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Sample records for flattening filter-free 18-mv

  1. Treatment planning and delivery of IMRT using 6 and 18 MV photon beams without flattening filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stathakis, Sotirios [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, 7979 Wurzbach Rd, San Antonio, TX 78229 (United States)], E-mail: stathakis@uthscsa.edu; Esquivel, Carlos; Gutierrez, Alonso; Buckey, Courtney R.; Papanikolaou, Niko [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, 7979 Wurzbach Rd, San Antonio, TX 78229 (United States)

    2009-09-15

    In light of the increasing use of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in modern radiotherapy practice, the use of a flattening filter may no longer be necessary. Commissioning data have been measured for a Varian 23EX linear accelerator with 6 and 18 MV photon energies without a flattening filter. Measurements collected for the commissioning of the linac included percent depth dose curves and profiles for field sizes ranging from 2x2 to 40x40 cm{sup 2} as defined by the jaws and multileaf collimator. Machine total scatter factors were measured and calculated. Measurements were used to model the unflattened beams with the Pinnacle{sup 3} treatment planning system. IMRT plans for prostate, lung, brain and head and neck cancer cases were generated using the flattening filter and flattening filter-free beams. From our results, no difference in the quality of the treatment plans between the flat and unflattened photon beams was noted. There was however a significant decrease in the number of monitor units required for unflattened beam treatment plans due to the increase in linac output-approximately two times and four times higher for the 6 and 18 MV, respectively.

  2. Beam characteristics of energy-matched flattening filter free beams

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    Paynter, D.; Weston, S. J.; Cosgrove, V. P. [St James Institute of Oncology The Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, Medical Physics, Leeds LS9 7TF (United Kingdom); Evans, J. A. [LIGHT Institute University of Leeds Leeds LS2 9JT, Division of Medical Physics, Leeds (United Kingdom); Thwaites, D. I. [LIGHT Institute University of Leeds Leeds LS2 9JT, Division of Medical Physics, Leeds, United Kingdom and Institute of Medical Physics, School of Physics, University of Sydney (Australia)

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: Flattening filter free (FFF) linear accelerators can increase treatment efficiency and plan quality. There are multiple methods of defining a FFF beam. The Elekta control system supports tuning of the delivered FFF beam energy to enable matching of the percentage depth-dose (PDD) of the flattened beam at 10 cm depth. This is compared to FFF beams where the linac control parameters are identical to those for the flattened beam. All beams were delivered on an Elekta Synergy accelerator with an Agility multi-leaf collimator installed and compared to the standard, flattened beam. The aim of this study is to compare “matched” FFF beams to both “unmatched” FFF beams and flattened beams to determine the benefits of matching beams. Methods: For the three modes of operation 6 MV flattened, 6 MV matched FFF, 6 MV unmatched FFF, 10 MV flattened, 10 MV matched FFF, and 10 MV unmatched FFF beam profiles were obtained using a plotting tank and were measured in steps of 0.1 mm in the penumbral region. Beam penumbra was defined as the distance between the 80% and 20% of the normalized dose when the inflection points of the unflattened and flattened profiles were normalized with the central axis dose of the flattened field set as 100%. PDD data was obtained at field sizes ranging from 3 cm × 3 cm to 40 cm × 40 cm. Radiation protection measurements were additionally performed to determine the head leakage and environmental monitoring through the maze and primary barriers. Results: No significant change is made to the beam penumbra for FFF beams with and without PDD matching, the maximum change in penumbra for a 10 cm × 10 cm field was within the experimental error of the study. The changes in the profile shape with increasing field size are most significant for the matched FFF beam, and both FFF beams showed less profile shape variation with increasing depth when compared to flattened beams, due to consistency in beam energy spectra across the radiation field

  3. Dosimetric differences in flattened and flattening filter-free beam treatment plans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Yan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the dosimetric differences in treatment plans from flattened and flattening filter-free (FFF beams from the TrueBeam System. A total of 104 treatment plans with static (sliding window intensity-modulated radiotherapy beams and volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT beams were generated for 15 patients involving three cancer sites. In general, the FFF beam provides similar target coverage as the flattened beam with improved dose sparing to organ-at-risk (OAR. Among all three cancer sites, the head and neck showed more important differences between the flattened beam and FFF beam. The maximum reduction of the FFF beam in the mean dose reached up to 2.82 Gy for larynx in head and neck case. Compared to the 6 MV flattened beam, the 10 MV FFF beam provided improved dose sparing to certain OARs, especially for VMAT cases. Thus, 10 MV FFF beam could be used to improve the treatment plan.

  4. Feasibility of portal dosimetry for flattening filter-free radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuter, Robert W; Rixham, Philip A; Weston, Steve J; Cosgrove, Vivian P

    2016-01-08

    The feasibility of using portal dosimetry (PD) to verify 6 MV flattening filter-free (FFF) IMRT treatments was investigated. An Elekta Synergy linear accelerator with an Agility collimator capable of delivering FFF beams and a standard iViewGT amorphous silicon (aSi) EPID panel (RID 1640 AL5P) at a fixed SSD of 160 cm were used. Dose rates for FFF beams are up to four times higher than for conventional flattened beams, meaning images taken at maximum FFF dose rate can saturate the EPID. A dose rate of 800 MU/min was found not to saturate the EPID for open fields. This dose rate was subsequently used to characterize the EPID for FFF portal dosimetry. A range of open and phantom fields were measured with both an ion chamber and the EPID, to allow comparison between the two. The measured data were then used to create a model within The Nederlands Kanker Instituut's (NKI's) portal dosimetry software. The model was verified using simple square fields with a range of field sizes and phantom thicknesses. These were compared to calculations performed with the Monaco treatment planning system (TPS) and isocentric ion chamber measurements. It was found that the results for the FFF verification were similar to those for flattened beams with testing on square fields, indicating a difference in dose between the TPS and portal dosimetry of approximately 1%. Two FFF IMRT plans (prostate and lung SABR) were delivered to a homogeneous phantom and showed an overall dose difference at isocenter of ~0.5% and good agreement between the TPS and PD dose distributions. The feasibility of using the NKI software without any modifications for high-dose-rate FFF beams and using a standard EPID detector has been investigated and some initial limitations highlighted.

  5. Dosimetric and Biologic Differences in Flattened and Flattening-Filter-Free Beam Treatment Plans

    CERN Document Server

    Yan, Yue; Bassetti, Michael; Du, Kaifang; Saenz, Daniel; Harari, Paul; Paliwal, Bhudatt R

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To quantitatively compare the dosimetric and biologic differences in treatment plans from flattened and flattening-filter-free (FFF) beam for three anatomic cancer sites. Methods and Materials: Treatment plans with static intensity-modulated radiotherapy beams and volumetric modulated arc therapy beams were generated for 13 patients for both the flattened beam and the FFF beam of the TrueBeam system. Beam energies of 6 MV and 10 MV were chosen for planning. A total of 104 treatment plans were generated in 13 patients. In order to analyze the biological effectiveness of treatment plans, dose volume histograms (DVH) were utilized. Flattened and FFF beam plans are quantitatively compared. Results: In head and neck cases, for VMAT plans, dose reduction in the FFF beam plans compared to the flattened beam in left cochlea, right submandibular gland and right parotid gland reached up to 2.36 Gy, 1.21 Gy and 1.45 Gy, respectively. Similarly, for static IMRT plans, the dose reduction of the FFF beam plans com...

  6. A comparison of phantom scatter from flattened and flattening filter free high-energy photon beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richmond, Neil, E-mail: neil.richmond@stees.nhs.uk [Department of Medical Physics, The James Cook University Hospital, Middlesbrough (United Kingdom); Allen, Vince [The Northern Centre for Cancer Care, The Freeman Hospital, Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom); Daniel, Jim [Department of Medical Physics, The James Cook University Hospital, Middlesbrough (United Kingdom); Dacey, Rob [The Northern Centre for Cancer Care, The Freeman Hospital, Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom); Walker, Chris [Department of Medical Physics, The James Cook University Hospital, Middlesbrough (United Kingdom)

    2015-04-01

    Flattening filter free (FFF) photon beams have different dosimetric properties from those of flattened beams. The aim of this work was to characterize the collimator scatter (S{sub c}) and total scatter (S{sub cp}) from 3 FFF beams of differing quality indices and use the resulting mathematical fits to generate phantom scatter (S{sub p}) data. The similarities and differences between S{sub p} of flattened and FFF beams are described. S{sub c} and S{sub cp} data were measured for 3 flattened and 3 FFF high-energy photon beams (Varian 6 and 10 MV and Elekta 6 MV). These data were fitted to logarithmic power law functions with 4 numerical coefficients. The agreement between our experimentally determined flattened beam S{sub p} and published data was within ± 1.2% for all 3 beams investigated and all field sizes from 4 × 4 to 40 × 40 cm{sup 2}. For the FFF beams, S{sub p} was only within 1% of the same flattened beam published data for field sizes between 6 × 6 and 14 × 14 cm{sup 2}. Outside this range, the differences were much greater, reaching − 3.2%, − 4.5%, and − 4.3% for the fields of 40 × 40 cm{sup 2} for the Varian 6-MV, Varian 10-MV, and Elekta 6-MV FFF beams, respectively. The FFF beam S{sub p} increased more slowly with increasing field size than that of the published and measured flattened beam of a similar reference field size quality index, i.e., there is less Phantom Scatter than that found with flattened beams for a given field size. This difference can be explained when the fluence profiles of the flattened and FFF beams are considered. The FFF beam has greatly reduced fluence off axis, especially as field size increases, compared with the flattened beam profile; hence, less scatter is generated in the phantom reaching the central axis.

  7. Flattening Filter Free vs. Flattened Beams for Lung Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annede, Pierre; Darreon, Julien; Benkemouche, Ahcene; Valdenaire, Simon; Tyran, Marguerite; Kaeppelin, Bertrand; Macagno, Alban; Barrou, Julien; Cagetti, Leonel Varela; Favrel, Veronique; Moureau-Zabotto, Laurence; Gonzague, Laurence; Fau, Pierre; Chargari, Cyrus; Tallet, Agnes; Salem, Naji

    2017-09-01

    To assess the clinical impact of high dose rate stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) in patients with lung neoplastic lesions. From January 2014 to June 2016, a single-center retrospective analysis was performed including all patients treated by either flattening filter free (FFF) beams or flattening filter beams (FF) three-dimensional (3D) SBRT for lung neoplastic lesions. A total of 99 SBRT were performed on 75 patients. Among these, 29 SBRT were performed using a FFF technique while 70 other SBRT were done using a FF technique. Median follow-up time was 12.9 months. Overall, no difference between the two groups was found except for the mean beam on time which was reduced by 3.3 to 0.9 minutes in the FFF group (p<0.001). We report a low toxicity rate and a shortened beam on time in patients treated with 3D FFF SBRT for lung neoplastic lesions. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  8. Octavius 4D characterization for flattened and flattening filter free rotational deliveries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarry, Conor K; O'Connell, Barry F; Grattan, Mark W D; Agnew, Christina E; Irvine, Denise M; Hounsell, Alan R

    2013-09-01

    In this study the Octavius detector 729 ionization chamber (IC) array with the Octavius 4D phantom was characterized for flattening filter (FF) and flattening filter free (FFF) static and rotational beams. The device was assessed for verification with FF and FFF RapidArc treatment plans. The response of the detectors to field size, dose linearity, and dose rate were assessed for 6 MV FF beams and also 6 and 10 MV FFF beams. Dosimetric and mechanical accuracy of the detector array within the Octavius 4D rotational phantom was evaluated against measurements made using semiflex and pinpoint ionization chambers, and radiochromic film. Verification FF and FFF RapidArc plans were assessed using a gamma function with 3%∕3 mm tolerances and 2%∕2 mm tolerances and further analysis of these plans was undertaken using film and a second detector array with higher spatial resolution. A warm-up dose of >6 Gy was required for detector stability. Dose-rate measurements were stable across a range from 0.26 to 15 Gy∕min and dose response was linear, although the device overestimated small doses compared with pinpoint ionization chamber measurements. Output factors agreed with ionization chamber measurements to within 0.6% for square fields of side between 3 and 25 cm and within 1.2% for 2 × 2 cm(2) fields. The Octavius 4D phantom was found to be consistent with measurements made with radiochromic film, where the gantry angle was found to be within 0.4° of that expected during rotational deliveries. RapidArc FF and FFF beams were found to have an accuracy of >97.9% and >90% of pixels passing 3%∕3 mm and 2%∕2 mm, respectively. Detector spatial resolution was observed to be a factor in determining the accurate delivery of each plan, particularly at steep dose gradients. This was confirmed using data from a second detector array with higher spatial resolution and with radiochromic film. The Octavius 4D phantom with associated Octavius detector 729 ionization chamber array is

  9. Octavius 4D characterization for flattened and flattening filter free rotational deliveries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGarry, Conor K.; Hounsell, Alan R. [Radiotherapy Physics, Northern Ireland Cancer Centre, Belfast Health and Social Care Trust, Belfast, BT9 7AB Northern Ireland, United Kingdom and Centre for Cancer Research and Cell Biology, Queen' s University Belfast, BT9 7BL Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); O’Connell, Barry F.; Grattan, Mark W. D.; Agnew, Christina E.; Irvine, Denise M. [Radiotherapy Physics, Northern Ireland Cancer Centre, Belfast Health and Social Care Trust, Belfast, BT9 7AB Northern Ireland (United Kingdom)

    2013-09-15

    Purpose: In this study the Octavius detector 729 ionization chamber (IC) array with the Octavius 4D phantom was characterized for flattening filter (FF) and flattening filter free (FFF) static and rotational beams. The device was assessed for verification with FF and FFF RapidArc treatment plans.Methods: The response of the detectors to field size, dose linearity, and dose rate were assessed for 6 MV FF beams and also 6 and 10 MV FFF beams. Dosimetric and mechanical accuracy of the detector array within the Octavius 4D rotational phantom was evaluated against measurements made using semiflex and pinpoint ionization chambers, and radiochromic film. Verification FF and FFF RapidArc plans were assessed using a gamma function with 3%/3 mm tolerances and 2%/2 mm tolerances and further analysis of these plans was undertaken using film and a second detector array with higher spatial resolution.Results: A warm-up dose of >6 Gy was required for detector stability. Dose-rate measurements were stable across a range from 0.26 to 15 Gy/min and dose response was linear, although the device overestimated small doses compared with pinpoint ionization chamber measurements. Output factors agreed with ionization chamber measurements to within 0.6% for square fields of side between 3 and 25 cm and within 1.2% for 2 × 2 cm{sup 2} fields. The Octavius 4D phantom was found to be consistent with measurements made with radiochromic film, where the gantry angle was found to be within 0.4° of that expected during rotational deliveries. RapidArc FF and FFF beams were found to have an accuracy of >97.9% and >90% of pixels passing 3%/3 mm and 2%/2 mm, respectively. Detector spatial resolution was observed to be a factor in determining the accurate delivery of each plan, particularly at steep dose gradients. This was confirmed using data from a second detector array with higher spatial resolution and with radiochromic film.Conclusions: The Octavius 4D phantom with associated Octavius detector

  10. Efficient and accurate stereotactic radiotherapy using flattening filter free beams and HexaPOD robotic tables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten; Hansen, C. R.; Brink, C.

    2016-01-01

    Flattening filter free (FFF) high dose rate beam technique was introduced for brain stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and lung Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy (SBRT). Furthermore, a HexaPOD treatment table was introduced for the brain SRS to enable correction of rotational setup errors. 19 filter fl...

  11. Acquiring beam data for a flattening-filter free linear accelerator using organic scintillators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beierholm, Anders Ravnsborg; Behrens, C.F.; Hoffmann, L.;

    2013-01-01

    -resolved dosimetry on a highly detailed level. In this study, we present beam data for a Varian TrueBeam linear accelerator, which is capable of delivering flattening-filter free (FFF1) clinical X-ray beams. The beam data have been acquired using an in-house developed dosimetry system based on fibre-coupled organic...

  12. SU-E-T-525: Ionization Chamber Perturbation in Flattening Filter Free Beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czarnecki, D; Voigts-Rhetz, P von [Technische Hochschule Mittelhessen - University of Applied Sciences, Giessen, DE (Germany); Zink, K [Technische Hochschule Mittelhessen - University of Applied Sciences, Giessen, DE (Germany); Germany and Department of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology, University Medical Center Giessen-Marburg, Marburg, DE (Germany)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Changing the characteristic of a photon beam by mechanically removing the flattening filter may impact the dose response of ionization chambers. Thus, perturbation factors of cylindrical ionization chambers in conventional and flattening filter free photon beams were calculated by Monte Carlo simulations. Methods: The EGSnrc/BEAMnrc code system was used for all Monte Carlo calculations. BEAMnrc models of nine different linear accelerators with and without flattening filter were used to create realistic photon sources. Monte Carlo based calculations to determine the fluence perturbations due to the presens of the chambers components, the different material of the sensitive volume (air instead of water) as well as the volume effect were performed by the user code egs-chamber. Results: Stem, central electrode, wall, density and volume perturbation factors for linear accelerators with and without flattening filter were calculated as a function of the beam quality specifier TPR{sub 20/10}. A bias between the perturbation factors as a function of TPR{sub 20/10} for flattening filter free beams and conventional linear accelerators could not be observed for the perturbations caused by the components of the ionization chamber and the sensitive volume. Conclusion: The results indicate that the well-known small bias between the beam quality correction factor as a function of TPR20/10 for the flattening filter free and conventional linear accelerators is not caused by the geometry of the detector but rather by the material of the sensitive volume. This suggest that the bias for flattening filter free photon fields is only caused by the different material of the sensitive volume (air instead of water)

  13. Modified Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy in Left Sided Breast Cancer After Radical Mastectomy With Flattening Filter Free Versus Flattened Beams

    OpenAIRE

    Lai, Youqun; Chen, Yanyan; Wu, Sangang; Shi, Liwan; Fu, Lirong; Ha, Huiming; Lin, Qin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Conventional volumetric modulated arc therapy (C-VMAT) for breast cancer after radical mastectomy had its limitation that resulted in larger volumes of normal tissue receiving low doses. We explored whether there was a way to deal with this disadvantage and determined the potential benefit of flattening filter-free (FFF) beams. Twenty patients with breast cancer after radical mastectomy were subjected to 3D conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) and VMAT treatment planning. For VMAT plans, 3...

  14. Treatment vault shielding for a flattening filter-free medical linear accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kry, Stephen F; Howell, Rebecca M; Polf, Jerimy; Mohan, Radhe; Vassiliev, Oleg N [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)], E-mail: sfkry@mdanderson.org

    2009-03-07

    The requirements for shielding a treatment vault with a Varian Clinac 2100 medical linear accelerator operated both with and without the flattening filter were assessed. Basic shielding parameters, such as primary beam tenth-value layers (TVLs), patient scatter fractions, and wall scatter fractions, were calculated using Monte Carlo simulations of 6, 10 and 18 MV beams. Relative integral target current requirements were determined from treatment planning studies of several disease sites with, and without, the flattening filter. The flattened beam shielding data were compared to data published in NCRP Report No. 151, and the unflattened beam shielding data were presented relative to the NCRP data. Finally, the shielding requirements for a typical treatment vault were determined for a single-energy (6 MV) linac and a dual-energy (6 MV/18 MV) linac. With the exception of large-angle patient scatter fractions and wall scatter fractions, the vault shielding parameters were reduced when the flattening filter was removed. Much of this reduction was consistent with the reduced average energy of the FFF beams. Primary beam TVLs were reduced by 12%, on average, and small-angle scatter fractions were reduced by up to 30%. Head leakage was markedly reduced because less integral target current was required to deliver the target dose. For the treatment vault examined in the current study, removal of the flattening filter reduced the required thickness of the primary and secondary barriers by 10-20%, corresponding to 18 m{sup 3} less concrete to shield the single-energy linac and 36 m{sup 3} less concrete to shield the dual-energy linac. Thus, a shielding advantage was found when the linac was operated without the flattening filter. This translates into a reduction in occupational exposure and/or the cost and space of shielding.

  15. Polarity correction factor for flattening filter free photon beams in several cylindrical ionization chambers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Toshiyuki; Uehara, Kazuyuki; Nakayama, Masao; Tsudou, Shinji; Masutani, Takashi; Okayama, Takanobu

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we aimed to compare the polarity correction factor in ionization chambers for flattening filter free (FFF) photon beams and flattening filter (FF) beams. Measurements were performed with both 6 and 10 MV FFF and FF beams. Five commercial ionization chambers were evaluated: PTW TN30013; IBA Dosimetry CC01, CC04, and CC13; and Exradin A12S. Except for the CC01 ionization chamber, the other four chambers showed less than a 0.3 % difference in the polarity effect between the FFF and the FF beams. The CC01 chamber showed a strong field-size-dependence, unlike the other chambers. The polarity effect for all chambers with FFF beams did not change with the dose rate. Except in the case of the CC01 chamber, the difference in the polarity effect between FFF and FF beams was not significant.

  16. Surface dose variations in 6 and 10 MV flattened and flattening filter-free (FFF) photon beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashmore, Jason

    2016-01-01

    As the use of linear accelerators operating in flattening filter-free (FFF) modes becomes more widespread, it is important to have an understanding of the surface doses delivered to patients with these beams. Flattening filter removal alters the beam quality and relative contributions of low-energy X-rays and contamination electrons in the beam. Having dosimetric data to describe the surface dose and buildup regions under a range of conditions for FFF beams is important if clinical decisions are to be made. An Elekta Synergy linac with standard MLCi head has been commissioned to run at 6 MV and 10 MV running with the flattening filter in or out. In this linac the 6 MV FFF beam has been energy-matched to the clinical beam on the central axis (D10). The 10 MV beam energy has not been adjusted. The flattening filter in both cases is replaced by a thin (2 mm) stainless steel plate. A thin window parallel plate chamber has been used to measure a comprehensive set of surface dose data in these beams for variations in field size and SSD, and for the presence of attenuators (wedge, shadow tray, and treatment couch). Surface doses are generally higher in FFF beams for small field sizes and lower for large field sizes with a crossover at 10 × 10 cm2 at 6 MV and 25 × 25 cm2 at 10 MV. This trend is also seen in the presence of the wedge, shadow tray, and treatment couch. Only small differences (free beams show far less variation with field size than conventional beams. By removing the flattening filter, a source of contamination electrons is exchanged for a source of low-energy photons (as these are no longer attenuated). In practice these two components almost balance out. No significant effects on surface dose are expected by the introduction of FFF delivery.

  17. A dosimetric evaluation of flattening filter-free volumetric modulated arc therapy in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guishan Fu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To explore the dosimetric effects of flattening filter-free (FFF beams in volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT of nasopharyngeal carcinoma via a retrospective planning study. Materials and Methods: A linear accelerator (LINAC was prepared to operate in FFF mode and the beam data were collected and used to build a model in TPS. For 10 nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC cases, VMAT plans of FFF beams and normal flattened (FF beams were designed. Differences of plan quality and delivery efficiency between FFF-VMAT plans and filter filtered VMAT (FF-VMAT plans were analyzed using two-tailed paired t-tests. Results: Removal of the flattening filter increased the dose rate. Averaged beam on time (BOT of FFF-VMAT plans was decreased by 24.2%. Differences of target dose coverage between plans with flattened and unflattened beams were statistically insignificant. For dose to normal organs, up to 4.9% decrease in V35 of parotid grand and 4.5% decrease in averaged normal tissue (NT dose was observed. Conclusions: The TPS used in our study was able to handle FFF beams. The FFF beam prone to improve the normal tissue sparing while achieving similar target dose distribution. Decreasing of BOT in NPC cases was valuable in terms of patient′s comfort.

  18. Monte Carlo investigation into feasibility and dosimetry of flat Flattening Filter Free beams

    CERN Document Server

    Zavgorodni, Sergei

    2013-01-01

    Flattening filter free (FFF) beams due to their non-uniformity, are sub-optimal for larger field sizes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the incident electron beam distributions that would produce flat FFF beams without the use of flattening filter. Monte Carlo (MC) simulations with BEAMnrc and DOSXYZnrc codes have been performed to evaluate the feasibility of this approach. The dose distributions in water for open 6MV beams were simulated using Varian 21EX linac head model, which will be called flattening filter (FF) model. Flattening filter has then been removed from FF model, and MC simulations were performed using (1) 6 MeV electrons incident on the target, (2) 6 MeV electron beam with electron angular distributions optimized to provide as flat dose profiles as possible. Configuration (1) represents FFF beam while configuration (2) allowed producing a flat FFF (F4) beam. Optimizations have also been performed to produce flattest profiles for a set of dose rates (DRs) in the range from 1.25 to ...

  19. Neutron production from flattening filter free high energy medical linac: A Monte Carlo study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najem, M. A.; Abolaban, F. A.; Podolyák, Z.; Spyrou, N. M.

    2015-11-01

    One of the problems arising from using a conventional linac at high energy (>8 MV) is the production of neutrons. One way to reduce neutron production is to remove the flattening filter (FF). The main purpose of this work was to study the effect of FF removal on neutron fluence and neutron dose equivalent inside the treatment room at different photon beam energies. Several simulations based on Monte Carlo techniques were carried out in order to calculate the neutron fluence at different locations in the treatment room from different linac energies with and without a FF. In addition, a step-and-shoot intensity modulated radiotherapy (SnS IMRT) for prostate cancer was modelled using the 15 MV photon beam with and without a FF on a water phantom to calculate the neutron dose received in a full treatment. The results obtained show a significant drop-off in neutrons fluence and dose equivalent when the FF was removed. For example, the neutron fluence was decreased by 54%, 76% and 75% for 10, 15 and 18 MV, respectively. This can decrease the neutron dose to the patient as well as reduce the shielding cost of the treatment room. The neutron dose equivalent of the SnS IMRT for prostate cancer was reduced significantly by 71.3% when the FF was removed. It can be concluded that the flattening filter removal from the head of the linac could reduce the risk of causing secondary cancers and the shielding cost of radiotherapy treatment rooms.

  20. Flattening filter-free accelerators: a report from the AAPM Therapy Emerging Technology Assessment Work Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ying; Kry, Stephen F; Popple, Richard; Yorke, Ellen; Papanikolaou, Niko; Stathakis, Sotirios; Xia, Ping; Huq, Saiful; Bayouth, John; Galvin, James; Yin, Fang-Fang

    2015-05-08

    This report describes the current state of flattening filter-free (FFF) radiotherapy beams implemented on conventional linear accelerators, and is aimed primarily at practicing medical physicists. The Therapy Emerging Technology Assessment Work Group of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) formed a writing group to assess FFF technology. The published literature on FFF technology was reviewed, along with technical specifications provided by vendors. Based on this information, supplemented by the clinical experience of the group members, consensus guidelines and recommendations for implementation of FFF technology were developed. Areas in need of further investigation were identified. Removing the flattening filter increases beam intensity, especially near the central axis. Increased intensity reduces treatment time, especially for high-dose stereotactic radiotherapy/radiosurgery (SRT/SRS). Furthermore, removing the flattening filter reduces out-of-field dose and improves beam modeling accuracy. FFF beams are advantageous for small field (e.g., SRS) treatments and are appropriate for intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). For conventional 3D radiotherapy of large targets, FFF beams may be disadvantageous compared to flattened beams because of the heterogeneity of FFF beam across the target (unless modulation is employed). For any application, the nonflat beam characteristics and substantially higher dose rates require consideration during the commissioning and quality assurance processes relative to flattened beams, and the appropriate clinical use of the technology needs to be identified. Consideration also needs to be given to these unique characteristics when undertaking facility planning. Several areas still warrant further research and development. Recommendations pertinent to FFF technology, including acceptance testing, commissioning, quality assurance, radiation safety, and facility planning, are presented. Examples of clinical

  1. Flattening filter free beams in SBRT and IMRT. Dosimetric assessment of peripheral doses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kragl, Gabriele; Baier, Franziska; Albrich, David; Kroupa, Bernhard; Georg, Dietmar [Medical Univ. of Vienna/AKH Vienna (Austria). Dept. of Radiotherapy; Lutz, Steffen; Wiezorek, Tilo [University Hospital Jena (Germany). Dept. of Radiotherapy; Dalaryd, Maarten; Knoeoes, Tommy [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Radiation Physics; Skaane Univ. Hospital (Sweden). Radiation Physics

    2011-07-01

    Purpose: Recently, there has been a growing interest in operating medical linear accelerators without a flattening filter. Due to reduced scatter, leaf transmission and radiation head leakage a reduction of out-of-field dose is expected for flattening filter free beams. The aim of the present study was to determine the impact of unflattened beams on peripheral dose for advanced treatment techniques with a large number of MUs. Material and methods: An Elekta Precise linac was modified to provide 6 and 10 MV photon beams without a flattening filter. Basic beam data were collected and implemented into the TPS Oncentra Masterplan (Nucletron). Leakage radiation, which predominantly contributes to peripheral dose at larger distances from the field edge, was measured using a Farmer type ionisation chamber. SBRT (lung) and IMRT (prostate, head and neck) treatment plans were generated for 6 and 10 MV for both flattened and unflattened beams. All treatment plans were delivered to the relevant anatomic region of an anthropomorphic phantom which was extended by a solid water slab phantom. Dosimetric measurements were performed with TLD-700 rods, radiochromic films and a Farmer type ionisation chamber. The detectors were placed within the slab phantom and positioned along the isocentric longitudinal axis. Results: Using unflattened beams results in a reduction of treatment head leakage by 52% for 6 and 65% for 10 MV. Thus, peripheral doses were in general smaller for treatment plans calculated with unflattened beams. At about 20 cm distance from the field edge the dose was on average reduced by 23 and 31% for the 6 and 10 MV SBRT plans. For the IMRT plans (10 MV) the average reduction was 16% for the prostate and 18% for the head and neck case, respectively. For all examined cases, the relative deviation between peripheral doses of flattened and unflattened beams was found to increase with increasing distance from the field. Conclusions: Removing the flattening filter lead to

  2. TH-E-BRE-06: Challenges in the Dosimetry of Flattening Filter Free Beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czarnecki, D; Voigts-Rhetz, P von; Zink, K [Technische Hochschule Mittelhessen - University of Applied Sciences, Giessen, Hesse (Germany)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: In current dosimetry protocols [AAPM TG51, IAEA TRS-389] the beam quality correction factor kQ and the water-to-air restricted mass collision stopping-power ratio SPR are related to beam quality specifiers %dd(10){sub x} respectively TPR{sub 20,10} Determining kQ and SPR using these regular beam quality specifiers for conventional accelerators (WFF) and flattening filter free accelerators (FFF) similarly could lead to systemic bias.The influence of the flattening filter on the relationship between various beam quality specifiers and SPR respectively k{sub Q} was studied using Monte Carlo simulations with realistic beam sources. Methods: All Monte Carlo simulations were performed using the BEAMnrc/EGSnrc code system. Radiation transport through nine linear accelerator heads modeled according to technical drawings given by the manufactures and a {sup 60} Co therapy source was simulated with BEAMnrc and then used as a radiation source for further simulations. FFF beam sources were implemented by removing the fattening filter from the WFF model. SPR was calculated applying the user code SPRRZnrc. The mean photon energy below the accelerator head and the mean energies of photons and electrons at the measuring point within the water phantom were calculated using FLURZnrc. Dose calculations within a small water voxel and the thimble ionization chamber PTW-31010 in a water depth of 10 cm were made using the egs-chamber code. Results: SPR and k{sub Q} as a function of fluence spectra based beam quality specifiers as well as conventional beam quality specifiers differ systematically between FFF and WFF beams. According to the results the specifier %dd(10){sub x} revealed the smallest deviation (max. 0.4%) between FFF and WFF beams. Conclusion: The results show that %dd(10){sub x} is an acceptable beam quality specifier for FFF beams. Nevertheless the results confirm the expected bias between FFF and WFF beams which must by further investigated.

  3. SU-E-T-389: Evaluation of Flattening-Filter-Free Arcs for Lung SBRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouyang, L; Lee, H; Pompos, A; Yan, Y; Jiang, S; Foster, R [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate dynamic conformal arc therapy (DCAT) and volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) using flattening-filter-free (FFF) beams for treating non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Methods: Five clinical patients, previously treated with SBRT using non-coplanar 3D conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT), were selected and re-planned with DCAT and VMAT with both FFF beam (6xFFF with a dose rate of 1200MU/min) and flattened beams (6x with 600 MU/min). All the arc plans were planned with one 360° arc and normalized to the same PTV coverage (100% prescription cover 95% PTV volume) for comparison. Treatment planning metrics such as R100%, R50%, D2cm and lung V20 were compared to the original plans. To evaluate the treatment efficiency differences, all the arc plans were delivered and plan delivery time was compared to that of the clinical treatment as recorded in Mosaiq. Results: All plans meet RTOG conformality constraints and normal tissue tolerances. Average R100% was similar for FFFDCAT (1.07±0.05), FFFVMAT (1.03±0.08) and flattened VMAT (fVMAT) (1.03±0.09) while flattened DCAT (fDCAT) (1.09±0.07) and 3DCRT (1.11±0.06) were significantly inferior (p<0.05, t test). FFFDCAT produced the best average intermediate dose conformality as indicated by R50% (3.86±0.44) and D2cm (43.7±5.3%) when compared to all the other techniques. Significant improvement (p<0.05) in lung V20 was also found with FFFDCAT (2.33±2.06%) when compared to FFFVMAT (2.48±2.03%), fVMAT (2.52±2.07%) and fDCAT (2.64±2.11%) and was slightly better than 3DCRT (2.43±2.04%), though not significant. The FFFDCAT delivery significantly improves the treatment efficiency with an average plan delivery time of 2.70±1.57 min (p<0.05), as compared to fDCAT (5.98±3.45min), fVMAT (6.51±2.94) and 3DCRT (25.14±5.67), but is not significantly better than the FFFVMAT (3.18±1.04). Conclusion: Combining FFF beams and DCAT provide promising

  4. Equivalent (uniform) square field sizes of flattening filter free photon beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechner, Wolfgang; Kuess, Peter; Georg, Dietmar; Palmans, Hugo

    2017-10-01

    Various types of treatment units, such as CyberKnife, TomoTherapy and C-arm linear accelerators (LINACs) are operated using flattening filter free (FFF) photon beams. Their reference dosimetry, however, is currently based on codes of practice that provide data which were primarily developed and tested for high-energy photon beams with flattening filter (WFF). The aim of this work was to introduce equivalent uniform square field sizes of FFF beams to serve as a basis of a unified reference dosimetry procedure applicable to all aforementioned FFF machines. For this purpose, in-house determined experimental data together with published data of the ratio of doses at depths of 20 cm and 10 cm in water (D 20,10) were used to characterize the depth dose distribution of 6 and 10 MV WFF and FFF beams. These data were analyzed for field sizes ranging from 2  ×  2 cm2 to 40  ×  40 cm2. A scatter function that takes the lateral profiles of the individual beams into account was fitted to the experimental data. The lateral profiles of the WFF beams were assumed to be uniform, while those of the FFF beams were approximated using fourth or sixth order polynomials. The scatter functions of the FFF beams were recalculated using a uniform lateral profile (the same as the physical profile of the WFF beams), and are henceforth denoted as virtual uniform FFF beams (VUFFF). The field sizes of the VUFFF beams having the same scatter contribution as the corresponding FFF beams at a given field size were defined as the equivalent uniform square field (EQUSF) size. Data from four different LINACs with 18 different beams in total, as well as a CyberKnife beam, were analyzed. The average values of EQUSFs over all investigated LINACs of the conventional 10  ×  10 cm2 reference fields of 6 MV and 10 MV FFF beams for C-arm LINACs and machine-specific reference fields for CyberKnife and TomoTherapy were 9.5 cm, 9 cm, 5.0 cm and 6.5 cm respectively. The

  5. Effects of flattening filter-free and volumetric-modulated arc therapy delivery on treatment efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Evan M; Popple, Richard A; Prendergast, Brendan M; Clark, Grant M; Dobelbower, Michael C; Fiveash, John B

    2013-11-04

    Flattening filter-free (FFF) beams are available on an increasing number of commercial linear accelerators. FFF beams have higher dose rates than flattened beams of equivalent energy which can lead to increased efficiency of treatment delivery, especially in conjunction with increased FFF beam energy and arc-based delivery configurations. The purpose of this study is to quantify and assess the implications of improved treatment efficiency for several FFF delivery options on common types of linac applicable radiotherapy. Eleven characteristic cases representative of a variety of clinical treatment sites and prescription doses were selected from our patient population. Treatment plans were generated for a Varian TrueBeam linear accelerator. For each case, a reference plan was created using DMLC IMRT with 6MV flat beams. From the same initial objectives, plans were generated using DMLC IMRT and volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) with 6 MV FFF and 10 MV FFF beams (max. dose rates of 1400 and 2400 MU/min, respectively). The plans were delivered to a phantom; beam-on time, total treatment delivery time, monitor units (MUs), and integral dose were recorded. For plans with low dose fractionations (1.8-2.0 & 3.85 Gy/fraction), mean beam-on time difference between reference plan and most efficient FFF plan was 0.56 min (41.09% decrease); mean treatment delivery time difference between the reference plan and most efficient FFF plan was 1.54 min (range: 0.31-3.56 min), a relative improvement of 46.1% (range: 29.2%-59.2%). For plans with high dose fractionations (16-20 Gy/fraction), mean beam-on time difference was 6.79 min (74.9% decrease); mean treatment delivery time difference was 8.99 min (range: 5.40-13.05 min), a relative improvement of 71.1% (range: 53.4%- 82.4%). 10 MV FFF VMAT beams generated the most efficient plan, except in the spine SBRT case. The distribution of monitor unit counts did not vary by plan type. In cases where respiratory motion management would

  6. Improvement of the penumbra for small radiosurgical fields using flattening filter free low megavoltage beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yarahmadi, Mehran [Kurdistan Univ. of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Allahverdi, Mahmoud; Nedaie, Hassan A.; Asnaashari, Khadijeh; Vaezzadeh, Sayed A. [Tehran Univ. of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sauer, Otto A. [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie

    2013-07-01

    Background: In stereotactic radiosurgery, sharp beam edges have clear advantages to spare normal tissues. In general, the dose gradient is a limiting factor in minimizing dose to nearby critical structures for clinical cases. Therefore the penumbral width should be diminished. Methods: A Varian Clinac 2100 linear accelerator equipped with in-house designed radiosurgical collimator was modeled using the EGSnrc/BEAMnrc Monte Carlo code and compared with the measurements. The 0.015 cm{sup 3} PinPoint chamber was used to measure the 6 MV photon beam characteristics and to validate Monte Carlo calculations. Additional to the standard (STD) linac, a flattening filter free (FFF) linac was simulated. Percent depth doses, beam profiles and output factors were calculated for small field sizes with diameter of 5, 10, 20 and 30 mm with DOSXYZnrc. The mean energy and photon fluence at the water surface were calculated with BEAMDP for both FFF linac and STD linacs. Results: The penumbra width (80%-20%) was decreased by 0.5, 0.3, 0.2 and 0.2 mm for field sizes of 5, 10, 20 and 30 mm respectively when removing the FF. The fluence of photons at the surface increased up to 3.6 times and the mean energy decreased by a factor of 0.69 when removing the FF. The penumbra width (80%-20%) decreased by 17% when a 2 MeV monoenergetic electron pencil beam incident on the target is used instead of 6.2 MeV. Conclusions: It was found that the penumbra of small field sizes is decreased by removing the FF. Likewise using low megavoltage photons reduced the beam penumbra maintaining adequate penetration and skin sparing. (orig.)

  7. Reirradiation of nasopharyngeal carcinoma focusing on volumetric modulated arcs with flattening filter-free beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, M; Huang, L; Zhu, D; Peng, X

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The goal of this study was to assess the role of flattening filter-free (FFF) beams in volumetric modulated arc radiotherapy for patients with recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma (rNPC). Methods: 13 patients with rNPC were replanned for FFF RapidArc® (RA-FFF) and conventional RapidArc (RA) (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA). Quantitative evaluation was performed for the planning target volume (PTV) and organs at risk (OARs). Phantom dose verifications, treatment delivery time and monitor units (MUs) were also assessed. Results: Each technique delivered similar doses to the PTV. RA-FFF had a better sparing effect on the brain stem and normal tissue when compared with RA, whereas RA provided lower mean doses to the skin. No significant difference between the two techniques could be established for other OAR parameters. Both techniques showed equally good gamma scores in dosimetric verification. RA-FFF required more MUs than RA, whereas the delivery time for RA-FFF was slightly shorter than for RA. Conclusion: Both treatment plans met the planning objectives. Dose measurements also showed good agreement with computed doses. In addition to slightly faster delivery times, RA-FFF produced better sparing of brain stem and normal tissue with uncompromised target coverage compared with RA. Advances in knowledge: FFF beams have recently been assembled for clinical use. Our findings show RA-FFF is useful in the salvage treatment of rNPC owing to better brain stem and normal tissue sparing with uncompromised target coverage compared with RA. This may be beneficial in the case of tumour invasion close to the brain stem. PMID:26032355

  8. Stereotactic body radiation therapy for liver tumours using flattening filter free beam: dosimetric and technical considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mancosu Pietro

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose To report the initial institute experience in terms of dosimetric and technical aspects in stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT delivered using flattening filter free (FFF beam in patients with liver lesions. Methods and Materials From October 2010 to September 2011, 55 consecutive patients with 73 primary or metastatic hepatic lesions were treated with SBRT on TrueBeam using FFF beam and RapidArc technique. Clinical target volume (CTV was defined on multi-phase CT scans, PET/CT, MRI, and 4D-CT. Dose prescription was 75 Gy in 3 fractions to planning target volume (PTV. Constraints for organs at risk were: 700 cc of liver free from the 15 Gy isodose, Dmax max 0.1 cc 15 Gy Results Forty-three patients with a single lesion, nine with two lesions and three with three lesions were treated with this protocol. Target and organs at risk objectives were met for all patients. Mean delivery time was 2.8 ± 1.0 min. Pre-treatment plan verification resulted in a Gamma Agreement Index of 98.6 ± 0.8%. Mean on-line co-registration shift of the daily CBCT to the simulation CT were: -0.08, 0.05 and -0.02 cm with standard deviations of 0.33, 0.39 and 0.55 cm in, vertical, longitudinal and lateral directions respectively. Conclusions SBRT for liver targets delivered by means of FFF resulted to be feasible with short beam on time.

  9. Experimental pencil beam kernels derivation for 3D dose calculation in flattening filter free modulated fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diego Azcona, Juan; Barbés, Benigno; Wang, Lilie; Burguete, Javier

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a method to obtain the pencil-beam kernels that characterize a megavoltage photon beam generated in a flattening filter free (FFF) linear accelerator (linac) by deconvolution from experimental measurements at different depths. The formalism is applied to perform independent dose calculations in modulated fields. In our previous work a formalism was developed for ideal flat fluences exiting the linac’s head. That framework could not deal with spatially varying energy fluences, so any deviation from the ideal flat fluence was treated as a perturbation. The present work addresses the necessity of implementing an exact analysis where any spatially varying fluence can be used such as those encountered in FFF beams. A major improvement introduced here is to handle the actual fluence in the deconvolution procedure. We studied the uncertainties associated to the kernel derivation with this method. Several Kodak EDR2 radiographic films were irradiated with a 10 MV FFF photon beam from two linacs from different vendors, at the depths of 5, 10, 15, and 20cm in polystyrene (RW3 water-equivalent phantom, PTW Freiburg, Germany). The irradiation field was a 50mm diameter circular field, collimated with a lead block. The 3D kernel for a FFF beam was obtained by deconvolution using the Hankel transform. A correction on the low dose part of the kernel was performed to reproduce accurately the experimental output factors. Error uncertainty in the kernel derivation procedure was estimated to be within 0.2%. Eighteen modulated fields used clinically in different treatment localizations were irradiated at four measurement depths (total of fifty-four film measurements). Comparison through the gamma-index to their corresponding calculated absolute dose distributions showed a number of passing points (3%, 3mm) mostly above 99%. This new procedure is more reliable and robust than the previous one. Its ability to perform accurate independent dose calculations was

  10. Optimization of leaf margins for lung stereotactic body radiotherapy using a flattening filter-free beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakai, Nobuhide, E-mail: wakai@naramed-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan and Department of Radiation Oncology, Nara Medical University, Kashihara, Nara 634-8522 (Japan); Sumida, Iori; Otani, Yuki; Suzuki, Osamu; Seo, Yuji; Isohashi, Fumiaki; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Ogawa, Kazuhiko [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Hasegawa, Masatoshi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Nara Medical University, Kashihara, Nara 634-8522 (Japan)

    2015-05-15

    Purpose: The authors sought to determine the optimal collimator leaf margins which minimize normal tissue dose while achieving high conformity and to evaluate differences between the use of a flattening filter-free (FFF) beam and a flattening-filtered (FF) beam. Methods: Sixteen lung cancer patients scheduled for stereotactic body radiotherapy underwent treatment planning for a 7 MV FFF and a 6 MV FF beams to the planning target volume (PTV) with a range of leaf margins (−3 to 3 mm). Forty grays per four fractions were prescribed as a PTV D95. For PTV, the heterogeneity index (HI), conformity index, modified gradient index (GI), defined as the 50% isodose volume divided by target volume, maximum dose (Dmax), and mean dose (Dmean) were calculated. Mean lung dose (MLD), V20 Gy, and V5 Gy for the lung (defined as the volumes of lung receiving at least 20 and 5 Gy), mean heart dose, and Dmax to the spinal cord were measured as doses to organs at risk (OARs). Paired t-tests were used for statistical analysis. Results: HI was inversely related to changes in leaf margin. Conformity index and modified GI initially decreased as leaf margin width increased. After reaching a minimum, the two values then increased as leaf margin increased (“V” shape). The optimal leaf margins for conformity index and modified GI were −1.1 ± 0.3 mm (mean ± 1 SD) and −0.2 ± 0.9 mm, respectively, for 7 MV FFF compared to −1.0 ± 0.4 and −0.3 ± 0.9 mm, respectively, for 6 MV FF. Dmax and Dmean for 7 MV FFF were higher than those for 6 MV FF by 3.6% and 1.7%, respectively. There was a positive correlation between the ratios of HI, Dmax, and Dmean for 7 MV FFF to those for 6 MV FF and PTV size (R = 0.767, 0.809, and 0.643, respectively). The differences in MLD, V20 Gy, and V5 Gy for lung between FFF and FF beams were negligible. The optimal leaf margins for MLD, V20 Gy, and V5 Gy for lung were −0.9 ± 0.6, −1.1 ± 0.8, and −2.1 ± 1.2 mm, respectively, for 7 MV FFF compared

  11. Impact of flattening-filter-free radiation on the clonogenic survival of astrocytic cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steenken, Caroline; Fleckenstein, Jens; Kegel, Stefan; Jahnke, Lennart; Simeonova, Anna; Hartmann, Linda; Kuebler, Jens; Veldwijk, Marlon R.; Wenz, Frederik; Herskind, Carsten; Giordano, Frank Anton [Universitaetsmedizin Mannheim (UMM), Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Department of Radiation Oncology, Mannheim (Germany)

    2015-07-15

    Flattening-filter-free (FFF) beams are increasingly used in radiotherapy as delivery times can be substantially reduced. However, the relative biologic effectiveness (RBE) of FFF may be increased relative to conventional flattened (FLAT) beams due to differences in energy spectra. Therefore, we investigated the effects of FFF and FLAT beams on the clonogenic survival of astrocytoma cells. Three cell lines (U251, U251-MGMT, and U87) were irradiated with 6-MV and 10-MV X-rays from a linear accelerator in FFF- or FLAT-beam modes at dose rates in the range of 0.5-24 Gy/min. The surviving fraction (SF) as function of dose (2-12 Gy) was determined by the colony formation assay and fitted by the linear-quadratic model. For both beams (FFF or FLAT), the cells were pelleted in conical 15-ml centrifuge tubes and irradiated at 2-cm depth in a 1 x 1-cm{sup 2} area on the central axis of a 30 x 30-cm{sup 2} field. Dosimetry was performed with a 0.3-cm{sup 3} rigid ionization chamber. RBE was determined for FFF versus FLAT irradiation. The RBE of FFF at 7.3-11.3 Gy was 1.027 ± 0.013 and 1.063 ± 0.018 relative to FLAT beams for 6- and 10-MV beams, respectively, and was only significantly higher than 1 for 10 MV. Significantly increased survival rates were seen for lower dose rates (0.5 Gy/min FLAT vs. 5 Gy/min FLAT) at higher doses (11.9 Gy), while no differences were seen at dose rates ≥ 1.4 Gy/min (1.4 Gy/min FFF vs. 14 Gy/min FFF and 2.4 Gy/min FFF vs. 24 Gy/min FFF). FFF beams showed only a slightly increased RBE relative to FLAT beams in this experimental set-up, which is unlikely to result in clinically relevant differences in outcome. (orig.) [German] Die Flattening-Filter-freie (FFF) Bestrahlungstechnik findet zunehmend Verwendung, da sich die Applikationsdauer der einzelnen Fraktionen deutlich verkuerzen laesst. Aufgrund der Unterschiede im Spektrum koennte die relative biologische Wirksamkeit (RBW) von FFF jedoch hoeher sein als bei konventioneller Technik (d.h. bei

  12. An analytical formalism to calculate phantom scatter factors for flattening filter free (FFF) mode photon beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Heeteak; Prado, Karl L; Yi, Byong Yong

    2014-02-21

    Phantom Scatter Factors, Sp in the Khan formalism (Khan et al 1980 J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 6 745-51) describe medium-induced changes in photon-beam intensity as a function of size of the beam. According to the British Journal of Radiology, Supplement 25, megavoltage phantom scatter factors are invariant as a function of photon-beam energy. However, during the commissioning of an accelerator with flattening filter free (FFF) photon beams (Varian TrueBeam(TM) 6-MV FFF and 10-MV FFF), differences were noted in phantom scatter between the filtered beams and FFF-mode beams. The purpose of this work was to evaluate this difference and provide an analytical formalism to explain the phantom scatter differences between FFF-mode and the filtered mode. An analytical formalism was devised to demonstrate the source of phantom scatter differences between the filtered and the FFF-mode beams. The reason for the differences in the phantom scatter factors between the filtered and the FFF-mode beams is hypothesized to be the non-uniform beam profiles of the FFF-mode beams. The analytical formalism proposed here is based on this idea, taking the product of the filtered phantom scatter factors and the ratio of the off-axis ratio between the FFF-mode and the filtered beams. All measurements were performed using a Varian TrueBeam(TM) linear accelerator with photon energies of 6-MV and 10-MV in both filtered and FFF-modes. For all measurements, a PTW Farmer type chamber and a Scanditronix CC04 cylindrical ionization were used. The in-water measurements were made at depth dose maximum and 100 cm source-to-axis distance. The in-air measurements were done at 100 cm source-to-axis distance with appropriate build-up cap. From these measurements, the phantom scatter factors were derived for the filtered beams and the FFF-mode beams for both energies to be evaluated against the phantoms scatter factors calculated using the proposed algorithm. For 6-MV, the difference between the measured

  13. Comparison between the TRS-398 code of practice and the TG-51 dosimetry protocol for flattening filter free beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lye, J. E.; Butler, D. J.; Oliver, C. P.; Alves, A.; Lehmann, J.; Gibbons, F. P.; Williams, I. M.

    2016-07-01

    Dosimetry protocols for external beam radiotherapy currently in use, such as the IAEA TRS-398 and AAPM TG-51, were written for conventional linear accelerators. In these accelerators, a flattening filter is used to produce a beam which is uniform at water depths where the ionization chamber is used to measure the absorbed dose. Recently, clinical linacs have been implemented without the flattening filter, and published theoretical analysis suggested that with these beams a dosimetric error of order 0.6% could be expected for IAEA TRS-398, because the TPR20,10 beam quality index does not accurately predict the stopping power ratio (water to air) for the softer flattening-filter-free (FFF) beam spectra. We measured doses on eleven FFF linacs at 6 MV and 10 MV using both dosimetry protocols and found average differences of 0.2% or less. The expected shift due to stopping powers was not observed. We present Monte Carlo k Q calculations which show a much smaller difference between FFF and flattened beams than originally predicted. These results are explained by the inclusion of the added backscatter plates and build-up filters used in modern clinical FFF linacs, compared to a Monte Carlo model of an FFF linac in which the flattening filter is removed and no additional build-up or backscatter plate is added.

  14. Dosimetric study of RapidArc plans with flattened beam (FB and flattening filter-free (FFF beam for localized prostate cancer based on physical indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birendra Kumar Rout

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To identify the continual diversity between flattening photon beam (FB and Flattening Filter Free (FFF photon beams for localized prostate cancer; and to determine potential benefits and drawbacks of using unflattened beam for this type of treatment.Methods: Eight prostate cases including seminal vesicles selected for this study. The primary planning target volume (PTVP and boost planning target volume (PTVB were contoured. The total prescription dose was 78 Gy (56 Gy to PTVP and an additional 22 Gy to PTVB. For all cases, treatment plans using 6MV with FB and FFF beams with identical dose-volume constraints, arc angles and number of arcs were developed. The dose volume histograms for both techniques were compared for primary target volume and critical structures.Results: A low Sigma index (FFF: 1.65 + 0.361; FB: 1.725 + 0.39 indicating improved dose homogeneity in FFF beam. Conformity index (FFF: 0.994 + 0.01; FB: 0.993 + 0.01 is comparable for both techniques. Minimal difference of Organ at risk mean dose was observed. Normal tissue integral dose in FB plan resulted 1.5% lower than FFF plan. All the plans displayed significant increase (1.18 times for PTVP and 1.11 for PTBB in the average number of necessary MU with FFF beam.Conclusion: Diversity between FB and FFF beam plans were found. FFF beam accelerator has been utilized to develop clinically acceptable Rapid Arc treatment plans for prostate cancer with 6 MV.---------------------------------Cite this article as: Rout BK, Muralidhar KR, Ali M, Shekar MC, Kumar A. Dosimetric study of RapidArc plans with flattened beam (FB and flattening filter-free (FFF beam for localized prostate cancer based on physical indices. Int J Cancer Ther Oncol 2014; 2(4:02046.  DOI: 10.14319/ijcto.0204.6

  15. Flattening filter free beams from TrueBeam and Versa HD units: Evaluation of the parameters for quality assurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogliata, Antonella; Fleckenstein, Jens; Schneider, Frank; Pachoud, Marc; Ghandour, Sarah; Krauss, Harald; Reggiori, Giacomo; Stravato, Antonella; Lohr, Frank; Scorsetti, Marta; Cozzi, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Flattening filter free (FFF) beams generated by medical linear accelerators are today clinically used for stereotactical and non-stereotactical radiotherapy treatments. Such beams differ from the standard flattened beams (FF) in the high dose rate and the profile shape peaked on the beam central axis. Definition of new parameters as unflatness and slope for FFF beams has been proposed based on a renormalization factor for FFF profiles. The present study aims to assess the dosimetric differences between FFF beams generated by linear accelerators from different vendors, and to provide renormalization and parameter data of the two kinds of units. Dosimetric data from two Varian TrueBeam and two Elekta Versa HD linear accelerators, all with 6 and 10 MV nominal accelerating potentials, FF and FFF modes have been collected. Renormalization factors and related fit parameters according to Fogliata et al. ["Definition of parameters for quality assurance of flattening filter free (FFF) photon beams in radiation therapy," Med. Phys. 39, 6455-6464 (2012)] have been evaluated for FFF beams of both units and energies. Unflatness and slope parameters from profile curves were evaluated. Dosimetric differences in terms of beam penetration and near-the-surface dose were also assessed. FFF profile parameters have been updated; renormalization factors and unflatness from the Varian units are consistent with the published data. Elekta FFF beam qualities, different from the Varian generated beams, tend to express similar behaviour as the FF beam of the corresponding nominal energy. TPR20,10 for 6 and 10 MV FF and FFF TrueBeam beams are 0.665, 0.629 (6 MV) and 0.738, 0.703 (10 MV). The same figures for Versa HD units are 0.684, 0.678 (6 MV) and 0.734, 0.721 (10 MV). Renormalization factor and unflatness parameters evaluated from Varian and Elekta FFF beams are provided, in particular renormalization factors table and fit parameters.

  16. Relationship between %dd(10)x and stopping-power ratios for flattening filter free accelerators: a Monte Carlo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Guoming; Rogers, D W O

    2008-05-01

    The relationship between the photon beam quality specifier %dd(10)x and the Spencer-Attix water water to air restricted mass collision stopping-power ratio, (L/rho))air(water), is studied using Monte Carlo simulation with realistic beams in contrast to the previously used realistic but uniform spectra from an isotropic point source. The differences between accelerators with and without flattening filters are investigated since flattening filter free accelerators appear to be useful for IMRT. Our results show that the standard relationship between %dd(10)x and (L/rho)air(water), which is used in the TG-51 protocol to calculate the quality conversion factor kQ, is acceptable for beams with or without a flattening filter with a maximum error of 0.4%, although a fit to the new data would reduce the maximum error to 0.2%. Reasons for differences between the individual values of %dd(10)x and (L/ rho)air(water) with and without a flattening filter are studied. Specifically the differences due to the softening of the beam, the change in shape of the profile, and the inclusion of radial variations in the photon energy spectra, are investigated. It is shown that if TPR10(20) is used as a beam quality specifier, there are two different relationships between TPR10(20) and (L/rho)air(water) which differ by 0.4%-1%. When using TPR10(20) as a beam quality specifier in a beam without a flattening filter, one should subtract 0.5% from the value of kQ for a given value of TPR10(20).

  17. Comparison of the dosimetric parameters in linear accelerators with flattening filter-free (FFF) and flattening filter (FF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Anderson S.; Rostelato, Maria Elisa C.M.; Zeituni, Carlos A.; Moura, Eduardo S.; Rodrigues, Bruna T.; Souza, Daiane C.; Tiezzi, Rodrigo; Souza, Carla D.; Melo, Emerson R.; Camargo, Anderson R.; Batista, Talita Q., E-mail: asorgatti@hotmail.com, E-mail: elisaros@ipen.br, E-mail: czeituni@ipen.br, E-mail: edusantos_moura@ig.com.br, E-mail: bteigarodrigues@gmail.com, E-mail: dchristini2013@gmail.com, E-mail: rtiezzi@ipen.br, E-mail: carladdsouza@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: s, E-mail: emermelo@hotmail.com, E-mail: anderson.rogerio.c@hotmail.com, E-mail: ta_litterqbatista@hotmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    This paper discusses the main features associated with the dosimetric parameters between FFF and FF Linacs. A set of Varian TrueBeam Linac and Varian 23EX dosimetric measurements was acquired to perform the experimental measurements. The dose measurements were carried out in a water Blue phantom, with a waterproof ionization chambers: farmer ionization chamber (0.6 cm{sup 3}) and Exradin A1SL(0.053 cm{sup 3}) , for fields 5 x 5, 8 x 8, 10 x 10, 15 x 15, 30 x 30 cm{sup 2}. The 6 MV FFF and FF was the energy used in this work. Percent Depth Dose (PDD) was the dosimetric parameters evaluated using a fixed Source Surface Distance of 100 cm. One depth were applied for the measurements, 10 cm (central axis) from the water surface. The 6 MV FFF showed less penetrating than the 6 MV FF. This is due to the removal flattening filter causes more lower energy photons on the central axis. The field sizes were equivalent for both FFF and FF. The main advantage in operate linear accelerators without flattening filter is due to the high doses rates delivered during the treatment. High doses rates could reduce the patient treatment time and may be beneficial for some treatment techniques such as IMRT and SRT. (author)

  18. SU-E-T-145: Beam Characteristics of Flattening Filter Free Beams Including Low Dose Rate Setting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uehara, K; Ogata, T; Nakayama, M; Shinji, T; Nishimura, H; Masutani, T [Kobe Minimally Invasive Cancer Center, Kobe, Hyogo (Japan); Ishihara, T; Ejima, Y; Sasaki, R [Kobe University Hospital, Kobe, Hyogo (Japan)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: In commissioning of volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT), it is necessary to evaluate the beam characteristics of various dose rate settings with potential to use. The aim of this study is to evaluate the beam characteristics of flattened and flattening filter free (FFF) including low dose rate setting. Methods: We used a Varian TrueBeam with Millennium 120 MLC. Both 6 and 10 MV beams with or without flattening filter were used for this study. To evaluate low-dose rate FFF beams, specially-designed leaf sequence files control out-of-field MLC leaf pair at constant dose rate ranging from 80 to 400 MU/min. For dose rate from 80 MU/min to the maximum usable value of all energies, beam output were measured using ionization chamber (CC04, IBA). The ionization chamber was inserted into water equivalent phantom (RT3000-New, R-tech), and the phantom was set with SAD of 100cm. The beam profiles were performed using the 2D diode array (Profiler2, Sun Nuclear). The SSD was set to 90cm and a combined 30cmx30cmx9cm phantom which consisted of solid water slabs was put on the device. All measurement were made using 100MU irradiation for 10cmx10cm jaw-defined field size with a gantry angle of 0°. Results: In all energies, the dose rate dependences with beam output and variation coefficient were within 0.2% and 0.07%, respectively. The flatness and symmetry exhibited small variations (flatness ≤0.1 point and symmetry≤0.3 point at absolute difference). Conclusion: We had studied the characteristics of flattened and FFF beam over the 80 MU/min. Our results indicated that the beam output and profiles of FFF of TrueBeam linac were highly stable at low dose rate setting.

  19. A dosimetric evaluation of flattening filter-free volumetric modulated arc therapy for postoperative treatment of cervical cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fuli Zhang; Bo Yao; Jun Hou; Heliang He; Jianping Chen; Huayong Jiang; Weidong Xu; Yadi Wang; Junmao Gao; Qingzhi Liu; Ping Wang; Na Lu; Diandian Chen

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of the study was to compare flattening filter-free (FFF) beams and conventional flat-tening filter (FF) beams in volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) for cervical cancer after surgery, through a retrospective planning study. Methods VMAT plans of FFF beams and normal FF beams were designed for a cohort of 15 patients. The prescribed dose was 45 Gy to 1.8 Gy per fraction, and at least 95% of the planning target volume received this dose. Doses were computed with a commercial y available treatment planning system using a Monte Carlo (MC) algorithm. Plans were compared according to dose-volume histogram analysis in terms of planning target volume homogeneity and conformity indices (HI and CI), as wel as organs at risk (OAR) dose and volume parameters. Results FFF-VMAT was similar to FF-VMAT in terms of CI, but inferior to FF-VMAT considering HI. No statistical y dif erences were observed between FFF-VMAT and FF-VMAT in fol owing organ at risks includ-ing pelvic bone marrow, smal bowel, bladder, rectum, and normal tissue (NT). . Conclusion For patients with cervical cancer after hysterectomy, the FFF beam achieved target and OAR dose distribution similar to that of the FF beam. Reduction of beam-on time in cervical cancer is beneficial.

  20. Flattening filter free beams from TrueBeam and Versa HD units: Evaluation of the parameters for quality assurance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fogliata, Antonella, E-mail: antonella.fogliata@humanitas.it; Reggiori, Giacomo; Stravato, Antonella; Scorsetti, Marta; Cozzi, Luca [Radiotherapy and Radiosurgery Department, Humanitas Research Hospital, Milan-Rozzano I-20098 (Italy); Fleckenstein, Jens; Schneider, Frank; Lohr, Frank [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Mannheim D-68167 (Germany); Pachoud, Marc; Ghandour, Sarah [Radiation Oncology Department, Hôpital Riviera Chablais, Vevey CH-1800 (Switzerland); Krauss, Harald [Radio-Oncology Department, Kaiser Franz Josef Spital, Vienna A-1100 (Austria)

    2016-01-15

    Purpose: Flattening filter free (FFF) beams generated by medical linear accelerators are today clinically used for stereotactical and non-stereotactical radiotherapy treatments. Such beams differ from the standard flattened beams (FF) in the high dose rate and the profile shape peaked on the beam central axis. Definition of new parameters as unflatness and slope for FFF beams has been proposed based on a renormalization factor for FFF profiles. The present study aims to assess the dosimetric differences between FFF beams generated by linear accelerators from different vendors, and to provide renormalization and parameter data of the two kinds of units. Methods: Dosimetric data from two Varian TrueBeam and two Elekta Versa HD linear accelerators, all with 6 and 10 MV nominal accelerating potentials, FF and FFF modes have been collected. Renormalization factors and related fit parameters according to Fogliata et al. [“Definition of parameters for quality assurance of flattening filter free (FFF) photon beams in radiation therapy,” Med. Phys. 39, 6455–6464 (2012)] have been evaluated for FFF beams of both units and energies. Unflatness and slope parameters from profile curves were evaluated. Dosimetric differences in terms of beam penetration and near-the-surface dose were also assessed. Results: FFF profile parameters have been updated; renormalization factors and unflatness from the Varian units are consistent with the published data. Elekta FFF beam qualities, different from the Varian generated beams, tend to express similar behaviour as the FF beam of the corresponding nominal energy. TPR{sub 20,10} for 6 and 10 MV FF and FFF TrueBeam beams are 0.665, 0.629 (6 MV) and 0.738, 0.703 (10 MV). The same figures for Versa HD units are 0.684, 0.678 (6 MV) and 0.734, 0.721 (10 MV). Conclusions: Renormalization factor and unflatness parameters evaluated from Varian and Elekta FFF beams are provided, in particular renormalization factors table and fit parameters.

  1. Experimental validation of the dual parameter beam quality specifier for reference dosimetry in flattening-filter-free (FFF) photon beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Emma; Gajewski, Romuald; Flower, Emily; Stensmyr, Rachel

    2015-07-21

    Removal of the flattening filter alters the energy spectrum of the photon beam such that current beam quality specifiers may not correctly account for this change when predicting the Spencer-Attix restricted water-to-air mass collision stopping-power ratio, (L/ρ)(water)(air). Johnsson et al (2000 Phys. Med. Biol. 45 2733-45) proposed a beam quality specifier, known as the dual parameter beam quality specifier, which was calculated via Monte Carlo (MC) simulations using transmission data of primary kerma through two differing thicknesses of water material. Ceberg et al (2010 Med. Phys. 37 1164-8) extended this MC study to include relevant flattening filter free (FFF) beam data. Experimental investigations of this dual parameter beam quality specifier have not previously been published, therefore the purpose of this work was to validate that the dual parameter beam quality specifier could be measured experimentally for clinical beams (both with a flattening filter (WFF) and without (FFF)). Transmission measurements of primary kerma were performed by employing the setup outlined in Johnsson et al (1999 Phys. Med. Biol. 44 2445-50). Varying absorber thicknesses, in 5 cm increments from 5 to 40 cm, were placed at isocentre with the chamber positioned at an extended source to chamber distance of 300 cm. Experimental setup for TPR20,10 and %dd(10)x followed the methodology outlined in IAEA TRS398 (2004) and TG-51 (1999) with AAPM Addendum to TG-51 (2014) respectively. The maximum difference of (L/ρ)(water)(air) determined using the different beam quality specifiers was found to be 0.35%. Analysis of the absorber thickness combination found that small thicknesses (quality specifiers. The results demonstrated successful experimental determination of the dual parameter beam quality specifier, indicating its potential as an alternate beam quality specifier for FFF beams.

  2. Chest wall radiotherapy with volumetric modulated arcs and the potential role of flattening filter free photon beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subramaniam, S.; Thirumalaiswamy, S.; Srinivas, C. [Yashoda Super Specialty Hospital, Hyderabad (IN)] (and others)

    2012-06-15

    The goal of the work was to assess the role of RapidArc treatments in chest wall irradiation after mastectomy and determine the potential benefit of flattening filter free beams. Planning CT scans of 10 women requiring post-mastectomy chest wall radiotherapy were included in the study. A dose of 50 Gy in 2 Gy fractions was prescribed. Organs at risk (OARs) delineated were heart, lungs, contralateral breast, and spinal cord. Dose-volume metrics were defined to quantify the quality of concurrent treatment plans assessing target coverage and sparing of OARs. Plans were designed for conformal 3D therapy (3DCRT) or for RapidArc with double partial arcs (RA). RapidArc plans were optimized for both conventional beams as well as for unflattened beams (RAF). The goal for this planning effort was to cover 100% of the planning target volume (PTV) with {>=} 90% of the prescribed dose and to minimize the volume inside the PTV receiving > 105% of the dose. The mean ipsilateral lung dose was required to be lower than 15 Gy and V{sub 20} {sub Gy} < 22%. Contralateral organ irradiation was required to be kept as low as possible. All techniques met planning objectives for PTV and for lung (3DCRT marginally failed for V{sub 20} {sub Gy}). RA plans showed superiority compared to 3DCRT in the medium to high dose region for the ipsilateral lung. Heart irradiation was minimized by RAF plans with {proportional_to} 4.5 Gy and {proportional_to} 15 Gy reduction in maximum dose compared to RA and 3DCRT, respectively. RAF resulted in superior plans compared to RA with respect to contralateral breast and lung with a reduction of {proportional_to} 1.7 Gy and 1.0 Gy in the respective mean doses. RapidArc treatment resulted in acceptable plan quality with superior ipsilateral tissue sparing compared to traditional techniques. Flattening filter free beams, recently made available for clinical use, might provide further healthy tissue sparing, particularly in contralateral organs, suggesting their

  3. Combining tissue-phantom ratios to provide a beam-quality specifier for flattening filter free photon beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalaryd, Mårten, E-mail: Marten.Dalaryd@med.lu.se; Knöös, Tommy [Department of Clinical Sciences, Medical Radiation Physics, Lund University, P.O. Box 117, Lund SE-221 00, Sweden and Radiation Physics, Skåne University Hospital, Lund SE-221 85 (Sweden); Ceberg, Crister [Department of Clinical Sciences, Medical Radiation Physics, Lund University, P.O. Box 117, Lund SE-221 00 (Sweden)

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: There are currently several commercially available radiotherapy treatment units without a flattening filter in the beam line. Unflattened photon beams have an energy and lateral fluence distribution that is different from conventional beams and, thus, their attenuation properties differ. As a consequence, for flattening filter free (FFF) beams, the relationship between the beam-quality specifier TPR{sub 20,10} and the Spencer–Attix restricted water-to-air mass collision stopping-power ratios, (L{sup -}/ρ){sub air}{sup water}, may have to be refined in order to be used with equivalent accuracy as for beams with a flattening filter. The purpose of this work was twofold. First, to study the relationship between TPR{sub 20,10} and (L{sup -}/ρ){sub air}{sup water} for FFF beams, where the flattening filter has been replaced by a metal plate as in most clinical FFF beams. Second, to investigate the potential of increasing the accuracy in determining (L{sup -}/ρ){sub air}{sup water} by adding another beam-quality metric, TPR{sub 10,5}. The relationship between (L{sup -}/ρ){sub air}{sup water} and %dd(10){sub x} for beams with and without a flattening filter was also included in this study. Methods: A total of 24 realistic photon beams (10 with and 14 without a flattening filter) from three different treatment units have been used to calculate (L{sup -}/ρ){sub air}{sup water}, TPR{sub 20,10}, and TPR{sub 10,5} using the EGSnrc Monte Carlo package. The relationship between (L{sup -}/ρ){sub air}{sup water} and the dual beam-quality specifier TPR{sub 20,10} and TPR{sub 10,5} was described by a simple bilinear equation. The relationship between the photon beam-quality specifier %dd(10){sub x} used in the AAPM’s TG-51 dosimetry protocol and (L{sup -}/ρ){sub air}{sup water} was also investigated for the beams used in this study, by calculating the photon component of the percentage depth dose at 10 cm depth with SSD 100 cm. Results: The calculated (L{sup -}/

  4. Treatment of breast cancer with simultaneous integrated boost in hybrid plan technique. Influence of flattening filter-free beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahrainy, Marzieh; Kretschmer, Matthias; Joest, Vincent; Kasch, Astrid; Wuerschmidt, Florian; Dahle, Joerg; Lorenzen, Joern [Radiologische Allianz, Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-05-15

    The present study compares in silico treatment plans using hybrid plan technique during hypofractionated radiation of mammary carcinoma with simultaneous integrated boost (SIB). The influence of 6 MV photon radiation in flattening filter free (FFF) mode against the clinical standard flattening filter (FF) mode is to be examined. RT planning took place with FF and FFF radiation plans for 10 left-sided breast cancer patients. Hybrid plans were realised with two tangential IMRT fields and one VMAT field. The dose prescription was in line with the guidelines in the ARO-2010-01 study. The dosimetric verification took place with a manufacturer-independent measurement system. Required dose prescriptions for the planning target volumes (PTV) were achieved for both groups. The average dose values of the ipsi- and contralateral lung and the heart did not differ significantly. The overall average incidental dose to the left anterior descending artery (LAD) of 8.24 ± 3.9 Gy in the FFF group and 9.05 ± 3.7 Gy in the FF group (p < 0.05) were found. The dosimetric verifications corresponded to the clinical requirements. FFF-based RT plans reduced the average treatment time by 17 s/fraction. In comparison to the FF-based hybrid plan technique the FFF mode allows further reduction of the average LAD dose for comparable target volume coverage without adverse low-dose exposure of contralateral structures. The combination of hybrid plan technique and 6 MV photon radiation in the FFF mode is suitable for use with hypofractionated dose schemes. The increased dose rate allows a substantial reduction of treatment time and thus beneficial application of the deep inspiration breath hold technique. (orig.) [German] Vergleich der ''In-silico''-Bestrahlungsplaene der klinisch etablierten Hybridplan-Technik bei hypofraktionierter Bestrahlung des Mammakarzinoms mit simultan integriertem Boost (SIB). Untersucht wird der Einfluss von 6MV-Photonenstrahlung im Flattening-Filter-Free

  5. Identification of the suitable leaf margin for liver stereotactic body radiotherapy with flattening filter-free beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Toshiyuki; Nishimura, Hideki; Mayahara, Hiroshi; Uehara, Kazuyuki; Okayama, Takanobu

    2017-07-12

    The purpose of this study is to identify the suitable leaf margin for liver stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) with flattening filter-free (FFF) beams, as compared with that with flattening filter (FF) beams. SBRT treatment planning for 10 patients with liver cancer was performed using 10-MV FFF and FF beams obtained from a Varian TrueBeam (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA) linear accelerator. Each plan was generated with the leaf margin to the planning target volume (PTV) ranging from -3 to 5 mm. The prescription dose at D95 (dose covering 95% of the volume) was 48 Gy in 4 fractions to the PTV. The following dosimetric parameters were evaluated quantitatively: homogeneity index (HI), conformity index (CI), gradient index (GI), the normal liver receiving a dose greater than or equal to 20 Gy (V20), and the mean normal liver dose. The HI for FFF and FF beams increased as the leaf margin decreased. The leaf margins that achieved the best CI and GI were 0.1 and -0.3 mm for FFF beams, and 0.1 and -0.9 mm for FF beams. The liver V20 and the mean liver dose reached their minimum values at leaf margins of -0.8 and 0.0 mm for FFF beams, and -0.8 and 0.0 mm for FF beams. The suitable leaf margin for SBRT planning did not differ significantly for FFF and FF beams. Our data showed that, for both FFF and FF beams, a leaf margin of 0 or -1 mm was optimal for liver SBRT planning in terms of both target coverage and normal tissue sparing. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Medical Dosimetrists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Volumetric modulation arc radiotherapy with flattening filter-free beams compared with conventional beams for nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a feasibility study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mingzan Zhuang; Tuodan Zhang; Zhijian Chen; Zhixiong Lin; Derui Li; Xun Peng; Qingchun Qiu

    2013-01-01

    There is increasing interest in the clinical use of flattening filter-free (FFF) beams.In this study,we aimed to investigate the dosimetric characteristics of volumetric modulated arc radiotherapy (VMAT) with FFF beams for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC).Ten NPC patients were randomly selected to undergo a RapidArc plan with either FFF beams (RA-FFF) or conventional beams (RA-C).The doses to the planning target volumes (PTVs),organs at risk (OARs),and normal tissues were compared.The technical delivery parameters for RapidArc plans were also assessed to compare the characteristics of FFF and conventional beams.Both techniques delivered adequate doses to PTVs.For PTVs,RA-C delivered lower maximum and mean doses and improved conformity and homogeneity compared with RA-FFF.Both techniques provided similar maximum doses to the optic nerves and lenses.For the brain stem,spinal cord,larynx,parotid glands,oral cavity,and skin,RA-FFF showed significant dose increases compared to RA-C.The dose to normal tissue was lower in RA-FFF.The monitor units (MUs) were (536 ± 46) MU for RA-FFF and (501 ± 25) MU for RA-C.The treatment duration did not significantly differ between plans.Although both treatment plans could meet clinical needs,RA-C is dosimetrically superior to RA-FFF for NPC radiotherapy.

  7. Dosimetric comparison of a 6-MV flattening-filter and a flattening-filter-free beam for lung stereotactic ablative radiotherapy treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yon-Lae; Chung, Jin-Beom; Kim, Jae-Sung; Lee, Jeong-Woo; Kim, Jin-Young; Kang, Sang-Won; Suh, Tae-Suk

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility of clinical usage of a flattening-filter-free (FFF) beam for treatment with lung stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR). Ten patients were treated with SABR and a 6-MV FFF beam for this study. All plans using volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) were optimized in the Eclipse treatment planning system (TPS) by using the Acuros XB (AXB) dose calculation algorithm and were delivered by using a Varian TrueBeam ™ linear accelerator equipped with a high-definition (HD) multi-leaf collimator. The prescription dose used was 48 Gy in 4 fractions. In order to compare the plan using a conventional 6-MV flattening-filter (FF) beam, the SABR plan was recalculated under the condition of the same beam settings used in the plan employing the 6-MV FFF beam. All dose distributions were calculated by using Acuros XB (AXB, version 11) and a 2.5-mm isotropic dose grid. The cumulative dosevolume histograms (DVH) for the planning target volume (PTV) and all organs at risk (OARs) were analyzed. Technical parameters, such as total monitor units (MUs) and the delivery time, were also recorded and assessed. All plans for target volumes met the planning objectives for the PTV ( i.e., V95% > 95%) and the maximum dose ( i.e., Dmax marked reduction (52.97%) in the treatment delivery time. The SABR plan with a FFF beam required a larger number of MUs than the plan with the FF beam, and the mean difference in MUs was 4.65%. This study demonstrated that the use of the FFF beam for lung SABR plan provided better treatment efficiency relative to 6-MV FF beam. This strategy should be particularly beneficial for high dose conformity to the lung and decreased intra-fraction movements because of the shorter treatment delivery time. Future studies are necessary to assess the clinical outcome and the toxicity.

  8. SU-E-T-311: Dosimetric Comparison of Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy Plans for Preoperative Radiotherapy Rectal Cancer Using Flattening Filter-Free and Flattening Filter Modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, W; Zhang, J; Lu, J; Chen, C [Cancer Hospital of Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, Guangdong (China)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To compare the dosimetric difference of volumetric modulated arc therapy(VMAT) for preoperative radiotherapy rectal cancer using 6MV X-ray flattening filter free(FFF) and flattening filter(FF) modes. Methods: FF-VMAT and FFF-VMAT plans were designed to 15 rectal cancer patients with preoperative radiotherapy by planning treatment system(Eclipse 10.0),respectively. Dose prescription was 50 Gy in 25 fractions. All plans were normalized to 50 Gy to 95% of PTV. The Dose Volume Histogram (DVH), target and risk organ doses, conformity indexes (CI), homogeneity indexes (HI), low dose volume of normal tissue(BP), monitor units(MU) and treatment time (TT) were compared between the two kinds of plans. Results: FF-VMAT provided the lower Dmean, V105, HI, and higher CI as compared with FFF-VMAT. The small intestine of D5, Bladder of D5, Dmean, V40, V50, L-femoral head of V40, R-femoral head of Dmean were lower in FF-VMAT than in FFF-VMAT. FF-VMAT had higher BP of V5, but no significantly different of V10, V15, V20, V30 as compared with FFF-VMAT. FF-VMAT reduceed the monitor units(MU) by 21%(P<0.05), as well as the treatment time(TT) was no significantly different(P>0.05), as compared with FFF-VMAT. Conclusion: The plan qualities of FF and FFF VMAT plans were comparable and both clinically acceptable. FF-VMAT as compared with FFF-VMAT, showing better target coverage, some of OARs sparing, the MUs of FFF-VMAT were higher than FF-VMAT, yet were delivered within the same time. This work was supported by the Medical Scientific Research Foundation of Guangdong Procvince (A2014455 to Changchun Ma)

  9. SU-E-T-153: Burst-Mode Modulated Arc Therapy with Flattening-Filter-Free Beams Versus Flattening-Filtered Beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kainz, K; Lawton, C; Li, X [Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To compare the dosimetry and delivery of burst-mode modulated arc radiotherapy using flattening-filter-free (FFF) and flattening-filtered (FF) beams. Methods: Burst-mode modulated arc therapy (mARC, Siemens) plans were generated for six prostate cases with FFF and FF beam models, using the Elekta Monaco v. 5.00 planning system. One 360-degree arc was used for five cases, and for one case two 360-degree coplanar arcs were used. The maximum number of optimization points (OPs) per arc was set to 91, and OPs with less than 4 MU were disregarded. All plans were delivered on the Siemens Artiste linear accelerator with 6MV FF (300 MU/min) and comparable-energy FFF (2000 MU/min, labeled as 7UF) beams. Results: For all cases studied, the plans with FFF beams exhibited DVHs for the PTV, rectum, and bladder that were nearly identical to those for the plans with FF beams. The FFF plan yielded reduced dose to the right femoral head for 5 cases, and lower mean dose to the left femoral head for 4 cases. For all but the two-arc case, the FFF and FF plans resulted in an identical number of segments. The total number of MUs was slightly lower for the FF plans for five cases. The total delivery time per fraction was substantially lower for the FFF plans, ranging from 25 to 50 percent among all cases, as compared to the FF plans. Conclusion: For mARC plans, FFF and FF beams provided comparable PTV coverage and rectum and bladder sparing. For the femoral heads, the mean dose was slightly lower in most cases when using the FFF beam. Although the flat beam plans typically required slightly fewer MUs, FFF beams required substantially less time to deliver a plan of similar quality. This work was supported by Siemens Medical Solutions and the MCW Cancer Center Fotsch Foundation.

  10. Practical approach for pretreatment verification of IMRT with flattening filter free(FFF) beams using Varian Portal Dosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Soonki; Choi, Young Eun; Kwak, Jungwon; Cho, Byungchul

    2014-01-08

    Patient-specific pretreatment verification of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) or volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) is strongly recommended for all patients in order to detect any potential errors in treatment planning process and machine deliverability, and is thus performed routinely in many clinics. Portal dosimetry is an effective method for this purpose because of its prompt setup, easy data acquisition, and high spatial resolution. However, portal dosimetry cannot be applied to IMRT or VMAT with flattening filter-free (FFF) beams because of the high dose-rate saturation effect of the electronic portal imaging device (EPID). In our current report, we suggest a practical QA method of expanding the conventional portal dosimetry to FFF beams with a QA plan generated by the following three steps: 1) replace the FFF beams with flattening filtered (FF) beams of the same nominal energy; 2) reduce the dose rate to avoid the saturation effect of the EPID detector; and 3) adjust the total MU to match the gantry and MLC leaf motions. Two RapidArc plans with 6 and 10 MV FFF beams were selected, and QA plans were created by the aforementioned steps and delivered. The trajectory log files of TrueBeam obtained during the treatment and during the delivery of QA plan were analyzed and compared. The maximum discrepancies in the expected trajectories between the treatment and QA plans were within 0.002 MU for the MU, 0.06° for the motion of gantry rotation, and 0.006 mm for the positions of the MLC leaves, indicating much higher levels of accuracy compared to the mechanical specifications of the machine. For further validation of the method, direct comparisons of the delivered QA FF beam to the treatment FFF beam were performed using film dosimetry and show that gamma passing rates under 2%/2 mm criteria are 99.0%-100% for the all four arc beams. This method can be used on RapidArc plans with FFF beams without any additional procedure or modifications on the

  11. A 4 MV flattening filter-free beam: commissioning and application to conformal therapy and volumetric modulated arc therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, S W; Rosser, K E; Bedford, J L, E-mail: simon.stevens@nhs.net [Joint Department of Physics, Institute of Cancer Research and The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Downs Road, Sutton, Surrey SM2 5PT (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-07

    Recent studies have indicated that radiotherapy treatments undertaken on a flattening filter-free (FFF) linear accelerator have a number of advantages over treatments undertaken on a conventional linear accelerator. In addition, 4 MV photon beams may give improved isodose coverage for some treatment volumes at air/tissue interfaces, compared to when utilizing the clinical standard of 6 MV photons. In order to investigate these benefits, FFF beams were established on an Elekta Beam Modulator linear accelerator for 4 MV photons. Commissioning beam data were obtained for open and wedged fields. The measured data were then imported into a treatment planning system and a beam model was commissioned. The beam model was optimized to improve dose calculations at shallow, clinically relevant depths. Following verification, the beam model was utilized in a treatment planning study, including volumetric modulated arc therapy, for a selection of lung, breast/chest wall and larynx patients. Increased dose rates of around 800 MU min{sup -1} were recorded for open fields (relative to 320 MU min{sup -1} for filtered open fields) and reduced head scatter was inferred from output factor measurements. Good agreement between planned and delivered dose was observed in verification of treatment plans. The planning study indicated that with a FFF beam, equivalent (and in some cases improved) isodose profiles could be achieved for small lung and larynx treatment volumes relative to 4 MV filtered treatments. Furthermore, FFF treatments with wedges could be replicated using open fields together with an 'effective wedge' technique and isocentre shift. Clinical feasibility of a FFF beam was therefore demonstrated, with beam modelling, treatment planning and verification being successfully accomplished.

  12. Planning study of flattening filter free beams for volumetric modulated arc therapy in squamous cell carcinoma of the scalp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youqun Lai

    Full Text Available Flattening filter free (FFF beams show the potential for a higher dose rate and lower peripheral dose. We investigated the planning study of FFF beams with their role for volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT in squamous cell carcinoma of the scalp.One patient with squamous cell carcinoma which had involvement of entire scalp was subjected to VMAT using TrueBeam linear accelerator. As it was a rare skin malignancy, CT data of 7 patients with brain tumors were also included in this study, and their entire scalps were outlined as target volumes. Three VMAT plans were employed with RapidArc form: two half-field full-arcs VMAT using 6 MV standard beams (HFF-VMAT-FF, eight half-field quarter-arcs VMAT using 6 MV standard beams (HFQ-VMAT-FF, and HFQ-VMAT using FFF beams (HFQ-VMAT-FFF. Prescribed dose was 25 × 2 Gy (50 Gy. Plan quality and efficiency were assessed for all plans.There were no statistically significant differences among the three VMAT plans in target volume coverage, conformity, and homogeneity. For HFQ-VMAT-FF plans, there was a significant decrease by 12.6% in the mean dose to the brain compared with HFF-VMAT-FF. By the use of FFF beams, the mean dose to brain in HFQ-VMAT-FFF plans was further decreased by 7.4% compared with HFQ-VMAT-FF. Beam delivery times were similar for each technique.The HFQ-VMAT-FF plans showed the superiority in dose distributions compared with HFF-VMAT-FF. HFQ-VMAT-FFF plans might provide further normal tissue sparing, particularly in the brain, showing their potential for radiation therapy in squamous cell carcinoma of the scalp.

  13. SU-E-J-127: Implementation of An Online Replanning Tool for VMAT Using Flattening Filter-Free Beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ates, O; Ahunbay, E; Li, X [Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: This is to report the implementation of an online replanning tool based on segment aperture morphing (SAM) for VMAT with flattening filter free (FFF) beams. Methods: Previously reported SAM algorithm modified to accommodate VMAT with FFF beams was implemented in a tool that was interfaced with a treatment planning system (Monaco, Elekta). The tool allows (1) to output the beam parameters of the original VMAT plan from Monaco, and (2) to input the apertures generated from the SAM algorithm into Monaco for the dose calculation on daily CT/CBCT/MRI in the following steps:(1) Quickly generating target contour based on the image of the day, using an auto-segmentation tool (ADMIRE, Elekta) with manual editing if necessary; (2) Morphing apertures based on the SAM in the original VMAT plan to account for the interfractional change of the target from the planning to the daily images; (3) Calculating dose distribution for new apertures with the same numbers of MU as in the original plan; (4) Transferring the new plan into a record & verify system (MOSAIQ, Elekta); (5) Performing a pre-delivery QA based on software; (6) Delivering the adaptive plan for the fraction.This workflow was implemented on a 16-CPU (2.6 GHz dual-core) hardware with GPU and was tested for sample cases of prostate, pancreas and lung tumors. Results: The online replanning process can be completed within 10 minutes. The adaptive plans generally have improved the plan quality when compared to the IGRT repositioning plans. The adaptive plans with FFF beams have better normal tissue sparing as compared with those of FF beams. Conclusion: The online replanning tool based on SAM can quickly generate adaptive VMAT plans using FFF beams with improved plan quality than those from the IGRT repositioning plans based on daily CT/CBCT/MRI and can be used clinically. This research was supported by Elekta Inc. (Crawley, UK)

  14. mARC Treatment of Hypopharynx Carcinoma with Flat and Flattening-Filter-Free Beam Energies – A Planning Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Katharina; Fleckenstein, Jochen; Nuesken, Frank; Licht, Norbert; Rübe, Christian; Dzierma, Yvonne

    2016-01-01

    Background The recently implemented mARC-rotation-technique is capable to deliver high dose rate bursts. For the case of hypopharynx cancer plans we evaluate whether the mARC can achieve an advantage in treatment time in comparison to IMRT. These plans consider two arcs with flat and flattening filter free (FFF) beam energies. Materials and Methods For 8 hypopharynx-cancer patients step-and-shoot-IMRT and mARC plans were created retrospectively using flat and FFF beam energy. The comparison of the plan scenarios considered measures of quality for PTV coverage and sparing of organs at risk. All plans were irradiated on an anthromorphic phantom equipped with thermoluminescent dosimeters to measure scattered dose and treatment times. Results A visual comparison of the dose distribution did not show a marked preference for either technique or energy. The statistical evaluation yielded significant differences in favor of the mARC technique and the FFF energy. Scattered dose could be decreased markedly by the use of the mARC technique. Treatment times could be reduced up to 3 minutes with the use of mARC in comparison to IMRT. The high dose rate energy results in another time advantage of about 1 minute. Conclusions All four plan scenarios yielded equally good quality plans. A combination of the mARC technique with FFF 7 MV high dose rate resulted in a decrease of treatment times from about 9 minutes to 5–6 minutes in comparison to 6 MV IMRT. PMID:27741272

  15. SU-E-T-215: Comparison of VMAT-SABR Treatment Plans with Flattened Filter (FF) Beam and Flattening Filter-Free (FFF) Beam for Localized Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, J; Kim, J [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam, Kyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Kang, S; Suh, T [The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to access VMAT-SABR plan using flattening filter (FF) and flattening filter-free (FFF) beam, and compare the verification results for all pretreatment plans. Methods: SABR plans for 20 prostate patients were optimized in the Eclipse treatment planning system. A prescription dose was 42.7 Gy/7 fractions. Four SABR plans for each patient were calculated using Acuros XB algorithm with both FF and FFF beams of 6- and 10-MV. The dose-volume histograms (DVH) and technical parameters were recorded and compared. A pretreatment verification was performed and the gamma analysis was used to quantify the agreement between calculations and measurements. Results: For each patient, the DVHs are closely similar for plans of four different beams. There are small differences showed in dose distributions and corresponding DVHs when comparing the each plan related to the same patient. Sparing on bladder and rectum was slightly better on plans with 10-MV FF and FFF than with 6-MV FF and FFF, but this difference was negligible. However, there was no significance in the other OARs. The mean agreement of 3%/3mm criteria was higher than 97% in all plans. The mean MUs and deliver time employed was 1701±101 and 3.02±0.17 min for 6-MV FF, 1870±116 and 1.69±0.08 min for 6-MV FFF, 1471±86 and 2.68±0.14 min for 10-MV FF, and 1619±101 and 0.98±0.04 min for 10-MV FFF, respectively. Conclusion: Dose distributions on prostate SABR plans using FFF beams were similar to those generated by FF beams. However, the use of FFF beam offers a clear benefit in delivery time when compared to FF beam. Verification of pretreatment also represented the acceptable and comparable results in all plans using FF beam as well as FFF beam. Therefore, this study suggests that the use of FFF beam is feasible and efficient technique for prostate SABR.

  16. Comparison of Flattening Filter (FF) and Flattening-Filter-Free (FFF) 6 MV photon beam characteristics for small field dosimetry using EGSnrc Monte Carlo code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangeetha, S.; Sureka, C. S.

    2017-06-01

    The present study is focused to compare the characteristics of Varian Clinac 600 C/D flattened and unflattened 6 MV photon beams for small field dosimetry using EGSnrc Monte Carlo Simulation since the small field dosimetry is considered to be the most crucial and provoking task in the field of radiation dosimetry. A 6 MV photon beam of a Varian Clinac 600 C/D medical linear accelerator operates with Flattening Filter (FF) and Flattening-Filter-Free (FFF) mode for small field dosimetry were performed using EGSnrc Monte Carlo user codes (BEAMnrc and DOSXYZnrc) in order to calculate the beam characteristics using Educated-trial and error method. These includes: Percentage depth dose, lateral beam profile, dose rate delivery, photon energy spectra, photon beam uniformity, out-of-field dose, surface dose, penumbral dose and output factor for small field dosimetry (0.5×0.5 cm2 to 4×4 cm2) and are compared with magna-field sizes (5×5 cm2 to 40×40 cm2) at various depths. The results obtained showed that the optimized beam energy and Full-width-half maximum value for small field dosimetry and magna-field dosimetry was found to be 5.7 MeV and 0.13 cm for both FF and FFF beams. The depth of dose maxima for small field size deviates minimally for both FF and FFF beams similar to magna-fields. The depths greater than dmax depicts a steeper dose fall off in the exponential region for FFF beams comparing FF beams where its deviations gets increased with the increase in field size. The shape of the lateral beam profiles of FF and FFF beams varies remains similar for the small field sizes less than 4×4 cm2 whereas it varies in the case of magna-fields. Dose rate delivery for FFF beams shows an eminent increase with a two-fold factor for both small field dosimetry and magna-field sizes. The surface dose measurements of FFF beams for small field size were found to be higher whereas it gets lower for magna-fields than FF beam. The amount of out-of-field dose reduction gets

  17. Advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma radiotherapy with volumetric modulated arcs and the potential role of flattening filter-free beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to investigate the dosimetric characteristics of volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) with flattening filter-free (FFF) beams and assess the role of VMAT in the treatment of advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Methods Ten cases of CT data were randomly selected from advanced NPC patients. Three treatment plans were optimized for each patient, RapidArc with FFF beams (RA-FFF), conventional beams (RA) and static gantry intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). The doses to the planning target volumes (PTVs), organs at risk (OARs), skin and normal tissue were compared. All the plans were delivered on a Varian TrueBeam linear accelerator and verified using the Delta4 phantom. Technical delivery parameters including the mean gamma score, treatment delivery time and monitor units (MUs) were also analyzed. Results All the techniques delivered adequate doses to the PTVs. RA-FFF gave the highest D1% (dose received by 1% of the volume), but the poorest conformity index (CI) and homogeneity index (HI) among the PTVs except for the planning target volume of involved regional lymph nodes (PTV66) CI, which showed no significant difference among three techniques. For the planning target volume of the primary nasopharyngeal tumor (PTV70), RA-FFF provided for higher mean dose than other techniques. For the planning target volume receiving 60 Gy (PTV60) and PTV66, RA delivered the lowest mean doses whereas IMRT delivered the highest mean doses. IMRT demonstrated the highest percentage of target coverage and D99% for PTV60. RA-FFF provided for the highest doses to the brain stem, skin and oral cavity. RA gave the highest D1% to the right optic nerve among three techniques while no significant differences were found between each other. IMRT delivered the highest mean doses to the parotid glands and larynx while RA delivered the lowest mean doses. Gamma analysis showed an excellent agreement for all the techniques at 3%/3mm. Significant

  18. Comparison of VMAT-SABR treatment plans with flattening filter (FF) and flattening filter-free (FFF) beam for localized prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jin-Beom; Kim, Jae-Sung; Eom, Keun-Yong; Kim, In-Ah; Kang, Sang-Won; Lee, Jeong-Woo; Kim, Jin-Young; Suh, Tae-Suk

    2015-11-08

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the feasibility of using a flattening filter-free (FFF) beam with an endorectal balloon for stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy (SABR) of clinically localized prostate cancer. We assessed plans of SABR with volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) that used a flattening filter (FF) beam and an FFF beam and compared the verification results of dosimetric quality assurance for all pretreatment plans. A total of 20 patients with prostate cancer were enrolled in the study. SABR plans using VMAT with two full arcs were optimized in the Eclipse treatment planning system. All plans prescribed 42.7 Gy in 7 fractions of 6.1 Gy each. Four SABR plans were computed for each patient: two with FF beams and two with FFF beams of 6 and 10 MV. For all plans, the cumulative dose-volume histograms (DVHs) for the target volumes and organs at risk (OARs) were recorded and compared. Pretreatment quality assurance (QA) was performed using the I'mRT MatriXX system and radiochromic EBT3 film to verify treatment delivery, and gamma analysis was used to quantify the agreement between calculations and measurements. In addition, total monitor units (MUs) and delivery time were investigated as technical parameters of delivery. All four plans achieved adequate dose conformity to the target volumes and had comparable dosimetric data. The DVHs of all four plans for each patient were very similar. All plans were highly conformal with CI 0.90, and the doses were homogeneous (HI = 0.08-0.15). Sparing for the bladder and rectum was slightly better with the 10 MV FF and FFF plans than with the 6 MV FF and FFF plans, but the difference was negligible. However, there was no significant difference in sparing for the other OARs. The mean agreement with the 3%/3 mm criterion was higher than 97% for verifying all plans. For the 2%/2 mm criterion, the corresponding agreement values were more than 90%, which showed that the plans were acceptable. The mean MUs and

  19. Radiosurgery with flattening-filter-free techniques in the treatment of brain metastases. Plan comparison and early clinical evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieber, J.; Tonndorf-Martini, E.; Schramm, O.; Rhein, B.; Stefanowicz, S.; Lindel, K.; Debus, J.; Rieken, S. [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Radiation Oncology, Heidelberg (Germany); Heidelberg Institute of Radiation Oncology, Heidelberg (Germany); Kappes, J. [Heidelberg University, Translational Research Unit, Thoraxklinik, Heidelberg (Germany); Heidelberg University, Department of Pneumology, Thoraxklinik, Heidelberg (Germany); Member of the German Centre for Lung Research (DZL), Translational Lung Research Centre Heidelberg (TLRC-H), Heidelberg (Germany); Hoffmann, H. [Heidelberg University, Translational Research Unit, Thoraxklinik, Heidelberg (Germany); Heidelberg University, Department of Thoracic Surgery, Thoraxklinik, Heidelberg (Germany); Member of the German Centre for Lung Research (DZL), Translational Lung Research Centre Heidelberg (TLRC-H), Heidelberg (Germany)

    2016-11-15

    Radiosurgical treatment of brain metastases is well established in daily clinical routine. Utilization of flattening-filter-free beams (FFF) may allow for more rapid delivery of treatment doses and improve clinical comfort. Hence, we compared plan quality and efficiency of radiosurgery in FFF mode to FF techniques. Between November 2014 and June 2015, 21 consecutive patients with 25 brain metastases were treated with stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) in FFF mode. Brain metastases received dose-fractionation schedules of 1 x 20 Gy or 1 x 18 Gy, delivered to the conformally enclosing 80 % isodose. Three patients with critically localized or large (>3 cm) brain metastases were treated with 6 x 5 Gy. Plan quality and efficiency were evaluated by analyzing conformity, dose gradients, dose to healthy brain tissue, treatment delivery time, and number of monitor units. FFF plans were compared to those using the FF method, and early clinical outcome and toxicity were assessed. FFF mode resulted in significant reductions in beam-on time (p < 0.001) and mean brain dose (p = 0.001) relative to FF-mode comparison plans. Furthermore, significant improvements in dose gradients and sharper dose falloffs were found for SRS in FFF mode (-1.1 %, -29.6 %; p ≤ 0.003), but conformity was slightly superior in SRS in FF mode (-1.3 %; p = 0.001). With a median follow-up time of 5.1 months, 6-month overall survival was 63.3 %. Local control was observed in 24 of 25 brain metastases (96 %). SRS in FFF mode is time efficient and provides similar plan quality with the opportunity of slightly reduced dose exposure to healthy brain tissue when compared to SRS in FF mode. Clinical outcomes appear promising and show only modest treatment-related toxicity. (orig.) [German] Die radiochirurgische Behandlung (SRS) von Hirnmetastasen wird vielfach in der klinischen Routine durchgefuehrt. Die zusaetzliche Anwendung von ausgleichsfilterfreien Bestrahlungstechniken (FFF) kann die Bestrahlungszeit

  20. Critical appraisal of RapidArc radiosurgery with flattening filter free photon beams for benign brain lesions in comparison to GammaKnife: a treatment planning study

    OpenAIRE

    Abacioglu, Ufuk; Ozen, Zeynep; YILMAZ, Meltem; Arifoglu, Alptekin; Gunhan, Basri; Kayalilar, Namik; Peker, Selcuk; Sengoz, Meric; Gurdalli, Salih; Cozzi, Luca

    2014-01-01

    Background To evaluate the role of RapidArc (RA) for stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) of benign brain lesions in comparison to GammaKnife (GK) based technique. Methods Twelve patients with vestibular schwannoma (VS, n = 6) or cavernous sinus meningioma (CSM, n = 6) were planned for both SRS using volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) by RA. 104 MV flattening filter free photon beams with a maximum dose rate of 2400 MU/min were selected. Data were compared against plans optimised for GK. A si...

  1. Dosimetric influence of filtered and flattening filter free photon beam on rapid arc (RA) radiotherapy planning in case of cervix carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Lalit; Yadav, Girigesh; Samuvel, Kothanda Raman; Bhushan, Manindra; Kumar, Pawan; Suhail, Mahammood; Pal, Manoj

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the dosimetric influence of filtered and flattening filter free (FFF) photon beam of 6 and 10 MV energies on cervix RA radiotherapy planning and to find possibilities to develop the clinically acceptable RA plans with FFFB photon beam and explore their potential benefits to cervix cancer patients. FFF photon beams enhances the treatment delivery by increased dose rate which results in shorter treatment time, this shorter treatment time reduces intrafraction motion and enhance comfort to the patients. RA plans were generated for filtered and flattening filter free photon beams of 6 and 10 MV energies using same dose-volumes constraints. RA plans were generated to deliver a dose of 50.4 Gy in 28 fractions, for a cohort of eleven patients reported with cervix carcinoma. RA plans were evaluated in terms of PTV coverage, dose to OAR's, CI, HI, total no. of monitor units (MUs) and NTID and low dose volume of normal tissues. Clinically acceptable and similar plans were generated for filtered and flattening filter free photon beams. FFFB delivered slightly higher mean target dose (52.28 Gy vs. 52.0 Gy, p = 0.000 for 6 MV and 52.42 Gy vs. 52.0 Gy, p = 0.000 for 10 MV) less homogeneous (1.062 vs. 1.052, p = 0.000 for 6 MV and 1.066 vs. 1.051, p = 0.000 for 10 MV) and less conformal (1.007 vs. 1.004, p = 0.104 for 6 MV and 1.012 vs. 1.003, p = 0.010 for 10 MV) RA plans compared to FB. FFFB delivered more doses to the bladder and rectum, also required more numbers of MUs in comparison to FB. This study concludes that FB is more beneficial for cervix RA planning in comparison to FFFB, as FB generates more conformal and homogenous rapid arc plans and offers better OAR's sparing.

  2. Visualisation of respiratory tumour motion and co-moving isodose lines in the context of respiratory gating, IMRT and flattening-filter-free beams.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Dzierma

    Full Text Available Respiratory motion during percutaneous radiotherapy can be considered based on respiration-correlated computed tomography (4DCT. However, most treatment planning systems perform the dose calculation based on a single primary CT data set, even though cine mode displays may allow for a visualisation of the complete breathing cycle. This might create the mistaken impression that the dose distribution were independent of tumour motion. We present a movie visualisation technique with the aim to direct attention to the fact that the dose distribution migrates to some degree with the tumour and discuss consequences for gated treatment, IMRT plans and flattening-filter-free beams. This is a feasibility test for a visualisation of tumour and isodose motion. Ten respiratory phases are distinguished on the CT, and the dose distribution from a stationary IMRT plan is calculated on each phase, to be integrated into a movie of tumour and dose motion during breathing. For one example patient out of the sample of five lesions, the plan is compared with a gated treatment plan with respect to tumour coverage and lung sparing. The interplay-effect for small segments in the IMRT plan is estimated. While the high dose rate, together with the cone-shaped beam profile, makes the use of flattening-filter-free beams more problematic for conformal and IMRT treatment, it can be the option of choice if gated treatment is preferred. The different effects of respiratory motion, dose build-up and beam properties (segments and flatness for gated vs. un-gated treatment can best be considered if planning is performed on the full 4DCT data set, which may be an incentive for future developments of treatment planning systems.

  3. Output factor comparison of Monte Carlo and measurement for Varian TrueBeam 6 MV and 10 MV flattening filter-free stereotactic radiosurgery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jason Y; Ning, Holly; Arora, Barbara C; Zhuge, Ying; Miller, Robert W

    2016-05-08

    The dose measurements of the small field sizes, such as conical collimators used in stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), are a significant challenge due to many factors including source occlusion, detector size limitation, and lack of lateral electronic equilibrium. One useful tool in dealing with the small field effect is Monte Carlo (MC) simulation. In this study, we report a comparison of Monte Carlo simulations and measurements of output factors for the Varian SRS system with conical collimators for energies of 6 MV flattening filter-free (6 MV) and 10 MV flattening filter-free (10 MV) on the TrueBeam accelerator. Monte Carlo simulations of Varian's SRS system for 6 MV and 10 MV photon energies with cones sizes of 17.5 mm, 15.0 mm, 12.5 mm, 10.0 mm, 7.5 mm, 5.0 mm, and 4.0 mm were performed using EGSnrc (release V4 2.4.0) codes. Varian's version-2 phase-space files for 6 MV and 10 MV of TrueBeam accelerator were utilized in the Monte Carlo simulations. Two small diode detectors Edge (Sun Nuclear) and Small Field Detector (SFD) (IBA Dosimetry) were applied to measure the output factors. Significant errors may result if detector correction factors are not applied to small field dosimetric measurements. Although it lacked the machine-specific kfclin,fmsrQclin,Qmsr correction factors for diode detectors in this study, correction factors were applied utilizing published studies conducted under similar conditions. For cone diameters greater than or equal to 12.5 mm, the differences between output factors for the Edge detector, SFD detector, and MC simulations are within 3.0% for both energies. For cone diameters below 12.5 mm, output factors differences exhibit greater variations.

  4. Static IMRT and VMAT planning on 6 MV Flattened and Flattening-Filter-Free Beams of a TrueBeam VirtuaLinac System

    CERN Document Server

    Yan, Yue; Saenz, Daniel; Paliwal, Bhudatt R

    2015-01-01

    In this manuscript, we investigated the accuracy of the entire chain of phase space files generated by the TrueBeam VirtuaLinac system in clinical treatment plans. Good agreement was obtained between the MC simulation and the clinical golden data for both flattened and FFF beams. The relative magnitude of agreement between MC and golden beam data presented in this research may assist a physicist in terms of the percent dose deviation that one may expect when using MC data for verification purposes.

  5. Can volumetric modulated arc therapy with flattening filter free beams play a role in stereotactic body radiotherapy for liver lesions? A volume-based analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reggiori, Giacomo; Mancosu, Pietro; Castiglioni, Simona; Alongi, Filippo; Pellegrini, Chiara; Lobefalo, Francesca; Catalano, Maddalena; Fogliata, Antonella; Arcangeli, Stefano; Navarria, Piera; Cozzi, Luca; Scorsetti, Marta [IRCCS Istituto Clinico Humanitas, 20089 Rozzano (Milano) (Italy); Oncology Institute of Southern Switzerland, Bellinzona (Switzerland); IRCCS Istituto Clinico Humanitas, 20089 Rozzano (Milano) (Italy); Oncology Institute of Southern Switzerland, Bellinzona (Switzerland); IRCCS Istituto Clinico Humanitas, 20089 Rozzano (Milano) (Italy)

    2012-02-15

    Purpose: To compare volumetric modulated arc therapy with flattening filter free (FFF) and flattening filter (FF) beams in patients with hepatic metastases subject to hypofractionated radiotherapy (RT). Methods: A planning study on 13 virtual lesions of increasing volume was performed. Two single arc plans were optimized with the RapidArc technique using either FFF or FF beams. A second planning study was performed on ten patients treated for liver metastases to validate conclusions. In all cases, a dose of 75 Gy in 3 fractions was prescribed to the planning target volume (PTV) and plans were evaluated in terms of coverage, homogeneity, conformity, mean dose to healthy liver and to healthy tissue. For each parameter, results were expressed in relative terms as the percentage ratio between FFF and FF data. Results: In terms of PTV coverage, conformity index favored FFF for targets of intermediate size while FF resulted more suitable for small (<100 cm{sup 3}) and large (>300 cm{sup 3}) targets. Plans optimized with FFF beams resulted in increased sparing of healthy tissue in {approx_equal}85% of cases. Despite the qualitative results, no statistically significant differences were found between FFF and FF results. Plans optimized with un-flattened beams resulted in higher average MU/Gy than plans with FF beams. A remarkable and significant difference was observed in the beam-on time (BOT) needed to deliver plans. The BOT for FF plans was 8.2 {+-} 1.0 min; for FFF plans BOT was 2.2 {+-} 0.2 min. Conclusions: RapidArc plans optimized using FFF were dosimetrically equivalent to those optimized using FF beams, showing the feasibility of SBRT treatments with FFF beams. Some improvement in healthy tissue sparing was observed when using the FFF modality due to the different beam's profile. The main advantage was a considerable reduction of beam-on time, relevant for SBRT techniques.

  6. SU-E-T-670: Radiotherapy Vault Shielding Evaluation Method for a Flattening Filter-Free (FFF) Linac-Practical Considerations and Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mihailidis, D [CAMC Cancer Center-Alliance Oncology and West Virginia University, Charleston, WV (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To date, there isn’t formal approach for flattening filter-free (FFF) linac vault shielding evaluation, thus, we propose an extension to NCRP#151 to accommodate the recent large number of FFF linac installations.Methods and Materials: We extended the approach in NCRP#151 to design two Truebeam vaults in our new cancer center for hypofractionated treatments. Monte Carlo calculations have characterized primary, scattered, leakage and neutron radiations from FFF-modes. These calculations have shown that: a) FFF primary beam is softer on the central-axis compared to flattening filtered (FF), b) the lateral dose profile is peaked on the central axis and less integral target current is required to generate the same tumor dose with the FF beam. Thus, the TVLs for FFF mode are smaller than those of the FF mode and the scatter functions of the FF mode (NCRP#151) may not be appropriate for FFF-mode, c) the neutron source strength and fluence for 18X-FFF is smaller than 18X-FF, but it is not of a concern here, no 18X-FFF-mode is available on the linac under investigation. Results: These barrier thickness are smaller (12% reduction on the average) than those computed for conventional FF mode with same realistic primary workload since, the primary TVLs used here are smaller and the WL is smaller than the conventional (almost half reduced), keeping the TADR in tolerance. Conclusions: A comprehensive method for shielding barrier calculations based on dedicated data for FFF-mode linacs is highly desired. Meanwhile, we provide an extension to NCRP#151 to accommodate the shielding design of such installations. It is also shown that if a vault is already designed for IMRT/VMAT and SABR hypofractionated treatments with FFF-mode linac, the vault can also be used for a FFF mode linac replacement, leaving some leeway for slightly higher workload on the FFF linac.

  7. The evaluation of properties for radiation therapy techniques with flattening filter-free beam and usefulness of time and economy to a patient with the radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goo, Jang Hyeon; Won, Hui Su; Hong, Joo Wan; Chang, Nam Jun; Park, Jin Hong [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Seoul national university Bundang hospital, Sungnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    The aim of this study was to appraise properties for radiation therapy techniques and effectiveness of time and economy to a patient in the case of applying flattening filter-free (3F) and flattening filter (2F) beam to the radiation therapy. Alderson rando phantom was scanned for computed tomography image. Treatment plans for intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) with 3F and 2F beam were designed for prostate cancer. To evaluate the differences between the 3F and 2F beam, total monitor units (MUs), beam on time (BOT) and gantry rotation time (GRT) were used and measured with TrueBeam{sup TM} STx and Surveillance And Measurement (SAM) 940 detector was used for photoneutron emitted by using 3F and 2F. To assess temporal and economical aspect for a patient, total treatment periods and medical fees were estimated. In using 3F beam, total MUs in IMRT plan increased the highest up to 34.0% and in the test of BOT, GRT and photoneutron, the values in SBRT plan decreased the lowest 39.8, 38.6 and 48.1%, respectively. In the temporal and economical aspect, there were no differences between 3F and 2F beam in all of plans and the results showed that 10 days and 169,560 won was lowest in SBRT plan. According as the results, total MUs increased by using 3F beam than 2F beam but BOT, GRT and photoneutron decreased. From above the results, using 3F beam can decrease intra-fraction setup error and risk of radiation-induced secondary malignancy. But, using 3F beam did not make the benefits of temporal and economical aspect for a patient with the radiation therapy.

  8. Commissioning of photon beams of a flattening filter-free linear accelerator and the accuracy of beam modeling using an anisotropic analytical algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrbacek, Jan; Lang, Stephanie; Klöck, Stephan

    2011-07-15

    To investigate dosimetric characteristics of a new linear accelerator designed to deliver flattened, as well as flattening filter-free (FFF), beams. To evaluate the accuracy of beam modeling under physical conditions using an anisotropic analytical algorithm. Dosimetric data including depth dose curves, profiles, surface dose, penumbra, out-of-field dose, output, total and scatter factors were examined for four beams (X6, X6FFF, X10, and X10FFF) of Varian's TrueBeam machine. Beams modeled by anisotropic analytical algorithm were compared with measured dataset. FFF beams have lower mean energy (tissue-phantom ratio at the depths of 20 and 10 cm (TPR 20/10): X6, 0.667; X6FFF, 0.631; X10, 0.738; X10FFF, 0.692); maximum dose is located closer to the surface; and surface dose increases by 10%. FFF profiles have sharper but faster diverging penumbra. For small fields and shallow depths, dose outside a field is lower for FFF beams; however, the advantage fades with increasing phantom scatter. Output increases 2.26 times for X6FFF and 4.03 times for X10FFF and is less variable with field size; collimator exchange effect is reduced. A good agreement between modeled and measured data is observed. Criteria of 2% depth-dose and 2-mm distance-to-agreement are always met. Reference dosimetric characteristics of TrueBeam photon bundles were obtained, and successful modeling of the beams was achieved. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Derivation of equations to define inflection point and its analysis in flattening filter free photon beams based on the principle of polynomial function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KR Muralidhar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The objective of this work is to (1 present a mechanism for calculating inflection points on profiles at various depths and field sizes, and (2 study the doses at the inflection points for various field sizes at depth of maximum dose (Dmax for flattening filter free (FFF photon beam profiles. Methods: Graphical representation was done on percentage of dose versus inflection points. Also, using the polynomial function, the author formulated equations for calculating spot-on inflection point on the profiles for both the 6MV and 10 MV energies for different field sizes at various depths. Results: In a 10 MV FFF radiation beam, the dose at inflection point of the profile decreases as the field size increases. However, in 6MV FFF radiation beam, the dose at the inflection point initially increases with an increase in the field size up to 10 ×10 cm2 and decreases after 10 ×10 cm2. The polynomial function was fitted for both the 6 MV and 10 MV FFF beams for all field sizes and depths. Conclusion: Polynomial function is one of the easiest ways of identifying the inflection point in FFF beam for various field sizes and depths. Graphical representation of dose versus inflection point for both FFF energies was derived.

  10. Comparison of Dosimetric Performance among Commercial Quality Assurance Systems for Verifying Pretreatment Plans of Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy Using Flattening-Filter-Free Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the performance of different commercial quality assurance (QA) systems for the pretreatment verification plan of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) with volumetric arc therapy (VMAT) technique using a flattening-filter-free beam. The verification for 20 pretreatment cancer patients (seven lung, six spine, and seven prostate cancers) were tested using three QA systems (EBT3 film, I’mRT MatriXX array, and MapCHECK). All the SBRT-VMAT plans were optimized in the Eclipse (version 11.0.34) treatment planning system (TPS) using the Acuros XB dose calculation algorithm and were delivered to the Varian TrueBeam® accelerator equipped with a high-definition multileaf collimator. Gamma agreement evaluation was analyzed with the criteria of 2% dose difference and 2 mm distance to agreement (2%/2 mm) or 3%/3 mm. The highest passing rate (99.1% for 3%/3 mm) was observed on the MapCHECK system while the lowest passing rate was obtained on the film. The pretreatment verification results depend on the QA systems, treatment sites, and delivery beam energies. However, the delivery QA results for all QA systems based on the TPS calculation showed a good agreement of more than 90% for both the criteria. It is concluded that the three 2D QA systems have sufficient potential for pretreatment verification of the SBRT-VMAT plan. PMID:27709851

  11. Volumetric Modulation Arc Radiotherapy With Flattening Filter-Free Beams Compared With Static Gantry IMRT and 3D Conformal Radiotherapy for Advanced Esophageal Cancer: A Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolini, Giorgia, E-mail: giorgia.nicolini@eoc.ch [Oncology Institute of Southern Switzerland, Medical Physics Unit, Bellinzona (Switzerland); Ghosh-Laskar, Sarbani; Shrivastava, Shyam Kishore; Banerjee, Sushovan; Chaudhary, Suresh; Agarwal, Jai Prakash; Munshi, Anusheel [Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India); Clivio, Alessandro; Fogliata, Antonella [Oncology Institute of Southern Switzerland, Medical Physics Unit, Bellinzona (Switzerland); Mancosu, Pietro [Department of Radiation Oncology, Istituto Clinico Humanitas, Milano-Rozzano (Italy); Vanetti, Eugenio; Cozzi, Luca [Oncology Institute of Southern Switzerland, Medical Physics Unit, Bellinzona (Switzerland)

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: A feasibility study was performed to evaluate RapidArc (RA), and the potential benefit of flattening filter-free beams, on advanced esophageal cancer against intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT). Methods and Materials: The plans for 3D-CRT and IMRT with three to seven and five to seven fixed beams were compared against double-modulated arcs with avoidance sectors to spare the lungs for 10 patients. All plans were optimized for 6-MV photon beams. The RA plans were studied for conventional and flattening filter-free (FFF) beams. The objectives for the planning target volume were the volume receiving {>=}95% or at most 107% of the prescribed dose of <1% with a dose prescription of 59.4 Gy. For the organs at risk, the lung volume (minus the planning target volume) receiving {>=}5 Gy was <60%, that receiving 20 Gy was <20%-30%, and the mean lung dose was <15.0 Gy. The heart volume receiving 45 Gy was <20%, volume receiving 30 Gy was <50%. The spinal dose received by 1% was <45 Gy. The technical delivery parameters for RA were assessed to compare the normal and FFF beam characteristics. Results: RA and IMRT provided equivalent coverage and homogeneity, slightly superior to 3D-CRT. The conformity index was 1.2 {+-} 0.1 for RA and IMRT and 1.5 {+-} 0.2 for 3D-CRT. The mean lung dose was 12.2 {+-} 4.5 for IMRT, 11.3 {+-} 4.6 for RA, and 10.8 {+-} 4.4 for RA with FFF beams, 18.2 {+-} 8.5 for 3D-CRT. The percentage of volume receiving {>=}20 Gy ranged from 23.6% {+-} 9.1% to 21.1% {+-} 9.7% for IMRT and RA (FFF beams) and 39.2% {+-} 17.0% for 3D-CRT. The heart and spine objectives were met by all techniques. The monitor units for IMRT and RA were 457 {+-} 139, 322 {+-} 20, and 387 {+-} 40, respectively. RA with FFF beams showed, compared with RA with normal beams, a {approx}20% increase in monitor units per Gray, a 90% increase in the average dose rate, and 20% reduction in beam on time (owing to different

  12. A Study of volumetric modulated arc therapy for stereotactic body radiation therapy in case of multi-target liver cancer using flattening filter free beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeom, Mi Sook; Yoon, In Ha; Hong, Dong Gi; Back, Geum Mun [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, ASAN Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) has proved its efficacy in several patient populations with primary and metastatic limited tumors. Because SBRT prescription is high dose level than Conventional radiation therapy. SBRT plan is necessary for effective Organ at risk (OAR) protection and sufficient Planning target volume (PTV) dose coverage. In particular, multi-target cases may result excessive doses to OAR and hot spot due to dose overlap. This study evaluate usefulness of Volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) in dosimetric and technical considerations using Flattening filter free (FFF) beam. The treatment plans for five patients, being treated on TrueBeam STx(Varian™, USA) with VMAT using 10MV FFF beam and Standard conformal radiotherapy (CRT) using 15MV Flattening filter (FF) beam. PTV, liver, duodenum, bowel, spinal cord, esophagus, stomach dose were evaluated using the dose volume histogram(DVH). Conformity index(CI), homogeneity index(HI), Paddick's index(PCI) for the PTV was assessed. Total Monitor unit (MU) and beam on time was assessed. Average value of CI, HI and PCI for PTV was 1.381±0.028, 1.096±0.016, 0.944±0.473 in VMAT and 1.381± 0.042, 1.136±0.042, 1.534±0.465 in CRT respectively. OAR dose in CRT plans evaluated 1.8 times higher than VMAT. Total MU in VMAT evaluated 1.3 times increase than CRT. Average beam on time was 6.8 minute in VMAT and 21.3 minute in CRT respectively. OAR dose in CRT plans evaluated 1.8 times higher than VMAT. Total MU in VMAT evaluated 1.3 times increase than CRT. Average beam on time was 6.8 minute in VMAT and 21.3 minute in CRT. VMAT for SBRT in multi-target liver cancer using FFF beam is effective treatment techniqe in dosimetric and technical considerations. VMAT decrease intra-fraction error due to treatment time shortening using high dose rate of FFF beam.

  13. Evaluation of the dosimetric impact of applying flattening filter-free beams in intensity-modulated radiotherapy for early-stage upper thoracic carcinoma of oesophagus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Wuzhe; Lin, Zhixiong; Yang, Zhining; Fang, Weisheng; Lai, Peibo; Lu, Jiayang [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital of Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, Guangdong (China); Wu, Vincent WC, E-mail: vincent.wu@polyu.edu.hk [Department of Health Technology and Informatics, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital of Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, Guangdong (China)

    2015-06-15

    Flattening filter-free (FFF) radiation beams have recently become clinically available on modern linear accelerators in radiation therapy. This study aimed to evaluate the dosimetric impact of using FFF beams in intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for early-stage upper thoracic oesophageal cancer. Eleven patients with primary stage upper thoracic oesophageal cancer were recruited. For each patient, two IMRT plans were computed using conventional beams (Con-P) and FFF beams (FFF-P), respectively. Both plans employed a five-beam arrangement and were prescribed with 64 Gy to (planning target volume) PTV1 and 54 Gy to PTV2 in 32 fractions using 6 MV photons. The dose parameters of the target volumes and organs at risks (OARs), and treatment parameters including the monitor units (MU) and treatment time (TT) for Con-P and FFF-P were recorded and compared. The mean D{sub 5} of PTV1 and PTV2 were higher in FFF-P than Con-P by 0.4 Gy and 0.3 Gy, respectively. For the OARs, all the dose parameters did not show significant difference between the two plans except the mean V{sub 5} and V{sub 10} of the lung in which the FFF-P was lower (46.7% vs. 47.3% and 39.1% vs. 39.6%, respectively). FFF-P required 54% more MU but 18.4% less irradiation time when compared to Con-P. The target volume and OARs dose distributions between the two plans were comparable. However, FFF-P was more effective in sparing the lung from low dose and reduced the mean TT compared with Con-P. Long-term clinical studies are suggested to evaluate the radiobiological effects of FFF beams.

  14. Volumetric modulated arc therapy with flattening filter free beams for isolated abdominal/pelvic lymph nodes: report of dosimetric and early clinical results in oligometastatic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alongi Filippo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background SBRT is a safe and efficient strategy to locally control multiple metastatic sites. While research in the physics domain for Flattening Filter Free Beams (FFF beams is increasing, there are few clinical data of FFF beams in clinical practice. Here we reported dosimentric and early clinical data of SBRT and FFF delivery in isolated lymph node oligometastatic patients. Methods Between October 2010 and March 2012, 34 patients were treated with SBRT for oligometastatic lymph node metastasis on a Varian TrueBeamTM treatment machine using Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (RapidArc. We retrospectively evaluated a total of 25 patients for isolated lymph node metastases in abdomen and/or pelvis treated with SBRT and FFF (28 treatments. Acute toxicity was recorded. Local control evaluation was scored by means of CT scan and/or PET scan. Results All dosimetric results are in line with what published for the same type of stereotactic abdominal lymph node metastases treatments and fractionation, using RapidArc. All 25 FFF SBRT patients completed the treatment. Acute gastrointestinal toxicity was minimal: one patient showed Grade 1 gastrointestinal toxicity. Three other patients presented Grade 2 toxicity. No Grade 3 or higher was recorded. All toxicities were recovered within one week. The preliminary clinical results at the median follow up of 195 days are: complete response in 12 cases, partial response in 11, stable disease in 5, with an overall response rate of 82%; no local progression was recorded. Conclusions Data of dosimetrical findings and acute toxicity are excellent for patients treated with SBRT with VMAT using FFF beams. Preliminary clinical results showed a high rate of local control in irradiated lesion. Further data and longer follow up are needed to assess late toxicity and definitive clinical outcomes.

  15. Development of a flattening filter free multiple source model for use as an independent, Monte Carlo, dose calculation, quality assurance tool for clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faught, Austin M; Davidson, Scott E; Popple, Richard; Kry, Stephen F; Etzel, Carol; Ibbott, Geoffrey S; Followill, David S

    2017-09-01

    The Imaging and Radiation Oncology Core-Houston (IROC-H) Quality Assurance Center (formerly the Radiological Physics Center) has reported varying levels of compliance from their anthropomorphic phantom auditing program. IROC-H studies have suggested that one source of disagreement between institution submitted calculated doses and measurement is the accuracy of the institution's treatment planning system dose calculations and heterogeneity corrections used. In order to audit this step of the radiation therapy treatment process, an independent dose calculation tool is needed. Monte Carlo multiple source models for Varian flattening filter free (FFF) 6 MV and FFF 10 MV therapeutic x-ray beams were commissioned based on central axis depth dose data from a 10 × 10 cm(2) field size and dose profiles for a 40 × 40 cm(2) field size. The models were validated against open-field measurements in a water tank for field sizes ranging from 3 × 3 cm(2) to 40 × 40 cm(2) . The models were then benchmarked against IROC-H's anthropomorphic head and neck phantom and lung phantom measurements. Validation results, assessed with a ±2%/2 mm gamma criterion, showed average agreement of 99.9% and 99.0% for central axis depth dose data for FFF 6 MV and FFF 10 MV models, respectively. Dose profile agreement using the same evaluation technique averaged 97.8% and 97.9% for the respective models. Phantom benchmarking comparisons were evaluated with a ±3%/2 mm gamma criterion, and agreement averaged 90.1% and 90.8% for the respective models. Multiple source models for Varian FFF 6 MV and FFF 10 MV beams have been developed, validated, and benchmarked for inclusion in an independent dose calculation quality assurance tool for use in clinical trial audits. © 2017 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  16. SU-E-T-591: Optimizing the Flattening Filter Free Beam Selection in RapidArc-Based Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy for Stage I Lung Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, B-T; Lu, J-Y [Cancer Hospital of Shantou University Medical College, Shantou (China)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To optimize the flattening filter free (FFF) beam energy selection in stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) treatment for stage I lung cancer with different fraction schemes. Methods: Twelve patients suffering from stage I lung cancer were enrolled in this study. Plans were designed using 6XFFF and 10XFFF beams with the most widely used fraction schemes of 4*12 Gy, 3*18 Gy and 1*34 Gy, respectively. The plan quality was appraised in terms of planning target volume (PTV) coverage, conformity of the prescribed dose (CI100%), intermediate dose spillage (R50% and D2cm), organs at risk (OARs) sparing and beam-on time. Results: The 10XFFF beam predicted 1% higher maximum, mean dose to the PTV and 4–5% higher R50% compared with the 6XFFF beam in the three fraction schemes, whereas the CI100% and D2cm was similar. Most importantly, the 6XFFF beam exhibited 3–10% lower dose to all the OARs. However, the 10XFFF beam reduced the beam-on time by 31.9±7.2%, 38.7±2.8% and 43.6±4.0% compared with the 6XFFF beam in the 4*12 Gy, 3*18 Gy and 1*34 Gy schemes, respectively. Beam-on time was 2.2±0.2 vs 1.5±0.1, 3.3±0.9 vs 2.0±0.5 and 6.3±0.9 vs 3.5±0.4 minutes for the 6XFFF and 10XFFF one in the three fraction schemes. Conclusion: The 6XFFF beam obtains better OARs sparing in SBRT treatment for stage I lung cancer, but the 10XFFF one provides improved treatment efficiency. To balance the OARs sparing and intrafractional variation as a function of prolonged treatment time, the authors recommend to use the 6XFFF beam in the 4*12 Gy and 3*18 Gy schemes for better OARs sparing. However, for the 1*34 Gy scheme, the 10XFFF beam is recommended to achieve improved treatment efficiency.

  17. Monte Carlo simulation of TrueBeam flattening-filter-free beams using Varian phase-space files: Comparison with experimental data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belosi, Maria F.; Fogliata, Antonella, E-mail: antonella.fogliata-cozzi@eoc.ch, E-mail: afc@iosi.ch; Cozzi, Luca; Clivio, Alessandro; Nicolini, Giorgia; Vanetti, Eugenio [Oncology Institute of Southern Switzerland, Medical Physics Unit, Bellinzona CH-6500 (Switzerland); Rodriguez, Miguel [Institut de Tècniques Energètiques, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Barcelona E-08028 (Spain); Sempau, Josep [Institut de Tècniques Energètiques, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Barcelona E-08028, Spain and Spanish Networking Research Center CIBER-BBN, Barcelona E-08028 (Spain); Krauss, Harald [Kaiser-Franz-Josef-Spital, Institut für Radioonkologie, Vienna A-1100 (Austria); Khamphan, Catherine [Institut Sainte Catherine, Medical Physics Unit, Avignon F-84000 (France); Fenoglietto, Pascal [Départment de Cancérologie Radiothérapie, CRLC Val d’Aurelle-Paul Lamarque, Montpellier F-34090 (France); Puxeu, Josep [Medical Physics Department, Institut Català d’Oncologia, Barcelona E-08028 (Spain); Fedele, David [Radio-Oncology Department, Casa di Cura San Rossore, Pisa I-56100 (Italy); Mancosu, Pietro [Radiation Oncology Department, Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Rozzano-Milan I-20089 (Italy); Brualla, Lorenzo [NCTeam, Strahlenklinik, Universitätsklinikum Essen, Essen D-45122 (Germany)

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: Phase-space files for Monte Carlo simulation of the Varian TrueBeam beams have been made available by Varian. The aim of this study is to evaluate the accuracy of the distributed phase-space files for flattening filter free (FFF) beams, against experimental measurements from ten TrueBeam Linacs. Methods: The phase-space files have been used as input in PRIMO, a recently released Monte Carlo program based on thePENELOPE code. Simulations of 6 and 10 MV FFF were computed in a virtual water phantom for field sizes 3 × 3, 6 × 6, and 10 × 10 cm{sup 2} using 1 × 1 × 1 mm{sup 3} voxels and for 20 × 20 and 40 × 40 cm{sup 2} with 2 × 2 × 2 mm{sup 3} voxels. The particles contained in the initial phase-space files were transported downstream to a plane just above the phantom surface, where a subsequent phase-space file was tallied. Particles were transported downstream this second phase-space file to the water phantom. Experimental data consisted of depth doses and profiles at five different depths acquired at SSD = 100 cm (seven datasets) and SSD = 90 cm (three datasets). Simulations and experimental data were compared in terms of dose difference. Gamma analysis was also performed using 1%, 1 mm and 2%, 2 mm criteria of dose-difference and distance-to-agreement, respectively. Additionally, the parameters characterizing the dose profiles of unflattened beams were evaluated for both measurements and simulations. Results: Analysis of depth dose curves showed that dose differences increased with increasing field size and depth; this effect might be partly motivated due to an underestimation of the primary beam energy used to compute the phase-space files. Average dose differences reached 1% for the largest field size. Lateral profiles presented dose differences well within 1% for fields up to 20 × 20 cm{sup 2}, while the discrepancy increased toward 2% in the 40 × 40 cm{sup 2} cases. Gamma analysis resulted in an agreement of 100% when a 2%, 2 mm criterion

  18. Critical appraisal of RapidArc radiosurgery with flattening filter free photon beams for benign brain lesions in comparison to GammaKnife: a treatment planning study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background To evaluate the role of RapidArc (RA) for stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) of benign brain lesions in comparison to GammaKnife (GK) based technique. Methods Twelve patients with vestibular schwannoma (VS, n = 6) or cavernous sinus meningioma (CSM, n = 6) were planned for both SRS using volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) by RA. 104 MV flattening filter free photon beams with a maximum dose rate of 2400 MU/min were selected. Data were compared against plans optimised for GK. A single dose of 12.5 Gy was prescribed. The primary objective was to assess treatment plan quality. Secondary aim was to appraise treatment efficiency. Results For VS, comparing best GK vs. RA plans, homogeneity was 51.7 ± 3.5 vs. 6.4 ± 1.5%; Paddick conformity Index (PCI) resulted 0.81 ± 0.03 vs. 0.84 ± 0.04. Gradient index (PGI) was 2.7 ± 0.2 vs. 3.8 ± 0.6. Mean target dose was 17.1 ± 0.9 vs. 12.9 ± 0.1 Gy. For the brain stem, D1cm3 was 5.1 ± 2.0 Gy vs 4.8 ± 1.6 Gy. For the ipsilateral cochlea, D0.1cm3 was 1.7 ± 1.0 Gy vs. 1.8 ± 0.5 Gy. For CSM, homogeneity was 52.3 ± 2.4 vs. 12.4 ± 0.6; PCI: 0.86 ± 0.05 vs. 0.88 ± 0.05; PGI: 2.6 ± 0.1 vs. 3.8 ± 0.5; D1cm3 to brain stem was 5.4 ± 2.8 Gy vs. 5.2 ± 2.8 Gy; D0.1cm3 to ipsi-lateral optic nerve was 4.2 ± 2.1 vs. 2.1 ± 1.5 Gy; D0.1cm3 to optic chiasm was 5.9 ± 3.1 vs. 4.5 ± 2.1 Gy. Treatment time was 53.7 ± 5.8 (64.9 ± 24.3) minutes for GK and 4.8 ± 1.3 (5.0 ± 0.7) minutes for RA for schwannomas (meningiomas). Conclusions SRS with RA and FFF beams revealed to be adequate and comparable to GK in terms of target coverage, homogeneity, organs at risk sparing with some gain in terms of treatment efficiency. PMID:24884967

  19. Critical appraisal of RapidArc radiosurgery with flattening filter free photon beams for benign brain lesions in comparison to GammaKnife: a treatment planning study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abacioglu, Ufuk; Ozen, Zeynep; Yilmaz, Meltem; Arifoglu, Alptekin; Gunhan, Basri; Kayalilar, Namik; Peker, Selcuk; Sengoz, Meric; Gurdalli, Salih; Cozzi, Luca

    2014-05-21

    To evaluate the role of RapidArc (RA) for stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) of benign brain lesions in comparison to GammaKnife (GK) based technique. Twelve patients with vestibular schwannoma (VS, n = 6) or cavernous sinus meningioma (CSM, n = 6) were planned for both SRS using volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) by RA. 104 MV flattening filter free photon beams with a maximum dose rate of 2400 MU/min were selected. Data were compared against plans optimised for GK. A single dose of 12.5 Gy was prescribed. The primary objective was to assess treatment plan quality. Secondary aim was to appraise treatment efficiency. For VS, comparing best GK vs. RA plans, homogeneity was 51.7 ± 3.5 vs. 6.4 ± 1.5%; Paddick conformity Index (PCI) resulted 0.81 ± 0.03 vs. 0.84 ± 0.04. Gradient index (PGI) was 2.7 ± 0.2 vs. 3.8 ± 0.6. Mean target dose was 17.1 ± 0.9 vs. 12.9 ± 0.1 Gy. For the brain stem, D(1cm3) was 5.1 ± 2.0 Gy vs 4.8 ± 1.6 Gy. For the ipsilateral cochlea, D(0.1cm3) was 1.7 ± 1.0 Gy vs. 1.8 ± 0.5 Gy. For CSM, homogeneity was 52.3 ± 2.4 vs. 12.4 ± 0.6; PCI: 0.86 ± 0.05 vs. 0.88 ± 0.05; PGI: 2.6 ± 0.1 vs. 3.8 ± 0.5; D(1cm3) to brain stem was 5.4 ± 2.8 Gy vs. 5.2 ± 2.8 Gy; D(0.1cm3) to ipsi-lateral optic nerve was 4.2 ± 2.1 vs. 2.1 ± 1.5 Gy; D(0.1cm3) to optic chiasm was 5.9 ± 3.1 vs. 4.5 ± 2.1 Gy. Treatment time was 53.7 ± 5.8 (64.9 ± 24.3) minutes for GK and 4.8 ± 1.3 (5.0 ± 0.7) minutes for RA for schwannomas (meningiomas). SRS with RA and FFF beams revealed to be adequate and comparable to GK in terms of target coverage, homogeneity, organs at risk sparing with some gain in terms of treatment efficiency.

  20. Radiation-induced second primary cancer risks from modern external beam radiotherapy for early prostate cancer: impact of stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR), volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and flattening filter free (FFF) radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Louise J.; Thompson, Christopher M.; Lilley, John; Cosgrove, Vivian; Franks, Kevin; Sebag-Montefiore, David; Henry, Ann M.

    2015-02-01

    Risks of radiation-induced second primary cancer following prostate radiotherapy using 3D-conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT), intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT), flattening filter free (FFF) and stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) were evaluated. Prostate plans were created using 10 MV 3D-CRT (78 Gy in 39 fractions) and 6 MV 5-field IMRT (78 Gy in 39 fractions), VMAT (78 Gy in 39 fractions, with standard flattened and energy-matched FFF beams) and SABR (42.7 Gy in 7 fractions with standard flattened and energy-matched FFF beams). Dose-volume histograms from pelvic planning CT scans of three prostate patients, each planned using all 6 techniques, were used to calculate organ equivalent doses (OED) and excess absolute risks (EAR) of second rectal and bladder cancers, and pelvic bone and soft tissue sarcomas, using mechanistic, bell-shaped and plateau models. For organs distant to the treatment field, chamber measurements recorded in an anthropomorphic phantom were used to calculate OEDs and EARs using a linear model. Ratios of OED give relative radiation-induced second cancer risks. SABR resulted in lower second cancer risks at all sites relative to 3D-CRT. FFF resulted in lower second cancer risks in out-of-field tissues relative to equivalent flattened techniques, with increasing impact in organs at greater distances from the field. For example, FFF reduced second cancer risk by up to 20% in the stomach and up to 56% in the brain, relative to the equivalent flattened technique. Relative to 10 MV 3D-CRT, 6 MV IMRT or VMAT with flattening filter increased second cancer risks in several out-of-field organs, by up to 26% and 55%, respectively. For all techniques, EARs were consistently low. The observed large relative differences between techniques, in absolute terms, were very low, highlighting the importance of considering absolute risks alongside the corresponding relative risks, since when absolute

  1. Is 5 mm MMLC suitable for VMAT-based lung SBRT? A dosimetric comparison with 2.5 mm HDMLC using RTOG-0813 treatment planning criteria for both conventional and high-dose flattening filter-free photon beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Shanmuga V; Subramani, Vellaiyan; Thirumalai Swamy, Shanmugam; Gandhi, Arun; Chilukuri, Srinivas; Kathirvel, Murugesan

    2015-07-08

    The aim of this study is to assess the suitability of 5 mm millennium multileaf collimator (MMLC) for volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT)-based lung stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT). Thirty lung SBRT patient treatment plans along with their planning target volumes (ranging from 2.01 cc to 150.11 cc) were transferred to an inhomogeneous lung phantom and retrospectively planned using VMAT technique, along with the high definition multileaf collimator (HDMLC) and MMLC systems. The plans were evaluated using Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG-0813) treatment planning criteria for target coverage, normal tissue sparing, and treatment efficiency for both the MMLC and HDMLC systems using flat and flattening filter-free (FFF) photon beams. Irrespective of the target volumes, both the MLC systems were able to satisfy the RTOG-0813 treatment planning criteria without having any major deviation. Dose conformity was marginally better with HDMLC. The average conformity index (CI) value was found to be 1.069 ± 0.034 and 1.075 ± 0.0380 for HDMLC and MMLC plans, respectively. For the 6 MV FFF beams, the plan was slightly more conformal, with the average CI values of 1.063 ± 0.029 and 1.073 ± 0.033 for the HDMLC and MMLC plans, respectively. The high dose spillage was the maximum for 2 cc volume set (3% for HDMLC and 3.1% for MMLC). In the case of low dose spillage, both the MLCs were within the protocol of no deviation, except for the 2 cc volume set. The results from this study revealed that VMAT-based lung SBRT using 5 mm MMLC satisfies the RTOG-0813 treatment planning criteria for the studied target size and shapes.

  2. Sci—Sat AM: Stereo — 08: Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy (SABR) for low, intermediate and high risk prostate cancer using Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT) with a 10x Flattening Filter Free (FFF) beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mestrovic, A; Fortin, D; Alexander, A [BC Cancer Agency - Vancouver Island Centre (Canada)

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: To determine the feasibility of using Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT) with a 10x Flattening Filter Free (FFF) beam for Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy (SABR) for low, intermediate and high risk prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Ten anonymized patient CT data sets were used in this planning study. For each patient CT data set, three sets of contours were generated: 1) low risk, 2) intermediate risk, and 3) high risk scenarios. For each scenario, a single-arc and a double-arc VMAT treatment plans were created. Plans were generated with the Varian Eclipse™ treatment planning system for a Varian TrueBeam™ linac equipped with Millenium 120 MLC. Plans were created using a 10x-FFF beam with a maximum dose rate of 2400 MU/min. Dose prescription was 36.25Gy/5 fractions with the planning objective of covering 99% of the Planning Target Volume with the 95% of the prescription dose. Normal tissue constraints were based on provincial prostate SABR planning guidelines, derived from national and international prostate SABR protocols. Plans were evaluated and compared in terms of: 1) dosimetric plan quality, and 2) treatment delivery efficiency. Results: Both single-arc and double-arc VMAT plans were able to meet the planning goals for low, intermediate and high risk scenarios. No significant dosimetric differences were observed between the plans. However, the treatment time was significantly lower for a single-arc VMAT plans. Conclusions: Prostate SABR treatments are feasible with 10x-FFF VMAT technique. A single-arc VMAT offers equivalent dosimetric plan quality and a superior treatment delivery efficiency, compared to a double-arc VMAT.

  3. High-quality Linac-based Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy with Flattening Filter Free Beams and Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy for Low-Intermediate Risk Prostate Cancer. A Mono-institutional Experience with 90 Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agostino, G; Franzese, C; De Rose, F; Franceschini, D; Comito, T; Villa, E; Alongi, F; Liardo, R; Tomatis, S; Navarria, P; Mancosu, P; Reggiori, G; Cozzi, L; Scorsetti, M

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this phase II study was to evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of stereotactic body radiotherapy in patients with low or intermediate risk prostate cancer. Biopsy-confirmed prostate cancer patients were enrolled, provided that they had the following characteristics: initial prostate-specific antigen (PSA) ≤ 20 ng/ml, Gleason Score free beams. Toxicity was recorded according to CTCAE criteria v4.0. Biochemical failure was calculated according to the Phoenix definition. The Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite questionnaire was used to record health-related quality of life. Between December 2011 and March 2015, 90 patients were enrolled (53 low risk, 37 intermediate risk). The median age was 71 years (range 48-82). In total, 58 (64.5%) of the patients had Gleason Score=6, the remaining had Gleason Score=7.The median initial PSA was 6.9 ng/ml (range 2.7-17.0). Acute toxicity was mild, with 32.2 patients presenting grade 1 urinary toxicity and 32.2% of patients presenting grade 2 urinary toxicity, mainly represented by urgency, dysuria and stranguria. Rectal grade 1 toxicity was found in 15.5% of patients, whereas grade 2 toxicity was recorded in 6.6% of patients. Regarding late toxicity, grade 1 proctitis was recorded in 11.1% of patients and grade 1 urinary in 38.8%; only two events of grade 2 urinary toxicity were observed (transient urethral stenosis, resolved by a 24 h catheterisation). At a median follow-up of 27 months (6-62 months) only two intermediate risk patients experienced a biochemical failure. Health-related quality of life revealed a slight worsening in all the domains during treatment, with a return to baseline 3 months after treatment. Stereotactic body radiotherapy delivered using linac-based flattening filter free volumetric modulated arc radiotherapy in low and intermediate risk prostate cancer patients is associated with mild toxicity profiles and good patient-reported quality of life. Copyright © 2016 The Royal College of

  4. The Effect of Flattening Filter Free on Three-dimensional Conformal Radiation Therapy (3D-CRT), Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT), and Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT) Plans for Metastatic Brain Tumors from Non-small Cell Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Li-Wan; Lai, You-Qun; Lin, Qin; Ha, Hui-Ming; Fu, Li-Rong

    2015-07-01

    Flattening filter free (FFF) may affect outcome measures of radiotherapy. The objective of this study is to compare the dosimetric parameters in three types of radiotherapy plans, three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT), intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT), with or without the flattening filter (FF), developed for the treatment of metastatic brain tumors from non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). From July 2013 to October 2013, 3D-CRT, IMRT, and VMAT treatment plans were designed using 6 MV and 10 MV, with and without FF, for 10 patients with brain metastasis from NSCLC. The evaluation of the treatment plans included homogeneity index (HI), conformity index (CI), monitor units (MU), mean dose (Dmean), treatment time, and the influence of FFF on volumes. There was no difference in CI or HI between FFF and FF models with 3D-CRT, IMRT, and VMAT plans. At 6 MV, a lower Dmean was seen in the FFF model of 3D-CRT and in the VMAT plan at 10 MV. In the IMRT 6 MV, IMRT 10 MV, and VMAT 10 MV plans, higher MUs were seen in the FFF models. FFF treatments are similar in quality to FF plans, generally lead to more monitor units, and are associated with shorter treatment times. FFF plans ranked by the order of superiority in terms of a time advantage are VMAT, 3D-CRT, and IMRT.

  5. Dosimetric comparison of volumetric modulated arc therapy for rectal cancer using flattening filter-free and flattening filter modes%直肠癌有无均整器模式下容积旋转调强放疗的剂量学比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张基永; 陆佳扬; 吴丽丽; 马长春; 张武哲

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare the dosimetric differences of volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) for preoperative radiotherapy of rectal cancer using 6MV X-ray flattening filter-free (FFF) and flattening filter (FF) modes.Methods FF-VMAT and FFF-VMAT plans were designed for 15 rectal cancer patients with preoperative radiotherapy by planning treatment system (Eclipse 10.0),respectively.Prescription dose of PTV was 50 Gy in 25 fractions.When the plans were normalized to 50 Gy to 95 % of PTV,the dose volume histogram (DVH),target and risk organ doses,conformity indexes (CI),homogeneity indexes (HI),low dose volume of normal tissue (B-P),monitor units (MU) and treatment time (TT) were compared between the two kinds of plans.Results FF-VMAT provided the lower Dmean,V105,HI (P < 0.05),and higher CI (P < 0.05) compared with FFF-VMAT.Small intestine (D5),Bladder (D5,Dmean V40,V50),L-femoral head (V40),R-femoral head (Dmean) were lower in FF-VMAT than those in FFF-VMAT (P < 0.05).FF-VMAT had higher B-P (V5) compared with FFF-VMAT (P < 0.05).FF-VMAT reduced the monitor units (MU) by 21% (382±53 vs 483±26,P < 0.05),as well as the treatment time (TT) in FF-VMAT was no significant difference compared with that in FFF-VMAT [(148±4) s vs (146±3) s,P > 0.05)].Conclusions The qualities of FF-VMAT and FFF-VMAT plans were comparable and both clinically acceptable.When comparing two plans,FF-VMAT showed better target coverage and some of OARs sparing.The MUs of FFF-VMAT were higher than those of FF-VMAT,yet were not delivered within the same time.%目的 比较TrueBeam直线加速器6MVX射线均整模式(FF)和非均整模式(FFF)下容积旋转调强放疗(VMAT)在直肠癌术前放疗中的剂量学差异.方法 选取15例直肠癌术前患者,在Eclipse 10.0计划系统上分别进行FF-VMAT和FFF-VMAT计划设计.计划靶体积(PTV)处方剂量为50 Gy/25次,2 Gy/次.在95%的PTV达到处方剂量前提下,比较两种计划的剂量体积直方图(DVH)、靶

  6. 有无均整器模式下鼻咽癌容积旋转调强放疗计划的剂量学比较%Dosimetric comparison of volumetric-modulated arc therapy plans for nasopharyngeal carcinoma using flattening filter-free and flattening filter modes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾飞; 岳海振; 李国文; 吴昊

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare the dosimetric difference of volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) plans for the loco-regionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients using 6 MV X-ray flattening filter-free (FFF) and flattening filter (FF) modes.Methods Ten previously treated patients with loco-regionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma were retrospectively included and replanned using FFF and FF VMAT,respectively.Meeting all clinical criteria,the dose-volume histograms (DVH),dose distribution of target volume and organs at risk (OARs),target conformity index (CI),total monitor unites (MUs) and treatment time were compared across the plans.Results VMAT plans suing either FFF and FF modes can meet the clinical objectives.The maximum and mean target dose of FFF VMAT plans were significantly higher than that of FF VMAT plans (t =-0.31,-O.35,P < O.05).Yet the planning target volume (PTV) CI of FF mode was slightly better than of FFF mode (t =5.42,P <0.05).The maximum doses of lenses in FFF VMAT plans were lower than that of FF VMAT plans (t =25.87,17.45,P < 0.05),and other OARs displayed no significant difference.The mean total MUs of FFF and FF VMAT plans were (699 ± 16) and (628 ± 12) MUs respectively.The mean treatment time of two modes were consistent (about 2 min).Conclusions The plan qualities of FFF and FF VMAT plans were comparable and both clinically acceptable.The OARs at the edge of radiation field,such as lens,could be spared better using FFF VMAT mode.The total MUs of FFF VMAT plans were higher than FF VMAT plans,yet were delivered within the same time.%目的 比较加速器6MVX射线非均整模式(FFF)和均整模式(FF)下局部进展期鼻咽癌容积调强(VMAT)计划的剂量学差异.方法 选取10例已行放疗的局部进展期鼻咽癌患者,分别设计FFF和FF VMAT计划,在满足临床要求的情况下,比较两种计划的剂量体积直方图(DVH)、靶区剂量分布、危及器官受量、靶区适形度、总机

  7. Geant4 simulations on medical Linac operation at 18 MV: Experimental validation based on activation foils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vagena, E.; Stoulos, S.; Manolopoulou, M.

    2016-03-01

    The operation of a medical linear accelerator was simulated using the Geant4 code regarding to study the characteristics of an 18 MeV photon beam. Simulations showed that (a) the photon spectrum at the isocenter is not influenced by changes of the primary electron beam's energy distribution and spatial spread (b) 98% of the photon energy fluence scored at the isocenter is primary photons that have only interacted with the target (c) the number of contaminant electrons is not negligible since it fluctuated around 5×10-5 per primary electron or 2.40×10-3 per photon at the isocenter (d) the number of neutrons that are created by (γ, n) reactions is 3.13×10-6 per primary electron or 1.50×10-3 per photon at the isocenter (e) a flattening filter free beam needs less primary electrons in order to deliver the same photon fluence at the isocenter than a normal flattening filter operation (f) there is no significant increase of the surface dose due to the contaminant electrons by removing the flattening filter (g) comparing the neutron fluences per incident electron for the flattened and unflattened beam, the neutron fluencies is 7% higher for the unflattened beams. To validate the simulations results, the total neutron and photon fluence at the isocenter field were measured using nickel, indium, and natural uranium activation foils. The percentage difference between simulations and measurements was 1.26% in case of uranium and 2.45% in case of the indium foil regarding photon fluencies while for neutrons the discrepancy is higher up to 8.0%. The photon and neutron fluencies of the simulated experiments fall within a range of ±1 and ±2 sigma error, respectively, compared to the ones obtained experimentally.

  8. Radiological safety around a Linac of 18 MV; Seguridad radiologica alrededor de un LINAC de 18 MV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceron R, P.; Rivera M, T. [IPN, Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Calz. Legaria No. 694, Col. Irrigacion, 11500 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Paredes G, L. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Azorin N, J. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Unidad Iztapalapa, San Rafael Atlixco No. 186, Col. Vicentina, 09340 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Sanchez, A. [IPN, Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas, Av. IPN s/n, Edif. 9, Col. San Pedro Zacatenco, 07738 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Vega C, H. R., E-mail: victceronr@hotmail.com [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 09868 Zacatecas (Mexico)

    2014-10-15

    There are now several neutron detection systems, such as proportional counters based on BF{sub 3}, He{sub 3} and Bonner sphere spectrometers. However, the cost and complexity of the implementation of such systems makes them inaccessible for dosimetry purposes in radiotherapy rooms (Rt) and other facilities with this type of radiation fields. For these reasons the use of a neutron detection system is proposed composed by a paraffin moderator media forming an array 4π (spheres) and several pairs of thermoluminescent dosimeters TLD 600/TLD 700 inside, in order to make useful measurements for radiation protection around high-energy lineal accelerators (Linacs). In the first part of this work the system response when irradiated with a source of Pu Be and their corresponding calibration factor is displayed. In the second part are presented the ambient dose equivalent (H(10)) due to neutrons at various points of a living of Rt with a Linac of 18 MV, which are in the order mSv/Gy by X-ray treatment. The measurements made are similar to those taken in the memories of the accelerator and in previous work for this type of facility. (Author)

  9. Integrating techniques for neutron dosimetry in Linac 18 MV; Integrando tecnicas para dosimetria de neutrones en un Linac de 18 MV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceron R, P. V.; Diaz G, J. A. I.; Rivera M, T. [IPN, Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Av. Legaria 694, 11500 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Paredes G, L. C. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Vega C, H. R. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico)

    2015-10-15

    In this paper thermoluminescent dosimetry, analytical techniques and Monte Carlo calculations were used to estimate the neutron dose equivalent in a radiotherapy room with a linear electron accelerator of 18 MV. The equivalent dose was measured at isocenter to 1.42 m of target and at the entrance of the labyrinth of the room of a Novalis Tx. The neutron detectors were constructed with pairs of thermoluminescent dosimeters TLD 600 ({sup 6}LiF: Mg, Ti) and TLD 700 ({sup 7}LiF: Mg, Ti) which are placed inside a paraffin sphere of 20 cm in diameter. These measurements enabled the calculation of equivalent dose in the gate and the source term, using the relationships contained in the NCRP-151. Through the models carried out with the code MCNPX the absorbed dose distribution with regard to depth in a paraffin phantom are included and the neutron spectrum produced by the head, taking into account the geometry and component materials. The results are in the order of neutron milli sievert by gray of X-rays (mSv/Gy x) which are in the same order as those found in other reports for different accelerators. (Author)

  10. Linac Twins with Flatness Filter Free Option in a Radiotherapy Department

    OpenAIRE

    Treutwein, Marius; Härtl, Petra; Gröger, Christian; Katsilieri, Zaira; Dobler, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Having two (or more) equal treatment machines (linac twins) enables a radiotherapy department to facilitate the workflow. The major part of the German standards (DIN) regarding quality assurance of medical linear accelerators has been reworked or has been published for the first time in the recent years due to technical developments. The aim of this study is to setup a commissioning procedure and a quality assurance program for linac twins with flattening filter free option a...

  11. Neutron spectra and H(10) of photoneutrons inside the vault room of an 18 MV Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banuelos F, A.; Borja H, C. G.; Guzman G, K. A.; Valero L, C.; Hernandez D, V. M.; Vega C, H. R., E-mail: lanb535@yahoo.com [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico)

    2012-06-15

    Neutron spectra and the ambient dose equivalent were estimated inside the radiotherapy hall with an 18 MV Linac. Estimations were carried out using Monte Carlo methods where a realist hall was modeled including a phantom made of equivalent tissue. The source term for photoneutrons was calculated using the Tosi et al. function that account for evaporation and knock-on neutrons. The spectra were estimated using two different energy distributions. Detectors were located in several sites inside the hall including the maze and outside the hall door, all detectors were located at the plane were the isocenter is located. In the treatment hall, as the distance respect to the isocenter is increased, the amount of neutrons and the H(10) are reduced, neutrons in the high-energy region are shifted to lower region peaking around 0.1 MeV, however the epithermal and thermal neutrons remain constant due to the room-return effect. In the maze the spectra are dominated by epithermal and thermal neutrons that contributes to produce activation and the production of prompt gamma-rays. (Author)

  12. Using fields with energies of 18 MV IMRT treatments (prostate, head and neck, breast, thoracic); Utilizacion de campos con energias de 18 MV en tratamientos de IMRT (postaticos, cabeza y cuello, mma, toracicos)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Reyes, A.; Losocos, S.; Rodriguez Garcia, A.; Vila, A.; Pedro, A.

    2011-07-01

    In this paper we present our results when using energy of 18 MV in one of the fields in both prostate IMRT, as head and neck, breast or chest, showing that the calculation algorithm works correctly for both absolute and relative doses, and having determined in previous work the neutron flux, knowing the potential risk of the patient due to the accelerator neutron shower.

  13. Neutron spectra and H*(10) around and 18 MV Linac by Ann's

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banuelos F, A.; Valero L, C.; Borja H, C. G.; Hernandez D, V. M.; Vega C, H. R., E-mail: alanb535@hotmail.com [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Calle Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico)

    2011-10-15

    Neutron spectra and ambient dose equivalent H*(10) were calculated for a radiotherapy room in 16 point-like detectors, 15 located inside the vault room and 1 located outside the bunker. The calculation was carried out using Monte Carlo Methods with the MCNP5 code for a generic radiotherapy room model operating with a 18 MV Linac, obtaining 16 neutron spectra with 47 energy bins, the H*(10) values were calculated from the neutron spectra by the use of the fluence-dose conversion factors. An artificial neural network were designed and trained to determine the neutron H*(10) in 15 different locations inside the vault room from the H*(10) dose calculated for the detector located outside the room, using the calculated dose values as training set, using the scaled conjugated gradient training algorithm. The mean squared error set for the network training was 1E(-14), adjusting the data in 99.992 %. In the treatment hall, as the distance respect to the isocenter is increased, the amount of neutrons and the H*(10) are reduced, neutrons in the high-energy region are shifted to lower region peaking around 0.1 MeV, however the epithermal and thermal neutrons remain constant due to the room-return effect. In the maze the spectra are dominated by epithermal and thermal neutrons that contributes to produce activation and the production of prompt gamma-rays. The results shows the using this artificial intelligence technic as a useful tool for the neutron spectrometry and dosimetry by the simplification on the neutronic fields characterization inside radiotherapy rooms avoiding the use of traditional spectrometric systems. And once the H*(10) doses have been calculated, to take the appropriated actions to reduce or prevent the patient and working staff exposure to this undesirable neutron radiation. (Author)

  14. Multicentre knowledge sharing and planning/dose audit on flattening filter free beams for SBRT lung

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, C. R.; Sykes, J. R.; Barber, J.;

    2015-01-01

    . In particular, for the centres with less SBRT and/or volumetric- modulated arc therapy (VMAT) experience the MPV average per plan improved. All vendor/TPS combinations were also able to successfully deliver the FF and FFF SBRT VMAT plans. The plan quality and dose accuracy were found to be clinically acceptable....

  15. Relative biological damage in and out of field of 6, 10 and 18 MV clinical photon beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezzati, A. O.

    2016-08-01

    The lower energy of scattered radiation in and out of a megavoltage (MV) photon beam suggests that relative biological damage (RBD) may change from in- to out-of-field regions for unit absorbed dose. Because of high linear energy transfer (LET) and potential of causing severe damage to the DNA, low-energy (10 eV-1 keV) slowing down electrons should be included in radiation biological damage calculations. In this study RBD was calculated in and out of field of 6, 10 and 18 MV clinical photon beams including low-energy slowing down electrons in the track length estimated method. Electron spectra at energies higher than 2 keV were collected in a water phantom at different depths and off-axis points by using the MCNP code. A new extrapolation method was used to estimate the electron spectra at energies lower than 2 keV. The obtained spectra at energies lower than 2 keV merged with spectra at energies higher than 2 keV by using continuity of the spectra. These spectra were used as an input to a validated microdosimetric Monte Carlo (MC) code, MC damage simulation (MCDS), to calculate the RBD of induced DSB in DNA at points in and out of the primary radiation field under fully aerobic (100% O2 and anoxic (0% O2 conditions. There was an observable difference in the energy spectra for electrons for points in the primary radiation field and those points out of field. RBD had maximum variation, 11% in 6 MV photons at field size of 20×20 cm2. This variation was less than 11% for 10 and 18 MV photons and field sizes smaller than 20×20 cm2. Our simulations also showed that under the anoxic condition, RBD increases up to 6% for 6 and 10 MV photons and the 20×20 cm2 field size. This work supports the hypothesis that in megavoltage treatments out-of-field radiation quality can vary enough to have an impact on RBD per unit dose and that this may play a role as the radiation therapy community explores biological optimization as a tool to assist treatment planning.

  16. Varian 2100C/D Clinac 18 MV photon phase space file characterization and modeling by using MCNP Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezzati, Ahad Ollah

    2015-07-01

    Multiple points and a spatial mesh based surface source model (MPSMBSS) was generated for 18MV Varian 2100 C/D Clinac phase space file (PSF) and implemented in MCNP code. The generated source model (SM) was benchmarked against PSF and measurements. PDDs and profiles were calculated using the SM and original PSF for different field sizes from 5 × 5 to 20 × 20 cm2. Agreement was within 2% of the maximum dose at 100cm SSD for beam profiles at the depths of 4cm and 15cm with respect to the original PSF. Differences between measured and calculated points were less than 2% of the maximum dose or 2mm distance to agreement (DTA) at 100 cm SSD. Thus it can be concluded that the modified MCNP code can be used for radiotherapy calculations including multiple source model (MSM) and using the source biasing capability of MPSMBSS can increase the simulation speed up to 3600 for field sizes smaller than 5 × 5 cm2.

  17. Simplified geometric model for the calculation of neutron yield in an accelerator of 18 MV for radiotherapy; Modelo geometrico simplificado para el calculo del rendimiento de neutrones en un acelerador de 18 MV para radioterapia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paredes G, L.C.; Balcazar G, M. [ININ, 52750 La Marquesa, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Francois L, J.L. [FI-UNAM, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Azorin N, J. [UAM-I, 09340 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2008-07-01

    The results of the neutrons yield in different components of the bolster of an accelerator Varian Clinac 2100C of 18 MV for radiotherapy are presented, which contribute to the radiation of flight of neutrons in the patient and bolster planes. For the calculation of the neutrons yield, a simplified geometric model of spherical cell for the armor-plating of the bolster with Pb and W was used. Its were considered different materials for the Bremsstrahlung production and of neutrons produced through the photonuclear reactions and of electro disintegration, in function of the initial energy of the electron. The theoretical result of the total yield of neutrons is of 1.17x10{sup -3} n/e, considering to the choke in position of closed, in the patient plane with a distance source-surface of 100 cm; of which 15.73% corresponds to the target, 58.72% to the primary collimator, 4.53% to the levelled filter of Fe, 4.87% to the levelled filter of Ta and 16.15% to the closed choke. For an initial energy of the electrons of 18 MeV, a half energy of the neutrons of 2 MeV was obtained. The calculated values for radiation of experimental neutrons flight are inferior to the maxima limit specified in the NCRP-102 and IEC-60601-201.Ed.2.0 reports. The absorbed dose of neutrons determined through the measurements with TLD dosemeters in the isocenter to 100 cm of the target when the choke is closed one, is approximately 3 times greater that the calculated for armor-plating of W and 1.9 times greater than an armor-plating of Pb. (Author)

  18. Dose-volume histogram comparison between static 5-field IMRT with 18-MV X-rays and helical tomotherapy with 6-MV X-rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Akihiro; Shibamoto, Yuta; Hattori, Yukiko; Tamura, Takeshi; Iwabuchi, Michio; Otsuka, Shinya; Sugie, Chikao; Yanagi, Takeshi

    2015-03-01

    We treated prostate cancer patients with static 5-field intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) using linac 18-MV X-rays or tomotherapy with 6-MV X-rays. As X-ray energies differ, we hypothesized that 18-MV photon IMRT may be better for large patients and tomotherapy may be more suitable for small patients. Thus, we compared dose-volume parameters for the planning target volume (PTV) and organs at risk (OARs) in 59 patients with T1-3 N0M0 prostate cancer who had been treated using 5-field IMRT. For these same patients, tomotherapy plans were also prepared for comparison. In addition, plans of 18 patients who were actually treated with tomotherapy were analyzed. The evaluated parameters were homogeneity indicies and a conformity index for the PTVs, and D2 (dose received by 2% of the PTV in Gy), D98, Dmean and V10-70 Gy (%) for OARs. To evaluate differences by body size, patients with a known body mass index were grouped by that index ( 25 kg/m(2)). For the PTV, all parameters were higher in the tomotherapy plans compared with the 5-field IMRT plans. For the rectum, V10 Gy and V60 Gy were higher, whereas V20 Gy and V30 Gy were lower in the tomotherapy plans. For the bladder, all parameters were higher in the tomotherapy plans. However, both plans were considered clinically acceptable. Similar trends were observed in 18 patients treated with tomotherapy. Obvious trends were not observed for body size. Tomotherapy provides equivalent dose distributions for PTVs and OARs compared with 18-MV 5-field IMRT. Tomotherapy could be used as a substitute for high-energy photon IMRT for prostate cancer regardless of body size.

  19. Absorbed dose measurements in the build-up region of flattened versus unflattened megavoltage photon beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Puysseleyr, Annemieke; Lechner, Wolfgang; De Neve, Wilfried; Georg, Dietmar; De Wagter, Carlos

    2016-06-01

    This study evaluated absorbed dose measurements in the build-up region of conventional (FF) versus flattening filter-free (FFF) photon beams. The absorbed dose in the build-up region of static 6 and 10MV FF and FFF beams was measured using radiochromic film and extrapolation chamber dosimetry for single beams with a variety of field sizes, shapes and positions relative to the central axis. Removing the flattening filter generally resulted in slightly higher relative build-up doses. No considerable impact on the depth of maximum dose was found. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  20. Lepton contamination and photon scatter produced by open field 18 MV X-ray beams in the build-up region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butson, M.J. E-mail: mbutson@guessmail.com; Cheung Tsang; Yu, P.K.N

    2002-04-01

    18 MV X-ray beams used in radiotherapy have skin sparing properties as they produce a dose build-up effect whereby a smaller dose is delivered to the skin compared to dose at depth. Experimental results have shown that variations in the build-up dose significantly contribute to lepton contamination produced outside of the patient or the phantom in question. Monte Carlo simulations of 18 MV X-ray beams show that the surface dose contribution from in-phantom scatter alone is approximately 6% of the maximum dose. The contribution to dose from lepton contamination is found by comparison of Monte Carlo phantom photon scatter dose only and experimental data. Results show that the percentage contributions to dose from lepton contamination are approximately, 65%, 90% of dose at 0.05 mm (basal cell layer), 52%, 79% at 1 mm depth (dermal layer) and 15%, 26% at 10 mm depth (subcutaneous tissue) for 10 cmx10 cm{sup 2} and 40 cmx40 cm{sup 2} fields, respectively.

  1. Monte Carlo modeling of a 6 and 18 MV Varian Clinac medical accelerator for in-field and out-of-field dose calculations: development and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarz, Bryan; Xu, X George

    2009-02-21

    There is a serious and growing concern about the increased risk of radiation-induced second cancers and late tissue injuries associated with radiation treatment. To better understand and to more accurately quantify non-target organ doses due to scatter and leakage radiation from medical accelerators, a detailed Monte Carlo model of the medical linear accelerator is needed. This paper describes the development and validation of a detailed accelerator model of the Varian Clinac operating at 6 and 18 MV beam energies. Over 100 accelerator components have been defined and integrated using the Monte Carlo code MCNPX. A series of in-field and out-of-field dose validation studies were performed. In-field dose distributions calculated using the accelerator models were tuned to match measurement data that are considered the de facto 'gold standard' for the Varian Clinac accelerator provided by the manufacturer. Field sizes of 4 cm x 4 cm, 10 cm x 10 cm, 20 cm x 20 cm and 40 cm x 40 cm were considered. The local difference between calculated and measured dose on the percent depth dose curve was less than 2% for all locations. The local difference between calculated and measured dose on the dose profile curve was less than 2% in the plateau region and less than 2 mm in the penumbra region for all locations. Out-of-field dose profiles were calculated and compared to measurement data for both beam energies for field sizes of 4 cm x 4 cm, 10 cm x 10 cm and 20 cm x 20 cm. For all field sizes considered in this study, the average local difference between calculated and measured dose for the 6 and 18 MV beams was 14 and 16%, respectively. In addition, a method for determining neutron contamination in the 18 MV operating model was validated by comparing calculated in-air neutron fluence with reported calculations and measurements. The average difference between calculated and measured neutron fluence was 20%. As one of the most detailed accelerator models for both in-field and out

  2. Effect of wedge filter and field size on photoneutron dose equivalent for an 18 MV photon beam of a medical linear accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesbahi, Asghar [Medical Physics Department, Medical School, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Radiation Therapy Department, Imam Hospital, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: asgharmesbahi@yahoo.com; Keshtkar, Ahmad [Medical Physics Department, Medical School, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mohammadi, Ehsan [Radiation Therapy Department, Imam Khomeini Hospital, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mohammadzadeh, Mohammad [Radiation Therapy Department, Imam Hospital, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-01-15

    Photoneutrons produced during radiation therapy with high energy photons is the main source of unwanted out-of-field received doses of patients. To analyze the neutron dose equivalent (NDE) for wedged beams and its variation with field size, Monte Carlo (MC) modeling of an 18 MV photon beam was performed using MCNPX MC code. The results revealed that the NDE is on average 6.5 times higher for wedged beams. For open beams, the NDE decreased with increasing field size especially for field sizes >20x20 cm{sup 2}. While, for wedged beams, the NDE increased with field size. It was suggested that the increase of NDE for wedged beams should be taken into account in radiation-induced secondary cancer risk estimations and radiation protection calculations.

  3. Measurementof photo-neutron dose from an 18-MV medical linac using a foil activation method in view of radiation protection of patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuecel, Haluk; Kolbasi, Asuman; Yueksel, Alptug Oezer [Ankara University, Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Ankara (Turkmenistan); Cobanbas, Ibrahim; Kaya, Vildan [Sueleyman Demirel University, School of Medicine, Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Isparta (Turkmenistan)

    2016-04-15

    High-energy linear accelerators are increasingly used in the medical field. However, the unwanted photo-neutrons can also be contributed to the dose delivered to the patients during their treatments. In this study, neutron fluxes were measured in a solid water phantom placed at the isocenter 1-m distance from the head of an 18-MV linac using the foil activation method. The produced activities were measured with a calibrated well-type Ge detector. From the measured fluxes, the total neutron fluence was found to be (1.17 ± 0.06) X 10{sup 7} n/cm{sup 2} per Gy at the phantom surface in a 20 X 20 cm{sup 2} X-ray field size. The maximum photo-neutron dose was measured to be 0.67 ± 0.04 mSv/Gy at d{sub max} = 5 cm depth in the phantom at isocenter. The present results are compared with those obtained for different field sizes of 10 X 10cm{sup 2}, 15 X 15cm{sup 2}, and 20 X 20cm{sup 2} from 10-, 15-, and 18-MV linacs. Additionally, ambient neutron dose equivalents were determined at different locations in the room and they were found to be negligibly low. The results indicate that the photo-neutron dose at the patient position is not a negligible fraction of the therapeutic photon dose. Thus, there is a need for reduction of the contaminated neutron dose by taking some additional measures, for instance, neutron absorbing-protective materials might be used as aprons during the treatment.

  4. Effect of Gold Nanoparticles on Prostate Dose Distribution under Ir-192 Internal and 18 MV External Radiotherapy Procedures Using Gel Dosimetry and Monte Carlo Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khosravi H.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gel polymers are considered as new dosimeters for determining radiotherapy dose distribution in three dimensions. Objective: The ability of a new formulation of MAGIC-f polymer gel was assessed by experimental measurement and Monte Carlo (MC method for studying the effect of gold nanoparticles (GNPs in prostate dose distributions under the internal Ir-192 and external 18MV radiotherapy practices. Method: A Plexiglas phantom was made representing human pelvis. The GNP shaving 15 nm in diameter and 0.1 mM concentration were synthesized using chemical reduction method. Then, a new formulation of MAGIC-f gel was synthesized. The fabricated gel was poured in the tubes located at the prostate (with and without the GNPs and bladder locations of the phantom. The phantom was irradiated to an Ir-192 source and 18 MV beam of a Varian linac separately based on common radiotherapy procedures used for prostate cancer. After 24 hours, the irradiated gels were read using a Siemens 1.5 Tesla MRI scanner. The absolute doses at the reference points and isodose curves resulted from the experimental measurement of the gels and MC simulations following the internal and external radiotherapy practices were compared. Results: The mean absorbed doses measured with the gel in the presence of the GNPs in prostate were 15% and 8 % higher than the corresponding values without the GNPs under the internal and external radiation therapies, respectively. MC simulations also indicated a dose increase of 14 % and 7 % due to presence of the GNPs, for the same experimental internal and external radiotherapy practices, respectively. Conclusion: There was a good agreement between the dose enhancement factors (DEFs estimated with MC simulations and experiment gel measurements due to the GNPs. The results indicated that the polymer gel dosimetry method as developed and used in this study, can be recommended as a reliable method for investigating the DEF of GNPs in internal

  5. Effects of tertiary MLC configuration on secondary neutron spectra from 18 MV x-ray beams for the Varian 21EX linear accelerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Rebecca M; Kry, Stephen F; Burgett, Eric; Followill, David; Hertel, Nolan E

    2009-09-01

    The effect of the jaw configuration and the presence and configuration of the tertiary multileaf collimator (MLC) on the secondary neutron spectra for an 18 MV Varian 21EX linear accelerator (linac) is investigated in detail. The authors report the measured spectra for four collimator (jaw-and-MLC) configurations. These configurations represent the extreme settings of the jaws and MLC and should therefore describe the range of possible fluence and spectra that may be encountered during use of this linac. In addition to measurements, a Monte Carlo model was used to simulate the four collimator configurations and calculate the energy spectra and fluence at the same location as it was measured. The Monte Carlo model was also used to calculate the sources of neutron production in the linac head for each collimator configuration. They found that photoneutron production in the linac treatment head is dominated by the order in which the primary photon beam intercepts the high-Z material. The primary collimator, which has the highest position in the linac head (in a fixed location), is the largest source of secondary neutrons. Thereafter, the collimator configuration plays a role in where the neutrons originate. For instance, if the jaws are closed, they intercept the beam and contribute substantially to the secondary neutron production. Conversely, if the jaws are open, the MLC plays a larger role in neutron production (assuming, of course, that it intercepts the beam). They found that different collimator configurations make up to a factor of 2 difference in the ambient dose equivalent.

  6. Fiber-coupled radioluminescence dosimetry with saturated Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:C crystals: Characterization in 6 and 18 MV photon beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, C.E., E-mail: clan@risoe.dtu.dk [Radiation Research Division, Riso National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Damkjaer, S.M.S.; Kertzscher, G. [Radiation Research Division, Riso National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Greilich, S. [Department of Medical Physics in Radiation Oncology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Aznar, M.C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Copenhagen University Hospital, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2011-10-15

    Radioluminescence (RL) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) from carbon-doped aluminum oxide crystals can be used for medical dosimetry in external beam radiotherapy and remotely afterloaded brachytherapy. The RL/OSL signals are guided from the treatment room to the readout instrumentation using optical fiber cables, and in vivo dosimetry can be carried out in real time while the dosimeter probes are in the patient. The present study proposes a new improved readout protocol based solely on the RL signal from Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:C. The key elements in the protocol are that Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:C is pre-dosed with {approx}20 Gy before each measurement session, and that the crystals are not perturbed by optical stimulation. Using 6 and 18 MV linear accelerator photon beams, the new RL protocol was found to have a linear dose-response from 7 mGy to 14 Gy, and dosimetry in this range could therefore be performed using a single calibration factor ({approx}6 x 10{sup 6} counts per Gy for a 2 mg crystal). The reproducibility of the RL dosimetry was 0.3% (one relative standard deviation) for doses larger than 0.1 Gy. The apparent RL sensitivity was found to change with accumulated dose ((-0.45 {+-} 0.03)% per 100 Gy), crystal temperature ((-0.21 {+-} 0.01)%/ deg. C), and dose-delivery rate ((-0.22 {+-} 0.01)% per 100 MU/min). A temporal gating technique was used for separation of RL and stem signals (i.e. Cerenkov light and fluorescence induced in the optical fiber cable during irradiation). The new readout protocol was a substantial improvement compared with the combined RL/OSL protocol, that required relatively long readout times and where the optical stimulation greatly affected the RL sensitivity. The only significant caveat was the apparent change in RL-response with accelerator dose-delivery rate. - Highlights: > New readout protocol based only on the RL signal from pre-dosed Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:C. > Fast readout. > Linear dose-response. > High-dynamic range (7 mGy-14

  7. A treatment planning and delivery comparison of volumetric modulated arc therapy with or without flattening filter for gliomas, brain metastases, prostate, head/neck and early stage lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gasic, Daniel; Ohlhues, Lars; Brodin, N. Patrik

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Flattening filter-free (FFF) beams are an emerging technology that has not yet been widely implemented as standard practice in radiotherapy centers. To facilitate the clinical implementation of FFF, we attempted to elucidate the difference in plan quality and treatment delivery time c...

  8. Small field detector correction factors: effects of the flattening filter for Elekta and Varian linear accelerators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Madelaine K; Liu, Paul Z Y; Lee, Christopher; McKenzie, David R; Suchowerska, Natalka

    2016-05-08

    Flattening filter-free (FFF) beams are becoming the preferred beam type for stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and stereotactic ablative radiation therapy (SABR), as they enable an increase in dose rate and a decrease in treatment time. This work assesses the effects of the flattening filter on small field output factors for 6 MV beams generated by both Elekta and Varian linear accelerators, and determines differences between detector response in flattened (FF) and FFF beams. Relative output factors were measured with a range of detectors (diodes, ionization cham-bers, radiochromic film, and microDiamond) and referenced to the relative output factors measured with an air core fiber optic dosimeter (FOD), a scintillation dosimeter developed at Chris O'Brien Lifehouse, Sydney. Small field correction factors were generated for both FF and FFF beams. Diode measured detector response was compared with a recently published mathematical relation to predict diode response corrections in small fields. The effect of flattening filter removal on detector response was quantified using a ratio of relative detector responses in FFF and FF fields for the same field size. The removal of the flattening filter was found to have a small but measurable effect on ionization chamber response with maximum deviations of less than ± 0.9% across all field sizes measured. Solid-state detectors showed an increased dependence on the flattening filter of up to ± 1.6%. Measured diode response was within ± 1.1% of the published mathematical relation for all fields up to 30 mm, independent of linac type and presence or absence of a flattening filter. For 6 MV beams, detector correction factors between FFF and FF beams are interchangeable for a linac between FF and FFF modes, providing that an additional uncertainty of up to ± 1.6% is accepted.

  9. Improvements of low-detection-limit filter-free fluorescence sensor developed by charge accumulation operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kiyotsugu; Choi, Yong Joon; Moriwaki, Yu; Hizawa, Takeshi; Iwata, Tatsuya; Dasai, Fumihiro; Kimura, Yasuyuki; Takahashi, Kazuhiro; Sawada, Kazuaki

    2017-04-01

    We developed a low-detection-limit filter-free fluorescence sensor by a charge accumulation technique. For charge accumulation, a floating diffusion amplifier (FDA), which included a floating diffusion capacitor, a transfer gate, and a source follower circuit, was used. To integrate CMOS circuits with the filter-free fluorescence sensor, we adopted a triple-well process to isolate transistors from the sensor on a single chip. We detected 0.1 nW fluorescence under the illumination of excitation light by 1.5 ms accumulation, which was one order of magnitude greater than that of a previous current detection sensor.

  10. Tenth value layers for 60Co gamma rays and for 4, 6, 10, 15, and 18 MV x rays in concrete for beams of cone angles between 0 degrees and 14 degrees calculated by Monte Carlo simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaradat, Adnan K; Biggs, Peter J

    2007-05-01

    The calculation of shielding barrier thicknesses for radiation therapy facilities according to the NCRP formalism is based on the use of broad beams (that is, the maximum possible field sizes). However, in practice, treatment fields used in radiation therapy are, on average, less than half the maximum size. Indeed, many contemporary treatment techniques call for reduced field sizes to reduce co-morbidity and the risk of second cancers. Therefore, published tenth value layers (TVLs) for shielding materials do not apply to these very small fields. There is, hence, a need to determine the TVLs for various beam modalities as a function of field size. The attenuation of (60)Co gamma rays and photons of 4, 6, 10, 15, and 18 MV bremsstrahlung x ray beams by concrete has been studied using the Monte Carlo technique (MCNP version 4C2) for beams of half-opening angles of 0 degrees , 3 degrees , 6 degrees , 9 degrees , 12 degrees , and 14 degrees . The distance between the x-ray source and the distal surface of the shielding wall was fixed at 600 cm, a distance that is typical for modern radiation therapy rooms. The maximum concrete thickness varied between 76.5 cm and 151.5 cm for (60)Co and 18 MV x rays, respectively. Detectors were placed at 630 cm, 700 cm, and 800 cm from the source. TVLs have been determined down to the third TVL. Energy spectra for 4, 6, 10, 15, and 18 MV x rays for 10 x 10 cm(2) and 40 x 40 cm(2) field sizes were used to generate depth dose curves in water that were compared with experimentally measured values.

  11. Surface dose measurements and comparison of unflattened and flattened photon beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashokkumar Sigamani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the central axis dose in the build-up region and the surface dose of a 6 MV and 10 MV flattened photon beam (FB and flattening filter free (FFF therapeutic photon beam for different square field sizes (FSs for a Varian Truebeam linear accelerator using parallel-plate ionization chamber and Gafchromic film. Knowledge of dosimetric characteristics in the build-up region and surface dose of the FFF is essential for clinical care. The dose measurements were also obtained empirically using two different commonly used dosimeters: a p-type photon semiconductor dosimeter and a cylindrical ionization chamber. Surface dose increased linearly with FS for both FB and FFF photon beams. The surface dose values of FFF were higher than the FB FSs. The measured surface dose clearly increases with increasing FS. The FFF beams have a modestly higher surface dose in the build-up region than the FB. The dependence of source to skin distance (SSD is less significant in FFF beams when compared to the flattened beams at extended SSDs.

  12. Macroparticles Reduction Using Filter Free Cathodic Vacuum Arc Deposition Method in ZnO Thin Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuvakkumar, R; Peranantham, P; Nathanael, A Joseph; Nataraj, D; Mangalaraj, D; Hong, Sun Ig

    2015-03-01

    We report a new method to reduce macroparticles in ZnO thin films using filter free cathodic vacuum arc deposition without using any cooling arrangements operated at low arc current. The detailed mechanism has been proposed to reduce macroparticles during thin film deposition. The successful reduction of macroparticles was confirmed employing FESEM-EDX studies. FESEM images of ZnO thin films deposited with cathode spot to substrate distance from 10 to 20 cm revealed that the population of the macroparticles were reduced with the increase of cathode spot to substrate distances at low arc current. The prepared ZnO films were characterised and showed good structural and optical properties.

  13. Gain flattened distributed fiber raman amplifiers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    An S band and a C band distributed fiber Raman amplifiers (DFRAs) with flattened gain and compensated dispersion have been studied and implemented with 1 427 nm and 1 455 nm mono-wavelength fiber Raman lasers as the pumped sources respectively. The gain of single-wave pumped S band and C band can reach 10 dB and 15 dB respectively. And a 50 nm gain flattened width was successfully obtained by using a chirp fiber Bragg grating (CFBG) gain flattened filter with gain ripple of 0.6 dB. The C band DFRA has been applied to CDMA wireless communication system successfully.

  14. Airbag Mapped Mesh Auto-Flattening Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jinhuan; MA Chunsheng; BAI Yuanli; HUANG Shilin

    2005-01-01

    Current software cannot easily model an airbag to be flattened without wrinkles. This paper improves the modeling efficiency using the initial metric method to design a mapped mesh auto-flattening algorithm. The element geometric transformation matrix was obtained using the theory of computer graphics. The algorithm proved to be practical for modeling a passenger-side airbag model. The efficiency and precision of modeling airbags are greatly improved by this method.

  15. Beam Characterization of 10-MV Photon Beam from Medical Linear Accelerator without Flattening Filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimozato, Tomohiro; Aoyama, Yuichi; Matsunaga, Takuma; Tabushi, Katsuyoshi

    2017-01-01

    This work investigated the dosimetric properties of a 10-MV photon beam emitted from a medical linear accelerator (linac) with no flattening filter (FF). The aim of this study is to analyze the radiation fluence and energy emitted from the flattening filter free (FFF) linac using Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. The FFF linac was created by removing the FF from a linac in clinical use. Measurements of the depth dose (DD) and the off-axis profile were performed using a three-dimensional water phantom with an ionization chamber. A MC simulation for a 10-MV photon beam from this FFF linac was performed using the BEAMnrc code. The off-axis profiles for the FFF linac exhibited a chevron-like distribution, and the dose outside the irradiation field was found to be lower for the FFF linac than for a linac with an FF (FF linac). The DD curves for the FFF linac included many contaminant electrons in the build-up region. Therefore, for clinical use, a metal filter is additionally required to reduce the effects of the electron contamination. The mean energy of the FFF linac was found to be lower than that of the FF linac owing to the absence of beam hardening caused by the FF.

  16. LHC MD 1279: Bunch Flattening in Physics

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2073675; Baudrenghien, Philippe; Esteban Muller, Juan; Shaposhnikova, Elena; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2017-01-01

    Vertex reconstruction is not accurate enough for LHCb when the bunch length in physics shrinks below about 0.9 ns. The end-of-fill MD studies presented here proved that bunch flattening using sinusoidal RF modulation is a loss-free method to increase the r.m.s. bunch length and flatten the bunch profile. Furthermore, the optimum modulation parameters to be used in physics have been identified. Subsequently, bunch flattening in physics was used operationally with a modulation frequency of 98.75 % of the central synchrotron frequency and 0.6 modulation amplitude, resulting in a 150-200 ps increase in the BQM-measured bunch length. A ‘mid-of-fill’ test at arrival to flat top revealed that also the bunch distribution created by the controlled emittance blow-up during the ramp is affected when bunch flattening is applied. The measurements took place on 17th June and the 4th, 7th and 22nd July 2016. Operational cases are shown as well.

  17. Flattening, generalizations of clauses and absorption algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S-H. Nienhuys-Cheng (Shan-Hwei)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractIn predicate logic, flattening can be used to replace terms with functions by variables. It can also be used for expressing absorption in inverse resolution. This has been done by Rouveirol and Puget. In this article three kinds of absorption algorithms are compared.

  18. Tearing mode stability calculations with pressure flattening

    CERN Document Server

    Ham, C J; Cowley, S C; Hastie, R J; Hender, T C; Liu, Y Q

    2013-01-01

    Calculations of tearing mode stability in tokamaks split conveniently into an external region, where marginally stable ideal MHD is applicable, and a resonant layer around the rational surface where sophisticated kinetic physics is needed. These two regions are coupled by the stability parameter. Pressure and current perturbations localized around the rational surface alter the stability of tearing modes. Equations governing the changes in the external solution and - are derived for arbitrary perturbations in axisymmetric toroidal geometry. The relationship of - with and without pressure flattening is obtained analytically for four pressure flattening functions. Resistive MHD codes do not contain the appropriate layer physics and therefore cannot predict stability directly. They can, however, be used to calculate -. Existing methods (Ham et al. 2012 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 54 025009) for extracting - from resistive codes are unsatisfactory when there is a finite pressure gradient at the rational surface ...

  19. Simple Exercises to Flatten your Potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Xi; Horn, Bart; Silverstein, Eva; /SLAC /Santa Barbara, KITP; Westphal, Alexander; /DESY /SLAC

    2011-08-12

    We show how backreaction of the inflaton potential energy on heavy scalar fields can flatten the inflationary potential, as the heavy fields adjust to their most energetically favorable configuration. This mechanism operates in previous UV-complete examples of axion monodromy inflation - flattening a would-be quadratic potential to one linear in the inflaton field - but occurs more generally, and we illustrate the effect with several examples. Special choices of compactification minimizing backreaction may realize chaotic inflation with a quadratic potential, but we argue that a flatter potential such as power-law inflation V({phi}) {proportional_to} {phi}{sup p} with p < 2 is a more generic option at sufficiently large values of {phi}.

  20. Simple exercises to flatten your potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Xi; Horn, Bart; Silverstein, Eva [Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States). SLAC and Dept. of Physics; California Univ., Santa Barbara, CA (United States). Kavli Inst. for Theoretical Physics; Westphal, Alexander [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States). SLAC and Dept. of Physics

    2010-11-15

    We show how backreaction of the inflation potential energy on heavy scalar fields can flatten the inflationary potential, as the heavy fields adjust to their most energetically favorable configuration. This mechanism operates in previous UV-complete examples of axion monodromy inflation - flattening a would-be quadratic potential to one linear in the inflaton field - but occurs more generally, and we illustrate the effect with several examples. Special choices of compactification minimizing backreaction may realize chaotic inflation with a quadratic potential, but we argue that a flatter potential such as power-law inflation V({phi}){proportional_to} {phi}{sup p} with p<2 is a more generic option at sufficiently large values of {phi}. (orig.)

  1. Simple exercises to flatten your potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Xi; Horn, Bart; Silverstein, Eva [Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States). SLAC and Dept. of Physics; California Univ., Santa Barbara, CA (United States). Kavli Inst. for Theoretical Physics; Westphal, Alexander [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States). SLAC and Dept. of Physics

    2010-11-15

    We show how backreaction of the inflation potential energy on heavy scalar fields can flatten the inflationary potential, as the heavy fields adjust to their most energetically favorable configuration. This mechanism operates in previous UV-complete examples of axion monodromy inflation - flattening a would-be quadratic potential to one linear in the inflaton field - but occurs more generally, and we illustrate the effect with several examples. Special choices of compactification minimizing backreaction may realize chaotic inflation with a quadratic potential, but we argue that a flatter potential such as power-law inflation V({phi}){proportional_to} {phi}{sup p} with p<2 is a more generic option at sufficiently large values of {phi}. (orig.)

  2. Simple Exercises to Flatten your Potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Xi; Horn, Bart; Silverstein, Eva; /SLAC /Santa Barbara, KITP; Westphal, Alexander; /DESY /SLAC

    2011-08-12

    We show how backreaction of the inflaton potential energy on heavy scalar fields can flatten the inflationary potential, as the heavy fields adjust to their most energetically favorable configuration. This mechanism operates in previous UV-complete examples of axion monodromy inflation - flattening a would-be quadratic potential to one linear in the inflaton field - but occurs more generally, and we illustrate the effect with several examples. Special choices of compactification minimizing backreaction may realize chaotic inflation with a quadratic potential, but we argue that a flatter potential such as power-law inflation V({phi}) {proportional_to} {phi}{sup p} with p < 2 is a more generic option at sufficiently large values of {phi}.

  3. Flux flattening in axion monodromy inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landete, Aitor; Marchesano, Fernando; Shiu, Gary; Zoccarato, Gianluca

    2017-06-01

    String theory models of axion monodromy inflation exhibit scalar potentials which are quadratic for small values of the inflaton field and evolve to a more complicated function for large field values. Oftentimes the large field behaviour is gentler than quadratic, lowering the tensor-to-scalar ratio. This effect, known as flattening, has been observed in the string theory context through the properties of the DBI+CS D-brane action. We revisit such flattening effects in type IIB flux compactifications with mobile D7-branes, with the inflaton identified with the D7-brane position. We observe that, with a generic choice of background fluxes, flattening effects are larger than previously observed, allowing to fit these models within current experimental bounds. In particular, we compute the cosmological observables in scenarios compatible with closed-string moduli stabilisation, finding tensor-to-scalar ratios as low as r ˜ 0 .04. These are models of single field inflation in which the inflaton is much lighter than the other scalars through a mild tuning of the compactification data.

  4. Flattened sella turcica and CT appearence of normal pituitary gland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsui, T.; Ueno, I.; Miki, Y.; Fuchinoue, T.; Kobayashi, N.

    1984-01-01

    A flattened sella turcica, not previously reported, was found incidentally in a 21-year-old male. Various neuroradiological and hormonal examinations have proved it to be a normal varient. Subsequently a normal pituitary gland was shown by CT.

  5. Indirect Dark Matter Detection for Flattened Dwarf Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Sanders, Jason L; Geringer-Sameth, Alex; Dehnen, Walter

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the effects of flattening on the annihilation (J) and decay (D) factors of dwarf spheroidal galaxies with both analytic and numerical methods. Flattening has two consequences: first, there is a geometric effect as the squeezing (or stretching) of the dark matter distribution enhances (or diminishes) the J-factor; second, the line of sight velocity dispersion of stars must hold up the flattened baryonic component in the flattened dark matter halo. We provide analytic formulae and a simple numerical approach to estimate the correction to the J- and D-factors required over simple spherical modeling. The formulae are validated with a series of equilibrium models of flattened stellar distributions embedded in flattened dark-matter distributions. We compute corrections to the J- and D-factors for the Milky Way dwarf spheroidal galaxies under the assumption that they are prolate or oblate and find that the hierarchy of J-factors for the dwarf spheroidals is slightly altered. We demonstrate that spherical ...

  6. Hydro-flattened Elevation Area Outlines for DEMs of the North-Central California Coast (Hydro_flattened_water.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A GIS polygon shapefile outlining the extent of small lakes or ponds within the terrain that were assigned a hydo-flattened elevation during lidar post-processing....

  7. Hydro-flattened Elevation Area Outlines for DEMs of the North-Central California Coast (Hydro_flattened_water.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A GIS polygon shapefile outlining the extent of small lakes or ponds within the terrain that were assigned a hydo-flattened elevation during lidar post-processing....

  8. Indirect dark matter detection for flattened dwarf galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Jason L.; Evans, N. Wyn; Geringer-Sameth, Alex; Dehnen, Walter

    2016-09-01

    Gamma-ray experiments seeking to detect evidence of dark matter annihilation in dwarf spheroidal galaxies require knowledge of the distribution of dark matter within these systems. We analyze the effects of flattening on the annihilation (J) and decay (D) factors of dwarf spheroidal galaxies with both analytic and numerical methods. Flattening has two consequences: first, there is a geometric effect as the squeezing (or stretching) of the dark matter distribution enhances (or diminishes) the J-factor; second, the line of sight velocity dispersion of stars must hold up the flattened baryonic component in the flattened dark matter halo. We provide analytic formulas and a simple numerical approach to estimate the correction to the J- and D-factors required over simple spherical modeling. The formulas are validated with a series of equilibrium models of flattened stellar distributions embedded in flattened dark-matter distributions. We compute corrections to the J- and D-factors for the Milky Way dwarf spheroidal galaxies under the assumption that they are all prolate or all oblate and find that the hierarchy of J-factors for the dwarf spheroidals is slightly altered (typical correction factors for an ellipticity of 0.4 are 0.75 for the oblate case and 1.6 for the prolate case). We demonstrate that spherical estimates of the D-factors are very insensitive to the flattening and introduce uncertainties significantly less than the uncertainties in the D-factors from the other observables for all the dwarf spheroidals (for example, +10 per cent/-3 per cent for a typical ellipticity of 0.4). We conclude by investigating the spread in correction factors produced by triaxial figures and provide uncertainties in the J-factors for the dwarf spheroidals using different physically motivated assumptions for their intrinsic shape and axis alignments. We find that the uncertainty in the J-factors due to triaxiality increases with the observed ellipticity and, in general, introduces

  9. Neutron dose in and out of 18MV photon fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezzati, A O; Studenski, M T

    2017-04-01

    In radiation therapy, neutron contamination is an undesirable side effect of using high energy photons to treat patients. Neutron contamination requires adjustments to the shielding requirements of the linear accelerator vault and contributes to the risk of secondary malignancies in patients by delivering dose outside of the primary treatment field. Using MCNPX, an established Monte Carlo code, manufacturer blueprints, and the most up to date ICRP neutron dose conversion factors, the neutron spectra, neutron/photon dose ratio, and the neutron capture gamma ray dose were calculated at different depths and off axis distances in a tissue equivalent phantom. Results demonstrated that the neutron spectra and dose are dependent on field size, depth in the phantom, and off-axis distance. Simulations showed that because of the low neutron absorption cross section of the linear accelerator head materials, the contribution to overall patient dose from neutrons can be up to 1000 times the photon dose out of the treatment field and is also dependent on field size and depth. Beyond 45cm off-axis, the dependence of the neutron dose on field size is minimal. Neutron capture gamma ray dose is also field size dependent and is at a maximum at a depth of about 7cm. It is important to remember that when treating with high energy photons, the dose from contamination neutrons must be considered as it is much greater than the photon dose.

  10. Paint stripping with high power flattened Gaussian beams

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Forbes, A

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the researchers present results on improved paint stripping performance with an intra-cavity generated Flattened Gaussian Beam (FGB). A resonator with suitable diffractive optical elements was designed in order to produce a single mode...

  11. Monte Carlo-based investigations on the impact of removing the flattening filter on beam quality specifiers for photon beam dosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnecki, Damian; Poppe, Björn; Zink, Klemens

    2017-06-01

    at the point of measurement as a predictor with an accuracy of 0.17%. A bias between kQ for linear accelerators with and without flattening filter within 1.1% and 1.6% was observed for TPR1020 and %dd(10)x respectively. The results of this study have shown that removing the flattening filter led to a change in the relationship between the well-known beam quality specifiers and dosimetric quantities at the point of measurement, namely (L¯/ρ)airwater, mean photon and electron energy. Furthermore, the results show that a beam profile correction is important for dose measurements with large ionization chambers in flattening filter free beams. © 2017 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  12. Quantification of Posterior Globe Flattening: Methodology Development and Validationc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumpkins, S. B.; Garcia, K. M.; Sargsyan, A. E.; Hamilton, D. R.; Berggren, M. D.; Antonsen, E.; Ebert, D.

    2011-01-01

    Microgravity exposure affects visual acuity in a subset of astronauts, and mechanisms may include structural changes in the posterior globe and orbit. Particularly, posterior globe flattening has been implicated in several astronauts. This phenomenon is known to affect some terrestrial patient populations, and has been shown to be associated with intracranial hypertension. It is commonly assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), or B-mode ultrasound (US), without consistent objective criteria. NASA uses a semi-quantitative scale of 0-3 as part of eye/orbit MRI and US analysis for occupational monitoring purposes. The goal of this study was to initiate development of an objective quantification methodology for posterior globe flattening.

  13. Quantification of Posterior Globe Flattening: Methodology Development and Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumpkins, Sarah B.; Garcia, Kathleen M.; Sargsyan, Ashot E.; Hamilton, Douglas R.; Berggren, Michael D.; Ebert, Douglas

    2012-01-01

    Microgravity exposure affects visual acuity in a subset of astronauts and mechanisms may include structural changes in the posterior globe and orbit. Particularly, posterior globe flattening has been implicated in the eyes of several astronauts. This phenomenon is known to affect some terrestrial patient populations and has been shown to be associated with intracranial hypertension. It is commonly assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT) or B-mode Ultrasound (US), without consistent objective criteria. NASA uses a semiquantitative scale of 0-3 as part of eye/orbit MRI and US analysis for occupational monitoring purposes. The goal of this study was ot initiate development of an objective quantification methodology to monitor small changes in posterior globe flattening.

  14. Filamentary Star Formation: Observing the Evolution toward Flattened Envelopes

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Katherine; Johnstone, Doug; Tobin, John

    2012-01-01

    Filamentary structures are ubiquitous from large-scale molecular clouds (few parsecs) to small-scale circumstellar envelopes around Class 0 sources (~1000 AU to ~0.1 pc). In particular, recent observations with the Herschel Space Observatory emphasize the importance of large-scale filaments (few parsecs) and star formation. The small-scale flattened envelopes around Class 0 sources are reminiscent of the large-scale filaments. We propose an observationally derived scenario for filamentary star formation that describes the evolution of filaments as part of the process for formation of cores and circumstellar envelopes. If such a scenario is correct, small-scale filamentary structures (0.1 pc in length) with higher densities embedded in starless cores should exist, although to date almost all the interferometers have failed to observe such structures. We perform synthetic observations of filaments at the prestellar stage by modeling the known Class 0 flattened envelope in L1157 using both the Combined Array for...

  15. Mass Estimators for Flattened Dispersion-supported Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Jason L.; Evans, N. Wyn

    2016-10-01

    We investigate the reliability of mass estimators based on the observable velocity dispersion and half-light radius R h for dispersion-supported galaxies. We show how to extend them to flattened systems and provide simple formulae for the mass within an ellipsoid under the assumption the dark-matter density and the stellar density are stratified on the same self-similar ellipsoids. We demonstrate explicitly that the spherical mass estimators give accurate values for the mass within the half-light ellipsoid, provided R h is replaced by its “circularized” analog {R}{{h}}\\sqrt{1-ε }. We provide a mathematical justification for this surprisingly simple and effective workaround. It means, for example, that the mass-to-light ratios are valid not just when the light and dark matter are spherically distributed, but also when they are flattened on ellipsoids of the same constant shape.

  16. Mass estimators for flattened dispersion-supported galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Sanders, Jason L

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the reliability of mass estimators based on the observable velocity dispersion and half-light radius $R_\\mathrm{h}$ for dispersion-supported galaxies. We show how to extend them to flattened systems and provide simple formulae for the mass within an ellipsoid under the assumption the dark matter density and the stellar density are stratified on the same self-similar ellipsoids. We demonstrate explicitly that the spherical mass estimators (Walker et al. 2009, Wolf et al. 2010) give accurate values for the mass within the half-light ellipsoid, provided $R_\\mathrm{h}$ is replaced by its `circularized' analogue $R_\\mathrm{h}\\sqrt{1-\\epsilon}$. We provide a mathematical justification for this surprisingly simple and effective workaround. It means, for example, that the mass-to-light ratios are valid not just when the light and dark matter are spherically distributed, but also when they are flattened on ellipsoids of the same constant shape.

  17. Earth's density flattening and hypothesis of latitudinal normal density

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, the definition of latitudinal density and density flattening of the level ellipsoid is given, and integral formulas of latitudinal density for pole gravity and equator gravity are derived. According to the pole gravity condition and equator gravity condition for the level ellipsoid, latitudinal density distribution function of the level ellipsoid is obtained. It is proved mathematically that latitudinal density of the earth's equator is larger than that of the pole, the earth's density flat-tening calculated preliminarily is 1/322, and hypothesis of the earth's latitudinal normal density is further proposed, so that theoretical preparation for studying the forming cause of the earth gravity in problems such as continent drift, mantle convection, and submarine extension is made well.

  18. Coronal structure and flattening during total solar eclipse 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Galal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of well resolved observations of the solar corona taken at Salloum N-W of Egypt during the total solar eclipse of 2006 “the descending phase of solar cycle 23”, some aspects of the physics of the corona have been studied up to several solar radii. The magnetic structures of the white light corona were studied. The flattening coefficient e characterizes the shape of the isophotes of the whit-light corona and computed as a function of the distance from the disk center. The flattening index e during solar total eclipse 2006 was found to be 0.158. This result is in a good agreement with previous published results.

  19. Dispersion flattened single mode optical fiber with large effective area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babita, Rastogi, Vipul

    2013-06-01

    In this paper we present design of a fiber having ultra-flattened dispersion with large effective area over a wide range of wavelengths. The maximum value of the dispersion and dispersion slope within the spectral range 1450-1600 nm are 1.0 ps/km/nm and 0.05 ps/km/nm2 respectively. Effective mode area within the aforementioned wavelength range varies from 100-295 μm2.

  20. Gain Flattening Filter Canceling Temperature Dependence of EDFA s gain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.; Ohmura; Y.; Ishizawa; H.; Nakaji; K.; Hashimoto; T.; Shibata; M.; Shigehara; A.; Inoue

    2003-01-01

    We have developed a gain flattening filter (GFF) for an erbium doped fiber (EDF) without temperature control systems. This GFF, which consists of temperature-sensitive long period gratings (LPGs) and a temperature compensated slanted fiber Bragg grating (SFBG), follows the gain shift of EDF with temperature. Gain variation of the EDFA less than 0.25dBp-p was achieved with the bandwidth of 37nm, and the temperature range 0-65℃ without any temperature control systems.

  1. Electron Microscopic Visualization of Protein Assemblies on Flattened DNA Origami.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallik, Leena; Dhakal, Soma; Nichols, Joseph; Mahoney, Jacob; Dosey, Anne M; Jiang, Shuoxing; Sunahara, Roger K; Skiniotis, Georgios; Walter, Nils G

    2015-07-28

    DNA provides an ideal substrate for the engineering of versatile nanostructures due to its reliable Watson-Crick base pairing and well-characterized conformation. One of the most promising applications of DNA nanostructures arises from the site-directed spatial arrangement with nanometer precision of guest components such as proteins, metal nanoparticles, and small molecules. Two-dimensional DNA origami architectures, in particular, offer a simple design, high yield of assembly, and large surface area for use as a nanoplatform. However, such single-layer DNA origami were recently found to be structurally polymorphous due to their high flexibility, leading to the development of conformationally restrained multilayered origami that lack some of the advantages of the single-layer designs. Here we monitored single-layer DNA origami by transmission electron microscopy (EM) and discovered that their conformational heterogeneity is dramatically reduced in the presence of a low concentration of dimethyl sulfoxide, allowing for an efficient flattening onto the carbon support of an EM grid. We further demonstrated that streptavidin and a biotinylated target protein (cocaine esterase, CocE) can be captured at predesignated sites on these flattened origami while maintaining their functional integrity. Our demonstration that protein assemblies can be constructed with high spatial precision (within ∼2 nm of their predicted position on the platforms) by using strategically flattened single-layer origami paves the way for exploiting well-defined guest molecule assemblies for biochemistry and nanotechnology applications.

  2. Development of a flattening system for sheet metal with free-form surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinhua Liu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the flattening quality of sheet metal with free-form surface, a flattening system was developed. The system framework was proposed and the key technologies such as mesh quality measuring criterion, center triangle indexing algorithm, coordinate transforming principle, and initial flattening method were elaborated. Moreover, a planar spring–mass model was presented to optimize the initial flattening result, and the flowchart of the proposed flattening method was designed. Finally, three simulation examples were carried out and the comparison results indicated that the proposed system was proved feasible and efficient.

  3. FILAMENTARY STAR FORMATION: OBSERVING THE EVOLUTION TOWARD FLATTENED ENVELOPES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Katherine; Looney, Leslie [Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1002 West Green St, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Johnstone, Doug [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, P.O. Box 3055, STN CSC, Victoria, BC V8W 3P6 (Canada); Tobin, John, E-mail: ijlee9@illinois.edu, E-mail: lwl@illinois.edu, E-mail: Douglas.Johnstone@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca, E-mail: jtobin@nrao.edu [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States)

    2012-12-20

    Filamentary structures are ubiquitous from large-scale molecular clouds (a few parsecs) to small-scale circumstellar envelopes around Class 0 sources ({approx}1000 AU to {approx}0.1 pc). In particular, recent observations with the Herschel Space Observatory emphasize the importance of large-scale filaments (a few parsecs) and star formation. The small-scale flattened envelopes around Class 0 sources are reminiscent of the large-scale filaments. We propose an observationally derived scenario for filamentary star formation that describes the evolution of filaments as part of the process for formation of cores and circumstellar envelopes. If such a scenario is correct, small-scale filamentary structures (0.1 pc in length) with higher densities embedded in starless cores should exist, although to date almost all the interferometers have failed to observe such structures. We perform synthetic observations of filaments at the prestellar stage by modeling the known Class 0 flattened envelope in L1157 using both the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA) and the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA). We show that with reasonable estimates for the column density through the flattened envelope, the CARMA D array at 3 mm wavelengths is not able to detect such filamentary structure, so previous studies would not have detected them. However, the substructures may be detected with the CARMA D+E array at 3 mm and the CARMA E array at 1 mm as a result of more appropriate resolution and sensitivity. ALMA is also capable of detecting the substructures and showing the structures in detail compared to the CARMA results with its unprecedented sensitivity. Such detection will confirm the new proposed paradigm of non-spherical star formation.

  4. Experimental study of partially flattened axial grooved heat pipes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAO HanZhong; ZHANG Hong; ZHUANG Jun; Jerry W. BOWMANS

    2008-01-01

    This article made experimental study on mini-axial grooved heat pipes (AGHP) with 11 flattening forms. It analyzed how the flattening form, flattening thickness and working temperature affect axial tem-perature distribution, thermal resistance, heat transfer limit and the phase-change heat transfer coeffi-cients in evaporator and condenser sections. The result indicates that all forms of AGHPs can maintain good isothermal performance under normal operating condition. The geometric shape of AGHP has obvious impact on heat transfer limit. With respect to an AGHP with 2 mm-thick evaporator section, when the thickness of its condenser section increases from 2 to 3 mm, its heat transfer limit increases by 81%; with respect to an AGHP with 3 mm-thick evaporator section, when the thickness of its con-denser section increases from 2 to 3 mm, its heat transfer limit increases by 134%; with respect to an AGHP with 4 mm-thick condenser section, when the thickness of its evaporator section increases from 2 to 3 mm, its heat transfer limit increases by 26%. When the thickness of the evaporator section in-creases by 1 mm, the heat transfer limit will increase by 9%-26%, while when the thickness of the condenser section increases by 1 mm, the heat transfer limit will increase by 20%-86%. The thickness of the condenser section has greater impact on heat transfer performance of an AGHP than the thick-ness of the evaporator section does. The study content of this article will help understand the heat transfer performance of AGHP, and electronic thermal design process.

  5. Theoretical analysis of spectrum flattening in fiber laser oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Chen; Wang, Xiaolin; Zhou, Pu; Wang, Zefeng; Xu, Xiaojun; Lu, Qisheng

    2017-01-01

    The flatness of laser spectrum is important in many applications. In this manuscript, a method of acquiring flattened spectrum directly from a fiber oscillator by optimizing the reflective spectrum of Fiber Bragg Gratings (FBG) was demonstrated and optimized result at wavelength around 1064 nm and 1080 nm was presented. An optimization path to alter the reflectivity of FBGs using greedy algorithm was interpreted by analyzing the single-trip gain inside the resonant cavity. Our method has a guiding significance of controlling the output spectrum of laser oscillator using FBGs.

  6. Gain Flattening Filter Canceling Temperature Dependence of EDFA's gain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. Ohmura; Y. Ishizawa; H. Nakaji; K. Hashimoto; T. Shibata; M. Shigehara; A. Inoue

    2003-01-01

    We have developed a gain flattening filter(GFF) for an erbium doped fiber (EDF) without temperature control systems. This GFF, which consists of temperature-sensitive long period gratings (LPGs)and a temperature compensated slanted fiber Bragg grating (SFBG), follows the gain shift of EDF with temperature. Gain variation of the EDFA less than 0.25dBp-p was achieved with the bandwidth of 37nm,and the temperature range 0-65℃ without and temperature control systems.

  7. Is the Milky Way Dark Matter Halo Flattened?

    CERN Document Server

    Ruzicka, A; Theis, C; Theis, Ch.

    2006-01-01

    We performed an extended analysis of the parameter space for the interaction of the Magellanic System with the Milky Way. The varied parameters cover the phase space parameters, the masses, the structure and the orientation of both Magellanic Clouds as well as the flattening of the dark matter halo of the Milky Way. The analysis was done by a specially adopted optimization code searching for the best match between numerical models and the detailed HI map of the Magellanic System by Bruens et al. (2005). The applied search algorithm is a genetic algorithm combined with a code based on the fast, but approximative restricted N-body method. By this, we were able to analyze more than 10^6 models which makes this study one of the most extended ones for the Magellanic System. Here we focus on the flattening q of the axially symmetric MW dark matter halo potential, that is studied within the range 0.74<=q<=1.20. We show that creation of a trailing tail (Magellanic Stream) and a leading stream (Leading Arm) is q...

  8. Generation and application of high power flattened Gaussian beams

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Forbes, A

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available .6 0.8 1 1.2 I n t e n s i t y ( a . u . ) 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45 0.5 I n t e n s i t y ( a . u . ) The mode competition is revealed in the loss convergence per round trip 0 0... power Flattened Gaussian Beams A. Forbes1,2,3, N. du Preez4, I.A, Litvin1,3 and L.R. Botha1,3 1 CSIR National Laser Centre 2 School of Physics, University of KwaZulu-Natal 3 School of Physics, University of Stellenbosch 4 SDILasers (Pty) Ltd...

  9. Exact potential-density pairs for flattened dark haloes

    CERN Document Server

    Baes, Maarten

    2008-01-01

    Cosmological simulations suggest that dark matter haloes are not spherical, but typically moderately to strongly triaxial systems. We investigate methods to convert spherical potential-density pairs into axisymmetric ones, in which the basic characteristics of the density profile (such as the slope at small and large radii) are retained. We achieve this goal by replacing the spherical radius r by an oblate radius m in the expression of the gravitational potential. We extend and formalize the approach pioneered by Miyamoto & Nagai (1975) to be applicable to arbitrary potential-density pairs. Unfortunately, an asymptotic study demonstrates that, at large radii, such models always show a R^(-3) disc superposed on a smooth roughly spherical density distribution. As a result, this recipe cannot be used to construct simple flattened potential-density pairs for dynamical systems such as dark matter haloes. Therefore we apply a modification of our original recipe that cures the problem of the discy behaviour. An ...

  10. Aberrantly flattened responsivity to emotional pictures in paranoid schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun; Kim, Jae-Jin; Namkoong, Kee; An, Suk Kyoon; Seok, Jeong-Ho; Lee, Yu Jin; Kang, Jee In; Choi, Jae Hyuk; Hong, Taekyong; Jeon, Jong Hee; Lee, Hong Shick

    2006-08-30

    To investigate the nature of emotional experience in schizophrenia, we examined emotional responses to affective stimuli. Twenty-one outpatients with schizophrenia (9 paranoid, 12 nonparanoid) and 20 normal controls rated the arousal and valence that they experienced from the presentation of 60 pictures. Schizophrenia patients displayed less emotional responsivity to the positive stimuli and they displayed diverse responsivity to the negative stimuli, which depended upon arousal level. Further analysis, using schizophrenia subtype, indicated that nonparanoid patients reported increased negative responsivity and decreased positive responsivity, regardless of arousal level. However, paranoid schizophrenia patients showed enhanced self-reported experiences of emotion to the low arousing stimuli and diminished responsivity to the high arousing stimuli. This pattern was robust to the negative stimuli. These findings suggest that paranoid schizophrenia patients might suffer from aberrantly flattened responses to negative emotional stimuli, and that this may account for paranoid tendency and secondary social isolation in paranoid schizophrenia.

  11. Root causes for failures in flattening test in high frequency induction welded steel pipe mill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babakri, Khalid Ali [Saudi Steel Pipe Company, Dammam, (Saudi Arabia)

    2010-07-01

    The flattening test is used to test weld integrity in high frequency induction welded (HFIW) steel pipe mills. The flattening test failures happen mostly with the formation of oxides in the weld area during HFIZ process. This study investigated the root causes for failure in flattening test due to improper process control in the HFIW steel pipe mill. Several flattening tests have been carried out on API 5L X60 steel pipes with various chemical compositions and various procedures (height of the ductility test). A microstructure analysis was also established (EDAX analysis). Based on the experimental data, it is found that the mills can improve flattening test performance by applying various policies. It is proposed that the acceptance criteria in the international specifications related to the test of weld ductility be modified. The reasonable height for measuring weld ductility is usually at two thirds of the specified outside diameter of the pipe.

  12. Removing paint from a metal substrate using a flattened top laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi Shu-Dong; Li Wei; Du Peng; Wang Meng; Song Feng; Liu Shu-Jing; Chen Nian-Jiang; Zhao Hong; Yang Wen-Shi

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,we investigate laser cleaning using a flattened top laser to remove paint coating from a metal substrate.Under the irradiation of a flattened top laser,the coating paint of the metal substrate can be removed efficiently by laser induced ablation,stress,and displacement force.The temperature distribution,stress,and displacement are calculated in the coating layer and substrate using finite element analysis.The effects of a Gaussian laser and a flattened top laser and the results of different diameters of laser spot are compared.The investigation shows that the flattened top laser can reduce the substrate damage and enhance the cleaning efficiency.This method meets the need of large area industrial cleaning applications by optimizing the flattened top laser parameters.

  13. Second Cancer Risk after simultaneous integrated boost radiation therapy of right sided breast cancer with and without flattening filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobler, Barbara; Maier, Johannes; Knott, Bernadette; Maerz, Manuel; Koelbl, Oliver [Regensburg University Medical Center, Department of Radiotherapy, Regensburg (Germany); Loeschel, Rainer [Ostbayerische Technische Hochschule Regensburg, Faculty of Computer Science and Mathematics, Regensburg (Germany)

    2016-10-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate if the flattening filter free mode (FFF) of a linear accelerator reduces the excess absolute risk (EAR) for second cancer as compared to the flat beam mode (FF) in simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) radiation therapy of right-sided breast cancer. Six plans were generated treating the whole breast to 50.4 Gy and a SIB volume to 63 Gy on CT data of 10 patients: intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT), and a tangential arc VMAT (tVMAT), each with flattening filter and without. The EAR was calculated for the contralateral breast and the lungs from dose-volume histograms (DVH) based on the linear-exponential, the plateau, and the full mechanistic dose-response model. Peripheral low-dose measurements were performed to compare the EAR in more distant regions as the thyroids and the uterus. FFF reduces the EAR significantly in the contralateral and peripheral organs for tVMAT and in the peripheral organs for VMAT. No reduction was found for IMRT. The lowest EAR for the contralateral breast and lung was achieved with tVMAT FFF, reducing the EAR by 25 % and 29 % as compared to tVMAT FF, and by 44 % to 58 % as compared to VMAT and IMRT in both irradiation modes. tVMAT FFF showed also the lowest peripheral dose corresponding to the lowest EAR in the thyroids and the uterus. The use of FFF mode allows reducing the EAR significantly when tVMAT is used as the treatment technique. When second cancer risk is a major concern, tVMAT FFF is considered the preferred treatment option in SIB irradiation of right-sided breast cancer. (orig.) [German] Ziel der Studie war es zu untersuchen, ob der ausgleichskoerperfreie Modus (FFF) bei der simultan integrierten Boost-(SIB-)Bestrahlung des rechtsseitigen Mammakarzinoms eine Reduktion des strahleninduzierten Sekundaermalignomrisikos (''excess absolute risk'', EAR) im Vergleich zur Bestrahlung mit Ausgleichskoerper (FF) erlaubt. Auf CT

  14. Entropy Flattening, Gas Clumping and Turbulence in Galaxy Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Fusco-Femiano, R

    2014-01-01

    Several physical processes and formation events are expected in cluster outskirts, a vast region up to now essentially not covered by observations. The recent Suzaku (X-ray) and Planck (Sunayev-Zeldovich effect) observations out to the virial radius have highlighted in these peripheral regions a rather sharp decline of the intracluster gas temperature, an entropy flattening in contrast with the theoretically expected power law increase, the break of the hydrostatic equilibrium even in some relaxed clusters, a derived gas mass fraction above the cosmic value measured from several CMB experiments, and a total X-ray mass lower than the weak lensing mass determinations. Here we present the analysis of four clusters (A1795, A2029, A2204 and A133) with the SuperModel that includes a nonthermal pressure component due to turbulence to sustain the hydrostatic equilibrium also in the cluster outskirts. In such way we obtain a correct determination of the total X-ray mass and of the gas mass fraction; this in turn allow...

  15. Flattening of atrophic acne scars by using tretinoin by iontophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knor, Tanja

    2004-01-01

    Atrophic scars are a frequent consequence of acne, with a negative esthetic and psychological influence. Treatment of atrophic acne scars includes different invasive methods. In our study, we used a noninvasive method with local application of 0.05% tretinoin gel by iontophoresis. In patients with a tendency towards exacerbation, we performed mild peeling with 5% trichloroacetic acid (TCA) solution 3-4 times during the treatment. Twenty-minute treatments were applied on 38 patients, 29 women and 9 men, during 3.5 months on average. Median age of patients was 21 years (range, 16-29). Clinical assessment included an assessment of scars, pore size, skin moisture, vascularization, and skin firmness and elasticity. As confirmed by photographs taken before and after therapy, the treatment proved to be clinically effective in decreasing acne scars and persistence of effects. Flattening of acne scars was observed in 79% of the patients. The results depended on duration of scars persistence as well as on a the type of scars. The best results were achieved with younger scars as well as with superficial and ice pick scars. Side effects involved a very mild retinoid dermatitis and more often acne exacerbation. The therapy was clinically effective and the patients accepted the treatment very easily. Local therapy of acne scars with tretinoin by iontophoresis can in some cases successfully replace invasive techniques, and could also be combined with those techniques.

  16. Defective glycosylation of α-dystroglycan contributes to podocyte flattening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Kenichiro; Nosaka, Hitonari; Kishimoto, Yuki; Nishiyama, Yuri; Fukuda, Seiichi; Shimada, Masaru; Kodaka, Kenzo; Saito, Fumiaki; Matsumura, Kiichiro; Shimizu, Teruo; Toda, Tatsushi; Takeda, Satoshi; Kawachi, Hiroshi; Uchida, Shunya

    2011-02-01

    In addition to skeletal muscle and the nervous system, α-dystroglycan is found in the podocyte basal membrane, stabilizing these cells on the glomerular basement membrane. Fukutin, named after the gene responsible for Fukuyama-type congenital muscular dystrophy, is a putative glycosyltransferase required for the post-translational modification of α-dystroglycan. Chimeric mice targeted for both alleles of fukutin develop severe muscular dystrophy; however, these mice do not have proteinuria. Despite the lack of a functional renal defect, we evaluated glomerular structure and found minor abnormalities in the chimeric mice by light microscopy. Electron microscopy revealed flattening of podocyte foot processes, the number of which was significantly lower in the chimeric compared to wild-type mice. A monoclonal antibody against the laminin-binding carbohydrate residues of α-dystroglycan did not detect α-dystroglycan glycosylation in the glomeruli by immunoblotting or immunohistochemistry. In contrast, expression of the core α-dystroglycan protein was preserved. There was no statistical difference in dystroglycan mRNA expression or in the amount of nephrin and α3-integrin protein in the chimeric compared to the wild-type mice as judged by immunohistochemistry and real-time RT-PCR. Thus, our results indicate that appropriate glycosylation of α-dystroglycan has an important role in the maintenance of podocyte architecture.

  17. Formation Mechanism of Flattened Top HFBI Domical Droplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Ryota; Haruyama, Tetsuya

    2016-04-21

    A water droplet assumes a spherical shape because of its own surface tension. However, water droplets containing dissolved hydrophobin (HFBI) have flat surfaces. In our previous study, the mechanism of this unique phenomenon was revealed. HFBI forms a self-organized membrane that has a densely packed and honeycomb-like structure. Furthermore, the buckling strength of the membrane is higher than the surface tension of the HFBI droplet. Therefore, an HFBI domical droplet has a flat surface. However, it was not clear why only the top of the domical droplet was flattened while other areas such as the side face were not. In this study, we observed HFBI domical droplets to investigate this phenomenon. The flat top area (self-organized HFBI membrane) remained parallel to the ground even if the substrate was tilted. Therefore, buoyancy was thought to be a factor affecting the HFBI membrane. In addition, the side face of the HFBI domical droplet was analyzed by atomic force microscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and it was found that the sides of the HFBI droplet were not composed of densely packed HFBI membranes.

  18. Flattening single-vertex origami: the non-expansive case

    CERN Document Server

    Panina, Gaiane

    2010-01-01

    A single-vertex origami is a piece of paper with straight-line rays called creases emanating from a fold vertex placed in its interior or on its boundary. The Single-Vertex Origami Flattening problem asks whether it is always possible to reconfigure the creased paper from any configuration compatible with the metric, to a flat, non-overlapping position, in such a way that the paper is not torn, stretched and, for rigid origami, not bent anywhere except along the given creases. Streinu and Whiteley showed how to reduce the problem to the carpenter's rule problem for spherical polygons. Using spherical expansive motions, they solved the cases of open < \\pi and closed <= 2\\pi spherical polygons. Here, we solve the case of open polygons with total length between [\\pi, 2\\pi), which requires non-expansive motions. Our motion planning algorithm works in a finite number of discrete steps, for which we give precise bounds depending on both the number of links and the angle deficit.

  19. Does the stellar disc flattening depend on the galaxy type?

    CERN Document Server

    Mosenkov, A V; Reshetnikov, V P; Bizyaev, D V; Kautsch, S J

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the dependence of the stellar disc flatness on the galaxy morphological type using 2D decomposition of galaxies from the reliable subsample of the Edge-on Galaxies in SDSS (EGIS) catalogue. Combining these data with the retrieved models of the edge-on galaxies from the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) and the Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies (S$^4$G) catalogue, we make the following conclusions: (1) The disc relative thickness $z_0/h$ in the near- and mid-infrared passbands correlates weakly with morphological type and does not correlate with the bulge-to-total luminosity ratio $B/T$ in all studied bands. (2) Applying an 1D photometric profile analysis overestimates the disc thickness in galaxies with large bulges making an illusion of the relationship between the disc flattening and the ratio $B/T$. (3) In our sample the early-type disc galaxies (S0/a) have both flat and "puffed" discs. The early spirals and intermediate-type galaxies have a large scatter of the disc flatness, whic...

  20. Dosimetric comparison of flattened and unflattened beams for stereotactic ablative radiotherapy of stage I non-small cell lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hrbacek, Jan, E-mail: jan.hrbacek@psi.ch [Klinik für Radio-Onkologie, UniversitätsSpital Zürich, 8091 Zürich, Switzerland and Center for Proton Therapy, Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Lang, Stephanie; Graydon, Shaun N.; Klöck, Stephan; Riesterer, Oliver [Klinik für Radio-Onkologie, UniversitätsSpital Zürich, 8091 Zürich (Switzerland)

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: To compare contribution and accuracy of delivery for two flattening filter free (FFF) beams of the nominal energy 6 and 10 MV and a 6 MV flattened beam for early stage lung cancer. Methods: For each of 11 patients with stage I nonsmall cell lung cancer three volumetric modulated arc therapy plans were prepared utilizing a 6 MV flattened photon beam (X6FF) and two nonflattened beams of nominal energy 6 and 10 MV (X6FFF, X10FFF). Optimization constraints were set to produce dose distributions that meet the criteria of the RTOG-0915 protocol. The radiation schedule used for plan comparison in all patients was 50 Gy in five fractions. Dosimetric parameters of planning target volume (PTV) and organs-at-risk and delivery times were assessed and compared. All plans were subject to verification using Delta{sup 4} unit (Scandidos, Sweden) and absolutely calibrated gafchromic films in a thorax phantom. Results: All plans had a qualitatively comparable outcome. Obtained dose distributions were conformal (CI < 1.17) and exhibited a steep dose fall-off outside the PTV. The ratio of monitor units for FFF versus FF plans in the authors' study ranged from 0.95 to 1.21 and from 0.93 to 1.25 for X6FFF/X6FF and X10FFF/X6FF comparisons, respectively. The ratio systematically increased with increasing size of the PTV (up to +25% for 150 cm{sup 3} PTV). Yet the integral dose to healthy tissue did not follow this trend. Comparison of cumulative dose volume histograms for a patient's body showed that X6FFF plans exhibit improved conformity and reduced the volume of tissue that received more than 50% of the prescription dose. Parameters related to dose gradient showed statistically significant improvement. CI{sub 50%}, CI{sub 60%}, CI{sub 80%}, and CI{sub 100%} were on average reduced by 4.6% (p < 0.001), 4.6% (p = 0.002), 3.1% (p = 0.002), and 1.2% (p = 0.039), respectively. Gradient measure was on average reduced by 4.2% (p < 0.001). Due to dose reduction in the

  1. Localized states of flattened quantum elliptic rings and their optical properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Situ Shu-Ping

    2009-01-01

    A flattened elliptic ring containing an electron is studied.The emphasis is placed on clarifying the effect of the flattening.The localized states are classified into four types according to their inherent nodes.When the ring becomes more flattened,the total probability of dipole absorption of each state is found to be reduced.Furthermore,each spectral line of absorption is found to shift towards red and may split into a few lines,and these lines as a whole become more diffusive.

  2. Bilayer dispersion-flattened waveguides with four zero-dispersion wavelengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yuhao; Jafari, Zeinab; Agarwal, Anu M; Kimerling, Lionel C; Li, Guifang; Michel, Jurgen; Zhang, Lin

    2016-11-01

    We propose a new type of bilayer dispersion-flattened waveguides that have four zero-dispersion wavelengths. Low and flat dispersion can be achieved by using two different material combinations, with a much smaller index contrast as compared to the previously proposed slot-assisted dispersion-flattened waveguides. Without using a nano-slot, dispersion becomes less sensitive to waveguide dimensions, which is highly desirable for high-yield device fabrication. Ultra-low dispersion, high nonlinearity, and fabrication-friendly design would make it promising for practical implementation of nonlinear photonic functions. The proposed waveguide configuration deepens our understanding of the dispersion flattening principle.

  3. Effect of Initial Frequency Chirp on Supercontinuum Generation in Dispersion-flattened Fibers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yong-zhu; LI Yong-yao; YU Zhi-qiang Yu; FENG Ming-neng

    2009-01-01

    . Supercontinuum generation in dispersion-flattened fibers is studied theoretically. It is found that the flat spectral width of the supercontinuum generation in normal dispersion-flattened fiber can be increased from 66 nm to over 100 nm when the absolute value of the initial frequency chirps is increased from zero to 10. It is further found that initial frequency chirps are adverse to flat and wideband supercontinuum generation in anomalous dispersion-flattened fiber, and when the absolute value of the frequency chirps is increased to a certain degree, supercontinuum spectrum even can not be achieved.

  4. Ludendorff Coronal Flattening Index of the Total Solar Eclipse on March 9, 2016

    OpenAIRE

    Dani, Tiar; Priyatikanto, Rhorom; Rachman, Abdul

    2016-01-01

    Ludendorff coronal flattening index of the Total Solar Eclipse (TSE) on March 9, 2016, was calculated at various distances in solar radius. As a result, we obtained the coronal flattening index $\\left(\\epsilon =a+b\\right)$ at a distance of 2 solar radii is 0.16. The $24^{th}$ solar cycle phase based on the 2016 TSE event obtained -0.64 which showed the corona is pre-minimum type. Resulted coronal flattening index value gives a predicted maximum amplitude of the monthly sunspot number ($W_{max...

  5. ALIGNMENT BETWEEN FLATTENED PROTOSTELLAR INFALL ENVELOPES AND AMBIENT MAGNETIC FIELDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, Nicholas L.; Matthews, Tristan G.; Novak, Giles [Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics (CIERA) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Davidson, Jacqueline A. [School of Physics, University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Hwy, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); Goldsmith, Paul F. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, MS 264-782, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Houde, Martin [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London, ON (Canada); Kwon, Woojin; Looney, Leslie W. [Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois, 1002 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Li Zhiyun [Astronomy Department, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Matthews, Brenda [Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, National Research Council of Canada, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Peng Ruisheng [Caltech Submillimeter Observatory, 111 Nowelo Street, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Vaillancourt, John E. [SOFIA Science Center, Universities Space Research Association, NASA Ames Research Center, MS 232-11, Moffett Field, CA 94035-0001 (United States); Volgenau, Nikolaus H. [California Institute of Technology, Owens Valley Radio Observatory, Big Pine, CA 93513 (United States)

    2013-06-20

    We present 350 {mu}m polarization observations of four low-mass cores containing Class 0 protostars: L483, L1157, L1448-IRS2, and Serp-FIR1. This is the second paper in a larger survey aimed at testing magnetically regulated models for core-collapse. One key prediction of these models is that the mean magnetic field in a core should be aligned with the symmetry axis (minor axis) of the flattened young stellar object inner envelope (aka pseudodisk). Furthermore, the field should exhibit a pinched or hourglass-shaped morphology as gravity drags the field inward toward the central protostar. We combine our results for the four cores with results for three similar cores that were published in the first paper from our survey. An analysis of the 350 {mu}m polarization data for the seven cores yields evidence of a positive correlation between mean field direction and pseudodisk symmetry axis. Our rough estimate for the probability of obtaining by pure chance a correlation as strong as the one we found is about 5%. In addition, we combine together data for multiple cores to create a source-averaged magnetic field map having improved signal-to-noise ratio, and this map shows good agreement between mean field direction and pseudodisk axis (they are within 15 Degree-Sign ). We also see hints of a magnetic pinch in the source-averaged map. We conclude that core-scale magnetic fields appear to be strong enough to guide gas infall, as predicted by the magnetically regulated models. Finally, we find evidence of a positive correlation between core magnetic field direction and bipolar outflow axis.

  6. A treatment planning and delivery comparison of volumetric modulated arc therapy with or without flattening filter for gliomas, brain metastases, prostate, head/neck and early stage lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasic, Daniel; Ohlhues, Lars; Brodin, N Patrik; Fog, Lotte S; Pommer, Tobias; Bangsgaard, Jens P; Munck Af Rosenschöld, Per

    2014-08-01

    Flattening filter-free (FFF) beams are an emerging technology that has not yet been widely implemented as standard practice in radiotherapy centers. To facilitate the clinical implementation of FFF, we attempted to elucidate the difference in plan quality and treatment delivery time compared to flattening filter beams (i.e. standard, STD) for several patient groups. We hypothesize that the treatment plan quality is comparable while the treatment delivery time of volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) is considerably shorter using FFF beams, especially for stereotactic treatments. A total of 120 patients treated for head and neck (H&N) tumors, high-grade glioma, prostate cancer, early stage lung cancer and intra-cranial metastatic disease (both single and multiple metastases) were included in the study. For each cohort, 20 consecutive patients were selected. The plans were generated using STD- and FFF-VMAT for both 6 MV and 10 MV, and were compared with respect to plan quality, monitor units and delivery time using Wilcoxon signed rank tests. For H&N and high-grade gliomas, there was a significant difference in homogeneity index in favor for STD-VMAT (p delivery time compared to STD-VMAT plans (p < 0.001) for higher dose per fraction, on average 54.5% for 6 MV and 71.4% for 10 MV. FFF-VMAT generally required a higher number of MU/Gy (p < 0.001), on average 7.0% for 6 MV and 8.4% for 10 MV. It was generally possible to produce FFF-VMAT plans with the same target dose coverage and doses to organs at risk as STD-VMAT plans. Target dose homogeneity tended to be somewhat inferior for FFF-VMAT for the larger targets investigated. For stereotactic radiotherapy, FFF-VMAT resulted in a considerable time gain while maintaining similar plan quality compared to STD beams.

  7. Characteristics of an EDFA gain flattening filter formed after a double exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hyung-Do; Park, Jong-Hwa; Park, Kyung-Seo; Cho, Joon-Yong; Jang, Hyun Soo; Lee, Kyung-Shik

    2002-08-01

    In this paper, we present a novel method for the fabrication of an EDFA gain flattening filter(GFF) with two identical chirped fiber grating formed in series after a double exposure. This method shows a significant improvement in the flattening level and error function in GFF, compared with the conventional method for forming the GFF by using single chirped fiber grating for equalizing the gain spectrum.

  8. White light coronal structures and flattening during six total solar eclipses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.A. Marzouk

    2016-12-01

    Flattening index is the first quantitative parameter introduced for analyses of the global structure of the solar corona. It varies with respect to the phase of the solar activity and sunspot number. In this paper we study the solar corona during the 1990, 1999, 2006, 2008, 2009 and 2012 total solar eclipses. We obtain flattening coefficients for all the six eclipses by using a new computer program. Our results are in a good agreement with published results.

  9. The role of pressure flattening in calculating tearing mode stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, C. J.; Connor, J. W.; Cowley, S. C.; Hastie, R. J.; Hender, T. C.; Liu, Y. Q.

    2013-12-01

    Calculations of tearing mode stability in tokamaks split conveniently into one in an external region, where marginally stable ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) is applicable, and one in a resonant layer around the rational surface where sophisticated kinetic physics is needed. These two regions are coupled by the stability parameter Δ‧. Axisymmetric pressure and current perturbations localized around the rational surface significantly alter Δ‧. Equations governing the changes in the external solution and Δ‧ are derived for arbitrary perturbations in axisymmetric toroidal geometry. These equations can be used in two ways: (i) the Δ‧ can be calculated for a physically occurring perturbation to the pressure or current; (ii) alternatively we can use these equations to calculate Δ‧ for profiles with a pressure gradient at the rational surface in terms of the value when the perturbation removes this gradient. It is the second application we focus on here since resistive magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) codes do not contain the appropriate layer physics and therefore cannot predict stability for realistic hot plasma directly. They can, however, be used to calculate Δ‧. Existing methods (Ham et al 2012 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 54 025009) for extracting Δ‧ from resistive codes are unsatisfactory when there is a finite pressure gradient at the rational surface and favourable average curvature because of the Glasser stabilizing effect (Glasser et al 1975 Phys. Fluids 18 875). To overcome this difficulty we introduce a specific artificial pressure flattening function that allows the earlier approach to be used. The technique is first tested numerically in cylindrical geometry with an artificial favourable curvature. Its application to toroidal geometry is then demonstrated using the toroidal tokamak tearing mode stability code T7 (Fitzpatrick et al 1993 Nucl. Fusion 33 1533) which employs an approximate analytic equilibrium. The prospects for applying this

  10. Numerical Analysis of Flattened Brazilian Disc Test Based on the Cusp Catastrophe Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian disc test is a simple and useful technique to determine the tensile strength of rock materials. By using FLAC3D, 63 numerical simulations in total were performed when flattened Brazilian disc coefficient and Poisson’s ratio were different. Based on Griffith theory, the corresponding FISH language was compiled to record the Griffith equivalent stress. Through analysis of numerical simulation results, it is indicated that fracture plane was not the plane going through center of the Brazilian disc, which was in good agreement with the references. In addition, the flattened Brazilian disc coefficients had greater influence on tensile strength than Poisson’s ratio. Based on cusp catastrophe theory, the flattened Brazilian disc coefficient should not exceed 0.035 for the flattened Brazilian disc tests. Consequently, a tensile strength empirical formula considering flattened Brazilian disc coefficient by utilizing the flattened Brazilian disc test was established, which was σt=0.9993 exp (-11.65ε2p/πDt, ε≤0.035.

  11. Structural and electronic properties of linear carbon chains encapsulated by flattened nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, A.; Azevedo, S.; Kaschny, J. R.

    2016-10-01

    In the present contribution it was investigated the structural and electronic properties of nanostructures formed by a linear carbon chain encapsulated by flattened carbon and boron nitride single-walled nanotubes, using first-principles calculations. The behavior of the atomic structure and the corresponding electronic properties of the nanostructures were systematically analyzed as a function of the tube flattening degree. For both types of nanotubes, it was detected the occurrence of a polyyne-cumulene transition, which depends on the flattening degree. Moreover, for carbon nanotubes, it was found, for strong flattening, that the carbon chain binds completely to the tube wall. However, for boron nitride nanotubes, the chain also binds to the tube wall, but it breaks into pieces. For each structure, the electronic behavior and the band structure was studied as a function of the tube deformation. For particular values of the flattening degree it was observed the occurrence of Dirac points. The calculated Fermi velocities are in good agreement with the values obtained for graphene.

  12. Performance curves comparison of THG efficiency in CsLiB6O10 on flattened Gaussian and Gaussian beams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Wang(王丽); Jianhua Xue(薛建华)

    2003-01-01

    The conversion efficiency of THG on the flattened Gaussian and Gaussian beams is obtained in detail numerical stimulation for CsLiB6O10. The conversion efficiencies of 86.7% and 96% of the flattened Gaussian are larger than those of Gaussian beams of 72.6% and 88% under type I and type Ⅱ(1) phase matching. The efficiencies affected by the pump intensity, polarization rate, crystal lengths and orders of the flattened Gaussian beams were presented.

  13. S-band gain-flattened EDFA with two-stage double-pass configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Hai-Wei; Xu, Shi-Chao; Qiao, Xue-Guang; Jia, Zhen-An; Liu, Ying-Gang; Zhou, Hong

    2011-11-01

    A gain-flattened S-band erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) using standard erbium-doped fiber (EDF) is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The proposed amplifier with two-stage double-pass configuration employs two C-band suppressing filters to obtain the optical gain in S-band. The amplifier provides a maximum signal gain of 41.6 dB at 1524 nm with the corresponding noise figure of 3.8 dB. Furthermore, with a well-designed short-pass filter as a gain flattening filter (GFF), we are able to develop the S-band EDFA with a flattened gain of more than 20 dB in 1504-1524 nm. In the experiment, the two-stage double-pass amplifier configuration improves performance of gain and noise figure compared with the configuration of single-stage double-pass S-band EDFA.

  14. Design of broadband nearly-zero flattened dispersion highly nonlinear photonic crystal fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuqin Lou; Hong Fang; Honglei Li; Tieying Guo; Lei Yao; Liwen Wang; Weiguo Chen; Shuisheng Jian

    2008-01-01

    We propose a new structure of broadband nearly-zero flattened dispersion highly nonlinear photonic crystal fiber (PCF). Through optimizing the diameters of the first two inner rings of air-holes and the GeO2 doping concentration of the core, the nonlinear coefficient is up to 47 W-1.km-1 at the wavelength of 1.55 μm and nearly-zero flattened dispersion of±0.5 ps/(nm.km) is achieved in the telecommunication window (1460 - 1625 nm). Due to the use of GeO2-doped core, this innovative structure can offer not only a large nonlinear coefficient and broadband nearly-zero flattened dispersion but also low leakage losses.

  15. Stable dual-wavelength laser combined with gain flattening ML-FMF Bragg grating filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xiao; Li, Yang; Bai, Yunlong; Yin, Bin; Liu, Zhibo; Jian, Shuisheng

    2016-01-01

    A stable dual-wavelength laser combined with gain flattening multi-layer few-mode fiber Bragg grating filter was proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The index profile of the multi-layer few-mode fiber was particularly designed to support LP01 and LP11 modes with approximately equal excitation coefficients. And conventional phase-mask fabrication technique was used to inscribe Bragg gratings in the multi-layer few-mode fiber core, which leads to the gain flattening filter. A switchable dual-wavelength laser combined with the gain flattening filter was successfully achieved with simple linear configuration. The lasing wavelengths spacing was 0.39 nm. The variation of the central wavelength and intensity fluctuation were as small as 0.01 nm and <0.7 dBm in both dual-wavelength and single-wavelength operation regions, respectively.

  16. Ludendorff Coronal Flattening Index of the Total Solar Eclipse on March 9, 2016

    CERN Document Server

    Dani, Tiar; Rachman, Abdul

    2016-01-01

    Ludendorff coronal flattening index of the Total Solar Eclipse (TSE) on March 9, 2016, was calculated at various distances in solar radius. As a result, we obtained the coronal flattening index $\\left(\\epsilon =a+b\\right)$ at a distance of 2 solar radii is 0.16. The $24^{th}$ solar cycle phase based on the 2016 TSE event obtained -0.64 which showed the corona is pre-minimum type. Resulted coronal flattening index value gives a predicted maximum amplitude of the monthly sunspot number ($W_{max}$) for the $25^{th}$ solar cycle to be $70\\pm65$. Therefore, the solar activity for $25^{th}$ solar cycle predicted to be lower than the current solar cycle, which has a maximum sunspot number value of 146 in February 2014

  17. 1.55-μm supercontinuum based on dispersion-flattened photonic crystal fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A dispersion-flattened photonic crystal fiber with normal dispersion is designed for generating flat wideband supercontinuum, and the supercontinuum generation in this fiber is numerically analyzed. The results show that by appropriately designing the photonic crystal fiber, it can achieve flattened dispersion in the normal dispersion region. It is found that a fiber characterized by a flattened dispersion with a small normal dispersion is suitable for a flat wideband supercontinuum generation. In the process of spectral broadening, self-phase modulation effect plays a dominant role. By filtering the supercontinuum, pulses with different central wavelength over a wide spectral range can be obtained. The pulse width is determined by the bandwidth of the filter.

  18. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy and energetics of flattened carbon nonoshells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourgeois, L.N.; Bursill, L.A

    1998-09-01

    When examined under a high-resolution transmission electron microscope, carbon soot produced alongside buckytubes in an arc-discharge is found to contain a small percentage of flattened carbon shells. These objects are shown to be small graphite flakes which eliminated their dangling bonds by terminating their edges with highly curved junctions. Ideal models for these structures are presented, and their energy estimated. The calculations show that the establishment of highly curved junctions is energetically favourable for a graphite flake in an inert atmosphere. Flattened shells also appear more stable than their `inflated` counterparts (fullerene `onions` and buckytubes) when the shell dimensions obey specific criteria.(authors) 29 refs., 4 figs.

  19. Simulation of the microtron electron beam profile formation using flattening filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miloichikova, I. A.; Stuchebrov, S. G.; Danilova, I. B.; Naumenko, G. A.

    2016-12-01

    The development of new modern methods of electron beam profile forming becomes an important problem with the expansion of the application spectrum of electrons, both in industry and in medicine. This paper presents the results of a numerical simulation of the electron beam profile formed by flattening filters of different materials (aluminum and ABS-plastic). The model corresponding to the actual beam was developed based on the experimental estimation of shape and profile of the extracted microtron electron beam. Next, the geometry of flattening filters made of aluminum and ABS-plastic was calculated, and the electron beam profile was theoretically analyzed.

  20. Sub-nanometer flattening of a 45-cm long, 45-actuator x-ray deformable mirror

    CERN Document Server

    Poyneer, L A; Pardini, T; Palmer, D; Brooks, A; Pivovaroff, M J; Macintosh, B

    2014-01-01

    We have built a 45-cm long x-ray deformable mirror of super-polished single-crystal silicon that has 45 actuators along the tangential axis. After assembly the surface height error was 19 nm rms. With use of high-precision visible-light metrology and precise control algorithms, we have actuated the x-ray deformable mirror and flattened its entire surface to 0.7 nm rms controllable figure error. This is, to our knowledge, the first sub-nanometer active flattening of a substrate longer than 15 cm.

  1. Sub-nanometer flattening of 45 cm long, 45 actuator x-ray deformable mirror.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poyneer, Lisa A; McCarville, Thomas; Pardini, Tommaso; Palmer, David; Brooks, Audrey; Pivovaroff, Michael J; Macintosh, Bruce

    2014-06-01

    We have built a 45 cm long x-ray deformable mirror (XDM) of super-polished single-crystal silicon that has 45 actuators along the tangential axis. After assembly, the surface height error was 19 nm rms. With use of high-precision visible-light metrology and precise control algorithms, we have actuated the XDM and flattened its entire surface to 0.7 nm rms controllable figure error. This is, to our knowledge, the first sub-nanometer active flattening of a substrate longer than 15 cm.

  2. The presence of interstellar turbulence could explain the velocity flattening in galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Vatistas, Georgios H

    2010-01-01

    Expanding our previous work on turbulent whirls [1] we have uncovered a similarity within the similarity shared by intense vortices. Using the new information we compress the tangential velocity profiles of a diverse set of vortices into one and thus identify those that belong to the same genus. Examining the Laser Doppler Anemometer (LDA) results of mechanically produced vortices and radar data of several tropical cyclones, we find that the uplift and flattening effect of tangential velocity is a consequence of turbulence. Reasoning by analogy we conclude that turbulence in the interstellar medium could indeed introduce a flattening effect in the galactic rotation curves.

  3. The Flattening Index of the Eclipse White-Light Corona and Magnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rušin, V.

    2017-01-01

    From observations of the solar white-light corona at 65 eclipses from 1851 to 2015 we confirm earlier findings that the flattening index of the white-light corona depends on the phase, rather than the magnitude of solar cycles, which is in contrast with behavior of other major solar activity indices like the sunspot number, the 2800 MHz radio flux, etc. This indicates that mechanisms responsible for creation and distribution of helmet streamers, the most essential coronal structures influencing the flattening index, could be of different magnetic nature from those of other manifestations of solar surface activity.

  4. Reef flattening effects on total richness and species responses in the Caribbean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Newman, Steven P.; Meesters, E.H.; Dryden, Charlie S.; Williams, Stacey M.; Sanchez, Cristina; Mumby, Peter J.; Polunin, Nicholas V.C.

    2015-01-01

    There has been ongoing flattening of Caribbean coral reefs with the loss of habitat having severe implications for these systems. Complexity and its structural components are important to fish species richness and community composition, but little is known about its role for other taxa or species

  5. Reevaluation of the diametral compression test for tablets using the flattened disc geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazel, V; Guerard, S; Croquelois, B; Kopp, J B; Girardot, J; Diarra, H; Busignies, V; Tchoreloff, P

    2016-11-20

    Mechanical strength is an important critical quality attribute for tablets. It is classically measured, in the pharmaceutical field, using the diametral compression test. Nevertheless, due to small contact area between the tablet and the platens, some authors suggested that during the test, the failure could occur in tension away from the center which would invalidate the test and the calculation of the tensile strength. In this study, the flattened disc geometry was used as an alternative to avoid contact problems. The diametral compression on both flattened and standard geometries was first studied using finite element method (FEM) simulation. It was found that, for the flattened geometry, both maximum tensile strain and stress were located at the center of the tablet, which was not the case for the standard geometry. Experimental observations using digital image correlation (DIC) confirmed the numerical results. The experimental tensile strength obtained using both geometries were compared and it was found that the standard geometry always gave lower tensile strength than the flattened geometry. Finally, high-speed video capture of the test made it possible to detect that for the standard geometry the crack initiation was always away from the center of the tablet. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Multivariate density estimation using dimension reducing information and tail flattening transformations for truncated or censored data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch-Kromann, Tine; Nielsen, Jens

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces a multivariate density estimator for truncated and censored data with special emphasis on extreme values based on survival analysis. A local constant density estimator is considered. We extend this estimator by means of tail flattening transformation, dimension reducing prio...

  7. Subminiature Gain Flattening Filter using Micro Quartz-Rod-Lens Collimators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kenji Nishiwaki; Kenji Oda; Yoshikiyo Noguchi; Kenichiro Asano; Hideyuki Hosoya

    2003-01-01

    We have developed a subminiature gain flattening filter with the 90% volume reduced package compared with conventional ones. The excellent thermal stabilities for the transmission characteristics of 0.0002dB/℃ and 0.67pm/℃,and the high power durability up to 1 W were confirmed.

  8. Flattening of the electrocardiographic T-wave is a sign of proarrhythmic risk and a reflection of action potential triangulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhuiyan, Tanveer Ahmed; Graff, Claus; Kanters, J.K.;

    2013-01-01

    Drug-induced triangulation of the cardiac action potential is associated with increased risk of arrhythmic events. It has been suggested that triangulation causes a flattening of the electrocardiographic T-wave but the relationship between triangulation, T-wave flattening and onset of arrhythmia...

  9. FLATTENING EFFECT ON HEAT TRANSFER CHARACTERISTICS OF A SINTERED-WICK HEAT PIPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weeranut Intagun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of pipe flattening on heat transfer characteristics and the internal phenomena of a sintered-wick heat pipe has been investigated by using three-dimensional Finite Element Method. The calculation domains were focused at three important regions, i.e., vapor core, wick and wall. The Cartesian coordinates and the three-dimensional tetrahedral elements were applied in this model. The selected total elements were 638,400 to ensure the accuracy. The original diameter and total length of heat pipe were 6 mm and 200 mm, respectively. The composite wick made from sintered copper powder and grooved copper pipe was applied with water as working fluid. The vapor flow was assumed to be laminar and incompressible. The predicted results from the program were validated with the experimental results conducted with all similar controlled parameters. It was found that the predicted wall temperature and thermal resistance agreed well with the experimental data with the standard deviations of ±5.95 and ±32.85%, respectively. Furthermore, the overall thermal resistances of the tubular heat pipes (original diameter of 6 mm, which were flattened into the final thickness of 4.0 and 3.0 mm, decreased from 0.91 to 0.83°C/W due to an increase of the contacted surface for heat transfer surface. However, the overall thermal resistance of a flattened heat pipe with the final thickness of 2.5 mm increased to 0.88°C/W, resulting from drastic increase of pressure drop in narrower vapor core. The pivotal final thickness of flattened heat pipe, which is the minimum thickness of pipe to be flattened, has been analysed to be 2.75 mm (about 45% from original diameter.

  10. Rapid flattening of butterfly pitch angle distributions of radiation belt electrons by whistler-mode chorus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chang; Su, Zhenpeng; Xiao, Fuliang; Zheng, Huinan; Wang, Yuming; Wang, Shui; Spence, H. E.; Reeves, G. D.; Baker, D. N.; Blake, J. B.; Funsten, H. O.

    2016-08-01

    Van Allen radiation belt electrons exhibit complex dynamics during geomagnetically active periods. Investigation of electron pitch angle distributions (PADs) can provide important information on the dominant physical mechanisms controlling radiation belt behaviors. Here we report a storm time radiation belt event where energetic electron PADs changed from butterfly distributions to normal or flattop distributions within several hours. Van Allen Probes observations showed that the flattening of butterfly PADs was closely related to the occurrence of whistler-mode chorus waves. Two-dimensional quasi-linear STEERB simulations demonstrate that the observed chorus can resonantly accelerate the near-equatorially trapped electrons and rapidly flatten the corresponding electron butterfly PADs. These results provide a new insight on how chorus waves affect the dynamic evolution of radiation belt electrons.

  11. Scheduling method based on virtual flattened architecture for Hierarchical system-on-chip

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Dong; ZHANG Jin-yi; YANG Xiao-dong; YANG Yi

    2009-01-01

    As the technology of IP-core-reused has been widely used, a lot of intellectual property (IP) cores have been embedded in different layers of system-on-chip (SOC). Although the cycles of development and overhead are reduced by this method, it is a challenge to the SOC test. This paper proposes a scheduling method based on the virtual flattened architecture for hierarchical SOC, which breaks the hierarchical architecture to the virtual flattened one. Moreover, this method has more advantages compared with the traditional one, which tests the parent cores and child cores separately. Finally, the method is verified by the ITC'02 benchmark, and gives good results that reduce the test time and overhead effectively.

  12. Research on the stability of nearly zero flattened dispersion of photonic crystal fibers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Jie; WANG Jian

    2008-01-01

    To analyze the stability of nearly zero flattened dispersion,the dispersion deviations for three kinds of PCFs arc calculated when the hole diamcters deviate from their designed values.Numerical resuIts show that around the wavelength of 1.55μm,the dispersion deviations of both the PCF with three-fold symmetry core and the PCF with hexagonal lattice are much less than that of the PCF with different hole diameters in different rings.Therefore.the stabilities of nearly zero flattened dispersion of the first two kinds of PCFs are much better than that of the last one.Considering the confinement loss.the PCF with three-fold symmetry core is preferabk to practical USe.

  13. Particle melting, flattening, and stacking behaviors in induction plasma deposition of tungsten

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Particle melting, flattening, and stacking behaviors during induction plasma deposition of refractory tungsten were studied for land-based turbine engine application. Scanning electron microscopy was used to observe the morphology of particles and splats as well as to examine the microstructure of tungsten deposit. Three kinds of pores were found in the deposit, i.e., large pores with d > 10 μm, medium pores in the range of 1~10μm, and small pores with d < 1 μm. Both optimized plasma spray condition and use of spherical powder with a narrow particle size distribution are important in the elimination of large and medium pores and have significant influences on the formation of dense tungsten deposit. Highly dense tungsten deposit was obtained through complete melting, sufficiently flattening, and regularly stacking of tungsten particles.

  14. Experiment study of wavelength conversion in a dispersion-flattened photonic crystal fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiuguo Wang; Bojun Yang; Lan Zhang; Hu Zhang; Li He

    2007-01-01

    @@ Wavelength conversion based on four-wave mixing (FWM) has been demonstrated using a 40-m dispersion flattened highly nonlinear photonic crystal fiber (HNL-PCF). A conversion efficiency of -26 dB for a pump power of 19.5 dBm and a conversion bandwidth of 28 nm have been obtained, which are limited by the continuous wave (CW) laser wavelength range and tunability of optical band pass filters (OBPFs).

  15. Design and fabrication of an intrinsically gain flattened Erbium doped fiber amplifier

    OpenAIRE

    Nagaraju, B.; Paul, M.C.; Pal, M.; Pal, A.; Varshney, Ravi K.; Pal, Bishnu; Bhadra, S.K.; Monnom, Gérard; Dussardier, Bernard

    2009-01-01

    International audience; We report design and subsequent fabrication of an intrinsically gain flattened Erbium doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) based on a highly asymmetrical and concentric dual-core fiber, inner core of which was only partially doped. Phase-resonant optical coupling between the two cores was so tailored through optimization of its refractive index profile parameters that the longer wavelengths within the C-band experience relatively higher amplification compared to the shorter wa...

  16. Exact solution of earth-flattening transformation for P-SV waves: Taking surface wave as an example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Hui; CHEN Xiao-fei

    2008-01-01

    Taking surface wave as an example this paper proposes an exact solution of earth-flattening transformation for P-SV waves and discusses the applicability of the approximate methods. The results show that the transform parameter m has little influence on the final results, and on the condition of short wave approximation, approximate earth-flattening transformation is suitable. Moreover, the efficiency of approximate transformation is twice of that of exact transformation. For low frequency problems exact earth-flattening transformation should be used.

  17. A MongoDB-Based Management of Planar Spatial Data with a Flattened R-Tree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longgang Xiang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses how to manage planar spatial data using MongoDB, a popular NoSQL database characterized as a document-oriented, rich query language and high availability. The core idea is to flatten a hierarchical R-tree structure into a tabular MongoDB collection, during which R-tree nodes are represented as collection documents and R-tree pointers are expressed as document identifiers. By following this strategy, a storage schema to support R-tree-based create, read, update, and delete (CRUD operations is designed and a module to manage planar spatial data by consuming and maintaining flattened R-tree structure is developed. The R-tree module is then seamlessly integrated into MongoDB, so that users could manipulate planar spatial data with existing command interfaces oriented to geodetic spatial data. The experimental evaluation, using real-world datasets with diverse coverage, types, and sizes, shows that planar spatial data can be effectively managed by MongoDB with our flattened R-tree and, therefore, the application extent of MongoDB will be greatly enlarged. Our work resulted in a MongoDB branch with R-tree support, which has been released on GitHub for open access.

  18. Design of flattening filters for the fast-neutron beam at TAMVEC by use of decrement lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otte, V A; Smathers, J B; Wright, R E

    1976-01-01

    Isodose distributions in a tissue-equivalent phantom produced by fast neutrons from 50-MeV deuterons incident on a thick beryllium target exhibit strong forward peaking, particularly for large fields. The design by use of decrement lines and the construction of polyethylene filters used to "flatten" those distributions are discussed and the results are illustrated. Also, the compromises of central-axis attenuation versus effective filter width and of off-axis peaking versus depth of "flattening" are discussed.

  19. Structure and Evolution of Interstellar Gas in Flattened, Rotating Elliptical Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brighenti, Fabrizio; Mathews, William G.

    1996-10-01

    We study the time-dependent evolution of interstellar gas in a family of elliptical galaxies having identical masses and central densities but various ellipticities and total angular momenta. Dark halos are assumed to be flattened in the same manner as the stars. Normal mass loss from evolving galactic stars is sufficient to account for the amount of hot interstellar gas observed. Gas ejected from stars shares the random motions of the stars and the bulk stellar velocity relative to the local interstellar medium; the ejected gas thermalizes to a temperature similar to the virial temperature of the stellar system. The random stellar motions and galactic rotation are found by solving Jeans's equations in cylindrical geometry. For a sequence of galaxies differing only in degree of flattening-E0, E2, and E4-we find that the X-ray images and luminosities are not very different. As the hot interstellar gas loses energy by radiation, it cools to the very center of these nonrotating galaxies regardless of flattening. The X-ray surface brightness is generally slightly steeper than the optical surface brightness of starlight. However, when a small but typical galactic rotation is introduced, the evolution of the interstellar medium is radically altered. The average X- ray surface brightness {SIGMA}_X_ is lower in the galactic center compared to nonrotating galaxies. This lower {SIGMA}_X_ can be achieved without invoking an ad hoc mass dropout from the hot gas. As the gas cools in rotating galaxies, it is deposited in a large disk comparable in size to the effective radius. Alter evolving for several gigayears, most of the new gas in the cooling flow is constrained by angular momentum conservation to arrive at the outer edge of the disk, Causing a local enhancement in the X-ray surface brightness. This results in flattened inner X-ray surface brightness contours that have peanut shapes when viewed nearly perpendicular to the axis of galactic rotation. As gas approaches the

  20. Wet plume atop of the flattening slab: Insight into intraplate volcanism in East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Lijuan

    2017-08-01

    Geophysical observations imply the intraplate volcanism in East Asia is related to dehydration of slab stagnating in the transition zone. To better understand the dynamics of such process, a thermochemical mantle convection model is constructed to simulate numerically the thermal evolution of slab and the transportation of water in the process of slab downgoing, flattening and stagnation. Equation of water transfer is included, and water effects on density and viscosity are considered. Model results indicate the warming of slab by surrounding mantle is rather slow. Water could be successfully dragged into the transition zone if the reference viscosity of the hydrous layer (with initial water of 2 wt%) is higher than 1017 Pa s and that of mantle is 1021 Pa s. Wet plumes could then originate in the flat-lying part of the slab, relatively far from the trench. Generally, the viscosity of the hydrous layer governs the initiation of wet plume, whereas the viscosity of the overlying mantle wedge controls the activity of the ascending wet plumes - they are more active in the weaker wedge. The complex fluid flow superposed by corner flow and free thermal convection influences greatly the water transport pattern in the upper mantle. Modeling results together with previous modeling infer three stages of water circulation in the big mantle wedge: 1) water is brought into the mantle transition zone by downward subducting slab under some specific thermo-rheological conditions, otherwise water is released at shallow depth near wedge tip; 2) wet plume generates from surface of the flattening slab warmed by surrounding mantle, and 3) water spreads over the big mantle wedge. Wet plume from the flattening Pacific Plate arrives at the lithospheric base and induces melting, which can explain the intraplate Cenozoic volcanoes in East Asia.

  1. Supercontinuum Generation Enhanced by Cross-phase Modulation in Dispersion-flattened and Decreasing Fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Wen-cheng; XU Yong-zhao; YU Bing-tao; CUI Hu; CHEN Yong-zhu; LIU Song-hao

    2005-01-01

    Supercontinuum spectrum generation in a dispersion-flattened and decreasing fiber with two orthogonally polarized pulses was simulated and calculated. The research results indicated that the supercontinuum spectrum generated by two orthogonally polarized pulses is wider and flatter than that generated by single polarized pulse due to cross-phase modulation. The cross-phase modulation effect can enhance the supercontinuum spectrum generation. When the pump power of the input pulse is lower, the enhancement of supercontinuum spectrum generation by cross-phase modulation effect is more significant.

  2. Silica-Based Arrayed Waveguide Grating with Flattened Spectral Response Using a Multimode Interference Coupler

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Yan-Zhe; JIA Ke-Miao; LI Bai-Yang; YANG Jian-Yi; JIANG Xiao-Qing; WU Ya-Ming; WANG Yue-Lin

    2004-01-01

    @@ We designed and fabricated an arrayed waveguide grating based on silica-on-silicon materials with flattened spectral response by adding a multimode interference coupler in the input region. The theoretical analysis and calculation are given. The device has worked effectively and has been tested with the passband 0.43 nm at 1 dB,0.72nm at 3dB and 1.56nm at 20dB respectively, at a cost of power penalty of about 1.5dB. The crosstalk is less than -30 dB, owing to the high-resolution photomask and well-controlled fabrication processes.

  3. The DBI Action, Higher-derivative Supergravity, and Flattening Inflaton Potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Bielleman, Sjoerd; Pedro, Francisco G; Valenzuela, Irene; Wieck, Clemens

    2016-01-01

    In string theory compactifications it is common to find an effective Lagrangian for the scalar fields with a non-canonical kinetic term. We study the effective action of the scalar position moduli of Type II D$p$-branes. In many instances the kinetic terms are in fact modified by a term proportional to the scalar potential itself. This can be linked to the appearance of higher-dimensional supersymmetric operators correcting the K\\"ahler potential. We identify the supersymmetric dimension-eight operators describing the $\\alpha'$ corrections captured by the D-brane Dirac-Born-Infeld action. Our analysis then allows an embedding of the D-brane moduli effective action into an $\\mathcal N = 1$ supergravity formulation. The effects of the potential-dependent kinetic terms may be very important if one of the scalars is the inflaton, since they lead to a flattening of the scalar potential. We analyze this flattening effect in detail and compute its impact on the CMB observables for single-field inflation with monomia...

  4. White light coronal structures and flattening during six total solar eclipses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzouk, B. A.; Stoeva, P.; Stoev, A.

    2016-12-01

    Solar corona is very important part of the solar atmosphere, which is not available every time and it is very difficult to observe it. From solar corona we can get more information about outer sun layers. Large-scale structure of the solar corona can be studied during total solar eclipses. The structure, shape and brightness of the solar corona significantly change from eclipse to eclipse. They depend on activity of the sun. At maximum solar activity, the corona is very bright and uniform around the solar limb. There are a lot of bright coronal streamers and other active regions on it. During minimum of solar activity the solar corona stretches at the equator and become elliptical. Flattening index is the first quantitative parameter introduced for analyses of the global structure of the solar corona. It varies with respect to the phase of the solar activity and sunspot number. In this paper we study the solar corona during the 1990, 1999, 2006, 2008, 2009 and 2012 total solar eclipses. We obtain flattening coefficients for all the six eclipses by using a new computer program. Our results are in a good agreement with published results.

  5. Human impacts flatten rainforest-savanna gradient and reduce adaptive diversity in a rainforest bird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam H Freedman

    Full Text Available Ecological gradients have long been recognized as important regions for diversification and speciation. However, little attention has been paid to the evolutionary consequences or conservation implications of human activities that fundamentally change the environmental features of such gradients. Here we show that recent deforestation in West Africa has homogenized the rainforest-savanna gradient, causing a loss of adaptive phenotypic diversity in a common rainforest bird, the little greenbul (Andropadus virens. Previously, this species was shown to exhibit morphological and song divergence along this gradient in Central Africa. Using satellite-based estimates of forest cover, recent morphological data, and historical data from museum specimens collected prior to widespread deforestation, we show that the gradient has become shallower in West Africa and that A. virens populations there have lost morphological variation in traits important to fitness. In contrast, we find no loss of morphological variation in Central Africa where there has been less deforestation and gradients have remained more intact. While rainforest deforestation is a leading cause of species extinction, the potential of deforestation to flatten gradients and inhibit rainforest diversification has not been previously recognized. More deforestation will likely lead to further flattening of the gradient and loss of diversity, and may limit the ability of species to persist under future environmental conditions.

  6. Human impacts flatten rainforest-savanna gradient and reduce adaptive diversity in a rainforest bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Adam H; Buermann, Wolfgang; Mitchard, Edward T A; Defries, Ruth S; Smith, Thomas B

    2010-09-30

    Ecological gradients have long been recognized as important regions for diversification and speciation. However, little attention has been paid to the evolutionary consequences or conservation implications of human activities that fundamentally change the environmental features of such gradients. Here we show that recent deforestation in West Africa has homogenized the rainforest-savanna gradient, causing a loss of adaptive phenotypic diversity in a common rainforest bird, the little greenbul (Andropadus virens). Previously, this species was shown to exhibit morphological and song divergence along this gradient in Central Africa. Using satellite-based estimates of forest cover, recent morphological data, and historical data from museum specimens collected prior to widespread deforestation, we show that the gradient has become shallower in West Africa and that A. virens populations there have lost morphological variation in traits important to fitness. In contrast, we find no loss of morphological variation in Central Africa where there has been less deforestation and gradients have remained more intact. While rainforest deforestation is a leading cause of species extinction, the potential of deforestation to flatten gradients and inhibit rainforest diversification has not been previously recognized. More deforestation will likely lead to further flattening of the gradient and loss of diversity, and may limit the ability of species to persist under future environmental conditions.

  7. Debris and smear removal in flattened root canals after use of different irrigant agitation protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Eduardo Milani; Silva-Sousa, Yara T C; Souza-Gabriel, Aline Evangelista; Sousa-Neto, Manoel Damião; Lorencetti, Karina Torales; Silva, Silvio Rocha Correa

    2012-06-01

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) can be used to analyze the presence of debris and smear layer on the internal walls of root canal. This study evaluated the debris and smear removal in flattened root canals using SEM after use of different irrigant agitation protocols. Fifty mandibular incisors were distributed into five groups (n = 10) according to the irrigant agitation protocol used during chemomechanical preparation: conventional syringe irrigation with NaviTip needle (no activation), active scrubbing of irrigant with brush-covered NaviTip FX needle, manual dynamic irrigation, continuous passive ultrasonic irrigation, and apical negative pressure irrigation (EndoVac system). Canals were irrigated with 5 mL of 2.5% NaOCl at each change of instrument and received a final flush with 17% EDTA for 1 min. After instrumentation, the roots were split longitudinally and SEM micrographs at ×100 and ×1,000 were taken to evaluate the amount of debris and smear layer, respectively, in each third. Data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's post-hoc tests (α = 5%). Manual dynamic activation left significantly (p protocols, while ultrasonic irrigation and EndoVac were the most effective (p 0.05) either among the irrigant agitation protocols or between the protocol-canal third interactions. Although none of the irrigant agitation protocols completely removed debris and smear layer from flattened root canals, the machine-assisted agitation systems (ultrasound and EndoVac) removed more debris than the manual techniques.

  8. Effects of various irrigation/aspiration protocols on cleaning of flattened root canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça, Diego Henrique da Silva; Colucci, Vivian; Rached-Junior, Fuad Jacob Abi; Miranda, Carlos Eduardo Saraiva; Silva-Sousa, Yara Teresinha Corrêa; Silva, Silvio Rocha Corrêa da

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate, by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the cleaning of flattened root canals, varying irrigation/aspiration protocols during biomechanical preparation. Thirdy human mandibular incisors were distributed into three groups (n = 10) according to the aspiration/irrigation protocols: conventional, conventional + brush, and apical negative pressure irrigation. Irrigation procedure was performed with 5 mL of 1% NaOCl at each change of instrument; final irrigation was conducted with 17% EDTA for 5 min. After biomechanical preparation, the roots were sectioned and prepared for SEM analysis. The images obtained were evaluated under 35× and 1,000× magnification by three calibrated examiners, following a double-blind design. All data were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's post hoc tests (α = 0.05). Canals wherein the conventional method and apical negative pressure irrigation were employed revealed less debris, statistically different from the conventional + brush group (p protocols. Comparing each root canal third revealed that the apical portion was difficult to clean as all the tested protocols showed similar high scores (p > 0.05), both for the presence of debris and smear layer. In conclusion, although none of the studied irrigation/aspiration protocols have completely cleaned flattened root canals, apical negative pressure irrigation was more effective in smear layer removal, whereas the conventional + brush protocol was the least effective in removing the debris and smear layer.

  9. Template fitting of WMAP 7-year data: anomalous dust or flattening synchrotron emission?

    CERN Document Server

    Peel, M W; Davies, R D; Banday, A J; Jaffe, T R; Jonas, J L

    2011-01-01

    Anomalous microwave emission at 20-40GHz has been detected across our Galactic sky. It is highly correlated with thermal dust emission and hence it is thought to be due to spinning dust grains. Alternatively, this emission could be due to synchrotron radiation with a flattening (hard) spectral index. We cross-correlate synchrotron, free- free and thermal dust templates with the WMAP 7-year maps using synchrotron templates at both 408MHz and 2.3GHz to assess the amount of flat synchrotron emission that is present, and the impact that this has on the correlations with the other components. We find that there is only a small amount of flattening visible in the synchrotron spectral indices by 2.3GHz, of around \\Delta{\\beta} \\approx 0.05, and that the significant level of dust-correlated emission in the lowest WMAP bands is largely unaffected by the choice of synchrotron template, particularly at high latitudes (it decreases by only ~7 per cent when using 2.3 GHz rather than 408 MHz). This agrees with expectation ...

  10. Limitations to the determination of a Laguerre-Gauss spectrum via projective, phase-flattening measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Qassim, Hammam; Torres, Juan P; Padgett, Miles J; Karimi, Ebrahim; Boyd, Robert W

    2014-01-01

    One of the most widely used techniques for measuring the orbital angular momentum components of a light beam is to flatten the spiral phase front of a mode, in order to couple it to a single-mode optical fiber. This method, however, suffers from an efficiency that depends on the orbital angular momentum of the initial mode and on the presence of higher order radial modes. The reason is that once the phase has been flattened, the field retains its ringed intensity pattern and is therefore a nontrivial superposition of purely radial modes, of which only the fundamental one couples to a single mode optical fiber. In this paper, we study the efficiency of this technique both theoretically and experimentally. We find that even for low values of the OAM, a large amount of light can fall outside the fundamental mode of the fiber, and we quantify the losses as functions of the waist of the coupling beam of the orbital angular momentum and radial indices. Our results can be used as a tool to remove the efficiency bias...

  11. Failure mechanism of hollow tree trunks due to cross-sectional flattening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yan-San; Hsu, Fu-Lan; Lee, Chin-Mei; Juang, Jia-Yang

    2017-04-01

    Failure of hollow trees in urban areas is a worldwide concern, and it can be caused by different mechanisms, i.e. bending stresses or flattening-related failures. Here we derive a new analytical expression for predicting the bending moment for tangential cracking, and compare the breaking moment of various failure modes, including Brazier buckling, tangential cracking, shear failure and conventional bending failure, as a function of t/R ratio, where t and R are the trunk wall thickness and trunk radius, respectively, of a hollow tree. We use Taiwan red cypress as an example and show that its failure modes and the corresponding t/R ratios are: Brazier buckling (Mode I), tangential cracking followed by longitudinal splitting (Mode II) and conventional bending failure (Mode III) for 0 bending moments. Hence, we conclude that tangential cracking due to cross-sectional flattening, followed by longitudinal splitting, is dominant for hollow trunks. Our equations are applicable to analyse straight hollow tree trunks and plant stems, but are not applicable to those with side openings or those with only heart decay. Our findings provide insights for those managing trees in urban situations and those managing for conservation of hollow-dependent fauna in both urban and rural settings.

  12. Investigation of the accuracy of MV radiation isocentre calculations in the Elekta cone-beam CT software XVI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zimmermann, S. J.; Rowshanfarzad, P.; Ebert, M. A.

    2015-01-01

    radiation isocentre prior to routine use of the cone-beam CT system. The isocentre determination method used in the XVI software is not available to users. The aim of this work is to perform an independent evaluation of the Elekta XVI 4.5 software for isocentre verification with focus on the robustness......Purpose/Objective: Most modern radiotherapy treatments are based on cone-beam CT images to ensure precise positioning of the patient relative to the linac. This requires alignment of the cone-beam CT system to the linac MV radiation isocentre. Therefore, it is important to precisely localize the MV......) and the radiation field centre (RFC) is calculated. A software package was developed for accurate calculation of the linac isocentre position. This requires precise determination of the position of the ball bearing and the RFC. Results: Data were acquired for 6 MV, 18 MV and flattening filter free (FFF) 6 MV FFF...

  13. A quantitative analysis of rotary, ultrasonic and manual techniques to treat proximally flattened root canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Soares Grecca

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The efficiency of rotary, manual and ultrasonic root canal instrumentation techniques was investigated in proximally flattened root canals. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty human mandibular left and right central incisors, lateral incisors and premolars were used. The pulp tissue was removed and the root canals were filled with red die. Teeth were instrumented using three techniques: (i K3 and ProTaper rotary systems; (ii ultrasonic crown-down technique; and (iii progressive manual technique. Roots were bisected longitudinally in a buccolingual direction. The instrumented canal walls were digitally captured and the images obtained were analyzed using the Sigma Scan software. Canal walls were evaluated for total canal wall area versus non-instrumented area on which dye remained. RESULTS: No statistically significant difference was found between the instrumentation techniques studied (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study showed that no instrumentation technique was 100% efficient to remove the dye.

  14. Interface-Flattening Transform for EM Field Modeling in Tilted, Cylindrically-Stratified Geophysical Media

    CERN Document Server

    Sainath, Kamalesh

    2016-01-01

    We propose and investigate an "interface-flattening" transformation, hinging upon Transformation Optics (T.O.) techniques, to facilitate the rigorous analysis of electromagnetic (EM) fields radiated by sources embedded in tilted, cylindrically-layered geophysical media. Our method addresses the major challenge in such problems of appropriately approximating the domain boundaries in the computational model while, in a full-wave manner, predicting the effects of tilting in the layers. When incorporated into standard pseudo-analytical algorithms, moreover, the proposed method is quite robust, as it is not limited by absorption, anisotropy, and/or eccentering profile of the cylindrical geophysical formations, nor is it limited by the radiation frequency. These attributes of the proposed method are in contrast to past analysis methods for tilted-layer media that often place limitations on the source and medium characteristics. Through analytical derivations as well as a preliminary numerical investigation, we anal...

  15. Dispersion flattened, low-loss porous fiber for single-mode terahertz wave guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Raonaqul; Rana, Sohel

    2015-05-01

    A porous-core circular photonic crystal fiber is designed for low-loss terahertz (THz) wave propagation. The circular arrangement of air holes, both in the periodic cladding and the porous core, makes it possible to guide most of the optical power through low-loss air, which is confirmed by the rigorous analysis of modal properties of the fiber while maintaining the single-mode propagation condition. The simulation results, found by using an efficient finite element method, show that a flattened dispersion of ±0.09 ps/THz/cm within 0.9 to 1.3 THz and an ultra-low material loss of 0.053 cm-1 at f=1 THz is obtained for the reported design at optimal parameters. This kind of structure can be fabricated using capillary stacking or a sol-gel technique and is expected to be useful for wideband imaging and telecom applications.

  16. No-moving-parts phase flattening based Laguerre-Gauss (LG) spectrometer using variable focus lenses

    CERN Document Server

    Sheikh, Mumtaz; Rathore, Haad Yaqub

    2016-01-01

    We address some of the limitations of the classical projective, phase flattening technique for measuring the Laguerre-Gauss (LG) spectrum of light beams. In particular, we propose the use of two variable focus lenses and a variable sized pinhole to realize a no-moving-parts LG spectrometer with virtually zero coupling losses. Simulation results show that the only losses are ring losses which are mode-dependent but beam waist-independent. Hence, the detection efficiency for all modes is simultaneously the maximum possible irrespective of the beam waist of the LG modes chosen for the decomposition. The losses can also be easily pre-calibrated to remove the small efficiency bias amongst different modes.

  17. Methods for computing internal flattening, with applications to the Earth's structure and geodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denis, C.; Amalvict, M.; Rogister, Y.; Tomecka-Suchoń, S.

    1998-03-01

    After general comments (Section 1) on using variational procedures to compute the oblateness of internal strata in the Earth and slowly rotating planets, we recall briefly some basic concepts about barotropic equilibrium figures (Section 2), and then proceed to discuss several accurate methods to derive the internal flattening. The algorithms given in Section 3 are based on the internal gravity field theory of Clairaut, Laplace and Lyapunov. They make explicit use of the concept of a level surface. The general formulation given here leads to a number of formulae which are of both theoretical and practical use in studying the Earth's structure, dynamics and rotational evolution. We provide exact solutions for the figure functions of three Earth models, and apply the formalism to yield curves for the internal flattening as a function of the spin frequency. Two more methods, which use the general deformation equations, are discussed in Section 4. The latter do not rely explicitly on the existence of level surfaces. They offer an alternative to the classical first-order internal field theory, and can actually be used to compute changes of the flattening on short timescales produced by variations in the LOD. For short durations, the Earth behaves elastically rather than hydrostatically. We discuss in some detail static deformations and Longman's static core paradox (Section 5), and demonstrate that in general no static solution exists for a realistic Earth model. In Section 6 we deal briefly with differential rotation occurring in cylindrical shells, and show why differential rotation of the inner core such as has been advocated recently is incompatible with the concept of level surfaces. In Section 7 we discuss first-order hydrostatic theory in relation to Earth structure, and show how to derive a consistent reference Earth model which is more suitable for geodynamical modelling than are modern Earth models such as 1066-A, PREM or CORE11. An important result is that a

  18. Simplified ASE correction algorithm for variable gain-flattened erbium-doped fiber amplifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdi, Mohd Adzir; Sheih, Shou-Jong; Adikan, Faisal Rafiq Mahamd

    2009-06-08

    We demonstrate a simplified algorithm to manifest the contribution of amplified spontaneous emission in variable gain-flattened Erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA). The detected signal power at the input and output ports of EDFA comprises of both signal and noise. The generated amplified spontaneous emission from EDFA cannot be differentiated by photodetector which leads to underestimation of the targeted gain value. This gain penalty must be taken into consideration in order to obtain the accurate gain level. By taking the average gain penalty within the dynamic gain range, the targeted output power is set higher than the desired level. Thus, the errors are significantly reduced to less than 0.15 dB from 15 dB to 30 dB desired gain values.

  19. Flattening simulations of 3D thick sheets made of fiber composite materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotaro Morioka

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Recently, fiber composite materials have been attracting attention from industry because of their remarkable material characteristics, including light weight and high stiffness. However, the costs of products composed of fiber materials remain high because of the lack of effective manufacturing and designing technologies. To improve the relevant design technology, this paper proposes a novel simulation method for deforming fiber materials. Specifically, given a 3D model with constant thickness and known fiber orientation, the proposed method simulates the deformation of a model made of thick fiber-material. The method separates a 3D sheet model into two surfaces and then flattens these surfaces into two dimensional planes by a parameterization method with involves cross vector fields. The cross vector fields are generated by propagating the given fiber orientations specified at several important points on the 3D model. Integration of the cross vector fields gives parameterization with low-stretch and low-distortion.

  20. Gain Flattening Filter for Hybrid Sb-Doped EDFA Using All-Fiber Mach-Zehnder Interferometers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Manjung Han; Youngeun Im; Woojin Shin; Uh-Chan Ryu; K. Oh

    2003-01-01

    We demonstrate a novel gain-flattening filter based on all fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometers for Sb-doped silica hybrid EDFA. A gain flatness of better than 0.9dB has been achieved for three concatenated filters in C-band.

  1. Binding Energy Distribution Analysis Method: Hamiltonian Replica Exchange with Torsional Flattening for Binding Mode Prediction and Binding Free Energy Estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentes, Ahmet; Deng, Nan-Jie; Vijayan, R S K; Xia, Junchao; Gallicchio, Emilio; Levy, Ronald M

    2016-05-10

    Molecular dynamics modeling of complex biological systems is limited by finite simulation time. The simulations are often trapped close to local energy minima separated by high energy barriers. Here, we introduce Hamiltonian replica exchange (H-REMD) with torsional flattening in the Binding Energy Distribution Analysis Method (BEDAM), to reduce energy barriers along torsional degrees of freedom and accelerate sampling of intramolecular degrees of freedom relevant to protein-ligand binding. The method is tested on a standard benchmark (T4 Lysozyme/L99A/p-xylene complex) and on a library of HIV-1 integrase complexes derived from the SAMPL4 blind challenge. We applied the torsional flattening strategy to 26 of the 53 known binders to the HIV Integrase LEDGF site found to have a binding energy landscape funneled toward the crystal structure. We show that our approach samples the conformational space more efficiently than the original method without flattening when starting from a poorly docked pose with incorrect ligand dihedral angle conformations. In these unfavorable cases convergence to a binding pose within 2-3 Å from the crystallographic pose is obtained within a few nanoseconds of the Hamiltonian replica exchange simulation. We found that torsional flattening is insufficient in cases where trapping is due to factors other than torsional energy, such as the formation of incorrect intramolecular hydrogen bonds and stacking. Work is in progress to generalize the approach to handle these cases and thereby make it more widely applicable.

  2. Aggravation of north channels' shrinkage and south channels' development in the Yangtze Estuary under dam-induced runoff discharge flattening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Bo-yuan; Li, Yi-tian; Yue, Yao; Yang, Yun-ping

    2017-03-01

    Construction of dams on rivers has progressively affected the seasonal variability of runoff discharge, which has consequently produced remarkable impacts on the morphology of estuarine channels. This paper considers four-typical-order bifurcations of the Yangtze Estuary and adopts an ebb partition ratio (defined as the diversion ratio of ebb flow in a given branch divided by the total ebb tidal discharge immediately upstream of the river node where the bifurcation occurs) as a measure of water excavating force in the bifurcation channels. Results show that the seasonal variability of runoff discharge at Datong Hydrological Station (Datong) is flattened, being mainly driven by upstream runoff flattening observed at Yichang Hydrological Station (Yichang) and the tributary rivers. Yearly ebb partition ratios of the channels located to the north and south of the islands present decreasing and increasing trends respectively, and as also do the yearly north and south channel volume of the bifurcations. Yearly ebb partition ratio is proved to be an effective index to represent the water excavating force considering the stability of yearly ebb tidal discharge and its relationship with the channel erosion-deposition. River dams are the driving factors behind the runoff flattening at Datong because of their flattening effects on its main contributors (Yichang and tributary rivers). This flattening significantly helps reduce and enlarge the yearly ebb partition ratios of the north and south channels respectively, and then aggravates the shrinkage and development of the north and south channels separately. Yearly ebb partition ratio of the North Passage (NP) must be enlarged in order for the NP to maintain its function as a shipping channel.

  3. CT study of the performance of reciprocating and oscillatory motions in flattened root canal areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura-Netto, Cacio, E-mail: caciomn@usp.br [Universidade Cruzeiro do Sul (UNICSUL), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Odontologia; Palo, Renato Miotto [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (ICT/UNESP), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Ciencia e Tecnologia; Pinto, Larissa Fernanda; Daltoe, Gisele; Mello-Moura, Anna Carolina Volpi [Universidade Ibirapuera (UNIB), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Odontologia

    2015-03-01

    Abstract: Root canal preparation is an important step in endodontic treatment. The anatomical complexity of the middle third of the root compromises the effective cleaning of this area. Thus, advances have been made in instrumentation techniques and instruments for this purpose. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of three different instrumentation systems on the enlargement of the middle thirds of root canals in mandibular incisors. The preparation methods used were the reciprocating systems Reciproc (Group I) and WaveOne (Group II) and the oscillatory system Tilos (Group III). Comparisons were made by three-dimensional image reconstruction with cone-beam computed tomography before and after instrumentation. Changes in area, perimeter, centering ability, and pattern of preparation were analyzed. The results were subjected to ANOVA complemented by the Tukey’s test. Changes in area, perimeter, and tendency of transportation showed similar results among groups. The transportation index of the Tilos system was significantly lower than that of the other groups. Qualitative analysis of the preparation pattern showed that the Tilos system had a more uniform preparation, although Reciproc and WaveOne preparations appeared more rounded, incompatible with the original canal anatomy. There was similarity in the systems’ performance on flattened areas, although the Tilos system presented a better pattern of root canal preparation and a lower index of transportation. (author)

  4. TAILORING OF FLATTENED DISPERSION IN TRIANGULAR-LATTICE PHOTONIC CRYSTAL FIBER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandhir Kumar Singh

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The interest of researchers and engineers in several laboratories, since the1980s, has been attracted by the ability to structure materials on the scale of the optical wavelength, a fraction of micrometers or less, in order to develop new optical medium, known as photonic crystals . Photonic crystals rely on a regular morphological microstructure of air-holes, incorporated into the material, which radically alters its optical properties. In Photonic Crystal Fiber (PCF it is possible to realize flat dispersion over a wide wavelength range that cannot be realized with a conventional single-mode fiber. In PCFs, the dispersion can be controlled and tailored with unprecedented freedom. In fact, due to the high refractive index difference between silica and air, and to the flexibility of changing air-hole sizes and patterns, the waveguide contribution to the dispersion parameter can be significantly changed, thus obtaining unusual position of the zero dispersion wavelength, as well as particular values of the dispersion curve slope. In particular, by manipulating the air- hole radius or the lattice period of the micro structured cladding, it is possible to control the zero-dispersion wavelength, which can be tuned over a very wide range, or the dispersion curves, which can be engineered to be ultra flattened. In this paper the geometric parameters of triangular PCF have been properly changed to optimize the dispersion compensation over a wide wavelength range.

  5. Design of a pentagonal photonic crystal fiber with high birefringence and large flattened negative dispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuyou; Liu, Pan; Xu, Zhenlong; Zhang, Zhiyong

    2015-08-20

    Novel pentagonal photonic crystal fiber with high birefringence, large flattened negative dispersion, and high nonlinearity is proposed. The dispersion and birefringence properties of this structure are simulated and analyzed numerically based on the full vector finite element method (FEM). Numerical results indicate that the fiber obtains a large average dispersion of -611.9  ps/nm/km over 1,460-1,625 nm and -474  ps/nm/km over 1425-1675 nm wavelength bands for two kinds of optimized designs, respectively. In addition, the proposed PCF shows a high birefringence of 1.67×10-2 and 1.75×10-2 at the operating wavelength of 1550 nm. Moreover, the influence of the possible variation in the parameters during the fabrication process on the dispersion and birefringence properties is studied. The proposed PCF would have important applications in polarization maintaining transmission systems, residual dispersion compensation, supercontinuum generation, and the design of widely tunable wavelength converters based on four-wave mixing.

  6. TOWARD MORE REALISTIC ANALYTIC MODELS OF THE HELIOTAIL: INCORPORATING MAGNETIC FLATTENING VIA DISTORTION FLOWS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleimann, Jens; Fichtner, Horst [Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Fakultät für Physik und Astronomie, Institut für Theoretische Physik IV, Bochum (Germany); Röken, Christian [Universität Regensburg, Fakultät für Mathematik, Regensburg (Germany); Heerikhuisen, Jacob, E-mail: jk@tp4.rub.de, E-mail: hf@tp4.rub.de, E-mail: christian.roeken@mathematik.uni-regensburg.de, E-mail: jacob.heerikhuisen@uah.edu [Department of Space Science and Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomic Research, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Both physical arguments and simulations of the global heliosphere indicate that the tailward heliopause is flattened considerably in the direction perpendicular to both the incoming flow and the large-scale interstellar magnetic field. Despite this fact, all of the existing global analytical models of the outer heliosheath's magnetic field assume a circular cross section of the heliotail. To eliminate this inconsistency, we introduce a mathematical procedure by which any analytically or numerically given magnetic field can be deformed in such a way that the cross sections along the heliotail axis attain freely prescribed, spatially dependent values for their total area and aspect ratio. The distorting transformation of this method honors both the solenoidality condition and the stationary induction equation with respect to an accompanying flow field, provided that both constraints were already satisfied for the original magnetic and flow fields prior to the transformation. In order to obtain realistic values for the above parameters, we present the first quantitative analysis of the heliotail's overall distortion as seen in state-of-the-art three-dimensional hybrid MHD–kinetic simulations.

  7. Optimization of highly nonlinear dispersion-flattened photonic crystal fiber for supercontinuum generation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Ya-Ni

    2013-01-01

    A simple type of photonic crystal fiber (PCF) for supercontinuum generation is proposed for the first time.The proposed PCF is composed of a solid silica core and a cladding with square lattice uniform elliptical air holes,which offers not only a large nonlinear coefficient but also a high birefringence and low leakage losses.The PCF with nonlinear coefficient as large as 46 W-1 · km-1 at the wavelength of 1.55 μm and a total dispersion as low as ±2.5 ps.nm-1 · km-1 over an ultra-broad waveband range of the S-C-L band (wavelength from 1.46 μm to 1.625 μm) is optimized by adjusting its structure parameter,such as the lattice constant A,the air-filling fraction f,and the air-hole ellipticity η.The novel PCF with ultra-flattened dispersion,highly nonlinear coefficient,and nearly zero negative dispersion slope will offer a possibility of efficient super-continuum generation in telecommunication windows using a few ps pulses.

  8. CT study of the performance of reciprocating and oscillatory motions in flattened root canal areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cacio MOURA-NETTO

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Root canal preparation is an important step in endodontic treatment. The anatomical complexity of the middle third of the root compromises the effective cleaning of this area. Thus, advances have been made in instrumentation techniques and instruments for this purpose. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of three different instrumentation systems on the enlargement of the middle thirds of root canals in mandibular incisors. The preparation methods used were the reciprocating systems Reciproc (Group I and WaveOne (Group II and the oscillatory system Tilos (Group III. Comparisons were made by three-dimensional image reconstruction with cone-beam computed tomography before and after instrumentation. Changes in area, perimeter, centering ability, and pattern of preparation were analyzed. The results were subjected to ANOVA complemented by the Tukey’s test. Changes in area, perimeter, and tendency of transportation showed similar results among groups. The transportation index of the Tilos system was significantly lower than that of the other groups. Qualitative analysis of the preparation pattern showed that the Tilos system had a more uniform preparation, although Reciproc and WaveOne preparations appeared more rounded, incompatible with the original canal anatomy. There was similarity in the systems’ performance on flattened areas, although the Tilos system presented a better pattern of root canal preparation and a lower index of transportation.

  9. Flattening of Caribbean coral reefs: region-wide declines in architectural complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Filip, Lorenzo; Dulvy, Nicholas K; Gill, Jennifer A; Côté, Isabelle M; Watkinson, Andrew R

    2009-08-22

    Coral reefs are rich in biodiversity, in large part because their highly complex architecture provides shelter and resources for a wide range of organisms. Recent rapid declines in hard coral cover have occurred across the Caribbean region, but the concomitant consequences for reef architecture have not been quantified on a large scale to date. We provide, to our knowledge, the first region-wide analysis of changes in reef architectural complexity, using nearly 500 surveys across 200 reefs, between 1969 and 2008. The architectural complexity of Caribbean reefs has declined nonlinearly with the near disappearance of the most complex reefs over the last 40 years. The flattening of Caribbean reefs was apparent by the early 1980s, followed by a period of stasis between 1985 and 1998 and then a resumption of the decline in complexity to the present. Rates of loss are similar on shallow (20 m) reefs and are consistent across all five subregions. The temporal pattern of declining architecture coincides with key events in recent Caribbean ecological history: the loss of structurally complex Acropora corals, the mass mortality of the grazing urchin Diadema antillarum and the 1998 El Nino Southern Oscillation-induced worldwide coral bleaching event. The consistently low estimates of current architectural complexity suggest regional-scale degradation and homogenization of reef structure. The widespread loss of architectural complexity is likely to have serious consequences for reef biodiversity, ecosystem functioning and associated environmental services.

  10. The Gaia-ESO Survey: dynamical models of flattened, rotating globular clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffreson, S. M. R.; Sanders, J. L.; Evans, N. W.; Williams, A. A.; Gilmore, G. F.; Bayo, A.; Bragaglia, A.; Casey, A. R.; Flaccomio, E.; Franciosini, E.; Hourihane, A.; Jackson, R. J.; Jeffries, R. D.; Jofré, P.; Koposov, S.; Lardo, C.; Lewis, J.; Magrini, L.; Morbidelli, L.; Pancino, E.; Randich, S.; Sacco, G. G.; Worley, C. C.; Zaggia, S.

    2017-08-01

    We present a family of self-consistent axisymmetric rotating globular cluster models which are fitted to spectroscopic data for NGC 362, NGC 1851, NGC 2808, NGC 4372, NGC 5927 and NGC 6752 to provide constraints on their physical and kinematic properties, including their rotation signals. They are constructed by flattening Modified Plummer profiles, which have the same asymptotic behaviour as classical Plummer models, but can provide better fits to young clusters due to a slower turnover in the density profile. The models are in dynamical equilibrium as they depend solely on the action variables. We employ a fully Bayesian scheme to investigate the uncertainty in our model parameters (including mass-to-light ratios and inclination angles) and evaluate the Bayesian evidence ratio for rotating to non-rotating models. We find convincing levels of rotation only in NGC 2808. In the other clusters, there is just a hint of rotation (in particular, NGC 4372 and NGC 5927), as the data quality does not allow us to draw strong conclusions. Where rotation is present, we find that it is confined to the central regions, within radii of R ≤ 2rh. As part of this work, we have developed a novel q-Gaussian basis expansion of the line-of-sight velocity distributions, from which general models can be constructed via interpolation on the basis coefficients.

  11. Design of Nearly Zero Dispersion Flattened Photonic Crystal Fiber with Double Cladding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wei; HOU Lan-Tian; SONG Jun-Jie; ZHOU Gui-Yao

    2009-01-01

    A novel design of nearly zero dispersion flattened photonic crystal fiber (PCF) with double cladding is proposed.To employ traditional stack and draw technology, the cladding is composed of a traditional triangular lattice of air-holes and silica. The dispersion of the fiber is mainly engineered by the small air holes in the inner cladding,which are easily preserved in the fiber drawing procedure. The large air-holes in the outer cladding are mainly for light confinement. Thus, the dispersion property of the PCF is insensitive to the deformation of the air holes in the outer cladding. Using 8 layers of air-hole ring, the loss of the fundamental mode for the PCF is as low as 0.13dB/km at 1.55μm. The dispersion of the PCF fluctuates from -0.023 to 0.021ps.km-1nm-1 in the range 1.45-1.625 μm.

  12. The Flattened Dark Matter Halo of M31 as Deduced from the Observed HI Scale Heights

    CERN Document Server

    Banerjee, Arunima

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we use the outer-galactic HI scale height data as well as the observed rotation curve as constraints to determine the halo density distribution of the Andromeda galaxy (M31). We model the galaxy as a gravitationally-coupled system of stars and gas, responding to the external force-field of a known Hernquist bulge and the dark matter halo, the density profile of the latter being characterized by four free parameters. The parameter space of the halo is optimized so as to match the observed HI thickness distribution as well as the rotation curve on an equal footing, unlike the previous studies of M31 which were based on rotation curves alone. We show that an oblate halo, with an isothermal density profile, provides the best fit to the observed data. This gives a central density of 0.011 M_sun /pc^3, a core radius of 21 kpc, and an axis ratio of 0.4. The main result from this work is the flattened dark matter halo for M31, which is required to match the outer galactic HI scale height data. Interest...

  13. Medical Radioisotope Production in a Power-Flattened ADS Fuelled with Uranium and Plutonium Dioxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gizem Bakır

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the medical radioisotope production performance of a conceptual accelerator driven system (ADS. Lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE is selected as target material. The subcritical fuel core is conceptually divided into ten equidistant subzones. The ceramic (natural U, PuO2 fuel mixture and the materials used for radioisotope production (copper, gold, cobalt, holmium, rhenium, thulium, mercury, palladium, thallium, molybdenum, and yttrium are separately prepared as cylindrical rods cladded with carbon/carbon composite (C/C and these rods are located in the subzones. In order to obtain the flattened power density, percentages of PuO2 in the mixture of UO2 and PuO2 in the subzones are adjusted in radial direction of the fuel zone. Time-dependent calculations are performed at 1000 MW thermal fission power (Pth for one hour using the BURN card. The neutronic results show that the investigated ADS has a high neutronic capability, in terms of medical radioisotope productions, spent fuel transmutation and energy multiplication. Moreover, a good quasiuniform power density is achieved in each material case. The peak-to-average fission power density ratio is in the range of 1.02–1.28.

  14. Novelty design in gain flattening filter of ASE source based on fat ultra-long period fiber grating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafchi, Fereshteh Mohammadi; Shahi, Sharifeh; Shaffaatifar, Mohammad Taha; Kanani, Mohammad; Noormohammadi, Hossein

    2016-09-01

    A new type of gain flattening filter for amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) source based on erbium doped fiber (EDF) is proposed and demonstrated by fabricating and writing two series ultra-long period fiber grating (ULPFG) on single mode fiber (SMF-28). The novelty method in this research is based on writing the two ULPFGs as fat gratings. The LPG is written by a simple and available arc-discharge method. The pump power based on single-pass backward pump configuration is around 100 mW, and the average wavelength is near to 974 nm. The gain flattening profile is obtained by 3.4 (±1.7) dB ripple in the wavelength range between 1524 nm and 1565 nm with 41-nm band width.

  15. Extinction ratio improvement by pump-modulated four-wave mixing in a dispersion-flattened nonlinear photonic crystal fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, K K; Shu, C; Lin, Chinlon; Bjarklev, A

    2005-10-31

    We demonstrate extinction ratio improvement by using pump-modulated four-wave mixing in a dispersion-flattened nonlinear photonic crystal fiber. A 6-dB improvement in the extinction ratio of a degraded return-to-zero signal has been achieved. A power penalty improvement of 3 dB at 10(-9) bit-error-rate level is obtained in the 10 Gb/s bit-error-rate measurements.

  16. Modeling the impact, flattening and solidification of a molten droplet on a solid substrate during plasma spraying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Y. Z.; Li, Q.; Zheng, Z. H.; Zhu, J. F.; Cao, P. L.

    2014-10-01

    It is quite important to clearly understand the dynamic process of single splat formation for optimizing the plasma spraying process. In present study, a three-dimensional model including heat transfer and phase change was developed on Ansys Fluent 14 platform to simulate the impact, flattening and solidification of a molten droplet on a solid substrate during plasma spraying. The phase, contact pressure, temperature and velocity fields at different spreading times were presented to gain an insight into splat formation mechanism. The predicted splat morphology was in good agreement with the experimental photos. The effect of mushy zone constant, a parameter dominating the solidification behavior of fluid in Fluent, on the flattening of droplet was further investigated. Through comparing the calculated spread factor from present model with the experimental value, a mushy zone constant of 108 or 109 was found to be more appropriate for simulation on the solidification problem occurring in high-speed impact and flattening process, instead of the range of 104-107 recommended in Fluent.

  17. Prediction of Maximum Section Flattening of Thin-walled Circular Steel Tube in Continuous Rotary Straightening Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zi-qian ZHANG

    2016-01-01

    Cross-sectional ovalization of thin-walled circular steel tube because of large plastic bending,also known as the Brazier effect,usually occurs during the initial stage of tube′s continuous rotary straightening process.The amount of ovalization,defined as maximal cross section flattening,is an important technical parameter in tube′s straightening process to control tube′s bending deformation and prevent buckling.However,for the lack of special analytical model,the maximal section flattening was determined in accordance with the specified charts developed by experienced operators on the basis of experimental data;thus,it was inevitable that the localized buckling might oc-cur during some actual straightening operations.New normal strain component formulas were derived based on the thin shell theory.Then,strain energy of thin-walled tube (per unit length)was obtained using the elastic-plastic the-ory.A rational model for predicting the maximal section flattening of the thin-walled circular steel tube under its straightening process was presented by the principle of minimum potential energy.The new model was validated by experiments and numerical simulations.The results show that the new model agrees well with the experiments and the numerical simulations with error of less than 10%.This new model was expected to find its potential application in thin-walled steel tube straightening machine design.

  18. Audio segmentation using Flattened Local Trimmed Range for ecological acoustic space analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovany Vega

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The acoustic space in a given environment is filled with footprints arising from three processes: biophony, geophony and anthrophony. Bioacoustic research using passive acoustic sensors can result in thousands of recordings. An important component of processing these recordings is to automate signal detection. In this paper, we describe a new spectrogram-based approach for extracting individual audio events. Spectrogram-based audio event detection (AED relies on separating the spectrogram into background (i.e., noise and foreground (i.e., signal classes using a threshold such as a global threshold, a per-band threshold, or one given by a classifier. These methods are either too sensitive to noise, designed for an individual species, or require prior training data. Our goal is to develop an algorithm that is not sensitive to noise, does not need any prior training data and works with any type of audio event. To do this, we propose: (1 a spectrogram filtering method, the Flattened Local Trimmed Range (FLTR method, which models the spectrogram as a mixture of stationary and non-stationary energy processes and mitigates the effect of the stationary processes, and (2 an unsupervised algorithm that uses the filter to detect audio events. We measured the performance of the algorithm using a set of six thoroughly validated audio recordings and obtained a sensitivity of 94% and a positive predictive value of 89%. These sensitivity and positive predictive values are very high, given that the validated recordings are diverse and obtained from field conditions. The algorithm was then used to extract audio events in three datasets. Features of these audio events were plotted and showed the unique aspects of the three acoustic communities.

  19. Influence of dynamical equatorial flattening and orientation of a triaxial core on prograde diurnal polar motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Rong; Shen, WenBin

    2016-04-01

    The noise floor of empirical models of diurnal Earth Rotation could reach as low as 1μas as shown by several recent studies. In another aspect, the differences between these empirical models with the theoretical model predictions given by IERS Convention (2010) for certain diurnal frequencies are more than 10 μas (e.g. K1). The traxiality of the core is ignored in the theoretical model given by IERS Convention (2010) because it is highly uncertain. To explain the difference between the empirical model and theoretical model, we consider the possible influence of a triaxial core. We use the difference between empirical models and theoretical model predictions given by IERS Convention (2010) as input to invert the traxiality parameter of the core. In the inversion, we assume the ocean tide response obeys the admittance theory. So extra six admittance parameters are introduced to model the difference between smooth responses inferred from empirical models and that given by theoretical model predictions from IERS Convention (2010). The results show that adding core triaxiality into the theoretical model could narrow the difference between empirical model and theoretical model at diurnal frequencies. The residual of amplitude becomes smaller. For a set of tide components consisting of seven diurnal frequencies (Q1, O1, M1, P1, K1, J1, Oo1), the root mean square of the residual of this set have decreased from more than 10μas to 2˜3μas for most of the empirical models. As for the dynamical equatorial flattening of the core, estimates inverted based on different empirical models are consistent within standard deviation. The results also suggest that the principal axes of the triaxial core does not coincidence with the principal axes of the whole Earth. This study is supported by National 973 Project China (grant No. 2013CB733305), NSFC (grant Nos. 41174011, 41210006, 41504019).

  20. Spectral hole burning effects initiated by uniform signal intensities in a gain-flattened EDFA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A. R. Sarmani; S-J Sheih; F. R. Mahamd Adikan; M. A. Mahdi

    2011-01-01

    @@ Spectral hole burning (SHB) effects in a gain-flattened erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) are demonstrated to be significant in the presence of large signal power around the 1530-1532-nm wavelength range. These are the first effects reported in a setup employing equivalent power level distribution of 40 channels ranging from 1530 to 1561 nm. To explain this, the introduction of a new local population variable into the laser equation is required to support the original inversion ratio that is determined by the pump lasers. In the analysis section, spectroscopic parameters and high signal powers are considered to be other contributing parameters to the change in the gain characteristics. An improvement to this theoretical basis is suggested by implementing mathematical modeling to validate similarities between the gain shape of simulation to that obtained in the experiment.%Spectral hole burning (SHB) effects in a gain-fiattened erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) are demonstrated to be significant in the presence of large signal power around the 1530-1532-nm wavelength range.These are the first effects reported in a setup employing equivalent power level distribution of 40 channels ranging from 1530 to 1561 nm. To explain this, the introduction of a new local population variable into the laser equation is required to support the original inversion ratio that is determined by the pump lasers.In the analysis section, spectroscopic parameters and high signal powers are considered to be other contributing parameters to the change in the gain characteristics. An improvement to this theoretical basis is suggested by implementing mathematical modeling to validate similarities between the gain shape of simulation to that obtained in the experiment.

  1. Ion recombination correction factors (P(ion)) for Varian TrueBeam high-dose-rate therapy beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kry, Stephen F; Popple, Richard; Molineu, Andrea; Followill, David S

    2012-11-08

    Ion recombination is approximately corrected for in the Task Group 51 protocol by Pion, which is calculated by a two-voltage measurement. This measurement approach may be a poor estimate of the true recombination, particularly if Pion is large (greater than 1.05). Concern exists that Pion in high-dose-per-pulse beams, such as flattening filter free (FFF) beams, may be unacceptably high, rendering the two-voltage measurement technique inappropriate. Therefore, Pion was measured for flattened beams of 6, 10, 15, and 18 MV and for FFF beams of 6 and 10 MV. The values for the FFF beams were verified with 1/V versus 1/Q curves (Jaffé plots). Pion was also measured for electron beams of 6, 12, 16, 18, and 20 MeV on a traditional accelerator, as well as on the high-dose-rate Varian TrueBeam accelerator. The measurements were made at a range of depths and with PTW, NEL, and Exradin Farmer-type chambers. Consistent with the increased dose per pulse, Pion was higher for FFF beams than for flattening filter beams. However, for all beams, measurement locations, and chambers examined, Pion never exceeded 1.018. Additionally, Pion was always within 0.3% of the recombination calculated from the Jaffé plots. We conclude that ion recombination can be adequately accounted for in high-dose-rate FFF beams using Pion determined with the standard two-voltage technique.

  2. 扁平沟槽烧结吸液芯热管的设计与制造%Fabrication of flatten grooved-sintered wick heat pipe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋乐伦; 汤勇; 周伟; 蒋琳珍; 陆龙生

    2013-01-01

    随着电子芯片热流密度的急剧增加及有效散热空间的日益狭小,具有高热导率、高可靠性、快热响应、无需额外动力等特点的扁平热管已成为电子领域使用的理想导热元件。提出了沟槽烧结吸液芯扁平热管的加热相变压扁制造方法;理论分析了加热相变压扁制造过程中热管几何形状变化和热管弹塑性大变形的成形过程,并进行了实验测试。结果发现:相变压扁过程作用机制为热管内部的饱和蒸汽压方程;相变压扁过程中,热管几何形状变化很大,最大等效塑性应变主要发生在扁平段吸液芯/蒸汽界面上;当压扁温度为480 K时,压扁热管的屈曲率微小,可忽略不计;相变压扁力随着压扁温度的升高和压扁位移的增大而增大。%With the rapid rising of heat flux and reduction of heat dissipating space of microelectronic devises, flattened sintered heat pipe has become an ideal conducting element of use in the electronic cooling field. A manufacturing technology named phase change flattening process is presented to fabricate the flattened grooved-sintered wick heat pipe (GSHP for short). Deformation geometry of flattened GSHP and the elasto-plastic deformation of flattening process are analyzed theoretically and verified by experiments. The results show that the vapor pressure inside sintered heat pipe during flattening process is determined by the saturated vapor pressure equation;the width and vapor area of flattened heat pipe change greatly as the flattening proceeds;the maximum equivalent strain distributes at the interface between wick and vapor in the flat section;the buckling phenomenon can be well eliminated when the flattening temperature reaches 480 K;phase change flattening punch load increases with flattening temperature and displacement.

  3. Reactivity Flattening for a Soluble Boron-Free Small Modular Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, JinHa; Kang, JungKil; Hah, ChangJoo [KINGS, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    In this study, it is found that double-layered BP rod with same absorber material, B{sub 4}C/B{sub 4}C, is the most efficient candidate of BP for a SBF reactor. This burnable absorber is flexible to cope with various reactivity shapes by adjusting the thickness of absorber material, weight ratio of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and B{sub 4}C, and it can be used like a single-layered burnable absorber by replacing outer layer with air. The results of depletion calculation verify that core excess reactivity can be well controlled, and show that core radial power distributions are also well flattened over the entire core burnup. Removing soluble boron from the primary coolant system brings many benefits of simplifying the reactor operation and maintenance. Although a Soluble Boron-Free (SBF) operation has a lot of advantages, there are several barriers to overcome such as heavily bottom skewed axial power distribution due to the strong negative MTC, control rod design to secure the reactivity shutdown margin, and excess reactivity holddown by using burnable absorbers and control rods, etc. For these reasons, there is no practical boron-free power operation in the world in spite of many studies on the SBF reactor. Burnable absorbers and control rods are the only available means, so far, to compensate excess reactivity for a SBF reactor. Frequent use of the control rods, however, can give a big burden to operators, and deep insertion of the control rods can cause fuel damage when Reactivity Initiated Accident (RIA) occurs like CEA ejection and bank withdrawal. The purpose of this study is to design a new conceptual burnable absorber to achieve flat reactivity from Beginning Of Cycle (BOC) to End Of Cycle (EOC). For these reasons, firstly, we carry out the investigation of the nuclear characteristics of the 17X17 WH (WestingHouse) type Fuel Assembly (FA) containing various burnable absorbers which have been widely used in PWR. Secondly, three kinds of new conceptual Burnable Poison

  4. Spectra and neutron dose of an 18 MV Linac using two geometric models of the head; Espectros y dosis por neutrones de un Linac de 18 MV usando dos modelos geometricos del cabezal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrera, M. T.; Pino, F.; Barros, H.; Sajo-Bohus, L. [Universidad Simon Bolivar, Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear, Sartenejas, Baruta 1080-A, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Davila, J. [Fisica Medica C. A., Av. Francisco de Miranda s/n, Los Palos Grandes, 1060 Miranda (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Salcedo, E. [Centro Medico Docente La Trinidad, Av. de El Haltillo, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Vega C, H. R. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico); Benites R, J. L., E-mail: mariate9590@gmail.com [Centro de Cancerologia de Nayarit, Servicio de Seguridad Radiologica, Calz. de la Cruz 118 Sur, 63000 Tepic, Nayarit (Mexico)

    2015-10-15

    Full text: Using the Monte Carlo method, by MCNP5 code, simulations were performed with different source terms and 2 geometric models of the head to obtain spectra in energy, flow and doses of photo-neutrons at different positions on the stretcher and in the radiotherapy room. The simplest model was a spherical shell of tungsten; the second was the complete model of a heterogeneous head of an accelerator Varian ix. In both models Tosi function was used as a source term. In addition, for the second model Sheikh-Bagheri distribution was used for photons and photo-neutrons were generated. Also in both models the radiotherapy room of Gurve group of the Teaching Medical Center La Trinidad was included, which is equipped with an accelerator Varian Clinic 2100. In this Center passive detectors PADC (Cr-39) were irradiated with neutron converters, with 18 MeV photons radiation. The measured neutron flow was compared with that obtained with Monte Carlo calculations. The Monte Carlo flows are similar to those measured at the isocenter. The simplest model underestimates the neutron flow compared with the calculated flows with the heterogeneous model of the head. (Author)

  5. Depolarization technique for wavelength conversion using four-wave mixing in a dispersion-flattened photonic crystal fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Taotao; Shu, Chester; Lin, Chinlon

    2005-07-11

    We have developed a depolarization technique to achieve polarization-insensitive wavelength conversion using four-wave mixing in an optical fiber. A maximum conversion efficiency of -11.79 dB was achieved over a 3 dB bandwidth of 26 nm in a 100-m-long dispersion-flattened photonic crystal fiber. The polarization-dependent conversion efficiency was less than 0.38 dB and the measured power penalty for a 10 Gbit/s NRZ signal was 1.9 dB. The relation between the conversion efficiency and the degree of polarization of the pump was also formulated.

  6. Estimation of Secondary Skin Cancer Risk Due To Electron Contamination in 18-MV LINAC-Based Prostate Radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mostafa Ghavami

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Accurate estimation of the skin-absorbed dose in external radiation therapy is essential to estimating the probability of secondary carcinogenesis induction Materials and Methods Electron contamination in prostate radiotherapy was investigated using the Monte Carlo (MC code calculation. In addition, field size dependence of the skin dose was assessed. Excess cancer risk induced by electron contamination was determined for the skin, surface dose, and prostate dose-volume histogram (DVH using MC calculation and analytical methods. Results MC calculations indicated that up to 80% of total electron contamination fluence was produced in the linear accelerator. At 5 mm below the skin surface, surface dose was estimated at 6%, 13%, 27%, and 38% for 5×5 cm2, 10×10 cm2, 20×20 cm2, and 40×40 cm2 field sizes, respectively. Relative dose at Dmax was calculated at 0.92% and 5.42% of the maximum dose for 5×5 cm2 and 40×40 cm2 field sizes, respectively. Excess absolute skin cancer risk was obtained at 2.96×10-4 (PY -1 for total 72 Gy. Differences in prostate and skin DVHs were 1.01% and 1.38%, respectively. Conclusion According to the results of this study, non-negligible doses are absorbed from contaminant electrons by the skin, which is associated with an excess risk of cancer induction.

  7. Photoneutron Flux Measurement via Neutron Activation Analysis in a Radiotherapy Bunker with an 18 MV Linear Accelerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çeçen Yiğit

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In cancer treatment, high energy X-rays are used which are produced by linear accelerators (LINACs. If the energy of these beams is over 8 MeV, photonuclear reactions occur between the bremsstrahlung photons and the metallic parts of the LINAC. As a result of these interactions, neutrons are also produced as secondary radiation products (γ,n which are called photoneutrons. The study aims to map the photoneutron flux distribution within the LINAC bunker via neutron activation analysis (NAA using indium-cadmium foils. Irradiations made at different gantry angles (0°, 90°, 180° and 270° with a total of 91 positions in the Philips SLI-25 linear accelerator treatment room and location-based distribution of thermal neutron flux was obtained. Gamma spectrum analysis was carried out with high purity germanium (HPGe detector. Results of the analysis showed that the maximum neutron flux in the room occurred at just above of the LINAC head (1.2x105 neutrons/cm2.s which is compatible with an americium-beryllium (Am-Be neutron source. There was a 90% decrease of flux at the walls and at the start of the maze with respect to the maximum neutron flux. And, just in front of the LINAC door, inside the room, neutron flux was measured less than 1% of the maximum.

  8. A Monte Carlo Study of the Photon Spectrum due to the Different Materials Used in the Construction of Flattening Filters of LINAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Estepa Jiménez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Different types the spectrum of photons were studied; they were emitted from the flattening filter of a LINAC Varian 2100 C/D that operates at 15 MV. The simplified geometry of the LINAC head was calculated using the MCNPX code based on the studies of the materials of the flattening filter, namely, SST, W, Pb, Fe, Ta, Al, and Cu. These materials were replaced in the flattening filter to calculate the photon spectra at the output of this device to obtain the spectrum that makes an impact with the patient. The different spectra obtained were analyzed and compared to the emission from the original spectra configuration of the LINAC, which uses material W. In the study, different combinations of materials were considered in order to establish differences between the use of different materials and the original material, with the objective of establishing advantages and disadvantages from a clinical standpoint.

  9. Suppressing the multimodal size distribution of InAs/GaAs quantum dots through flattening the surface fluctuation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A method of suppressing the multimodal size distribution of InAs/GaAs quantum dots(QDs) using molecular beam epitaxy through flattening the substrate surface is reported in this work.It is found that the surface roughness plays an important role in the growth of QDs through continuous surface evolution(SEQDs).SEQDs are the main components of small QD ensemble in QDs with multimodal size distribution.It is suggested that most of the SEQDs are very likely to nucleate during the growth interruption rather than during the deposition.The growth of QDs on a smoother surface has largely reduced the density of SEQDs.The photoluminescence line width of uniform QDs is found to be only 17 meV at a low temperature.

  10. Extremely low material loss and dispersion flattened TOPAS based circular porous fiber for long distance terahertz wave transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md. Saiful; Sultana, Jakeya; Rana, Sohel; Islam, Mohammad Rakibul; Faisal, Mohammad; Kaijage, Shubi F.; Abbott, Derek

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we present a porous-core circular photonic crystal fiber (PC-CPCF) with ultra-low material loss for efficient terahertz wave transmission. The full vector finite element method with an ideally matched layer boundary condition is used to characterize the wave guiding properties of the proposed fiber. At an operating frequency of 1 THz, simulated results exhibit an extremely low effective material loss of 0.043 cm-1, higher core power fraction of 47% and ultra-flattened dispersion variation of 0.09 ps/THz/cm. The effects of important design properties such as single mode operation, confinement loss and effective area of the fiber are investigated in the terahertz regime. Moreover, the proposed fiber can be fabricated using the capillary stacking or sol-gel technique and be useful for long distance transmission of terahertz waves.

  11. Design of a High-Nonlinearity Single-Mode Holey Fiber with Flattened Dispersion around 800 nm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wei; SOU Lan-Tian; LIU Zhao-Lun; ZHOU Gui-Yao

    2009-01-01

    We numerically demonstrate a high-nonlinearity single-mode holey fiber with flattened dispersion around the Ti-Za laser band at 800 nm. The dispersion profile of the fiber has the shape of a quadratic curve, which reaches its maximun 5.96ps·km~(-1)·nm~(-1)at 800nm and its minimum -0.897 ps·km-1·nm~(-1) at both 750 and 850 nm.The nonlinear coefficient is 170 W~(-1)km~(-1) at 800nm and so higher order modes exit. A six-layer air-hole cladding ensures a loss less than 0.067 db/m in the 750 to 850nm range. Two more air-hole rings will reduce the loss to below 0.1db/km.

  12. Trapped fast particle destabilization of internal kink mode for the locally flattened q-profile with an inflection point

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xian-Qu [Institute of Fusion Science, School of Physical Science and Technology, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); Zhang, Rui-Bin; Meng, Guo [State Key Lab of Nuclear Physics and Technology, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2016-07-15

    The destabilization of ideal internal kink modes by trapped fast particles in tokamak plasmas with a “shoulder”-like equilibrium current is investigated. It is found that energetic particle branch of the mode is unstable with the driving of fast-particle precession drifts and corresponds to a precessional fishbone. The mode with a low stability threshold is also more easily excited than the conventional precessional fishbone. This is different from earlier studies for the same equilibrium in which the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) branch of the mode is stable. Furthermore, the stability and characteristic frequency of the mode are analyzed by solving the dispersion relation and comparing with the conventional fishbone. The results suggest that an equilibrium with a locally flattened q-profile, may be modified by localized current drive (or bootstrap current, etc.), is prone to the onset of the precessional fishbone branch of the mode.

  13. A new photonic crystal fiber design on the high negative ultra-flattened dispersion for both X and Y polarization modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmud, Russel Reza; Razzak, S. M Abdur; Hasan, Md Imran;

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of numerical design and properties of a new silica based photonic crystal fiber (PCF) are proposed in this manuscript. The design performs ultra-flattened negative chromatic dispersion (UNCD) in the optical windows 2nd and 3rd involving O to U bands in the infrared (IF) portion. The guid...

  14. Safety assessment of heavy-duty multilayer flattened strand haulage ropes by means of life calculations. Parts 1 and 2; Beurteilung der sicheren Verwendbarkeit von hochbeanspruchten mehrlagigen Flachlitzen-Foerderseilen durch Berechnung der Lebensdauer. T. 1 und 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spas, W. [Deutsche Montan Technologie GmbH, Bochum (Germany). Car Synergies Division

    2003-07-01

    The life of multilayer flattened strand ropes was calculated. Based on the operating parameters of the mine shafts and the characteristic data of the ropes, a correlation between the life of single wires under variable dynamic tensile stress on the one hand and the real stress variation during operation of flattened strand ropes in mine shafts was to be established.

  15. Cryogenic transmission electron microscopy of recombinant tuberculosis vaccine antigen with anionic liposomes reveals formation of flattened liposomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fox CB

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Christopher B Fox,1 Sean K Mulligan,2 Joyce Sung,2 Quinton M Dowling,1 H W Millie Fung,1 Thomas S Vedvick,1 Rhea N Coler1 1Infectious Disease Research Institute, Seattle, WA, USA; 2NanoImaging Services, La Jolla, CA, USA Abstract: Development of lipid-based adjuvant formulations to enhance the immunogenicity of recombinant vaccine antigens is a focus of modern vaccine research. Characterizing interactions between vaccine antigens and formulation excipients is important for establishing compatibility between the different components and optimizing vaccine stability and potency. Cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (TEM is a highly informative analytical technique that may elucidate various aspects of protein- and lipid-based structures, including morphology, size, shape, and phase structure, while avoiding artifacts associated with staining-based TEM. In this work, cryogenic TEM is employed to characterize a recombinant tuberculosis vaccine antigen, an anionic liposome formulation, and antigen–liposome interactions. By performing three-dimensional tomographic reconstruction analysis, the formation of a population of protein-containing flattened liposomes, not present in the control samples, was detected. It is shown that cryogenic TEM provides unique information regarding antigen–liposome interactions not detectable by light-scattering-based methods. Employing a suite of complementary analytical techniques is important to fully characterize interactions between vaccine components. Keywords: vaccine adjuvant; cryo-TEM; antigen-adjuvant interactions; vaccine physical characterization; vaccine formulation morphology; 3D tomographic reconstruction

  16. Cryogenic transmission electron microscopy of recombinant tuberculosis vaccine antigen with anionic liposomes reveals formation of flattened liposomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Christopher B; Mulligan, Sean K; Sung, Joyce; Dowling, Quinton M; Fung, H W Millie; Vedvick, Thomas S; Coler, Rhea N

    2014-01-01

    Development of lipid-based adjuvant formulations to enhance the immunogenicity of recombinant vaccine antigens is a focus of modern vaccine research. Characterizing interactions between vaccine antigens and formulation excipients is important for establishing compatibility between the different components and optimizing vaccine stability and potency. Cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is a highly informative analytical technique that may elucidate various aspects of protein- and lipid-based structures, including morphology, size, shape, and phase structure, while avoiding artifacts associated with staining-based TEM. In this work, cryogenic TEM is employed to characterize a recombinant tuberculosis vaccine antigen, an anionic liposome formulation, and antigen-liposome interactions. By performing three-dimensional tomographic reconstruction analysis, the formation of a population of protein-containing flattened liposomes, not present in the control samples, was detected. It is shown that cryogenic TEM provides unique information regarding antigen-liposome interactions not detectable by light-scattering-based methods. Employing a suite of complementary analytical techniques is important to fully characterize interactions between vaccine components.

  17. Contact angles of liquid drops on super hydrophobic surfaces: understanding the role of flattening of drops by gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extrand, C W; Moon, Sung In

    2010-11-16

    Measurement of contact angles on super hydrophobic surfaces by conventional methods can produce ambiguous results. Experimental difficulties in constructing tangent lines, gravitational distortion or erroneous assumptions regarding the extent of spreading can lead to underestimation of contact angles. Three models were used to estimate drop shape and perceived contact angles on completely nonwetting super hydrophobic surfaces. One of the models employed the classic numerical solutions from Bashforth and Adams. Additionally, two approximate models were derived as part of this work. All three showed significant distortion of microliter-sized drops and similar trends in perceived contact angles. Liquid drops of several microliters are traditionally used in sessile contact angle measurements. Drops of this size are expected to and indeed undergo significant flattening on super hydrophobic surfaces, even if the wetting interactions are minimal. The distortion is more pronounced if the liquid has a lesser surface tension or greater density. For surfaces that are completely nonwetting, underestimation of contact angles can be tens of degrees. Our modeling efforts suggest that accurate contact angle measurements on super hydrophobic surfaces would require very small sessile drops, on the order of hundreds of picoliters.

  18. Accurately control and flatten gain spectrum of L-band erbium doped fiber amplifier based on suitable gain-clamping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiuru; Meng, Xiangyu; Liu, Chunyu

    2016-04-01

    The increasing traffic with dynamic nature requires the applications of gain-clamped L-band erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA). However, the weak or over clamping may lead the unexpected gain-compression and flatness-worsening. In this article, to enhance practicality, we modify the partly gain-clamping configuration and utilize a pair of C-band fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) to non-uniformly compress the gain spectrum of L-band. Through a comprehensive test and comparison, the suitable gain-clamping region for the amplified signals is found, and the gain in L-band is accurately controlled and flattened under the matched central wavelength of FBGs. The experimental results show that, our designed L-band EDFA achieves a trade-off among the output gain, flatness and stability. The ±0.44 dB flatness and 20.2 dB average gain are together obtained in the range of 1570-1610 nm, with the ±0.1 dB stability of signals in over 30 dBm dynamic range.

  19. A new design of photonic crystal fiber with ultra-flattened dispersion to simultaneously minimize the dispersion and confinement loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olyaee, Saeed; Taghipour, Fahimeh

    2011-02-01

    Photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) are highly suitable transmission media for wavelength-division-multiplexing (WDM) systems, in which low and ultra-flattened dispersion of PCFs is extremely desirable. It is also required to concurrently achieve both a low confinement loss as well as a large effective area in a wide range of wavelengths. Relatively low dispersion with negligible variation has become feasible in the wavelength range of 1.1 to 1.8μm through the proposed design in this paper. According to a new structure of PCF presented in this study, the dispersion slope is 6.8×10-4ps/km.nm2 and the confinement loss reaches below 10-6 dB/km in this range, while at the same time an effective area of more than 50μm2 has been attained. For the analysis of this PCF, finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method with the perfectly matched layers (PML) boundary conditions has been used.

  20. Comparison of Head Scatter Factor for 6MV and 10MV flattened (FB) and Unflattened (FFF) Photon Beam using indigenously Designed Columnar Mini Phantom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashokkumar, Sigamani; Nambi Raj, N Arunai; Sinha, Sujit Nath; Yadav, Girigesh; Thiyagarajan, Rajesh; Raman, Kothanda; Mishra, Manindra Bhushan

    2014-07-01

    To measure and compare the head scatter factor for flattened (FB) and unflattened (FFF) of 6MV and 10MV photon beam using indigenously designed mini phantom. A columnar mini phantom was designed as recommended by AAPM Task Group 74 with low and high atomic number materials at 10 cm (mini phantom) and at approximately twice the depth of maximum dose water equivalent thickness (brass build-up cap). Scatter in the accelerator (Sc) values of 6MV-FFF photon beams are lesser than that of the 6MV-FB photon beams (0.66-2.8%; Clinac iX, 2300CD) and (0.47-1.74%; True beam) for field sizes ranging from 10 × 10 cm(2) to 40 × 40 cm(2). Sc values of 10MV-FFF photon beams are lesser (0.61-2.19%; True beam) than that of the 10MV-FB photons beams for field sizes ranging from 10 × 10 cm(2) to 40 × 40 cm(2). The SSD had no influence on head scatter for both flattened and unflattened beams and irrespective of head design of the different linear accelerators. The presence of field shaping device influences the Sc values. The collimator exchange effect reveals that the opening of the upper jaw increases Sc irrespective of FB or FFF photon beams and different linear accelerators, and it is less significant in FFF beams. Sc values of 6MV-FB square field were in good agreement with that of AAPM, TG-74 published data for Varian (Clinac iX, 2300CD) accelerator. Our results confirm that the removal of flattening filter decreases in the head scatter factor compared to flattened beam. This could reduce the out-of-field dose in advanced treatment delivery techniques.

  1. Wavelength conversion, time demultiplexing and multicasting based on cross-phase modulation and four-wave mixing in dispersion-flattened highly nonlinear photonic crystal fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Zhan-Qiang; Zhang, Jian-Guo

    2012-05-01

    We propose the use of cross-phase modulation (XPM) and four-wave mixing (FWM) in dispersion-flattened highly nonlinear photonic crystal fibers (HNL-PCFs) to implement the functionalities of wavelength conversion, simultaneous time demultiplexing and wavelength multicasting in optical time-division multiplexing (OTDM) systems. The experiments on wavelength conversion at 80 Gbit s-1and OTDM demultiplexing from 80 to 10 Gbit s-1 with wavelength multicasting of two channels are successfully demonstrated to validate the proposed scheme, which are carried out by using two segments of dispersion-flattened HNL-PCFs with lengths of 100 and 50 m, respectively. Moreover, the bit error rate (BER) performance is also measured. The results show that our designed system can achieve a power penalty of less than 4.6 dB for two multicasting channels with a 24 nm wavelength span at the BER of 10-9 when compared with the 10 Gbit/s back-to-back measurement. The proposed system is transparent to bit rate since only an ultrafast third-order nonlinear effect is used. The resulting configuration is compact, robust and reliable, benefiting from the use of dispersion-flattened HNL-PCFs with short lengths. This also makes the proposed system more flexible in the operational wavelengths than those based on dispersion-shifted fibers and traditional highly nonlinear fibers. The work was supported in part by the CAS/SAFEA International Partnership Program for Creative Research Teams.

  2. Flattened-Top Domical Water Drops Formed through Self-Organization of Hydrophobin Membranes: A Structural and Mechanistic Study Using Atomic Force Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Ryota; Takatsuji, Yoshiyuki; Asakawa, Hitoshi; Fukuma, Takeshi; Haruyama, Tetsuya

    2016-01-26

    The Trichoderma reesei hydrophobin, HFBI, is a unique structural protein. This protein forms membranes by self-organization at air/water or water/solid interfaces. When HFBI forms a membrane at an air/water interface, the top of the water droplet is flattened. The mechanism underlying this phenomenon has not been explored. In this study, this unique phenomenon has been investigated. Self-organized HFBI membranes form a hexagonal structured membrane on the surface of water droplets; the structure was confirmed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurement. Assembled hexagons can form a planar sheet or a tube. Self-organized HFBI membranes on water droplets form a sheet with an array of hexagonal structures or a honeycomb structure. This membrane, with its arrayed hexagonal structures, has very high buckling strength. We hypothesized that the high buckling strength is the reason that water droplets containing HFBI form flattened domes. To test this hypothesis, the strength of the self-organized HFBI membranes was analyzed using AFM. The buckling strength of HFBI membranes was measured to be 66.9 mN/m. In contrast, the surface tension of water droplets containing dissolved HFBI is 42 mN/m. Thus, the buckling strength of a self-organized HFBI membrane is higher than the surface tension of water containing dissolved HFBI. This mechanistic study clarifies why the water droplets formed by self-organized HFBI membranes have a flattened top.

  3. Consequences of removing the flattening filter from linear accelerators in generating high dose rate photon beams for clinical applications: A Monte Carlo study verified by measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishmael Parsai, E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toledo, 3000 Arlington Avenue, Toledo, OH 43614 (United States)]. E-mail: Ishmael.parsai@utoledo.edu; Pearson, David [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toledo, 3000 Arlington Avenue, Toledo, OH 43614 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, 3000 Arlington Avenue, Toledo, OH 43614 (United States); Kvale, Thomas [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, 3000 Arlington Avenue, Toledo, OH 43614 (United States)

    2007-08-15

    An Elekta SL-25 medical linear accelerator (Elekta Oncology Systems, Crawley, UK) has been modelled using Monte Carlo simulations with the photon flattening filter removed. It is hypothesized that intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatments may be carried out after the removal of this component despite it's criticality to standard treatments. Measurements using a scanning water phantom were also performed after the flattening filter had been removed. Both simulated and measured beam profiles showed that dose on the central axis increased, with the Monte Carlo simulations showing an increase by a factor of 2.35 for 6 MV and 4.18 for 10 MV beams. A further consequence of removing the flattening filter was the softening of the photon energy spectrum leading to a steeper reduction in dose at depths greater than the depth of maximum dose. A comparison of the points at the field edge showed that dose was reduced at these points by as much as 5.8% for larger fields. In conclusion, the greater photon fluence is expected to result in shorter treatment times, while the reduction in dose outside of the treatment field is strongly suggestive of more accurate dose delivery to the target.

  4. A New Design of As2Se3‎ Chalcogenide Glass Photonic Crystal Fiber with Ultra-Flattened Dispersion in Mid-Infrared Wavelength Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Seifouri

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we report a new design of As2Se3‎ chalcogenide glass photonic crystal fiber (PCF with ultra-flattened dispersion at mid-infrared wavelength range. We have used the plane wave expansion method (PWE for designing the structure of As2Se3‎ glass PCF at different wavelength windows. In the proposed structure with hole to hole spacing and , the negative dispersion is -1025 ps/nm/km at the wavelength of 1.55µm, and also an ultra-flattened dispersion is achieved at the wavelength range of 3.5-18μm. Hence such PCFs have a high potential to be used as dispersion compensating fibers at 1.55µm wavelength in optical communication systems. The ultra-flattened dispersion at the wavelength range of 3.5-18μm can be employed to achieve high power super-continuum generation. The nonlinear coefficient of the proposed PCF is 1.5 W-1m-1 at the wavelength of 1.55µm. Chalcogenide glasses are known to have both high transparency and nonlinearity in a wide range of infrared wavelengths compared to silica glasses.

  5. Three-dimensional reconstruction of serial mouse brain sections: solution for flattening high-resolution large-scale mosaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlanga, Monica L; Phan, Sébastien; Bushong, Eric A; Wu, Stephanie; Kwon, Ohkyung; Phung, Binh S; Lamont, Steve; Terada, Masako; Tasdizen, Tolga; Martone, Maryann E; Ellisman, Mark H

    2011-01-01

    Recent advances in high-throughput technology facilitate massive data collection and sharing, enabling neuroscientists to explore the brain across a large range of spatial scales. One such form of high-throughput data collection is the construction of large-scale mosaic volumes using light microscopy (Chow et al., 2006; Price et al., 2006). With this technology, researchers can collect and analyze high-resolution digitized volumes of whole brain sections down to 0.2 μm. However, until recently, scientists lacked the tools to easily handle these large high-resolution datasets. Furthermore, artifacts resulting from specimen preparation limited volume reconstruction using this technique to only a single tissue section. In this paper, we carefully describe the steps we used to digitally reconstruct a series of consecutive mouse brain sections labeled with three stains, a stain for blood vessels (DiI), a nuclear stain (TO-PRO-3), and a myelin stain (FluoroMyelin). These stains label important neuroanatomical landmarks that are used for stacking the serial sections during reconstruction. In addition, we show that the use of two software applications, ir-Tweak and Mogrifier, in conjunction with a volume flattening procedure enable scientists to adeptly work with digitized volumes despite tears and thickness variations within tissue sections. These applications make processing large-scale brain mosaics more efficient. When used in combination with new database resources, these brain maps should allow researchers to extend the lifetime of their specimens indefinitely by preserving them in digital form, making them available for future analyses as our knowledge in the field of neuroscience continues to expand.

  6. Three-dimensional reconstruction of serial mouse brain sections: Solution for flattening high-resolution large-scale mosaics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica L Berlanga

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in high-throughput technology facilitate massive data collection and sharing, enabling neuroscientists to explore the brain across a large range of spatial scales. One such form of high-throughput data collection is the construction of large-scale mosaic volumes using light microscopy (Chow et al., 2006; Price et al., 2006. With this technology, researchers can collect and analyze high-resolution digitized volumes of whole brain sections down to 0.2um. However, until recently, scientists lacked the tools to easily handle these large high-resolution datasets. Furthermore, artifacts resulting from specimen preparation limited volume reconstruction using this technique to only a single tissue section. In this paper, we carefully describe the steps we used to digitally reconstruct a series of consecutive mouse brain sections labeled with three stains, a stain for blood vessels (DiI, a nuclear stain (TO-PRO-3, and a myelin stain (FluoroMyelin. These stains label important neuroanatomical landmarks that are used for stacking the serial sections during reconstruction. In addition, we show that the use of two software applications, ir-Tweak and Mogrifier, in conjunction with a volume flattening procedure enable scientists to adeptly work with digitized volumes despite tears and thickness variations within tissue sections. These applications make processing large-scale brain mosaics more efficient. When used in combination with new database resources, these brain maps should allow researchers to extend the lifetime of their specimens indefinitely by preserving them in digital form, making them available for future analyses as our knowledge in the field of neuroscience continues to expand.

  7. Three-Dimensional Reconstruction of Serial Mouse Brain Sections: Solution for Flattening High-Resolution Large-Scale Mosaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlanga, Monica L.; Phan, Sébastien; Bushong, Eric A.; Wu, Stephanie; Kwon, Ohkyung; Phung, Binh S.; Lamont, Steve; Terada, Masako; Tasdizen, Tolga; Martone, Maryann E.; Ellisman, Mark H.

    2011-01-01

    Recent advances in high-throughput technology facilitate massive data collection and sharing, enabling neuroscientists to explore the brain across a large range of spatial scales. One such form of high-throughput data collection is the construction of large-scale mosaic volumes using light microscopy (Chow et al., 2006; Price et al., 2006). With this technology, researchers can collect and analyze high-resolution digitized volumes of whole brain sections down to 0.2 μm. However, until recently, scientists lacked the tools to easily handle these large high-resolution datasets. Furthermore, artifacts resulting from specimen preparation limited volume reconstruction using this technique to only a single tissue section. In this paper, we carefully describe the steps we used to digitally reconstruct a series of consecutive mouse brain sections labeled with three stains, a stain for blood vessels (DiI), a nuclear stain (TO-PRO-3), and a myelin stain (FluoroMyelin). These stains label important neuroanatomical landmarks that are used for stacking the serial sections during reconstruction. In addition, we show that the use of two software applications, ir-Tweak and Mogrifier, in conjunction with a volume flattening procedure enable scientists to adeptly work with digitized volumes despite tears and thickness variations within tissue sections. These applications make processing large-scale brain mosaics more efficient. When used in combination with new database resources, these brain maps should allow researchers to extend the lifetime of their specimens indefinitely by preserving them in digital form, making them available for future analyses as our knowledge in the field of neuroscience continues to expand. PMID:21629828

  8. SU-C-213-05: Evaluation of a Composite Copper-Plastic Material for a 3D Printed Radiation Therapy Bolus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitzthum, L; Ehler, E; Sterling, D; Reynolds, T; Higgins, P; Dusenbery, K [University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate a novel 3D printed bolus fabricated from a copper-plastic composite as a thin flexible, custom fitting device that can replicate doses achieved with conventional bolus techniques. Methods: Two models of bolus were created on a 3D printer using a composite copper-PLA/PHA. Firstly, boluses were constructed at thicknesses of 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8 mm. Relative dose measurements were performed under the bolus with an Attix Chamber as well as with radiochromic film. Results were compared to superficial Attix Chamber measurements in a water equivalent material to determine the dosimetric water equivalence of the copper-PLA/PHA plastic. Secondly, CT images of a RANDO phantom were used to create a custom fitting bolus across the anterolateral scalp. Surface dose with the bolus placed on the RANDO phantom was measured with radiochromic film at tangential angles with 6, 10, 10 flattening filter free (FFF) and 18 MV photon beams. Results: Mean surface doses for 6, 10, 10FFF and 18 MV were measured as a percent of Dmax for the flat bolus devices of each thickness. The 0.4 mm thickness bolus was determined to be near equivalent to 2.5 mm depth in water for all four energies. Surface doses ranged from 59–63% without bolus and 85–90% with the custom 0.4 mm copper-plastic bolus relative to the prescribed dose for an oblique tangential beam arrangement on the RANDO phantom. Conclusion: Sub-millimeter thickness, 3D printed composite copper-PLA/PHA bolus can provide a build-up effect equivalent to conventional bolus. At this thickness, the 3D printed bolus allows a level of flexure that may provide more patient comfort than current 3D printing materials used in bolus fabrication while still retaining the CT based custom patient shape. Funding provided by an intra-department grant of the University of Minnesota Department of Radiation Oncology.

  9. Minimal skin dose increase in longitudinal rotating biplanar linac-MR systems: examination of radiation energy and flattening filter design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyvanloo, A.; Burke, B.; St. Aubin, J.; Baillie, D.; Wachowicz, K.; Warkentin, B.; Steciw, S.; Fallone, B. G.

    2016-05-01

    The magnetic fields of linac-MR systems modify the path of contaminant electrons in photon beams, which alters patient entrance skin dose. Also, the increased SSD of linac-MR systems reduces the maximum achievable dose rate. To accurately quantify the changes in entrance skin dose, the authors use EGSnrc Monte Carlo calculations that incorporate 3D magnetic field of the Alberta 0.5 T longitudinal linac-MR system. The Varian 600C linac head geometry assembled on the MRI components is used in the BEAMnrc simulations for 6 MV and 10 MV beam models and skin doses are calculated at an average depth of 70 μm using DOSXYZnrc. 3D modeling shows that magnetic fringe fields decay rapidly and are small at the linac head. SSDs between 100 and 120 cm result in skin-dose increases of between ~6%-19% and ~1%-9% for the 6 and 10 MV beams, respectively. For 6 MV, skin dose increases from ~10.5% to ~1.5% for field-size increases of 5  ×  5 cm2 to 20  ×  20 cm2. For 10 MV, skin dose increases by ~6% for a 5  ×  5 cm2 field, and decreases by ~1.5% for a 20  ×  20 cm2 field. Furthermore, the proposed reshaped flattening filter increases the dose rate from the current 355 MU min-1 to 529 MU min-1 (6 MV) or 604 MU min-1 (10 MV), while the skin-dose increases by only an additional ~2.6% (all percent increases in skin dose are relative to D max). This study suggests that there is minimal increase in the entrance skin dose and minimal/no decrease in the dose rate of the Alberta longitudinal linac-MR system. The even lower skin dose increase at 10 MV offers further advantages in future designs of linac-MR prototypes.

  10. Role of right ventricle and dynamic pulmonary hypertension on determining ΔVO2/ΔWork Rate flattening: insights from cardiopulmonary exercise test combined with exercise echocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandera, Francesco; Generati, Greta; Pellegrino, Marta; Donghi, Valeria; Alfonzetti, Eleonora; Gaeta, Maddalena; Villani, Simona; Guazzi, Marco

    2014-09-01

    Several cardiovascular diseases are characterized by an impaired O2 kinetic during exercise. The lack of a linear increase of Δoxygen consumption (VO2)/ΔWork Rate (WR) relationship, as assessed by expired gas analysis, is considered an indicator of abnormal cardiovascular efficiency. We aimed at describing the frequency of ΔVO2/ΔWR flattening in a symptomatic population of cardiac patients, characterizing its functional profile, and testing the hypothesis that dynamic pulmonary hypertension and right ventricular contractile reserve play a major role as cardiac determinants. We studied 136 patients, with different cardiovascular diseases, referred for exertional dyspnoea. Cardiopulmonary exercise test combined with simultaneous exercise echocardiography was performed using a symptom-limited protocol. ΔVO2/ΔWR flattening was observed in 36 patients (group A, 26.5% of population) and was associated with a globally worse functional profile (reduced peak VO2, anaerobic threshold, O2 pulse, impaired VE/VCO2). At univariate analysis, exercise ejection fraction, exercise mitral regurgitation, rest and exercise tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion, exercise systolic pulmonary artery pressure, and exercise cardiac output were all significantly (Pexercise systolic pulmonary artery pressure (odds ratio, 1.06; confidence interval, 1.01-1.11; P=0.01) and exercise tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (odds ratio, 0.88; confidence interval, 0.80-0.97; P=0.01) as main cardiac determinants of ΔVO2/ΔWR flattening; female sex was strongly associated (odds ratio, 6.10; confidence interval, 2.11-17.7; Pincrease and the reduced peak right ventricular longitudinal systolic function. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  11. The radial profile and flattening of the Milky Way's stellar halo to $\\rm 80~$kpc from the SEGUE K-giant Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Xue, Xiang-Xiang; Ma, Zhibo; Morrison, Heather; Bovy, Jo; Sesar, Branimir; Janesh, William

    2015-01-01

    We characterise the radial density, metallicity and flattening profile of the Milky Way's stellar halo, based on the large sample of 1757 spectroscopically confirmed giant stars from SDSS/SEGUE-2 after excising stars that were algorithmically attributed to apparent halo substructure (including the Sagittarius stream). Compared to BHB stars or RR Lyrae, giants are more readily understood tracers of the overall halo star population, with less bias in age or metallicity. The well-characterized selection function of the sample enables forward modelling of those data, based on ellipsoidal stellar density models, $\

  12. Magnetar-like Spectral Index Flattening of the High Magnetic Field Pulsar PSR J1119-6127

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearlman, Aaron B.; Majid, Walid A.; Horiuchi, Shinji; Kocz, Jonathon; Lippuner, Jonas; Prince, Thomas A.

    2016-12-01

    -band, we find a spectral index of -0.52(6) in agreement with our initial result. The spectral index has flattened by a factor of approximately 4 compared to previous measurements by Majid et al. (2016; arXiv:1612.02868) across these frequency bands. We interpret this change as evidence of additional magnetar-like behavior from PSR J1119-6127, as these spectral index measurements are similar to those observed from other magnetars, such XTE J1810-197 (Camilo et al. (2007); Lazaridis et al. (2008)), SGR J1745-2900 (Torne et al. (2015)), and PSR J1622-4950 (Anderson et al. (2012)). We are continuing to monitor changes in the spectrum of PSR J1119-6127 at S-band and X-band, and we encourage further observations across multiple wavelengths. We thank the DSN and Canberra Deep Space Communication Complex (CDSCC) teams for scheduling these observations. *%K Radio, X-ray, Gamma Ray, Neutron Star, Transient, Pulsar, Magnetar

  13. Design of the Flattening Part of Combined Cultivating Implement%联合整地机平整部件的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张成亮; 李明金; 吴家安; 崔波; 郝晓玲

    2013-01-01

    In order to keep the soil moisture and improve land flattening effect after the combined cultivating implement operation, a soil-ditch-fill device was designed. It is an important part of the flatting part, whether the structure design is reasonable or not directly affects the quality of land flattening. This paper examines the working principle of soil-ditch-fill device, its structure and the design of key components.%为提高联合整地机碎土保墒、平整地表和合墒的效果,设计一种与深松铲等配套进行耕整作业的装置。合墒装置是平整部件的重要组成部分,其结构设计是否合理直接影响到平整作业质量。本文介绍了合墒装置的工作原理、结构组成及关键部件的设计。

  14. Fiber-coupled radioluminescence dosimetry with saturated Al2O3:C crystals: Characterization in 6 and 18 MV photon beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Claus Erik; Damkjær, Sidsel Marie Skov; Kertzscher Schwencke, Gustavo Adolfo Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    Radioluminescence (RL) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) from carbon-doped aluminum oxide crystals can be used for medical dosimetry in external beam radiotherapy and remotely afterloaded brachytherapy. The RL/OSL signals are guided from the treatment room to the readout instrumentation...... using optical fiber cables, and in vivo dosimetry can be carried out in real time while the dosimeter probes are in the patient. The present study proposes a new improved readout protocol based solely on the RL signal from Al2O3:C. The key elements in the protocol are that Al2O3:C is pre-dosed with 20...... ((−0.21 ± 0.01)%/ °C), and dose-delivery rate ((−0.22 ± 0.01)% per 100 MU/min). A temporal gating technique was used for separation of RL and stem signals (i.e. Cerenkov light and fluorescence induced in the optical fiber cable during irradiation). The new readout protocol was a substantial improvement...

  15. A Simple Model for The Flattening of Galaxies Rotation Curves Due to Local Effects of the Universe Expansion as Described by the ELA metric

    CERN Document Server

    Ferreira, P Castelo

    2010-01-01

    Are discussed possible generalizations for many body systems of the recently suggested Expanding Locally Anisotropic (ELA) metric ansatz which describes local point-like matter distributions in the expanding universe. Considering a series expansion of the functional parameter of this metric to second order in the gravitational field it is developed a simple lattice model for galaxies based in the thin exponential disk approximation. As an example it is modeled the large galaxy UGC2885 and it is shown that, by fitting the values of the metric parameters, the flattening of the galaxy rotation curve is fully described by the ELA metric. The framework presented here clearly allows to theoretically test new gravitational interactions maintaining compatibility with both local physics and cosmological universe expansion.

  16. All-Optical 1-to-8 Wavelength Multicasting at 20 Gbit/s Exploiting Self-Phase Modulation in Dispersion Flattened Highly Nonlinear Photonic Crystal Fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhan-Qiang Hui

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available All-optical multicasting of performing data routing from single node to multiple destinations in the optical domain is promising for next generation ultrahigh-peed photonic networks. Based on the self-phase modulation in dispersion flattened highly nonlinear photonic crystal fiber and followed spectral filtering, simultaneous 1-to-8 all-optical wavelength multicasting return-to-zero (RZ signal at 20 Gbit/s with 100 GHz channel spaced is achieved. Wavelength tunable range and dynamic characteristic of proposed wavelength multicasting scheme is further investigated. The results show our designed scheme achieve operation wavelength range of 25 nm, OSNR of 32.01 dB and Q factor of 12.8. Moreover, the scheme has simple structure as well as high tolerance to signal power fluctuation.

  17. Wavelength conversion of a 40 Gb/s RZ-DPSK signal using four-wave mixing in a dispersion-flattened highly nonlinear photonic crystal fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter Andreas; Tokle, Torger; Geng, Yan

    2005-01-01

    by the gain bandwidth of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers, are obtained in only 50-m dispersion-flattened HNL-PCF with nonlinear coefficient equal to 11 W-1·km-1. This experiment demonstrates the potential of four-wave mixing in HNL-PCF as a modulation format and bit rate transparent wavelength conversion......Wavelength conversion of a 40-Gb/s return-to-zero differential phase-shift keying signal is demonstrated in a highly nonlinear photonic crystal fiber (HNL-PCF) for the first time. A conversion efficiency of -20 dB for a pump power of 23 dBm and a conversion bandwidth of 31 nm, essentially limited...

  18. Time-Dependent Neutronic Analysis of a Power-Flattened Gas Cooled Accelerator Driven System Fuelled with Thorium, Uranium, Plutonium, and Curium Dioxides TRISO Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gizem Bakır

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the power flattening and time-dependent neutronic analysis of a conceptual helium gas cooled Accelerator Driven System (ADS loaded with TRISO (tristructural-isotropic fuel particles. Target material is lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE. ThO2, UO2, PuO2, and CmO2 TRISO particles are used as fuel. PuO2 and CmO2 fuels are extracted from PWR-MOX spent fuel. Subcritical core is radially divided into 10 equidistant subzones in order to flatten the power produced in the core. Tens of thousands of these TRISO fuel particles are embedded in the carbon matrix fuel pebbles as five different cases. The high-energy Monte Carlo code MCNPX 2.7 with the LA150 library is used for the neutronic calculations. Time-dependent burnup calculations are carried out for thermal fission power (Pth of 1000 MW using the BURN card. The energy gain of the ADS is in the range of 99.98–148.64 at the beginning of a cycle. Furthermore, the peak-to-average fission power density ratio is obtained between 1.021 and 1.029 at the beginning of the cycle. These ratios show a good quasi-uniform power density for each case. Furthermore, up to 155.1 g 233U and 103.6 g 239Pu per day can be produced. The considered system has a high neutronic capability in terms of energy multiplication, fissile breeding, and spent fuel transmutation with thorium utilization.

  19. Nonlinear polarization rotation in a dispersion-flattened photonic-crystal fiber for ultrawideband (> 100 nm) all-optical wavelength conversion of 10 Gbit/s nonreturn-to-zero signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwok, C.H.; Chow, C.W.; Tsang, H.K.;

    2006-01-01

    We study the conversion bandwidth of the cross-polarization-modulation (YPoIM)-based wavelength conversion scheme with a dispersion-flattened highly nonlinear photonic-crystal fiber for signals with a nonreturn-to-zero (NRZ) modulation format. Both theoretical and experimental results show...... using the YPoIM approach compared with the four-wave mixing approach previously reported is demonstrated....

  20. Optimization of Flattening Straightening with Finite Element Analysis and Taguchi Method%基于有限元分析和田口方法的压扁矫正优化分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红英; 邓云喆; 李阳华; 康巍

    2011-01-01

    基于有限元分析和田口方法,提出了适合于2-2-2型六斜辊矫直机压扁量优化的方法.应用有限元软件建立了V150油套管在六斜辊矫直机上的三维压扁矫正有限元模型,动态模拟了V150套管的压扁矫正过程,根据田口方法对压扁量进行了优化稳健设计,采用望小特性之信噪比SN评估了椭圆度的晶质特性,并考虑了油套管的初始椭圆度和矫正后油套管椭圆度沿轴向分布两种干扰因素.实验结果表明:实验误差很小,第1、3、2对辊压扁量分别为不重要因子、较重要因子、最重要冈子,压扁量的最优组合为1.4、4.0、2.6 mm.以压扁量最优组合进行矫正后,V150油套管椭圆度大大降低,小于允许的最大椭圆度0.4%,达到了圆度要求,实现了对压扁量的优化.%A optimization method of flattening rate of type 2-2-2 6-roller straightener was proposed based on finite element analysis and taguchi method. The finite element model of correction of 3-D flattening rate was constructed to dynamically simulate the correcting process for V150 oil casing. The optimization design and robust design for flattening rate was carried out by taguchi method; using SN ratio (smaller-the-better), the effect of the ovality was evaluated, and two noise factors were taken into account, the first was initial curvature of casing, the second was the variance of the ovality along the casing. The results indicate that experimental error is very small, the first flattening rate is not a significant factor, the third flattening rate is a significant factor, and the second flattening rate is the most significant factor. The optimum combination of flattening rate is 1.4 mm, 4.0 mm, 2.6 mm, and after correcting with the optimum combination of flattening rate, the ovality is greatly reduced and meets the requirement for roundness (less than the permissible maximum value 0.4%), so the optimization of flattening rate is well achieved by the method.

  1. Heat transfer and pressure drop comparison of louver- and plain-finned heat exchangers where one fluid passes through flattened tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. Gorman

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Louvered fins constitute a major methodology for heat transfer enhancement. Of critical significance in evaluating the worthiness of such fins is the comparison between the heat transfer and pressure drop for a thus-finned heat exchanger with the baseline case of a counterpart plain-finned heat exchanger. Up to the present, it appears that such comparisons are confined to heat exchangers in which one of the participating fluids passes through circular tubes. In another basic geometry in which louvered fins have been employed, the aforementioned participating fluid passes through flattened tubes which are virtually rectangular in cross section. The focus of the present paper is to obtain results for the latter basic geometry for both louver-fin-based heat exchangers and counterpart plain-fin-based heat exchangers. The results were obtained by means of numerical simulation over a range of Reynolds numbers spanning approximately a factor of five. Over this range, enhancements of the heat transfer rate ranged from factors of approximately 2.2–2.8. Over this same Reynolds number range, the pressure drop increased by factors of 2.3–3.6. This outcome is attributable to the fact that the rate of heat transfer is less sensitive to the velocity than is the pressure drop.

  2. Integral Field Spectroscopy and multi-wavelength imaging of the nearby spiral galaxy NGC5668: an unusual flattening in metallicity gradient

    CERN Document Server

    Marino, Raffaella Anna; Castillo-Morales, Africa; Muñoz-Mateos, Juan Carlos; Sánchez, Sebastián F; Pérez-González, Pablo G; Gallego, Jesús; Zamorano, Jaime; Alonso-Herrero, Almudena; Boissier, Samuel

    2012-01-01

    We present the analysis of the full bi-dimensional optical spectral cube of the nearby spiral galaxy NGC 5668, observed with the PPAK IFU at the Calar Alto observatory 3.5m telescope. We make use of broad-band imaging to provide further constraints on the evolutionary history of the galaxy. This dataset will allow us to improve our understanding of the mechanisms that drive the evolution of disks. We investigated the properties of 62 H II regions and concentric rings in NGC 5668 and derived maps in ionized-gas attenuation and chemical (oxygen) abundances. We find that, while inwards of r\\,$\\sim\\,36",\\sim$\\,4.4kpc\\,$\\sim$\\,0.36\\,$(\\frac {D_{25}}{2})$ the derived O/H ratio follows the radial gradient typical of spiral galaxies, the abundance gradient beyond r$\\sim36"$ flattens out. The analysis of the multi-wavelength surface brightness profiles of NGC 5668 is performed by fitting these profiles with those predicted by chemo-spectrophotometric evolutionary models of galaxy disks. From this, we infer a spin and ...

  3. Discovery and modelling of a flattening of the positive cyclotron line/luminosity relation in GX 304-1 with RXTE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothschild, Richard E.; Kühnel, Matthias; Pottschmidt, Katja; Hemphill, Paul; Postnov, Konstantin; Gornostaev, Mikhail; Shakura, Nikolai; Fürst, Felix; Wilms, Jörn; Staubert, Rüdiger; Klochkov, Dmitry

    2017-04-01

    The Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) observed four outbursts of the accreting X-ray binary transient source, GX 304-1 in 2010 and 2011. We present results of detailed 3-100 keV spectral analysis of 69 separate observations, and report a positive correlation between cyclotron line parameters, as well as other spectral parameters, with power-law flux. The cyclotron line energy, width and depth versus flux, and thus luminosity, correlations show a flattening of the relationships with increasing luminosity, which are well described by quasi-spherical or disc accretion that yield the surface magnetic field to be ∼5 × 1012 Gauss. Since HEXTE (High Energy X-ray Timing Experiment) cluster A was fixed aligned with the Proportional Counter Array field of view and cluster B was fixed viewing a background region 1.5° off of the source direction during these observations near the end of the RXTE mission, the cluster A background was estimated from cluster B events using HEXTEBACKEST. This made possible the detection of the ∼55 keV cyclotron line and an accurate measurement of the continuum. Correlations of all spectral parameters with the primary 2-10 keV power-law flux reveal it to be the primary driver of the spectral shape. The accretion is found to be in the collisionless shock braking regime.

  4. ASCA View of the Supernova Remnant Gamma Cygni (G78.2+2.1) Bremsstrahlung X-ray Spectrum from Loss-flattened Electron Distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Uchiyama, Y; Aharonian, F A; Mattox, J R; Uchiyama, Yasunobu; Takahashi, Tadayuki; Aharonian, Felix; Mattox, John

    2002-01-01

    We perform X-ray studies of the shell-type supernova remnant (SNR) gamma-Cygni associated with the brightest EGRET unidentified source 3EG J2020+4017. In addition to the thermal emissions with characteristic temperature of kT = 0.5-0.9 keV, we found an extremely hard X-ray component from several clumps localized in the northern part of the remnant. This component is described by a power-law with a photon index of 0.8-1.5. Both the absolute flux and the spectral shape of the nonthermal X-rays cannot be explained by the synchrotron or inverse-Compton mechanisms. We argue that the unusually hard X-ray spectrum can be naturally interpreted in terms of nonthermal bremsstrahlung from Coulomb-loss-flattened electron distribution in dense environs with the gas density about 10 to 100 cm^-3 . For given spectrum of the electron population, the ratio of the bremsstrahlung X- and gamma-ray fluxes depends on the position of the ``Coulomb break'' in the electron spectrum. The bulk of gamma-rays detected by EGRET would come...

  5. Discovery and Modeling of a Flattening of the Positive Cyclotron Line/Luminosity Relation in GX 304-1 with RXTE

    CERN Document Server

    Rothschild, Richard E; Pottschmidt, Katja; Hemphill, Paul; Postnov, Konstantin; Gornostaev, Mikhail; Shakura, Nikolai; Fuerst, Felix; Wilms, Joern; Staubert, Ruediger; Klochkov, Dmitry

    2016-01-01

    The RXTE observed four outbursts of the accreting X-ray binary transient source, GX 304-1 in 2010 and 2011. We present results of detailed 3-100 keV spectral analysis of 69 separate observations, and report a positive correlation between cyclotron line parameters, as well as other spectral parameters, with power law flux. The cyclotron line energy, width and depth versus flux, and thus luminosity, correlations show a flattening of the relationships with increasing luminosity, which are well described by quasi-spherical or disk accretion that yield the surface magnetic field to be ~60 keV. Since HEXTE cluster A was fixed aligned with the PCA field of view and cluster B was fixed viewing a background region 1.5 degrees off of the source direction during these observations near the end of the RXTE mission, the cluster A background was estimated from cluster B events using HEXTEBACKEST. This made possible the detection of the ~55 keV cyclotron line and an accurate measurement of the continuum. Correlations of all...

  6. INTEGRAL FIELD SPECTROSCOPY AND MULTI-WAVELENGTH IMAGING OF THE NEARBY SPIRAL GALAXY NGC 5668 : AN UNUSUAL FLATTENING IN METALLICITY GRADIENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marino, R. A.; Gil de Paz, A.; Castillo-Morales, A.; Perez-Gonzalez, P. G.; Gallego, J.; Zamorano, J. [CEI Campus Moncloa, UCM-UPM, Departamento de Astrofisica y CC. de la Atmosfera, Facultad de CC. Fisicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Avda. Complutense s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Munoz-Mateos, J. C. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903-2475 (United States); Sanchez, S. F. [Centro Astronomico Hispano Aleman, Calar Alto (CSIC-MPG), C/Jesus Durban Remon 2-2, E-04004 Almeria (Spain); Alonso-Herrero, A. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria, CSIC-UC, Avenida de los Castros s/n, 39005 Santander (Spain); Boissier, S., E-mail: ramarino@fis.ucm.es [Laboratoire dAstrophysique de Marseille, OAMP, Universite Aix-Marseille and CNRS UMR 6110, 38 rue Frederic Joliot-Curie, 13388 Marseille cedex 13 (France)

    2012-07-20

    We present an analysis of the full bidimensional optical spectral cube of the nearby spiral galaxy NGC 5668, observed with the Pmas fiber PAcK Integral Field Unit (IFU) at the Calar Alto observatory 3.5 m telescope. We make use of broadband imaging to provide further constraints on the evolutionary history of the galaxy. This data set will allow us to improve our understanding of the mechanisms that drive the evolution of disks. We investigated the properties of 62 H II regions and concentric rings in NGC 5668 and derived maps in ionized-gas attenuation and chemical (oxygen) abundances. We find that while inward of r {approx}36'' {approx} 4.4 kpc {approx} 0.36 (D{sub 25}/2) the derived O/H ratio follows the radial gradient typical of spiral galaxies, the abundance gradient beyond r {approx} 36'' flattens out. The analysis of the multi-wavelength surface brightness profiles of NGC 5668 is performed by fitting these profiles with those predicted by chemo-spectrophotometric evolutionary models of galaxy disks. From this, we infer a spin and circular velocity of {lambda} = 0.053 and v{sub c} = 167 km s{sup -1}, respectively. The metallicity gradient and rotation curve predicted by this best-fitting galaxy model nicely match the values derived from the IFU observations, especially within r {approx}36''. The same is true for the colors despite some small offsets and a reddening in the bluest colors beyond that radius. On the other hand, deviations of some of these properties in the outer disk indicate that a secondary mechanism, possibly gas transfer induced by the presence of a young bar, must have played a role in shaping the recent chemical and star formation histories of NGC 5668.

  7. 全液压山地手扶式苜蓿刈割压扁机设计与试验%A Kind of Full Hydraulic Mountains Alfalfa Cutting and Flattening Machine Design and Test Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵建柱; 孙凤涛; 陈宏伟; 孙佳; 王德成

    2017-01-01

    为适应我国山坡、丘陵地带苜蓿收获特殊需求,提高苜蓿收获机械作业操作灵活性和安全性,提出了一款山地手扶式苜蓿刈割压扁机。该机采用全液压驱动,整机液压系统由行走驱动回路、工作装置升降控制回路及工作装置驱动回路3部分组成,可实现自走、工作装置升降和刈割压扁作业;工作装置升降机构采用平行四连杆机构,以保证工作装置升降过程中割刀刀盘倾角不变。同时,进行了样机试制与田间性能试验,试验表明:整机能够有效地实现苜蓿的刈割、压扁作业,爬坡度可达30%,行驶速度可达5km/h,能够实现单边制动转向及原地转向等功能,满足山坡、丘陵地带苜蓿收获的需求。%In order to meet the requirements of alfalfa harvesting on the mountain and hill environment, this paper propo-ses a kind of full hydraulic mountains hand alfalfa cutting and flattening machinery to improve its operation flexibility and safety. The machine adopts full hydraulic pressure drive with hydraulic system,which includes three parts, walking cir-cuit, working device lifting control circuit and driving circuit, to cut and flat the alfalfa, drive the machine and lift the working device. We have produced the prototype machinery and execute the tests to verify its working performance in the alfalfa field. The results indicate that the prototype can effectively complete the alfalfa cutting and flattening operation. The maximum climbable gradient is 30%,and the walking speed is up to 5 km/h. Unilateral braking steering and pivot steering is also achieved. Moreover,it can make flattening operation flexible when the machinery cut the alfalfa. So this alfalfa cutting and flattening machinery can work on the mountains and hills to harvest alfalfa.

  8. On models of Mars’ interior and amplitudes of forced nutations. 1. The effects of deviation of Mars from its equilibrium state on the flattening of the core mantle boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zharkov, V. N.; Gudkova, T. V.; Molodensky, S. M.

    2009-02-01

    In a static approach the effects of deviation of Mars from its equilibrium state on the flattening of the core-mantle boundary (CMB) are studied. The calculations are performed for a set of interior structure models with 50- and 100-km thick crust and averaged crustal density varying in the range of 2700-3200 kg m -3, which are based on new values for the moment of inertia and the elastic tidal Love number k2s defined by Konopliv et al. [Konopliv, A.S., Yoder, C.F., Standish, E.M., Yuan, D.-N., Sjorgen, W.L., 2006. A global solution for the Mars static and seasonal gravity, Mars orientation, Phobos and Deimos masses, and Mars ephemeris. Icarus, 182, 23-50]. The models differ in density contrast at the crust-mantle boundary and the core radius. The observational data constrain the radius of a liquid core to be within 1700-1800 km. For joint interpretation of gravity and topography data an outer surface of a hydrostatical model is chosen as a reference surface. The Green's functions (or loading factors) technique for the case of a single anomalous density wave located at two depth level is used to compute the second-degree CMB deformation, and then the CMB flattening. Two types of models have been calculated: an elastic model and a model with an elastic lithosphere and weakened layers below it (relaxed values of shear modulus); the effective shear modulus of the mantle is reduced in comparison with an elastic one and in extreme case it is approaching zero everywhere except the elastic lithosphere. Non-equilibrium state of Mars results in three-axiality of the core-mantle boundary. For an elastic case the deformation of CMB leads to the large decrease of the semiaxis b, going through the central region of Tharsis rise, by 660-780 m, and the increase of the equatorial semiaxis a by 240-300 m, and the polar axis c by 400-490 m. Tharsis rise plays a constitutive role for the CMB deformation. The second-degree harmonics in the expansion of non-equilibrium part of gravity

  9. Optimisation of testing cycles in heavy-duty mine haulage ropes, especially three-layered flattened wire ropes; Optimierung von Pruefzyklen bei hochbelasteten Bergbau-Foerderseilen, insbesondere bei dreilagigen Flachlitzenseilen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gronau, O. [Deutsche Montan Technologie GmbH, Bochum (Germany). Car Synergies Division

    2003-07-01

    In three-layered flattened wire ropes, which are common in mine haulage systems in coal mines, only part of the wires can be inspected by the visual method, so magnetic induction testing is employed as well. The project aimed at reducing inspection requirements without impairing the safety standard. Random sampling of flattened wire ropes have shown that this is possible, provided that fatigue and corrosion curves of the cable can be made comparable with the diagrams of magnetic induction tests. Monitoring of the strength reduction of these ropes must be possible throughout the whole rope life. The project focused on the following tasks: Assessment and description of the haulage systems and operating conditions (haulage equipment, mine climate, number of hoists per day, etc.); Inspection of the geometries of new and worn-out ropes and calculation of rupture forces and residual rupture forces; Modification of existing measuring and storage instruments, if possible in explosion-proof construction; Development of software for assessing the residual fracture force of haulage ropes.

  10. Nonlinear polarization rotation in a dispersion-flattened photonic-crystal fiber for ultrawideband (>100 nm) all-optical wavelength conversion of 10 Gbit/s nonreturn-to-zero signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, C H; Chow, C W; Tsang, H K; Lin, Chinlon; Bjarklev, A

    2006-06-15

    We study the conversion bandwidth of the cross-polarization-modulation (XPoIM)-based wavelength conversion scheme with a dispersion-flattened highly nonlinear photonic-crystal fiber for signals with a nonreturn-to-zero (NRZ) modulation format. Both theoretical and experimental results show that the conversion bandwidth can be extended to cover a very wide band, including S-, C-, and L-bands for 10 Gbit/s NRZ signals (a total bandwidth of 120 nm is experimentally demonstrated). We also study the theoretical bandwidth limit for 40 Gbit/s NRZ signals. A significant extension of the conversion bandwidth using the XPoIM approach compared with the four-wave mixing approach previously reported is demonstrated.

  11. Power Flattening and Rejuvenation of PWR Spent Fuel Blanket for Hybrid Fusion-Fission Reactor%功率展平的压水堆乏燃料发电包层中子学初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马续波; 陈义学; 王继亮; 王悦; 韩静茹; 陆道纲

    2011-01-01

    The hybrid fusion-fission reactor has advantages of breeding of the nuclear fuel and transmutation of the long-life nuclear waste and having inherent safety. Meanwhile, the engineering and technological demand of hybrid reactor is significantly reduced comparing with that of pure fusion reactor. A generating electricity blanket concept using the PWR spent fuel directly was proposed, which was based on ITER parameter level achieved. Different volume fractions of the fuel in blanket enabled to realize a power flattening in the fissile zone. The results show that the peak-to-average power factor becomes less than no power flattening, and the output power of the fuel zone raises more than 21. 7%. At the end of the operation, the maximum fuel enrichment is 5. 23%. The blanket is feasible from the neutronics viewpoint.%聚变裂变混合堆在增殖核燃料、嬗变长寿命核废料及固有安全性等方面具有较大优势,同时,它比纯聚变堆在工程及技术方面要求低,因此较聚变堆更易实现.本工作基于目前国际聚变实验堆(ITER)所能达到的技术水平,提出一种直接利用乏燃料进行发电的聚变裂变混合堆包层概念,利用在不同位置放置不同乏燃料体积分数的方法对燃料增殖区实现了功率展平.计算结果表明:功率展平后的包层功率不均匀系数更小,且包层中燃料区的能量输出要比不展平情况下的能量输出高约21.7%.燃料富集度到运行末期最大可达5.23%.从中子学角度初步论证了该包层的可行性.

  12. Multibeam collection for MGLN18MV: Multibeam data collected aboard Melville from 2007-05-02 to 2007-05-24, departing from Yokohama, Japan and returning to Yokohama, Japan

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  13. All-optical NRZ-to-RZ format conversion at 10 Gbit/s with 1-to-4 wavelength multicasting exploiting cross-phase modulation & four-wave-mixing in single dispersion-flattened highly nonlinear photonic crystal fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Zhan-Qiang; Zhang, Bo; Zhang, Jian-Guo

    2016-04-01

    All-optical NRZ-to-RZ format conversion with a function of wavelength multicasting is proposed in this paper, which is realized by exploiting cross-phase modulation (XPM) and four-wave-mixing (FWM) in a dispersion-flattened highly nonlinear photonic crystal fiber (DF-HNL-PCF). The designed format converter is experimentally demonstrated, for which the 1-to-4 wavelength multicasting is achieved simultaneously by filtering out two FWM idler waves and both blue-chirped and red-chirped components of the broadened NRZ spectrum induced by XPM. Moreover, the wavelength tunability and dynamic characteristics of the proposed NRZ-to-RZ format converter are also exploited using the different central wavelengths of an optical clock signal and varying the input optical power at a DF-HNL-PCF in our experiment. It is shown that the designed format converter can possess a wide range of operational wavelength over 17 nm, an optimal extinction ratio of 11.6 dB, and a Q-factor of 7.1, respectively. Since the proposed scheme uses an optical fiber-based configuration and is easy for implementation, it can be very useful for future applications in advanced fiber-optic communication networks.

  14. 低损耗平坦零色散光子晶体光纤的研究%Design of photonic crystal fibers with low loss and flattened zero dispersion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜海龙; 马普照; 郑义

    2012-01-01

    设计了一种波长在800nm处具有低损耗平坦零色散特性的光子晶体光纤结构,应用多极法研究了结构参量空气孔直径d、孔距A对色散特性的影响和最外层空气孔直径对损耗的影响.该结构光纤在771 ~831nm波长范围内色散绝对值小于2ps/(nm·km),800nm处损耗为0.72dB/km.%A photonic crystal fiber structure with low loss and flattened zero dispersion was designed at 800nm, the effects of hole diameter d, hole distance A on dispersion properties and the diameter of the outside layer on loss properties were studied by the multipole method.The absolute value of dispersion coefficient of the PCF was less than 2ps/(nm · km) between 771nm and 83 lnm , and the loss was merely 0.72dB/km at 800nm.

  15. Design of liquid-filled photonic crystal fibers with nearly zero ultra-flattened dispersion%近零超平坦色散液体填充光子晶体光纤的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯尚林; 晏祖勇; 黎锁平; 刘延君; 雷景丽; 徐永钊

    2011-01-01

    The numerical model of an index-guiding hexagonal photonic crystal fibers filled by liquid with high refractive index and sensitive to temperature was set up and the influence of the geometrical and optical parameters of this kind of fibers on the dispersion was investigated by using the vectorial beam propagation method. The photonic crystal fibers with ultra-flattened and near zero dispersion were designed by adjusting the diameters of air holes and their pitch, their absolute value of dispersion being less than 0. 5 ps/(nm · km) for wave length between 1.46 μm and 1.65 μm.%建立填充高折射率温度系数液体的六边形折射率引导型光子晶体光纤的数值模型,利用矢量光束传输法研究该类光纤的几何和光学参数对色散的影响,通过对孔径、孔间距等结构参数进行优化调整,设计出在1.46~1.65μm内色散系数介于0士0.5 ps/(nm·km)之间的超平坦色散光子晶体光纤.

  16. 秋季专用平头甘蓝新品种锦秋60的选育%Breeding of Jinqiu 60, a New Cabbage F1 Hybrid with Flattened-shaped Head in Autumn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾爱松; 宋立晓; 高兵; 严继勇

    2015-01-01

    Jinqiu 60 is a middle-maturing autumn cabbage F1 hybrid with flattened-shaped head, which was developed by Vegetable Crops Institute of Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences. It takes 70 days from transplanting to harvest, and Jinqiu 60 is suitable to be planted in South China in autumn. It has good adaptability and strong resistance to black rot, turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) and cabbage Fusarium wilt (CFW). Its leaf head is green and compact and has good quality. Its average head weight is about 1.5 kg and its yield is about 3 650 kg/667 m2.%锦秋60是江苏省农业科学院蔬菜研究所结合小孢子培养技术与常规育种技术选育的秋季专用平头中熟甘蓝新品种。该品种适宜我国南方地区秋季栽培,中熟,定植后70 d左右收获,适应性好,抗黑腐病、病毒病、枯萎病等病害;球形美观,颜色绿,品质佳;单球质量1.5 kg左右,每667 m2产量3650 kg左右。

  17. Upgrading and reformation of drive and control system for copper strip roller flattener%铜带辊式矫直机传动及控制系统的升级改造

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕光锁

    2016-01-01

    对铜带矫直机原有传动及控制系统进行升级改造,采用交流传动代替直流传动,用电动位置控制代替液压位置控制,增加传动力矩和辊缝压下力,提高矫直后带材的平直度,改善板形,保证铜带铣面机带面铣削质量并降低带材几何耗失量。对原系统进行了分析,并给出了系统升级改造的具体方案和实现方法。%The drive and control system of the copper strip flattener is reformed and upgraded. The DC drive is replaced by the AC drive, and the hydraulic position control is replaced by the electric position control. The system increases the drive torque and the roller-gap pressing force, improves the flatness of the strip and the strip shape, ensures the surface milling quality of the copper strip milling machine and decreases the loss amount of the strip geometry. The original system is analyzed, and the scheme and realization for upgrading and reformation of the system are also given.

  18. How provider fraud flattens corporate profits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, J S

    1998-03-01

    New laws are giving the private sector some real enforcement clout--and a better shot at recovering or preserving huge sums of money at a time when other dampers on costs are screwed down about as tight as they can get.

  19. Flattening an Object Algebra to Provide Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A. Boncz (Peter); A.N. Wilschut; M.L. Kersten (Martin)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractAlgebraic transformation and optimization techniques have been the method of choice in relational query execution, but applying them in OODBMS has been difficult due to the complexity of object-oriented query languages. This paper demonstrates that the problem can be simplified by

  20. Flattening an object algebra to provide performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boncz, P.; Wilschut, A.N.; Kersten, M.L.

    Algebraic transformation and optimization techniques have been the method of choice in relational query execution, but applying them in object-oriented (OO) DBMSs is difficult due to the complexity of OO query languages. This paper demonstrates that the problem can be simplified by mapping an OO

  1. Rotation and flattening of globular clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fall, S. M.; Frenk, C. S.

    1985-01-01

    Methods for measuring globular cluster ellipticities and the results of such measurements are reviewed, and the processes that determine the shapes of globular clusters and the ways in which they change with time are discussed. The use of the virial tensor theorem to study the connection between the global rotation, velocity anisotropy, and the shape of a self-gravitating system is addressed, and the employment of N-body models to simulate the evolution of globular clusters with initially anisotropic velocity distributions is examined. The application of a simple evaporation model and Fokker-Planck integrations to study the two-body diffusion in globular clusters is reviewed.

  2. IMRT and Rotational IMRT (mARC) Using Flat and Unflat Photon Beams

    OpenAIRE

    Sheta, Amal

    2016-01-01

    For more than 50 years attening filters have been inserted into the beam path oflinacs to produce a uniform energy fluence distribution of the photon beam and make it suitable for clinical use. Recently, linacs without flattening fifilter (Flattening FilterFree - FFF) are increasingly used in radiotherapy because of its benefifits, e.g. high dose rate (2000 MU/min), reduced scattered and leakage radiation. Hypofractionated radiotherapy is interested in the high dose rate of FFF beams t...

  3. Moving GPU-OpenCL-based Monte Carlo dose calculation toward clinical use: Automatic beam commissioning and source sampling for treatment plan dose calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Zhen; Li, Yongbao; Hassan-Rezaeian, Nima; Jiang, Steve B; Jia, Xun

    2017-03-01

    We have previously developed a GPU-based Monte Carlo (MC) dose engine on the OpenCL platform, named goMC, with a built-in analytical linear accelerator (linac) beam model. In this paper, we report our recent improvement on goMC to move it toward clinical use. First, we have adapted a previously developed automatic beam commissioning approach to our beam model. The commissioning was conducted through an optimization process, minimizing the discrepancies between calculated dose and measurement. We successfully commissioned six beam models built for Varian TrueBeam linac photon beams, including four beams of different energies (6 MV, 10 MV, 15 MV, and 18 MV) and two flattening-filter-free (FFF) beams of 6 MV and 10 MV. Second, to facilitate the use of goMC for treatment plan dose calculations, we have developed an efficient source particle sampling strategy. It uses the pre-generated fluence maps (FMs) to bias the sampling of the control point for source particles already sampled from our beam model. It could effectively reduce the number of source particles required to reach a statistical uncertainty level in the calculated dose, as compared to the conventional FM weighting method. For a head-and-neck patient treated with volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT), a reduction factor of ~2.8 was achieved, accelerating dose calculation from 150.9 s to 51.5 s. The overall accuracy of goMC was investigated on a VMAT prostate patient case treated with 10 MV FFF beam. 3D gamma index test was conducted to evaluate the discrepancy between our calculated dose and the dose calculated in Varian Eclipse treatment planning system. The passing rate was 99.82% for 2%/2 mm criterion and 95.71% for 1%/1 mm criterion. Our studies have demonstrated the effectiveness and feasibility of our auto-commissioning approach and new source sampling strategy for fast and accurate MC dose calculations for treatment plans. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics published by

  4. 基于扁平化理论的重大海上溢油应急资源调配模式的初步设想%Preliminary Idea of Major Marine Oil Spill Response Resources Deployment Mode Based on the Flattening Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜瑶; 陈轩; 曹巍; 张伟; 王军; 王耀兵

    2014-01-01

    应急资源的调配是应急指挥工作的重要环节,其直接影响到应急处置的效率和效果。在分析重大海上溢油事故应急配置特点和应急资源需求特点的基础上,论证了扁平化理论在重大海上溢油应急资源调配中的适用性,从而基于扁平化理论构建了重大海上溢油应急资源调配模式,为制定海上重大溢油应急决策提供技术支撑。%The emergency resources deployment is an key part of emergency response, and it direct impacts on the efficiency and effectiveness of emergency response. This paper analyzes the characters of major marine oil spill emergency resources and characters of emergency resources demand, on the basis, it demonstrates the applicability of the flattening theory in major marine oil spill emergency resource allocation. Based on the flattening management theory, it builds the major oil spill emergency resource deployment mode, in order to provide technical supports for the major marine oil spill emergency decisions.

  5. Ratiometric, filter-free optical sensor based on a complementary metal oxide semiconductor buried double junction photodiode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yung, Ka Yi; Zhan, Zhiyong; Titus, Albert H; Baker, Gary A; Bright, Frank V

    2015-07-16

    We report a complementary metal oxide semiconductor integrated circuit (CMOS IC) with a buried double junction (BDJ) photodiode that (i) provides a real-time output signal that is related to the intensity ratio at two emission wavelengths and (ii) simultaneously eliminates the need for an optical filter to block Rayleigh scatter. We demonstrate the BDJ platform performance for gaseous NH3 and aqueous pH detection. We also compare the BDJ performance to parallel results obtained by using a slew scanned fluorimeter (SSF). The BDJ results are functionally equivalent to the SSF results without the need for any wavelength filtering or monochromators and the BDJ platform is not prone to errors associated with source intensity fluctuations or sensor signal drift.

  6. Filter-free integrated sensor array based on luminescence and absorbance measurements using ring-shaped organic photodiodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Tobias; Sagmeister, Martin; Lamprecht, Bernhard; Kraker, Elke; Köstler, Stefan; Ungerböck, Birgit; Mayr, Torsten

    2012-12-01

    An optical waveguiding sensor array featuring monolithically integrated organic photodiodes as integrated photo-detector, which simplifies the readout system by minimizing the required parts, is presented. The necessity of any optical filters becomes redundant due to the proposed platform geometry, which discriminates between excitation light and sensing signal. The sensor array is capable of measuring luminescence or absorption, and both sensing geometries are based on the identical substrate. It is demonstrated that background light is virtually non-existent. All sensing and waveguide layers, as well as in- and out-coupling elements are assembled by conventional screen-printing techniques. Organic photodiodes are integrated by layer-by-layer vacuum deposition onto glass or common polymer foils. The universal and simple applicability of this sensor chip is demonstrated by sensing schemes for four different analytes. Relative humidity, oxygen, and carbon dioxide are measured in gas phase using luminescence-based sensor schemes; the latter two analytes are also measured by absorbance-based sensor schemes. Furthermore, oxygen and pH in aqueous media were enabled. The consistency of calibration characteristics extending over different sensor chips is verified.

  7. Photon and photoneutron spectra produced in radiotherapy Linacs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega C, H. R. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Calle Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico); Martinez O, S. A. [Universidad Pedagogica y Tecnologica de Colombia, Grupo de Fisica Nuclear Aplicada y Simulacion, Av. Central del Norte Km. 1, Via Paipa Tunja, Boyaca (Colombia); Benites R, J. L. [Universidad Autonoma de Nayarit, Postgrado CBAP, Carretera Tepic Compostela Km. 9, Xalisco, Nayarit (Mexico); Lallena, A. M., E-mail: fermineutron@yahoo.com [Universida de Granada, Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, E-18071 Granada (Spain)

    2011-10-15

    A Monte Carlo calculation, using the MCNPX code, was carried out in order to estimate the photon and neutron spectra in two locations of two linacs operating at 15 and 18 MV. Detailed models of both linac heads were used in the calculations. Spectra were estimated below the flattening filter and at the isocenter. Neutron spectra show two components due to evaporation and knock-on neutrons. Lethargy spectra under the filter were compared to the spectra calculated from the function quoted by Tosi et al. that describes reasonably well neutron spectra beyond 1 MeV, though tends to underestimate the energy region between 10{sup -6} and 1 MeV. Neutron and Bremsstrahlung spectra show the same features regardless of the linac voltage. The amount of photons and neutrons produced by the 15 MV linac is smaller than that found for the 18 MV linac. As expected, Bremsstrahlung spectra ends according to the voltage used to accelerate the electrons. (Author)

  8. Accurate Gain Flattening Filters Manufactured by Optical Compensation Monitoring Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J. J. Pan; FengQing Zhou; James Guo; Mingjie Zhang; Ming Zhou; Joy Jiang

    2003-01-01

    GFFs with less than 0.4 dB peak-to-peak error functions are routinely fabricated using commercially available coating machines by utilizing the natural error compensation mechanism of wavelength variable turning point optical monitoring method.

  9. Analysis of surface asperity flattening based on two different methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hejie; Öchsner, Andreas; Ni, Guowei; Wei, Dongbin; Jiang, Zhengyi

    2016-11-01

    The stress state is an important parameter in metal forming processes, which significantly influences the strain state and microstructure of products, affecting their surface qualities. In order to make the metal products have a good surface quality, the surface stress state must be optimised. In this study, two classical methods, the upper bound method and the crystal plasticity finite element method, were investigated. The differences between the two methods were discussed in regard to the model, the velocity field, and the strain field. Then the related surface roughness is deduced.

  10. VT Lidar Hydro-flattened DEM (2 meter) - 2012 - Bennington

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) This metadata applies to the following collection area(s): Bennington County 2012 2.0m and Digital Elevation Model (DEM) datasets of various...

  11. Shedding a Tier: Flattening Organisational Structures and Employee Empowerment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Loraine

    2002-01-01

    Surveyed United Kingdom business people and secondary school educators working in organizations with a flatter structure about organizational climate, job meaningfulness, communications, work intensity, and personal motivation. Found that old hierarchical attitudes persist and that an investment in changing the culture is required in order to…

  12. Earth's density flattening and hypothesis of latitudinal normal density

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO; Xiaoguang

    2001-01-01

    [1]Moritz,H., The Figure of the Earth: Theoretical Geodesy and the Earth's Interior (in Chinese), translated by Chen Junyong and Zuo Chuanhui, Beijing: Surveying and Mapping Publishing House, 1992, 92-107.[2]Iona,M., Why is g larger at the poles? Am. J. Phys., 1978, 46: 790-791.[3]Maialle, M. Z., Hipolito, O., Acceleration of gravity for the earth model as an ellipsoidal mass with nonuniform density, Am. J. Phys., 1996, 64: 434-436.[4]Hao Xiaoguang, Modification of conception of latitude correction in gravity measurement, Crustal Deformation and Earthquake (in Chinese), 1996, 16(3): 8-13.[5]Guo Junyi, The Fundamental of Physical Geodesy (in Chinese), Wuhan: Wuhan Technology University of Surveying and Mapping Press, 1994, 135-136.

  13. VT USGS NED Hydro-flattened DEM (30 meter) - statewide

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) VTHYDRODEM was created to produce a "hydrologically correct" DEM, compliant with the Vermont Hydrography Dataset (VHD) in support of the "flow...

  14. Star formation efficiency and flatten gradients in M31

    CERN Document Server

    Robles-Valdez, F; Peimbert, M

    2013-01-01

    We present and discuss results from a chemical evolution model for M31 based on a pronounced inside-out scenario for the galactic formation. The model has been built to reproduce three observational constraints of the M31 disk: the radial distributions of the total baryonic mass, the gas mass, and the O/H abundance. The model shows excellent agreement, throughout the galactic disk, with the observed radial distributions of the SFR and with gradients for fifteen chemical elements. From observations, we find that the gas mass profile of M31 presents a peak between 9 and 11 kpc and that the SFR diminishes for r>12 kpc. To obtain a consistent set of O/H values from H II regions, we correct those gaseous abundances due to the effect of temperature variations and O trapped in dust grains. From reproducing the radial distributions of the gas mass, we find that the star formation efficiency is variable in space, for the whole disk, and is constant in time for most of the evolution (t12 kpc . This reduction is support...

  15. Morphometrical analysis of cleaning capacity using nickel-titanium rotary instrumentation associated with irrigating solutions in mesio-distal flattened root canals Análise morfológica da capacidade de limpeza promovida pela instrumentação rotatória, associada à soluções irrigantes, com limas de níquel-titânio em canais radiculares com achatamento mesio-distal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Andréia Marchesan

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Variations in the internal anatomy of root canals may interfere with the success of root canal because tissue remnants may remain in the isthmus, re-entrances and ramifications of flattened root canals making instrumentation more difficult. Successful root canal treatment depends fundamentally on shaping, cleaning, disinfection and obturation. This study verified the quality of cleaning of ProFile .04 rotary technique associated with different irrigating solutions: 0.5% sodium hypochlorite, calcium hydroxide + Tergentol and 2% chlorhexidine in canals with mesio-distal flattening. Twelve human mandibular central incisors were randomly divided into 3 groups and instrumented up to ProFile 0.4 #35 file after cervical preparation, and processed histologically. After optical microscopic evaluation, statistical analysis showed that the percentage of cleaning of the three irrigating solutions was statistically different. Two-by-two comparisons classified the irrigating solutions in increasing order of cleaning: calcium hydroxide + Tergentol As variações da anatomia interna de cada canal radicular podem interferir no sucesso da terapêutica endodôntica devido ao fato de que em canais radiculares achatados, pode persistir remanescentes teciduais em istmos, reentrâncias e ramificações dificultando a execução das técnicas de instrumentação. O sucesso do tratamento dos canais radiculares depende fundamentalmente do preparo da forma, limpeza, desinfecção e obturação. Poucos trabalhos avaliaram a limpeza dos canais radiculares após a instrumentação rotatória. O presente trabalho verificou a qualidade de limpeza dos canais radiculares, por meio da microscopia óptica, promovida pela técnica de instrumentação rotatória associada ao hipoclorito de sódio 0,5%, HCT20 e clorexidina, em canais achatados no sentido mésio-distal. Doze incisivos centrais inferiores humanos foram divididos aleatoriamente em três grupos para que fossem

  16. Frameless high dose rate stereotactic lung radiotherapy: intrafraction tumor position and delivery time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peguret, Nicolas; Dahele, Max; Cuijpers, Johan P; Slotman, Ben J; Verbakel, Wilko F A R

    2013-06-01

    Intrafraction change in tumor position (Δ) was evaluated for stereotactic lung radiotherapy delivered with flattening filter free volumetric modulated arc therapy. In 140 fractions from 32 patients mean Δ (±SD) was -0.7±1.4 mm (vertical), -0.7±1.3 mm (longitudinal) and +0.2±1.2 mm (lateral) with mean vector 2.1±1.2 mm. Mean delivery time was 4.4±3.4 min (mean beam-on 1.9±0.4 min). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Neutron and photon spectra in LINACs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega-Carrillo, H R; Martínez-Ovalle, S A; Lallena, A M; Mercado, G A; Benites-Rengifo, J L

    2012-12-01

    A Monte Carlo calculation, using the MCNPX code, was carried out in order to estimate the photon and neutron spectra in two locations of two linacs operating at 15 and 18 MV. Detailed models of both linac heads were used in the calculations. Spectra were estimated below the flattening filter and at the isocenter. Neutron spectra show two components due to evaporation and knock-on neutrons. Lethargy spectra under the filter were compared to the spectra calculated from the function quoted by Tosi et al. that describes reasonably well neutron spectra beyond 1 MeV, though tends to underestimate the energy region between 10(-6) and 1 MeV. Neutron and the Bremsstrahlung spectra show the same features regardless of the linac voltage.

  18. Upper Mantle Flow Beneath the Subducted Nazca Plate: Slab Contortions and Flattening (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, R. M.

    2010-12-01

    The form of asthenospheric flow beneath subducted lithospheric slabs can be discerned using splitting of shear waves emanating from earthquakes in the slabs themselves. However, the subducted Nazca plate’s abrupt changes in morphology from a planar slab dipping 30° ENE beneath the central Andes to large areas of flat-lying slab beneath Peru, to the north, and Argentina, to the south, are a potential complication to the sub-slab mantle flow. S waves from earthquakes in the Nazca slab reveal details of the upper mantle flow field below and in the vicinity of the slab. Nazca slab earthquakes large enough to be well recorded (M > 5.4, typically), and deep enough to separate S from pS and sS (30-40 km or more), are suitable for such study, and, for events between 1990 and 2010, recording stations are mostly well-distributed azimuthally about the source event. The S waves were recorded at seismic stations at teleseismic distances from the events, and were corrected for known sub-station seismic anisotropy. Thus, the shear wave splitting engendered during their passage through the asthenospheric upper mantle beneath the slab was isolated, and asthenospheric deformation fabrics resulting from plastic flow beneath the slab mapped in some detail. Shear wave splitting fast directions and upper mantle flow beneath the Nazca plate are most often trench-parallel, consistent with trench-parallel upper mantle flow beneath the slab. Fast splitting polarizations at high angle to the strike of the slab occur in the transition regions from flat to normally dipping slab. Upper mantle flow beneath the slab in these regions appears to be channeled by the slab contortion. Upper mantle flow oceanward of the Nazca slab also appears to change abruptly from trends at a high angle to the Peru-Chile trench to trench-parallel as the top of the Nazca slab attains a depth of around 75 km. Trench-parallel sub-slab flow appears to develop once the asthenosphere beneath the Nazca plate is affected by subduction, and thus occupies a layer of limited thickness.

  19. Dispersion-Flattened Composite Highly Nonlinear Fibre Optimised for Broadband Pulsed Four-Wave Mixing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lillieholm, Mads; Galili, Michael; Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo

    2016-01-01

    We present a segmented composite HNLF optimised for mitigation of dispersion-fluctuation impairments for broadband pulsed four-wave mixing. The HNLF-segmentation allows for pulsed FWMprocessing of a 13-nm wide input WDM-signal with -4.6-dB conversion efficiency...

  20. Herschel evidence for disk flattening or gas depletion in transitional disks

    CERN Document Server

    Keane, J T; Espaillat, C; Woitke, P; Andrews, S; Kamp, I; Thi, W -F; Meeus, G; Dent, W R F

    2014-01-01

    Transitional disks are protoplanetary disks characterized by reduced near- and mid-infrared emission with respect to full disks. This characteristic spectral energy distribution indicates the presence of an optically thin inner cavity within the dust disk believed to mark the disappearance of the primordial massive disk. We present new Herschel Space Observatory PACS spectra of [OI] 63 micron for 21 transitional disks. Our survey complements the larger Herschel GASPS program "Gas in Protoplanetary Systems" (Dent et al. 2013) by quadrupling the number of transitional disks observed with PACS at this wavelength. [OI] 63 micron traces material in the outer regions of the disk, beyond the inner cavity of most transitional disks. We find that transitional disks have [OI] 63 micron line luminosities two times fainter than their full disk counterparts. We self consistently determine various stellar properties (e.g. bolometric luminosity, FUV excess, etc.) and disk properties (e.g. disk dust mass, etc.) that could in...

  1. When sessile drops are no longer small: transitions from spherical to fully flattened.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extrand, C W; Moon, Sung In

    2010-07-20

    We measured the dimensions and contact angles of sessile drops using three liquids on a variety of polymer and silicon surfaces. Drops ranged in size from a few microliters to several milliliters. With increasing liquid volume, heights of the drops initially rose steeply and then gradually tapered to a constant value. The heights of small, undistorted drops as well as the heights of the largest drops were accurately predicted by well-established models. A recently derived expression for meniscus height was used to estimate the heights of intermediate-size drops. While it was not exact, this expression produced reasonable approximations without having to resort to iterative numerical methods. We also identified transition points where gravity began to distort drop shape and ultimately limited drop height. Relatively simple closed analytical expressions for estimating these transition points were also derived. Predicted values of the height and volume at the onset of distortion agreed fairly well with the measured ones. Contact angles carefully measured by the tangent method were independent of drop size.

  2. VT Lidar Hydro-flattened DEM (1.6 meter) - 2008 - West Franklin

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) This metadata applies to the following collection area(s): Missisquoi Lower 2008 1.6m and Digital Elevation Model (DEM) datasets of various...

  3. Beatification: Flattening the Poisson Bracket for Two-Dimensional Fluid and Plasma Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Viscondi, Thiago F; Morrison, Philip J

    2016-01-01

    A perturbative method called beatification is presented for a class of two-dimensional fluid and plasma theories. The Hamiltonian systems considered, namely the Euler, Vlasov-Poisson, Hasegawa-Mima, and modified Hasegawa-Mima equations, are naturally described in terms of noncanonical variables. The beatification procedure amounts to finding the correct transformation that removes the explicit variable dependence from a noncanonical Poisson bracket and replaces it with a fixed dependence on a chosen state in phase space. As such, beatification is a major step toward casting the Hamiltonian system in its canonical form, thus enabling or facilitating the use of analytical and numerical techniques that require or favor a representation in terms of canonical, or beatified, Hamiltonian variables.

  4. Hybrid organic–inorganic inks flatten the energy landscape in colloidal quantum dot solids

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Mengxia

    2016-11-14

    Bandtail states in disordered semiconductor materials result in losses in open-circuit voltage (Voc) and inhibit carrier transport in photovoltaics. For colloidal quantum dot (CQD) films that promise low-cost, large-area, air-stable photovoltaics, bandtails are determined by CQD synthetic polydispersity and inhomogeneous aggregation during the ligand-exchange process. Here we introduce a new method for the synthesis of solution-phase ligand-exchanged CQD inks that enable a flat energy landscape and an advantageously high packing density. In the solid state, these materials exhibit a sharper bandtail and reduced energy funnelling compared with the previous best CQD thin films for photovoltaics. Consequently, we demonstrate solar cells with higher Voc and more efficient charge injection into the electron acceptor, allowing the use of a closer-to-optimum bandgap to absorb more light. These enable the fabrication of CQD solar cells made via a solution-phase ligand exchange, with a certified power conversion efficiency of 11.28%. The devices are stable when stored in air, unencapsulated, for over 1,000 h.

  5. VT Lidar Hydro-flattened DEM (1.6 meter) - 2010 - East Franklin/West Orleans

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) This metadata applies to the following collection area(s): Missisquoi Upper 2010 1.6m and Digital Elevation Model (DEM) datasets of various...

  6. Anomalous Flattening of the Fast-Ion Profile during Alfvén-Eigenmode Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidbrink, W. W.; Gorelenkov, N. N.; Luo, Y.; van Zeeland, M. A.; White, R. B.; Austin, M. E.; Burrell, K. H.; Kramer, G. J.; Makowski, M. A.; McKee, G. R.; Nazikian, R.

    2007-12-01

    Neutral-beam injection into plasmas with negative central shear produces a rich spectrum of toroidicity-induced and reversed-shear Alfvén eigenmodes in the DIII-D tokamak. The first application of fast-ion Dα (FIDA) spectroscopy to Alfvén-eigenmode physics shows that the central fast-ion profile is anomalously flat in the inner half of the discharge. Neutron and equilibrium measurements corroborate the FIDA data. The current density driven by fast ions is also strongly modified. Calculations based on the measured mode amplitudes do not explain the observed fast-ion transport.

  7. The challenge of front-line management: flattened organizations in the new economy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sims, Ronald R

    2001-01-01

    ... to challenge me to learn and grow. John G. Veres III. I would like to dedicate this work to Frances M. and John G. Veres, Jr., and to Beth, Erin, John Jozef, and Olivia Veres, who have all taught me m...

  8. 2009 - 2011 CA Coastal Conservancy Coastal Lidar Project: Hydro-flattened Bare Earth DEM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data is remotely sensed high-resolution elevation data collected by an airborne collection platform. This LiDAR dataset is a...

  9. Flattening the Learning Curve: SOF as the Supported Command in the Irregular Warfare Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    has enabled U.S. forces to adapt more quickly to the uncertainty faced in this particular environment. For instance, Henry Mintzberg , an...e.g., Function and projects) with increased lateral communication and mutual adjustment. 93 Henry Mintzberg , “Organization Design: Fashion or Fit... Mintzberg uses this typology to establish which organizational configuration is best for each environment. These include Machine Bureaucracy (simple

  10. Triangulation of the monophasic action potential causes flattening of the electrocardiographic T-wave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhuiyan, Tanveer Ahmed; Graff, Claus; Thomsen, Morten Bækgaard

    2012-01-01

    of the action potential under the effect of the IKr blocker sertindole and associated these changes to concurrent changes in the morphology of electrocardiographic T-waves in dogs. We show that, under the effect of sertindole, the peak changes in the morphology of action potentials occur at time points similar...

  11. Contact angle hysteresis of non-flattened-top micro/nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Sona; Englezos, Peter; Hatzikiriakos, Savvas G

    2014-03-25

    A two-dimensional (2D) thermodynamic model is proposed to predict the contact angle (CA) and contact angle hysteresis (CAH) of different types of surface geometries, particularly those with asperities having nonflattened tops. The model is evaluated by micro/nano sinusoidal and parabolic patterns fabricated by laser ablation. These microstructures are analyzed thermodynamically through the use of the Gibbs free energy to obtain the equilibrium contact angle (CA) and contact angle hysteresis (CAH). The effects of the geometrical details of two types of microstructures on maximizing the superhydrophobicity of the nanopatterned surface are also discussed in an attempt to design surfaces with desired and/or optimum wetting characteristics. The analysis of the various surfaces reveals the important geometrical parameters that may lead to the lotus effect (high CA > 150° and low CAH 150° and high CAH ≫ 10°).

  12. Self-assembly of polloids from flattened colloids to strong and flexible chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Laura Mely

    The field of colloidal science has been exploited for decades due to the intriguing properties and versatile applicability of colloids in numerous natural and industrial processes. In fact, colloidal particles serve as building blocks for complex assemblies that hold great promise in modeling important molecular interactions. Visualization and dynamic testing of molecular systems is limited by their characteristic rapid time scales and small length scales. In this dissertation, "colloidal monomers" are spontaneously self-assembled into strong and flexible chains through a designed particle-binding mechanism that is tunable. No external force field is applied during the assembly process. These colloidal polymers -- polloids -- aim to study the dynamics and polymerization of real polymers that exhibit both durable and reversible bonds. The monomers in polloids consist of micron-size particles with a small physical deformation, a localized flat region. By tuning the ionic strength of the solution, a flat region on one particle can preferentially bond to either the flat region or the spherical part of another particle. The increase in the effective interaction area strengthens the bond into a deep secondary energy minimum, where a thin layer of fluid lies in between the two particles and allows full bond rotation. The main contributions of this research are 1) a DLVO model that predicts the interparticle potential as a function of separation distance between two particles facing flat-flat, flat-sphere, or sphere-sphere, the latter being the usual DLVO potential, 2) a controlled technique to create localized flat regions on spherical colloids with a model that predicts the growth of the flat radius with time, 3) the three-dimensional visualization of polloids in solution mimicking polymers, and 4) the data analysis showing how the distributions of chain length and weight follow closely classical condensation polymerization. Hence, polloids could impact the way scientists view polymeric molecular interactions.

  13. VT Lidar Hydro-flattened DEM (0.7 meter) - 2014 - Chittenden, Lamoille, Orleans, & Washington Counties

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) This metadata applies to the following collection area(s): Eastern VT 2014 0.7m and Digital Elevation Model (DEM) dataset of the following...

  14. VT Lidar Hydro-flattened DEM (0.7 meter) - 2015 - Windham County

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) This metadata applies to the following collection area(s): Windham County 2015 0.7m and Digital Elevation Model (DEM) dataset of the following...

  15. Understanding form and function of the stem in early flattened echinoderms (pleurocystitids) using a microstructural approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorzelak, Przemysław; Zamora, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    Pleurocystitid rhombiferans are among the most unusual echinoderms whose mode of life has been long debated. These echinoderms are usually interpreted as vagile epibenthic echinoderms, moving over the sea bottom by means of a flexible stem. Although their life habits and posture are reasonably well understood, the mechanisms that control the movement of stem are highly controversial. Specifically, it is unknown whether the stem flexibility was under the control of muscles or ligamentary mutable collagenous tissues (MCTs). Here, we reconstruct palaeoanatomy of the two Ordovician pleurocystitid rhombiferans (Pleurocystites and Amecystis) based on stereom microstructure. We show that the articular facets of columnals in pleurocystitid rhombiferans are composed of fine labyrinthic stereom. Comparison with modern echinoderms suggests that this type of stereom was associated with muscles implying that their stem was a muscular locomotory organ supporting an active mode of life.

  16. Power flattening on modified CANDLE small long life gas-cooled fast reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monado, Fiber; Su'ud, Zaki; Waris, Abdul; Basar, Khairul; Ariani, Menik; Sekimoto, Hiroshi

    2014-09-01

    Gas-cooled Fast Reactor (GFR) is one of the candidates of next generation Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) that expected to be operated commercially after 2030. In this research conceptual design study of long life 350 MWt GFR with natural uranium metallic fuel as fuel cycle input has been performed. Modified CANDLE burn-up strategy with first and second regions located near the last region (type B) has been applied. This reactor can be operated for 10 years without refuelling and fuel shuffling. Power peaking reduction is conducted by arranging the core radial direction into three regions with respectively uses fuel volume fraction 62.5%, 64% and 67.5%. The average power density in the modified core is about 82 Watt/cc and the power peaking factor decreased from 4.03 to 3.43.

  17. MAGNETIC-PULSE CAR BODY PANELS FLATTENING. THEORETICAL ASPECTS AND PRACTICAL RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.V. Batygin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to provide theoretical and experimental studying of the «induction system with an attractive screen» practical effectiveness with the excited magnetic pulse attractive forces numerical estimation. Originality. For the first time, the theoretical analysis of the electrodynamics process for the «inductor system with attractive screen» at the low frequent assumption were conducted. Methodology of the analysis applied is based on the classic electrodynamics circuits theory. All of the resulted carried out, were obtained as the Maxwell’s differential equation solutions and its behavior was analyzed analytically. Results. The electrodynamics process was analyzed and the principle efficiency of the «induction system with an attractive screen» as an effective tool for magnetic pulse forming of the thin sheet metals was substantiated. The axis distributions of the attractive forces based on the relations been obtained were illuminated graphically. The results of experimental testing of the system in the engineering operation of the external non-contact dents removing on the car body panels samples were presented. Practical value. According to the results of the calculation analyses the fundamental workability of the «inductor system with attractive shield» as an effective magnetic pulse sheet metal part attraction tool was proved. It was shown that the not deep metal surface damages could be worked up by magnetic pulses technologies with a high performance in a short time.

  18. Get Flat, or Get Flattened: Adapting to the Forces of Globalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-25

    psychological and physical impact of actions in cyber domain, the RSN will need members that possess sufficient cyber skills to protect their network, and...warfare comes closer to describing the reality of warfare today. This paper refers to that combination as NW. Nonconventional warfare is a gestalt

  19. Hybrid organic-inorganic inks flatten the energy landscape in colloidal quantum dot solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mengxia; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Sabatini, Randy; García de Arquer, F Pelayo; Munir, Rahim; Balawi, Ahmed Hesham; Lan, Xinzheng; Fan, Fengjia; Walters, Grant; Kirmani, Ahmad R; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Laquai, Frédéric; Amassian, Aram; Sargent, Edward H

    2017-02-01

    Bandtail states in disordered semiconductor materials result in losses in open-circuit voltage (Voc) and inhibit carrier transport in photovoltaics. For colloidal quantum dot (CQD) films that promise low-cost, large-area, air-stable photovoltaics, bandtails are determined by CQD synthetic polydispersity and inhomogeneous aggregation during the ligand-exchange process. Here we introduce a new method for the synthesis of solution-phase ligand-exchanged CQD inks that enable a flat energy landscape and an advantageously high packing density. In the solid state, these materials exhibit a sharper bandtail and reduced energy funnelling compared with the previous best CQD thin films for photovoltaics. Consequently, we demonstrate solar cells with higher Voc and more efficient charge injection into the electron acceptor, allowing the use of a closer-to-optimum bandgap to absorb more light. These enable the fabrication of CQD solar cells made via a solution-phase ligand exchange, with a certified power conversion efficiency of 11.28%. The devices are stable when stored in air, unencapsulated, for over 1,000 h.

  20. VT Lidar Hydro-flattened DEM (1.6 meter) - 2012 - Addison

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) This metadata applies to the following collection area(s): Addison County 2012 1.6m and Digital Elevation Model (DEM) datasets of various...

  1. Supercontinuum generation from dispersion-flattened photonic crystal fiber using picosecond pulses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li He; Bojun Yang; Xiaoguang Zhang; Li Yu

    2006-01-01

    We present the all-fiber system for supercontiuum (SC) generation with picosecond pulses. By launching1.6-ps pulses from pulsed erbium-doped fiber laser (EDFL) into a section of photonic crystal fiber (PCF),the spectral broadening is observed. The bandwidth of 237 nm (at 20 dB level) is achieved.

  2. Revisiting the Digital Divide in the Context of a "Flattening" World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramony, Deepak Prem

    2014-01-01

    This article employs a variety of theoretical lenses to describe the nature and ramifications of the Digital Divide, which, the author states, continues to remain one of the biggest social challenges to confront the human race in modern times--even as technological advances, globalization, and other socioeconomic shifts are rendering digital media…

  3. "Real-Life" Pulse Flattening on the LLNL Flash X-ray (FXR) Machine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeHope, W J; Jacob, J S; Kihara, R; Ong, M; Zentler, J M

    2007-06-25

    High-resolution radiography using high-current electron accelerators based on the linear induction accelerator principle requires the linac's final spot on the X-ray target to be millimeter-sized. The requisite final focusing solenoid is adjusted for a specific beam energy at its entrance, hence, temporal variation of entrance beam energy results in a less than optimal time-averaged spot size. The FXR (Flash X-Ray) induction linac facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory will be briefly described with an emphasis on its pulsed power system. In principle, the pulsed Blumleins at the heart of the system output a square pulse when discharged at the peak of their charging waveform so that, with correct cell timing synchronization, the effective beam output into the final focusing solenoid should be optimally flat. We have found that real-life consideration of transmission line and pulse power details in both the injector and accelerator sections of the machine results in significant energy variations in the final beam. We have implemented methods of measurement and analysis that permits this situation to be quantified and improved upon. The improvement will be linked to final beam spot size and enhancement in expected radiographic resolution.

  4. Novel asymmetrical twin-core photonic crystal fiber for gain-flattened Raman amplifier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG HaiMing; XIE Kang; WANG YaFei

    2009-01-01

    A novel asymmetrical twin-core photonic crystal fiber was proposed,whose effective overlap core areaAeff can be designed to synchronize the variation of Raman gain coefficient with respect to frequency.This fiber possesses a higher and flatter Raman gain efficiency coefficient curve rR=gR/Aeff over a specified band of wavelength than a conventional fiber.Therefore,it is a good candidate of gain medium for a flat,broad gain band fiber Raman amplifier.It was numerically demonstrated that for the Raman gain efficiency rR,relative fluctuations of less than 2.2% and 5.7% are achievable in the C (1530-1565 nm)band and L(1565-1625 nm)band,respectively.

  5. Novel asymmetrical twin-core photonic crystal fiber for gain-flattened Raman amplifier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    A novel asymmetrical twin-core photonic crystal fiber was proposed, whose effective overlap core area Aeff can be designed to synchronize the variation of Raman gain coefficient with respect to frequency. This fiber possesses a higher and flatter Raman gain efficiency coefficient curve rR=gR/Aeff over a specified band of wavelength than a conventional fiber. Therefore, it is a good candidate of gain me- dium for a flat, broad gain band fiber Raman amplifier. It was numerically demonstrated that for the Raman gain efficiency rR, relative fluctuations of less than 2.2% and 5.7% are achievable in the C (1530―1565 nm) band and L (1565―1625 nm) band, respectively.

  6. White light coronal structures and flattening during six total solar eclipses

    OpenAIRE

    B.A. Marzouk; P. Stoeva; Stoev, A.

    2016-01-01

    Solar corona is very important part of the solar atmosphere, which is not available every time and it is very difficult to observe it. From solar corona we can get more information about outer sun layers. Large-scale structure of the solar corona can be studied during total solar eclipses. The structure, shape and brightness of the solar corona significantly change from eclipse to eclipse. They depend on activity of the sun. At maximum solar activity, the corona is very bright and uniform ...

  7. Exhaustion measured by the SF-36 vitality scale is associated with a flattened diurnal cortisol profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindeberg, Sara I; Eek, Frida; Lindbladh, Eva

    2008-01-01

    The possible association between stress-related exhaustion and reduced activity in the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is increasingly in focus. The aim of the present study was to examine whether exhaustion measured in a non-patient population is associated with alterations in diurnal...... cortisol profile. The study population included 78 working individuals. The study group was dichotomised into exhausted and non-exhausted groups by means of the SF-36 vitality scale. Salivary cortisol was measured at three times during 1 workday: at awakening, 30min after awakening, and in the evening....... The results showed that diurnal cortisol variation was significantly reduced in exhausted individuals. The difference in cortisol variation was mainly due to lowered morning cortisol in the exhausted group. Differences in cortisol levels at each sampling time or in mean diurnal output of cortisol were...

  8. Atomically flattening of Si surface of silicon on insulator and isolation-patterned wafers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Tetsuya; Kuroda, Rihito; Akagawa, Naoya; Suwa, Tomoyuki; Teramoto, Akinobu; Li, Xiang; Obara, Toshiki; Kimoto, Daiki; Sugawa, Shigetoshi; Ohmi, Tadahiro; Kamata, Yutaka; Kumagai, Yuki; Shibusawa, Katsuhiko

    2015-04-01

    By introducing high-purity and low-temperature Ar annealing at 850 °C, atomically flat Si surfaces of silicon-on-insulator (SOI) and shallow-trench-isolation (STI)-patterned wafers were obtained. In the case of the STI-patterned wafer, this low-temperature annealing and subsequent radical oxidation to form a gate oxide film were introduced into the complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process with 0.22 µm technology. As a result, a test array circuit for evaluating the electrical characteristics of a very large number (>260,000) of metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) having an atomically flat gate insulator/Si interface was successfully fabricated on a 200-mm-diameter wafer. By evaluating 262,144 nMOSFETs, it was found that not only the gate oxide reliability was improved, but also the noise amplitude of the gate-source voltage related to the random telegraph noise (RTN) was reduced owing to the introduction of the atomically flat gate insulator/Si interface.

  9. Hybrid organic-inorganic inks flatten the energy landscape in colloidal quantum dot solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mengxia; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Sabatini, Randy; García de Arquer, F. Pelayo; Munir, Rahim; Balawi, Ahmed Hesham; Lan, Xinzheng; Fan, Fengjia; Walters, Grant; Kirmani, Ahmad R.; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Laquai, Frédéric; Amassian, Aram; Sargent, Edward H.

    2016-11-01

    Bandtail states in disordered semiconductor materials result in losses in open-circuit voltage (Voc) and inhibit carrier transport in photovoltaics. For colloidal quantum dot (CQD) films that promise low-cost, large-area, air-stable photovoltaics, bandtails are determined by CQD synthetic polydispersity and inhomogeneous aggregation during the ligand-exchange process. Here we introduce a new method for the synthesis of solution-phase ligand-exchanged CQD inks that enable a flat energy landscape and an advantageously high packing density. In the solid state, these materials exhibit a sharper bandtail and reduced energy funnelling compared with the previous best CQD thin films for photovoltaics. Consequently, we demonstrate solar cells with higher Voc and more efficient charge injection into the electron acceptor, allowing the use of a closer-to-optimum bandgap to absorb more light. These enable the fabrication of CQD solar cells made via a solution-phase ligand exchange, with a certified power conversion efficiency of 11.28%. The devices are stable when stored in air, unencapsulated, for over 1,000 h.

  10. Challenging hierarchy in healthcare teams - ways to flatten gradients to improve teamwork and patient care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, B; Oeppen, R S; Smith, D W; Brennan, P A

    2017-06-01

    In healthcare, mistakes that are potentially harmful or fatal to patients are often the result of poor communication between members of a team. This is particularly important in high-risk areas such as operating theatres or during any intervention, and the ability to challenge colleagues who are in authority when something does not seem right or is clearly wrong, is crucial. Colleagues in oral and maxillofacial surgery recognised the importance of this as early as 2004, and it is now well known that failure or reluctance to challenge others who might be wrong can severely compromise a patient's safety. The Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh runs popular regular courses (Non-technical Skills for Surgeons, NOTSS) that teach how to ensure safety through good communication and teamwork. In this paper we introduce the concept of hierarchical challenge, and discuss models and approaches to address situations when problems arise within a team. Copyright © 2017 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Ultrabroad-band wavelength converter with high flattening conversion efficiency in a semiconductor optical amplifier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaofeng Xu(徐晓峰); Jue Wei(韦珏); Zhihui Kang(康智慧); Yun Jiang(姜云); Huifang Zhang(张惠芳); Jinyue Gao(高锦岳)

    2004-01-01

    The efficiency of ultrabroad-band wavelength conversion using orthogonal-pump four-wave mixing in a semiconductor optical amplifier is measured for the wavelength shifts from 1500 to 1640 nm. The variation of conversion efficiency is < 0.9 dB over the wavelength range from 1530 to 1560 nm (C-band), and < 4.5dB over the wavelength range from 1560 to 1610 nm (L-band). The maximum conversion efficiency is about -8.7 dB.

  12. Power flattening on modified CANDLE small long life gas-cooled fast reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monado, Fiber [Nuclear Physics and Biophysics Research Group, Dept. of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Bandung Institute of Technology, Bandung, Indonesia and Dept. of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Sriwijaya University (Indonesia); Su' ud, Zaki; Waris, Abdul; Basar, Khairul [Nuclear Physics and Biophysics Research Group, Dept. of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Bandung Institute of Technology, Bandung (Indonesia); Ariani, Menik [Dept. of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Sriwijaya University (Indonesia); Sekimoto, Hiroshi [CRINES, Tokyo Institute of Technology, O-okoyama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan)

    2014-09-30

    Gas-cooled Fast Reactor (GFR) is one of the candidates of next generation Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) that expected to be operated commercially after 2030. In this research conceptual design study of long life 350 MWt GFR with natural uranium metallic fuel as fuel cycle input has been performed. Modified CANDLE burn-up strategy with first and second regions located near the last region (type B) has been applied. This reactor can be operated for 10 years without refuelling and fuel shuffling. Power peaking reduction is conducted by arranging the core radial direction into three regions with respectively uses fuel volume fraction 62.5%, 64% and 67.5%. The average power density in the modified core is about 82 Watt/cc and the power peaking factor decreased from 4.03 to 3.43.

  13. Human Impacts Flatten Rainforest-Savanna Gradient and Reduce Adaptive Diversity in a Rainforest Bird

    OpenAIRE

    Freedman, Adam H.; Wolfgang Buermann; Mitchard, Edward T A; DeFries, Ruth S.; Smith, Thomas B

    2010-01-01

    Ecological gradients have long been recognized as important regions for diversification and speciation. However, little attention has been paid to the evolutionary consequences or conservation implications of human activities that fundamentally change the environmental features of such gradients. Here we show that recent deforestation in West Africa has homogenized the rainforest-savanna gradient, causing a loss of adaptive phenotypic diversity in a common rainforest bird, the little greenbul...

  14. Hybrid organic-inorganic inks flatten the energy landscape in colloidal quantum dot solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mengxia; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Sabatini, Randy; García de Arquer, F. Pelayo; Munir, Rahim; Balawi, Ahmed Hesham; Lan, Xinzheng; Fan, Fengjia; Walters, Grant; Kirmani, Ahmad R.; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Laquai, Frédéric; Amassian, Aram; Sargent, Edward H.

    2017-02-01

    Bandtail states in disordered semiconductor materials result in losses in open-circuit voltage (Voc) and inhibit carrier transport in photovoltaics. For colloidal quantum dot (CQD) films that promise low-cost, large-area, air-stable photovoltaics, bandtails are determined by CQD synthetic polydispersity and inhomogeneous aggregation during the ligand-exchange process. Here we introduce a new method for the synthesis of solution-phase ligand-exchanged CQD inks that enable a flat energy landscape and an advantageously high packing density. In the solid state, these materials exhibit a sharper bandtail and reduced energy funnelling compared with the previous best CQD thin films for photovoltaics. Consequently, we demonstrate solar cells with higher Voc and more efficient charge injection into the electron acceptor, allowing the use of a closer-to-optimum bandgap to absorb more light. These enable the fabrication of CQD solar cells made via a solution-phase ligand exchange, with a certified power conversion efficiency of 11.28%. The devices are stable when stored in air, unencapsulated, for over 1,000 h.

  15. Ultrafast electron injection at the cationic porphyrin-graphene interface assisted by molecular flattening

    KAUST Repository

    Aly, Shawkat Mohammede

    2014-01-01

    The steady-state and femtosecond (fs) time-resolved data clearly demonstrate that the charge transfer (CT) process at the porphyrin-graphene carboxylate (GC) interfaces can be tuned from zero to very sufficient and ultrafast by changing the electronic structure of the meso unit and the redox properties of the porphyrin cavity. This journal is © the Partner Organisations 2014.

  16. Study of the dosimetric properties of an unflattened 6-MV photon beam by using the BEAMnrc code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajaria, Ankit; Sharma, Neeraj; Sharma, Shiru; Pradhan, Satyajit; Mandal, Abhijit; Aggarwal, Lalit. M.

    2016-08-01

    This study investigated the basic dosimetric properties of a Flattening-filter-free 6-MV photon beam based on the unique performance model of the Varian Clinic 600 linac operated with and without a flattening filter. Dosimetric features, including the central-axis absorbed dose, the beam profiles and the photon and electron fluences were calculated for the flattened and unflattened cases separately by using Monte Carlo simulations. We observe that the dosimetric field size and penumbra were slightly smaller for the unflattened beam, but the beam's non-flatness is unlikely to present a problem for treatments with small fields. Absolute depth dose calculations showed an increase in the dose rate by a factor of more than 2.4 for the unflattened 6-MV beam which depended on the depth. These results suggest that the removal of the filter could result in higher central-axis dose rates and hence, shorter beam delivery times for treatments. Surface doses were found to be higher for the unflattened beam due to more contamination electrons and low-energy photons being present in the beam. The total scatter factor, SCP, varies less with the field sizes, indicating that removing the filter from the beam line can reduce significantly the amount of head scatter photons and therefore, doses to normal tissues and organs.

  17. Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy for Small Lung Tumors in the University of Tokyo Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideomi Yamashita

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Our work on stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT for primary and metastatic lung tumors will be described. The eligibility criteria for SBRT, our previous SBRT method, the definition of target volume, heterogeneity correction, the position adjustment using four-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography (4D CBCT immediately before SBRT, volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT method for SBRT, verifying of tumor position within internal target volume (ITV using in-treatment 4D-CBCT during VMAT-SBRT, shortening of treatment time using flattening-filter-free (FFF techniques, delivery of 4D dose calculation for lung-VMAT patients using in-treatment CBCT and LINAC log data with agility multileaf collimator, and SBRT method for centrally located lung tumors in our institution will be shown. In our institution, these efforts have been made with the goal of raising the local control rate and decreasing adverse effects after SBRT.

  18. Time dependent pre-treatment EPID dosimetry for standard and FFF VMAT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podesta, Mark; Nijsten, Sebastiaan M J J G; Persoon, Lucas C G G; Scheib, Stefan G; Baltes, Christof; Verhaegen, Frank

    2014-08-21

    Methods to calibrate Megavoltage electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs) for dosimetry have been previously documented for dynamic treatments such as intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) using flattened beams and typically using integrated fields. While these methods verify the accumulated field shape and dose, the dose rate and differential fields remain unverified. The aim of this work is to provide an accurate calibration model for time dependent pre-treatment dose verification using amorphous silicon (a-Si) EPIDs in volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) for both flattened and flattening filter free (FFF) beams. A general calibration model was created using a Varian TrueBeam accelerator, equipped with an aS1000 EPID, for each photon spectrum 6 MV, 10 MV, 6 MV-FFF, 10 MV-FFF. As planned VMAT treatments use control points (CPs) for optimization, measured images are separated into corresponding time intervals for direct comparison with predictions. The accuracy of the calibration model was determined for a range of treatment conditions. Measured and predicted CP dose images were compared using a time dependent gamma evaluation using criteria (3%, 3 mm, 0.5 sec). Time dependent pre-treatment dose verification is possible without an additional measurement device or phantom, using the on-board EPID. Sufficient data is present in trajectory log files and EPID frame headers to reliably synchronize and resample portal images. For the VMAT plans tested, significantly more deviation is observed when analysed in a time dependent manner for FFF and non-FFF plans than when analysed using only the integrated field. We show EPID-based pre-treatment dose verification can be performed on a CP basis for VMAT plans. This model can measure pre-treatment doses for both flattened and unflattened beams in a time dependent manner which highlights deviations that are missed in integrated field verifications.

  19. Time dependent pre-treatment EPID dosimetry for standard and FFF VMAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podesta, Mark; Nijsten, Sebastiaan M. J. J. G.; Persoon, Lucas C. G. G.; Scheib, Stefan G.; Baltes, Christof; Verhaegen, Frank

    2014-08-01

    Methods to calibrate Megavoltage electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs) for dosimetry have been previously documented for dynamic treatments such as intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) using flattened beams and typically using integrated fields. While these methods verify the accumulated field shape and dose, the dose rate and differential fields remain unverified. The aim of this work is to provide an accurate calibration model for time dependent pre-treatment dose verification using amorphous silicon (a-Si) EPIDs in volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) for both flattened and flattening filter free (FFF) beams. A general calibration model was created using a Varian TrueBeam accelerator, equipped with an aS1000 EPID, for each photon spectrum 6 MV, 10 MV, 6 MV-FFF, 10 MV-FFF. As planned VMAT treatments use control points (CPs) for optimization, measured images are separated into corresponding time intervals for direct comparison with predictions. The accuracy of the calibration model was determined for a range of treatment conditions. Measured and predicted CP dose images were compared using a time dependent gamma evaluation using criteria (3%, 3 mm, 0.5 sec). Time dependent pre-treatment dose verification is possible without an additional measurement device or phantom, using the on-board EPID. Sufficient data is present in trajectory log files and EPID frame headers to reliably synchronize and resample portal images. For the VMAT plans tested, significantly more deviation is observed when analysed in a time dependent manner for FFF and non-FFF plans than when analysed using only the integrated field. We show EPID-based pre-treatment dose verification can be performed on a CP basis for VMAT plans. This model can measure pre-treatment doses for both flattened and unflattened beams in a time dependent manner which highlights deviations that are missed in integrated field verifications.

  20. Shape anisotropy and exchange bias in magnetic flattened nanospindles with metallic/oxide core/shell structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Reséndez, Raquel; Luna, Carlos

    2012-09-01

    A preliminary study of the magnetic phenomenology of Fe and Fe90Co10 nanospindles with axial ratio equal to 5 is presented. These nanospindles are constituted by single-domains single-crystals coated by oxide surface layer and assembled in chains into the nanospindle. The thermal dependence of the coercive field and the saturation magnetization in the temperature range from 4 K up to room temperature indicates that the coercive field is roughly proportional to the saturation magnetization (which follows the T3/2 Bloch law) at temperatures above the blocking temperature of the oxide. This suggests that the predominant source of magnetic anisotropy in this temperature range is the shape anisotropy. However, at temperatures below the oxide blocking temperature, the magnetic coupling between the spins of the oxide and the nanocrystals is produced at the interface. This exchange coupling enhances the effective anisotropy of the nanospindles and the coercive field increases more abruptly than the saturation of magnetization as temperature decreases.

  1. Relative flattening between velvet and matte 3D shapes: Evidence for similar shape-from-shading computations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijntjes, W.A.; Doerschner, K.; Kucukoglu, G.; Pont, S.C.

    2011-01-01

    Among other cues, the visual system uses shading to infer the 3D shape of objects. The shading pattern depends on the illumination and reflectance properties (BRDF). In this study, we compared 3D shape perception between identical shapes with different BRDFs. The stimuli were photographed 3D printed

  2. Real-Time Wavelet-Based Coordinated Control of Hybrid Energy Storage Systems for Denoising and Flattening Wind Power Output

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran Thai Trung

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Since the penetration level of wind energy is continuously increasing, the negative impact caused by the fluctuation of wind power output needs to be carefully managed. This paper proposes a novel real-time coordinated control algorithm based on a wavelet transform to mitigate both short-term and long-term fluctuations by using a hybrid energy storage system (HESS. The short-term fluctuation is eliminated by using an electric double-layer capacitor (EDLC, while the wind-HESS system output is kept constant during each 10-min period by a Ni-MH battery (NB. State-of-charge (SOC control strategies for both EDLC and NB are proposed to maintain the SOC level of storage within safe operating limits. A ramp rate limitation (RRL requirement is also considered in the proposed algorithm. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm has been tested by using real time simulation. The simulation model of the wind-HESS system is developed in the real-time digital simulator (RTDS/RSCAD environment. The proposed algorithm is also implemented as a user defined model of the RSCAD. The simulation results demonstrate that the HESS with the proposed control algorithm can indeed assist in dealing with the variation of wind power generation. Moreover, the proposed method shows better performance in smoothing out the fluctuation and managing the SOC of battery and EDLC than the simple moving average (SMA based method.

  3. VT Lidar Hydro-flattened DEM (0.7 meter) - 2013 - Rutland/West Washington/Grand Isle

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) This metadata applies to the following collection area: Rutland/GI Counties 2013 0.7m and Digital Elevation Model (DEM) datasets of various...

  4. Wheel running improves REM sleep and attenuates stress-induced flattening of diurnal rhythms in F344 rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Robert S; Roller, Rachel; Greenwood, Benjamin N; Fleshner, Monika

    2016-05-01

    Regular physical activity produces resistance to the negative health consequences of stressor exposure. One way that exercise may confer stress resistance is by reducing the impact of stress on diurnal rhythms and sleep; disruptions of which contribute to stress-related disease including mood disorders. Given the link between diurnal rhythm disruptions and stress-related disorders and that exercise both promotes stress resistance and is a powerful non-photic biological entrainment cue, we tested if wheel running could reduce stress-induced disruptions of sleep/wake behavior and diurnal rhythms. Adult, male F344 rats with or without access to running wheels were instrumented for biotelemetric recording of diurnal rhythms of locomotor activity, heart rate, core body temperature (CBT), and sleep (i.e. REM, NREM, and WAKE) in the presence of a 12 h light/dark cycle. Following 6 weeks of sedentary or exercise conditions, rats were exposed to an acute stressor known to disrupt diurnal rhythms and produce behaviors associated with mood disorders. Prior to stressor exposure, exercise rats had higher CBT, more locomotor activity during the dark cycle, and greater %REM during the light cycle relative to sedentary rats. NREM and REM sleep were consolidated immediately following peak running to a greater extent in exercise, compared to sedentary rats. In response to stressor exposure, exercise rats expressed higher stress-induced hyperthermia than sedentary rats. Stressor exposure disrupted diurnal rhythms in sedentary rats; and wheel running reduced these effects. Improvements in sleep and reduced diurnal rhythm disruptions following stress could contribute to the health promoting and stress protective effects of exercise.

  5. Transverse coupled-bunch instability thresholds in the presence of a harmonic-cavity-flattened rf potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. J. Cullinan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A small vacuum chamber aperture is a present trend in the design of future synchrotron light sources. This leads to a large resistive-wall impedance that can drive coupled-bunch instabilities. Another trend is the use of passively driven cavities at a harmonic of the main radio frequency to lengthen the electron bunches in order to increase the Touschek lifetime and reduce emittance blowup due to intrabeam scattering. In some cases, the harmonic cavities may be tuned to fulfill the flat potential condition. With this condition met, it has been predicted in simulation that the threshold current for coupled-bunch resistive-wall instabilities is much higher than with no bunch lengthening at all. In this paper, the features of a bunch in the flat potential that would contribute toward this stabilization are identified and discussed. The threshold currents for these instabilities are estimated for the MAX IV 3 GeV storage ring at different values of chromaticity using macroparticle simulations in the time domain and, within the limits of the existing theory, frequency domain calculations. By comparing the results from these two methods and analyzing the spectra of the dominant head-tail modes, the impact of each of the distinguishing features of a bunch in the flat potential can be explained and quantified in terms of the change in threshold current. It is found that, above a certain chromaticity, the threshold current is determined by the radial structure of the zeroth-order head-tail mode. This happens at a lower chromaticity if the bunch length is longer.

  6. Highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber with ultra-flattened negative dispersion over S + C + L + U bands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habib, Selim; Khandker, Emran

    2015-01-01

    + C + L + U wavelength bands and average dispersion of about −558.96 ps∕nm∕km with absolute dispersion variation of 9.7 ps∕nm∕km from 1460 to 1675 nm (215 nm bandwidth). Moreover, ultrahigh birefringence of 0.0299 is also achieved at a 1500 nm wavelength. © 2015 Optical Society of America...

  7. Brightest cluster galaxy formation in the cluster C0037-2522: flattening of the dark matter cusp

    CERN Document Server

    Nipoti, C; Ciotti, L; Treu, T; Rosati, P

    2003-01-01

    The X-ray cluster C0337-2522 at redshift $z=0.59$ hosts in its core a group of five elliptical galaxies. Using N-body simulations we show that a multiple merging event among the five galaxies is expected to take place in the next few Gyrs, forming a central brightest cluster galaxy. We also find indications that dynamical friction heating associated with this event is likely to modify the central slope of the cluster dark matter density profile.

  8. Transverse coupled-bunch instability thresholds in the presence of a harmonic-cavity-flattened rf potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullinan, F. J.; Nagaoka, R.; Skripka, G.; Tavares, P. F.

    2016-12-01

    A small vacuum chamber aperture is a present trend in the design of future synchrotron light sources. This leads to a large resistive-wall impedance that can drive coupled-bunch instabilities. Another trend is the use of passively driven cavities at a harmonic of the main radio frequency to lengthen the electron bunches in order to increase the Touschek lifetime and reduce emittance blowup due to intrabeam scattering. In some cases, the harmonic cavities may be tuned to fulfill the flat potential condition. With this condition met, it has been predicted in simulation that the threshold current for coupled-bunch resistive-wall instabilities is much higher than with no bunch lengthening at all. In this paper, the features of a bunch in the flat potential that would contribute toward this stabilization are identified and discussed. The threshold currents for these instabilities are estimated for the MAX IV 3 GeV storage ring at different values of chromaticity using macroparticle simulations in the time domain and, within the limits of the existing theory, frequency domain calculations. By comparing the results from these two methods and analyzing the spectra of the dominant head-tail modes, the impact of each of the distinguishing features of a bunch in the flat potential can be explained and quantified in terms of the change in threshold current. It is found that, above a certain chromaticity, the threshold current is determined by the radial structure of the zeroth-order head-tail mode. This happens at a lower chromaticity if the bunch length is longer.

  9. A new form of spondyloperipheral dysplasia with facial dysmorphism, flattened vertebrae, hypoplastic pelvis, brachydactyly and soft tissue syndactyly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitoh, Hiroshi [Aichi Prefectural Colony, Kasugai (Japan). Inst. for Developmental Research; Lachman, R.S. [Cedars-Sinai Medical Research Inst., Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2001-01-01

    We report the case of a 9-year-old Japanese boy with spondyloperipheral skeletal dysplasia associated with facial dysmorphism, pelvic abnormalities, and distinctive hands and feet. Radiographic manifestations included mild platyspondyly with posterior scalloping, small flared ilia with shallow acetabulae, mesomelic shortening of long bones, marked delay of carpal bone maturation, and brachydactyly with hypoplastic middle and terminal phalanges bilaterally in both hands and feet. There was bilateral soft tissue syndactyly of the 2nd and 3rd interdigital spaces of the hands, the 2nd interdigital space of the feet, with hypoplastic nails. The clinical and radiographic manifestations in this case appear to represent a unique type of skeletal dysplasia. (orig.)

  10. Ultra-flat and broad optical frequency combs generation based on novel dispersion-flattened double-slot microring resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuanwu; Zhang, Minming; Lu, Luluzi; Li, Meifeng; Wang, Jinghao; Zhou, Feiya; Dai, Jing; Deng, Lei; Liu, Deming

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a novel double-slot microring resonator is proposed to produce flat dispersion of 0-3.8 ps/(nm km) over 1150 nm wavelength range. Moreover, the dispersion tailoring with different structural parameters of the proposed microring resonator is analyzed and simulated. The simulation results show that the dispersion fluctuation can be tailored by the height of the central and bottom As2S3 layer, and the slope can be adjusted by the waveguide width and lower SiO2 slot thickness. Furthermore, by means of the Lugiato-Lefever equation, an ultra-flat and broad optical frequency comb with 7-dB bandwidth of 1155 nm (1855-3010 nm) is obtained based on such dispersion-optimized resonator. The proposed double-slot microring resonator shows potential application in both telecommunication and mid-infrared research domain.

  11. Detection, photometry and slitless radial velocities of 535 planetary nebulae in the flattened elliptical galaxy NGC 4697

    CERN Document Server

    Méndez, R H; Kudritzki, R P; Matthias, M; Freeman, K C; Arnaboldi, M; Capaccioli, M; Gerhard, O E

    2001-01-01

    We have detected 535 planetary nebulae (PNs) in NGC 4697, using the classic on-band, off-band filter technique with the Focal Reducer and Spectrograph (FORS) at the Cassegrain focus of the first 8-meter telescope unit of the ESO Very Large Telescope. From our photometry we have built the [O III] 5007 planetary nebula luminosity function (PNLF) of NGC 4697. It indicates a distance of 10.5 Mpc, substantially smaller than a previous estimate of 24 Mpc used in earlier dynamical studies. The PNLF also provides an estimate of the specific PN formation rate. Combining the information from on-band images with PN positions on dispersed, slitless grism images, we have obtained radial velocities for 531 of the 535 PNs. They provide kinematic information up to a distance of almost three effective radii from the nucleus. Some rotation is detected in the outer regions, but the rotation curve of this galaxy appears to drop beyond one effective radius. Assuming an isotropic velocity distribution, the velocity dispersion prof...

  12. Water flattens graphene wrinkles: laser shock wrapping of graphene onto substrate-supported crystalline plasmonic nanoparticle arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yaowu; Lee, Seunghyun; Kumar, Prashant; Nian, Qiong; Wang, Wenqi; Irudayaraj, Joseph; Cheng, Gary J

    2015-12-21

    Hot electron injection into an exceptionally high mobility material can be realized in graphene-plasmonic nanoantenna hybrid nanosystems, which can be exploited for several front-edge applications including photovoltaics, plasmonic waveguiding and molecular sensing at trace levels. Wrinkling instabilities of graphene on these plasmonic nanostructures, however, would cause reactive oxygen or sulfur species to diffuse and react with the materials, decrease charge transfer rates and block intense hot-spots. No ex situ graphene wrapping technique has been explored so far to control these wrinkles. Here, we present a method to generate seamless integration by using water as a flyer to transfer the laser shock pressure to wrap graphene onto plasmonic nanocrystals. This technique decreases the interfacial gap between graphene and the covered substrate-supported plasmonic nanoparticle arrays by exploiting a shock pressure generated by the laser ablation of graphite and the water impermeable nature of graphene. Graphene wrapping of chemically synthesized crystalline gold nanospheres, nanorods and bipyramids with different field confinement capabilities is investigated. A combined experimental and computational method, including SEM and AFM morphological investigation, molecular dynamics simulation, and Raman spectroscopy characterization, is used to demonstrate the effectiveness of this technique. Graphene covered gold bipyramid exhibits the best result among the hybrid nanosystems studied. We have shown that the hybrid system fabricated by laser shock can be used for enhanced molecular sensing. The technique developed has the characteristics of tight integration, and chemical/thermal stability, is instantaneous in nature, possesses a large scale and room temperature processing capability, and can be further extended to integrate other 2D materials with various 0-3D nanomaterials.

  13. A flexible Monte Carlo tool for patient or phantom specific calculations: comparison with preliminary validation measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, S; Followill, D; Ibbott, G [University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Cui, J; Deasy, J [Washington University, St. Louis, MO (United States)], E-mail: sedavids@mdanderson.org

    2008-02-01

    The Dose Planning Method (DPM) is one of several 'fast' Monte Carlo (MC) computer codes designed to produce an accurate dose calculation for advanced clinical applications. We have developed a flexible machine modeling process and validation tests for open-field and IMRT calculations. To complement the DPM code, a practical and versatile source model has been developed, whose parameters are derived from a standard set of planning system commissioning measurements. The primary photon spectrum and the spectrum resulting from the flattening filter are modeled by a Fatigue function, cut-off by a multiplying Fermi function, which effectively regularizes the difficult energy spectrum determination process. Commonly-used functions are applied to represent the off-axis softening, increasing primary fluence with increasing angle ('the horn effect'), and electron contamination. The patient dependent aspect of the MC dose calculation utilizes the multi-leaf collimator (MLC) leaf sequence file exported from the treatment planning system DICOM output, coupled with the source model, to derive the particle transport. This model has been commissioned for Varian 2100C 6 MV and 18 MV photon beams using percent depth dose, dose profiles, and output factors. A 3-D conformal plan and an IMRT plan delivered to an anthropomorphic thorax phantom were used to benchmark the model. The calculated results were compared to Pinnacle v7.6c results and measurements made using radiochromic film and thermoluminescent detectors (TLD)

  14. A flexible Monte Carlo tool for patient or phantom specific calculations: comparison with preliminary validation measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, S.; Cui, J.; Followill, D.; Ibbott, G.; Deasy, J.

    2008-02-01

    The Dose Planning Method (DPM) is one of several 'fast' Monte Carlo (MC) computer codes designed to produce an accurate dose calculation for advanced clinical applications. We have developed a flexible machine modeling process and validation tests for open-field and IMRT calculations. To complement the DPM code, a practical and versatile source model has been developed, whose parameters are derived from a standard set of planning system commissioning measurements. The primary photon spectrum and the spectrum resulting from the flattening filter are modeled by a Fatigue function, cut-off by a multiplying Fermi function, which effectively regularizes the difficult energy spectrum determination process. Commonly-used functions are applied to represent the off-axis softening, increasing primary fluence with increasing angle ('the horn effect'), and electron contamination. The patient dependent aspect of the MC dose calculation utilizes the multi-leaf collimator (MLC) leaf sequence file exported from the treatment planning system DICOM output, coupled with the source model, to derive the particle transport. This model has been commissioned for Varian 2100C 6 MV and 18 MV photon beams using percent depth dose, dose profiles, and output factors. A 3-D conformal plan and an IMRT plan delivered to an anthropomorphic thorax phantom were used to benchmark the model. The calculated results were compared to Pinnacle v7.6c results and measurements made using radiochromic film and thermoluminescent detectors (TLD).

  15. A geometrical model for the Monte Carlo simulation of the TrueBeam linac

    CERN Document Server

    Rodriguez, Miguel; Fogliata, Antonella; Cozzi, Luca; Sauerwein, Wolfgang; Brualla, Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    Monte Carlo (MC) simulation of linacs depends on the accurate geometrical description of the head. The geometry of the Varian TrueBeam linac is not available to researchers. Instead, the company distributes phase-space files (PSFs) of the flattening-filter-free (FFF) beams tallied upstream the jaws. Yet, MC simulations based on third party tallied PSFs are subject to limitations. We present an experimentally-based geometry developed for the simulation of the FFF beams of the TrueBeam linac. The upper part of the TrueBeam linac was modeled modifying the Clinac 2100 geometry. The most important modification is the replacement of the standard flattening filters by {\\it ad hoc} thin filters which were modeled by comparing dose measurements and simulations. The experimental dose profiles for the 6~MV and 10~MV FFF beams were obtained from the Varian Golden Data Set and from in-house measurements for radiation fields ranging from $3\\times3$ to $40\\times40$ cm$^2$. The same comparisons were done for dose profiles ob...

  16. Comparison of noise power spectrum methodologies in measurements by using various electronic portal imaging devices in radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Soon Yong [Dept. of Radiological Technology, Wonkwang Health Science University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Kwan Woo [Dept. of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Hoi Woun [Dept. of Radiological Technology, Baekseok Culture University College, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Kyung Tae [Dep. of Radiological Technology, Dongnam Health University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ki Won [Dept. of Radiology, Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gang-dong, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young Ah; Son, Jin Hyun; Min, Jung Whan [Shingu University College, Sungnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    The noise power spectrum (NPS) is one of the most general methods for measuring the noise amplitude and the quality of an image acquired from a uniform radiation field. The purpose of this study was to compare different NPS methodologies by using megavoltage X-ray energies. The NPS evaluation methods in diagnostic radiation were applied to therapy using the International Electro-technical Commission standard (IEC 62220-1). Various radiation therapy (RT) devices such as TrueBeamTM(Varian), BEAMVIEWPLUS(Siemens), iViewGT(Elekta) and ClinacR iX (Varian) were used. In order to measure the region of interest (ROI) of the NPS, we used the following four factors: the overlapping impact, the non-overlapping impact, the flatness and penumbra. As for NPS results, iViewGT(Elekta) had the higher amplitude of noise, compared to BEAMVIEWPLUS (Siemens), TrueBeamTM(Varian) flattening filter, ClinacRiXaS1000(Varian) and TrueBeamTM(Varian) flattening filter free. The present study revealed that various factors could be employed to produce megavoltage imaging (MVI) of the NPS and as a baseline standard for NPS methodologies control in MVI.

  17. Feasibility of using intermediate x-ray energies for highly conformal extracranial radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Peng; Yu, Victoria; Nguyen, Dan; Demarco, John; Low, Daniel A.; Sheng, Ke, E-mail: ksheng@mednet.ucla.edy [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Woods, Kaley; Boucher, Salime [RadiaBeam Technologies, Santa Monica, California 90404 (United States)

    2014-04-15

    Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of using intermediate energy 2 MV x-rays for extracranial robotic intensity modulated radiation therapy. Methods: Two megavolts flattening filter free x-rays were simulated using the Monte Carlo code MCNP (v4c). A convolution/superposition dose calculation program was tuned to match the Monte Carlo calculation. The modeled 2 MV x-rays and actual 6 MV flattened x-rays from existing Varian Linacs were used in integrated beam orientation and fluence optimization for a head and neck, a liver, a lung, and a partial breast treatment. A column generation algorithm was used for the intensity modulation and beam orientation optimization. Identical optimization parameters were applied in three different planning modes for each site: 2, 6 MV, and dual energy 2/6 MV. Results: Excellent agreement was observed between the convolution/superposition and the Monte Carlo calculated percent depth dose profiles. For the patient plans, overall, the 2/6 MV x-ray plans had the best dosimetry followed by 2 MV only and 6 MV only plans. Between the two single energy plans, the PTV coverage was equivalent but 2 MV x-rays improved organs-at-risk sparing. For the head and neck case, the 2MV plan reduced lips, mandible, tongue, oral cavity, brain, larynx, left and right parotid gland mean doses by 14%, 8%, 4%, 14%, 24%, 6%, 30% and 16%, respectively. For the liver case, the 2 MV plan reduced the liver and body mean doses by 17% and 18%, respectively. For the lung case, lung V20, V10, and V5 were reduced by 13%, 25%, and 30%, respectively. V10 of heart with 2 MV plan was reduced by 59%. For the partial breast treatment, the 2 MV plan reduced the mean dose to the ipsilateral and contralateral lungs by 27% and 47%, respectively. The mean body dose was reduced by 16%. Conclusions: The authors showed the feasibility of using flattening filter free 2 MV x-rays for extracranial treatments as evidenced by equivalent or superior dosimetry compared to 6 MV plans

  18. SU-F-BRE-11: Neutron Measurements Around the Varian TrueBeam Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maglieri, R; Seuntjens, J; Kildea, J [McGill University, Montreal, QC (Canada); Liang, L; DeBlois, F [Jewish General Hospital, Montreal, QC (Canada); Evans, M [Montreal General Hospital, Montreal, QC (Canada); Licea, A [Canadian Nuclear Safety Comission, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Dubeau, J; Witharana, S [Detec, Gatineau, QC (Canada)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: With the emergence of flattening filter free (FFF) photon beams, several authors have noted many advantages to their use. One such advantage is the decrease in neutron production by photonuclear reactions in the linac head. In the present work we investigate the reduction in neutrons from a Varian TrueBeam linac using the Nested Neutron Spectrometer (NNS, Detec). The neutron spectrum, total fluence and source strength were measured and compared for 10 MV with and without flattening filter and the effect of moderation by the room and maze was studied for the 15 MV beam. Methods: The NNS, similar to traditional Bonner sphere detectors but operated in current mode, was used to measure the neutron fluence and spectrum. The NNS was validated for use in high dose rate environments using Monte Carlo simulations and calibrated at NIST and NRC Canada. Measurements were performed at several positions within the treatment room and maze with the linac jaws closed to maximize neutron production. Results: The measurements showed a total fluence reduction between 35-40% in the room and maze when the flattening filter was removed. The neutron source strength Qn was calculated from in-room fluence measurements and was found to be 0.042 × 10{sup 2} n/Gy, 0.026 × 10{sup 2} n/Gy and 0.59 × 101{sup 2} n/Gy for the 10 MV, the 10 MV FFF and 15 MV beams, respectively. We measured ambient equivalent doses of 11 mSv/hr, 7 mSv/hr and 218 mSv/hr for the 10 MV, 10 MV FFF and 15 MV by the head. Conclusion: Our measurements revealed a decrease in total fluence, neutron source strength and equivalent dose of approximately 35-40% across the treatment room for the FFF compared to FF modes. This demonstrates, as expected, that the flattening filter is a major component of the neutron production for the TrueBeam. The authors greatly acknowledge support form the Canadian Nuclear Commission and the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada through the CREATE program. Co

  19. A novel 3-stage structure for a low-noise, high-gain and gain-flattened L-band erbium doped fiber amplifier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    强则煊; 何赛灵; 张徐亮; 沈林放

    2004-01-01

    The configuration of the novel three-stage L-band erbium-doped fiber amplifier with very large and flat gain and very low noise figure presented in this paper uses the forward ASE (amplified spontaneous emission) from the first section of the EDF (erbium-doped fiber) and the backward ASE from the third section of the EDF (both serve as the secondary pump sources of energy) to pump the second EDF. To improve the pump efficiency, the power of the pump is split into two parts (with a ratio of e.g. 2:7). The characteristics of this L-band EDFA are studied on the basis of the Giles Model with ASE.

  20. Gain flattened L-band EDFA based on upgraded C-band EDFA using forward ASE pumping in an EDF section

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buxens Azcoaga, Alvaro Juan; Poulsen, Henrik Nørskov; Clausen, Anders;

    2000-01-01

    A novel method is presented for implementing an L-band erbium doped fibre amplifier (EDFA) making use of forward amplified spontaneous emission pumping, from a commercially available c-band EDFA, in an erbium doped fibre. Tuning of the length of erbium doped fibre enables a flat gain characteristic...... to be obtained with a low noise figure over the entire L-band window....

  1. A novel 3-stage structure for a low-noise, high-gain and gain-flattened L-band erbium doped fiber amplifier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    强则煊; 何赛灵; 张徐亮; 沈林放

    2004-01-01

    The configuration of the novel three-stage L-band erbium-doped fiber amplifier with very large and flat gain and very low noise figure presented in this paper uses the forward ASE (amplified spontaneous emission) from the first section of the EDF (erbium-doped fiber) and the backward AS E from the third section of the EDF (both serve as the secondary pump sources of energy) to pump the second EDF. To improve the pump efficiency, the power of the pump is split into two parts(with a ratio of e.g. 2:7). The characteristics of this L-band EDFA are studied on the basis of the Giles Model with ASE.

  2. Research on the Evolutionary Trend of Flattened Internet Topology%互联网宏观拓扑结构的扁平演化趋势研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓; 赵海; 王进法; 王硕; 贾思媛

    2015-01-01

    互联网应用层涌现出越来越显著的扁平化现象,明确这种扁平化趋势是否也存在于互联网内部宏观拓扑中对从上层开发利用互联网,以及再设计互联网具有重要意义.本文择取CAIDA机构IPv4、IPv6及AS级网络拓扑数据,对表征网络拓扑扁平化的特征量进行计算并对其时序演化平行对比,结果显示随着网络规模的扩大,网络幂指数逐渐升高,并趋于稳定在2~3之间,表明网络在变得均匀,却远不是均匀网络,网络中“HUB”节点有所减少;平均聚集系数也呈上升趋势,单个节点聚集系数的标准差逐渐减小,表明网络连接更加紧密,且各节点紧密程度差距减小;标准网络结构熵在逐渐向高熵值转变,这表明网络在变得无序且随机.所述现象均表明互联网内部网络拓扑结构在逐渐趋于扁平而紧密,系统在走向一个高熵产生、逐渐平衡的状态.

  3. A Multi-Section Quantum-Dot Semiconductor Optical Amplifier for Ultrabroad-Band Gain-Flattened Low-Noise Amplification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tomoyuki; Akiyama; Mitsuru; Sugawara; Koji; Otsubo; Hiroji; Ebe; Nobuaki; Hatori; Yasuhiko; Arakawa

    2003-01-01

    We propose an ultrabroad-band 1R regenerator utilizing a multi-section quantum-dot semiconductor optical amplifier. Due to the reduced electron states, quantum dot is beneficial in broadening the gain spectrum and lowering the noise figure. Combining this with a multi-section structure drastically improves the gain equality among the different bound states, leading to an increase in the maximum output power and an improvement of the noise figure.

  4. A Multi-Section Quantum-Dot Semiconductor Optical Amplifier for Ultrabroad-Band Gain-Flattened Low-Noise Amplification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tomoyuki Akiyama; Mitsuru Sugawara; Koji Otsubo; Hiroji Ebe; Nobuaki Hatori; Yasuhiko Arakawa

    2003-01-01

    We propose an ultrabroad-band 1R regenerator utilizing a multi-section quantum-dot semiconductor optical amplifier.Due to the reduced electron states, quantum dot is beneficial in broadening the gain spectrum and lowering the noise figure. Combining this with a multi-section structure drastically improves the gain equality among the different bound states, leading to an increase in the maximum output power and an improvement of the noise figure.

  5. Mechanism of supercontinuum spectrum generation due to cross-phase modulation in a dispertion-flattened/decreasing fiber with low birefringence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sone, Hiroyasu; Wang, Zhaoyang; Imai, Masaaki; Fukuoka, Takeshi; Harada, Yasuhiro; Suzuki, Yuichi

    2006-01-01

    Mechanism of supercontinuum(SC) spectrum generation due to cross-phase modulation(XPM) in a dispersionflattened/decreasing fiber(DFDF) with low birefringence has been investigated theoretically and experimentally. By using a XPM, the measured SC spectum width becomes 33.6 % broader than that obtained by using only self-phase modulation (SPM). This fact implys that effectiveness and validity of the sc generation using XPM method. Furthermore, dependence of generated sc spectrum broadening on incident power, polarization angle of the input pulses, and modal birefringence are investigated. consequently, it was velifid that when a polarization angle of the input pulses is 45 degrees with regard to the principal axes of the fiber and incident average power is less than 0.147 mW, soliton trapping takes place due to a balance between soliton pulse powers and modal birefringence value. In addition, it was shown experimentally that for a polarization angle of the input pulses of 22.5 degrees, the sc spectrum is enlarged by the same amount as in the case of 45 degrees.

  6. 基于啁啾光纤光栅的增益平坦滤波器%Study on gain flattening filters based on chirped fiber Bragg gratings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵志勇; 于永森; 马玉刚; 曹英晖; 郑伟; 钱颖; 卓仲畅; 郑杰; 张玉书

    2004-01-01

    采用啁啾相位掩膜板和程控扫描曝光技术, 在经过载氢增敏化处理的普通单模光纤上制作出可以用于掺铒光纤放大器增益谱平坦化的啁啾光纤光栅增益平坦器(GFF), 经该器件平坦后的EDFA增益谱在30 nm带宽范围内, 不平坦度<±0.3 dB.

  7. All-optical wavelength multicasting with extinction ratio enhancement using pump-modulated four-wave mixing in a dispersion-flattened nonlinear photonic crystal fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chow, K.K.; Shu, Chester; Lin, Chinlon;

    2006-01-01

    All optical wavelength multicasting at 4 x 10 Gb/s with extinction ratio enhancement has been demonstrated based on pump-modulated four-wave mixing in a nonlinear photonic crystal fiber. We show that the input signal wavelength can simultaneously convert to four different wavelengths, with a power...

  8. A correlation to predict the heat flux on the air-side of a vapor chamber with overturn-U flattened tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srimuang, Wasan; Limkaisang, Viroj

    2016-08-01

    The heat transfer characteristics of a conventional vapor chamber (CVC) and a loop vapor chamber (LVC) are compared. The vapor chambers consisted of a stainless steel box with different covers. The results indicated that the heat flux and convective heat transfer coefficient of the air-side of LVC is higher than CVC. An empirical correlation was developed to predict the convective heat transfer coefficient of the air-side of the LVC.

  9. SU-E-T-265: Development of Dose-To-Water Conversion Models for Pre-Treatment Verification with the New AS1200 Imager

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miri, N [University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW (Australia); Baltes, C; Keller, P [Varian Medical Systems Imaging, Baden-Dättwil (Switzerland); Greer, P [Newcastle Mater Hospital, Newcastle, NSW (Australia)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To develop and evaluate models for dose verification of flattened (FF) and flattening filter free (FFF) beams for the new Varian aS1200 backscatter-shielded electronic portal imaging device (EPID). Methods: The model converts EPID images to incident energy fluence using deconvolution of EPID scatter kernels and fluence to dose in water using convolution with dose-to-water kernels. Model parameters were optimized using non-transmission EPID images of varying jaw defined field sizes for energies of 6 and 10 MV FF and FFF beams. Energy fluence was obtained from the Acuros planning system and reference dose profiles and output factors were measured at depths of 5, 10, 15 and 20 cm in a water phantom. Images for 34 IMRT fields acquired at 6 and 10 MV FF energy were converted to dose at 10 cm depth in water and compared to treatment planning system dose plane calculations using gamma criteria. Results: Gamma evaluations for the IMRT fields had mean (1 standard deviation) pass rates of 99.4% (0.8%) and mean gamma scores of 0.32 (0.06) with 2%, 2 mm criteria and 10% of maximum dose threshold. Conclusion: The developed model has been shown to be highly accurate for pre-treatment verification with the new aS1200 imager which does not display support-arm backscatter artefact and has improved dosimetric properties. Further investigation of FFF modes is in progress. The model is currently being evaluated at sites for potential clinical release.

  10. TH-E-BRE-04: An Online Replanning Algorithm for VMAT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahunbay, E; Li, X [Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Moreau, M [Elekta, Inc, Verona, WI (Italy)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To develop a fast replanning algorithm based on segment aperture morphing (SAM) for online replanning of volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) with flattening filtered (FF) and flattening filter free (FFF) beams. Methods: A software tool was developed to interface with a VMAT planning system ((Monaco, Elekta), enabling the output of detailed beam/machine parameters of original VMAT plans generated based on planning CTs for FF or FFF beams. A SAM algorithm, previously developed for fixed-beam IMRT, was modified to allow the algorithm to correct for interfractional variations (e.g., setup error, organ motion and deformation) by morphing apertures based on the geometric relationship between the beam's eye view of the anatomy from the planning CT and that from the daily CT for each control point. The algorithm was tested using daily CTs acquired using an in-room CT during daily IGRT for representative prostate cancer cases along with their planning CTs. The algorithm allows for restricted MLC leaf travel distance between control points of the VMAT delivery to prevent SAM from increasing leaf travel, and therefore treatment delivery time. Results: The VMAT plans adapted to the daily CT by SAM were found to improve the dosimetry relative to the IGRT repositioning plans for both FF and FFF beams. For the adaptive plans, the changes in leaf travel distance between control points were < 1cm for 80% of the control points with no restriction. When restricted to the original plans' maximum travel distance, the dosimetric effect was minimal. The adaptive plans were delivered successfully with similar delivery times as the original plans. The execution of the SAM algorithm was < 10 seconds. Conclusion: The SAM algorithm can quickly generate deliverable online-adaptive VMAT plans based on the anatomy of the day for both FF and FFF beams.

  11. Sci—Thur AM: YIS - 05: 10X-FFF VMAT for Lung SABR: an Investigation of Peripheral Dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mader, J [University of Victoria (Australia); Mestrovic, A [University of Victoria (Australia); BC Cancer Agency, Vancouver Island Centre (Canada)

    2014-08-15

    Flattening Filter Free (FFF) beams exhibit high dose rates, reduced head scatter, leaf transmission and leakage radiation. For VMAT lung SABR, treatment time can be significantly reduced using high dose rate FFF beams while maintaining plan quality and accuracy. Another possible advantage offered by FFF beams for VMAT lung SABR is the reduction in peripheral dose. The focus of this study was to investigate and quantify the reduction of peripheral dose offered by FFF beams for VMAT lung SABR. The peripheral doses delivered by VMAT Lung SABR treatments using FFF and flattened beams were investigated for the Varian Truebeam linac. This study was conducted in three stages, (1): ion chamber measurement of peripheral dose for various plans, (2): validation of AAA, Acuros XB and Monte Carlo for peripheral dose using measured data, and (3): using the validated Monte Carlo model to evaluate peripheral doses for 6 VMAT lung SABR treatments. Three energies, 6X, 10X, and 10X-FFF were used for all stages. Measured data indicates that 10X-FFF delivers the lowest peripheral dose of the three energies studied. AAA and Acuros XB dose calculation algorithms were identified as inadequate, and Monte Carlo was validated for accurate peripheral dose prediction. The Monte Carlo-calculated VMAT lung SABR plans show a significant reduction in peripheral dose for 10X-FFF plans compared to the standard 6X plans, while no significant reduction was showed when compared to 10X. This reduction combined with shorter treatment time makes 10X-FFF beams the optimal choice for superior VMAT lung SABR treatments.

  12. Technical Note: Evaluation of the systematic accuracy of a frameless, multiple image modality guided, linear accelerator based stereotactic radiosurgery system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, N., E-mail: nwen1@hfhs.org; Snyder, K. C.; Qin, Y.; Li, H.; Siddiqui, M. S.; Chetty, I. J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Ford Health System, 2799 West Brand Boulevard, Detroit, Michigan 48202 (United States); Scheib, S. G.; Schmelzer, P. [Varian Medical System, Täfernstrasse 7, Dättwil AG 5405 (Switzerland)

    2016-05-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the total systematic accuracy of a frameless, image guided stereotactic radiosurgery system. Methods: The localization accuracy and intermodality difference was determined by delivering radiation to an end-to-end prototype phantom, in which the targets were localized using optical surface monitoring system (OSMS), electromagnetic beacon-based tracking (Calypso®), cone-beam CT, “snap-shot” planar x-ray imaging, and a robotic couch. Six IMRT plans with jaw tracking and a flattening filter free beam were used to study the dosimetric accuracy for intracranial and spinal stereotactic radiosurgery treatment. Results: End-to-end localization accuracy of the system evaluated with the end-to-end phantom was 0.5 ± 0.2 mm with a maximum deviation of 0.9 mm over 90 measurements (including jaw, MLC, and cone measurements for both auto and manual fusion) for single isocenter, single target treatment, 0.6 ± 0.4 mm for multitarget treatment with shared isocenter. Residual setup errors were within 0.1 mm for OSMS, and 0.3 mm for Calypso. Dosimetric evaluation based on absolute film dosimetry showed greater than 90% pass rate for all cases using a gamma criteria of 3%/1 mm. Conclusions: The authors’ experience demonstrates that the localization accuracy of the frameless image-guided system is comparable to robotic or invasive frame based radiosurgery systems.

  13. Evaluation of image quality for various electronic portal imaging devices in radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Soon Yong; Choi, Kwan Woo [Dept. of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jung Min [Dept. of College of Health Science, Radiologic Science, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2015-12-15

    In megavoltage (MV) radiotherapy, delivering the dose to the target volume is important while protecting the surrounding normal tissue. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the modulation transfer function (MTF), the noise power spectrum (NPS), and the detective quantum efficiency (DQE) using an edge block in megavoltage X-ray imaging (MVI). We used an edge block, which consists of tungsten with dimensions of 19 (thickness) × 10 (length) × 1 (width) cm3 and measured the pre-sampling MTF at 6 MV energy. Various radiation therapy (RT) devices such as TrueBeamTM (Varian), BEAMVIEWPLUS (Siemens), iViewGT (Elekta) and Clinac®iX (Varian) were used. As for MTF results, TrueBeamTM(Varian) flattening filter free(FFF) showed the highest values of 0.46 mm-1and1.40mm-1for MTF 0.5 and 0.1. In NPS, iViewGT (Elekta) showed the lowest noise distribution. In DQE, iViewGT (Elekta) showed the best efficiency at a peak DQE and 1 mm-1DQE of 0.0026 and 0.00014, respectively. This study could be used not only for traditional QA imaging but also for quantitative MTF, NPS, and DQE measurement for development of an electronic portal imaging device (EPID)

  14. Rotational IMRT delivery using a digital linear accelerator in very high dose rate 'burst mode'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, Bill J.; Sarkar, Vikren; Wang, Brian; Shukla, Himanshu; Szegedi, Martin; Rassiah-Szegedi, Prema

    2011-04-01

    Recently, there has been a resurgence of interest in arc-based IMRT, through the use of 'conventional' multileaf collimator (MLC) systems that can treat large tumor volumes in a single, or very few pass(es) of the gantry. Here we present a novel 'burst mode' modulated arc delivery approach, wherein 2000 monitor units per minute (MU min-1) high dose rate bursts of dose are facilitated by a flattening-filter-free treatment beam on a Siemens Artiste (Oncology Care Systems, Siemens Medical Solutions, Concord, CA, USA) digital linear accelerator in a non-clinical configuration. Burst mode delivery differs from continuous mode delivery, used by Elekta's VMAT (Elekta Ltd, Crawley, UK) and Varian's RapidArc (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA, USA) implementations, in that dose is not delivered while MLC leaves are moving. Instead, dose is delivered in bursts over very short arc angles and only after an MLC segment shape has been completely formed and verified by the controller. The new system was confirmed to be capable of delivering a wide array of clinically relevant treatment plans, without machine fault or other delivery anomalies. Dosimetric accuracy of the modulated arc platform, as well as the Prowess (Prowess Inc., Concord, CA, USA) prototype treatment planning version utilized here, was quantified and confirmed, and delivery times were measured as significantly brief, even with large hypofractionated doses. The burst mode modulated arc approach evaluated here appears to represent a capable, accurate and efficient delivery approach.

  15. Monte Carlo study of radiation dose enhancement by gadolinium in megavoltage and high dose rate radiotherapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel G Zhang

    Full Text Available MRI is often used in tumor localization for radiotherapy treatment planning, with gadolinium (Gd-containing materials often introduced as a contrast agent. Motexafin gadolinium is a novel radiosensitizer currently being studied in clinical trials. The nanoparticle technologies can target tumors with high concentration of high-Z materials. This Monte Carlo study is the first detailed quantitative investigation of high-Z material Gd-induced dose enhancement in megavoltage external beam photon therapy. BEAMnrc, a radiotherapy Monte Carlo simulation package, was used to calculate dose enhancement as a function of Gd concentration. Published phase space files for the TrueBeam flattening filter free (FFF and conventional flattened 6MV photon beams were used. High dose rate (HDR brachytherapy with Ir-192 source was also investigated as a reference. The energy spectra difference caused a dose enhancement difference between the two beams. Since the Ir-192 photons have lower energy yet, the photoelectric effect in the presence of Gd leads to even higher dose enhancement in HDR. At depth of 1.8 cm, the percent mean dose enhancement for the FFF beam was 0.38±0.12, 1.39±0.21, 2.51±0.34, 3.59±0.26, and 4.59±0.34 for Gd concentrations of 1, 5, 10, 15, and 20 mg/mL, respectively. The corresponding values for the flattened beam were 0.09±0.14, 0.50±0.28, 1.19±0.29, 1.68±0.39, and 2.34±0.24. For Ir-192 with direct contact, the enhanced were 0.50±0.14, 2.79±0.17, 5.49±0.12, 8.19±0.14, and 10.80±0.13. Gd-containing materials used in MRI as contrast agents can also potentially serve as radiosensitizers in radiotherapy. This study demonstrates that Gd can be used to enhance radiation dose in target volumes not only in HDR brachytherapy, but also in 6 MV FFF external beam radiotherapy, but higher than the currently used clinical concentration (>5 mg/mL would be needed.

  16. Monte Carlo study of radiation dose enhancement by gadolinium in megavoltage and high dose rate radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Daniel G; Feygelman, Vladimir; Moros, Eduardo G; Latifi, Kujtim; Zhang, Geoffrey G

    2014-01-01

    MRI is often used in tumor localization for radiotherapy treatment planning, with gadolinium (Gd)-containing materials often introduced as a contrast agent. Motexafin gadolinium is a novel radiosensitizer currently being studied in clinical trials. The nanoparticle technologies can target tumors with high concentration of high-Z materials. This Monte Carlo study is the first detailed quantitative investigation of high-Z material Gd-induced dose enhancement in megavoltage external beam photon therapy. BEAMnrc, a radiotherapy Monte Carlo simulation package, was used to calculate dose enhancement as a function of Gd concentration. Published phase space files for the TrueBeam flattening filter free (FFF) and conventional flattened 6MV photon beams were used. High dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy with Ir-192 source was also investigated as a reference. The energy spectra difference caused a dose enhancement difference between the two beams. Since the Ir-192 photons have lower energy yet, the photoelectric effect in the presence of Gd leads to even higher dose enhancement in HDR. At depth of 1.8 cm, the percent mean dose enhancement for the FFF beam was 0.38±0.12, 1.39±0.21, 2.51±0.34, 3.59±0.26, and 4.59±0.34 for Gd concentrations of 1, 5, 10, 15, and 20 mg/mL, respectively. The corresponding values for the flattened beam were 0.09±0.14, 0.50±0.28, 1.19±0.29, 1.68±0.39, and 2.34±0.24. For Ir-192 with direct contact, the enhanced were 0.50±0.14, 2.79±0.17, 5.49±0.12, 8.19±0.14, and 10.80±0.13. Gd-containing materials used in MRI as contrast agents can also potentially serve as radiosensitizers in radiotherapy. This study demonstrates that Gd can be used to enhance radiation dose in target volumes not only in HDR brachytherapy, but also in 6 MV FFF external beam radiotherapy, but higher than the currently used clinical concentration (>5 mg/mL) would be needed.

  17. Effect of intensity-modulated pelvic radiotherapy on second cancer risk in the postoperative treatment of endometrial and cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwahlen, Daniel R; Ruben, Jeremy D; Jones, Phillip; Gagliardi, Frank; Millar, Jeremy L; Schneider, Uwe

    2009-06-01

    To estimate and compare intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) in terms of second cancer risk (SCR) for postoperative treatment of endometrial and cervical cancer. To estimate SCR, the organ equivalent dose concept with a linear-exponential, a plateau, and a linear dose-response model was applied to dose distributions, calculated in a planning computed tomography scan of a 68-year-old woman. Three plans were computed: four-field 18-MV 3DCRT and nine-field IMRT with 6- and 18-MV photons. SCR was estimated as a function of target dose (50.4 Gy/28 fractions) in organs of interest according to the International Commission on Radiological Protection. Cumulative SCR relative to 3DCRT was +6% (3% for a plateau model, -4% for a linear model) for 6-MV IMRT and +26% (25%, 4%) for the 18-MV IMRT plan. For an organ within the primary beam, SCR was +12% (0%, -12%) for 6-MV and +5% (-2%, -7%) for 18-MV IMRT. 18-MV IMRT increased SCR 6-7 times for organs away from the primary beam relative to 3DCRT and 6-MV IMRT. Skin SCR increased by 22-37% for 6-MV and 50-69% for 18-MV IMRT inasmuch as a larger volume of skin was exposed. Cancer risk after IMRT for cervical and endometrial cancer is dependent on treatment energy. 6-MV pelvic IMRT represents a safe alternative with respect to SCR relative to 3DCRT, independently of the dose-response model. 18-MV IMRT produces second neutrons that modestly increase the SCR.

  18. SU-E-T-460: Impact of the LINAC Repetition Rate On a High-Resolution Liquid Ionization Chamber Array for Patient-Specific QA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, S; Driewer, J; Zheng, D; Lei, Y; Zhang, Q; Zhu, X; Li, S; Enke, C; Zhou, S [University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE (United States); Xu, B [The Fujian Medical University Union Hospital, Fu Zhou, Fu Jian (China)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the LINAC repetition-rate (dose-rate) dependence of OCTAVIUS 1000SRS liquid ionization chamber (LIC) array for patient specific QA of SRT plans delivered with flattening-filter-free (FFF) beams. Methods: 1) The repetition-rate dependence of 1000SRS was measured in a phantom constructed with 5-cm solid water above and below the array for build-up and backscatter. A 0.3cc calibrated ion chamber was also placed along the central axis 2.3cm below the center chamber of the array for normalizing LINAC output fluctuation. The signals from the center chamber of the array under different repetition rates in the range of 400–2400 MU/min for 6xFFF and 10xFFF beams on a Varian TrueBeamSTx LINAC, normalized by the independent chamber readings, were analyzed for the array response dependence on repetition rates. 2) Twelve Step-and-shoot IMRS QA plans (6xFFF and 10xFFF) were delivered to the array under different repetition rates for analysis and comparison. 3) The absolute doses measured by the center chamber were compared to measurements using an independent ionization chamber with the identical setup, taken as the gold standard. 4) The correction factors based on the actual delivery repetition rate were applied to the measurements, and the results were compared again to the gold standard. Results: 1) The 1000SRS array exhibited repetition-rate dependence for FFF beams, up to 5% for 6xFFF and 10% for 10xFFF; 2) The array showed clinically-acceptable repetition-rate dependence for regular flattened beams; 3) This repetition-rate dependence significantly affected the measurement accuracy, thereby affecting IMRS QA results; 4) By applying an empirical repetition-rate correction, the corrected measurements agreed better with the gold standard ion chamber measurements. Conclusion: OCTAVIUS 1000SRS LIC array exhibited considerable repetition-rate dependence for FFF beams, which will affect the accuracy of the absolute QA

  19. Monte Carlo modeling of HD120 multileaf collimator on Varian TrueBeam linear accelerator for verification of 6X and 6X FFF VMAT SABR treatment plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Alanah M; Gete, Ermias; Duzenli, Cheryl; Teke, Tony

    2014-05-08

    A Monte Carlo (MC) validation of the vendor-supplied Varian TrueBeam 6 MV flattened (6X) phase-space file and the first implementation of the Siebers-Keall MC MLC model as applied to the HD120 MLC (for 6X flat and 6X flattening filter-free (6X FFF) beams) are described. The MC model is validated in the context of VMAT patient-specific quality assurance. The Monte Carlo commissioning process involves: 1) validating the calculated open-field percentage depth doses (PDDs), profiles, and output factors (OF), 2) adapting the Siebers-Keall MLC model to match the new HD120-MLC geometry and material composition, 3) determining the absolute dose conversion factor for the MC calculation, and 4) validating this entire linac/MLC in the context of dose calculation verification for clinical VMAT plans. MC PDDs for the 6X beams agree with the measured data to within 2.0% for field sizes ranging from 2 × 2 to 40 × 40 cm2. Measured and MC profiles show agreement in the 50% field width and the 80%-20% penumbra region to within 1.3 mm for all square field sizes. MC OFs for the 2 to 40 cm2 square fields agree with measurement to within 1.6%. Verification of VMAT SABR lung, liver, and vertebra plans demonstrate that measured and MC ion chamber doses agree within 0.6% for the 6X beam and within 2.0% for the 6X FFF beam. A 3D gamma factor analysis demonstrates that for the 6X beam, > 99% of voxels meet the pass criteria (3%/3 mm). For the 6X FFF beam, > 94% of voxels meet this criteria. The TrueBeam accelerator delivering 6X and 6X FFF beams with the HD120 MLC can be modeled in Monte Carlo to provide an independent 3D dose calculation for clinical VMAT plans. This quality assurance tool has been used clinically to verify over 140 6X and 16 6X FFF TrueBeam treatment plans.

  20. Dosimetric validation of the Acuros XB Advanced Dose Calculation algorithm: fundamental characterization in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fogliata, Antonella; Nicolini, Giorgia; Clivio, Alessandro; Vanetti, Eugenio; Cozzi, Luca [Oncology Institute of Southern Switzerland, Medical Physics Unit, Bellinzona (Switzerland); Mancosu, Pietro, E-mail: afc@iosi.ch [Istituto Clinico Humanitas, Radio-Oncology Department, Milan-Rozzano (Italy)

    2011-03-21

    A new algorithm, Acuros (registered) XB Advanced Dose Calculation, has been introduced by Varian Medical Systems in the Eclipse planning system for photon dose calculation in external radiotherapy. Acuros XB is based on the solution of the linear Boltzmann transport equation (LBTE). The LBTE describes the macroscopic behaviour of radiation particles as they travel through and interact with matter. The implementation of Acuros XB in Eclipse has not been assessed; therefore, it is necessary to perform these pre-clinical validation tests to determine its accuracy. This paper summarizes the results of comparisons of Acuros XB calculations against measurements and calculations performed with a previously validated dose calculation algorithm, the Anisotropic Analytical Algorithm (AAA). The tasks addressed in this paper are limited to the fundamental characterization of Acuros XB in water for simple geometries. Validation was carried out for four different beams: 6 and 15 MV beams from a Varian Clinac 2100 iX, and 6 and 10 MV 'flattening filter free' (FFF) beams from a TrueBeam linear accelerator. The TrueBeam FFF are new beams recently introduced in clinical practice on general purpose linear accelerators and have not been previously reported on. Results indicate that Acuros XB accurately reproduces measured and calculated (with AAA) data and only small deviations were observed for all the investigated quantities. In general, the overall degree of accuracy for Acuros XB in simple geometries can be stated to be within 1% for open beams and within 2% for mechanical wedges. The basic validation of the Acuros XB algorithm was therefore considered satisfactory for both conventional photon beams as well as for FFF beams of new generation linacs such as the Varian TrueBeam.

  1. SU-C-202-07: Protocol and Hardware for Improved Flood Field Calibration of TrueBeam FFF Cine Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, J; Faught, A; Yin, F [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Flattening filter free photon energies are commonly used for high dose treatments such as SBRT, where localization accuracy is essential. Often, MV cine imaging may be employed to verify correct localization. TrueBeam Electronic Portal Imaging Devices (EPIDs) equipped with the 40×30cm{sup 2} Image Detection Unit (IDU) are prone to image saturation at the image center especially for higher dose rates. While saturation often does not occur for cine imaging during treatment because the beam is attenuated by the patient, the flood field calibration is affected when the standard calibration procedure is followed. Here we describe the hardware and protocol to achieve improved image quality for this model of TrueBeam EPID. Methods: A stainless steel filter of uniform thickness was designed to have sufficient attenuation to avoid panel saturation for both 6XFFF and 10XFFF at the maximum dose rates (1400 MU/min & 2400 MU/min, respectively). The cine imaging flood field calibration was then acquired with the filter in place for the FFF energies under the standard calibration geometry (SDD=150cm). Image quality during MV cine was assessed with & without the modified flood field calibration using a low contrast resolution phantom and an anthropomorphic phantom. Results: When the flood field is acquired using the standard procedure (no filter in place), a pixel gain artifact is clearly present in the image center (r=3cm for 10XFFF at 2400 MU/min) which appears similar to and may be mis-attributed to panel saturation in the subject image. The artifact obscured all low contrast inserts at the image center and was also visible on the anthropomorphic phantom. Using the filter for flood field calibration eliminated the artifact. Conclusion: Use of a modified flood field calibration procedure improves image quality for cine MV imaging with TrueBeams equipped with the 40×30cm{sup 2} IDU.

  2. Correlation between heterogeneity index (HI) and gradient index (GI) for high dose stereotactic radiotherapy/radiosurgery (SRT/SRS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tas, B.; Durmus, I. F.; Okumus, A.; Uzel, O. E.

    2017-02-01

    To evaluate between Heterogeneity Index (HI) and Gradient Index (GI) correlation for high dose Stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) / Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) using Versa HD® lineer accelerator. Nine patients with single metastasis were used in this study. Patient's treatment planning were performed using Monaco5.1® Treatment planning system (TPS) with non-coplanar 6MV Flattening filter free (FFF) beams by partial Volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) tecnique for each patient. We determined three different size of metastasis catagory which are less than 1cc, between 1cc and 5cc and larger than 5cc volume. Also, three different HI were calculated for each patients. These are 1.10, 1.20 and 1.30. Mean GI was determined 8.57±2.2 for 1.10 HI, 7.23±1.7 for 1.20 HI and 6.0±1.1 for 1.30 HI for less than 1cc metastasis. Then GI was determined 4.77±0.4 for 1.10 HI, 4.37±0.3 for 1.20 HI and 3.97±0.3 for 1.30 HI for between 1cc and 5cc metastasis. Finally, GI was determined 4.00±0.5 for 1.10 HI,3.63±0.5 for 1.20 HI and 3.27±0.4 for 1.30 HI for larger than 5cc metastasis. These results show that GI depends on significantly size and HI of metastasis especially for less than 1cc.

  3. Rotational IMRT delivery using a digital linear accelerator in very high dose rate 'burst mode'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salter, Bill J; Sarkar, Vikren; Wang, Brian; Szegedi, Martin; Rassiah-Szegedi, Prema [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Shukla, Himanshu, E-mail: bill.salter@hci.utah.edu [Oncology Care Systems Group, Siemens Medical Solutions (USA), 4040 Nelson Avenue, Concord, CA (United States)

    2011-04-07

    Recently, there has been a resurgence of interest in arc-based IMRT, through the use of 'conventional' multileaf collimator (MLC) systems that can treat large tumor volumes in a single, or very few pass(es) of the gantry. Here we present a novel 'burst mode' modulated arc delivery approach, wherein 2000 monitor units per minute (MU min{sup -1}) high dose rate bursts of dose are facilitated by a flattening-filter-free treatment beam on a Siemens Artiste (Oncology Care Systems, Siemens Medical Solutions, Concord, CA, USA) digital linear accelerator in a non-clinical configuration. Burst mode delivery differs from continuous mode delivery, used by Elekta's VMAT (Elekta Ltd, Crawley, UK) and Varian's RapidArc (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA, USA) implementations, in that dose is not delivered while MLC leaves are moving. Instead, dose is delivered in bursts over very short arc angles and only after an MLC segment shape has been completely formed and verified by the controller. The new system was confirmed to be capable of delivering a wide array of clinically relevant treatment plans, without machine fault or other delivery anomalies. Dosimetric accuracy of the modulated arc platform, as well as the Prowess (Prowess Inc., Concord, CA, USA) prototype treatment planning version utilized here, was quantified and confirmed, and delivery times were measured as significantly brief, even with large hypofractionated doses. The burst mode modulated arc approach evaluated here appears to represent a capable, accurate and efficient delivery approach.

  4. SU-E-T-410: Evaluation of Treatment Modalities for Stereotactic Lung Radiation Therapy: A Phantom Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohatt, D; Malhotra, H [Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate and verify the accuracy of alternative treatment modalities for stereotactic lung therapy with end-to-end testing. We compared three dimensional conformal therapy (3DCRT), dynamic conformal arc therapy (DCAT), intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) treatment using 6 MV, 6 MV flattening filter free (FFF) and 10 MV FFF photons. Methods: A QUASAR respiratory motion phantom was utilized with custom ion chamber and gafchromatic EBT2 film inserts. The phantom contained a low density lung medium with a cylindrical polystyrene tumor (35 cc). Pseudo representative structures for various organs at risk (OAR) were created. All treatment plans were created using Eclipse ver. 11 using the same image and structure sets, and delivered via Varian TrueBeam STx linear accelerator equipped with high definition MLC. Evaluation of plan quality followed ROTG 0813 criterion for conformity index (CI100%), high dose spillage, D2cm, and R50%. Results: All treatment plans met the OAR dose constraints per protocol and could be delivered without any beam hold offs or other interlocks and hence were deemed clinically safe. For equivalent beam energies, target conformity was improved for all modalities when switching to FFF mode. Treatment efficiency increased for VMAT FFF by a factor of 3–4 over IMRT, and up to factor of 7 when compared to 3DCRT. Pass rates were > 97% for all treatment using gamma criteria of 3%, 3mm. Absolute dose at iso-center was verified with ion chamber, and found to be within 2% of the treatment planning system. Conclusion: The higher dose rate associated with FFF not only reduces delivery times, but in most cases enhances plan quality. The one modality with succeeding best results for all RTOG criterions was VMAT 6 MV FFF. This end-to-end testing provides necessary confidence in the entire dose delivery chain for lung SBRT patients.

  5. Commissioning and validation of BrainLAB cones for 6X FFF and 10X FFF beams on a Varian TrueBeam STx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiant, David B; Terrell, Jonathon A; Maurer, Jacqueline M; Yount, Caroline L; Sintay, Benjamin J

    2013-11-04

    Small field dosimetry is a challenging task. The difficulties of small field measurements, particularly stereotactic field size measurements, are highlighted by the large interinstitution variability that can be observed for circular cone collimator commissioning measurements. We believe the best way to improve the consistency of small field measurements is to clearly document and share the results of small field measurements. In this work we report on the commissioning and validation of a BrainLAB cone system for 6 MV and 10 MV flattening filter-free (FFF) beams on a Varian TrueBeam STx. Commissioning measurements consisted of output factors, percent depth dose, and off-axis factor measurements with a diode. Validation measurements were made in a polystyrene slab phantom at depths of 5 cm, 10 cm, and 15 cm using radiochromic film. Output factors for the 6xFFF cones are 0.689, 0.790, 0.830, 0.871, 0.890, and 0.901 for 4 mm, 6 mm, 7.5 mm, 10 mm, 12.5 mm, and the 15 mm cones, respectively. Output factors for the 10xFFF cones are 0.566, 0.699, 0.756, 0.826, 0.864, and 0.888 for 4 mm, 6 mm, 7.5 mm, 10 mm, 12.5 mm, and the 15 mm cones, respectively. The full width half maximum values of the off-axis factors agreed with the nominal cone size to within 0.5 mm. Validation measurements showed an agreement of absolute dose between calculation and plan of < 3.6%, and an agreement of field sizes of ≤ 0.3 mm in all cases. Radiochromic film validation measurements show reasonable agreement with beam models for circular collimators based on diode commissioning measurements.

  6. The dose delivery effect of the different Beam ON interval in FFF SBRT: TrueBEAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawonwong, T.; Suriyapee, S.; Oonsiri, S.; Sanghangthum, T.; Oonsiri, P.

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the dose delivery effect of the different Beam ON interval in Flattening Filter Free Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (FFF-SBRT). The three 10MV-FFF SBRT plans (2 half rotating Rapid Arc, 9 to10 Gray/Fraction) were selected and irradiated in three different intervals (100%, 50% and 25%) using the RPM gating system. The plan verification was performed by the ArcCHECK for gamma analysis and the ionization chamber for point dose measurement. The dose delivery time of each interval were observed. For gamma analysis (2%&2mm criteria), the average percent pass of all plans for 100%, 50% and 25% intervals were 86.1±3.3%, 86.0±3.0% and 86.1±3.3%, respectively. For point dose measurement, the average ratios of each interval to the treatment planning were 1.012±0.015, 1.011±0.014 and 1.011±0.013 for 100%, 50% and 25% interval, respectively. The average dose delivery time was increasing from 74.3±5.0 second for 100% interval to 154.3±12.6 and 347.9±20.3 second for 50% and 25% interval, respectively. The same quality of the dose delivery from different Beam ON intervals in FFF-SBRT by TrueBEAM was illustrated. While the 100% interval represents the breath-hold treatment technique, the differences for the free-breathing using RPM gating system can be treated confidently.

  7. Inverse planning in the age of digital LINACs: station parameter optimized radiation therapy (SPORT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Lei; Li, Ruijiang

    2014-03-01

    The last few years have seen a number of technical and clinical advances which give rise to a need for innovations in dose optimization and delivery strategies. Technically, a new generation of digital linac has become available which offers features such as programmable motion between station parameters and high dose-rate Flattening Filter Free (FFF) beams. Current inverse planning methods are designed for traditional machines and cannot accommodate these features of new generation linacs without compromising either dose conformality and/or delivery efficiency. Furthermore, SBRT is becoming increasingly important, which elevates the need for more efficient delivery, improved dose distribution. Here we will give an overview of our recent work in SPORT designed to harness the digital linacs and highlight the essential components of SPORT. We will summarize the pros and cons of traditional beamlet-based optimization (BBO) and direct aperture optimization (DAO) and introduce a new type of algorithm, compressed sensing (CS)-based inverse planning, that is capable of automatically removing the redundant segments during optimization and providing a plan with high deliverability in the presence of a large number of station control points (potentially non-coplanar, non-isocentric, and even multi-isocenters). We show that CS-approach takes the interplay between planning and delivery into account and allows us to balance the dose optimality and delivery efficiency in a controlled way and, providing a viable framework to address various unmet demands of the new generation linacs. A few specific implementation strategies of SPORT in the forms of fixed-gantry and rotational arc delivery are also presented.

  8. MO-FG-BRA-07: Theranostic Gadolinium-Based AGuIX Nanoparticles for MRI-Guided Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Detappe, A [Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical, Boston, MA (United States); Institut Lumiere-Matiere, Villeurbanne (France); Nano-H, St-Quentin Fallavier (France); Rottmann, J; Kunjachan, S; Berbeco, R [Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical, Boston, MA (United States); Tillement, O [Institut Lumiere-Matiere, Villeurbanne (France)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: AGuIX are gadolinium-based nanoparticles, initially developed for MRI, that have a potential role in radiation therapy as a radiosensitizer. Our goal is to demonstrate that these nanoparticles can both be used as an MRI contrast agent, as well as to obtain local dose enhancement in a pancreatic tumor when delivered in combination with an external beam irradiation. Methods: We performed in vitro cell uptake and radiosensitization studies of a pancreatic cancer cell line in a low energy (220kVp) beam, a standard clinical 6MV beam (STD) and a flattening filter free clinical 6MV beam (FFF). After injection of 40mM of nanoparticles, a biodistribution study was performed in vivo on mice with subcutaneous xenograft pancreatic tumors. In vivo radiation therapy studies were performed at the time point of maximum tumor uptake. Results: The concentration of AGuIX nanoparticles in Panc-1 pancreatic cancer cells, determined in vitro by MRI and ICPMS, peaks after 30 minutes with 0.3% of the initial concentration (5mg/g). Clonogenic assays show a significant effect (p<0.05) when the AGuIX are coupled with MV photon irradiation (DEF20%=1.31). Similar AGuIX tumor uptake is found in vivo by both MRI and ICPMS 30 minutes after intravenous injection. For long term survival studies, the choice of the radiation dose is determined with 5 control groups (3mice/group) irradiated with 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20Gy. Afterwards, 4 groups (8mice/group) are used to evaluate the effect of the nanoparticles. A Logrank test is performed as a statistical test to evaluate the effect of the nanoparticles. Conclusion: The combination of the MRI contrast and radiosensitization properties of gadolinium nanoparticles reveals a strong potential for usage with MRI-guided radiation therapy.

  9. Low Z target switching to increase tumor endothelial cell dose enhancement during gold nanoparticle-aided radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berbeco, Ross I., E-mail: rberbeco@partners.org; Detappe, Alexandre [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States); Tsiamas, Panogiotis [Department of Radiation Oncology, St. Jude Children’s Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee 38105 (United States); Parsons, David; Yewondwossen, Mammo; Robar, James [Department of Radiation Oncology and Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 1V7 (Canada)

    2016-01-15

    Purpose: Previous studies have introduced gold nanoparticles as vascular-disrupting agents during radiation therapy. Crucial to this concept is the low energy photon content of the therapy radiation beam. The authors introduce a new mode of delivery including a linear accelerator target that can toggle between low Z and high Z targets during beam delivery. In this study, the authors examine the potential increase in tumor blood vessel endothelial cell radiation dose enhancement with the low Z target. Methods: The authors use Monte Carlo methods to simulate delivery of three different clinical photon beams: (1) a 6 MV standard (Cu/W) beam, (2) a 6 MV flattening filter free (Cu/W), and (3) a 6 MV (carbon) beam. The photon energy spectra for each scenario are generated for depths in tissue-equivalent material: 2, 10, and 20 cm. The endothelial dose enhancement for each target and depth is calculated using a previously published analytic method. Results: It is found that the carbon target increases the proportion of low energy (<150 keV) photons at 10 cm depth to 28% from 8% for the 6 MV standard (Cu/W) beam. This nearly quadrupling of the low energy photon content incident on a gold nanoparticle results in 7.7 times the endothelial dose enhancement as a 6 MV standard (Cu/W) beam at this depth. Increased surface dose from the low Z target can be mitigated by well-spaced beam arrangements. Conclusions: By using the fast-switching target, one can modulate the photon beam during delivery, producing a customized photon energy spectrum for each specific situation.

  10. A combination of high dose rate (10X FFF/2400 MU/min/10 MV X-rays) and total low dose (0.5 Gy) induces a higher rate of apoptosis in melanoma cells in vitro and superior preservation of normal melanocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarojini, Sreeja; Pecora, Andrew; Milinovikj, Natasha; Barbiere, Joseph; Gupta, Saakshi; Hussain, Zeenathual M; Tuna, Mehmet; Jiang, Jennifer; Adrianzen, Laura; Jun, Jaewook; Catello, Laurice; Sanchez, Diana; Agarwal, Neha; Jeong, Stephanie; Jin, Youngjin; Remache, Yvonne; Goy, Andre; Ndlovu, Alois; Ingenito, Anthony; Suh, K Stephen

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the apoptotic effects, toxicity, and radiosensitization of total low dose irradiation delivered at a high dose rate in vitro to melanoma cells, normal human epidermal melanocytes (HEM), or normal human dermal fibroblasts (HDF) and to study the effect of mitochondrial inhibition in combination with radiation to enhance apoptosis in melanoma cells. Cells irradiated using 10X flattening filter-free (FFF) 10 MV X-rays at a dose rate of 400 or 2400 MU/min and a total dose of 0.25-8 Gy were analyzed by cell/colony counting, MitoTracker, MTT, and DNA-damage assays, as well as by quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase PCR in the presence or absence of mitochondrial respiration inhibitors. A dose rate of 2400 MU/min killed on average five-fold more melanoma cells than a dose rate 400 MU/min at a total dose of 0.5 Gy and preserved 80% survival of HEM and 90% survival of HDF. Increased apoptosis at the 2400 MU/min dose rate is mediated by greater DNA damage, reduced cell proliferation, upregulation of apoptotic genes, and downregulation of cell cycle genes. HEM and HDF were relatively unharmed at 2400 MU/min. Radiation induced upregulation of mitochondrial respiration in both normal and cancer cells, and blocking the respiration with inhibitors enhanced apoptosis only in melanoma cells. A high dose rate with a low total dose (2400 MU/min, 0.5 Gy/10X FFF 10 MV X-rays) enhances radiosensitivity of melanoma cells while reducing radiotoxicity toward HEM and HDF. Selective cytotoxicity of melanoma cells is increased by blocking mitochondrial respiration.

  11. Low-Z linac targets for low-MV gold nanoparticle radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsiamas, P.; Mishra, P.; Berbeco, R. I.; Marcus, K.; Zygmanski, P., E-mail: pzygmanski@lroc.harvard.edu, E-mail: Erno-Sajo@uml.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States); Cifter, F.; Sajo, E., E-mail: pzygmanski@lroc.harvard.edu, E-mail: Erno-Sajo@uml.edu [Medical Physics Program, Department of Physics and Applied Physics, University of Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, Massachusetts 01854 (United States)

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: To investigate the potential of low-Z/low-MV (low-Z) linac targets for gold nanoparticle radiotherapy (GNPT) and to determine the microscopic dose enhancement ratio (DER) due to GNP for the alternative beamlines. In addition, to evaluate the degradation of dose enhancement arising from the increased attenuation of x rays and larger skin dose in water for the low-MV beams compared to the standard linac. Methods: Monte Carlo simulations were used to compute dose and DER for various flattening-filter-free beams (2.5, 4, 6.5 MV). Target materials were beryllium, diamond, and tungsten-copper high-Z target. Target thicknesses were selected based on 20%, 60%, 70%, and 80% of the continuous slowing down approximation electron ranges for a given target material and energy. Evaluation of the microscopic DER was carried out for 100 nm GNP including the degradation factors due to beam attenuation. Results: The greatest increase in DER compared to the standard 6.5 MV linac was for a 2.5 MV Be-target (factor of ∼2). Skin dose ranged from ∼10% (Be, 6.5 MV-80%) to ∼85% (Be, 2.5 MV-20%) depending on the target case. Attenuation of 2.5 MV beams at 22 cm was higher by ∼75% compared with the standard beam. Taking into account the attenuation at 22 cm depth, the effective dose enhancement was up to ∼60% above the DER of the high-Z target. For these cases the effective DER ranged between ∼1.6 and 6 compared with the standard linac. Conclusions: Low-Z (2.5 MV) GNPT is possible even after accounting for greater beam attenuation for deep-seated tumors (22 cm) and the increased skin dose. Further, it can lead to significant sparing of normal tissue while simultaneously escalating the dose in the tumor cells.

  12. Improving Dose Determination Accuracy in Nonstandard Fields of the Varian TrueBeam Accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Megan A.

    In recent years, the use of flattening-filter-free (FFF) linear accelerators in radiation-based cancer therapy has gained popularity, especially for hypofractionated treatments (high doses of radiation given in few sessions). However, significant challenges to accurate radiation dose determination remain. If physicists cannot accurately determine radiation dose in a clinical setting, cancer patients treated with these new machines will not receive safe, accurate and effective treatment. In this study, an extensive characterization of two commonly used clinical radiation detectors (ionization chambers and diodes) and several potential reference detectors (thermoluminescent dosimeters, plastic scintillation detectors, and alanine pellets) has been performed to investigate their use in these challenging, nonstandard fields. From this characterization, reference detectors were identified for multiple beam sizes, and correction factors were determined to improve dosimetric accuracy for ionization chambers and diodes. A validated computational (Monte Carlo) model of the TrueBeam(TM) accelerator, including FFF beam modes, was also used to calculate these correction factors, which compared favorably to measured results. Small-field corrections of up to 18 % were shown to be necessary for clinical detectors such as microionization chambers. Because the impact of these large effects on treatment delivery is not well known, a treatment planning study was completed using actual hypofractionated brain, spine, and lung treatments that were delivered at the UW Carbone Cancer Center. This study demonstrated that improperly applying these detector correction factors can have a substantial impact on patient treatments. This thesis work has taken important steps toward improving the accuracy of FFF dosimetry through rigorous experimentally and Monte-Carlo-determined correction factors, the validation of an important published protocol (TG-51) for use with FFF reference fields, and a

  13. An in-house protocol for improved flood field calibration of TrueBeam FFF cine imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faught, Austin M; Yin, Fang-Fang; Adamson, Justus

    2017-01-01

    TrueBeams equipped with the 40 × 30 cm(2) Electronic Portal Imaging Devices (EPIDs) are prone to image saturation at the image center when used with flattening filter free (FFF) photon energies. While cine imaging during treatment may not saturate because the beam is attenuated by the patient, the flood field calibration is affected when the standard calibration procedure is followed. Here, we describe the hardware and protocol to achieve improved image quality for this model of TrueBeam EPID. A stainless steel filter of uniform thickness was designed to have sufficient attenuation to avoid panel saturation. The cine imaging flood field calibration was acquired with the filter in place for the FFF energies under the standard calibration geometry (SID = 150 cm). Image quality during MV cine was assessed with & without the modified flood field calibration using a low contrast resolution phantom and an anthropomorphic phantom. When the flood field is acquired without the filter in place, a pixel gain artifact is clearly present in the image center which may be mis-attributed to panel saturation in the subject image. At the image center, the artifact obscured all low contrast inserts and was also visible on the anthropomorphic phantom. Using the filter for flood field calibration eliminates the artifact. TrueBeams equipped with the 40 × 30 cm(2) IDU can utilize a modified flood field calibration procedure for FFF photon energies that improves image quality for cine MV imaging. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  14. Gafchromic EBT-XD film: Dosimetry characterization in high-dose, volumetric-modulated arc therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Hideharu; Ozawa, Shuichi; Hosono, Fumika; Sumida, Naoki; Okazue, Toshiya; Yamada, Kiyoshi; Nagata, Yasushi

    2016-11-08

    Radiochromic films are important tools for assessing complex dose distributions. Gafchromic EBT-XD films have been designed for optimal performance in the 40-4,000 cGy dose range. We investigated the dosimetric characteristics of these films, including their dose-response, postexposure density growth, and dependence on scanner orientation, beam energy, and dose rate with applications to high-dose volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) verification. A 10 MV beam from a TrueBeam STx linear accelerator was used to irradiate the films with doses in the 0-4,000 cGy range. Postexposure coloration was analyzed at postirradiation times ranging from several minutes to 48 h. The films were also irradiated with 6 MV (dose rate (DR): 600 MU/min), 6 MV flattening filter-free (FFF) (DR: 1,400 MU/ min), and 10 MV FFF (DR: 2,400 MU/min) beams to determine the energy and dose-rate dependence. For clinical examinations, we compared the dose distribu-tion measured with EBT-XD films and calculated by the planning system for four VMAT cases. The red channel of the EBT-XD film exhibited a wider dynamic range than the green and blue channels. Scanner orientation yielded a variation of ~ 3% in the net optical density (OD). The difference between the film front and back scan orientations was negligible, with variation of ~ 1.3% in the net OD. The net OD increased sharply within the first 6 hrs after irradiation and gradually afterwards. No significant difference was observed for the beam energy and dose rate, with a variation of ~ 1.5% in the net OD. The gamma passing rates (at 3%, 3 mm) between the film- measured and treatment planning system (TPS)-calculated dose distributions under a high dose VMAT plan in the absolute dose mode were more than 98.9%. © 2016 The Authors.

  15. Application of postauricular expanded flap flattening in auricular reconstruction%耳后扩张皮瓣舒平术在扩张法外耳再造术中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡守舵; 赵延勇; 潘博; 蒋海越; 杨庆华; 庄洪兴

    2012-01-01

    Objective To summarize the application of the melhod of poslauricular expanded flap flat-lening in auricular reconslruclion. Methods From January 2003 to Oclober 2006, the melhod of poslauricular expanded flap flallening was adopted lo treat the 17 palienls with infection of poslauricular expanded flap < 13 cases) and purulenl secretion and infectious granuloma in the expanded envelope < 4 cases) , and then aulogeneic coslal cartilage framework was used lo perform auricular reconstruction at 3 months. Results Auricular reconstruction was performed smoothly wilh good auricular appearance. Following up was performed in 10 cases for 3 to 30 months, and all cases were satisfied wilh the auricular appearances which were not different wilh ones without infection. Conclusion The melhod of poslauricular expanded flap flatting is an effective treatment when the recipient bed is infected during the auricular reconstruction.%目的 总结耳后扩张皮瓣舒平术在扩张法外耳再造中的应用.方法 自2003年1月至2006年10月,对出现耳后扩张皮瓣感染(13例)征象和扩张包膜内出现脓性分泌物或炎性肉芽肿(4例)的17例外耳再造患者,先采用耳后扩张皮瓣舒平术,3个月后再采用自体肋软骨支架外耳再造术.结果 本组17例患者,再造耳外观均良好,手术顺利.10例获随访,最长30个月,最短3个月,平均9个月,术后恢复好,与无感染者无明显差异.结论 耳后扩张皮瓣舒平术是外耳再造过程中出现扩张皮瓣受植床感染时的一项非常有效的处理方法.

  16. Design and Fabrication of Gain Flattening Filters for EDFA with Chirped Fiber Bragg Gratings%啁啾光纤光栅EDFA增益平坦滤波器的设计与制作

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜华杰; 于永森; 郑杰; 曹英晖; 郑伟; 张玉书

    2007-01-01

    采用啁啾相位掩膜板和程控扫描曝光技术,在经过载氢增敏处理的普通单模光纤上制作出可以用于掺铒光纤放大器(EDFA)增益谱平坦化的啁啾光纤布喇格光栅(CFBG)型增益平坦滤波器(GFF),运用数值解析的方法得到曝光量曲线,并将之分解成曝光频率、曝光功率密度、光斑尺寸和光纤移动速度的曝光函数,按照曝光函数进行程控扫描曝光从而精确控制光栅的反射率.对制作的CFBG进行退火老化处理和温度补偿及保护封装,封装后GFF的温漂系数在-20~+70 ℃内变化小于1 pm/℃,经平坦后的EDFA增益谱在30 nm带宽范围内,不平坦度<±0.3 dB.根据不同的EDFA的ASE谱,可程控给出不同的曝光函数,以制作具有不同反射谱的CFBG型GFF.

  17. 扁平化对FeSiAl合金结构及电磁特性的影响%Influence of flattening on the structure and electromagnetic characteristics of FeSiAl alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高峰; 李鹏飞; 王群

    2009-01-01

    通过球磨对气雾化FeSiAl合金粉末进行扁平化,并制备成软磁合金复合材料(SCM).研究球磨时间对合金粉末微观形貌、显微结构以及1 MHz~1 GHz频率范围内SCM的复磁导率的影响.结果表明:随着球磨时间的增加,合金粉末的扁平率由1.18增大到7.01,粒径由50.36 μm减小到33.31 μm,平均晶粒尺寸由79.7 nm减小到49.7 nm,内应变由0.425 2%增大到0.597 4%;对合金粉末进行球磨可以明显提高SCM的μ′和μ″;随着球磨时间增加,SCM在同频率下的μ′和μ″均逐渐增大.

  18. Analysis of the Reasonable Use of "Flattening" Management Model in the Pengshui Project%浅析彭水项目对“扁平化”管理模式的合理运用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范镇鸿

    2014-01-01

    扁平化管理是缩短距离、增宽幅度、简化流程,促进资源和信息共享,提高效率。彭水项目运用扁平化管理模式引进协作队伍,充分体现了“扁平化”的二层式管理,即“管理+作业”。确保了彭水水电站右岸“进水塔封顶”阶段目标的顺利实现。%The flat management means shorten the distance, broaden the scope, simplify the process, promote the resources and share the information to improve eficiency. Pengshui pr-oject introduced colaboration team by using the flat mana-gement model, which fuly embodies the second type mana-gement of "Flatening", namely "Management+Operations". T-heproject ensures the smooth realization of right bank "Inta-ke Tower Top" at Pengshui hydropower station.

  19. 加速器驱动次临界快堆初装堆芯的功率密度分布展平%Power density profile flattening for the initial core of an accelerator-driven subcritical fast reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李浩泉; 杨永伟; 经荥清

    2004-01-01

    为了降低以(U、Pu、Np、Am、Cm)O2为燃料的加速器驱动次临界快堆(ADSFR)堆芯径的功率峰因子,将堆芯精细地分为燃料高、低富集度区.采用耦合散裂中子源的产生(LAHET)、中子输运(MCNP)和核素燃耗(ORIGEN2)等计算程序的COUPLE程序系统进行计算分析.结果显示,在设定的0.97初始临界度下,富集度分割比为1.5时将给出最有利的结果:初始的全堆功率峰因子为1.692;以840 MW的热功率运行过程中,尽管全堆的功率峰因子不断升高,但至300 d时,只达到1.963.堆芯物理设计满足预期要求.

  20. Research on Flattening Transformation Scheme of Meixian Area Network%梅县片区网络结构扁平化改造实施方案研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    佘克首

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of the original network structure of the Meizhou Tietong Meixian area Internet found that in busy hour it seriously jeopardized user’s regular use. This paper introduced the lfattening network structure and larger bandwidth as the broadband market development trend, studied how to use the new PTN transmission network to do the lfattening reform to existing network structure in this area. After the transformation, network bandwidth and structure are more reasonable, and network monitoring data of the region conifrmed that the lfattening network structure transformation can provide high-quality and stable broadband products to our customers.%通过对梅州铁通梅县区域互联网原有网络结构的分析,发现其忙时严重影响用户的正常使用。介绍了网络结构的扁平化和高带宽是宽带市场发展的趋势,研究了在该片区如何利用新建的PTN传送网对现有的网络结构进行扁平化改造,网络改造后,网络带宽和结构更加合理,网管对该区域的监测数据证实了网络结构扁平化改造能够给广大客户提供更加优质和稳定的宽带产品。

  1. 指挥控制组织结构扁平化分析及测度%Research on Analysis and Measure of Combat Command and Control Organization Flattening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周翔翔; 姚佩阳; 王欣; 万路军

    2012-01-01

    In order to analyze the flat degree of Command and Control (C2) organization structure, the concepts of C2 tree and collaboration net are given. The pyramid type C2 organization structure and flat type C2 organization structure are expatiated. On the base of these, the C2 organization structure flat measure based on the organization topology and based on tasks under two kinds of C2 organization working condition are designed. The flat measure calculation results of two organization structures are given in the case, and the feasibility and validity of the flat measure calculation methods are proved by the results and comparison.%为分析研究指挥控制(Command and Control,C2)组织结构的扁平化程度,给出了指挥控制树和协作交流网的概念,阐述了金字塔式C2组织结构和扁平式C2组织结构.在此基础之上,针对两种C2组织运作环境,分别设计基于拓扑的C2组织结构扁平化测度和基于任务的C2组织结构扁平化测度.案例给出了两种组织结构的扁平化测度计算结果,结果及比较分析表明扁平化测度计算方法的可行性和有效性.

  2. What is the benefit of high energy photons within the frame of a pelvic volumetric modulated arc therapy?; Quel est l'interet des hautes energies de photons dans le cadre d'une arctherapie volumique modulee pelvienne?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenoglietto, P.; Ailleres, N.; Simeon, S.; Santoro, L.; Idri, K.; Moscardo, C.L.; Azria, D.; Dubois, J. [CRLC Val d' Aurelle, 34 - Montpellier (France)

    2010-10-15

    As intensity-modulated volumetric arc therapy has known important development, a question still remains: is it still necessary to use machines producing very-high-energy photons to deliver the dose? Ten patients had been treated with a 18 MV photon beam and a new treatment plan has been designed using a 6 MV beam, based on the results obtained with the 18 MV beam. The only modification concerned the decrease of the dose rate. Treatments have been planned using the simulated integrated boost in the Eclipse software. The prostatic treatments appeared to be equivalent with the 18 MV and 6 MV beams, with no dosimetric impact of the dose rate decrease. Short communication

  3. Automatically gated image-guided breath-hold IMRT is a fast, precise, and dosimetrically robust treatment for lung cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simeonova-Chergou, Anna; Jahnke, Anika; Siebenlist, Kerstin; Stieler, Florian; Mai, Sabine; Boda-Heggemann, Judit; Wenz, Frederik; Lohr, Frank; Jahnke, Lennart [University Medical Center Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology, Mannheim (Germany)

    2016-03-15

    High-dose radiotherapy of lung cancer is challenging. Tumors may move by up to 2 cm in craniocaudal and anteroposterior directions as a function of breathing cycle. Tumor displacement increases with treatment time, which consequentially increases the treatment uncertainty. This study analyzed whether automatically gated cone-beam-CT (CBCT)-controlled intensity modulated fast deep inspiration breath hold (DIBH) stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) in flattening filter free (FFF) technique and normofractionated lung DIBH intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT)/volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) treatments delivered with a flattening filter can be applied with sufficient accuracy within a clinically acceptable timeslot. Plans of 34 patients with lung tumors were analyzed. Of these patients, 17 received computer-controlled fast DIBH SBRT with a dose of 60 Gy (5 fractions of 12 Gy or 12 fractions of 5 Gy) in an FFF VMAT technique (FFF-SBRT) every other day and 17 received conventional VMAT with a flattening filter (conv-VMAT) and 2-Gy daily fractional doses (cumulative dose 50-70 Gy). FFF-SBRT plans required more monitor units (MU) than conv-VMAT plans (2956.6 ± 885.3 MU for 12 Gy/fraction and 1148.7 ± 289.2 MU for 5 Gy/fraction vs. 608.4 ± 157.5 MU for 2 Gy/fraction). Total treatment and net beam-on times were shorter for FFF-SBRT plans than conv-VMAT plans (268.0 ± 74.4 s vs. 330.2 ± 93.6 s and 85.8 ± 25.3 s vs. 117.2 ± 29.6 s, respectively). Total slot time was 13.0 min for FFF-SBRT and 14.0 min for conv-VMAT. All modalities could be delivered accurately despite multiple beam-on/-off cycles and were robust against multiple interruptions. Automatically gated CBCT-controlled fast DIBH SBRT in VMAT FFF technique and normofractionated lung DIBH VMAT can be applied with a low number of breath-holds in a short timeslot, with excellent dosimetric accuracy. In clinical routine, these approaches combine optimally reduced lung tissue irradiation with maximal

  4. Dosimetric evaluation of photon dose calculation under jaw and MLC shielding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fogliata, A.; Clivio, A.; Vanetti, E.; Nicolini, G.; Belosi, M. F.; Cozzi, L. [Oncology Institute of Southern Switzerland, Medical Physics Unit, Bellinzona 6500 (Switzerland)

    2013-10-15

    Purpose: The accuracy of photon dose calculation algorithms in out-of-field regions is often neglected, despite its importance for organs at risk and peripheral dose evaluation. The present work has assessed this for the anisotropic analytical algorithm (AAA) and the Acuros-XB algorithms implemented in the Eclipse treatment planning system. Specifically, the regions shielded by the jaw, or the MLC, or both MLC and jaw for flattened and unflattened beams have been studied.Methods: The accuracy in out-of-field dose under different conditions was studied for two different algorithms. Measured depth doses out of the field, for different field sizes and various distances from the beam edge were compared with the corresponding AAA and Acuros-XB calculations in water. Four volumetric modulated arc therapy plans (in the RapidArc form) were optimized in a water equivalent phantom, PTW Octavius, to obtain a region always shielded by the MLC (or MLC and jaw) during the delivery. Doses to different points located in the shielded region and in a target-like structure were measured with an ion chamber, and results were compared with the AAA and Acuros-XB calculations. Photon beams of 6 and 10 MV, flattened and unflattened were used for the tests.Results: Good agreement between calculated and measured depth doses was found using both algorithms for all points measured at depth greater than 3 cm. The mean dose differences (±1SD) were −8%± 16%, −3%± 15%, −16%± 18%, and −9%± 16% for measurements vs AAA calculations and −10%± 14%, −5%± 12%, −19%± 17%, and −13%± 14% for Acuros-XB, for 6X, 6 flattening-filter free (FFF), 10X, and 10FFF beams, respectively. The same figures for dose differences relative to the open beam central axis dose were: −0.1%± 0.3%, 0.0%± 0.4%, −0.3%± 0.3%, and −0.1%± 0.3% for AAA and −0.2%± 0.4%, −0.1%± 0.4%, −0.5%± 0.5%, and −0.3%± 0.4% for Acuros-XB. Buildup dose was overestimated with AAA, while Acuros-XB gave

  5. Dosimetric evaluation of photon dose calculation under jaw and MLC shielding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogliata, A; Clivio, A; Vanetti, E; Nicolini, G; Belosi, M F; Cozzi, L

    2013-10-01

    The accuracy of photon dose calculation algorithms in out-of-field regions is often neglected, despite its importance for organs at risk and peripheral dose evaluation. The present work has assessed this for the anisotropic analytical algorithm (AAA) and the Acuros-XB algorithms implemented in the Eclipse treatment planning system. Specifically, the regions shielded by the jaw, or the MLC, or both MLC and jaw for flattened and unflattened beams have been studied. The accuracy in out-of-field dose under different conditions was studied for two different algorithms. Measured depth doses out of the field, for different field sizes and various distances from the beam edge were compared with the corresponding AAA and Acuros-XB calculations in water. Four volumetric modulated arc therapy plans (in the RapidArc form) were optimized in a water equivalent phantom, PTW Octavius, to obtain a region always shielded by the MLC (or MLC and jaw) during the delivery. Doses to different points located in the shielded region and in a target-like structure were measured with an ion chamber, and results were compared with the AAA and Acuros-XB calculations. Photon beams of 6 and 10 MV, flattened and unflattened were used for the tests. Good agreement between calculated and measured depth doses was found using both algorithms for all points measured at depth greater than 3 cm. The mean dose differences (± 1SD) were -8% ± 16%, -3% ± 15%, -16% ± 18%, and -9% ± 16% for measurements vs AAA calculations and -10% ± 14%, -5% ± 12%, -19% ± 17%, and -13% ± 14% for Acuros-XB, for 6X, 6 flattening-filter free (FFF), 10X, and 10FFF beams, respectively. The same figures for dose differences relative to the open beam central axis dose were: -0.1% ± 0.3%, 0.0% ± 0.4%, -0.3% ± 0.3%, and -0.1% ± 0.3% for AAA and -0.2% ± 0.4%, -0.1% ± 0.4%, -0.5% ± 0.5%, and -0.3% ± 0.4% for Acuros-XB. Buildup dose was overestimated with AAA, while Acuros-XB gave results more consistent with

  6. Dosimetry and evaluating the effect of treatment parameters on the leakage of multi leaf collimators in ONCOR linear accelerators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keyvan Jabbari

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: The amount of leakage was more for 18 MV compare to 6 MV The percentage of the leakage for both energies is less than the 5% value which is recommended by protocols. The fluctuation of the MLC leakage reduced by increasing the field size and depth.

  7. Photonuclear dose calculations for high-energy photon beams from Siemens and Varian linacs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chibani, Omar; Ma, Chang-Ming Charlie

    2003-08-01

    The dose from photon-induced nuclear particles (neutrons, protons, and alpha particles) generated by high-energy photon beams from medical linacs is investigated. Monte Carlo calculations using the MCNPX code are performed for three different photon beams from two different machines: Siemens 18 MV, Varian 15 MV, and Varian 18 MV. The linac head components are simulated in detail. The dose distributions from photons, neutrons, protons, and alpha particles are calculated in a tissue-equivalent phantom. Neutrons are generated in both the linac head and the phantom. This study includes (a) field size effects, (b) off-axis dose profiles, (c) neutron contribution from the linac head, (d) dose contribution from capture gamma rays, (e) phantom heterogeneity effects, and (f) effects of primary electron energy shift. Results are presented in terms of absolute dose distributions and also in terms of DER (dose equivalent ratio). The DER is the maximum dose from the particle (neutron, proton, or alpha) divided by the maximum photon dose, multiplied by the particle quality factor and the modulation scaling factor. The total DER including neutrons, protons, and alphas is about 0.66 cSv/Gy for the Siemens 18 MV beam (10 cm x 10 cm). The neutron DER decreases with decreasing field size while the proton (or alpha) DER does not vary significantly except for the 1 cm x 1 cm field. Both Varian beams (15 and 18 MV) produce more neutrons, protons, and alphas particles than the Siemens 18 MV beam. This is mainly due to their higher primary electron energies: 15 and 18.3 MeV, respectively, vs 14 MeV for the Siemens 18 MV beam. For all beams, neutrons contribute more than 75% of the total DER, except for the 1 cm x 1 cm field (approximately 50%). The total DER is 1.52 and 2.86 cSv/Gy for the 15 and 18 MV Varian beams (10 cm x 10 cm), respectively. Media with relatively high-Z elements like bone may increase the dose from heavy charged particles by a factor 4. The total DER is sensitive to

  8. Measurement of imaging properties of scintillating fiber optic plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zentai, George; Ganguly, Arundhuti; Star-Lack, Josh; Virshup, Gary; Hirsh, Hayley; Shedlock, Daniel; Humber, David

    2014-03-01

    Scintillating Fiber Optic Plates (SFOP) or Fiber Optic Scintillator (FOS) made with scintillating fiber-glass, were investigated for x-ray imaging. Two different samples (T x W x L = 2cm x 5cm x 5cm) were used; Sample A: 10μm fibers, Sample B: 50μm fibers both with statistically randomized light absorbing fibers placed in the matrix. A customized holder was used to place the samples in close contact with photodiodes in an amorphous silicon flat panel detector (AS1000, Varian), typically used for portal imaging. The detector has a 392μm pixel pitch and in the standard configuration uses a gadolinium oxy-sulphide (GOS) screen behind a copper plate. X-ray measurements were performed at 120kV (RQA 9 spectrum), 1MeV (5mm Al filtration) and 6MeV (Flattening Filter Free) for Sample A and the latter 2 spectra for Sample B. A machined edge was used for MTF measurements. The measurements showed the MTF degraded with increased X-ray energies because of the increase in Compton scattering. However, at the Nyquist frequency of 1.3lp/mm, the MTF is still high (FOS value vs. Cu+GOS): (a) 37% and 21% at 120kVp for the 10μm FOS and the Cu+GOS arrays, (b) 31%, 20% and 20% at 1MeV and (c) 17%, 11% and 14% at 6MeV for the 10μm FOS, 50μm FOS and the Cu+GOS arrays. The DQE(0) value comparison were (a) at 120kV ~24% and ~13 % for the 10μm FOS and the Cu+GOS arrays (b) at 1MV 10%, 10% and 7% and (c) at 6MV 12%, ~19% and 1.6% for the 10μm FOS , 50μm FOS and Cu+GOS arrays.

  9. SU-E-T-508: End to End Testing of a Prototype Eclipse Module for Planning Modulated Arc Therapy On the Siemens Platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, L [Huntsman Cancer Hospital, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Sarkar, V [University of Utah Hospitals, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Spiessens, S [Varian Medical Systems France, Buc Cedex (France); Rassiah-Szegedi, P; Huang, Y; Salter, B [University Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Zhao, H [University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Szegedi, M [Huntsman Cancer Hospital, The University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The latest clinical implementation of the Siemens Artiste linac allows for delivery of modulated arcs (mARC) using full-field flattening filter free (FFF) photon beams. The maximum doserate of 2000 MU/min is well suited for high dose treatments such as SBRT. We tested and report on the performance of a prototype Eclipse TPS module supporting mARC capability on the Artiste platform. Method: our spine SBRT patients originally treated with 12/13 field static-gantry IMRT (SGIMRT) were chosen for this study. These plans were designed to satisfy RTOG0631 guidelines with a prescription of 16Gy in a single fraction. The cases were re-planned as mARC plans in the prototype Eclipse module using the 7MV FFF beam and required to satisfy RTOG0631 requirements. All plans were transferred from Eclipse, delivered on a Siemens Artiste linac and dose-validated using the Delta4 system. Results: All treatment plans were straightforwardly developed, in timely fashion, without challenge or inefficiency using the prototype module. Due to the limited number of segments in a single arc, mARC plans required 2-3 full arcs to yield plan quality comparable to SGIMRT plans containing over 250 total segments. The average (3%/3mm) gamma pass-rate for all arcs was 98.5±1.1%, thus demonstrating both excellent dose prediction by the AAA dose algorithm and excellent delivery fidelity. Mean delivery times for the mARC plans(10.5±1.7min) were 50-70% lower than the SGIMRT plans(26±2min), with both delivered at 2000 MU/min. Conclusion: A prototype Eclipse module capable of planning for Burst Mode modulated arc delivery on the Artiste platform has been tested and found to perform efficiently and accurately for treatment plan development and delivered-dose prediction. Further investigation of more treatment sites is being carried out and data will be presented.

  10. Design and Characterization of Next-Generation Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counters for use in Low Energy Neutron Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashmeg, Sarah

    Since the publication of TG119 in 2009, new techniques have emerged in the field of radiation therapy including VMAT (Volumetric Arc Therapy) and the FFF (Flattening Filter Free) mode in Varian linear accelerators. Our goal in this work is to verify the feasibility of using TG119 to test the commissioning of VMAT and FFF systems and to set a benchmark for other institutions to use. We created 48 plans of the five sites given in TG119 in addition to a "real" HN case. For each site, we planned IMRT and VMAT using 6MV and 10MV, FF and FFF modes (6x2x2x2 = 48 plans). All our plans were created on the Eclipse treatment planning system (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA) and delivered on three beam-matched TrueBeam linear accelerators (Varian) at Duke University Medical Center. Measurements were taken using ion chamber, film, and a pseudo-3D diode array (Delta4), and compared to the planned doses. Confidence limits were determined using the approach of TG119 (CL = average mean deviation + 1.96 x standard deviation). We used the student's paired t-test to determine any statistically significant differences between IMRT and VMAT, FF and FFF for 6MV and 10MV. The majority of the ion chamber measurements (94%) agreed with the planned doses within 3%. The majority of errors > 3% involved the HN IMRT plans, either TG119 or "real". For film measurements, we used gamma parameters of 3%/3mm with a 20% threshold. All films met Duke's acceptability criteria of <= 10% of pixels failing gamma. As for Delta4, gamma parameters of 3%/3mm with a 5% threshold were used. All plans met Duke's acceptability criteria of 90% of pixels passing (average 99.7% +/- 0.8%). A second analysis was performed using 2%/2mm gamma parameters, where almost all plans met the 90% passing rate criteria (average 98.9% +/- 2.5%). Confidence limits were established for ion chamber (3.1%), film (6%), and Delta4 (3.1%) measurements. All the confidence limits were comparable to TG119 institutions. We recommend

  11. SU-E-J-126: An Online Replanning Method for FFF Beams Without Couch Shift

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahunbay, E; Ates, O; Li, X [Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: In a situation that couch shift for patient positioning is not preferred or prohibited (e.g., MR-Linac), segment aperture morphing (SAM) can address target dislocation and deformation. For IMRT/VMAT with flattening filter free (FFF) beams, however, SAM method would lead to an adverse translational dose effect due to the beam unflattening. Here we propose a new 2-step process to address both the translational effect of FFF beams and the target deformation. Methods: The replanning method consists of an offline and an online steps. The offline step is to create a series of pre-shifted plans (PSP) obtained by a so called “warm start” optimization (starting optimization from the original plan, rather from scratch) at a series of isocenter shifts with fixed distance (e.g. 2 cm, at x,y,z = 2,0,0 ; 2,2,0 ; 0,2,0; …;− 2,0,0). The PSPs all have the same number of segments with very similar shapes, since the warm-start optimization only adjusts the MLC positions instead of regenerating them. In the online step, a new plan is obtained by linearly interpolating the MLC positions and the monitor units of the closest PSPs for the shift determined from the image of the day. This two-step process is completely automated, and instantaneously fast (no optimization or dose calculation needed). The previously-developed SAM algorithm is then applied for daily deformation. We tested the method on sample prostate and pancreas cases. Results: The two-step interpolation method can account for the adverse dose effects from FFF beams, while SAM corrects for the target deformation. The whole process takes the same time as the previously reported SAM process (5–10 min). Conclusion: The new two-step method plus SAM can address both the translation effects of FFF beams and target deformation, and can be executed in full automation requiring no additional time from the SAM process. This research was supported by Elekta inc. (Crawley, UK)

  12. SU-E-T-187: Feasibility Study of Stereotactic Liver Radiation Therapy Using Multiple Divided Partial Arcs in Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Y; Ozawa, S; Tsegmed, U; Nakashima, T; Shintaro, T; Ochi, Y; Kawahara, D; Kimura, T; Nagata, Y [Hiroshima University, Hiroshima, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To verify volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) using flattening filter free (FFF) mode with jaw tracking (JT) feature for single breath hold as long as 15 s per arc in liver stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) against intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) FFF-JT. Methods: Ten hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cases were planned with 10 MV FFF using Pinnacle3 treatment planning system which delivered by TrueBeam to administer 48 Gy/ 4 fractions. Eight non-coplanar beams were assigned to IMRT using step-and-shoot technique. For VMAT, two or three non-coplanar partial arcs (up to 180 degrees) were further divided into subarcs with gantry rotation less than 80 degrees to limit delivery time within 15 s. Dose distributions were verified using OCTAVIUS II system and pass rates were evaluated using gamma analysis with criteria of 3%/3 mm at threshold of 5% to the maximum dose. The actual irradiation time was measured. Results: The VMAT-FFF-JT of partial-arcs with sub-divided arcs was able to produce a highly conformal plan as well as IMRT-FFF-JT. Isodose lines and DVH showed slight improvement in dosimetry when JT was employed for both IMRT and VMAT. Consequently, VMAT-FFF-JT was superior in reducing the dose to liver minus gross tumor volume. VMAT-FFF-JT has shorter total treatment time compared with 3D conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) FFF because the gantry was rotated simultaneously with the beam delivery in VMAT. Moreover, due to the small and regular shape of HCC, VMAT-FFF-JT offered less multileaf collimator motion, thus the interplay effect is expected to be reduced. The patient specific QA of IMRT and VMAT acquired the pass rates higher than 90%. Conclusion: VMAT-FFF-JT could be a promising technique for liver SBRT as the sub-divided arcs method was able to accommodate a single breath hold irradiation time of less than 15 s without deterioration of the dose distribution compared with IMRT-FFF-JT.

  13. A novel implementation of mARC treatment for non-dedicated planning systems using converted IMRT plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzierma, Yvonne; Nuesken, Frank; Licht, Norbert; Ruebe, Christian

    2013-08-03

    The modulated arc (mARC) technique has recently been introduced by Siemens as an analogue to VMAT treatment. However, up to now only one certified treatment planning system supports mARC planning. We therefore present a conversion algorithm capable of converting IMRT plans created by any treatment planning system into mARC plans, with the hope of expanding the availability of mARC to a larger range of clinical users and researchers. As additional advantages, our implementation offers improved functionality for planning hybrid arcs and provides an equivalent step-and-shoot plan for each mARC plan, which can be used as a back-up concept in institutions where only one linac is equipped with mARC. We present a feasibility study to outline a practical implementation of mARC plan conversion using Philips Pinnacle and Prowess Panther. We present examples for three different kinds of prostate and head-and-neck plans, for 6 MV and flattening-filter-free (FFF) 7 MV photon energies, which are dosimetrically verified. It is generally more difficult to create good quality IMRT plans in Pinnacle using a large number of beams and few segments. We present different ways of optimization as examples. By careful choosing the beam and segment arrangement and inversion objectives, we achieve plan qualities similar to our usual IMRT plans. The conversion of the plans to mARC format yields functional plans, which can be irradiated without incidences. Absolute dosimetric verification of both the step-and-shoot and mARC plans by point dose measurements showed deviations below 5% local dose, mARC plans deviated from step-and-shoot plans by no more than 1%. The agreement between GafChromic film measurements of planar dose before and after mARC conversion is excellent. The comparison of the 3D dose distribution measured by PTW Octavius 729 2D-Array with the step-and-shoot plans and with the TPS is well above the pass criteria of 90% of the points falling within 5% local dose and 3

  14. Comprehensive dosimetric planning comparison for early-stage, non-small cell lung cancer with SABR: fixed-beam IMRT versus VMAT versus TomoTherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xhaferllari, Ilma; El-Sherif, Omar; Gaede, Stewart

    2016-09-08

    Volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) is emerging as a leading technology in treating early-stage, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR). However, two other modalities capable of deliver-ing intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) include fixed-beam and helical TomoTherapy (HT). This study aims to provide an extensive dosimetric compari-son among these various IMRT techniques for treating early-stage NSCLC with SABR. Ten early-stage NSCLC patients were retrospectively optimized using three fixed-beam techniques via nine to eleven beams (high and low modulation step-and-shoot (SS), and sliding window (SW)), two VMAT techniques via two partial arcs (SmartArc (SA) and RapidArc (RA)), and three HT techniques via three different fan beam widths (1 cm, 2.5 cm, and 5 cm) for 80 plans total. Fixed-beam and VMAT plans were generated using flattening filter-free beams. SS and SA, HT treatment plans, and SW and RA were optimized using Pinnacle v9.1, Tomoplan v.3.1.1, and Eclipse (Acuros XB v11.3 algorithm), respectively. Dose-volume histogram statistics, dose conformality, and treatment delivery efficiency were analyzed. VMAT treatment plans achieved significantly lower values for contralat-eral lung V5Gy (p ≤ 0.05) compared to the HT plans, and significantly lower mean lung dose (p VMAT techniques, a significant reduction in the total monitor units (p = 0.05) was found in the SA plans, while a significant decrease was observed in the dose falloff parameter, D2cm, (p = 0.05), for the RA treatments. The maximum cord dose was significantly reduced (p = 0.017) in grouped RA&SA plans com-pared to SS. Estimated treatment time was significantly higher for HT and fixed-beam plans compared to RA&SA (p VMAT is dosimetrically advantageous in treating early-stage NSCLC with SABR compared to fixed-beam, while providing significantly shorter treatment times.

  15. Volumetric modulated arc planning for lung stereotactic body radiotherapy using conventional and unflattened photon beams: a dosimetric comparison with 3D technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Geoffrey G

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose Frequently, three-dimensional (3D conformal beams are used in lung cancer stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT. Recently, volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT was introduced as a new treatment modality. VMAT techniques shorten delivery time, reducing the possibility of intrafraction target motion. However dose distributions can be quite different from standard 3D therapy. This study quantifies those differences, with focus on VMAT plans using unflattened photon beams. Methods A total of 15 lung cancer patients previously treated with 3D or VMAT SBRT were randomly selected. For each patient, non-coplanar 3D, coplanar and non-coplanar VMAT and flattening filter free VMAT (FFF-VMAT plans were generated to meet the same objectives with 50 Gy covering 95% of the PTV. Two dynamic arcs were used in each VMAT plan. The couch was set at ± 5° to the 0° straight position for the two non-coplanar arcs. Pinnacle version 9.0 (Philips Radiation Oncology, Fitchburg WI treatment planning system with VMAT capabilities was used. We analyzed the conformity index (CI, which is the ratio of the total volume receiving at least the prescription dose to the target volume receiving at least the prescription dose; the conformity number (CN which is the ratio of the target coverage to CI; and the gradient index (GI which is the ratio of the volume of 50% of the prescription isodose to the volume of the prescription isodose; as well as the V20, V5, and mean lung dose (MLD. Paired non-parametric analysis of variance tests with post-tests were performed to examine the statistical significance of the differences of the dosimetric indices. Results Dosimetric indices CI, CN and MLD all show statistically significant improvement for all studied VMAT techniques compared with 3D plans (p Conclusion Besides the advantage of faster delivery times, VMAT plans demonstrated better conformity to target, sharper dose fall-off in normal tissues and lower dose to

  16. Do technological advances in linear accelerators improve dosimetric outcomes in stereotaxy? A head-on comparison of seven linear accelerators using volumetric modulated arc therapy-based stereotactic planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Sarkar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Linear accelerator (Linac based stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS and stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT using volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT has been used for treating small intracranial lesions. Recent development in the Linacs such as inbuilt micro multileaf collimator (MLC and flattening filter free (FFF beam are intended to provide a better dose conformity and faster delivery when using VMAT technique. This study was aimed to compare the dosimetric outcomes and monitor units (MUs of the stereotactic treatment plans for different commercially available MLC models and beam profiles. Materials and Methods: Ten patients having 12 planning target volume (PTV/gross target volume's (GTVs who received the SRS/SRT treatment in our clinic using Axesse Linac (considered reference arm gold standard were considered for this study. The test arms comprised of plans using Elekta Agility with FFF, Elekta Agility with the plane beam, Elekta APEX, Varian Millennium 120, Varian Millennium 120HD, and Elekta Synergy in Monaco treatment planning system. Planning constraints and calculation grid spacing were not altered in the test plans. To objectively evaluate the efficacy of MLC-beam model, the resultant dosimetric outcomes were subtracted from the reference arm parameters. Results: V95%, V100%, V105%, D1%, maximum dose, and mean dose of PTV/GTV showed a maximum inter MLC - beam model variation of 1.5% and 2% for PTV and GTV, respectively. Average PTV conformity index and heterogeneity index shows a variation in the range 0.56–0.63 and 1.08–1.11, respectively. Mean dose difference (excluding Axesse for all organs varied between 1.1 cGy and 74.8 cGy (mean dose = 6.1 cGy standard deviation [SD] = 26.9 cGy and 1.7 cGy–194.5 cGy (mean dose 16.1 cGy SD = 57.2 cGy for single and multiple fraction, respectively. Conclusion: The dosimetry of VMAT-based SRS/SRT treatment plan had minimal dependence on MLC and beam model variations. All tested MLC

  17. Toward a web-based real-time radiation treatment planning system in a cloud computing environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hum Na, Yong; Suh, Tae-Suk; Kapp, Daniel S.; Xing, Lei

    2013-09-01

    To exploit the potential dosimetric advantages of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT), an in-depth approach is required to provide efficient computing methods. This needs to incorporate clinically related organ specific constraints, Monte Carlo (MC) dose calculations, and large-scale plan optimization. This paper describes our first steps toward a web-based real-time radiation treatment planning system in a cloud computing environment (CCE). The Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2) with a master node (named m2.xlarge containing 17.1 GB of memory, two virtual cores with 3.25 EC2 Compute Units each, 420 GB of instance storage, 64-bit platform) is used as the backbone of cloud computing for dose calculation and plan optimization. The master node is able to scale the workers on an ‘on-demand’ basis. MC dose calculation is employed to generate accurate beamlet dose kernels by parallel tasks. The intensity modulation optimization uses total-variation regularization (TVR) and generates piecewise constant fluence maps for each initial beam direction in a distributed manner over the CCE. The optimized fluence maps are segmented into deliverable apertures. The shape of each aperture is iteratively rectified to be a sequence of arcs using the manufacture’s constraints. The output plan file from the EC2 is sent to the simple storage service. Three de-identified clinical cancer treatment plans have been studied for evaluating the performance of the new planning platform with 6 MV flattening filter free beams (40 × 40 cm2) from the Varian TrueBeamTM STx linear accelerator. A CCE leads to speed-ups of up to 14-fold for both dose kernel calculations and plan optimizations in the head and neck, lung, and prostate cancer cases considered in this study. The proposed system relies on a CCE that is able to provide an infrastructure for parallel and distributed computing. The resultant plans from the cloud computing are identical

  18. SU-E-T-338: Dosimetric Study of Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT) and Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) for Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT) in Early Stage Lung Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, I; Quinn, K; Seebach, A; Wang, H [OSF Saint Anthony Medical Center, Rockford, IL (United States); Yah, R [University of Illinois College of Medicine at Rockford, Rockford, IL (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: This study evaluates the dosimetric differences using volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) in patients previously treated with intensity modulated radiation therapy IMRT for stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) in early stage lung cancer. Methods: We evaluated 9 consecutive medically inoperable lung cancer patients at the start of the SBRT program who were treated with IMRT from November 2010 to October 2011. These patients were treated using 6 MV energy. The 9 cases were then re-planned with VMAT performed with arc therapy using 6 MV flattening filter free (FFF) energy with the same organs at risk (OARS) constraints. Data collected for the treatment plans included target coverage, beam on time, dose to OARS and gamma pass rate. Results: Five patients were T1N0 and four patients were T2N0 with all tumors less than 5 cm. The average GTV was 13.02 cm3 (0.83–40.87) and average PTV was 44.65 cm3 (14.06–118.08). The IMRT plans had a mean of 7.2 angles (6–9) and 5.4 minutes (3.6–11.1) per plan. The VMAT plans had a mean of 2.8 arcs (2–3) and 4.0 minutes (2.2–6.0) per plan. VMAT had slightly more target coverage than IMRT with average increase in D95 of 2.68% (1.24–5.73) and D99 of 3.65% (0.88–8.77). VMAT produced lower doses to all OARs. The largest reductions were in maximum doses to the spinal cord with an average reduction of 24.1%, esophagus with an average reduction of 22.1%, and lung with an average reduction in the V20 of 16.3% The mean gamma pass rate was 99.8% (99.2–100) at 3 mm and 3% for VMAT with comparable values for IMRT. Conclusion: These findings suggest that using VMAT for SBRT in early stage lung cancer is superior to IMRT in terms of dose coverage, OAR dose and a lower treatment delivery time with a similar gamma pass rate.

  19. Sensitivity and variability of Presage dosimeter formulations in sheet form with application to SBRT and SRS QA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumas, Michael, E-mail: mdumas1127@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Wayne State University School of Medicine and Karmanos Cancer Institute Detroit, Detroit, Michigan 48201 and Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, Michigan 48202 (United States); Rakowski, Joseph T. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Wayne State University School of Medicine and Karmanos Cancer Institute Detroit, Detroit, Michigan 48201 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Purpose: To measure sensitivity and stability of the Presage dosimeter in sheet form for various chemical concentrations over a range of clinical photon energies and examine its use for stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) and stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) QA. Methods: Presage polymer dosimeters were formulated to investigate and optimize their sensitivity and stability. The dosimeter is composed of clear polyurethane base, leucomalachite green (LMG) reporting dye, and bromoform radical initiator in 0.9–1.0 mm thick sheets. The chemicals are mixed together for 2 min, cast in an aluminum mold, and left to cure at 60 psi for a minimum of two days. Dosimeter response was characterized at energies Co-60, 6 MV, 10 MV flattening-filter free, 15 MV, 50 kVp (mean 19.2 keV), and Ir-192. The dosimeters were scanned by a Microtek Scanmaker i800 at 300 dpi, 2{sup 16} bit depth per color channel. Red component images were analyzed with ImageJ and RIT. SBRT QA was done with gamma analysis tolerances of 2% and 2 mm DTA. Results: The sensitivity of the Presage dosimeter increased with increasing concentration of bromoform. Addition of tin catalyst decreased curing time and had negligible effect on sensitivity. LMG concentration should be at least as high as the bromoform, with ideal concentration being 2% wt. Gamma Knife SRS QA measurements of relative output and profile widths were within 2% of manufacturer’s values validated at commissioning, except the 4 mm collimator relative output which was within 3%. The gamma pass rate of Presage with SBRT was 73.7%, compared to 93.1% for EBT2 Gafchromic film. Conclusions: The Presage dosimeter in sheet form was capable of detecting radiation over all tested photon energies and chemical concentrations. The best sensitivity and photostability of the dosimeter were achieved with 2.5% wt. LMG and 8.2% wt. bromoform. Scanner used should not emit any UV radiation as it will expose the dosimeter, as with the Epson 10000 XL scanner

  20. SU-D-BRB-04: Plan Quality Comparison of Intracranial Stereotactic Radiosurgery (SRS) for Gamma Knife and VMAT Treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keeling, V; Algan, O; Ahmad, S; Hossain, S [University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To compare treatment plan quality of intracranial stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for VMAT (RapidArc) and Gamma Knife (GK) systems. Methods: Ten patients with 24 tumors (seven with 1–2 and three with 4–6 lesions), previously treated with GK 4C (prescription doses ranging from 14–23 Gy) were re-planned for RapidArc. Identical contour sets were kept on MRI images for both plans with tissues assigned a CT number of zero. RapidArc plans were performed using 6 MV flattening-filter-free (FFF) beams with dose rate of 1400 MU/minute using two to eight arcs with the following combinations: 2 full coplanar arcs and the rest non-coplanar half arcs. Beam selection was based on target depth. Areas that penetrated more than 10 cm of tissue were avoided by creating smaller arcs or using avoidance sectors in optimization. Plans were optimized with jaw tracking and a high weighting to the normal-brain-tissue and Normal-Tissue-Objective without compromising PTV coverage. Plans were calculated on a 1 mm grid size using AAA algorithm and then normalized so that 99% of each target volume received the prescription dose. Plan quality was assessed by target coverage using Paddick Conformity Index (PCI), sparing of normal-brain-tissue through analysis of V4, V8, and V12 Gy, and integral dose. Results: In all cases critical structure dose criteria were met. RapidArc had a higher PCI than GK plans for 23 out of 24 lesions. The average PCI was 0.76±0.21 for RapidArc and 0.46±0.20 for GK plans (p≤0.001), respectively. Integral dose and normal-brain-tissue doses for all criteria were lower for RapidArc in nearly all patients. The average ratio of GK to RapidArc plans was 1.28±0.27 (p=0.018), 1.31±0.25 (p=0.017), 1.81±0.43 (p=0.005), and 1.50±0.61 (p=0.006) for V4, V8, and V12 Gy, and integral dose, respectively. Conclusion: VMAT was capable of producing higher quality treatment plans than GK when using optimal beam geometries and proper optimization techniques.

  1. MO-F-CAMPUS-T-02: Optimizing Orientations of Hundreds of Intensity-Modulated Beams to Treat Multiple Brain Targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, L; Dong, P; Larson, D [University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States); Keeling, V; Hossain, S; Ahmad, S [University of Oklahoma Health Science Center, Oklahoma City, OK (United States); Sahgal, A [University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate a new modulated beam orientation optimization (MBOO) approach maximizing treatment planning quality for the state-of-the-art flattening filter free (FFF) beam that has enabled rapid treatments of multiple brain targets. Methods: MBOO selects and optimizes a large number of intensity-modulated beams (400 or more) from all accessible beam angles surrounding a patient’s skull. The optimization algorithm was implemented on a standalone system that interfaced with the 3D Dicom images and structure sets. A standard published data set that consisted of 1 to 12 metastatic brain tumor combinations was selected for MBOO planning. The planning results from various coplanar and non-coplanar configurations via MBOO were then compared with the results obtained from a clinical volume modulated arc therapy (VMAT) delivery system (Truebeam RapidArc, Varian Oncology). Results: When planning a few number of targets (n<4), MBOO produced results equivalent to non-coplanar multi-arc VMAT planning in terms of target volume coverage and normal tissue sparing. For example, the 12-Gy and 4-Gy normal brain volumes for the 3-target plans differed by less than 1 mL ( 3.0 mLvs 3.8 mL; and 35.2 mL vs 36.3 mL, respectively) for MBOO versus VMAT. However, when planning a larger number of targets (n≥4), MBOO significantly reduced the dose to the normal brain as compared to VMAT, though the target volume coverage was equivalent. For example, the 12-Gy and 4-Gy normal brain volumes for the 12-target plans were 10.8 mL vs. 18.0 mL and 217.9 mL vs. 390.0 mL, respectively for the non-coplanar MBOO versus the non-coplanar VMAT treatment plans, yielding a reduction in volume of more than 60% for the case. Conclusion: MBOO is a unique approach for maximizing normal tissue sparing when treating a large number (n≥4) of brain tumors with FFF linear accelerators. Dr Ma and Dr Sahgal are currently on the board of international society of stereotactic radiosurgery. Dr Sahgal has

  2. SU-E-J-182: Reproducibility of Tumor Motion Probability Distribution Function in Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy of Lung Using Real-Time Tumor-Tracking Radiotherapy System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiinoki, T; Hanazawa, H; Park, S; Takahashi, T; Shibuya, K [Yamaguchi University, Ube, Yamaguchi (Japan); Kawamura, S; Uehara, T; Yuasa, Y; Koike, M [Yamaguchi University Hospital, Ube, Yamaguchi (Japan)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: We aim to achieve new four-dimensional radiotherapy (4DRT) using the next generation real-time tumor-tracking (RTRT) system and flattening-filter-free techniques. To achieve new 4DRT, it is necessary to understand the respiratory motion of tumor. The purposes of this study were: 1.To develop the respiratory motion analysis tool using log files. 2.To evaluate the reproducibility of tumor motion probability distribution function (PDF) during stereotactic body RT (SBRT) of lung tumor. Methods: Seven patients having fiducial markers closely implanted to the lung tumor were enrolled in this study. The positions of fiducial markers were measured using the RTRT system (Mitsubishi Electronics Co., JP) and recorded as two types of log files during the course of SBRT. For each patients, tumor motion range and tumor motion PDFs in left-right (LR), anterior-posterior (AP) and superior-inferior (SI) directions were calculated using log files of all beams per fraction (PDFn). Fractional PDF reproducibility (Rn) was calculated as Kullback-Leibler (KL) divergence between PDF1 and PDFn of tumor motion. The mean of Rn (Rm) was calculated for each patient and correlated to the patient’s mean tumor motion range (Am). The change of Rm during the course of SBRT was also evluated. These analyses were performed using in-house developed software. Results: The Rm were 0.19 (0.07–0.30), 0.14 (0.07–0.32) and 0.16 (0.09–0.28) in LR, AP and SI directions, respectively. The Am were 5.11 mm (2.58–9.99 mm), 7.81 mm (2.87–15.57 mm) and 11.26 mm (3.80–21.27 mm) in LR, AP and SI directions, respectively. The PDF reproducibility decreased as the tumor motion range increased in AP and SI direction. That decreased slightly through the course of RT in SI direction. Conclusion: We developed the respiratory motion analysis tool for 4DRT using log files and quantified the range and reproducibility of respiratory motion for lung tumors.

  3. Monte Carlo validation of the TrueBeam 10XFFF phase–space files for applications in lung SABR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teke, Tony, E-mail: tteke2@bccancer.bc.ca [Medical Physics, BC Cancer Agency—Centre for the Southern Interior, Kelowna, British Columbia V1Y 5L3 (Canada); Duzenli, Cheryl; Bergman, Alanah; Viel, Francis; Atwal, Parmveer; Gete, Ermias [Medical Physics, BC Cancer Agency—Vancouver Centre, Vancouver, British Columbia V5Z 4E6 (Canada)

    2015-12-15

    Purpose: To establish the clinical acceptability of universal Monte Carlo phase–space data for the 10XFFF (flattening filter free) photon beam on the Varian TrueBeam Linac, including previously unreported data for small fields, output factors, and inhomogeneous media. The study was particularly aimed at confirming the suitability for use in simulations of lung stereotactic ablative radiotherapy treatment plans. Methods: Monte Carlo calculated percent depth doses (PDDs), transverse profiles, and output factors for the TrueBeam 10 MV FFF beam using generic phase–space data that have been released by the Varian MC research team were compared with in-house measurements and published data from multiple institutions (ten Linacs from eight different institutions). BEAMnrc was used to create field size specific phase–spaces located underneath the jaws. Doses were calculated with DOSXYZnrc in a water phantom for fields ranging from 1 × 1 to 40 × 40 cm{sup 2}. Particular attention was paid to small fields (down to 1 × 1 cm{sup 2}) and dose per pulse effects on dosimeter response for high dose rate 10XFFF beams. Ion chamber measurements were corrected for changes in ion collection efficiency (P{sub ion}) with increasing dose per pulse. MC and ECLIPSE ANISOTROPIC ANALYTICAL ALGORITHM (AAA) calculated PDDs were compared to Gafchromic film measurement in inhomogeneous media (water, bone, lung). Results: Measured data from all machines agreed with Monte Carlo simulations within 1.0% and 1.5% for PDDs and in-field transverse profiles, respectively, for field sizes >1 × 1 cm{sup 2} in a homogeneous water phantom. Agreements in the 80%–20% penumbra widths were better than 2 mm for all the fields that were compared. For all the field sizes considered, the agreement between their measured and calculated output factors was within 1.1%. Monte Carlo results for dose to water at water/bone, bone/lung, and lung/water interfaces as well as within lung agree with film

  4. The role of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) in the treatment of oligometastatic disease in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scorsetti, Marta; Clerici, Elena; Navarria, Piera; D'Agostino, Giuseppe; Piergallini, Lorenzo; De Rose, Fiorenza; Ascolese, Annamaria; Tozzi, Angelo; Iftode, Cristina; Villa, Elisa; Comito, Tiziana; Franzese, Ciro; Mancosu, Pietro; Tomatis, Stefano; Cozzi, Luca

    2015-09-01

    To report about clinical outcome of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) in the treatment of oligometastatic disease in elderly patients. Patients with 1-4 inoperable metastases were treated with SBRT. Dose prescription ranged from 40 to 75 Gy in 3-8 fractions. SBRT was delivered using the volumetric modulated arc therapy technique with flattening filter-free photon beams. The primary end points were in-field local control (LC) and toxicity. Secondary end points were overall survival (OS) and disease-specific survival (DSS). 82 patients with 111 total metastases were treated. Median age was 79 years. 64 patients (78%) had a single lesion; the remaining patients had 2-4 lesions. 16 (14.4%) lesions were localized in the abdomen, 50 (45.0%) in the liver and 45 (40.5%) in the lungs. Local response was observed for 87 lesions (78.4%) while local progression was observed in 24 lesions (21.6%). Actuarial 1-year LC was 86.8% ± 3.3%. Actuarial 1-year OS was 93.6% ± 2.7%. 2-year findings were 76.3% ± 4.4% and 72.0% ± 5.6%, respectively. Actuarial 1- and 2-year DSS results were 97.5% ± 2.0% and 81.6% ± 4.9%, respectively. Treatment-related Grade 2-3 toxicity was observed in five patients (4.2%); Grade 1 toxicity in seven patients (5.9%) and no toxicity was observed in 85.4% of the cases. SBRT is a safe and effective therapeutic option for the treatment of oligometastatic disease in the elderly with acceptable rates of LC and low treatment-related toxicity. The use of SBRT for oligometastatic disease in the elderly can be considered as a valuable approach, particularly for patients with fragile status or refusing other approaches.

  5. Quality of tri-Co-60 MR-IGRT treatment plans in comparison with VMAT treatment plans for spine SABR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Chang Heon; Park, So-Yeon; Kim, Jung-In; Kim, Jin Ho; Kim, Kyubo; Carlson, Joel; Park, Jong Min

    2017-02-01

    To investigate the plan quality of tri-Co-60 intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plans for spine stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR). A total of 20 patients with spine metastasis were retrospectively selected. For each patient, a tri-Co-60 IMRT plan and a volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) plan were generated. The spinal cords were defined based on MR images for the tri-Co-60 IMRT, while isotropic 1-mm margins were added to the spinal cords for the VMAT plans. The VMAT plans were generated with 10-MV flattening filter-free photon beams of TrueBeam STx(™) (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA), while the tri-Co-60 IMRT plans were generated with the ViewRay(™) system (ViewRay inc., Cleveland, OH). The initial prescription dose was 18 Gy (1 fraction). If the tolerance dose of the spinal cord was not met, the prescription dose was reduced until the spinal cord tolerance dose was satisfied. The mean dose to the target volumes, conformity index and homogeneity index of the VMAT and tri-Co-60 IMRT were 17.8 ± 0.8 vs 13.7 ± 3.9 Gy, 0.85 ± 0.20 vs 1.58 ± 1.29 and 0.09 ± 0.04 vs 0.24 ± 0.19, respectively. The integral doses and beam-on times were 16,570 ± 1768 vs 22,087 ± 2.986 Gy cm(3) and 3.95 ± 1.13 vs 48.82 ± 10.44 min, respectively. The tri-Co-60 IMRT seems inappropriate for spine SABR compared with VMAT. Advances in knowledge: For spine SABR, the tri-Co-60 IMRT is inappropriate owing to the large penumbra, large leaf width and low dose rate of the ViewRay system.

  6. Toward a web-based real-time radiation treatment planning system in a cloud computing environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Yong Hum; Suh, Tae-Suk; Kapp, Daniel S; Xing, Lei

    2013-09-21

    To exploit the potential dosimetric advantages of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT), an in-depth approach is required to provide efficient computing methods. This needs to incorporate clinically related organ specific constraints, Monte Carlo (MC) dose calculations, and large-scale plan optimization. This paper describes our first steps toward a web-based real-time radiation treatment planning system in a cloud computing environment (CCE). The Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2) with a master node (named m2.xlarge containing 17.1 GB of memory, two virtual cores with 3.25 EC2 Compute Units each, 420 GB of instance storage, 64-bit platform) is used as the backbone of cloud computing for dose calculation and plan optimization. The master node is able to scale the workers on an 'on-demand' basis. MC dose calculation is employed to generate accurate beamlet dose kernels by parallel tasks. The intensity modulation optimization uses total-variation regularization (TVR) and generates piecewise constant fluence maps for each initial beam direction in a distributed manner over the CCE. The optimized fluence maps are segmented into deliverable apertures. The shape of each aperture is iteratively rectified to be a sequence of arcs using the manufacture's constraints. The output plan file from the EC2 is sent to the simple storage service. Three de-identified clinical cancer treatment plans have been studied for evaluating the performance of the new planning platform with 6 MV flattening filter free beams (40 × 40 cm(2)) from the Varian TrueBeam(TM) STx linear accelerator. A CCE leads to speed-ups of up to 14-fold for both dose kernel calculations and plan optimizations in the head and neck, lung, and prostate cancer cases considered in this study. The proposed system relies on a CCE that is able to provide an infrastructure for parallel and distributed computing. The resultant plans from the cloud computing are

  7. SU-E-T-485: Investigation of a Synthetic Diamond Detector for Tomotherapy Dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knill, C; Nalichowski, A; Halford, R [Karmanos Cancer Institute, Detroit, MI (United States); Zakjevskii, V; Zhuang, L [Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI (United States); Snyder, M; Burmeister, J [Karmanos Cancer Institute, Detroit, MI (United States); Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Tomotherapy treatments are characterized by rotational deliveries of flattening-filter free fields resulting in high-gradient dose distributions. Small volume, rotationally independent detectors are needed for accurate dosimetry. PTWs microDiamond detector, with its small sensitive volume (0.004mm{sup 3}), could potentially be an ideal detector for Tomotherapy. The microDiamond detector was tested against a small volume Exradin A1SL ion chamber for Tomotherapy open-field and IMRT commissioning measurements. Methods: Custom detector holders were fabricated to allow A1SL and microDiamond measurements in the Tomotherapy Cheese phantom and a square solid water phantom. The microDiamond rotational dependence within the Tomotherapy phantom was tested by incrementally rotating the detector in between static-gantry angle Tomotherapy irradiations. Longitudinal Tomotherapy profiles, for all field sizes, were measured with the microDiamond and A1SL detectors at 1.5cm depth in the square phantom, and compared to film. Detector axes were aligned parallel to table motion. Per TG-119 recommendations, both detectors were calibrated to known doses in phantoms and used to measure high-dose points in TG-119 H and N and Prostate plans. The measurements were compared to the treatment planning system and subsequently compared to published TG-119 confidence limits. Results: The microDiamond angular dependence was less than 0.5%. The average difference between the detectors and film-measured longitudinal profile 80–20% penumbras were 0.03+/-0.04mm and 1.36+/-0.22mm for the microDiamond and A1SL, respectively. The average difference between the detector and filmmeasured field sizes were 0.07+/-0.01mm and 0.09+/-0.02mm for the microDiamond and A1SL, respectively. The measured confidence limits were 0.023 and 0.015 for microDiamond and A1SL, respectively. TG-119 reported a confidence limit of 0.034. Conclusion: The microDiamond measured open-field longitudinal Tomotherapy profiles

  8. Validation of Monte Carlo calculated surface doses for megavoltage photon beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Rahman, Wamied; Seuntjens, Jan P; Verhaegen, Frank; Deblois, François; Podgorsak, Ervin B

    2005-01-01

    Recent work has shown that there is significant uncertainty in measuring build-up doses in mega-voltage photon beams especially at high energies. In this present investigation we used a phantom-embedded extrapolation chamber (PEEC) made of Solid Water to validate Monte Carlo (MC)-calculated doses in the dose build-up region for 6 and 18 MV x-ray beams. The study showed that the percentage depth ionizations (PDIs) obtained from measurements are higher than the percentage depth doses (PDDs) obtained with Monte Carlo techniques. To validate the MC-calculated PDDs, the design of the PEEC was incorporated into the simulations. While the MC-calculated and measured PDIs in the dose build-up region agree with one another for the 6 MV beam, a non-negligible difference is observed for the 18 MV x-ray beam. A number of experiments and theoretical studies of various possible effects that could be the source of this discrepancy were performed. The contribution of contaminating neutrons and protons to the build-up dose region in the 18 MV x-ray beam is negligible. Moreover, the MC calculations using the XCOM photon cross-section database and the NIST bremsstrahlung differential cross section do not explain the discrepancy between the MC calculations and measurement in the dose build-up region for the 18 MV. A simple incorporation of triplet production events into the MC dose calculation increases the calculated doses in the build-up region but does not fully account for the discrepancy between measurement and calculations for the 18 MV x-ray beam.

  9. An end-to-end examination of geometric accuracy of IGRT using a new digital accelerator equipped with onboard imaging system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Kielar, Kayla N; Mok, Ed; Hsu, Annie; Dieterich, Sonja; Xing, Lei

    2012-02-01

    The Varian's new digital linear accelerator (LINAC), TrueBeam STx, is equipped with a high dose rate flattening filter free (FFF) mode (6 MV and 10 MV), a high definition multileaf collimator (2.5 mm leaf width), as well as onboard imaging capabilities. A series of end-to-end phantom tests were performed, TrueBeam-based image guided radiation therapy (IGRT), to determine the geometric accuracy of the image-guided setup and dose delivery process for all beam modalities delivered using intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and RapidArc. In these tests, an anthropomorphic phantom with a Ball Cube II insert and the analysis software (FilmQA (3cognition)) were used to evaluate the accuracy of TrueBeam image-guided setup and dose delivery. Laser cut EBT2 films with 0.15 mm accuracy were embedded into the phantom. The phantom with the film inserted was first scanned with a GE Discovery-ST CT scanner, and the images were then imported to the planning system. Plans with steep dose fall off surrounding hypothetical targets of different sizes were created using RapidArc and IMRT with FFF and WFF (with flattening filter) beams. Four RapidArc plans (6 MV and 10 MV FFF) and five IMRT plans (6 MV and 10 MV FFF; 6 MV, 10 MV and 15 MV WFF) were studied. The RapidArc plans with 6 MV FFF were planned with target diameters of 1 cm (0.52 cc), 2 cm (4.2 cc) and 3 cm (14.1 cc), and all other plans with a target diameter of 3 cm. Both onboard planar and volumetric imaging procedures were used for phantom setup and target localization. The IMRT and RapidArc plans were then delivered, and the film measurements were compared with the original treatment plans using a gamma criteria of 3%/1 mm and 3%/2 mm. The shifts required in order to align the film measured dose with the calculated dose distributions was attributed to be the targeting error. Targeting accuracy of image-guided treatment using TrueBeam was found to be within 1 mm. For irradiation of the 3 cm target, the gammas (3%, 1

  10. High Impact Papers from October – December, 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IJCTO Editorial Office

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available High impact papers from a particular Issue are selected based on the quality of the article and the number of citations. High impact papers are typically recognized once the Issue completes the publication time period of 12 months.Following articles are recognized as High Impact Papers from October - December, 2014: Ojala J. The accuracy of the Acuros XB algorithm in external beam radiotherapy – a comprehensive review. Int J Cancer Ther Oncol 2014; 2(4:020417.  DOI: 10.14319/ijcto.0204.17Read                      Download                           Citations Rout BK, Muralidhar KR, Ali M, Shekar MC, Kumar A. Dosimetric study of RapidArc plans with flattened beam (FB and flattening filter-free (FFF beam for localized prostate cancer based on physical indices. Int J Cancer Ther Oncol 2014; 2(4:02046.DOI: 10.14319/ijcto.0204.6Read                      Download                           CitationsRana S, Pokharel S. Dose-to-medium vs. dose-to-water: Dosimetric evaluation of dose reporting modes in Acuros XB for prostate, lung and breast cancer. Int J Cancer Ther Oncol 2014; 2(4:020421. DOI: 10.14319/ijcto.0204.21Read                      Download                           CitationsPetrou EI, Narayanasamy G, Lavdas E, Stathakis S, Papanikolaou N, Lind BK, Mavroidis P. Evaluation of the generalized gamma as a tool for treatment planning optimization. Int J Cancer Ther Oncol 2014; 2(4:020418.DOI: 10.14319/ijcto.0204.18Read                      Download                           Citations (High impact papers from January-March, 2015 will be recognized in the next Issue of the IJCTO

  11. QTL Information Table: 332 [Q-TARO

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FSM Morphological trait Shoot/Seedling flattened shoot meristem RFLP B)Fine F2 T65 ...mutant Kasalath R1764 S10526 rgn Kurosita, H., Itoh, J.-I., and Nagato, Y. (2005). FLATTENED SHOOT MERISTEM

  12. Análise comparativa entre instrumentação rotatória (GT, manual e associação de ambas no preparo de canais achatados Comparative analysis of rotatory (GT and manual root canal preparation and association of both techniques in instrumentation of flattened root canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Beltrami Gonçalves

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available A instrumentação do canal radicular tem sido considerada uma das fases mais importantes do tratamento endodôntico, portanto muitas técnicas e instrumentos têm sido desenvolvidos para esse fim. O propósito desse estudo foi avaliar a limpeza de canais radiculares instrumentados com três diferentes técnicas. Foram selecionados trinta incisivos inferiores, onde a abertura coronária foi realizada. Posteriormente, os canais foram preenchidos com tinta nanquim (corante, previamente acondicionada em tubetes anestésicos, sendo a mesma levada ao interior do canal radicular com auxílio de uma seringa carpule e uma agulha para anestesia. Após 48 horas, tempo esperado para que o corante secasse no canal, os dentes foram divididos em três grupos: G1 - instrumentação rotatória com GT; G2 - instrumentação manual e G3 - associação de ambas (mista. Após a instrumentação, os dentes foram seccionados longitudinalmente e realizada a avaliação da limpeza dos canais, através da remoção de corante nos terços cervical, médio e apical. Os resultados demonstraram que não houve diferença estatisticamente significante na limpeza do canal entre as três técnicas de instrumentação estudadas, nos três terços avaliados.Root canal preparation has been considered one of the most important steps in root canal therapy, thus many techniques and instruments have been developed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cleaning of the root canal through three different instrumentation techniques. Thirty mandibular incisors were selected and submitted to lingual access cavities. Afterwards, the canals were filled with India ink dye previously stored in carpules, which was inserted into the root canal by means of anesthetic syringe and anesthetic needles. After 48 hours, during which the dye was allowed to dry inside the root canal, the teeth were divided in three groups: G1- GT rotatory instrumentation; G2- manual instrumentation; G3- association of both. After instrumentation, the teeth were longitudinally sectioned. The cleaning process accomplished through the different instrumentation techniques was evidenced by dye removal at the cervical, middle and apical thirds of the root canal. The results of this study showed that were not statistically significant differences between these three instrumentation techniques for all three thirds of the root canal.

  13. The evaluation of neutron and gamma ray dose equivalent distributions in patients and the effectiveness of shield materials for high energy photons radiotherapy facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghassoun, J., E-mail: ghassoun@ucam.ac.ma [EPRA, Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences Semlalia, PO Box: 2390, 40000 Marrakech (Morocco); Senhou, N. [EPRA, Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences Semlalia, PO Box: 2390, 40000 Marrakech (Morocco)

    2012-04-15

    In this study, the MCNP5 code was used to model radiotherapy room of a medical linear accelerator operating at 18 MV and to evaluate the neutron and the secondary gamma ray fluences, the energy spectra and the dose equivalent distributions inside a liquid tissue-equivalent (TE) phantom. The obtained results were compared with measured data published in the literature. Moreover, the shielding effects of various neutron material shields on the radiotherapy room wall were also investigated. Our simulation results showed that paraffin wax containing boron carbide presents enough effectiveness to reduce both neutron and secondary gamma ray doses. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Monte Carlo method has been used to model radiotherapy room of a 18 MV linear accelerator. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The neutron and the gamma ray dose equivalent distributions inside a liquid (TE) phantom were evaluated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The radiotherapy room shielding performance has been also investigated.

  14. Calculation of dose equivalents in organs due to photoneutrons from clinical accelerators; Calculo de dose equivalente em orgaos devido a fotoneutrons provenientes de aceleradores clinicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Robson C. de; Silva, Ademir X. da; Crispim, Verginia R. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Engenharia Nuclear]. E-mail: rcastro@con.ufrj.br; Facure, Alessandro; Falcao, Rossana C. [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: afsoares@cnen.gov.br; Lima, Marco A.F. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia Geral. Lab. de Radiobiologia e Radiometria]. E-mail: egbakel@vm.uff.br

    2005-07-01

    Radiotherapy with photon and electron beams still represents the most technique to control and treat tumour diseases. To increase the treatment efficiency of this technique is linked to the increase of beam energy, resulting in fast neutrons in the radiotherapic beams that contribute with an undesired dose to the patient. In this work has been calculated, using the MCNP4B computer code radiation of transport and an mathematical anthropomorphic phantom, the equivalent doses in organs originated from generated photoneutrons from heads of linear accelerators of medical use, that operates in the 15 MV, 18 MV, 20 MV and 25 MV. The calculated values for the equivalent doses in organs established by the 74 publication of ICRP has show variations between 0.11 mSv.n Gy{sup -1} and 7.03 mSv.n Gy{sup -1}, for the accelerator that uses 18 MV therapic beams, showing good agreement with existing values in the literature. (author)

  15. Fast neutron leakage in 18 MeV medical electron accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Paredes, L; Balcazar, M; Tavera, L; Camacho, E

    1999-01-01

    In this work the neutron fluence of the Varian Clinac 2100C Medical Accelerator has been evaluated using CR39 track dosimeter. The assessment of fast neutron dose to a patient for typical treatment of 200 cGy with an 18 MV photons beam is performed at surface-source distance of 100 cm with a field size of 20x20 cm sup 2. Fast neutron leakage around of the accelerator head is evaluated.

  16. Vagus nerve stimulator stability and interference on radiation oncology x-ray beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gossman, Michael S.; Ketkar, Amruta; Liu, Arthur K.; Olin, Bryan

    2012-10-01

    Five different models of Cyberonics, Inc. vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) therapy pulse generators were investigated for their stability under radiation and their ability to change the absorbed dose from incident radiation. X-ray beams of 6 MV and 18 MV were used to quantify these results up to clinical doses of 68-78 Gy delivered in a single fraction. In the first part, the effect on electronic stimulation signaling of each pulse generator was monitored during and immediately afterwards with computer interrogation. In the second part, the effects of having the pulse generators scatter or attenuate the x-ray beam was also characterized from dose calculations on a treatment planning system as well as from actual radiation measurements. Some device models were found to be susceptible to radiation interference when placed directly in the beam of high energy therapeutic x-ray radiation. While some models exhibited no effect at all, others showed an apparent loss of stimulation output immediately after radiation was experienced. Still, other models were observed to have a cumulative dose effect with a reduced output signal, followed by battery depletion above 49 Gy. Absorbed dose changes on computer underestimated attenuation by nearly half for both energies amongst all pulse generators, although the computer did depict the proper shape of the changed distribution of dose around the device. Measured attenuation ranged from 7.0% to 11.0% at 6 MV and 4.2% to 5.2% at 18 MV for x-rays. Processes of back-scatter and side-scatter were deemed negligible although recorded. Identical results from 6 MV and 18 MV x-ray beams conclude no neutron effect was induced for the 18 MV beam. As there were documented effects identified in this research regarding pulse generation, it emphasizes the importance of caution when considering radiation therapy on patients with implanted VNS devices with observed malfunctions consequential.

  17. Plasma opening switch studies of an applied Bz ion diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struckman, C. K.; Kusse, B. R.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Rondeau, G.

    1989-05-01

    The light ion accelerator (1.5 MV, 4 ohms) at Cornell University is being used to study the characteristics of an applied Bz, or 'barrel', diode. The results of a series of experiments utilizing a plasma opening switch are reported. With a magnetically insulated ion diode load, the peak diode voltage increase from 1.5 to 1.8 MV and the ion power increased from 50 to 80 GW when a plasma opening switch was used.

  18. Determination of the neutron spectra in the treatment room of a linear accelerator for radiotherapy; Determinacion de los espectros de neutrones en la sala de tratamiento de un acelerador lineal para radioterapia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega C, H.R. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Cuerpo Academico de Radiobiologia, A.P. 336, 98000 Zacatecas (Mexico); Barquero, R. [Hospital Universitario Rio Hortega, Valladolid (Spain); Mendez, R.; Iniguez, M.P. [Depto. de Fisica Teorica, Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad de Valladolid, 47011 Valladolid (Spain)

    2003-07-01

    By means of a series of measures and Monte Carlo calculations the dosimetric characteristics of the photoneutrons have been determined that take place in volume to a linear accelerator of radiotherapy of 18 MV, LINAC, mark Siemens Mevatron model. The measures were carried out with thermoluminescent dosemeters TLD 600 and TLD 700 that were naked exposed and confined with cover of Cd and Sn, inside a sphere of paraffin and inside spheres Bonner. (Author)

  19. Comparison of build-up dose between Elekta and Varian linear accelerators for high-energy photon beams using radiochromic film and clinical implications for IMRT head and neck treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paelinck, L; De Wagter, C; Van Esch, A; Duthoy, W; Depuydt, T; De Neve, W

    2005-02-07

    Skin toxicity has been reported for IMRT of head and neck cancer. The purpose of this study was to investigate the dose in the build-up region delivered by a 6 MV treatment plan for which important skin toxicity was observed. We also investigated if the different designs of the treatment head of an Elekta and a Varian linear accelerator, especially the lower position of the Varian multi-leaf collimator, give rise to different build-up doses. For regular square open beams, the build-up dose along the central beam axis is higher for the Varian machine than for the Elekta machine, both for 6 MV and 18 MV. At the Elekta machine at 18 MV, the superficial dose of a diamond shaped 10 x 10 cm2 field is 3.6% lower than the superficial dose of a regular 10 x 10 cm2 field. This effect is not seen at 6 MV. At the Varian machine, the superficial dose of the diamond shaped field is respectively 3.5 and 14.2% higher than the superficial dose of the regular 10 x 10 cm2 field for 6 MV and 18 MV. Despite the differences measured in build-up dose for single beams between the Elekta and the Varian linear accelerator, there were no measurable differences in superficial dose when a typical IMRT dose plan of 6 MV for a head and neck tumour is executed at the two machines.

  20. Dose attenuation by a carbon fiber linac couch and modeling with a treatment planning system; Medida de la atenuacion producida por la mesa de tratamiento de un acelerador lineal y su modelado en un sistema de planificacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Galiano, P.; Garcia Sancho, J.M.; Crelgo, D.; Pamos, M.; Fernandez, J.; Vivanco, J.

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this work is to investigate the attenuation caused by a carbon fiber linac treatment couch and the ability of a commercial radiotherapy treatment planning system to simulate it. The attenuation caused by an Exact{copyright} treatment couch in a Varian{copyright} Clinac{copyright} 2100 C/D was characterized in detail. Both 6 MV and 18 MV photon beams were studied. The treatment couch was modeled and incorporated to Elekta{copyright} XiO{copyright} treatment planning system. Measured and computed attenuation values were compared. As a result we found that the attenuation caused by this complex treatment couch is strongly dependent on the incidence angle of the beam. The measured attenuation values reach 16% for 6 MV and 10% for 18 MV. The model incorporated to the treatment planning software allows reducing the differences between measured and calculated data below 2.5% and 2.0% for 6 MV and 18 MV respectively. In conclusion, it is strongly recommended accounting for the perturbation caused by this carbon fiber treatment couch when the beam intersects it. The treatment planning system studied can simulate this treatment couch accurately. Clinical implementation of the described method requires a reliable procedure to reproduce the same patient geometry in the treatment delivery and planning. (Author).

  1. Treatment planning for radiotherapy with very high-energy electron beams and comparison of VHEE and VMAT plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazalova-Carter, Magdalena; Qu, Bradley; Palma, Bianey; Jensen, Christopher; Maxim, Peter G., E-mail: Peter.Maxim@Stanford.edu, E-mail: BWLoo@Stanford.edu; Loo, Billy W., E-mail: Peter.Maxim@Stanford.edu, E-mail: BWLoo@Stanford.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Hårdemark, Björn; Hynning, Elin [RaySearch Laboratories AB, Stockholm SE-103 65 (Sweden)

    2015-05-15

    plan, OAR doses were up to 70% lower and the integral dose was 33% lower for VHEE compared to 6 MV VMAT. Additionally, VHEE conformity indices (CI{sub 100} = 1.09 and CI{sub 50} = 4.07) were better than VMAT conformity indices (CI{sub 100} = 1.30 and CI{sub 50} = 6.81). The 100 MeV VHEE lung plan resulted in mean dose decrease to all OARs by up to 27% for the same target coverage compared to the clinical 6 MV flattening filter-free (FFF) VMAT plan. The 100 MeV prostate plan resulted in 3% mean dose increase to the penile bulb and the urethra, but all other OAR mean doses were lower compared to the 15 MV VMAT plan. The lung case CI{sub 100} and CI{sub 50} conformity indices were 3% and 8% lower, respectively, in the VHEE plan compared to the VMAT plan. The prostate case CI{sub 100} and CI{sub 50} conformity indices were 1% higher and 8% lower, respectively, in the VHEE plan compared to the VMAT plan. Conclusions: The authors have developed a treatment planning workflow for MC dose calculation of pencil beams and optimization for treatment planning of VHEE radiotherapy. The authors have demonstrated that VHEE plans resulted in similar or superior dose distributions for pediatric, lung, and prostate cases compared to clinical VMAT plans.

  2. Improvements in dose accuracy delivered with static-MLC IMRT on an integrated linear accelerator control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Ji; Wiersma, Rodney D.; Stepaniak, Christopher J.; Farrey, Karl J.; Al-Hallaq, Hania A. [Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology, University of Chicago, 5758 South Maryland Avenue, MC9006, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)

    2012-05-15

    Purpose: Dose accuracy has been shown to vary with dose per segment and dose rate when delivered with static multileaf collimator (SMLC) intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) by Varian C-series MLC controllers. The authors investigated the impact of monitor units (MUs) per segment and dose rate on the dose delivery accuracy of SMLC-IMRT fields on a Varian TrueBeam linear accelerator (LINAC), which delivers dose and manages motion of all components using a single integrated controller. Methods: An SMLC sequence was created consisting of ten identical 10 x 10 cm{sup 2} segments with identical MUs. Beam holding between segments was achieved by moving one out-of-field MLC leaf pair. Measurements were repeated for various combinations of MU/segment ranging from 1 to 40 and dose rates of 100-600 MU/min for a 6 MV photon beam (6X) and dose rates of 800-2400 MU/min for a 10 MV flattening-filter free photon (10XFFF) beam. All measurements were made with a Farmer (0.6 cm{sup 3}) ionization chamber placed at the isocenter in a solid-water phantom at 10 cm depth. The measurements were performed on two Varian LINACs: C-series Trilogy and TrueBeam. Each sequence was delivered three times and the dose readings for the corresponding segments were averaged. The effects of MU/segment, dose rate, and LINAC type on the relative dose variation ({Delta}{sub i}) were compared using F-tests ({alpha} = 0.05). Results: On the Trilogy, large {Delta}{sub i} was observed in small MU segments: at 1 MU/segment, the maximum {Delta}{sub i} was 10.1% and 57.9% at 100 MU/min and 600 MU/min, respectively. Also, the first segment of each sequence consistently overshot ({Delta}{sub i} > 0), while the last segment consistently undershot ({Delta}{sub i} < 0). On the TrueBeam, at 1 MU/segment, {Delta}{sub i} ranged from 3.0% to 4.5% at 100 and 600 MU/min; no obvious overshoot/undershoot trend was observed. F-tests showed statistically significant difference [(1 - {beta}) =1.0000] between the

  3. Stereotactic Arrhythmia Radioablation (STAR) of Ventricular Tachycardia: A Treatment Planning Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahimian, Benjamin; Soltys, Scott G; Zei, Paul; Lo, Anthony; Gardner, Edward A; Maguire, Patrick J; Loo Jr., Billy W

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The first stereotactic arrhythmia radioablation (STAR) of ventricular tachycardia (VT) was delivered at Stanford on a robotic radiosurgery system (CyberKnife® G4) in 2012. The results warranted further investigation of this treatment. Here we compare dosimetrically three possible treatment delivery platforms for STAR. Methods The anatomy and target volume of the first treated patient were used for this study. A dose of 25 Gy in one fraction was prescribed to the planning target volume (PTV). Treatment plans were created on three treatment platforms: CyberKnife® G4 system with Iris collimator (Multiplan, V. 4.6)(Plan #1), CyberKnife® M6 system with InCise 2TM multileaf collimator (Multiplan V. 5.3)(Plan #2) and Varian TrueBeamTM STx with HD 120TM MLC and 10MV flattening filter free (FFF) beam (Eclipse planning system, V.11) (Plan #3 coplanar and #4 noncoplanar VMAT plans). The four plans were compared by prescription isodose line, plan conformity index, dose gradient, as well as dose to the nearby critical structures. To assess the delivery efficiency, planned monitor units (MU) and estimated treatment time were evaluated. Results Plans #1-4 delivered 25 Gy to the PTV to the 75.0%, 83.0%, 84.3%, and 84.9% isodose lines and with conformity indices of 1.19, 1.16, 1.05, and 1.05, respectively. The dose gradients for plans #1-4 were 3.62, 3.42, 3.93, and 3.73 with the CyberKnife® MLC plan (Plan #2) the best, and the TrueBeamTM STx co-planar plan (Plan #3) the worst. The dose to nearby critical structures (lung, stomach, bowel, and esophagus) were all well within tolerance. The MUs for plans #1-4 were 27671, 16522, 6275, and 6004 for an estimated total-treatment-time/beam-delivery-time of 99/69, 65/35, 37/7, and 56/6 minutes, respectively, under the assumption of 30 minutes pretreatment setup time. For VMAT gated delivery, a 40% duty cycle, 2400MU/minute dose rate, and an extra 10 minutes per extra arc were assumed. Conclusion Clinically acceptable plans were

  4. Stereotactic Arrhythmia Radioablation (STAR) of Ventricular Tachycardia: A Treatment Planning Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Fahimian, Benjamin; Soltys, Scott G; Zei, Paul; Lo, Anthony; Gardner, Edward A; Maguire, Patrick J; Loo, Billy W

    2016-07-15

    The first stereotactic arrhythmia radioablation (STAR) of ventricular tachycardia (VT) was delivered at Stanford on a robotic radiosurgery system (CyberKnife® G4) in 2012. The results warranted further investigation of this treatment. Here we compare dosimetrically three possible treatment delivery platforms for STAR. The anatomy and target volume of the first treated patient were used for this study. A dose of 25 Gy in one fraction was prescribed to the planning target volume (PTV). Treatment plans were created on three treatment platforms: CyberKnife® G4 system with Iris collimator (Multiplan, V. 4.6)(Plan #1), CyberKnife® M6 system with InCise 2(TM) multileaf collimator (Multiplan V. 5.3)(Plan #2) and Varian TrueBeam(TM) STx with HD 120(TM) MLC and 10MV flattening filter free (FFF) beam (Eclipse planning system, V.11) (Plan #3 coplanar and #4 noncoplanar VMAT plans). The four plans were compared by prescription isodose line, plan conformity index, dose gradient, as well as dose to the nearby critical structures. To assess the delivery efficiency, planned monitor units (MU) and estimated treatment time were evaluated. Plans #1-4 delivered 25 Gy to the PTV to the 75.0%, 83.0%, 84.3%, and 84.9% isodose lines and with conformity indices of 1.19, 1.16, 1.05, and 1.05, respectively. The dose gradients for plans #1-4 were 3.62, 3.42, 3.93, and 3.73 with the CyberKnife® MLC plan (Plan #2) the best, and the TrueBeam(TM) STx co-planar plan (Plan #3) the worst. The dose to nearby critical structures (lung, stomach, bowel, and esophagus) were all well within tolerance. The MUs for plans #1-4 were 27671, 16522, 6275, and 6004 for an estimated total-treatment-time/beam-delivery-time of 99/69, 65/35, 37/7, and 56/6 minutes, respectively, under the assumption of 30 minutes pretreatment setup time. For VMAT gated delivery, a 40% duty cycle, 2400MU/minute dose rate, and an extra 10 minutes per extra arc were assumed. Clinically acceptable plans were created with all three

  5. Multibeam tomotherapy: a new treatment unit devised for multileaf collimation, intensity-modulated radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achterberg, Nils; Müller, Reinhold G

    2007-10-01

    A fully integrated system for treatment planning, application, and verification for automated multileaf collimator (MLC) based, intensity-modulated, image-guided, and adaptive radiation therapy (IMRT, IGRT and ART, respectively) is proposed. Patient comfort, which was the major development goal, will be achieved through a new unit design and short treatment times. Our device for photon beam therapy will consist of a new dual energy linac with five fixed treatment heads positioned evenly along one plane but one electron beam generator only. A minimum of moving parts increases technical reliability and reduces motion times to a minimum. Motion is allowed solely for the MLCs, the robotic patient table, and the small angle gantry rotation of +/- 36 degrees. Besides sophisticated electron beam guidance, this compact setup can be built using existing modules. The flattening-filter-free treatment heads are characterized by reduced beam-on time and contain apertures restricted in one dimension to the area of maximum primary fluence output. In the case of longer targets, this leads to a topographic intensity modulation, thanks to the combination of "step and shoot" MLC delivery and discrete patient couch motion. Owing to the limited number of beam directions, this multislice cone beam serial tomotherapy is referred to as "multibeam tomotherapy." Every patient slice is irradiated by one treatment head at any given moment but for one subfield only. The electron beam is then guided to the next head ready for delivery, while the other heads are preparing their leaves for the next segment. The "Multifocal MLC-positioning" algorithm was programmed to enable treatment planning and optimize treatment time. We developed an overlap strategy for the longitudinally adjacent fields of every beam direction, in doing so minimizing the field match problem and the effects of possible table step errors. Clinical case studies show for the same or better planning target volume coverage, better

  6. Treatment planning for radiotherapy with very high-energy electron beams and comparison of VHEE and VMAT plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazalova-Carter, Magdalena; Qu, Bradley; Palma, Bianey; Hårdemark, Björn; Hynning, Elin; Jensen, Christopher; Maxim, Peter G; Loo, Billy W

    2015-05-01

    100 = 1.30 and CI50 = 6.81). The 100 MeV VHEE lung plan resulted in mean dose decrease to all OARs by up to 27% for the same target coverage compared to the clinical 6 MV flattening filter-free (FFF) VMAT plan. The 100 MeV prostate plan resulted in 3% mean dose increase to the penile bulb and the urethra, but all other OAR mean doses were lower compared to the 15 MV VMAT plan. The lung case CI100 and CI50 conformity indices were 3% and 8% lower, respectively, in the VHEE plan compared to the VMAT plan. The prostate case CI100 and CI50 conformity indices were 1% higher and 8% lower, respectively, in the VHEE plan compared to the VMAT plan. The authors have developed a treatment planning workflow for MC dose calculation of pencil beams and optimization for treatment planning of VHEE radiotherapy. The authors have demonstrated that VHEE plans resulted in similar or superior dose distributions for pediatric, lung, and prostate cases compared to clinical VMAT plans.

  7. Evaluating efficiency of coaxial MLC VMAT plan for spine SBRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Sang Jun; Mun, Jun Ki; Kim, Dae Ho; Yoo, Suk Hyun [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    The purpose of the study is to evaluate the efficiency of Coaxial MLC VMAT plan (Using 273° and 350° collimator angle) That the leaf motion direction aligned with axis of OAR (Organ at risk, It means spinal cord or cauda equine in this study.) compare to Universal MLC VMAT plan (using 30° and 330 ° collimator angle) for spine SBRT. The 10 cases of spine SBRT that treated with VMAT planned by Coaxial MLC and Varian TBX were enrolled. Those cases were planned by Eclipse (Ver. 10.0.42, Varian, USA), PRO3 (Progressive Resolution Optimizer 10.0.28) and AAA (Anisotropic Analytic Algorithm Ver. 10.0.28) with coplanar 260 ° arcs and 10MV FFF (Flattening filter free). Each arc has 273° and 350 ° collimator angle, respectively. The Universal MLC VMAT plans are based on existing treatment plans. Those plans have the same parameters of existing treatment plans but collimator angle. To minimize the dose difference that shows up randomly on optimizing, all plans were optimized and calculated twice respectively. The calculation grid is 0.2 cm and all plans were normalized to the target V100%=90%. The indexes of evaluation are V10Gy, D0.03cc, Dmean of OAR (Organ at risk, It means spinal cord or cauda equine in this study.), H.I (Homogeneity index) of the target and total MU. All Coaxial VMAT plans were verified by gamma test with Mapcheck2 (Sun Nuclear Co., USA), Mapphan (Sun Nuclear Co., USA) and SNC patient (Sun Nuclear Co., USA Ver 6.1.2.18513). The difference between the coaxial and the universal VMAT plans are follow. The coaxial VMAT plan is better in the V10Gy of OAR, Up to 4.1%, at least 0.4%, the average difference was 1.9% and In the D0.03cc of OAR, Up to 83.6 cGy, at least 2.2 cGy, the average difference was 33.3 cGy. In Dmean, Up to 34.8 cGy, at least -13.0 cGy, the average difference was 9.6 cGy that say the coaxial VMAT plans are better except few cases. H.I difference Up to 0.04, at least 0.01, the average difference was 0.02 and the difference of average

  8. Clinical applications of advanced rotational radiation therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalichowski, Adrian

    Purpose: With a fast adoption of emerging technologies, it is critical to fully test and understand its limits and capabilities. In this work we investigate new graphic processing unit (GPU) based treatment planning algorithm and its applications in helical tomotherapy dose delivery. We explore the limits of the system by applying it to challenging clinical cases of total marrow irradiation (TMI) and stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). We also analyze the feasibility of alternative fractionation schemes for total body irradiation (TBI) and TMI based on reported historical data on lung dose and interstitial pneumonitis (IP) incidence rates. Methods and Materials: An anthropomorphic phantom was used to create TMI plans using the new GPU based treatment planning system and the existing CPU cluster based system. Optimization parameters were selected based on clinically used values for field width, modulation factor and pitch. Treatment plans were also created on Eclipse treatment planning system (Varian Medical Systems Inc, Palo Alto, CA) using volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) for dose delivery on IX treatment unit. A retrospective review was performed of 42 publications that reported IP rates along with lung dose, fractionation regimen, dose rate and chemotherapy. The analysis consisted of nearly thirty two hundred patients and 34 unique radiation regimens. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to determine parameters associated with IP and establish does response function. Results: The results showed very good dosimetric agreement between the GPU and CPU calculated plans. The results from SBRT study show that GPU planning system can maintain 90% target coverage while meeting all the constraints of RTOG 0631 protocol. Beam on time for Tomotherapy and flattening filter free RapidArc was much faster than for Vero or Cyberknife. Retrospective data analysis showed that lung dose and Cyclophosphomide (Cy) are both predictors of IP in TBI/TMI treatments. The

  9. Is the Dark Halo of the Milky Way Prolate?

    CERN Document Server

    Bowden, A; Williams, A A

    2016-01-01

    We introduce the flattening equation, which relates the shape of the dark halo to the angular velocity dispersions and the density of a tracer population of stars. It assumes spherical alignment of the velocity dispersion tensor, as seen in the data on stellar halo stars in the Milky Way. The angular anisotropy and gradients in the angular velocity dispersions drive the solutions towards prolateness, whilst the gradient in the stellar density is a competing effect favouring oblateness. We provide an efficient numerical algorithm to integrate the flattening equation. Using tests on mock data, we show that the there is a strong degeneracy between circular speed and flattening, which can be circumvented with informative priors. Therefore, we advocate the use of the flattening equation to test for oblateness or prolateness, though the precise value of the flattening $q$ can only be measured with the addition of the radial Jeans equation. We apply the flattening equation to a sample extracted from the Sloan Digita...

  10. Site-selective radiation damage of collapsed carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crespi, V.H. [Department of Physics, 104 Davey Lab, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802-6300 (United States); Chopra, N.G.; Cohen, M.L.; Zettl, A. [Department of Physics, University of California at Berkeley and Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Radmilovic, V. [Department of Physical Metallurgy, University of Belgrade Karnegijeva 4, P.O. Box 494, Belgrade, 11001 (Yugoslavia)

    1998-10-01

    Carbon nanotubes can flatten into collapsed tubes with bulbs along either edge. The strong anisotropy in the graphitic radiation damage threshold both explains the rapid destruction of face-on flattened nanotubes and can be exploited to selectively modify the structure of edge-on flattened nanotubes, thereby creating one-dimensional sp{sup 2} carbon with noncontinuous transverse boundary conditions. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  11. Breast Radiotherapy with Mixed Energy Photons; a Model for Optimal Beam Weighting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birgani, Mohammadjavad Tahmasebi; Fatahiasl, Jafar; Hosseini, Seyed Mohammad; Bagheri, Ali; Behrooz, Mohammad Ali; Zabiehzadeh, Mansour; Meskani, Reza; Gomari, Maryam Talaei

    2015-01-01

    Utilization of high energy photons (>10 MV) with an optimal weight using a mixed energy technique is a practical way to generate a homogenous dose distribution while maintaining adequate target coverage in intact breast radiotherapy. This study represents a model for estimation of this optimal weight for day to day clinical usage. For this purpose, treatment planning computed tomography scans of thirty-three consecutive early stage breast cancer patients following breast conservation surgery were analyzed. After delineation of the breast clinical target volume (CTV) and placing opposed wedge paired isocenteric tangential portals, dosimeteric calculations were conducted and dose volume histograms (DVHs) were generated, first with pure 6 MV photons and then these calculations were repeated ten times with incorporating 18 MV photons (ten percent increase in weight per step) in each individual patient. For each calculation two indexes including maximum dose in the breast CTV (Dmax) and the volume of CTV which covered with 95% Isodose line (VCTV, 95%IDL) were measured according to the DVH data and then normalized values were plotted in a graph. The optimal weight of 18 MV photons was defined as the intersection point of Dmax and VCTV, 95%IDL graphs. For creating a model to predict this optimal weight multiple linear regression analysis was used based on some of the breast and tangential field parameters. The best fitting model for prediction of 18 MV photons optimal weight in breast radiotherapy using mixed energy technique, incorporated chest wall separation plus central lung distance (Adjusted R2=0.776). In conclusion, this study represents a model for the estimation of optimal beam weighting in breast radiotherapy using mixed photon energy technique for routine day to day clinical usage.

  12. Dosimetric evaluation of a commercial 3D treatment planning system using the AAPM Task Group 23 test package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanova Borca, Valeria; Pasquino, Massimo; Bresciani, Sara; Catuzzo, Paola; Ozzello, Franca; Tofani, Santi

    2005-03-01

    The accuracy of the dose calculation algorithm is one of the most critical steps in assessing the radiotherapy treatment to achieve the 5% accuracy in dose delivery, which represents the suggested limit to increase the complication-free local control of tumor. We have used the AAPM Task Group 23 (TG-23) test package for clinical photon external beam therapy to evaluate the accuracy of the new version of the PLATO TPS algorithm. The comparison between tabulated values and calculated ones has been performed for 266 and 297 dose values for the 4 and 18 MV photon beams, respectively. Dose deviations less than 2% were found in the 98.5%- and 90.6% analyzed dose points for the two considered energies, respectively. Larger deviations were obtained for both energies, in large dose gradients, such as the build-up region or near the field edges and blocks. As far as the radiological field width is concerned, 64 points were analyzed for both the energies: 53 points (83%) and 64 points (100%) were within +/-2 millimeters for the 4 and 18 MV photon beams, respectively. The results show the good accuracy of the algorithm either in simple geometry beam conditions or in complex ones, in homogeneous medium, and in the presence of inhomogeneities, for low and high energy beams. Our results fit well the data reported by several authors related to the calculation accuracy of different treatment planning systems (TPSs) (within a mean value of 0.7% and 1.2% for 4 and 18 MV respectively). The TG-23 test package can be considered a powerful instrument to evaluate dose calculation accuracy, and as such may play an important role in a quality assurance program related to the commissioning of a new TPS.

  13. Reduction of the effect of non-uniform backscatter from an E-type support arm of a Varian a-Si EPID used for dosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowshanfarzad, Pejman; Sabet, Mahsheed; O'Connor, Daryl J; Greer, Peter B

    2010-11-21

    Backscatter from the metallic components in the support arm is one of the sources of inaccuracy in dosimetry with Varian amorphous silicon electronic portal imaging devices (a-Si EPIDs). In this study, the non-uniform arm backscatter is blocked by adding lead sheets between the EPID and an E-type support arm. By comparing the EPID responses on and off the arm, with and without lead and considering the extra weight on the imager, 2 mm of lead was determined as the optimum thickness for both 6 and 18 MV beam energies. The arm backscatter at the central axis with the 2 mm lead in place decreased to 0.1% and 0.2% for the largest field size of 30 × 30 cm(2) using 6 and 18 MV beams, from 2.3% and 1.3% without lead. Changes in the source-to-detector distance (SDD) did not affect the backscatter component more than 1%. The symmetry of the in-plane profiles improved for all field sizes for both beam energies. The addition of lead decreased the contrast-to-noise ratio and resolution by 1.3% and 0.84% for images taken in 6 MV and by 0.5% and 0.38% for those in 18 MV beams. The displacement of the EPID central pixel was measured during a 360° gantry rotation with and without lead which was 1 pixel different. While the backscatter reduces with increasing lead thickness, a 2 mm lead sheet seems sufficient for acceptable dosimetry results without any major degradation to the routine performance of the imager. No increase in patient skin dose was detected.

  14. The effect of beam energy on the quality of IMRT plans for prostate conformal radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Steven F; Kumek, Yunus; Jaggernauth, Wainwright; Podgorsak, Matthew B

    2007-04-01

    Three dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT) for prostate cancer is most commonly delivered with high-energy photons, typically in the range of 10-21 MV. With the advent of Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT), an increase in the number of monitor units (MU) relative to 3DCRT has lead to a concern about secondary malignancies. This risk becomes more relevant at higher photon energies where there is a greater neutron contribution. Subsequently, the majority of IMRT prostate treatments being delivered today are with 6-10 MV photons where neutron production is negligible. However, the absolute risk is small [Hall, E. J. Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy, Protons, and the Risk of Second Cancers. Int J Radiat Oncol Bio Phys 65, 1-7 (2006); Kry, F. S., Salehpour, M., Followill, D. S., Stovall, M., Kuban, D. A., White, R. A., and Rosen, I. I. The Calculated Risk of Fatal Secondary Malignancies From Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Bio Phys 62, 1195-1203 (2005).] and therefore it has been suggested that the use of an 18MV IMRT may achieve better target coverage and normal tissue sparing such that this benefit outweighs the risks. This paper investigates whether 18MV IMRT offer better target coverage and normal tissue sparing. Computed Tomography (CT) image sets of ten prostate cancer patients were acquired and two separate IMRT plans were created for each patient. One plan used 6 MV beams, and the other used 18 MV, both in a coplanar, non-opposed beam geometry. Beam arrangements and optimization constraints were the same for all plans. This work includes a comparison and discussion of the total integral dose, neutron dose conformity index, and total number of MU for plans generated with both energies.

  15. Increased dose near the skin due to electromagnetic surface beacon transponder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Kang-Hyun; Manger, Ryan; Halpern, Howard J; Aydogan, Bulent

    2015-05-08

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the increased dose near the skin from an electromagnetic surface beacon transponder, which is used for localization and tracking organ motion. The bolus effect due to the copper coil surface beacon was evaluated with radiographic film measurements and Monte Carlo simulations. Various beam incidence angles were evaluated for both 6 MV and 18 MV experimentally. We performed simulations using a general-purpose Monte Carlo code MCNPX (Monte Carlo N-Particle) to supplement the experimental data. We modeled the surface beacon geometry using the actual mass of the glass vial and copper coil placed in its L-shaped polyethylene terephthalate tubing casing. Film dosimetry measured factors of 2.2 and 3.0 enhancement in the surface dose for normally incident 6 MV and 18 MV beams, respectively. Although surface dose further increased with incidence angle, the relative contribution from the bolus effect was reduced at the oblique incidence. The enhancement factors were 1.5 and 1.8 for 6 MV and 18 MV, respectively, at an incidence angle of 60°. Monte Carlo simulation confirmed the experimental results and indicated that the epidermal skin dose can reach approximately 50% of the dose at dmax at normal incidence. The overall effect could be acceptable considering the skin dose enhancement is confined to a small area (~ 1 cm2), and can be further reduced by using an opposite beam technique. Further clinical studies are justified in order to study the dosimetric benefit versus possible cosmetic effects of the surface beacon. One such clinical situation would be intact breast radiation therapy, especially large-breasted women.

  16. Beam Profile Disturbances from Implantable Pacemakers or Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gossman, Michael S., E-mail: mgossman@tsrcc.com [Tri-State Regional Cancer Center, Medical Physics Section, Ashland, KY (United States); Comprehensive Heart and Vascular Associates, Heart and Vascular Center, Ashland, KY (United States); Medtronic, Inc., External Research Program, Mounds View, MN (United States); Nagra, Bipinpreet; Graves-Calhoun, Alison; Wilkinson, Jeffrey [Tri-State Regional Cancer Center, Medical Physics Section, Ashland, KY (United States); Comprehensive Heart and Vascular Associates, Heart and Vascular Center, Ashland, KY (United States); Medtronic, Inc., External Research Program, Mounds View, MN (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The medical community is advocating for progressive improvement in the design of implantable cardioverter-defibrillators and implantable pacemakers to accommodate elevations in dose limitation criteria. With advancement already made for magnetic resonance imaging compatibility in some, a greater need is present to inform the radiation oncologist and medical physicist regarding treatment planning beam profile changes when such devices are in the field of a therapeutic radiation beam. Treatment plan modeling was conducted to simulate effects induced by Medtronic, Inc.-manufactured devices on therapeutic radiation beams. As a continuation of grant-supported research, we show that radial and transverse open beam profiles of a medical accelerator were altered when compared with profiles resulting when implantable pacemakers and cardioverter-defibrillators are placed directly in the beam. Results are markedly different between the 2 devices in the axial plane and the sagittal planes. Vast differences are also presented for the therapeutic beams at 6-MV and 18-MV x-ray energies. Maximum changes in percentage depth dose are observed for the implantable cardioverter-defibrillator as 9.3% at 6 MV and 10.1% at 18 MV, with worst distance to agreement of isodose lines at 2.3 cm and 1.3 cm, respectively. For the implantable pacemaker, the maximum changes in percentage depth dose were observed as 10.7% at 6 MV and 6.9% at 18 MV, with worst distance to agreement of isodose lines at 2.5 cm and 1.9 cm, respectively. No differences were discernible for the defibrillation leads and the pacing lead.

  17. Monte Carlo Simulation of Siemens ONCOR Linear Accelerator with BEAMnrc and DOSXYZnrc Code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbari, Keyvan; Anvar, Hossein Saberi; Tavakoli, Mohammad Bagher; Amouheidari, Alireza

    2013-07-01

    The Monte Carlo method is the most accurate method for simulation of radiation therapy equipment. The linear accelerators (linac) are currently the most widely used machines in radiation therapy centers. In this work, a Monte Carlo modeling of the Siemens ONCOR linear accelerator in 6 MV and 18 MV beams was performed. The results of simulation were validated by measurements in water by ionization chamber and extended dose range (EDR2) film in solid water. The linac's X-ray particular are so sensitive to the properties of primary electron beam. Square field size of 10 cm × 10 cm produced by the jaws was compared with ionization chamber and film measurements. Head simulation was performed with BEAMnrc and dose calculation with DOSXYZnrc for film measurements and 3ddose file produced by DOSXYZnrc analyzed used homemade MATLAB program. At 6 MV, the agreement between dose calculated by Monte Carlo modeling and direct measurement was obtained to the least restrictive of 1%, even in the build-up region. At 18 MV, the agreement was obtained 1%, except for in the build-up region. In the build-up region, the difference was 1% at 6 MV and 2% at 18 MV. The mean difference between measurements and Monte Carlo simulation is very small in both of ONCOR X-ray energy. The results are highly accurate and can be used for many applications such as patient dose calculation in treatment planning and in studies that model this linac with small field size like intensity-modulated radiation therapy technique.

  18. Technical Note: Initial characterization of the new EBT-XD Gafchromic film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grams, Michael P; Gustafson, Jon M; Long, Kenneth M; de los Santos, Luis E Fong

    2015-10-01

    To assess the dosimetric accuracy and energy dependence of the new EBT-eXtended Dose (XD) Gafchromic film and to compare the lateral response artifact (LRA) between EBT-XD and EBT3 film. EBT3 and EBT-XD calibration curves were created by exposing films to known doses from 0 to 3000 cGy using a 6 MV beam. To assess the accuracy and dynamic range of EBT-XD, a 60° enhanced dynamic wedge (EDW) was used to deliver a dose range of approximately 200-2900 cGy. Comparison to treatment planning system (TPS) calculation was made using a gamma analysis with 2%/2 mm passing criteria. To assess and compare the LRA between EBT3 and EBT-XD, 21 × 21 cm(2) open fields delivered doses of 1000, 2000, and 3000 cGy to both types of film. Films were placed at the center of the scanner, and ratios of measured to TPS predicted doses were calculated at 50 and 80 mm lateral from the scanner center in order to quantitatively assess the LRA. To evaluate the energy dependence of EBT-XD film, seven known doses ranging from 400 to 3000 cGy were delivered using both 6 and 18 MV beams and the resulting optical densities (ODs) compared. The gamma passing rate was 99.1% for the 6 MV EDW delivery. EBT-XD film exhibited minimal LRA (XD films exposed to known doses from 6 to 18 MV beams were XD is greatly reduced when compared to EBT3. This in combination with its accuracy from 0 to 3000 cGy and minimal energy dependence from 6 to 18 MV makes EBT-XD film well suited for dosimetric measurements in high dose SRS/SBRT applications.

  19. The evaluation of neutron and gamma ray dose equivalent distributions in patients and the effectiveness of shield materials for high energy photons radiotherapy facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghassoun, J; Senhou, N

    2012-04-01

    In this study, the MCNP5 code was used to model radiotherapy room of a medical linear accelerator operating at 18 MV and to evaluate the neutron and the secondary gamma ray fluences, the energy spectra and the dose equivalent distributions inside a liquid tissue-equivalent (TE) phantom. The obtained results were compared with measured data published in the literature. Moreover, the shielding effects of various neutron material shields on the radiotherapy room wall were also investigated. Our simulation results showed that paraffin wax containing boron carbide presents enough effectiveness to reduce both neutron and secondary gamma ray doses.

  20. Dosimetry and microdosimetry using LET spectrometer based on the track-etch detector: radiotherapy Bremsstrahlung beam, onboard aircraft radiation field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jadrnickova, I. [Dept. of Radiation Dosimetry, Nuclear Physics Institute AS CR, Na Truhlarce 39/64, 180 86 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Dept. of Dosimetry and Application of Ionizing Radiation, Czech Technical University, Brehova 7, 115 19 Prague 1 (Czech Republic); Spurny, F. [Dept. of Radiation Dosimetry, Nuclear Physics Institute AS CR, Na Truhlarce 39/64, 180 86 Prague 8 (Czech Republic)

    2006-07-01

    The spectrometer of linear energy transfer (Let) based on the chemically etched poly-allyl-diglycol-carbonate (P.A.D.C.) track-etch detector was developed several years ago in our institute. This Let spectrometer enables determining Let of particles approximately from 10 to 700 keV/{mu}m. From the Let spectra, dose characteristics can be calculated. The contribution presents the Let spectra and other dosimetric characteristics obtained onboard a commercial aircraft during more than 6 months long exposure and in the 18 MV radiotherapy Bremsstrahlung beam. (authors)

  1. SU-E-T-583: Optimizing the MLC Model Parameters for IMRT in the RayStation Treatment Planning System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, S; Yi, B; Xu, H; Yang, X; Prado, K; D' Souza, W [University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To optimize the MLC model parameters for IMRT in the RayStation v.4.0 planning system and for a Varian C-series Linac with a 120-leaf Millennium MLC. Methods: The RayStation treatment planning system models rounded leaf-end MLC with the following parameters: average transmission, leaf-tip width, tongue-and-groove, and position offset. The position offset was provided by Varian. The leaf-tip width was iteratively evaluated by comparing computed and measured transverse dose profiles of MLC-defined fields at dmax in water. The profile comparison was also used to verify the MLC position offset. The transmission factor and leaf tongue width were derived iteratively by optimizing five clinical patient IMRT QA Results: brain, lung, pancreas, head-and-neck (HN), and prostate. The HN and prostate cases involved splitting fields. Verifications were performed with Mapcheck2 measurements and Monte Carlo calculations. Finally, the MLC model was validated using five test IMRT cases from the AAPM TG119 report. Absolute gamma analyses (3mm/3% and 2mm/2%) were applied. In addition, computed output factors for MLC-defined small fields (2×2, 3×3, 4×4, 6×6cm) of both 6MV and 18MV were compared to those measured by the Radiological Physics Center (RPC). Results: Both 6MV and 18MV models were determined to have the same MLC parameters: 2.5% transmission, tongue-and-groove 0.05cm, and leaftip 0.3cm. IMRT QA analysis for five cases in TG119 resulted in a 100% passing rate with 3mm/3% gamma analysis for 6MV, and >97.5% for 18MV. With 2mm/2% gamma analysis, the passing rate was >94.6% for 6MV and >90.9% for 18MV. The difference between computed output factors in RayStation and RPC measurements was less than 2% for all MLCdefined fields, which meets the RPC's acceptance criterion. Conclusion: The rounded leaf-end MLC model in RayStation 4.0 planning system was verified and IMRT commissioning was clinically acceptable. The IMRT commissioning was well validated using guidance

  2. SU-E-T-120: Dosimetric Characteristics Study of NanoDotâ,,¢ for In-Vivo Dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussain, A; Wasaye, A; Gohar, R; Rehman, L [Department of Oncology, Aga Khan Univesity Hospital (AKUH), Karachi (Pakistan); Hussein, S [Burnaby, BC (Canada)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to analyze the dosimetric characteristics (energy dependence, reproducibility and dose linearity) of nanoDot™ optically stimulated luminescence dosimeters (OSLDs) and validate their potential use during in-vivo dosimetry, specifically TBI. The manufacturer stated accuracy is ±10% for standard nanoDot™. Methods: At AKUH, the InLight microStar OSL dosimetry system for patient in-vivo dosimetry is in use since 2012. Twenty-five standard nanoDot™ were used in the analysis. Sensitivity and reproducibility was tested in the first part with 6MV and 18 MV Varian x-ray beams. Each OSLD was irradiated to 100cGy dose at nominal SSD (100 cm). All the OSLDs were read 3 times for average reading. Dose linearity and calibration were also performed with same beams in common clinical dose range of 0 - 500 cGy. In addition, verification of TBI absolute dose at extended SSD (500cm) was also performed. Results: The reproducibility observed with the OSLD was better than the manufacturer stated limits. Measured doses vary less than ±2% in 19(76%) OSLDs, whereas less than ±3% in 6(24%) OSLDs. Their sensitivity was approximately 525 counts per cGy. Better agreement was observed between measurements, with a standard deviation of 1.8%. A linear dose response was observed with OSLDs for both 6 and 18MV beams in 0 - 500 cGy dose range. TBI measured doses at 500 cm SSD were also confirmed to be within ±0.5% and ±1.3% of the ion chamber measured doses for 6 and 18MV beams respectively. Conclusion: The dosimetric results demonstrate that nanoDot™ can be potentially used for in-vivo dosimetry verification in various clinical situations, with a high degree of accuracy and precision. In addition OSLDs exhibit better dose reproducibility with standard deviation of 1.8%. There was no significant difference in their response to 6 and 18MV beams. The dose response was also linear.

  3. Experimental and simulational result multipactors in 112 MHz QWR injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xin, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Ben-Zvi, I. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States); Belomestnykh, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States); Brutus, J. C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Skaritka, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Wu, Q. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Xiao, B. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-05-03

    The first RF commissioning of 112 MHz QWR superconducting electron gun was done in late 2014. The coaxial Fundamental Power Coupler (FPC) and Cathode Stalk (stalk) were installed and tested for the first time. During this experiment, we observed several multipacting barriers at different gun voltage levels. The simulation work was done within the same range. The comparison between the experimental observation and the simulation results are presented in this paper. The observations during the test are consisted with the simulation predictions. We were able to overcome most of the multipacting barriers and reach 1.8 MV gun voltage under pulsed mode after several round of conditioning processes.

  4. SU-E-T-336: Dosimetric Properties of a New Solid Water High Equivalency Phantom for High-Energy Photon Beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araki, F; Ohno, T; Onitsuka, R [Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan); Shimohigashi, Y [Kumamoto University Hospital, Kumamoto (Japan)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate dosimetric properties in high-energy photon beams for a Solid Water High Equivalency (SWHE, SW557) phantom (Gammex) which was newly developed as water mimicking material. Methods: The mass density of SWHE and SWHE/water electron density ratio are 1.032 g/cm{sup 3} and 1.005 according to the manufacturer information, respectively. SWHE is more water equivalent material in physical characteristics and uniformity than conventional SW457. This study calculated the relative ionization ratio of water and SWHE as a function of depth from the cavity dose in PTW30013 and Exradin A19 Farmer-type ionization chambers using Monte Caro simulations. The simulation was performed with a 10 x 10 cm{sup 2} field at SAD of 100 cm for 4, 6, 10, 15, and 18 MV photons. The ionization ratio was also measured with the PTW30013 chamber for 6 and 15 MV photons. In addition, the overall perturbation factor of both chambers was calculated for both phantoms. Results: The relative ionization ratio curves for water and SWHE was in good agreement for all photon energies. The ionization ratio of water/SWHE for both chambers was 0.999–1.002, 0.999–1.002, 1.001–1.004, 1.004–1.007, and 1.006–1.010 at depths of over the buildup region for 4, 6, 10, 15, and 18 MV photons, respectively. The ionization ratio of water/SWHE increased up to 1% with increasing the photon energy. The measured ionization ratio of water/SWHE for 6 and 15 MV photons agreed well with calculated values. The overall perturbation factor for both chambers was 0.983–0.988 and 0.978–0.983 for water and SWHE, respectively, in a range from 4 MV to 18 MV. Conclusion: The depth scaling factor of water/SWHE was equal to unity for all photon energies. The io