luigi; Tommaseo-Ponzetta Mila

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Population genetics studies based on the analysis of mtDNA and mitochondrial disease studies have produced a huge quantity of sequence data and related information. These data are at present worldwide distributed in differently organised databases and web sites not well integrated among them. Moreover it is not generally possible for the user to submit and contemporarily analyse its own data comparing them with the content of a given database, both for population genetics ...

  9. Genetic Diversity in ex-situ Conserved Lens culinaris for Botanical Descriptors, Biochemical and Molecular Markers and Identification of Landraces from Indigenous Genetic Resources of Pakistan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tayyaba Sultana; Abdul Ghafoor

    2008-01-01

    Lentil, one of the oldest legumes was Investigated for diversity based on botanical descriptors, total seed proteins,isozymes and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. About one fourth of accessions were heterogeneous for botanical descriptors and a seed protein profile. The germplaem collected from the province of Baluchistan revealed the prevalence of indigenous landraces as high diversity was observed for all of the techniques. Diversity explored through various techniques revealed validity Irrespective of the sample size or geographic pattern, RAPD being the best choice for Investigating both inter- and intra-accession variation In lentil. Although all of the techniques were able to resolve genetic diversity In lentil, isozymes and seed proteins gave low levels of genetic diversity, suggesting that more investigation into isozymes of specific proteins is required. RAPD is the best option for determining inter- and Intra-accession variation, and will be required to extend germplasme and primers to continue the study of botanical descriptors.

  10. Study of genetic variability in Vitis vinifera L. germplasm by high-throughput Vitis18kSNP array: the case of Georgian genetic resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lorenzis, Gabriella; Chipashvili, Ramaz; Failla, Osvaldo; Maghradze, David

    2015-06-23

    Georgia, in the Caucasian region, is considered the first domestication centre of grapevine. This country is characterized by high morphological variability of cultivated (Vitis vinifera L. subsp. sativa (DC.) Hegi) and wild (Vitis vinifera L. subsp. sylvestris (Gmel.) Hegi) compartments. The main objective of this study was to investigate the level of genetic diversity obtained by the novel custom Vitis18kSNP array, in order to analyse 71 grapevine accessions representative of wild and cultivated Georgian germplasms. The number of loci successfully amplified was 15,317 out of 18,775 SNP and 79 % of loci resulted polymorphic. Sixty-eight unique profiles were identified, 42 for the sativa and 26 for the sylvestris compartment. Cluster analysis highlighted two main groups, one for cultivars and another for wild individuals, while a genetic structure according to accession taxonomic status and cultivar geographical origin was revealed by multivariate analysis, differentiating clearly the genotypes into 3 main groups, two groups including cultivars and one for wild individuals, even though a considerable overlapping area was observed. Pattern of genetic diversity structure presented an additional proof that grapevine domestication events took place in the Caucasian region contributing to the crop evolution. Our results demonstrated a moderate differentiation between sativa and sylvestris compartments, even though a connection between several samples of both subspecies may be assumed for the occurrence of cross hybridization events among native wild populations and the cultivated accessions. Nevertheless, first degree relationships have not been discovered between wild and cultivated individuals.

  11. Genome survey and high-density genetic map construction provide genomic and genetic resources for the Pacific White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yang; Zhang, Xiaojun; Yuan, Jianbo; Li, Fuhua; Chen, Xiaohan; Zhao, Yongzhen; Huang, Long; Zheng, Hongkun; Xiang, Jianhai

    2015-10-27

    The Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei is the dominant crustacean species in global seafood mariculture. Understanding the genome and genetic architecture is useful for deciphering complex traits and accelerating the breeding program in shrimp. In this study, a genome survey was conducted and a high-density linkage map was constructed using a next-generation sequencing approach. The genome survey was used to identify preliminary genome characteristics and to generate a rough reference for linkage map construction. De novo SNP discovery resulted in 25,140 polymorphic markers. A total of 6,359 high-quality markers were selected for linkage map construction based on marker coverage among individuals and read depths. For the linkage map, a total of 6,146 markers spanning 4,271.43 cM were mapped to 44 sex-averaged linkage groups, with an average marker distance of 0.7 cM. An integration analysis linked 5,885 genome scaffolds and 1,504 BAC clones to the linkage map. Based on the high-density linkage map, several QTLs for body weight and body length were detected. This high-density genetic linkage map reveals basic genomic architecture and will be useful for comparative genomics research, genome assembly and genetic improvement of L. vannamei and other penaeid shrimp species.

  12. iPSCORE: A Resource of 222 iPSC Lines Enabling Functional Characterization of Genetic Variation across a Variety of Cell Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasia D. Panopoulos

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale collections of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs could serve as powerful model systems for examining how genetic variation affects biology and disease. Here we describe the iPSCORE resource: a collection of systematically derived and characterized iPSC lines from 222 ethnically diverse individuals that allows for both familial and association-based genetic studies. iPSCORE lines are pluripotent with high genomic integrity (no or low numbers of somatic copy-number variants as determined using high-throughput RNA-sequencing and genotyping arrays, respectively. Using iPSCs from a family of individuals, we show that iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes demonstrate gene expression patterns that cluster by genetic background, and can be used to examine variants associated with physiological and disease phenotypes. The iPSCORE collection contains representative individuals for risk and non-risk alleles for 95% of SNPs associated with human phenotypes through genome-wide association studies. Our study demonstrates the utility of iPSCORE for examining how genetic variants influence molecular and physiological traits in iPSCs and derived cell lines.

  13. iPSCORE: A Resource of 222 iPSC Lines Enabling Functional Characterization of Genetic Variation across a Variety of Cell Types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panopoulos, Athanasia D; D'Antonio, Matteo; Benaglio, Paola; Williams, Roy; Hashem, Sherin I; Schuldt, Bernhard M; DeBoever, Christopher; Arias, Angelo D; Garcia, Melvin; Nelson, Bradley C; Harismendy, Olivier; Jakubosky, David A; Donovan, Margaret K R; Greenwald, William W; Farnam, KathyJean; Cook, Megan; Borja, Victor; Miller, Carl A; Grinstein, Jonathan D; Drees, Frauke; Okubo, Jonathan; Diffenderfer, Kenneth E; Hishida, Yuriko; Modesto, Veronica; Dargitz, Carl T; Feiring, Rachel; Zhao, Chang; Aguirre, Aitor; McGarry, Thomas J; Matsui, Hiroko; Li, He; Reyna, Joaquin; Rao, Fangwen; O'Connor, Daniel T; Yeo, Gene W; Evans, Sylvia M; Chi, Neil C; Jepsen, Kristen; Nariai, Naoki; Müller, Franz-Josef; Goldstein, Lawrence S B; Izpisua Belmonte, Juan Carlos; Adler, Eric; Loring, Jeanne F; Berggren, W Travis; D'Antonio-Chronowska, Agnieszka; Smith, Erin N; Frazer, Kelly A

    2017-04-11

    Large-scale collections of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) could serve as powerful model systems for examining how genetic variation affects biology and disease. Here we describe the iPSCORE resource: a collection of systematically derived and characterized iPSC lines from 222 ethnically diverse individuals that allows for both familial and association-based genetic studies. iPSCORE lines are pluripotent with high genomic integrity (no or low numbers of somatic copy-number variants) as determined using high-throughput RNA-sequencing and genotyping arrays, respectively. Using iPSCs from a family of individuals, we show that iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes demonstrate gene expression patterns that cluster by genetic background, and can be used to examine variants associated with physiological and disease phenotypes. The iPSCORE collection contains representative individuals for risk and non-risk alleles for 95% of SNPs associated with human phenotypes through genome-wide association studies. Our study demonstrates the utility of iPSCORE for examining how genetic variants influence molecular and physiological traits in iPSCs and derived cell lines. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. An Efficient Genetic Agorithm for Solving the Multi-Mode Resource-Constrained Project Scheduling Problem Based on Random Key Representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hassan Sebt

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new genetic algorithm (GA is presented for solving the multi-mode resource-constrained project scheduling problem (MRCPSP with minimization of project makespan as the objective subject to resource and precedence constraints. A random key and the related mode list (ML representation scheme are used as encoding schemes and the multi-mode serial schedule generation scheme (MSSGS is considered as the decoding procedure. In this paper, a simple, efficient fitness function is proposed which has better performance compared to the other fitness functions in the literature. Defining a new mutation operator for ML is the other contribution of the current study. Comparing the results of the proposed GA with other approaches using the well-known benchmark sets in PSPLIB validates the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm to solve the MRCPSP.

  15. SSR Analysis on Genetic Relationships of Xinjiang Malus Germplasm Resources%新疆苹果种质资源亲缘关系的SSR分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦伟; 刘立强; 廖康; 耿文娟; 唐芳

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective] The aim of this thesis is to analyze the genetci relationships of 21 portions of apple germplasm resources in Xinjiang to provide the important key basis for inference of source of Xinjiang Malus. [Method] SSR techniques of molecular biology were used to provide the important basis for the diduction based on which Xinjiang Malus varieties were directly domesticated from Xinjiang Wild apple varieties, through DNA extraction, purity and concentration detection, SSR amplification procedures and composition of the system, primers selection, PCR amplification and data analysis to explore the genetic relationships between Xinjiang Malus germplasm resources. [ Result] The twenty - one portions of materials were divided three groups when the genetic similarity coefficient was 0.63 . The results of clustenng germplasm resources showed the cultivars in Xinjiang M. sieversii cross - distribution, the cultivar in Xinjiang M. sieversii had the same genetic background, the high genetic similarity and closer ggnetic relationship. [ Cociclusion] Local apple varieties in Xinjiang may be domesticated directly from Malus sieversii Roem for the long - term breeding of domesticated or cultivated hybrid genetic variation .%[目的]以21份新疆苹果种质资源为实验材料,研究新疆苹果种质资源的亲缘关系,以期为新疆地方苹果品种可能是由新疆野苹果直接驯化而来的推论提供重要证据.[方法]利用分子生物学SSR技术,通过DNA的提取、纯度与浓度检测,SSR扩增反应的程序和体系组成、引物选择、PCR扩增及数据分析等,探讨新疆苹果资源间亲缘关系.[结果]若以遗传相似系数0.63为阈值,可将新疆苹果21份地方资源聚类成3组,新疆野苹果和新疆地方苹果品种交叉分布,说明新疆地方苹果品种与新疆野苹果具有相同的遗传背景,遗传相似度高,亲缘关系很近.[结论]新疆地方苹果品种可能是由新疆野苹果直接驯化而来,或是

  16. Extending GelJ for interoperability: Filling the gap in the bioinformatics resources for population genetics analysis with dominant markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, César; Heras, Jónathan; Mata, Eloy; Pascual, Vico; Vázquez-Garcidueñas, Maria Soledad; Vázquez-Marrufo, Gerardo

    2017-03-01

    The manual transformation of DNA fingerprints of dominant markers into the input of tools for population genetics analysis is a time-consuming and error-prone task; especially when the researcher deals with a large number of samples. In addition, when the researcher needs to use several tools for population genetics analysis, the situation worsens due to the incompatibility of data-formats across tools. The goal of this work consists in automating, from banding patterns of gel images, the input-generation for the great diversity of tools devoted to population genetics analysis. After a thorough analysis of tools for population genetics analysis with dominant markers, and tools for working with phylogenetic trees; we have detected the input requirements of those systems. In the case of programs devoted to phylogenetic trees, the Newick and Nexus formats are widely employed; whereas, each population genetics analysis tool uses its own specific format. In order to handle such a diversity of formats in the latter case, we have developed a new XML format, called PopXML, that takes into account the variety of information required by each population genetics analysis tool. Moreover, the acquired knowledge has been incorporated into the pipeline of the GelJ system - a tool for analysing DNA fingerprint gel images - to reach our automatisation goal. We have implemented, in the GelJ system, a pipeline that automatically generates, from gel banding patterns, the input of tools for population genetics analysis and phylogenetic trees. Such a pipeline has been employed to successfully generate, from thousands of banding patterns, the input of 29 population genetics analysis tools and 32 tools for managing phylogenetic trees. GelJ has become the first tool that fills the gap between gel image processing software and population genetics analysis with dominant markers, phylogenetic reconstruction, and tree editing software. This has been achieved by automating the process of

  17. Combined treatment of retting flax wastewater using Fenton oxidation and granular activated carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohair I. Abou-Elela

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The process of retting flax produces a huge amount of wastewater which is characterized with bad unpleasant smell and high concentration of organic materials. Treatment of such waste had always been difficult because of the presence of refractory organic pollutants such as lignin. In this study, treatment of retting wastewater was carried out using combined system of Fenton oxidation process followed by adsorption on granular activated carbon (GAC. The effects of operating condition on Fenton oxidation process such as hydrogen peroxide and iron concentration were investigated. In addition, kinetic study of the adsorption process was elaborated. The obtained results indicated that degradation of organic matters follows a pseudo-first order reaction with regression coefficient of 0.98. The kinetic model suggested that the rate of reaction was highly affected by the concentration of hydrogen peroxide. Moreover, the results indicated that the treatment module was very efficient in removing the organic and inorganic pollutants. The average percentage removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD, total suspended solid (TSS, oil, and grease was 98.60%, 86.60%, and 94.22% with residual values of 44, 20, and 5 mg/L, respectively. The treated effluent was complying with the National Regulatory Standards for wastewater discharge into surface water or reuse in the retting process.

  18. Performance and emission characteristics of compression ignition engine operating with false flax biodiesel and butanol blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Atakan Akar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, fuel properties, engine performance, and emission characteristics of diesel fuel, false flax biodiesel, and their blends with butanol have been evaluated. Blend ratios used in this study were diesel–biodiesel–butanol (70% diesel–20% biodiesel–10% butanol and 60% diesel–20% biodiesel–20% butanol by volume and biodiesel–diesel (20% biodiesel–80% diesel and 100% biodiesel by volume. Experiments showed that 10% alcohol addition to diesel and biodiesel fuels caused a decrease in torque value up to 8.57%. When butanol ratio raised to 20%, torque value decreased to an average of 12.7% and power values decreased to an average of 13.57%. Specific fuel consumption increased to an average of 10.63% and 12.80% with 10% and 20% butanol addition, respectively. Alcohol addiction into conventional diesel and biodiesel fuel slightly increased NOX emissions. Supplement of alcohol decreased CO and CO2 emissions when it was entrained to diesel and increased it when it was added to biodiesel. It means that addition of alcohol to diesel changed CO and CO2 emissions.

  19. Potassium Influence NRA、HPA and PODA on Leaves of Fiber Flax

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The effecf of potassium fertilizer on Nitrate Reductase Activity (NRA), Hydrogen Peroxide Activity (HPA) ,Peroxidase Activity (PODA) in the fiber flax was studied on campus of NEAU in 1995 and 1996. The result showed that the changing of NRA,HPA and PODA was same in the period from the quick growth to blossom period in the different treamets. NAR and HPA was the highest in the quick growth period then cut down gradually,and PODA was just right contrary. The other side,it was obviously different to NRA, HPA and PODA in the different Potassium levels. NRA and HPA presented the highest enzyme activity in the trea ment of K2O 22.5kg · ha-1. PODA in creased gradually with the increase of Potassium. PODA was the high est in the treament of K2O 67.5kg · ha-1. But all of the Potassium treatments was higher than CK whatever NRA,HPA and PODA. Potassium may enhanced the primary stem yield and fiber percentage and lead to fiber yield rising.

  20. HPLC with electrochemical detection for studying of synthesis of phytochelatins in cadmium treated flax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondrej Zitka

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available If there would be free heavy metals occurring in the organismwithout control it initiates creation of number of dangerous species (ROS. These species are disturbing of homeostasis of organism by subsequent oxidation of essential cellular structures as nucleic acids. Animal and plant organism has both one efficient defending system which includes synthesis of glutathione (GSH. But plants are limited in case of escape from metal contaminated area. Therefore plant cell has mechanism includes synthesis of phytochelatins (PCfrom GSH by phytochelatin synthase. PC´s are able to immobilize heavy metal ion via number of thiol groups. We treated the plants of flax (Linum usativum by various concentration of Cd(II ions (50, 250, and 500μM in our study. Subsequently we used our developed method for determination of oxidation stress as GSH/GSSG ratio and levels of PC-2,3,4 and 5. We observed that most synthesised PC under the highest concentration of Cd(II treatment was PC-2,4 and 5.

  1. Manufacture of Flax Reinforced PP Laminates and Research on the Tensile Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Li-yan; HUANG Gu; WANG Rui

    2007-01-01

    Flax fiber was used to reinforce Polypropylene (PP) owing to its lower impact on environment and suitable mechanical behaviors. To overcome the difficulty of penetrating fibers due to the high viscosity of thermo-plastic resin, PP filaments wrapping around the linen yam produced commingled yams, which were woven into fabrics as preforms to make laminates by optimum hot-pressing technology. The effects of fiber volume fraction, fabric density and structure on tensile properties of composites were researched through analyzing the tensile test results and the scanning electronic microscope (SEM) micrographs of fracture surface. Concinsious are drawn that the properties of laminates with fiber volume fraction of 0.50 are better than those with the other two fractions. For plain structure, the tensile properties in warp direction decrease according to the increase of weft density while in weft direction increase. For different fabric structures, properties of laminates with structures of plain 3, twill 2/2 and twill 3/1 increase gradually. And properties in weft direction are prior to those in warp direction for each laminate.

  2. PREPARATION OF BIODEGRADABLE FLAX SHIVE CELLULOSE-BASED SUPERABSORBENT POLYMER UNDER MICROWAVE IRRADIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Feng

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Superabsorbent polymer was prepared by graft polymerization of acrylic acid onto the chain of cellulose from flax shive by using potassium persulfate (KPS as an initiator and N,N’-methylenebisacrylamide (MBA as a crosslinker under microwave irradiation. SEM photographs were also studied for more information about the shive, cellulose from shive, and the superabsorbent polymer. The structure of the graft copolymer was confirmed by FT-IR spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. The biodegradability in soil was measured at 32 and 40 oC. The polymer was porous, and thermal stability of the polymer was observed up to approximately 200 oC. FT-IR analysis indicated that acrylic acid in polymer was successfully grafted onto the cellulose. The graft copolymer was found to be an effective superabsorbent resin, rapidly absorbing water to almost 1000 times its own dry weight at pH around 7.3. The water absorbency in 0.9% NaCl, KCl, FeCl3 solutions and urine were 56.47 g/g, 54.71g/g, 9.89g/g and 797.21g/g, respectively. The product biologically degraded up to 40% at 40 oC in 54 days, which shows good biodegradability.

  3. Estimates of effective population size and inbreeding in South African indigenous chicken populations: implications for the conservation of unique genetic resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mtileni, Bohani; Dzama, Kennedy; Nephawe, Khathutshelo; Rhode, Clint

    2016-06-01

    Conservation of locally adapted indigenous livestock breeds has become an important objective in sustainable animal breeding, as these breeds represent a unique genetic resource. Therefore, the Agricultural Research Council of South Africa initiated a conservation programme for four South African indigenous chicken breeds. The evaluation and monitoring of the genetic constitution of these conservation flocks is important for proper management of the conservation programme. Using molecular genetic analyses, the effective population sizes and relatedness of these conservation flocks were compared to village (field) chicken populations from which they were derived. Genetic diversity within and between these populations are further discussed within the context of population size. The conservation flocks for the respective breeds had relatively small effective population sizes (point estimate range 38.6-78.6) in comparison to the field populations (point estimate range 118.9-580.0). Furthermore, evidence supports a transient heterozygous excess, generally associated with the occurrence of a recent population bottleneck. Genetic diversity, as measured by the number of alleles, heterozygosity and information index, was also significantly reduced in the conservation flocks. The average relatedness amongst the conservation flocks was high, whilst it remained low for the field populations. There was also significant evidence for population differentiation between field and conservation populations. F st estimates for conservation flocks were moderate to high with a maximum reached between VD_C and VD_F (0.285). However, F st estimates for field population were excessively low between the NN_C and EC_F (0.007) and between EC_F and OV_F (0.009). The significant population differentiation of the conservation flocks from their geographically correlated field populations of origin is further supported by the analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA), with 10.51 % of genetic

  4. miR319, miR390, and miR393 Are Involved in Aluminum Response in Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyablitsin, Alexander V.; Rozhmina, Tatiana A.; Speranskaya, Anna S.; Sadritdinova, Asiya F.

    2017-01-01

    Acid soils limit agricultural production worldwide. Major reason of crop losses in acid soils is the toxicity of aluminum (Al). In the present work, we investigated expression alterations of microRNAs in flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) plants under Al stress. Flax seedlings of resistant (TMP1919 and G1071/4_k) and sensitive (Lira and G1071/4_o) to Al cultivars and lines were exposed to AlCl3 solution for 4 and 24 hours. Twelve small RNA libraries were constructed and sequenced using Illumina platform. In total, 97 microRNAs from 18 conserved families were identified. miR319, miR390, and miR393 revealed expression alterations associated with Al treatment of flax plants. Moreover, for miR390 and miR393, the alterations were distinct in sensitive and resistant to Al genotypes. Expression level changes of miR319 and miR390 were confirmed using qPCR analysis. In flax, potential targets of miR319 are TCPs, miR390–TAS3 and GRF5, and miR393–AFB2-coding transcripts. TCPs, TAS3, GRF5, and AFB2 participate in regulation of plant growth and development. The involvement of miR319, miR390, and miR393 in response to Al stress in flax was shown here for the first time. We speculate that these microRNAs play an important role in Al response via regulation of growth processes in flax plants.

  5. Association of genetic variation with systolic and diastolic blood pressure among African Americans : the Candidate Gene Association Resource study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fox, Ervin R.; Young, J. Hunter; Li, Yali; Dreisbach, Albert W.; Keating, Brendan J.; Musani, Solomon K.; Liu, Kiang; Morrison, Alanna C.; Ganesh, Santhi; Kutlar, Abdullah; Ramachandran, Vasan S.; Polak, Josef F.; Fabsitz, Richard R.; Dries, Daniel L.; Farlow, Deborah N.; Redline, Susan; Adeyemo, Adebowale; Hirschorn, Joel N.; Sun, Yan V.; Wyatt, Sharon B.; Penman, Alan D.; Palmas, Walter; Rotter, Jerome I.; Townsend, Raymond R.; Doumatey, Ayo P.; Tayo, Bamidele O.; Mosley, Thomas H.; Lyon, Helen N.; Kang, Sun J.; Rotimi, Charles N.; Cooper, Richard S.; Franceschini, Nora; Curb, J. David; Martin, Lisa W.; Eaton, Charles B.; Kardia, Sharon L. R.; Taylor, Herman A.; Caulfield, Mark J.; Ehret, Georg B.; Johnson, Toby; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Levy, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of hypertension in African Americans (AAs) is higher than in other US groups; yet, few have performed genome-wide association studies (GWASs) in AA. Among people of European descent, GWASs have identified genetic variants at 13 loci that are associated with blood pressure. It is unkno

  6. Comparative Studies on the Mechanical Properties of Nonwoven- and Woven-Flax-Fiber-Reinforced Poly(Butylene Adipate-Co-Terephthalate)-Based Composite Laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phongam, N.; Dangtungee, R.; Siengchin, S.

    2015-03-01

    Textile biocomposites made from woven- and nonwoven-flax-fiber-reinforced poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT) were prepared by compression molding using the film stacking method, and their tensile strength and stiffness, flexural strength and modulus, and impact strength were determined experimentally. The PBAT-based composites were subjected to water absorption tests. The mechanical properties of pure PBAT and the textile composites were compared, and the influence of flax weave styles on the properties were evaluated. The biocomposite reinforced with 4 × 4-plain weave fibers showed the highest strength and stiffness compared with those of the other textile biocomposites and pure PBAT.

  7. Genetic compendium of 1511 human brains available through the UK Medical Research Council Brain Banks Network Resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keogh, Michael J.; Wei, Wei; Wilson, Ian; Coxhead, Jon; Ryan, Sarah; Rollinson, Sara; Griffin, Helen; Kurzawa-Akanbi, Marzena; Santibanez-Koref, Mauro; Talbot, Kevin; Turner, Martin R.; McKenzie, Chris-Anne; Troakes, Claire; Attems, Johannes; Smith, Colin; Al Sarraj, Safa; Morris, Chris M.; Ansorge, Olaf; Pickering-Brown, Stuart; Ironside, James W.; Chinnery, Patrick F.

    2017-01-01

    Given the central role of genetic factors in the pathogenesis of common neurodegenerative disorders, it is critical that mechanistic studies in human tissue are interpreted in a genetically enlightened context. To address this, we performed exome sequencing and copy number variant analysis on 1511 frozen human brains with a diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD, n = 289), frontotemporal dementia/amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FTD/ALS, n = 252), Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD, n = 239), Parkinson's disease (PD, n = 39), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB, n = 58), other neurodegenerative, vascular, or neurogenetic disorders (n = 266), and controls with no significant neuropathology (n = 368). Genomic DNA was extracted from brain tissue in all cases before exome sequencing (Illumina Nextera 62 Mb capture) with variants called by FreeBayes; copy number variant (CNV) analysis (Illumina HumanOmniExpress-12 BeadChip); C9orf72 repeat expansion detection; and APOE genotyping. Established or likely pathogenic heterozygous, compound heterozygous, or homozygous variants, together with the C9orf72 hexanucleotide repeat expansions and a copy number gain of APP, were found in 61 brains. In addition to known risk alleles in 349 brains (23.9% of 1461 undergoing exome sequencing), we saw an association between rare variants in GRN and DLB. Rare CNVs were found in genetic data are available, enabling the retrieval of specific frozen brains through the UK Medical Research Council Brain Banks Network. This allows direct access to pathological and control human brain tissue based on an individual's genetic architecture, thus enabling the functional validation of known genetic risk factors and potentially pathogenic alleles identified in future studies. PMID:28003435

  8. Genetic compendium of 1511 human brains available through the UK Medical Research Council Brain Banks Network Resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keogh, Michael J; Wei, Wei; Wilson, Ian; Coxhead, Jon; Ryan, Sarah; Rollinson, Sara; Griffin, Helen; Kurzawa-Akanbi, Marzena; Santibanez-Koref, Mauro; Talbot, Kevin; Turner, Martin R; McKenzie, Chris-Anne; Troakes, Claire; Attems, Johannes; Smith, Colin; Al Sarraj, Safa; Morris, Chris M; Ansorge, Olaf; Pickering-Brown, Stuart; Ironside, James W; Chinnery, Patrick F

    2017-01-01

    Given the central role of genetic factors in the pathogenesis of common neurodegenerative disorders, it is critical that mechanistic studies in human tissue are interpreted in a genetically enlightened context. To address this, we performed exome sequencing and copy number variant analysis on 1511 frozen human brains with a diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD, n = 289), frontotemporal dementia/amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FTD/ALS, n = 252), Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD, n = 239), Parkinson's disease (PD, n = 39), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB, n = 58), other neurodegenerative, vascular, or neurogenetic disorders (n = 266), and controls with no significant neuropathology (n = 368). Genomic DNA was extracted from brain tissue in all cases before exome sequencing (Illumina Nextera 62 Mb capture) with variants called by FreeBayes; copy number variant (CNV) analysis (Illumina HumanOmniExpress-12 BeadChip); C9orf72 repeat expansion detection; and APOE genotyping. Established or likely pathogenic heterozygous, compound heterozygous, or homozygous variants, together with the C9orf72 hexanucleotide repeat expansions and a copy number gain of APP, were found in 61 brains. In addition to known risk alleles in 349 brains (23.9% of 1461 undergoing exome sequencing), we saw an association between rare variants in GRN and DLB. Rare CNVs were found in <1.5% of brains, including copy number gains of PRPH that were overrepresented in AD. Clinical, pathological, and genetic data are available, enabling the retrieval of specific frozen brains through the UK Medical Research Council Brain Banks Network. This allows direct access to pathological and control human brain tissue based on an individual's genetic architecture, thus enabling the functional validation of known genetic risk factors and potentially pathogenic alleles identified in future studies. © 2017 Keogh et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  9. Explaining spatial heterogeneity in population dynamics and genetics from spatial variation in resources for a large herbivore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contasti, Adrienne L; Tissier, Emily J; Johnstone, Jill F; McLoughlin, Philip D

    2012-01-01

    Fine-scale spatial variation in genetic relatedness and inbreeding occur across continuous distributions of several populations of vertebrates; however, the basis of observed variation is often left untested. Here we test the hypothesis that prior observations of spatial patterns in genetics for an island population of feral horses (Sable Island, Canada) were the result of spatial variation in population dynamics, itself based in spatial heterogeneity in underlying habitat quality. In order to assess how genetic and population structuring related to habitat, we used hierarchical cluster analysis of water sources and an indicator analysis of the availability of important forage species to identify a longitudinal gradient in habitat quality along the length of Sable Island. We quantify a west-east gradient in access to fresh water and availability of two important food species to horses: sandwort, Honckenya peploides, and beach pea, Lathyrus japonicas. Accordingly, the population clusters into three groups that occupy different island segments (west, central, and east) that vary markedly in their local dynamics. Density, body condition, and survival and reproduction of adult females were highest in the west, followed by central and east areas. These results mirror a previous analysis of genetics, which showed that inbreeding levels are highest in the west (with outbreeding in the east), and that there are significant differences in fixation indices among groups of horses along the length of Sable Island. Our results suggest that inbreeding depression is not an important limiting factor to the horse population. We conclude that where habitat gradients exist, we can anticipate fine-scale heterogeneity in population dynamics and hence genetics.

  10. Role of ascorbic acid and α tocopherol in alleviating salinity stress on flax plant (Linum usitatissimum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mervat Sh. Sadak

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Salinity is one of the environmental challenges in the world affecting on several physiological processes and the most limiting factor of plant productivity and quality. Two pot experiments were conducted at the wire house of National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt during two successive seasons of 2010/2011 and 2011/2012 to assess the efficiency of two antioxidant vitamins (ascorbic acid at 1.13 and 2.27 mM or α tocopherol at 0.46 and 0.93 mM and/or salinity stress at (0.0, 3.08, 6.16, 9.23 ds/m on photosynthetic pigments, protein, carbohydrate, minerals, oil contents and yield as well as fatty acids composition of the yielded oils of three flax cultivars (Sakha 3, Giza 8 and Ariane. The data revealed that salinity stress caused significant and gradual decreases in total photosynthetic pigments, polysaccharides, total carbohydrates, total proteins and the uptake of Mg, K, Ca and P in the leaves of three flax cultivars with increasing salinity levels (3.08, 6.16, 9.23 ds/m. Otherwise, significant and gradual increase appeared in both Na and Cl. Ascorbic acid and α tocopherol at different concentrations caused significant increases in photosynthetic pigments, total carbohydrates and protein contents in the leaves of flax plants irrigated either with tap water or saline solution as compared with their corresponding controls. Exogenous application of ascorbic and α tocopherol at different concentrations exhibited decreases in Na and Cl whereas increases appeared in Mg, K, Ca and P relative to their corresponding control. Ascorbic acid (1.13 and 2.27 mM and α tocopherol (0.46 and 0.93 mM caused marked increases in yield and yield attributes of three flax cultivars either in plants irrigated with tap water or saline solution as compared to corresponding control. Ascorbic acid effects were more pronounced than α tocopherol effects. In addition, the higher level of two vitamins was more pronounced than the lower level. Regarding plants irrigated

  11. Evaluation of the significance of cell wall polymers in flax infected with a pathogenic strain of Fusarium oxysporum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtasik, Wioleta; Kulma, Anna; Dymińska, Lucyna; Hanuza, Jerzy; Czemplik, Magdalena; Szopa, Jan

    2016-03-22

    Fusarium oxysporum infection leads to Fusarium-derived wilt, which is responsible for the greatest losses in flax (Linum usitatissimum) crop yield. Plants infected by Fusarium oxysporum show severe symptoms of dehydration due to the growth of the fungus in vascular tissues. As the disease develops, vascular browning and leaf yellowing can be observed. In the case of more virulent strains, plants die. The pathogen's attack starts with secretion of enzymes degrading the host cell wall. The main aim of the study was to evaluate the role of the cell wall polymers in the flax plant response to the infection in order to better understand the process of resistance and develop new ways to protect plants against infection. For this purpose, the expression of genes involved in cell wall polymer metabolism and corresponding polymer levels were investigated in flax seedlings after incubation with Fusarium oxysporum. This analysis was facilitated by selecting two groups of genes responding differently to the infection. The first group comprised genes strongly affected by the infection and activated later (phenylalanine ammonia lyase and glucosyltransferase). The second group comprised genes which are slightly affected (up to five times) and their expression vary as the infection progresses. Fusarium oxysporum infection did not affect the contents of cell wall polymers, but changed their structure. The results suggest that the role of the cell wall polymers in the plant response to Fusarium oxysporum infection is manifested through changes in expression of their genes and rearrangement of the cell wall polymers. Our studies provided new information about the role of cellulose and hemicelluloses in the infection process, the change of their structure and the expression of genes participating in their metabolism during the pathogen infection. We also confirmed the role of pectin and lignin in this process, indicating the major changes at the mRNA level of lignin metabolism genes

  12. Spectroscopic characterization of enzymatic flax retting: Factor analysis of FT-IR and FT-Raman data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archibald, D. D.; Henrikssen, G.; Akin, D. E.; Barton, F. E.

    1998-06-01

    Flax retting is a chemical, microbial or enzymatic process which releases the bast fibers from the stem matrix so they can be suitable for mechanical processing before spinning into linen yarn. This study aims to determine the vibrational spectral features and sampling methods which can be used to evaluate the retting process. Flax stems were retted on a small scale using an enzyme mixture known to yield good retted flax. Processed stems were harvested at various time points in the process and the retting was evaluated by conventional methods including weight loss, color difference and Fried's test, a visual ranking of how the stems disintegrate in hot water. Spectroscopic measurements were performed on either whole stems or powders of the fibers that were mechanically extracted from the stems. Selected regions of spectra were baseline and amplitude corrected using a variant of the multiplicative signal correction method. Principal component regression and partial least-squares regression with full cross-validation were used to determine the spectral features and rate of spectral transformation by regressing the spectra against the retting time in hours. FT-Raman of fiber powders and FT-IR reflectance of whole stems were the simplest and most precise methods for monitoring the retting transformation. Raman tracks the retting by measuring the decrease in aromatic signal and subtle changes in the C-H stretching vibrations. The IR method uses complex spectral features in the fingerprint and carbonyl region, many of which are due to polysaccharide components. Both spectral techniques monitor the retting process with greater precision than the reference method.

  13. Deciphering the responses of root border-like cells of Arabidopsis and flax to pathogen-derived elicitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plancot, Barbara; Santaella, Catherine; Jaber, Rim; Kiefer-Meyer, Marie Christine; Follet-Gueye, Marie-Laure; Leprince, Jérôme; Gattin, Isabelle; Souc, Céline; Driouich, Azeddine; Vicré-Gibouin, Maïté

    2013-12-01

    Plant pathogens including fungi and bacteria cause many of the most serious crop diseases. The plant innate immune response is triggered upon recognition of microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) such as flagellin22 and peptidoglycan. To date, very little is known of MAMP-mediated responses in roots. Root border cells are cells that originate from root caps and are released individually into the rhizosphere. Root tips of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and flax (Linum usitatissimum) release cells known as "border-like cells." Whereas root border cells of pea (Pisum sativum) are clearly involved in defense against fungal pathogens, the function of border-like cells remains to be established. In this study, we have investigated the responses of root border-like cells of Arabidopsis and flax to flagellin22 and peptidoglycan. We found that both MAMPs triggered a rapid oxidative burst in root border-like cells of both species. The production of reactive oxygen species was accompanied by modifications in the cell wall distribution of extensin epitopes. Extensins are hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins that can be cross linked by hydrogen peroxide to enhance the mechanical strength of the cell wall. In addition, both MAMPs also caused deposition of callose, a well-known marker of MAMP-elicited defense. Furthermore, flagellin22 induced the overexpression of genes involved in the plant immune response in root border-like cells of Arabidopsis. Our findings demonstrate that root border-like cells of flax and Arabidopsis are able to perceive an elicitation and activate defense responses. We also show that cell wall extensin is involved in the innate immunity response of root border-like cells.

  14. Cadmium tolerance and accumulation characteristics of mature flax, cv. Hermes: Contribution of the basal stem compared to the root

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douchiche, Olfa, E-mail: olfa.douchiche@hotmail.fr [Laboratory Glyco-MEV EA 4358, IFRMP 23, University of Rouen, 76821 Mont Saint Aignan Cedex (France); Laboratory Biologie et Physiologie Cellulaires Vegetales, Department of Biology, University of Tunis, 1060 Tunis (Tunisia); Chaiebi, Wided [Laboratory Biologie et Physiologie Cellulaires Vegetales, Department of Biology, University of Tunis, 1060 Tunis (Tunisia); Morvan, Claudine, E-mail: claudine.morvan@univ-rouen.fr [Laboratory PBS-UMR 6270 CNRS, FR 3038, University of Rouen, 76821 Mont Saint Aignan Cedex (France)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cd accumulated in stem bottom part exceeded the defined hyperaccumulator threshold. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer No toxic symptoms occurred and TI of all growth parameters ranged between 0.7 and 1. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The high level of Zn, Mn and Cu may contribute to the absence of chlorosis in stem. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cd/Ca synergistic effect observed in the stem may alleviate Cd toxicity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hermes variety accumulated more Cd than the other flax varieties ever described. - Abstract: The potential of mature flax plants (cv. Hermes) to tolerate and accumulate cadmium (Cd) was studied to determine which part of the plant would be the key organ for phytoremediation purposes. After 4 month-growth on sand substrate containing 0.1 mM Cd in a greenhouse, the roots and stems were separated and the stems were divided into three parts. The effects of Cd were studied on growth parameters, histology and mineral nutrition. No visible toxic symptoms were observed. Tolerance-index values calculated from growth parameters and nutrients remained relatively high, allowing the development of the plant until maturity and formation of seeds. The roots and bottom stem accumulated the highest quantity of Cd (750 and 360 mg/kg dry matter), values which largely exceeded the threshold defined for hyperaccumulators. On the other hand, basal stem had a high bioconcentration factor (BCF = 32) and translocation factor TF Prime (2.5) but a low TF (0.5), indicating that this basal part would play a major role in phytoremediation (phytostabilization rather than phytorextraction). Therefore, the high tolerance to Cd and accumulation capacity make possible to grow Hermes flax on Cd-polluted soils.

  15. Recent advances in understanding the genetic resources of sheep breeds locally-adapted to the UK uplands : opportunities they offer for sustainable productivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianna eBowles

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Locally adapted breeds of livestock are of considerable interest since they represent potential reservoirs of adaptive fitness traits that may contribute to the future of sustainable productivity in a changing climate.Recent research, involving three hill sheep breeds geographically concentrated in the northern uplands of the UK has revealed the extent of their genetic diversity from one another and from other breeds. Results from the use of SNPs, microsatellites and retrovirus insertions are reviewed in the context of related studies on sheep breeds world-wide to highlight opportunities offered by the genetic resources of locally adapted hill breeds. One opportunity concerns reduced susceptibility to Maedi-Visna, a lentivirus with massive impacts on sheep health and productivity globally. In contrast to many mainstream breeds used in farming, each of the hill breeds analysed are likely to be far less susceptible to the disease threat. A different opportunity, relating specifically to the Herdwick breed, is the extent to which the genome of the breed has retained primitive features, no longer present in other mainland breeds of sheep in the UK and offering a new route for discovering unique genetic traits of use to agriculture.

  16. RNA-seq Transcriptome Response of Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) to the Pathogenic Fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lini

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo-González, Leonardo; Deyholos, Michael K.

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lini is a hemibiotrophic fungus that causes wilt in flax. Along with rust, fusarium wilt has become an important factor in flax production worldwide. Resistant flax cultivars have been used to manage the disease, but the resistance varies, depending on the interactions between specific cultivars and isolates of the pathogen. This interaction has a strong molecular basis, but no genomic information is available on how the plant responds to attempted infection, to inform breeding programs on potential candidate genes to evaluate or improve resistance across cultivars. In the current study, disease progression in two flax cultivars [Crop Development Center (CDC) Bethune and Lutea], showed earlier disease symptoms and higher susceptibility in the later cultivar. Chitinase gene expression was also divergent and demonstrated and earlier molecular response in Lutea. The most resistant cultivar (CDC Bethune) was used for a full RNA-seq transcriptome study through a time course at 2, 4, 8, and 18 days post-inoculation (DPI). While over 100 genes were significantly differentially expressed at both 4 and 8 DPI, the broadest deployment of plant defense responses was evident at 18 DPI with transcripts of more than 1,000 genes responding to the treatment. These genes evidenced a reception and transduction of pathogen signals, a large transcriptional reprogramming, induction of hormone signaling, activation of pathogenesis-related genes, and changes in secondary metabolism. Among these, several key genes that consistently appear in studies of plant-pathogen interactions, had increased transcript abundance in our study, and constitute suitable candidates for resistance breeding programs. These included: an induced RPMI-induced protein kinase; transcription factors WRKY3, WRKY70, WRKY75, MYB113, and MYB108; the ethylene response factors ERF1 and ERF14; two genes involved in auxin/glucosinolate precursor synthesis (CYP79B2 and CYP79B3); the flavonoid

  17. 湿纺与干纺对亚麻/毛混纺纱性能的影响%Study on Quality Influence to Flax/wool Blended Yarn between Two Kinds of Spinning Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张微

    2016-01-01

    采用亚麻湿法纺纱工艺纺制了27.3 Nm 70/30亚麻/毛及26 Nm 50/50亚麻/毛混纺纱。另外采用传统的方法,在毛纺设备上纺制了18 Nm 70/30亚麻/毛及24.5 Nm 50/50亚麻/毛混纺纱。对两种纺纱方法下的纱进行性能对比,得出湿纺混纺亚麻/毛纱的质量明显优于干纺混纺亚麻/毛纱。%In this paper,the 27.3 Nm 70 /30 flax/wool and 26 Nm 50 /50 flax/wool blended yarn were spun in flax wet spinning process. And the yarns of 18 Nm 70 /30 Flax/Wool and 24.5 Nm 50 /50 Flax /Wool were spun in traditional wool spinning system. The results showed that the quality of wet-spun flax/wool blended yarns were better than those of dry-spun flax/wool blended yarns when the two spinning methods were compared..

  18. Pyrolysis of flax straw: Characterization of char, liquid, and gas as fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tushar, Mohammad Shahed Hasan Khan

    The demand for energy continues to outstrip its supply and necessitates the development of renewable energy options. Biomass has been recognized as a major renewable energy source to supplement the declining fossil fuel source of energy. It is the most popular form of renewable energy and, currently, biofuel production is becoming more promising. Being carbon neutral, readily available, and low in sulphur content makes biomass a very promising source of renewable energy. In the present research, both the isothermal and non-isothermal pressurized pyrolysis of flax straw is studied for the first time. In case of isothermal pyrolysis, the influence of pyrolysis temperature and reaction time on char yield and morphology was investigated. The applied pyrolysis temperature was varied between 300 and 500°C. The reaction time was varied from 15 to 60 min. The char yield was found to decrease as pyrolysis temperature and reaction time increased. The char structure and surface morphology were thoroughly investigated by means of x-ray diffraction (XRD), temperature-programmed oxidation (TPO), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The degree of porosity and graphitization increased as pyrolysis temperature and time increased. In fact, the experiment performed at 500°C for 1h duration did not yield any char; only residual ash could be obtained. The TPO studies on the char samples corroborated the XRD findings and showed the presence of two types of carbon, namely, amorphous filamentous carbon and graphitic carbon. A thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) of the char was performed to gain an understanding of combustion kinetics and reactivity. It implied that the reactivity of the char decreases as temperature increases, and this finding is well supported by the TPO, TGA, SEM, and XRD characterization data. Furthermore, an empirical global model was devised based on the power law to estimate activation energy and other kinetic parameters. For the non-isothermal pressurized

  19. Analysis of genetic diversity and genetic relationship of wild hawthorn resources in Xinjiang by ISSR markers%新疆野生山楂资源遗传多样性及亲缘关系的ISSR分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘欢; 廖康; 刘娟; 赵世荣; 孙琪; 曹倩

    2016-01-01

    In order to provide some theoretical basis and technical support for protection and utilization of wild hawthorn resources, genetic diversity and genetic relationship of 63 samples from three varieties of wild hawthorn resources in Xinjiang were analyzed by ISSR molecular marker technology. The results showed that 233 bands were ampliifed with 12 primers by the ISSR-PCR ampliifcation, in which had 221 polymorphism bands, percent of polymorphism loci was 94.4%, and average 19.42 polymorphism bands were ampliifed by every primer. The results of analysis by the software of POPGENE1.32 showed that percentage of polymorphic loci, observed number of alleles, effective number of alleles, Nei’s genetic diversity and Shannon information index of Junggar hawthorn were higher than other two kinds of wild hawthorn, and the indexes of Crabapple hawthorn were lower than Junggar hawthorn and Altai hawthorn. The Nei’s genetic identities of three kinds of wild hawthorn were 0.862 2-0.904 4, and the average value was 0.890 2. The genetic distances of three kinds of wild hawthorn were 0.100 5-0.148 3, and the average value was 0.116 6. In the three kinds of wild hawthorn, genetic variation of Junggar hawthorn were more rich than the others, followed by Altai hawthorn, and Crabapple hawthorn had the less genetic variation. The genetic relationship between Altai hawthorn and Crabapple hawthorn was closer, but that was farther between Crabapple hawthorn and Junggar hawthorn.%为给新疆野生山楂资源的保护与利用提供理论依据和技术支持,采取新疆3种野生山楂共计63份材料,利用ISSR标记技术,对其遗传多样性和亲缘关系进行分析。结果表明,12条引物共扩增出233条带,其中多态性条带221条,多态性位点率为94.4%,平均每个引物获得19.42个扩增带。POPGENE1.32分析结果表明:3种野生山楂材料的多态性位点率、观测等位基因数、有效等位基因数、Nei’s基因多样性

  20. Effects of synthetic Zn chelates on flax response and soil Zn status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, D.; Almendros, P.; Alvarez, J.M.

    2016-11-01

    Throughout the world, flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) is often grown in Zn-deficient soils, but appropriate fertilizer management can optimize both crop yield and micronutrient content. A greenhouse experiment was conducted on Typic Haploxeralf (pH 6.1) and Typic Calcixerept (pH 8.1) soils to study the relative efficiency of chelated Zn using two application rates of three different Zn sources [Zn-EDDHSA, ethylenediamine-di-(2-hydroxy-5-sulfophenylacetate of Zn); Zn-HEDTA, N-2-hydroxyethyl-ethylenediaminetriacetate of Zn; and Zn-EDTA, ethylenediaminetetraacetate of Zn]. Dry matter /DM) yield, Zn concentration, chlorophyll content, crude fiber and tensile properties were monitored and the soil-Zn status (available-Zn, Zn-fractions and total-Zn) was assessed. Zinc chelate applications increased the most labile forms of Zn in soils and Zn concentrations in plants. The low rate of Zn generally had a beneficial effect on DM yield and tensile properties. The exception was Zn-EDTA in the weakly acidic soil, where the highest Zn concentrations were observed in leaves and whole shoots; this coincided with the largest concentrations of labile Zn in soil. The most efficient fertilizers were Zn-EDDHSA (in both soils) and Zn-EDTA (in the calcareous soil). The relatively large amounts of labile and available Zn present in both of the soils fertilized with Zn-EDTA points to the applying this chelate at lower rate than 5 mg Zn/kg; this should, in turn, reduce the cost of Zn fertilization and minimize environmental pollution risk. (Author)

  1. Association mapping of seed quality traits using the Canadian flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) core collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Cerda, Braulio J; Duguid, Scott; Booker, Helen; Rowland, Gordon; Diederichsen, Axel; Cloutier, Sylvie

    2014-04-01

    The identification of stable QTL for seed quality traits by association mapping of a diverse panel of linseed accessions establishes the foundation for assisted breeding and future fine mapping in linseed. Linseed oil is valued for its food and non-food applications. Modifying its oil content and fatty acid (FA) profiles to meet market needs in a timely manner requires clear understanding of their quantitative trait loci (QTL) architectures, which have received little attention to date. Association mapping is an efficient approach to identify QTL in germplasm collections. In this study, we explored the quantitative nature of seed quality traits including oil content (OIL), palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid (LIO) linolenic acid (LIN) and iodine value in a flax core collection of 390 accessions assayed with 460 microsatellite markers. The core collection was grown in a modified augmented design at two locations over 3 years and phenotypic data for all seven traits were obtained from all six environments. Significant phenotypic diversity and moderate to high heritability for each trait (0.73-0.99) were observed. Most of the candidate QTL were stable as revealed by multivariate analyses. Nine candidate QTL were identified, varying from one for OIL to three for LIO and LIN. Candidate QTL for LIO and LIN co-localized with QTL previously identified in bi-parental populations and some mapped nearby genes known to be involved in the FA biosynthesis pathway. Fifty-eight percent of the QTL alleles were absent (private) in the Canadian cultivars suggesting that the core collection possesses QTL alleles potentially useful to improve seed quality traits. The candidate QTL identified herein will establish the foundation for future marker-assisted breeding in linseed.

  2. Effects of synthetic Zn chelates on flax response and soil Zn status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demetrio Gonzalez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the world, flax (Linum usitatissimum L. is often grown in Zn-deficient soils, but appropriate fertilizer management can optimize both crop yield and micronutrient content. A greenhouse experiment was conducted on Typic Haploxeralf (pH 6.1 and Typic Calcixerept (pH 8.1 soils to study the relative efficiency of chelated Zn using two application rates of three different Zn sources [Zn-EDDHSA, ethylenediamine-di-(2-hydroxy-5-sulfophenylacetate of Zn; Zn-HEDTA, N-2-hydroxyethyl-ethylenediaminetriacetate of Zn; and Zn-EDTA, ethylenediaminetetraacetate of Zn]. Dry matter /DM yield, Zn concentration, chlorophyll content, crude fiber and tensile properties were monitored and the soil-Zn status (available-Zn, Zn-fractions and total-Zn was assessed. Zinc chelate applications increased the most labile forms of Zn in soils and Zn concentrations in plants. The low rate of Zn generally had a beneficial effect on DM yield and tensile properties. The exception was Zn-EDTA in the weakly acidic soil, where the highest Zn concentrations were observed in leaves and whole shoots; this coincided with the largest concentrations of labile Zn in soil. The most efficient fertilizers were Zn-EDDHSA (in both soils and Zn-EDTA (in the calcareous soil. The relatively large amounts of labile and available Zn present in both of the soils fertilized with Zn-EDTA points to the applying this chelate at lower rate than 5 mg Zn/kg; this should, in turn, reduce the cost of Zn fertilization and minimize environmental pollution risk.

  3. RESCUE OF CACAO GENETIC RESOURCES RELATED TO THE NACIONAL VARIETY: SURVEYS IN THE ECUADORIAN AMAZON (2010-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rey Gastón Loor Solorzano

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Traditional cocoa plantations in Ecuador are mostly composed of a complex mix of highly variable hybrid progenies, which has greatly reduced the population of native trees of the “Nacional” variety, to such a point that they are considered today as heading for extinction, which is increasingly worrying the international chocolate industry. Some years ago, we used genetic molecular markers to identify trees considered to be relics of the ancient original population of the “Nacional” variety, and some wild cocoa trees in a particular region of the southern Ecuadorian Amazon were identified as highly related to the “Nacional” variety. This paper presents the results of two surveys carried out in the southern Ecuadorian Amazon, in the Zamora-Chinchipe Province, in 2010 and 2013. The objective of these surveys was to search for, identify and rescue cocoa trees that might be the wild ancestors of the “Nacional” variety. In 2010, 83 mother trees were collected (budwood, pods and leaves and 48 in 2013. They were preserved at the Granja Domono experimental farm, near Macas (Morona-Santiago province and at the Tropical Experimental station Pichilingue, near Quevedo. The trees collected are currently being characterized for their genetic diversity, using molecular markers, and for the biochemical diversity of their beans.

  4. Dirigent Protein-Mediated Lignan and Cyanogenic Glucoside Formation in Flax Seed: Integrated Omics and MALDI Mass Spectrometry Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalisay, Doralyn S; Kim, Kye Won; Lee, Choonseok; Yang, Hong; Rübel, Oliver; Bowen, Benjamin P; Davin, Laurence B; Lewis, Norman G

    2015-06-26

    An integrated omics approach using genomics, transcriptomics, metabolomics (MALDI mass spectrometry imaging, MSI), and bioinformatics was employed to study spatiotemporal formation and deposition of health-protecting polymeric lignans and plant defense cyanogenic glucosides. Intact flax (Linum usitatissimum) capsules and seed tissues at different development stages were analyzed. Transcriptome analyses indicated distinct expression patterns of dirigent protein (DP) gene family members encoding (-)- and (+)-pinoresinol-forming DPs and their associated downstream metabolic processes, respectively, with the former expressed at early seed coat development stages. Genes encoding (+)-pinoresinol-forming DPs were, in contrast, expressed at later development stages. Recombinant DP expression and DP assays also unequivocally established their distinct stereoselective biochemical functions. Using MALDI MSI and ion mobility separation analyses, the pinoresinol downstream derivatives, secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) and SDG hydroxymethylglutaryl ester, were localized and detectable only in early seed coat development stages. SDG derivatives were then converted into higher molecular weight phenolics during seed coat maturation. By contrast, the plant defense cyanogenic glucosides, the monoglucosides linamarin/lotaustralin, were detected throughout the flax capsule, whereas diglucosides linustatin/neolinustatin only accumulated in endosperm and embryo tissues. A putative biosynthetic pathway to the cyanogens is proposed on the basis of transcriptome coexpression data. Localization of all metabolites was at ca. 20 μm resolution, with the web based tool OpenMSI enabling not only resolution enhancement but also an interactive system for real-time searching for any ion in the tissue under analysis.

  5. Dietary flax oil during pregnancy and lactation retards disease progression in rat offspring with inherited kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaran, Deepa; Bankovic-Calic, Neda; Peng, Claudia Yu-Chen; Ogborn, Malcolm R; Aukema, Harold M

    2006-12-01

    Dietary flax oil (FO) retards disease progression in growing or adult animal models of kidney disease. To determine whether dietary flax oil during the perinatal period would alter renal disease progression in offspring, Han-SPRD-cy rats with inherited cystic kidney disease were given diets with either 7% FO or corn oil (CO), throughout pregnancy and lactation. At 3 wk of age, offspring were then given either the same or the alternate diet for 7 wk. Rats given FO during the maternal period had 15% less renal cyst growth compared with rats given FO only in the postweaning period. Dietary FO, compared with CO, in the maternal period also resulted in 12% lower cell proliferation and 15% less oxidant injury in diseased kidneys of offspring. Including FO in both the maternal and postweaning period resulted in 29-34% less renal interstitial fibrosis and 22-23% lower glomerular hypertrophy. Along with improved histology, these rats exhibited 13% less proteinuria and 30% lower creatinine clearance when dietary FO was given in the maternal period. The potential for dietary FO during pregnancy and lactation to positively modulate adult renal disease has significant implications for the 1 in 1000 individuals with congenital cystic kidney disease.

  6. Experimental Analysis of Repaired Masonry Elements with Flax-FRCM and PBO-FRCM Composites Subjected to Axial Bending Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar A. Cevallos

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In the construction industry, the use of natural fabrics as a reinforcement for cement-based composites has shown great potential. The use of these sustainable composites to provide strengthening or repair old masonry structures that exhibit structural problems mainly due to a poor tensile strength of the mortar/brick joints is revealed to be a promising area of research. One of the most significant load conditions affecting the mechanical response of masonry structures occurs when axial bending loads are applied on the resistant cross-section. In this study, three different types of masonry elements were built using clay bricks and a lime-based mortar. After 28 days, the samples were subjected to concentric and eccentric compressive loads. In order to produce significant bending effects, the compressive loads were applied with large eccentricity, and a sudden failure characterized the behavior of the unreinforced masonry (URM elements. The tested masonry specimens were repaired using fabric-reinforced cementitious matrix (FRCM composites produced using bi-directional flax and polyparaphenylene benzobisoxazole (PBO fabrics. The mechanical behavior of the URM and repaired samples was compared in terms of load-displacement and moment-curvature responses. Furthermore, the results achieved using flax-FRCM composites were compared with those of using PBO-FRCM composites.

  7. A HindIII BAC library construction of Mesobuthus martensii Karsch (Scorpiones:Buthidae): an important genetic resource for comparative genomics and phylogenetic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Songryong; Ma, Yibao; Jang, Shenghun; Wu, Yingliang; Liu, Hui; Cao, Zhijian; Li, Wenxin

    2009-12-01

    Scorpions are "living but sophisticated fossils" that have changed little in their morphology since their first appearance over the past 450 million years ago. To provide a genetic resource for understanding the evolution of scorpion genome and the relationships between scorpions and other organisms, we first determined the genome size of the scorpion Mesobuthus martensii Karsch (about 600 Mbp) in the order Scorpiones and constructed a HindIII BAC library of the male scorpion M. martensii Karsch from China. The BAC library consists of a total of 46,080 clones with an average insert size of 100 kb, providing a 7.7-fold coverage of the scorpion haploid genome size of 600 Mbp as revealed in this study. High-density colony hybridization-based library screening was performed using 18S-5.8S-28S rRNA gene that is one of the most commonly used phylogenetic markers. Both library screening and PCR identification results revealed six positive BAC clones which were overlapped, and formed a contig of approximately 120 kb covering the rDNA. BAC DNA sequencing analysis determined the complete sequence of M. martensii Karsch rDNA unit that has a total length of 8779 bp, including 1813 bp 18s rDNA, 157 bp 5.8s rDNA, 3823 bp 28s rDNA, 530 bp ETS, 2168 bp ITS1 and 288 bp ITS2. Interestingly, some tandem repeats are present in the rRNA intergenic sequence (IGS) and ITS1/2 regions. These results demonstrated that the BAC library of the scorpion M. martensii Karsch and the complete sequence of rDNA unit will provide important genetic resources and tools for comparative genomics and phylogenetic analysis.

  8. Distributions, ex situ conservation priorities, and genetic resource potential of crop wild relatives of sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam., I. series Batatas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Kahlil Khoury

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Crop wild relatives of sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam., I. series Batatas] have the potential to contribute to breeding objectives for this important root crop. Uncertainty in regard to species boundaries and their phylogenetic relationships, the limited availability of germplasm with which to perform crosses, and the difficulty of introgression of genes from wild species has constrained their utilization. Here we compile geographic occurrence data on relevant sweetpotato wild relatives and produce potential distribution models for the species. We then assess the comprehensiveness of ex situ germplasm collections, contextualize these results with research and breeding priorities, and use ecogeographic information to identify species with the potential to contribute desirable agronomic traits. The fourteen species that are considered the closest wild relatives of sweetpotato generally occur from the central United States to Argentina, with richness concentrated in Mesoamerica and in the extreme southeastern United States. Currently designated species differ among themselves and in comparison to the crop in their adaptations to temperature, precipitation, and edaphic characteristics and most species also show considerable intraspecific variation. With 79% of species identified as high priority for further collecting, we find that these crop genetic resources are highly under-represented in ex situ conservation systems and thus their availability to breeders and researchers is inadequate. We prioritize taxa and specific geographic locations for further collecting in order to improve the completeness of germplasm collections. In concert with enhanced conservation of sweetpotato wild relatives, further taxonomic research, characterization and evaluation of germplasm, and improving the techniques to overcome barriers to introgression with wild species are needed in order to mobilize these genetic resources for crop breeding.

  9. The LuWD40-1 gene encoding WD repeat protein regulates growth and pollen viability in flax (Linum Usitatissimum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Santosh; Jordan, Mark C; Datla, Raju; Cloutier, Sylvie

    2013-01-01

    As a crop, flax holds significant commercial value for its omega-3 rich oilseeds and stem fibres. Canada is the largest producer of linseed but there exists scope for significant yield improvements. Implementation of mechanisms such as male sterility can permit the development of hybrids to assist in achieving this goal. Temperature sensitive male sterility has been reported in flax but the leakiness of this system in field conditions limits the production of quality hybrid seeds. Here, we characterized a 2,588 bp transcript differentially expressed in male sterile lines of flax. The twelve intron gene predicted to encode a 368 amino acid protein has five WD40 repeats which, in silico, form a propeller structure with putative nucleic acid and histone binding capabilities. The LuWD40-1 protein localized to the nucleus and its expression increased during the transition and continued through the vegetative stages (seed, etiolated seedling, stem) while the transcript levels declined during reproductive development (ovary, anthers) and embryonic morphogenesis of male fertile plants. Knockout lines for LuWD40-1 in flax failed to develop shoots while overexpression lines showed delayed growth phenotype and were male sterile. The non-viable flowers failed to open and the pollen grains from these flowers were empty. Three independent transgenic lines overexpressing the LuWD40-1 gene had ∼80% non-viable pollen, reduced branching, delayed flowering and maturity compared to male fertile genotypes. The present study provides new insights into a male sterility mechanism present in flax.

  10. The LuWD40-1 gene encoding WD repeat protein regulates growth and pollen viability in flax (Linum Usitatissimum L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Kumar

    Full Text Available As a crop, flax holds significant commercial value for its omega-3 rich oilseeds and stem fibres. Canada is the largest producer of linseed but there exists scope for significant yield improvements. Implementation of mechanisms such as male sterility can permit the development of hybrids to assist in achieving this goal. Temperature sensitive male sterility has been reported in flax but the leakiness of this system in field conditions limits the production of quality hybrid seeds. Here, we characterized a 2,588 bp transcript differentially expressed in male sterile lines of flax. The twelve intron gene predicted to encode a 368 amino acid protein has five WD40 repeats which, in silico, form a propeller structure with putative nucleic acid and histone binding capabilities. The LuWD40-1 protein localized to the nucleus and its expression increased during the transition and continued through the vegetative stages (seed, etiolated seedling, stem while the transcript levels declined during reproductive development (ovary, anthers and embryonic morphogenesis of male fertile plants. Knockout lines for LuWD40-1 in flax failed to develop shoots while overexpression lines showed delayed growth phenotype and were male sterile. The non-viable flowers failed to open and the pollen grains from these flowers were empty. Three independent transgenic lines overexpressing the LuWD40-1 gene had ∼80% non-viable pollen, reduced branching, delayed flowering and maturity compared to male fertile genotypes. The present study provides new insights into a male sterility mechanism present in flax.

  11. 中华人民共和国畜禽遗传资源进出境和对外合作研究利用审批办法%Measures of the People's Republic of China for The Examination and Approval of the Entry and Exit As Well As Foreign-Related Cooperative Research and Utilization of Livestock and Poultry Genetic Resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Article 1 For the purpose of strengthening the administration of the entry and exit as well as foreign-related cooperative research and utilization of livestock and poultry genetic resources,protecting and reasonably utilizmg livestock andpoultry genetic resources,preventing livestock and poultry genetic resources from draining off,and promoting sustained and sound development of stockbreeding.the Measures are hereby formulated in accordance with the Stock-Breeding Law of the People's Republic of China.

  12. Excavating abiotic stress-related gene resources of terrestrial macroscopic cyanobacteria for crop genetic engineering: dawn and challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Shuifeng; Gao, Xiang

    2015-01-01

    Genetically engineered (GE) crops with resistance to environmental stresses are one of the most important solutions for future food security. Numerous genes associated to plant stress resistance have been identified and characterized. However, the current reality is that only a few transgenic crops expressing prokaryotic genes are successfully applied in field conditions. These few prokaryotic genes include Agrobacterium strain CP4 EPSPS gene, Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab gene and a bacterial chaperonin gene. Thus, the excavation of potentially critical genes still remains an arduous task for crop engineering. Terrestrial macroscopic cyanobacteria, Nostoc commune and Nostoc flagelliforme, which exhibit extreme resistance to desiccation stress, may serve as new prokaryotic bioresources for excavating critical genes. Recently, their marker gene wspA was heterologously expressed in Arabidopsis plant and the transgenics exhibited more flourishing root systems than wild-type plants under osmotic stress condition. In addition, some new genes associated with drought response and adaptation in N. flagelliforme are being uncovered by our ongoing RNA-seq analysis. Although the relevant work about the terrestrial macroscopic cyanobacteria is still underway, we believe that the prospect of excavating their critical genes for application in GE crops is quite optimistic.

  13. In Vitro Preservation of Yam (Dioscorea cayenensis D. rotundata complex for a Better Use of Genetic Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul ONDO OVONO

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Among the food crops, yam takes up quantitatively the first place in the gabonese diet. Unfortunately, it can stay available only 6 to 7 months in the year because of difficulties of harvest and post- harvest. This problem is little studied in the case of Dioscorea cayenensis-D. rotundata complex. In order to optimize the use of micro tubers for the growing in green house or field, it is important to control the duration of storage before the germination. The present study concerns microtubers obtained by in vitro culture. When microtubers were harvested (after 9 months of culture and directly transferred on a new medium without hormone, the tubers rapidly sprouted in in vitro conditions. Harvested microtubers were also stored dry in jars in sterile conditions during 2 to 18 weeks before in vitro sprouting. In this case, microtubers stored during 18 weeks sprouted more rapidly than those stored 8 weeks. The size of the tubers used for the storage had great influence on further sprouting. The upper microtubers in 25 mm can be kept to the darkness, under 50% of relative humidity, in 25C during at least 18 weeks. Sprouting is 100% whatever the substrate of culture. The plant tissue culture technique constitutes a serious alternative for the preservation of plant kinds and for the production of planting material. These techniques allow multiplying in a short time of thousands of copies of new varieties of newly created plants. These in vitro plants can be used on one hand, for the production planting material, and on the other hand for ex vitro storage of breeding grounds with decelerated growth, to struggle against genetic erosion. These results should allow improving in practice the multiplication of yam, while guaranteeing

  14. 遗传资源知识产权保护的正当性分析%The Analysis of the Legitimacy of Intellectual Property Rights Protection of Genetic Resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许鲁艳

    2015-01-01

    Genetic resources are important biological resources in the 21st century, and how to protect the genetic resources is a prereq-uisite for countries to compete .Genetical resources can be used by the biotechnology industrialization production and its value is hard to estimate.The importance of genetic resources and the continuous "biopiracy"phenomenon in recent years also shows the necessity of the protection .The protection of intellectual property rights on genetical resources , no matter from the social contract theory , the basic function of intellectual property law or from the concrete system such as the TRIPs agreement is justified .%遗传资源是21世纪重要的生物资源,如何对遗传资源进行保护是各个国家进行竞争的前提。遗传资源可以通过生物技术进行产业化生产,具有难以估计的商业价值。遗传资源的重要性以及近年来不断发生的“生物剽窃”现象也显现出对其保护的必要性。对遗传资源进行知识产权保护,无论从理论角度如社会契约论、对知识产权法基本功能重解下的分析还是从具体制度如Trips协议的制定来进行价值判断都是正当的。

  15. Exploration and conservation of bacterial genetic resources as bacteriocin producing inhibitory microorganisms to pathogen bacteria in livestock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chotiah S

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Exploration and conservation of microorganisms producing bacteriocin was done as the primary study towards the collection of potential bacteria and its application in improving livestock health condition and inhibit food borne pathogens. Diferent kinds of samples such as beef cattle rectal swab, rumen fluids, cow’s milk, chicken gut content, goat’s milk were collected at Bogor cattle slaughter houses, poultry slaughter houses, dairy cattle and goat farms. A total of 452 bacterial isolates consisted of 73 Gram negative bacteria and 379 Gram positive bacteria were isolated from samples collected and screened for bacteriocin activity. Determination of bacteriocin activity with bioassay using agar spot tests were carried out on liquid and semisolid medium assessing 8 kins of indicators of pathogenic bacteria and food borne pathogens. A total of 51 bacteriocin producing strains were collected and some of the strains had high inhibitory zone such as Lactobacillus casei SS14C (26 mm, Enterobacter cloacae SRUT (24mm, Enterococcus faecalis SK39 (21mm and Bifidobacterium dentium SS14T (20mm respectively, to Salmonella typhimurium BCC B0046/ATCC 13311, E. coli O157 hemolytic BCC B2717, Listeria monocytogenes BCC B2767/ATCC 7764 and Escherichia coli VTEC O157 BCC B2687. Evaluation after conservation ex situ to all bacterocin producing strain at 5oC for 1 year in freeze drying ampoules in vacuum and dry condition revealed the decreasing viability starting from log 0.8 CFU/ml for Lactococcus and Leuconostoc to log 2.2. CFU/ml for Streptococcus. Result of the study showed that the bacteriocin producing strains obtained were offered a potential resource for preventing disease of livestock and food borne diseases.

  16. Genetics Home Reference: Ollier disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information & Resources MedlinePlus (1 link) Health Topic: Bone Diseases Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (1 link) Ollier disease Educational Resources (5 links) Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology Disease InfoSearch: ...

  17. Construction and Establishment of Sci-tech Platform for Agricultural Scientific Research Institutions: A Case Study of Tropical Crops Genetic Resources Institute of Chinese Academy of Tropical Agricultural Sciences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lizhen; CHEN; Yu; ZHENG; Haiyan; LUO; Qingqun; YAO

    2014-01-01

    Taking Tropical Crops Genetic Resources Institute( TCGRI) of Chinese Academy of Tropical Agricultural Sciences( CATAS) as an example,this paper discussed current situation of construction of sci-tech platform,analyzed existing problems,and finally came up with pertinent recommendations.

  18. Identification of true microstructure of composites based on various flax fibre assemblies by means of three-dimensional tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miettinen, Arttu; Joffe, Roberts; Pupure, Liva

    2015-01-01

    Lately it has been demonstrated that natural fibres may be an environmentally superior alternative for, e.g., glass fibres. In order to estimate properties of composite materials made of natural fibres, models designed for synthetic fibres are often used. The models usually do not account...... for irregularities in the material, e.g., suboptimal fibre orientation due to the twisting angle of fibres in yarns. Use of models without taking those features into account might lead to unreliable results. Methods to quantify the microstructural properties of natural fibre composites with X-ray microtomography...... and three-dimensional image analysis are demonstrated in this work. The methods are applied to flax fibre composites made from three different kinds of pre-forms. Microstructural parameters estimated with the methods are used in micromechanical models for the stiffness of the composite. Comparison between...

  19. The Clinical Breast Care Project: an important resource in investigating environmental and genetic contributions to breast cancer in African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellsworth, Rachel E; Zhu, Kangmin; Bronfman, Lee; Gutchell, Veronica; Hooke, Jeffrey A; Shriver, Craig D

    2008-06-01

    Age at diagnosis, pathological characteristics, and tumor behavior differ between African American (AAW) and Caucasian women (CW) with breast cancer, with AAW having more aggressive tumors and higher mortality rates. Although both societal and molecular contributions to these disparities have been suggested, the African American population has traditionally been under-represented in research and clinical protocols, limiting the power of epidemiologic and molecular studies to provide better understanding of disease pathogenesis in this minority population. The Clinical Breast Care Project (CBCP) has developed a large tissue and blood repository from patients undergoing treatment for breast cancer, with previous history of breast cancer, counseled in the Risk Reduction Clinic, screened by routine mammography, or undergoing elective reductive mammoplasty. Recruitment of AAW into the CBCP was successful; 25% of the 2,454 female patients were African American, including 35% disease-free, 3% high-risk, 40% benign, 8% preinvasive and 14% with invasive breast disease. More than 500 data fields regarding lifestyle choices, socioeconomic status, health history and geography were collected from all participants, and all consenting individuals provided blood specimens for genomic and proteomic studies. Tissues were collected from all patients undergoing surgical procedures using protocols that preserve the macromolecules for downstream research applications. In addition, patients were followed after diagnosis, with >85% of patients providing ongoing and updated demographic and clinical information. Thus, recruitment efforts in the CBCP have resulted in collection of well-annotated information and research-quality specimens from a large number of AAW. This unique resource will allow for the identification of biological and environmental factors associated with the identification of genetic and non-genetic factors associated with the occurrence, detection, prognosis, or survival

  20. Investigation on Indigenous Knowledge of Crop Genetic Resources in Bulang Areas of Yunnan%云南省布朗族作物遗传资源土著知识调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋会兵; 徐福荣; 王平盛; 梁名志; 蔡青; 游承俐; 戴陆园

    2011-01-01

    In order to promote the effective protection and sustainable utilization of agricultural biological resources of the minority region in Yunnan, we investigated the indigenous knowledge of crop genetic resources in Bulang area of Yunnan by international investigation method. The results showed that the indigenous knowledge of crop generic resources was abundant in Bulang areas, which included the conventional usage, medical health usage and religious usage of crop resources, collection of the wild vegetables, wild fruit, wild edible fungus, identify and using of the medical plants. 290 crop resources and more than 70 bar indigenous knowledge information of crop genetic resources were collected based on investigating 22 Bulang villages. The status quo of crop genetic resource was preliminarily studied in Bulang areas now, indicating that the crop genetic resources was being reduced, and the traditional fanning culture changed gradually. The forgotten condition of indigenous knowledge of crop genetic resources in Bulang areas was analyzed and some suggestions were proposed.%为促进云南少数民族地区农业生物资源的有效保护与可持续利用,采用国际通用的土著知识调查方法,调查了云南省布朗族作物遗传资源土著知识现状.结果表明,布朗族地区作物遗传资源土著知识丰富多样,包括对农作物资源的传统习惯用法、医疗保健用法和宗教用法,采食野生蔬菜、野生果实和野生食用菌等,以及对药用植物资源的识别与利用.通过对22个布朗族村的调查,获得新的作物种质资源290份,采集到作物遗传资源土著知识信息70余条,初步掌握布朗族地区作物遗传资源的基本现状,发现作物遗传资源正在减少,传统农耕文化正在悄然演变的事实,并针对布朗族地区作物遗传资源土著知识遗忘丢失现状,提出了保护建议.

  1. Genetic Resources for Cotton Improvement and Application of Genomic Tools%棉花品种改良和基因组研究的遗传资源

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    O. L. MAY; A. H. PATERSON; P. W. CHEE

    2002-01-01

    @@ Progress in cotton improvement slowed in the United States the past 20 years, possibly reflecting genetic stagnation. The pedigrees of popular cultivars contain many of the same parents, evidence of a narrow genetic base. The Gossypium genetic base is wide, but only a fraction of the available genetic variation is used in breeding cultivars.

  2. ASPsiRNA: A Resource of ASP-siRNAs Having Therapeutic Potential for Human Genetic Disorders and Algorithm for Prediction of Their Inhibitory Efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monga, Isha; Qureshi, Abid; Thakur, Nishant; Gupta, Amit Kumar; Kumar, Manoj

    2017-09-07

    Allele-specific siRNAs (ASP-siRNAs) have emerged as promising therapeutic molecules owing to their selectivity to inhibit the mutant allele or associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) sparing the expression of the wild-type counterpart. Thus, a dedicated bioinformatics platform encompassing updated ASP-siRNAs and an algorithm for the prediction of their inhibitory efficacy will be helpful in tackling currently intractable genetic disorders. In the present study, we have developed the ASPsiRNA resource (http://crdd.osdd.net/servers/aspsirna/) covering three components viz (i) ASPsiDb, (ii) ASPsiPred, and (iii) analysis tools like ASP-siOffTar ASPsiDb is a manually curated database harboring 4543 (including 422 chemically modified) ASP-siRNAs targeting 78 unique genes involved in 51 different diseases. It furnishes comprehensive information from experimental studies on ASP-siRNAs along with multidimensional genetic and clinical information for numerous mutations. ASPsiPred is a two-layered algorithm to predict efficacy of ASP-siRNAs for fully complementary mutant (Eff(mut)) and wild-type allele (Eff(wild)) with one mismatch by ASPsiPred(SVM) and ASPsiPred(matrix) , respectively. In ASPsiPred(SVM), 922 unique ASP-siRNAs with experimentally validated quantitative Eff(mut) were used. During 10-fold cross-validation (10nCV) employing various sequence features on the training/testing dataset (T737), the best predictive model achieved a maximum Pearson's correlation coefficient (PCC) of 0.71. Further, the accuracy of the classifier to predict Eff(mut) against novel genes was assessed by leave one target out cross-validation approach (LOTOCV). ASPsiPred(matrix) was constructed from rule-based studies describing the effect of single siRNA:mRNA mismatches on the efficacy at 19 different locations of siRNA. Thus, ASPsiRNA encompasses the first database, prediction algorithm, and off-target analysis tool that is expected to accelerate research in the field of RNAi

  3. Genetics Home Reference: bipolar disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conditions Genes Chromosomes & mtDNA Resources Help Me Understand Genetics Share: Email Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions bipolar ... my family? What is the prognosis of a genetic condition? Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center Frequency ...

  4. The “Bringing into Cultivation” Phase of the Plant Domestication Process and Its Contributions to In Situ Conservation of Genetic Resources in Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Vodouhè

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available All over the world, plant domestication is continually being carried out by local communities to support their needs for food, fibre, medicine, building materials, etc. Using participatory rapid appraisal approach, 150 households were surveyed in 5 villages selected in five ethnic groups of Benin, to investigate the local communities’ motivations for plant domestication and the contributions of this process to in situ conservation of genetic resources. The results indicated differences in plant domestication between agroecological zones and among ethnic groups. People in the humid zones give priority to herbs mainly for their leaves while those in dry area prefer trees mostly for their fruits. Local communities were motivated to undertake plant domestication for foods (80% of respondents, medicinal use (40% of respondents, income generation (20% of respondents and cultural reasons (5% of respondents. 45% of the species recorded are still at early stage in domestication and only 2% are fully domesticated. Eleven factors related to the households surveyed and to the head of the household interviewed affect farmers’ decision making in domesticating plant species. There is gender influence on the domestication: Women are keen in domesticating herbs while men give priority to trees.

  5. Human genetics and politics as mutually beneficial resources: The case of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Anthropology, Human Heredity and Eugenics during the Third Reich.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Sheila Faith

    2006-01-01

    This essay analyzes one of Germany's former premier research institutions for biomedical research, the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Anthropology, Human Heredity and Eugenics (KWIA) as a test case for the way in which politics and human heredity served as resources for each other during the Third Reich. Examining the KWIA from this perspective brings us a step closer to answering the questions at the heart of most recent scholarship concerning the biomedical community under the swastika: (1) How do we explain why the vast majority of German human geneticists and eugenicists were willing to work for the National Socialist state and, at the very least, legitimized its exterminationist racial policy; and (2) what accounts for at least some of Germany's most renowned medically trained professionals' involvement in forms of morally compromised science that wholly transcend the bounds of normal scientific practice? Although a complete answer to this question must await an examination of other German biological research centers, the present study suggests that during the Nazi period the symbiotic relationship between human genetics and politics served to radicalize both. The dynamic between the science of human heredity and Nazi politics changed the research practice of some of the biomedical sciences housed at the KWIA. It also simultaneously made it easier for the Nazi state to carry out its barbaric racial program leading, finally, to the extermination of millions of so-called racial undesirables.

  6. Morphological, Phenological And Agronomical Characterisation Of Variability Among Common Bean (Phaseolus Vulgaris L. Local Populations From The National Centre For Plant Genetic Resources: Polish Genebank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boros Lech

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this work was to analyse the morphological, phenological and agronomical variability among common bean local populations from The National Centre for Plant Genetic Resources, Polish Genebank, in order to know the relation among them, and to identify potentially useful accessions for future production and breeding. A considerable genotypic variation for number of seeds per plant, number of pods per plant and weight of seeds per plant were found. Studied bean accessions differed significantly in terms of thousand seeds weight (TSW as well as severity of bacterial halo blight and anthracnose, the major bean diseases. The lowest genotypic diversity was found for the percentage of protein in the seeds, the length of the vegetation period and lodging. The cluster analysis allowed identification of five groups of bean accessions. Genotypes from the first cluster (POLPOD 98-77, KOS 002 and Raba cv. and from the second cluster (WUKR 06-573a, KRA 4, WUKR 06-0534 together with Prosna cv. are of the highest usefulness for breeding purposes. There was no grouping of local populations depending on region of origin.

  7. Status of Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agricultural in China(Ⅰ)%中国粮食和农业植物遗传资源状况报告(Ⅰ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王述民; 万建民; 刘旭; 李立会; 黎裕; 卢新雄; 杨庆文; 曹永生; 张宗文; 高卫东; 邱丽娟

    2011-01-01

    物遗传资源的共享,扩大了对外交流与交换,为中国乃至世界粮食安 全、国民经济又快又好地发展、减少贫困、增加农民收入做出了较大贡献. 尽管中国在粮食和农业植物遗传资源保护和利用方面取得了显著成绩,但还面临许多挑战.需要加强与其他国家和国 际组织的合作,获得国外植物遗传资源和相关技术;继续进行植物遗传资源,特别是野生植物遗传资源、边远地区古老农家品 种的调查及考察与收集,进一步建设和完善植物遗传资源保护体系,实现本国植物遗传资源的全面保护;系统深入地鉴定评 价已保存的植物遗传资源,提供育种家利用,拓宽育种材料的遗传基础;实现更加充分的资源共享和利益分享.进一步提高资 源利用效率.%Over a decade,the Chinese government has attached great importance to the conservation and utilization of plant genetic resources for food and agriculture(PGRFA). According to 20 priority fields described in the Global Plan of Action for the Conservation and Sustainable Utilization of Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture(GPA) ,the Chinese government has formulated and perfected a series of regulations and laws,meanwhile,the management for plant genetic resources has strengthened. Through training and popularization of scientific knowledge related to genetic resources, the public awareness has been promoted. By the international cooperation and establishment of collaborative networks,it has promoted the exchanges of information,prefessionals and materials. Through the implementation of various national programmes and projects,the conservation system for plant genetic resources has been established and improved gradually to achieve the objectives of safe conservation and sustainable use of plant genetic resources, which has played a great role in plant breeding and food security in both China and the world.( 1 ) A systematic survey and

  8. The effects of excessive mineral salts and vitamins on fiber cell thickness in flax (Linum usitatissimum L. cultivar Sarı 85)

    OpenAIRE

    DEMİRAY, Hatice; DEREBOYLU, Aylin EŞİZ

    2010-01-01

    The effects of mineral salts on fiber cell thickness in flax (Linum usitatissimum L. cultivar Sarı 85) were investigated in plants grown in medium both rich and poor in mineral salts and vitamins. Three media were investigated: control (MS medium), mineral salt and vitamin deficient MS medium, and mineral salt and vitamin rich MS medium. While chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll, and carotenoid pigment content significantly increased in the medium rich in mineral salts and vitamin...

  9. 过氧化氢对亚麻的超声漂白与染色%Hydrogen Peroxide to Flax Ultrasonic Bleaching and Dyeing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐淑娟; 高云岭; 王明

    2001-01-01

    The findings indicate that ultrasound applying to flax bleaching can not only reduce reacting temperature but also improve on capability of dyeing and stiffness of flax.%实验表明,采用超声波漂白亚麻可以降低反应温度、增加柔软性能和上染速率及上染百分率。

  10. RNAi-mediated pinoresinol lariciresinol reductase gene silencing in flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) seed coat: consequences on lignans and neolignans accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renouard, Sullivan; Tribalatc, Marie-Aude; Lamblin, Frederic; Mongelard, Gaëlle; Fliniaux, Ophélie; Corbin, Cyrielle; Marosevic, Djurdjica; Pilard, Serge; Demailly, Hervé; Gutierrez, Laurent; Hano, Christophe; Mesnard, François; Lainé, Eric

    2014-09-15

    RNAi technology was applied to down regulate LuPLR1 gene expression in flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) seeds. This gene encodes a pinoresinol lariciresinol reductase responsible for the synthesis of (+)-secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG), the major lignan accumulated in the seed coat. If flax lignans biological properties and health benefits are well documented their roles in planta remain unclear. This loss of function strategy was developed to better understand the implication of the PLR1 enzyme in the lignan biosynthetic pathway and to provide new insights on the functions of these compounds. RNAi plants generated exhibited LuPLR1 gene silencing as demonstrated by quantitative RT-PCR experiments and the failed to accumulate SDG. The accumulation of pinoresinol the substrate of the PLR1 enzyme under its diglucosylated form (PDG) was increased in transgenic seeds but did not compensate the overall loss of SDG. The monolignol flux was also deviated through the synthesis of 8-5' linked neolignans dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol glucoside (DCG) and dihydro-dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol glucoside (DDCG) which were observed for the first time in flax seeds.

  11. 亚麻短麻纺织系列产品开发的研究%A Study on Products Development Based on Short Flax Textile Series

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段冶

    2015-01-01

    随着社会经济的迅速发展,亚麻在国内外市场的需求也日益上升,我国亚麻纺织企业应把握市场有利时机,利用亚麻纺织在国内外市场的升温和好转,开发品种多样的亚麻产品,提高亚麻纺织的技术水平与经济效益。论述了亚麻纺织企业面临市场强大竞争中开发亚麻短麻纺织产品系列的重要性。%With the rapid development of society and economy, demand for linen in the domestic market is growing. Flax textile enterprises in China should grasp the favorable market opportunity, under the cover of the heating domestic market of linen tex-tile, to develop a variety of linen products and improve the technical level and economic performance of flax textile. In this arti-cle, for the fierce competition linen textile enterprises, we study on the importance to develop short flax hemp textile products.

  12. Plant phosphorus acquisition in a common mycorrhizal network: regulation of phosphate transporter genes of the Pht1 family in sorghum and flax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walder, Florian; Brulé, Daphnée; Koegel, Sally; Wiemken, Andres; Boller, Thomas; Courty, Pierre-Emmanuel

    2015-03-01

    In a preceding microcosm study, we found huge differences in phosphorus (P) acquisition in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and flax (Linum usitatissimum) sharing a common mycorrhizal network (CMN). Is the transcriptional regulation of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM)-induced inorganic orthophosphate (Pi) transporters responsible for these differences? We characterized and analyzed the expression of Pi transporters of the Pht1 family in both plant species, and identified two new AM-inducible Pi transporters in flax. Mycorrhizal Pi acquisition was strongly affected by the combination of plant and AM fungal species. A corresponding change in the expression of two AM-inducible Pht1 transporters was noticed in both plants (SbPT9, SbPT10, LuPT5 and LuPT8), but the effect was very weak. Overall, the expression level of these genes did not explain why flax took up more Pi from the CMN than did sorghum. The post-transcriptional regulation of the transporters and their biochemical properties may be more important for their function than the fine-tuning of their gene expression.

  13. 不同亚麻品种萌发期抗旱性比较研究%The Drought Comparative Study of Different Varieties of Flax in Germination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴文荣; 朱月梅; 吴桂丽; 左艳飞; 康建伟; 刘晓艳

    2012-01-01

    The cycle of growth and development of flax is a critical period. The drought has important influence at the period of linen growth and yield. Experiment chooses five flax varieties: Baya 3 , Baya 7, Baya 9, Baya 11, Baya 12 for test materials. These physiological indexes of Germination energy、 Germination rate 、 Germination index, Vitality Index are were determined. With Membership function method, the results showed that the drought resistance sequenceof Five flax varieties was Baya 7 > Baya 12 > Baya 11 > Baya 9 > Baya 3.%萌发期是亚麻生长周期中的一个关键时期,此期的干旱对亚麻生长及产量有着重要的影响.试验选用5个亚麻品种:坝亚3号、坝亚7号、坝亚9号、坝亚11号、坝亚12号为试验材料,分别对萌发期生理指标:发芽势、发芽率、发芽指数、活力指数进行测定,通过模糊隶属函数法综合分析和评价,结果表明:坝亚7号抗旱性>坝亚12号>坝亚11号>坝亚9号>坝亚3号.

  14. Radioactive Chernobyl environment has produced high-oil flax seeds that show proteome alterations related to carbon metabolism during seed development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klubicová, Katarína; Danchenko, Maksym; Skultety, Ludovit; Berezhna, Valentyna V; Rashydov, Namik M; Hajduch, Martin

    2013-11-01

    Starting in 2007, we have grown soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr. variety Soniachna) and flax (Linum usitatissimum, L. variety Kyivskyi) in the radio-contaminated Chernobyl area and analyzed the seed proteomes. In the second-generation flax seeds, we detected a 12% increase in oil content. To characterize the bases for this increase, seed development has been studied. Flax seeds were harvested in biological triplicate at 2, 4, and 6 weeks after flowering and at maturity from plants grown in nonradioactive and radio-contaminated plots in the Chernobyl area for two generations. Quantitative proteomic analyses based on 2-D gel electrophoresis (2-DE) allowed us to establish developmental profiles for 199 2-DE spots in both plots, out of which 79 were reliably identified by tandem mass spectrometry. The data suggest a statistically significant increased abundance of proteins associated with pyruvate biosynthesis via cytoplasmic glycolysis, L-malate decarboxylation, isocitrate dehydrogenation, and ethanol oxidation to acetaldehyde in early stages of seed development. This was followed by statistically significant increased abundance of ketoacyl-[acylcarrier protein] synthase I related to condensation of malonyl-ACP with elongating fatty acid chains. On the basis of these and previous data, we propose a preliminary model for plant adaptation to growth in a radio-contaminated environment. One aspect of the model suggests that changes in carbon assimilation and fatty acid biosynthesis are an integral part of plant adaptation.

  15. Genetic resources of vegetable crops: a survey in the Brazilian germplasm collections pictured through papers published in the journals of the Brazilian Society for Horticultural Science Recursos genéticos de hortaliças: as atividades nas coleções brasileiras de germoplasma retratadas nas publicações da Associação Brasileira de Horticultura

    OpenAIRE

    Cláudia P Sudré; Eduardo Leonardecz; Rosana Rodrigues; Antônio T. do Amaral Júnior; Maria da CL Moura; Leandro SA Gonçalves

    2007-01-01

    The research on plant genetic resources is essential for the conservation of genetic diversity and accessions' divergence studies, as a basis for plant breeding. Aiming to know the state of art in this subject, a historical survey was carried out in Revista de Olericultura and in Horticultura Brasileira, from 1961 to 2006, searching for papers dealing with vegetable crops genetic resources. In each of the papers, the species studied, first author institution, publication year, applied softwar...

  16. Garlic biodiversity and genetic resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamenetsky, R.; Khassanov, F.; Rabinowitch, H.D.; Auger, J.; Kik, C.

    2007-01-01

    Garlic clones exhibit a wide variation in vegetative traits, flavor and pungency; bolting capacity, and fertility. Cultivar characteristics differ considerably with the location of cultivation, and climate has a significant impact on garlic bulbing, florogenesis and flavor. All cultivated garlic clo

  17. Production objectives and trait preferences of village poultry producers of Ethiopia: implications for designing breeding schemes utilizing indigenous chicken genetic resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dana, Nigussie; van der Waaij, Liesbeth H; Dessie, Tadelle; van Arendonk, Johan A M

    2010-10-01

    important attribute of chickens in all the study areas. The high significance attributed to reproduction traits indicates the need for maintaining broody behavior and high level of hatchability while breeding for improved productivity of indigenous chickens for village conditions. The market price of chickens is primarily dictated by weight, but farmers rated growth (males) and number of eggs followed by growth (females) as the production traits they would like the most to be improved. Therefore, the ultimate breeding goal should be to develop a dual-purpose breed based on indigenous chicken genetic resources with any of the comb types other than single for all the regions studied having the most preferred white body plumage for farmers in the Amhara region and red body plumage for those in Oromia, Benshangul-Gumuz, and Southern regions.

  18. 全球豇豆资源农艺性状多样性分析%Genetic Diversity of Agronomic Traits in Global Cowpea Resource

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊海铮; 施爱农; 孙健; 张宁; 吴殿星; 舒小丽

    2016-01-01

    Seventeen agronomic traits of 768 cowpea resources which were collected from 58 countries or regions were analyzed with USDA standard method. Phenotypic polymorphism analysis shown that among all traits, the major accessions have white pod, semi-round smooth white seed with black eye seed-type and erect semi-prostrate plant-type with semi-hastate leaf. Variance analysis showed that there were no significant differences in grain shape, pod-position, pod placement and plant type among each geographic group. The variances of remaining traits were different in certain extent among each geographic group. Clustering analysis showed the geographical groups have certain difference with no significant. Among each group, commercial cultivars were obviously different from those in other groups with the highest pod number and the seed weight, the lowest coefficient of variation (CV) and genetic diversity. Accessions from Africa and Asia have the highest genetic diversity with close genetic relationship. Within North America and Latin America groups, the phenotypes were similar and have closer relations with South and Central Asian compare with other out-continent groups. Therefore it can be inferred that cowpea may originate from Africa and undergo second domestication in Asia, then move into the American colonies by colonial expansion.%参照美国农业部标准对来自全球58个国家或地区的768份豇豆资源的17个农艺性状进行了遗传多态性分析。结果显示:整个群体中以白色豆荚和白色、棕眼、光滑、半圆籽粒为主;株叶形态以直立、半蔓生株型及半戟型叶片为主。方差分析显示除粒型、结荚位置、株型及结荚习性在各群体间没有显著差异外,其余性状在各地理群体间显示出一定程度的差异。聚类分析可以在一定程度上区别各地理群,但各地区间(分类界限)不明显。在各群体中,商业栽培品种与其他各地区品种表型区别明显

  19. 植物遗传资源保护中农民权的若干理论问题探析%Analysis of Several Theoretical Problems about Farmers ’ Rights in the Protection of Plant Genetic Resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷朝霞

    2015-01-01

    The issue of farmers’ rights is one of the contentions between developed and developing countries on the protection and sustainable use of plant genetic resources .Farmers’ rights arising in the exploitation and protection of plant genetic resources ,by its very nature ,are a new type of intellectual property rights ,similar to the prior right in patent law .The subjects of farmers’ rights are farmers as a group who have long been making enormous contributions to the conservation and improvement of plant genetic resources .The objects of farmers’ rights should cover plant genetic resources of food and agriculture both in situ and ex situ conditions ,through the identification ,preservation and improvement by farmers .The content of farmers’ rights includes moral rights and property rights to be enjoyed by farmers .%农民权问题是发达国家和发展中国家在植物遗传资源保护及可持续利用中争论的焦点问题之一。植物遗传资源开发、保护中出现的农民权,就其性质而言,是一种新型的知识产权,类似专利法中的先用权;其权利主体是那些长期以来在保存、改良和提供植物遗传资源中做出贡献的农民群体;经过农民鉴别、保存、改良的原生境条件下和非原生境条件下的粮食和农业植物遗传资源是农民权的客体;其权利内容包括农民群体享有的精神权利和财产权利。

  20. Determination of phenolic acids in seeds of black cumin, flax, pomegranate and pumpkin and their by-products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krimer-Malešević Vera M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ten phenolic acids, contained in the seeds of black cumin (Nigella sativa L., flax (Linum usitatissimum L., pomegranate (Punica granatum L. and pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L. and their oil industry by-products, separated into the free, esterified, and insoluble-bound forms, were quantitatively analysed by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detector. The chromatographic data were interpreted using Principal Component Analysis (PCA. The PCA model with three principal components (PC1-PC2-PC3 fitted well with 12 examined plant samples, allowing their division into groups according to their origin. The total phenolic variables could be represented by two PCs and for the pattern recognition of the analysed samples, 13 phenolic variables are sufficient, including: free, esterified and insoluble-bound forms of gallic and syringic acids, free vanillic, insoluble bound p-coumaric, esterified p-hydroxybenzaldehide, and free and insoluble-bound forms of p-hydroxybenzoic and trans-synapic acids. This might have potential application in simplified screening of phenolic compounds in seeds and their oil industry by-products or in food component analysis or authenticity detection in such plant materials.[Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 46010