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Sample records for flavor compound s-linalool

  1. Volatile flavor compounds in yogurt: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hefa

    2010-11-01

    Considerable knowledge has been accumulated on the volatile compounds contributing to the aroma and flavor of yogurt. This review outlines the production of the major flavor compounds in yogurt fermentation and the analysis techniques, both instrumental and sensory, for quantifying the volatile compounds in yogurt. The volatile compounds that have been identified in plain yogurt are summarized, with the few key aroma compounds described in detail. Most flavor compounds in yogurt are produced from lipolysis of milkfat and microbiological transformations of lactose and citrate. More than 100 volatiles, including carbonyl compounds, alcohols, acids, esters, hydrocarbons, aromatic compounds, sulfur-containing compounds, and heterocyclic compounds, are found in yogurt at low to trace concentrations. Besides lactic acid, acetaldehyde, diacetyl, acetoin, acetone, and 2-butanone contribute most to the typical aroma and flavor of yogurt. Extended storage of yogurt causes off-flavor development, which is mainly attributed to the production of undesired aldehydes and fatty acids during lipid oxidation. Further work on studying the volatile flavor compounds-matrix interactions, flavor release mechanisms, and the synergistic effect of flavor compounds, and on correlating the sensory properties of yogurt with the compositions of volatile flavor compounds are needed to fully elucidate yogurt aroma and flavor.

  2. Flavor compounds of popped amaranth seeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gamel, T.H.; Linssen, J.P.H.

    2008-01-01

    Amaranth caudatus seeds were popped and studied for optimal popping conditions and flavor compounds. The optimum popping temperature for the seeds was 180C. At this temperature, the expansion volume, flake size and unpopped kernel proportion were 9.4¿11.3 cm3/g, 0.010¿0.012 cm/g and 10¿2%, respectiv

  3. Microbial production of scent and flavor compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Austin L; Desai, Shuchi H; Atsumi, Shota

    2016-02-01

    Scents and flavors like those of fresh oranges are no longer limited to just the natural product. Fruit, flower, and essential oil scents have found place in cosmetics, soaps, candles, and food amongst many common household products. With their increasing global demand and difficulty in extractation from the natural source, alternative methods of their production are being sought. One sustainable method is to employ microorganisms for the production of these high value compounds. With the tools of metabolic engineering, microorganisms can be modified to produce compounds such as esters, terpenoids, aldehydes, and methyl ketones. Approaches and challenges for the production of these compounds from microbial hosts are discussed in this review.

  4. Evaluation of anxiolytic potency of essential oil and S-(+-linalool from Cinnamomum osmophloeum ct. linalool leaves in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing-Ho Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cinnamomum osmophloeum ct. linalool (土肉桂 tǔ ròu guì is one chemotype of the indigenous cinnamons in Taiwan. This study examined the anxiolytic potency of leaf essential oil (LEO from C. osmophloeum ct. linalool and its main constituent on 4-week ICR mice using an open field test (OFT, a light–dark test (LDT and an elevated plus maze test (EPT. After oral administration of corn oil, LEO (250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg, S-(+-linalool (500 mg/kg, R-(−-linalool (500 mg/kg, and trazodone hydrochloride (75 mg/kg for 14 days, the anxiolytic effects on mice behavior were evaluated. The results showed that LEO from C. osmophloeum ct. linalool leaves and S-(+-linalool can significantly increase the time mice remained in the center area of the OFT, the illuminated area of the LDT and the open arms of the EPT without any side effects affecting motor activity, indicating excellent anxiolytic responses. Furthermore, results from the measurements of monoamines in mice brain revealed decreases in serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine, which are consistent with their anxiolytic effects in animal models. The findings obtained suggest that LEO from C. osmophloeum ct. linalool and its major compound, S-(+-linalool, possess anxiolytic properties without any side effects and thus support their potential use in treatment of anxiety disorders.

  5. Associations of Volatile Compounds with Sensory Aroma and Flavor: The Complex Nature of Flavor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Chambers IV

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Attempts to relate sensory analysis data to specific chemicals such as volatile compounds have been frequent. Often these associations are difficult to interpret or are weak in nature. Although some difficulties may relate to the methods used, the difficulties also result from the complex nature of flavor. For example, there are multiple volatiles responsible for a flavor sensation, combinations of volatiles yield different flavors than those expected from individual compounds, and the differences in perception of volatiles in different matrices. This review identifies some of the reasons sensory analysis and instrumental measurements result in poor associations and suggests issues that need to be addressed in future research for better understanding of the relationships of flavor/aroma phenomena and chemical composition.

  6. Microextraction techniques in the analysis of food flavor compounds: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeleń, Henryk H; Majcher, Małgorzata; Dziadas, Mariusz

    2012-08-13

    Food flavor compounds due to the complexity of food as a matrix, and usually their very low concentrations in a product, as well as their low odor thresholds, create a challenge in their extraction, separation and quantitation. Food flavor volatiles represent compounds of different polarity, volatility and chemical character, which determine method of extraction for their isolation from food. Microextraction techniques, mainly SPME and SBSE have been used for food flavor compounds analysis for two decades. Microextraction methods other than SPME and SBSE are seldom used despite their analytical potential. The review discusses the nature of food flavor compounds, and different approaches to food flavor analysis. It summarizes the use of microextraction methods in food flavor compounds analysis based on papers published in the last 5years, and discusses the potential of microextraction methods in this field. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Rejection Thresholds in Solid Chocolate-Flavored Compound Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, Meriel L.; Ziegler, Gregory R.; Hayes, John E.

    2012-01-01

    Classical detection thresholds do not predict liking, as they focus on the presence or absence of a sensation. Recently however, Prescott and colleagues described a new method, the rejection threshold, where a series of forced choice preference tasks are used to generate a dose-response function to determine hedonically acceptable concentrations. That is, how much is too much? To date, this approach has been used exclusively in liquid foods. Here, we determined group rejection thresholds in solid chocolate-flavored compound coating for bitterness. The influences of self-identified preferences for milk or dark chocolate, as well as eating style (chewers versus melters) on rejection thresholds were investigated. Stimuli included milk chocolate-flavored compound coating spiked with increasing amounts of sucrose octaacetate (SOA), a bitter GRAS additive. Paired preference tests (blank vs. spike) were used to determine the proportion of the group that preferred the blank. Across pairs, spiked samples were presented in ascending concentration. We were able to quantify and compare differences between two self-identified market segments. The rejection threshold for the dark chocolate preferring group was significantly higher than the milk chocolate preferring group (p = 0.01). Conversely, eating style did not affect group rejection thresholds (p = 0.14), although this may reflect the amount of chocolate given to participants. Additionally, there was no association between chocolate preference and eating style (p = 0.36). Present work supports the contention that this method can be used to examine preferences within specific market segments and potentially individual differences as they relate to ingestive behavior. PMID:22924788

  8. Identification of flavor compounds and enhancement of flavor characteristics in space foods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Cheorun; Yun, Hyejeong; Jung, Samooel; Jung, Yeonkook; Lee, Hyeonjeong [Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    To minimize the deterioration of sensorial quality of irradiated bulgogi and dakgalbi, the microbial safety and volatiles were examined. The total aerobic bacterial population of dakgalbi was eliminated by 40 kGy of irradiation, But, the lipid oxidation and the contents of volatile basic nitrogen were significantly increased by 40 kGy of irradiation, and off-flavor was significantly higher in irradiated sample. The amount of volatile compounds was increased by irradiation including hexane, heptane, propanal, hexanal, pentanal, and nonanal Totally 7 natural materials and red wine were added into ground beef for manufacturing bulgogi and evaluated the relative radiation sensitivity (RRS) against Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus. When garlic, onion, or red wine were added into the ground beef with concentrations 1 to 5%, the RRS increased significantly. Also, garlic or onion used as ingredient of dakalbi significantly increased RRS against Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytohenes garlic or red wine were selected to increase of RRS and combined with charcoal packaging to reduce the off-odor of ground beef by irradiation. The combination treatment of garlic or red wine with charcoal packaging reduced the total volatile compounds. Sensory evaluation confirmed that the use of combination treatment of natural materials with charcoal packaging enhance the sensorial quality of ground beef. As the result, it is possible to reduce the required irradiation dose by increasing RRS, which can minimize sensory deterioration of the products. And, charcoal packaging can reduce sensory deterioration

  9. Analysis of flavor-related compounds from tabacco using SPME-GC-MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, G.B.; Lee, S.G. [Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Taejeon (Korea)

    2001-04-01

    The flavor-related compounds contained in tobacco were analyzed by selected ion monitoring (SIM) method using headspace SPME gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Flavor-related compounds were estragole, pulegone, trans-anethole, safrole, piperonal, eugenol, methyleugenol, coumarin, trans-isoeugenol, trans-methyleugenol and myristicin More than one of the flavor-related compounds were detected in the range of 0.001-1.3 {mu}g/g from all brands of tobacco studied. The recovery was ranged from 89.1 to 102.9% and relative standard deviation was ranged from 2.6 to 25.2%. (author). 19 refs., 4 tabs., 2 figs.

  10. Flavoring Compounds Dominate Toxic Aldehyde Production during E-Cigarette Vaping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khlystov, Andrey; Samburova, Vera

    2016-12-06

    The growing popularity of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) raises concerns about the possibility of adverse health effects to primary users and people exposed to e-cigarette vapors. E-Cigarettes offer a very wide variety of flavors, which is one of the main factors that attract new, especially young, users. How flavoring compounds in e-cigarette liquids affect the chemical composition and toxicity of e-cigarette vapors is practically unknown. Although e-cigarettes are marketed as safer alternatives to traditional cigarettes, several studies have demonstrated formation of toxic aldehydes in e-cigarette vapors during vaping. So far, aldehyde formation has been attributed to thermal decomposition of the main components of e-cigarette e-liquids (propylene glycol and glycerol), while the role of flavoring compounds has been ignored. In this study, we have measured several toxic aldehydes produced by three popular brands of e-cigarettes with flavored and unflavored e-liquids. We show that, within the tested e-cigarette brands, thermal decomposition of flavoring compounds dominates formation of aldehydes during vaping, producing levels that exceed occupational safety standards. Production of aldehydes was found to be exponentially dependent on concentration of flavoring compounds. These findings stress the need for a further, thorough investigation of the effect of flavoring compounds on the toxicity of e-cigarettes.

  11. Bromofenóis simples relacionados ao "flavor" de organismos marinhos Brominated phenols as key flavor compounds found in marine organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilma Mota da Silva

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The perception of the flavor is an important attribute of quality in marine fish and other seafoods, being the first and main factor of discrimination for the evaluation, later acceptance and preference of the product by the consumer. Recently, the simple bromophenols have been considered an important group of key flavor compounds occurring in a wide variety of seafood species like fishes, mollusks, crustaceans and algae. When present in high concentration, in seafood, the bromophenols produce an undesirable flavor and are associated with inferior quality. Meanwhile, when present in low concentration levels (for example ng g-1 these compounds produce a desirable marine - or ocean-like - flavor and enhance the existing flavor in seafood. Indeed, simple bromophenols are widespread in seafood but virtually absent in freshwater fish. Herein we present a review on these flavor components found in the marine environment.

  12. Debaryomyces hansenii strains differ in their production of flavor compounds in a cheese-surface model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gori, Klaus; Sørensen, Louise Marie; Petersen, Mikael Agerlin

    2012-01-01

    Flavor production among12 strains of Debaryomyces hansenii when grown on a simple cheese model mimicking a cheese surface was investigated by dynamic headspace sampling followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The present study confirmed that D. hansenii possess the ability to produce...... important cheese flavor compounds, primarily branched-chain aldehydes and alcohols, and thus important for the final cheese flavor. Quantification of representative aldehydes (2-Methylpropanal, 3-Methylbutanal) and alcohols (2-Methyl-1-propanol, 3-Methyl-1-butanol, and 3-Methyl-3-buten-1-ol) showed...... that the investigated D. hansenii strains varied significantly with respect to production of these flavor compounds. Contrary to the alcohols (2-Methyl-1-propanol,3-Methyl-1-butanol, and3-Methyl-3-buten-1-ol), the aldehydes (2-Methylpropanal, 3-Methylbutanal) were produced by the D. hansenii strains in concentrations...

  13. Maturity acceleration of Italian dried sausage by Staphylococcus carnosus - Relationship between maturity and flavor compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stahnke, Louise Heller; Holck, A.; Jensen, Anni

    2002-01-01

    The mature flavor of Salame Milano, an Italian dried sausage, was increased in two ways: by increasing maturation time or with a strain of Staphylococcus carnosus. The sensory and volatile profiles of the sausages were determined and the data analyzed by analysis of variance and chemometrics. Sau......, and valine, or from microbial beta-oxidation of fatty acids. Also, sulfur compounds arising from added garlic correlated positively with mature flavor....

  14. Systematic mining of generally recognized as safe (GRAS) flavor chemicals for bioactive compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Mayorga, Karina; Peppard, Terry L; López-Vallejo, Fabian; Yongye, Austin B; Medina-Franco, José L

    2013-08-07

    Bioactive food compounds can be both therapeutically and nutritionally relevant. Screening strategies are widely employed to identify bioactive compounds from edible plants. Flavor additives contained in the so-called FEMA GRAS (generally recognized as safe) list of approved flavoring ingredients is an additional source of potentially bioactive compounds. This work used the principles of molecular similarity to identify compounds with potential mood-modulating properties. The ability of certain GRAS molecules to inhibit histone deacetylase-1 (HDAC1), proposed as an important player in mood modulation, was assayed. Two GRAS chemicals were identified as HDAC1 inhibitors in the micromolar range, results similar to what was observed for the structurally related mood prescription drug valproic acid. Additional studies on bioavailability, toxicity at higher concentrations, and off-target effects are warranted. The methodology described in this work could be employed to identify potentially bioactive flavor chemicals present in the FEMA GRAS list.

  15. 海鲜类香精的调配%Compounding of seafood flavoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘华; 季大伟

    2011-01-01

    According to the market demand for the seafood flavorings, we chose suitable materials and adopted different techniques including Maillard reaction and perfumery technology to blend savory flavors. Enzyme hydrolysis, extracts and Millard materials were used. The crab flavor, seaweed flavor and tuna fish flavor were used as examples showing the processing of compounding natural reaction flavor and volatile fragrance to meet the requirement for seafood flavor. The sea food enzymatic hydrolysis and Millard reaction were briefly discussed.%根据市场对海鲜类咸味香精的要求,选取合适的已开发原料,运用不同的加工技术,包括美拉德反应技术和调香师的调香技术研发出适合市场需要的各类海鲜香精.并简单涉及到酶解物,萃取物和反应物.通过天然反应香精和头香香气的完美搭配来体现海鲜的头香和口味一致性.本文仅探讨几个具有一般代表性的海鲜香精:蟹味,海苔和金枪鱼香精,同时简单叙述了海鲜酶解物以及海鲜反应物的生产工艺流程及要点.

  16. Sensory characteristics and related volatile flavor compound profiles of different types of whey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo-Escamilla, F J; Kelly, A L; Delahunty, C M

    2005-08-01

    To characterize the flavor of liquid whey, 11 samples of whey representing a wide range of types were sourced from cheese and casein-making procedures, either industrial or from pilot-plant facilities. Whey samples were assessed for flavor by descriptive sensory evaluation and analyzed for headspace volatile composition by proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry (PTR-MS). The sensory data clearly distinguished between the samples in relation to the processes of manufacture; that is, significant differences were apparent between cheese, rennet, and acid wheys. For Mozzarella and Quarg wheys, in which fermentation progressed to low pH values, the starter cultures used for cheese making had a significant influence on flavor. In comparison, Cheddar and Gouda wheys were described by milk-like flavors, and rennet casein wheys were described by "sweet" (oat-like and "sweet") and thermally induced flavors. The volatile compound data obtained by PTR-MS differentiated the samples as distinctive and reproducible "chemical fingerprints". On applying partial least squares regression to determine relationships between sensory and volatile composition data, sensory characteristics such as "rancid" and cheese-like odors and "caramelized milk," yogurt-like, "sweet," and oat-like flavors were found to be related to the presence and absence of specific volatile compounds.

  17. Debaryomyces hansenii strains differ in their production of flavor compounds in a cheese-surface model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gori, Klaus; Sørensen, Louise Marie; Petersen, Mikael Agerlin;

    2012-01-01

    higher than their sensory threshold values, and thus seemed more important than alcohols for cheese flavor. These results show that D. hansenii strainsmay have potential to be applied as cultures for increasing the nutty/malty flavor of cheese due to their production of aldehydes. However, due to large...... strain variations, production of flavor compounds has to be taken into consideration for selection of D. hansenii strains as starter cultures for cheese production.......Flavor production among12 strains of Debaryomyces hansenii when grown on a simple cheese model mimicking a cheese surface was investigated by dynamic headspace sampling followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The present study confirmed that D. hansenii possess the ability to produce...

  18. Characterizing endogenous and oxidative low molecular weight flavor/aroma compounds in fresh squeezed/blended pomegranate juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little published information exists regarding flavor and aroma compounds in pomegranate (Punica granatum) juices. Although, arils have fruity and sweet characteristics, we found no publications describing volatile and semi-volatile compounds responsible for their typical flavor. Only two reports w...

  19. Predictive Modeling of Flavor Compound Formation in the Maillard Reaction: A SWOT Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekel, van M.A.J.S.

    2010-01-01

    The importance of Maillard flavor compounds for food quality is undisputed, but we are far from being able to control such formation quantitatively in food processing. Kinetic models attempt to predict rates of formation as a function of temperature, pH, water activity/content, and chemical reactivi

  20. Flavor of roasted peanuts (Arachis hypogaea) - Part II: Correlation of volatile compounds to sensory characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lykomitros, Dimitrios; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Capuano, Edoardo

    2016-01-01

    Flavor and color of roasted peanuts are important research areas due to their significant influence on consumer preference. The aim of the present study was to explore correlations between sensory attributes of peanuts, volatile headspace compounds and color parameters. Different raw peanuts were se

  1. Predictive Modeling of Flavor Compound Formation in the Maillard Reaction: A SWOT Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekel, van M.A.J.S.

    2010-01-01

    The importance of Maillard flavor compounds for food quality is undisputed, but we are far from being able to control such formation quantitatively in food processing. Kinetic models attempt to predict rates of formation as a function of temperature, pH, water activity/content, and chemical

  2. Comparative Analysis of Three Types of Peaches: Identification of the Key Individual Characteristic Flavor Compounds by Integrating Consumers' Acceptability with Flavor Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanpeng XI

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to recognize the key flavor compounds influencing the consumers' choice for honey peach, nectarine, and flat peach and provide important information for orientation breeding, sugars, organic acids, and aroma volatiles in 3 types of peaches were examined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS and their key individual characteristic flavor compounds were identified by multivariate analysis integrated with consumers' evaluation. No significant differences in sugar and organic acid were observed between 3 types of peaches. In hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA and principal component analysis (PCA models, 3 types of peaches could not be differentiated by sugars or organic acids, but could be identified completely by aroma volatiles or by flavor compounds. A partial least squares regression (PLSR model revealed that the key individual characteristic volatiles in nectarine, honey peach, and flat peach are C9 compounds and terpenic compounds, norisoprenoids and C6 compounds, and benzaldehyde, γ-decalactone, and δ-dodecalactone, respectively. These results suggest that sugars and organic acids form the background flavor of peach fruit and lactones shape the typical peach aroma. However, the individual aroma volatiles play the decisive role in unique flavor determination of different types of peaches.

  3. Modification of ginseng flavors by bitter compounds found in chocolate and coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sook Chung, Hee; Lee, Soo-Yeun

    2012-06-01

    Ginseng is not widely accepted by U.S. consumers due to its unfamiliar flavors, despite its numerous health benefits. Previous studies have suggested that the bitter compounds in chocolate and coffee may mask the off-flavors of ginseng. The objectives of this study were to: (1) profile sensory characteristics of ginseng extract solution, caffeine solution, cyclo (L-Pro-L-Val) solution, theobromine solution, and 2 model solutions simulating chocolate bitterness; and (2) determine the changes in the sensory characteristics of ginseng extract solution by the addition of the bitter compounds found in chocolate and coffee. Thirteen solutions were prepared in concentrations similar to the levels of the bitter compounds found in coffee and chocolate products. Twelve panelists participated in a descriptive analysis panel which included time-intensity ratings. Ginseng extract was characterized as sweeter, starchier, and more green tea than the other sample solutions. Those characteristics of ginseng extract were effectively modified by the addition of caffeine, cyclo (L-Pro-L-Val), and 2 model solutions. A model solution simulating dark chocolate bitterness was the least influenced in intensities of bitterness by the addition of ginseng extract. Results from time-intensity ratings show that the addition of ginseng extract increased duration time in certain bitterness of the 2 model solutions. Bitter compounds found in dark chocolate could be proposed to effectively mask the unique flavors of ginseng. Future studies blending aroma compounds of chocolate and coffee into such model solutions may be conducted to investigate the influence on the perception of the unique flavors through the congruent flavors. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  4. Autolysis of Aspergillus oryzae Mycelium and Effect on Volatile Flavor Compounds of Soy Sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ning; Liu, Yaqi; Hu, Yong; Zhou, Mengzhou; Wang, Chao; Li, Dongsheng

    2016-08-01

    The autolyzed mycelia of Aspergillus oryzae are rich in proteins, nucleic acids, sugar, and other biomacromolecules, and are one of the main contributors to the flavor profile of commercially important fermented goods, including soy sauce and miso. We induced autolysis of the mycelia of A. oryzae over 1 to 10 d, and found that the maximum dissolved amounts of total protein and nucleic acid ratio accounted for 28.63% and 88.93%, respectively. The organic acid content, such as citric acid, tartaric acid, succinic acid, lactic acid, and acetic acid, initially increased and then decreased as autolysis progressed, corresponding to changes in pH levels. The main characteristic flavor compounds in soy sauce, namely, ethanol, 2-phenylethanol, and 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol, were all detected in the autolysate. Subsequently, we tested the effect of adding mycelia of A. oryzae during the fermentation process of soy sauce for 60 d, and found that addition of 1.2‰ A. oryzae mycelia provided the richest flavor. Overall, our findings suggest that compounds found in the autolysate of A. oryzae may promote the flavor compounds of soy sauce, such as alcohols, aldehydes, phenols, and esters. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  5. Effect of fat nature and aroma compound hydrophobicity on flavor release from complex food emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Relkin, Perla; Fabre, Marjorie; Guichard, Elisabeth

    2004-10-06

    Complex food emulsions containing either hydrogenated palm kernel oil (vegetable fat) or anhydrous milk fat (animal fat) were flavored by using different aroma compounds. The fats differed by their fatty acid and triacylglycerol compositions and by their melting behavior, while the aroma compounds (ethyl butanoate, ethyl hexanoate, methyl hexanoate, mesifurane, linalool, diacetyl, cis-3-hexen-1-ol, and gamma-octalactone) differed by their hydrophobicity. Application of differential scanning calorimetry to fat samples in bulk and emulsified forms indicated differences in the ratio of solid-to-liquid between temperatures ranging from 10 to 35 degrees C. Solid-phase microextraction coupled with GC-MS analysis indicated that flavor release from food emulsions containing animal or vegetable fat differed depending on both the fat nature and flavor compound hydrophobicity. The release of diacetyl was higher for emulsions containing animal fat, whereas the release of esters was higher for emulsions containing vegetable fat. The release of cis-3-hexenol, linalool, gamma-octalactone, and mesifurane (2,5-dimethyl-4-methoxy-(2H)-furan-3-one) was very similar for the two fatty systems. The above results were discussed not only in terms of aroma compound hydrophobicity, but also in terms of structural properties of the emulsions as affected by the lipid source.

  6. Microbial Cell Factories for the Production of Terpenoid Flavor and Fragrance Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schempp, Florence M; Drummond, Laura; Buchhaupt, Markus; Schrader, Jens

    2017-04-18

    Terpenoid flavor and fragrance compounds are of high interest to the aroma industry. Microbial production offers an alternative sustainable access to the desired terpenoids independent of natural sources. Genetically engineered microorganisms can be used to synthesize terpenoids from cheap and renewable resources. Due to its modular architecture, terpenoid biosynthesis is especially well suited for the microbial cell factory concept: a platform host engineered for a high flux toward the central C5 prenyl diphosphate precursors enables the production of a broad range of target terpenoids just by varying the pathway modules converting the C5 intermediates to the product of interest. In this review typical terpenoid flavor and fragrance compounds marketed or under development by biotech and aroma companies are given, and the specificities of the aroma market are discussed. The main part of this work focuses on key strategies and recent advances to engineer microbes to become efficient terpenoid producers.

  7. Characterization of Volatile Flavor Compounds in Chinese Rice Wine Fermented from Enzymatic Extruded Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Enbo; Long, Jie; Wu, Zhengzong; Li, Hongyan; Wang, Fang; Xu, Xueming; Jin, Zhengyu; Jiao, Aiquan

    2015-07-01

    Enzymatic extrusion, instead of traditional steam cooking, to treat rice is an efficient and alternative pretreatment for Chinese rice wine fermentation. In order to determine the formation of volatiles in enzymatic extrusion-processed rice wine (EE), and to confirm its characteristic flavor compounds, headspace solid-phase micro-extraction followed by GC-MS was used. A total of 66 volatile compounds were identified in EE. During fermentation, most volatiles generated from enzymatic extruded rice had the similar trends with those from steam-cooked rice, but the differences in the concentration of volatiles indicated a changed balance of flavors release caused by enzymatic extrusion. Besides, the concentrations and sorts of volatiles in EEs fermented from different rice particle sizes, were not dramatically different. By principal component analysis, EE could be distinctly separated from other traditional Chinese rice wines according to its characteristic volatiles, namely, 2-heptanol, 1-octen-3-ol, ethyl 4-hydroxybenzoate, methylpentyl 2-propenoate, γ-hexalactone, and 4-vinylguaiacol. Enzymatic extrusion liquefaction has been a popular thermal treatment for cereals, and gradually being applied in fermentation and liquor-making industry all over the world. The characterization of volatile flavor compounds in Chinese rice wine processed by enzymatic extrusion liquefaction pretreatment, might be made use not only for a better understanding of this new-type rice wine, but for the further utilization of enzymatic extrusion in other wine or alcohol production as well. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  8. The Impact of Proteolytic Pork Hydrolysate on Microbial, Flavor and Free Amino Acids Compounds of Yogurt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jinzhong; Hua, Baozhen; Xu, Zhiping; Li, Sha; Ma, Chengjie

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of proteolytic pork hydrolysate (PPH) on yoghurt production by Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus. Fresh lean pork was cut into pieces and mixed with deionized water and dealt with protease, then the resulting PPH was added to milk to investigate the effects of PPH on yoghurt production. The fermentation time, the viable cell counts, the flavor, free amino acids compounds, and sensory evaluation of yoghurt were evaluated. These results showed that PPH significantly stimulated the growth and acidification of the both bacterial strains. When the content of PPH reached 5% (w/w), the increased acidifying rate occurred, which the fermentation time was one hour less than that of the control, a time saving of up to 20% compared with the control. The viable cell counts, the total free amino acids, and the scores of taste, flavor and overall acceptability in PPH-supplemented yoghurt were higher than the control. Furthermore, the contents of some characteristic flavor compounds including acids, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones and esters were richer than the control. We concluded that the constituents of PPH such as small peptide, vitamins, and minerals together to play the stimulatory roles and result in beneficial effect for the yoghurt starter cultures growth. PMID:27621698

  9. Effect of Selected Mercapto Flavor Compounds on Acrylamide Elimination in a Model System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyong Xiong

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of four mercapto flavor compounds (1,2-ethanedithiol, 1-butanethiol, 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, and 2-furanmethanethiol on acrylamide elimination were investigated in model systems. The obtained results showed that mercaptans assayed were effective in elimination arylamide in a model system. Their reactivities for decreasing acrylamide content depended on mercaptan’s molecular structure and acrylamide disappearance decreased in the following order: 1,2-ethanedithiol > 2-methyl-3-furanthiol > 1-butanethiol > 2-furanmethanethiol. Mercaptans were added to acrylamide to produce the corresponding 3-(alkylthio propionamides. This reaction was irreversible and only trace amounts of acrylamide were formed by thermal heating of 3-(alkylthio propanamide. Although a large amount disappeared, only part of the acrylamide conversed into 3-(alkylthio propionamides. All of these results constitute a fundamental proof of the complexity of the reactions involved in the removal of free acrylamide in foods. This implies mercapto flavor/aroma may directly or indirectly reduce the level of acrylamide in food processing. This study could be regarded as a pioneer contribution on acrylamide elimination in a model system by the addition of mercapto flavor compounds.

  10. The Impact of Proteolytic Pork Hydrolysate on Microbial, Flavor and Free Amino Acids Compounds of Yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jinzhong; Hua, Baozhen; Xu, Zhiping; Li, Sha; Ma, Chengjie

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of proteolytic pork hydrolysate (PPH) on yoghurt production by Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus. Fresh lean pork was cut into pieces and mixed with deionized water and dealt with protease, then the resulting PPH was added to milk to investigate the effects of PPH on yoghurt production. The fermentation time, the viable cell counts, the flavor, free amino acids compounds, and sensory evaluation of yoghurt were evaluated. These results showed that PPH significantly stimulated the growth and acidification of the both bacterial strains. When the content of PPH reached 5% (w/w), the increased acidifying rate occurred, which the fermentation time was one hour less than that of the control, a time saving of up to 20% compared with the control. The viable cell counts, the total free amino acids, and the scores of taste, flavor and overall acceptability in PPH-supplemented yoghurt were higher than the control. Furthermore, the contents of some characteristic flavor compounds including acids, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones and esters were richer than the control. We concluded that the constituents of PPH such as small peptide, vitamins, and minerals together to play the stimulatory roles and result in beneficial effect for the yoghurt starter cultures growth.

  11. Analysis of organic volatile flavor compounds in fermented stinky tofu using SPME with different fiber coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuping; Miao, Zhiwei; Guan, Wei; Sun, Baoguo

    2012-03-26

    The organic volatile flavor compounds in fermented stinky tofu (FST) were studied using SPME-GC/MS. A total of 39 volatile compounds were identified, including nine esters, seven alcohols, five alkenes, four sulfides, three heterocycles, three carboxylic acids, three ketones, two aldehydes, one phenol, one amine and one ether. These compounds were determined by MS, and conformed by comparison of the retention times of the separated constituents with those of authentic samples and by comparison of retention indexes (RIs) of separated constituents with the RIs reported in the literature. The predominant volatile compound in FST was indole, followed by dimethyl trisulfide, phenol, dimethyl disulfide and dimethyl tetrasulfide. In order to find a better extraction time, the extraction times was optimized for each type of SPME fiber; the results show that the best extraction time for Carboxen/PDMS is 60 min, for PDMS/DVB 30 min, for DVB/CAR/PDMS 60 min and for PDMS 75 min. Of the four fibers used in this work, Carboxen/PDMS is found to be the most suitable to extract the organic volatile flavor compounds in fermented stinky tofu.

  12. Analysis of Organic Volatile Flavor Compounds in Fermented Stinky Tofu Using SPME with Different Fiber Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Guan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The organic volatile flavor compounds in fermented stinky tofu (FST were studied using SPME-GC/MS. A total of 39 volatile compounds were identified, including nine esters, seven alcohols, five alkenes, four sulfides, three heterocycles, three carboxylic acids, three ketones, two aldehydes, one phenol, one amine and one ether. These compounds were determined by MS, and conformed by comparison of the retention times of the separated constituents with those of authentic samples and by comparison of retention indexes (RIs of separated constituents with the RIs reported in the literature. The predominant volatile compound in FST was indole, followed by dimethyl trisulfide, phenol, dimethyl disulfide and dimethyl tetrasulfide. In order to find a better extraction time, the extraction times was optimized for each type of SPME fiber; the results show that the best extraction time for Carboxen/PDMS is 60 min, for PDMS/DVB 30 min, for DVB/CAR/PDMS 60 min and for PDMS 75 min. Of the four fibers used in this work, Carboxen/PDMS is found to be the most suitable to extract the organic volatile flavor compounds in fermented stinky tofu.

  13. Maturity acceleration of Italian dried sausage by Staphylococcus carnosus - Relationship between maturity and flavor compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stahnke, Louise Heller; Holck, A.; Jensen, Anni

    2002-01-01

    The mature flavor of Salame Milano, an Italian dried sausage, was increased in two ways: by increasing maturation time or with a strain of Staphylococcus carnosus. The sensory and volatile profiles of the sausages were determined and the data analyzed by analysis of variance and chemometrics....... Sausages with S. carnosus 833 matured more than 2 wk faster than control sausages. Maturity correlated significantly with higher amounts of branched-chain aldehydes and alcohols and both branched- and straight-chain methyl ketones-compounds arising from the breakdown of the amino acids leucine, isoleucine...

  14. Synthesis and Odor Evaluation of Five New Sulfur-Containing Ester Flavor Compounds from 4-Ethyloctanoic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoguo Sun

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Five sulfur-containing flavor compounds were synthesized for the first time by the reaction of 4-ethyloctanoyl chloride with sulfur-containing alcohols or mercaptans. The synthesized compounds are 3-(methylthiopropyl 4-ethyloctanoate, 2-methyl-3-tetrahydro-furanthiol 4-ethyloctanoate, 4-methyl-5-thiazoleethanol 4-ethyloctanoate, 2-furan-methanethiol 4-ethyloctanoate and 2-methyl-3-furanthiol 4-ethyloctanoate. These five synthetic sulfur-containing ester flavor compounds all have meaty odor and might be used in foods if approved for this purpose in the future.

  15. Influence of lambda-carrageenan on the release of systematic series of volatile flavor compounds from viscous food model systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bylaite, Egle; Ilgunaite, Z.; Meyer, Anne Boye Strunge

    2004-01-01

    , except with the most hydrophobic compounds. Analysis of flavor release under nonequilibrium conditions revealed a suppressing effect of lambda-carrageenan on the release rates of aroma compounds, and the extent of decrease in release rates was dependent on the physicochemical characteristics of the aroma...

  16. Production of flavor compounds from olive mill waste by Rhizopus oryzae and Candida tropicalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guneser, Onur; Demirkol, Asli; Yuceer, Yonca Karagul; Togay, Sine Ozmen; Hosoglu, Muge Isleten; Elibol, Murat

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the production of flavor compounds from olive mill waste by microbial fermentation of Rhizopus oryzae and Candida tropicalis. Olive mill waste fermentations were performed in shake and bioreactor cultures. Production of flavor compounds from olive mill waste was followed by Gas Chromatography-Mass spectrometry, Gas chromatography- olfactometry and Spectrum Sensory Analysis(®). As a result, 1.73-log and 3.23-log cfu/mL increases were observed in the microbial populations of R. oryzae and C. tropicalis during shake cultures, respectively. C. tropicalis can produce a higher concentration of d-limonene from olive mill waste than R. oryzae in shake cultures. The concentration of d-limonene was determined as 185.56 and 249.54μg/kg in the fermented olive mill waste by R. oryzae and C. tropicalis in shake cultures respectively. In contrast, R. oryzae can produce a higher concentration of d-limonene (87.73μg/kg) d-limonene than C. tropicalis (11.95μg/kg) in bioreactor cultures. Based on sensory analysis, unripe olive, wet towel, sweet aromatic, fermented aromas were determined at high intensity in olive mill waste fermented with R. oryzae meanwhile olive mill waste fermented with C. tropicalis had only a high intensity of unripe olive and oily aroma. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  17. Analyzing the flavor compounds in Chinese traditional fermented shrimp pastes by HS-SPME-GC/MS and electronic nose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yan; Yin, Li'ang; Xue, Yong; Li, Zhaojie; Hou, Hu; Xue, Changhu

    2017-04-01

    Shrimp paste is a type of condiments with high nutritional value. However, the flavors of shrimp paste, particularly the non-uniformity flavors, have limited its application in food processing. In order to identify the characteristic flavor compounds in Chinese traditional shrimp pastes, five kinds of typical commercial products were evaluated in this study. The differences in the volatile composition of the five products were investigated. Solid phase micro-extraction method was employed to extract the volatile compounds. GC-MS and electronic nose were applied to identify the compounds, and the data were analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA). A total of 62 volatile compounds were identified, including 8 alcohols, 7 aldehydes, 3 ketones, 7 ethers, 7 acids, 3 esters, 6 hydrocarbons, 12 pyrazines, 2 phenols, and 7 other compounds. The typical volatile compounds contributing to the flavor of shrimp paste were found as follows: dimethyl disulfide, dimethyl tetrasulfide, dimethyl trisulfide, 2, 3, 5-trimethyl-6-ethyl pyrazine, ethyl-2, 5-dimethyl-pyrazine, phenol and indole. Propanoic acid, butanoic acid, furans, and 2-hydroxy-3-pentanone caused unpleasant odors, such as pungent and rancid odors. Principal component analysis showed that the content of volatile compounds varied depending on the processing conditions and shrimp species. These results indicated that the combinations of multiple analysis and identification methods could make up the limitations of a single method, enhance the accuracy of identification, and provide useful information for sensory research and product development.

  18. Differential incorporation of 1-deoxy-D-xylulose into (3S)-linalool and geraniol in grape berry exocarp and mesocarp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Fang; Wüst, Matthias

    2002-07-01

    In vivo feeding experiments with [5,5-(2)H(2)]mevalonic acid lactone (MVL) and [5,5-(2)H(2)]-1-deoxy-D-xylulose (DOX) indicate that the novel mevalonate-independent 1-deoxy- D-xylulose 5-phosphate/2C-methyl- D-erythritol 4-phosphate (DOXP/MEP) pathway is the dominant metabolic route for monoterpene biosynthesis in grape berry exocarp and mesocarp and in grape leaves. The highly uneven distribution of the monoterpene alcohols (3S)-linalool and geraniol between leaves, berry exocarp and berry mesocarp can be attributed to a compartmentation of monoterpene metabolism. In grape berries incorporation of [5,5-(2)H(2)]-DOX into geraniol is mainly restricted to the exocarp, whereas (3S)-linalool biosynthesis can be detected in exocarp as well as in mesocarp tissue. The results demonstrate that grape berries exhibit an autonomic monoterpene biosynthesis via the novel DOXP/MEP route throughout the ripening process.

  19. Production of the flavor compound benzaldehyde by lactic acid bacteria: role of manganese and its transport systems in Lactobacillus plantarum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nierop Groot, M.N.

    2001-01-01

    One of the aims of the research described in this thesis (Chapter 1 and 2) was to investigate the conversion of phenylalanine to the aromatic flavor compound benzaldehyde in lactic acid bacteria (LAB) (Chapter 3). Lactobacillus plantarum was used as the model organism to study p

  20. Production of the flavor compound benzaldehyde by lactic acid bacteria: role of manganese and its transport systems in Lactobacillus plantarum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nierop Groot, M.N.

    2001-01-01

    One of the aims of the research described in this thesis (Chapter 1 and 2) was to investigate the conversion of phenylalanine to the aromatic flavor compound benzaldehyde in lactic acid bacteria (LAB) (Chapter 3). Lactobacillus plantarum was used as the model organism to study phenylalanine degradat

  1. Production of the flavor compound benzaldehyde by lactic acid bacteria: role of manganese and its transport systems in Lactobacillus plantarum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nierop Groot, M.N.

    2001-01-01

    One of the aims of the research described in this thesis (Chapter 1 and 2) was to investigate the conversion of phenylalanine to the aromatic flavor compound benzaldehyde in lactic acid bacteria (LAB) (Chapter 3). Lactobacillus plantarum was used as the model organism to study

  2. Subcritical water extraction of flavoring and phenolic compounds from cinnamon bark (Cinnamomum zeylanicum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khuwijitjaru, Pramote; Sayputikasikorn, Nucha; Samuhasaneetoo, Suched; Penroj, Parinda; Siriwongwilaichat, Prasong; Adachi, Shuji

    2012-01-01

    Cinnamon bark (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) powder was treated with subcritical water at 150 and 200°C in a semi-continuous system at a constant flow rate (3 mL/min) and pressure (6 MPa). Major flavoring compounds, i.e., cinnamaldehyde, cinnamic acid, cinnamyl alcohol and coumarin, were extracted at lower recoveries than the extraction using methanol, suggesting that degradation of these components might occur during the subcritical water treatment. Caffeic, ferulic, p-coumaric, protocatechuic and vanillic acids were identified from the subcritical water treatment. Extraction using subcritical water was more effective to obtain these acids than methanol (50% v/v) in both number of components and recovery, especially at 200°C. Subcritical water treatment at 200°C also resulted in a higher total phenolic content and DPPH radical scavenging activity than the methanol extraction. The DPPH radical scavenging activity and total phenolic content linearly correlated but the results suggested that the extraction at 200°C might result in other products that possessed a free radical scavenging activity other than the phenolic compounds.

  3. Flavoring agents present in a dentifrice can modify volatile sulphur compounds (VSCs) formation in morning bad breath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peruzzo, Daiane Cristina; Salvador, Sérgio Luis; Sallum, Antonio Wilson; Nogueira-Filho, Getúlio da Rocha

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of a flavor-containing dentifrice on the formation of volatile sulphur compounds (VSCs) in morning bad breath. A two-step, blinded, crossover, randomized study was carried out in 50 dental students with a healthy periodontium divided into two experimental groups: flavor-containing dentifrice (test) and non-flavor-containing dentifrice (control). The volunteers received the designated dentifrice and a new toothbrush for a 3 X/day brushing regimen for 2 periods of 30 days. A seven-day washout interval was used between the periods. The assessed parameters were: plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), organoleptic breath scores (ORG), VSC levels (as measured by a portable sulphide monitor) before (H1) and after (H2) cleaning of the tongue, tongue coating (TC) wet weight and BANA test from TC samples. The intra-group analysis showed a decrease in ORG, from 3 to 2, after 30 days for the test group (p flavor also did not interfere in the BANA results between groups (p > 0.05). These findings suggest that a flavor-containing dentifrice seems to prevent VSCs formation in morning bad breath regardless of the amount of TC in periodontally healthy subjects.

  4. Comprehensive proteome analysis of the response of Pseudomonas putida KT2440 to the flavor compound vanillin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Oliver; Klaiber, Iris; Huber, Armin; Pfannstiel, Jens

    2014-09-23

    Understanding of the molecular response of bacteria to precursors, products and environmental conditions applied in bioconversions is essential for optimizing whole-cell biocatalysis. To investigate the molecular response of the potential biocatalyst Pseudomonas putida KT2440 to the flavor compound vanillin we applied complementary gel- and LC-MS-based quantitative proteomics approaches. Our comprehensive proteomics survey included cytoplasmic and membrane proteins and led to the identification and quantification of 1614 proteins, corresponding to 30% of the total KT2440 proteome. 662 proteins were altered in abundance during growth on vanillin as sole carbon source as compared to growth on glucose. The proteome response entailed an increased abundance of enzymes involved in vanillin degradation, significant changes in central energy metabolism and an activation of solvent tolerance mechanisms. With respect to vanillin metabolism, particularly enzymes belonging to the β-ketoadipate pathway including a transcriptional regulator and porins specific for vanillin uptake increased in abundance. However, catabolism of vanillin was not dependent on vanillin dehydrogenase (Vdh), as shown by quantitative proteome analysis of a Vdh-deficient KT2440 mutant (GN235). Other aldehyde dehydrogenases that were significantly increased in abundance in response to vanillin may replace Vdh and thus may represent interesting targets for improving vanillin production in P. putida KT2440. The high demand for the flavor compound vanillin by the food and fragrance industry makes natural vanillin from vanilla pods a scarce and expensive resource rendering its biotechnological production economically attractive. Pseudomonas bacteria are metabolically very versatile and accept a broad range of hydrocarbons as carbon source making them suitable candidates for bioconversion processes. This work describes the impact of vanillin on the metabolism of the reference strain P. putida KT2440 on a

  5. In Depth Proteome Analysis of Ripening Muscadine Grape Berry cv. Carlos Reveals Proteins Associated with Flavor and Aroma Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambiranda, Devaiah; Basha, Sheikh M; Singh, Rakesh K; He, Huan; Calvin, Kate; Mercer, Roger

    2016-09-02

    Ripening in nonclimacteric fruits such as grape involves complex chemical changes that have a profound influence on the accumulation of flavor and aroma compounds distinct to a particular grape genotype. In this study, proteome characterization of wine type bronze muscadine grape (Vitis rotundifolia cv. Carlos), primarily grown in the Southeastern United States was performed during berry ripening. Stage-specific protein expression was obtained among different stages of berries. Differential analysis showed the expression of 522 proteins that regulate diverse biological processes and metabolic pathways. Of these, 30 proteins are associated with the production of key phenolic compounds, whereas 25 are associated with the production of muscadine aroma compounds. These proteins are involved in the phenylpropanoid pathway, terpene synthesis, fatty acid derived volatiles and esters that affect muscadine berry flavor and aroma characteristics. Further, gene expression analysis during ripening validated the expression pattern of 12 proteins. Catechin, epicatechin, and four stilbenes were quantified to correlate observed proteome changes. This study not only revealed biochemical changes during muscadine berry ripening but also offers indicators for marker-assisted breeding to enhance organoleptic properties of muscadine grape to improve its flavor and aroma properties.

  6. High-intensity ultrasound production of Maillard reaction flavor compounds in a cysteine-xylose model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Olivia X H; Seow, Yi-Xin; Ong, Peter K C; Zhou, Weibiao

    2015-09-01

    Application of high intensity ultrasound has shown potential in the production of Maillard reaction odor-active flavor compounds in model systems. The impact of initial pH, sonication duration, and ultrasound intensity on the production of Maillard reaction products (MRPs) by ultrasound processing in a cysteine-xylose model system were evaluated using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) with a modified mathematical model. Generation of selected MRPs, 2-methylthiophene and tetramethyl pyrazine, was optimal at an initial pH of 6.00, accompanied with 78.1 min of processing at an ultrasound intensity of 19.8 W cm(-2). However, identification of volatiles using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) revealed that ultrasound-assisted Maillard reactions generated fewer sulfur-containing volatile flavor compounds as compared to conventional heat treatment of the model system. Likely reasons for this difference in flavor profile include the expulsion of H2S due to ultrasonic degassing and inefficient transmission of ultrasonic energy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Combined adsorption and degradation of the off-flavor compound 2-methylisoborneol in sludge derived from a recirculating aquaculture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azaria, Snir; Nir, Shlomo; van Rijn, Jaap

    2017-02-01

    Off-flavor in fish poses a serious threat for the aquaculture industry. In the present study, removal of 2-methylisoborneol (MIB), an off-flavor causing compound, was found to be mediated by adsorption and bacterial degradation in sludge derived from an aquaculture system. A numerical model was developed which augmented Langmuir equations of kinetics of adsorption/desorption of MIB with first order degradation kinetics. When laboratory-scale reactors, containing sludge from the aquaculture system, were operated in a recirculating mode, MIB in solution was depleted to undetectable levels within 6 days in reactors with untreated sludge, while its depletion was incomplete in reactors with sterilized sludge. When operated in an open flow mode, removal of MIB was significantly faster in reactors with untreated sludge. Efficient MIB removal was evident under various conditions, including ambient MIB levels, flow velocities and sludge loads. When operated in an open flow mode, the model successfully predicted steady MIB removal rates with time. During steady state conditions, most of the MIB removal was found to be due to microbial degradation of the adsorbed MIB. Findings obtained in this study can be used in the design of reactors for removal of off-flavor compounds from recirculating aquaculture systems.

  8. Influence of complexation between amylose and a flavored model sponge cake on the degree of aroma compound release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozo-Bayon, María-Angeles; Biais, Benoît; Rampon, Vincent; Cayot, Nathalie; Le Bail, Patricia

    2008-08-13

    Flavoring is used in the food industry to reinforce the aroma profile of baked cereal goods. During the processing of such products, interactions between starch and aroma compounds can occur, and this may have an impact on aroma release and perception. In the present study, 20 aroma compounds were tested to establish whether they formed complexes with amylose. The structure of the complexes was determined by wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS). A cocomplexation study proved that several complexing compounds could be present in the same crystalline aggregate. WAXS and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) experiments were performed in a flavored model sponge cake at different steps of processing and showed that aroma compounds might form complexes with amylose in a sponge cake as they can do in simple system containing only amylose. Some of the aroma compounds trapped in the sponge cake were quantified, and their release behavior was followed by headspace analysis. The V-type structure could partly explain aroma retention in the product and the rate of aroma release.

  9. 浒苔挥发性风味成分分析%Analysis of Volatile Flavor Compounds from Enteromorpha intestinalis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋绍华; 裘迪红

    2012-01-01

    采用顶空固相微萃取-气质联用法对新鲜肠浒苔的挥发性风味成分进行测定,并加以感官评定分析比较风味物质组成。结果表明:浒苔的主要特征性风味物质是顺-3-十七烯,该物质在新鲜肠浒苔中含量高达59.54%,其次是棕榈醛、(E,E)-2,4-庚二烯醛、β-紫罗兰酮、壬醛、反式-2-己烯醛、2,4-戊二烯醛以及反,反-2,4-癸二烯醛等。%Headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) was used to determine the volatile flavor compounds of the green macroalga Enteromorpha intestinalis. A comparative sensory evaluation of the main flavor substances was also done. The results showed that the main characteristic volatile flavor compound ofEnteromorpha intestinalis were (Z)-3-heptadecene, with a content as high as 59.43% in fresh samples. The other volatile flavors were hexadecanal, (E,E)-2,4-heptadienal, beta-ionone, nonanal, (E)-2-hexenal, 2,4 - pentadienal, (E,E)-2,4-decadienal, and so on.

  10. Detection of flavor compounds in low-fat Monascus fermented sausage%红曲低脂香肠风味成分的测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文豪; 邬应龙

    2011-01-01

    The flavor compounds of low-fat monascus fermented sausage were extracted by simultaneous distillation extraction and identified by the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. 26 kinds of flavor compounds were detected. Aldehydes, esters, alcohols and ketones were the major components. Because of low level in fat, kinds of flavor compounds were relatively lower, but it had delicious flavor.%采用同时蒸馏萃取-气相色谱-质谱(SDE-GC-MS)联用分析技术,对红曲低脂香肠的风味物质进行测定,共检测出26种挥发性风味物质,主要为醛类、酯类、醇类、酮类等.由于脂肪含量较低,因此其风味物质的种类相对较少,但仍不失其应有的风味.

  11. Chemical and olfactometric characterization of volatile flavor compounds in a fish oil enriched milk emulsion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Venkateshwarlu Venkat, Guidipati; Bruni Let, Mette; Meyer, Anne S.

    2004-01-01

    Development of objectionable fishy off-flavors is an obstacle in the development of fish oil enriched foods. Only little is known about the sensory impact of specific volatile fish oil oxidation products in food emulsions. This study examined the volatiles profiles of fish oil enriched milk during...

  12. A comparative study on the potential of epiphytic yeasts isolated from tropical fruits to produce flavoring compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grondin, Eric; Shum Cheong Sing, Alain; Caro, Yanis; Raherimandimby, Marson; Randrianierenana, Ando Lalaniaina; James, Steve; Nueno-Palop, Carmen; François, Jean Marie; Petit, Thomas

    2015-06-16

    In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in identifying and characterizing the yeast flora associated with diverse types of habitat because of the many potential desirable technological properties of these microorganisms, especially in food applications. In this study, a total of 101 yeast strains were isolated from the skins of tropical fruits collected in several locations in the South West Indian Ocean. Sequence analysis of the D1/D2 domains of the large subunit (LSU) ribosomal RNA gene identified 26 different species. Among them, two species isolated from the skins of Cape gooseberry and cocoa beans appeared to represent putative new yeast species, as their LSU D1/D2 sequence was only 97.1% and 97.4% identical to that of the yeasts Rhodotorula mucilaginosa and Candida pararugosa, respectively. A total of 52 Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) were detected by Head Space Solid Phase Micro Extraction coupled to Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectroscopy (HS-SPME-GC/MS) from the 26 yeast species cultivated on a glucose rich medium. Among these VOCs, 6 uncommon compounds were identified, namely ethyl but-2-enoate, ethyl 2-methylbut-2-enoate (ethyl tiglate), ethyl 3-methylbut-2-enoate, 2-methylpropyl 2-methylbut-2-enoate, butyl 2-methylbut-2-enoate and 3-methylbutyl 2-methylbut-2-enoate, making them possible yeast species-specific markers. In addition, statistical methods such as Principal Component Analysis allowed to associate each yeast species with a specific flavor profile. Among them, Saprochaete suaveolens (syn: Geotrichum fragrans) turned to be the best producer of flavor compounds, with a total of 32 out of the 52 identified VOCs in its flavor profile.

  13. De Novo Synthesis of Benzenoid Compounds by the Yeast Hanseniaspora vineae Increases the Flavor Diversity of Wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Valentina; Giorello, Facundo; Fariña, Laura; Minteguiaga, Manuel; Salzman, Valentina; Boido, Eduardo; Aguilar, Pablo S; Gaggero, Carina; Dellacassa, Eduardo; Mas, Albert; Carrau, Francisco

    2016-06-08

    Benzyl alcohol and other benzenoid-derived metabolites of particular importance in plants confer floral and fruity flavors to wines. Among the volatile aroma components in Vitis vinifera grape varieties, benzyl alcohol is present in its free and glycosylated forms. These compounds are considered to originate from grapes only and not from fermentative processes. We have found increased levels of benzyl alcohol in red Tannat wine compared to that in grape juice, suggesting de novo formation of this metabolite during vinification. In this work, we show that benzyl alcohol, benzaldehyde, p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, and p-hydroxybenzyl alcohol are synthesized de novo in the absence of grape-derived precursors by Hanseniaspora vineae. Levels of benzyl alcohol produced by 11 different H. vineae strains were 20-200 times higher than those measured in fermentations with Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains. These results show that H. vineae contributes to flavor diversity by increasing grape variety aroma concentration in a chemically defined medium. Feeding experiments with phenylalanine, tryptophan, tyrosine, p-aminobenzoic acid, and ammonium in an artificial medium were tested to evaluate the effect of these compounds either as precursors or as potential pathway regulators for the formation of benzenoid-derived aromas. Genomic analysis shows that the phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and tyrosine ammonia lyase (TAL) pathways, used by plants to generate benzyl alcohols from aromatic amino acids, are absent in the H. vineae genome. Consequently, alternative pathways derived from chorismate with mandelate as an intermediate are discussed.

  14. Flavor precursors and sensory-active sulfur compounds in alliaceae species native to South Africa and South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubec, Roman; Krejčová, Petra; Mansur, Leví; García, Nicolás

    2013-02-13

    Profiles of S-substituted cysteine flavor precursors were determined in 42 Alliaceae species native to South Africa and South America. It was found that the pool of cysteine derivatives present in these plants is remarkably very simple, with S-((methylthio)methyl)cysteine 4-oxide (marasmin) being the principal flavor precursor, typically accounting for 93-100% of the pool. Out of the other cysteine derivatives, only minor quantities of methiin were present in some species. The marasmin-derived thiosulfinate marasmicin (2,4,5,7-tetrathiaoctane 4-oxide), a major sensory-active compound of the freshly disrupted plants, was isolated, and its organoleptic properties were evaluated. Furthermore, sulfur-containing volatiles formed upon boiling of these alliaceous species were studied by GC-MS. The profile of the volatiles formed was relatively simple, with 2,3,5-trithiahexane and 2,4,5,7-tetrathiaoctane being the major components. Despite the traditional belief, ingestion of the marasmin-rich plants was always accompanied by development of a strong "garlic breath". We believe that especially several Tulbaghia species deserve to attract much greater attention from the food industry thanks to their pungent garlicky taste and unusual yet pleasant alliaceous smell.

  15. Quantitative analysis by GC-MS/MS of 18 aroma compounds related to oxidative off-flavor in wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayr, Christine M; Capone, Dimitra L; Pardon, Kevin H; Black, Cory A; Pomeroy, Damian; Francis, I Leigh

    2015-04-08

    A quantitation method for 18 aroma compounds reported to contribute to "oxidative" flavor in wines was developed. The method allows quantitation of the (E)-2-alkenals ((E)-2-hexenal, (E)-2-heptenal, (E)-2-octenal, and (E)-2-nonenal), various Strecker aldehydes (methional, 2-phenylacetaldehyde, 3-methylbutanal, and 2-methylpropanal), aldehydes (furfural, 5-methylfurfural, hexanal, and benzaldehyde), furans (sotolon, furaneol, and homofuraneol), as well as alcohols (methionol, eugenol, and maltol) in the same analysis. The aldehydes were determined after derivatization directly in the wine with O-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl)hydroxylamine hydrochloride; the formed oximes along with the underivatized aroma compounds were isolated by solid-phase extraction and analyzed by means of GC-MS/MS. The method was used to investigate the effect of different closures (synthetic closures, natural corks, and screw cap) on the formation of oxidation-related compounds in 14 year old white wine. Results showed a significant increase in the concentration of some of the monitored compounds in the wine, particularly methional, 2-phenylacetaldehyde, and 3-methylbutanal.

  16. Genetic And Metabolic Engineering Of Microorganisms For The Development Of New Flavor Compounds From Terpenic Substrates

    OpenAIRE

    Bution; Murillo L.; Molina; Gustavo; Abrahao; Meissa R. E.; Pastore; Glaucia M.

    2015-01-01

    Throughout human history, natural products have been the basis for the discovery and development of therapeutics, cosmetic and food compounds used in industry. Many compounds found in natural organisms are rather difficult to chemically synthesize and to extract in large amounts, and in this respect, genetic and metabolic engineering are playing an increasingly important role in the production of these compounds, such as new terpenes and terpenoids, which may potentially be used to create aro...

  17. Determination of off-flavor compounds, 2-methylisoborneol and geosmin, in salmon fillets using stir bar sorptive extraction–thermal desorption coupled with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    A sensitive and solvent-less method for the determination of musty and earthy off-flavor compounds, 2-methylisoborneol (MIB) and geosmin (GSM), in salmon tissue was developed using stir bar sorptive extraction -thermal desorption coupled with gas chromatography -mass spectrometry (SBSE -TD -GCMS). M...

  18. 大蒜含硫化合物及风味研究进展%Advances in sulfur compounds and garlic flavor research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瑜; 邢效娟; 景浩

    2014-01-01

    Garlic has been used as foods and herbal remedy, which has many biological activities such as inhi-bition of bacteria growth. Sulfur compounds are the major bioactive compounds in garlic, and also contribute to garlic pungent flavor. Alliin, precursor of these sulfur compounds, could be transformed to allicin by allinase. Allicin is very unstable and easy to be converted to other sulfur compounds. This article describes the sulfur compounds associated with garlic flavor, transformations between sulfur compounds, and biological activity of sulfur compounds. The influences of different processing technologies on sulfur compounds and garlic flavor have also been addressed, especially the processing for black garlic and associated flavor change.%大蒜是生活中必不可少的食品,也是中药材,具有抗菌等多种功能性。含硫化合物是大蒜中的主要活性成分,也是大蒜具有刺激性气味的主要原因。蒜氨酸作为这些含硫化合物的前体物质,在蒜氨酸酶的酶解催化下生成大蒜素,随后大蒜素降解为其他含硫化合物。本文介绍了大蒜中与风味相关的含硫化合物,含硫化合物转化的关系及其具有的生物活性。介绍了不同加工处理方法对大蒜中含硫化合物及风味的影响,以及黑蒜的制备及风味改变。

  19. Effect of Oxidized Sheep Bone Oil on Volatile Flavor Compounds of Mutton Flavor Seasoning%氧化羊骨油对羊肉味调味基料挥发性风味物质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘金凯; 高远; 王振宇; 陈丽; 张德权; 艾启俊

    2014-01-01

    气为主,并包含甜香、青香、焦香和柑橘等香气;通过聚类分析将11种关键风味物质分为三类,第一类物质在添加氧化羊骨油后ROAV值变化较小;第二类包括反,反-2,4-癸二烯醛、反-2-壬烯醛,在添加氧化羊骨油后ROAV值显著增加;第三类为癸醛,在添加氧化羊骨油后ROAV值显著降低,而第二类与第三类物质在未添加羊骨油组和添加未氧化羊骨油组间的差异不显著(P>0.05)。【结论】添加氧化羊骨油,可以显著影响羊肉味调味基料挥发性风味物质的种类,增强热反应型羊肉味调味基料的风味,反,反-2,4-癸二烯醛与反-2-壬烯醛是改善调味基料最关键挥发性风味物质。%[Objective]The effect of a moderate addition of oxidation sheep bone oil on the volatile flavor compounds in thermal reactive mutton flavor seasoning were investigated in order to provide a scientific basis for improving the flavor of the high quality mutton flavor seasoning.[Method]Samples of oxidized sheep bone oil indicating peroxide value, acid value and p-anisidine value were prepared by the control oxidization technology. Influences of sheep bone oil on the volatile flavor compounds in thermal reactive mutton flavor seasoning were discussed. An electronic nose was used to analyze the three thermal reactive mutton flavor seasoning, including without adding sheep bone oil, adding non-oxidized sheep bone oil and adding moderate oxidized sheep bone oil. With the discrimination index of the PCA about the three mutton flavor seasonings as response value, the effects of sheep bone oil on mutton flavor seasonings were studied. The volatile flavor compounds in three systems were analyzed by solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) combined with gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and a parameter named “relative odor activity value (ROAV)”was applied in evaluating the contributions to global odor perception of three systems. The

  20. Genetic and metabolic engineering of microorganisms for the development of new flavor compounds from terpenic substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bution, Murillo L; Molina, Gustavo; Abrahão, Meissa R E; Pastore, Gláucia M

    2015-01-01

    Throughout human history, natural products have been the basis for the discovery and development of therapeutics, cosmetic and food compounds used in industry. Many compounds found in natural organisms are rather difficult to chemically synthesize and to extract in large amounts, and in this respect, genetic and metabolic engineering are playing an increasingly important role in the production of these compounds, such as new terpenes and terpenoids, which may potentially be used to create aromas in industry. Terpenes belong to the largest class of natural compounds, are produced by all living organisms and play a fundamental role in human nutrition, cosmetics and medicine. Recent advances in systems biology and synthetic biology are allowing us to perform metabolic engineering at the whole-cell level, thus enabling the optimal design of microorganisms for the efficient production of drugs, cosmetic and food additives. This review describes the recent advances made in the genetic and metabolic engineering of the terpenes pathway with a particular focus on systems biotechnology.

  1. Characterization of Atypical Off-Flavor Compounds in Natural Cork Stoppers by Multidimensional Gas Chromatographic Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slabizki, Petra; Fischer, Claus; Legrum, Charlotte; Schmarr, Hans-Georg

    2015-09-01

    Natural cork stoppers with sensory deviations other than the typical cork taint were subgrouped according to their sensory descriptions and compared with unaffected control cork stoppers. The assessment of purge and trap extracts obtained from corresponding cork soaks was performed by heart-cut multidimensional gas chromatography-olfactometry (MDGC-O). The identification of compounds responsible for atypical cork taint detected in MDGC-O was further supported with additional multidimensional GC analysis in combination with mass spectrometric detection. Geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol were mainly found in cork stoppers described as moldy and cellarlike; 3-isopropyl-2-methoxypyrazine and 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine were found in cork stoppers described with green attributes. Across all cork subgroups, the impact compound for typical cork taint, 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (TCA), was present and is therefore a good marker for cork taint in general. Another potent aroma compound, 3,5-dimethyl-2-methoxypyrazine (MDMP), was also detected in each subgroup, obviously playing an important role with regard to the atypical cork taint. Sensory deviations possibly affecting the wine could be generated by MDMP and its presence should thus be monitored in routine quality control.

  2. Volatile flavor compounds, total polyphenolic contents and antioxidant activities of a China gingko wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu; Xie, Kelin; Zhuang, Haining; Ye, Ran; Fang, Zhongxiang; Feng, Tao

    2015-09-01

    The volatile compounds in gingko wine, a novel functional wine, were extracted by head-space solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) coupled with odor activity value (OAV) and relative odor contribution (ROC) analyses. In addition, the total polyphenolic content of gingko wine was determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent, and its antioxidant capacity was evaluated by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) assays. Fifty-eight compounds were tentatively identified, including 13 esters, 10 alcohols, 11 acids, 12 carbonyl compounds, 2 lactones, 2 phenols, and 8 hydrocarbons. Ethyl hexanoate, ethyl pentanoate, nonanal, ethyl butyrate and ethyl heptanoate were the major contributors to the gingko wine aroma based on the results of OAV and ROC. The total phenols content of the gingko wine was 456 mg/L gallic acid equivalents, and its antioxidant capacity was higher than those of typical Chinese liquors analyzed in this paper. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Formation of flavor components by the reaction of amino acid and carbonyl compounds in mild conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pripis-Nicolau, L; de Revel, G; Bertrand, A; Maujean, A

    2000-09-01

    This work describe products of reactions between four alpha-dicarbonyl compounds (diacetyl, pentan-2,3-dione, glyoxal, and methylglyoxal) or two alpha-hydroxy ketones, (acetoine and acetol) and amino acids present in wines. The results shows the formation of odorous products or strong-smelling additives resulting from the Maillard and Strecker reaction in a primarily aqueous medium, at low temperature and low pH ( approximately pH 3.5) of the wine. GC/FID, GC/FPD, GC/NPD and GC/MS techniques were used. The olfactive characteristics of the products are described. In the presence of sulfur amino acids and in particular cysteine, many products were formed with a heterocycle production such as pyrazines and methylpyrazines, methylthiazoles, acetylthiazoles, acetylthiazolines, acetylthiazolidines, trimethyloxazole, and dimethylethyloxazoles. These various compounds present odors of sulfur, cornlike, pungent, nut, popcorn, roasted hazelnut, toasted, roasted, and ripe fruits. The chemical conditions of the model reactions are specified. The influence of temperature and pH on the reactions in the presence of cysteine were also studied.

  4. Off-flavor compounds from decaying cyanobacterial blooms of Lake Taihu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhimei Ma; Yuan Niu; Ping Xie; Jun Chen; Min Tao; Xuwei Deng

    2013-01-01

    The effect of cyanobacterial bloom decay on water quality and the complete degradation of cyanobacterial blooms in a short period were examined by an enclosure experiment in Gonghu Bay of Lake Taihu,China.Water quality parameters as well as taste and odor compounds during the breakdown of cyanobacterial blooms were measured.Results showed that the decay of cyanobacterial blooms caused anoxic water conditions,decreased pH,and increased nutrient loading to the lake water.The highest concentrations of dimethyl sulfide (DMS),dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS),and β-cyclocitral were observed in the anoxic water,at 62331.8,12413.3,and 1374.9 ng/L,respectively.2-Methylisoborneol was dominant during the live growth phase of cyanobacterial blooms,whereas DMS and DMTS were dominant during the decomposition phase.Dissolved oxygen,pH,and chlorophyll a were negatively correlated with DMS,DMTS,and β-cyclocitral,whereas total phosphorus,total nitrogen,and ammonium (NH4+-N) were positively correlated with DMS,DMTS,β-cyclocitral,and β-ionone.The experimental results suggested that preventing the anaerobic decomposition of cyanobactedal blooms is an important strategy against the recurrence of a malodor crisis in Lake Taihu.

  5. Handbook of Fruit and Vegetable Flavors

    OpenAIRE

    Hui, YH; Chen, F; Nollet, LML; Guiné, Raquel; Martín-Belloso, O.; Mínguez-Mosquera, MI; Poliyath, D; Pessoa, FLP; Le Quéré, J-L; Sidhu, JS; N. Sinha; Stanfield, P

    2010-01-01

    Acting as chemical messengers for olfactory cells, food flavor materials are organic compounds that give off a strong, typically pleasant smells. Handbook of Fruit and Vegetable Flavors explores the flavor science and technology of fruits and vegetables, spices, and oils by first introducing specific flavors and their commercialization, then detailing the technical aspects, including biology, biotechnology, chemistry, physiochemistry, processing, analysis, extraction, commodities, and require...

  6. Discrimination of origin of farmed trout by means of biometrical parameters, fillet composition and flavor volatile compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Caprino

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available To date it is well known that the quality of farmed trout is affected by diet composition, by feeding regime, by husbandrypractices and by rearing conditions and environment. The trout processing industry and the large-scale retail trade, in considerationof the wide variability of trout quality and characteristics, have imposed, or will soon impose, quality criteria forthe end product. Moreover, recent food scares and the malpractices of some food producers have increased public requestsfor traceability. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the main chemical quality and the biometrical characteristicsof rainbow trout produced in three different farms in Italy (two intensive farms, located one on mountain and one onplain, and an extensive farm in which fish fed only on naturally available nutrients and to establish whether farmed troutorigins could be differentiated by these parameters. Trout farmed in the intensive mountain farm (IMF showed the highestcrude lipid content in the fillets and the fatty acids of their fillets were characterized by the highest percentage of MUFA.Trout farmed in the intensive plain farm (IPF were characterized by low dressing percentage, and the lipid of their filletswas rich in n-6 fatty acids. Trout stocked for the last year of their life in the extensive farm (EF were leaner both in thecarcass and in the fillets. The analysis of flavor volatile compounds showed some differences in the bouquet design, particularlydifferences in the amounts of n-3 and n-6 derivates volatile aldehydes and alcohols. All data significantly different(Pequations generating a strong prediction model for classification of farmed trout respective to their origins.

  7. Tracer aroma compound transfer from a solid and complex-flavored food matrix packed in treated papers or plastic packaging film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dury-Brun, Cécile; Lequin, Sonia; Chalier, Pascale; Desobry, Stéphane; Voilley, Andrée

    2007-02-21

    The objective of this work was to study the transfer of four aroma compounds (ethyl butyrate, ethyl hexanoate, cis-3-hexenol, and benzaldehyde) from a solid and complex-flavored food matrix (sponge cake) toward and through packaging films placed in indirect contact during storage in accelerated aging conditions (38 degrees C and 86% relative humidity gradient). The efficiency of treated papers relative to that of standard paper and plastic as barrier was tested. Before storage, aroma compound volatility in the sponge cake was measured, and similar values were found between aroma compounds, due to the fat content of the sponge cake. Whatever the aroma compound, permeability values during storage were similar for the same packaging film. The plastic film was the highest barrier, whereas calendering and coating treatments applied to treated papers decreased effectively their permeability. An opposite trend was observed for aroma compound sorption into packaging films during storage.

  8. 初榨橄榄油风味化合物研究进展%Advance in flavor compounds of virgin olive oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟诚; 薛雅琳; 王兴国; 金青哲

    2013-01-01

    Lipoxygenase pathways representing the main approach of the flavor source of virgin olive oil were elaborated,and effects of varieties and environment,maturity of fruit,processing and storage condition on flavor characteristics were analyzed.The determination methods of volatile compounds in virgin olive oil were introduced and the application and development of the flavor compounds of virgin olive oil were prospected.%阐述了初榨橄榄油风味的主要来源途径即脂氧合酶途径,对影响初榨橄榄油风味特征的若干因素如品种和地理环境,油橄榄果实成熟度,加工工艺,储藏条件等因素进行了讨论和分析.介绍了初榨橄榄油中挥发性化合物的分析检测方法,并且展望了橄榄油风味化合物研究的应用和发展前景.

  9. Flavor Memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mojet, Jos; Köster, Ep

    2016-01-01

    Odor, taste, texture, temperature, and pain all contribute to the perception and memory of food flavor. Flavor memory is also strongly linked to the situational aspects of previous encounters with the flavor, but does not depend on the precise recollection of its sensory features as in vision and

  10. Comparison of two extraction techniques, solid-phase microextraction versus continuous liquid-liquid extraction/solvent-assisted flavor evaporation, for the analysis of flavor compounds in gueuze lambic beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson-Witrick, Katherine A; Rouseff, Russell L; Cadawallader, Keith R; Duncan, Susan E; Eigel, William N; Tanko, James M; O'Keefe, Sean F

    2015-03-01

    Lambic is a beer style that undergoes spontaneous fermentation and is traditionally produced in the Payottenland region of Belgium, a valley on the Senne River west of Brussels. This region appears to have the perfect combination of airborne microorganisms required for lambic's spontaneous fermentation. Gueuze lambic is a substyle of lambic that is made by mixing young (approximately 1 year) and old (approximately 2 to 3 years) lambics with subsequent bottle conditioning. We compared 2 extraction techniques, solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and continuous liquid-liquid extraction/solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (CCLE/SAFE), for the isolation of volatile compounds in commercially produced gueuze lambic beer. Fifty-four volatile compounds were identified and could be divided into acids (14), alcohols (12), aldehydes (3), esters (20), phenols (3), and miscellaneous (2). SPME extracted a total of 40 volatile compounds, whereas CLLE/SAFE extracted 36 volatile compounds. CLLE/SAFE extracted a greater number of acids than SPME, whereas SPME was able to isolate a greater number of esters. Neither extraction technique proved to be clearly superior and both extraction methods can be utilized for the isolation of volatile compounds found in gueuze lambic beer.

  11. Reconstitution of the flavor signature of Dornfelder red wine on the basis of the natural concentrations of its key aroma and taste compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Stephanie; Wollmann, Nadine; Schieberle, Peter; Hofmann, Thomas

    2011-08-24

    By application of aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) on the volatile fraction isolated from a Dornfelder red wine, 31 odor-active compounds were identified by means of HRGC-MS and comparison with reference compounds. A total of 27 odorants, judged with high FD factors by means of AEDA, was quantitated by means of stable isotope dilution assays, and acetaldehyde was determined enzymatically. In addition, 36 taste-active compounds were analyzed by means of HPLC-UV, HPLC-MS/MS, and ion chromatography. The quantitative data obtained for the identified aroma and taste compounds enabled for the first time the reconstruction of the overall flavor of the red wine. Sensory evaluation of both the aroma and taste profiles of the authentic red wine and the recombinate revealed that Dornfelder red wine was closely mimicked. Moreover, it was demonstrated that the high molecular weight fraction of red wine is essential for its astringent taste impression. By comparison of the overall odor of the aroma recombinate in ethanol with that of the total flavor recombinate containing all tastants, it was shown for the first time that the nonvolatile tastants had a strong influence on the intensity of certain aroma qualities.

  12. Wine flavor and aroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styger, Gustav; Prior, Bernard; Bauer, Florian F

    2011-09-01

    The perception of wine flavor and aroma is the result of a multitude of interactions between a large number of chemical compounds and sensory receptors. Compounds interact and combine and show synergistic (i.e., the presence of one compound enhances the perception of another) and antagonistic (a compound suppresses the perception of another) interactions. The chemical profile of a wine is derived from the grape, the fermentation microflora (in particular the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae), secondary microbial fermentations that may occur, and the aging and storage conditions. Grape composition depends on the varietal and clonal genotype of the vine and on the interaction of the genotype and its phenotype with many environmental factors which, in wine terms, are usually grouped under the concept of "terroir" (macro, meso and microclimate, soil, topography). The microflora, and in particular the yeast responsible for fermentation, contributes to wine aroma by several mechanisms: firstly by utilizing grape juice constituents and biotransforming them into aroma- or flavor-impacting components, secondly by producing enzymes that transform neutral grape compounds into flavor-active compounds, and lastly by the de novo synthesis of many flavor-active primary (e.g., ethanol, glycerol, acetic acid, and acetaldehyde) and secondary metabolites (e.g., esters, higher alcohols, fatty acids). This review aims to present an overview of the formation of wine flavor and aroma-active components, including the varietal precursor molecules present in grapes and the chemical compounds produced during alcoholic fermentation by yeast, including compounds directly related to ethanol production or secondary metabolites. The contribution of malolactic fermentation, ageing, and maturation on the aroma and flavor of wine is also discussed.

  13. FaQR, required for the biosynthesis of the strawberry flavor compound 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, encodes an enone oxidoreductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raab, Thomas; López-Ráez, Juan Antonio; Klein, Dorothée; Caballero, Jose Luis; Moyano, Enriqueta; Schwab, Wilfried; Muñoz-Blanco, Juan

    2006-04-01

    The flavor of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa) fruit is dominated by an uncommon group of aroma compounds with a 2,5-dimethyl-3(H)-furanone structure. We report the characterization of an enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone (HDMF; Furaneol), the key flavor compound in strawberries. Protein extracts were partially purified, and the observed distribution of enzymatic activity correlated with the presence of a single polypeptide of approximately 37 kD. Sequence analysis of two peptide fragments showed total identity with the protein sequence of a strongly ripening-induced, auxin-dependent putative quinone oxidoreductase, Fragaria x ananassa quinone oxidoreductase (FaQR). The open reading frame of the FaQR cDNA consists of 969 bp encoding a 322-amino acid protein with a calculated molecular mass of 34.3 kD. Laser capture microdissection followed by RNA extraction and amplification demonstrated the presence of FaQR mRNA in parenchyma tissue of the strawberry fruit. The FaQR protein was functionally expressed in Escherichia coli, and the monomer catalyzed the formation of HDMF. After chemical synthesis and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis, 4-hydroxy-5-methyl-2-methylene-3(2H)-furanone was confirmed as a substrate of FaQR and the natural precursor of HDMF. This study demonstrates the function of the FaQR enzyme in the biosynthesis of HDMF as enone oxidoreductase and provides a foundation for the improvement of strawberry flavor and the biotechnological production of HDMF.

  14. Co-culturing of Pichia guilliermondii enhanced volatile flavor compound formation by Zygosaccharomyces rouxii in the model system of Thai soy sauce fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wah, Thin Thin; Walaisri, Supawan; Assavanig, Apinya; Niamsiri, Nuttawee; Lertsiri, Sittiwat

    2013-01-01

    The roles of salt-tolerant yeasts such as Zygosaccharomyces rouxii, Candida versatilis, and Candida etchellsii in the production of volatile flavor compounds (VFCs) in soy sauce fermentation have been well documented. However, the knowledge of VFC production by other salt-tolerant yeasts is still limited. In this work, the roles of Z. rouxii and Pichia guilliermondii strains in VFC production were investigated in moromi medium as a model system for soy sauce fermentation. Inoculation of a single culture of either Z. rouxii or P. guilliermondii as well as co-cultures of these two yeasts into moromi medium showed increased numbers of viable yeast at around 0.7 to 1.9 log CFU/mL after 7days of cultivation at 30°C. During cultivation, both single and co-cultures displayed survival over a 7-day time period, compared with the controls (no culture added). Overall, yeast inoculation enhanced the production of VFCs in the moromi media with higher amounts of ethanol, alcohols, furanones, esters, aldehyde, acid, pyrone and phenols, known as important characteristic flavor compounds in soy sauce. Moreover, the co-culture produced more alcohols, furanones, esters, maltol and benzoic acid than the single culture of Z. rouxii.

  15. GC-MS对不同奶味香精成分分析及香气变化规律%Comparison of Compounds and Aroma Variation in Different Milk Flavors by GC-MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱卫平; 韦庆益; 宁正祥

    2011-01-01

    利用GC—MS分析方法,比较了自制的天然酶解奶味香基和不同奶味香精的组成成分及香气变化规律。复配香精A、复配香精B、复配香精c、复配香精D、天然发酵香精E、自制酶解香基F中分别鉴定出18、22、30、15、30、14种组分,组分种类包括酸类、内酯类、脂肪酸酯类、芳香及杂环类、酮类、醇类、烃类等7种类型。不同复配香精之间的区别主要是酸类、内酯类和脂肪酸酯类之间的比例和数量有所不同,进口天然香精E各组分分布较均衡且含有较多的芳香及杂环类,自制酶解香基F的酸类比例较大以及特征性香气成分含量少。增加香气成分的种类%GC-MS method was used to detect the variation of flavor and aroma substances from different milk flavor samples. There are 18,22,30,15,30,14 kinds of components were identified in artificial milk flavor A, artificial milk flavor B, artificial milk flavor C, artificial milk flavor D, ferment milk flavor E and self-made hydrolysis milk F. The components were divided into acids, lactones, esters, aromatics, ketones, alcohols and hydrocarbons. The analysis of different milk flavors showed that the major compounds in each sample were different. Acids, lactones, esters are the main compounds in artificial milk flavors, and the proportion were varied. Foreign ferment milk flavor E con- tains aromatics besides acids, lactones and esters. Acids were the key odorant compounds in self - made hydrolysis milk F. The balance among the varieties of compounds can improve the flavors quality in certain degree.

  16. Enantiomeric composition of (3R)-(-)- and (3S)-(+)-linalool in various essential oils of Indian origin by enantioselective capillary gas chromatography-flame ionization and mass spectrometry detection methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanotiya, Chandan S; Yadav, Anju

    2009-04-01

    Enantiomeric ratios of linalool have been determined in various authentic essential oils of Indian origin using 10% heptakis(2,3-di-O-methyl-6-O-tert-butyldimethylsilyl)-beta-cyclodextrin as a chiral stationary phase. A complete enantiomeric excess (ee) for (3S)-(+)-linalool was characteristic of Lippia alba and Cinnamomum tamala leaf oils while less than 90% excess was noticed in Zanthoxylum armatum leaf, Zingiber roseum root/rhizome and Citrus sinensis leaf oils. On the contrary, an enantiomeric excess of (3R)-(-)-linalool characterizes essential oils of basil (100% for Ocimum basilicum) and bergamot mint (72 to 75% for Mentha citrata). Notably, some essential oils containing both enantiomers in equal ratios or in racemic forms are rose, geranium, lemongrass and Origanum. The enantiomeric composition studies are discussed as indicators of origin authenticity and quality of essential oil of Indian origin.

  17. 加热温度对牡蛎挥发性风味成分的影响%EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE ON VOLATILE FLAVOR COMPOUNDS OF OYSTER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄健; 王霞; 侯云丹; 王求娟; 陈义方; 张腾军; 苏秀榕

    2012-01-01

    Electronic Nose Technology and Headspace-solid Phase Micro-extraction (HS-SPME) coupled with Gas Chromatography-mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to analyze the volatile compounds in oysters. The results showed that the electronic nose could be sensitive to detect the changes of odor of oysters during the heating processing. Odor of fresh oysters changed significantly while it were heated to 100℃ and 150℃. A total of 47, 59 and 56 volatile compounds in three kinds of samples were identified. Hexanal, (2E,6Z)-nonadienal, heptanal, oetanal and other aldehydes had the greater impact on the flavor of fresh oysters that contributed a fishiness, mushroom and cucumber like aroma to fresh oysters. Aldehydes and heteroeyclic compounds were the main volatile flavor substances of oysters that with 100℃ heated. After heated at 100℃ , oysters had less seafood flavor and showed dense scent of cooked shellfish. The main volatile compounds of 150℃ heated oysters were hydrocarbons, heteroeyclic compounds played an important role in the formation of baking flavors of 150℃ heated oysters.%为探讨牡蛎挥发性风味与加工温度的关系,运用电子鼻和顶空固相微萃取气质联用技术(HS-SPME-GC-MS)对不同温度加热牡蛎的挥发性成分进行分析。结果表明,电子鼻能够灵敏地检测到牡蛎在加热过程中气味的变化,新鲜牡蛎在加热到1000C和1500C时气味发生明显变化。通过GC-MS从新鲜牡蛎、100℃加热牡蛎和150℃加热牡蛎中分别检出47、59和56种挥发性物质,己醛、反-2-,顺-6-壬二烯醛、庚醛、辛醛等醛类物质对新鲜牡蛎的风味影响较大,使其具有腥味、蘑菇及黄瓜的风味;经过100℃加热后,牡蛎的腥味减弱,肉香浓郁,醛类和杂环化合物是其主要的挥发性风味物质;150℃加热牡蛎的主要挥发性物质是烃类,杂环化合物对其烘烤风味的形成具有重要作用。

  18. Some carbonyl compounds and free fatty acid composition of Afyon Kaymagı (clotted cream and their effects on aroma and flavor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şenel, E.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Some carbonyl compounds (acetaldeyhde, acetone, butanone-2 and diacetyl, the lactic acid and free fatty acid compositions of Afyon kaymagı, produced from pure buffalo milk obtained from seven different farms, and their effects on aroma and flavor were investigated. Acetone was found in the highest amount of carbonyl compounds. Butyric, stearic, oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids were characteristic free fatty acids for Afyon Kaymagı. The effect of the investigated compounds on the aroma and flavor scores (AFS of Afyon Kaymagı was found to be 93.3%. Lactic acid was negatively correlated but was the second most important compound for the aroma and flavor of Afyon Kaymagı (R2 = 40%. The investigated carbonyl compounds explained only 3.2% of the variation in aroma and flavor of Afyon Kaymagı. Lactic acid, acetone, diacetyl, C4:0, C8:0, C12:0 and C18:0 had negative effects on the AFS, but acetaldehyde, butanone-2, C6:0, C10:0, C14:0, C16:0, C18:1, C18:2 and C18:3 were positively related to the AFS.

    Se han investigado algunos compuestos carbonílicos (acetaldehido, acetona, 2-butanona y diacetil, el ácido láctico y la composición de los ácidos grasos libres de Afyon kaymagi (cuajada, producida sólo a partir de leche de búfalas obtenidas de siete granjas diferentes y sus efectos sobre el aroma y el sabor. Entre los compuestos carbonílicos, la acetona fué el que se encontró en mayor concentración. Butírico, esteárico, oleico, linoleico y linolénico son los ácidos grasos libres característicos de Afyon Kaymagı. El efecto de los compuestos investigados en las puntuaciones (AFS de aroma y sabor de Afyon Kaymagı se encontró que fué del 93,3%. El ácido láctico, segundo compuesto importante, se correlacionó negativamente con el aroma y el sabor de Afyon Kaymagı (R2 = 40%. Los compuestos

  19. Determination of off-flavor compounds, 2-methylisoborneol and geosmin, in salmon fillets using stir bar sorptive extraction-thermal desorption coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, E D; Aalhus, J L; Summerfelt, S T; Davidson, J; Swift, B; Juárez, M

    2013-12-20

    A sensitive and solvent-less method for the determination of musty and earthy off-flavor compounds, 2-methylisoborneol (MIB) and geosmin (GSM), in salmon tissue was developed using stir bar sorptive extraction-thermal desorption coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SBSE-TD-GCMS). MIB and GSM were solid phase extracted using polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) coated stir bars, analyzed by gas chromatography, and detected in full scan mode of mass selective detector (MSD). Using this method, the calibration curves of MIB and GSM were linear in the range of 0.3-100ng/L, with a correlation coefficient above 0.999 and RSDs less than 4% (n=4). The limit of detection (LOD, S/N=3, n=6) and limit of quantification (LOQ, S/N=10, n=6) of MIB and GSM were both ∼0.3 and 1ng/L, respectively. The recoveries of MIB and GSM were 22% and 29% by spike in 30ng/L standard compounds, 23% and 30% by spike-in 100ng/L standard compounds in salmon tissue samples with good precision (<8% of RSDs, n=6), respectively. The recoveries of MIB and GSM were better than reported methodologies using SPME fibres (<10%) in fish tissue samples. This method was successfully applied to monitor and characterize depurated salmon fillet samples (0, 3, 6 and 10 days).

  20. Evaluation of depuration procedures to mitigate the off-flavor compounds geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol from Atlantic salmon Salmo salar raised to market-size in recirculating aquaculture systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish cultured within water recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) can acquire “earthy” or “musty” off-flavors due to bioaccumulation of the compounds geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol (MIB), respectively, which are produced by certain bacterial species present in RAS biosolids and microbial biofilms. ...

  1. Primary Study on the Volatile Flavor Compounds of Low-Salt Chinese Cured-Meat of Accelerated Maturtion%快速成熟低盐腊肉挥发性成分的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯彩平; 刘美玉; 郑立红; 郭慧媛; 任发政

    2012-01-01

    To explore the volatile flavor compounds of low-salt Chinese cured-meat of accelerated maturation, lowsalt Chinese cured-meat was exposed under ultraviolet and O3 conditions to promote fat turning into flavor compounds. The volatile flavor compounds of traditional and low-salt Chinese cured-meat were analyaed using SPME-GC/MS. The result showed the amount of volatile flavor compounds of traditional Chinese cured-meat, low-salt Chinese cured-meat, low-salt Chinese cured-meat treated by ultraviolet, and low-salt one treated by O3 were 82, 85, 104, and 89, respectively. The treatment of active oxygen could change the volatile flavor compounds of low-salt Chinese cured-meat to some extent. The chief volatile flavor compounds were guaiacol, eugennol, palmitic acid, and oleic aid, etc. Which were similar with the chief flavor compounds of traditional Chinese cured-meat.%为了探明加快成熟后低盐腊肉挥发性成分的变化,采用紫外灯照射和O3发生器产生的活性氧促进低盐腊肉中脂肪快速氧化,用SPME-GC/MS对传统腊肉、低盐腊肉以及活性氧催熟的低盐腊肉样品的挥发性风味成分进行分析,结果表明,传统腊肉挥发性成分有82种,低盐腊肉挥发性成分有85种,经紫外灯照射处理的低盐腊肉有104种,经O3处理有89种.活性氧加快成熟的低盐腊肉风味成分有所改变,且形成一些新的风味物质,而主要呈味物质愈疮木酚、丁子香酚、棕榈酸、油酸等与传统腊肉一致.

  2. Basics of compounding: Tips and hints, part 4: lollipops/lozenges, gummy bears, patches, flavoring/coloring, sweeteners, and packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Loyd V

    2014-01-01

    Just a reminder--shortcuts, tips, hints, new techniques, etc. help make every compounder's job easier and enhance patient care. Keep a list of these tips and hints and add to them as new techniques are developed.

  3. Flavoring exposure in food manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curwin, Brian D; Deddens, Jim A; McKernan, Lauralynn T

    2015-05-01

    Flavorings are substances that alter or enhance the taste of food. Workers in the food-manufacturing industry, where flavorings are added to many products, may be exposed to any number of flavoring compounds. Although thousands of flavoring substances are in use, little is known about most of these in terms of worker health effects, and few have occupational exposure guidelines. Exposure assessment surveys were conducted at nine food production facilities and one flavor manufacturer where a total of 105 area and 74 personal samples were collected for 13 flavoring compounds including five ketones, five aldehydes, and three acids. The majority of the samples were below the limit of detection (LOD) for most compounds. Diacetyl had eight area and four personal samples above the LOD, whereas 2,3-pentanedione had three area samples above the LOD. The detectable values ranged from 25-3124 ppb and 15-172 ppb for diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione respectively. These values exceed the proposed National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) recommended exposure limit for these compounds. The aldehydes had the most detectable samples, with each of them having >50% of the samples above the LOD. Acetaldehyde had all but two samples above the LOD, however, these samples were below the OSHA PEL. It appears that in the food-manufacturing facilities surveyed here, exposure to the ketones occurs infrequently, however levels above the proposed NIOSH REL were found. Conversely, aldehyde exposure appears to be ubiquitous.

  4. 浓香葵花籽油挥发性风味成分的鉴定%Indentification of volatile flavor compounds of sunflower oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周萍萍; 黄健花; 宋志华; 王兴国

    2012-01-01

    采用顶空固相微萃取法(HS-SPME)萃取葵花籽油的挥发性风味物质,优化了萃取条件,采用气相色谱-质谱联用(GC-MS)对其进行分离鉴定。结果表明,萃取温度50℃和萃取时间50minT解吸5min萃取效果最好.经数据库检索,葵花籽油中共鉴定出97种化合物,占总检出化合物的83.14%,包括吡嗪、呋喃、醛、酯和酸等化合物。初步判断葵花籽油主要香气成分中包含2-戊基呋喃和2,5-二甲基吡嗪。%The volatile flavor compounds in sunflower oil were extracted by using headspace solid phase microextraction(HS-SPME) and it was performed by capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(GC-MS) to separate and identify the volatile compound. The optimum extraction conditions were determined and listed as follows=the extraction temperature of 50℃,the extraction time of 50rain and the desorption time of 5min. A total of 97 compounds which accounted for 83.14% of all the extracted compounds were identified as pyrazine, furan,aldehydes,esters,acids and so on. The results showed that 2-pentyl furan and 2,5-bimethylpyrazine were included in the characteristic aroma compents of sunflower oil.

  5. Production of a New Flavor Compound Fruit Vegetable Drink%新香型复合果蔬饮料的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘培丽; 穆振亚; 刘燕

    2016-01-01

    In this paper ,with fresh fruit and vegetable as the main raw materials ,a new flavour beverage was developed of fruit vegetable by adding honey ,stabilizer and other materials .Compound fruit vegetable drink better formula determined by comparison of test was as bellow (v/v):kiwi∶cucumber=2∶1,sydney∶lettuce=2.5∶1,banana∶broccoli=2.5∶1.Series of the fruit and vegetable compound drinks was created with rich nutrition , taste flavor , ratio of sweet and sour appropriate , quality safety and stability , and it owned a certain health care function .%以市售新鲜果蔬为主要原料,通过添加蜂蜜、稳定剂等辅料研制新香型复合果蔬饮料。通过对比试验确定了复合果蔬饮料较佳的配方为(v/v):猕猴桃∶黄瓜=2∶1,雪梨∶生菜=2.5∶1,香蕉∶西兰花=2.5∶1,所得系列果蔬复合饮料营养丰富,口感风味较佳,酸甜比合适,质量安全稳定,具有一定的保健功能。

  6. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic study of beta-lactoglobulin interactions with two flavor compounds, gamma-decalactone and beta-ionone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lübke, Markus; Guichard, Elisabeth; Tromelin, Anne; Le Quéré, Jean Luc

    2002-11-20

    Interactions between a well-characterized protein, beta-lactoglobulin, and two flavor compounds, beta-ionone and gamma-decalactone, were studied by 2D NMR spectroscopy. NMR spectra were recorded in aqueous solution (pH 2.0, 12 mM NaCl, 10% D(2)O) under conditions such that beta-lactoglobulin is present in a monomeric state. TOCSY and NOESY spectra were recorded on the protein and the complexes between protein and ligands. The spectra of the NH-CH(alpha) region showed the cross-signals due to the coupling between N- and C-bonded protons in the polypeptide backbone. The observed chemical shift variations in the presence of ligands can be assigned to changes in the protein conformation. It appears that the side chains of several amino acids are affected by binding of gamma-decalactone point into the central cavity (Leu46, Ile56, Met107, and Gln120), whereas binding of beta-ionone affects amino acids located in a groove near the outer surface of the protein (Leu104, Tyr120, and Asp129), as illustrated by molecular visualization. This NMR study provides precise information of the location of binding and confirms the existence of two different binding sites for aroma compounds on beta-lactoglobulin, which was suggested in previous competition studies by fluorometry or affinity chromatography and by structural information obtained from infrared spectroscopy.

  7. Effect of curing salts and probiotic cultures on the evolution of flavor compounds in dry-fermented sausages during ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidira, Marianthi; Kandylis, Panagiotis; Kanellaki, Maria; Kourkoutas, Yiannis

    2016-06-15

    The effect of the concentration of curing salts, the nature of the probiotic culture (free or immobilized Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393 on wheat grains) and the ripening time on the generation of volatile compounds in probiotic dry-fermented sausages was investigated. Samples were collected after 1, 28 and 71 days of ripening and subjected to SPME GC/MS analysis. All factors affected significantly the concentration of all volatile compounds. Noticeably, the content of esters, organic acids and total volatiles was significantly increased after 28 and 71 days of ripening in almost all products. In most cases, reduction of curing salts content resulted in significant increase of esters and organic acids during ripening, whereas the opposite effect was observed in carbonyl compounds at days 28 and 71. Principal Component Analysis of the semi-quantitative data revealed that primarily the ripening process affected the volatile composition.

  8. Effect of immobilized Lactobacillus casei on the evolution of flavor compounds in probiotic dry-fermented sausages during ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidira, Marianthi; Kandylis, Panagiotis; Kanellaki, Maria; Kourkoutas, Yiannis

    2015-02-01

    The effect of immobilized Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393 on wheat grains on the generation of volatile compounds in probiotic dry-fermented sausages during ripening was investigated. For comparison reasons, sausages containing free L. casei cells or no starter culture were also included in the study. Samples were collected after 1, 28 and 45days of ripening and subjected to SPME GC/MS analysis. Both the probiotic culture and the ripening process affected significantly the concentration of all volatile compounds. The significantly highest content of total volatiles, esters, alcohols and miscellaneous compounds was observed in sausages containing the highest amount of immobilized culture (300g/kg of stuffing mixture) ripened for 45days. Principal component analysis of the semi-quantitative data revealed that primarily the concentration of the immobilized probiotic culture affected the volatile composition.

  9. Analysis and comparison of flavor compounds between soy sauce fermented with salted chili juice and normal soy sauce%剁椒坯盐水酱油与普通酱油香气特征比较分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李明浩; 胡璇; 夏延斌

    2011-01-01

    Flavor compounds of soy sauce fermented with salted chili juice and normal soy sauce were identified and analyzed hy Solid-phase micro-extraction(SPME) combined with Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(GC-MS) in this paper. The result showed that 84 flavor compounds were identified including 12 alcohols, 12 esters, 15 acids, 15 aldehydes ketones, 17 heterocyelic, 5 phenolic, 3 hydrocarbons, 1 ether, 2 N-containing compounds and 2 S-containing compounds. Soy sauce fermented with salted chili juice had 15 more flavor components than normal soy sauce and Both have 30 same flavor components. Therefore, soy sauce fermented with salted chili juice have better flavors than normal soy sauce.%采用固相微萃取-气质联用(SPME- GC- MS)方法,对剁椒坯盐水酱油和普通酱油的香气成分进行分析和鉴定.共鉴定出84种风味化合物,其中包括醇类物质12种,酯类物质12种,酸类物质15种,醛酮类物质15种,杂环类物质17种,酚类物质5种,烃类物质3种,醚类物质1种,含N化合物2种,含S化合物2种.其中剁椒坯盐水酱油比普通酱油的香气物质多15种,两种酱油的共有香气成分有30种,说明剁椒坯盐水酱油比普通酱油风味更优.

  10. Volatile Flavor Compounds of Chestnuts and Puffed Chestnut Products%板栗及其膨化制品的挥发性香气成分分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文艳; 刘凌; 吴娜; 张晓磊

    2012-01-01

    采用顶空固相微萃取结合气相色谱-质谱联用技术对生板栗粉、煮板栗和3种膨化板栗制品的挥发性香气成分进行分离鉴定。共鉴定出68种挥发性物质,初步认定吡嗪类物质中的甲基吡嗪、2,3-二甲基吡嗪、2.乙基-6-甲基吡嗪、2,6-二-甲基吡嗪;呋喃类物质中的2-戊基呋喃、γ-丁内酯、2-糠醇、2,5-二氢-3,5-二甲基-2-呋喃酮和1-辛内酯及芳香族类物质中的苯甲醛是板栗的特征风味物质。煮制可提升板栗的香气。膨化板栗片的膨化加工方式对其香气成分影响显著,挤压膨化板栗片的香气物质组成和煮板栗比较相似,微波膨化板栗片中易产生具有枯焦气息的2,4-二叔丁基苯酚,油炸膨化板栗片的挥发性成分最复杂,醛类物质较多。%The volatile flavor compounds of chestnut powder, boiled chestnut and three puffed chestnut products were determined by HS-SPME-GC/MS. Sixty eight kinds of volatile flavor compounds were identified. Four kinds of pyrazine (methylpyrazine, 2,3-dimethyl pyrazine, 2-ethyl-6-methyl pyrazine, 2,6 - dimethyl pyrazine) , five kinds of furans (2-pentyl furan, γ-Butyrolactone, 2-furfuryl alcohol, 2,5-dihydro-3,5-dimethyl-2-furanone, 2 ( 3 H )-Fura-none, 5-butyldihydro-) as well as one kind of aromatic substances ( Benzaldehyde ) were initially identified as impor-tant aroma impact compounds. Chestnut aroma enhanced after cooking. Different puffing significantly influence aroma compositions of puffed chestnuts crisps. The aroma substance composition of extruded chestnut crisps and boiled chestnut are quite similar. A lot of 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol, which has paste flavor was generated in microwave puffing chestnut crisps. Volatile components of fried puffed chestnut crisps were the most complex which contained more alde-hydes substances.

  11. Influence of lambda-carrageenan on the release of systematic series of volatile flavor compounds from viscous food model systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bylaite, Egle; Ilgunaite, Z.; Meyer, Anne Boye Strunge

    2004-01-01

    The effect of lambda-carrageenan addition level (0.1, 0.25, 0.4, and 0.5% w/w) and viscosity on the release of systematic series of aroma compounds (aldehydes, esters, ketones, and alcohols) was studied in thickened viscous solutions containing lambda-carrageenan and 10 wt % of sucrose. Air...... range was assessed by dynamic headspace gas chromatography. K(37degreesC) increased as the carbon chain increased within each homologous series. Esters exhibited the highest volatility, followed by aldehydes, ketones, and alcohols. Under equilibrium, no overall effect of lambda-carrageenan was found...

  12. Evaluation of the Effect of Different Doses of Fast Electron Irradiation on the Flavoring Compounds and Storage Life of Pink Garlic (Allium sativum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Bayat

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Irradiation process could increase shelf life of garlic during storage. For determination of the optimum dose of irradiation, Garlic bulbs of Mazand variety were irradiated 30 days after harvest with 0, 25, 50, 75, 100 and 150 Gy dose of fast electrons. During the 8 months of storage at cold and uncontrolled conditions some properties were measured bi-monthly. Results showed that in both conditions the contents of enzymatic pyruvate, non enzymatic pyruvate, weight loss and color changes increased and the firmness decreased. In cold storage, at the presence of 50 and 75 Gy doses, the least destruction of flavoring compounds was seen but in uncontrolled storage irradiation had no significant effect on enzymatic pyruvate. At cold storage 50 and 75 Gy and at uncontrolled storage 75 and 100 Gy doses led to the least color changes. At the end of storage, firmness of irradiated treatments had no significant difference. Non irradiated treatment showed the most values of firmness. Weight loss under non irradiated treatment and 25 Gy dose was more than the weight loss under other doses and 100 and 150 Gy doses showed the least weight losses. Sprouting was only observed in non irradiated cloves and irradiated ones showed no symptoms of internal sprouting. Consequently, for garlic bulbs at cold storage, 50 Gy and for uncontrolled storage, 75 Gy was found to be the optimum dose of irradiation.

  13. Evaluation of a medium-polarity ionic liquid stationary phase in the analysis of flavor and fragrance compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragonese, Carla; Sciarrone, Danilo; Tranchida, Peter Quinto; Dugo, Paola; Dugo, Giovanni; Mondello, Luigi

    2011-10-15

    The present research is focused on the evaluation, in terms of efficiency and polarity, of a recently introduced gas chromatography (GC) column, coated with a 1,12-di(tripropylphosphonium) dodecane bis(trifluoromethansulfonyl) amide ionic-liquid stationary phase (SLB-IL59) and its application to the analysis of a complex essential oil. The ionic liquid column demonstrated very good efficiency, in terms of plate number, and a polarity close to that of the 100% poly(ethyleneglycol) stationary phase. In this preliminary evaluation, the SLB-IL59 30 m column was subjected to bleeding measurements, by means of conventional gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and, in addition, of comprehensive 2D GC. The SLB-IL59 column (30 m × 0.20 μm d(f), 0.25 mm i.d.) was then evaluated in the analysis of typical essential oil constituents, in the form of pure standard compounds. Resolution toward several analytes was measured and the results were compared to those obtained with both apolar [silphenylene polymer, equivalent to poly(5% diphenyl/95% dimethylsiloxane)] and medium-polarity [100% poly(ethyleneglycol)] stationary phases, namely, the most common columns employed in the analysis of essential oils; peak symmetry, for different essential oil constituents, was also measured and expressed through tailing factors (at 10% of peak height). The final part of the investigation was devoted to the GC/MS analysis of lemon essential oil, with GC-flame ionization detection (FID) used for quantification. Linear retention indices of all the identified compounds were determined, and the data obtained were compared to those attained on the apolar and "wax" columns. The results obtained in the present investigation reveal the great potential of this novel stationary phase, as a medium-polarity alternative, in the analysis of essential oils.

  14. Voltammetric detection of the α-dicarbonyl compound: methylglyoxal as a flavoring agent in wine and beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Sanghamitra; Chen, Aicheng

    2012-11-02

    A simple, rapid and highly selective method for the determination of the most abundant α-dicarbonyl compound in wine and beer has been developed for the first time by employing square wave voltammetry. A novel electrochemical sensor, based on the electrodeposition of platinum nanoparticles onto single wall carbon nanotubes that were cast on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) substrate, is presented in this paper. This modified electrode exhibited excellent catalytic activity in the electroreduction of methylglyoxal, showing much higher peak currents than those measured on an unmodified GCE. The effects of different experimental and instrumental parameters, such as solution pH and square wave frequency, were examined. The reduction peak current showed a linear range of from 0.1×10(-6) to 100×10(-6)M with a 0.9979 correlation coefficient; and a low detection limit of 2.8×10(-9)M was also obtained. The proposed methodology was successfully applied to the quantitative analysis of methylglyoxal in wine and beer samples. The developed sensor possesses advantageous properties such as a high active surface area, stability, and rapid electron transfer rate, which cumulatively demonstrate high performance toward the electrocatalytic reduction and detection of methylglyoxal.

  15. Characterization of the key aroma compounds in apricots (Prunus armeniaca) by application of the molecular sensory science concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greger, Veronika; Schieberle, Peter

    2007-06-27

    An aroma extract dilution analysis applied on an aroma distillate prepared from fresh apricots revealed (R)-gamma-decalactone, (E)-beta-damascenone, delta-decalactone, and (R/S)-linalool with the highest flavor dilution (FD) factors among the 26 odor-active compounds identified. On the basis of quantitative measurements performed by application of stable isotope dilution assays, followed by a calculation of odor activity values (OAVs), beta-ionone, (Z)-1,5-octadien-3-one, gamma-decalactone, (E,Z)-2,6-nonadienal, linalool, and acetaldehyde appeared with OAVs >100, whereas in particular certain lactones, often associated with an apricot aroma note, such as gamma-undecalactone, gamma-nonalactone, and delta-decalactone, showed very low OAVs (<5). An aroma recombinate prepared by mixing the 18 most important odorants in concentrations as they occurred in the fresh fruits showed an overall aroma very similar to that of apricots. Omission experiments indicated that previously unknown constituents of apricots, such as (E,Z)-2,6-nonadienal or (Z)-1,5-octadien-3-one, are key contributors to the apricot aroma.

  16. Effect of starter culture on volatile flavor compounds in Smoked Horse Sausages%发酵剂对熏马肠挥发性风味化合物的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩鲜娜; 卢士玲; 李开雄; 李宝坤; 王庆玲

    2013-01-01

    Headspace solid phase microextraction combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HSSPME-GC-MS) was used to analyze the volatiles in Smoked horse sausages.106 volatile flavor compounds were detected from 5 different samples,which could be clustered in the following chemical families:hydrocarbons,alcohols,esters,acids,aldehydes,ketones,hydroxybenzenes,furans compounds,nitrogen-containing compounds.The main volatile flavor components include hydrocarbons,alcohols,acids,ketones,hydroxybenzenes.Differences of kinds and content of volatile flavor component existed between control sausages and starter culture sausages.%通过顶空固相微萃取-气相色谱-质谱联用技术(HS-SPME-GC-MS)测定熏马肠中的挥发性风味物质.从5个不同样品中共鉴定出106种风味物质,包括烃类、醇类、酯类、酸类、醛类、酮类、酚类、呋喃类、含氮类等化合物.其中烃类、醇类、酸类、酮类、酚类化合物含量较高,空白组和发酵剂组熏马肠中挥发性风味化合物的种类和含量都存在着一定的差别.

  17. Voltammetric detection of the {alpha}-dicarbonyl compound: Methylglyoxal as a flavoring agent in wine and beer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatterjee, Sanghamitra [Department of Chemistry, Lakehead University, 955 Oliver Road, Thunder Bay, Ontario P7B 5E1 (Canada); Chen Aicheng, E-mail: achen@lakeheadu.ca [Department of Chemistry, Lakehead University, 955 Oliver Road, Thunder Bay, Ontario P7B 5E1 (Canada)

    2012-11-02

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Synergistic electrocatalytic effect of Pt nanoparticles and single-wall carbon nanotubes on the reduction of methylglyoxal. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Novel electrochemical Pt/SWNT/GCE sensor designed for the determination of methylglyoxal. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Excellent analytical performance with low detection limit and high sensitivity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The developed methylglyoxal sensor shows promising process control, clinical and, biomedical applications. - Abstract: A simple, rapid and highly selective method for the determination of the most abundant {alpha}-dicarbonyl compound in wine and beer has been developed for the first time by employing square wave voltammetry. A novel electrochemical sensor, based on the electrodeposition of platinum nanoparticles onto single wall carbon nanotubes that were cast on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) substrate, is presented in this paper. This modified electrode exhibited excellent catalytic activity in the electroreduction of methylglyoxal, showing much higher peak currents than those measured on an unmodified GCE. The effects of different experimental and instrumental parameters, such as solution pH and square wave frequency, were examined. The reduction peak current showed a linear range of from 0.1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} to 100 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} M with a 0.9979 correlation coefficient; and a low detection limit of 2.8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -9} M was also obtained. The proposed methodology was successfully applied to the quantitative analysis of methylglyoxal in wine and beer samples. The developed sensor possesses advantageous properties such as a high active surface area, stability, and rapid electron transfer rate, which cumulatively demonstrate high performance toward the electrocatalytic reduction and detection of methylglyoxal.

  18. Approximate flavor symmetries

    OpenAIRE

    Rašin, Andrija

    1994-01-01

    We discuss the idea of approximate flavor symmetries. Relations between approximate flavor symmetries and natural flavor conservation and democracy models is explored. Implications for neutrino physics are also discussed.

  19. 清炖与红烧猪肉挥发性风味成分的GC-MS比较%Comparison of volatile flavor compounds in braised and stewed pork by GC-MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾画艳; 黄业传; 罗兰

    2011-01-01

    对清炖猪肉、红烧猪肉及生猪肉的挥发性风味成份用GC-MS进行了对比,在原料、清炖猪肉和红烧猪肉中分别检测出挥发性风味成份576、8和69种。清炖猪肉中肉香贡献化合物总数明显大于生猪肉,同时与生猪肉相比,得出清炖猪肉特有香气化合物36种,这些物质主要是由生肉中的风味前体物质在加热过程中产生的;与清炖猪肉相比,红烧猪肉特有香气化合物35种,这些物质主要来自于红烧时加入的调料。%Volatile flavor compounds of braised pork,stewed pork and fresh pork were compared by GC-MS.57,68 and 69 kinds of volatile flavor compounds were detected in fresh,stewed and braised pork respectively.Compared with the fresh pork,there were more meaty aroma compounds from the stewed pork,and 36 kinds of characteristic volatile compounds were detected,these compounds mainly resulted from the flavor precursors substances in raw meat during heating process;compared with stewed pork,there were 35 kinds of characteristic volatile compounds from braised pork,and they mainly came from the adding spices.

  20. 电子鼻快速检测不同煮制时间的酱牛肉风味%Rapid Detection of Flavor Compounds in Spiced Beef with Different Cooking Times by Electronic Nose

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贡慧; 史智佳; 杨震; 田寒友; 乔晓玲

    2014-01-01

    利用电子鼻研究煮制过程中的酱牛肉挥发性风味变化,分析其动态变化规律。利用主成分分析法、传感器的载荷分析法和线性判别式分析法对不同煮制时间的酱牛肉进行归类分析。结果表明:不同煮制时间对酱牛肉的风味有较大影响,煮制4 h获得最具特色的酱牛肉风味。%Electronic nose was used to detect changes in volatile flavor compounds of spiced beef during cooking. Classification analysis of samples with different cooking times was conducted by using principal component analysis (PCA), loadings analysis (LA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA). Our results illustrated that different cooking times had a great effect on spiced beef flavor, and 4 h cooking was the most favorable for the formation of flavor compounds.

  1. Analysis of Volatile Flavor Compounds of Dry Yellow Soybean Sauce Made in Beijing%北京产干黄酱中挥发性风味成分分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗志伟; 柳金龙; 官伟; 刘玉平

    2011-01-01

    The volatile flavor compounds of 5 different brands of commercial dry yellow soybean sauces in Beijing were extracted by simultaneous distillation-extraction(SDE) method and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(GC-MS).Totally 69 volatile compounds were identified,including 9 acids,22 esters,8 aldehydes,4 ketones,3 phenols,13 herterocylic compounds and 3 sulfur-containing compounds.The common compounds appeared in all five dry yellow soybean sauces were ethyl acetate,ethyl hexadecanoate,ethyl 9-octadecenate,ethyl 9,12-octadecadienoate,ethyl(Z,Z,Z)-9,12,15-octadecatrienoate,3-methyl butanal,benzeneacetaldehyde,2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol,3-(methylthio)-propanal,and furfural,1-(1H-pyrrol-2-yl)-ethanone.These compounds constituted the basic flavor of the five dry yellow soybean sauces,while other flavor compounds were responsible for the unique part of their flavor.%以北京地区5种知名品牌的干黄酱为原料,采用同时蒸馏萃取法提取并结合气相色谱-质谱联用技术(gaschromatography-mass spectrometer,GC-MS)对其挥发性风味成分进行分析。结果共鉴定出69种物质,其主要是酸类(9种)、酯类(22种)、醛类(8种)、酮类(4种)、酚类(3种)、杂环化合物(13种)、含硫化合物(3种)和其他化合物(7种)等;5种干黄酱中共有的成分是乙酸乙酯、棕榈酸乙酯、十八烯酸乙酯、亚油酸乙酯、亚麻酸乙酯、异戊醛、苯乙醛、4-乙烯基愈创木酚、糠醛、2-乙酰基吡咯、3-甲硫基丙醛等,这些物质共同形成了该5种干黄酱的相同风味,而其中不同的成分又使得该5种干黄酱香气各有特色。

  2. Effects of food gums on volatile flavor compounds of dried duck meat slice during storage%食用胶对鸭肉脯保藏期间挥发性风味物质变化的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王武; 任志伟; 张静; 吴巧

    2012-01-01

    Along with the extending of storage time, the volatile flavor compounds of dried duck meat slice will disappear gradually and causes poor quality of dried duck meat slice. Therefore, maintaining the stability of the volatile flavor substances is discussed in this papeT. The effects of Xanthan gum, Carrageenan, Arabic gum, Konjac gum on the quality changes were studied. HS - SPEM - GC - MS was appllied to extract and analyze the volatile flavor compounds in dried duck meat during the storage. The study showed that food gums could slow down the volatile speed of the flavor and retained flavor component nonanal and estragole better. Thus, stability of the volatile flavor was kept and shelf life of the products was extended.%随着保藏时间的延长鸭肉脯中的挥发性风味物质会逐渐挥发,造成鸭肉脯的风味减淡,影响鸭肉脯的品质,因此在加工的过程中需要采取措施以保持鸭肉脯在保藏过程中的挥发性风味物质的稳定性,以鸭肉为原料,研究了鸭肉脯在加工过程中添加黄原胶、卡拉胶、阿拉伯胶和魔芋胶对鸭肉脯保藏期间挥发性风味物质变化规律的影响.采用顶空固相微萃取技术和气相色谱质谱联用检测方( HS - SPEM - GC - MS)对鸭肉脯的挥发性风味物质进行萃取和检测,研究结果表明,添加食用胶后可以减缓鸭肉脯挥发性风味物质总含量的挥发速度,有效的保持了鸭肉脯的挥发性风味物质,同时添加食用胶对鸭肉脯中主要挥发性风味物质中的壬醛、草蒿脑等起到较好的保持作用,从而有利于延长鸭肉脯的保藏时间风味稳定性.

  3. Flavor Release from French Fries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, W.A.M.; Linssen, J.P.H.; Boelrijk, A.E.M.; Burgering, M.J.M.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2006-01-01

    Flavor release from French fries was measured with the MS-NOSE using both panelists and a mouth-model system. The identity of several volatiles measured with the MS-NOSE was verified with MS-MS. The effect of frying time and the effect of adding salt on I-max (maximum intensity of compounds) and on

  4. Flavor release and perception of flavored whey protein gels: perception is determined by texture rather than by release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weel, Koen G C; Boelrijk, Alexandra E M; Alting, Arno C; Van Mil, Peter J J M; Burger, Jack J; Gruppen, Harry; Voragen, Alphons G J; Smit, Gerrit

    2002-08-28

    Five whey protein gels, with different gel hardnesses and waterholding capacities, were flavored with ethylbutyrate or diacetyl and evaluated by a 10-person panel to study the relation between the gel structure and the sensory perception, as well as the nosespace flavor concentration during eating. The sensory perception of the flavor compounds was measured by the time-intensity method, while simultaneously the nosespace flavor concentration was monitored by the MS-Nose. The nosespace flavor concentration was found to be independent of the gel hardness or waterholding capacity. However, significant changes in flavor intensity between the gels were perceived by the majority of the panelists, despite the fact that the panelists were instructed to focus only on flavor perception and to not take texture into account. From these observations it is concluded that the texture of gels determines perception of flavor intensity rather than the in-nose flavor concentration.

  5. Flavor and stability of milk proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, T J; Campbell, R E; Jo, Y; Drake, M A

    2016-06-01

    A greater understanding of the nature and source of dried milk protein ingredient flavor(s) is required to characterize flavor stability and identify the sources of flavors. The objective of this study was to characterize the flavor and flavor chemistry of milk protein concentrates (MPC 70, 80, 85), isolates (MPI), acid and rennet caseins, and micellar casein concentrate (MCC) and to determine the effect of storage on flavor and functionality of milk protein concentrates using instrumental and sensory techniques. Spray-dried milk protein ingredients (MPC, MPI, caseins, MCC) were collected in duplicate from 5 commercial suppliers or manufactured at North Carolina State University. Powders were rehydrated and evaluated in duplicate by descriptive sensory analysis. Volatile compounds were extracted by solid phase microextraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas chromatography-olfactometry. Compounds were identified by comparison of retention indices, odor properties, and mass spectra against reference standards. A subset of samples was selected for further analysis using direct solvent extraction with solvent-assisted flavor extraction, and aroma extract dilution analysis. External standard curves were created to quantify select volatile compounds. Pilot plant manufactured MPC were stored at 3, 25, and 40°C (44% relative humidity). Solubility, furosine, sensory properties, and volatile compound analyses were performed at 0, 1, 3, 6, and 12 mo. Milk proteins and caseins were diverse in flavor and exhibited sweet aromatic and cooked/milky flavors as well as cardboard, brothy, tortilla, soapy, and fatty flavors. Key aroma active compounds in milk proteins and caseins were 2-aminoacetophenone, nonanal, 1-octen-3-one, dimethyl trisulfide, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, heptanal, methional, 1-hexen-3-one, hexanal, dimethyl disulfide, butanoic acid, and acetic acid. Stored milk proteins developed animal and burnt sugar flavors over time. Solubility of

  6. Effect of Fermentation on Flavor Compounds of Spirulina as Analyzed by GC-MS%气相色谱-质谱联用分析发酵脱腥前后螺旋藻风味物质

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张艳艳; 张红霞; 程妮; 范俊峰; 李博生

    2012-01-01

    按照腐乳的生产工艺,采用五通桥毛霉发酵螺旋藻,通过直接热脱附-气质联用检测发酵前后样品挥发性风味物质。研究发现,毛霉发酵可以明显改善螺旋藻的风味,螺旋藻挥发性成分在发酵前后在种类和含量上都发生了变化。螺旋藻中醇类和具有腥味的芳香族、醛类、酮类成分发酵后明显减少,形成了具有卤肉和乳香的新风味物质,2-羟基-麝香酮和5,6,7,7-四氢-4,4,7-三甲基-(R)-2(4H)苯并呋喃酮。%The fermentation of Spirulina by Mucor wutungkiao was carried out as described for sufu.Direct thermal desorption(DTD)-GC-MS was used to determine volatile compounds in non-fermented and fermented Spirulina.The flavor of Spirulina was substantially improved by Mucor wutungkiao fermentation and changes in the kinds and amounts of volatile compounds were observed.Moreover,the kinds of alcohols and some unpleasant flavor compounds including aldehydes and ketones obviously decreased and new compounds responsible for braised meat and milky flavors were formed,2-hydroxy-cyclopentadecanone and 5,6,7,7-tetrahydro-4,4,7a-trimethyl-(R)-2(4H)-benzo-furanone.

  7. Evaluation of ozonation on levels of the off-flavor compounds geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol in water and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss from water recirculation aquaculture systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Common “off-flavors” in fish cultured in water recirculation aquaculture systems (WRAS) are “earthy” and “musty” due to the presence of the off-flavor metabolites geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol (MIB), respectively. Previously, ozone addition has been applied to WRAS at relatively low doses to break...

  8. Distribution of Off-Flavor Compounds and Isolation of Geosmin-Producing Bacteria in a Series of Water Recirculating Systems for Rainbow Trout Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pre-harvest “off-flavor” in aquaculture products results in large economic losses to producers due to delayed harvest. The common off-flavors “earthy” and “musty” are due to the presence of geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol (MIB), respectively. Although certain species of cyanobacteria are responsibl...

  9. Effect of stocking large channel catfish in a biofloc technology production system on production and incidence of common microbial off-flavor compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Density-dependent production and incidence of common microbial off-flavors caused by geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol were investigated in an outdoor biofloc technology production system stocked with stocker-size (217 g/fish) channel catfish at 1.4, 2.1, or 2.8 kg/m3. Individual weight at harvest rang...

  10. 河套蜜瓜中风味物质分离提取方法的比较%Comparison of extraction method of flavor compounds from Cucumis melo CV Hetau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邬子燕; 韩育梅; 贾迪

    2012-01-01

    To study aroma characteristics of Cucumis melo CV Hetau and expand developing channels of this melon industry and perfect the study system of Cucumis melo CV Hetau,the flavor compounds in "Hetau" melon were isolated and identified by organic solvent extraction method,solid-phase microextraction and adsorption-thermal desorption method connecting with GC-MS.The results showed that because the high temperature and so on,11 different flavor compounds were identified by organic solvent.42 and 57 different flavor compounds were identified by SPME and adsorption-thermal desorption method from matured "Hetau" melon.%对比了有机溶剂萃取法、固相微萃取法和吸附-热脱附法三种前处理方法,结合气相色谱-质谱(GC-MS)技术对产自内蒙古河套地区成熟的"河套"蜜瓜整瓜的挥发性物质进行了分析研究。结果表明,有机溶剂萃取法因其提取温度高等原因,造成大部分风味物质流失,只提取出11种风味物质;固相微萃取法因涂膜薄等因素分离出42种挥发性物质;吸附-热脱附法则分离出57种挥发性物质。

  11. Lepton flavor violation in flavored gauge mediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calibbi, Lorenzo [Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Service de Physique Theorique, Brussels (Belgium); Paradisi, Paride [Universita di Padova, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Padua (Italy); INFN Sezione di Padova, Padua (Italy); SISSA, Trieste (Italy); Ziegler, Robert [Sorbonne Universites, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7589, LPTHE, Paris (France); CNRS, UMR 7589, LPTHE, Paris (France)

    2014-12-01

    We study the anatomy and phenomenology of lepton flavor violation (LFV) in the context of flavored gauge mediation (FGM). Within FGM, the messenger sector couples directly to the MSSM matter fields with couplings controlled by the same dynamics that explains the hierarchies in the SM Yukawas. Although the pattern of flavor violation depends on the particular underlying flavor model, FGM provides a built-in flavor suppression similar to wave function renormalization or SUSY partial compositeness. Moreover, in contrast to these models, there is an additional suppression of left-right flavor transitions by third-generation Yukawas that in particular provides an extra protection against flavor-blind phases. We exploit the consequences of this setup for lepton flavor phenomenology, assuming that the new couplings are controlled by simple U(1) flavor models that have been proposed to accommodate large neutrino mixing angles. Remarkably, it turns out that in the context of FGM these models can pass the impressive constraints from LFV processes and leptonic electric dipole moments (EDMs) even for light superpartners, therefore offering the possibility of resolving the longstanding muon g - 2 anomaly. (orig.)

  12. Neutrino Flavor Oscillations without Flavor Mixing Angles

    CERN Document Server

    Dienes, Keith R; Dienes, Keith R.; Sarcevic, Ina

    2001-01-01

    We demonstrate that sizable neutrino flavor oscillations can be generated in a model with large extra spacetime dimensions even if the physics on the brane is flavor-diagonal, the bulk neutrino theory is flavor-neutral, and the brane/bulk couplings are flavor-blind. We also discuss several phenomenological aspects of the ``bulk-mediated'' neutrino oscillations inherent in this model. [Based on talks given at Neutrino 2000 (Sudbury, Canada, June 2000), the Aspen Workshop on Neutrinos with Mass (Aspen, Colorado, July 2000), and DARK 2000 (Heidelberg, Germany, July 2000).

  13. Determinação do perfil de compostos voláteis e avaliação do sabor e aroma de bebidas produzidas a partir da erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis Volatile compounds profile and flavor analysis of yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Carolina Batista Machado

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Volatile compounds from green and roasted yerba mate were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and the flavor profile from yerba mate beverages was determined by descriptive quantitative analyses. The main compounds tentatively identified in green mate were linalool, alpha-terpineol and trans-linalool oxide and in roasted mate were (E,Z-2,4-heptadienal isomers and 5-methylfurfural. Green mate infusion was qualified as having bitter taste and aroma as well as green grass aroma while roasted mate was defined as having a smooth, slightly burnt aroma. The relationship between the tentatively identified compounds and flavor must be determined by olfatometric analysis.

  14. Recent patents in flavor microencapsulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Tao; Xiao, Zuobing; Tian, Huaixiang

    2009-11-01

    Many aroma compounds, used to flavor food products, are used in a solid state, after encapsulation. Synthetic or natural polymers are the common matrices used to entrap these volatiles. This paper reviews the recent patents of versatile matrices and methods used in flavor microencapsulation. The encapsulation ratio depends on both the carriers' physicochemical properties and the characteristics of the aroma compound. The patents about flavor encapsulation methods are spray drying, fluidized bed coating, melt extrusion, complex coacervation, aqueous diffusion and novel fat-coating etc. All these methods have both advantages and disadvantages. In brief, spray drying is very convenient but unsuitable for heat sensitive flavor and stored with moisture instability. Fluidized bed coating is costly but having better storage stability. Melt extrusion is suitable for large-scale production but having bad particle size distribution. Complex coacervation has good capsule size uniformity but controversial safety. Aqueous diffusion has excellent safety but low efficient encapsulation. Novel fat-coating has good encapsulation efficiency but uncontrollable size distribution.

  15. 萝卜炖牛腩挥发性风味成分的分离与鉴定%Analysis of volatile flavor compounds in carrot stew beef brisket

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈海涛; 孙杰; 蒲丹丹; 孙宝国; 张玉玉

    2016-01-01

    The volatile flavor components in carrot stew beef brisket were extracted by solid-phase micro extraction( solid-phase mi-cro extraction,SPME SPME)or solvent-assisted flavor evaporation(solvent-assisted flavor evaporation,SAFE)and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(gas chromatography-mass spectrometry,GC-MS). SPME experimentalconditions,such as Fiber type,sample weight,adsorption temperature,extraction time were optimized. The best extraction performance was achieved under se-lecting 65 μm PDMS/DVB( pink) ,sample weight at 8 g,adsorption temperature at 60℃,40 min extraction time time. A total of 98 volatile compounds were identified in carrot stew beef brisket,including 11 hydrocarbons,13 aldehydes,11 ketones,7 acids,22 alco-hols,12 esters,4 ethers,6 phenols,12 sulfur and other nitrogen-containing compounds or heterocyclic compounds. Aldehydes, e-thers,nitrogen-containing compounds and heterocyclic compounds may have an important influence on the formation of carrot stew beef brisket flavor.%采用固相微萃取(solid-phase micro extraction,SPME)法和溶剂辅助蒸发(solvent-assisted flavor evapora-tion,SAFE)法提取萝卜炖牛腩中的挥发性风味成分,利用气相色谱-质谱联用( gas chromatography-mass spec-trometry,GC-MS)技术对其挥发性风味成分进行分析。对影响固相微萃取的操作条件萃取头纤维种类、样品量、吸附温度以及萃取时间进行了优化,结果表明当选择65μmPDMS/DVB(粉色)萃取头、样品量为8 g、吸附温度为60℃、萃取时间为40 min时,萃取效果最佳。两种方法共鉴定出98种挥发性成分,包括烃类11种、醛类13种、酮类11种、酸类7种、醇类22种、酯类12种、醚类4种、酚类6种、含硫含氮及其他杂环化合物12种。其中,醛类、醚类和含硫含氮及其他杂环化合物可能对萝卜炖牛腩特征风味的形成有着重要的影响。

  16. Effects of High-temperature Air-drying on Flavor Compounds in Dry-cured Duck%高温风干成熟工艺对风鸭风味物质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李锋; 王永丽; 章建浩

    2012-01-01

    The effects of high-temperature air-drying on flavor compounds in dry-cured duck were investigated in the study.Volatile flavor compounds and their relative contents in dry-cured ducks at stages of raw material,dry-curing,air-drying 24 h,48 h,72 h and 96 h were measured by solid-phase microextraction followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry(SPME-GC/MS)analysis.One hundred and ten flavor compounds were identified,including alcohols(38),hydrocarbons(24),aldehydes(19),ketones(9),amines(7),furans(4),esters(3),S-containing compounds(2),acids(2),ethers(1) and N-containing compound(1).The first principal component consisted aldehydes,alcohols and methyl ketones,and the second principal component consisted of hydrocarbons,alcohols and aldehydes.The flavor formation of dry-cured ducks was affected by oxidative of fat,protein degradation and microorganisms.Therefore,the flavor in finished product is controlled by those processing parameters.%为研究高温风干成熟工艺对风鸭风味物质的影响,采用固相微萃取结合气相色谱/质谱联用技术(SPME-GC/MS)检测了原料、腌制、风干24、48、72、96 h不同工艺阶段风鸭中挥发性风味化合物的种类及相对含量,并利用主成分分析方法分析影响风鸭风味的主要因子。共检测到110种挥发性风味成分,分别为醇类(38)、烃类(24)、醛类(19)、酮类(9)、胺类(7)、呋喃类(4)、酯类(3)、酸类(2)、含硫化合物(2)、醚类(1)和含氮化合物(1)。第一主成分主要由醛、醇类和甲基酮构成,第二主成分主要由烃、醇和醛等组成。风鸭风味的形成受脂肪氧化分解、蛋白质降解及微生物共同作用的影响,通过控制加工工艺参数可以调控高温成熟风鸭风味的形成。

  17. Neutrinos and flavor symmetries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanimoto, Morimitsu

    2015-07-01

    We discuss the recent progress of flavor models with the non-Abelian discrete symmetry in the lepton sector focusing on the θ13 and CP violating phase. In both direct approach and indirect approach of the flavor symmetry, the non-vanishing θ13 is predictable. The flavor symmetry with the generalised CP symmetry can also predicts the CP violating phase. We show the phenomenological analyses of neutrino mixing for the typical flavor models.

  18. Neutrinos and flavor symmetries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanimoto, Morimitsu

    2015-07-15

    We discuss the recent progress of flavor models with the non-Abelian discrete symmetry in the lepton sector focusing on the θ{sub 13} and CP violating phase. In both direct approach and indirect approach of the flavor symmetry, the non-vanishing θ{sub 13} is predictable. The flavor symmetry with the generalised CP symmetry can also predicts the CP violating phase. We show the phenomenological analyses of neutrino mixing for the typical flavor models.

  19. Comparison of different methods: static and dynamic headspace and solid-phase microextraction for the measurement of interactions between milk proteins and flavor compounds with an application to emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabre, M; Aubry, V; Guichard, E

    2002-03-13

    Interactions between 10 aroma compounds from different chemical classes and 5 mixtures of milk proteins have been studied using static or dynamic headspace gas chromatography and solid-phase microextraction (SPME). Static headspace analysis allows the quantification of the release of only the most abundant compounds. Dynamic headspace analysis does not allow the discrimination of flavor release from the different protein mixtures, probably due to a displacement of headspace equilibrium. By SPME analysis and quantification by GC-MS (SIM mode) all of the volatiles were quantified. This method was optimized to better discriminate aroma release from the different milk protein mixtures and then from oil/water emulsions made with these proteins. The highest difference between the release in different proteins was observed for ethyl hexanoate, which has a great affinity for beta-lactoglobulin. Ethyl hexanoate is thus less released from models and emulsions containing this protein.

  20. Gras flavoring substances 24

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, R.L.; Waddell, W.J.; Cohen, S.M.; Feron, V.J.; Marnett, L.J.; Portoghese, P.S.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Adams, T.B.; Gavin, C.L.; Mcgowen, M.M.; Taylor, S.V.; Williams, M.C.

    2009-01-01

    The Expert Panel of the Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association (FEMA) presented safety and usage data on 236 GRAS flavor ingredients in its 24th publication. The publication revealed that these 236 flavor ingredients were of Japanese origin that were granted GRAS status. It revealed that the G

  1. 天然水体中两种主要异嗅物质的来源及迁移转化研究进展%Resource,Migration & Transformation of Two Main Off-Flavor Compounds in Natural Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李冲炜; 邹攀; 杨兆光; 李海普

    2016-01-01

    近年来,水中嗅味问题逐渐引起关注。研究发现,天然水体中异嗅物质主要是微生物和藻类的挥发性次级代谢产物。总结了天然水体中常见的两种异嗅物质土臭素(GSM)和二甲基异莰醇(MIB)的来源及其在生物体内的合成途径。介绍了异嗅物质通过吸附、挥发、光解、生物降解等一系列作用在饮用水水源中的迁移转化以及其进入水体生物的途径。%In recent years,the issue of taste and odor(T&O)in water attracts people’s attention. Study has found that the main T&O compounds in natural waters were volatile secondary metabolite produced by microbes and algae. In this paper,the resource and biosynthesis of two main off-flavor compounds,2-methylisoborneol and geosmin(GSM), in natural aqueous matrices were reviewed. In addition,the migration and transformation of these two off-flavor com-pounds in natural water by means of absorption,volatilization,photolysis,biodegradation were introduced. The trans-fer pathway of these two compounds into aquatic life was also discussed in this paper.

  2. Studies on Fermentation of Jerusalem artichoke Juice by Beneficial Lactic Acid Bacteria and the Flavor Compounds of Fermented Jerusalem artichoke Juice%乳酸菌发酵菊芋汁及其风味的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李信; 董英; 程新; 刘崇万

    2012-01-01

    对不同品种和产地的菊芋主要成分进行了测定,并利用乳酸菌对菊芋汁进行发酵,研究了不同乳酸菌在菊芋汁中的生长规律、低温存活性及发酵菊芋汁中主要风味物质。结果表明,4种乳酸菌在菊芋汁中均生长良好,最高活菌数可达到10^9CFU/mL;菊芋汁经乳酸菌发酵后具有良好风味,其风味的差异与发酵菌种有关;发酵菊芋汁中乳酸菌在4℃低温贮藏过程中具有较好的低温存活性,4周后活菌数保持在10^9CFU/mL。菊芋汁适用于开发成新的功能性乳酸菌饮料。%Jerusalem artichoke possesses abundant inulin, high content of potassium and low content of sodium. The main nutritional compositions of Jerusalem artichoke from diverse varieties and regions were analyzed. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the growth of four lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus brevis) on Jerusalem artichoke juice and the production of flavor com- pounds in these bacteria. Growth rule, low-temperature survivability of lactic acid bacteria in Jerusalem artichoke and the major flavor compounds of fermented Jerusalem artichoke juice were considered in this study. In this research it was found that four lactic cultures grew well on the Jerusalem artichoke juice, and the viable cell counts of lactic acid bacteria reached 10^9CFU/mL. Jerusalem artichoke juice that was fermented by beneficial lactic acid bacteria had a good flavor, the main flavor compounds were diverse due to the different species of lactic acid bacteria. Although the lactic cultures of fermented Jerusalem artichoke juice gradually lost their viability during cold storage, the viable cell counts of these lactic acid bacteria still remained at 10^8CFU/mL after 4 weeks of refrigeration at 4℃. The results of this study showed that Jerusalem artichoke juice was a potential substrate to be used for healthy

  3. Analysis of the aroma-active compounds in the reactive beef flavoring%反应型牛肉香精中香味化合物的鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕玉; 宋焕禄

    2011-01-01

    采用动态顶空制样(DHS)结合气相色谱-嗅闻-质谱联用技术(GC-O-MS)对牛肉香精的香气成分进行分析,并运用动态顶空稀释分析(DHDA)确定其关键香味化合物。2-甲基-3-呋喃硫醇、2-糠硫醇、壬醛、辛醛、3-甲硫基丙醛、4-羟基-2,5-二甲基-3(2H)-呋喃酮、反,反-2,4-癸二烯醛这7种对牛肉香气具有重要作用的化合物在牛肉香精中均被检测到。1-辛烯-3-酮(蘑菇味)、2-甲基-3-呋喃硫醇(肉香、维生素)和2-糠硫醇(烤香、肉香)、糠醛(甜香、烤地瓜香)这四种化合物是牛肉香精中最关键的香味化合物,其在牛肉香气的形成中也具有重要作用。%The volatiles of beef flavoring were analysed by using dynamic headspace sampling(DHS)and gas chromatography-olfactometry-mass spectrometry(GC-O-MS). Dynamic headspace dilution analysis(DHDA)was also applied for the determination of the key aroma-active compounds of the flavoring. 2-methyl-3-furanthiol,2-furfurylthiol,nonanal,octanal,3-methylthiopropanal,4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone and(E,E)-2,4-decadienal were determined in the beef flavoring,which were important in the formation of the aroma of beef. 1-octen-3-one(mushroom),2-methyl-3-furanthiol(meat,vitamins),2-furfurylthiol(roasted,meat)and furfural(sweet,baked sweet potato)were the key aroma-active compounds of beef flavoring,which also had an important role of beef’s aroma.

  4. Analysis of volatile flavor compounds of soy sauce produced by two different techniques%2种不同工艺酱油原油的挥发性成分的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范琳; 蒋立文; 陶湘林; 李先淼

    2012-01-01

    Volatile compounds of soy sauce produced by two different techniques were analyzed by combination of SPME extraction combined with GC-MS, and the relative contents were determined by area normalization method. Totally 117 species (seven categories) volatile flavor compounds were identified, and 62 species in natural bask crude soy sauce, 84 species in low-salt crude oil with heat insulation fermentation. The identified flavor compounds include alcohols (15), phenols (10), acids (18), esters (19), aldehydes anketones (21), heterocyclics (27) and sulfur compounds (7). O-guaiacol, ethanoic acid, 3-methyl-butanoic acid, 2-methyl-butanoic acid, 2-methyl butanal, benzaldehyde, benzeneacetaldehyde and trimethylpyrazine were main ingredients in two kinds of soy sauce. Although the content of most volatile organic in soy sauce was very little, the existence of them greatly enriched flavor of soy sauce.%通过用SPME萃取结合GC-MS分析了2种不同工艺酱油原油的挥发性成分,用面积归一化法测定其组分的相对含量,2种酱油中共鉴定出117种(7大类)挥发性风味化合物,天然晒露的酱油共有62种,低盐保温发酵原油有84种,所鉴定的风味化合物包括15种醇,10种酚,18种酸,19种酯,21种醛酮化合物,27种杂环化合物和7种含硫化合物.其中O-愈创木酚、乙酸、3-甲基丁酸、2-甲基丁酸、2-甲基丁醛、苯甲醛、苯乙醛和三甲基吡嗪为2种酱油中都存在的主体物质.尽管酱油中多数香气成分含量极微,但是多种香气成分的存在极大地丰富了酱油的风味.

  5. Rice aroma and flavor: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descriptive sensory analysis has identified over a dozen different aromas and flavors in rice. Instrumental analyses have found over 200 volatile compounds present in rice. However, after over 30 years of research, little is known about the relationships between the numerous volatile compounds and a...

  6. Natural Flavorings on Meat and Poultry Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... substances or ingredients can be listed as "natural flavor," "flavor," or "flavorings" rather than by a specific common ... substances or ingredients can be listed as "natural flavor," "flavor," or "flavorings" rather than by a specific ...

  7. Volatile Flavoring Compounds in Beer Produced by Wheat Extruded at Low Temperature as Auxiliary Materials%低温挤压小麦辅料啤酒挥发性风味组分分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何媛媛; 郑慧; 李宏军

    2015-01-01

    In this study, quantitative&qualitative analysis of the volatile flavoring compounds in beer produced by wheat extruded at low tem-perature as auxiliary materials was done by automatic head-space sampling coupled with capillary gas chromatography. The results showed that, 8 main volatile flavoring compounds were isolated from beer including acetaldehyde, n-propanol, ethyl acetate, isobutanol, isoamyl alco-hol, isoamyl acetate, ethyl caproate and ethyl caprylate. The content of each volatile flavoring compounds were in the range of normal content of light beer. The variation coefficients of the analytic results were less than 5%and the recoveries were more than 95%, which proved good repeatability and accuracy of such method. The content of total soluble nitrogen and high, middle and low-molecular nitrogenous substances in beer detected by Lundin fraction method were 105.1 mg/100 mL, 13.9 mg/100 mL, 20.0 mg/100 mL and 71.2 mg/100 mL, respectively.%采用静态自动顶空进样结合毛细管气相色谱法对膨化小麦辅料啤酒的挥发性风味组分进行定性和定量分析。结果表明,从膨化小麦辅料啤酒中主要分离出8种挥发性风味组分,其组分及含量分别是乙醛、正丙醇、乙酸乙酯、异丁醇、异戊醇、乙酸异戊酯、己酸乙酯和辛酸乙酯。啤酒中各挥发性风味组分的含量均在淡色啤酒正常含量范围之内。该方法测量结果变异系数均小于5%,回收率均大于95%,具有很好的准确性和重复性。用隆丁区分法测量小麦辅料啤酒中总氮和高、中、低分子氮的含量分别为总可溶性氮105.1 mg/100 mL、高分子氮13.9 mg/100 mL、中分子氮20.0 mg/100 mL、低分子氮71.2 mg/100 mL。

  8. Impact of fat reduction on flavor and flavor chemistry of Cheddar cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, M A; Miracle, R E; McMahon, D J

    2010-11-01

    A current industry goal is to produce a 75 to 80% fat-reduced Cheddar cheese that is tasty and appealing to consumers. Despite previous studies on reduced-fat cheese, information is critically lacking in understanding the flavor and flavor chemistry of reduced-fat and nonfat Cheddar cheeses and how it differs from its full-fat counterpart. The objective of this study was to document and compare flavor development in cheeses with different fat contents so as to quantitatively characterize how flavor and flavor development in Cheddar cheese are altered with fat reduction. Cheddar cheeses with 50% reduced-fat cheese (RFC) and low-fat cheese containing 6% fat (LFC) along with 2 full-fat cheeses (FFC) were manufactured in duplicate. Cheeses were ripened at 8°C and samples were taken following 2 wk and 3, 6, and 9 mo for sensory and instrumental volatile analyses. A trained sensory panel (n=10 panelists) documented flavor attributes of cheeses. Volatile compounds were extracted by solid-phase microextraction or solvent-assisted flavor evaporation followed by separation and identification using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-olfactometry. Selected compounds were quantified using external standard curves. Sensory properties of cheeses were distinct initially but more differences were documented as cheeses aged. By 9 mo, LFC and RFC displayed distinct burnt/rosy flavors that were not present in FFC. Sulfur flavor was also lower in LFC compared with other cheeses. Forty aroma-active compounds were characterized in the cheeses by headspace or solvent extraction followed by gas chromatography-olfactometry. Compounds were largely not distinct between the cheeses at each time point, but concentration differences were evident. Higher concentrations of furanones (furaneol, homofuraneol, sotolon), phenylethanal, 1-octen-3-one, and free fatty acids, and lower concentrations of lactones were present in LFC compared with FFC after 9 mo of ripening. These

  9. Effects of cinnamon additions on volatile flavor compounds of stewed chicken%肉桂添加量对卤鸡腿肉挥发性风味成分的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘欣; 赵改名; 田玮; 柳艳霞; 孙灵霞; 刘永安

    2013-01-01

    To compare the effects of cinnamon additions on volatile flavor compounds of stewed chicken and provide references for cinnamon application in traditional sauced meat processing.Electronic nose and HS-SPME-GC-MS were used to detect the stewed chicken samples with different cinnamon concentrations (0%,0.05%,0.1%,O.2%,and 0.3%).Results:The electronic nose signals of different samples showed a strong cluster property.With the increase of cinnamon addition,54,60,63,65 and 80 volatile flavor compounds were identified successively.Compared with the contrast group,40 new flavor compounds (cinnamaldehyde,cineole,geranylacetone,coumarin,p-cymene,caryophyllene,etc) were found in the cinnamon groups.Terpenes content increased the most in 0.3%cinnamon group.The newly-added volatile flavor compounds in chicken samples with cinnamon were mainly contributed by the addition of cinnamon.When the addition amount of cinnamon reached to 0.3%,terpenes in chicken samples sharply increased and volatile flavour components changed greatly.%比较不同肉桂添加量对卤鸡腿肉挥发性风味成分的影响.设置5个梯度的肉桂添加量(0%,0.05%,0.1%,0.2%,0.3%),采用电子鼻(EN)、顶空固相微萃取(HS-SPME)和气质联用(GC-MS)的方法对不同肉桂添加量的卤鸡肉样品进行检测分析.结果显示:不同肉桂添加量鸡肉样品的电子鼻信号表现出较强的聚类特性;按肉桂添加量由低到高的顺序经GC-MS依次检出54、60、63、65、80种挥发性风味物质;与空白组相比,添加肉桂的鸡肉样品中新增了肉桂醛、桉叶油醇、香叶基丙酮、香豆素、对异丙基甲苯、石竹烯等40种挥发性风味物质,以0.3%肉桂组增加的萜烯类物质最多.表明添加肉桂后鸡肉样品中新增的挥发性风味物质多属于肉桂添加的直接引入.肉桂添加浓度达到0.3%时,样品中萜烯类物质急剧增加,风味成分变化较大.

  10. Separation and Identification of Volatile Flavor Compounds in High-Salt Liquid State-Fermented Soy Sauce%高盐稀态酱油挥发性风味物质的分离与鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高献礼; 赵谋明; 崔春; 曹鸣凯; 李丹

    2009-01-01

    分别采用固相微萃取(SPME)、同时蒸馏萃取(VSDE)和直接溶剂萃取(DSE)法对高盐稀态酱油挥发性风味物质进行分离、浓缩,并利用气质联用色谱(GC-MS)对其挥发性风味物质进行鉴定.试验共鉴定出147种风味化合物,其中酸类17种、醇类12种、醛类16种、酯类36种、呋喃(酮)类12种、酮类13种、杂环化合物14种、酚类8种、吡喃(酮)类6种、吡嗪类4种、吡咯(酮)类3种、含硫化合物6种.研究结果表明,主要挥发性风味化合物为酯、酸、醛、杂环化合物和醇类,其中酯类化合物的数量和相对含量最多;此外,有16种日式和韩式酱油中的关键风味化合物在国产高盐稀态酱油中被检出.%In this paper, such technologies as solid-phase micro-extraction (SPME), simultaneous steam distillation-extraction (VSDE) and direct solvent extraction (DSE) were employed to separate and concentrate the volatile flavor compounds in high-salt liquid state-fermented soy sauce, and the extracts were identified by means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). 147 flavor compounds, including 17 kinds of acids, 12 kinds of alcohols, 16 kinds of aldehydes, 36 kinds of esters, 12 kinds of furan(one)s, 13 kinds of ketones, 14 kinds of he-〖JP2〗 terocyclic compounds, 8 kinds of phenols, 6 kinds of pyran(one)s, 4 kinds of pyrazines, 3 kinds of pyrrol(idon)es〖JP〗 and 6 kinds of sulfur-containing compounds, were then identified. The results indicate that, in the dominant volatile flavor compounds in the soy sauce, namely, esters, acids, alcohols, aldehydes and heterocyclic compounds, esters are of the most species and of the highest relative content; and that 16 aroma-impact compounds of Japanese and Korean soy sauces were detected from Chinese high-salt liquid state-fermented soy sauce.

  11. Multisensory Flavor Priming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dijksterhuis, Garmt Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Flavor is multisensory; several interacting sensory systems-taste, smell, and mouthfeel-together comprise "flavor," making it a cognitively constructed percept rather than a bottom-up sensory one. In this chapter, some of the complications this entails for flavor priming are introduced, along...... with a taxonomy of different priming situations. In food-related applications of flavor, both bottom-up (sensory) as well as top-down (expectations) processes are at play. Most of the complex interactions that this leads to take place outside the awareness of the perceiving subject. A model is presented where...... many, past and current, aspects (sensory, surroundings, social, somatic, sentimental) of a (flavor) perception, together result in the perception of a flavor, its liking. or its choice. This model borrows on ideas from priming, situated/embodied cognition, and (food-related) perception....

  12. Effect of different pickling salt concentration on taste, texture and volatile flavor compounds of mustard root%盐分腌制对大头菜滋味、质构和挥发性成分的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭秀兰; 唐仁勇; 刘达玉; 邹强; 张坤琼; 袁婷

    2015-01-01

    为寻找适当的腌制大头菜食盐浓度,采用不同浓度食盐腌制并发酵大头菜,考察对大头菜成品的食盐含量、感官、理化、质构和挥发性物质的影响.结果发现,6%和8%低盐腌制大头菜的感官得分较高,其氨基酸态氮含量较高,pH值更低,乙醇含量也较少,芳香物质更加丰富,其中8%组的亚硝酸盐含量最低,质地感官评分最好,且TPA测试的硬度和咀嚼性较好.实验结果表明,6%~8%的食盐腌制大头菜增加乳酸菌的活力和同型发酵,提升了产品的滋味、香味和质构品质.%This study aimed to look for a proper sodium chloride concentration to pickle mustard root.The mustard root was pickled and fermented with different salt concentration.The effects on the salt concentration,sense score,chemical index,texture quality and volatile flavor compounds of pickled food were investigated.The results indicated that mustard root pickled with 6% and 8% salt concentration had better sense score,more amino acids nitrogen content,lower pH,less ethanol content,and more flavor compounds.The 8% treatment had lowest nitrite content,better texture sense score,TPA hardness and chewiness.These results suggested that using 6% ~ 8% salt concentration to pickle mustard root could not only increase lactic acid bacteria activity and homotype fermentation,but also improve taste,flavor and texture quality of the product.

  13. Aroma compounds in fresh cut pomegranate arils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little published information exists regarding flavor and aroma compounds in pomegranate (Punica granatum). Although arils have fruity and sweet characteristics, we found no publications describing actual compounds responsible for their typical flavor. Since most commercial usage of pomegranates in...

  14. Toward the stereochemical identification of prohibited characterizing flavors in tobacco products: the case of strawberry flavor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschke, Meike; Hutzler, Christoph; Henkler, Frank; Luch, Andreas

    2015-08-01

    With the revision of the European Tobacco Products Directive (2014/40/EU), characterizing flavors such as strawberry, candy, vanillin or chocolate will be prohibited in cigarettes and fine-cut tobacco. Product surveillance will therefore require analytical means to define and subsequently detect selected characterizing flavors that are formed by supplemented flavors within the complex matrix tobacco. We have analyzed strawberry-flavored tobacco products as an example for characterizing fruit-like aroma. Using this approach, we looked into aroma components to find indicative patterns or features that can be used to satisfy obligatory product information as requested by the European Directive. Accordingly, a headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) technique was developed and coupled to subsequent gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) to characterize different strawberry-flavored tobacco products (cigarettes, fine-cut tobacco, liquids for electronic cigarettes, snus, shisha tobacco) for their volatile additives. The results were compared with non-flavored, blend characteristic flavored and other fruity-flavored cigarettes, as well as fresh and dried strawberries. Besides different esters and aldehydes, the terpenes linalool, α-terpineol, nerolidol and limonene as well as the lactones γ-decalactone, γ-dodecalactone and γ-undecalactone could be verified as compounds sufficient to convey some sort of strawberry flavor to tobacco. Selected flavors, i.e., limonene, linalool, α-terpineol, citronellol, carvone and γ-decalactone, were analyzed further with respect to their stereoisomeric composition by using enantioselective HS-SPME-GC/MS. These experiments confirmed that individual enantiomers that differ in taste or physiological properties can be distinguished within the tobacco matrix. By comparing the enantiomeric composition of these compounds in the tobacco with that of fresh and dried strawberries, it can be concluded that non-natural strawberry

  15. Flavored Orbifold GUT

    CERN Document Server

    Adulpravitchai, Adisorn

    2010-01-01

    Orbifold grand unified theories (GUTs) solve several problems in GUT model building. Therefore, it is intriguing to investigate similar constructions in the flavor context. In this letter, we propose that a flavor symmetry might emerge due to orbifold compactification and be simultaneously broken by boundary conditions of the orbifold. The combination of the orbifold parities in gauge and flavor space determines the zero modes. We demonstrate the construction in a 6d supersymmetric (SUSY) SO(10)\\times S_4 orbifold GUT model.

  16. Flavors Fragrance Delivery Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Quellet, Christian; Schudel, Markus; Ringgenberg, Rudolf

    2001-01-01

    This article focusses on the art of encapsulating flavors and fragrances into carrier materials, emphasizing the scientific challenges imposed by the particular nature of these essentially volatile encapsulants...

  17. Flavor violation in supersymmetric theories with gauged flavor symmetries

    OpenAIRE

    Kobayashi, Tatsuo; Nakano, Hiroaki; Terao, Haruhiko; Yoshioka, Koichi

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we study flavor violation in supersymmetric models with gauged flavor symmetries. There are several sources of flavor violation in these theories. The dominant flavor violation is the tree-level $D$-term contribution to scalar masses generated by flavor symmetry breaking. We present a new approach for suppressing this phenomenologically dangerous effects by separating the flavor-breaking sector from supersymmetry-breaking one. The separation can be achieved in geometrical setups...

  18. Differential hedonic, sensory and behavioral changes associated with flavor-nutrient and flavor-flavor learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeomans, Martin R; Leitch, Margaret; Gould, Natalie J; Mobini, Sirous

    2008-03-18

    Flavor-flavor and flavor-nutrient associations can modify liking for a flavor CS, while flavor-flavor associations can also modify the sensory experience of the trained flavor. Less is known about how these associations modify behavioral responses to the trained CS. To test this, 60 participants classified as sweet likers were divided into five training conditions with a novel flavor CS. In the flavor-flavor only condition, participants consumed the target CS in a sweetened, low-energy form, with energy (maltodextrin) but no sweetness added in the flavor-nutrient only condition and both energy and sweetness (sucrose) in the combined flavor-flavor, flavor-nutrient condition. Comparison groups controlled for exposure to the CS, and repeat testing. Training was conducted in a hungry state on four non-consecutive days. To test for acquired changes in evaluation and intake, the flavor CS was processed into a low-energy sorbet, which was evaluated and consumed ad libitum on test days before and after training. Liking for the flavor CS increased only in the sucrose-sweetened condition, but intake increased significantly in both high-energy conditions. In contrast, rated sweetness of the sorbet increased in both sucrose-sweetened and aspartame-sweetened conditions. These findings suggest that liking changes were maximal when flavor-flavor and flavor-nutrient associations co-occurred, but that behavioral changes were specific to flavor-nutrient associations.

  19. Flavorings-Related Lung Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH FLAVORINGS-RELATED LUNG DISEASE Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On this ... practices that place workers at risk. Flavorings-Related Lung Disease Microwave popcorn plant and flavoring plant workers have ...

  20. A matter of taste: Improving flavor of fresh potatoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeding for improved potato flavor has not been a high priority in US breeding programs. It is a difficult trait to breed for because it cannot be done in a high throughput manner and it requires an understanding of the complex biochemistry of flavor compounds and effects of cooking on those compou...

  1. Flavor network and the principles of food pairing

    CERN Document Server

    Ahn, Yong-Yeol; Bagrow, James P; Barabási, Albert-László

    2011-01-01

    The cultural diversity of culinary practice, as illustrated by the variety of regional cuisines, raises the question of whether there are any general patterns that determine the ingredient combinations used in food today or principles that transcend individual tastes and recipes. We introduce a flavor network that captures the flavor compounds shared by culinary ingredients. Western cuisines show a tendency to use ingredient pairs that share many flavor compounds, supporting the so-called food pairing hypothesis. By contrast, East Asian cuisines tend to avoid compound sharing ingredients. Given the increasing availability of information on food preparation, our data-driven investigation opens new avenues towards a systematic understanding of culinary practice.

  2. Multisensory Flavor Perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piqueras-Fiszman, Betina; Spence, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Multisensory Flavor Perception: From Fundamental Neuroscience Through to the Marketplace provides state-of-the-art coverage of the latest insights from the rapidly-expanding world of multisensory flavor research. The book highlights the various types of crossmodal interactions, such as sound and

  3. Theories of Leptonic Flavor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagedorn, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    I discuss different theories of leptonic flavor and their capability of describing the features of the lepton sector, namely charged lepton masses, neutrino masses, lepton mixing angles and leptonic (low and high energy) CP phases. In particular, I show examples of theories with an abelian flavor...

  4. 乳酸菌直投制备金针菇泡菜的风味物质分析%Analysis of flavor compounds in Flammulina velutiper fermented by lactobacillus starter culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈聪; 董英; 程新; 肖香; 史腊妮

    2015-01-01

    将2株Lactobacillus plantarum(植物乳杆菌)1∶1复配,直投制备金针菇泡菜,并以自然发酵为对照,比较发酵前后金针菇泡菜的感官指标及主要风味物质的变化.结果表明,直投发酵制备的金针菇泡菜呈乳白色,酸度适宜,感官指标优于自然发酵金针菇;直投发酵制备的金针菇泡菜所产生的挥发性风味物质中芳香族化合物、酚类、杂环化合物、醛类、酮类、醚类和酯类化合物的含量均明显高于自然发酵,且主要挥发性成分(相对含量在1%以上)如1-辛醇(1.53%)、乙醛(1.18%)、乙偶姻(1.14%)等含量均高于自然发酵.直投发酵所产生的总氨基酸(547.59 μg/mL)、鲜甜味氨基酸(315.93μg/mL)、必需氨基酸(76.46μg/mL)以及多种有机酸的含量也明显高于自然发酵.与自然发酵相比,乳酸菌直投发酵可以加快金针菇泡菜成熟速度,改善产品风味,适用于金针菇泡菜的生产.%Flammulina velutiper was fermented from two Lactobacillus plantarum starter cultures with ratio of 1∶ 1.The natural fermentation was used as control.The organoleptic investigation was carried out and the main flavor compounds were compared.The results showed that,the color of Flammulina velutiper fermented from starter culture was white and its acidity was appropriate,which was better than that from natural fermentation.The contents of aromatic compound,phenols,heterocyclic compound,aldehyde,ketone,ether and esters in Flammulina velutiper from direct fermentation were higher than those from natural fermentation.The contents of some kinds of main flavor compounds (above 1%) in the former were higher,including 1-Octanol (1.53%),aldehyde (1.18%),acetoin (1.14%),and so on.The contents of total amino acid (547.59 μg/mL),amino acid (315.93 μg/mL) with sweet and palatable taste,essential amino acid (76.46 μg/mL) and many kinds of organic acid in the former were higher.Compared with natural fermentation

  5. 烟末中的主要成分及挥发性风味物质测定%Study on the Major Component and Flavor Compounds of Tobacco Powder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文冬梅; 卓浩廉; 赵谋明; 唐胜; 伍锦鸣; 郭文; 赵强忠

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the contents of protein, reducing sugar and petroleum ether extracts in four brands of tobacco powder (A,B,C and D) are measured. The flavor compounds in the tobacco powder are detected by SDE-GC-MS. The results demonstrate that the contents of protein and petroleum ether extracts in four brands of tobacco powder are almost the same. The contents of reducing sugar in brand A,B and C are all about 13%. The content of reducing sugar in brand D is relatively low, only 10.17%. While the contents of protein, reducing sugar and petroleum ether extracts in brand A are relatively high, reached 5.41%, 13.38% and 5.26%, respectively. The flavor compounds are identified as follows: 35 kinds in brand A, 29 kinds in brand B, 36 kinds in brand C and 26 kinds in brand D. 19 Kinds of compounds were found as common component in the four brands of tobacco powders. Brand A and C are selected as cigarette essence after comprehensive consideration.%测定了四种卷烟牌号A、B、C和D烟末中的蛋白质、还原糖和石油醚提取物等主要成分含量,采用同时蒸馏萃取-气相色谱-质谱技术(SDE-GC-MS)分析了四种牌号烟末中主要挥发性风味物质的组成,并对风味进行了评价.结果表明:四种牌号烟末的蛋白质和石油醚提取物含量差异不大,牌号A、B和C的还原糖含量均约为13%,牌号D的还原糖含量较低,仅有10.17%,而牌号A的蛋白质、还原糖、石油醚提取物含量均较高,分别迟到5.41%、13.38%和5.26%.挥发性风味物质检出种类分别为牌号A为35种、牌号B为29种、牌号C为36种和牌号D为26种,其中有19种化合物为四种牌号烟末所共有.综合考虑,选择牌号A和C作为制备烟用香精的最适原料.

  6. Identification of a strawberry flavor gene candidate using an integrated genetic-genomic-analytical chemistry approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: There is interest in improving the flavor of commercial strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) varieties. Fruit flavor is shaped by combinations of sugars, acids and volatile compounds. Many efforts seek to use genomics-based strategies to identify genes controlling flavor, and then designing ...

  7. Short communication: Flavor and flavor stability of cheese, rennet, and acid wheys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S; Smith, T J; Drake, M A

    2016-05-01

    Dried whey ingredients are valuable food ingredients but potential whey sources are underutilized. Previous work has established flavor and flavor stability differences in Cheddar and Mozzarella wheys, but little work has compared these whey sources to acid or rennet wheys. The objective of this study was to characterize and compare flavor and flavor stability among cheese, rennet, and acid wheys. Full-fat and fat-free Cheddar, rennet and acid casein, cottage cheese, and Greek yogurt fluid wheys were manufactured in triplicate. Wheys were fat separated and pasteurized followed by compositional analyses and storage at 4°C for 48 h. Volatile compound analysis and descriptive sensory analysis were evaluated on all liquid wheys initially and after 24 and 48 h. Greek yogurt whey contained almost no true protein nitrogen (0.02% wt/vol) whereas other wheys contained 0.58%±0.4% (wt/vol) true protein nitrogen. Solids and fat content were not different between wheys, with the exception of Greek yogurt whey, which was also lower in solids content than the other wheys (5.6 vs. 6.5% wt/vol, respectively). Fresh wheys displayed sweet aromatic and cooked milk flavors. Cheddar wheys were distinguished by diacetyl/buttery flavors, and acid wheys (acid casein, cottage cheese, and Greek yogurt) by sour aromatic flavor. Acid casein whey had a distinct soapy flavor, and acid and Greek yogurt wheys had distinct potato flavor. Both cultured acid wheys contained acetaldehyde flavor. Cardboard flavor increased and sweet aromatic and buttery flavors decreased with storage in all wheys. Volatile compound profiles were also distinct among wheys and changed with storage, consistent with sensory results. Lipid oxidation aldehydes increased in all wheys with storage time. Fat-free Cheddar was more stable than full-fat Cheddar over 48h of storage. Uncultured rennet casein whey was the most stable whey, as exhibited by the lowest increase in lipid oxidation products over time. These results

  8. Flavored Co-annihilations

    CERN Document Server

    Choudhury, Debtosh; Vempati, Sudhir K

    2011-01-01

    In minimal supergravity (mSUGRA) or CMSSM, one of the main co-annihilating partners of the neutralino is the right handed stau, $\\tilde{\\tau}_R$. In the presence of flavor violation in the right handed sector, the co-annihilating partner would be a flavor mixed state. The flavor effect is two fold: (a) It changes the mass of the $\\tilde{\\tau}_{1}$, thus modifying the parameter space of the co-annihilation and (b) flavor violating scatterings could now contribute to the cross-sections in the early universe. In fact, it is shown that for large enough $\\delta \\sim 0.2$, these processes would constitute the dominant channels in co-annihilation regions. The amount of flavor mixing permissible is constrained by flavor violating $\\tau \\to \\mu$ or $\\tau \\to e$ processes. For $\\Delta_{RR}$ mass insertions, the constraints from flavor violation are not strong enough in some regions of the parameter space due to partial cancellations in the amplitudes. In mSUGRA, the regions with cancelations within LFV amplitudes do no...

  9. FormFlavor Manual

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, Jared A

    2016-01-01

    This manual describes the usage and structure of FormFlavor, a Mathematica-based tool for computing a broad list of flavor and CP observables in general new physics models. Based on the powerful machinery of FeynArts and FormCalc, FormFlavor calculates the one-loop Wilson coefficients of the dimension 5 and 6 Standard Model effective Lagrangian entirely from scratch. These Wilson coefficients are then evolved down to the low scale using one-loop QCD RGEs, where they are transformed into flavor and CP observables. The last step is accomplished using a model-independent, largely stand-alone package called FFObservables that is included with FormFlavor. The SM predictions in FFObservables include up-to-date references and accurate current predictions. Using the functions and modular structure provided by FormFlavor, it is straightforward to add new observables. Currently, FormFlavor is set up to perform these calculations for the general, non-MFV MSSM, but in principle it can be generalized to arbitrary FeynArts...

  10. Analysis of Volatile Compounds in a Dairy Flavoring Using SPME-GC/MS%固相微萃取结合气质联用法分析一种奶味香精中的挥发性成分

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宁; 孙宝国; 梁梦兰

    2011-01-01

    The volatile composition of a foreign dairy flavoring was analyzed by GC/MS after solid-phase microextraction using 3 different types of extraction fibers.A total of 39,41 and 40 volatile compounds were identified with CAR/PDMS fiber,PDMS/DVB fiber,and CAR/PDMS/DVB fiber,respectively.The results of the three different kinds of fibers complemented each other,and a total of 51 volatile compounds were identified in this dairy flavor,among which,esters,aldehydes,ketones and lectones were the dominant components and their concentrations(26.12%,25.95%,and 15.16 %) were higher than those of others.%应用固相微萃取法采用3种不同萃取纤维,结合气相色谱-质谱联用技术,剖析1种国外奶味香精样品中的挥发性成分。结果表明;以Carboxen/聚二甲基硅氧烷(carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane,CAR/PDMS)为萃取纤维的方法鉴定出39种挥发性成分,以聚二甲基硅氧烷/二乙烯基苯(polydimethylsiloxane/divinylbenzene,PDMS/DVB)为萃取纤维的方法鉴定出41种挥发性成分,以二乙烯基苯/Carboxen/聚二甲基硅氧烷(Divinylbenzene/Carboxen/Polydimethylsiloxane,CAR/PDMS/DVB)为萃取纤维的方法鉴定出40种挥发性成分;3种纤维萃取的分析结果相互补充,共鉴定出51种挥发性成分,其中酯类、醛酮类和内酯类化合物的含量最高,分别为26.12%、25.95%和15.16%,是该种奶味香精的主要组成成分。

  11. Production and metaboLic pathways of key fLavor compounds in fermented miLk as weLL as functionaL genes%发酵乳中的主要风味物质及其代谢合成途径和关键功能基因

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘文俊; 张和平

    2016-01-01

    Flavor not only plays an important role in the fermented milk because it is an indicator for good quality formation of fer-mented milk,but also it can determine acceptance of products by consumers.In this paper,the types and concentration of volatile flavor compounds presented in fermented milk,as well as their role in the milk flavor quality formation were reviewed.In addi-tion,the formation mechanisms of volatile flavor compounds and their metabolic pathways combined with gene regulation in relat-ed lactic acid bacteria species were summarized.%风味不仅对发酵乳的品质形成具有重要作用,而且是决定消费者对产品认可度的重要指标。结合发酵乳中产生的挥发性风味物质种类、含量以及它们在发酵乳风味形成中的作用,对乳酸菌在发酵乳挥发性风味物质的形成机制和相关菌种的代谢合成途径进行了综述,并对近年来围绕发酵乳风味物质改善进行的代谢调控的关键功能基因进行了总结和梳理。

  12. Flavor Programming During Infancy

    OpenAIRE

    Julie A. Mennella; Griffin, Cara E.; Beauchamp, Gary K.

    2004-01-01

    Objective. Although individuals differ substantially in their flavor and food preferences, the source of such differences remains a mystery. The present experimental study was motivated by clinical observations that early experience with formulas establishes subsequent preferences.

  13. Transcriptome profiling of heat-resistant strain Bacillus licheniformis CGMCC3962 producing Maotai flavor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qun; Xu, Yan

    2012-02-29

    Although Maotai flavor liquor is exclusive due to its soy sauce flavor, knowledge of its key compound and production mechanism is still scarce until now. To gain insight into the production mechanism of soy sauce flavor, a soy sauce flavor producing strain with high efficiency and heat-resistant capability was obtained, and the metabolic mechanism of the strain was investigated with the technique of microarray profiling. Because high temperature was a key factor for soy sauce flavor production, the global gene expression of this heat-resistant strain fermented at 55 °C was analyzed. Except for the responsive increase of heat shock proteins, which maintained cell survival during heat stress, biosynthesis of cysteine was also up-regulated. In addition, some metabolites were significantly increased when cysteine was added to the fermentation medium, such as 2,3-butanediol, 3-hydroxy-2-butanone, and tetramethylpyrazine, which were important flavor compounds in soy sauce flavor liquor and might be related with soy sauce flavor. The results indicated that cysteine might play an important role in the formation of soy sauce flavor compound, and it might act as an indirect precursor or stimulator of soy sauce flavor formation. This was the first use of the microarray profiling tool to investigate the fermentative strains for Chinese traditional liquor, which would allow a deeper insight into the mechanism of the formation of soy sauce flavor compound.

  14. 气相色谱质谱法测定6种加香目标物质的含量及对烟丝加香均匀性的评价%Determination of Six Flavoring Characteristic Compounds by GC -MS and Its Evaluation on the Flavoring Uniformity in Cigarette

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏启东; 何邦华; 侯英; 申晓锋; 蒋举兴; 杨蕾; 邱昌桂

    2012-01-01

    A gas chromatography - mass spectrometric ( GC - MS) method was established for the simultaneous determination of 6 kinds of characteristic compounds, including furaneol, isoamyl isovalerate, maltol, menthol, ethyl maltol and anethole in cigarette. The sample was extracted with dichloromethane solution, concentrated with the rotary evaporation instrument, and analyzed by GC - MS. The conditions for sample preparation(e. g. sample volume, extraction solvent and extrac-tion time) were optimized. Under the optimal conditions, the correlation coefficients of 6 analytes were higher than 0. 998. The average spiked recoveries were in the range of 86%-92% with relative standard deviations( RSDs, n =6)of 4. 7% -7.1%. The detection limits(S/N= 3)and quantitation limits( S/N = 10) were in the range of 0. 014 7-0. 074 6 μg/g and 0. 048 9 - 0. 248 8 μg/g, re-spectively. The method showed good extraction efficiency, high sensitivity and good reproducibility, and was suitable for the simultaneous detection of 6 compounds in cigarette flavoring. The results also indicated that the method could be used for the evaluation of the uniformity of cigarette flavoring on the processing line through determination of the characteristic compound contents in samples.%建立了一种运用气相色谱-质谱联用技术( GC - MS)同时测定卷烟烟丝中呋喃酮、异戊酸异戊酯、麦芽酚、薄荷醇、乙基麦芽酚和苘香脑6种烟用加香目标物的检测方法.试样用二氯甲烷溶液振荡提取,旋转蒸发仪浓缩,气相色谱-质谱联用仪检测分析.分别对样品量、萃取溶剂和萃取时间等前处理条件进行了优化.该方法的线性相关系数r均在0.998以上,采用SIM法定量分析,其平均加标回收率为86%~92%,相对标准偏差( RSD,n=6)为4.7%~7.1%,检出限(S/N=3)和定量下限(S/N=10)分别为0.0147 ~0.0746μg/g和0.048 9 ~0.2488 μg/g.结果表明,该方法简便、灵敏度高、线性关系好,能

  15. Study on membrane concentration process and flavor compounds analysis in fish Engraulis japonicus soup%鳀鱼蒸煮液膜浓缩工艺研究及风味物质分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建友; 林龙; 王斌; 丁玉庭

    2013-01-01

    采用微滤(MF)、超滤(UF)、纳滤(NF)组合膜浓缩技术进行鳀鱼蒸煮液营养风味物质的高效冷浓缩.结果表明:无机陶瓷微滤膜通量较高、浓缩时间较短,MF-NF工艺的蛋白质和氨基酸回收率分别为70.74%和39.83%~46.64%.MF截留液的蛋白质浓度提高3.30倍,腥味增强.NF截留液的氨基酸浓度提高2.71倍,其中谷氨酸和天冬氨酸含量分别增加了3.36倍和6.72倍,鱼腥味基本消失,蒸煮液的风味有效改善.MF-NF工艺比MF-UF-NF工艺经济简便可行,适合于鳀鱼蒸煮液船上浓缩.%A membrane process involving microfiltration (MF),ultrafiltration (UF) and nanofiltration (NF) was used to concentrate nutrition and flavor compounds in Engraulis japonicus cooking soup.Results showed that inorganic ceramic microfiltration membrane had higher flux volume and shorter concentration time.Protein and amino acid recoveries were 70.74% and 39.83% ~46.64% for MF-NF process.The content of protein increased 3.30 times in the retentate by microfiltration process,but the fishy odor was increased.Meantime,the content of amino acid increased 2.71 times in the retentate by nanofiltration process,especially glutamate and aspartate were increased 336%and 672 %.Moreover,the fishy odor was disappeared,the flavor of the cooking soup has been effectively improved.MF-NF process was more simple and available than MF-UF-NF process and suitable for concentrating the cooking soup on the fishing boat.

  16. 苏州市太湖饮用水源地异味物质种类及其与环境因子相关性分析%Off-flavor Compounds in Drinking Water Sources of Taihu in Suzhou and Their Correla-tions with Environmental Factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦宏兵; 张晓赟; 范苓; 顾海东

    2016-01-01

    于2013年每月测定了苏州太湖饮用水源地9种异味物质含量及TP、TN、水温、藻密度等指标,结果表明,苏州太湖饮用水源地主要检出的异味物质有2-甲基异崁醇、土臭素、β-环柠檬醛和β-紫罗兰酮等4种。2-甲基异崁醇年均值是其嗅觉阈值的2.9倍,水体主要表现为土霉味。根据异味物质与环境因子相关性分析结果及相关文献讨论,水温是影响异味物质含量的重要因素。微囊藻等藻类对β-环柠檬醛和β-紫罗兰酮有明显贡献。%Nine off-flavor compounds, and several environmental factors such as TP, TN, water temperature, and algal density et al. in drinking water sources of Taihu in Suzhou were measured monthly in 2013. The main off-flavor compounds were 2 -methyli-soborneol (2-MIB), geosmin,β-cyclocitral, and β-ionone. Annual average concentration of 2-MIB was 2. 9 times of its odor threshold value, which caused earthy odor of the water. According to correlation analysis between off-flavor compounds and environ-mental factors, and together with discussion from related literature, water temperature was one of the main factors affecting concen-tration of off-flavor compounds. Microcystis contributed obviously to the occurrence of β-cyclocitral and β-ionone.

  17. 杀菌方式对即食胡萝卜片挥发性风味物质的影响%Effect of sterilization methods on volatile flavor compounds of instant carrot slices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    米瑞芳; 刘俊梅; 胡小松; 吴继红

    2016-01-01

    为研究不同杀菌方式对即食胡萝卜片挥发性风味物质的影响,运用固相微萃取和气相色谱-质谱联用技术,分别对新鲜胡萝卜片和经巴氏杀菌、超高压杀菌、热辅助超高压杀菌处理的即食胡萝卜片及其贮藏期间(4℃,60 d)的挥发性组分进行对比分析。试验结果表明:新鲜胡萝卜片的主要芳香成分为萜烯类物质。与未杀菌组相比,经不同杀菌处理后,即食胡萝卜片的萜烯类物质含量均有所降低,其中巴氏杀菌组降低的最多。在贮藏前期(20~30 d),超高压处理即食胡萝卜片的萜烯类物质的含量最高,超高压杀菌在短期内较好地保持了胡萝卜特有的香气,即食胡萝卜片品质较好;其次是热辅助压力杀菌组,热辅助压力杀菌组即食胡萝卜片的β-蒎烯、β-石竹烯的含量较其他处理组较高,较好地保持了胡萝卜的松树树脂香气以及辛香气味;而巴氏杀菌组即食胡萝卜片的萜烯类物质含量最低,即食胡萝卜片的品质相对较差。研究结果可为新型杀菌技术在即食产品领域的应用提供参考。%The purpose of this paper was to study the effect of 3 different sterilization methods on the flavor of prepared carrot slices from raw materials during cold storage at 4℃. The samples were pretreated by pasteurization (90℃, 30 min), high hydrostatic pressure sterilization (550 MPa, 25℃, 10 min), pressure-assisted thermal sterilization (550 MPa, 50℃, 10 min) and stored at 4℃ for 60 d. The solide-phase micro-extraction (SPME)/chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) technology was used to detect and analyze the volatile flavor compounds in fresh carrot and sterilized carrot slices during storage. Results showed that carrots had a complex volatile characteristic. Fresh carrot sample’s volatiles mainly consisted of terpenes, esters, aldehydes, alcohols, ketones and alkanes. Among these, terpenes were

  18. Comparison of the flavor chemistry and flavor stability of mozzarella and cheddar wheys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaw, I W; Evan Miracle, R; Jervis, S M; Listiyani, M A D; Drake, M A

    2011-10-01

    The flavor and flavor stability of fresh and stored liquid Cheddar and Mozzarella wheys were compared. Pasteurized, fat separated, and unseparated Cheddar and Mozzarella wheys were manufactured in triplicate and evaluated immediately or stored for 72 h at 3 °C. Flavor profiles were documented by descriptive sensory analysis, and volatile components were extracted and characterized by solvent extraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-olfactometry with aroma extract dilution analysis. Cheddar and Mozzarella wheys were distinct by sensory and volatile analysis (P flavors and higher cardboard flavor intensities following storage compared to Mozzarella whey. High aroma impact compounds (FD(log3) > 8) in fresh Cheddar whey included diacetyl, 1-octen-3-one, 2-phenethanol, butyric acid, and (E)-2-nonenal, while those in Mozzarella whey included diacetyl, octanal, (E)-2-nonenal, and 2-phenethanol. Fresh Cheddar whey had higher concentrations of diacetyl, 2/3-methyl butanal, (E)-2-nonenal, 2-phenethanol, and 1-octen-3-one compared to fresh Mozzarella whey. Lipid oxidation products increased in both whey types during storage but increases were more pronounced in Cheddar whey than Mozzarella whey. Increases in lipid oxidation products were also more pronounced in wheys without fat separation compared to those with fat separation. Results suggest that similar compounds in different concentrations comprise the flavor of these 2 whey sources and that steps should be taken to minimize lipid oxidation during fluid whey processing. Practical Application:  Cheddar and Mozzarella wheys are the primary sources of dried whey ingredients in the United States. An enhanced understanding of the flavor of these 2 raw product streams will enable manufacturers to identify methods to optimize quality.

  19. Flavor physics: The flavor physics (P2) working group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marina Artuso et al.

    2002-12-10

    Flavor physics has recently made striking advances. The Snowmass Flavor Physics Working Group has attempted to identify the important open questions in this field, and to describe the diverse future program that would address them.

  20. 牛栏山二锅头酒醅中芽孢杆菌分离鉴定及发酵风味分析%Identification of Bacillus from Niulanshan Erguotou fermented grain and analysis of flavor compounds in the fermentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨春霞; 廖永红; 刘峻雄; 胡建华; 胡佳音; 窦屾

    2012-01-01

    从牛栏山二锅头酒醅中分离筛选出5株产风味物质能力较好的芽孢杆菌,通过16SrDNA序列分析和构建系统发育树,5株细菌分别为地衣芽孢杆菌(Bacillus licheniformis)、蜡样芽孢杆菌(Bacillus cereus)、短小芽孢杆菌(Bacillus pumilus)和枯草芽孢杆菌(Bacillus subtilis)。分别对它们进行发酵风味分析,其发酵液经固相微萃取和GC-MS分析,并除去空白培养基中物质,地衣芽孢杆菌BL-1发酵液共检测得到14种风味物质,蜡样芽孢杆菌BC-1和短小芽孢杆菌BP-1发酵都得到12种风味物质,枯草芽孢杆菌BS-1好氧发酵共得到16种风味物质,枯草芽孢杆菌BS-2厌氧发酵共得到19种风味物质。除短小芽孢杆菌外,其他4株芽孢杆菌都含有较多数量的酯类化合物,且主要代谢风味物质都是3-羟基-2-丁酮,而短小芽孢杆菌BP-1则含有数量较多的烃类化合物,其主要风味物质是苯乙醇。%Five strains of bacillus which can produce flavor were screened from Niulanshan Erguotou fermented grain.Using the sequences analysis of 16S rDNA and phylogenetic tree construction,five strains were identified as Bacillus licheniformis,Bacillus cereus,Bacillus pumilus and Bacillus subtilis.The fermentation broth of five bacillus strains were analyzed by solid phase micro-extraction and chromatography-mass spectrometry.Removing the compounds of blank,a total of 14 flavor compounds in fermentation broth of Bacillus licheniformis BL-1,12 flavor compounds in fermentation broth of Bacillus cereus BC-1 and Bacillus pumilus BP-1,16 flavor compounds in fermentation broth of Bacillus subtilis BS-1,19 flavor compounds in fermentation broth of Bacillus subtilis BS-2.Except Bacillus pumilus,the fermentation of other four Bacillus strains mainly contained esters compound,and 3-hydroxy-2-butanone was the most important flavor compound.However,the fermentation of Bacillus pumilus BP-1 mainly comprised alkynes compound and

  1. The Super Flavor Factory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bevan, A.J.; /Queen Mary, U. of London

    2007-01-26

    The main physics goals of a high luminosity e{sup +}e{sup -} flavor factory are discussed, including the possibilities to perform detailed studies of the CKM mechanism of quark mixing, and constrain virtual Higgs and Non-Standard Model particle contributions to the dynamics of rare B{sub u,d,s} decays. The large samples of D mesons and {tau} leptons produced at a flavor factory will result in improved sensitivities on D mixing and lepton flavor violation searches, respectively. One can also test fundamental concepts such as lepton universality to much greater precision than existing constraints and improve the precision on tests of CPT from B meson decays. Recent developments in accelerator physics have demonstrated the feasibility to build an accelerator that can achieve luminosities of {Omicron}(10{sup 36} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}).

  2. Skew-Flavored Dark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Agrawal, Prateek; Fortes, Elaine C F S; Kilic, Can

    2015-01-01

    We explore a novel flavor structure in the interactions of dark matter with the Standard Model. We consider theories in which both the dark matter candidate, and the particles that mediate its interactions with the Standard Model fields, carry flavor quantum numbers. The interactions are skewed in flavor space, so that a dark matter particle does not directly couple to the Standard Model matter fields of the same flavor, but only to the other two flavors. This framework respects Minimal Flavor Violation, and is therefore naturally consistent with flavor constraints. We study the phenomenology of a benchmark model in which dark matter couples to right-handed charged leptons. In large regions of parameter space the dark matter can emerge as a thermal relic, while remaining consistent with the constraints from direct and indirect detection. The collider signatures of this scenario include events with multiple leptons and missing energy. These events exhibit a characteristic flavor pattern that may allow this cla...

  3. The mystery of flavor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peccei, R. D.

    1998-02-01

    After outlining some of the issues surrounding the flavor problem, I present three speculative ideas on the origin of families. In turn, families are conjectured to arise from an underlying preon dynamics; from random dynamics at very short distances; or as a result of compactification in higher dimensional theories. Examples and limitations of each of these speculative scenarios are discussed.

  4. Neutrino flavor entanglement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blasone, Massimo [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Salerno, Via Ponte don Melillo, I-84084 Fisciano (Italy); INFN Sezione di Napoli, Gruppo collegato di Salerno (Italy); Dell' Anno, Fabio; De Siena, Silvio; Illuminati, Fabrizio [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale, Università degli Studi di Salerno, Via Ponte don Melillo, I-84084 Fisciano (Italy)

    2013-04-15

    Neutrino oscillations can be equivalently described in terms of (dynamical) entanglement of neutrino flavor modes. We review previous results derived in the context of quantum mechanics and extend them to the quantum field theory framework, were a rich structure of quantum correlations appears.

  5. Gluino Meets Flavored Naturalness

    CERN Document Server

    Blanke, Monika; Galon, Iftah; Perez, Gilad

    2015-01-01

    We study constraints from LHC run I on squark and gluino masses in the presence of squark flavor violation. Inspired by the concept of `flavored naturalness', we focus on the impact of a non-zero stop-scharm mixing and mass splitting in the right-handed sector. To this end, we recast four searches of the ATLAS and CMS collaborations, dedicated either to third generation squarks, to gluino and squarks of the first two generations, or to charm-squarks. In the absence of extra structure, the mass of the gluino provides an additional source of fine tuning and is therefore important to consider within models of flavored naturalness that allow for relatively light squark states. When combining the searches, the resulting constraints in the plane of the lightest squark and gluino masses are rather stable with respect to the presence of flavor-violation, and do not allow for gluino masses of less than 1.2 TeV and squarks lighter than about 550 GeV. While these constraints are stringent, interesting models with sizabl...

  6. Dihedral flavor symmetries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blum, Alexander Simon

    2009-06-10

    This thesis deals with the possibility of describing the flavor sector of the Standard Model of Particle Physics (with neutrino masses), that is the fermion masses and mixing matrices, with a discrete, non-abelian flavor symmetry. In particular, mass independent textures are considered, where one or several of the mixing angles are determined by group theory alone and are independent of the fermion masses. To this end a systematic analysis of a large class of discrete symmetries, the dihedral groups, is analyzed. Mass independent textures originating from such symmetries are described and it is shown that such structures arise naturally from the minimization of scalar potentials, where the scalars are gauge singlet flavons transforming non-trivially only under the flavor group. Two models are constructed from this input, one describing leptons, based on the group D{sub 4}, the other describing quarks and employing the symmetry D{sub 14}. In the latter model it is the quark mixing matrix element V{sub ud} - basically the Cabibbo angle - which is at leading order predicted from group theory. Finally, discrete flavor groups are discussed as subgroups of a continuous gauge symmetry and it is shown that this implies that the original gauge symmetry is broken by fairly large representations. (orig.)

  7. 顶空气相色谱-质谱联用法分析灵芝发酵物中的挥发性物质%Head-space gas chromatographic analysis for the volatile flavor compounds from Ganoderma lucidum submerged-cultured broth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘高强; 王晓玲

    2007-01-01

    采用顶空-气相色谱-质谱联用法对灵芝发酵物的风味物质进行了定性和定量测定.结果表明,灵芝发酵物中至少含有31种风味物质.对其中21种主要成分进行了鉴定,这些物质大多是酮类、醇类和内酯类化合物.所有物质中4,5-二氢-3,5-二甲基-2-呋喃酮的含量最高,达64.12%.此外,3-戊烯-2-酮和戊基乙烯基原醇是已知的食品香料成分.结果有助于初步理解灵芝发酵物产生清淡香味的原因.%The volatile flavor from Ganoderma lucidum submerged-cultured broth was investigated by head-space gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). More than thirty different volatile flavor compounds from the broth were detected, and twenty-one compounds were identified, which were mainly ketones, alcohols and lactones. Among all the compounds detected in the broth, the compound with its characteristic retention peaks at 22.41min was 4,5-dihydro-3,5-dimethyl-2-furanone, and its content was 64.12% of the total content of all the volatile flavor compounds. In addition, 3-penten-2-one and amyl vinyl carbinol with their characteristic retention peaks at 9.78min and 18.10min, respectively, were the known food spice substances.The results were useful to preliminarily understand the mechanism of light aroma emitted from the submerged-cultured broth of G. lucidum.

  8. Flavor release measurement by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization ion trap mass spectrometry, construction of interface and mathematical modeling of release profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haahr, Anne-Mette; Madsen, Henrik; Smedsgaard, Jørn

    2003-01-01

    An instrumental on-line retronasal flavor analysis was developed to obtain information about the release of flavor compounds in expired air from humans during eating. The volatile flavor compounds were measured by ion trap mass spectrometry with an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization source...

  9. Analysis and Evaluation of Flavor Compounds in Maillard Reaction Products of Jellyfish Protein Peptic Hydrolysate%海蜇皮酶解液美拉德反应产物的风味鉴定与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玲; 罗嘉滨; 海金萍; 张旭

    2012-01-01

    以海蜇皮酶解液和葡萄糖为主要底物进行美拉德反应,制得鱼味香料基液。感官评价知该香料基液咸度适口,鲜味明显,微甜,具有明显的鱼香味,香气协调。采用氨基酸自动分析仪测定了香料基液中游离氨基酸的种类和含量,采用GC-MS测定了香料基液醚溶物的挥发性风味成分及含量,以此对香料基液的风味进行了鉴定和分析。结果显示,香料基液中共检出17种游离氨基酸,总含量为2.7197g/dL,必需氨基酸(包括His和Arg)占游离氨基酸总量的48.86%,鲜味氨基酸(Asp和Glu)含量为17.76%,对滋味贡献较大的氨基酸是Glu、Lys、Gly、His和Arg;香料基液醚溶物中共分离鉴定出41香气成分,其中烃类8.71%,醇类58.35%,酯类13.65%,酸类17.86%,酮、醛类共0.42%,含氮含硫类共3.38%。对香气可能有重要贡献的化合物有丙二醇、乙酸乙酯、邻苯二甲酸二丁酯、4-甲基-5-噻唑乙醇、3,5-二叔丁基苯酚及少量的醛、酮类化合物。%Spice liquid was produced from jellyfish protein peptic hydrolysate and glucose through the Maillard reaction.The Maillard reaction products(MRPs) had an appropriate salinity,a distinct delicious taste,a slight sweetness and a harmonious fish-like aroma.To identify and analyze their flavor,the contents of amino acids in the MRPs were analyzed using an automated amino acid analyzer and the contents of volatile compounds in their ether-soluble fraction were determined by GC-MS.The results showed that 17 kinds of free amino acids with a total content of 2.7197 g/dL were detected.The total amount of the ten essential amino acids(including His and Arg) was 48.86% of total amino acids,and the content of tasty amino acids(Asp and Glu) was 17.76%.Glu,Lys,Gly,His and Arg had a significant contribution to the taste of the MRPs.Totally 41 kinds of aroma components were separated and identified,which were composed of 8.71% alkanes,58.35% alcohols,13.65% esters,17

  10. Learned Preference for a Hedonically Negative Flavor Is Observed after Pairings with Positive Post-Ingestion Consequences Rather than with a Palatable Flavor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Felisa; Garcia-Burgos, David; de Brugada, Isabel; Gil, Marta

    2010-01-01

    In two experiments, thirsty rats consumed a compound of sucrose and a non-preferred flavor. In Experiment 1, a conditioned preference was observed in the experimental group when animals were tested both thirsty and hungry, but not when they were tested just thirsty. Animals in the control group, which experienced the flavor and the sucrose…

  11. Identification of characteristic flavor compounds in cocoa powder by gas chromatography-olfactometry-mass spectrometry with headspace solid phase micro-extraction%顶空固相微萃取结合GC-O与GC-MS技术鉴定可可粉中特征风味化合物

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖天鹏; 郑晓峰; 吕吉鸿; 郭泽峰; 高峰; 刘春凤; 李崎

    2012-01-01

    A method for headspace solid-phase microextraction(HS-SPME),followed by gas chromatography-olfactometry-mass spectrometry analysis was established for the identification of the characteristic flavor compounds in cocoa powder.According to the results,39 compounds which gave contribution to the flavor of cocoa powder were detected,including 7 aldehydes,3 alcohols,3 ketones,8 esters,2 acids,4 pyrazines,2 amines and any other special volatile substances.Among the flavor compounds,three compounds had key odorant(nutty,cocoa flavor),they were 2,5-dimethyl pyrazine,2,3,5-trimethyl pyrazine and 2,3,5,6-tetramethyl pyrazine.%利用顶空固相微萃取(HS-SPME)结合GC-O与GC-MS技术鉴定可可粉中的特征致香成分,鉴定出有39种化合物参与构成可可风味,分别是:7种醛、3种醇、3种酮、8种酯、2种酸、4种吡嗪、2种胺以及其他一些特殊的挥发性物质。其中具有典型可可风味(坚果,可可香)的关键化合物有3种,分别为2,5-二甲基吡嗪、2,3,5-三甲基吡嗪以及2,3,5,6-四甲基吡嗪。

  12. The supersymmetric flavor problem

    CERN Document Server

    Dimopoulos, Savas K; Dimopoulos, Savas; Sutter, Dave

    1995-01-01

    The supersymmetric SU(3)\\times SU(2)\\times U(1) theory with minimal particle content and general soft supersymmetry breaking terms has 110 physical parameters in its flavor sector: 30 masses, 39 real mixing angles and 41 phases. The absence of an experimental indication for the plethora of new parameters places severe constraints on theories posessing Planck or GUT-mass particles and suggests that theories of flavor conflict with naturalness. We illustrate the problem by studying the processes \\mu \\rightarrow e + \\gamma and K^0 - \\bar{K}^0 mixing which are very sensitive probes of Planckian physics: a single Planck mass particle coupled to the electron or the muon with a Yukawa coupling comparable to the gauge coupling typically leads to a rate for \\mu \\rightarrow e + \\gamma exceeding the present experimental limits. A possible solution is that the messengers which transmit supersymmetry breaking to the ordinary particles are much lighter than M_{\\rm Planck}.

  13. Non-Conventional Yeasts Whole Cells as Efficient Biocatalysts for the Production of Flavors and Fragrances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Forti

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The rising consumer requests for natural flavors and fragrances have generated great interest in the aroma industry to seek new methods to obtain fragrance and flavor compounds naturally. An alternative and attractive route for these compounds is based on bio-transformations. In this review, the application of biocatalysis by Non Conventional Yeasts (NCYs whole cells for the production of flavor and fragrances is illustrated by a discussion of the production of different class of compounds, namely Aldehydes, Ketones and related compounds, Alcohols, Lactones, Terpenes and Terpenoids, Alkenes, and Phenols.

  14. Non-Conventional Yeasts Whole Cells as Efficient Biocatalysts for the Production of Flavors and Fragrances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forti, Luca; Di Mauro, Simone; Cramarossa, Maria Rita; Filippucci, Sara; Turchetti, Benedetta; Buzzini, Pietro

    2015-06-04

    The rising consumer requests for natural flavors and fragrances have generated great interest in the aroma industry to seek new methods to obtain fragrance and flavor compounds naturally. An alternative and attractive route for these compounds is based on bio-transformations. In this review, the application of biocatalysis by Non Conventional Yeasts (NCYs) whole cells for the production of flavor and fragrances is illustrated by a discussion of the production of different class of compounds, namely Aldehydes, Ketones and related compounds, Alcohols, Lactones, Terpenes and Terpenoids, Alkenes, and Phenols.

  15. Open Flavor Strong Decays

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Tecocoatzi, H.; Bijker, R.; Ferretti, J.; Galatà, G.; Santopinto, E.

    2016-10-01

    In this contribution, we discuss the results of a QM calculation of the open-flavor strong decays of **** light nucleon resonances. These are the results of a recent calculation, where we used a modified ^3P_0 model for the amplitudes and the U(7) algebraic model and the hypercentral quark model to predict the baryon spectrum. The decay amplitudes are compared with the existing experimental data.

  16. The mystery of flavor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peccei, R.D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, Los Angeles, California 90095-1547 (United States)

    1998-02-01

    After outlining some of the issues surrounding the flavor problem, I present three speculative ideas on the origin of families. In turn, families are conjectured to arise from an underlying preon dynamics; from random dynamics at very short distances; or as a result of compactification in higher dimensional theories. Examples and limitations of each of these speculative scenarios are discussed. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  17. 7 CFR 58.718 - Flavor ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flavor ingredients. 58.718 Section 58.718 Agriculture... Material § 58.718 Flavor ingredients. Flavor ingredients used in process cheese and related products shall... quality or flavor of the finished product. In the case of bulky flavoring ingredients such as pimento, the...

  18. Interpretation of Lepton Flavor Violation

    CERN Document Server

    Heeck, Julian

    2016-01-01

    The observation of a charged-lepton flavor violating process would be a definite sign for physics beyond the Standard Model, but would actually only prove that one particular linear combination of lepton numbers is violated. We categorize lepton-flavor-violating processes by their quantum numbers and show how their discovery can be interpreted model-independently, studying in particular which processes are required to establish that the entire flavor group is broken. We also comment on total lepton number, seeing as lepton number violation practically implies lepton flavor violation as well.

  19. Solid-phase microextraction for flavor analysis in Harari Khat (Catha edulis) stimulant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AL-FLAHI Abdulsalam; ZOU Jian-kai (邹建凯); YIN Xue-feng (殷学锋)

    2004-01-01

    This research examined the typical flavor compounds in the commonest type of Khat called Harari Khat grown in the region of Ethiopia. Twenty-eight compounds, which includes 1,2-Propanedione, 1-Phenyl, Hexanol, Hexanal compounds, Limonene, Benzaldehyde with other flavors, were extracted by polydimethylsiloxane at room temperature for 30 min from Khat samples, and identified by solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME- GC-MS). This method needs no organic solvents and required minimal sample.

  20. The Mystery of Flavor

    CERN Document Server

    Peccei, Roberto D

    1998-01-01

    After outlining some of the issues surrounding the flavor problem, I present three speculative ideas on the origin of families. In turn, families are conjectured to arise from an underlying preon dynamics; from random dynamics at very short distances; or as a result of compactification in higher-dimensional theories. Examples and limitations of each of these speculative scenarios are discussed. The twin roles that family symmetries and GUT's can have on the spectrum of quarks and leptons is emphasized, along with the dominant role that the top mass is likely to play in the dynamics of mass generation.

  1. Flavor changing nucleon decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maekawa, Nobuhiro; Muramatsu, Yu

    2017-04-01

    Recent discovery of neutrino large mixings implies the large mixings in the diagonalizing matrices of 5 bar fields in SU (5) grand unified theory (GUT), while the diagonalizing matrices of 10 fields of SU (5) are expected to have small mixings like Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix. We calculate the predictions of flavor changing nucleon decays (FCND) in SU (5), SO (10), and E6 GUT models which have the above features for mixings. We found that FCND can be the main decay mode and play an important role to test GUT models.

  2. Self-induced neutrino flavor conversion without flavor mixing

    CERN Document Server

    Chakraborty, Sovan; Izaguirre, Ignacio; Raffelt, Georg

    2016-01-01

    Neutrino-neutrino refraction in dense media can cause self-induced flavor conversion triggered by collective run-away modes of the interacting flavor oscillators. The growth rates were usually found to be of order a typical vacuum oscillation frequency $\\Delta m^2/2E$. However, even in the simple case of a $\

  3. Authenticity of raspberry flavor in food products using SPME-chiral-GC-MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne-Mette Sølvbjerg; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz; Fromberg, Arvid

    2015-01-01

    A fast and simple method for authenticating raspberry flavors from food products was developed. The two enantiomers of the compound (E)-α-ionone from raspberry flavor were separated on a chiral gas chromatographic column. Based on the ratio of these two enantiomers the naturalness of a raspberry...

  4. Impact of weather on off-flavor episodes at a Louisiana commercial catfish farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The catfish aquaculture industry is hampered by off-flavor events that affect timely sale and pond restocking. In this study, weather data was correlated with geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol levels in 21 commercial ponds. Samples were collected weekly for 44 weeks. The off-flavor compounds, geosmi...

  5. The Molecular Identification and Flavor Compounds Preliminary Analysis of a Thermophilic Monascus Strain%一株嗜热红曲霉的分子鉴定及其风味物质初步分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周健; 姚霞; 崔小亮; 方春玉; 王洋

    2016-01-01

    To identify the thermophilic monascus strain screened from Luzhou-flavor Daqu by molecular method combining with its morphological,physiological characteristics,and construct phylogenetic tree.And then take the monascus strain to do liquid-state and solid-state fermentation respectively.Use headspace solid-phase micro extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS)to analyze the flavor substances of thermophilic monascus strain's metabolism products.The result shows that the monascus strain is Monascus fuliginosus mutant strain.There are 11 kinds of flavor substances in liquid-state fermentation,including alcohol,pyrazine,alkane. There are 19 kinds of flavor substances in solid-state fermentation,including alcohol,pyrazine, alkane,ester,aldehyde.%对浓香型大曲中筛选的一株嗜热红曲霉 MH-WLY 提取 DNA,并构建系统发育树,结合它的形态、生理特征对其进行鉴定;再将这株红曲霉分别进行液态发酵和固态发酵,利用顶空固相微萃取-气相色谱-质谱联用(HS-SPME-GC-MS)分析其代谢的风味物质。结果认定这株红曲霉为烟色红曲霉(Monascus fuliginosus )突变株;液态发酵的主要风味物质有11种,分为醇、吡嗪、烷烃3大类,固态发酵的主要风味物质有19种,包含醇、吡嗪、烷烃、酯、醛5大类。

  6. Heavy flavor results from CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Ronchese, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    Heavy flavor particles produced in LHC $pp$ collisions at $7, 8,$ and $13~\\mathrm{TeV}$ constitute an excellent opportunity to test the standard model and probe for new physics effects. Recent results by the CMS Collaboration on heavy flavor production and decays are presented.

  7. Peanut composition, flavor, and nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peanuts are an important source of nutrition worldwide. They are used as food, as an ingredient and as an important source of cooking oil. They are usually roasted before consumption which results in changes in nutrition, texture and flavor. The flavor is important for repeat purchases. This cha...

  8. A Domino Theory of Flavor

    CERN Document Server

    Graham, Peter W

    2010-01-01

    We argue that the fermion masses and mixings are organized in a specific pattern. The approximately equal hierarchies between successive generations, the sizes of the mixing angles, the heaviness of just the top quark, and the approximate down-lepton equality can all be accommodated by many flavor models but can appear ad hoc. We present a simple, predictive mechanism to explain these patterns. All generations are treated democratically and the flavor symmetries are broken collectively by only two allowed couplings in flavor-space, a vector and matrix, with arbitrary O(1) entries. Repeated use of these flavor symmetry breaking spurions radiatively generates the Yukawa couplings with a natural hierarchy. We demonstrate this idea with two models in a split supersymmetric grand unified framework, with minimal additional particle content at the unification scale. Although flavor is generated at the GUT scale, there are several potentially testable predictions. In our minimal model the usual prediction of exact b-...

  9. Authenticity of raspberry flavor in food products using SPME-chiral-GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Anne-Mette S; Frandsen, Henrik L; Fromberg, Arvid

    2016-05-01

    A fast and simple method for authenticating raspberry flavors from food products was developed. The two enantiomers of the compound (E)-α-ionone from raspberry flavor were separated on a chiral gas chromatographic column. Based on the ratio of these two enantiomers, the naturalness of a raspberry flavor can be evaluated due to the fact that a natural flavor will consist almost exclusively of the R enantiomer, while a chemical synthesis of the same compound will result in a racemic mixture. Twenty-seven food products containing raspberry flavors where investigated using SPME-chiral-GC-MS. We found raspberry jam, dried raspberries, and sodas declared to contain natural aroma all contained almost only R-(E)-α-ionone supporting the content of natural raspberry aroma. Six out of eight sweets tested did not indicate a content of natural aroma on the labeling which was in agreement with the almost equal distribution of the R and S isomer. Two products were labeled to contain natural raspberry flavors but were found to contain almost equal amounts of both enantiomers indicating a presence of synthetic raspberry flavors only. Additionally, two products that were labeled to contain both raspberry juice and flavor showed equal amounts of both enantiomers, indicating the presence of synthetic flavor.

  10. Formation of Poultry Meat Flavor by Heating Process and Lipid Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maijon Purba

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Flavor is an important factor in the acceptance of food. Flavor of poultry meat is naturally formed through a specific process of heating, where various chemical reactions complex occurred among nonvolatile precursors in fatty tissue or in lean tissue. The main flavor in the form of volatile and nonvolatile components play a major influence on the acceptance of various processed meat, especially the taste. Removal of sulfur components decreases meat flavor (meaty, while removal of carbonyl compounds decrease the specific flavor and increases common flavor of the meat. Poultry meat has a fairly high fat content that easily generates lipid oxidation. Lipid oxidation in poultry meat is a sign that the meat was damaged and caused off odor. Addition of antioxidants in the diet can inhibit lipid oxidation in the meat. Lipids interaction with proteins and carbohydrates is unavoidable during the thermal processing of food, causing the appearance of volatile components. The main reaction in meat flavor formation mechanism is Maillard reaction followed by Stecker reaction and degradation of lipids and thiamine. They involve in the reaction between carbonyl and amine components to form flavor compounds, which enhance the flavor of poultry meat.

  11. Flavor Pairing in Medieval European Cuisine: A Study in Cooking with Dirty Data

    CERN Document Server

    Varshney, Kush R; Wang, Jun; Myers, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    An important part of cooking with computers is using statistical methods to create new, flavorful ingredient combinations. The flavor pairing hypothesis states that culinary ingredients with common chemical flavor components combine well to produce pleasant dishes. It has been recently shown that this design principle is a basis for modern Western cuisine and is reversed for Asian cuisine. Such data-driven analysis compares the chemistry of ingredients to ingredient sets found in recipes. However, analytics-based generation of novel flavor profiles can only be as good as the underlying chemical and recipe data. Incomplete, inaccurate, and irrelevant data may degrade flavor pairing inferences. Chemical data on flavor compounds is incomplete due to the nature of the experiments that must be conducted to obtain it. Recipe data may have issues due to text parsing errors, imprecision in textual descriptions of ingredients, and the fact that the same ingredient may be known by different names in different recipes. ...

  12. Effect of fat content on flavor delivery during consumption: an in vivo model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linforth, Rob; Cabannes, Magalie; Hewson, Louise; Yang, Nicole; Taylor, Andrew

    2010-06-09

    Data from studies of the effect of fat on in vivo flavor release were modeled to generate a predictive model (R(2) = 0.71). The data included a range of values from the literature and 200 new data points giving a total data set of 345 values; of these, 310 values were used as a data set for model development, and the remaining 35 values were used as a test set for model validation. The model could be used to estimate the differences in flavor delivery for samples with two different fat contents. The hydrophobicity of the flavor compounds was represented in the model by including log P. The model may provide a tool to aid in flavor reformulation between samples with different fat contents. Sensory analysis showed that an orange flavor present in a high-fat food could be reformulated for a low-fat food, giving a more similar flavor experience than in the absence of any formulation changes.

  13. Effect of β-cyclodextrin and maltodextrin on flavor compounds and amino acid content of scallop powder%β-环糊精与麦芽糊精对扇贝粉风味物质及氨基酸含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨秀敏; 王颉; 牟建楼; 李书红

    2011-01-01

    In order to produce quality scallop powder, the effect of fj-cyclodextrin and maltodextrin on flavor compounds and amino acids of scallop powder were studied. The flavor compounds in scallop powder (treatment 1) and scallop powder added P-cyclodextrin and maltodextrin (the ratio 1:8) (treatment 2)were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) combined with headspace solid phase micro extraction (HS-SPME). The contents of amino acids of scallop powder were detected by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results showed that 71 flavor compounds were detected from scallop powder and 88 flavor compounds were detected from scallop powder added p-cyclodextrin and maltodextrin. Contents of amino acids were 208.78mg/g in scallop powder and 140.26mg/g in scallop powder added P-cyclodextrin and maltodextrin, respectively. The flavor compounds were significantly increased, while the content of amino acid was decreased, when p-cyclodextrin and maltodextrin were added. Maltodextrin contributed to increase the yield of scallop powder.%为开发优质扇贝粉,研究了β-环糊精与麦芽糊精对扇贝粉风味物质及氨基酸(amino acid,AA)含量的影响.采用顶空固相微萃取(HS-SPME)与气相色谱-质谱联用(GC-MS)技术,鉴定了不加β-环糊精与麦芽糊精(处理1)和添加β-环糊精与麦芽糊精(比例为1:8)(处理2)的2种扇贝粉风味物质,采用高效液相色谱(HPLC)法测定了2种扇贝粉从含量.处理1和处理2的扇贝粉分别含有71种和88种风味物质,分别含有208.78mg/g和140.26mg/g的氨基酸.添加β-环糊精与麦芽糊精的扇贝粉风味成分含量和种类显著多于未添加β-环糊精与麦芽糊精的,而添加了β-环糊精与麦芽糊精的扇贝粉AA含量低于未添加β-环糊精与麦芽糊精的扇贝粉AA含量,而麦芽糊精的添加有助于提高集粉率.

  14. Recent patents in flavor controlled release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Tao; Xiao, Zuobing; Tian, Huaixiang

    2010-06-01

    In recent years, considerable effort has been directed toward the preparation of flavoring materials specifically, flavor materials have been sought that provide greater flavor intensity coupled with controlled flavor release for long periods of time. Here, some recent patents related to controlled flavor release are reviewed from the angle of its application field, its mechanism and its determination method. It is found that controlled flavor release often depends not only on materials' chemical and physical properties, such as melting point, solution properties and so on, but also on flavors' chemical and physical properties, such as diffusion capacity, its stability in different media etc. Meanwhile, flavor release is also controlled by an electric reducing device according to the flavor generation condition. It might be also known that flavor release rate could be determined by using a purge-and-trap/gas chromatographic procedure. In future, it's necessary to use mathematical model to study the kinetic behavior of controlled flavor release.

  15. Binary Tetrahedral Flavor Symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Eby, David A

    2013-01-01

    A study of the T' Model and its variants utilizing Binary Tetrahedral Flavor Symmetry. We begin with a description of the historical context and motivations for this theory, together with some conceptual background for added clarity, and an account of our theory's inception in previous works. Our model endeavors to bridge two categories of particles, leptons and quarks, a unification made possible by the inclusion of additional Higgs particles, shared between the two fermion sectors and creating a single coherent system. This is achieved through the use of the Binary Tetrahedral symmetry group and an investigation of the Tribimaximal symmetry evidenced by neutrinos. Our work details perturbations and extensions of this T' Model as we apply our framework to neutrino mixing, quark mixing, unification, and dark matter. Where possible, we evaluate model predictions against experimental results and find excellent matching with the atmospheric and reactor neutrino mixing angles, an accurate prediction of the Cabibb...

  16. Sample preparation for the analysis of flavors and off-flavors in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkes, J G; Conte, E D; Kim, Y; Holcomb, M; Sutherland, J B; Miller, D W

    2000-06-01

    Off-flavors in foods may originate from environmental pollutants, the growth of microorganisms, oxidation of lipids, or endogenous enzymatic decomposition in the foods. The chromatographic analysis of flavors and off-flavors in foods usually requires that the samples first be processed to remove as many interfering compounds as possible. For analysis of foods by gas chromatography (GC), sample preparation may include mincing, homogenation, centrifugation, distillation, simple solvent extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, pressurized-fluid extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, Soxhlet extraction, or methylation. For high-performance liquid chromatography of amines in fish, cheese, sausage and olive oil or aldehydes in fruit juice, sample preparation may include solvent extraction and derivatization. Headspace GC analysis of orange juice, fish, dehydrated potatoes, and milk requires almost no sample preparation. Purge-and-trap GC analysis of dairy products, seafoods, and garlic may require heating, microwave-mediated distillation, purging the sample with inert gases and trapping the analytes with Tenax or C18, thermal desorption, cryofocusing, or elution with ethyl acetate. Solid-phase microextraction GC analysis of spices, milk and fish can involve microwave-mediated distillation, and usually requires adsorption on poly(dimethyl)siloxane or electrodeposition on fibers followed by thermal desorption. For short-path thermal desorption GC analysis of spices, herbs, coffee, peanuts, candy, mushrooms, beverages, olive oil, honey, and milk, samples are placed in a glass-lined stainless steel thermal desorption tube, which is purged with helium and then heated gradually to desorb the volatiles for analysis. Few of the methods that are available for analysis of food flavors and off-flavors can be described simultaneously as cheap, easy and good.

  17. Disentangling heavy flavor at colliders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilten, Philip; Rodd, Nicholas L.; Thaler, Jesse; Williams, Mike

    2017-09-01

    We propose two new analysis strategies for studying charm and beauty quarks at colliders. The first strategy is aimed at testing the kinematics of heavy-flavor quarks within an identified jet. Here, we use the SoftDrop jet-declustering algorithm to identify two subjets within a large-radius jet, using subjet flavor tagging to test the heavy-quark splitting functions of QCD. For subjets containing a J /ψ or ϒ , this declustering technique can also help probe the mechanism for quarkonium production. The second strategy is aimed at isolating heavy-flavor production from gluon splitting. Here, we introduce a new FlavorCone algorithm, which smoothly interpolates from well-separated heavy-quark jets to the gluon-splitting regime where jets overlap. Because of its excellent ability to identify charm and beauty hadrons, the LHCb detector is ideally suited to pursue these strategies, though similar measurements should also be possible at ATLAS and CMS. Together, these SoftDrop and FlavorCone studies should clarify a number of aspects of heavy-flavor physics at colliders, and provide crucial information needed to improve heavy-flavor modeling in parton-shower generators.

  18. Authenticity of raspberry flavor in food products using SPME-chiral-GC-MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne-Mette Sølvbjerg; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz; Fromberg, Arvid

    2015-01-01

    A fast and simple method for authenticating raspberry flavors from food products was developed. The two enantiomers of the compound (E)-α-ionone from raspberry flavor were separated on a chiral gas chromatographic column. Based on the ratio of these two enantiomers the naturalness of a raspberry...... flavor can be evaluated due to the fact that a natural flavor will consist almost exclusively of the R enantiomer, while a chemical synthesis of the same compound will result in a racemic mixture. 27 food products containing raspberry flavors where investigated using SPME-chiral-GC-MS. We found raspberry...... jam, dried raspberries and sodas declared to contain natural aroma all contained almost only R-(E)-α-ionone supporting the content of natural raspberry aroma. Six out of eight sweets tested did not indicate a content of natural aroma on the labelling which was in agreement with the almost equal...

  19. Flavor chemistry of lemon-lime carbonated beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausch, Bethany J; Lorjaroenphon, Yaowapa; Cadwallader, Keith R

    2015-01-14

    The most potent aroma-active components of Sprite (SP), Sierra Mist (SM), and 7UP (7UP) were identified. Aroma extracts were prepared by liquid–liquid continuous extraction/solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (LLCE/SAFE). Twenty-eight compounds were detected by gas chromatography–olfactometry (GC-O) with linalool (floral, lavender), octanal (pungent orange), and 2,3-dehydro-1,8-cineole (minty) determined to be predominant aroma compounds based on their high flavor dilution (FD) factors by aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). The data indicate that lemon-lime flavor is composed of a small number of compounds (22 at the most in SM), and only a subset of these may be important because many compounds were detected only at low FD factors. Predominant aroma compounds (23) were quantified using static headspace solid phase microextraction (SPME) combined with stable isotope dilution assays (SIDA). In contrast to FD factors, the calculated odor-activity values (OAVs) indicate that octanal and limonene make the greatest contribution to the overall aroma of lemon-lime carbonated beverages, followed by nonanal, decanal, linalool, 1,8-cineole, and geranyl acetate. The results demonstrate that lemon-lime carbonated beverages share many of the same compounds but the relative abundance of these compounds varies by brand.

  20. Effect of xanthan gum on the release of strawberry flavor in formulated soy beverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiao; He, Zhiyong; Zeng, Maomao; Li, Bingbing; Qin, Fang; Wang, Linxiang; Wu, Shengfang; Chen, Jie

    2017-08-01

    The effects of xanthan gum on the release of strawberry flavor compounds in formulated soy protein isolate (SPI) beverage were investigated by headspace gas chromatography (GC). Seven strawberry flavor compounds (limonene, ethyl hexanoate, (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, ethyl butanoate, (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol and diacetyl) could be detected by GC and hence analyzed the gas-matrix partition coefficients (K). The release of flavor compounds was restrained in SPI and/or xanthan gum solution. The retention of (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol, limonene and diacetyl significantly changed (pdecalactone, methyl cinnamate, hexanoic acid, 2-methyl butyric acid and furaneol) accelerated the release of ester compounds to some extent in different matrices. The above results demonstrated that presence of SPI and xanthan gum could bring about an imbalance in the strawberry flavor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Vacuum Alignment with more Flavors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryttov, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    _f=2$ and $N_f=3$ we reproduce earlier known results including the Dashen phase with spontaneous violation of the combined charge conjugation and parity symmetry, CP. For $N_f=4$ we find regions with and without spontaneous CP violation. We then generalize to an arbitrary number of flavors. Here...... it is shown that at the point where $N_f-1$ flavors are degenerate with positive mass $m>0$ and the mass of the $N_f$'th flavor becomes negative and equal to $-m$ CP breaks spontaneously....

  2. Flavor-diagonal CP violation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batell, Brian

    2012-09-01

    The focus of this brief review is on new physics (NP) sources of CP violation, especially related to the flavor-diagonal phenomena of electric dipole moments (EDMs) of elementary particles and atoms. Using weak scale supersymmetry as an example, we illustrate various aspects of the "new physics CP-problem". We also explore the interplay between flavor-changing and flavor-diagonal CP violation in the context of the recent hints from the Tevatron for new sources of CP violation in the B-meson systems.

  3. Improving flavor metabolism of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by mixed culture with Bacillus licheniformis for Chinese Maotai-flavor liquor making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xing; Wu, Qun; Wang, Li; Wang, Diqiang; Chen, Liangqiang; Xu, Yan

    2015-12-01

    Microbial interactions could impact the metabolic behavior of microbes involved in food fermentation, and therefore they are important for improving food quality. This study investigated the effect of Bacillus licheniformis, the dominant bacteria in the fermentation process of Chinese Maotai-flavor liquor, on the metabolic activity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Results indicated that S. cerevisiae inhibited the growth of B. licheniformis in all mixed culture systems and final viable cell count was lower than 20 cfu/mL. Although growth of S. cerevisiae was barely influenced by B. licheniformis, its metabolism was changed as initial inoculation ratio varied. The maximum ethanol productions were observed in S. cerevisiae and B. licheniformis at 10(6):10(7) and 10(6):10(8) ratios and have increased by 16.8 % compared with single culture of S. cerevisiae. According to flavor compounds, the culture ratio 10(6):10(6) showed the highest level of total concentrations of all different kinds of flavor compounds. Correlation analyses showed that 12 flavor compounds, including 4 fatty acids and their 2 corresponding esters, 1 terpene, and 5 aromatic compounds, that could only be produced by S. cerevisiae were significantly correlated with the initial inoculation amount of B. licheniformis. These metabolic changes in S. cerevisiae were not only a benefit for liquor aroma, but may also be related to its inhibition effect in mixed culture. This study could help to reveal the microbial interactions in Chinese liquor fermentation and provide guidance for optimal arrangement of mixed culture fermentation systems.

  4. Flavor variability and flavor stability of U.S.-produced whole milk powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, M A; Drake, M A; Gerard, P D

    2009-09-01

    Flavor variability and stability of U.S.-produced whole milk powder (WMP) are important parameters for maximizing quality and global competitiveness of this commodity. This study characterized flavor and flavor stability of domestic WMP. Freshly produced (flavors based on selected volatiles. All WMP were between 2% and 3% moisture and 0.11 and 0.25 water activity initially. WMP varied in initial flavor profiles with varying levels of cooked, milk fat, and sweet aromatic flavors. During storage, grassy and painty flavors developed while sweet aromatic flavor intensities decreased (P flavors were confirmed by increased levels (P flavor (R(2)= 0.38, P flavor (R(2)= 0.61, P flavor and flavor stability.

  5. 电子鼻对酱牛肉煮制过程中老汤风味的检测%Detection of Flavor Compounds in the Broth during Cooking of Sauced Beef by Electronic Nose

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白一凡; 贡慧; 张睿梅; 杨震; 乔晓玲

    2014-01-01

    利用电子鼻对酱牛肉煮制过程中的老汤进行风味分析,煮制时间4 h,每1 h取样1次,进行电子鼻风味检测。结果表明:随着煮制时间增加,老汤中的醇、醛、酮类及氮氧化物、硫化物成分升高,这些成分也是酱牛肉的主要风味物质来源。后将其数据分别进行主成分分析(principal component analysis,PCA)和线性判别式分析(linear discriminant analysis,LDA),发现LDA分析效果优于PCA。采用负荷加载分析判别不同传感器对于第一、第二主成分的贡献率及相关性,R2、R6、R7、R8、R9等可作为优选传感器应用于分析老汤风味变化。因此电子鼻系统用于监控酱牛肉加工过程中老汤的风味变化是可行的。%Electronic nose was used for the analysis of flavor constituents in sauced beef during 4 h of cooking by sampling the beef broth after every one hour. We found that the concentrations of alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, nitrogen oxides and sulfides in the broth, which contributed mainly to the flavor of sauced beef, increased with cooking time. For analysis of the experimental data, linear discriminant analysis (LDA) was better than principal component analysis (PCA). The contribution rates to the first and second principal components and correlations of different sensors were evaluated using loading analysis, and R2, R6 and R7 and R8, and R9 were selected as optimal sensors for the analysis of flavor changes of the broth. Hence, electronic nose is feasible for monitoring flavor changes of the broth during the manufacturing process of sauced beef.

  6. Studies on the Stable Rice Flavoring Agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MaoJinsheng; YaoHuiyuan; 等

    2000-01-01

    The reaction flavor as the stabilized rice flavor enhancer,whice is in initial stage at home presently,was made by studying the essence of forming aromatic rice scented and imitating ways to form process flavor in natural foods.The steam volatile of flavoring rice was determined by sensory evaluation and GC-MS analysis.

  7. Studies on the Stable Rice Flavoring Agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mao Jinsheng; Yao Huiyuan; Zhang Hui

    2000-01-01

    The reaction flavor as the stabilized rice flavor enhancer, whice is in initial stage at home presently, was made by studying the essence of forming aromatic rice scented and imitating ways to form process flavor in natural foods .The steam volatile of flavoring rice was determined by sensory evaluation and GC-MS analysis.

  8. Regulating yeast flavor metabolism by controlling saccharification reaction rate in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of Chinese Maotai-flavor liquor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qun; Chen, Bi; Xu, Yan

    2015-05-04

    Maotai-flavor liquor is produced by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF), in which filamentous fungi produce hydrolases to degrade the starch into fermentable sugar. Saccharomyces cerevisiae simultaneously transforms the sugars to ethanol and flavor compounds. The saccharification rate plays an important role in regulating the liquor yield and flavor profile. This work investigated the effect of saccharification rate on fermentation by regulating the inoculation ratio (1:0.1, 1:0.5, 1:1, 1:5, 1:10) of S. cerevisiae and Aspergillus oryzae, the main saccharification agent. We found no significant difference in reducing sugar content among the mixed cultures with different ratios. This indicated a balance of the saccharification rate and the sugar consumption rate, in which the former was controlled by the interaction between A. oryzae and S. cerevisiae, and the latter controlled the metabolism of the two species. The ethanol yield was the highest in ratios of 1:0.5, 1:1, and 1:5, while the total production of flavor compounds was the highest for the ratio of 1:0.5, which was mainly attributed to the vigorous metabolism of S. cerevisiae. The inoculum ratio of 1:10 produced the second highest content of flavor compounds in which a large number of alcohols and esters were derived from the vigorous metabolism of A. oryzae. This indicated that the saccharification rate significantly influenced the flavor metabolism. This study improves understanding of the interaction and cooperation between A. oryzae and S. cerevisiae in co-culture fermentation for Chinese liquor making. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Flavored model building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagedorn, C.

    2008-01-15

    In this thesis we discuss possibilities to solve the family replication problem and to understand the observed strong hierarchy among the fermion masses and the diverse mixing pattern of quarks and leptons. We show that non-abelian discrete symmetries which act non-trivially in generation space can serve as profound explanation. We present three low energy models with the permutation symmetry S{sub 4}, the dihedral group D{sub 5} and the double-valued group T' as flavor symmetry. The T' model turns out to be very predictive, since it explains tri-bimaximal mixing in the lepton sector and, moreover, leads to two non-trivial relations in the quark sector, {radical}((m{sub d})/(m{sub s}))= vertical stroke V{sub us} vertical stroke and {radical}((m{sub d})/(m{sub s}))= vertical stroke (V{sub td})/(V{sub ts}) vertical stroke. The main message of the T' model is the observation that the diverse pattern in the quark and lepton mixings can be well-understood, if the flavor symmetry is not broken in an arbitrary way, but only to residual (non-trivial) subgroups. Apart from leading to deeper insights into the origin of the fermion mixings this idea enables us to perform systematic studies of large classes of discrete groups. This we show in our study of dihedral symmetries D{sub n} and D'{sub n}. As a result we find only five distinct (Dirac) mass matrix structures arising from a dihedral group, if we additionally require partial unification of either left-handed or left-handed conjugate fermions and the determinant of the mass matrix to be non-vanishing. Furthermore, we reveal the ability of dihedral groups to predict the Cabibbo angle {theta}{sub C}, i.e. vertical stroke V{sub us(cd)} vertical stroke = cos((3{pi})/(7)), as well as maximal atmospheric mixing, {theta}{sub 23}=({pi})/(4), and vanishing {theta}{sub 13} in the lepton sector. (orig.)

  10. Approximate Flavor Symmetry in Supersymmetric Model

    OpenAIRE

    Tao, Zhijian

    1998-01-01

    We investigate the maximal approximate flavor symmetry in the framework of generic minimal supersymmetric standard model. We consider the low energy effective theory of the flavor physics with all the possible operators included. Spontaneous flavor symmetry breaking leads to the approximate flavor symmetry in Yukawa sector and the supersymmetry breaking sector. Fermion mass and mixing hierachies are the results of the hierachy of the flavor symmetry breaking. It is found that in this theory i...

  11. Neutrino Masses and Flavor Oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yifang; Xing, Zhi-Zhong

    2016-10-01

    This essay is intended to provide a brief description of the peculiar properties of neutrinos within and beyond the standard theory of weak interactions. The focus is on the flavor oscillations of massive neutrinos, from which one has achieved some striking knowledge about their mass spectrum and flavor mixing pattern. The experimental prospects towards probing the absolute neutrino mass scale, possible Majorana nature and CP-violating effects, will also be addressed.

  12. The Effect of Tea Polyphenol on Volatile Flavor Compounds in Pickled Cabbage during Shelf Life%茶多酚对货架期泡菜气味成分的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王向阳; 董欢欢; 俞兴伟

    2016-01-01

    茶多酚在腌菜中防腐效果好,为了解茶多酚对货架期泡菜气味的影响,在泡菜液中添加0.18%茶多酚,采用固相微萃取与气相质谱色谱联用法(SPME-MS/GC),分析泡菜的气味成分变化。结果表明:茶多酚抑制乳酸菌生长量,泡菜的主要风味物质是酮、酸、酯、醛、烯、醇。其中3-乙酰-4-羟基-6-甲基-2H-吡喃-2-酮、苯甲酸类、烯丙基异硫氰酸酯、壬醛、石竹烯、1-辛烯-3-醇是含量较高的气味成分。泡菜后期醛类、酯类比例显著上升。另外,苯衍生物、烯、烷、萘类也有较多比例增加。壬醛、癸醛、烯丙基异硫氰酸酯、丁酸-3-甲基丁酯的大量增加可能是引起泡菜后期异味的主要原因。苯衍生物、烯、萘类增加可能也促进异味。茶多酚处理大幅度降低酸类、酮类,降低后期酯类、醛类,提高醇类和后期烯类,导致其他类中咔唑类消失,蒽醌物质上升,腙类消失,酚类出现。茶多酚处理显著降低了3-乙酰-4-羟基-6-甲基-2H-吡喃-2-酮、苯甲酸类、异硫氰酸酯、壬醛,显著提升了后期 D-柠檬烯。茶多酚处理泡菜后期主要气味物质是 D-柠檬烯、3-乙酰-4-羟基-6-甲基-2H-吡喃-2-酮、1-辛烯-3-醇。%Tea polyphenols is an excellent preservative for pickles.To find out the effects of tea polyphenols on the smell of pickle during shelf life,tea polyphenols (0.18%,W/V)is added into pickled cabbage.The change of volatile components of pickled cabbage is analyzed with solid phase micro-extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC/MS).The results show that tea polyphenols inhibit the growth of lactic acid bacteria,the main flavor compounds of pickled cabbage are ketones,acids,esters,aldehydes,alkenes and alcohols.The main odors components are 3-acetyl-4-hydroxy-6-methyl-2H-pyran-2-one,benzoic acids,allyl isothiocyanate,nonanal,caryophyllene and 1-octene-3-alcohol

  13. Identifying Breeding Priorities for Blueberry Flavor Using Biochemical, Sensory, and Genotype by Environment Analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L Gilbert

    Full Text Available Breeding for a subjective goal such as flavor is challenging, as many blueberry cultivars are grown worldwide, and identifying breeding targets relating to blueberry flavor biochemistry that have a high degree of genetic control and low environmental variability are priorities. A variety of biochemical compounds and physical characters induce the sensory responses of taste, olfaction, and somatosensation, all of which interact to create what is perceived flavor. The goal of this study was to identify the flavor compounds with a larger genetic versus environmental component regulating their expression over an array of cultivars, locations, and years. Over the course of three years, consumer panelists rated overall liking, texture, sweetness, sourness, and flavor intensity of 19 southern highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum hybrids genotypes in 30 sensory panels. Significant positive correlations to overall liking of blueberry fruit (P<0.001 were found with sweetness (R2 = 0.70, texture (R2 = 0.68, and flavor (R2 = 0.63. Sourness had a significantly negative relationship with overall liking (R2 = 0.55. The relationship between flavor and texture liking was also linear (R2 = 0.73, P<0.0001 demonstrating interaction between olfaction and somatosensation. Partial least squares analysis was used to identify sugars, acids, and volatile compounds contributing to liking and sensory intensities, and revealed strong effects of fructose, pH, and several volatile compounds upon all sensory parameters measured. To assess the feasibility of breeding for flavor components, a three year study was conducted to compare genetic and environmental influences on flavor biochemistry. Panelists could discern genotypic variation in blueberry sensory components, and many of the compounds affecting consumer favor of blueberries, such as fructose, pH, β-caryophyllene oxide and 2-heptanone, were sufficiently genetically controlled that allocating resources for their

  14. Safety evaluation of substituted thiophenes used as flavoring ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Samuel M; Fukushima, Shoji; Gooderham, Nigel J; Guengerich, F Peter; Hecht, Stephen S; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M; Smith, Robert L; Bastaki, Maria; Harman, Christie L; McGowen, Margaret M; Valerio, Luis G; Taylor, Sean V

    2017-01-01

    This publication is the second in a series by the Expert Panel of the Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association summarizing the conclusions of its third systematic re-evaluation of the safety of flavorings previously considered to be generally recognized as safe (GRAS) under conditions of intended use. Re-evaluation of GRAS status for flavorings is based on updated considerations of exposure, structural analogy, metabolism, pharmacokinetics and toxicology and includes a comprehensive review of the scientific information on the flavorings and structurally related substances. Of the 12 substituted thiophenes reviewed here, 11 were reaffirmed as GRAS based on their rapid absorption, metabolism and excretion in humans and animals; the low estimated dietary exposure from flavor use; the wide margins of safety between the conservative estimates of intake and the no-observed-adverse effect levels; and the lack of significant genotoxic and mutagenic potential. For one of the substituted thiophenes, 3-acetyl-2,5-dimethylthiophene, it was concluded that more detailed exposure information, comparative metabolism studies and comprehensive toxicity data, including an in-depth evaluation of the mechanism of action for any adverse effects observed, are required for continuation of its FEMA GRAS™ status. In the absence of these data, the compound was removed from the FEMA GRAS list. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Identifying Breeding Priorities for Blueberry Flavor Using Biochemical, Sensory, and Genotype by Environment Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Jessica L; Guthart, Matthew J; Gezan, Salvador A; Pisaroglo de Carvalho, Melissa; Schwieterman, Michael L; Colquhoun, Thomas A; Bartoshuk, Linda M; Sims, Charles A; Clark, David G; Olmstead, James W

    2015-01-01

    Breeding for a subjective goal such as flavor is challenging, as many blueberry cultivars are grown worldwide, and identifying breeding targets relating to blueberry flavor biochemistry that have a high degree of genetic control and low environmental variability are priorities. A variety of biochemical compounds and physical characters induce the sensory responses of taste, olfaction, and somatosensation, all of which interact to create what is perceived flavor. The goal of this study was to identify the flavor compounds with a larger genetic versus environmental component regulating their expression over an array of cultivars, locations, and years. Over the course of three years, consumer panelists rated overall liking, texture, sweetness, sourness, and flavor intensity of 19 southern highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum hybrids) genotypes in 30 sensory panels. Significant positive correlations to overall liking of blueberry fruit (Pflavor (R2 = 0.63). Sourness had a significantly negative relationship with overall liking (R2 = 0.55). The relationship between flavor and texture liking was also linear (R2 = 0.73, Pflavor components, a three year study was conducted to compare genetic and environmental influences on flavor biochemistry. Panelists could discern genotypic variation in blueberry sensory components, and many of the compounds affecting consumer favor of blueberries, such as fructose, pH, β-caryophyllene oxide and 2-heptanone, were sufficiently genetically controlled that allocating resources for their breeding is worthwhile.

  16. Potential Hazards in Smoke-Flavored Fish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Hong; JIANG Jie; LI Donghua

    2008-01-01

    Smoking is widely used in fish processing for the color and flavor. Smoke flavorings have evolved as a successful alter- native to traditional smoking. The hazards of the fish products treated by liquid-smoking process are discussed in this review. The smoke flavoring is one important ingredient in the smoke-flavored fish. This paper gives the definition of smoke flavorings and the hazard of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) residue in the smoke flavorings on the market. It gives also an assessment of chemical hazards such as carcinogenic PAHs, especially Benzo-[a]pyrene, as well as biological hazards such as Listeria monocyto- genes, Clostridium botulinum, histamine and parasites in smoke-flavored fish. The limitations in regulations or standards are dis- cussed. Smoke flavored fish have lower content of PAHs as compared with the traditional smoking techniques if the PAHs residue in smoke flavorings is controlled by regulations or standards.

  17. Effect of fat level on the perception of five flavor chemicals in ice cream with or without fat mimetics by using a descriptive test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, B K; Grün, I U

    2007-10-01

    Fat mimetics are commonly used in the manufacture of low-fat and fat-free ice creams. However, the use of fat mimetics affects flavor and texture characteristics of ice cream, which results in decreased overall acceptability by consumers. The initial objective of this study was to investigate the release behavior of 5 strawberry flavor compounds in ice creams with Simplesse((R)), Litesse((R)), and Litesse((R))/Simplesse((R)) mixes using descriptive analysis. Fat mimetics and flavor formulation significantly influenced the perception of Furaneoltrade mark (cooked sugar flavor), alpha-ionone (violet flavor), and gamma-undecalactone (peach flavor), but there was no interaction between ice cream type and flavor formulation for the 3 flavors. Furaneol and ethyl-3-methyl-3-phenylglycidate (candy flavor) were perceived more strongly in full-fat ice cream, while cis-3-hexen-1-ol (grassy flavor), alpha-ionone, and gamma-undecalactone were perceived more strongly in low-fat ice cream. Ice creams with Simplesse and full-fat ice cream had similar sensory characteristics, while ice creams with Litesse were similar to low-fat ice creams in flavor characteristics, and ice creams with Litesse/Simplesse mixes were closer in flavor profile to low-fat ice cream but had similar texture properties to those of full-fat ice cream. Simplesse was found to be a better fat mimetic for duplicating the flavor profiles and mouthfeel of full-fat ice cream.

  18. Contextual control of flavor neophobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Casa, L G; Díaz, E

    2013-06-13

    The role of context in the retrieval of learned information has been widely analyzed in the associative learning domain. However, evidence about the effect of context on flavor memory retrieval is more limited. We have carried out four experiments with rats testing for possible interactions between neophobia habituation and the context in which flavors are presented, by manipulating prior experience with contexts. Our results point to the relevance of context familiarity for the establishment and recovery of a safe taste memory trace. More specifically, the use of the animals' home cages as experimental context favored neophobia habituation (Experiments 1A and 2), reduced dopamine levels induced by administration of the dopamine D1-like receptor antagonist SCH-23390 disrupted neophobia habituation when tested in presence of a new context (Experiment 1B), and testing in the animal's home cage increases the amount of flavor consumed, even when such flavor had a previous history of aversive conditioning (Experiment 3). We propose that exploring context without aversive consequences generates a safe memory trace of such context that becomes in the basis of increased flavor consumption.

  19. Comparative study of flavor in cholesterol-removed Gouda cheese and Gouda cheese during ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, H J; Ganesan, P; Lee, S J; Kwak, H S

    2013-04-01

    This study was performed to compare the flavor compounds of cholesterol-removed Gouda cheese (CRGC) and those of Gouda cheese (control) during ripening. The CRGC was made using milk treated with cross-linked β-cyclodextrin (β-CD). The solid-phase microextraction (SPME) method was used to extract flavor compounds from Gouda cheese. In both CRGC and control cheese, 31 flavor compounds were identified, including 6 free fatty acids, 5 esters, 5 ketones, 1 aldehyde, 3 lactones, 5 alcohols, and 6 miscellaneous compounds. Free fatty acids were the most abundant flavor compounds quantified in CRGC and control cheese. In the early stage of ripening, concentrations of flavor compounds in CRGC and control cheese were 16.42 and 10.38 mg/kg, respectively. At 6 mo, they increased to 40.90 and 67.89 mg/kg, respectively. A group of esters was the second abundant flavor compound in CRGC and control cheese. At the initial stage of ripening, total concentrations of esters were 12.94 (CRGC) and 10.95 mg/kg (control) and they increased to 22.73 (CRGC) and 27.68 mg/kg (control). Total concentrations of ketones were 1.96 (CRGC) and 6.49 mg/kg (control) at the initial stage of ripening. After 6 mo of ripening, total concentrations reached 11.32 (CRGC) and 52.43 mg/kg (control). In the case of the lactones, at the early stage of ripening, total concentrations of CRGC and control cheese were 0.63 and 0.84mg/kg, respectively, and then increased to 1.73 (CRGC) and 3.25mg/kg (control) at the end of ripening. Based on the results of this study, the flavor compounds of CRGC and control showed slightly different profiles during ripening. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Gain and loss of fruit flavour compounds produced by wild and cultivated strawberry species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aharoni, A.; Giri, A.P.; Verstappen, F.W.A.; Bertea, C.M.; Sevenier, R.E.; Sun, Z.; Jongsma, M.A.; Schwab, W.; Bouwmeester, H.J.

    2004-01-01

    The blends of flavor compounds produced by fruits serve as biological perfumes used to attract living creatures, including humans. They include hundreds of metabolites and vary in their characteristic fruit flavor composition. The molecular mechanisms by which fruit flavor and aroma compounds are ga

  1. Simultaneous Determination of Alkenylbenzenes and Other Flavor-related Compounds in Tobacco Additives by Dispersive Liquid- Liquid Micro-extraction and GC- MS%分散液液微萃取/气相色谱-质谱法同时测定烟用添加剂中8种烷基苯类香味有害物

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱晓兰; 洪深求; 李盼盼; 高芸; 刘渊根

    2012-01-01

    建立了超声溶剂提取和分散液液微萃取( DLLME)相结合的提取、净化前处理技术,采用气相色谱-质谱法分析了烟用添加剂中的黄樟素、侧柏酮、龙蒿脑、胡薄荷酮、甲基丁香酚、香豆素、6-甲基香豆素和7-甲氧基香豆素8种烷基苯类香味有害物.对分散液液微萃取溶剂及其体积、分散剂及其体积、萃取时间等条件进行了优化.在最佳实验条件下,8种有害物的线性范围为0.4 ~928 μg/L(r2≥0.998 9),检出限为0.04 ~0.24 μg/L,定量下限为0.13~0.80 μg/L,富集倍数为140~ 208倍,方法的加标回收率为90%~100%,相对标准偏差为2.4% ~6.7%.与行业推荐的测定方法相比,该方法具有灵敏度高、富集效果好、回收率高等优点.%A new ultrasonic-assisted extraction followed by dispersive liquid - liquid micro-extraction (DLLME) and GC - MS analysis method was developed for the simultaneous determination of eight alkenylbenzenes and other flavor-related compounds including safrole, coumarin, 6-methylcoumarin, 7-metheoxycoumarin, estragole, methyleugenol, pulegone and thujone in tobacco additives. The different parameters affecting the whole process such as the type and volume of extraction and dis-perser solvents, the salt addition and the extraction time were studied. Under the optimum conditions, the enrichment factors (EF) ranged from 140 to 208. The linear relationships of eight alkenylbenzenes and other flavor-related compounds were obtained in the range of 0. 4 -928 μg/L, with correlation coefficients(r2) over 0. 998 9. The limits of detection (LOD) and the limits of quantitation (LOQ) were in the ranges of 0. 04 -0. 24 μg/L and 0. 13 -0. 80 |xg/L, respectively. The average recoveries were in the range of 90% - 100% with relative standard deviatipns ( RSDs) of 2. 4% -6. 7% . The method was successfully applied in the analysis of real tobacco flavor additive samples. Compared with the industry recommended

  2. Lepton-Flavor Violating Mediators

    CERN Document Server

    Galon, Iftah; Tanedo, Philip

    2016-01-01

    We present a framework where dark matter interacts with the Standard Model through a light, spin-0 mediator that couples chirally to pairs of different-flavor leptons. This flavor violating final state weakens bounds on new physics coupled to leptons from terrestrial experiments and cosmic-ray measurements. As an example, we apply this framework to construct a model for the Fermi-LAT excess of GeV $\\gamma$-rays from the galactic center. We comment on the viability of this portal for self-interacting dark matter explanations of small scale structure anomalies and embeddings in flavor models. Models of this type are shown to be compatible with the muon anomalous magnetic moment anomaly. We review current experimental constraints and identify possible future theoretical and experimental directions.

  3. Flavor Symmetries in Extra Dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Aranda, A; Aranda, Alfredo

    2002-01-01

    We present a model of flavor based on a discrete local symmetry that reproduces all fermion masses and mixing angles both in the quark and lepton sectors. The particle content of the model is that of the standard model plus an additional flavon field. All the fields propagate in a fifth universal extra dimension and the flavor scale is associated with the cutoff of the 5D theory which is $\\sim 10$ TeV. The Yukawa matrices as well as the Majorana mass matrix for the neutrinos are generated by higher dimension operators involving the flavon field. When the flavon field acquires a vacuum expectation value it breaks the flavor symmetry and thus generates the Yukawa couplings. The model is consistent with the nearly bimaximal solution to the solar and atmospheric neutrino deficits.

  4. Flavor mixings in flux compactifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchmuller, Wilfried; Schweizer, Julian

    2017-04-01

    A multiplicity of quark-lepton families can naturally arise as zero modes in flux compactifications. The flavor structure of quark and lepton mass matrices is then determined by the wave function profiles of the zero modes. We consider a supersymmetric S O (10 )×U (1 ) model in six dimensions compactified on the orbifold T2/Z2 with Abelian magnetic flux. A bulk 16 -plet charged under the U (1 ) provides the quark-lepton generations whereas two uncharged 10 -plets yield two Higgs doublets. Bulk anomaly cancellation requires the presence of additional 16 - and 10 -plets. The corresponding zero modes form vectorlike split multiplets that are needed to obtain a successful flavor phenomenology. We analyze the pattern of flavor mixings for the two heaviest families of the Standard Model and discuss possible generalizations to three and more generations.

  5. Flavor symmetries and fermion masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasin, A.

    1994-04-01

    We introduce several ways in which approximate flavor symmetries act on fermions and which are consistent with observed fermion masses and mixings. Flavor changing interactions mediated by new scalars appear as a consequence of approximate flavor symmetries. We discuss the experimental limits on masses of the new scalars, and show that the masses can easily be of the order of weak scale. Some implications for neutrino physics are also discussed. Such flavor changing interactions would easily erase any primordial baryon asymmetry. We show that this situation can be saved by simply adding a new charged particle with its own asymmetry. The neutrality of the Universe, together with sphaleron processes, then ensures a survival of baryon asymmetry. Several topics on flavor structure of the supersymmetric grand unified theories are discussed. First, we show that the successful predictions for the Kobayashi-Maskawa mixing matrix elements, V{sub ub}/V{sub cb} = {radical}m{sub u}/m{sub c} and V{sub td}/V{sub ts} = {radical}m{sub d}/m{sub s}, are a consequence of a large class of models, rather than specific properties of a few models. Second, we discuss how the recent observation of the decay {beta} {yields} s{gamma} constrains the parameter space when the ratio of the vacuum expectation values of the two Higgs doublets, tan{Beta}, is large. Finally, we discuss the flavor structure of proton decay. We observe a surprising enhancement of the branching ratio for the muon mode in SO(10) models compared to the same mode in the SU(5) model.

  6. Strawberry flavor: diverse chemical compositions, a seasonal influence, and effects on sensory perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael L Schwieterman

    Full Text Available Fresh strawberries (Fragaria x ananassa are valued for their characteristic red color, juicy texture, distinct aroma, and sweet fruity flavor. In this study, genetic and environmentally induced variation is exploited to capture biochemically diverse strawberry fruit for metabolite profiling and consumer rating. Analyses identify fruit attributes influencing hedonics and sensory perception of strawberry fruit using a psychophysics approach. Sweetness intensity, flavor intensity, and texture liking are dependent on sugar concentrations, specific volatile compounds, and fruit firmness, respectively. Overall liking is most greatly influenced by sweetness and strawberry flavor intensity, which are undermined by environmental pressures that reduce sucrose and total volatile content. The volatile profiles among commercial strawberry varieties are complex and distinct, but a list of perceptually impactful compounds from the larger mixture is better defined. Particular esters, terpenes, and furans have the most significant fits to strawberry flavor intensity. In total, thirty-one volatile compounds are found to be significantly correlated to strawberry flavor intensity, only one of them negatively. Further analysis identifies individual volatile compounds that have an enhancing effect on perceived sweetness intensity of fruit independent of sugar content. These findings allow for consumer influence in the breeding of more desirable fruits and vegetables. Also, this approach garners insights into fruit metabolomics, flavor chemistry, and a paradigm for enhancing liking of natural or processed products.

  7. Strawberry flavor: diverse chemical compositions, a seasonal influence, and effects on sensory perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwieterman, Michael L; Colquhoun, Thomas A; Jaworski, Elizabeth A; Bartoshuk, Linda M; Gilbert, Jessica L; Tieman, Denise M; Odabasi, Asli Z; Moskowitz, Howard R; Folta, Kevin M; Klee, Harry J; Sims, Charles A; Whitaker, Vance M; Clark, David G

    2014-01-01

    Fresh strawberries (Fragaria x ananassa) are valued for their characteristic red color, juicy texture, distinct aroma, and sweet fruity flavor. In this study, genetic and environmentally induced variation is exploited to capture biochemically diverse strawberry fruit for metabolite profiling and consumer rating. Analyses identify fruit attributes influencing hedonics and sensory perception of strawberry fruit using a psychophysics approach. Sweetness intensity, flavor intensity, and texture liking are dependent on sugar concentrations, specific volatile compounds, and fruit firmness, respectively. Overall liking is most greatly influenced by sweetness and strawberry flavor intensity, which are undermined by environmental pressures that reduce sucrose and total volatile content. The volatile profiles among commercial strawberry varieties are complex and distinct, but a list of perceptually impactful compounds from the larger mixture is better defined. Particular esters, terpenes, and furans have the most significant fits to strawberry flavor intensity. In total, thirty-one volatile compounds are found to be significantly correlated to strawberry flavor intensity, only one of them negatively. Further analysis identifies individual volatile compounds that have an enhancing effect on perceived sweetness intensity of fruit independent of sugar content. These findings allow for consumer influence in the breeding of more desirable fruits and vegetables. Also, this approach garners insights into fruit metabolomics, flavor chemistry, and a paradigm for enhancing liking of natural or processed products.

  8. 复合发酵剂和黑胡椒对羊肉发酵干香肠挥发性风味成分的影响%Effect of combinations of starter cultures and black pepper on the volatile flavor compounds of dry fermented mutton sausages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵丽华; 靳烨; 马长伟; 张美枝; 李艳梅

    2011-01-01

    The dry fermented mutton sausages were manufactured with mutton and tail fat,and with various combinations of starter cultures and black pepper.The volatile flavor compounds were extracted and identified by dynamic headspace sampling(DHS)and purge-trap(P T)methods and GC/MS system during ripening.52 volatile flavor compounds were detected with capillary column HP-5,which could be clustered in the following chemical families:alkanes,alcohols,aldehydes,ketones,aromatic hydrocarbons,acids,esters,nitrogen-containing compounds,furans compounds and terpenoids.These showed different changing rules,especially alkanes(10)were the most in all kinds,whose proportions were 19.23%,and terpenoids took second place.At the same time,pentanal,3-methyl-butanal,3-hydroxy-2-butanone and 3-Carene,D-Limonene and so on were detected,which were originated from lipid degradation and oxidation,amino acid Strecker reaction,the carbohydrate catabolism and black pepper,which contributed to dry fermented mutton sausages odor together.%以内蒙古羊肉和羊尾脂肪为原料,接种复合发酵剂和黑胡椒生产羊肉发酵干香肠,利用动态顶空制样(DHS)/吹扫捕集(P&T)技术结合气-质联机(GC-MS),分析鉴定了羊肉发酵干香肠在成熟后挥发性风味成分的变化情况,结果检出了52种挥发性风味成分,主要由醛类、酮类、酸类、醇类、萜类、烷烃类、酯类、芳烃类、呋喃类和含氮化合物等十类化合物组成,种类数最多的是烷烃类(10种),占总种类数的19.23%,其次是萜类(9种)。同时检出了来源于脂肪水解氧化和氨基酸的Strecker降解以及碳水化合物代谢产生的戊醛、3-甲基

  9. Detection of off-flavor in catfish using a conducting polymer electronic-nose technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Alphus D; Oberle, Charisse S; Oberle, Daniel F

    2013-11-25

    The Aromascan A32S conducting polymer electronic nose was evaluated for the capability of detecting the presence of off-flavor malodorous compounds in catfish meat fillets to assess meat quality for potential merchantability. Sensor array outputs indicated that the aroma profiles of good-flavor (on-flavor) and off-flavor fillets were strongly different as confirmed by a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and a Quality Factor value (QF > 7.9) indicating a significant difference at (P flavor and off-flavor catfish at high levels of accuracy (>90%) and with relatively low rates (≤5%) of unknown or indecisive determinations in three trials. This A32S e-nose instrument also was capable of detecting the incidence of mild off-flavor in fillets at levels lower than the threshold of human olfactory detection. Potential applications of e-nose technologies for pre- and post-harvest management of production and meat-quality downgrade problems associated with catfish off-flavor are discussed.

  10. Contact allergy to toothpaste flavors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    1978-01-01

    Toothpaste flavors are fragrance mixtures. Oil of peppermint and spearmint, carvone and anethole are ingredients with a low sensitizing potential, but they are used in almost every brand of toothpaste and caused seven cases of contact allergy in a 6-year period at Gentofte Hospital. Toothpaste...... reactions are rare due to several reasons; local factors in the mouth, the low sensitizing potential of the flavors generally used, and the lack of recognition. It is emphasized that the toothpaste battery for patch testing has to be relevant and changed according to the consumers' and manufacturers' taste...

  11. Flavored axion-monodromy inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Raymundo

    2016-10-01

    In this talk we consider the breaking of a flavor-symmetric potential as the origin of the pseudo-Goldstone bosons responsible for inflation. The breaking of flavor symmetry generates the fermion mass hierarchy while the breaking of accidental symmetries leads to pseudo-Goldstone bosons with an axion-monodromy potential appropriate for inflation. We deal with models where the inflaton is a linear combination of two fields. We will show that the mechanism by which inflation ends depends on the choice of parameters.

  12. Contact allergy to toothpaste flavors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    1978-01-01

    Toothpaste flavors are fragrance mixtures. Oil of peppermint and spearmint, carvone and anethole are ingredients with a low sensitizing potential, but they are used in almost every brand of toothpaste and caused seven cases of contact allergy in a 6-year period at Gentofte Hospital. Toothpaste...... reactions are rare due to several reasons; local factors in the mouth, the low sensitizing potential of the flavors generally used, and the lack of recognition. It is emphasized that the toothpaste battery for patch testing has to be relevant and changed according to the consumers' and manufacturers' taste...

  13. Flavor Models In Extra Dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Valadez, J

    2005-01-01

    This thesis consists of implementing flavor symmetries in the context of extra dimensions. To the particle content of the Standard Model we add an additional scalar (flavon) field and we assume that all the fields propagate in the extra-dimensional space-time. When the flavon field acquires a vacuum expectation value the flavor symmetry is effectively broken thus generating the Yukawa textures associated with the particles. An specific model in 5D that reproduces all fermion masses, mixing angles and ratios is presented.

  14. Flavor issues in the Higgs sector

    CERN Document Server

    Díaz-Cruz, J L

    2002-01-01

    We discuss the conditions under which the flavor structure of SUSY model induces, either radiatively or through mixing, new flavor-violating interactions in the Higgs sector. The radiative flavor mediation mechanism is illustrated using the minimal SUSY extension of the SM (MSSM) with generic trilinear A-terms, and applied to evaluate the corrections to Lepton Flavor-Violating (LFV) and Flavor-Conserving (LFC) Higgs vertices. Flavor mediation through mixing is discussed within the context of an $E_6$-inspired multi-Higgs model, suplemented with an abelian flavor symmetry. Tevatron and LHC can probe the flavor structure of these models through the detection of the LFV Higgs mode h->tau mu, while NLC can perform high-precision tests of the LFC mode h ->tau+ tau-.

  15. Effect of enzymatic protein deamidation on protein solubility and flavor binding properties of soymilk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suppavorasatit, Inthawoot; Lee, Soo-Yeun; Cadwallader, Keith R

    2013-01-01

    The effect of enzymatic deamidation by protein-glutaminase (PG) on protein solubility and flavor binding potential of soymilk was studied. Treatment of soymilk with PG for 2 h (temperature of 44 °C and enzyme:substrate ratio (E/S) of 40 U/g protein) resulted in high degree of protein deamidation (66.4% DD) and relatively low degree of protein hydrolysis (4.25% DH). Deamidated (DSM) and control soymilks (CSM) did not differ with respect to aroma, but differed in taste characteristics by sensory evaluation. Protein solubility in DSM was enhanced at weakly acidic conditions (pH 5.0), but did not differ from non-deamidated soymilk at pH values of 3.0 and 7.0. Odor detection thresholds for the flavor compounds vanillin and maltol were approximately 5 and 3 fold lower, respectively, in DSM than in CSM. Dose-response curves (Fechner's law plots and n exponents from Stevens's power law) further demonstrated that DSM had a lower flavor binding potential than CSM. PG deamidation has the potential to reduce flavor binding problems encountered in high protein-containing foods and beverages. The findings of this study can help lead to the development of technology to produce protein-containing foods with improved functional properties, especially protein solubility, and potentially decreased flavor fade problems associated with flavor-protein interactions, especially with carbonyl containing flavor compounds. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  16. Flavor Dependence of the S-parameter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Chiara, Stefano; Pica, Claudio; Sannino, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    of flavors, colors and matter representation. We show that S, normalized to the number of flavors, increases as we decrease the number of flavors and gives a direct measure of the anomalous dimension of the mass of the fermions. Our findings support the conjecture presented in [arXiv:1006.0207 [hep......-lat

  17. Genetic mapping of flavor loci in wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flavor is an essential aspect of consumer acceptance, especially with whole-wheat foods. However, little if any selection is performed during breeding of new wheat cultivars for flavor, and little is known regarding the genetics of flavor. Our research is aimed at identifying genes that impart eithe...

  18. Minimal flavor violation and anomalous top decays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faller, S.; Mannel, T.; Gadatsch, S.

    2013-01-01

    Top-quark physics at the LHC may open a window to physics beyond the Standard Model and even lead us to an understanding of the phenomenon of "flavor." However, current flavor data is a strong hint that no "new physics" with a generic flavor structure can be expected at the TeV scale. In turn, if

  19. Flavor physics of leptons and dipole moments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raidal, M.; van der Schaaf, A.; Bigi, I.; Mangano, M. L.; Semertzidis, Y.; Abel, S.; Albino, S.; Antusch, S.; Arganda, E.; Bajc, B.; Banerjee, S.; Biggio, C.; Blanke, M.; Bonivento, W.; Branco, G. C.; Bryman, D.; Buras, A. J.; Calibbi, L.; Ceccucci, A.; Chankowski, P. H.; Davidson, S.; Deandrea, A.; DeMille, D. P.; Deppisch, F.; Diaz, M. A.; Duling, B.; Felcini, M.; Fetscher, W.; Forti, F.; Ghosh, D. K.; Giffels, M.; Giorgi, M. A.; Giudice, G.; Goudzovskij, E.; Han, T.; Harris, P. G.; Herrero, M. J.; Hisano, J.; Holt, R. J.; Huitu, K.; Ibarra, A.; Igonkina, O.; Ilakovac, A.; Imazato, J.; Isidori, G.; Joaquim, F. R.; Kadastik, M.; Kajiyama, Y.; King, S. F.; Kirch, K.; Kozlov, M. G.; Krawczyk, M.; Kress, T.; Lebedev, O.; Lusiani, A.; Ma, E.; Marchiori, G.; Masiero, A.; Masina, I.; Moreau, G.; Mori, T.; Muntel, M.; Neri, N.; Nesti, F.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Paradisi, P.; Petcov, S. T.; Picariello, M.; Porretti, V.; Poschenrieder, A.; Pospelov, M.; Rebane, L.; Rebelo, M. N.; Ritz, A.; Roberts, L.; Romanino, A.; Roney, J. M.; Rossi, A.; Rueckl, R.; Senjanovic, G.; Serra, N.; Shindou, T.; Takanishi, Y.; Tarantino, C.; Teixeira, A. M.; Torrente-Lujan, E.; Turzynski, K. J.; Underwood, T. E. J.; Vempati, S. K.; Vives, O.

    2008-01-01

    This chapter of the report of the "Flavor in the era of the LHC" Workshop discusses the theoretical, phenomenological and experimental issues related to flavor phenomena in the charged lepton sector and in flavor conserving CP-violating processes. We review the current experimental limits and the ma

  20. Minimal flavor violation and anomalous top decays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faller, S.; Mannel, T.; Gadatsch, S.

    2013-01-01

    Top-quark physics at the LHC may open a window to physics beyond the Standard Model and even lead us to an understanding of the phenomenon of "flavor." However, current flavor data is a strong hint that no "new physics" with a generic flavor structure can be expected at the TeV scale. In turn, if th

  1. Discussion on the Flavor of Sichuan Cuisine-Fish Flavor%浅谈川菜菜肴中的风味之鱼香味型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    辛松林; 肖岚; 刘明

    2014-01-01

    The aroma and taste are included in the flavor of Sichuan cuisine,fish flavor as a traditional typical compound flavor type is concerned,it is rich in taste level,the formation of fish flavor depends on the type and proportion of spices,the heating temperature and cooking time have the same influ-ence during the thermal processing.%川菜菜肴的风味主要包含香气和口味两方面的内容,鱼香味型作为传统典型复合味型具有味感层次丰富多样的特点,其风味的形成除了与调味料的种类、比例有关以外,热加工中的加热温度和烹调时间同样具有影响。

  2. Physics Labs with Flavor II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrest, Mikhail M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper was inspired by the numerous requests from "TPT" readers to expand the number of examples of "recurrent study" lab exercises described in my previous paper "Physics Labs with Flavor." I recommend that readers examine it first in order to better understand this one as my attempt here is to be brief. In that paper, one can find details…

  3. Physics Labs with Flavor II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrest, Mikhail M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper was inspired by the numerous requests from "TPT" readers to expand the number of examples of "recurrent study" lab exercises described in my previous paper "Physics Labs with Flavor." I recommend that readers examine it first in order to better understand this one as my attempt here is to be brief. In that paper, one can find details…

  4. Minimal Flavor Constraints for Technicolor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakuma, Hidenori; Sannino, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the constraints on the the vacuum polarization of the standard model gauge bosons from a minimal set of flavor observables valid for a general class of models of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking. We will show that the constraints have a strong impact on the self-coupling and mas...

  5. Flavor Constraints on New Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Ligeti, Zoltan

    2016-01-01

    This talk highlights, from a theoretical point of view, some recent exciting results in flavor physics, as well as future prospects. We discuss possible implications of a subset of the experimental results in tension with the standard model, such as the $4\\sigma$ deviation in the $B\\to D^{(*)}\\tau\\bar\

  6. Three Neutrino Flavors are Enough

    CERN Document Server

    Acker, A

    1996-01-01

    It is shown that it is possible to account for all three experimental indications for neutrino oscillations with just three neutrino flavors. In particular, we suggest that the solar and atmospheric neutrino anomalies are to be explained by the same mass difference and mixing. Possible implications and future tests of the resulting mass-mixing pattern are given.

  7. Lepton-Flavored Electroweak Baryogenesis

    CERN Document Server

    Guo, Huai-Ke; Liu, Tao; Ramsey-Musolf, Michael; Shu, Jing

    2016-01-01

    We explore lepton-flavored electroweak baryogenesis, driven by CP-violation in leptonic Yukawa sector, using the $\\tau-\\mu$ system in the two Higgs doublet model as an example. This setup generically yields, together with the flavor-changing decay $h\\to \\tau \\mu$, a tree-level Jarlskog-invariant that can drive dynamical generation of baryon asymmetry during a first-order electroweak phase transition and results in CP-violating effect in the decay $h\\to \\tau\\tau$. We find that the observed baryon asymmetry can be generated in parameter space compatible with current experimental results for the decays $h\\to \\tau \\mu$, $h\\to \\tau\\tau$ and $\\tau \\rightarrow \\mu \\gamma$, as well as the present bound on the electric dipole moment of the electron. The baryon asymmetry generated is intrinsically correlated with the CP-violating decay $h\\to \\tau\\tau$ and the flavor-changing decay $h\\to \\tau\\mu$, which thus may serve as "smoking guns" to test lepton-flavored electroweak baryogenesis.

  8. A taste of pepper: genetics, biochemistry and prediction of sweet pepper flavor

    OpenAIRE

    Eggink, P.M.

    2013-01-01

      This PhD project started with the composition of a diverse panel of genotypes that represented, (i) roughly the flavor variation in the commercial Capsicum annuum breeding program of Rijk Zwaan, (ii) parents of available mapping populations and (iii) some genotypes that were expected to have extraordinary flavors. The complete set consisted of 35 genotypes of which 24 genotypes were non-pungent. Volatile and non-volatile compounds as well as some breeding parameters were measured in ma...

  9. Solid-phase microextraction for flavor analysis in Harari Khat (Catha edulis) stimulant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AL-FLAHIAbdulsalam; 邹建凯; 殷学锋

    2004-01-01

    This research examined the typical flavor compounds in the commonest type of Khat called Harari Khat grown in the region of Ethiopia.Twenty-eight compounds, which includes 1,2-Propanedione,1-Phenyl,Hexanol,Hexanal compounds,Limonene, Benzaldehyde with other flavors, were extracted by polydimethylsiloxane at room temperature for 30min from Khat samples,and identified by solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS).This method needs no organic solvents and required minimal sample.

  10. Short communication: The effect of liquid storage on the flavor of whey protein concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Curtis W; Parker, Megan; Drake, MaryAnne

    2016-06-01

    Unit operations in dried dairy ingredient manufacture significantly influence sensory properties and, consequently, their use and consumer acceptance in a variety of ingredient applications. In whey protein concentrate (WPC) manufacture, liquid can be stored as whey or WPC before spray drying. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of storage, composition, and bleaching on the flavor of spray-dried WPC80. Liquid whey was manufactured and subjected to the following treatments: bleached or unbleached and liquid whey or liquid WPC storage. The experiment was replicated 3 times and included a no-storage control. All liquid storage was performed at 4°C for 24h. Flavor of the final spray-dried WPC80 was evaluated by a trained panel and volatile compound analyses. Storage of liquids increased cardboard flavor, decreased sweet aromatic flavor, and resulted in increased volatile lipid oxidation products. Bleaching altered the effect of liquid storage. Storage of unbleached liquid whey decreased sweet aromatic flavor and increased cardboard flavor and volatile lipid oxidation products compared with liquid WPC80 and no storage. In contrast, storage of bleached liquid WPC decreased sweet aromatic flavor and increased cardboard flavor and associated volatile lipid oxidation products compared with bleached liquid whey or no storage. These results confirm that liquid storage increases off-flavors in spray-dried protein but to a variable degree, depending on whether bleaching has been applied. If liquid storage is necessary, bleached WPC80 should be stored as liquid whey and unbleached WPC80 should be stored as liquid WPC to mitigate off-flavors.

  11. Effects of Lipoxygenase Null Genes of Soybean in Controlling Beany-flavor of Soymilk and Soyflour

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Hao; GUAN Chun-yun; HE Xiao-ling; ZHANG Guo-zheng; DIN An-lin

    2002-01-01

    The flavor of the soymilk and soyflour obtained from the lipoxygenase mutant isolines was concentrated by simultaneous distillation and extraction (SDE), and its constituents were identified by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results showed that the same 24 flavor constituents were isolated in both soymilk and soyflour, and most of them were aldehydes and alcohols. Lox2 was most responsible for the production of the volatile and beany-flavor components, and Lox1 less responsible.Lox3 was least responsible and can reduce the yield of hexanal. Either Lx1 or Lx2 could significantly reduce the volatile and beany-flavor, and Lx3 could significantly increase the yield of hexanal. Primary and secondary interactions existed among the null mutant genes, and the major effects and interactions could be affected by processing conditions. The isoline with triple lipoxygenase null genes yielded the least volatile and beany-flavor components, and the isoline without the lipoxygenase gene Lx3 produced the greatest amount of the volatile and beany-flavor components. The amounts of volatile and beany-flavor components produced by the other isolines were between that of the isoline with triple lipoxygenase null genes and the isoline without lipoxygenase gene Lx3. According to the correlation analysis, the hexanal amount could be used as an index in evaluating the importance of lipoxygenase isozymes in the yield of beany-flavor compounds, and the effects of the different types of lipoxygenase null mutants in controlling beany-flavor compounds. The cultivars with triple lipoxygenase null genes will be a quality raw material for soyfood processing.

  12. Characterization of flavor of whey protein hydrolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leksrisompong, Pattarin P; Miracle, R Evan; Drake, Maryanne

    2010-05-26

    Twenty-two whey protein hydrolysates (WPH) obtained from 8 major global manufacturers were characterized by instrumental analysis and descriptive sensory analysis. Proximate analysis, size exclusion chromatography, and two different degrees of hydrolysis (DH) analytical methods were also conducted. WPH were evaluated by a trained descriptive sensory panel, and volatile compounds were extracted by solid phase microextraction (SPME) followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O). Eleven representative WPH were selected, and 15 aroma active compounds were quantified by GC-MS via the generation of external standard curves. Potato/brothy, malty, and animal flavors and bitter taste were key distinguishing sensory attributes of WPH. Correlations between bitter taste intensity, degree of hydrolysis (using both methods), and concentration of different molecular weight peptides were documented, with high DH samples having high bitter taste intensity and a high concentration of low molecular weight peptides and vice versa. The four aroma-active compounds out of 40 detected by GC-O present at the highest concentration and with consistently high odor activity values in WPH were Strecker derived products, dimethyl sulfide (DMS), 3-methyl butanal, 2-methyl butanal, and methional. Orthonasal thresholds of WPH were lower (p applications.

  13. Flavor Mixing Phenomenology in Supersymmetric Models

    CERN Document Server

    Rehman, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the flavor mixing effects in supersymmetric models on electroweak precision observables, Higgs boson mass predictions, B-physics observables, quark flavor violating Higgs decays, lepton flavor violating charged lepton decays and lepton flavor violating Higgs decays. The flavor mixing effects are studied in model independent way i.e. by putting off-diagonal entries in the sfermion mass matrix by hand as well as in the minimal flavor violating constrained MSSM, where mixing can originate from CKM matrix in the case of squarks and from PMNS matrix in the case of sleptons. We found that flavor mixing can have large impact to some observables, enabling us to put new constraints on parameter space in supersymmetric models.

  14. Evaluation of the impact of nitrate-nitrogen levels in recirculating aquaculture systems on concentrations of the off-flavor compounds geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol in water and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquatic animals raised in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) can develop preharvest “off-flavors” such as “earthy” or “musty” which are caused by the bioaccumulation of the odorous compounds geosmin or 2-methylisoborneol (MIB), respectively, in their flesh. Tainted aquatic products cause large...

  15. Influence of blanching and grinding process with hot water on beany and non-beany flavor in soymilk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Yan-Chun; Song, Huan-Lu; Li, Xin; Wu, Liang; Guo, Shun-Tang

    2011-01-01

    A total of 8 beany odor-active compounds and 4 non-beany aroma-active compounds of traditional soymilk were identified through dynamic headspace dilution analysis (DHDA) and gas chromatography-olfactometry-mass spectrometry (GC-O-MS). To eliminate the beany flavors, soymilk was processed with hot water blanching and grinding for 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 min with a temperature between 80 and 100 °C. A total of 5 beany odor-active compounds and 3 non-beany aroma-active compounds of this soymilk were analyzed by headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME). As a result, lipoxygenase (LOX) activity gradually decreased by hot water treatment with time, and with the decrease of Lox activity, the 5 beany odor-active compounds and 3 non-beany aroma-active compounds were significantly decreased. However, the reduction in non-beany flavor compounds was smaller than for beany odor compounds. Therefore, a balance between beany and non-beany flavors can be reached in soymilk. When the soaked soybeans were blanched and ground with hot water for 2 to 6 min, the LOX activity was between 38% and 57% of the beginning activity. For these processing times, the non-beany compounds could be largely maintained. The ratio of the total peak area of the 3 non-beany aroma compounds and 5 beany flavor compounds was between 0.07 and 0.12, and the sensory scores of the aromas were higher than that of the off-flavors. Practical Application: Beany flavors in soymilk could be reduced with hot water blanching and grinding at temperature above 80 °C. However, the treatment of hot water blanching affected the non-beany aromas of soymilk. A suitable blanching and grinding time is necessary to achieve a balance of soymilk flavors.

  16. Lepton flavor violating quarkonium decays

    CERN Document Server

    Hazard, Derek E

    2016-01-01

    We argue that lepton flavor violating (LFV) decays $M \\to \\ell_1 \\overline \\ell_2$ of quarkonium states $M$ with different quantum numbers could be used to put constraints on the Wilson coefficients of effective operators describing LFV interactions at low energy scales. We note that restricted kinematics of the two-body quarkonium decays allows us to select operators with particular quantum numbers, significantly reducing the reliance on the single operator dominance assumption that is prevalent in constraining parameters of the effective LFV Lagrangian. We shall also argue that studies of radiative lepton flavor violating $M \\to \\gamma \\ell_1 \\overline \\ell_2$ decays could provide important complementary access to those effective operators.

  17. Heavy flavor measurements at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Spagnolo, S; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    ATLAS and CMS measurements in the area of heavy flavor physics are reviewed with focus on the most recent results. The topics discussed include heavy flavor production rates and properties, exclusive b-hadron production, with attention to the recent observations of rare b-hadrons and to the precise measurements of Lambda_b production cross section, lifetime and mass. Differential production cross sections and polarization measurements of Upsilon states are presented, along with production ratios of chi_c states in the charmonium system. Evidence for a new Xsi_b state and observations of structures in the J/Psi phi spectrum from B+- decays to J/Psi phi K+- in the CMS data are also reported. Precision studies of the Bs system and determination of CP-violation sensitive parameters are discussed. Finally the status of the searches for rare FCNC decays is presented.

  18. Flavor hierarchies from dynamical scales

    CERN Document Server

    Panico, Giuliano

    2016-07-20

    One main obstacle for any beyond the SM (BSM) scenario solving the hierarchy problem is its potentially large contributions to electric dipole moments. An elegant way to avoid this problem is to have the light SM fermions couple to the BSM sector only through bilinears, $\\bar ff$. This possibility can be neatly implemented in composite Higgs models. We study the implications of dynamically generating the fermion Yukawa couplings at different scales, relating larger scales to lighter SM fermions. We show that all flavor and CP-violating constraints can be easily accommodated for a BSM scale of few TeV, without requiring any extra symmetry. Contributions to B physics are mainly mediated by the top, giving a predictive pattern of deviations in $\\Delta F=2$ and $\\Delta F=1$ flavor observables that could be seen in future experiments.

  19. Compounding errors in 2 dogs receiving anticonvulsants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConkey, Sandra E; Walker, Susan; Adams, Cathy

    2012-04-01

    Two cases that involve drug compounding errors are described. One dog exhibited increased seizure activity due to a compounded, flavored phenobarbital solution that deteriorated before the expiration date provided by the compounder. The other dog developed clinical signs of hyperkalemia and bromine toxicity following a 5-fold compounding error in the concentration of potassium bromide (KBr).

  20. The Mechanism of Volatile Flavor Compounds in Cantonese Sausage and Its Changes During the Storage%广式腊肠挥发性风味物质的形成机理及贮存与蒸煮的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周非白; 孙为正; 赵谋明

    2012-01-01

    采用顶空固相微萃取技术(SPME)结合气相色谱-质谱联用仪(GC-MS)分离鉴定广式腊肠挥发性风味物质,研究贮存和蒸煮对挥发性风味物质的影响;广式腊肠中共鉴定出挥发性风味物质52种,其中烘烤结束时为32种,贮存1个月时为37种,蒸煮后为42种。在鉴定的化合物中主要以醇类、酯类和醛类物质为主。试验结果表明:风味形成的主导因素为曲酒的添加及脂质的降解与氧化,氨基酸降解、微生物和美拉德反应的作用为辅助因素。贮存和蒸煮可促进广式腊肠风味形成,其中贮存主要影响来源于脂质降解和氧化的风味物质,蒸煮主要影响来源于氨基酸降解和美拉德反应的风味物质。%The profile of volatile compounds of Cantonese sausage was analyzed by GC-MS using a solid-phase microextraction(SPME).Effect of storage and cooking method on generation of volatile compounds of Cantonese sausage was studied.Fifty two different substances were isolated from the sample after drying,among them,32 were isolated after baking,37 were found after one month storage,and 42 after cooking.The group of alcohols,esters and aldehydes were the major compounds.Wine added to sausage at the formulation stage,oxidation of lipolysis and lipid were the most important factors for the characteristic of the flavor.Amino acid catabolism and microbial activity also plays an active role.Storage and cooking could accelerate formation of volatile compounds.Storage mainly affected volatile compounds formed via lipolysis and lipid oxidation.Cooking induces the volatile compounds from amino acid degradation and Maillard reaction.

  1. Flavor asymmetry of the nucleon

    CERN Document Server

    Bijker, R

    2008-01-01

    The flavor asymmetry of the nucleon sea is discussed in an unquenched quark model for baryons in which the effects of quark-antiquark pairs (u anti-u, d anti-d and s anti-s) are taken into account in an explicit form. The inclusion of q anti-q pairs leads automatically to an excess of anti-d over anti-u quarks in the proton, in agreement with experimental data.

  2. Brain mechanisms of flavor learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi eYamamoto

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Once the flavor of the ingested food (conditioned stimulus, CS is associated with a preferable (e.g., good taste or nutritive satisfaction or aversive (e.g., malaise with displeasure signal (unconditioned stimulus, US, animals react to its subsequent exposure by increasing or decreasing ingestion to the food. These two types of association learning (preference learning vs. aversion learning are known as classical conditioned reactions which are basic learning and memory phenomena, leading selection of food and proper food intake. Since the perception of flavor is generated by interaction of taste and odor during food intake, taste and/or odor are mainly associated with bodily signals in the flavor learning. After briefly reviewing flavor learning in general, brain mechanisms of conditioned taste aversion is described in more detail. The CS-US association leading to long-term potentiation in the amygdala, especially in its basolateral nucleus, is the basis of establishment of conditioned taste aversion. The novelty of the CS detected by the cortical gustatory area may be supportive in CS-US association. After the association, CS input is conveyed through the amygdala to different brain regions including the hippocampus for contextual fear formation, to the supramammilary and thalamic paraventricular nuclei for stressful anxiety or memory dependent fearful or stressful emotion, to the reward system to induce aversive expression to the CS, or hedonic shift from positive to negative, and to the CS-responsive neurons in the gustatory system to enhance the responsiveness to facilitate to detect the harmful stimulus.

  3. Flavors of Supersymmetry Beyond Vanilla

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, Jared A

    2015-01-01

    This review surveys the territory of supersymmetry beyond the vanilla MSSM. With a viewpoint guided by electroweak naturalness, the review focuses on constructions that weaken or bypass current LHC constraints. Models of SUSY containing Dirac gluinos, compressed spectra, flavor-violating squarks, R-parity violation, stealth sectors, exotic detector objects, and more are discussed. In addition to presenting ways of hiding SUSY, these models highlight a few opportunities to improve LHC coverage.

  4. Dirac neutrinos from flavor symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Aranda, Alfredo; Morisi, S; Peinado, E; Valle, J W F

    2013-01-01

    We present a model where Majorana neutrino mass terms are forbidden by the flavor symmetry group Delta(27). Neutrinos are Dirac fermions and their masses arise in the same way as that of the charged fermions, due to very small Yukawa couplings. The model fits current neutrino oscillation data and correlates the octant of the atmospheric angle with the magnitude of the lightest neutrino mass, with maximal mixing excluded for any neutrino mass

  5. The Flavor World of Childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Mennella, Julie A

    2014-01-01

    Many of the chronic illnesses that plague modern society, such as obesity, diabetes, and hypertension, derive in large part from poor food choices, dictated in part by flavor preferences. Against the advice and recommendations of health authorities worldwide, people eat too much salt, fat, and simple sugars and too few fruits and vegetables, even and especially among children. How can we account for patterns of food choice that are antithetical to health, and why is it so difficult to develo...

  6. Neutrino Masses and Flavor Mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Zhi-zhong

    2010-06-01

    I give a theoretical overview of some basic properties of massive neutrinos in these lectures. Particular attention is paid to the origin of neutrino masses, the pattern of lepton flavor mixing, the feature of leptonic CP violation and the electromagnetic properties of massive neutrinos. I highlight the TeV seesaw mechanisms as a possible bridge between neutrino physics and collider physics in the era characterized by the Large Hadron Collider.

  7. Flavor effects on leptogenesis predictions

    CERN Document Server

    Blanchet, S; Bari, Pasquale Di; Blanchet, Steve

    2006-01-01

    Flavor effects in leptogenesis reduce the region of the see-saw parameter space where the final predictions do not depend on the initial conditions, the strong wash-out regime. In this case we show that the lowest bounds holding on the lightest right-handed (RH) neutrino mass and on the reheating temperature for hierarchical heavy neutrinos, do not get relaxed compared to the usual ones in the one-flavor approximation, M_1 (T_reh) \\gtrsim 3 (1.5) x 10^9 GeV. Flavor effects can however relax down to these minimal values the lower bounds holding for fixed large values of the decay parameter K_1. We discuss a relevant definite example showing that, when the known information on the neutrino mixing matrix is employed, the lower bounds for K_1 \\gg 10, are relaxed by a factor 2-3 for light hierarchical neutrinos, without any dependence on \\theta_13 and on possible phases. On the other hand, going beyond the limit of light hierarchical neutrinos and taking into account Majorana phases, the lower bounds can be relaxe...

  8. The Flavor World of Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie A Mennella

    2014-07-01

    Although some may view food choice as a cultural trait, not directly related to our biology, overwhelming evidence suggests that children’s biology makes them especially vulnerable to the current food environment of processed foods high in salt and refined sugars. Emerging research in humans and animal models suggests that, beginning very early in life, sensory experiences shape and modify flavor and food preferences and have far-reaching effects on behavior. Such early life experiences with healthy levels of salt and sweet tastes and repeated exposure to healthy food flavors may go a long way toward promoting healthy eating and growth, which could have a significant impact in addressing the many chronic illnesses associated with poor food choice. Yet because of the lack of research, many feeding practices are based on idiosyncratic parental behavior, family traditions, or medical lore, rather than research. One of the keys to continued advances and applications on how to develop good food habits comes from studying the fundamental principles underlying flavor learning, which provides an understanding and appreciation of essential aspect of cultural food practices and habits.

  9. Flavor Mixing in Gauge-Higgs Unification

    CERN Document Server

    Adachi, Yuki; Lim, C S; Maru, Nobuhito

    2010-01-01

    We discuss flavor mixing and resultant flavor changing neutral current processes in the SU(3) \\otimes SU(3)_\\text{color} gauge-Higgs unification scenario. To achieve flavor violation is a challenging issue in the scenario, since the Yukawa couplings are originally higher dimensional gauge interactions. We argue that the presence of Z_2-odd bulk masses of fermions plays a crucial role as the new source of flavor violation. Although introducing brane-localized mass terms in addition to the bulk masses is necessary to realize flavor mixing, if the bulk masses were universal among generations, the flavor mixing and flavor changing neutral current processes are known to disappear. We also discuss whether natural flavor conservation is realized in the scenario. It is shown that the new source of flavor violation leads to flavor changing neutral current processes at the tree level due to the exchange of non-zero Kaluza-Klein gauge bosons. As a typical example we calculate the rate of K^0 - \\bar{K}^0 mixing due to th...

  10. Authenticity and Traceability of Vanilla Flavors by Analysis of Stable Isotopes of Carbon and Hydrogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne-Mette Sølvbjerg; Fromberg, Arvid; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz

    2014-01-01

    Authenticity and traceability of vanilla flavors were investigated using gas chromatographyisotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-IRMS). Vanilla flavors produced by chemical synthesis (n = 2), fermentation (n = 1), and extracted from two different species of the vanilla orchid (n = 79) were analyzed....... The authenticity of the flavor compound vanillin was evaluated on the basis of measurements of ratios of carbon stable isotopes (delta C-13). It was found that results of delta C-13 for vanillin extracted from Vanilla planifolia and Vanilla tahitensis were significantly different (t test) and that it was possible...... to differentiate these two groups of natural vanillin from vanillin produced otherwise. Vanilla flavors were also analyzed for ratios of hydrogen stable isotopes (delta H-2). A graphic representation of delta C-13 versus delta H-2 revealed that vanillin extracted from pods grown in adjacent geographic origins...

  11. New Physics in Astrophysical Neutrino Flavor

    CERN Document Server

    Argüelles, Carlos A; Salvado, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the IceCube collaboration announced the first detection of extra-terrestrial ultra high energy neutrinos. Astrophysical neutrinos are powerful tools to investigate the fundamental properties of particle physics through their flavor content. In this paper, we study the effect of new physics in the context of the ultra high energy neutrino flavor content. We find that in new physics dominated scenarios, the flavor content at Earth is confined to a region related to the assumed initial flavor content. Furthermore, we conclude that a precise measure of the flavor content at Earth will provide orders of magnitude improvement on new physics bounds. Finally, we discuss the current best fits of flavor content of the IceCube data and their interplay with new physics scenarios.

  12. Holographic Thermodynamics and Transport of Flavor Fields

    CERN Document Server

    O'Bannon, Andy

    2008-01-01

    We use gauge-gravity duality to study a strongly-coupled non-Abelian gauge theory with flavor fields, i.e. fields transforming in the fundamental representation of the gauge group. We first study the thermodynamics of the flavor fields. In the grand canonical ensemble at zero temperature, we find a second-order transition when the mass of the flavor fields equals the chemical potential. We then study the transport properties of the flavor fields at finite temperature and density. We introduce external electric and magnetic fields and compute the resulting current of flavor charge. From this current we extract the conductivity, using Ohm's law. In addition, we compute the drag force on the flavor fields at large mass, in the presence of a finite baryon density and external electric and magnetic fields.

  13. Holographic thermodynamics and transport of flavor fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Bannon, Andrew Hill

    We use gauge-gravity duality to study a strongly-coupled non-Abelian gauge theory with flavor fields, i.e. fields transforming in the fundamental representation of the gauge group. We first study the thermodynamics of the flavor fields. In the grand canonical ensemble at zero temperature, we find a second-order transition when the mass of the flavor fields equals the chemical potential. We then study the transport properties of the flavor fields at finite temperature and density. We introduce external electric and magnetic fields and compute the resulting current of flavor charge. From this current we extract the conductivity, using Ohm's law. In addition, we compute the drag force on the flavor fields at large mass, in the presence of a finite baryon density and external electric and magnetic fields.

  14. 7 CFR 58.639 - Addition of flavor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Addition of flavor. 58.639 Section 58.639 Agriculture... Procedures § 58.639 Addition of flavor. The addition of flavoring ingredients to semi-frozen mix just prior... flavor injection equipment has been properly cleaned and sanitized prior to use and that the flavor...

  15. Quantitative Analysis and Comprehensive Study of Flavor-active Compounds and Appl ication Properties of Commercial Yeast Extract%商品化酵母抽提物中风味活性化合物的综合定量分析及其应用特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建彬; 宋焕禄; 李沛; 熊建

    2015-01-01

    多种气味及滋味化合物共同决定了酵母抽提物(YE)独特的风味特性,进一步决定了不同 YE 的应用特性。利用GC-O-MS、HPLC技术,对市场上的6款商品化 YE 中的挥发性化合物及不挥发性化合物(糖、有机酸、氨基酸、呈味核苷酸、肽)进行了全定量分析;随后,结合气味及滋味感官鉴评,评价不同种类风味化合物对YE感官知觉的影响。最后,对不同商品化酵母抽提物的应用特性进行评价和研究。结果发现:挥发性化合物方面,不同厂家生产的YE在气味活性化合物方面具有较大的差异。吡嗪类主要贡献了YE中对肉味有贡献的烤香香韵。而3-甲基丁醛、乙酸和酮类分别提供了 YE 的焦苦味、酸味和奶油味。不同香韵的分布还表明酵香可能是青香/焦苦香、烤香/坚果香/甜香之间的复合风味。不挥发化合物方面,糖类、大部分氨基酸类、核苷酸类、除琥珀酸、乳酸的有机酸类在1% YE 用量下TAV值均小于1,未单独对YE溶液滋味做出贡献。对不挥发物的相关性分析表明,300~2000 Da 分布肽段对浓厚滋味具有贡献,而Glu主要贡献了YE鲜味,且鲜味与浓厚味有正相关作用。Ala可以贡献YE甜味,而一系列的苦味氨基酸与苦味具有很强烈的正相关作用。另外,苦味主要与鲜味、浓厚味、酸味有负相关关系,表明了苦味与这些滋味具有此消彼长的关系。%The unique flavor characteristics of yeast extract (YE)are determined by a series of odor and taste-active compounds.Applying of GC-O-MS and HPLC techniques,the volatile and nonvolatile compounds (sugars,organic acids,amino acids,nucleotides and peptides)of 6 commercial YE are quantitative analyzed.Further,the sensory evaluation is used to measure the effect of different flavor compounds on the sensory perception of YE. Finally, the application properties of different commercial yeast extract are studied.The result shows that the

  16. Cytotoxicity of Cheese and Cheddar Cheese food flavorings on Allim cepa L root meristems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Moura

    Full Text Available Abstract Despite their great importance for the food industry, flavorings, in general, raise a number of questions regarding their cytotoxicity, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity, since, in the literature, there are few studies found evaluating the toxicity on the systemic and cellular level, of these chemical compounds. The root meristems of Allium cepa (onion are widely used for the assessment of toxicity of chemical compounds of interest. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate, in A. cepa meristematic cells, individually and in combination at the cellular level, the toxicity of synthetic Cheese and Cheddar Cheese food flavorings, identical to the natural, at doses of 1.0 and 2.0 mL, at exposure times of 24 and 48 hours. In combination we used 0.5 mL of Cheese flavor associated with 0.5 mL of Cheddar flavor; and 1.0 mL of Cheese flavor associated with 1.0 mL of Cheddar flavor, at exposure times of 24 and 48 hours. For these evaluations, we used groups of five onion bulbs, which were first embedded in distilled water and then transferred to their respective doses. The root tips were collected and fixed in acetic acid (3:1 for 24 hours. The slides were prepared by crushing and were stained with 2% acetic orcein. Cells were analyzed throughout the cell cycle, totaling 5,000 for each control and exposure time. The mitotic indices calculated and cellular aberrations observed were subjected to statistical analysis using the chi-square test (p <0.05. No chromosomal abnormalities nor those of mitotic spindle were observed for the treatments performed. The results, both individually and in combination, showed that the flavorings under study significantly reduced the cell division rate of the test system cells used. Therefore, under the conditions studied, the two flavorings were cytotoxic.

  17. 发酵鸭肉肠加工工艺优化及挥发性风味物质检测%Optimal Processing and Volatile Flavor Compounds of Fermented Duck Sausage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石江涛; 王武; 邓诗诗; 魏玲

    2015-01-01

    以鸭腿为原料,选择嗜酸乳杆菌(L. plantarum)和戊糖片球菌(P. pentosaces)为发酵菌种,以感官评分为评价指标,采用单因素结合响应面试验方法优化发酵鸭肉肠的加工工艺,并采用固相微萃取和气质联用技术检测发酵鸭肉肠中挥发性风味物质的组成。结果表明:发酵鸭肉肠较佳的加工工艺条件为:发酵剂添加量106 CFU/g、发酵时间54 h、发酵温度27℃,此工艺下制作的发酵鸭肉肠具有较好的感官品质。从发酵鸭肉肠中检测出37种挥发性成分,包括醛类、醇类、烃类、酸类、酯类以及含氮类化合物等。%The process optimization using combination of single factor method and response surface methodology (RSM) for the production of fermented duck sausage from duck leg meat using a 1:1 mixture ofL. plantarum andP. pentosaces as starter culture was conducted in this study. The response was sensory evaluation score. Volatile compounds in fermented sausage were determined by solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Results indicated that the optimal processing parameters of fermented duck sausage were 106 CFU/g starter culture, 54 h of fermentation time, and 27℃ of fermentation temperature. Totally 37 volatile lfavor compounds including aldehydes, alcohols, hydrocarbons, acids, esters and nitrogenous compounds were identiifed in fermented duck sausage.

  18. Data on green tea flavor determinantes as affected by cultivars and manufacturing processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhuo-Xiao; Rana, Mohammad M; Liu, Guo-Feng; Gao, Ming-Jun; Li, Da-Xiang; Wu, Fu-Guang; Li, Xin-Bao; Wan, Xiao-Chun; Wei, Shu

    2017-02-01

    This paper presents data related to an article entitled "Green tea flavor determinants and their changes over manufacturing processes" (Han et al., 2016) [1]. Green tea samples were prepared with steaming and pan firing treatments from the tender leaves of tea cultivars 'Bai-Sang Cha' ('BAS') and 'Fuding-Dabai Cha' ('FUD'). Aroma compounds from the tea infusions were detected and quantified using HS-SPME coupled with GC/MS. Sensory evaluation was also made for characteristic tea flavor. The data shows the abundances of the detected aroma compounds, their threshold values and odor characteristics in the two differently processed tea samples as well as two different cultivars.

  19. Flavor physics of leptons and dipole moments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raidal, M.; Kadastik, M.; Kajiyama, Y.; Muntel, M.; Rebane, L. [National Inst. for Chemical Physics and Biophysics, Tallinn (Estonia); Schaaf, A. van der [Physik-Inst. der Univ. Zuerich, Zuerich (Switzerland); Bigi, I. [Univ. of Notre Dame du Lac, Physics Dept., Notre Dame, IN (United States); Mangano, M.L.; Ceccucci, A.; Felcini, M.; Giudice, G.; Lebedev, O.; Masina, I. [CERN, Physics Dept., Geneva (Switzerland); Semertzidis, Y. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Abel, S.; Underwood, T.E.J. [Durham Univ., Inst. for Particle Physics Phenomenology, Durham (United Kingdom); Albino, S. [Univ. of Hamburg, II. Inst. for Theoretical Physics, Hamburg (Germany); Antusch, S.; Biggio, C. [Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Arganda, E.; Herrero, M.J.; Joaquim, F.R. [Univ. Autonoma de Madrid, Dept. de Fisica Teorica (Spain)]|[IFT/CSIC-UAM, Madrid (Spain); Bajc, B. [J. Stefan Inst., Ljubljana (Slovenia); Banerjee, S.; Roney, J.M. [Univ. of Victoria, Dept. of Physics, Victoria, BC (Canada); Blanke, M. [Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany)]|[TU Munich, Physics Dept., Garching (Germany); Bonivento, W.; Serra, N. [Univ. degli Studi di Cagliari (Italy)]|[INFN Cagliari, Monserrato (Italy); Branco, G.C.; Rebelo, M.N. [CERN, Physics Dept., Geneva (Switzerland)]|[Inst. Superior Tecnico, Dept. de Fisica (Portugal)]|[Centro de Fisica Teorica de Particulas, Lisboa (Portugal); Bryman, D. [Univ. of British Columbia, TRIUMF, Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Buras, A.J.; Duling, B.; Poschenrieder, A.; Tarantino, C. [TU Munich, Physics Dept., Garching (Germany); Calibbi, L. [SISSA (Italy)]|[INFN, Sezione di Trieste, Trieste (Italy)]|[Univ. de Valencia-CSIC, Dept. de Fisica Teorica, Burjassot (Spain)]|[Dipt. di Fisica ' G. Galilei' (Italy)]|[INFN, Padova (Italy); Chankowski, P.H. [Univ. of Warsaw, Warsaw (Poland); Davidson, S.; Deandrea, A. [Univ. Lyon-1, IPNL, CNRS, Villeurbanne (France)] [and others

    2008-09-15

    This chapter of the report of the ''Flavor in the era of the LHC'' Workshop discusses the theoretical, phenomenological and experimental issues related to flavor phenomena in the charged lepton sector and in flavor conserving CP-violating processes. We review the current experimental limits and the main theoretical models for the flavor structure of fundamental particles. We analyze the phenomenological consequences of the available data, setting constraints on explicit models beyond the standard model, presenting benchmarks for the discovery potential of forthcoming measurements both at the LHC and at low energy, and exploring options for possible future experiments. (orig.)

  20. Minimal Flavor Violation in the Lepton Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Cirigliano, Vincenzo; Grinstein, Benjamin; Isidori, Gino; Wise, Mark B.

    2005-01-01

    We extend the notion of Minimal Flavor Violation to the lepton sector. We introduce a symmetry principle which allows us to express lepton flavor violation in the charged lepton sector in terms of neutrino masses and mixing angles. We explore the dependence of the rates for flavor changing radiative charged lepton decays (ell(i) -> ell(j) + gamma) and mu-to-e conversion in nuclei on the scales for total lepton number violation, lepton flavor violation and the neutrino masses and mixing angles...

  1. Theoretically palatable flavor combinations of astrophysical neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Bustamante, Mauricio; Winter, Walter

    2015-01-01

    The flavor composition of high-energy astrophysical neutrinos can reveal the particle physics governing their production, propagation, and interaction. The IceCube Collaboration has published the first experimental determination of the ratio of each flavor to the total flux. We present, as a theoretical counterpart, new results for the full range of received flavor ratios for arbitrary flavor ratios in the sources. With just standard neutrino mixing, this range is quite small. Even when a broad class of new-physics effects is included, it remains surprisingly small. Our results will allow IceCube to more quickly identify when their measurements imply standard, new, or truly exotic physics.

  2. Neutrino flavor oscillations in rotating matter

    CERN Document Server

    Dvornikov, Maxim

    2010-01-01

    We study the evolution of the neutrinos system in rotating matter. Neutrinos are supposed to be mixed massive particles interacting with background fermions by means of the electroweak forces. First we find the solutions of wave equations for the neutrino mass eigenstates in matter. Then we study the behavior of neutrino flavor eigenstates in background matter. The problems of neutrino bound states and neutrino flavor oscillations are discussed. We also derive the analog of the quantum mechanical evolution equation for the system of two flavor neutrinos in rotating matter and analyze its solution for the particular initial condition for neutrino flavor eigenstates.

  3. Influences of Acid Treatment at High Temperature on Flavor Compounds in Tobacco Powder by GC-MS Analysis%气相色谱-质谱联用分析高温酸处理对烟末风味物质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱明明; 卓浩廉; 赵谋明; 伍锦鸣; 赵强忠; 黎玉茗

    2012-01-01

    Two kinds of extracts from tobacco powder treated with methods of high temperature and high temperature acid hydrolysis were prepared and analyzed by using simultaneous distillation extraction/gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The varieties and contents of flavor substances in tobacco powder treated with the two methods were compared. The results showed that the total number of flavor compounds from tobacco processed with high temperature acid hydrolysis increased compared with that processed with high temperature hydrolysis. Ketones and esters kept the same number with that processed with high temperature hydrolysis, and the relative contents decreased. The amount of aldehydes increased, but the content of aldehydes decreased. The amount of alcohols reduced, but the relative content increased. The 3-methylpentanoic acid and 2-methyl butyric acid produced from tobacco treated with high temperature acid hydrolysis were important components of the smoke spice, and l-hydroxyethyl-4-methyl-piperazine,5, 8-dimethyl quinoxaline and 2-methyl-5-ethyl furan were of extremely high aroma intensity. The evaluation of smoking showed that the aromas increased, the stimulion declined, and the aftertaste becomes comfortable after high temperature acid hydrolysis.%以烟末为原料,制备了高温水解和高温酸水解处理的两种抽提物,采用同时蒸馏萃取-气相色谱-质谱联用( SDE-GC-MS)对比分析了两种处理方式的风味物质,结果表明:经高温酸处理后化合物种类增加,其中酮类、酯类种类相同,相对含量减少;醛类种类增加,相对含量减少;醇类种类减少,相对含量增加;且产生的3-甲基戊酸、2-甲基丁酸是香料烟中的重要成分,1-羟乙基4甲基哌嗪、5,8-二甲基苯并吡嗪及2-甲基-5-乙基呋喃有极高的香气强度.经感官评吸表明,高温酸水解后得到的抽提物香气提升,刺激性降低,余味变舒适.

  4. Flavor release measurement by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization ion trap mass spectrometry, construction of interface and mathematical modeling of release profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haahr, Anne-Mette; Madsen, Henrik; Smedsgaard, Jørn

    2003-01-01

    An instrumental on-line retronasal flavor analysis was developed to obtain information about the release of flavor compounds in expired air from humans during eating. The volatile flavor compounds were measured by ion trap mass spectrometry with an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization source...... (APCI). An interface was designed to sample the breath directly from the nose. The repeat-ability in vitro for seven different flavor compounds came out with relative standard derivation less than 10% in most cases, which is acceptable. In vitro quantification was carried out by a determination...... of the concentration in the gas phase over a flavor solution by GC/MS, followed by measurements of intensities by the APCI ion trap. Ion suppression by acetone in the breath was negligible at concentration levels relevant in these experiments. The instrumental limits of detection for menthone and menthol coincide...

  5. Thermodynamics for two flavor QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Bernard, C W; Tar, C D; Gottlieb, S; Heller, U M; Hetrick, J E; Kärkkäinen, L; Neile, C M; Rummukainen, K; Sugar, R L; Toussaint, D; Wingate, M; Gottlieb, Steven

    1996-01-01

    We conclude our analysis of the N_t=6 equation of state for two flavor QCD, first described at last year's conference. We have obtained new runs at am_q=0.025 and improved runs at am_q=0.0125. The results are extrapolated to m_q=0, and we extract the speed of sound as well. We also present evidence for a restoration of the SU(2) X SU(2) chiral symmetry just above the crossover, but not of the axial U(1) chiral symmetry.

  6. TASI Lectures on Flavor Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Ligeti, Zoltan

    2015-01-01

    These notes overlap with lectures given at the TASI summer schools in 2014 and 2011, as well as at the European School of High Energy Physics in 2013. This is primarily an attempt at transcribing my hand-written notes, with emphasis on topics and ideas discussed in the lectures. It is not a comprehensive introduction or review of the field, nor does it include a complete list of references. I hope, however, that someone may find it useful to better understand the reasons for excitement about recent progress and future opportunities in flavor physics.

  7. TASI Lectures on Flavor Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligeti, Zoltan

    These notes overlap with lectures given at the TASI summer schools in 2014 and 2011, as well as at the European School of High Energy Physics in 2013. This is primarily an attempt at transcribing my handwritten notes, with emphasis on topics and ideas discussed in the lectures. It is not a comprehensive introduction or review of the field, nor does it include a complete list of references. I hope, however, that some may find it useful to better understand the reasons for excitement about recent progress and future opportunities in flavor physics.

  8. Effects of Bagging on the Flavor Compounds Fruit sugar and Acid Constituents of Yali Pear%套袋对鸭梨果实香气及糖酸组分的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王少敏; 魏树伟

    2011-01-01

    The volatile compounds, sugars, organic acids of the fruits tested were identified and quantified using static headspace and gas chromatography - mass spectrometry ( GC - MS) and high - performance liquid chromatog-raphy ( HPLC). Results showed that: Bagging reduced volatiles varieties and relative contents of Yali Pear fruit. There were 3 categories and 18 kinds of volatiles in bagged Yali Pear; and 3 categories and 26 kinds of volatiles in non -bagged Yali Pear fruit. The major volatile compounds of Yali Pear were; Acetic acid hexyl ester N Hexanoic acid ethyl ester%Butanoic acid ethyl ester. 3 sugars and 4 organic acids were detected from the samples. Fructose was the most dominant sugar, followed by sucrose and glucose, while malic acid was the principal organic acid, followed by acetic, citric and oxalic. The contents of sugars and organic acids among samples were different.%采用静态顶空和气相色谱一质谱联用技术、高效液相色谱技术,研究了生长期套袋对鸭梨果实挥发性成分、糖酸组分等风味物质的组成和含量的影响.结果表明:套袋导致鸭梨香气物质种类减少和相对百分含量降低.套袋鸭梨采收时测定的香气成分有3类18种,其中酯类15种、烯类2种、醇类1种;不套袋鸭梨采收时测定的香气成分有3类26种,其中酯类23种、烯类2种、醇类1种.鸭梨的主要香气成分是乙酸己酯、己酸乙酯、丁酸乙酯.套袋和不套袋鸭梨均检测到3种糖、4种有机酸组分,其中糖组分主要为果糖,其次为蔗糖、葡萄糖,有机酸组分主要为苹果酸,其次为乙酸、柠檬酸、草酸,但不同处理间含量存在差异.

  9. Condensed milk storage and evaporation affect the flavor of nonfat dry milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Curtis W; Drake, MaryAnne

    2016-12-01

    Unit operations in nonfat dry milk (NFDM) manufacture influence sensory properties, and consequently, its use and acceptance in ingredient applications. Condensed skim milk may be stored at refrigeration temperatures for extended periods before spray drying due to shipping or lack of drying capacity. Currently, NFDM processors have 2 options for milk concentration up to 30% solids: evaporation (E) or reverse osmosis (RO). The objective of this study was to determine the effect of condensed milk storage and milk concentration method (E vs. RO) on the flavor of NFDM and investigate mechanisms behind flavor differences. For experiment 1, skim milk was pasteurized and concentrated to 30% solids by E or RO and then either stored for 24h at 4°C or concentrated to 50% solids by E and spray dried immediately. To investigate mechanisms behind the results from experiment 1, experiment 2 was constructed. In experiment 2, pasteurized skim milk was subjected to 1 of 4 treatments: control (no E), heated in the evaporator without vacuum, E concentration to 30% solids, or E concentration to 40% solids. The milks were then diluted to the same solids content and evaluated. Volatile compounds were also measured during concentration in the vapor separator of the evaporator. Sensory properties were evaluated by descriptive sensory analysis and instrumental volatile compound analysis was conducted to evaluate volatile compounds. Interaction effects between storage and method of concentration were investigated. In experiment 1, E decreased sweet aromatic flavor and many characteristic milk flavor compounds and increased cardboard and cooked flavors in NFDM compared with RO. Liquid storage increased cardboard flavor and hexanal and octanal and decreased sweet aromatic flavors and vanillin concentration. Results from experiment 2 indicated that the characteristic milk flavors and their associated volatile compounds were removed by the vapor separator in the evaporator due to the heat and

  10. Influence of heating and acidification on the flavor of whey protein isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, S S; Fox, K M; Jervis, S M; Drake, M A

    2013-03-01

    Previous studies have established that whey protein manufacture unit operations influence the flavor of dried whey proteins. Additionally, manufacturers generally instantize whey protein isolate (WPI; ≥ 90% protein) by agglomeration with lecithin to increase solubility and wettability. Whey protein isolate is often subjected to additional postprocessing steps in beverage manufacturing, including acidification and heat treatment. These postprocessing treatments may further influence formation or release of flavors. The objective of the first study was to characterize the effect of 2 processing steps inherent to manufacturing of acidic protein beverages (acidification and heat treatment) on the flavor of non-instant WPI. The second study sought to determine the effect of lecithin agglomeration, a common form of instantized (INST) WPI used in beverage manufacturing, on the flavor of WPI after acidification and heat treatment. In the first experiment, commercial non-instantized (NI) WPI were rehydrated and evaluated as is (control); acidified to pH 3.2; heated to 85°C for 5 min in a benchtop high temperature, short time (HTST) pasteurizer; or acidified to 3.2 and heated to 85°C for 30s (AH-HTST). In the second experiment, INST and NI commercial WPI were subsequently evaluated as control, acidified, heated, or AH-HTST. All samples were evaluated by descriptive sensory analysis, solid-phase microextraction (SPME), and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Acidification of NI WPI produced higher concentrations of dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) and sensory detection of potato/brothy flavors, whereas heating increased cooked/sulfur flavors. Acidification and heating increased cardboard, potato/brothy, and malty flavors and produced higher concentrations of aldehydes, ketones, and sulfur compounds. Differences between INST and NI WPI existed before treatment; INST WPI displayed cucumber flavors not present in NI WPI. After acidification, INST WPI were distinguished by higher

  11. Flavor characteristics of seven grades of black tea produced in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alasalvar, Cesarettin; Topal, Bahar; Serpen, Arda; Bahar, Banu; Pelvan, Ebru; Gökmen, Vural

    2012-06-27

    Seven grades of black tea [high-quality black tea (grades 1-3) and low-quality black tea (grades 4-7)], processed by ÇAYKUR Tea Processing Plant (Rize, Turkey), were compared for their differences in descriptive sensory analysis (DSA), aroma-active compounds (volatile compounds), and taste-active compounds (sugar, organic acid, and free amino acid compositions). Ten flavor attributes such as 'after taste', 'astringency', 'bitter', 'caramel-like', 'floral/sweet', 'green/grassy', 'hay-like', 'malty', 'roasty', and 'seaweed' were identified. Intensities for a number of flavor attributes ('after taste', 'caramel-like', 'malty', and 'seaweed') were not significantly different (p > 0.05) among seven grades of black tea. A total of 57 compounds in seven grades of black tea (14 aldehydes, eight alcohols, eight ketones, two esters, four aromatic hydrocarbons, five aliphatic hydrocarbons, nine terpenes, two pyrazines, one furan, two acids, and two miscellaneous compounds) were tentatively identified. Of these, aldeyhdes comprised more than 50% to the total volatile compounds identified. In general, high-grade quality tea had more volatiles than low-grade quality tea. With respect to taste-active compounds, five sugars, six organic acids, and 18 free amino acids were positively identified in seven grades of black tea, of which fructose, tannic acid, and theanine predominated, respectively. Some variations (p black tea. The present study suggests that a certain flavor attributes correlate well with taste- and aroma-active compounds. High- and low-quality black teas should not be distinguished solely on the basis of their DSA and taste- and aroma-active compounds. The combination of taste-active compounds together with aroma-active compounds renders combination effects that provide the characteristic flavor of each grade of black tea.

  12. Electroweak constraints on flavorful effective theories

    CERN Document Server

    Efrati, Aielet; Soreq, Yotam

    2015-01-01

    We derive model-independent constraints arising from the Z and W boson observables on dimension six operators in the effective theory beyond the Standard Model. In particular, we discuss the generic flavor structure for these operators as well as several flavor patterns motivated by simple new physics scenarios.

  13. Electroweak constraints on flavorful effective theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efrati, Aielet; Falkowski, Adam; Soreq, Yotam

    2015-07-01

    We derive model-independent constraints arising from the Z and W boson observables on dimension six operators in the effective theory beyond the Standard Model. In particular, we discuss the generic flavor structure for these operators as well as several flavor patterns motivated by simple new physics scenarios.

  14. A Heavy Flavor Tracker for STAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Z.; Chen, Y.; Kleinfelder, S.; Koohi, A.; Li, S.; Huang, H.; Tai, A.; Kushpil, V.; Sumbera, M.; Colledani, C.; Dulinski, W.; Himmi,A.; Hu, C.; Shabetai, A.; Szelezniak, M.; Valin, I.; Winter, M.; Miller,M.; Surrow, B.; Van Nieuwenhuizen G.; Bieser, F.; Gareus, R.; Greiner,L.; Lesser, F.; Matis, H.S.; Oldenburg, M.; Ritter, H.G.; Pierpoint, L.; Retiere, F.; Rose, A.; Schweda, K.; Sichtermann, E.; Thomas, J.H.; Wieman, H.; Yamamoto, E.; Kotov, I.

    2005-03-14

    We propose to construct a Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) for theSTAR experiment at RHIC. The HFT will bring new physics capabilities toSTAR and it will significantly enhance the physics capabilities of theSTAR detector at central rapidities. The HFT will ensure that STAR willbe able to take heavy flavor data at all luminosities attainablethroughout the proposed RHIC II era.

  15. A Heavy Flavor Tracker for STAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Z.; Chen, Y.; Kleinfelder, S.; Koohi, A.; Li, S.; Huang, H.; Tai, A.; Kushpil, V.; Sumbera, M.; Colledani, C.; Dulinski, W.; Himmi,A.; Hu, C.; Shabetai, A.; Szelezniak, M.; Valin, I.; Winter, M.; Surrow,B.; Van Nieuwenhuizen, G.; Bieser, F.; Gareus, R.; Greiner, L.; Lesser,F.; Matis, H.S.; Oldenburg, M.; Ritter, H.G.; Pierpoint, L.; Retiere, F.; Rose, A.; Schweda, K.; Sichtermann, E.; Thomas, J.H.; Wieman, H.; Yamamoto, E.; Kotov, I.

    2005-03-14

    We propose to construct a Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) for the STAR experiment at RHIC. The HFT will bring new physics capabilities to STAR and it will significantly enhance the physics capabilities of the STAR detector at central rapidities. The HFT will ensure that STAR will be able to take heavy flavor data at all luminosities attainable throughout the proposed RHIC II era.

  16. Lectures on Flavor Physics and CP Violation

    OpenAIRE

    Grinstein, B.

    2017-01-01

    Two short introductory lectures on Flavor Physics delivered at CLASHEP 2015. Among included topics: The KM matrix and the KM model of CP-violation, Determination of KM Elements, FCNC and GIM, New Physics and Flavor, Neutral Meson Mixing and CP Asymmetries. Many problems for the student, and solutions to selected problems, included.

  17. Encapsulation of liquid smoke flavoring in ca-alginate and ca-alginate-chitosan beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzold, Guillermo; Gianelli, María Pia; Bugueño, Graciela; Celan, Raymond; Pavez, Constanza; Orellana, Patricio

    2014-01-01

    Encapsulation is a technique used in foods that may protect some compounds with sensory impact, in particular flavoring as liquid smoke. We used the dripping method, obtaining two different layers for encapsulation of liquid smoke: calcium alginate and calcium alginate-chitosan. The results show that the load capacity of liquid smoke encapsulation reached values above 96 %. The beads exhibit syneresis at room temperature, but in opposite side, refrigeration temperature stabilizes the hydrogel of beads, allowing the samples loss weight less than 3 % after 72 h. Heated capsules with liquid smoke released several volatile compounds in the headspace and may identify 66 compounds. Among these volatile compounds, phenols derivatives can be considered sensory descriptors to contribute to the specific flavor of smoke. We conclude that the dripping method is highly efficient to encapsulate liquid smoke and released several volatile compounds, although it is necessary to minimize syneresis at room temperature.

  18. Flavor and Functional Characteristics of Whey Protein Isolates from Different Whey Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, T J; Foegeding, E A; Drake, M A

    2016-04-01

    This study evaluated flavor and functional characteristics of whey protein isolates (WPIs) from Cheddar, Mozzarella, Cottage cheese, and rennet casein whey. WPIs were manufactured in triplicate. Powders were rehydrated and evaluated in duplicate by descriptive sensory analysis. Volatile compounds were extracted by solid-phase microextraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Functional properties were evaluated by measurement of foam stability, heat stability, and protein solubility. WPI from Cheddar and Cottage cheese whey had the highest cardboard flavor, whereas sweet aromatic flavor was highest in Mozzarella WPI, and rennet casein WPI had the lowest overall flavor and aroma. Distinct sour taste and brothy/potato flavor were also noted in WPI from Cottage cheese whey. Consistent with sensory results, aldehyde concentrations were also highest in Cheddar and Cottage cheese WPI. Overrun, yield stress, and foam stability were not different (P > 0.05) among Cheddar, Mozzarella, and rennet casein WPI, but WPI foams from Cottage cheese whey had a lower overrun and air-phase fraction (P flavor characteristics. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  19. Applications of Liquid Smoke Powder as Flavor and Food Preservative (Case Study : Sponge Cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Maryam

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Liquid smoke is converted into powder will provide ease of mobilization and storage. At this time should be developed as an application of liquid smoke powder as flavor and food preservative. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of adding liquid smoke powder to the flavor and shelf life of food. Samples of food used is a sponge cake. The method used to observe the shelf life is the ESS (Extended Storage Studies. Observations flavor food with organoleptic test was used to respondents. Addition of liquid smoke powder treatment performed at the level of 0%, 2%, 4% and 6% of the weight of flour. The addition of liquid smoke powder to give effect to flavor foods and can increase shelf life. Liquid smoke contains phenolic compounds which in addition to contributing smoke flavor, also has antioxidant and bactericidal action on food. Optimal conditions of manufacture liquid smoke powder by using a spray dryer is on the treatment concentration of 5% and a inlet temperature of 160 °C. The addition of optimum is at the level of 2% which can increase the shelf life of food to 8 days and the flavor is still received  by respondents.

  20. Quark-flavored scalar dark matter

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharya, Bhubanjyoti; Datta, Alakabha; Dupuis, Grace; London, David

    2015-01-01

    It is an intriguing possibility that dark matter (DM) could have flavor quantum numbers like the quarks. We propose and investigate a class of UV-complete models of this kind, in which the dark matter is in a scalar triplet of an SU(3) flavor symmetry, and interacts with quarks via a colored flavor-singlet fermionic mediator. Such mediators could be discovered at the LHC if their masses are $\\sim 1$ TeV. We constrain the DM-mediator couplings using relic abundance, direct detection, and flavor-changing neutral-current considerations. We find that, for reasonable values of its couplings, scalar flavored DM can contribute significantly to the real and imaginary parts of the $B_s$-$\\bar B_s$ mixing amplitude. We further assess the potential for such models to explain the galactic center GeV gamma-ray excess.

  1. Patterns of flavor signals in supersymmetric models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goto, T. [KEK National High Energy Physics, Tsukuba (Japan)]|[Kyoto Univ. (Japan). YITP; Okada, Y. [KEK National High Energy Physics, Tsukuba (Japan)]|[Graduate Univ. for Advanced Studies, Tsukuba (Japan). Dept. of Particle and Nucelar Physics; Shindou, T. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)]|[International School for Advanced Studies, Trieste (Italy); Tanaka, M. [Osaka Univ., Toyonaka (Japan). Dept. of Physics

    2007-11-15

    Quark and lepton flavor signals are studied in four supersymmetric models, namely the minimal supergravity model, the minimal supersymmetric standard model with right-handed neutrinos, SU(5) supersymmetric grand unified theory with right-handed neutrinos and the minimal supersymmetric standard model with U(2) flavor symmetry. We calculate b{yields}s(d) transition observables in B{sub d} and B{sub s} decays, taking the constraint from the B{sub s}- anti B{sub s} mixing recently observed at Tevatron into account. We also calculate lepton flavor violating processes {mu} {yields} e{gamma}, {tau} {yields} {mu}{gamma} and {tau} {yields} e{gamma} for the models with right-handed neutrinos. We investigate possibilities to distinguish the flavor structure of the supersymmetry breaking sector with use of patterns of various flavor signals which are expected to be measured in experiments such as MEG, LHCb and a future Super B Factory. (orig.)

  2. Collective neutrino flavor conversion: Recent developments

    CERN Document Server

    Chakraborty, Sovan; Izaguirre, Ignacio; Raffelt, Georg

    2016-01-01

    Neutrino flavor evolution in core-collapse supernovae, neutron-star mergers, or the early universe is dominated by neutrino-neutrino refraction, often spawning "self-induced flavor conversion", i.e., shuffling of flavor among momentum modes. This effect is driven by collective run-away modes of the coupled "flavor oscillators" and can spontaneously break the initial symmetries such as axial symmetry, homogeneity, isotropy, and even stationarity. Moreover, the growth rates of unstable modes can be of the order of the neutrino-neutrino interaction energy instead of the much smaller vacuum oscillation frequency: self-induced flavor conversion does not always require neutrino masses. We illustrate these newly found phenomena in terms of simple toy models. What happens in realistic astrophysical settings is up to speculation at present.

  3. Identification of prenyl ethyl ether as a source of metallic, solvent-like off-flavor in hazelnut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrein, Thomas M; Schwager, Hugo; Meier, Roberto; Frey, Peter; Gassenmeier, Klaus F

    2010-11-10

    In a large batch of ground hazelnuts, a metallic, solvent-like off-note was detected. In this investigation, the volatiles from the batch showing off-notes were compared to a batch without off-notes. On the basis of gas chromatography (GC) sniffing and instrumental analysis, a terpenoid compound, prenyl ethyl ether, was identified as a key contributor to the off-note. The compound was quantified, and its contribution to the metallic, solvent-like off-flavor was confirmed by spiking experiments and sensory evaluation. Analytical and sensory experiments found that the off-note was still present in hazelnut cakes. Fat oxidation did not contribute to the off-flavor. Analysis of market products demonstrated the correlation between the identified terpenoid and the off-flavor. It is assumed that fungi are involved in off-flavor formation.

  4. Identification of a strawberry flavor gene candidate using an integrated genetic-genomic-analytical chemistry approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Alan H; Pillet, Jeremy; Plotto, Anne; Bai, Jinhe; Whitaker, Vance M; Folta, Kevin M

    2014-04-17

    There is interest in improving the flavor of commercial strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) varieties. Fruit flavor is shaped by combinations of sugars, acids and volatile compounds. Many efforts seek to use genomics-based strategies to identify genes controlling flavor, and then designing durable molecular markers to follow these genes in breeding populations. In this report, fruit from two cultivars, varying for presence-absence of volatile compounds, along with segregating progeny, were analyzed using GC/MS and RNAseq. Expression data were bulked in silico according to presence/absence of a given volatile compound, in this case γ-decalactone, a compound conferring a peach flavor note to fruits. Computationally sorting reads in segregating progeny based on γ-decalactone presence eliminated transcripts not directly relevant to the volatile, revealing transcripts possibly imparting quantitative contributions. One candidate encodes an omega-6 fatty acid desaturase, an enzyme known to participate in lactone production in fungi, noted here as FaFAD1. This candidate was induced by ripening, was detected in certain harvests, and correlated with γ-decalactone presence. The FaFAD1 gene is present in every genotype where γ-decalactone has been detected, and it was invariably missing in non-producers. A functional, PCR-based molecular marker was developed that cosegregates with the phenotype in F1 and BC1 populations, as well as in many other cultivars and wild Fragaria accessions. Genetic, genomic and analytical chemistry techniques were combined to identify FaFAD1, a gene likely controlling a key flavor volatile in strawberry. The same data may now be re-sorted based on presence/absence of any other volatile to identify other flavor-affecting candidates, leading to rapid generation of gene-specific markers.

  5. 根霉对特香型白酒风味的影响研究%Effects of Rhizopus on the flavor of Site-flavor liquor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾婷婷; 章肇敏; 吴生文

    2012-01-01

    从特香型白酒大曲中分离、富集了根霉菌液,将其应用于白酒生产,研究了根霉对特香型白酒各主要风味成分的影响.结果表明,制备的根霉菌液浓度为1.84mg/mL,根霉菌液的使用能有效增加白酒中乙醛含量的增加,当菌液用量为25mL时,能提高酒基中总酸及各主要风味物质的含量.%Rhizopus was isolated and accumulated in Daqu of Site-flavor liquor, and was used in production of liquor. Effects of Rhizopus on flavor components of the Site-flavor liquor were studied. The results showed that, the concentration of prepared Rhizopus in liquid was 1.84mg/ml, and application of Rhizopus could increase acetaldehyde content in Site-flavor liquor, and when addition of Rhizopus in liquid reached 25ml, contents of total acids and major flavor compounds in the liquor would be increased.

  6. Flavor Preferences in Animals: Role of Mouth and Gut Nutrient Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Sclafani

    2014-07-01

    water infusion. Flavor preference is then assessed in a two-bottle test with the CS+ vs. CS-. Numerous studies demonstrate that animals consume more of the sugar-paired CS+ flavor than of the water-paired CS- flavor during training and strongly prefer the CS+ to CS- in the choice test. Preferences are learned by hungry as well as freely fed animals and for initially unpalatable tastes (e.g., bitter as well as palatable flavors (e.g., sweet cherry. Once learned, the CS+ preference persists for many days to weeks even in the absence of nutrient infusions. The upper intestinal tract is a primary site where sugars act to condition flavor preferences, although the portal vein region near the liver is also implicated in sugar conditioning [2]. The discovery that the T1R2/T1R3 sweet receptor proteins are expressed in intestinal cells raised the possibility that the same receptors that trigger sugar appetite in the mouth also mediate postoral sugar appetition in the gut. However, several findings refute this attractive idea. In particular, sweet-tasting compounds differ substantially in their ability to condition flavor preferences when infused in the gut: IG glucose is much more effective than IG fructose in conditioning a CS+ preference whereas IG sucralose, a nonnutritive sweetener, conditioned a CS- preference [2]. In addition, sweet taste-impaired T1R3 knockout (KO mice that are indifferent to sugars in the mouth develop normal preferences for a CS+ flavor paired with IG sucrose. These findings implicate glucose-specific intestinal sensors (SGLT1 and SGLT3 in sugar-conditioned preferences. This is supported by the flavor conditioning action in mice of the nonmetabolizable glucose analog α-methyl-D-glucopyranoside, which is an SGLT1/SGLT3 ligand [4]. The postoral appetition effects of sugar but not nonnutritive sweeteners explain why mice learn to prefer sucrose over isosweet sucralose solutions. Like sugar, fat has postoral appetition effects. IG infusions of a soybean

  7. PHENIX recent heavy flavor results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Sanghoon

    2014-06-15

    Cold nuclear matter (CNM) effects provide an important ingredient to interpret the results from heavy-ion collisions. Such effects include nuclear shadowing, intrinsic parton transverse momentum broadening, and initial patron energy loss. The measurement of heavy quark production is a good probe to study the CNM effects particularly on gluons, since heavy quarks are mainly produced via gluon fusions at RHIC energy. The PHENIX experiment has an ability to study the CNM effects by measuring leptons from heavy-flavor decay in a broad kinematic range. Comparisons of the results measured in different rapidity regions allow us to study modification of gluon density function in the Au nucleus depending on parton fractional momentum x. In addition, comparisons to the results from heavy-ion collisions (Au + Au and Cu + Cu) measured by PHENIX provide an insight into the role of CNM effects in such collisions. Recent PHENIX results on heavy quark production are discussed in this presentation.

  8. Tetraquark states with open flavors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Liang [Hebei Normal University, Department of Physics, Shijiazhuang (China); CAS Center for Excellence in Particle Physics, Beijing (China); Qiao, Cong-Feng [University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, School of Physics, Beijing (China); CAS Center for Excellence in Particle Physics, Beijing (China)

    2016-10-15

    In this work, we estimate the masses of tetraquark states with four different flavors by virtue of QCD sum rules, in both b and c sectors. We construct four [8{sub c}] {sub anti} {sub bs} x [8{sub c}] {sub anti} {sub du} tetraquark currents with J{sup P} = 0{sup +}, and then we perform an analytic calculation up to dimension eight in the operator product expansion. We keep terms which are linear in the strange quark mass m{sub s}, and in the end we find two possible tetraquark states with masses (5.57 ± 0.15) and (5.58 ± 0.15) GeV. We find that their charmed-partner masses lie in (2.54 ± 0.13) and (2.55 ± 0.13) GeV, respectively, and are hence accessible in experiments like BESIII and Belle. (orig.)

  9. Neutral B meson flavor tagging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robert J.

    2001-07-01

    We present an investigation of the use of net charge and kaon identification to tag the flavor of neutral B mesons. The net charge of the neutral B meson decay products is zero if all charged particles are used and slightly non-zero if only undiscriminated hadronic final states are used. The net charge of the kaons alone correctly tags the identity of the neutral meson in at least a third of all decays. We have parametrized the particle identification capability of several techniques, such as dE/dx in time projection chambers, LEP/SLC ring-imaging chambers and an enhanced BaBar DIRC. Using these parametrisations we compare the relative tagging power of each technique to that of an ideal detector.

  10. Neutral B meson flavor tagging

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, R J

    2001-01-01

    We present an investigation of the use of net charge and kaon identification to tag the flavor of neutral B mesons. The net charge of the neutral B meson decay products is zero if all charged particles are used and slightly non-zero if only undiscriminated hadronic final states are used. The net charge of the kaons alone correctly tags the identity of the neutral meson in at least a third of all decays. We have parametrized the particle identification capability of several techniques, such as dE/dx in time projection chambers, LEP/SLC ring-imaging chambers and an enhanced BaBar DIRC. Using these parametrisations we compare the relative tagging power of each technique to that of an ideal detector. (8 refs).

  11. Flavor Physics and Lattice QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Bouchard, C M

    2013-01-01

    Our ability to resolve new physics effects is, largely, limited by the precision with which we calculate. The calculation of observables in the Standard (or a new physics) Model requires knowledge of associated hadronic contributions. The precision of such calculations, and therefore our ability to leverage experiment, is typically limited by hadronic uncertainties. The only first-principles method for calculating the nonperturbative, hadronic contributions is lattice QCD. Modern lattice calculations have controlled errors, are systematically improvable, and in some cases, are pushing the sub-percent level of precision. I outline the role played by, highlight state of the art efforts in, and discuss possible future directions of lattice calculations in flavor physics.

  12. ABJM with Flavors and FQHE

    CERN Document Server

    Hikida, Yasuaki; Takayanagi, Tadashi

    2009-01-01

    We add fundamental matters to the N=6 Chern-Simons theory (ABJM theory), and show that D6-branes wrapped over AdS_4 x S^3/Z_2 in type IIA superstring theory on AdS_4 x CP^3 give its dual description with N=3 supersymmetry. We confirm this by the arguments based on R-symmetry, supersymmetry, and brane configuration of ABJM theory. We also analyze the fluctuations of the D6-brane and compute the conformal dimensions of dual operators. In the presence of fractional branes, the ABJM theory can model the fractional quantum Hall effect (FQHE), with RR-fields regarded as the external electric-magnetic field. We show that an addition of the flavor D6-brane describes a class of fractional quantum Hall plateau transition.

  13. Determining flavor and flavor variability in commercially produced liquid cheddar whey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carunchia Whetstine, M E; Parker, J D; Drake, M A; Larick, D K

    2003-02-01

    Dried whey and whey protein are important food ingredients. Functionality of whey products has been studied extensively. Flavor inconsistency and flavors which may carry through to the finished product can limit whey ingredient applications in dairy and nondairy foods. The goal of this research was to determine the flavor and flavor variability of commercially produced liquid Cheddar cheese whey. Liquid Cheddar cheese whey from five culture blends from two different stirred-curd Cheddar cheese manufacturing facilities was collected. Whey flavor was characterized using instrumental and sensory methods. Wide variation in whey headspace volatiles was observed between different manufacturing facilities (P whey samples were also different (P whey flavor profiles were also confirmed by descriptive sensory analysis (P whey flavor were attributed to differences in milk source, processing and handling and starter culture blend. The flavor of liquid Cheddar cheese whey is variable and impacted by milk source and starter culture rotation. Results from this study will aid future studies that address the impact of liquid whey flavor variability on flavor of dried whey ingredients.

  14. Analysis of flavor and perfume using an internally cooled coated fiber device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong; Begnaud, Frédéric; Chaintreau, Alain; Pawliszyn, Janusz

    2007-05-01

    A miniaturized internally cooled coated fiber device was applied for the analysis of flavors and fragrances from various matrices. Its integration with a CTC CombiPAL autosampler enabled high throughput for the analysis of analytes in complex matrices that required simultaneous heating of the matrices and cooling of the fiber coating to achieve high extraction efficiency. It was found that up to ten times increase of extraction efficiencies was observed when the device was used to extract flavor compounds in water, even when limited sample temperatures were used to preserve the integrity of target compounds. The extraction of the flavor compounds in water with the device was reproducible, with RSD not larger than 15%. The lower limits of the linear ranges were in the low ppb range, which was about one order of magnitude smaller than those obtained with the commercialized 100 microm PDMS fibers. Exhaustive extraction of some perfume ingredients from a complex matrix (shampoo) was realized. All achieved recoveries were not less than 80%. The repeatability of the extraction of the perfume compounds from shampoo was better than 10%. The linear ranges were about 1-3000 microg/g, and the LOD was about 0.2-1 microg/g. The automated internally cooled coated fiber device was demonstrated to be a powerful sample preparation tool in flavor and fragrance analysis.

  15. Authenticity assessment: a permanent challenge in food flavor and essential oil analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosandl, A

    2004-09-01

    Both phenomena, enantioselectivity as well as isotope discrimination during biosynthesis, may serve as "endogenous" parameters, provided that suitable methods and comprehensive data from authentic sources are available. This review reports on enantioselective capillary gas chromatography and online methods of isotope-ratio mass spectrometry in the authentication of food flavor and essential oil compounds, referring to literature references published in the last decade.

  16. A Flavor Protection for Warped Higgsless Models

    CERN Document Server

    Csaki, Csaba

    2009-01-01

    We examine various possibilities for realistic 5D higgsless models and construct a full quark sector featuring next-to-minimal flavor violation (with an exact bulk SU(2) protecting the first two generations) satisfying electroweak and flavor constraints. The "new custodially protected representation" is used for the third generation to protect the light quarks from flavor violations induced due to the heavy top. A combination of flavor symmetries, and RS-GIM for the right-handed quarks suppresses flavor-changing neutral currents below experimental bounds, assuming CKM-type mixing on the UV brane. In addition to the usual higgsless RS signals, this model predicts an exotic charge-5/3 quark with mass of about 0.5 TeV which should show up at the LHC very quickly, as well as nonzero flavor-changing neutral currents which could be detected in the next generation of flavor experiments. In the course of our analysis, we also find quantitative estimates for the errors of the fermion zero mode approximation, which are...

  17. A flavor protection for warped Higgsless models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csáki, Csaba; Curtin, David

    2009-07-01

    We examine various possibilities for realistic 5D Higgsless models on a Randall-Sundrum (RS) background, and construct a full quark sector featuring next-to-minimal flavor violation (with an exact bulk SU(2) protecting the first two generations) which satisfies electroweak and flavor constraints. The “new custodially protected representation” is used for the third generation to protect the light quarks from flavor violations induced due to the heavy top. A combination of flavor symmetries, and an “RS-GIM” mechanism for the right-handed quarks suppresses flavor-changing neutral currents below experimental bounds, assuming Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa-type mixing on the UV brane. In addition to the usual Higgsless RS signals, this model predicts an exotic charge-5/3 quark with mass of about 0.5 TeV which should show up at the LHC very quickly, as well as nonzero flavor-changing neutral currents which could be detected in the next generation of flavor experiments. In the course of our analysis, we also find quantitative estimates for the errors of the fermion zero-mode approximation, which are significant for Higgsless-type models.

  18. Flavor and CP invariant composite Higgs models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redi, Michele [CERN - European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland). Theory Div.; INFN, Firenze (Italy); Weiler, Andreas [CERN - European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland). Theory Div.; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2011-09-15

    The flavor protection in composite Higgs models with partial compositeness is known to be insufficient. We explore the possibility to alleviate the tension with CP odd observables by assuming that flavor or CP are symmetries of the composite sector, broken by the coupling to Standard Model fields. One realization is that the composite sector has a flavor symmetry SU(3) or SU(3){sub U} x SU(3){sub D} which allows us to realize Minimal Flavor Violation. We show how to avoid the previously problematic tension between a flavor symmetric composite sector and electro-weak precision tests. Some of the light quarks are substantially or even fully composite with striking signals at the LHC. We discuss the constraints from recent dijet mass measurements and give an outlook on the discovery potential. We also present a different protection mechanism where we separate the generation of flavor hierarchies and the origin of CP violation. This can eliminate or safely reduce unwanted CP violating effects, realizing effectively ''Minimal CP Violation'' and is compatible with a dynamical generation of flavor at low scales. (orig.)

  19. In vivo solid-phase microextraction with in vitro calibration: determination of off-flavor components in live fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Ziwei; Pilote, Alexandre; Sarker, Pallab Kumer; Vandenberg, Grant; Pawliszyn, Janusz

    2013-02-19

    The presence of off-flavor compounds in fish represents a significant economic problem encountered in aquaculture production. The off-flavor compounds are due to the absorption of substances produced by a range of microorganisms. Currently, a number of strategies have been used to prevent or limit the growth of these microorganisms. Therefore, it is important to evaluate the effectiveness of strategies via monitoring the concentrations of off-flavor compounds in the recirculating aquaculture system. In vivo solid-phase microextraction (SPME), a rapid and simple sample preparation method, will allow monitoring the concentration of off-flavor compounds in live fish. In this research, geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol (2-MIB) produced by cyanobacteria and actinomycetes, which are the major sources for "earthy" and "muddy" flavors in fish, were selected as representatives. In order to accurately quantify these compounds in fish muscle, two kinetic calibration methods, on-fiber standardization and measurement using predetermined sampling rate, were used as quantification methods, which were both validated by traditional methods. The detection limit of in vivo SPME in fish muscle was 0.12 ng/g for geosmin and 0.21 ng/g for 2-MIB, which are both below the human sensory thresholds.

  20. [Inheritance on and innovation of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) flavor theory and TCM flavor standardization principle flavor theory in Compendium of Materia Medica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Rui-xian; Li, Jian

    2015-12-01

    All previous literatures about Chinese herbal medicines show distinctive traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) flavors. Compendium of Materia Medica is an influential book in TCM history. The TCM flavor theory and flavor standardization principle in this book has important significance for modern TCM flavor standardization. Compendium of Materia Medica pays attention to the flavor theory, explain the relations between the flavor of medicine and its therapeutic effects by means of Neo-Confucianism of the Song and Ming Dynasties. However,the book has not reflected and further developed the systemic theory, which originated in the Jin and Yuan dynasty. In Compendium of Materia Medica , flavor are standardized just by tasting medicines, instead of deducing flavors. Therefore, medicine tasting should be adopted as the major method to standardize the flavor of medicine.

  1. Contributed report: Flavor anarchy for Majorana neutrinos

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yosef Nir; Yael Shadmi

    2004-12-01

    We argue that neutrino flavor parameters may exhibit features that are very different from those of quarks and charged leptons. Specifically, within the Froggatt–Nielsen (FN) framework, charged fermion parameters depend on the ratio between two scales, while for neutrinos a third scale – that of lepton number breaking – is involved. Consequently, the selection rules for neutrinos may be different. In particular, if the scale of lepton number breaking is similar to the scale of horizontal symmetry breaking, neutrinos may become flavor-blind even if they carry different horizontal charges. This provides an attractive mechanism for neutrino flavor anarchy.

  2. Flavor release measurement from gum model system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ovejero-López, I.; Haahr, Anne-Mette; van den Berg, Frans W.J.

    2004-01-01

    Flavor release from a mint-flavored chewing gum model system was measured by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectroscopy (APCI-MS) and sensory time-intensity (TI). A data analysis method for handling the individual curves from both methods is presented. The APCI-MS data are ratio...... composition can be measured by both instrumental and sensory techniques, providing comparable information. The peppermint oil level (0.5-2% w/w) in the gum influenced both the retronasal concentration and the perceived peppermint flavor. The sweeteners' (sorbitol or xylitol) effect is less apparent. Sensory...

  3. Heavy flavor baryons in hypercentral model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bhavin Patel; Ajay Kumar Rai; P C Vinodkumar

    2008-05-01

    Heavy flavor baryons containing single and double charm (beauty) quarks with light flavor combinations are studied using the hypercentral description of the three-body problem. The confinement potential is assumed as hypercentral Coulomb plus power potential with power index . The ground state masses of the heavy flavor, $J^{P} = \\dfrac{1}{2}^{+}$ and $\\dfrac{3}{2}^{+}$ baryons are computed for different power indices, starting from 0.5 to 2.0. The predicted masses are found to attain a saturated value in each case of quark combinations beyond the power index = 1.0.

  4. Neutrino scattering and flavor transformation in supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Cherry, John F; Friedland, Alexander; Fuller, George M; Vlasenko, Alexey

    2012-01-01

    We argue that the small fraction of neutrinos that undergo direction-changing scattering outside of the neutrinosphere could have significant influence on neutrino flavor transformation in core-collapse supernova environments. We show that the standard treatment for collective neutrino flavor transformation is adequate at late times, but could be inadequate in the crucial shock revival/explosion epoch of core-collapse supernovae, where the potentials that govern neutrino flavor evolution are affected by the scattered neutrinos. Taking account of this effect, and the way it couples to entropy and composition, will require a new paradigm in supernova modeling.

  5. 21 CFR 172.585 - Sugar beet extract flavor base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sugar beet extract flavor base. 172.585 Section 172... CONSUMPTION Flavoring Agents and Related Substances § 172.585 Sugar beet extract flavor base. Sugar beet...) Sugar beet extract flavor base is the concentrated residue of soluble sugar beet extractives from...

  6. 21 CFR 169.181 - Vanilla-vanillin flavoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vanilla-vanillin flavoring. 169.181 Section 169... Dressings and Flavorings § 169.181 Vanilla-vanillin flavoring. (a) Vanilla-vanillin flavoring conforms to... ingredients prescribed for vanilla-vanillin extract by § 169.180, except that its content of ethyl alcohol...

  7. Chemoinformatic analysis of GRAS (Generally Recognized as Safe flavor chemicals and natural products.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José L Medina-Franco

    Full Text Available Food materials designated as "Generally Recognized as Safe" (GRAS are attracting the attention of researchers in their attempts to systematically identify compounds with putative health-related benefits. In particular, there is currently a great deal of interest in exploring possible secondary benefits of flavor ingredients, such as those relating to health and wellness. One step in this direction is the comprehensive characterization of the chemical structures contained in databases of flavoring substances. Herein, we report a comprehensive analysis of the recently updated FEMA GRAS list of flavoring substances (discrete chemical entities only. Databases of natural products, approved drugs and a large set of commercial molecules were used as references. Remarkably, natural products continue to be an important source of bioactive compounds for drug discovery and nutraceutical purposes. The comparison of five collections of compounds of interest was performed using molecular properties, rings, atom counts and structural fingerprints. It was found that the molecular size of the GRAS flavoring substances is, in general, smaller cf. members of the other databases analyzed. The lipophilicity profile of the GRAS database, a key property to predict human bioavailability, is similar to approved drugs. Several GRAS chemicals overlap to a broad region of the property space occupied by drugs. The GRAS list analyzed in this work has high structural diversity, comparable to approved drugs, natural products and libraries of screening compounds. This study represents one step towards the use of the distinctive features of the flavoring chemicals contained in the GRAS list and natural products to systematically search for compounds with potential health-related benefits.

  8. Chemoinformatic analysis of GRAS (Generally Recognized as Safe) flavor chemicals and natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Franco, José L; Martínez-Mayorga, Karina; Peppard, Terry L; Del Rio, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Food materials designated as "Generally Recognized as Safe" (GRAS) are attracting the attention of researchers in their attempts to systematically identify compounds with putative health-related benefits. In particular, there is currently a great deal of interest in exploring possible secondary benefits of flavor ingredients, such as those relating to health and wellness. One step in this direction is the comprehensive characterization of the chemical structures contained in databases of flavoring substances. Herein, we report a comprehensive analysis of the recently updated FEMA GRAS list of flavoring substances (discrete chemical entities only). Databases of natural products, approved drugs and a large set of commercial molecules were used as references. Remarkably, natural products continue to be an important source of bioactive compounds for drug discovery and nutraceutical purposes. The comparison of five collections of compounds of interest was performed using molecular properties, rings, atom counts and structural fingerprints. It was found that the molecular size of the GRAS flavoring substances is, in general, smaller cf. members of the other databases analyzed. The lipophilicity profile of the GRAS database, a key property to predict human bioavailability, is similar to approved drugs. Several GRAS chemicals overlap to a broad region of the property space occupied by drugs. The GRAS list analyzed in this work has high structural diversity, comparable to approved drugs, natural products and libraries of screening compounds. This study represents one step towards the use of the distinctive features of the flavoring chemicals contained in the GRAS list and natural products to systematically search for compounds with potential health-related benefits.

  9. 3味辛温归肺经中药对复合因素致肺阳虚模型大鼠的影响%Effects of three traditional Chinese mdicine with pungent-flavor,warm-nature and meridian tropism in lung on lung-yang deficiency rats induced by compound factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈素红; 吕圭源; 黄敏聪; 苏洁; 方慧; 牟秀华

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effects of three traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) such as Amomi Fructus Rotundus,Perillae Folium and Angelicae Dahuricae Radix on lung-yang deficiency rats induced by compound factors.Method: Lung-yang deficiency rats were established with three-factor combination, such as smoking ( exogenous evil effect on lung), swimming in common and ice water (cold body and exhaustoin) and drinking ice water ( inhale cold).Meanwhile, rats were given water extracts of the three TCM by intragastric administration for 24 days everyday.Indexes such as general behavior, weight, rectal temperature, back temperature and grip strength were observed.Blood was collected to determine NO, IgG in blood serum.Lung and heart were dissected to measure organs index.Result: The water extracts of Amomi Fructrs Rotundus, Perillae Folium and Angelicae Dahuricae Radix could markedly heighten weight, back temperature, grip strength, content of IgG in blood serum, reduce content of NO in blood serum, lung index and heart index.The water extracts of Amomi Fructrs Rotundus and Perillae Folium could heighten rectal temperature.Conclusion: Amomi Fructrs Rotundus, Perillae Folium and Angelicae Dahuricae Radix were TCM with pungent-flavor, warm-nature and meridian tropism in lung, which could improve the symptoms of physique emaciation, aversion to cold of the back, weary and acratia and so on.It provides an important reference for the regularity of the properties theories about pungent-flavor, warm-nature and meridian tropism in lung.%目的:观察豆蔻、紫苏叶、白芷3味辛温归肺经中药对复合因素致肺阳虚大鼠的影响.方法:采用烟熏(外邪犯肺)+常温及冰水游泳(形寒劳倦)+服用冰水(内饮生冷)3因素复合造成肺阳虚大鼠模型.造模同时灌胃给予豆蔻、紫苏叶、白芷水提取物,连续24 d.观察大鼠一般行为学、体重、肛温、背温、抓力,取血测定血清一氧化氮(NO)、免疫球蛋白G(IgG)含量,

  10. Data on green tea flavor determinantes as affected by cultivars and manufacturing processes

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Zhuo-Xiao; Rana, Mohammad M.; Liu, Guo-Feng; Gao, Ming-Jun; Li, Da-Xiang; Wu, Fu-Guang; Li, Xin-Bao; Wan, Xiao-Chun; Wei, Shu

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents data related to an article entitled “Green tea flavor determinants and their changes over manufacturing processes” (Han et al., 2016) [1]. Green tea samples were prepared with steaming and pan firing treatments from the tender leaves of tea cultivars ‘Bai-Sang Cha’ (‘BAS’) and ‘Fuding-Dabai Cha’ (‘FUD’). Aroma compounds from the tea infusions were detected and quantified using HS-SPME coupled with GC/MS. Sensory evaluation was also made for characteristic tea flavor. The d...

  11. Data on green tea flavor determinantes as affected by cultivars and manufacturing processes

    OpenAIRE

    Zhuo-Xiao Han; Rana, Mohammad M.; Guo-Feng Liu; Ming-Jun Gao; Da-Xiang Li; Fu-Guang Wu; Xin-Bao Li; Xiao-Chun Wan; Shu Wei

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents data related to an article entitled “Green tea flavor determinants and their changes over manufacturing processes” (Han et al., 2016) [1]. Green tea samples were prepared with steaming and pan firing treatments from the tender leaves of tea cultivars ‘Bai-Sang Cha’ (‘BAS’) and ‘Fuding-Dabai Cha’ (‘FUD’). Aroma compounds from the tea infusions were detected and quantified using HS-SPME coupled with GC/MS. Sensory evaluation was also made for characteristic tea flavor. The d...

  12. Prenatal flavor exposure affects flavor recognition and stress-related behavior of piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oostindjer, Marije; Bolhuis, J Elizabeth; van den Brand, Henry; Kemp, Bas

    2009-11-01

    Exposure to flavors in the amniotic fluid and mother's milk derived from the maternal diet has been shown to modulate food preferences and neophobia of young animals of several species. Aim of the experiment was to study the effects of pre- and postnatal flavor exposure on behavior of piglets during (re)exposure to this flavor. Furthermore, we investigated whether varying stress levels, caused by different test settings, affected behavior of animals during (re)exposure. Piglets were exposed to anisic flavor through the maternal diet during late gestation and/or during lactation or never. Piglets that were prenatally exposed to the flavor through the maternal diet behaved differently compared with unexposed pigs during reexposure to the flavor in several tests, suggesting recognition of the flavor. The differences between groups were more pronounced in tests with relatively high stress levels. This suggests that stress levels, caused by the design of the test, can affect the behavior shown in the presence of the flavor. We conclude that prenatal flavor exposure affects behaviors of piglets that are indicative of recognition and that these behaviors are influenced by stress levels during (re)exposure.

  13. Gauged flavor, supersymmetry and grand unification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, Rabindra N.

    2012-07-01

    I review a recent work on gauged flavor with left-right symmetry, where all masses and all Yukawa couplings owe their origin to spontaneous flavor symmetry breaking. This is suggested as a precursor to a full understanding of flavor of quarks and leptons. An essential ingredient of this approach is the existence of heavy vector-like fermions, which is the home of flavor, which subsequently gets transmitted to the familiar quarks and leptons via the seesaw mechanism. I then discuss implications of extending this idea to include supersymmetry and finally speculate on a possible grand unified model based on the gauge group SU(5)L×SU(5)R which provides a group theoretic origin for the vector-like fermions.

  14. Gauged Flavor, Supersymmetry and Grand Unification

    CERN Document Server

    Mohapatra, Rabindra N

    2012-01-01

    I review a recent work on gauged flavor with left-right symmetry, where all masses and all Yukawa couplings owe their origin to spontaneous flavor symmetry breaking. This is suggested as a precursor to a full understanding of flavor of quarks and leptons. An essential ingredient of this approach is the existence of heavy vector-like fermions, which is the home of flavor, which subsequently gets transmitted to the familiar quarks and leptons via the seesaw mechanism. I then discuss implications of extending this idea to include supersymmetry and finally speculate on a possible grand unified model based on the gauge group $SU(5)_L\\times SU(5)_R$ which provides a group theoretic origin for the vector-like fermions.

  15. Lectures on Flavor Physics and CP Violation

    CERN Document Server

    Grinstein, B

    2016-01-01

    These lectures on flavor physics are an introduction to the subject. First lec- ture: We discuss the meaning of flavor and the importance of flavor physics in restricting extensions of the Standard Model (SM) of Electroweak interactions. We explain the origin of the KM matrix and how its elements are determined. We discuss FCNC and the GIM mechanism, followed by how a principle of Minimal Flavor Violation leads to SM extensions that are safe as far as FCNC are concerned even if the new physics comes in at low, TeVish scales. This is illustrated by the example of B radiative decays ( b → sγ ). Second lecture: We then turn our attention to CP-violation. We start by presenting neutral meson mixing. Then we consider various CP-asymmetries, culminating in the theoretically clean interference between mixing and decay into CP eigenstates.

  16. Slepton Flavor Physics at Linear Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Dine, Michael; Thomas, S; Dine, Michael; Grossman, Yuval; Thomas, Scott

    2001-01-01

    If low energy supersymmetry is realized in nature it is possible that a first generation linear collider will only have access to some of the superpartners with electroweak quantum numbers. Among these, sleptons can provide sensitive probes for lepton flavor violation through potentially dramatic lepton violating signals. Theoretical proposals to understand the absence of low energy quark and lepton flavor changing neutral currents are surveyed and many are found to predict observable slepton flavor violating signals at linear colliders. The observation or absence of such sflavor violation will thus provide important indirect clues to very high energy physics. Previous analyses of slepton flavor oscillations are also extended to include the effects of finite width and mass differences.

  17. Neutrino Mass Matrix with Approximate Flavor Symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Riazuddin, M

    2003-01-01

    Phenomenological implications of neutrino oscillations implied by recent experimental data on pattern of neutrino mass matrix are disscussed. It is shown that it is possible to have a neutrino mass matrix which shows approximate flavor symmetry; the neutrino mass differences arise from flavor violation in off-diagonal Yukawa couplings. Two modest extensions of the standard model, which can embed the resulting neutrino mass matix have also been discussed.

  18. Collective flavor transitions of supernova neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Sigl, Guenter; Esteban-Pretel, Andreu; Pastor, Sergio; Mirizzi, Alessandro; Raffelt, Georg G; Serpico, Pasquale D

    2009-01-01

    We give a very brief overview of collective effects in neutrino oscillations in core collapse supernovae where refractive effects of neutrinos on themselves can considerably modify flavor oscillations, with possible repercussions for future supernova neutrino detection. We discuss synchronized and bipolar oscillations, the role of energy and angular neutrino modes, as well as three-flavor effects. We close with a short summary and some open questions.

  19. Lepton flavor violation in an extended MSSM

    CERN Document Server

    Espinosa-Castañeda, R.; Gómez-Bock, M.; Mondragón, M.

    2016-01-01

    In this work we explore a lepton flavor violation effect induced at one loop for a flavor structure in an extended minimal standard supersymmetric model, considering an ansatz for the trilinear term. In particular we find a finite expression which will show the impact of this phenomena in the $h\\to \\mu \\tau$ decay, produced by a mixing in the trilinear coupling of the soft supersymmetric Lagrangian.

  20. Flavor Unification and Discrete Nonabelian Symmetries

    CERN Document Server

    Kaplan, D B; Kaplan, David B.; Schmaltz, Martin

    1994-01-01

    Grand unified theories with fermions transforming as irreducible representations of a discrete nonabelian flavor symmetry can lead to realistic fermion masses, without requiring very small fundamental parameters. We construct a specific example of a supersymmetric GUT based on the flavor symmetry $\\Delta(75)$ --- a subgroup of $SU(3)$ --- which can explain the observed quark and lepton masses and mixing angles. The model predicts $\\tan\\beta \\simeq 2-5$ and gives a $\\tau$ neutrino mass $m_\

  1. Twisted flavors and tribimaximal neutrino mixing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haba, Naoyuki; Watanabe, Atsushi; Yoshioka, Koichi

    2006-07-28

    A new framework for handling flavor symmetry breaking in the neutrino sector is discussed where the source of symmetry breaking is traced to the global property of right-handed neutrinos in extra-dimensional space. Light neutrino phenomenology has rich and robust predictions such as the tribimaximal form of generation mixing, controlled mass spectrum, and no need of flavor mixing couplings in the theory.

  2. Starter Culture Selection for Making Chinese Sesame-Flavored Liquor Based on Microbial Metabolic Activity in Mixed-Culture Fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qun; Ling, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Selection of a starter culture with excellent viability and metabolic activity is important for inoculated fermentation of traditional food. To obtain a suitable starter culture for making Chinese sesame-flavored liquor, the yeast and bacterium community structures were investigated during spontaneous and solid-state fermentations of this type of liquor. Five dominant species in spontaneous fermentation were identified: Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pichia membranaefaciens, Issatchenkia orientalis, Bacillus licheniformis, and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. The metabolic activity of each species in mixed and inoculated fermentations of liquor was investigated in 14 different cocultures that used different combinations of these species. The relationships between the microbial species and volatile metabolites were analyzed by partial least-squares (PLS) regression analysis. We found that S. cerevisiae was positively correlated to nonanal, and B. licheniformis was positively associated with 2,3-butanediol, isobutyric acid, guaiacol, and 4-vinyl guaiacol, while I. orientalis was positively correlated to butyric acid, isovaleric acid, hexanoic acid, and 2,3-butanediol. These three species are excellent flavor producers for Chinese liquor. Although P. membranaefaciens and B. amyloliquefaciens were not efficient flavor producers, the addition of them alleviated competition among the other three species and altered their growth rates and flavor production. As a result, the coculture of all five dominant species produced the largest amount of flavor compounds. The result indicates that flavor producers and microbial interaction regulators are important for inoculated fermentation of Chinese sesame-flavored liquor. PMID:24814798

  3. Minimal flavor violation and anomalous top decays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faller, Sven; Mannel, Thomas; Gadatsch, Stefan

    2013-08-01

    Top-quark physics at the LHC may open a window to physics beyond the Standard Model and even lead us to an understanding of the phenomenon of “flavor.” However, current flavor data is a strong hint that no “new physics” with a generic flavor structure can be expected at the TeV scale. In turn, if there is “new physics” at the TeV scale, it must be “minimally flavor violating.” This has become a widely accepted assumption for “new physics” models. In this paper we propose a model-independent scheme to test minimal flavor violation for the anomalous charged Wtq, q∈{d,s,b} and flavor-changing Vtq, q∈{u,c} and V∈{Z,γ,g} couplings within an effective field theory framework, i.e., in a model-independent way. We perform a spurion analysis of our effective field theory approach and calculate the decay rates for the anomalous top-quark decays in terms of the effective couplings for different helicities by using a two-Higgs doublet model of type II, under the assumption that the top-quark is produced at a high-energy collision and decays as a quasi-free particle.

  4. A Couplet from Flavored Dark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Agrawal, Prateek; Kilic, Can; Verhaaren, Christopher B

    2015-01-01

    We show that a couplet, a pair of closely spaced photon lines, in the X-ray spectrum is a distinctive feature of lepton flavored dark matter models for which the mass spectrum is dictated by Minimal Flavor Violation. In such a scenario, mass splittings between different dark matter flavors are determined by Standard Model Yukawa couplings and can naturally be small, allowing all three flavors to be long-lived and contribute to the observed abundance. Then, in the presence of a tiny source of flavor violation, heavier dark matter flavors can decay via a dipole transition on cosmological timescales, giving rise to three photon lines. The ratios of the line energies are completely determined in terms of the charged lepton masses, and constitute a firm prediction of this framework. For dark matter masses of order the weak scale, the couplet lies in the keV-MeV region, with a much weaker line in the eV-keV region. This scenario constitutes a potential explanation for the recent claim of the observation of a 3.5 ke...

  5. Flavor Symmetry and Vacuum Aligned Mass Textures

    CERN Document Server

    Kaneko, S; Shingai, T; Tanimoto, M; Yoshioka, K; Kaneko, Satoru; Sawanaka, Hideyuki; Shingai, Takaya; Tanimoto, Morimitsu; Yoshioka, Koichi

    2007-01-01

    The mass matrix forms of quarks and leptons are discussed in theory with permutation flavor symmetry. The structure of scalar potential is analyzed in case that electroweak doublet Higgs fields have non-trivial flavor symmetry charges. We find that realistic forms of mass matrices are obtained dynamically in the vacuum of the theory, where some of Higgs bosons have vanishing expectation values which lead to vanishing elements in quark and lepton mass matrices. Mass textures are realized in the true vacuum and their positions are controlled by flavor symmetry. An interesting point is that, due to the flavor group structure, the up and down quark mass matrices are automatically made different in the vacuum, which lead to non-vanishing generation mixing. It is also discussed that flavor symmetry is needed to be broken in order not to have too light scalars. The lower bounds of Higgs masses are derived from the experimental data of flavor-changing rare processes such as the neutral K meson mixing.

  6. LHC Benchmarks from Flavored Gauge Mediation

    CERN Document Server

    Ierushalmi, N; Lee, G; Nepomnyashy, V; Shadmi, Y

    2016-01-01

    We present benchmark points for LHC searches from flavored gauge mediation models, in which messenger-matter couplings give flavor-dependent squark masses. Our examples include spectra in which a single squark - stop, scharm, or sup - is much lighter than all other colored superpartners, motivating improved quark flavor tagging at the LHC. Many examples feature flavor mixing; in particular, large stop-scharm mixing is possible. The correct Higgs mass is obtained in some examples by virtue of the large stop A-term. We also revisit the general flavor and CP structure of the models. We find that, even though the A-terms can be substantial, their contributions to EDM's are very suppressed, because of the particular dependence of the A-terms on the messenger coupling. This holds regardless of the messenger-coupling texture. More generally, the special structure of the soft terms often leads to stronger suppression of flavor- and CP-violating processes, compared to naive estimates.

  7. The effect of starter culture and annatto on the flavor and functionality of whey protein concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, R E; Miracle, R E; Drake, M A

    2011-03-01

    The flavor of whey protein can carry over into ingredient applications and negatively influence consumer acceptance. Understanding sources of flavors in whey protein is crucial to minimize flavor. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of annatto color and starter culture on the flavor and functionality of whey protein concentrate (WPC). Cheddar cheese whey with and without annatto (15 mL of annatto/454 kg of milk, annatto with 3% wt/vol norbixin content) was manufactured using a mesophilic lactic starter culture or by addition of lactic acid and rennet (rennet set). Pasteurized fat-separated whey was then ultrafiltered and spray dried into WPC. The experiment was replicated 4 times. Flavor of liquid wheys and WPC were evaluated by sensory and instrumental volatile analyses. In addition to flavor evaluations on WPC, color analysis (Hunter Lab and norbixin extraction) and functionality tests (solubility and heat stability) also were performed. Both main effects (annatto, starter) and interactions were investigated. No differences in sensory properties or functionality were observed among WPC. Lipid oxidation compounds were higher in WPC manufactured from whey with starter culture compared with WPC from rennet-set whey. The WPC with annatto had higher concentrations of p-xylene, diacetyl, pentanal, and decanal compared with WPC without annatto. Interactions were observed between starter and annatto for hexanal, suggesting that annatto may have an antioxidant effect when present in whey made with starter culture. Results suggest that annatto has a no effect on whey protein flavor, but that the starter culture has a large influence on the oxidative stability of whey.

  8. Enzyme-assisted extraction of flavorings and colorants from plant materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowbhagya, H B; Chitra, V N

    2010-02-01

    From times immemorial, colorants, and flavorings have been used in foods. Color and flavor are the major attributes to the quality of a food product, affecting the appearance and acceptance of the product. As a consequence of the increased demand of natural flavoring and colorant from industries, there is a renewed interest in the research on the composition and recovery of natural food flavors and colors. Over the years, numerous procedures have been proposed for the isolation of aromatic compounds and colors from plant materials. Generally, the methods of extraction followed for aroma and pigment from plant materials are solvent extraction, hydro-distillation, steam distillation, and super critical carbon dioxide extraction. The application of enzymes in the extraction of oil from oil seeds like sunflower, corn, coconut, olives, avocado etc. are reported in literature. There is a great potential for this enzyme-based extraction technology with the selection of appropriate enzymes with optimized operating conditions. Various enzyme combinations are used to loosen the structural integrity of botanical material thereby enhancing the extraction of the desired flavor and color components. Recently enzymes have been used for the extraction of flavor and color from plant materials, as a pre-treatment of the raw material before subjecting the plant material to hydro distillation/solvent extraction. A deep knowledge of enzymes, their mode of action, conditions for optimum activity, and selection of the right type of enzymes are essential to use them effectively for extraction. Although the enzyme hydrolases such as lipases, proteases (chymotrypsin, subtilisin, thermolysin, and papain), esterases use water as a substrate for the reaction, they are also able to accept other nucleophiles such as alcohols, amines, thio-esters, and oximes. Advantages of enzyme-assisted extraction of flavor and color in some of the plant materials in comparison with conventional methods are

  9. Early flavor experiences: research update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennella, J A; Beauchamp, G K

    1998-07-01

    Anyone who has observed infants for any period of time can testify to the intense activity occurring in and around their mouths--the primary site for learning in the first few months of life. Before they are even able to crawl, infants have learned much about their new sensory world. Though recent research we have begun to explore the impact of these early experiences on infants' acceptance of solid foods and how they explore objects in their environment. We have also begun to focus on the sensory experiences of the formula-fed infant, in particular, how their responses to particular formulas, which are extremely unpalatable to older children and adults, change during infancy. This is a relatively new and exciting area of study, with much research yet to be done. It is clear, however, that infants are not passive receptacles for flavored foods. Parents who offer a variety of foods will provide both a nutritious, well-balanced diet, as well as an opportunity for their children's own personal preferences to develop.

  10. Heavy Flavor Production in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Stahl, T

    2009-01-01

    ATLAS prepares a program for measurements of production cross sections both of b-hadrons and quarkonia in central proton-proton collisions at a new center-of-mass energy of 14 TeV at the LHC. Dedicated triggers based on muon, di-muon or electron signatures are designed to accommodate large statistics already in the first several months. Starting from semi-inclusive measurements at the very early stage, exclusive channels will soon dominate the measurements, allowing for tests of QCD in the Heavy Flavor sector already with 10 pb−1 of data. With larger statistics, polarization measurements are being prepared for J/psi and Lambda_b. It is expected, that 30 fb−1 of data collected at a luminosity of 10^33 cm−2s−1 will allow specific measurements not accessible with the statistics collected at the Tevatron. In particular, a Lambda_b polarization measurement will be achieved using Lambda_b -> J/psi Lambda decays. For J/psi, a polarization measurement will allow to confirm or exclude model predictions within ...

  11. Three-flavor color superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malekzadeh, H.

    2007-12-15

    I investigate some of the inert phases in three-flavor, spin-zero color-superconducting quark matter: the CFL phase (the analogue of the B phase in superfluid {sup 3}He), the A and A{sup *} phases, and the 2SC and sSC phases. I compute the pressure of these phases with and without the neutrality condition. Without the neutrality condition, after the CFL phase the sSC phase is the dominant phase. However, including the neutrality condition, the CFL phase is again the energetically favored phase except for a small region of intermediate densities where the 2SC/A{sup *} phase is favored. It is shown that the 2SC phase is identical to the A{sup *} phase up to a color rotation. In addition, I calculate the self-energies and the spectral densities of longitudinal and transverse gluons at zero temperature in color-superconducting quark matter in the CFL phase. I find a collective excitation, a plasmon, at energies smaller than two times the gap parameter and momenta smaller than about eight times the gap. The dispersion relation of this mode exhibits a minimum at some nonzero value of momentum, indicating a van Hove singularity. (orig.)

  12. Altering the fat content affects flavor release in a model yogurt system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauss, M S; Linforth, R S; Cayeux, I; Harvey, B; Taylor, A J

    1999-05-01

    Flavored yogurts differing in fat content were eaten, and the release of flavor volatiles was measured by monitoring the volatile composition of air from the nose in real time by atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry. Low-fat yogurts (0.2%) were found to release volatiles more quickly and at higher intensity but with less persistence than yogurts containing fat at 3.5 and 10% fat. Yogurts with increasing fat content had higher viscosity and lower relative particle size. Lipophilic compounds were more affected by fat for maximum volatile intensity, but not time-to-maximum intensity or persistence. Sensory assessment of the yogurts found significant differences in intensity and speed of onset of flavor, but not overall length of perception.

  13. Authenticity and traceability of vanilla flavors by analysis of stable isotopes of carbon and hydrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Anne-Mette Sølvbjerg; Fromberg, Arvid; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz

    2014-10-22

    Authenticity and traceability of vanilla flavors were investigated using gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-IRMS). Vanilla flavors produced by chemical synthesis (n = 2), fermentation (n = 1), and extracted from two different species of the vanilla orchid (n = 79) were analyzed. The authenticity of the flavor compound vanillin was evaluated on the basis of measurements of ratios of carbon stable isotopes (δ(13)C). It was found that results of δ(13)C for vanillin extracted from Vanilla planifolia and Vanilla tahitensis were significantly different (t test) and that it was possible to differentiate these two groups of natural vanillin from vanillin produced otherwise. Vanilla flavors were also analyzed for ratios of hydrogen stable isotopes (δ(2)H). A graphic representation of δ(13)C versus δ(2)H revealed that vanillin extracted from pods grown in adjacent geographic origins grouped together. Accordingly, values of δ(13)C and δ(2)H can be used for studies of authenticity and traceability of vanilla flavors.

  14. Sensory and Flavor Chemistry Characteristics of Australian Beef: Influence of Intramuscular Fat, Feed, and Breed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Damian; Ball, Alex; Hughes, Joanne; Krishnamurthy, Raju; Piyasiri, Udayasika; Stark, Janet; Watkins, Peter; Warner, Robyn

    2016-06-01

    The sensory attributes and flavor chemistry of grilled beef striploins (M. longissimus lumborum, n = 42) varying widely in marbling from commercial production types typical for Southern Australia were extensively characterized. Striploins from Angus grass-fed yearlings (5.2-9.9% intramuscular fat), Angus grain-finished steers (10.2-14.9%), and Wagyu grass-fed heifers (7.8-17.5%) were evaluated. Inherent differences between samples from grass- and grain-fed Angus cattle were minimal when the intramuscular fat content was above ∼5%. After adjusting for intramuscular fat, Wagyu samples had more intense flavor and higher tenderness and juiciness compared to Angus grass-fed samples. Grilled beef flavor, dairy fat, and sweetness increased with the marbling level, and sourness and astringency decreased. Tenderness and juiciness increased with the marbling level and were correlated with Warner-Bratzler peak force measurements. Trained panel sensory differences in flavor corresponded with increases in aroma volatiles and changes in nonvolatile flavor compounds. Unsaturated fatty acids with potential health benefits (vaccenic, oleic, and rumenic acids) increased with the level of marbling.

  15. Prenatal Flavor Exposure Affects Flavor Recognition and Stress-Related Behavior of Piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostindjer, M.; Bolhuis, J.E.; Brand, van den H.; Kemp, B.

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to flavors in the amniotic fluid and mother's milk derived from the maternal diet has been shown to modulate food preferences and neophobia of young animals of several species. Aim of the experiment was to study the effects of pre- and postnatal flavor exposure on behavior of piglets during

  16. Prenatal Flavor Exposure Affects Flavor Recognition and Stress-Related Behavior of Piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostindjer, M.; Bolhuis, J.E.; Brand, van den H.; Kemp, B.

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to flavors in the amniotic fluid and mother's milk derived from the maternal diet has been shown to modulate food preferences and neophobia of young animals of several species. Aim of the experiment was to study the effects of pre- and postnatal flavor exposure on behavior of piglets during

  17. Flavor profiles of full-fat and reduced-fat cheese and cheese fat made from aged Cheddar with the fat removed using a novel process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carunchia Whetstine, M E; Drake, M A; Nelson, B K; Barbano, D M

    2006-02-01

    Many consumers are concerned with fat intake. However, many reduced-fat foods, including reduced-fat cheese, lack robust flavors. The objectives of this study were to characterize the flavors found in full-fat cheese, cheese fat, and reduced-fat cheese made from aged Cheddar using a novel process to remove the fat (Nelson and Barbano, 2004). Two full-fat, aged cheeses (9 and 39 mo) were selected, and the fat was removed using the novel fat removal process. Full-fat cheeses, shredded and reformed full-fat cheeses, corresponding reduced-fat cheeses, and cheese fats were then analyzed using descriptive sensory and instrumental analysis followed by consumer acceptance testing. Cheeses were extracted with diethyl ether followed by isolation of volatile material by high vacuum distillation. Volatile extracts were analyzed using gas chromatography/ olfactometry with aroma extract dilution analysis. Selected compounds were quantified. The 39-mo cheese was characterized by fruity and sulfur notes, and the 9-mo-old cheese was characterized by a spicy/brothy flavor. Reduced-fat cheeses had similar flavor profiles with no difference in most sensory attributes to corresponding full-fat cheeses. Sensory profiles of the cheese fats were characterized by low intensities of the prominent flavors found in the full-fat cheeses. Instrumental analysis revealed similar trends. Consistent with sensory analysis, there were lower concentrations and log(3) flavor dilution factors for most compounds in the cheese fats compared with both the reduced- and full-fat cheeses, regardless of compound polarity. Consumers found the intensity of flavor in the reduced-fat cheese to be equal to the full-fat cheeses. This study demonstrated that when fat was removed from aged full-fat Cheddar cheese, most of the flavor and flavor compounds remained in the cheese and were not removed with the fat.

  18. The flavor of pomegranate fruit: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayuoni-Kirshinbaum, Lina; Porat, Ron

    2014-01-15

    Despite the increasing commercial importance of pomegranate, especially because of its recently discovered health-promoting benefits, relatively little is yet known regarding its sensory quality and flavor preferences, or about the biochemical constituents that determine its sensory characteristics. The perceived flavor of pomegranate fruit results from the combination of various taste, aroma and mouthfeel sensations. The taste is governed mainly by the presence of sugars (glucose and fructose) and organic acids (primarily citric and malic acids). The aroma evolves from the presence of dozens of volatiles, including alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, and terpenes, which provide a mixture of various 'green', 'woody', 'earthy', 'fruity', 'floral', 'sweet' and 'musty' notes. In addition, the sensory satisfaction during the eating of pomegranate arils is complemented by various mouthfeel sensations, including seed hardness and astringency sensations. In the present review we will describe the sensory quality and flavor preferences of pomegranate fruit, including the genetic diversity in flavor characteristics among distinct varieties. In addition, we will describe the dynamic changes that occur in fruit flavor during fruit ripening and postharvest storage.

  19. True Morels (Morchella) - Nutritional and Phytochemical Composition, Health Benefits and Flavor: a Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tietel, Zipora; Masaphy, Segula

    2017-03-28

    Morels are edible mushrooms appreciated worldwide for their savory flavor. Morels have been in use in traditional medicine for centuries, due to their health-related benefits, and current research demonstrated their anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory bioactivities, in addition to immunostimulatory and anti-tumor properties. In spite of the high demand for morels and their increasing economic importance, their cultivation is limited, and they are either used as wild harvested or fermented in culture, for consumption as a functional food and for food-flavoring. Morel's health benefits were attributed mainly to polysaccharides as the active compounds, and to various phytochemicals, mainly phenolic compounds, tocopherols, ascorbic acid and vitamin D. Morel's nutritional composition was reported, including sugar, amino acid, fatty and organic acid and mineral profile. Information regarding Morel's flavor is limited, and while some of their taste attributes have been described, including the role of umami taste, details about their volatile aroma profile are scarce, and it was reported to include eight carbon volatiles, the main aroma volatiles typical to most mushrooms. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first review presenting morels' nutritional and phytochemical composition, health benefits and flavor, and we will review the available information in current literature regarding these aspects in light of morels phenotypic plasticity.

  20. Flavor Characteristics of Hanwoo Beef in Comparison with Other Korean Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoa Van Ba

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study identified volatile flavor components of Hanwoo longissimus muscle and other Korean foods (Doenjang, Chungukjang, sesame oil and their traits were compared in relation with flavor precursors that include fatty acids and protein degradation products. Hanwoo longissimus muscle was purchased from a commercial abattoir while the other foods were sampled from three separate households. The results showed totals of 68 (9.94 μg/g, 60 (15.75 μg/g, 49 (107.61 μg/ml and 50 (7.20 μg/g volatile components for Doenjang, Chungukjang, sesame oil and Hanwoo beef longissimus, respectively (p<0.05. Aldehydes were the most predominant components in beef, but alcohols, acids and esters, and pyrazines are probably the major contributors to the flavor characteristics of other foods. SDS-PAGE revealed that beef longissimus muscle and Doenjang showed higher protein degradation than other foods which could be likely related to chiller ageing and ripening process. The total polyunsaturated fatty acids were approximately 50, 60, 41 and 5% for Doenjang, Chungukjang, sesame oil and beef longissimus muscle, respectively. Based on the mechanism(s of generation of the volatile compounds and the chemical composition of each food sample, differences and traits of volatile flavor components among the four food types are likely due to fatty acid profiles, proteolytic activity and processing conditions. Aroma intense compounds like pyrazines and sulfur-containing compounds were limited in cooked beef in the current experimental condition (i.e., relatively low heating temperature. This suggests that higher heating temperature as in the case of roasting is needed for the generation of high aroma notes in meat. Furthermore, proteolytic activity and stability of fatty acids during ageing have a great influence on the generation of flavor components in cooked beef.

  1. Effect of pretreatment with dehulling and microwaving on the flavor characteristics of cold-pressed rapeseed oil by GC-MS-PCA and electronic nose discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qi; Yang, Mei; Huang, Fenghong; Zheng, Chang; Deng, Qianchun

    2013-07-01

    Raw and dehulled rapeseeds were treated with microwave energy (800 W) from 1 to 8 min with 1-min intervals at a frequency of 2450 MHz to investigate the influence of microwaving and dehulling pretreatment on the flavor characteristics of rapeseed oil extracted by pressing. Headspace solid phase microextraction was used to isolate the volatile compounds of rapeseed oil, which were then identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. The results indicated that microwave and dehulling pretreatment of rapeseed can significantly influence the kinds and content of volatile compounds. The key flavor compounds in rapeseed oil were oxidized volatiles, heterocyclic compounds, and degradation products of glucosinolates. A pungent compound, 4-isothiocyanato-1-butene, was reduced by 97% in rapeseed treated for 3 min with microwaves energy when compared to the rapeseed oil without any treatment. The pyrazine compounds in the oil appeared after 6 min of microwave pretreatment and give a pleasant roasting flavor when compared to crude oils. Principal component analysis was able to differentiate between oils obtained using 4 pretreatment processes based on volatile compounds and electronic nose. The results showed that dehulling pretreatment could improve the flavor, yet microwaving had a greater effect on the flavor of rapeseed oils.

  2. How can Early Life Flavor Experiences Affect Food Preferences?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seray Kabaran

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Early experiences with food flavors lead up to children’s food preferences and develop long-lasting flavor preferences and healthy eating habits. The process of flavor learning begins during pregnancy by the foods eaten by mothers which pass to the amniotic fluid. Some flavors coming from the mother’s diet that pass to the amniotic fluid are detected by the fetus. This flavor learning continues after birth with breastfeeding, since the human milk is composed of flavors which reflect the foods consumed by the mother. Flavor composition in human milk which changes during the course of lactation due to the transmission of flavors into human milk enables the baby to get used to new flavors. Therefore, breastfed infants are likely to accept flavor changes and novel flavors more than formula fed infants. Flavor learning continues with starting complementary foods and eating the foods directly. Exposure to a specific flavor and repeated exposures in different times may facilitate the acceptance of this flavor. Furthermore, infants exposed to a variety of foods accept new flavors than infants following a monotonous diet. This underlines the importance of promoting the access to a variety of foods in early childhood. In conclusion, pregnant and lactating women should have variety of healthy foods in their diets with a variety of flavors and they should be encouraged to breastfeed their babies. In addition, starting complementary foods and early repeated exposure to a wide variety of healthy foods, the infants should get familiar with the flavor of healthy and various food. These factors may influence the development of healthy food preferences and healthy eating habits in later periods.

  3. Unquenched flavor on the Higgs branch

    CERN Document Server

    Faedo, Anton F; Pantelidou, Christiana; Tarrio, Javier

    2016-01-01

    We construct the gravity duals of the Higgs branches of three-dimensional (four-dimensional) super Yang-Mills theories coupled to $N_\\textrm{f}$ quark flavors. The effect of the quarks on the color degrees of freedom is included, and corresponds on the gravity side to the backreaction of $N_\\textrm{f}$ flavor D6-branes (D7-branes) on the background of $N_\\textrm{c}$ color D2-branes (D3-branes). The Higgsing of the gauge group arises from the dissolution of some color branes inside the flavor branes. The dissolved color branes are represented by non-Abelian instantons whose backreaction is also included. The result is a cascading-like solution in which the effective number of color branes varies along the holographic direction. In the three-dimensional case the solution may include an arbitrary number of quasi-conformal (walking) regions.

  4. Collider Signatures of Flavorful Higgs Bosons

    CERN Document Server

    Altmannshofer, Wolfgang; Gori, Stefania; Lotito, Matteo; Martone, Mario; Tuckler, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by our limited knowledge of the Higgs couplings to first two generation fermions, we analyze the collider phenomenology of a class of two Higgs doublet models (2HDMs) with a non-standard Yukawa sector. One Higgs doublet is mainly responsible for the masses of the weak gauge bosons and the third generation fermions, while the second Higgs doublet provides mass for the lighter fermion generations. The characteristic collider signatures of this setup differ significantly from well-studied 2HDMs with natural flavor conservation, flavor alignment, or minimal flavor violation. New production mechanisms for the heavy scalar, pseudoscalar, and charged Higgs involving second generation quarks can become dominant. The most interesting decay modes include H/A -> cc, tc, {\\mu}{\\mu}, {\\tau}{\\mu} and H+ -> cb, cs, {\\mu}{\

  5. Unquenched flavor on the Higgs branch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faedo, Antón F. [Departament de Física Quàntica i Astrofísica & Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICC),Universitat de Barcelona,Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Mateos, David [Departament de Física Quàntica i Astrofísica & Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICC),Universitat de Barcelona,Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats (ICREA),Passeig Lluís Companys 23, 08010 Barcelona (Spain); Pantelidou, Christiana [Departament de Física Quàntica i Astrofísica & Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICC),Universitat de Barcelona,Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Tarrío, Javier [Physique Théorique et Mathématique, Université Libre de Bruxelles andInternational Solvay Institutes,ULB-Campus Plaine CP231, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium)

    2016-11-04

    We construct the gravity duals of the Higgs branches of three-dimensional (four-dimensional) super Yang-Mills theories coupled to N{sub f} quark flavors. The effect of the quarks on the color degrees of freedom is included, and corresponds on the gravity side to the backreaction of N{sub f} flavor D6-branes (D7-branes) on the background of N{sub c} color D2-branes (D3-branes). The Higgsing of the gauge group arises from the dissolution of some color branes inside the flavor branes. The dissolved color branes are represented by non-Abelian instantons whose backreaction is also included. The result is a cascading-like solution in which the effective number of color branes varies along the holographic direction. In the three-dimensional case the solution may include an arbitrary number of quasi-conformal (walking) regions.

  6. Leptoquark Flavor Patterns & B Decay Anomalies

    CERN Document Server

    Hiller, Gudrun; Schönwald, Kay

    2016-01-01

    Flavor symmetries that explain masses and mixings of the standard model fermions dictate flavor patterns for the couplings of scalar and vector leptoquarks to the standard model fermions. A generic feature is that couplings to $SU(2)$-doublet leptons are suppressed at least by one spurion of the discrete non-abelian symmetry breaking, responsible for neutrino mixing, while couplings to charged lepton singlets can be order one. We obtain testable patterns including those that predominantly couple to a single lepton flavor, or two, or in a skewed way. They induce lepton non-universality, which we contrast to current anomalies in $B$-decays. We find maximal effects in $R_{D}$ and $R_{D^*}$ at the level of $\\sim$10 percent and few percent, respectively, while leptoquark effects in $R_{K^{(*)}}$ can reach order few$\\times 10$ percent. Predictions for charm and kaon decays and $\\mu-e$ conversion are worked out.

  7. The distribution of fat in dried dairy particles determines flavor release and flavor stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, C W; Drake, M A

    2014-04-01

    Dried dairy ingredients are utilized in various food and beverage applications for their nutritional, functional, and sensory properties. Dried dairy ingredients include milk powders of varying fat content and heat treatment and buttermilk powder, along with both milk and whey proteins of varying protein contents. The flavor of these ingredients is the most important characteristic that determines consumer acceptance of the ingredient applications. Lipid oxidation is the main mechanism for off-flavor development in dried dairy ingredients. The effects of various unit operations on the flavor of dried dairy ingredients have been investigated. Recent research documented that increased surface free fat in spray dried WPC80 was associated with increased lipid oxidation and off-flavors. Surface free fat in spray-dried products is fat on the surface of the powder that is not emulsified. The most common emulsifiers present in dried dairy ingredients are proteins and phospholipids. Currently, only an association between surface free fat and lipid oxidation has been presented. The link between surface free fat in dried dairy ingredients and flavor and flavor stability has not been investigated. In this review, some hypotheses for the role of surface free fat on the flavor of dried dairy ingredients are presented along with proposed mechanisms.

  8. Flavor universal resonances and warped gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agashe, Kaustubh; Du, Peizhi; Hong, Sungwoo; Sundrum, Raman

    2017-01-01

    Warped higher-dimensional compactifications with "bulk" standard model, or their AdS/CFT dual as the purely 4D scenario of Higgs compositeness and partial compositeness, offer an elegant approach to resolving the electroweak hierarchy problem as well as the origins of flavor structure. However, low-energy electroweak/flavor/CP constraints and the absence of non-standard physics at LHC Run 1 suggest that a "little hierarchy problem" remains, and that the new physics underlying naturalness may lie out of LHC reach. Assuming this to be the case, we show that there is a simple and natural extension of the minimal warped model in the Randall-Sundrum framework, in which matter, gauge and gravitational fields propagate modestly different degrees into the IR of the warped dimension, resulting in rich and striking consequences for the LHC (and beyond). The LHC-accessible part of the new physics is AdS/CFT dual to the mechanism of "vectorlike confinement", with TeV-scale Kaluza-Klein excitations of the gauge and gravitational fields dual to spin-0,1,2 composites. Unlike the minimal warped model, these low-lying excitations have predominantly flavor-blind and flavor/CP-safe interactions with the standard model. Remarkably, this scenario also predicts small deviations from flavor-blindness originating from virtual effects of Higgs/top compositeness at ˜ O(10) TeV, with subdominant resonance decays into Higgs/top-rich final states, giving the LHC an early "preview" of the nature of the resolution of the hierarchy problem. Discoveries of this type at LHC Run 2 would thereby anticipate (and set a target for) even more explicit explorations of Higgs compositeness at a 100 TeV collider, or for next-generation flavor tests.

  9. Monitoring of Yeast Communities and Volatile Flavor Changes During Traditional Korean Soy Sauce Fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Young-Ran; Jeong, Do-Youn; Baik, Sang-Ho

    2015-09-01

    Flavor development in soy sauce is significantly related to the diversity of yeast species. Due to its unique fermentation with meju, the process of making Korean soy sauce gives rise to a specific yeast community and, therefore, flavor profile; however, no detailed analysis of the identifying these structure has been performed. Changes in yeast community structure during Korean soy sauce fermentation were examined using both culture-dependent and culture-independent methods with simultaneous analysis of the changes in volatile compounds by GC-MS analysis. During fermentation, Candida, Pichia, and Rhodotorula sp. were the dominant species, whereas Debaryomyces, Torulaspora, and Zygosaccharomyces sp. were detected only at the early stage. In addition, Cryptococcus, Microbotryum, Tetrapisispora, and Wickerhamomyces were detected as minor strains. Among the 62 compounds identified in this study, alcohols, ketones, and pyrazines were present as the major groups during the initial stages, whereas the abundance of acids with aldehydes increased as the fermentation progressed. Finally, the impacts of 10 different yeast strains found to participate in fermentation on the formation of volatile compounds were evaluated under soy-based conditions. It was revealed that specific species produced different profiles of volatile compounds, some of which were significant flavor contributors, especially volatile alcohols, aldehydes, esters, and ketones.

  10. Review of Minimal Flavor Constraints for Technicolor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    S. Fukano, Hidenori; Sannino, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the constraints on the the vacuum polarization of the standard model gauge bosons from a minimal set of flavor observables valid for a general class of models of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking. We will show that the constraints have a strong impact on the self-coupling and mas......We analyze the constraints on the the vacuum polarization of the standard model gauge bosons from a minimal set of flavor observables valid for a general class of models of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking. We will show that the constraints have a strong impact on the self...

  11. Systematic model building with flavor symmetries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plentinger, Florian

    2009-12-19

    The observation of neutrino masses and lepton mixing has highlighted the incompleteness of the Standard Model of particle physics. In conjunction with this discovery, new questions arise: why are the neutrino masses so small, which form has their mass hierarchy, why is the mixing in the quark and lepton sectors so different or what is the structure of the Higgs sector. In order to address these issues and to predict future experimental results, different approaches are considered. One particularly interesting possibility, are Grand Unified Theories such as SU(5) or SO(10). GUTs are vertical symmetries since they unify the SM particles into multiplets and usually predict new particles which can naturally explain the smallness of the neutrino masses via the seesaw mechanism. On the other hand, also horizontal symmetries, i.e., flavor symmetries, acting on the generation space of the SM particles, are promising. They can serve as an explanation for the quark and lepton mass hierarchies as well as for the different mixings in the quark and lepton sectors. In addition, flavor symmetries are significantly involved in the Higgs sector and predict certain forms of mass matrices. This high predictivity makes GUTs and flavor symmetries interesting for both, theorists and experimentalists. These extensions of the SM can be also combined with theories such as supersymmetry or extra dimensions. In addition, they usually have implications on the observed matter-antimatter asymmetry of the universe or can provide a dark matter candidate. In general, they also predict the lepton flavor violating rare decays {mu} {yields} e{gamma}, {tau} {yields} {mu}{gamma}, and {tau} {yields} e{gamma} which are strongly bounded by experiments but might be observed in the future. In this thesis, we combine all of these approaches, i.e., GUTs, the seesaw mechanism and flavor symmetries. Moreover, our request is to develop and perform a systematic model building approach with flavor symmetries and

  12. Flavor tagging with muons at SLAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prepost, R.

    1984-05-01

    Identification of muons in hadronic events from e+e- annihilation observed in the MAC detector at PEP at √s=29 GeV provides flavor tagging of heavy quark mesons. A sample enriched in events from bb production is obtained and the b quark fragmentation function is determined. The b quark is found to fragment predominantly with high values of z, with =0.8+/-0.1 and to have an overall semileptonic branching ratio to muons of (15.5+5.4-2.9)%. The sample also provides flavor tagged hadronic jets. Invariant mass and charged multiplicity distributions are presented.

  13. Neutrino masses and spontaneously broken flavor symmetries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staudt, Christian

    2014-06-16

    We study the phenomenology of supersymmetric flavor models. We show how the predictions of models based on spontaneously broken non-Abelian discrete flavor symmetries are altered when we include so-called Kaehler corrections. Furthermore, we discuss anomaly-free discrete R symmetries which are compatible with SU(5) unification. We find a set of symmetries compatible with suppressed Dirac neutrino masses and a unique symmetry consistent with the Weinberg operator. We also study a pseudo-anomalous U(1){sub R} symmetry which explains the fermion mass hierarchies and, when amended with additional singlet fields, ameliorates the fine-tuning problem.

  14. Knotted strings and leptonic flavor structure

    CERN Document Server

    Kephart, Thomas W; Päs, Heinrich

    2011-01-01

    Tight knots and links arising in the infrared limit of string theories may provide an interesting alternative to flavor symmetries for explaining the observed flavor patterns in the leptonic sector. As an example we consider a type I seesaw model where the Majorana mass structure is based on the discrete length spectrum of tight knots and links. It is shown that such a model is able to provide an excellent fit to current neutrino data and that it predicts a normal neutrino mass hierarchy as well as a small mixing angle $\\theta_{13}$.

  15. Resurrection of large lepton number asymmetries from neutrino flavor oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Barenboim, Gabriela; Park, Wan-Il

    2016-01-01

    We numerically solve the evolution equations of neutrino three-flavor density matrices, and show that, even if neutrino oscillations mix neutrino flavors, large lepton number asymmetries are still allowed in certain limits by Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN).

  16. Human flavor perception: Application of information integration theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Lawrence E.; Elgart, Benjamin Z.; Burger, Kelly; Chakwin, Emily M.

    2008-01-01

    The perception of flavor arises from the combination of inputs from several sensory modalities, especially gustation (taste proper) and olfaction (the primary source of flavor qualities). Both the perception of intensity of suprathreshold flavorants and, notably, the detection of weak flavorants are consistent with a rule of additivity. Thus, the detectability, d′, of mixtures of the gustatory flavorant sucrose and the olfactory flavorant vanillin approximates the additive sum of detectabilities of the two components, within a model that assumes pooled noise in the flavor system that derives from both modalities. When gustatory and olfactory flavorants are presented in isolation, however, under conditions that encourage or permit selective attention to one modality or the other, it may be possible to filter out the noise associated with the unattended modality, and leading thereby to a rule of vector summation. PMID:19079746

  17. 21 CFR 172.230 - Microcapsules for flavoring substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... limitations Succinylated gelatin—Not to exceed 15 percent by combined weight of the microcapsule and flavoring... percent by combined weight of the microcapsule and spice-flavoring substance. (b) The...

  18. Taste: The Bedrock of Flavor

    OpenAIRE

    Beauchamp, Gary K.

    2014-01-01

    The significance of taste for human health:Throughout most of human evolution, the daily decisions of what to put into ones mouth and swallow and what to reject presented challenges fraught with danger. Energy-rich foods were often difficult to find; protein was in short supply; sodium was scarce. Moreover, many plants that did contain nutrients were also equipped with defensive compounds that were poisonous. Now many humans over consume exactly the foods that they evolved to find particu...

  19. Essential Oils in Ginger, Hops, Cloves, and Pepper Flavored Beverages-A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameh, Sunday J; Ibekwe, Nneka N; Ebeshi, Benjamin U

    2014-08-28

    ABSTRACT In the West, sugar-based, ginger flavored beverages may contain hops, other flavorings, fruit juices, and varying levels of ethanol. Ginger ales contain 0.5%v/v; ginger beers >0.5%; and alcoholic ginger beers 0.5 ≤ 11%. Ales are carbonated by pressurized CO2, while beers and alcoholic beers are carbonated by yeast or ginger beer plant (GBP). In Africa, grain-based beverages include "fura da nono," "kunu," and "akamu," which are spiced with one or more flavorings including ginger, black pepper, clove, chili pepper, or Aframomum alligator peppers. Spices have flavor because they contain essential oils (EOs), which are composed of aroma-active compounds (AACs). The benefits and toxicities of spices are ascribed to their EOs/AACs contents. Aim: Given the toxic potentials of EOs/AACs vis-à-vis their benefits, this review aimed to investigate the means by which the levels of EOs/AACs in spiced beverages are regulated. Methodology: The benefits and liabilities of key EOs/AACs of spices were identified and described. The methods for assaying them in raw materials and beverages were also identified. Results: There was a dearth of data on the levels of EOs/AACs in both raw and finished goods. Moreover, their assay methods were found to be tedious and costly. The implications of these findings on regulation are discussed. Conclusions: Owing to the practical difficulties in assaying flavors in beverages, both manufacturers and regulators should focus on: (i) the wholesomeness of raw materials; and (ii) good manufacturing practice (GMP). However, studies aimed at developing more robust methods for flavor should continue.

  20. New Physics in Astrophysical Neutrino Flavor (NuFact 2016)

    CERN Document Server

    Salvado, Jordi; Katori, Teppei

    2016-01-01

    Astrophysical neutrinos are powerful tools to study fundamental properties of particle physics. We perform a general new physics study on ultra high energy neutrino flavor content by introducing effective operators. We find that at the current limits on these operators, new physics terms cause maximal effects on the flavor content, however, the flavor content at Earth is confined to a region related to the initial flavor content.

  1. Flavor Tagging at Tevatron incl. calibration and control

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    This report summarizes the flavor tagging techniques developed at the CDF and D{\\O}experiments. Flavor tagging involves identification of the B meson flavor atproduction, whether its constituent is a quark or an anti-quark. It is crucial for measuring the oscillation frequency of neutral B mesons, both in the B^0 and B_S system. The two experiments have developed their unique approaches to flavor tagging, using neural networks, and likelihood methods to disentangle tracks from $b$ decays from...

  2. The FEMA GRAS assessment of alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes and related substances used as flavor ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, T B; Gavin, C Lucas; Taylor, S V; Waddell, W J; Cohen, S M; Feron, V J; Goodman, J; Rietjens, I M C M; Marnett, L J; Portoghese, P S; Smith, R L

    2008-09-01

    This publication is the 12th in a series of safety evaluations performed by the Expert Panel of the Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association (FEMA). In 1993, the Panel initiated a comprehensive program to re-evaluate the safety of more than 1700 GRAS flavoring substances under conditions of intended use. Since then, the number of flavoring substances has grown to more than 2200 chemically-defined substances. Elements that are fundamental to the safety evaluation of flavor ingredients include exposure, structural analogy, metabolism, toxicodynamics and toxicology. Scientific data relevant to the safety evaluation for the use of aliphatic, linear alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes and structurally related substances as flavoring ingredients are evaluated. The group of substances was reaffirmed as GRAS (GRASr) based, in part, on their self-limiting properties as flavoring substances in food; their low level of flavor use; the rapid absorption and metabolism of low in vivo concentrations by well-recognized biochemical pathways; adequate metabolic detoxication at much higher levels of exposure in humans and animals; the wide margins of safety between the conservative estimates of intake and the no-observed-adverse effect levels determined from subchronic and chronic studies. While some of the compounds described here have exhibited positive in vitro genotoxicity results, evidence of in vivo genotoxicity and carcinogenicity occurs only under conditions in which animals are repeatedly and directly exposed to high irritating concentrations of the aldehyde. These conditions are not relevant to humans who consume alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes as flavor ingredients at low concentrations distributed in a food or beverage matrix.

  3. School Nutrition Directors' Perspectives on Flavored Milk in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yon, Bethany A.; Johnson, Rachel K.; Berlin, Linda

    2013-01-01

    The offering of flavored milk in schools is a controversial topic. U.S. Department of Agriculture regulations now require that flavored milk in schools is fat-free. The perceptions, beliefs, and attitudes of 21 school nutrition directors (SNDs) about the offering and student acceptance of lower-calorie, flavored milk were explored using a focus…

  4. Radiative Corrections to the Sum Rule of Lepton Flavor Mixing

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Jue

    2016-01-01

    The simple correlation among three lepton flavor mixing angles $(\\theta^{}_{12}, \\theta^{}_{13}, \\theta^{}_{23})$ and the leptonic Dirac CP-violating phase $\\delta$ is conventionally called a sum rule of lepton flavor mixing, which may be derived from a class of neutrino mass models with flavor symmetries. In this paper, we consider the sum rule $\\theta^{}_{12} \\approx \\theta^{\

  5. Effect of gas environment and sorbate addition on flavor characteristics of irradiated apple cider during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crook, Loretta R; Boylston, Terri D; Glatz, Bonita A

    2004-11-17

    Apple cider, with (0.1%) and without potassium sorbate, was packaged in polystyrene containers and exposed to three different gas environments: oxygen flush, nitrogen flush, and atmospheric air. To evaluate the effects of irradiation (2 kGy) and storage on flavor and microbial quality, these irradiated apple cider samples were compared to a control, unirradiated sample exposed to atmospheric air. Volatile compounds, soluble solids, titratable acidity, and microbiological counts were determined weekly throughout 7 weeks of refrigerated (4 degrees C) storage. Cider irradiated and stored in atmospheric air or nitrogen-flush environments had lower rates of loss for characteristic flavor volatiles compared to unirradiated apple cider and cider irradiated and stored in an oxygen-flush environment. The addition of potassium sorbate to the apple cider resulted in lower counts of yeasts and aerobic microorganisms, reduced fermentation of sugars to organic acids, and improved retention of volatile compounds characteristic of apple cider.

  6. Complex viscosity induced by protein composition variation influences the aroma release of flavored stirred yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint-Eve, Anne; Juteau, Alexandre; Atlan, Samuel; Martin, Nathalie; Souchon, Isabelle

    2006-05-31

    Dairy protein composition is known to influence the structure and the texture characteristics of yogurt. The objective of the present work was therefore to investigate the impact of protein composition, at a constant protein level, on the physicochemical properties of 4% fat flavored stirred yogurt and, more specifically, on the rheological properties, the microstructure, and the aroma release. The results showed that caseinate-enriched yogurt generally presented changes in their microstructure network and had a higher complex viscosity than whey protein-enriched yogurt. To a lesser extent, the release of the majority of aroma compounds was lower in caseinate-enriched yogurt. It was therefore possible to quantify physicochemical interactions between aroma compounds and proteins. The influence of gel structure on the flavor release was observed and was in agreement with sensory characteristics previously studied for these products.

  7. Effect of beta-cyclodextrin on aroma release and flavor perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, Avinash; Linforth, Robert S T; Hort, Joanne; Taylor, Andrew J

    2004-04-07

    Binding and release of volatile compounds to and from beta-cyclodextrin were measured in model aqueous systems using static equilibrium headspace and dynamic headspace dilution. Beta-cyclodextrin decreased the static equilibrium headspace for some volatiles (e.g., ethyl octanoate and decanone) due to binding, but dilution studies demonstrated that binding was readily reversible. Dynamic release of hydrophobic volatile compounds was similar to that observed from emulsions. When beta-cyclodextrin was added to fat free yogurt, the release of a commercial lemon flavoring was modified and was similar to release from a regular fat yogurt. Sensory difference testing confirmed the release results. The data demonstrate that beta-cyclodextrin can be used to modify flavor delivery in both model and real systems; the effects in the latter are sensorially significant.

  8. Data on green tea flavor determinantes as affected by cultivars and manufacturing processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuo-Xiao Han

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents data related to an article entitled “Green tea flavor determinants and their changes over manufacturing processes” (Han et al., 2016 [1]. Green tea samples were prepared with steaming and pan firing treatments from the tender leaves of tea cultivars ‘Bai-Sang Cha’ (‘BAS’ and ‘Fuding-Dabai Cha’ (‘FUD’. Aroma compounds from the tea infusions were detected and quantified using HS-SPME coupled with GC/MS. Sensory evaluation was also made for characteristic tea flavor. The data shows the abundances of the detected aroma compounds, their threshold values and odor characteristics in the two differently processed tea samples as well as two different cultivars.

  9. Stimulus collative properties and consumers’ flavor preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giacalone, Davide; Duerlund, Mette; Bøegh-Petersen, Jannie

    2014-01-01

    The present work investigated consumers’ hedonic response to flavor stimuli in light of Berlyne’s (1967) collative-motivational model of aesthetic preferences. According to this paradigm, sensory preferences are a function of a stimulus’ arousal potential, which is determined by its collative...

  10. Unified flavor symmetry from warped dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Frank

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In a model of warped extra-dimensions with all matter fields in the bulk, we propose a scenario which explains all the masses and mixings of the SM fermions. In this scenario, the same flavor symmetric structure is imposed on all the fermions of the Standard Model (SM, including neutrinos. Due to the exponential sensitivity on bulk fermion masses, a small breaking of this symmetry can be greatly enhanced and produce seemingly un-symmetric hierarchical masses and small mixing angles among the charged fermion zero-modes (SM quarks and charged leptons, thus washing out visible effects of the symmetry. If the Dirac neutrinos are sufficiently localized towards the UV boundary, and the Higgs field leaking into the bulk, the neutrino mass hierarchy and flavor structure will still be largely dominated and reflect the fundamental flavor structure, whereas localization of the quark sector would reflect the effects of the flavor symmetry breaking sector. We explore these features in an example based on which a family permutation symmetry is imposed in both quark and lepton sectors.

  11. Flavors and Phases in Unparticle Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Chuan-Hung

    2008-01-01

    Inspired by the recent Georgi's unparticle proposal, we study the flavor structures of the standard model (SM) particles when they couple to unparticles. At a very high energy scale, we introduce $\\BZ$ charges for the SM particles, which are universal for each generation and allow $\\BZ$ fields to distinguish flavor generations. At the $\\Lambda_{\\UP}$ scale, $\\BZ$ operators and charges are matched onto unparticle operators and charges, respectively. In this scenario, we find that tree flavor changing neutral currents (FCNCs) can be induced by the rediagonalizations of the SM fermions. As an illustration, we employ the Fritzsch ansatz to the SM fermion mass matrices and we find that the FCNC effects could be simplified to be associated with the mass ratios denoted by $\\sqrt{m_{i}m_{j}/m^2_{3}}$, where $m_3$ is the mass of the heaviest particle in each type of fermion generations and $i, j$ are the flavor indices. In addition, we show that there is no new CP violating phase beside the unique one in the CKM matri...

  12. Physics of heavy flavor at CDF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torre, Stefano; /Siena U. /INFN, Pisa

    2005-06-01

    Results on physics of heavy flavor at CDF are reported. Selected measurements of Branching Ratios and CP asymmetry in B{sup 0} and B{sub s}{sup 0}, lifetime difference of B{sub s}{sup 0} CP eigenstates and a precise measurement of the B{sub c} mass are presented.

  13. The flavor of the Composite Twin Higgs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csáki, Csaba; Geller, Michael; Telem, Ofri; Weiler, Andreas

    2016-09-01

    The assumption of anarchic quark flavor puts serious stress on composite Higgs models: flavor bounds imply a tuning of a few per-mille (at best) in the Higgs potential. Composite twin Higgs (CTH) models significantly reduce this tension by opening up a new region of parameter space, obtained by raising the coupling among the composites close to the strong coupling limit g ∗ ˜ 4π, thereby raising the scale of composites to around 10 TeV. This does not lead to large tuning in the Higgs potential since the leading quantum corrections are canceled by the twin partners (rather than the composites). We survey the leading flavor bounds on the CTH, which correspond to tree-level Δ F = 2 four-Fermi operators from Kaluza-Klein (KK) Z exchange in the kaon system and 1-loop corrections from KK fermions to the electric dipole moment of the neutron. We provide a parametric estimate for these bounds and also perform a numeric scan of the parameter space using the complete calculation for both quantities. The results confirm our expectation that CTH models accommodate anarchic flavor significantly better than regular composite Higgs (CH) models. Our conclusions apply both to the identical and fraternal twin cases.

  14. Finite Theories and the SUSY Flavor Problem

    CERN Document Server

    Babu, K S; Kubo, J; Kobayashi, Tatsuo; Kubo, Jisuke

    2003-01-01

    We study a finite SU(5) grand unified model based on the non-Abelian discrete symmetry A_4. This model leads to the democratic structure of the mass matrices for the quarks and leptons. In the soft supersymmetry breaking sector, the scalar trilinear couplings are aligned and the soft scalar masses are degenerate, thus solving the SUSY flavor problem.

  15. Signatures of Top Flavored Dark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Kilic, Can; Yu, Jiang-Hao

    2015-01-01

    We study the experimental signatures of top flavored dark matter (top FDM) in direct detection searches and at the LHC. We show that for a dark matter mass above 200 GeV, top FDM can be consistent with current bounds from direct detection experiments and relic abundance constraints. We also show that next generation direct detection experiments will be able to exclude the entire perturbative parameter region for top FDM. For regions of parameter space where the flavor partners of top FDM are not readily produced, the LHC signatures of top FDM are similar to those of other models previously studied in the literature. For the case when the flavor partners are produced at the LHC, we study their impact on a search based on transverse mass variables and find that they diminish the signal significance. However, when the DM flavor partners are split in mass by less than 120-130 GeV, the LHC phenomenology becomes very distinctive through the appearance of displaced vertices. We also propose a strategy by which all p...

  16. Experimental Overview of Open Heavy Flavor

    CERN Document Server

    Schweda, Kai

    2016-01-01

    These are the proceedings of the experimental overview of the production of open heavy flavor at the international conference Strangeness in Quark Matter 2016. Instead of a comprehensive overview, I focus on a few topics which the reader might find particularly interesting.

  17. Testing maximality in muon neutrino flavor mixing

    CERN Document Server

    Choubey, S; Choubey, Sandhya; Roy, Probir

    2003-01-01

    The small difference between the survival probabilities of muon neutrino and antineutrino beams, traveling through earth matter in a long baseline experiment such as MINOS, is shown to be an important measure of any possible deviation from maximality in the flavor mixing of those states.

  18. Search for Lepton Flavor Violation with ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Blocker, Craig; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Searches for Lepton Flavor Violation (LFV) are performed with 8- and 13-TeV data from the ATLAS detector at the LHC. Processes considered include LFV decays of Standard model particles (Z and H), LFV decays of potential new particles (Z' and sneutrino), RPV SUSY, heavy Marjorana neutrinos, and Quantum Black Holes.

  19. Heavy flavored jet modification in CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Jung, Kurt

    2015-01-01

    The energy loss of jets in heavy-ion collisions is expected to depend on the flavor of the fragmenting parton. Thus, measurements of jet quenching as a function of flavor place powerful constraints on the thermodynamical and transport properties of the hot and dense medium. Measurements of the nuclear modification factors of the heavy-flavor-tagged jets (from charm and bottom quarks) in both PbPb and pPb collisions can quantify such energy loss effects. Specifically, pPb measurements provide crucial insights into the behavior of the cold nuclear matter effect, which is required to fully understand the hot and dense medium effects on jets in PbPb collisions. In this talk, we present the heavy flavor jet spectra and measurements of the nuclear modification factors in both PbPb and pPb as a function of transverse momentum and pseudorapidity, using the high statistics pp, pPb and PbPb data taken in 2011 and 2013. Finally, we also will present a proposal for c-jet tagging methodology to be used for the upcoming hi...

  20. Recent heavy flavor results from STAR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mischke, A.

    2007-01-01

    We report on recent heavy flavor measurements from the STAR experiment at RHIC[1]. The measured charm cross section in heavy-ion collisions scales with the number of binary collisions, which is an indication for exclusive charm production in the initial state of the collision. The observed strong su

  1. Flavor Profile of Chinese Liquor Is Altered by Interactions of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qun; Kong, Yu; Xu, Yan

    2015-10-16

    The flavor profile of Chinese liquor is the result of the metabolic activity of its microbial community. Given the importance of the microbial interaction, a novel way to control the liquor's flavor is by regulating the composition of the community. In this study, we efficiently improved the liquor's flavor by perturbing the intrinsic microbial metabolism with extrinsic microbes. We first constructed a basic microbial group (intrinsic) containing Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Wickerhamomyces anomalus, and Issatchenkia orientalis and added special flavor producers (extrinsic), Saccharomyces uvarum and Saccharomyces servazzii, to this intrinsic group. Upon the addition of the extrinsic microbes, the maximum specific growth rates of S. cerevisiae and I. orientalis increased from 6.19 to 43.28/day and from 1.15 to 14.32/day, respectively, but that of W. anomalus changed from 1.00 to 0.96/day. In addition, most volatile compounds known to be produced by the extrinsic strains were not produced. However, more esters, alcohols, and acids were produced by S. cerevisiae and I. orientalis. Six compounds were significantly different by random forest analysis after perturbation. Among them, increases in ethyl hexanoate, isobutanol, and 3-methylbutyric acid were correlated with S. cerevisiae and I. orientalis, and a decrease in geranyl acetone was correlated with W. anomalus. Variations in ethyl acetate and 2-phenylethanol might be due to the varied activity of W. anomalus and S. cerevisiae. This work showed the effect of the interaction between the intrinsic and extrinsic microbes on liquor flavor, which would be beneficial for improving the quality of Chinese liquor. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  2. New Mechanism of Flavor Symmetry Breaking from Supersymmetric Strong Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Carone, C D; Moroi, T; Carone, Christopher D.; Hall, Lawrence J.; Moroi, Takeo

    1997-01-01

    We present a class of supersymmetric models in which flavor symmetries are broken dynamically, by a set of composite flavon fields. The strong dynamics that is responsible for confinement in the flavor sector also drives flavor symmetry breaking vacuum expectation values, as a consequence of a quantum-deformed moduli space. Yukawa couplings result as a power series in the ratio of the confinement to Planck scale, and the fermion mass hierarchy depends on the differing number of preons in different flavor symmetry-breaking operators. We present viable non-Abelian and Abelian flavor models that incorporate this mechanism.

  3. A combination of quantitative marinating and Maillard reaction to enhance volatile flavor in Chinese marinated chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiuli; Wang, Chunqing; Zhang, Chunhui; Li, Xia; Wang, Jinzhi; Li, Hai; Tang, Chunhong

    2017-02-01

    A combination of quantitative marinating and Maillard reaction was investigated by adding d-xylose, l-cysteine and thiamine to the marinated brine of quantitative marinating, which was expected to enhance the volatile flavor of Chinese marinated chicken. Response surface methodology was used to optimize parameters, in which response was sensory evaluation scores of marinated chicken. A Box-Behnken center design was applied to the optimized added contents. The optimized contents were d-xylose (1-5‰), l-cysteine (1-5‰) and thiamine (1-3‰). Analysis of variance indicated that a second-order polynomial equation could predict the experimental data well (R(2)  = 0.94), and sensory evaluation scores were significantly affected by the added amount of d-xylose, l-cysteine and thiamine. The optimal conditions that maximized the sensory evaluation score of Chinese marinated chicken were found to be 4.96‰ d-xylose, 2.28‰ l-cysteine and 2.66‰ thiamine (w/w). Given these optimal conditions, a number of meat-like flavor compounds such as 2-pentyl-furan, benzothiazole and 4-methyl-5-thiazoleethanol were identified by gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis. Our results suggested that a combination of quantitative marinating and Maillard reaction might be a promising method to enhance the volatile flavor, especially meat-like flavor, of Chinese marinated chicken. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Investigation on Key Molecules of Huanglongbing (HLB)-Induced Orange Juice Off-flavor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefl, Johannes; Kohlenberg, Birgit; Hartmann, Anja; Obst, Katja; Paetz, Susanne; Krammer, Gerhard; Trautzsch, Stephan

    2017-03-27

    Orange fruits from huanglongbing (HLB)-infected trees do not fully mature and show a severe off-flavor described as bitter-harsh, metallic, and less juicy and fruity. The investigation of juice from HLB-infected (HLBOJ) and healthy control oranges (COJ) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry showed higher concentrations of fruity esters, such as ethyl butyrate and ethyl 2-methylbutyrate, and soapy-waxy alkanals, such as octanal and decanal, in the COJ, whereas the HLBOJ showed higher concentrations of green aldehydes such as hexanal and degradation compounds of limonene and linalool such as α-terpineol. Application of aroma extract dilution analysis on terpeneless peel oil led to the identification of long-chained aldehydes such as (E,E)-2,4-decadienal, (Z)-8-tetradecenal, trans-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal, (Z)-4-decenal, and octanal with the highest flavor dilution factors among 25 odor-active volatiles in the peel oil of healthy oranges. Taste-guided fractionation and identification of the HLBOJ secondary metabolites followed by sensory validation revealed that flavanoids such as hesperidin may modulate the flavor to evoke the unacceptable harsh/metallic taste impression. Quantitation of the bitter components showed good correlation between the limonoid and flavanoid concentrations with the off-flavor and quality of the oranges obtained throughout the season.

  5. CHANNEL CATFISH INDUSTRY IN THE USA AND THE OFF-FLAVOR PROBLEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Fijan

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The history, the production technology in channel catfish pond farming industry as well as the statistical data on production, processing and product value during past 15 years are presented. The trend of increasing consumption by the population and the presently low prices of grain and soybeans are conductive to further expansion of production. The steady growth of the industry is stimulated by several factors: innovative efforts by farmers, research at the universities and at government institutions some of which have numerous experimental ponds, cooperative extension service for farmers, modern marketing, activities of catfish farming associations, high quality of products from processing plants and vertical integration. The off-flavor in catfish caused by algal metabolites is a major problem in the industry. Genera of algae producing such metabolites, their accumulation in other fish and occurrence in drinking water reservoirs as well as the current emphasis on preventing the entrance of off-flavor contaminated catfish onto the market were reviewed. The main undesirable algal metyabolites are volatile alcohols geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol (MIB. The need for less expensive and quick methods of identifying major off-flavor compounds was pointed out. Research at the University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff, USA, on control of off-flavor algae in experimental ponds by filter-feeding silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix Val. and tilapias confined in cages showed this approach to be rather promising.

  6. Flavor physics and right-handed models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shafaq, Saba

    2010-08-20

    The Standard Model of particle physics only provides a parametrization of flavor which involves the values of the quark and lepton masses and unitary flavor mixing matrix i.e. CKM (Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Masakawa) matrix for quarks. The precise determination of elements of the CKM matrix is important for the study of the flavor sector of quarks. Here we concentrate on the matrix element vertical stroke V{sub cb} vertical stroke. In particular we consider the effects on the value of vertical stroke V{sub cb} vertical stroke from possible right-handed admixtures along with the usually left-handed weak currents. Left Right Symmetric Model provide a natural basis for right-handed current contributions and has been studied extensively in the literature but has never been discussed including flavor. In the first part of the present work an additional flavor symmetry is included in LRSM which allows a systematic study of flavor effects. The second part deals with the practical extraction of a possible right-handed contribution. Starting from the quark level transition b{yields}c we use heavy quark symmetries to relate the helicities of the quarks to experimentally accessible quantities. To this end we study the decays anti B{yields}D(D{sup *})l anti {nu} which have been extensively explored close to non recoil point. By taking into account SCET (Soft Collinear Effective Theory) formalism it has been extended to a maximum recoil point i.e. {upsilon} . {upsilon}{sup '} >>1. We derive a factorization formula, where the set of form factors is reduced to a single universal form factor {xi}({upsilon} . {upsilon}{sup '}) up to hard-scattering corrections. Symmetry relations on form factors for exclusive anti B {yields} D(D{sup *})l anti {nu} transition has been derived in terms of {xi}({upsilon} . {upsilon}{sup '}). These symmetries are then broken by perturbative effects. The perturbative corrections to symmetry-breaking corrections to first order in the strong

  7. 羊肉膻味组成及脱膻技术研究进展%Study on the Species-related Flavors and the Ways to Improve the Acceptability of Mutton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雪梅

    2009-01-01

    The compounds that are responsible for the species-related characterizing flavors of mutton were reviewed, and the article also introduced some usual methods used now to reduce the odor of mutton. Short branched-chain fatty acids such as 4-methyloctanoic acid; 4-methylnonanoic acid and so on were considered the main compounds that were responsible for the species-related flavors of mutton. The methods that were used to improve the flavors include Chinese traditional ways, the physical and chemical ways and microbiological ways, but, there was not an effective method to industrialized produce at present.

  8. Contribution of the novel sulfur-producing adjunct Lactobacillus nodensis to flavor development in Gouda cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Elaine; Mills, Susan; Dobson, Alleson; Serrano, L Mariela; Hannon, John; Ryan, Siobhan P; Kilcawley, Kieran N; Brandsma, Johannes B; Meijer, Wilco C; Hill, Colin; Ross, R Paul

    2017-06-01

    We assessed the efficacy of Lactobacillus nodensis CSK964 as an adjunct culture in Gouda cheese under various industrial conditions. We set up 4 different systems: a direct vat inoculum with and without adjunct using the calf rennet Kalase, and an undefined bulk starter culture with and without adjunct using the microbial rennet Milase (both rennets from CSK Food Enrichment, Ede, the Netherlands). During ripening, we subjected the cheeses to the following analyses: viability of starter and adjunct cells, composition, proteolysis, and flavor development by detection of sulfur compounds and descriptive sensory analysis. In general, the presence of Lb. nodensis increased secondary proteolysis and influenced cheese flavor, particularly in relation to volatile sulfur compounds; hydrogen sulfide and methanethiol were present in higher abundances in cheeses containing Lb. nodensis. The primary starter also influenced the range of volatile sulfur compounds produced. Methanethiol and dimethyl disulfide were more abundant in the nisin-producing direct vat inoculum cheese with adjunct; hydrogen sulfide was more prevalent when bulk starter culture was used with Lb. nodensis. Sensory analysis revealed that the direct vat inoculum cheese with adjunct scored significantly better in terms of smell and taste than the direct vat inoculum cheese without adjunct and lacked the dominant sulfur flavors of the bulk starter cheese with adjunct. Subsequent analysis using lead acetate paper and modified motility broth as indicators of hydrogen sulfide production confirmed that Lb. nodensis produced hydrogen sulfide in broth and in the cheese matrix. This study suggests that the inclusion of Lb. nodensis as an adjunct culture can significantly alter the flavor profile of the final cheese. However, the selection of a suitable primary starter is imperative to ensure a desirable product. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Interpreting hints for lepton flavor universality violation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmannshofer, Wolfgang; Stangl, Peter; Straub, David M.

    2017-09-01

    We interpret the recent hints for lepton flavor universality violation in rare B meson decays. Based on a model-independent effective Hamiltonian approach, we determine regions of new physics parameter space that give a good description of the experimental data on RK and RK*, which is in tension with Standard Model predictions. We suggest further measurements that can help narrowing down viable new physics explanations. We stress that the measured values of RK and RK* are fully compatible with new physics explanations of other anomalies in rare B meson decays based on the b →s μ μ transition. If the hints for lepton flavor universality violation are the first signs of new physics, perturbative unitarity implies new phenomena below a scale of ˜100 TeV .

  10. QCD with Flavored Minimally Doubled Fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Weber, Johannes Heinrich

    2016-01-01

    I discuss minimally doubled fermions fermions as an ultra-local formulation on the lattice for sea quarks that realize a non-singlet chiral symmetry. I introduce a non-singlet mass term for Karsten-Wilczek fermions and identify the appropriate representation of the SU(2) flavor group at finite lattice spacing. I present an algebraic proof that the symmetry of the quark determinant under charge conjugation and reflections of the Euclidean axes is preserved for Karsten-Wilczek fermions as sea quarks. Finally, I discuss how the flavor components in meson correlation functions with Karsten-Wilczek fermions emerge naturally and I show how taste-breaking can be avoided without fine tuning.

  11. Lepton flavor violation with light vector bosons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Heeck

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available New sub-GeV vector bosons with couplings to muons but not electrons have been discussed in order to explain the muon's magnetic moment, the gap of high-energy neutrinos in IceCube or the proton radius puzzle. If such a light Z′ not only violates lepton universality but also lepton flavor, as expected for example from the recent hint for h→μτ at CMS, the two-body decay mode τ→μZ′ opens up and for MZ′<2mμ gives better constraints than τ→3μ already with 20-year-old ARGUS limits. We discuss the general prospects and motivation of light vector bosons with lepton-flavor-violating couplings.

  12. Electroweak baryogenesis with lepton flavor violation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Cheng-Wei; Fuyuto, Kaori; Senaha, Eibun

    2016-11-01

    We investigate the feasibility of electroweak baryogenesis in a two-Higgs doublet model with lepton flavor violation. By scrutinizing the heavy Higgs boson mass spectrum, regions satisfying both strong first-order electroweak phase transition and the muon g - 2 anomaly are identified. We also estimate the baryon number density by exploiting extra Yukawa couplings in the μ-τ sector. It is found that a CP-violating source term can be enhanced by the μ-τ flavor-violating coupling together with the extra τ coupling. With O (1) Yukawa couplings and CP-violating phases, the observed baryon number density is marginally produced under a generous assumption for the bubble wall profile.

  13. Yukawa alignment from natural flavor conservation

    CERN Document Server

    Cree, Graham

    2011-01-01

    We study the charged Higgs couplings to fermions in the "democratic" three-Higgs-doublet model, in which one doublet couples to down-type quarks, one to up-type quarks, and one to charged leptons. Flavor-changing neutral Higgs couplings are absent because the Glashow-Weinberg-Paschos condition for natural flavor conservation is in effect. We show that this model reproduces the coupling structure of the charged Higgs boson in the recently-proposed Yukawa-aligned two-Higgs-doublet model, with two subtle constraints that arise from the unitarity of the charged Higgs mixing matrix. Adding a fourth Higgs doublet with no couplings to fermions eliminates these constraints.

  14. The QCD spectrum with three quark flavors

    CERN Document Server

    Bernard, C; DeGrand, T A; Datta, S; DeTar, C E; Gottlieb, S; Heller, U M; Orginos, K; Sugar, R; Toussaint, D; Bernard, Claude; Burch, Tom; Grand, Thomas A. De; Datta, Saumen; Tar, Carleton De; Gottlieb, Steven; Heller, Urs M.; Orginos, Kostas; Sugar, Robert; Toussaint, Doug

    2001-01-01

    We present results from a lattice hadron spectrum calculation using three flavors of dynamical quarks - two light and one strange, and quenched simulations for comparison. These simulations were done using a one-loop Symanzik improved gauge action and an improved Kogut-Susskind quark action. The lattice spacings, and hence also the physical volumes, were tuned to be the same in all the runs to better expose differences due to flavor number. Lattice spacings were tuned using the static quark potential, so as a byproduct we obtain updated results for the effect of sea quarks on the static quark potential. We find indications that the full QCD meson spectrum is in better agreement with experiment than the quenched spectrum. For the 0++ (a0) meson we see a coupling to two pseudoscalar mesons, or a meson decay on the lattice.

  15. Lepton Flavor Violation in B Decays?

    CERN Document Server

    Glashow, Sheldon L.; Lane, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    The LHCb Collaboration's measurement of R_K = B(B+ -> K+ mu+ mu-)/B(B+ -> K+ e+e-) lies 2.6 sigma below the Standard Model prediction. Several groups suggest this deficit to result from new lepton non-universal interactions of muons. But non-universal leptonic interactions imply lepton flavor violation in B decays at rates much larger than are expected in the Standard Model. A simple model shows that these rates could lie just below current limits. An interesting consequence of our model, that B(B_s -> mu+ mu-)_{exp}/B(B_s -> mu+ mu-)_{SM} = R_K = 0.75, is compatible with recent measurements of these rates. We stress the importance of searches for lepton flavor violations, especially for B -> K mu e, K mu tau and B_s -> mu e, mu tau.

  16. Electroweak Baryogenesis with Lepton Flavor Violation

    CERN Document Server

    Chiang, Cheng-Wei; Senaha, Eibun

    2016-01-01

    We investigate feasibility of electroweak baryogenesis with lepton flavor violation in a two-Higgs doublet model. By scrutinizing heavy Higgs boson mass spectra, regions satisfying both strong first-order electroweak phase transition and the muon $g-2$ anomaly are identified. We also estimate the baryon number density by exploiting extra Yukawa couplings in the $\\mu$-$\\tau$ sector. It is found that a CP-violating source term can be enhanced by the $\\mu$-$\\tau$ flavor-violating coupling together with the extra $\\tau$ coupling. With $\\mathcal{O}(1)$ Yukawa couplings and CP-violating phases, the observed baryon number density is marginally produced under a generous assumption on a bubble wall profile.

  17. Lepton flavor violation with light vector bosons

    CERN Document Server

    Heeck, Julian

    2016-01-01

    New sub-GeV vector bosons with couplings to muons but not electrons have been discussed in order to explain the muon's magnetic moment, the gap of high-energy neutrinos in IceCube or the proton radius puzzle. If such a light Z' not only violates lepton universality but also lepton flavor, as expected for example from the recent hint for $h\\to\\mu\\tau$ at CMS, the two-body decay mode $\\tau \\to \\mu Z'$ opens up and for $M_{Z'} < 2 m_\\mu$ gives better constraints than $\\tau\\to 3\\mu$ already with 20-year-old ARGUS limits. We discuss the general prospects and motivation of light vector bosons with lepton-flavor-violating couplings.

  18. Light-flavor squark reconstruction at CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)548062; Weuste, Lars

    2015-01-01

    We present a simulation study of the prospects for the mass measurement of TeV-scale light- flavored right-handed squark at a 3 TeV e+e collider based on CLIC technology. The analysis is based on full GEANT4 simulations of the CLIC_ILD detector concept, including Standard Model physics backgrounds and beam-induced hadronic backgrounds from two- photon processes. The analysis serves as a generic benchmark for the reconstruction of highly energetic jets in events with substantial missing energy. Several jet finding algorithms were evaluated, with the longitudinally invariant kt algorithm showing a high degree of robustness towards beam-induced background while preserving the features typically found in algorithms developed for e+e- collisions. The presented study of the reconstruction of light-flavored squarks shows that for TeV-scale squark masses, sub-percent accuracy on the mass measurement can be achieved at CLIC.

  19. Gapless color-flavor-locked quark matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alford, Mark; Kouvaris, Chris; Rajagopal, Krishna

    2004-06-04

    In neutral cold quark matter that is so dense that the strange quark mass Ms is unimportant, all three quark flavors pair in a color-flavor locked (CFL) pattern, and all nine fermionic quasiparticles have a gap Delta (or 2Delta). We argue that, as the density decreases (or Ms increases), there is a quantum phase transition (at M(2s/mu approximately 2Delta) to a new "gapless CFL phase" in which only seven quasiparticles have a gap. There is still an unbroken U(1)(Q) gluon/photon, but, unlike CFL, gapless CFL is a Q conductor with gapless (charged) quasiquarks and a nonzero electron density at zero temperature, so its low energy effective theory and astrophysical properties are qualitatively new. At the transition, the dispersion relations of both gapless quasiparticles are quadratic, but for larger M2s/mu, one becomes conventionally linear while the other remains quadratic, up to tiny corrections.

  20. Gapless Color-Flavor-Locked Quark Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alford, Mark; Kouvaris, Christoforos; Rajagopal, Krishna

    2004-01-01

    In neutral cold quark matter that is sufficiently dense that the strange quark mass M_s is unimportant, all nine quarks (three colors; three flavors) pair in a color-flavor locked (CFL) pattern, and all fermionic quasiparticles have a gap. We argue that as a function of decreasing quark chemical...... potential mu or increasing M_s, there is a quantum phase transition from the CFL phase to a new ``gapless CFL phase'' in which only seven quasiparticles have a gap. The transition occurs where M_s^2/mu is approximately equal to 2*Delta, with Delta the gap parameter. Gapless CFL, like CFL, leaves unbroken...... different from those of the CFL phase, even though its U(1) symmetries are the same. Both gapless quasiparticles have quadratic dispersion relations at the quantum critical point. For values of M_s^2/mu above the quantum critical point, one branch has conventional linear dispersion relations while the other...

  1. Neutrino flavor evolution in neutron star mergers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, James Y.; Patwardhan, Amol V.; Fuller, George M.

    2017-08-01

    We examine the flavor evolution of neutrinos emitted from the disklike remnant (hereafter called "neutrino disk") of a binary neutron star (BNS) merger. We specifically follow the neutrinos emitted from the center of the disk, along the polar axis perpendicular to the equatorial plane. We carried out two-flavor simulations using a variety of different possible initial neutrino luminosities and energy spectra and, for comparison, three-flavor simulations in specific cases. In all simulations, the normal neutrino mass hierarchy was used. The flavor evolution was found to be highly dependent on the initial neutrino luminosities and energy spectra; in particular, we found two broad classes of results depending on the sign of the initial net electron neutrino lepton number (i.e., the number of neutrinos minus the number of antineutrinos). In the antineutrino-dominated case, we found that the matter-neutrino resonance effect dominates, consistent with previous results, whereas in the neutrino-dominated case, a bipolar spectral swap develops. The neutrino-dominated conditions required for this latter result have been realized, e.g., in a BNS merger simulation that employs the "DD2" equation of state for neutron star matter [Phys. Rev. D 93, 044019 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevD.93.044019]. For this case, in addition to the swap at low energies, a collective Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein mechanism generates a high-energy electron neutrino tail. The enhanced population of high-energy electron neutrinos in this scenario could have implications for the prospects of r -process nucleosynthesis in the material ejected outside the plane of the neutrino disk.

  2. Dynamical Flavor Origin of ZN Symmetries

    OpenAIRE

    Aristizabal Sierra, Diego; Vicente, Avelino; Fong, Sheng; Dhen, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    Discrete Abelian symmetries (ZN) are a common “artifact” of beyond the standard model physics models. They provide different avenues for constructing consistent scenarios for lepton and quark mixing patterns, radiative neutrino mass generation as well as dark matter stabilization. We argue that these symmetries can arise from the spontaneous breaking of the Abelian U(1) factors contained in the global flavor symmetry transformations of the gauge-invariant kinetic Lagrangian. This will be the ...

  3. New signatures of flavor violating Higgs couplings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buschmann, Malte; Kopp, Joachim; Liu, Jia; Wang, Xiao-Ping [PRISMA Cluster of Excellence and Mainz Institute for Theoretical Physics,Johannes Gutenberg University, 55099 Mainz (Germany)

    2016-06-24

    We explore several novel LHC signatures arising from quark or lepton flavor violating couplings in the Higgs sector, and we constrain such couplings using LHC data. Since the largest signals are possible in channels involving top quarks or tau leptons, we consider in particular the following flavor violating processes: (1) pp→thh (top plus di-Higgs final state) arising from a dimension six coupling of up-type quarks to three insertions of the Higgs field. We develop a search strategy for this final state and demonstrate that detection is possible at the high luminosity LHC if flavor violating top-up-Higgs couplings are not too far below the current limit. (2) pp→tH{sup 0}, where H{sup 0} is the heavy neutral CP-even Higgs boson in a two Higgs doublet model (2HDM). We consider the decay channels H{sup 0}→tu,WW,ZZ,hh and use existing LHC data to constrain the first three of them. For the fourth, we adapt our search for the thh final state, and we demonstrate that in large regions of the parameter space, it is superior to other searches, including searches for flavor violating top quark decays (t→hq). (3) H{sup 0}→τμ, again in the context of a 2HDM. This channel is particularly well motivated by the recent CMS excess in h→τμ, and we use the data from this search to constrain the properties of H{sup 0}.

  4. Heavy flavor, QCD and soft physics

    CERN Document Server

    Viegas Guerreiro Leonardo, Nuno Teotonio

    2016-01-01

    Recent measurements in QCD, soft physics, and heavy flavor made with the CMS detector at the LHC are presented. A selection of first results at the new frontier collision energy of 13 TeV at LHC Run2 is shown. The collision environment is characterized by studying charged particle distributions and correlations. Inclusive jet, exclusive dimuon and b-hadron production cross-section measurements are reported.

  5. Comments on Charged Lepton Flavor Violation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryman, Douglas

    2014-03-01

    Charged lepton flavor violation has been of interest since the muon (and subsequently, the tau lepton) was identified as a heavy version of the electron. CLFV continues to be pursued vigorously with the hope that its observation would reveal new information relating to the generation puzzle or about physics beyond the Standard Model. Theories abound which incorporate hypothetical CLFV at potentially observable levels although the mass scales and couplings are unknown, and innovative experiments continue to push the boundaries of sensitivity.

  6. Rare Z decays and neutrino flavor universality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durieux, Gauthier [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Cornell Univ. Ithaca, NY (United States). Lab. for Elementary Particle Physics; Univ. Catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium). Centre for Cosmology, Particle Physics and Phenomenology; Grossman, Yuval; Kuflik, Erik [Cornell Univ. Ithaca, NY (United States). Lab. for Elementary Particle Physics; Koenig, Matthias [Mainz Univ. (Germany). PRISMA Cluster of Excellence; Mainz Univ. (Germany). Mainz Inst. for Theoretical Physics; Ray, Shamayita [Cornell Univ. Ithaca, NY (United States). Lab. for Elementary Particle Physics; Calcutta Univ. (India). Dept. of Physics

    2015-12-15

    We study rare four-body decays of the Z-boson involving at least one neutrino and one charged lepton. Large destructive interferences make these decays very sensitive to the Z couplings to neutrinos. As the identified charged leptons can determine the neutrino flavors, these decays probe the universality of the Z couplings to neutrinos. The rare four-body processes could be accurately measured at future lepton colliders, leading to percent level precision.

  7. Boltzmann equations for neutrinos with flavor mixings

    OpenAIRE

    Yamada, Shoichi

    2000-01-01

    With a view of applications to the simulations of supernova explosion and proto neutron star cooling, we derive the Boltzmann equations for the neutrino transport with the flavor mixing based on the real time formalism of the nonequilibrium field theory and the gradient expansion of the Green function. The relativistic kinematics is properly taken into account. The advection terms are derived in the mean field approximation for the neutrino self-energy whiles the collision terms are obtained ...

  8. Flavor origin of R-parity

    OpenAIRE

    Morisi, S.; Peinado, E.; Vicente, Avelino(IFPA, Dep. AGO, Université de Liège, Bat B5, Sart-Tilman, 4000 , Liège 1, Belgium)

    2013-01-01

    Proton stability is guaranteed in the MSSM by assuming a discrete symmetry, R-parity. However, there are additional R-parity conserving higher dimensional operators which violate lepton and baryon numbers and induce fast proton decay. Here we study the possibility that all renormalizable, as well as the most dangerous non-renormalizable, R-parity violating operators are forbidden by a flavor symmetry, providing a common origin for fermion mixing and proton and dark matter stability. We propos...

  9. Rare Z Decays and Neutrino Flavor Universality

    CERN Document Server

    Durieux, Gauthier; König, Matthias; Kuflik, Eric; Ray, Shamayita

    2015-01-01

    We study rare four-body decays of the Z-boson involving at least one neutrino and one charged lepton. Large destructive interferences make these decays very sensitive to the Z couplings to neutrinos. As the identified charged leptons can determine the neutrino flavors, these decays probe the universality of the Z couplings to neutrinos. The rare four-body processes could be accurately measured at future lepton colliders, leading to percent level precision.

  10. Flavored bilinear R-parity violation

    CERN Document Server

    Bazzocchi, F; Peinado, E; Valle, J W F; Vicente, A

    2012-01-01

    Bilinear R-parity violation (BRPV) provides the simplest intrinsically supersymmetric neutrino mass generation scheme. While neutrino mixing parameters can be probed in high energy accelerators, they are unfortunately not predicted by the theory. Here we propose a model based on the discrete flavor symmetry $A_4$ with a single R-parity violating parameter, leading to maximal atmospheric mixing and a small but nonzero reactor angle, in agreement with experiment.

  11. Flavor Physics in the Quark Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonelli, Mario; /Frascati; Asner, David Mark; /Carleton U.; Bauer, Daniel Adams; /Imperial Coll., London; Becher, Thomas G.; /Fermilab; Beneke, M.; /Aachen, Tech. Hochsch.; Bevan, Adrian John; /Queen Mary, U. of London; Blanke, Monika; /Munich, Tech. U. /Munich, Max Planck Inst.; Bloise, C.; /Frascati; Bona, Marcella; /CERN; Bondar, Alexander E.; /Novosibirsk, IYF; Bozzi, Concezio; /INFN, Ferrara; Brod, Joachim; /Karlsruhe U.; Buras, Andrzej J.; /Munich, Tech. U.; Cabibbo, N.; /INFN, Rome /Rome U.; Carbone, A.; /INFN, Bologna; Cavoto, Gianluca; /INFN, Rome; Cirigliano, Vincenzo; /Los Alamos; Ciuchini, Marco; /INFN, Rome; Coleman, Jonathon P.; /SLAC; Cronin-Hennessy, Daniel P.; /Minnesota U.; Dalseno, J.P.; /KEK, Tsukuba /Glasgow U. /Queen Mary, U. of London /Freiburg U. /Charles U. /Pisa U. /Vienna, OAW /Imperial Coll., London /Bergen U. /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /Munich, Tech. U. /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /Southampton U. /INFN, Rome /Nara Women' s U. /Florida U. /INFN, Turin /Turin U. /Edinburgh U. /Warwick U. /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /Massachusetts U., Amherst /KEK, Tsukuba /Bern U. /CERN /Munich, Tech. U. /Mainz U., Inst. Phys. /Wayne State U. /Munich, Max Planck Inst. /CERN /Frascati /Brookhaven /Mainz U., Inst. Kernphys. /Munich, Tech. U. /Siegen U. /Imperial Coll., London /Victoria U. /KEK, Tsukuba /Fermilab /Washington U., St. Louis /Frascati /Warwick U. /Indian Inst. Tech., Madras /Melbourne U. /Princeton U. /Beijing, Inst. High Energy Phys. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome3 /Fermilab /SLAC /York U., Canada /Brookhaven /UC, Irvine /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /Valencia U., IFIC /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /Munich, Max Planck Inst. /Barcelona U. /Warwick U. /Tata Inst. /Frascati /Mainz U., Inst. Phys. /Vienna U. /KEK, Tsukuba /Orsay, LPT /Frascati /Munich, Tech. U. /Brookhaven /Bern U. /CERN /Mainz U., Inst. Phys. /Wayne State U. /Valencia U., IFIC /CERN /Kentucky U. /Oxford U. /Iowa State U. /Bristol U. /INFN, Rome /Rutherford /CERN /Orsay, LAL /Glasgow U. /INFN, Padua /Queen Mary, U. of London /Texas U. /LPHE, Lausanne /Fermilab /UC, Santa Cruz /Vienna, OAW /Cincinnati U. /Frascati /Orsay, LAL /Ohio State U. /Purdue U. /Novosibirsk, IYF /Frascati /INFN, Rome /Padua U. /INFN, Rome /Bern U. /Karlsruhe U. /Brookhaven /CERN /Paris U., VI-VII /Zurich, ETH /Pisa U. /Frascati /Oxford U. /Orsay, LAL /INFN, Rome2 /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome3 /Princeton U. /Fermilab /Queen' s U., Kingston /KEK, Tsukuba /Melbourne U. /Brookhaven /Indiana U. /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /Pisa U. /Mainz U., Inst. Phys. /Karlsruhe U. /Oxford U. /Cambridge U., DAMTP /Edinburgh U. /CERN

    2010-08-26

    In the past decade, one of the major challenges of particle physics has been to gain an in-depth understanding of the role of quark flavor. In this time frame, measurements and the theoretical interpretation of their results have advanced tremendously. A much broader understanding of flavor particles has been achieved, apart from their masses and quantum numbers, there now exist detailed measurements of the characteristics of their interactions allowing stringent tests of Standard Model predictions. Among the most interesting phenomena of flavor physics is the violation of the CP symmetry that has been subtle and difficult to explore. In the past, observations of CP violation were confined to neutral K mesons, but since the early 1990s, a large number of CP-violating processes have been studied in detail in neutral B mesons. In parallel, measurements of the couplings of the heavy quarks and the dynamics for their decays in large samples of K,D, and B mesons have been greatly improved in accuracy and the results are being used as probes in the search for deviations from the Standard Model. In the near future, there will be a transition from the current to a new generation of experiments, thus a review of the status of quark flavor physics is timely. This report is the result of the work of the physicists attending the 5th CKM workshop, hosted by the University of Rome 'La Sapienza', September 9-13, 2008. It summarizes the results of the current generation of experiments that is about to be completed and it confronts these results with the theoretical understanding of the field which has greatly improved in the past decade.

  12. Overview of flavor physics results at Belle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusa Yosuke

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We will present recent topics of the flavor physics in decays of the heavy mesons at the Belle experiment. Most of the results are based on a full data set which corresponds to 772 million BB̄ pairs collected at the ϒ(4S resonance with the Belle detector at the KEKB asymmetric energy e+e− collider. We also discuss about prospects of the studies in the future B-factory experiment.

  13. AdS-Sliced Flavor Branes and Adding Flavor to the Janus Solution

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, Adam B; Newman, George M; Rommal, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    We implement D7 flavor branes in AdS-sliced coordinates on $AdS_5\\times S^5$ with the ansatz that the brane fluctuates only in the warped ($\\mu$) direction in this slicing, which is particularly appropriate for studying the Janus solution. The natural field theory dual in this slicing is $\\mathcal{N}=4$ super Yang-Mills on two copies of $AdS_4$. Branes extending from $\\mu=\\pm\\pi/2$ can end at different locations, giving rise to quarks with piecewise constant mass on each $AdS_4$ half-space, jumping discontinuously between them. A second class of flavor brane solutions exists in this coordinate system, dubbed "continuous" flavor branes, that extend across the entire range of $\\mu$. We propose that the correct dual interpretation of "disconnected" flavor brane in this ansatz is a quark hypermultiplet with constant mass on one of the AdS$_4$ half-spaces with totally reflecting boundary conditions at the boundary of AdS$_4$; whereas the dual interpretation of a continuous flavor brane has totally transparent boun...

  14. Collective excitations of massive flavor branes

    CERN Document Server

    Itsios, Georgios; Ramallo, Alfonso V

    2016-01-01

    We study the intersections of two sets of D-branes of different dimensionalities. This configuration is dual to a supersymmetric gauge theory with flavor hypermultiplets in the fundamental representation of the gauge group which live on the defect of the unflavored theory determined by the directions common to the two types of branes. One set of branes is dual to the color degrees of freedom, while the other set adds flavor to the system. We work in the quenched approximation, i.e., where the flavor branes are considered as probes, and focus specifically on the case in which the quarks are massive. We study the thermodynamics and the speeds of first and zero sound at zero temperature and non-vanishing chemical potential. We show that the system undergoes a quantum phase transition when the chemical potential approaches its minimal value and we obtain the corresponding non-relativistic critical exponents that characterize its critical behavior. In the case of (2+1)-dimensional intersections, we further study a...

  15. Collective excitations of massive flavor branes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itsios, Georgios; Jokela, Niko; Ramallo, Alfonso V.

    2016-08-01

    We study the intersections of two sets of D-branes of different dimensionalities. This configuration is dual to a supersymmetric gauge theory with flavor hypermultiplets in the fundamental representation of the gauge group which live on the defect of the unflavored theory determined by the directions common to the two types of branes. One set of branes is dual to the color degrees of freedom, while the other set adds flavor to the system. We work in the quenched approximation, i.e., where the flavor branes are considered as probes, and focus specifically on the case in which the quarks are massive. We study the thermodynamics and the speeds of first and zero sound at zero temperature and non-vanishing chemical potential. We show that the system undergoes a quantum phase transition when the chemical potential approaches its minimal value and we obtain the corresponding non-relativistic critical exponents that characterize its critical behavior. In the case of (2 + 1)-dimensional intersections, we further study alternative quantization and the zero sound of the resulting anyonic fluid. We finally extend these results to non-zero temperature and magnetic field and compute the diffusion constant in the hydrodynamic regime. The numerical results we find match the predictions by the Einstein relation.

  16. The Flavor of the Composite Twin Higgs

    CERN Document Server

    Csaki, Csaba; Telem, Ofri; Weiler, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    The assumption of anarchic quark flavor puts serious stress on composite Higgs models: flavor bounds imply a tuning of a few per-mille (at best) in the Higgs potential. Composite twin Higgs (CTH) models significantly reduce this tension by opening up a new region of parameter space, obtained by raising the coupling among the composites close to the strong coupling limit $g_* \\sim 4\\pi$, thereby raising the scale of composites to around 10 TeV. This does not lead to large tuning in the Higgs potential since the leading quantum corrections are canceled by the twin partners (rather than the composites). We survey the leading flavor bounds on the CTH, which correspond to tree-level $\\Delta F=2$ four-Fermi operators from Kaluza-Klein (KK) Z exchange in the kaon system and 1-loop corrections from KK fermions to the electric dipole moment of the neutron. We provide a parametric estimate for these bounds and also perform a numeric scan of the parameter space using the complete calculation for both quantities. The res...

  17. Uncovering Mass Generation Through Higgs Flavor Violation

    CERN Document Server

    Altmannshofer, Wolfgang; Kagan, Alexander L; Silvestrini, Luca; Zupan, Jure

    2015-01-01

    If the flavor violating decay h --> tau mu is observed at the LHC, extra sources of electroweak symmetry breaking (EWSB) beyond the Higgs would be required in order to reconcile it with the bounds from tau --> mu gamma, barring fine-tuned cancellations. In fact, an h --> tau mu decay rate at a level indicated by the CMS measurement is easily realized if the muon and electron masses are due to a new source of EWSB, while the tau mass is due to the Higgs. We illustrate this with two examples: a two Higgs doublet model, and a model in which the Higgs is partially composite, with EWSB triggered by a technicolor sector. The 1st and 2nd generation quark masses and CKM mixing can also be assigned to the new EWSB source. Large deviations in the flavor diagonal lepton and quark Higgs Yukawa couplings are generic. If m_mu is due to a rank 1 mass matrix contribution, a novel Yukawa coupling sum rule holds, providing a precision test of our framework. Flavor violating quark and lepton (pseudo)scalar couplings combine to ...

  18. Experimental summary for heavy flavor production

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Rongrong

    2016-01-01

    Measurements of heavy flavor production in heavy-ion collisions have played an important role in understanding the properties of the quark-gluon plasma created in such collision. Due to their large masses, heavy flavor quarks present unique sensitivity to the kinematics as well as the dynamics of the hot and dense medium. In this article, a selection of recent measurements on heavy flavor production in p+p, p+A and A+A collisions at both RHIC and LHC energies will be presented. The measurements in p+p collisions serve as benchmarks to fundamental theories, and as references to similar studies in A+A collisions where the hot medium effects are present. On the other hand, the measurements in p+A collisions can help to quantify the cold nuclear matter effects which are also in effect in A+A collisions and thus need to be taken into account when interpreting the measurements in heavy-ion collisions. The experimental results from A+A collisions are discussed and compared to theoretical calculations, which can shed...

  19. Flavor Mixing Democracy and Minimal CP Violation

    CERN Document Server

    Gerard, Jean-Marc

    2012-01-01

    We point out that there is a unique parametrization of quark flavor mixing in which every angle is close to the Cabibbo angle \\theta_C \\simeq 13^\\circ with the CP-violating phase \\phi_q around 1^\\circ, implying that they might all be related to the strong hierarchy among quark masses. Applying the same parametrization to lepton flavor mixing, we find that all three mixing angles are comparably large (around \\pi/4) and the Dirac CP-violating phase \\phi_l is also minimal as compared with its values in the other eight possible parametrizations. In this spirit, we propose a simple neutrino mixing ansatz which is equivalent to the tri-bimaximal flavor mixing pattern in the \\phi_l \\to 0 limit and predicts \\sin\\theta_13 = 1/\\sqrt{2} \\sin (\\phi_l/2) for reactor antineutrino oscillations. Hence the Jarlskog invariant of leptonic CP violation J_l = (\\sin\\phi_l)/12 can reach a few percent if \\theta_13 lies in the range 7^\\circ \\leq \\theta_13 \\leq 10^\\circ.

  20. Flavor mixing democracy and minimal CP violation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerard, Jean-Marc; Xing, Zhi-zhong

    2012-06-01

    We point out that there is a unique parametrization of quark flavor mixing in which every angle is close to the Cabibbo angle θC≃13° with the CP-violating phase ϕq around 1°, implying that they might all be related to the strong hierarchy among quark masses. Applying the same parametrization to lepton flavor mixing, we find that all three mixing angles are comparably large (around π/4) and the Dirac CP-violating phase ϕl is also minimal as compared with its values in the other eight possible parametrizations. In this spirit, we propose a simple neutrino mixing ansatz which is equivalent to the tri-bimaximal flavor mixing pattern in the ϕl→0 limit and predicts sin θ13=1/√{2}sin(ϕl/2) for reactor antineutrino oscillations. Hence the Jarlskog invariant of leptonic CP violation Jl=(sin ϕl)/12 can reach a few percent if θ13 lies in the range 7°⩽θ13⩽10°.

  1. Mild-split SUSY with flavor

    CERN Document Server

    Eliaz, Latif; Gudnason, Sven Bjarke; Tsuk, Eitan

    2013-01-01

    In the framework of a gauge mediated quiver-like model, the standard model flavor texture can be naturally generated. The model - like the MSSM - has furthermore a region in parameter space where the lightest Higgs mass is fed by heavy stop loops, which in turn sets the average squark mass scale near 10-20 TeV. We perform a careful flavor analysis to check whether this type of mild-split SUSY passes all flavor constraints as easily as envisioned in the original type of split SUSY. Interestingly, it turns out to be on the border of several constraints, in particular, the branching ratio of mu -> e gamma and, if order one complex phases are assumed, also epsilon_K neutron and electron EDM. Furthermore, we consider unification as well as dark matter candidates, especially the gravitino. Finally, we provide a closed-form formula for the soft masses of matter in arbitrary representations of any of the gauge groups in a generic quiver-like model with a general messenger sector.

  2. Flavored Universe dispatched via Axion and Neutrino

    CERN Document Server

    Ahn, Y H

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by the flavored Peccei-Quinn (PQ) symmetry for unifying flavor physics and string theory, we construct an explicit model by introducing an $U(1)$ symmetry as a fundamental one for rather recent but fast growing issues of astro-particle physics and cosmology, in a way that the $U(1)_X$-$[gravity]^2$ anomaly-free condition with the standard model (SM) flavor structure demands additional sterile neutrinos as well as no axionic domain-wall problem, encompassing several main issues connected to each other: leptonic mixings and CP violation in neutrino oscillation, high-energy neutrinos, QCD axion, axion cooling of stars, inflation, cosmological constant, leptogenesis, and dark matter (DM). The QCD axion decay constant, through its connection to the astrophysical constraints of stellar evolution and the SM fermion masses, is shown to be fixed at $F_A=1.30^{+0.66}_{-0.54}\\times10^{9}$ GeV (consequently, its mass $m_a=4.34^{+3.37}_{-1.49}$ meV and axion-photon coupling $|g_{a\\gamma\\gamma}|=1.30^{+1.01}_{-0....

  3. Heavy Flavored Jet Modification at CMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Kurt

    2016-12-01

    The energy loss of jets in heavy-ion collisions is expected to depend on the flavor of the fragmenting parton. Thus, measurements of jet quenching as a function of flavor place powerful constraints on the thermodynamical and transport properties of the hot and dense medium. Specifically, pPb measurements provide crucial insights into the behavior of the cold nuclear matter effect, which is required to fully understand the hot and dense medium effects on jets in PbPb collisions. In these proceedings, we present the heavy flavor jet spectra and measurements of the nuclear modification factors of b jets in both PbPb and pPb as a function of transverse momentum and pseudorapidity, at √{sNN} = 2.76 and 5.02 TeV, respectively. In addition, we present the first ever measurement of charm-tagged jets in a heavy-ion environment, including cross-sections and comparisons to PYTHIA in both pPb and pp.

  4. New Signatures of Flavor Violating Higgs Couplings

    CERN Document Server

    Buschmann, Malte; Liu, Jia; Wang, Xiao-Ping

    2016-01-01

    We explore several novel LHC signatures arising from quark or lepton flavor violating couplings in the Higgs sector, and we constrain such couplings using LHC data. Since the largest signals are possible in channels involving top quarks or tau leptons, we consider in particular the following flavor violating processes: (1) $pp \\to thh$ (top plus di-Higgs final state) arising from a dimension six coupling of up-type quarks to three insertions of the Higgs field. We develop a search strategy for this final state and demonstrate that detection is possible at the high luminosity LHC if flavor violating top--up--Higgs couplings are not too far below the current limit. (2) $pp \\to tH^0$, where $H^0$ is the heavy neutral CP-even Higgs boson in a two Higgs doublet model (2HDM). We consider the decay channels $H^0 \\to tu, WW, ZZ, hh$ and use existing LHC data to constrain the first three of them. For the fourth, we adapt our search for the $thh$ final state, and we demonstrate that in large regions of the parameter sp...

  5. Flavor Physics in the Quark Sector

    CERN Document Server

    Antonelli, Mario; Bauer, Daniel Adams; Becher, Thomas G.; Beneke, M.; Bevan, Adrian John; Blanke, Monika; Bloise, C.; Bona, Marcella; Bondar, Alexander E.; Bozzi, Concezio; Brod, Joachim; Buras, Andrzej J.; Cabibbo, N.; Carbone, A.; Cavoto, Gianluca; Cirigliano, Vincenzo; Ciuchini, Marco; Coleman, Jonathon P.; Cronin-Hennessy, Daniel P.; Dalseno, J.P.; Davies, C.H.; Di Lodovico, Francesca; Dingfelder, Jochen C.; Dolezal, Zdenek; Donati, Simone; Dungel, W.; Egede, Ulrik; Eigen, Gerald; Faccini, Riccardo; Feldmann, Thorsten; Ferroni, Fernando; Flynn, Jonathan M.; Franco, Enrico; Fujikawa, M.; Furic, Ivan K.; Gambino, Paolo; Gardi, E.; Gershon, Timothy John; Giagu, Stefano; Golowich, Eugene; Goto, Toru; Greub, C.; Grojean, Christophe; Guadagnoli, Diego; Haisch, U.A.; Harr, Robert Francis; Hoang, Andre H.; Hurth, Tobias; Isidori, Gino; Jaffe, D.E.; Juttner, Andreas; Jager, Sebastian; Khodjamirian, Alexander; Koppenburg, Patrick Stefan; Kowalewski, Robert V.; Krokovny, P.; Kronfeld, Andreas Samuel; Laiho, J.; Lanfranchi, G.; Latham, Thomas Edward; Libby, James F.; Limosani, A.; Lopes Pegna, David; Lu, Cai-Dian; Lubicz, Vittorio; Lunghi, Enrico; Luth, Vera G.; Maltman, K.; Marciano, William Joseph; Martin, Emilie Claire Mutsumi; Martinelli, Guido; Martinez-Vidal, Fernando; Masiero, A.; Mateu, V.; Mescia, Federico; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Moulson, Matthew; Neubert, Matthias; Neufeld, Helmut; Nishida, Shohei; Offen, Nils; Palutan, M.; Paradisi, Paride; Parsa, Z.; Passemar, Emilie; Patel, M.; Pecjak, B.D.; Petrov, Alexey A.; Pich, Antonio; Pierini, Maurizio; Plaster, Brad; Powell, Brian Alfred; Prell, Soeren Andre; Rademaker, J.; Rescigno, Marco; Ricciardi, Stefania; Robbe, Patrick; Rodrigues, E.; Rotondo, Marcello; Sacco, Roberto; Schilling, Christopher James; Schneider, Olivier; Scholz, Enno E.; Schumm, Bruce Andrew; Schwanda, C.; Schwartz, Alan Jay; Sciascia, Barbara; Serrano, Justine; Shigemitsu, J.; Shipsey, Ian P.J.; Sibidanov, A.L.; Silvestrini, Luca; Simonetto, Franco; Simula, Silvano; Smith, Christopher; Soni, A.; Sonnenschein, Lars; Sordini, Viola; Sozzi, Marco S.; Spadaro, Tommaso; Spradlin, Patrick Michael; Stocchi, Achille; Tantalo, Nazario; Tarantino, Cecilia; Telnov, Alexandre V.; Tonelli, Diego; Towner, I.S.; Trabelsi, K.; Urquijo, Phillip; Van de Water, R.S.; Van Kooten, Richard J.; Virto, Javier; Volpi, Guido; Wanke, R.; Westhoff, Susanne; Wilkinson, G.; Wingate, Matthew Bowen; Xie, Y.; Zupan, Jure

    2010-01-01

    One of the major challenges of particle physics has been to gain an in-depth understanding of the role of quark flavor and measurements and theoretical interpretations of their results have advanced tremendously: apart from masses and quantum numbers of flavor particles, there now exist detailed measurements of the characteristics of their interactions allowing stringent tests of Standard Model predictions. Among the most interesting phenomena of flavor physics is the violation of the CP symmetry that has been subtle and difficult to explore. Till early 1990s observations of CP violation were confined to neutral $K$ mesons, but since then a large number of CP-violating processes have been studied in detail in neutral $B$ mesons. In parallel, measurements of the couplings of the heavy quarks and the dynamics for their decays in large samples of $K, D$, and $B$ mesons have been greatly improved in accuracy and the results are being used as probes in the search for deviations from the Standard Model. In the near...

  6. Human sensory preconditioning in a flavor preference paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Privitera, Gregory J; Mulcahey, Colleen P; Orlowski, Cassandra M

    2012-10-01

    This experiment adapted a sensory preconditioning (SPC) procedure using human participants to determine if conditioning (Cond) to one flavor (the conditioned flavor) will enhance liking for another flavor (the SPC flavor) associated with it prior to training. Participants in one of three groups (N=40 per group) consumed and rated plain or sweetened cherry and grape kool-aids in four phases. In baseline and SPC phase, ratings for a plain cherry, grape, and cherry-grape mixture were similar. In training, one flavor was sweetened (SPC+Cond and Cond Only groups) or unsweetened (SPC Only group) and ratings increased only for the flavor that was sweetened. In test, Group SPC+Cond rated the conditioned flavor and the SPC flavor as more liked and tasting sweeter. Group Cond Only rated only the conditioned flavor as more liked and tasting sweeter. Group SPC Only showed no change in ratings from baseline to test. These are the first data to show SPC learning using a flavor preference paradigm with human participants. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Safety evaluation of an oak-flavored milk powder containing ellagitannins upon oral administration in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azorín-Ortuño, María; Urbán, Cristina; Cerón, José J; Tecles, Fernando; Gil-Izquierdo, Angel; Pallarés, Francisco J; Tomás-Barberán, Francisco A; Espín, Juan Carlos

    2008-04-23

    Ellagitannins are phenolic compounds that occur in a number of dietary sources such as walnuts, raspberries, pomegranate, strawberries, and oak-aged wines. Ellagitannins have been acknowledged to have antioxidant and cancer chemopreventive activities. However, ellagitannins have also been considered to be "antinutrients" and have been reported to provoke adverse effects in animals. In this context, risk assessment studies are demanded to ensure that chemicals present in food do not compromise food safety. Oak-flavored milk can be obtained by thermal treatment of milk in the presence of oak shavings. The oak-flavored milk can be used to impart wood-like flavor to different recipes. The present study evaluated, under a subchronic approach, the safety of an oak-flavored milk powder containing ellagitannins in rats upon repeated oral administration for 96 days. The effect of 30% oak-flavored milk powder in the diet was evaluated. This amount involved a margin of safety equivalent to the daily intake of 134 yogurts by a 70 kg person for 96 days. Growth rate, food utility index, 9 hematological, and 13 serobiochemical parameters as well as the metabolism and tissue distribution of ellagitannins and derived metabolites were studied. Overall, no significant differences were found in oak-milk-fed rats in any blood parameter analyzed. No effect was found on growth rate and food utility index. Urolithin A was identified in feces of rats fed oak-flavored milk and the glucuronide derivative in urine. No metabolites were found in the liver, kidney, or uterus. Histopathological analysis of liver and kidney corroborated the absence of toxicity. Therefore, these results suggest that the intake of the oak-flavored milk powder assayed in this study is safe and does not involve potential hazard to human health.

  8. Highly sweet compounds of plant origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nam-Cheol; Kinghorn, A Douglas

    2002-12-01

    The demand for new alternative "low calorie" sweeteners for dietetic and diabetic purposes has increased worldwide. Although the currently developed and commercially used highly sweet sucrose substitutes are mostly synthetic compounds, the search for such compounds from natural sources is continuing. As of mid-2002, over 100 plant-derived sweet compounds of 20 major structural types had been reported, and were isolated from more than 25 different families of green plants. Several of these highly sweet natural products are marketed as sweeteners or flavoring agents in some countries as pure compounds, compound mixtures, or refined extracts. These highly sweet natural substances are reviewed herein.

  9. Waterpipe smoking: analysis of the aroma profile of flavored waterpipe tobaccos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Jens; Luch, Andreas; Schulz, Thomas G

    2013-10-15

    In the last years the habit of smoking waterpipes has spread worldwide, especially among young people and emerged as global health issue. Although research is now under way for no less than 40 years in the field of waterpipe smoking, in comparison to cigarette smoking there is still insufficient knowledge on the real composition and the toxicity of the smoke inhaled and the resulting levels of exposure against particular hazardous ingredients. In most cases for waterpipe smoking a highly flavored tobacco called "moassel" is used. However, the number, quantity and toxicity of the added flavorings are widely unknown. In this study the static headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SHS-GC-MS) was used to identify 79 volatile flavor compounds present in waterpipe tobacco. Among these eleven compounds were analyzed quantitatively. The results show that waterpipe tobacco contains high amounts of the fragrance benzyl alcohol as well as considerable levels of limonene, linalool and eugenol, all of which are known as being allergenic in human skin. The proposed SHS-GC-MS method has been validated and found to be accurate, simple and characterized by low limits of detection (LOD) in the range of 0.016 to 4.3 µg/g tobacco for benzaldehyde and benzyl alcohol, respectively. The identification and characterization of waterpipe tobacco ingredients indeed reveals crucial for the assessment of potential health risks that may be posed by these additives in smokers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Lepton Flavor Non-Universality in B-meson Decays from a U(2) Flavor Model

    CERN Document Server

    Falkowski, Adam; Ziegler, Robert

    2015-01-01

    We address the recent anomalies in semi-leptonic $B$-meson decays using a model of fermion masses based on the $U(2)$ flavor symmetry. The new contributions to $b \\to s \\ell \\ell$ transitions arise due to a tree-level exchange of a $Z^\\prime$ vector boson gauging a $U(1)$ subgroup of the flavor symmetry. They are controlled by a single parameter and are approximately aligned to the Standard Model prediction, with constructive interference in the $e$-channel and destructive interference in the $\\mu$-channel. The current experimental data on semi-leptonic $B$-meson decays can be very well reproduced without violating existing constraints from flavor violation in the quark and lepton sectors. Our model will be tested by new measurements of $b \\to s \\ell \\ell$ transitions and also by future electroweak precision tests, direct $Z^\\prime$ searches, and $\\mu$-$e$ conversion in nuclei.

  11. Analyzing volatile compounds in dairy products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volatile compounds give the first indication of the flavor in a dairy product. Volatiles are isolated from the sample matrix and then analyzed by chromatography, sensory methods, or an electronic nose. Isolation may be performed by solvent extraction or headspace analysis, and gas chromatography i...

  12. Contribution of Bacillus Isolates to the Flavor Profiles of Vanilla Beans Assessed through Aroma Analysis and Chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Fenglin; Chen, Yonggan; Fang, Yiming; Wu, Guiping; Tan, Lehe

    2015-10-09

    Colonizing Bacillus in vanilla (Vanilla planifolia Andrews) beans is involved in glucovanillin hydrolysis and vanillin formation during conventional curing. The flavor profiles of vanilla beans under Bacillus-assisted curing were analyzed through gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, electronic nose, and quantitative sensory analysis. The flavor profiles were analytically compared among the vanilla beans under Bacillus-assisted curing, conventional curing, and non-microorganism-assisted curing. Vanilla beans added with Bacillus vanillea XY18 and Bacillus subtilis XY20 contained higher vanillin (3.58%±0.05% and 3.48%±0.10%, respectively) than vanilla beans that underwent non-microorganism-assisted curing and conventional curing (3.09%±0.14% and 3.21%±0.15%, respectively). Forty-two volatiles were identified from endogenous vanilla metabolism. Five other compounds were identified from exogenous Bacillus metabolism. Electronic nose data confirmed that vanilla flavors produced through the different curing processes were easily distinguished. Quantitative sensory analysis confirmed that Bacillus-assisted curing increased vanillin production without generating any unpleasant sensory attribute. Partial least squares regression further provided a correlation model of different measurements. Overall, we comparatively analyzed the flavor profiles of vanilla beans under Bacillus-assisted curing, indirectly demonstrated the mechanism of vanilla flavor formation by microbes.

  13. Contribution of Bacillus Isolates to the Flavor Profiles of Vanilla Beans Assessed through Aroma Analysis and Chemometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenglin Gu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Colonizing Bacillus in vanilla (Vanilla planifolia Andrews beans is involved in glucovanillin hydrolysis and vanillin formation during conventional curing. The flavor profiles of vanilla beans under Bacillus-assisted curing were analyzed through gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, electronic nose, and quantitative sensory analysis. The flavor profiles were analytically compared among the vanilla beans under Bacillus-assisted curing, conventional curing, and non-microorganism-assisted curing. Vanilla beans added with Bacillus vanillea XY18 and Bacillus subtilis XY20 contained higher vanillin (3.58% ± 0.05% and 3.48% ± 0.10%, respectively than vanilla beans that underwent non-microorganism-assisted curing and conventional curing (3.09% ± 0.14% and 3.21% ± 0.15%, respectively. Forty-two volatiles were identified from endogenous vanilla metabolism. Five other compounds were identified from exogenous Bacillus metabolism. Electronic nose data confirmed that vanilla flavors produced through the different curing processes were easily distinguished. Quantitative sensory analysis confirmed that Bacillus-assisted curing increased vanillin production without generating any unpleasant sensory attribute. Partial least squares regression further provided a correlation model of different measurements. Overall, we comparatively analyzed the flavor profiles of vanilla beans under Bacillus-assisted curing, indirectly demonstrated the mechanism of vanilla flavor formation by microbes.

  14. Genome-scale metabolic model for Lactococcus lactis MG1363 and its application to the analysis of flavor formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flahaut, Nicolas A L; Wiersma, Anne; van de Bunt, Bert; Martens, Dirk E; Schaap, Peter J; Sijtsma, Lolke; Dos Santos, Vitor A Martins; de Vos, Willem M

    2013-10-01

    Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris MG1363 is a paradigm strain for lactococci used in industrial dairy fermentations. However, despite of its importance for process development, no genome-scale metabolic model has been reported thus far. Moreover, current models for other lactococci only focus on growth and sugar degradation. A metabolic model that includes nitrogen metabolism and flavor-forming pathways is instrumental for the understanding and designing new industrial applications of these lactic acid bacteria. A genome-scale, constraint-based model of the metabolism and transport in L. lactis MG1363, accounting for 518 genes, 754 reactions, and 650 metabolites, was developed and experimentally validated. Fifty-nine reactions are directly or indirectly involved in flavor formation. Flux Balance Analysis and Flux Variability Analysis were used to investigate flux distributions within the whole metabolic network. Anaerobic carbon-limited continuous cultures were used for estimating the energetic parameters. A thorough model-driven analysis showing a highly flexible nitrogen metabolism, e.g., branched-chain amino acid catabolism which coupled with the redox balance, is pivotal for the prediction of the formation of different flavor compounds. Furthermore, the model predicted the formation of volatile sulfur compounds as a result of the fermentation. These products were subsequently identified in the experimental fermentations carried out. Thus, the genome-scale metabolic model couples the carbon and nitrogen metabolism in L. lactis MG1363 with complete known catabolic pathways leading to flavor formation. The model provided valuable insights into the metabolic networks underlying flavor formation and has the potential to contribute to new developments in dairy industries and cheese-flavor research.

  15. Flavor entanglement in neutrino oscillations in the wave packet description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasone, Massimo; Dell'Anno, Fabio; De Siena, Silvio; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2015-10-01

    The wave packet approach to neutrino oscillations provides an enlightening description of quantum decoherence induced, during propagation, by localization effects. Within this approach, we show that a deeper insight into the dynamical aspects of particle mixing can be obtained if one investigates the behavior of quantum correlations associated to flavor oscillations. By identifying the neutrino three-flavor modes with (suitably defined) three-qubit modes, the exploitation of tools of quantum information theory for mixed states allows a detailed analysis of the dynamical behavior of flavor entanglement during free propagation. This provides further elements leading to a more complete understanding of the phenomenon of neutrino oscillations, and a basis for possible applicative implementations. The analysis is carried out by studying the distribution of the flavor entanglement; to this aim, we perform combined investigations of the behaviors of the two-flavor concurrence and of the logarithmic negativities associated with specific bipartitions of the three flavors.

  16. Flavor from the double tetrahedral group without supersymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Carone, Christopher D; Vasquez, Savannah

    2016-01-01

    We consider a class of flavor models proposed by Aranda, Carone and Lebed, relaxing the assumption of supersymmetry and allowing the flavor scale to float anywhere between the weak and Planck scales. We perform global fits to the charged fermion masses and CKM angles, and consider the dependence of the results on the unknown mass scale of the flavor sector. We find that the typical Yukawa textures in these models provide a good description of the data over a wide range of flavor scales, with a preference for those that approach the lower bounds allowed by flavor-changing-neutral-current constraints. Nevertheless, the possibility that the flavor scale and Planck scale are identified remains viable. We present models that demonstrate how the assumed textures can arise most simply in a non-supersymmetric framework.

  17. Neutrino flavor ratios as diagnostic of solar WIMP annihilation

    CERN Document Server

    Lehnert, Ralf

    2007-01-01

    We consider the neutrino (and antineutrino) flavors arriving at Earth for neutrinos produced in the annihilation of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) in the Sun's core. Solar-matter effects on the flavor propagation of the resulting $\\agt$ GeV neutrinos are studied analytically within a density-matrix formalism. Matter effects, including mass-state level-crossings, influence the flavor fluxes considerably. The exposition herein is somewhat pedagogical, in that it starts with adiabatic evolution of single flavors from the Sun's center, with $\\theta_{13}$ set to zero, and progresses to fully realistic processing of the flavor ratios expected in WIMP decay, from the Sun's core to the Earth. In the fully realistic calculation, non-adiabatic level-crossing is included, as are possible nonzero values for $\\theta_{13}$ and the CP-violating phase $\\delta$. Due to resonance enhancement in matter, nonzero values of $\\theta_{13}$ even smaller than a degree can noticeably affect flavor propagation. Both normal...

  18. Flavor Tagging at the Tevatron, Including Calibration and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulik, T.; DØ Collaboration; CDF Collaboration

    2007-08-01

    This report summarizes the flavor tagging techniques developed at the CDF and DØ experiments. Flavor tagging involves identification of the B meson flavor at production, whether its constituent is a b quark or an anti-quark. quark flavor content and hence the decay products do not identify the B flavor content at production. It is crucial for measuring the oscillation frequency of neutral B mesons, both in the B0 and Bs0 system. The two experiments have developed their unique approaches to flavor tagging, using neural networks and likelihood methods to disentangle tracks from b decays from other tracks. This report discusses these techniques and the measurement of B0 mixing as a means to calibrate the taggers.

  19. Resource factor in production of quality and safe flavored food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Наталія Епінетівна Фролова

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Research of methods for establishing authenticity of essential oil of cumin and dill based on optical isomerism of components is presented in the article.In modern food technology more often used frozen raw, concentrates fruit and vegetables, growing issue of healthy products and this all require the use of flavors. Synthetic flavors can be dangerous to the human body. Usage of counterfeit natural flavors is dangerous.

  20. Probing flavor structure in unified theory with scalar spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Inoue, K; Yoshioka, K; Inoue, Kenzo; Kojima, Kentaro; Yoshioka, Koichi

    2007-01-01

    The flavor structure in unified theory is probed with superparticle mass spectrum observed in future particle experiments. A key ingredient is the generation dependence of scalar mass non-degeneracy. The observed non-degeneracy in low-energy regime is shown to provide a direct imprint of flavor structure in high-energy fundamental theory. The implication from flavor-violating rare process is also discussed.

  1. Response Surface Optimization of Maillard Reaction Conditions and Analysis of Volatile Flavor Compounds of MRPs Derived from the Hydrolysate of Pneumatophorus Japonicns Heads%响应面优化鲐鱼头酶解液Maillard反应条件及其产物挥发性风味物质分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐大伦; 束玉珍; 杨文鸽; 楼乔明; 薛长湖

    2013-01-01

    Using the enzymolysis from pneumatophorus japonicns head as raw material,the effects of xylose additives,reaction time and temperature on the sensory evaluation of Maillard reaction products (MRPs) were determined by response surface method.Then the volatile flavor components of MRPs were isolated and identified by GC-MS.The results showed that the optimum conditions of Maillard reaction were as follows:xylose 2.5%,Gly 1.6%,ginger pop 10%,at 117 ℃ for 55 min.73 kinds of volatile flavor component were obtained,in which 2-ethyl furan,2-pentyl furan,ω-Heptaldehyde,(Z)-4-Heptenal,(E)-2-Octenal,(E,E)-2,4-Decadienal,4-Ethylbenzaldehyde,3-ethyl-Phenol,4-pentylphenol,Benzothiazole,4-Methylthiazole,Dimethyl trisulfide had an important contribution to the MRPs flavor.%以鲐鱼头酶解液为原料,通过响应面法研究木糖添加量、反应温度和时间对鲐鱼头酶解液美拉德反应产物(MRPs)感官的影响.用GC-MS分离鉴定MRPs中的挥发性风味物质,结果表明:鲐鱼头酶解液Maillard反应条件是:木糖、甘氨酸、姜汁添加量分别为2.5%、1.6%和10%,117℃反应55 min.经GC-MS分析鉴定,MRPs共含73种挥发性物质,其中2-乙基呋喃、2-戊基呋喃、ω-庚醛、(Z)4-庚烯醛、(E)-2-辛烯醛、(E,E)-2,4-癸二烯醛、4-乙基苯甲醛、3-乙基苯酚、4-戊基苯酚、苯并噻唑、4-甲基噻唑和二甲基三硫化物等化合物对MRPs的风味有重要贡献.

  2. Physics Opportunities at the Next Generation of Precision Flavor Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Ciuchini, Marco

    2011-01-01

    Starting with next-generation experiments, flavor physics fully enters the era of precision measurements. The focus shifts from testing the Standard Model to finding and characterizing new physics contributions. We review the opportunities offered by future flavor experiments, discussing the expected sensitivities of the most important measurements. We also present some examples of measurable deviations from the Standard Model in the flavor sector generated in a selection of new physics models, demonstrating the major contribution that precision flavor physics could give to the effort of going beyond the Standard Model.

  3. The role of lepton flavor symmetries in leptogenesis

    CERN Document Server

    Sierra, D Aristizabal

    2012-01-01

    The presence of flavor symmetries in the lepton sector may have several consequences for the generation of the baryon asymmetry of the Universe via leptogenesis. We review the mechanism in general type-I, type-II and type-III seesaw models. We then turn to the discussion of the cases when the asymmetry is generated in the context of seesaw models extended with flavor symmetries, before or after flavor symmetry breaking. Finally we explain how the interplay between type-I and type-II seesaws can (or not) lead to viable models for leptogenesis even when there is an exact mixing pattern enforced by the flavor symmetry.

  4. Flavor Tagging with Deep Neural Networks at Belle II

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    The Belle II experiment is mainly designed to investigate the decay of B meson pairs from $\\Upsilon(4S)$ decays, produced by the asymmetric electron-positron collider SuperKEKB. The determination of the B meson flavor, so-called flavor tagging, plays an important role in analyses and can be inferred in many cases directly from the final state particles. In this talk a successful approach of B meson flavor tagging utilizing a Deep Neural Network is presented. Monte Carlo studies show a significant improvement with respect to the established category-based flavor tagging algorithm.

  5. Flavor Tagging at the Tevatron, including calibration and control

    CERN Document Server

    Moulik, T

    2007-01-01

    This report summarizes the flavor tagging techniques developed at the CDF and D{\\O}experiments. Flavor tagging involves identification of the B meson flavor atproduction, whether its constituent is a quark or an anti-quark. It is crucial for measuring the oscillation frequency of neutral B mesons, both in the B^0 and B_S system. The two experiments have developed their unique approaches to flavor tagging, using neural networks, and likelihood methods to disentangle tracks from $b$ decays from other tracks. This report discusses these techniques and the measurement of B^0 mixing, as a means to calibrate the taggers.

  6. Flavor-changing Higgs decays in grand unification with minimal flavor violation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Seungwon; Tandean, Jusak

    2016-12-01

    We consider the flavor-changing decays of the Higgs boson in a grand unified theory framework which is based on the SU(5) gauge group and implements the principle of minimal flavor violation. This allows us to explore the possibility of connecting the tentative hint of the Higgs decay h→ μ τ recently reported in the CMS experiment to potential new physics in the quark sector. We look at different simple scenarios with minimal flavor violation in this context and how they are subject to various empirical restrictions. In one specific case, the relative strengths of the flavor-changing leptonic Higgs couplings are determined mainly by the known quark mixing parameters and masses, and a branching fraction B(h→ μ τ )˜ 1% is achievable without the couplings being incompatible with the relevant constraints. Upcoming data on the Higgs leptonic decays and searches for the μ → eγ decay with improved precision can offer further tests on this scenario.

  7. Flavor-Changing Higgs Decays in Grand Unification with Minimal Flavor Violation

    CERN Document Server

    Baek, Seungwon

    2016-01-01

    We consider the flavor-changing decays of the Higgs boson in a grand unified theory framework which is based on the SU(5) gauge group and implements the principle of minimal flavor violation. This allows us to explore the possibility of connecting the tentative hint of the Higgs decay $h\\to\\mu\\tau$ recently reported in the CMS experiment to potential new physics in the quark sector. We look at different simple scenarios with minimal flavor violation in this context and how they are subject to various empirical restrictions. In one specific case, the relative strengths of the flavor-changing leptonic Higgs couplings are determined by the known quark mixing parameters and masses alone, and a branching fraction ${\\cal B}(h\\to\\mu\\tau)\\sim1\\%$ is achievable without the couplings being incompatible with the relevant constraints. Upcoming data on the Higgs leptonic decays and searches for the $\\mu\\to e\\gamma$ decay with improved precision can offer further tests on this scenario.

  8. Key volatile aroma compounds of lactic acid fermented malt based beverages - impact of lactic acid bacteria strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nsogning Dongmo, Sorelle; Sacher, Bertram; Kollmannsberger, Hubert; Becker, Thomas

    2017-08-15

    This study aims to define the aroma composition and key aroma compounds of barley malt wort beverages produced from fermentation using six lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains. Gas chromatography mass spectrometry-olfactometry and flame ionization detection was employed; key aroma compounds were determined by means of aroma extract dilution analysis. Fifty-six detected volatile compounds were similar among beverages. However, significant differences were observed in the concentration of individual compounds. Key aroma compounds (flavor dilution (FD) factors ≥16) were β-damascenone, furaneol, phenylacetic acid, 2-phenylethanol, 4-vinylguaiacol, sotolon, methional, vanillin, acetic acid, nor-furaneol, guaiacol and ethyl 2-methylbutanoate. Furthermore, acetaldehyde had the greatest odor activity value of up to 4266. Sensory analyses revealed large differences in the flavor profile. Beverage from L. plantarum Lp. 758 showed the highest FD factors in key aroma compounds and was correlated to fruity flavors. Therefore, we suggest that suitable LAB strain selection may improve the flavor of malt based beverages.

  9. Analysis of Bs flavor oscillations at CDF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerreiro Leonardo, Nuno Teotonio Viegas [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2006-09-01

    The search for and study of flavor oscillations in the neutral BsBs meson system is an experimentally challenging task. It constitutes a flagship analysis of the Tevatron physics program. In this dissertation, they develop an analysis of the time-dependent Bs flavor oscillations using data collected with the CDF detector. The data samples are formed of both fully and partially reconstructed B meson decays: Bs → Dsπ(ππ) and Bs → Dslv. A likelihood fitting framework is implemented and appropriate models and techniques developed for describing the mass, proper decay time, and flavor tagging characteristics of the data samples. The analysis is extended to samples of B+ and B0 mesons, which are further used for algorithm calibration and method validation. The B mesons lifetimes are extracted. The measurement of the B0 oscillation frequency yields Δmd = 0.522 ± 0.017 ps-1. The search for Bs oscillations is performed using an amplitude method based on a frequency scanning procedure. Applying a combination of lepton and jet charge flavor tagging algorithms, with a total tagging power ϵ'D2 of 1.6%, to a data sample of 355 pb-1, a sensitivity of 13.0 ps-1 is achieved. They develop a preliminary same side kaon tagging algorithm, which is found to provide a superior tagging power of about 4.0% for the Bs meson species. A study of the dilution systematic uncertainties is not reported. From its application as is to the Bs samples the sensitivity is significantly increased to about 18 ps-1 and a hint of a signal is seen at about 175. ps-1. They demonstrate that the extension of the analysis to the increasing data samples with the inclusion of the same side tagging algorithm is capable of providing an observation of Bs mixing beyond the

  10. Quark masses in two-flavor QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Creutz, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Considered as a function of the quark mases, two-flavor QCD depends on three parameters, including one that is CP violating. As the masses vary to unphysical values, regions of both first- and second-order phase transitions are expected. For non-degenerate quarks, non-perturbative effects leave individual quark mass ratios with a renormalization scheme dependence. This complicates matching lattice results with perturbative schemes and clarifies the tautology with attacking the strong CP problem via a vanishing up quark mass.

  11. The flow of heavy flavor in hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Song, Taesoo; Lee, Su Houng

    2011-01-01

    The flow of charm is calculated in 2+1 ideal hydrodynamics by introducing the charge of $c\\bar{c}$ pair assuming that the number of $c\\bar{c}$ pairs is conserved in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. It is found that the mean radial flow velocity of charm quarks is smaller than that of bulk matter by 10$\\sim$15 \\% and the measured $v_2$ of heavy-flavor electrons is reproduced up to $p_T^e=$ 1.5 GeV/c in Au+Au collision at RHIC. The same flow is applied to regenerated $J/\\psi$ and its $v_2$ is discussed.

  12. Heavy flavor physics with the CMS experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiochia Vincenzo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Thanks to the excellent tracking and muon identification performance, combined with a flexible trigger system, the CMS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider is conducting a rich and competitive program of measurements in the field of heavy flavor physics. We review the status of b-quark production cross section measurements in inclusive and exclusive final states, the measurement of B hadron angular correlations, the search for rare Bs0 and B0 decays to dimuons, and the observation of the X(3872 resonance.

  13. Deconfining transition in two-flavor QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Carmona, J M; Del Debbio, L; Di Giacomo, Adriano; Lucini, B; Paffuti, G; Pica, C

    2003-01-01

    The order and the nature of the finite-temperature phase transition of QCD with two flavors of dynamical quarks is investigated. An analysis of the critical exponent of the specific heat is performed through finite-size and finite-mass scaling of various susceptibilities. Dual superconductivity of QCD vacuum is investigated using a disorder parameter, namely the v.e.v. of a monopole creation operator. Hybrid R simulations were run at lattice spatial sizes of $12^3$, $16^3$, $20^3$ and $32^3$ and temporal size $N_t=4$, with quark masses in the range $am_q = 0.3 - 0.01$.

  14. Discrete flavor symmetry and minimal seesaw mechanism

    CERN Document Server

    Nam, K H; Siyeon, Kim

    2011-01-01

    This work proposes a neutrino mass model that is derived using the minimal seesaw mechanism which contains only two right-handed neutrinos, under the non-abelian discrete flavor symmetry $\\mathbb{S}_4\\otimes\\mathbb{Z}_2$. Two standard model doublets, $L_\\mu$ and $L_\\tau$, are assigned simultaneously to a $\\mathbf{2}$ representation of $\\mathbb{S}_4$. When the scalar fields introduced in this model, addition to the Standard Model Higgs, and the leptons are coupled within the symmetry, the seesaw mechanism results in the tri-bi-maximal neutrino mixing. This study examined the possible deviations from TBM mixing related to the experimental data.

  15. B mixing and flavor tagging at CDF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russ, James S.; /Carnegie Mellon U.

    2004-12-01

    The CDF Collaboration has made a preliminary measurement of B{sub d} mixing as a first step toward measuring mixing in the B{sub s} system. Flavor tagging using opposite-side jets and muons as well as same-side tagging schemes have been applied. Results agree well with precise results from the B-factories. They use these results to estimate CDF's B{sub s} mixing range using the present data set ({approx} 250 pb{sup -1}) and extrapolate to the potential from larger data sets in future running.

  16. Flavor origin of R-parity

    CERN Document Server

    Morisi, S; Vicente, A

    2013-01-01

    Proton stability is guaranteed in the MSSM by assuming a discrete symmetry, R-parity. However, there are additional R-parity conserving higher dimensional operators which violate lepton and baryon numbers and induce fast proton decay. Here we study the possibility that all renormalizable, as well as the most dangerous non-renormalizable, R-parity violating operators are forbidden by a flavor symmetry, providing a common origin for fermion mixing and proton and dark matter stability. We propose a specific model based on the Delta(27) discrete symmetry.

  17. Texture, flavor, and sensory quality of buffalo milk Cheddar cheese as influenced by reducing sodium salt content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtaza, M A; Huma, N; Sameen, A; Murtaza, M S; Mahmood, S; Mueen-ud-Din, G; Meraj, A

    2014-11-01

    The adverse health effects of dietary sodium demand the production of cheese with reduced salt content. The study was aimed to assess the effect of reducing the level of sodium chloride on the texture, flavor, and sensory qualities of Cheddar cheese. Cheddar cheese was manufactured from buffalo milk standardized at 4% fat level by adding sodium chloride at 2.5, 2.0, 1.5, 1.0, and 0.5% (wt/wt of the curd obtained). Cheese samples were ripened at 6 to 8 °C for 180 d and analyzed for chemical composition after 1 wk; for texture and proteolysis after 1, 60, 120, and 180 d; and for volatile flavor compounds and sensory quality after 180 d of ripening. Decreasing the salt level significantly reduced the salt-in-moisture and pH and increased the moisture-in-nonfat-substances and water activity. Cheese hardness, toughness, and crumbliness decreased but proteolysis increased considerably on reducing the sodium content and during cheese ripening. Lowering the salt levels appreciably enhanced the concentration of volatile compounds associated with flavor but negatively affected the sensory perception. We concluded that salt level in cheese can be successfully reduced to a great extent if proteolysis and development of off-flavors resulted by the growth of starter and nonstarter bacteria can be controlled.

  18. How the Addition of Spices and Herbs to Virgin Olive Oil to Produce Flavored Oils Affects Consumer Acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issaoui, Manel; Flamini, Guido; Souid, Sondess; Bendini, Alessandra; Barbieri, Sara; Gharbi, Ines; Toschi, Tullia Gallina; Cioni, Pier Luigi; Hammami, Mohamed

    2016-06-01

    With the aim to expand the olive oil market to a larger number of consumers who are not familiar with the sensory characteristics of virgin olive oil, the use of novel products known as "flavored olive oils", obtained by adding different kind of spices and aromatic herbs, is spreading in many countries. In order to test consumer acceptability of this type of product, in a country (Tunisia) in which virgin olive oil is regularly consumed, flavored olive oils were prepared by adding aromatic extracts of thyme, oregano, a mix of herbs (used as pizza seasoning), rosemary, and basil to a monovarietal Chemlali virgin olive oil and a consumer test on 206 subjects was performed. Selected quality parameters (free acidity, peroxide number, oxidative stability, specific absorption at K232 nm and K270 nm) were also measured and no significant variations were detected. Slight differences were found concerning the content of minor compounds (chlorophylls, carotenoids and total phenols). On the other hand, notable differences were seen in the profiles of volatile compounds, which appeared to be responsible for the observed variability in consumer acceptance. Although the unflavored oil was more appreciated than the flavored ones, among the latter, thyme flavored olive oil was the most appreciated.

  19. STR3 and CYS3 Contribute to 2-Furfurylthiol Biosynthesis in Chinese Sesame-Flavored Baijiu Yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, Musu; Yin, Sheng; Sun, Baoguo; Wang, Xin; Wang, Chengtao

    2017-07-12

    2-Furfurylthiol is an important aroma compound with characteristic sesame flavor. It was recently identified as the representative aroma compound of Chinese sesame-flavored Baijiu. But its formation mechanism is unclear. In this study, the dominant yeast species Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pichia kudriavzevii, and Wickerhamomyces anomalus were isolated from samples of Chinese sesame-flavored fermentation and were screened for the capacity of 2-furfurylthiol biosynthesis. Some isolates were found to be capable of generating 2-furfurylthiol using furfural and l-cysteine as precursors, among which S. cerevisiae G20 exhibited the strongest capacity with a yield of 3.03 mg/L. Furthermore, the genes STR3 and CYS3 from S. cerevisiae were cloned and overexpressed in the reference strain S. cerevisiae S288c and the isolate strain G20, respectively, which resulted in a significant increase in 2-furfurylthiol release in the two strains. Moreover, inactivation of STR3 gene in S288c and G20 led to obvious reduction in 2-furfurylthiol production, demonstrating that STR3 got involved in 2-furfurylthiol biosynthesis in S. cerevisiae. It is the first time that the yeast isolates with high capacity of 2-furfurylthiol biosynthesis were found during Chinese sesame-flavored Baijiu fermentation and confirmed that the genes STR3 and CYS3 were closely relevant to 2-furfurylthiol biosynthesis.

  20. Searching for flavor labels in food products: The influence of color-flavor congruence and association strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos eVelasco

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Prior research provides robust support for the existence of a number of associations between colors and flavors. In the present study, we examined whether congruent (vs. incongruent combinations of product packaging colors and flavor labels would facilitate visual search for products labelled with specific flavors in a Stroop-like manner. Across two experiments, a Stroop-like effect between flavor words and packaging colors is documented and we demonstrate that people are able to search for packaging flavor labels more rapidly when the color of the packaging is congruent with the flavor label (e.g., red/tomato than when it is incongruent (e.g., yellow/tomato. In addition, when the packaging color was incongruent, those flavor labels that were more strongly associated with a specific color yielded slower reaction times and more errors (Stroop interference than those that were less strongly tied to a specific color. Importantly, search efficiency was affected both by color/flavor congruence and association strength. Taken together, these results therefore highlight the role of color congruence and color-word association strength when it comes to searching for specific flavor labels.

  1. Volatile flavor constituents in the pork broth of black-pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jian; Wang, Meng; Xie, Jianchun; Zhao, Mengyao; Hou, Li; Liang, Jingjing; Wang, Shi; Cheng, Jie

    2017-07-01

    Pork of black-pig in China is well known for its quality and preferred by consumers. However, there is a lack of research on its flavors. By solvent assisted flavor evaporation combined with GC-MS, 104 volatile compounds in the stewed pork broth of black-pig were identified with the dominant amounts of fatty acids, alcohols, and esters. By aroma extract dilution analysis-GC-O method, 27 odor-active compounds were characterized, including 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, 3-(methylthio)propanal, 2-furfurylthiol, γ-decalactone, nonanal, (E)-2-nonenal, and (E,E)-2,4-decadienal that had high FD factors. Compared to the common white-pig, the aroma compounds in both pork broths were almost the same, but the aroma profile of potent odorants for the black-pig pork broth showed less fatty and more roasted notes, which were partially attributed to the higher monounsaturated fatty acids and lower polyunsaturated fatty acids in meat. With aid of authentic chemicals and selected reaction monitoring mode of GC-MS/MS, 19 aroma compounds were quantitated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Flavor violating top decays and flavor violating quark decays of the Higgs boson

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Tarek; Itani, Ahmad; Nath, Pran; Zorik, Anas

    2017-08-01

    In the Standard Model, flavor violating decays of the top quark and of the Higgs boson are highly suppressed. Further, the flavor violating decays of the top and of the Higgs are also small in MSSM and not observable in current or in near future experiment. In this work, we show that much larger branching ratios for these decays can be achieved in an extended MSSM model with an additional vector-like quark generation. Specifically, we show that in the extended model, one can achieve branching ratios for t → h0c and t → h0u as large as the current experimental upper limits given by the ATLAS and the CMS Collaborations. We also analyze the flavor violating quark decay of the Higgs boson, i.e. h0 → sb¯ + b¯s and h0 → bd¯ + b¯d. Here again, one finds that the branching ratio for these decays can be as large as O(1)%. The analysis is done with inclusion of the CP phases in the Higgs sector, and the effect of CP phases on the branching ratios is investigated. Specifically, the Higgs sector spectrum and mixings are computed involving quarks and mirror quarks, squarks and mirror squarks in the loops consistent with the Higgs boson mass constraint. The resulting effective Lagrangian with inclusion of the vector-like quark generation induce flavor violating decays at the tree level. In the analysis, we also include the experimental constraints from the flavor changing quark decays of the Z boson. The test of the branching ratios predicted could come with further data from LHC13 and such branching ratios could also be accessible at future colliders such as the Higgs factories where the Higgs couplings to fermions will be determined with greater precision.

  3. Texture of semi-solids : sensory flavor-texture interactions for custard desserts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, de R.A.; Rasing, F.; Wilkinson, C.L.

    2003-01-01

    Possible interactions between flavor and oral texture sensations were investigated for four flavorants, diacetyl, benzaldehyde, vanillin, and caffeine, added in two concentrations to model vanilla custard desserts. The flavorants affected viscosities and resulted in corresponding changes in perceive

  4. Food Supplement Reduces Fat, Improves Flavor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Diversified Services Corporation, seeking to develop a new nutritional fat replacement and flavor enhancement product, took advantage of the NASA Glenn Garrett Morgan Commercialization Initiative (GMCI) for technology acquisition and development and introductions to potential customers and strategic partners. Having developed and commercialized the product, named Nurtigras, the company is now marketing it through its subsidiary, H.F. Food Technologies Inc. The Nutrigras fat substitute is available in liquid, gel, or dry form and can be easily customized to the specific needs of the food manufacturer. It is primarily intended for use as a partial replacement for animal fat in beef patties and other normally high-fat meat products, and can also be used in soups, sauces, bakery items, and desserts. In addition to the nutritional benefits, the fat replacement costs less than the food it replaces, and as such can help manufacturers reduce material costs. In precooked products, Nutrigras can increase moisture content and thereby increase product yield. The company has been able to repay the help provided by NASA by contributing to the Space Agency's astronaut diet-the Nutrigras fat substitute can be used as a flavor enhancer and shelf-life extender for food on the ISS.

  5. Flavor Gauge Models Below the Fermi Scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babu, K. S. [Oklahoma State U.; Friedland, A. [SLAC; Machado, P. A.N. [Madrid, IFT; Mocioiu, I. [Penn State U.

    2017-05-04

    The mass and weak interaction eigenstates for the quarks of the third generation are very well aligned, an empirical fact for which the Standard Model offers no explanation. We explore the possibility that this alignment is due to an additional gauge symmetry in the third generation. Specifically, we construct and analyze an explicit, renormalizable model with a gauge boson, $X$, corresponding to the $B-L$ symmetry of the third family. Having a relatively light (in the MeV to multi-GeV range), flavor-nonuniversal gauge boson results in a variety of constraints from different sources. By systematically analyzing 20 different constraints, we identify the most sensitive probes: kaon, $D^+$ and Upsilon decays, $D-\\bar{D}^0$ mixing, atomic parity violation, and neutrino scattering and oscillations. For the new gauge coupling $g_X$ in the range $(10^{-2} - 10^{-4})$ the model is shown to be consistent with the data. Possible ways of testing the model in $b$ physics, top and $Z$ decays, direct collider production and neutrino oscillation experiments, where one can observe nonstandard matter effects, are outlined. The choice of leptons to carry the new force is ambiguous, resulting in additional phenomenological implications, such as non-universality in semileptonic bottom decays. The proposed framework provides interesting connections between neutrino oscillations, flavor and collider physics.

  6. Scalar triplet flavored leptogenesis: a systematic approach

    CERN Document Server

    Sierra, D Aristizabal; Hambye, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Type-II seesaw is a simple scenario in which Majorana neutrino masses are generated by the exchange of a heavy scalar electroweak triplet. When endowed with additional heavy fields, such as right-handed neutrinos or extra triplets, it also provides a compelling framework for baryogenesis via leptogenesis. We derive in this context the full network of Boltzmann equations for studying leptogenesis in the flavored regime. To this end we determine the relations which hold among the chemical potentials of the various particle species in the thermal bath. This takes into account the SM Yukawa interactions of both leptons and quarks as well as sphaleron processes which, depending on the temperature, may be classified as faster or slower than the Hubble rate. We find that when leptogenesis is enabled by the presence of an extra triplet, lepton flavor effects allow the production of the $B-L$ asymmetry through lepton number conserving CP asymmetries. This scenario becomes dominant as soon as the triplets couple more t...

  7. Lepton flavor violation in $\\tau$ decays

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, C H; Chen, Chuan-Hung; Geng, Chao-Qiang

    2006-01-01

    We study the lepton flavor violation (LFV) in tau decays in the framework of the supersymmetric seesaw mechanism with a large $\\tan\\beta$. By the mixture of sleptons induced at the unified scale, we examine the nonholomorphic terms from the couplings between the Higgs and leptons. We explicitly analyze two decay modes $\\tau\\to \\ell f_0(980)$ and $\\tau\\to \\ell K^{+} K^{-}$ produced by the scalar bosons, along with $\\tau\\to \\ell \\eta^{(\\prime)}$ governed by the pseudoscalar boson, to probe the lepton flavor violating effects. We find that the decay branching ratios of the two modes could be not only as large as the current upper limits $O(10^{-7})$, but also larger than those of $\\tau\\to \\ell \\eta^{(\\prime)}$. Furthermore, we discover that the decay branching ratios of $\\tau\\to \\ell \\mu^{+} \\mu^{-}$ are related to those of $\\tau\\to \\ell \\eta$ and $\\tau\\to \\ell f_0(980)$.

  8. A minimal model of neutrino flavor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luhn, Christoph; Parattu, Krishna Mohan; Wingerter, Akın

    2012-12-01

    Models of neutrino mass which attempt to describe the observed lepton mixing pattern are typically based on discrete family symmetries with a non-Abelian and one or more Abelian factors. The latter so-called shaping symmetries are imposed in order to yield a realistic phenomenology by forbidding unwanted operators. Here we propose a supersymmetric model of neutrino flavor which is based on the group T 7 and does not require extra {Z} N or U(1) factors in the Yukawa sector, which makes it the smallest realistic family symmetry that has been considered so far. At leading order, the model predicts tribimaximal mixing which arises completely accidentally from a combination of the T 7 Clebsch-Gordan coefficients and suitable flavon alignments. Next-to-leading order (NLO) operators break the simple tribimaximal structure and render the model compatible with the recent results of the Daya Bay and Reno collaborations which have measured a reactor angle of around 9°. Problematic NLO deviations of the other two mixing angles can be controlled in an ultraviolet completion of the model. The vacuum alignment mechanism that we use necessitates the introduction of a hidden flavon sector that transforms under a {Z} 6 symmetry, thereby spoiling the minimality of our model whose flavor symmetry is then T 7 × {Z} 6.

  9. Dynamical flavor origin of ZN symmetries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra, D. Aristizabal; Dhen, Mikaël; Fong, Chee Sheng; Vicente, Avelino

    2015-05-01

    Discrete Abelian symmetries (ZN ) are a common "artifact" of beyond the standard model physics models. They provide different avenues for constructing consistent scenarios for lepton and quark mixing patterns, radiative neutrino mass generation as well as dark matter stabilization. We argue that these symmetries can arise from the spontaneous breaking of the Abelian U (1 ) factors contained in the global flavor symmetry transformations of the gauge-invariant kinetic Lagrangian. This will be the case provided the ultraviolet completion responsible for the Yukawa structure involves scalar fields carrying nontrivial U (1 ) charges. Guided by minimality criteria, we demonstrate the viability of this approach with two examples: first, we derive the "scotogenic" model Lagrangian, and second, we construct a setup where the spontaneous symmetry-breaking pattern leads to a Z3 symmetry which enables dark matter stability as well as neutrino mass generation at the two-loop order. This generic approach can be used to derive many other models, with residual ZN or ZN1×⋯×ZNk symmetries, establishing an intriguing link between flavor symmetries, neutrino masses and dark matter.

  10. Flavor Universal Resonances and Warped Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Agashe, Kaustubh; Hong, Sungwoo; Sundrum, Raman

    2016-01-01

    Warped higher-dimensional compactifications with "bulk" standard model, or their AdS/CFT dual as the purely 4D scenario of Higgs compositeness and partial compositeness, offer an elegant approach to resolving the electroweak hierarchy problem as well as the origins of flavor structure. However, low-energy electroweak/flavor/CP constraints and the absence of non-standard physics at LHC Run 1 suggest that a "little hierarchy problem" remains, and that the new physics underlying naturalness may lie out of LHC reach. Assuming this to be the case, we show that there is a simple and natural extension of the minimal warped model in the Randall-Sundrum framework, in which matter, gauge and gravitational fields propagate modestly different degrees into the IR of the warped dimension, resulting in rich and striking consequences for the LHC (and beyond). The LHC-accessible part of the new physics is AdS/CFT dual to the mechanism of "vectorlike confinement", with TeV-scale Kaluza-Klein excitations of the gauge and gravit...

  11. Flavor violating leptonic decays of the Higgs boson

    CERN Document Server

    Fathy, Seham; Itani, Ahmad; Nath, Pran

    2016-01-01

    Recent data from the ATLAS and CMS detectors at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN give a hint of possible violation of flavor in the leptonic decays of the Higgs boson. In this work we analyze the flavor violating leptonic decays $H^0_1\\to l_i \\bar l_j$ ($i\

  12. Flavor structure in $SO(32)$ heterotic string theory

    CERN Document Server

    Abe, Hiroyuki; Otsuka, Hajime; Takano, Yasufumi; Tatsuishi, Takuya H

    2016-01-01

    We study the flavor structure in $SO(32)$ heterotic string theory on six-dimensional torus with magnetic fluxes. In particular, we focus on models with the flavor symmetries $SU(3)_f$ and $\\Delta(27)$. In both models, we can realize the realistic quark masses and mixing angles.

  13. Flavor Dependent Retention of Remote Food Preference Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Aditya; Kumar, Suraj; Singh, Vikram Pal; Das, Asish; Balaji, J

    2017-01-01

    Social Transmission of Food Preference (STFP) is a single trial non-aversive learning task that is used for testing non-spatial memory. This task relies on an accurate estimate of a change in food preference of the animals following social demonstration of a novel flavor. Conventionally this is done by providing two flavors of powdered food and later estimating the amount of food consumed for each of these flavors in a defined period of time. This is achieved through a careful measurement of leftover food for each of these flavors. However, in mice, only a small (~1 g) amount of food is consumed making the weight estimates error prone and thereby limiting the sensitivity of the paradigm. Using multiplexed video tracking, we show that the pattern of consumption can be used as a reliable reporter of memory retention in this task. In our current study, we use this as a measure and show that the preference for the demonstrated flavor significantly increases following demonstration and the retention of this change in preference during remote testing is flavor specific. Further, we report a modified experimental design for performing STFP that allows testing of change in preference among two flavors simultaneously. Using this paradigm, we show that during remote testing for thyme and basil demonstrated flavors, only basil demonstrated mice retain the change in preference while thyme demonstrated mice do not.

  14. Flavorings Boost Toxicity of E-Cigarettes in Lab Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... news/fullstory_161111.html Flavorings Boost Toxicity of E-Cigarettes in Lab Study Increasing device's voltage, to get ... Sept. 22, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Flavorings used in e-cigarettes can increase the toxicity of the vapor that ...

  15. Flavor structure in S O (32 ) heterotic string theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Hiroyuki; Kobayashi, Tatsuo; Otsuka, Hajime; Takano, Yasufumi; Tatsuishi, Takuya H.

    2016-12-01

    We study the flavor structure in S O (32 ) heterotic string theory on six-dimensional tori with magnetic fluxes. Specifically, we focus on models with the flavor symmetries S U (3 )f and Δ (27 ). In both models, we can realize the realistic quark masses and mixing angles.

  16. The running coupling of QCD with four flavors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tekin, Fatih; Wolff, Ulli [Berlin Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; Sommer, Rainer [DESY, Zeuthen (Germany). NIC

    2010-06-15

    We have calculated the step scaling function and the running coupling of QCD in the Schroedinger functional scheme with four flavors of O(a) improved Wilson quarks. Comparisons of our non-perturbative results with 2-loop and 3-loop perturbation theory as well as with non-perturbative data for only two flavors are made. (orig.)

  17. A More Flavored Higgs boson in Supersymmetric models

    CERN Document Server

    Díaz-Cruz, J L

    2003-01-01

    A More flavored Higgs boson arises when the flavor structure encoded in SUSY extensions of the SM is transmited to the Higgs sector. The flavor-Higgs transmition mechanism can have a radiative or mixing origin, as it is illustrated with several examples, and can produce interesting Higgs signatures that can be probed at future high-energy colliders. Within the MSSM, the flavor mediation mechanism can be of radiative type, as it is realized though gaugino-slepton loops, which transmit the flavorstructture of the soft-breaking sector to the Higgs bosons. In particular we focus on evaluating the contributions from the general trilinear terms to the lepton flavor violating Higgs (LFV) vertices. On the other hand, as an example of flavor mediation through mixing, we discuss an E_6 inspired multi-Higgs model, with an abelian flavor symmetry, where LFV as well as lepton flavor conserving Higgs effects are found to arise, though in this case at tree-level. We find that Tevatron and LHC can provide information on the ...

  18. Proof of Concept of Kinematically Correct Neutrino Flavor Oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, J M

    2002-01-01

    Assuming neutrinos have a flavor-independent and small but nonzero rest mass, flavor oscillations can be demonstrated which fit the known data without violating any physical law. We require that the neutrino have observable substructure and an effective size, in at least one dimension, expanding after creation to exceed the range of the weak force. Thus, neutrinos are made truly analogous to kaons.

  19. Responses of the Autonomic Nervous System to Flavors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, de René A.; Boesveldt, Sanne

    2016-01-01

    Multisensory flavor perception plays an important role in decision-making, for instance for food products. Autonomic nervous system (ANS) responses, such as heart rate and skin conductance responses, towards such flavor stimuli may provide insights into processes related to consumer acceptance th

  20. Saccharin Taste Conditions Flavor Preference in Weanling Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueji, Kayoko; Minematsu, Yuji; Takeshita, Daisuke; Yamamoto, Takashi

    2016-02-01

    Innate and learned taste/flavor preferences to chemical stimuli in weanling rats are not fully understood. Our previous study showed that weanling rats could establish conditioned flavor preferences when low, but not high, concentrations of sucrose solutions were used as associative rewarding stimuli. Here, we examined whether 3-week-old rats could acquire flavor learning when the rewarding stimulus was saccharin, a non-nutritive artificial sweetener. In the acquisition session, they consumed water with a flavor (cherry or grape) and 0.1% sodium saccharin with another flavor (grape or cherry) for 15 min daily on alternative days over 6 consecutive days. The subsequent test session revealed significant preferences for the flavor previously associated with saccharin. However, they failed to retain the preference when retested in adulthood at the age of 20 weeks. These behavioral results were similar to those previously demonstrated when 2% sucrose was used as an associative sweetener. Although these 2 solutions were equally preferred, the taste quality may not be the same because the weanling rats showed neophobia to 0.1% saccharin and a larger chorda tympani response than 2% sucrose. The present study showed that a conditioned flavor preference was established to saccharin in weanling rats on the basis of flavor-taste association.