Flatback airfoil wind tunnel experiment.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mayda, Edward A. (University of California, Davis, CA); van Dam, C.P. (University of California, Davis, CA); Chao, David D. (University of California, Davis, CA); Berg, Dale E.
2008-04-01
A computational fluid dynamics study of thick wind turbine section shapes in the test section of the UC Davis wind tunnel at a chord Reynolds number of one million is presented. The goals of this study are to validate standard wind tunnel wall corrections for high solid blockage conditions and to reaffirm the favorable effect of a blunt trailing edge or flatback on the performance characteristics of a representative thick airfoil shape prior to building the wind tunnel models and conducting the experiment. The numerical simulations prove the standard wind tunnel corrections to be largely valid for the proposed test of 40% maximum thickness to chord ratio airfoils at a solid blockage ratio of 10%. Comparison of the computed lift characteristics of a sharp trailing edge baseline airfoil and derived flatback airfoils reaffirms the earlier observed trend of reduced sensitivity to surface contamination with increasing trailing edge thickness.
Computational design and analysis of flatback airfoil wind tunnel experiment.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mayda, Edward A. (University of California, Davis, CA); van Dam, C.P. (University of California, Davis, CA); Chao, David D. (University of California, Davis, CA); Berg, Dale E.
2008-03-01
A computational fluid dynamics study of thick wind turbine section shapes in the test section of the UC Davis wind tunnel at a chord Reynolds number of one million is presented. The goals of this study are to validate standard wind tunnel wall corrections for high solid blockage conditions and to reaffirm the favorable effect of a blunt trailing edge or flatback on the performance characteristics of a representative thick airfoil shape prior to building the wind tunnel models and conducting the experiment. The numerical simulations prove the standard wind tunnel corrections to be largely valid for the proposed test of 40% maximum thickness to chord ratio airfoils at a solid blockage ratio of 10%. Comparison of the computed lift characteristics of a sharp trailing edge baseline airfoil and derived flatback airfoils reaffirms the earlier observed trend of reduced sensitivity to surface contamination with increasing trailing edge thickness.
Trailing edge modifications for flatback airfoils.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kahn, Daniel L. (University of California, Davis, CA); van Dam, C.P. (University of California, Davis, CA); Berg, Dale E.
2008-03-01
The adoption of blunt trailing edge airfoils (also called flatback airfoils) for the inboard region of large wind turbine blades has been proposed. Blunt trailing edge airfoils would not only provide a number of structural benefits, such as increased structural volume and ease of fabrication and handling, but they have also been found to improve the lift characteristics of thick airfoils. Therefore, the incorporation of blunt trailing edge airfoils would allow blade designers to more freely address the structural demands without having to sacrifice aerodynamic performance. These airfoils do have the disadvantage of generating high levels of drag as a result of the low-pressure steady or periodic flow in the near-wake of the blunt trailing edge. Although for rotors, the drag penalty appears secondary to the lift enhancement produced by the blunt trailing edge, high drag levels are of concern in terms of the negative effect on the torque and power generated by the rotor. Hence, devices are sought that mitigate the drag of these airfoils. This report summarizes the literature on bluff body vortex shedding and bluff body drag reduction devices and proposes four devices for further study in the wind tunnel.
The Effect of Aerodynamic Evaluators on the Multi-Objective Optimization of Flatback Airfoils
Miller, M.; Slew, K. Lee; Matida, E.
2016-09-01
With the long lengths of today's wind turbine rotor blades, there is a need to reduce the mass, thereby requiring stiffer airfoils, while maintaining the aerodynamic efficiency of the airfoils, particularly in the inboard region of the blade where structural demands are highest. Using a genetic algorithm, the multi-objective aero-structural optimization of 30% thick flatback airfoils was systematically performed for a variety of aerodynamic evaluators such as lift-to-drag ratio (Cl/Cd), torque (Ct), and torque-to-thrust ratio (Ct/Cn) to determine their influence on airfoil shape and performance. The airfoil optimized for Ct possessed a 4.8% thick trailing-edge, and a rather blunt leading-edge region which creates high levels of lift and correspondingly, drag. It's ability to maintain similar levels of lift and drag under forced transition conditions proved it's insensitivity to roughness. The airfoil optimized for Cl/Cd displayed relatively poor insensitivity to roughness due to the rather aft-located free transition points. The Ct/Cn optimized airfoil was found to have a very similar shape to that of the Cl/Cd airfoil, with a slightly more blunt leading-edge which aided in providing higher levels of lift and moderate insensitivity to roughness. The influence of the chosen aerodynamic evaluator under the specified conditions and constraints in the optimization of wind turbine airfoils is shown to have a direct impact on the airfoil shape and performance.
Rotational Augmentation on a 2.3 MW Rotor Blade with Thick Flatback Airfoil Cross-Sections: Preprint
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schreck, S.; Fingersh, L.; Siegel, K.; Singh, M.; Medina, P.
2013-01-01
Rotational augmentation was analyzed for a 2.3 MW wind turbine, which was equipped with thick flatback airfoils at inboard radial locations and extensively instrumented for acquisition of time varying surface pressures. Mean aerodynamic force and surface pressure data were extracted from an extensive field test database, subject to stringent criteria for wind inflow and turbine operating conditions. Analyses of these data showed pronounced amplification of aerodynamic forces and significant enhancements to surface pressures in response to rotational influences, relative to two-dimensional, stationary conditions. Rotational augmentation occurrence and intensity in the current effort was found to be consistent with that observed in previous research. Notably, elevated airfoil thickness and flatback design did not impede rotational augmentation.
CFD analysis of rotating two-bladed flatback wind turbine rotor.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
van Dam, C.P. (University of California, David, CA); Chao, David D.; Berg, Dale E. (University of California, David, CA)
2008-04-01
The effects of modifying the inboard portion of the NREL Phase VI rotor using a thickened, flatback version of the S809 design airfoil are studied using a three-dimensional Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes method. A motivation for using such a thicker airfoil design coupled with a blunt trailing edge is to alleviate structural constraints while reducing blade weight and maintaining the power performance of the rotor. The calculated results for the baseline Phase VI rotor are benchmarked against wind tunnel results obtained at 10, 7, and 5 meters per second. The calculated results for the modified rotor are compared against those of the baseline rotor. The results of this study demonstrate that a thick, flatback blade profile is viable as a bridge to connect structural requirements with aerodynamic performance in designing future wind turbine rotors.
Effect of Wavy Trailing Edge on 100meter Flatback Wind Turbine Blade
Yang; Baeder, J. D.
2016-09-01
The flatback trailing edge design for modern 100meter wind turbine blade has been developed and proposed to make wind turbine blade to be slender and lighter. On the other hand, it will increase aerodynamic drag; consequently the increased drag diminishes turbine power generation. Thus, an aerodynamic drag reducing technique should be accompanied with the flatback trailing edge in order to prevent loss of turbine power generation. In this work, a drag mitigation design, span-wise wavy trailing edge blade, has been applied to a modern 100meter blade. The span-wise trailing edge acts as a vortex generator, and breaks up the strong span-wise coherent trailing edge vortex structure at the flatback airfoil trailing edge which is a major source of large drag. Three-dimensional unsteady Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations have been performed for real scale wind turbine blade geometries. Delayed Detached Eddy Simulation (DDES) with the modified laminar-turbulent transition model has been applied to obtain accurate flow field predictions. Graphical Processor Unit (GPU)-accelerated computation has been conducted to reduce computational costs of the real scale wind turbine blade simulations. To verify the structural reliability of the wavy modification of the blade a simple Eigen buckling analysis has been performed in the current study.
The SNL100-03 Blade: Design Studies with Flatback Airfoils for the Sandia 100-meter Blade.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Griffith, Daniel; Richards, Phillip William
2014-09-01
A series of design studies were performed to inv estigate the effects of flatback airfoils on blade performance and weight for large blades using the Sandi a 100-meter blade designs as a starting point. As part of the study, the effects of varying the blade slenderness on blade structural performance was investigated. The advantages and disadvantages of blad e slenderness with respect to tip deflection, flap- wise & edge-wise fatigue resistance, panel buckling capacity, flutter speed, manufacturing labor content, blade total weight, and aerodynamic design load magn itude are quantified. Following these design studies, a final blade design (SNL100-03) was prod uced, which was based on a highly slender design using flatback airfoils. The SNL100-03 design with flatback airfoils has weight of 49 tons, which is about 16% decrease from its SNL100-02 predecessor that used conventional sharp trailing edge airfoils. Although not systematically optimized, the SNL100 -03 design study provides an assessment of and insight into the benefits of flatback airfoils for la rge blades as well as insights into the limits or negative consequences of high blade slenderness resulting from a highly slender SNL100-03 planform as was chosen in the final design definition. This docum ent also provides a description of the final SNL100-03 design definition and is intended to be a companion document to the distribution of the NuMAD blade model files for SNL100-03, which are made publicly available. A summary of the major findings of the Sandia 100-meter blade development program, from the initial SNL100-00 baseline blade through the fourth SNL100-03 blade study, is provided. This summary includes the major findings and outcomes of blade d esign studies, pathways to mitigate the identified large blade design drivers, and tool development that were produced over the course of this five-year research program. A summary of large blade tec hnology needs and research opportunities is also presented.
Wind turbine airfoil catalogue
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bertagnolio, F.; Sørensen, Niels N.; Johansen, Jeppe
2001-01-01
The aim of this work is two-sided. Firstly, experimental results obtained for numerous sets of airfoil measurements (mainly intended for wind turbine applications) are collected and compared with computational results from the 2D Navier-Stokes solverEllipSys2D, as well as results from the panel...
Vertical axis wind turbine airfoil
Krivcov, Vladimir; Krivospitski, Vladimir; Maksimov, Vasili; Halstead, Richard; Grahov, Jurij Vasiljevich
2012-12-18
A vertical axis wind turbine airfoil is described. The wind turbine airfoil can include a leading edge, a trailing edge, an upper curved surface, a lower curved surface, and a centerline running between the upper surface and the lower surface and from the leading edge to the trailing edge. The airfoil can be configured so that the distance between the centerline and the upper surface is the same as the distance between the centerline and the lower surface at all points along the length of the airfoil. A plurality of such airfoils can be included in a vertical axis wind turbine. These airfoils can be vertically disposed and can rotate about a vertical axis.
Airfoil characteristics for wind turbines
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bak, C.; Fuglsang, P.; Sørensen, Niels N.
1999-01-01
Airfoil characteristics for use in the Blade Element Momentum (BEM) method calculating the forces on Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines (HAWT) are derived by use of systematic methods. The investigation and derivation of the airfoil characteristics are basedon four different methods: 1) Inverse momentum...... to a commonly used set of airfoil characteristics. The numerical optimisation is based on both the 3D CFDcomputations and measurements on a 41-m rotor with LM 19.1 and LM 19.0 blades, respectively. The method requires power and loads from a turbine and is promising since a set of lift and drag curves is derived...
Airfoil characteristics for wind turbines
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bak, C.; Fuglsang, P.; Soerensen, N.N.; Aagaard Madsen, H. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); Wen Zhong Shen; Noerkaer Soerensen, J. [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark)
1999-03-01
Airfoil characteristics for use in the Blade Element Momentum (BEM) method calculating the forces on Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines (HAWT) are derived by use of systematic methods. The investigation and derivation of the airfoil characteristics are based on four different methods: 1) Inverse momentum theory, 2) Actuator disc theory, 3) Numerical optimisation and 4) Quasi-3D CFD computations. The two former methods are based on 3D CFD computations and wind tunnel measurements on a 41-m full-scale rotor with LM 19.1 blades. The derived airfoil characteristics show that the lift coefficient in stall at the tip is low and that it is high at the root compared to 2D airfoil characteristics. The use of these characteristics in aeroelastic calculations shows a good agreement in power and flap moments with measurements. Furthermore, a fatigue analysis shows a reduction in the loads of up to 15 % compared to a commonly used set of airfoil characteristics. The numerical optimisation is based on both the 3D CFD computations and measurements on a 41-m rotor with LM 19.1 and LM 19.0 blades, respectively. The method requires power and loads from a turbine and is promising since a set of lift and drag curves is derived that can be used to calculate mean values of power and loads. The lift in stall at the tip is low and at the root it is high compared to 2D airfoil characteristics. In particular the power curves were well calculated by use of the optimised airfoil characteristics. In the quasi-3D CFD computations, the airfoil characteristics are derived directly. This Navier-Stokes model takes into account rotational and 3D effects. The model enables the study of the rotational effect of a rotor blade at computing costs similar to what is typical for 2D airfoil calculations. The depicted results show that the model is capable of determining the correct qualitative behaviour for airfoils subject to rotation. The method shows that lift is high at the root compared to 2D airfoil
Composite Structural Analysis of Flat-Back Shaped Blade for Multi-MW Class Wind Turbine
Kim, Soo-Hyun; Bang, Hyung-Joon; Shin, Hyung-Ki; Jang, Moon-Seok
2014-06-01
This paper provides an overview of failure mode estimation based on 3D structural finite element (FE) analysis of the flat-back shaped wind turbine blade. Buckling stability, fiber failure (FF), and inter-fiber failure (IFF) analyses were performed to account for delamination or matrix failure of composite materials and to predict the realistic behavior of the entire blade region. Puck's fracture criteria were used for IFF evaluation. Blade design loads applicable to multi-megawatt (MW) wind turbine systems were calculated according to the Germanischer Lloyd (GL) guideline and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) 61400-1 standard, under Class IIA wind conditions. After the post-processing of final load results, a number of principal load cases were selected and converted into applied forces at the each section along the blade's radius of the FE model. Nonlinear static analyses were performed for laminate failure, FF, and IFF check. For buckling stability, linear eigenvalue analysis was performed. As a result, we were able to estimate the failure mode and locate the major weak point.
OUT Success Stories: Advanced Airfoils for Wind Turbines
Jones, J.; Green, B.
2000-08-01
New airfoils have substantially increased the aerodynamic efficiency of wind turbines. It is clear that these new airfoils substantially increased energy output from wind turbines. Virtually all new blades built in this country today use these advanced airfoil designs.
Hybrid Optimization for Wind Turbine Thick Airfoils
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Grasso, F. [ECN Wind Energy, Petten (Netherlands)
2012-06-15
One important element in aerodynamic design of wind turbines is the use of specially tailored airfoils to increase the ratio of energy capture and reduce cost of energy. This work is focused on the design of thick airfoils for wind turbines by using numerical optimization. A hybrid scheme is proposed in which genetic and gradient based algorithms are combined together to improve the accuracy and the reliability of the design. Firstly, the requirements and the constraints for this class of airfoils are described; then, the hybrid approach is presented. The final part of this work is dedicated to illustrate a numerical example regarding the design of a new thick airfoil. The results are discussed and compared to existing airfoils.
New airfoils for small horizontal axis wind turbines
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Giguere, P.; Selig, M.S. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)
1997-12-31
In a continuing effort to enhance the performance of small energy systems, one root airfoil and three primary airfoils were specifically designed for small horizontal axis wind turbines. These airfoils are intended primarily for 1-10 kW variable-speed wind turbines for both conventional (tapered/twisted) or pultruded blades. The four airfoils were wind-tunnel tested at Reynolds numbers between 100,000 and 500,000. Tests with simulated leading-edge roughness were also conducted. The results indicate that small variable-speed wind turbines should benefit from the use of the new airfoils which provide enhanced lift-to-drag ratio performance as compared with previously existing airfoils.
Integrated airfoil and blade design method for large wind turbines
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhu, Wei Jun; Shen, Wen Zhong
2013-01-01
This paper presents an integrated method for designing airfoil families of large wind turbine blades. For a given rotor diameter and tip speed ratio, the optimal airfoils are designed based on the local speed ratios. To achieve high power performance at low cost, the airfoils are designed...... with an objective of high Cp and small chord length. When the airfoils are obtained, the optimum flow angle and rotor solidity are calculated which forms the basic input to the blade design. The new airfoils are designed based on the previous in-house airfoil family which were optimized at a Reynolds number of 3...... million. A novel shape perturbation function is introduced to optimize the geometry on the existing airfoils and thus simplify the design procedure. The viscos/inviscid code Xfoil is used as the aerodynamic tool for airfoil optimization where the Reynolds number is set at 16 million with a free...
Airfoil family design for large offshore wind turbine blades
Méndez, B.; Munduate, X.; San Miguel, U.
2014-06-01
Wind turbine blades size has scaled-up during last years due to wind turbine platform increase especially for offshore applications. The EOLIA project 2007-2010 (Spanish Goverment funded project) was focused on the design of large offshore wind turbines for deep waters. The project was managed by ACCIONA Energia and the wind turbine technology was designed by ACCIONA Windpower. The project included the design of a wind turbine airfoil family especially conceived for large offshore wind turbine blades, in the order of 5MW machine. Large offshore wind turbines suffer high extreme loads due to their size, in addition the lack of noise restrictions allow higher tip speeds. Consequently, the airfoils presented in this work are designed for high Reynolds numbers with the main goal of reducing blade loads and mantainig power production. The new airfoil family was designed in collaboration with CENER (Spanish National Renewable Energy Centre). The airfoil family was designed using a evolutionary algorithm based optimization tool with different objectives, both aerodynamic and structural, coupled with an airfoil geometry generation tool. Force coefficients of the designed airfoil were obtained using the panel code XFOIL in which the boundary layer/inviscid flow coupling is ineracted via surface transpiration model. The desing methodology includes a novel technique to define the objective functions based on normalizing the functions using weight parameters created from data of airfoils used as reference. Four airfoils have been designed, here three of them will be presented, with relative thickness of 18%, 21%, 25%, which have been verified with the in-house CFD code, Wind Multi Block WMB, and later validated with wind tunnel experiments. Some of the objectives for the designed airfoils concern the aerodynamic behavior (high efficiency and lift, high tangential coefficient, insensitivity to rough conditions, etc.), others concern the geometry (good for structural design
Computational Aerodynamic Analysis of Thick Flatback Airfoils%大厚度钝后缘翼型气动性能计算研究
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
邓磊; 乔志德; 杨旭东; 熊俊涛
2011-01-01
Flatbact (blunt trailing edge ) airfoils are adopted for the inboard region of large wind turbine blades due to their structural and aerodynamic performance advantages. But very limited experimental data at high Reynolds Numbers are available because the wind tunnel experiments are limited by the Reynolds Number and solid blockage. In this study,a 2-D Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes solver coupled with a transition prediction based on eN method is used to CFD calculated of blunt triling edge airfoils. Several blunt trailing edge airfoils,blunting the trailing edge by different methods and with expermental data,are calculated and the results are analyzed. The results show that the CFD results of lift coefficients agree very well in linear region with the experimental data but the maximum lift is over predicted and post-stall phenomena are not captured computationally.%大厚度钝后缘翼型由于其气动和结构的优点,近来被作为大型风力机叶片设计时的内侧翼型成为风力机翼型设计的热点之一EULL由于此类翼型厚度和风洞阻塞度的限制,大雷诺数的风洞实验数据很少.耦合RANS方程和基于线性稳定性分析EULL捩预测方法,进行了大厚度钝后缘翼型气动性能计算研究.使用Gridgen程序生成计算网格,湍流模型为S-A模型.对常用的钝后缘修形方式如直接截断、对称增加厚度等并且有风洞实验结果的几种翼型进行了CFD计算并和实验结果及文献计算结果进行了比较.结果表明升力系数在线性段,计算结果和实验结果吻合很好,但是对失速迎角的捕捉能力差;阻力系数计算结果和实验值吻合较好.不同修形方式的计算结果为钝后缘修形设计提供了参考.
Integrated airfoil and blade design method for large wind turbines
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhu, Wei Jun; Shen, Wen Zhong; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær
2014-01-01
This paper presents an integrated method for designing airfoil families of large wind turbine blades. For a given rotor diameter and a tip speed ratio, optimal airfoils are designed based on the local speed ratios. To achieve a high power performance at low cost, the airfoils are designed...... momentum (BEM) technique proves the reliability of the integrated design method. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd....... with the objectives of high Cp and small chord length. When the airfoils are obtained, the optimum flow angle and rotor solidity are calculated which forms the basic input to the blade design. The new airfoils are designed based on a previous in-house designed airfoil family which was optimized at a Reynolds number...
Effects of finite aspect ratio on wind turbine airfoil measurements
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kiefer, Janik; Miller, Mark A.; Hultmark, Marcus;
2016-01-01
Wind turbines partly operate in stalled conditions within their operational cycle. To simulate these conditions, it is also necessary to obtain 2-D airfoil data in terms of lift and drag coefficients at high angles of attack. Such data has been obtained previously, but often at low aspect ratios...... and only barely past the stall point, where strong wall boundary layer influence is expected. In this study, the influence of the wall boundary layer on 2D airfoil data, especially in the post stall domain, is investigated. Here, a wind turbine airfoil is tested at different angles of attack and with two...
Optimization design of airfoil profiles based on the noise of wind turbines
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chen, Jin; Cheng, Jiangtao; Shen, Wenzhong
2012-01-01
Based on design theory of airfoil profiles and airfoil self-noise prediction model, a new method with the target of the airfoil average efficiency-noise ratio of design ranges for angle of attack had been developed for designing wind turbine airfoils. The airfoil design method was optimized for a...
Numerical investigation of airfoils for small wind turbine applications
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Natarajan Karthikeyan
2016-01-01
Full Text Available A detailed numerical investigation of the aerodynamic performance on the five airfoils namely Mid321a, Mid321b, Mid321c, Mid321d, and Mid321e were carried out at Reynolds numbers ranging from 0.5×105 to 2.5×105. The airfoils used for small wind turbines are designed for Reynolds number ranges between 3×105 and 5×105 and the blades are tend to work on off-design conditions. The blade element moment method was applied to predict the aerodynamic loads, power coefficient, and blade parameters for the airfoils. Based on the evaluate data, it was found that Mid321c airfoil has better lift to drag ratio over the range of Reynolds numbers and attained maximum power coefficient of 0.4487 at Re = 2×105.
Evolving aerodynamic airfoils for wind turbines through a genetic algorithm
Hernández, J. J.; Gómez, E.; Grageda, J. I.; Couder, C.; Solís, A.; Hanotel, C. L.; Ledesma, JI
2017-01-01
Nowadays, genetic algorithms stand out for airfoil optimisation, due to the virtues of mutation and crossing-over techniques. In this work we propose a genetic algorithm with arithmetic crossover rules. The optimisation criteria are taken to be the maximisation of both aerodynamic efficiency and lift coefficient, while minimising drag coefficient. Such algorithm shows greatly improvements in computational costs, as well as a high performance by obtaining optimised airfoils for Mexico City's specific wind conditions from generic wind turbines designed for higher Reynolds numbers, in few iterations.
Wind turbine airfoil design method with low noise and experimental analysis
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wang, Quan; Chen, Jin; Cheng, Jiangtao
2015-01-01
, though there is a certain difference between the theory results and experiment data. Compared with NACA-64-618 airfoil, the CQU-DTU-B18 airfoil exhibits lower noise, which validates the feasibility of this design method. It is a guide to design wind turbine airfoil with lower noise and to reduce airfoil...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chougule, Prasad; Nielsen, Søren R.K.
2014-01-01
been made to utilize high lift technology for vertical axis wind turbines in order to improve power efficiency. High lift is obtained by double-element airfoil mainly used in aeroplane wing design. In this current work a low Reynolds number airfoil is selected to design a double-element airfoil blade......Nowadays, small vertical axis wind turbines are receiving more attention due to their suitability in micro-electricity generation. There are few vertical axis wind turbine designs with good power curve. However, the efficiency of power extraction has not been improved. Therefore, an attempt has...... for use in vertical axis wind turbine to improve the power efficiency. Double-element airfoil blade design consists of a main airfoil and a slat airfoil. Orientation of slat airfoil is a parameter of investigation in this paper and air flow simulation over double-element airfoil. With primary wind tunnel...
Optimization design of airfoil profiles based on the noise of wind turbines
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chen, Jin; Cheng, Jiangtao; Shen, Wenzhong
2012-01-01
Based on design theory of airfoil profiles and airfoil self-noise prediction model, a new method with the target of the airfoil average efficiency-noise ratio of design ranges for angle of attack had been developed for designing wind turbine airfoils. The airfoil design method was optimized...... for a relative thickness of 21% and a new airfoil was obtained. To illustrate the optimization method, the aerodynamic characteristics and noise of the optimized airfoil were calculated and analyzed. Through performance comparison of a DU93-W-210 airfoil and a FFA-W3-211 airfoil which are widely used in wind...... turbine constructing blades, and wind tunnel test, the practicability and commonality of the optimization method were verified....
Design of wind turbine airfoils based on maximum power coefficient
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chen, Jin; Cheng, Jiangtao; Shen, Wenzhong;
2010-01-01
noise prediction model, the previously developed integrated design technique is further developed. The new code takes into account different airfoil requirements according to their local positions on a blade, such as sensitivity to leading edge roughness, design lift at off-design condition, stall......Based on the blade element momentum (BEM) theory, the power coefficient of a wind turbine can be expressed in function of local tip speed ratio and lift-drag ratio. By taking the power coefficient in a predefined range of angle of attack as the final design objective and combining with an airfoil...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chen, Jin; Cheng, Jiangtao; Shen, Wenzhong
2013-01-01
Aerodynamic of airfoil performance is closely related to the continuity of its surface curvature, and airfoil profiles with a better aerodynamic performance plays an important role in the design of wind turbine. The surface curvature distribution along the chord direction and pressure distributio...
Chougule, Prasad; Nielsen, Søren R. K.
2014-06-01
Nowadays, small vertical axis wind turbines are receiving more attention due to their suitability in micro-electricity generation. There are few vertical axis wind turbine designs with good power curve. However, the efficiency of power extraction has not been improved. Therefore, an attempt has been made to utilize high lift technology for vertical axis wind turbines in order to improve power efficiency. High lift is obtained by double-element airfoil mainly used in aeroplane wing design. In this current work a low Reynolds number airfoil is selected to design a double-element airfoil blade for use in vertical axis wind turbine to improve the power efficiency. Double-element airfoil blade design consists of a main airfoil and a slat airfoil. Orientation of slat airfoil is a parameter of investigation in this paper and air flow simulation over double-element airfoil. With primary wind tunnel test an orientation parameter for the slat airfoil is initially obtained. Further a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has been used to obtain the aerodynamic characteristics of double-element airfoil. The CFD simulations were carried out using ANSYS CFX software. It is observed that there is an increase in the lift coefficient by 26% for single-element airfoil at analysed conditions. The CFD simulation results were validated with wind tunnel tests. It is also observe that by selecting proper airfoil configuration and blade sizes an increase in lift coefficient can further be achieved.
Design of the new Risoe-A1 airfoil family for wind turbines
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fuglsang, P.; Dahl, K.S. [Risoe National Lab., Wind Energy and Atmospheric Physics Dept., Roskilde (Denmark)
1999-03-01
A new airfoil family for wind turbines was developed by use of a design method using numerical optimization and the flow solver, XFOIL. The results were evaluated with the Navier-Stokes solver EllipSys2D. The airfoil family constitutes 6 airfoils ranging in thickness from 15% to 30%. The airfoils were designed to have a maximum lift coefficient around 1.5 in natural conditions and high lift-drag ratios below maximum lift. Insensitivity to leading edge roughness was obtained by securing that transition from laminar to turbulent flow on the suction side occurred close to the leading edge just before stall. The airfoil family was designed for a 600 kW wind turbine and provides a basis for further enhancing the characteristics of airfoils for wind turbines and to tailor airfoils for specific rotor sizes and power regulation principles. (au) EFP-95; EFP-98. 16 refs.
Evaluation of airfoils for small wind turbines
A new set of blades have been designed, fabricated, and tested at the United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service-Conservation and Production Research Laboratory in Bushland, Texas in an attempt to improve the overall performance of small (1-10 kilowatt) wind turbines. The ...
Wind tunnel wall interference effects on a supercritical airfoil at transonic speeds
Blackwell, J. A., Jr.; Pounds, G. A.
1976-01-01
Wind tunnel tests of a 10% supercritical airfoil have been conducted in the Lockheed Compressible Flow Facility at transonic speeds to determine the effects of varying wind tunnel wall porosity on airfoil performance. Wall configurations ranging in porosity from 1.3% to 10% were investigated at Reynolds numbers of 7 to 30 million. Experimental data presented to show the effect of varying wall porosity include airfoil surface pressures, airfoil forces, and wind tunnel wall pressures. Utilizing the experimental results, an assessment of the applicability of current subcritical theoretical methods to predict wall interference corrections in subsonic and transonic flows is made.
Dynamic stall model for wind turbine airfoils
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsen, J.W.; Nielsen, S.R.K.; Krenk, Steen
2007-01-01
A model is presented for aerodynamic lift of wind turbine profiles under dynamic stall. The model combines memory delay effects under attached flow with reduced lift due to flow separation under dynamic stall conditions. The model is based on a backbone curve in the form of the static lift...... conditions, nonstationary effects are included by three mechanisms: a delay of the lift coefficient of fully attached flow via a second-order filter, a delay of the development of separation represented via a first-order filter, and a lift contribution due to leading edge separation also represented via...... during dynamic stall conditions. The proposed model is compared with five other dynamic stall models including, among others, the Beddoes-Leishman model and the ONERA model. It is demonstrated that the proposed model performs equally well or even better than more complicated models and that the included...
Experimental verification of the new RISOe-A1 airfoil family for wind turbines
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dahl, K.S.; Fuglsang, P.; Antoniou, I. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)
1999-03-01
This paper concerns the experimental verification of a new airfoil family for wind turbines. The family consist of airfoils in the relative thickness range from 15% to 30%. Three airfoils, Risoe-A1-18, Risoe-A1-21, and Risoe-A1-24 were tested in a wind tunnel. The verification consisted of both static and dynamic measurements. Here, the static results are presented for a Reynolds number of 1.6x10{sup 6} for the following airfoil configurations: smooth surface (all three airfoils) and Risoe-A1-24 mounted with leading edge roughness, vortex generators, and Gurney-flaps, respectively. All three airfoils have constant lift curve slope and almost constant drag coefficient until the maximum lift coefficient of about 1.4 is reached. The experimental results are compared with corresponding computational from the general purpose flow solver, EllipSys2D, showing good agreement. (au)
Design of the wind turbine airfoil family RISOe-A-XX
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dahl, K.S.; Fuglsang, P.
1998-12-01
A method for design of wind turbine airfoils is presented. The design method is based on direct numerical optimization of a B-spline representation of the airfoil shape. For flexibility, the optimization algorithm relies on separate, stand alone tools for the analysis of aerodynamic and structural properties. The panel method based XFOIL is used during the optimization whereas the Navier-Stokes solver EllipSys2D is used in the evaluation of the results. The method is demonstrated by the design of an airfoil family composed of 7 airfoils ranging in thickness from 12% to 30%. The design is based on Reynolds and Mach numbers representative of a 600 kW wind turbine. The airfoils are designed to have maximum lift-drag ratio until just below stall, a design lift coefficient of about 1.55 at an angle of attack of 10 deg. and a maximum lift coefficient of 1.65. The airfoils are made insensitive to leading edge roughness by securing that transition from laminar to turbulent flow on the suction side occurs close to the leading edge for post stall angles of attack. The design method and the airfoil family provides a sound basis for further enhancing the characteristics of airfoils for wind turbines and to tailor airfoils for specific rotor sizes and power regulation principles. (au) EFP-95. 3 tabs., 24 ills., 31 refs.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chougule, Prasad; Rosendahl, Lasse; Nielsen, Søren R.K.
2015-01-01
A design of double-element airfoil is proposed for its use in the vertical axis wind turbine. The double-element airfoil system consists of a main airfoil and a slat airfoil. The design parameters of the double-element airfoil system are given by the position and orientation of the trailing edge ...
Bionic Design of Wind Turbine Blade Based on Long-Eared Owl's Airfoil
Li, Ming
2017-01-01
The main purpose of this paper is to demonstrate a bionic design for the airfoil of wind turbines inspired by the morphology of Long-eared Owl's wings. Glauert Model was adopted to design the standard blade and the bionic blade, respectively. Numerical analysis method was utilized to study the aerodynamic characteristics of the airfoils as well as the blades. Results show that the bionic airfoil inspired by the airfoil at the 50% aspect ratio of the Long-eared Owl's wing gives rise to a superior lift coefficient and stalling performance and thus can be beneficial to improving the performance of the wind turbine blade. Also, the efficiency of the bionic blade in wind turbine blades tests increases by 12% or above (up to 44%) compared to that of the standard blade. The reason lies in the bigger pressure difference between the upper and lower surface which can provide stronger lift. PMID:28243053
Bionic Design of Wind Turbine Blade Based on Long-Eared Owl's Airfoil.
Tian, Weijun; Yang, Zhen; Zhang, Qi; Wang, Jiyue; Li, Ming; Ma, Yi; Cong, Qian
2017-01-01
The main purpose of this paper is to demonstrate a bionic design for the airfoil of wind turbines inspired by the morphology of Long-eared Owl's wings. Glauert Model was adopted to design the standard blade and the bionic blade, respectively. Numerical analysis method was utilized to study the aerodynamic characteristics of the airfoils as well as the blades. Results show that the bionic airfoil inspired by the airfoil at the 50% aspect ratio of the Long-eared Owl's wing gives rise to a superior lift coefficient and stalling performance and thus can be beneficial to improving the performance of the wind turbine blade. Also, the efficiency of the bionic blade in wind turbine blades tests increases by 12% or above (up to 44%) compared to that of the standard blade. The reason lies in the bigger pressure difference between the upper and lower surface which can provide stronger lift.
Numerical Analysis of Wind Turbine Airfoil Aerodynamic Performance with Leading Edge Bump
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Majid Asli
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Aerodynamic performance improvement of wind turbine blade is the key process to improve wind turbine performance in electricity generated and energy conversion in renewable energy sources concept. The flow behavior on wind turbine blades profile and the relevant phenomena like stall can be improved by some modifications. In the present paper, Humpback Whales flippers leading edge protuberances model as a novel passive stall control method was investigated on S809 as a thick airfoil. The airfoil was numerically analyzed by CFD method in Reynolds number of 106 and aerodynamic coefficients in static angle of attacks were validated with the experimental data reported by Somers in NREL. Therefore, computational results for modified airfoil with sinusoidal wavy leading edge were presented. The results revealed that, at low angles of attacks before the stall region, lift coefficient decreases slightly rather than baseline model. However, the modified airfoil has a smooth stall trend while baseline airfoil lift coefficient decreases sharply due to the separation which occurred on suction side. According to the flow physics over the airfoils, leading edge bumps act as vortex generator so vortices containing high level of momentum make the flow remain attached to the surface of the airfoil at high angle of attack and prevent it from having a deep stall.
Thick airfoil designs for the root of the 10MW INNWIND.EU wind turbine
Mu≁oz, A.; Méndez, B.; Munduate, X.
2016-09-01
The main objective of the “INNWIND.EU” project is to investigate and demonstrate innovative designs for 10-20MW offshore wind turbines and their key components, such as lightweight rotors. In this context, the present paper describes the development of two new airfoils for the blade root region. From the structural point of view, the root is the region in charge of transmitting all the loads of the blade to the hub. Thus, it is very important to include airfoils with adequate structural properties in this region. The present article makes use of high-thickness and blunt trailing edge airfoils to improve the structural characteristics of the airfoils used to build this blade region. CENER's (National Renewable Energy Center of Spain) airfoil design tool uses the airfoil software XFOIL to compute the aerodynamic characteristics of the designed airfoils. That software is based on panel methods which show some problems with the calculation of airfoils with thickness bigger than 35% and with blunt trailing edge. This drawback has been overcome with the development of an empirical correction for XFOIL lift and drag prediction based on airfoil experiments. From the aerodynamic point of view, thick airfoils are known to be very sensitive to surface contamination or turbulent inflow conditions. Consequently, the design optimization takes into account the aerodynamic torque in both clean and contaminated conditions. Two airfoils have been designed aiming to improve the structural and the aerodynamic behaviour of the blade in clean and contaminated conditions. This improvement has been corroborated with Blade Element Momentum (BEM) computations.
Maniaci, David C.; White, Edward B.; Wilcox, Benjamin; Langel, Christopher M.; van Dam, C. P.; Paquette, Joshua A.
2016-09-01
Leading edge erosion and roughness accumulation is an issue observed with great variability by wind plant operators, but with little understanding of the effect on wind turbine performance. In wind tunnels, airfoil models are typically tested with standard grit roughness and trip tape to simulate the effects of roughness and erosion observed in field operation, but there is a lack of established relation between field measurements and wind tunnel test conditions. A research collaboration between lab, academic, and industry partners has sought to establish a method to estimate the effect of erosion in wind turbine blades that correlates to roughness and erosion measured in the field. Measurements of roughness and erosion were taken off of operational utility wind turbine blades using a profilometer. The field measurements were statistically reproduced in the wind tunnel on representative tip and midspan airfoils. Simultaneously, a computational model was developed and calibrated to capture the effect of roughness and erosion on airfoil transition and performance characteristics. The results indicate that the effects of field roughness fall between clean airfoil performance and the effects of transition tape. Severe leading edge erosion can cause detrimental performance effects beyond standard roughness. The results also indicate that a heavily eroded wind turbine blade can reduce annual energy production by over 5% for a utility scale wind turbine.
On the influence of airfoil deviations on the aerodynamic performance of wind turbine rotors
Winstroth, J.; Seume, J. R.
2016-09-01
The manufacture of large wind turbine rotor blades is a difficult task that still involves a certain degree of manual labor. Due to the complexity, airfoil deviations between the design airfoils and the manufactured blade are certain to arise. Presently, the understanding of the impact of manufacturing uncertainties on the aerodynamic performance is still incomplete. The present work analyzes the influence of a series of airfoil deviations likely to occur during manufacturing by means of Computational Fluid Dynamics and the aeroelastic code FAST. The average power production of the NREL 5MW wind turbine is used to evaluate the different airfoil deviations. Analyzed deviations include: Mold tilt towards the leading and trailing edge, thick bond lines, thick bond lines with cantilever correction, backward facing steps and airfoil waviness. The most severe influences are observed for mold tilt towards the leading and thick bond lines. By applying the cantilever correction, the influence of thick bond lines is almost compensated. Airfoil waviness is very dependent on amplitude height and the location along the surface of the airfoil. Increased influence is observed for backward facing steps, once they are high enough to trigger boundary layer transition close to the leading edge.
Airfoil data sensitivity analysis for actuator disc simulations used in wind turbine applications
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nilsson, Karl; Breton, Simon-Philippe; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær;
2014-01-01
To analyse the sensitivity of blade geometry and airfoil characteristics on the prediction of performance characteristics of wind farms, large-eddy simulations using an actuator disc (ACD) method are performed for three different blade/airfoil configurations. The aim of the study is to determine...... how the mean characteristics of wake flow, mean power production and thrust depend on the choice of airfoil data and blade geometry. In order to simulate realistic conditions, pre-generated turbulence and wind shear are imposed in the computational domain. Using three different turbulence intensities...... and varying the spacing between the turbines, the flow around 4-8 aligned turbines is simulated. The analysis is based on normalized mean streamwise velocity, turbulence intensity, relative mean power production and thrust. From the computations it can be concluded that the actual airfoil characteristics...
Finding optimum airfoil shape to get maximum aerodynamic efficiency for a wind turbine
Sogukpinar, Haci; Bozkurt, Ismail
2017-02-01
In this study, aerodynamic performances of S-series wind turbine airfoil of S 825 are investigated to find optimum angle of attack. Aerodynamic performances calculations are carried out by utilization of a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) method withstand finite capacity approximation by using Reynolds-Averaged-Navier Stokes (RANS) theorem. The lift and pressure coefficients, lift to drag ratio of airfoil S 825 are analyzed with SST turbulence model then obtained results crosscheck with wind tunnel data to verify the precision of computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) approximation. The comparison indicates that SST turbulence model used in this study can predict aerodynamics properties of wind blade.
Impact of uncertainty in airfoil characteristics on wind turbine extreme loads
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Abdallah, Imad; Natarajan, Anand; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard
2015-01-01
Wind tunnel test measurements to characterize the static lift and drag coefficients of airfoils used in wind turbine blades are shown to possess large uncertainties, which leads to uncertainties in the aerodynamic loads on the rotor. In this paper a rational stochastic model is proposed to quanti...
Predicting extreme loads effects on wind turbines considering uncertainty in airfoil data
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Abdallah, Imad; Natarajan, Anand; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard
2013-01-01
The sources contributing to uncertainty in a wind turbine blade static airfoil data include wind tunnel testing, CFD calculations, 3D rotational corrections based on CFD or empirical models, surface roughness corrections, Reynolds number corrections, expansion to the full 360-degree angle of atta...
Predicting the Extreme Loads on a Wind Turbine Considering Uncertainty in Airfoil Data
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Abdallah, Imad; Natarajan, Anand; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard
2014-01-01
The sources contributing to uncertainty in a wind turbine blade static airfoil data include wind tunnel testing, CFD calculations, 3D rotational corrections based on CFD or emprircal models, surface roughness corrections, Reynolds number corrections, expansion to the full 360-degree angle of atta...
Design of a family of new advanced airfoils for low wind class turbines
Grasso, Francesco
2014-12-01
In order to maximize the ratio of energy capture and reduce the cost of energy, the selection of the airfoils to be used along the blade plays a crucial role. Despite the general usage of existing airfoils, more and more, families of airfoils specially tailored for specific applications are developed. The present research is focused on the design of a new family of airfoils to be used for the blade of one megawatt wind turbine working in low wind conditions. A hybrid optimization scheme has been implemented, combining together genetic and gradient based algorithms. Large part of the work is dedicated to present and discuss the requirements that needed to be satisfied in order to have a consistent family of geometries with high efficiency, high lift and good structural characteristics. For each airfoil, these characteristics are presented and compared to the ones of existing airfoils. Finally, the aerodynamic design of a new blade for low wind class turbine is illustrated and compared to a reference shape developed by using existing geometries. Due to higher lift performance, the results show a sensitive saving in chords, wetted area and so in loads in idling position.
Numerical Simulations of Subscale Wind Turbine Rotor Inboard Airfoils at Low Reynolds Number
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Blaylock, Myra L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Thermal/ Fluid Sciences & Engineering Dept.; Maniaci, David Charles [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Wind Energy Technologies Dept.; Resor, Brian R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Wind Energy Technologies Dept.
2015-04-01
New blade designs are planned to support future research campaigns at the SWiFT facility in Lubbock, Texas. The sub-scale blades will reproduce specific aerodynamic characteristics of utility-scale rotors. Reynolds numbers for megawatt-, utility-scale rotors are generally above 2-8 million. The thickness of inboard airfoils for these large rotors are typically as high as 35-40%. The thickness and the proximity to three-dimensional flow of these airfoils present design and analysis challenges, even at the full scale. However, more than a decade of experience with the airfoils in numerical simulation, in the wind tunnel, and in the field has generated confidence in their performance. Reynolds number regimes for the sub-scale rotor are significantly lower for the inboard blade, ranging from 0.7 to 1 million. Performance of the thick airfoils in this regime is uncertain because of the lack of wind tunnel data and the inherent challenge associated with numerical simulations. This report documents efforts to determine the most capable analysis tools to support these simulations in an effort to improve understanding of the aerodynamic properties of thick airfoils in this Reynolds number regime. Numerical results from various codes of four airfoils are verified against previously published wind tunnel results where data at those Reynolds numbers are available. Results are then computed for other Reynolds numbers of interest.
Design of low noise airfoil with high aerodynamic performance for use on small wind turbines
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Taehyung; KIM; Seungmin; LEE; Hogeon; KIM; Soogab; LEE
2010-01-01
Wind power is one of the most reliable renewable energy sources and internationally installed capacity is increasing radically every year.Although wind power has been favored by the public in general,the problem with the impact of wind turbine noise on people living in the vicinity of the turbines has been increased.Low noise wind turbine design is becoming more and more important as noise is spreading more adverse effect of wind turbine to public.This paper demonstrates the design of 10 kW class wind turbines,each of three blades,a rotor diameter 6.4 m,a rated rotating speed 200 r/min and a rated wind speed 10 m/s.The optimized airfoil is dedicated for the 75% spanwise position because the dominant source of a wind turbine blade is trailing edge noise from the outer 25% of the blade.Numerical computations are performed for incompressible flow and for Mach number at 0.145 and for Reynolds numbers at 1.02×106 with a lift performance,which is resistant to surface contamination and turbulence intensity.The objectives in the design process are to reduce noise emission,while sustaining high aerodynamic efficiency.Dominant broadband noise sources are predicted by semi-empirical formulas composed of the groundwork by Brooks et al.and Lowson associated with typical wind turbine operation conditions.During the airfoil redesign process,the aerodynamic performance is analyzed to reduce the wind turbine power loss.The results obtained from the design process show that the design method is capable of designing airfoils with reduced noise using a commercial 10 kW class wind turbine blade airfoil as a basis.Therefore,the new optimized airfoil showing 2.9 dB reductions of total sound pressure level(SPL) and higher aerodynamic performance are achieved.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chougle, Prasad Devendra
, as big as 10 MW wind energy convertors. Today wind turbines are the biggest structures on the earth. The knowledge and experiences from aviation and a construction industry has made quicker developments in the wind turbines. This research work is aimed at design and development of a small wind turbine....... Mainly, there is the horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT) and vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT). HAWTs are more popular than VAWTs due to failure of VAWT commercialization during the late of 1980s on a large scale. However, in recent research work it has been documented that VAWTs are more economical...... for validation. In this PhD research, a development of wind turbine rotor is planned based on the multi-element airfoil technology used in aviation for aeroplanes. A method of experimental and numerical analysis is combined together for successful research. A double-element airfoil design is carried out...
Wind tunnel test on airfoil Riso-B1-18 with an Active Trailing Edge Flap
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bak, Christian; Gaunaa, Mac; Andersen, Peter Bjørn;
2010-01-01
A wind tunnel test of the wind turbine airfoil Risø-B1-18 equipped with an Active Trailing Edge Flap (ATEF) was carried out. The ATEF was 9% of the total chord, made of piezo electric actuators attached to the trailing edge of a non-deformable airfoil and actuated using an (electric) amplifier...
WIND TUNNEL RESEARCH ON THE INFLUENCE OF ACTIVE AIRFLOW ON THE LIFT FORCE GENERATED BY THE AIRFOIL
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Paweł Magryta
2013-09-01
Full Text Available The paper discusses the results of wind tunnel tests of airfoils with additional active airflow applied to their upper surfaces. These studies were carried out for a range of velocities up to 28 m/s in an open wind tunnel. Several types of airfoils selected for the examination feature different geometries and are widely applied in today’s aviation industry. The changes in the lift and drag force generated by these airfoils were recorded during the study. The test bench for the tests was equipped with a compressor and a vacuum pump to enable airflow through some holes on the airfoil upper surface. A rapid prototyping method and a 3D printer based on a powder printing technique were applied to print the airfoils. All of their surfaces were subject to surface grinding to smooth their external surfaces. The wind tunnel tests with and without active airflow applied to airfoils are summarised in the paper.
Aerodynamic Analysis of Trailing Edge Enlarged Wind Turbine Airfoils
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Xu, Haoran; Shen, Wen Zhong; Zhu, Wei Jun;
2014-01-01
model and RFOIL all show that with the increase of thickness of trailing edge, the linear region of lift is extended and the maximum lift also increases, the increase rate and amount of lift become limited gradually at low angles of attack, while the drag increases dramatically. For thicker airfoils...... with larger maximum thickness to chord length, the increment of lift is larger than that of relatively thinner airfoils when the thickness of blunt trailing edge is increased from 5% to 10% chord length. But too large lift can cause abrupt stall which is profitless for power output. The transient...... characteristics of blunt trailing edge airfoils are caused by blunt body vortices at low angles of attack, and by the combined effect of separation and blunt body vortices at large angles of attack. With the increase of thickness of blunt trailing edge, the vibration amplitudes of lift and drag curves increase...
Spera, David A.
2008-01-01
Equations are developed with which to calculate lift and drag coefficients along the spans of torsionally-stiff rotating airfoils of the type used in wind turbine rotors and wind tunnel fans, at angles of attack in both the unstalled and stalled aerodynamic regimes. Explicit adjustments are made for the effects of aspect ratio (length to chord width) and airfoil thickness ratio. Calculated lift and drag parameters are compared to measured parameters for 55 airfoil data sets including 585 test points. Mean deviation was found to be -0.4 percent and standard deviation was 4.8 percent. When the proposed equations were applied to the calculation of power from a stall-controlled wind turbine tested in a NASA wind tunnel, mean deviation from 54 data points was -1.3 percent and standard deviation was 4.0 percent. Pressure-rise calculations for a large wind tunnel fan deviated by 2.7 percent (mean) and 4.4 percent (standard). The assumption that a single set of lift and drag coefficient equations can represent the stalled aerodynamic behavior of a wide variety of airfoils was found to be satisfactory.
Design and verification of the Risø-B1 airfoil family for wind turbines
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fuglsang, P.; Bak, C.; Gaunaa, M.
2004-01-01
This paper presents the design and experimental verification of the Risø-B1 airfoil family for MW-size wind turbines with variable speed and pitch control. Seven airfoils were designed with thickness-to-chord ratios between 15% and 53% to cover the entire span of a wind turbine blade. The airfoils...... were designed to have high maximum lift and high design lift to allow a slender flexible blade while maintaining high aerodynamic efficiency. The design was carried out with a Risø in-house multi disciplinary optimization tool. Wind tunnel testing was done for Risø-B1-18 and Risø-B1-24 in the VELUX...... wind tunnel, Denmark, at a Reynolds number of 1.6x10(6). For both airfoils the predicted target characteristics were met. Results for Risø-B1-18 showed a maximum lift coefficient of 1.64. A standard case of zigzag tape leading edge roughness caused a drop in maximum lift of only 3.7%. Cases of more...
Discontinuous Galerkin methodology for Large-Eddy Simulations of wind turbine airfoils
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Frére, A.; Sørensen, Niels N.; Hillewaert, K.
2016-01-01
sector yet. The present study aims at evaluating this methodology on an application which is relevant for that sector and focuses on blade section aerodynamics characterization. To be pertinent for large wind turbines, the simulations would need to be at low Mach numbers (M ≤ 0.3) where compressible......This paper aims at evaluating the potential of the Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) methodology for Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) of wind turbine airfoils. The DG method has shown high accuracy, excellent scalability and capacity to handle unstructured meshes. It is however not used in the wind energy...... approaches are often limited and at large Reynolds numbers (Re ≥ 106) where wall-resolved LES is still unaffordable. At these high Re, a wall-modeled LES (WMLES) approach is thus required. In order to first validate the LES methodology, before the WMLES approach, this study presents airfoil flow simulations...
Timmer, W.A.
2009-01-01
This paper investigates the NACA 63 and 64 6-digit series of airfoils tested in the NACA LTPT in view to verify the RFOIL calculated airfoil characteristics for high Reynolds numbers. Some anomalies in the zero-lift angles of 15% and 18% thick airfoils from these series are identified, both in the a
Timmer, W.A.
2009-01-01
This paper investigates the NACA 63 and 64 6-digit series of airfoils tested in the NACA LTPT in view to verify the RFOIL calculated airfoil characteristics for high Reynolds numbers. Some anomalies in the zero-lift angles of 15% and 18% thick airfoils from these series are identified, both in the
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Weipeng Yue
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Damp air with high humidity combined with foggy, rainy weather, and icing in winter weather often is found to cause turbine performance degradation, and it is more concerned with offshore wind farm development. To address and understand the high humidity effects on wind turbine performance, our study has been conducted with spread sheet analysis on damp air properties investigation for air density and viscosity; then CFD modeling study using Fluent was carried out on airfoil and blade aerodynamic performance effects due to water vapor partial pressure of mixing flow and water condensation around leading edge and trailing edge of airfoil. It is found that the high humidity effects with water vapor mixing flow and water condensation thin film around airfoil may have insignificant effect directly on airfoil/blade performance; however, the indirect effects such as blade contamination and icing due to the water condensation may have significant effects on turbine performance degradation. Also it is that found the foggy weather with microwater droplet (including rainy weather may cause higher drag that lead to turbine performance degradation. It is found that, at high temperature, the high humidity effect on air density cannot be ignored for annual energy production calculation. The blade contamination and icing phenomenon need to be further investigated in the next study.
Propagation of Shock on NREL Phase VI Wind Turbine Airfoil under Compressible Flow
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohammad A. Hossain
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The work is focused on numeric analysis of compressible flow around National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL phase VI wind turbine blade airfoil S809. Although wind turbine airfoils are low Reynolds number airfoils, a reasonable investigation of compressible flow under extreme condition might be helpful. A subsonic flow (mach no. M=0.8 has been considered for this analysis and the impacts of this flow under seven different angles of attack have been determined. The results show that shock takes place just after the mid span at the top surface and just before the mid span at the bottom surface at zero angle of attack. Slowly the shock waves translate their positions as angle of attack increases. A relative translation of the shock waves in upper and lower face of the airfoil are presented. Variation of Turbulent viscosity ratio and surface Y+ have also been determined. A k-ω SST turbulent model is considered and the commercial CFD code ANSYS FLUENT is used to find the pressure coefficient (Cp as well as the lift (CL and drag coefficients (CD. A graphical comparison of shock propagation has been shown with different angle of attack. Flow separation and stream function are also determined.
Computational Study on the Aerodynamic Performance of Wind Turbine Airfoil Fitted with Coandă Jet
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H. Djojodihardjo
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Various methods of flow control for enhanced aerodynamic performance have been developed and applied to enhance and control the behavior of aerodynamic components. The use of Coandă effect for the enhancement of circulation and lift has gained renewed interest, in particular with the progress of CFD. The present work addresses the influence, effectiveness, and configuration of Coandă-jet fitted aerodynamic surface for improving lift and L/D, specifically for S809 airfoil, with a view on its incorporation in the wind turbine. A simple two-dimensional CFD modeling using k-ɛ turbulence model is utilized to reveal the key elements that could exhibit the desired performance for a series of S809 airfoil configurations. Parametric study performed indicates that the use of Coandă-jet S809 airfoil can only be effective in certain range of trailing edge rounding-off radius, Coandă-jet thickness, and momentum jet size. The location of the Coandă-jet was found to be effective when it is placed close to the trailing edge. The results are compared with experimental data for benchmarking. Three-dimensional configurations are synthesized using certain acceptable assumptions. A trade-off study on the S809 Coandă configured airfoil is needed to judge the optimum configuration of Coandă-jet fitted Wind-Turbine design.
Pires, O.; Munduate, X.; Ceyhan, O.; Jacobs, M.; Madsen, J.; Schepers, J. G.
2016-09-01
2D wind tunnel tests at high Reynolds numbers have been done within the EU FP7 AVATAR project (Advanced Aerodynamic Tools of lArge Rotors) on the DU00-W-212 airfoil and at two different test facilities: the DNW High Pressure Wind Tunnel in Gottingen (HDG) and the LM Wind Power in-house wind tunnel. Two conditions of Reynolds numbers have been performed in both tests: 3 and 6 million. The Mach number and turbulence intensity values are similar in both wind tunnels at the 3 million Reynolds number test, while they are significantly different at 6 million Reynolds number. The paper presents a comparison of the data obtained from the two wind tunnels, showing good repeatability at 3 million Reynolds number and differences at 6 million Reynolds number that are consistent with the different Mach number and turbulence intensity values.
A dynamic wall model for Large-Eddy simulations of wind turbine dedicated airfoils
J, Calafell; O, Lehmkuhl; A, Carmona; D, Pérez-Segarra C.; A, Oliva
2014-06-01
This work aims at modelling the flow behavior past a wind turbine dedicated airfoil at high Reynolds number and large angle of attack (AoA). The DU-93-W-210 airfoil has been selected. To do this, Large Eddy Simulations (LES) have been performed. Momentum equations have been solved with a parallel unstructured symmetry preserving formulation while the wall-adapting local-eddy viscosity model within a variational multi-scale framework (VMS- WALE) is used as the subgrid-scales model. Since LES calculations are still very expensive at high Reynolds Number, specially at the near-wall region, a dynamic wall model has been implemented in order to overcome this limitation. The model has been validated with a very unresolved Channel Flow case at Reτ = 2000. Afterwards, the model is also tested with the Ahmed Car case, that from the flow physics point of view is more similar to an stalled airfoil than the Channel Flow is, including flow features as boundary layer detachment and recirculations. This case has been selected because experimental results of mean velocity profiles are available. Finally, a flow around a DU-93-W-210 airfoil is computed at Re = 3 x 106 and with an AoA of 15°. Numerical results are presented in comparison with Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) or experimental data for all cases.
Timmer, W.A.
2009-01-01
This paper investigates the NACA 63 and 64 6-digit series of airfoils tested in the NACA LTPT in view to verify the RFOIL calculated airfoil characteristics for high Reynolds numbers. Some anomalies in the zero-lift angles of 15% and 18% thick airfoils from these series are identified, both in the airfoil clean case and in case of wrap-around roughness. It is found that RFOIL predicts the maximum lift coefficient at a Reynolds number of 3 million well, but consistently under predicts the Cl,m...
Trailing edge noise model applied to wind turbine airfoils
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bertagnolio, Franck
The aim of this work is firstly to provide a quick introduction to the theory of noise generation that are relevant to wind turbine technology with focus on trailing edge noise. Secondly, the socalled TNO trailing edge noise model developed by Parchen [1] is described in more details. The model...
Design of a 21 m blade with Risø-A1 airfoils for active stall controlled wind turbines
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fuglsang, Peter; Sangill, O.; Hansen, P.
2002-01-01
the characteristics of the new blade. Airfoil characteristics, power curve and fatigue loads were derived onbasis of the measurements. Most of the design criteria for the new blade were met. The new blade had a reduced weight of 4% reducing blade cost compared with LM 21.0P. The measurements showed that the wind......This is the final report, from the project, "Design of a Rotor/Airfoil Family for Active Stall-regulated Wind Turbines by Use of Multi-point Optimization". It describes the full scale testing of a 21 m wind turbine blade specially designed for active stallregulation. Design objectives were...... increased ratio of produced energy to turbine loads and more stable power control characteristics. Both were taken directly into account during the design of the blade using numerical optimization. The blade used theRisø-A1 airfoil family, which was specially designed for operation on wind turbine blades...
Airfoils and method for designing airfoils
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
2010-01-01
The present invention relates to airfoils and design and design optimization of airfoils, in particular airfoils of rotor blades for wind turbines. One aspect of the invention relates to an airfoil with an external shape provided by an airfoil profile defined by a limited number of parameters......, such as a set of parameters. Another aspect of the invention relates to a method for designing an airfoil by means of an analytical airfoil profile, said method comprising the step of applying a conformal mapping to a near circle in a near circle plane, wherein the near circle is at least partly expressed...... by means of an analytical function, said conformal mapping transforming the near circle in the near circle plane to the airfoil profile in an airfoil plane. L...
Wind tunnel tests of the NACA 63-415 and a modified NACA 63-415 airfoil
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bak, C.; Fuglsang, P.; Johansen, J.; Antoniou, I.
2000-12-01
This report contains 2D measurements of the NACA 63-415 and a NACA 63-415 airfoil with modified leading edge called NACA 63-415-Risoe-D. The aerodynamic properties were derived from pressure measurements on the airfoil surface and in the wake. The VELUX open jet wind tunnel was used having a background turbulence intensity of 1%, an inlet flow velocity of 40 m/s which resulted in a Reynolds number of 1.6Oe10{sup 6}. The airfoil sections had a chord of 0.600 m and 0.606 m for NACA 63-415 and NACA 63-415-Risoe-D, respectively. The span was 1.9 m and end plates were used to minimise 3D flow effects. The measurements comprised both static and dynamic inflow where dynamic inflow was obtained by pitching the airfoil in a harmonic motion. We tested the influence of leading edge roughness, stall strips and vortex generators. For smooth surface conditions the modified airfoil showed an increase in lift-drag ratio before stall at {alpha}=8 from 67 to 72. Furthermore, the maximum lift increased from 1.33 to 1.37 while the minimum drag was maintained. Double stall was observed on the NACA 63-415 airfoil, but not on the modified airfoil. This was reflected in the standard deviation of both lift and drag in stall which was significantly lower for the modified airfoil indicating smooth and stable stall conditions. No significant differences were observed for dynamic stall. Test on both airfoil sections with zigzag tape at the leading edge towards the pressure side showed that the insensitivity to roughness was improved significantly for the modified airfoil. However, if zigzag tape was mounted at the leading edge towards the suction side less improvement was observed. Mounting of stall strips at and near the leading edge showed that only if they were mounted at the very vicinity of the leading edge the airfoil characteristics were affected significantly. If the stall strips were mounted on the pressure side downstream of approximately 1 % chord length only little influence was
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yaping Ju
2016-05-01
Full Text Available The Monte Carlo simulation method for turbomachinery uncertainty analysis often requires performing a huge number of simulations, the computational cost of which can be greatly alleviated with the help of metamodeling techniques. An intensive comparative study was performed on the approximation performance of three prospective artificial intelligence metamodels, that is, artificial neural network, radial basis function, and support vector regression. The genetic algorithm was used to optimize the predetermined parameters of each metamodel for the sake of a fair comparison. Through testing on 10 nonlinear functions with different problem scales and sample sizes, the genetic algorithm–support vector regression metamodel was found more accurate and robust than the other two counterparts. Accordingly, the genetic algorithm–support vector regression metamodel was selected and combined with the Monte Carlo simulation method for the uncertainty analysis of a wind turbine airfoil under two types of surface roughness uncertainties. The results show that the genetic algorithm–support vector regression metamodel can capture well the uncertainty propagation from the surface roughness to the airfoil aerodynamic performance. This work is useful to the application of metamodeling techniques in the robust design optimization of turbomachinery.
Aerodynamic characteristics of wind turbine blade airfoils at high angles-of-attack
Timmer, W.A.
2010-01-01
Airfoil characteristics at deep stall angles were investigated. It appeared that the maximum drag coefficient as a function of the airfoil upwind y/c ordinate at x/c=0.0125 can be approximated by a straight line. The lift-drag ratios in deep stall of a number of airfoils with moderate lower surface
Disotell, Kevin J.; Nikoueeyan, Pourya; Naughton, Jonathan W.; Gregory, James W.
2016-05-01
Recognizing the need for global surface measurement techniques to characterize the time-varying, three-dimensional loading encountered on rotating wind turbine blades, fast-responding pressure-sensitive paint (PSP) has been evaluated for resolving unsteady aerodynamic effects in incompressible flow. Results of a study aimed at demonstrating the laser-based, single-shot PSP technique on a low Reynolds number wind turbine airfoil in static and dynamic stall are reported. PSP was applied to the suction side of a Delft DU97-W-300 airfoil (maximum thickness-to-chord ratio of 30 %) at a chord Reynolds number of 225,000 in the University of Wyoming open-return wind tunnel. Static and dynamic stall behaviors are presented using instantaneous and phase-averaged global pressure maps. In particular, a three-dimensional pressure topology driven by a stall cell pattern is detected near the maximum lift condition on the steady airfoil. Trends in the PSP-measured pressure topology on the steady airfoil were confirmed using surface oil visualization. The dynamic stall case was characterized by a sinusoidal pitching motion with mean angle of 15.7°, amplitude of 11.2°, and reduced frequency of 0.106 based on semichord. PSP images were acquired at selected phase positions, capturing the breakdown of nominally two-dimensional flow near lift stall, development of post-stall suction near the trailing edge, and a highly three-dimensional topology as the flow reattaches. Structural patterns in the surface pressure topologies are considered from the analysis of the individual PSP snapshots, enabled by a laser-based excitation system that achieves sufficient signal-to-noise ratio in the single-shot images. The PSP results are found to be in general agreement with observations about the steady and unsteady stall characteristics expected for the airfoil.
Panther, Chad C.
Vertical Axis Wind Turbines (VAWTs) have experienced a renewed interest in development for urban, remote, and offshore applications. Past research has shown that VAWTs cannot compete with Horizontals Axis Wind Turbines (HAWTs) in terms of energy capture efficiency. VAWT performance is plagued by dynamic stall (DS) effects at low tip-speed ratios (lambda), where each blade pitches beyond static stall multiple times per revolution. Furthermore, for lambdasize and strength of wake vorticity during DS, resulting in lower profile drag relative to baseline and steady actuation cases. A database of pitching airfoil test data, including overshoot and hysteresis of aerodynamic coefficients (Cl, Cd), was compiled for improved analytical model inputs to update CCVAWT performance predictions, where the aforementioned L/D improvements will be directly reflected. Relative to a conventional VAWT with annual power output of 1 MW, previous work at WVU proved that the addition of steady jet CC could improve total output to 1.25 MW. However, the pumping cost to generate the continuous jet reduced yearly CCVAWT net gains to 1.15 MW. The current study has shown that pulsed CC jets can recover 4% of the pumping demands due to reduced mass flow requirements, increasing annual CCVAWT net power production to 1.19 MW, a 19% improvement relative to the conventional turbine.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI Shengmao; LI Yan; FENG Fang; WANG Lijun; CHI Yuan
2010-01-01
To invest the condition of ice accretion on the blade used for straight-bladed vertical axis wind turbine(SB-VAWT),wind tunnel tests were carded out on a blade with NACA0015 airfoil by using a small simple icing wind tunnel.Tests were carried out at some typical attack angles under different wind speeds and flow discharges of a water spray with wind.The icing shape and area on blade surface were recorded and measured.Then the numerical computation was carried out to calculate the lift and drag coefficients of the blade before and after ice accretion according to the experiment result,the effect of icing on the aerodynamic characteristics of blade were discussed.
Design and Experimental Validation of Thick Airfoils for Large Wind Turbines
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hrgovan, Iva; Shen, Wen Zhong; Zhu, Wei Jun
2015-01-01
In this chapter, two new airfoils with thickness to chord ratios of 30 and 36 % are presented, which were designed with an objective of good aerodynamic and structural features. Airfoil design is based on a direct method using shape perturbation function. The optimization algorithm is coupled wit...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Seki, K.; Shimizu, Y.; Yasui, T. [Tokai University, Tokyo (Japan); Nakayama, H. [Oriental Kiden Company, Osaka (Japan)
1996-10-27
Features of a straight wing type vertical axis wind turbine (VAW) and its airfoil sections were studied. The wind turbine in which various aerodynamic work components are mounted on the rotation axis normal to the ground surface is named VAW. Like the airfoil section of aircraft, in lift type VAW, wind turbines were driven by lift 70-90 times as large as drag in some cases. Features of the VAW airfoil section which is a straight wing in plan and a fixed pitch wing (with a fixed angle to a blade support arm) in cross section, and those of wind turbines were studied. Some factors affecting the features, work principle and performance of VAW were clarified. On airfoil sections, products of each weight function and each corresponding aerodynamic factor (lift, drag and pitching moment factors) were plotted on an attack angle ({alpha}) axis. From the conditions for increasing the total sum of areas drawn by the products on the {alpha} axis, various characteristics required for airfoil sections were clarified. Such characteristics nearly agreed between an airfoil section for favorable starting characteristics and that for high efficiency. 3 refs., 7 figs.
风力机分离式尾缘襟翼气动性能%Aerodynamic performance of discrete trailing edge flaps of wind turbine airfoil
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
韩中合; 贾亚雷; 李恒凡; 李秋菊; 刘华新; 朱霄珣
2014-01-01
In order to increase the wind capture ability of the wind turbine, many research studies on the lift enhancement method of the wind turbine airfoil have been conducted by scholars at home and abroad. An airfoil with tailing edge flaps has a much higher lift-to-drag ratio than an airfoil without trailing edge flaps. Among all the lift enhancement methods of trailing edge flaps, the structure of the wind turbine airfoil with discrete trailing edge flaps is simple, the cost of production is low, and it can easily achieve variable angle control. But the aerodynamic performance of the wind turbine airfoil with traditional discrete trailing edge flaps has not been comprehensively studied, and gaps between the flaps and the airfoil main body has an influence on the aerodynamic performance of the airfoil. So it is necessary to optimize the gap structure and study the aerodynamic performance of the discrete trailing edge flaps with different deflection angles. Taking a wind turbine airfoil S809 as the research object, the structure of the discrete trailing edge flaps was designed, the chord length was set as 1 000 mm, and the gap between the flap and the main body of airfoil was optimized to make the width of gap an even 1 mm. Then the trailing edge flaps model was established. The flap rotates around the rotate center to form a different flap model at different deflect angles, the deflect angles of the flap varied from 0-16°, and the step size was 2. Mesh generation software Gambit s used to generate a model mesh, and the grids near the trailing edge were refined. After comparing the three kinds of grid number models, the grid independence was verified, and the number of a 148000 grid model for a calculating model was determined. Thek-ω two equation turbulence model of Commercial software FLUENT was used here to calculate the aerodynamic performance of the airfoil S809 without flaps, and the result was compared with the experimental data. The result showed that when the
High-Speed Wind-Tunnel Tests of the NACA 23012 and 23012-64 Airfoils
1941-02-01
ce tha n the :: JaCA 2,3012 and should , therefore , have the l o we r cr itica l speed . The critical speeds esti - ~ated frorr ref er ence 7 a r e...t ical sleeds at w~icb :arge i~cr ea5e s in drag coefficient o ccurr et were sli~h tl y higher for the NACA 23012- 54 airfoil t h an for tne JACA
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ziaul Huque
2012-01-01
Full Text Available A Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD and response surface-based multiobjective design optimization were performed for six different 2D airfoil profiles, and the Pareto optimal front of each airfoil is presented. FLUENT, which is a commercial CFD simulation code, was used to determine the relevant aerodynamic loads. The Lift Coefficient (CL and Drag Coefficient (CD data at a range of 0° to 12° angles of attack (α and at three different Reynolds numbers (Re=68,459, 479, 210, and 958, 422 for all the six airfoils were obtained. Realizable k-ε turbulence model with a second-order upwind solution method was used in the simulations. The standard least square method was used to generate response surface by the statistical code JMP. Elitist Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm (NSGA-II was used to determine the Pareto optimal set based on the response surfaces. Each Pareto optimal solution represents a different compromise between design objectives. This gives the designer a choice to select a design compromise that best suits the requirements from a set of optimal solutions. The Pareto solution set is presented in the form of a Pareto optimal front.
Dynamic Stall Control on the Wind Turbine Airfoil via a Co-Flow Jet
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
He-Yong Xu
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Dynamic stall control of a S809 airfoil is numerically investigated by implementing a co-flow jet (CFJ. The numerical methods of the solver are validated by comparing results with the baseline experiment as well as a NACA 6415-based CFJ experiment, showing good agreement in both static and dynamic characteristics. The CFJ airfoil with inactive jet is simulated to study the impact that the jet channel imposes upon the dynamic characteristics. It is shown that the presence of a long jet channel could cause a negative effect of decreasing lift and increasing drag, leading to fluctuating extreme loads in terms of drag and moment. The main focus of the present research is the investigation of the dynamic characteristics of the CFJ airfoil with three different jet momentum coefficients, which are compared with the baseline, giving encouraging results. Dynamic stall can be greatly suppressed, showing a very good control performance of significantly increased lift and reduced drag and moment. Analysis of the amplitude of variation in the aerodynamic coefficients indicates that the fluctuating extreme aerodynamic loads are significantly alleviated, which is conducive to structural reliability and improved life cycle. The energy consumption analysis shows that the CFJ concept is applicable and economical in controlling dynamic stall.
Large-Eddy Simulations of Plasma Flow Control on a GOE735 Wind Turbine Airfoil
Czulak, Alexander; Franck, Jennifer
2015-11-01
Active flow control using plasma actuation was studied for the GOE735 airfoil and compared to non-actuated baseline cases using numerical simulations. This investigation considers two-dimensional simulations at a Reynolds number of 1,000 using direct numerical simulation (DNS) as well as three-dimensional simulations at a Reynolds number of 50,000 and 100,000 using large-eddy simulation (LES). Plasma actuation is applied in terms of a source term within the boundary layer close to the airfoil surface. Angles of attack of 0°, 5° and 15° were considered, and control is shown to be effective at increasing the lift coefficient, decreasing the drag coefficient and reducing the root mean squared deviation of both lift and drag. An analysis of the flow physics reveals that the actuated cases delay the point of separation, reduce the wake width and diminish the size and strength of the shed vortices. For this particular airfoil, there are significant differences in Reynolds number in terms of the baseline flow, control effectiveness and performance factors such as lift and drag.
Effects of Dynamic Pitching on Wind Turbine Blade Performance
Naughton, Jonathan; Babbitt, Ashli; Strike, John; Hind, Michael; Magstadt, Andrew; Nikoueeyan, Pourya
2012-11-01
Due to turbulence in the wind and the rotation of the blade through a shear layer, wind turbine blade flows are inherently unsteady. Over the past five years, a number of wind turbine blade sections used for inboard, mid-span, and tip regions of the blade (including flatback airfoils) have been tested at a Reynolds number of 225,000. The airfoils have been tested at reduced frequencies cω / 2 U , where c is the chord length, ω is the oscillation frequency (radians/sec), and U is the air velocity ahead of the blade, relevant to commercial wind turbines. Unsteady pressure measurements and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) have provided information about the surface properties and surrounding flow field and their relationship. The results have shown that, depending on the reduced frequency, a lag in pressure and flow-field structures is experienced by the blade. When the blade is operating at angles above the static stall angle, delayed separation is experience as expected. The reattachment of the flow is also delayed, and, at higher reduced frequencies, the flow can remain separated throughout the entire downward pitching movement. Such dynamic data result in a better understanding of the unsteady flow physics necessary for improved designs. Support from DOE and BP is acknowledged.
Wind tunnel test of the FFA-W3-241, FFA-W3-301 and NACA 63-430 airfoils
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fuglsang, P.; Antoniou, I.; Dahl, K.S.; Madsen, H.A.
1998-12-01
This report deals with 2D measurements of the FFA-W3-241, FFA-W3-301 and NACA 63-430 airfoils. The aerodynamic properties were measured at Re = 1.6x10{sup 6}. The VELUX open jet wind tunnel with a background turbulence intensity of 1% was used. The airfoil sections had a chord of 0.60 m and a span of 1.9 m and end plates were used to minimize 3D flow effects. The measurements comprised both static and dynamic inflow where dynamic inflow was obtained by pitching the airfoil in a harmonic motion. We tested the influence from vortex generators and leading edge roughness both individually and in combination. The aerodynamic characteristics were measured and the agreement between calculations and measurements was fair for FFA-W3-241 but not good for FFA-W3-301 and NACA 63-430. In general calculations overestimated maximum C{sub L} and sometimes underestimated minimum C{sub D}. Maximum C{sub L} for smooth flow was in good agreement with calculated maximum C{sub L} for leading edge transition flow and this could serve as a worst case calculation. We determined the influence from vortex generators and they should always be applied on thick airfoils to increase maximum C{sub L}. We determined the influence from leading edge roughness, which reduced maximum C{sub L} and increased minimum C{sub D}. Compared with the NACA 63-4xx airfoils, the FFA-W3 airfoils were found better suited for the inboard part of a wind turbine blade both with and without vortex generators. (au) EFP-94; EFP-95; EFP-97. 8 tabs., 195 ills., 13 refs.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bedon, Gabriele; Schmidt Paulsen, Uwe; Aagaard Madsen, Helge
2017-01-01
in the optimization process and, because of different blade element radii, it will experience different tip speed ratios in the same operational condition. This leads to a complex optimization problem, which must be carefully analyzed in order to find the most suitable parameter set. The number of blades...... in the analysis is varied from 1 to 4. In order to keep the comparison fair among the different configurations, the solidity is kept constant and, therefore, the chord length reduced. A second comparison is conducted by considering different blade profiles belonging to the symmetric NACA airfoil family. Finally...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王骥月; 丛茜; 梁宁; 毛士佳; 关欢欢; 刘林鹏; 陈创发
2015-01-01
针对现有小型风力发电机效率远低于理论值问题，对100 W水平轴风力机叶片进行仿生改进。采用Spalart-Allmaras模型分析不同攻角下海鸥翼型与标准翼型的气动特性；以标准100 W水平轴风力机叶片为原型，结合海鸥翼型、标准弦长和计算得出的安装角，设计得到仿海鸥翼型叶片；利用SST k-ω模型进行仿海鸥翼型叶片与标准叶片气动特性数值模拟；搭建室内风力机效率测试平台，进行仿海鸥翼型风力机与标准风力机效率对比试验。结果表明：海鸥翼型气动性能优良，最大升力系数是标准翼型的2.19倍，最大升阻比是标准翼型的1.34倍；仿海鸥翼型叶片与标准叶片相比，输出功率提高25.77%。该研究可为小型风力发电机的改进设计提供参考。%Power of the existing small-sized wind turbine blades is much less than the theoretical value. This study improved 100 W wind turbine blades to increase the power of wind turbine. First of all, Spalart-Allmaras model which was suitable for airfoil stalling characteristics research was used to analyze the aerodynamic characteristics of seagull airfoil and standard airfoil with different angles of attack (AOA). Seagull airfoil and standard airfoil were got from seagull wing and standard blade by portable three-dimension scanner, Imageware software and Geomagic Studio software through standard blade scan, seagull wing scan, point cloud processing, reverse engineering modeling and cross section capture. Lift coefficients and lift-drag ratios of seagull airfoil and standard airfoil were calculated by Fluent software. Secondly, bionic blade was designed based on standard 100 W blades and Glauert theory. Thirdly, numerical simulations of bionic blade and standard blade were performed by using SST(shear stress transport) k-ω model which was suitable for blade performance research to analyze the aerodynamic characteristics of bionic blade and standard
Aeroacoustic Testing of Wind Turbine Airfoils: February 20, 2004 - February 19, 2008
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Devenport, W.; Burdisso, R. A.; Camargo, H.; Crede, E.; Remillieux, M.; Rasnick, M.; Van Seeters, P.
2010-05-01
The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), working through its National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), is engaged in a comprehensive research effort to improve the understanding of wind turbine aeroacoustics. The motivation for this effort is the desire to exploit the large expanse of low wind speed sites that tend to be close to U.S. load centers. Quiet wind turbines are an inducement to widespread deployment, so the goal of NREL's aeroacoustic research is to develop tools that the U.S. wind industry can use in developing and deploying highly efficient, quiet wind turbines at low wind speed sites. NREL's National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) is implementing a multifaceted approach that includes wind tunnel tests, field tests, and theoretical analyses in direct support of low wind speed turbine development by its industry partners. NWTC researchers are working hand in hand with engineers in industry to ensure that research findings are available to support ongoing design decisions.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Skrzypinski, Witold Robert; Gaunaa, Mac
2015-01-01
The present study investigated physical phenomena related to stall-induced vibrations potentially existing on wind turbine blades at standstill conditions. The study considered two-dimensional airfoil sections while it omitted three-dimensional effects. In the study, a new engineering...... problems in real life. The other type of vibrations potentially present at standstill conditions is vortex-induced, being outside the scope of the present study. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....
Analysis of a theoretically optimized transonic airfoil
Lores, M. E.; Burdges, K. P.; Shrewsbury, G. D.
1978-01-01
Numerical optimization was used in conjunction with an inviscid, full potential equation, transonic flow analysis computer code to design an upper surface contour for a conventional airfoil to improve its supercritical performance. The modified airfoil was tested in a compressible flow wind tunnel. The modified airfoil's performance was evaluated by comparison with test data for the baseline airfoil and for an airfoil developed by optimization of leading edge of the baseline airfoil. While the leading edge modification performed as expected, the upper surface re-design did not produce all of the expected performance improvements. Theoretical solutions computed using a full potential, transonic airfoil code corrected for viscosity were compared to experimental data for the baseline airfoil and the upper surface modification. These correlations showed that the theory predicted the aerodynamics of the baseline airfoil fairly well, but failed to accurately compute drag characteristics for the upper surface modification.
Airfoil and blade optimization for a direct-drive, permanent magnet wind generator
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dini, P. [Carleton College, Northfield, MN (United States); Bayly, E. [World Power Technologies, Inc., Duluth, MN (United States)
1996-12-31
A new blade is designed for a small, variable-speed wind turbine by relying on available theoretical design and analysis methods. The performance predictions are compared to field test measurements and are found to be optimistic. This feedback sheds light on the interpretation of the theoretical results and is used to refine the design method. 9 refs., 10 figs.
Circulation control on a rounded trailing-edge wind turbine airfoil using plasma actuators
Baleriola, S.; Leroy, A.; Loyer, S.; Devinant, P.; Aubrun, S.
2016-09-01
This experimental study focuses on the implementation via plasma actuators of a circulation control strategy on a wind turbine aerofoil with a rounded trailing-edge with the objective of reducing the aerodynamic load fluctuations on blades. Three sets of multi-DBD (Dielectric Barrier Discharge) actuators with different positions around the trailing-edge are studied. These actuators create a tangential jet that adheres to the blade model wall and diffuses along it. According to the jet direction, lift is increased or decreased. Load and pressure measurements as well as Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) show respectively the actuation effectiveness in terms of load modification and flow topology alteration.
Popelka, Lukas; Kuklova, Jana; Simurda, David; Souckova, Natalie; Matejka, Milan; Uruba, Vaclav
2012-04-01
Infrared camera, Particle Image Velocimetry, smoke-wire, tuft filaments and oil-flow visualization techniques were used for wind-tunnel and in-flight investigation of boundary layer separation, both stall and separation bubbles, related to the low-Reynolds numbers transition mechanism. Airfoils of Wortmann FX66 series and FX66 series wing-fuselage interaction, as well as modern airfoils and their wing-fuselage geometry were subject to study. The presence of previously identified structures in the CFD modelling, such as horse-shoe vortices, was confirmed in the flow. Wind-tunnels and in-flight measurements on sailplanes were carried out and effect of passive flow control devices - vortex generators - was surveyed; namely counter-rotating vortex generators and Zig-zag type turbulators were applied. Separation suppression and consequent drag coefficient reduction of test aircrafts was reached. PIV investigation was further extended by Time-Resolved techniques. An important study on structure of the turbulent flow in the lower atmosphere, creating an environment of the soaring flight, was presented.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Matejka Milan
2012-04-01
Full Text Available Infrared camera, Particle Image Velocimetry, smoke-wire, tuft filaments and oil-flow visualization techniques were used for wind-tunnel and in-flight investigation of boundary layer separation, both stall and separation bubbles, related to the low-Reynolds numbers transition mechanism. Airfoils of Wortmann FX66 series and FX66 series wing-fuselage interaction, as well as modern airfoils and their wing-fuselage geometry were subject to study. The presence of previously identified structures in the CFD modelling, such as horse-shoe vortices, was confirmed in the flow. Wind-tunnels and in-flight measurements on sailplanes were carried out and effect of passive flow control devices - vortex generators - was surveyed; namely counter-rotating vortex generators and Zig-zag type turbulators were applied. Separation suppression and consequent drag coefficient reduction of test aircrafts was reached. PIV investigation was further extended by Time-Resolved techniques. An important study on structure of the turbulent flow in the lower atmosphere, creating an environment of the soaring flight, was presented.
Beyhaghi, Saman
as compared to the baseline DES. In the second part of this study, the focus is on improving the aerodynamic performance of airfoils and wind turbines in terms of lift and drag coefficients and power generation. One special type of add-on feature for wind turbines and airfoils, i.e., leading-edge slots are investigated through numerical simulation and laboratory experiments. Although similar slots are designed and employed for aircrafts, a special slot with a reversed flow direction is drilled in the leading edge of a sample wind turbine airfoil to study its influence on the aerodynamic performance. The objective is to vary the five main geometrical parameters of slot and characterize the performance improvement of the new design under different operating conditions. A number of Design of Experiment and optimization studies are conducted to determine the most suitable slot configuration to maximize the lift or lift-over-drag ratio. Results indicate that proper sizing and placement of slot can improve the lift coefficient, while it has negligible negative impact on the drag. Some recommendations for future investigation on slot are proposed at the end. The performance of a horizontal axis wind turbine blade equipped with leading-edge slot is also studied, and it is concluded that slotted blades can generate about 10% more power than solid blades, for the two operating conditions investigated. The good agreement between the CFD predictions and experimental data confirms the validity of the model and results.
An Integrated Method for Designing Airfoils Shapes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wang Xudong
2015-01-01
Full Text Available A new method for designing wind turbine airfoils is presented in this paper. As a main component in the design method, airfoil profiles are expressed in a trigonometric series form using conformal transformations and series of polynomial equations. The characteristics of the coefficient parameters in the trigonometric expression for airfoils profiles are first studied. As a direct consequence, three generic airfoil profiles are obtained from the expression. To validate and show the generality of the trigonometric expression, the profiles of the NACA 64418 and S809 airfoils are expressed by the present expression. Using the trigonometric expression for airfoil profiles, a so-called integrated design method is developed for designing wind turbine airfoils. As airfoil shapes are expressed with analytical functions, the airfoil surface can be kept smooth in a high degree. In the optimization step, drag and lift force coefficients are calculated using the XFOIL code. Three new airfoils CQ-A15, CQ-A18, and CQ-A21 with a thickness of 15%, 18%, and 21%, respectively, are designed with the new integrated design method.
Design and experiment of the NPU-WA airfoil family for wind turbines%NPU-WA系列风力机翼型设计与风洞实验
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
乔志德; 宋文萍; 高永卫
2012-01-01
NPU-WA airfoil family is designed for MW-size wind turbines and it is featured by advanced aerodynamic performance at high lift and high Reynolds number. Wind tunnel tests show that the airfoils are of higher lift to drag ratio than present wind turbine airfoils at high lift and high Reynolds number and insen-sitivity of maximum lift to leading edge roughness, which are satisfied the main design requirements. From this study the NPU-WA airfoil data base including geometry and the wind tunnel test performance at Reynolds number from 1. 0×106-5. 0×106 are developed. The airfoils can be applied to MW-size wind turbine design for the China industry with independent intellectual property rights.%针对兆瓦级大型风力机,研究发展了以具有更优良高雷诺数和高升力气动性能为特点的NPU-WA翼型族,风洞实验表明,该翼型族达到了在高雷诺数、高升力条件下实现高升阻比和外侧翼型对粗糙度不敏感的主要设计要求,为我国自主研发大型风力机提供了可以实际使用的翼型几何数据和雷诺数范围内1.0×106～5.0×106的风洞实验数据.
Wind tunnel tests of the NACA 63-415 and a modified NACA 63-415 airfoil
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bak, C.; Fuglsang, P.; Johansen, J.
2000-01-01
a background turbulence intensity of 1%, an inlet flow velocity of 40 m/s which resulted in a Reynolds number of 1.6×106. The airfoil sections had a chord of 0.600 m and 0.606 m for NACA 63-415 and NACA 63-415-Risø-D,respectively. The span was 1.9 m and end plates were used to minimise 3D flow effects...
Unsteady Airloads on Airfoils in Reverse Flow
Lind, Andrew; Jones, Anya
2014-11-01
This work gives insight into the influence of airfoil characteristics on unsteady airloads for rotor applications where local airfoil sections may operate at high and/or reverse flow angles of attack. Two-dimensional wind tunnel experiments have been performed on four airfoil sections to investigate the effects of thickness, camber, and trailing edge shape on unsteady airloads (lift, pressure drag, and pitching moment). These model rotor blades were tested through 360 deg of incidence for 104 vibrations for applications where airfoil sections are subjected to reverse flow, such as high-speed helicopters and tidal turbines.
AirfoilPrep.py Documentation: Release 0.1.0
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ning, S. A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
2013-09-01
AirfoilPrep.py provides functionality to preprocess aerodynamic airfoil data. Essentially, the module is an object oriented version of the AirfoilPrep spreadsheet with additional functionality and is written in the Python language. It allows the user to read in two-dimensional aerodynamic airfoil data, apply three-dimensional rotation corrections for wind turbine applications, and extend the datato very large angles of attack. This document discusses installation, usage, and documentation of the module.
Design and optimization of tidal turbine airfoil
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Grasso, F. [ECN Wind Energy, Petten (Netherlands)
2012-03-15
To increase the ratio of energy capture to the loading and, thereby, to reduce cost of energy, the use of specially tailored airfoils is needed. This work is focused on the design of an airfoil for marine application. Firstly, the requirements for this class of airfoils are illustrated and discussed with reference to the requirements for wind turbine airfoils. Then, the design approach is presented. This is a numerical optimization scheme in which a gradient-based algorithm is used, coupled with the RFOIL solver and a composite Bezier geometrical parameterization. A particularly sensitive point is the choice and implementation of constraints .A section of the present work is dedicated to address this point; particular importance is given to the cavitation phenomenon. Finally, a numerical example regarding the design of a high-efficiency hydrofoil is illustrated, and the results are compared with existing turbine airfoils, considering also the effect on turbine performance due to different airfoils.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Li Jing; Gao Zhenghong; Huang Jiangtao; Zhao Ke
2013-01-01
A robust optimization design approach of natural laminar airfoils is developed in this paper.First,the non-uniform rational B-splines (NURBS) free form deformation method based on NURBS basis function is introduced to the airfoil parameterization.Second,aerodynamic characteristics are evaluated by solving Navier Stokes equations,and the γ-Reθt transition model coupling with shear-stress transport (SST) turbulent model is introduced to simulate boundary layer transition.A numerical simulation of transition flow around NLF0416 airfoil is conducted to test the code.The comparison between numerical simulation results and wind tunnel test data approves the validity and applicability of the present transition model.Third,the optimization system is set up,which uses the separated particle swarm optimization (SPSO) as search algorithm and combines the Kriging models as surrogate model during optimization.The system is applied to carry out robust design about the uncertainty of lift coefficient and Mach number for NASA NLF-0115 airfoil.The data of optimized airfoil aerodynamic characteristics indicates that the optimized airfoil can maintain laminar flow stably in an uncertain range and has a wider range of low drag.
跨声速风洞中的超临界翼型速度场测量%Velocity Field Measurement of Supercritical Airfoil in Transonic Wind Tunnel
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王猛; 李玉军; 衷洪杰
2015-01-01
针对跨声速风洞实验环境，发展适用于高速流动测量的粒子图像测速（PIV）实验技术，从而实现对超临界翼型的非定常流动进行准确的速度场测量。对跨声速风洞中的PIV测量系统进行了如下改进工作：改进粒子播撒装置；对片光光路布局进行了优化；对模型表面进行了防漫反射处理；提高图像位移场计算精度。使用RAE 2822超临界翼型，在FL-1风洞进行实验，来流马赫数为0.6～0.92，雷诺数为1.86×106～2.58×106。结果表明，利用PIV测得的速度场能够有效捕捉激波位置，并且与表面平均压力分布一致，通过对PIV数据进行统计分析可得到激波振荡的类型及幅度等特征。%A PIV measurement system had been developed to measure the unsteady lfow structure of the supercritical airfoil in transonic wind tunnel. The following improvements had been made to the PIV measurement system for transonic wind tunnel: improved particle seeding device, optimized the light path arrangement, anti-diffuse relfection treatment on the model surface, and increased the image displacement ifeld calculation accuracy. An experiment was conducted at FL-1 wind tunnel to investigate the behavior of transient shock wave/boundary layer interaction on a supercritical airfoil (RAE 2822). The Mach number was between 0.6 and 0.92, and Reynolds number between 1.86×106 and 2.58×106. The results show that the velocity ifeld measured by PIV can effectively capture the shock position, and the average pressure distribution is consistent with that of the PIV data. The type and magnitude of the shock wave can be obtained by statistical analysis.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Garcia-Crespo, Andres Jose
2015-03-03
A composite blade assembly for mounting on a turbine wheel includes a ceramic airfoil and an airfoil platform. The ceramic airfoil is formed with an airfoil portion, a blade shank portion and a blade dovetail tang. The metal platform includes a platform shank and a radially inner platform dovetail. The ceramic airfoil is captured within the metal platform, such that in use, the ceramic airfoil is held within the turbine wheel independent of the metal platform.
Design of the LRP airfoil series using 2D CFD
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zahle, Frederik; Bak, Christian; Sørensen, Niels N.;
2014-01-01
This paper describes the design and wind tunnel testing of a high-Reynolds number, high lift airfoil series designed for wind turbines. The airfoils were designed using direct gradient- based numerical multi-point optimization based on a Bezier parameterization of the shape, coupled to the 2D Nav...
Reinforced Airfoil Shaped Body
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
2011-01-01
The present invention relates to an airfoil shaped body with a leading edge and a trailing edge extending along the longitudinal extension of the body and defining a profile chord, the airfoil shaped body comprising an airfoil shaped facing that forms the outer surface of the airfoil shaped body...
Inviscid double wake model for stalled airfoils
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Marion, Lucas; Ramos García, Néstor; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær
2014-01-01
An inviscid double wake model based on a steady two-dimensional panel method has been developed to predict aerodynamic loads of wind turbine airfoils in the deep stall region. The separated flow is modelled using two constant vorticity sheets which are released at the trailing edge and at the sep......An inviscid double wake model based on a steady two-dimensional panel method has been developed to predict aerodynamic loads of wind turbine airfoils in the deep stall region. The separated flow is modelled using two constant vorticity sheets which are released at the trailing edge...... and at the separation point. A calibration of the code through comparison with experiments has been performed using one set of airfoils. A second set of airfoils has been used for the validation of the calibrated model. Predicted aerodynamic forces for a wide range of angles of attack (0 to 90 deg) are in overall good...
EUDP Project: Low Noise Airfoil - Final Report
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
to develop and implement a design procedure to manufacture airfoil profiles with low noise emission. The project involved two experimental campaigns: one in the LM Wind Power wind tunnel, a classical aerodynamic wind tunnel, in Lunderskov (DK), the second one in the Virginia Tech Stability Wind Tunnel......This document summarizes the scientific results achieved during the EUDP-funded project `Low-Noise Airfoil'. The goals of this project are, on one side to develop a measurement technique that permits the evaluation of trailing edge noise in a classical aerodynamic wind tunnel, and on the other side......-mounted microphones in order to evaluate far-field noise emission using additional theoretical results has been validated. This technique presents the advantage that it can easily be used in a classical aerodynamic wind tunnel and does not require the use of an anechoic facility. It was developed as a substitute...
Russian Laminar Flow Airfoils 3rd Part: Measurements on the Profile No. 2315 BIS with Ava-Nose Flap
Riegels, F.
1947-01-01
The tests on the Russian airfoil 2315 Bis were continued. This airfoil shows, according to Moscow tests, good laminar flow characteristics. Several tests were prepared in the large wind tunnel at Gottingen; partial results were obtained.
Research on design methods and aerodynamics performance of CQUDTU-B21 airfoil
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chen, Jin; Cheng, Jiangtao; Wen, Zhong Shen
2012-01-01
This paper presents the design methods of CQU-DTU-B21 airfoil for wind turbine. Compared with the traditional method of inverse design, the new method is described directly by a compound objective function to balance several conflicting requirements for design wind turbine airfoils, which based...... on design theory of airfoil profiles, blade element momentum (BEM) theory and airfoil Self-Noise prediction model. And then an optimization model with the target of maximum power performance on a 2D airfoil and low noise emission of design ranges for angle of attack has been developed for designing CQU...
Aero-elastic stability of airfoil flow using 2-D CFD
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Johansen, J. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)
1999-03-01
A three degrees-of-freedom structural dynamics model has been coupled to a two-dimensional incompressible CFD code. The numerical investigation considers aero-elastic stability for two different airfoils; the NACA0012 and the LM 2 18 % airfoils. Stable and unstable configurations and limit cycle oscillations are predicted in accordance with literature for the first airfoil. An attempt to predict stall induced edge-wise vibrations on a wind turbine airfoil fails using this two-dimensional approach. (au)
Krivcov, Vladimir [Miass, RU; Krivospitski, Vladimir [Miass, RU; Maksimov, Vasili [Miass, RU; Halstead, Richard [Rohnert Park, CA; Grahov, Jurij [Miass, RU
2011-03-08
A vertical axis wind turbine is described. The wind turbine can include a top ring, a middle ring and a lower ring, wherein a plurality of vertical airfoils are disposed between the rings. For example, three vertical airfoils can be attached between the upper ring and the middle ring. In addition, three more vertical airfoils can be attached between the lower ring and the middle ring. When wind contacts the vertically arranged airfoils the rings begin to spin. By connecting the rings to a center pole which spins an alternator, electricity can be generated from wind.
Design and experimental results for the S809 airfoil
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Somers, D M [Airfoils, Inc., State College, PA (United States)
1997-01-01
A 21-percent-thick, laminar-flow airfoil, the S809, for horizontal-axis wind-turbine applications, has been designed and analyzed theoretically and verified experimentally in the low-turbulence wind tunnel of the Delft University of Technology Low Speed Laboratory, The Netherlands. The two primary objectives of restrained maximum lift, insensitive to roughness, and low profile drag have been achieved. The airfoil also exhibits a docile stall. Comparisons of the theoretical and experimental results show good agreement. Comparisons with other airfoils illustrate the restrained maximum lift coefficient as well as the lower profile-drag coefficients, thus confirming the achievement of the primary objectives.
Wind Tunnel Measurements at LM Wind Power
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bertagnolio, Franck
2012-01-01
The optimization of airfoil profiles specifically designed for wind turbine application was initiated in the late 80’s [67, 68, 30, 15]. The first attempts to reduce airfoil noise for wind turbines made use of airfoil trailing edge serration. Themodification of airfoil shapes targeted at noise...... reduction is more recent. An important effort was produced in this direction within the SIROCCO project. This latter work involved measurements on full size wind turbines and showed that trailing edge serration may proved a viable solution for mitigating wind turbine noise though it has not been implemented...... on commercial wind turbine yet. It should be mentioned here that the attenuation of turbulent inflow noise using wavy leading edge has recently been investigated [55], but this technique has still to be further validated for practical applications. In this paper, it is proposed to optimize an airfoil which...
A semi-empirical airfoil stall noise model based on surface pressure measurements
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bertagnolio, Franck; Aagaard Madsen, Helge; Fischer, Andreas
2017-01-01
This work is concerned with the experimental study of airfoil stall and the modelling of stall noise. Using pressure taps and high-frequency surface pressure microphones flush-mounted on airfoils measured in wind tunnels and on an operating wind turbine blade, the characteristics of stall are ana...
Design and validation of the high performance and low noise CQU-DTU-LN1 airfoils
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cheng, Jiangtao; Zhu, Wei Jun; Fischer, Andreas
2014-01-01
with the blade element momentum theory, the viscous-inviscid XFOIL code and an airfoil self-noise prediction model, an optimization algorithm has been developed for designing the high performance and low noise CQU-DTU-LN1 series of airfoils with targets of maximum power coefficient and low noise emission......This paper presents the design and validation of the high performance and low noise Chong Qing University and Technical University of Denmark LN1 (CQU-DTU-LN1) series of airfoils for wind turbine applications. The new design method uses target characteristics of wind turbine airfoils in the design...... emission between the CQU-DTU-LN118 airfoil and the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) 64618 airfoil, which is used in modern wind turbine blades, are carried out. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Yilmaz, Özlem Ceyhan; Pires, Oscar; Munduate, Xabier;
2017-01-01
This paper summarizes the results of a blind test campaign organized in the AVATAR project to predict the high Reynolds number performance of a wind turbine airfoil for wind turbine applications. The DU00-W-210 airfoil was tested in the DNW-HDG pressurized wind tunnel in order to investigate the ...
Transonic flow theory of airfoils and wings
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Garabedian, P R
1976-01-01
Supercritical wing technology is expected to have a significant influence on the next generation of commercial aircraft. Computational fluid dynamics is playing a central role in the development of new supercritical wing sections. One of the principal tools is a fast and reliable code that simulates two-dimensional wind tunnel data for transonic flow at high Reynolds numbers. This is used widely by industry to assess drag creep and drag rise. Codes for the design of shockless airfoils by the hodograph method have not been so well received because they usually require a lot of trial and error. However, a more advanced mathematical approach makes it possible to assign the pressure as a function of the arc length and then obtain a shockless airfoil that nearly achieves the given distribution of pressure. This tool should enable engineers to design families of transonic airfoils more easily both for airplane wings and for compressor blades in cascade.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李传峰; 徐宇; 宋娟娟; 赵晓路; 徐建中
2012-01-01
引入试验中正交设计的思想，通过数值模拟研究了风力机翼型尾缘襟翼不同参数的影响。采用带有转捩模型的SSTk—u湍流模型模拟了基于S809的尾缘襟翼的尺寸、偏斜角度和形状的影响。结果表明：尾缘襟翼尺寸、偏斜角度对于翼型相关气动参数影响较大，在考查参数范围内折中采用10％弦长、偏斜10°的尾缘襟翼综合性能较好；尾缘襟翼形状函数影响相对较小，采用变化较平缓的尾缘襟翼有利于保持流动稳定性。%Introducing the orthogonal experimental design method, influences of different parameters such as the size, angle and shape, on the wind turbine airfoil S809 with a trailing edge flap are studied using SST k - w turbulence model with a transition model. The results indicate that the flap size and angle have big influences on aerodynamic properties of wind turbine airfoil. Among the studied parameters, the flap with 10% chord length and 10° flap angle obtains better performances. The shape of the flap has relatively smaller influences, but it makes for a stable flowfield using a mildly changing flap shape.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李德顺; 李仁年; 杨从新; 王秀勇; 李银然
2011-01-01
Tonal noise production from a wall-mounted finite airfoil
Moreau, Danielle J.; Doolan, Con J.
2016-02-01
This study is concerned with the flow-induced noise of a smooth wall-mounted finite airfoil with flat ended tip and natural boundary layer transition. Far-field noise measurements have been taken at a single observer location and with a microphone array in the Virginia Tech Stability Wind Tunnel for a wall-mounted finite airfoil with aspect ratios of L / C = 1 - 3, at a range of Reynolds numbers (ReC = 7.9 ×105 - 1.6 ×106, based on chord) and geometric angles of attack (α = 0 - 6 °). At these Reynolds numbers, the wall-mounted finite airfoil produces a broadband noise contribution with a number of discrete equispaced tones at non-zero angles of attack. Spectral data are also presented for the noise produced due to three-dimensional vortex flow near the airfoil tip and wall junction to show the contributions of these flow features to airfoil noise generation. Tonal noise production is linked to the presence of a transitional flow state to the trailing edge and an accompanying region of mildly separated flow on the pressure surface. The separated flow region and tonal noise source location shift along the airfoil trailing edge towards the free-end region with increasing geometric angle of attack due to the influence of the tip flow field over the airfoil span. Tonal envelopes defining the operating conditions for tonal noise production from a wall-mounted finite airfoil are derived and show that the domain of tonal noise production differs significantly from that of a two-dimensional airfoil. Tonal noise production shifts to lower Reynolds numbers and higher geometric angles of attack as airfoil aspect ratio is reduced.
Supercritical Airfoil Coordinates
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Rectangular Supercritical Wing (Ricketts) - design and measured locations are provided in an Excel file RSW_airfoil_coordinates_ricketts.xls . One sheet is with Non...
Reinforced Airfoil Shaped Body
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
2011-01-01
The present invention relates to an airfoil shaped body with a leading edge and a trailing edge extending along the longitudinal extension of the body and defining a profile chord, the airfoil shaped body comprising an airfoil shaped facing that forms the outer surface of the airfoil shaped body...... and surrounds an internal volume of the body, a distance member that is connected to the facing inside the body and extends from the facing and into the internal volume of the body, and at least one reinforcing member that operates in tension for reinforcing the facing against inward deflections...... and that is connected to the facing inside the internal volume of the body at the same side of the profile chord as the connection of the distance member to the facing and to the distance member at a distance from the facing....
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yan Dong
2016-11-01
Full Text Available A lack of mitochondrial genome data from myriapods is hampering progress across genetic, systematic, phylogenetic and evolutionary studies. Here, the complete mitochondrial genomes of two millipedes, Asiomorpha coarctata Saussure, 1860 (Diplopoda: Polydesmida: Paradoxosomatidae and Xystodesmus sp. (Diplopoda: Polydesmida: Xystodesmidae were assembled with high coverage using Illumina sequencing data. The mitochondrial genomes of the two newly sequenced species are circular molecules of 15,644 bp and 15,791 bp, within which the typical mitochondrial genome complement of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNAs and two ribosomal RNA genes could be identified. The mitochondrial genome of A. coarctata is the first complete sequence in the family Paradoxosomatidae (Diplopoda: Polydesmida and the gene order of the two flat-backed millipedes is novel among known myriapod mitochondrial genomes. Unique translocations have occurred, including inversion of one half of the two genomes with respect to other millipede genomes. Inversion of the entire side of a genome (trnF-nad5-trnH-nad4-nad4L, trnP, nad1-trnL2-trnL1-rrnL-trnV-rrnS, trnQ, trnC and trnY could constitute a common event in the order Polydesmida. Last, our phylogenetic analyses recovered the monophyletic Progoneata, subphylum Myriapoda and four internal classes.
Dong, Yan; Zhu, Lixin; Bai, Yu; Ou, Yongyue; Wang, Changbao
2016-01-01
Abstract A lack of mitochondrial genome data from myriapods is hampering progress across genetic, systematic, phylogenetic and evolutionary studies. Here, the complete mitochondrial genomes of two millipedes, Asiomorpha coarctata Saussure, 1860 (Diplopoda: Polydesmida: Paradoxosomatidae) and Xystodesmus sp. (Diplopoda: Polydesmida: Xystodesmidae) were assembled with high coverage using Illumina sequencing data. The mitochondrial genomes of the two newly sequenced species are circular molecules of 15,644 bp and 15,791 bp, within which the typical mitochondrial genome complement of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNAs and two ribosomal RNA genes could be identified. The mitochondrial genome of Asiomorpha coarctata is the first complete sequence in the family Paradoxosomatidae (Diplopoda: Polydesmida) and the gene order of the two flat-backed millipedes is novel among known myriapod mitochondrial genomes. Unique translocations have occurred, including inversion of one half of the two genomes with respect to other millipede genomes. Inversion of the entire side of a genome (trnF-nad5-trnH-nad4-nad4L, trnP, nad1-trnL2-trnL1-rrnL-trnV-rrnS, trnQ, trnC and trnY) could constitute a common event in the order Polydesmida. Last, our phylogenetic analyses recovered the monophyletic Progoneata, subphylum Myriapoda and four internal classes. PMID:28138271
Experimental benchmark and code validation for airfoils equipped with passive vortex generators
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Baldacchino, D.; Manolesos, M.; Ferreira, Célia Maria Dias;
2016-01-01
Experimental results and complimentary computations for airfoils with vortex generators are compared in this paper, as part of an effort within the AVATAR project to develop tools for wind turbine blade control devices. Measurements from two airfoils equipped with passive vortex generators, a 30%...
Derivation of airfoil characteristics for the LM 19.1 blade based on 3D CFD rotor calculations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bak, C.; Soerensen, N.N.; Madsen, H.A. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)
1999-03-01
Airfoil characteristics for the LM 19.1 blade are derived from 3D CFD computations on a full-scale 41-m rotor. Based on 3D CFD the force distributions on the blades are determined, from which airfoil characteristics are derived using the momentum theory. The final airfoil characteristics are constructed using both wind tunnel measurements and 3D CFD. Compared to 2D wind tunnel measurements they show a low lift in stall for the airfoil sections at the tip. At the airfoil sections at the inner part of the blade, they show a high lift in stall. At about 60% radius the lift agrees well to 2D wind tunnel measurements. Aero-elastic calculations using the final airfoil characteristics show good agreement to measured power and flap moments. Furthermore, a fatigue load analysis shows a reduction of up to 15% of the load compared to commonly used data. (au)
Study of the TRAC Airfoil Table Computational System
Hu, Hong
1999-01-01
The report documents the study of the application of the TRAC airfoil table computational package (TRACFOIL) to the prediction of 2D airfoil force and moment data over a wide range of angle of attack and Mach number. The TRACFOIL generates the standard C-81 airfoil table for input into rotorcraft comprehensive codes such as CAM- RAD. The existing TRACFOIL computer package is successfully modified to run on Digital alpha workstations and on Cray-C90 supercomputers. A step-by-step instruction for using the package on both computer platforms is provided. Application of the newer version of TRACFOIL is made for two airfoil sections. The C-81 data obtained using the TRACFOIL method are compared with those of wind-tunnel data and results are presented.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Shen, Wen Zhong
2015-01-01
In this chapter, a summary of some ongoing wind energy projects in Denmark is given. The research topics comprise computational model development, wind turbine (WT) design, low-noise airfoil and blade design, control device development, wake modelling and wind farm layout optimization.......In this chapter, a summary of some ongoing wind energy projects in Denmark is given. The research topics comprise computational model development, wind turbine (WT) design, low-noise airfoil and blade design, control device development, wake modelling and wind farm layout optimization....
1943-11-01
diagrama . RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Section Pressure Ditatrlbution Pressure-distribution diagrams of the NACA 66,2-216, 8 = 1,0, airfoil, equipped with a...distribution diagrama of the sealed-internal- balance aileron on the 66,2-216, a = 1.0, airfoil with three vent gaps are given In figure 10. Because
Airfoil Design and Rotorcraft Performance
Bousman, William G.
2003-01-01
The relationship between global performance of a typical helicopter and the airfoil environment, as represented by the airfoil angles of attack and Mach number, has been examined using the comprehensive analysis CAMRAD II. A general correspondence is observed between global performance parameters, such as rotor L/D, and airfoil performance parameters, such as airfoil L/D, the drag bucket boundaries, and the divergence Mach number. Effects of design parameters such as blade twist and rotor speed variation have been examined and, in most cases, improvements observed in global performance are also observed in terms of airfoil performance. The relations observed between global Performance and the airfoil environment suggests that the emphasis in airfoil design should be for good L/D, while the maximum lift coefficient performance is less important.
A study of test section configuration for shock tube testing of transonic airfoils
Cook, W. J.
1978-01-01
Two methods are investigated for alleviating wall interference effects in a shock tube test section intended for testing two-dimensional transonic airfoils. The first method involves contouring the test section walls to match approximate streamlines in the flow. Contours are matched to each airfoil tested to produce results close to those obtained in a conventional wind tunnel. Data from a previous study and the present study for two different airfoils demonstrate that useful results are obtained in a shock tube using a test section with contoured walls. The second method involves use of a fixed-geometry slotted-wall test section to provide automatic flow compensation for various airfoils. The slotted-wall test section developed exhibited the desired performance characteristics in the approximate Mach number range 0.82 to 0.89, as evidenced by good agreement obtained between shock tube and wind tunnel results for several airfoil flows.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nandi, Taraj; Brasseur, James; Vijayakumar, Ganesh
2016-01-04
This study is aimed at gaining insight into the nonsteady transitional boundary layer dynamics of wind turbine blades and the predictive capabilities of URANS based transition and turbulence models for similar physics through the analysis of a controlled flow with similar nonsteady parameters.
On the design of airfoils in which the transition of the boundary layer is delayed
Tani, Itiro
1952-01-01
A method is presented for designing suitable thickness distributions and mean camber lines for airfoils permitting extensive chordwise laminar flow. Wind tunnel and flight tests confirming the existence of laminar flow; possible maintenance of laminar flow by area suction; and the effects of wind tunnel turbulence and surface roughness on the promotion of premature boundary layer transition are discussed. In addition, estimates of profile drag and scale effect on maximum lift of the derived airfoils are made.
Large Eddy Simulations of an Airfoil in Turbulent Inflow
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gilling, Lasse; Sørensen, Niels
2008-01-01
Wind turbines operate in the turbulent boundary layer of the atmosphere and due to the rotational sampling effect the blades experience a high level of turbulence [1]. In this project the effect of turbulence is investigated by large eddy simulations of the turbulent flow past a NACA 0015 airfoil...
Prediction of the Effect of Vortex Generators on Airfoil Performance
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Niels N.; Zahle, Frederik; Bak, Christian;
2014-01-01
Vortex Generators (VGs) are widely used by the wind turbine industry, to control the flow over blade sections. The present work describes a computational fluid dynamic procedure that can handle a geometrical resolved VG on an airfoil section. After describing the method, it is applied to two diff...
Unsteady Double Wake Model for the Simulation of Stalled Airfoils
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ramos García, Néstor; Cayron, Antoine; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær
2015-01-01
separation and its dynamics. In this paper, the calculated integral forces have been successfully validated against wind tunnel measurements for the FFA-W3-211 airfoil. Furthermore, the computed highly unsteady flow field is analyzed in detail for a set of angles of attack ranging from light to deep stall...
Load alleviation on wind turbine blades using variable geometry
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Basualdo, Santiago
2005-01-01
airfoil geometry is an effective means of reducing the vibration magnitudes of an airfoil that represents a section of a wind turbine blade, when subject to stochastic wind signals. The results of this investigation encourage further investigations with 3D aeroelastic models to predict the reduction......) wind turbines, which mainly operate under this flow condition. The results show evident reductions in the airfoil displacements by using simple control strategies having the airfoil position and its first and second derivatives as input, especially at the system's eigenfrequency. The use of variable...... in loads in real wind turbines. Keywords: Variable Geometry, Wind Turbine, Load Alleviation, Fatigue Load, Trailing Edge Flap....
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Shen, Wen Zhong
2014-01-01
In this paper, a summary of some ongoing wind energy projects in Denmark is given. The research topics comprise computational model development, wind turbine design, low noise airfoil and blade design, control device development, wake modelling, and wind farm layout optimization....
Ordered roughness effects on NACA 0026 airfoil
Harun, Z.; Abbas, A. A.; Dheyaa, R. Mohammed; Ghazali, M. I.
2016-10-01
The effects of highly-ordered rough surface - riblets, applied onto the surface of a NACA 0026 airfoil, are investigated experimentally using wind tunnel. The riblets are arranged in directionally converging - diverging pattern with dimensions of height, h = 1 mm, pitch or spacing, s = 1 mm, yaw angle α = 0o and 10o The airfoil with external geometry of 500 mm span, 600 mm chord and 156 mm thickness has been built using mostly woods and aluminium. Turbulence quantities are collected using hotwire anemometry. Hotwire measurements show that flows past converging and diverging pattern inherit similar patterns in the near-wall region for both mean velocity and turbulence intensities profiles. The mean velocity profiles in logarithmic regions for both flows past converging and diverging riblet pattern are lower than that with yaw angle α = 0o. Converging riblets cause the boundary layer to thicken and the flow with yaw angle α = 0o produces the thinnest boundary layer. Both the converging and diverging riblets cause pronounced outer peaks in the turbulence intensities profiles. Most importantly, flows past converging and diverging pattern experience 30% skin friction reductions. Higher order statistics show that riblet surfaces produce similar effects due to adverse pressure gradient. It is concluded that a small strip of different ordered roughness features applied at a leading edge of an airfoil can change the turbulence characteristics dramatically.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gilling, Lasse
of resolved inflow turbulence on airfoil simulations in CFD. The detached-eddy simulation technique is used because it can resolve the inflow turbulence without becoming too computationally expensive due to its limited requirements for mesh resolution in the boundary layer. It cannot resolve the turbulence...... synthetic turbulence in arbitrary domains. The purpose is to generate a synthetic turbulence field corresponding to the field encountered by a rotating blade....
The shock tube as a device for testing transonic airfoils at high Reynolds numbers
Cook, W. J.; Presley, L. L.; Chapman, G. T.
1978-01-01
A performance analysis of gas-driven shock tubes shows that transonic airfoil flows with chord Reynolds numbers in the range of 100 million can be generated behind the primary shock in a large shock tube. A study of flow over simple airfoils has been carried out at low and intermediate Reynolds numbers to assess the testing technique. Results obtained from schlieren photos and airfoil pressure measurements show that steady transonic flows similar to those observed for the airfoils in wind tunnels can be generated within the available testing time in a shock tube with either properly-contoured test section walls or a properly-designed slotted-wall test section. The study indicates that the shock tube is a useful facility for studying two-dimensional high Reynolds number transonic airfoil flows.
PIV MEASUREMENTS OF THE NEAR-WAKE FLOW OF AN AIRFOIL ABOVE A FREE SURFACE
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2007-01-01
The near-wake flow of a NACA0012 airfoils mounted above a water surface were experimentally studied in a wind/wave tunnel. The main objective of this study is to investigate the influence of the free surface on the structure of the airfoil trailing wake. The flow structure was measured with different ride heights between the airfoil and free surface using a Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) system. The Reynolds number based on the chord length of the airfoil was about 3.5×103. For each experimental condition, large amount of instantaneous velocity fields were captured and ensemble-averaged to get the spatial distributions of mean velocity and mean vorticity, as well as turbulence statistics. The results show that the flow structures of the airfoil wake varies remarkably with the change in the ride height.
Turbine airfoil to shround attachment
Campbell, Christian X; Morrison, Jay A; James, Allister W; Snider, Raymond G; Eshak, Daniel M; Marra, John J; Wessell, Brian J
2014-05-06
A turbine airfoil (31) with an end portion (42) that tapers (44) toward the end (43) of the airfoil. A ridge (46) extends around the end portion. It has proximal (66) and distal (67) sides. A shroud platform (50) is bi-cast onto the end portion around the ridge without bonding. Cooling shrinks the platform into compression (62) on the end portion (42) of the airfoil. Gaps between the airfoil and platform are formed using a fugitive material (56) in the bi-casting stage. These gaps are designed in combination with the taper angle (44) to accommodate differential thermal expansion while maintaining a gas seal along the contact surfaces. The taper angle (44) may vary from lesser on the pressure side (36) to greater on the suction side (38) of the airfoil. A collar portion (52) of the platform provides sufficient contact area for connection stability.
Unsteady flow about a circulation control airfoil
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
刘晶昌; 孙茂; 吴礼义
1996-01-01
The unsteady flow around a circulation control (CC) airfoil was investigated with Navier-Stokes method,which includes the flow around CC airfoil with pulsating jet,the flow around oscillating CC airfoil,and the flow around oscillating CC airfoil with pulsating jet.Dynamic properties of the flow and the aerodynamic forces were rewaled.
Study of laminar boundary layer instability noise study on a controlled diffusion airfoil
Jaiswal, Prateek; Sanjose, Marlene; Moreau, Stephane
2016-11-01
Detailed experimental study has been carried out on a Controlled Diffusion (CD) airfoil at 5° angle of attack and at chord based Reynolds number of 1 . 5 ×105 . All the measurements were done in an open-jet anechoic wind tunnel. The airfoil mock-up is held between two side plates, to keep the flow two-dimensional. PIV measurements have been performed in the wake and on the boundary layer of the airfoil. Pressure sensor probes on the airfoil were used to detect mean airfoil loading and remote microphone probes were used to measure unsteady pressure fluctuations on the surface of the airfoil. Furthermore the far field acoustic pressure was measured using an 1/2 inch ICP microphone. The results confirm very later transition of a laminar boundary layer to a turbulent boundary layer on the suction side of the airfoil. The process of transition of laminar to turbulent boundary layer comprises of turbulent reattachment of a separated shear layer. The pressure side of the boundary layer is found to be laminar and stable. Therefore tonal noise generated is attributed to events on suction side of the airfoil. The flow transition and emission of tones are further investigated in detail thanks to the complementary DNS study.
Coupled-Mode Flutter of Bending-Bending Type in Highly-Flexible Uniform Airfoils
Pourazarm, Pariya; Modarres-Sadeghi, Yahya
2016-11-01
We study the behavior of a highly flexible uniform airfoil placed in wind both numerically and experimentally. It is shown that for a non-rotating highly-flexible cantilevered airfoil, placed at very small angles of attack (less than 1 degree), the airfoil loses its stability by buckling. For slightly higher angles of attack (more than 1 degree) a coupled-mode flutter in which the first and the second flapwise modes coalesce toward a flutter mode is observed, and thus the observed flutter has a bending-bending nature. The flutter onset and frequency found experimentally matched the numerical predictions. If the same airfoil is forced to rotate about its fixed end, the static deflection decreases and the observed couple-mode flutter becomes of flapwise-torsional type, same as what has already been observed for flutter of rotating wind turbine blades. The support provided by the National Science Foundation, CBET-1437988, is greatly acknowledged.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Řidký Václav
2014-03-01
Full Text Available The work is devoted to 3D and 2D parallel numerical computation of pressure and velocity fields around an elastically supported airfoil self-oscillating due to interaction with the airflow. Numerical solution is computed in the OpenFOAM package, an open-source software package based on finite volume method. Movement of airfoil is described by translation and rotation, identified from experimental data. A new boundary condition for the 2DOF motion of the airfoil was implemented. The results of numerical simulations (velocity are compared with data measured in a wind tunnel, where a physical model of NACA0015 airfoil was mounted and tuned to exhibit the flutter instability. The experimental results were obtained previously in the Institute of Thermomechanics by interferographic measurements in a subsonic wind tunnel in Nový Knín.
Experimental Study of Tip Vortex Flow from a Periodically Pitched Airfoil Section
Zaman, Khairul; Fagan, Amy; Mankbadi, Mina
2016-01-01
An experimental investigation of tip vortex flow from a NACA0012 airfoil, pitched periodically at various frequencies, is conducted in a low-speed wind tunnel. Initially, data for stationary airfoil held fixed at various angles-of-attack are gathered. Flow visualization pictures as well as detailed cross-sectional properties areobtained at various streamwise locations using hot-wire anemometry. Data include mean velocity, streamwise vorticity as well as various turbulent stresses. Preliminary data are also acquired for periodically pitched airfoil. These results are briefly presented in this extended abstract.
Cross-Validation of Numerical and Experimental Studies of Transitional Airfoil Performance
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Frere, Ariane; Hillewaert, Koen; Sarlak, Hamid
2015-01-01
The aerodynamic performance characteristic of airfoils are the main input for estimating wind turbine blade loading as well as annual energy production of wind farms. For transitional flow regimes these data are difficult to obtain, both experimentally as well as numerically, due to the very high...... sensitivity of the flow to perturbations, large scale separation and performance hysteresis. The objective of this work is to improve the understanding of the transitional airfoil flow performance by studying the S826 NREL airfoil at low Reynolds numbers (Re = 4:104 and 1:105) with two inherently different...... CFD methodologies, in com- bination with wind tunnel experiments. Large-Eddy Simulations (LES) performed with a novel high order code based on the Discontinuous Galerkin Method are compared to LES from the well established wind turbine CFD code EllipSys3D. Both codes are considering natural transition...
Cross-Validation of Numerical and Experimental Studies of Transitional Airfoil Performance
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Frere, Ariane; Hillewaert, Koen; Sarlak, Hamid;
2015-01-01
The aerodynamic performance characteristic of airfoils are the main input for estimating wind turbine blade loading as well as annual energy production of wind farms. For transitional flow regimes these data are difficult to obtain, both experimentally as well as numerically, due to the very high...
Airfoil shape optimization using non-traditional optimization technique and its validation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. Mukesh
2014-07-01
Full Text Available Computational fluid dynamics (CFD is one of the computer-based solution methods which is more widely employed in aerospace engineering. The computational power and time required to carry out the analysis increase as the fidelity of the analysis increases. Aerodynamic shape optimization has become a vital part of aircraft design in the recent years. Generally if we want to optimize an airfoil we have to describe the airfoil and for that, we need to have at least hundred points of x and y co-ordinates. It is really difficult to optimize airfoils with this large number of co-ordinates. Nowadays many different schemes of parameter sets are used to describe general airfoil such as B-spline, and PARSEC. The main goal of these parameterization schemes is to reduce the number of needed parameters as few as possible while controlling the important aerodynamic features effectively. Here the work has been done on the PARSEC geometry representation method. The objective of this work is to introduce the knowledge of describing general airfoil using twelve parameters by representing its shape as a polynomial function. And also we have introduced the concept of Genetic Algorithm to optimize the aerodynamic characteristics of a general airfoil for specific conditions. A MATLAB program has been developed to implement PARSEC, Panel Technique, and Genetic Algorithm. This program has been tested for a standard NACA 2411 airfoil and optimized to improve its coefficient of lift. Pressure distribution and co-efficient of lift for airfoil geometries have been calculated using the Panel method. The optimized airfoil has improved co-efficient of lift compared to the original one. The optimized airfoil is validated using wind tunnel data.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Butterfield, C.P.; Musial, W.P.; Simms, D.A.
1992-10-01
How does wind tunnel airfoil data differ from the airfoil performance on an operating horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT) The National Renewable Energy laboratory has been conducting a comprehensive test program focused on answering this question and understanding the basic fluid mechanics of rotating HAWT stall aerodynamics. The basic approach was to instrument a wind rotor, using an airfoil that was well documented by wind tunnel tests, and measure operating pressure distributions on the rotating blade. Based an the integrated values of the pressure data, airfoil performance coefficients were obtained, and comparisons were made between the rotating data and the wind tunnel data. Care was taken to the aerodynamic and geometric differences between the rotating and the wind tunnel models. This is the first of two reports describing the Combined Experiment Program and its results. This Phase I report covers background information such as test setup and instrumentation. It also includes wind tunnel test results and roughness testing.
A Two Element Laminar Flow Airfoil Optimized for Cruise. M.S. Thesis
Steen, Gregory Glen
1994-01-01
Numerical and experimental results are presented for a new two-element, fixed-geometry natural laminar flow airfoil optimized for cruise Reynolds numbers on the order of three million. The airfoil design consists of a primary element and an independent secondary element with a primary to secondary chord ratio of three to one. The airfoil was designed to improve the cruise lift-to-drag ratio while maintaining an appropriate landing capability when compared to conventional airfoils. The airfoil was numerically developed utilizing the NASA Langley Multi-Component Airfoil Analysis computer code running on a personal computer. Numerical results show a nearly 11.75 percent decrease in overall wing drag with no increase in stall speed at sailplane cruise conditions when compared to a wing based on an efficient single element airfoil. Section surface pressure, wake survey, transition location, and flow visualization results were obtained in the Texas A&M University Low Speed Wind Tunnel. Comparisons between the numerical and experimental data, the effects of the relative position and angle of the two elements, and Reynolds number variations from 8 x 10(exp 5) to 3 x 10(exp 6) for the optimum geometry case are presented.
Mechanism of unconventional aerodynamic characteristics of an elliptic airfoil
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sun Wei
2015-06-01
Full Text Available The aerodynamic characteristics of elliptic airfoil are quite different from the case of conventional airfoil for Reynolds number varying from about 104 to 106. In order to reveal the fundamental mechanism, the unsteady flow around a stationary two-dimensional elliptic airfoil with 16% relative thickness has been simulated using unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations and the γ-Reθt‾ transition turbulence model at different angles of attack for flow Reynolds number of 5 × 105. The aerodynamic coefficients and the pressure distribution obtained by computation are in good agreement with experimental data, which indicates that the numerical method works well. Through this study, the mechanism of the unconventional aerodynamic characteristics of airfoil is analyzed and discussed based on the computational predictions coupled with the wind tunnel results. It is considered that the boundary layer transition at the leading edge and the unsteady flow separation vortices at the trailing edge are the causes of the case. Furthermore, a valuable insight into the physics of how the flow behavior affects the elliptic airfoil’s aerodynamics is provided.
Flow characteristics over NACA4412 airfoil at low Reynolds number
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Genç Mustafa Serdar
2016-01-01
Full Text Available In this study, the flow phenomena over NACA4412 were experimentally observed at various angle of attack and Reynolds number of 25000, 50000 and 75000, respectively. NACA4412 airfoil was manufactured at 3D printer and each tips of the wing were closed by using plexiglas to obtain two-dimensional airfoil. The experiments were conducted at low speed wind tunnel. The force measurement and hot-wire experiments were conducted to obtain data so that the flow phenomenon at the both top and bottom of the airfoil such as the flow separation and vortex shedding were observed. Also, smoke-wire experiment was carried out to visualize the surface flow pattern. After obtaining graphics from both force measurement experiment and hot-wire experiment compared with smoke wire experiment, it was noticed that there is a good coherence among the experiments. It was concluded that as Re number increased, the stall angle increased. And the separation bubble moved towards leading edge over the airfoil as the angle of attack increased.
Computational studies on small wind turbine performance characteristics
Karthikeyan, N.; Suthakar, T.
2016-10-01
To optimize the selection of suitable airfoils for small wind turbine applications, computational investigation on aerodynamic characteristics of low Re airfoils MID321a, MID321d, SG6040, SG6041, SG6042 and SG6043 are carried out for the Reynolds number range of (0.5- 2)×105. The BEM method is used to determine the power coefficient of the rotor from the airfoil characteristics; in addition, the blade parameters like chord and twist are also determined. The newly designed MID321a airfoil shows better aerodynamic performance and maximum power coefficient as compared with other investigated airfoils for wider operating ranges.
Application of shock tubes to transonic airfoil testing at high Reynolds numbers
Cook, W. J.; Chaney, M. J.; Presley, L. L.; Chapman, G. T.
1978-01-01
Performance analysis of a gas-driven shock tube shows that transonic airfoil flows with chord Reynolds numbers of the order of 100 million can be produced, with limitations being imposed by the structural integrity of the facility or the model. A study of flow development over a simple circular arc airfoil at zero angle of attack was carried out in a shock tube at low and intermediate Reynolds numbers to assess the testing technique. Results obtained from schlieren photography and airfoil pressure measurements show that steady transonic flows similar to those produced for the same airfoil in a wind tunnel can be generated within the available testing time in a shock tube with properly contoured test section walls.
High frequency microphone measurements for transition detection on airfoils
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Døssing, Mads
Time series of pressure fluctuations has been obtained using high frequency microphones distributed over the surface of airfoils undergoing wind tunnel tests in the LM Windtunnel, owned by ’LM Glasfiber’, Denmark. The present report describes the dataanalysis, with special attention given...... pressure) and Tollmien-Schlichting frequencies. The tests were made at Reynolds and Mach numbers corresponding to the operating conditions of a typical horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT). The Risø B1-18, Risø C2-18 and NACA0015 profiles were tested and the measured transition points are reported....
Self-induced vibrations of a DU96-W-180 airfoil in stall
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Skrzypinski, Witold Robert; Gaunaa, Mac; Sørensen, Niels N.;
2014-01-01
This work presents an analysis of two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) non-moving, prescribed motion and elastically mounted airfoil computational fluid dynamics (CFD) computations. The elastically mounted airfoil computations were performed by means of a 2D structural model with two d...... are likely to occur at modern wind turbine blades at standstill. In contrast, the predicted cut-in wind speed necessary for the onset of stall-induced vibrations appeared high enough for such vibrations to be unlikely. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....
Comprehensive performance comparison of airfoil fin PCHEs with NACA 00XX series airfoil
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen, Fei, E-mail: chenfei@iet.cn [Institute of Engineering Thermophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Heating Technology Research and Development Center, Beijing District Heating Group, Beijing 100028 (China); Zhang, Lishen, E-mail: lishenzhang@sina.com [Heating Technology Research and Development Center, Beijing District Heating Group, Beijing 100028 (China); Huai, Xiulan, E-mail: hxl@iet.cn [Institute of Engineering Thermophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Li, Jufeng, E-mail: lijufeng.net@163.com [Nuclear and Radiation Safety Center, Ministry of Environmental Protection, Beijing 100082 (China); Zhang, Hang, E-mail: zhanghang@iet.cn [Institute of Engineering Thermophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Liu, Zhigang, E-mail: zgliu9322@163.com [Energy Research Institute of Shandong Academy of Sciences, Jinan, Shandong 250014 (China)
2017-04-15
Highlights: • Pressure drop of NACA 0020 airfoil fin PCHE reduces strikingly in comparison with the zigzag PCHE. • Pressure drop of NACA 00XX airfoil fin PCHE decreases as airfoil thickness increases. • Heat transfer performance of NACA 00XX airfoil fin PCHE increases as airfoil thickness rises. • Comprehensive performance of NACA 00XX airfoil fin PCHE degrades as airfoil thickness increases. - Abstract: Printed circuit heat exchanger (PCHE) can be used in supercritical carbon dioxide (S-CO{sub 2}) Brayton cycle. The present study compares NACA 0020 airfoil fin PCHE with conventional zigzag PCHE by numerical analysis. Pressure drop of the former has a striking reduction while maintaining excellent heat transfer performance. Comparison on four NACA 00XX series airfoil fin PCHEs is performed to investigate the influence of airfoil profile on flow and heat transfer performance. With a fixed vertical pitch, heat transfer performance of NACA series airfoil fin PCHE increases as airfoil thickness increases. However, comprehensive performance, in which both flow and heat transfer are taken into account, degrades with increasing airfoil thickness. Among four NACA airfoil fin PCHEs presented in this paper, NACA 0010 airfoil fin PCHE demonstrates the best comprehensive performance.
Hybrid airfoil design methods for full-scale ice accretion simulation
Saeed, Farooq
The objective of this thesis is to develop a design method together with a design philosophy that allows the design of "subscale" or "hybrid" airfoils that simulate fullscale ice accretions. These subscale or hybrid airfoils have full-scale leading edges and redesigned aft-sections. A preliminary study to help develop a design philosophy for the design of hybrid airfoils showed that hybrid airfoils could be designed to simulate full-scale airfoil droplet-impingement characteristics and, therefore, ice accretion. The study showed that the primary objective in such a design should be to determine the aft section profile that provides the circulation necessary for simulating full-scale airfoil droplet-impingement characteristics. The outcome of the study, therefore, reveals circulation control as the main design variable. To best utilize this fact, this thesis describes two innovative airfoil design methods for the design of hybrid airfoils. Of the two design methods, one uses a conventional flap system while the other only suggests the use of boundary-layer control through slot-suction on the airfoil upper surface as a possible alternative for circulation control. The formulation of each of the two design methods is described in detail, and the results from each method are validated using wind-tunnel test data. The thesis demonstrates the capabilities of each method with the help of specific design examples highlighting their application potential. In particular, the flap-system based hybrid airfoil design method is used to demonstrate the design of a half-scale hybrid model of a full-scale airfoil that simulates full-scale ice accretion at both the design and off-design conditions. The full-scale airfoil used is representative of a scaled modern business-jet main wing section. The study suggests some useful advantages of using hybrid airfoils as opposed to full-scale airfoils for a better understanding of the ice accretion process and the related issues. Results
Advancements in adaptive aerodynamic technologies for airfoils and wings
Jepson, Jeffrey Keith
required for the airfoil-aircraft matching. Examples are presented to illustrate the flapped-airfoil design approach for a general aviation aircraft and the results are validated by comparison with results from post-design aircraft performance computations. Once the airfoil is designed to incorporate a TE flap, it is important to determine the most suitable flap angles along the wing for different flight conditions. The second part of this dissertation presents a method for determining the optimum flap angles to minimize drag based on pressures measured at select locations on the wing. Computational flow simulations using a panel method are used "in the loop" for demonstrating closed-loop control of the flaps. Examples in the paper show that the control algorithm is successful in correctly adapting the wing to achieve the target lift distributions for minimizing induced drag while adjusting the wing angle of attack for operation of the wing in the drag bucket. It is shown that the "sense-and-adapt" approach developed is capable of handling varying and unpredictable inflow conditions. Such a capability could be useful in adapting long-span flexible wings that may experience significant and unknown atmospheric inflow variations along the span. To further develop the "sense-and-adapt" approach, the method was tested experimentally in the third part of the research. The goal of the testing was to see if the same results found computationally can be obtained experimentally. The North Carolina State University subsonic wind tunnel was used for the wind tunnel tests. Results from the testing showed that the "sense-and-adapt" approach has the same performance experimentally as it did computationally. The research presented in this dissertation is a stepping stone towards further development of the concept, which includes modeling the system in the Simulink environment and flight experiments using uninhabited aerial vehicles.
EUDP project 'Low noise airfoil' - Final report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bertagnolio, F. (ed.)
2012-06-15
This document summarizes the scientific results achieved during the EUDP-funded project 'Low-Noise Airfoil'. The goals of this project are, on one side to develop a measurement technique that permits the evaluation of trailing edge noise in a classical aerodynamic wind tunnel, and on the other side to develop and implement a design procedure to manufacture airfoil profiles with low noise emission. The project involved two experimental campaigns: one in the LM Wind Power wind tunnel, a classical aerodynamic wind tunnel, in Lunderskov (Denmark), the second one in the Virginia Tech Stability Wind Tunnel at the Aerospace and Ocean Engineering Department of Virginia Tech (Blacksburg, VA, USA), also a classical aerodynamic wind tunnel but equipped with an anechoic chamber that allow to perform acoustic measurements. On the theoretical side, the above experiments yield a series of model validations and improvements. In particular, the so-called TNO trailing edge noise model could be significantly improved by introducing turbulence anisotropy in its formulation, as well as the influence of the boundary layer mean pressure gradient. This two characteristics are inherent to airfoil flows but were neglected in the original approach. In addition, the experimental results are confronted to detailed Large Eddy Simulations of the airfoil flow giving more insight into the flow turbulence characteristics. The methodology which consists in measuring surface pressure spectra directly on the airfoil surface using flush-mounted microphones in order to evaluate far-field noise emission using additional theoretical results has been validated. This technique presents the advantage that it can easily be used in a classical aerodynamic wind tunnel and does not require the use of an anechoic facility. It was developed as a substitute to the original plan that consisted in measuring acoustic waves using hot-wire velocimetry. This last technique proved ineffective in the LM Wind
URANS simulations of separated flow with stall cells over an NREL S826 airfoil
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sarlak Chivaee, Hamid; Nishino, T.; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær
2016-01-01
A series of wind tunnel measurements and oil flow visualization was recently carried out at the Technical University of Denmark in order to investigate flow characteristics over a 14% thick NREL S826 airfoil at low Reynolds numbers. This paper aims at presenting numerical simulations of the same ...
2013-12-24
helicopter rotor blades , wind turbine blades , pitching and flapping airfoils and wings, and rotating turbomachinery blades . For instance, helicopter...the date of this printing . List the papers, including journal references, in the following categories: (b) Papers published in non-peer-reviewed...77 A.3.5 3D Taylor-Green vortex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 A.4 Summary
URANS simulations of separated flow with stall cells over an NREL S826 airfoil
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sarlak Chivaee, Hamid; Nishino, T.; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær
2016-01-01
A series of wind tunnel measurements and oil flow visualization was recently carried out at the Technical University of Denmark in order to investigate flow characteristics over a 14% thick NREL S826 airfoil at low Reynolds numbers. This paper aims at presenting numerical simulations of the same ...
Ice-induced unsteady flowfield effects on airfoil performance
Gurbacki, Holly Marie
Numerical prediction of iced-airfoil performance prior to and at maximum lift is often inaccurate due to large-scale flow unsteadiness. New computational models are being developed to improve predictions of complex separated flowfields; however, experimental data are required to improve and validate these algorithms. The objective of this investigation was to examine the unsteady flow behavior and the time-dependent performance of an iced airfoil to determine the flowfield characteristics with the most influence on airfoil performance, especially near stall. A NACA 0012 airfoil with two-dimensional and three-dimensional leading-edge simulated glaze ice shapes was tested in a wind tunnel at Reynolds numbers 1.8 x 106 and 1.0 x 106. Time-dependent surface pressure measurements were used to calculate root-mean-square lift and quarter-chord pitching-moment coefficients. Surface and flowfield visualization and wake hot-wire data were acquired. Spectral, correlation and phase-angle analyses were performed. The most significant unsteady flowfield effect on the iced-airfoil performance was a low-frequency flow phenomenon on the order of 10 Hz that resulted in Strouhal numbers of 0.0048--0.0101. The low-frequency oscillation produced large-scale pressure fluctuations nears eparation at high angles of attack and elevated lift and moment fluctuations as low as alpha = 4°. The low-frequency motion of surface pressure coefficients convected downstream at velocities 4%--34% of the freestream value and in one case, upstream at 0.18Uinfinity. The iced-airfoil flowfield exhibited a separation bubble of varying thickness and fluctuating reattachment, characteristics similar to those associated with the low-frequency shear-layer flapping and bubble growth and decay of other separated and reattached flows. Vortex structures observed in the shear layer were presumed to be the cause of large-scale pressure fluctuations upstream of reattachment at small angles of attack. Pressure
CFD Study of NACA 0018 Airfoil with Flow Control
Eggert, Christopher A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.
2017-01-01
The abilities of two different Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes codes to predict the effects of an active flow control device are evaluated. The flow control device consists of a blowing slot located on the upper surface of an NACA 0018 airfoil, near the leading edge. A second blowing slot present on the airfoil near mid-chord is not evaluated here. Experimental results from a wind tunnel test show that a slot blowing with high momentum coefficient will increase the lift of the airfoil (compared to no blowing) and delay flow separation. A slot with low momentum coefficient will decrease the lift and induce separation even at low angles of attack. Two codes, CFL3D and FUN3D, are used in two-dimensional computations along with several different turbulence models. Two of these produced reasonable results for this flow, when run fully turbulent. A more advanced transition model failed to predict reasonable results, but warrants further study using different inputs. Including inviscid upper and lower tunnel walls in the simulations was found to be important in obtaining pressure distributions and lift coefficients that best matched experimental data. A limited number of three-dimensional computations were also performed.
Aerodynamic Control of a Pitching Airfoil by Distributed Bleed Actuation
Kearney, John; Glezer, Ari
2013-11-01
The aerodynamic forces and moments on a dynamically pitching 2-D airfoil model are controlled in wind tunnel experiments using distributed active bleed. Bleed flow on the suction surface downstream of the leading edge is driven by pressure differences across the airfoil and is regulated by low-power louver actuators. The bleed interacts with cross flows to effect time-dependent variations of the vorticity flux and thereby alters the local flow attachment, resulting in significant changes in pre- and post-stall lift and pitching moment (over 50% increase in baseline post-stall lift). The flow field over the airfoil is measured using high-speed (2000 fps) PIV, resolving the dynamics and characteristic time-scales of production and advection of vorticity concentrations that are associated with transient variations in the aerodynamic forces and moments. In particular, it is shown that the actuation improves the lift hysteresis and pitch stability during the oscillatory pitching by altering the evolution of the dynamic stall vortex and the ensuing flow attachment during the downstroke. Supported by the Rotorcraft Center (VLRCOE) at Georgia Tech.
A dynamic stall model for airfoils with deformable trailing edges
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Peter Bjørn; Gaunaa, Mac; Bak, Christian;
2009-01-01
, lead-lag, pitch, trailing-edge flapping. In the linear region, the model reduces to the inviscid model, which includes the aerodynamic effect of a thin airfoil with a deformable camberline in inviscid flow. Therefore, the proposed model can be considered a crossover between the work of Gaunaa...... for the attached flow region and Hansen et al. The model is compared qualitatively to wind tunnel measurements of a Riso/ B1-18 blade section equipped with deformable trailing-edge flap devices in the form of piezoelectric devices. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....
Experimental Optimization Methods for Multi-Element Airfoils
Landman, Drew; Britcher, Colin P.
1996-01-01
A modern three element airfoil model with a remotely activated flap was used to investigate optimum flap testing position using an automated optimization algorithm in wind tunnel tests. Detailed results for lift coefficient versus flap vertical and horizontal position are presented for two angles of attack: 8 and 14 degrees. An on-line first order optimizer is demonstrated which automatically seeks the optimum lift as a function of flap position. Future work with off-line optimization techniques is introduced and aerodynamic hysteresis effects due to flap movement with flow on are discussed.
Assessment of PIV-based unsteady load determination of an airfoil with actuated flap
Sterenborg, J. J. H. M.; Lindeboom, R. C. J.; Simão Ferreira, C. J.; van Zuijlen, A. H.; Bijl, H.
2014-02-01
For complex experimental setups involving movable structures it is not trivial to directly measure unsteady loads. An alternative is to deduce unsteady loads indirectly from measured velocity fields using Noca's method. The ultimate aim is to use this method in future work to determine unsteady loads for fluid-structure interaction problems. The focus in this paper is first on the application and assessment of Noca's method for an airfoil with an oscillating trailing edge flap. To our best knowledge Noca's method has not been applied yet to airfoils with moving control surfaces or fluid-structure interaction problems. In addition, wind tunnel corrections for this type of unsteady flow problem are considered.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fischer, Andreas
2011-01-01
for aerodynamic wind tunnels with a hard wall test section. Acoustic far field sound measurements are not possible in this tunnel due to the high background noise. The second wind tunnel is owned by Virginia Tech University. The test section has Kevlar walls which are acoustically transparent and it is surrounded......, trailing edge noise can be evaluated by means of measured surface pressure field, even in cases where a direct measurement of trailing edge noise is not possible. This opens up great new vistas, i.e. by testing new airfoils in a standard industrial wind tunnel or by testing new wind turbine rotors...
Three-dimensional effects on airfoil measurements at high Reynolds numbers
Kiefer, Janik; Miller, Mark; Hultmark, Marcus; Hansen, Martin
2016-11-01
Blade Element Momentum codes (BEM) are widely used in the wind turbine industry to determine a turbine's operational range and its limits. Empirical two-dimensional airfoil data serve as the primary and fundamental input to the BEM code. Consequently, the results of BEM simulations are strongly dependent on the accuracy of these data. In this presentation, an experimental study is described in which airfoils of different aspect ratios were tested at identical Reynolds numbers. A high-pressure wind tunnel facility is used to achieve large Reynolds numbers of Rec = 3 ×106 , even with small chord lengths. This methodology enables testing of very high aspect ratio airfoils to characterize 3-D effects on the lift and drag data. The tests were performed over a large range of angles of attack, which is especially important for wind turbines. The effect of varying aspect ratio on the aerodynamic characteristics of the airfoil is discussed with emphasis on the outcome of a BEM simulation. The project was partially funded by NSF CBET-1435254 (program manager Dr. Gregory Rorrer).
Wind as a renewable energy resource
Hawsey, R. A.; Ferraro, R. J.
1988-12-01
A description of the United States wind energy technology status, a discussion of recent milestones achieved in wind power, and a call for action in order for competitive wind systems to become practical in an international marketplace is presented in this report. An immediate opportunity to initiate a joint venture project with the government, equipment developers, equipment manufacturers, utilities, and the Electric Power Research Institute is described. The key technical areas of materials technology for reduced airfoil fatigue, airfoil design for optimum new-site performance, and power electronics for variable-speed wind turbines are highlighted.
Analysis of horizontal axis wind turbine blade using CFD
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The main purpose of this work is to perform CFD analysis of a blade and airfoil of wind .... (2014) performed CFD analysis for design modification and optimization of .... airfoil for incoming flow is more than upper surface so the incoming air can ...
Wind Tunnel Measurements at LM Wind Power
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bertagnolio, Franck
2012-01-01
This section presents the results obtained during the experimental campaign that was conducted in the wind tunnel at LM Wind Power in Lunderskov from August 16th to 26th, 2010. The goal of this study is to validate the so-called TNO trailing edge noise model through measurements of the boundary...... layer turbulence characteristics and the far-field noise generated by the acoustic scattering of the turbulent boundary layer vorticies as they convect past the trailing edge. This campaign was conducted with a NACA0015 airfoil section that was placed in the wind tunnel section. It is equipped with high...
CFD simulation of flow-induced vibration of an elastically supported airfoil
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Šidlof Petr
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Flow-induced vibration of lifting or control surfaces in aircraft may lead to catastrophic consequences. Under certain circumstances, the interaction between the airflow and the elastic structure may lead to instability with energy transferred from the airflow to the structure and with exponentially increasing amplitudes of the structure. In the current work, a CFD simulation of an elastically supported NACA0015 airfoil with two degrees of freedom (pitch and plunge coupled with 2D incompressible airflow is presented. The geometry of the airfoil, mass, moment of inertia, location of the centroid, linear and torsional stiffness was matched to properties of a physical airfoil model used for wind-tunnel measurements. The simulations were run within the OpenFOAM computational package. The results of the CFD simulations were compared with the experimental data.
Airfoil design: Finding the balance between design lift and structural stiffness
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bak, Christian; Gaudern, Nicholas; Zahle, Frederik
2014-01-01
When upscaling wind turbine blades there is an increasing need for high levels of structural efficiency. In this paper the relationships between the aerodynamic characteristics; design lift and lift-drag ratio; and the structural characteristics were investigated. Using a unified optimization setup......, the design lift coefficient increases if the box length reduces and at the same time the relative thickness increases. Even though the conclusions are specific to the airfoil design approach used, the study indicated that an increased design lift required slightly higher relative thickness compared...... to airfoils with lower design lift to maintain the flapwise stiffness. Also, the study indicated that the lift-drag ratio as a function of flapwise stiffness was relatively independent of the airfoil design with a tendency that the lift-drag ratio decreased for large box lengths. The above conclusions were...
Application of numerical optimization to the design of advanced supercritical airfoils
Johnson, R. R.; Hicks, R. M.
1979-01-01
An application of numerical optimization to the design of advanced airfoils for transonic aircraft showed that low-drag sections can be developed for a given design Mach number without an accompanying drag increase at lower Mach numbers. This is achieved by imposing a constraint on the drag coefficient at an off-design Mach number while minimizing the drag coefficient at the design Mach number. This multiple design-point numerical optimization has been implemented with the use of airfoil shape functions which permit a wide range of attainable profiles during the optimization process. Analytical data for the starting airfoil shape, a single design-point optimized shape, and a double design-point optimized shape are presented. Experimental data obtained in the NASA Ames two-by two-foot wind tunnel are also presented and discussed.
Design Of An Aerodynamic Measurement System For Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Airfoils
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
L. Velázquez-Araque
2012-10-01
Full Text Available This paper presents the design and validation of a measurement system for aerodynamic characteristics of unmanned aerial vehicles. An aerodynamic balance was designed in order to measure the lift, drag forces and pitching moment for different airfoils. During the design process, several aspects were analyzed in order to produce an efficient design, for instance the range of changes of the angle of attack with and a small increment and the versatility of being adapted to different type of airfoils, since it is a wire balance it was aligned and calibrated as well. Wind tunnel tests of a two dimensional NACA four digits family airfoil and four different modifications of this airfoil were performed to validate the aerodynamic measurement system. The modification of this airfoil was made in order to create a blowing outlet with the shape of a step on the suction surface. Therefore, four different locations along the cord line for this blowing outlet were analyzed. This analysis involved the aerodynamic performance which meant obtaining lift, drag and pitching moment coefficients curves as a function of the angle of attack experimentally for the situation where the engine of the aerial vehicle is turned off, called the no blowing condition, by means of wind tunnel tests. The experiments were performed in a closed circuit wind tunnel with an open test section. Finally, results of the wind tunnel tests were compared with numerical results obtained by means of computational fluid dynamics as well as with other experimental references and found to be in good agreement.
Rudmin, Daniel
Previous research at RMC has cataloged the occurrence of limit cycle oscillations at low-to-moderate Reynolds numbers for an elastically mounted aeroelastic airfoil. These oscillations were attributed to boundary layer separation and the formation of a laminar separation bubble. For this thesis, an instrumented and motor-driven oscillating airfoil rig was designed and fabricated for the purpose of investigating the boundary layer of a NACA-0012 airfoil. The oscillating airfoil was driven by a servo motor to mimic the observed aeroelastic pitching with a sinusoid of matched amplitude and frequency. Hot-wire anemometry was used to investigate the near wake of the new motor-driven airfoil and compare it with the aeroelastic experiment. A chord-wise array of hot-film sensors captured the boundary layer state during the airfoil pitching oscillation. A novel analysis technique is introduced; A sliding window (in time) cross-correlation of adjacent sensors was used to detect dynamic laminar separation. Wind tunnel tests were performed at static angles-of-attack, for quasi-static very low frequency sweeps to verify the technique, and for selected cases of oscillations obtained with the aeroelastic rig. The new detection method was verified against the existing static techniques of phase reversal signature detection and signal cross-correlation by comparing quasi-static and static results. A map of the laminar separation bubble was produced for fixed angles of attack as well as for the pitching airfoil. The presence of a laminar separation was linked to the occurrence and characteristics of the limit cycle oscillations. Keywords: laminar separation, NACA0012, hot-film, hot-wire, anemometry, transitional flow, aeroelasticity.
Dag, Yusuf
Forced convection over traditional surfaces such as flat plate, cylinder and sphere have been well researched and documented. Data on forced convection over airfoil surfaces, however, remain very scanty in literature. High altitude vehicles that employ airfoils as lifting surfaces often suffer leading edge ice accretions which have tremendous negative consequences on the lifting capabilities and stability of the vehicle. One of the ways of mitigating the effect of ice accretion involves judicious leading edge convective cooling technique which in turn depends on the accuracy of convective heat transfer coefficient used in the analysis. In this study empirical investigation of convective heat transfer measurements on asymmetric airfoil is presented at different angle of attacks ranging from 0° to 20° under subsonic flow regime. The top and bottom surface temperatures are measured at given points using Senflex hot film sensors (Tao System Inc.) and used to determine heat transfer characteristics of the airfoils. The model surfaces are subjected to constant heat fluxes using KP Kapton flexible heating pads. The monitored temperature data are then utilized to determine the heat convection coefficients modelled empirically as the Nusselt Number on the surface of the airfoil. The experimental work is conducted in an open circuit-Eiffel type wind tunnel, powered by a 37 kW electrical motor that is able to generate subsonic air velocities up to around 41 m/s in the 24 square-inch test section. The heat transfer experiments have been carried out under constant heat flux supply to the asymmetric airfoil. The convective heat transfer coefficients are determined from measured surface temperature and free stream temperature and investigated in the form of Nusselt number. The variation of Nusselt number is shown with Reynolds number at various angles of attacks. It is concluded that Nusselt number increases with increasing Reynolds number and increase in angle of attack from 0
Measuring Lift with the Wright Airfoils
Heavers, Richard M.; Soleymanloo, Arianne
2011-01-01
In this laboratory or demonstration exercise, we mount a small airfoil with its long axis vertical at one end of a nearly frictionless rotating platform. Air from a leaf blower produces a sidewise lift force L on the airfoil and a drag force D in the direction of the air flow (Fig. 1). The rotating platform is kept in equilibrium by adding weights…
Manela, A.
2016-07-01
The acoustic signature of an acoustically compact tandem airfoil setup in uniform high-Reynolds number flow is investigated. The upstream airfoil is considered rigid and is actuated at its leading edge with small-amplitude harmonic pitching motion. The downstream airfoil is taken passive and elastic, with its motion forced by the vortex-street excitation of the upstream airfoil. The non-linear near-field description is obtained via potential thin-airfoil theory. It is then applied as a source term into the Powell-Howe acoustic analogy to yield the far-field dipole radiation of the system. To assess the effect of downstream-airfoil elasticity, results are compared with counterpart calculations for a non-elastic setup, where the downstream airfoil is rigid and stationary. Depending on the separation distance between airfoils, airfoil-motion and airfoil-wake dynamics shift between in-phase (synchronized) and counter-phase behaviors. Consequently, downstream airfoil elasticity may act to amplify or suppress sound through the direct contribution of elastic-airfoil motion to the total signal. Resonance-type motion of the elastic airfoil is found when the upstream airfoil is actuated at the least stable eigenfrequency of the downstream structure. This, again, results in system sound amplification or suppression, depending on the separation distance between airfoils. With increasing actuation frequency, the acoustic signal becomes dominated by the direct contribution of the upstream airfoil motion, whereas the relative contribution of the elastic airfoil to the total signature turns negligible.
Transitory Control of the Aerodynamic Loads on an Airfoil in Dynamic Pitch and Plunge
Tan, Yuehan; Crittenden, Thomas; Glezer, Ari
2016-11-01
Transitory control and regulation of trapped vorticity concentrations are exploited in wind tunnel experiments for control of the aerodynamic loads on an airfoil moving in time-periodic 2-DOF (pitch and plunge) beyond the dynamic stall margin. Actuation is effected using a spanwise array of integrated miniature chemical (combustion based) high-impulse actuators that are triggered intermittently relative to the airfoil's motion. Each actuation pulse has sufficient control authority to alter the global aerodynamic performance throughout the motion cycle on a characteristic time scale that is an order of magnitude shorter than the airfoil's convective time scale. The effects of the actuation on the aerodynamic characteristics of the airfoil are assessed using time-dependent measurements of the lift force and pitching moment coupled with time-resolved particle image velocimetry that is acquired phased-locked to the motion of the airfoil. It is shown that the aerodynamic loads can be significantly altered using actuation programs based on multiple actuation pulses during the time-periodic pitch/plunge cycle. Superposition of such actuation programs leads to enhancement of cycle lift and pitch stability, and reduced cycle hysteresis and peak pitching moment. Supported by GT-VLRCOE.
Flow past a self-oscillating airfoil with two degrees of freedom: measurements and simulations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Šidlof Petr
2014-03-01
Full Text Available The paper focuses on investigation of the unsteady subsonic airflow past an elastically supported airfoil for subcritical flow velocities and during the onset of the flutter instability. A physical model of the NACA0015 airfoil has been designed and manufactured, allowing motion with two degrees of freedom: pitching (rotation about the elastic axis and plunging (vertical motion. The structural mass and stiffness matrix can be tuned to certain extent, so that the natural frequencies of the two modes approach as needed. The model was placed in the measuring section of the wind tunnel in the aerodynamic laboratory of the Institute of Thermomechanics in Nový Knín, and subjected to low Mach number airflow up to the flow velocities when self-oscillation reach amplitudes dangerous for the structural integrity of the model. The motion of the airfoil was registered by a high-speed camera, with synchronous measurement of the mechanic vibration and discrete pressure sensors on the surface of the airfoil. The results of the measurements are presented together with numerical simulation results, based on a finite volume CFD model of airflow past a vibrating airfoil.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhang Lizhen; Wang Xiaoming; Miguel A.González Hernández; Wang Jun
2008-01-01
This paper was to validate the effects of airfoil thickness ratio on the characteristics of a family of airfoils.Re-search was carried out in different ways.First,tests were conducted in the wind tunnel.And numerical simulation was performed on the basis of tests.Results from calculation were consistent with tests,indicating that numerical method could help evaluate characteristics of airfoils.Then the results were confirmed by compared with empirical data.The study also showed that the determining factor of lift is not only the thickness ratio,but the angle of attack,the relative camber and the camber line.The thickness ratio appears to have little effect on lift coefficient at zero angle of attack,since the angle of zero llft is largely determined by the airfoil camber.According to the research,numerical simulation can be used to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of airfoils in different environment such as in the dusty or hu-mid air.
Application of a Beamforming Technique to the Measurement of Airfoil Leading Edge Noise
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Thomas Geyer
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The present paper describes the use of microphone array technology and beamforming algorithms for the measurement and analysis of noise generated by the interaction of a turbulent flow with the leading edge of an airfoil. Experiments were performed using a setup in an aeroacoustic wind tunnel, where the turbulent inflow is provided by different grids. In order to exactly localize the aeroacoustic noise sources and, moreover, to separate airfoil leading edge noise from grid-generated noise, the selected deconvolution beamforming algorithm is extended to be used on a fully three-dimensional source region. The result of this extended beamforming are three-dimensional mappings of noise source locations. Besides acoustic measurements, the investigation of airfoil leading edge noise requires the measurement of parameters describing the incident turbulence, such as the intensity and a characteristic length scale or time scale. The method used for the determination of these parameters in the present study is explained in detail. To demonstrate the applicability of the extended beamforming algorithm and the experimental setup as a whole, the noise generated at the leading edge of airfoils made of porous materials was measured and compared to that generated at the leading edge of a common nonporous airfoil.
Study of airfoil trailing edge bluntness noise
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhu, Wei Jun; Shen, Wen Zhong; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær
2010-01-01
This paper deals with airfoil trailing edge noise with special focus on airfoils with blunt trailing edges. Two methods are employed to calculate airfoil noise: The flow/acoustic splitting method and the semi-empirical method. The flow/acoustic splitting method is derived from compressible Navier...... design or optimization. Calculations from both methods are compared with exist experiments. The airfoil blunt noise is found as a function of trailing edge bluntness, Reynolds number, angle of attack, etc.......-Stokes equations. It provides us possibilities to study details about noise generation mechanism. The formulation of the semi-empirical model is based on acoustic analogy and then curve-fitted with experimental data. Due to its high efficiency, such empirical relation is used for purpose of low noise airfoil...
NASA low- and medium-speed airfoil development
Mcghee, R. J.; Beasley, W. D.; Whitcomb, R. T.
1979-01-01
The status of NASA low and medium speed airfoil research is discussed. Effects of airfoil thickness-chord ratios varying from 9 percent to 21 percent on the section characteristics for a design lift coefficient of 0.40 are presented for the initial low speed family of airfoils. Also, modifications to the 17-percent low-speed airfoil to reduce the pitching-moment coefficient and to the 21-percent low speed airfoil results are shown for two new medium speed airfoils with thickness ratios of 13 percent and 17 percent and design-lift coefficients of 0.30. Applications of NASA-developed airfoils to general aviation aircraft are summarized.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Velte, Clara Marika; Hansen, Martin Otto Laver
2013-01-01
Stereoscopic Particle Image Velocimetry measurements investigating the effect of vortex generators (VGs) on the flow near stall were carried out in a purpose-built wind tunnel for airfoil investigations on a DU 91-W2-250 profile. Measurements were conducted at Re = 0.9⋅106, corresponding to free...
Unsteady Thick Airfoil Aerodynamics: Experiments, Computation, and Theory
Strangfeld, C.; Rumsey, C. L.; Mueller-Vahl, H.; Greenblatt, D.; Nayeri, C. N.; Paschereit, C. O.
2015-01-01
An experimental, computational and theoretical investigation was carried out to study the aerodynamic loads acting on a relatively thick NACA 0018 airfoil when subjected to pitching and surging, individually and synchronously. Both pre-stall and post-stall angles of attack were considered. Experiments were carried out in a dedicated unsteady wind tunnel, with large surge amplitudes, and airfoil loads were estimated by means of unsteady surface mounted pressure measurements. Theoretical predictions were based on Theodorsen's and Isaacs' results as well as on the relatively recent generalizations of van der Wall. Both two- and three-dimensional computations were performed on structured grids employing unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS). For pure surging at pre-stall angles of attack, the correspondence between experiments and theory was satisfactory; this served as a validation of Isaacs theory. Discrepancies were traced to dynamic trailing-edge separation, even at low angles of attack. Excellent correspondence was found between experiments and theory for airfoil pitching as well as combined pitching and surging; the latter appears to be the first clear validation of van der Wall's theoretical results. Although qualitatively similar to experiment at low angles of attack, two-dimensional URANS computations yielded notable errors in the unsteady load effects of pitching, surging and their synchronous combination. The main reason is believed to be that the URANS equations do not resolve wake vorticity (explicitly modeled in the theory) or the resulting rolled-up un- steady flow structures because high values of eddy viscosity tend to \\smear" the wake. At post-stall angles, three-dimensional computations illustrated the importance of modeling the tunnel side walls.
Falco UAV Low Reynolds Airfoil Design and Testing at Galileo Avionica
2007-04-01
thickness to chord ratio. The airfoil selected among a wide range of geometries optimizing the two design points has been investigated using CFD for...ALSWT Alenia Low Speed Wind Tunnel A/P Autopilot AR Aspect Ratio CD Drag Coefficient CFD Computational Fluid Dynamics CMIC Continuous...features (estimated geometrical characteristics) Air Vehicle T/O weight [kg] Wing surf . [m2] Wing span [m] AR M.A.C. [m] Meteor Mirach 26 230 2.94
A semi-empirical airfoil stall noise model based on surface pressure measurements
Bertagnolio, Franck; Madsen, Helge Aa.; Fischer, Andreas; Bak, Christian
2017-01-01
This work is concerned with the experimental study of airfoil stall and the modelling of stall noise. Using pressure taps and high-frequency surface pressure microphones flush-mounted on airfoils measured in wind tunnels and on an operating wind turbine blade, the characteristics of stall are analyzed. This study shows that the main quantities of interest, namely convection velocity, spatial correlation and surface pressure spectra, can be scaled highlighting the universal nature of stall independently of airfoil shapes and flow conditions, although within a certain range of experimental conditions. Two main regimes for the scaling of the correlation lengths and the surface pressure spectra, depending on the Reynolds number of the flow, can be distinguished. These results are used to develop a model for the surface pressure spectra within the detached flow region valid for Reynolds numbers ranging from 1 ×106 to 6 ×106. Subsequently, this model is used to derive a model for stall noise. Modelled noise spectra are compared with experimental data measured in anechoic wind tunnels with reasonably satisfactory agreement.
High Reynolds number test of a NACA 651-213, a equals 0.5 airfoil at transonic speeds
Burdges, K. P.; Blackwell, J. A., Jr.; Pounds, G. A.
1975-01-01
Wind-Tunnel tests were conducted in the Lockheed-Georgia Company's compressible flow facility to determine the transonic two-dimensional aerodynamic characteristics of a NACA 65 sub 1-213 a = 0.50 airfoil. The results are correlated with data obtained in the NASA-Langley 8-foot transonic pressure tunnel and the NAE high Reynolds number 15x60-inch two-dimensional test facility. The tests were conducted over a Mach number range from 0.60 to 0.80 and an angle of attack range from -1 deg to 8 deg. Reynolds numbers, based on the airfoil chord, were varied.
Experimental Study of Tip Vortex Flow from a Periodically Pitched Airfoil Section
Zaman, KBMQ; Fagan, A. F.; Mankbadi, M. R.
2016-01-01
An experimental investigation of a tip vortex from a NACA0012 airfoil is conducted in a low-speed wind tunnel at a chord Reynolds number of 4x10(exp 4). Initially, data for a stationary airfoil held at various angles-of-attack (alpha) are gathered. Detailed surveys are done for two cases: alpha=10 deg with attached flow and alpha=25 deg with massive flow separation on the upper surface. Distributions of various properties are obtained using hot-wire anemometry. Data include mean velocity, streamwise vorticity and turbulent stresses at various streamwise locations. For all cases, the vortex core is seen to involve a mean velocity deficit. The deficit apparently traces to the airfoil wake, part of which gets wrapped by the tip vortex. At small alpha, the vortex is laminar within the measurement domain. The strength of the vortex increases with increasing alpha but undergoes a sudden drop around alpha (is) greater than 16 deg. The drop in peak vorticity level is accompanied by transition and a sharp rise in turbulence within the core. Data are also acquired with the airfoil pitched sinusoidally. All oscillation cases pertain to a mean alpha=15 deg while the amplitude and frequency are varied. An example of phase-averaged data for an amplitude of +/-10 deg and a reduced frequency of k=0.2 is discussed. All results are compared with available data from the literature shedding further light on the complex dynamics of the tip vortex.
Control of Pitching Airfoil Aerodynamics by Vorticity Flux Modification using Active Bleed
Kearney, John; Glezer, Ari
2014-11-01
Distributed active bleed driven by pressure differences across a pitching airfoil is used to regulate the vorticity flux over the airfoil's surface and thereby to control aerodynamic loads in wind tunnel experiments. The range of pitch angles is varied beyond the static stall margin of the 2-D VR-7 airfoil at reduced pitching rates up to k = 0.42. Bleed is regulated dynamically using piezoelectric louvers between the model's pressure side near the trailing edge and the suction surface near the leading edge. The time-dependent evolution of vorticity concentrations over the airfoil and in the wake during the pitch cycle is investigated using high-speed PIV and the aerodynamic forces and moments are measured using integrated load cells. The timing of the dynamic stall vorticity flux into the near wake and its effect on the flow field are analyzed in the presence and absence of bleed using proper orthogonal decomposition (POD). It is shown that bleed actuation alters the production, accumulation, and advection of vorticity concentrations near the surface with significant effects on the evolution, and, in particular, the timing of dynamic stall vortices. These changes are manifested by alteration of the lift hysteresis and improvement of pitch stability during the cycle, while maintaining cycle-averaged lift to within 5% of the base flow level with significant implications for improvement of the stability of flexible wings and rotor blades. This work is supported by the Rotorcraft Center (VLRCOE) at Georgia Tech.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Troldborg, Niels
2005-01-01
A comprehensive computational study, in both steady and unsteady flow conditions, has been carried out to investigate the aerodynamic characteristics of the Risø-B1.18 airfoil equipped with variable trailing edge geometry as produced by a hinged flap. The function of such flaps should be to decre...... frequencies, was investigated so that an optimum design can be suggested for application with wind turbine blades. It is concluded that a moderately curved flap with flap chord to airfoil curve ratio between 0.05 and 0.10 would be an optimum choice....... on the baseline airfoil showed excellent agreement with measurements on the same airfoil with the same specified conditions. Furthermore, a more widespread comparison with an advanced potential theory code is presented. The influence of various key parameters, such as flap shape, flap size and oscillating...
Dynamic stall on a pitching and surging airfoil
Dunne, Reeve; McKeon, Beverley J.
2015-08-01
Vertical axis wind turbine blades undergo dynamic stall due to the large angle of attack variation they experience during a turbine rotation. The flow over a single blade was modeled using a sinusoidally pitching and surging airfoil in a non-rotating frame with a constant freestream flow at a mean chord Reynolds number of . Two-dimensional, time-resolved velocity fields were acquired using particle image velocimetry. Vorticity contours were used to visualize shear layer and vortex activity. A low-order model of dynamic stall was developed using dynamic mode decomposition, from which primary and secondary dynamic separation modes were identified. The interaction between these two modes was able to capture the physics of dynamic stall and as such can be extended to other turbine configurations and problems in unsteady aerodynamics. Results from the linear pitch/surge frame are extrapolated to the rotating VAWT frame to investigate the behavior of identified flow structures.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Døssing, Mads
Time series of pressure fluctuations has been obtained using high frequency microphones distributed over the surface of airfoils undergoing wind tunnel tests in the LM Windtunnel, owned by ’LM Glasfiber’, Denmark. The present report describes the dataanalysis, with special attention given...... pressure) and Tollmien-Schlichting frequencies. The tests were made at Reynolds and Mach numbers corresponding to the operating conditions of a typical horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT). The Risø B1-18, Risø C2-18 and NACA0015 profiles were tested and the measured transition points are reported....
Numerical study of the static and pitching RISØ-B1-18 airfoil
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bertagnolio, Franck
2004-01-01
The objective of this report is the better understanding of the physics of the aeroelastic motion of wind turbine blades in order to improve the numerical models used for their design. In this study, the case of the RISØ-B1-18 airfoil which was equippedand measured in an open jet wind tunnel...... is studied. Two and three dimensional Navier-Stokes calculations using the k-w SST and Detached Eddy Simulation turbulence models are conducted. An engineering semi-empirical dynamic stall model is also used forperforming calculations. Computational results are compared to the experimental results...
Analysis of non-symmetrical flapping airfoils
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
W.B.Tay; K.B.Lim
2009-01-01
Simulations have been done to assess the lift, thrust and propulsive efficiency of different types of nonsymmetrical airfoils under different flapping configurations. The variables involved are reduced frequency, Strouhal number, pitch amplitude and phase angle. In order to analyze the variables more efficiently, the design of experiments using the response surface methodology is applied. Results show that both the variables and shape of the airfoil have a profound effect on the lift, thrust, and efficiency. By using nonsymmetrical airfoils, average lift coefficient as high as 2.23 can be obtained. The average thrust coefficient and efficiency also reach high values of 2.53 and 0.6 I, respectively. The lift production is highly dependent on the airfoil's shape while thrust production is influenced more heavily by the variables. Efficiency falls somewhere in between. Two-factor interactions are found to exist among the variables. This shows that it is not sufficient to analyze each variable individually. Vorticity diagrams are analyzed to explain the results obtained. Overall, the S1020 airfoil is able to provide relatively good efficiency and at the same time generate high thrust and lift force. These results aid in the design of a better omithopter's wing.
Vortex noise from nonrotating cylinders and airfoils
Schlinker, R. H.; Amiet, R. K.; Fink, M. R.
1976-01-01
An experimental study of vortex-shedding noise was conducted in an acoustic research tunnel over a Reynolds-number range applicable to full-scale helicopter tail-rotor blades. Two-dimensional tapered-chord nonrotating models were tested to simulate the effect of spanwise frequency variation on the vortex-shedding mechanism. Both a tapered circular cylinder and tapered airfoils were investigated. The results were compared with data for constant-diameter cylinder and constant-chord airfoil models also tested during this study. Far-field noise, surface pressure fluctuations, and spanwise correlation lengths were measured for each configuration. Vortex-shedding noise for tapered cylinders and airfoils was found to contain many narrowband-random peaks which occurred within a range of frequencies corresponding to a predictable Strouhal number referenced to the maximum and minimum chord. The noise was observed to depend on surface roughness and Reynolds number.
Boundary layer separation and reattachment detection on airfoils by thermal flow sensors.
Sturm, Hannes; Dumstorff, Gerrit; Busche, Peter; Westermann, Dieter; Lang, Walter
2012-10-24
A sensor concept for detection of boundary layer separation (flow separation, stall) and reattachment on airfoils is introduced in this paper. Boundary layer separation and reattachment are phenomena of fluid mechanics showing characteristics of extinction and even inversion of the flow velocity on an overflowed surface. The flow sensor used in this work is able to measure the flow velocity in terms of direction and quantity at the sensor's position and expected to determine those specific flow conditions. Therefore, an array of thermal flow sensors has been integrated (flush-mounted) on an airfoil and placed in a wind tunnel for measurement. Sensor signals have been recorded at different wind speeds and angles of attack for different positions on the airfoil. The sensors used here are based on the change of temperature distribution on a membrane (calorimetric principle). Thermopiles are used as temperature sensors in this approach offering a baseline free sensor signal, which is favorable for measurements at zero flow. Measurement results show clear separation points (zero flow) and even negative flow values (back flow) for all sensor positions. In addition to standard silicon-based flow sensors, a polymer-based flexible approach has been tested showing similar results.
Multi-pass cooling for turbine airfoils
Liang, George
2011-06-28
An airfoil for a turbine vane of a gas turbine engine. The airfoil includes an outer wall having pressure and suction sides, and a radially extending cooling cavity located between the pressure and suction sides. A plurality of partitions extend radially through the cooling cavity to define a plurality of interconnected cooling channels located at successive chordal locations through the cooling cavity. The cooling channels define a serpentine flow path extending in the chordal direction. Further, the cooling channels include a plurality of interconnected chambers and the chambers define a serpentine path extending in the radial direction within the serpentine path extending in the chordal direction.
Effects of Leading Edge Defect on the Aerodynamic and Flow Characteristics of an S809 Airfoil
Wang, Yan; Zheng, Xiaojing; Hu, Ruifeng; Wang, Ping
2016-01-01
Background Unexpected performance degradation occurs in wind turbine blades due to leading edge defect when suffering from continuous impacts with rain drops, hails, insects, or solid particles during its operation life. To assess this issue, this paper numerically investigates the steady and dynamic stall characteristics of an S809 airfoil with various leading edge defects. More leading edge defect sizes and much closer to practical parameters are investigated in the paper. Methodology Numerical computation is conducted using the SST k-ω turbulence model, and the method has been validated by comparison with existed published data. In order to ensure the calculation convergence, the residuals for the continuity equation are set to be less than 10−7 and 10−6 in steady state and dynamic stall cases. The simulations are conducted with the software ANSYS Fluent 13.0. Results It is found that the characteristics of aerodynamic coefficients and flow fields are sensitive to leading edge defect both in steady and dynamic conditions. For airfoils with the defect thickness of 6%tc, leading edge defect has a relative small influence on the aerodynamics of S809 airfoil. For other investigated defect thicknesses, leading edge defect has much greater influence on the flow field structures, pressure coefficients and aerodynamic characteristics of airfoil at relative small defect lengths. For example, the lift coefficients decrease and drag coefficients increase sharply after the appearance of leading edge defect. However, the aerodynamic characteristics could reach a constant value when the defect length is large enough. The flow field, pressure coefficient distribution and aerodynamic coefficients do not change a lot when the defect lengths reach to 0.5%c,1%c, 2%c and 3%c with defect thicknesses of 6%tc, 12%tc,18%tc and 25%tc, respectively. In addition, the results also show that the critical defect length/thickness ratio is 0.5, beyond which the aerodynamic characteristics
Effects of Leading Edge Defect on the Aerodynamic and Flow Characteristics of an S809 Airfoil.
Wang, Yan; Zheng, Xiaojing; Hu, Ruifeng; Wang, Ping
Unexpected performance degradation occurs in wind turbine blades due to leading edge defect when suffering from continuous impacts with rain drops, hails, insects, or solid particles during its operation life. To assess this issue, this paper numerically investigates the steady and dynamic stall characteristics of an S809 airfoil with various leading edge defects. More leading edge defect sizes and much closer to practical parameters are investigated in the paper. Numerical computation is conducted using the SST k-ω turbulence model, and the method has been validated by comparison with existed published data. In order to ensure the calculation convergence, the residuals for the continuity equation are set to be less than 10-7 and 10-6 in steady state and dynamic stall cases. The simulations are conducted with the software ANSYS Fluent 13.0. It is found that the characteristics of aerodynamic coefficients and flow fields are sensitive to leading edge defect both in steady and dynamic conditions. For airfoils with the defect thickness of 6%tc, leading edge defect has a relative small influence on the aerodynamics of S809 airfoil. For other investigated defect thicknesses, leading edge defect has much greater influence on the flow field structures, pressure coefficients and aerodynamic characteristics of airfoil at relative small defect lengths. For example, the lift coefficients decrease and drag coefficients increase sharply after the appearance of leading edge defect. However, the aerodynamic characteristics could reach a constant value when the defect length is large enough. The flow field, pressure coefficient distribution and aerodynamic coefficients do not change a lot when the defect lengths reach to 0.5%c,1%c, 2%c and 3%c with defect thicknesses of 6%tc, 12%tc,18%tc and 25%tc, respectively. In addition, the results also show that the critical defect length/thickness ratio is 0.5, beyond which the aerodynamic characteristics nearly remain unchanged. In
Investigation of flow past a translatoric oscillating airfoil using detached eddy simulation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Reck, Mads; Hansen, Martin Otto Laver; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær
2003-01-01
. The DES method difines a hybrid method combining Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) in the attached boundary layer with Large Eddy Simulation (LES) in the outer separated regions, thus resolving largescaled transient turbulent motion. Comparison to existing unsteady k-w-SST RANS simulations...... at the high angle of attacks often experienced by the individual rotor blade. The present paper covers simulation of a translatoric oscillating NACA 0015 airfoil at a Reynolds number of 555,000, corresponding to avialable experimental data, using the newly adopted Detached Eddy Simulation (DES) approach......Wind turbine rotor blades in operation have been observed to undergo stall-induced lead-lag instabilities resulting in dramatic reduction of blade life, due to structural fatigue. Previous attempts to numerically simulate the flow past a translatoric oscillating airfoil have been few and feeble...
Airfoil profile optimization of an air suction equipment with an air duct
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Qiu Li
2015-01-01
Full Text Available On the basis of boundary layer with the airfoil profile, this research attempts to investigate the effect of the angle of spread of the winged air suction equipment on the efficiency of operation. The application of Fluent with the split-middle method under the identical operation mode is expected to optimize the spread angle. The investigated airfoil profile is NACA6413, of which the restrictions on the critical angle of spread suggested in literature will be overcome through the interactions between the internal and external flow fields. As a result, the air speed might increase. The wind tunnel test employed in this research offers the solid evidences to support this hypothesis. The test demonstrates that when the angle of spread is larger than 12°, the effect of accelerating the air flow is still observable. Following the optimization, the air suction effect of the equipment would be optimal when its angle of spread reached 30°.
Van Fossen, G. James; De Witt, Kenneth J.; Newton, James E.; Poinsatte, Phillip E.
1988-01-01
Wind tunnels typically have higher free stream turbulence levels than are found in flight. Turbulence intensity was measured to be 0.5 percent in the NASA Lewis Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) with the cloud making sprays off and around 2 percent with cloud making equipment on. Turbulence intensity for flight conditions was found to be too low to make meaningful measurements for smooth air. This difference between free stream and wind tunnel conditions has raised questions as to the validity of results obtained in the IRT. One objective of these tests was to determine the effect of free stream turbulence on convective heat transfer for the NASA Lewis LEWICE ice growth prediction code. These tests provide in-flight heat transfer data for a NASA-0012 airfoil with a 533 cm chord. Future tests will measure heat transfer data from the same airfoil in the Lewis Icing Research Tunnel. Roughness was obtained by the attachment of small, 2 mm diameter hemispheres of uniform size to the airfoil in three different patterns. Heat transfer measurements were recorded in flight on the NASA Lewis Twin Otter Icing Research Aircraft. Measurements were taken for the smooth and roughened surfaces at various aircraft speeds and angles of attack up to four degrees. Results are presented as Frossling number versus position on the airfoil for various roughnesses and angles of attack.
ANALYSIS OF TRANSONIC FLOW PAST CUSPED AIRFOILS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jiří Stodůlka
2015-06-01
Full Text Available Transonic flow past two cusped airfoils is numerically solved and achieved results are analyzed by means of flow behavior and oblique shocks formation.Regions around sharp trailing edges are studied in detail and parameters of shock waves are solved and compared using classical shock polar approach and verified by reduction parameters for symmetric configurations.
LES tests on airfoil trailing edge serration
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhu, Wei Jun; Shen, Wen Zhong
2016-01-01
In the present study, a large number of acoustic simulations are carried out for a low noise airfoil with different Trailing Edge Serrations (TES). The Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings (FWH) acoustic analogy is used for noise prediction at trailing edge. The acoustic solver is running on the platform...
Analysis of non-symmetrical flapping airfoils
Tay, W. B.; Lim, K. B.
2009-08-01
Simulations have been done to assess the lift, thrust and propulsive efficiency of different types of non-symmetrical airfoils under different flapping configurations. The variables involved are reduced frequency, Strouhal number, pitch amplitude and phase angle. In order to analyze the variables more efficiently, the design of experiments using the response surface methodology is applied. Results show that both the variables and shape of the airfoil have a profound effect on the lift, thrust, and efficiency. By using non-symmetrical airfoils, average lift coefficient as high as 2.23 can be obtained. The average thrust coefficient and efficiency also reach high values of 2.53 and 0.61, respectively. The lift production is highly dependent on the airfoil’s shape while thrust production is influenced more heavily by the variables. Efficiency falls somewhere in between. Two-factor interactions are found to exist among the variables. This shows that it is not sufficient to analyze each variable individually. Vorticity diagrams are analyzed to explain the results obtained. Overall, the S1020 airfoil is able to provide relatively good efficiency and at the same time generate high thrust and lift force. These results aid in the design of a better ornithopter’s wing.
Numerical modeling of aerodynamics of airfoils of micro air vehicles in gusty environment
Gopalan, Harish
The superior flight characteristics exhibited by birds and insects can be taken as a prototype of the most perfect form of flying machine ever created. The design of Micro Air Vehicles (MAV) which tries mimic the flight of birds and insects has generated a great deal of interest as the MAVs can be utilized for a number of commercial and military operations which is usually not easily accessible by manned motion. The size and speed of operation of a MAV results in low Reynolds number flight, way below the flying conditions of a conventional aircraft. The insensitivity to wind shear and gust is one of the required factors to be considered in the design of airfoil for MAVs. The stability of flight under wind shear is successfully accomplished in the flight of birds and insects, through the flapping motion of their wings. Numerous studies which attempt to model the flapping motion of the birds and insects have neglected the effect of wind gust on the stability of the motion. Also sudden change in flight conditions makes it important to have the ability to have an instantaneous change of the lift force without disturbing the stability of the MAV. In the current study, two dimensional rigid airfoil, undergoing flapping motion is studied numerically using a compressible Navier-Stokes solver discretized using high-order finite difference schemes. The high-order schemes in space and in time are needed to keep the numerical solution economic in terms of computer resources and to prevent vortices from smearing. The numerical grid required for the computations are generated using an inverse panel method for the streamfunction and potential function. This grid generating algorithm allows the creation of single-block orthogonal H-grids with ease of clustering anywhere in the domain and the easy resolution of boundary layers. The developed numerical algorithm has been validated successfully against benchmark problems in computational aeroacoustics (CAA), and unsteady viscous
Structural optimization study of composite wind turbine blade
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chen, Jin; Shen, Wen Zhong; Wang, Quan;
2013-01-01
In this paper the initial layout of a 2. MW composite wind turbine blade is designed first. The new airfoils families are selected to design a 2. MW wind turbine blade. The finite element parametric model for the blade is established. Based on the modified Blade Element Momentum theory, a new one...
Comparisons between LES and Wind Tunnel Hot-Wire Measurements
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhu, Wei Jun; Shen, Wen Zhong; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær
2012-01-01
is constructed in a wind tunnel similar to the LM wind tunnel where the experiment for an NACA 0015 airfoil was carried out. The goal of this study is to validate the mixed scale SGS turbulence model against detailed measurements. Simulations are performed with the in-house EllipSys3D code on high performance...
Turbine airfoil having near-wall cooling insert
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Martin, Jr., Nicholas F.; Wiebe, David J.
2017-09-12
A turbine airfoil is provided with at least one insert positioned in a cavity in an airfoil interior. The insert extends along a span-wise extent of the turbine airfoil and includes first and second opposite faces. A first near-wall cooling channel is defined between the first face and a pressure sidewall of an airfoil outer wall. A second near-wall cooling channel is defined between the second face and a suction sidewall of the airfoil outer wall. The insert is configured to occupy an inactive volume in the airfoil interior so as to displace a coolant flow in the cavity toward the first and second near-wall cooling channels. A locating feature engages the insert with the outer wall for supporting the insert in position. The locating feature is configured to control flow of the coolant through the first or second near-wall cooling channel.
Turbine airfoil with laterally extending snubber having internal cooling system
Scribner, Carmen Andrew; Messmann, Stephen John; Marsh, Jan H.
2016-09-06
A turbine airfoil usable in a turbine engine and having at least one snubber with a snubber cooling system positioned therein and in communication with an airfoil cooling system is disclosed. The snubber may extend from the outer housing of the airfoil toward an adjacent turbine airfoil positioned within a row of airfoils. The snubber cooling system may include an inner cooling channel separated from an outer cooling channel by an inner wall. The inner wall may include a plurality of impingement cooling orifices that direct impingement fluid against an outer wall defining the outer cooling channel. In one embodiment, the cooling fluids may be exhausted from the snubber, and in another embodiment, the cooling fluids may be returned to the airfoil cooling system. Flow guides may be positioned in the outer cooling channel, which may reduce cross-flow by the impingement orifices, thereby increasing effectiveness.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
孙茂; Hossein Hamdani
2001-01-01
The aerodynamic force and flow structure of NACA 0012 airfoil performing an unsteady motion at low Reynolds number (Re = 100) are calculated by solving Navier-Stokes equations. The motion consists of three parts: the first translation, rotation and the second translation in the direction opposite to the first.The rotation and the second translation in this motion are expected to represent the rotation and translation of the wing-section of a hovering insect. The flow structure is used in combination with the theory of vorticity dynamics to explain the generation of unsteady aerodynamic force in the motion. During the rotation, due to the creation of strong vortices in short time, large aerodynamic force is produced and the force is almost normal to the airfoil chord. During the second translation, large lift coefficient can be maintained for certain time period and CL1, the lift coefficient averaged over four chord lengths of travel, is larger than 2 (the corresponding steady-state lift coefficient is only 0.9). The large lift coefficient is due to two effects. The first is the delayed shedding of the stall vortex. The second is that the vortices created during the airfoil rotation and in the near wake left by previous translation form a short "vortex street" in front of the airfoil and the "vortex street" induces a "wind";against this "wind" the airfoil translates, increasing its relative speed. The above results provide insights to the understanding of the mechanism of high-lift generation by a hovering insect.
Ice Accretion on Wind Turbine Blades
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hudecz, Adriána; Koss, Holger; Hansen, Martin Otto Laver
2013-01-01
In this paper, both experimental and numerical simulations of the effects of ice accretion on a NACA 64-618 airfoil section with 7° angle of attack are presented. The wind tunnel tests were conducted in a closed-circuit climatic wind tunnel at Force Technology in Denmark. The changes of aerodynamic...... forces were monitored as ice was building up on the airfoil for glaze, rime and mixed ice. In the first part of the numerical analysis, the resulted ice profiles of the wind tunnel tests were compared to profiles estimated by using the 2D ice accretion code TURBICE. In the second part, Ansys Fluent...... of the rime iced ice profile follows the streamlines quite well, disturbing the flow the least. The TURBICE analysis agrees fairly with the profiles produced during the wind tunnel testing....
Flow Visualization around a Double Wedge Airfoil Model with Focusing Schlieren System
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Masashi KASHITANI; Yutaka YAMAGUCHI
2006-01-01
In the present study, aerodynamic characteristics of the double wedge airfoil model were investigated in a transonic flow by using the shock tube as an intermittent wind tunnel. The driver and driven gases of the shock tube are dry air. The airfoil model of double wedge has the span of 58 mm, chord length c = 75 mm and its maximum thickness is 7.5 mm. The apex of the double wedge airfoil model is located on the 35% chord length from the leading edge. The range of hot gas Mach numbers are from 0.80 to 0.88, and the Reynolds numbers based on chord length are 3.11×105～3.49×105, respectively. The flow visualizations were performed by the sharp focusing schlieren method which can visualize the three dimensional flow fields. The results show that the present system can visualize the transonic flowfield clearer than the previous system, and the shock wave profiles of the center of span in the test section are visualized
Large Eddy Simulation of Surface Pressure Fluctuations on a Stalled Airfoil
Lele, Sanjiva; Kocheemoolayil, Joseph
2016-11-01
The surface pressure fluctuations beneath the separated flow over a turbine blade are believed to be responsible for a phenomenon known as Other Amplitude Modulation (OAM) of wind turbine noise. Developing the capability to predict stall noise from first-principles is a pacing item within the context of critically evaluating this conjecture. We summarize the progress made towards using large eddy simulations to predict stall noise. Successful prediction of pressure fluctuations on the airfoil surface beneath the suction side boundary layer is demonstrated in the near-stall and post-stall regimes. Previously unavailable two-point statistics necessary for characterizing the surface pressure fluctuations more completely are documented. The simulation results indicate that the space-time characteristics of pressure fluctuations on the airfoil surface change drastically in the near-stall and post-stall regimes. The changes are not simple enough to be accounted for by straight-forward scaling laws. The eddies responsible for surface pressure fluctuations and hence far-field noise are significantly more coherent across the span of the airfoil in the post-stall regime relative to the more canonical attached configurations.
Accurate load prediction by BEM with airfoil data from 3D RANS simulations
Schneider, Marc S.; Nitzsche, Jens; Hennings, Holger
2016-09-01
In this paper, two methods for the extraction of airfoil coefficients from 3D CFD simulations of a wind turbine rotor are investigated, and these coefficients are used to improve the load prediction of a BEM code. The coefficients are extracted from a number of steady RANS simulations, using either averaging of velocities in annular sections, or an inverse BEM approach for determination of the induction factors in the rotor plane. It is shown that these 3D rotor polars are able to capture the rotational augmentation at the inner part of the blade as well as the load reduction by 3D effects close to the blade tip. They are used as input to a simple BEM code and the results of this BEM with 3D rotor polars are compared to the predictions of BEM with 2D airfoil coefficients plus common empirical corrections for stall delay and tip loss. While BEM with 2D airfoil coefficients produces a very different radial distribution of loads than the RANS simulation, the BEM with 3D rotor polars manages to reproduce the loads from RANS very accurately for a variety of load cases, as long as the blade pitch angle is not too different from the cases from which the polars were extracted.
Delayed Detached Eddy Simulation of Flow Over an Airfoil with Synthetic Jet Control
Lopez, Omar; Uday, Godse; Moser, Robert
2007-11-01
Delayed Detached-Eddy Simulation (DDES) is a hybrid RANS-LES model similar to DES but with modifications to reduce the influences of ambiguous grid densities in the numerical results. This model was implemented in CDP, a parallel unstructured grid incompressible flow solver, developed at the Center for Integrated Turbulence Simulations (CITS) at Stanford University. CDP has the advantage of being nearly energy conserving. Several simulations at static angles of attack at a Re based on the chord of 5.7e5 showed good agreement with experiments and other computational studies. Simulations of pitching and plunging cases have also yield good results. This simulation capability is being used to model closed-loop flow control of the airfoil. The action of tangential-blowing synthetic jet actuators mounted near the trailing edge of the airfoil are modeled as local momentum sources, based on detailed measurements of this configuration conducted at Georgia Tech. Resulting simulations show the effects of the actuators on the vortical structure of the flow, as well as on the aerodynamic properties. By integrating actuator and sensor models with a model of the flow controller, we will be able to simulate experiments currently being conducted by A.Glezer and his group at Georgia Tech. on the control of an airfoil in a wind tunnel.
Turbomachinery Airfoil Design Optimization Using Differential Evolution
Madavan, Nateri K.; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
An aerodynamic design optimization procedure that is based on a evolutionary algorithm known at Differential Evolution is described. Differential Evolution is a simple, fast, and robust evolutionary strategy that has been proven effective in determining the global optimum for several difficult optimization problems, including highly nonlinear systems with discontinuities and multiple local optima. The method is combined with a Navier-Stokes solver that evaluates the various intermediate designs and provides inputs to the optimization procedure. An efficient constraint handling mechanism is also incorporated. Results are presented for the inverse design of a turbine airfoil from a modern jet engine and compared to earlier methods. The capability of the method to search large design spaces and obtain the optimal airfoils in an automatic fashion is demonstrated. Substantial reductions in the overall computing time requirements are achieved by using the algorithm in conjunction with neural networks.
BIFURCATIONS OF AIRFOIL IN INCOMPRESSIBLE FLOW
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LiuFei; YangYiren
2005-01-01
Bifurcations of an airfoil with nonlinear pitching stiffness in incompressible flow are investigated. The pitching spring is regarded as a spring with cubic stiffness. The motion equations of the airfoil are written as the four dimensional one order differential equations. Taking air speed and the linear part of pitching stiffness as the parameters, the analytic solutions of the critical boundaries of pitchfork bifurcations and Hopf bifurcations are obtained in 2 dimensional parameter plane. The stabilities of the equilibrium points and the limit cycles in different regions of 2 dimensional parameter plane are analyzed. By means of harmonic balance method, the approximate critical boundaries of 2-multiple semi-stable limit cycle bifurcations are obtained, and the bifurcation points of supercritical or subcritical Hopf bifurcation are found. Some numerical simulation results are given.
Turbine airfoil with ambient cooling system
Campbell, Jr, Christian X.; Marra, John J.; Marsh, Jan H.
2016-06-07
A turbine airfoil usable in a turbine engine and having at least one ambient air cooling system is disclosed. At least a portion of the cooling system may include one or more cooling channels configured to receive ambient air at about atmospheric pressure. The ambient air cooling system may have a tip static pressure to ambient pressure ratio of at least 0.5, and in at least one embodiment, may include a tip static pressure to ambient pressure ratio of between about 0.5 and about 3.0. The cooling system may also be configured such that an under root slot chamber in the root is large to minimize supply air velocity. One or more cooling channels of the ambient air cooling system may terminate at an outlet at the tip such that the outlet is aligned with inner surfaces forming the at least one cooling channel in the airfoil to facilitate high mass flow.
2010-08-01
airfoils where the drag coefficient within the laminar bucket is nearly constant. (See, for example, ref. 4.) This characteristic is related to the...edge with increasing (decreasing) lift coefficient. This feature results in a leading-edge shape that produces a suction peak at higher lift...should look like sketch 3. Sketch 3 1Director, Institute for Aerodynamics and Gas Dynamics, University of Stuttgart, Germany, 1974–1985.5 No suction
Computing Aerodynamic Performance of a 2D Iced Airfoil: Blocking Topology and Grid Generation
Chi, X.; Zhu, B.; Shih, T. I.-P.; Slater, J. W.; Addy, H. E.; Choo, Yung K.; Lee, Chi-Ming (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
The ice accrued on airfoils can have enormously complicated shapes with multiple protruded horns and feathers. In this paper, several blocking topologies are proposed and evaluated on their ability to produce high-quality structured multi-block grid systems. A transition layer grid is introduced to ensure that jaggedness on the ice-surface geometry do not to propagate into the domain. This is important for grid-generation methods based on hyperbolic PDEs (Partial Differential Equations) and algebraic transfinite interpolation. A 'thick' wrap-around grid is introduced to ensure that grid lines clustered next to solid walls do not propagate as streaks of tightly packed grid lines into the interior of the domain along block boundaries. For ice shapes that are not too complicated, a method is presented for generating high-quality single-block grids. To demonstrate the usefulness of the methods developed, grids and CFD solutions were generated for two iced airfoils: the NLF0414 airfoil with and without the 623-ice shape and the B575/767 airfoil with and without the 145m-ice shape. To validate the computations, the computed lift coefficients as a function of angle of attack were compared with available experimental data. The ice shapes and the blocking topologies were prepared by NASA Glenn's SmaggIce software. The grid systems were generated by using a four-boundary method based on Hermite interpolation with controls on clustering, orthogonality next to walls, and C continuity across block boundaries. The flow was modeled by the ensemble-averaged compressible Navier-Stokes equations, closed by the shear-stress transport turbulence model in which the integration is to the wall. All solutions were generated by using the NPARC WIND code.
Ravi, Sridhar; Watkins, Simon; Watmuff, Jon; Massey, Kevin; Petersen, Phred; Marino, Matthew; Ravi, Anuradha
2012-09-01
Micro Air Vehicles (MAVs) can be difficult to control in the outdoor environment as they fly at relatively low speeds and are of low mass, yet exposed to high levels of freestream turbulence present within the Atmospheric Boundary Layer. In order to examine transient flow phenomena, two turbulence conditions of nominally the same longitudinal integral length scale (Lxx/c = 1) but with significantly different intensities (Ti = 7.2 % and 12.3 %) were generated within a wind tunnel; time-varying surface pressure measurements, smoke flow visualization, and wake velocity measurements were made on a thin flat plate airfoil. Rapid changes in oncoming flow pitch angle resulted in the shear layer to separate from the leading edge of the airfoil even at lower geometric angles of attack. At higher geometric angles of attack, massive flow separation occurred at the leading edge followed by enhanced roll up of the shear layer. This lead to the formation of large Leading Edge Vortices (LEVs) that advected at a rate much lower than the mean flow speed while imparting high pressure fluctuations over the airfoil. The rate of LEV formation was dependent on the angle of attack until 10° and it was independent of the turbulence properties tested. The fluctuations in surface pressures and consequently aerodynamic loads were considerably limited on the airfoil bottom surface due to the favorable pressure gradient.
Poinsatte, Philip E.; Van Fossen, G. James; Dewitt, Kenneth J.
1990-01-01
Local heat transfer coefficients were measured on a smooth and roughened NACA 0012 airfoil. Heat transfer measurements on the 0.533 m chord airfoil were made both in flight on the NASA Lewis Twin Otter Icing Research Aircraft and in the NASA Icing Research Tunnel (IRT). Roughness was obtained by the attachment of uniform 2 mm diameter hemispheres to the airfoil surface in 4 distinct patterns. Flight data were taken for the smooth and roughened airfoil at various Reynolds numbers based on chord in the range 1.24 to 2.50 x 10 (exp 6) and at various angles of attack up to 4 deg. During these flight tests, the free stream velocity turbulence intensity was found to be very low (less than 0.1 percent). Wind tunnel data were acquired in the Reynolds number range 1.20 to 4.25 x 10 (exp t) and at angles of attack from -4 to 8 deg. The turbulence intensity in the IRT was 0.5 to 0.7 percent with the cloud generating sprays off. A direct comparison was made between the results obtained in flight and in the IRT. The higher level of turbulence in the IRT vs. flight had little effect on the heat transfer for the lower Reynolds numbers but caused a moderate increase in heat transfer at the high Reynolds numbers. Roughness generally increased the heat transfer.
Newton, James E.; Vanfossen, G. James; Poinsatte, Phillip E.; Dewitt, Kenneth J.
1988-01-01
Wind tunnels typically have higher free stream turbulence levels than are found in flight. Turbulence intensity was measured to be 0.5 percent in the NASA Lewis Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) with the cloud making sprays off and around 2 percent with cloud making equipment on. Turbulence intensity for flight conditions was found to be too low to make meaningful measurements for smooth air. This difference between free stream and wing tunnel conditions has raised questions as to the validity of results obtained in the IRT. One objective of these tests was to determine the effect of free stream turbulence on convective heat transfer for the NASA Lewis LEWICE ice growth prediction code. These tests provide in-flight heat transfer data for a NASA-0012 airfoil with a 533 cm chord. Future tests will measure heat transfer data from the same airfoil in the Lewis Icing Research Tunnel. Roughness was obtained by the attachment of small, 2 mm diameter hemispheres of uniform size to the airfoil in three different patterns. Heat transfer measurements were recorded in flight on the NASA Lewis Twin Otter Icing Research Aircraft. Measurements were taken for the smooth and roughened surfaces at various aircraft speeds and angles of attack up to four degrees. Results are presented as Frossling number versus position on the airfoil for various roughnesses and angles of attack.
Aerodynamic Aspects of Wind Energy Conversion
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Jens Nørkær
2011-01-01
This article reviews the most important aerodynamic research topics in the field of wind energy. Wind turbine aerodynamics concerns the modeling and prediction of aerodynamic forces, such as performance predictions of wind farms, and the design of specific parts of wind turbines, such as rotor......-blade geometry. The basics of the blade-element momentum theory are presented along with guidelines for the construction of airfoil data. Various theories for aerodynamically optimum rotors are discussed, and recent results on classical models are presented. State-of-the-art advanced numerical simulation tools...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Døssing, Mads
Time series of pressure fluctuations has been obtained using high frequency microphones distributed over the surface of airfoils undergoing wind tunnel tests in the LM Windtunnel, owned by ’LM Glasfiber’, Denmark. The present report describes the dataanalysis, with special attention given...... pressure) and Tollmien-Schlichting frequencies. The tests were made at Reynolds and Mach numbers corresponding to the operating conditions of a typical horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT). The Risø B1-18, Risø C2-18 and NACA0015 profiles were tested and the measured transition points are reported....
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bergami, Leonardo; Gaunaa, Mac; Heinz, Joachim Christian
2013-01-01
The aeroelastic response of wind turbines is often simulated in the time domain by using indicial response techniques. Unsteady aerodynamics in attached flow are usually based on Jones's approximation of the flat plate indicial response, although the response for finite‐thickness airfoils differs...... profile undergoing harmonic pitching motion in the attached flow region; the resulting lift forces are compared with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. The relevance for aeroelastic simulations of a wind turbine is also evaluated, and the effects are quantified in terms of variations...
Effects of grit roughness and pitch oscillations on the LS(1)-0417MOD airfoil
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Janiszewska, J.M.; Ramsay, R.R.; Hoffman, M.J.; Gregorek, G.M. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)
1996-01-01
Horizontal axis wind turbine rotors experience unsteady aerodynamics due to wind shear when the rotor is yawed, when rotor blades pass through the support tower wake, and when the wind is gusting. An understanding of this unsteady behavior is necessary to assist in the calculations of rotor performance and loads. The rotors also experience performance degradation caused by surface roughness. These surface irregularities are due to the accumulation of insect debris, ice, and/or the aging process. Wind tunnel studies that examine both the steady and unsteady behavior of airfoils can help define pertinent flow phenomena, and the resultant data can be used to validate analytical computer codes. An LS(l)-0417MOD airfoil model was tested in The Ohio State University Aeronautical and Astronautical Research Laboratory (OSU/AARL) 3{times}5 subsonic wind tunnel (3{times}5) under steady flow and stationary model conditions, as well as with the model undergoing pitch oscillations. To study the possible extent of performance loss due to surface roughness, a standard grit pattern (LEGR) was used to simulate leading edge contamination. After baseline cases were completed, the LEGR was applied for both steady state and model pitch oscillation cases. The Reynolds numbers for steady state conditions were 0.75, 1, 1.25, and 1.5 million, while the angle of attack ranged from {minus}20{degrees} to +40{degrees}. With the model undergoing pitch oscillations, data were acquired at Reynolds numbers of 0.75, 1, 1.25, and 1.5 million, at frequencies of 0.6, 1.2, and 1.8 Hz. Two sine wave forcing functions were used, {plus_minus} 5.5%{degrees} and {plus_minus} 10{degrees}, at mean angles of attack of 8{degrees}, 14{degrees}, and 20{degrees}. For purposes herein, any reference to unsteady conditions foil model was in pitch oscillation about the quarter chord.
Airfoil noise prediction from 2D3C PIV data
De Santana, L.D.; Schram, C.; Desmet, W.
2015-01-01
The noise emitted by incoming turbulence interacting with an airfoil has many technological applications, and has accordingly received much attention in the literature. While numerous developments are focused on the determination of the airfoil response to a given incoming gust, the characterization
Airfoil Analysis with Uncertain Geometry using the Probabilistic Collocation method
Loeven, G.J.A.; Bijl, H.
2008-01-01
Due to manufacturing tolerances, the airfoil of a wing after production is never exactly the same as the designed airfoil. Also during operation the geometry may change due to aerodynamic loading, icing or wear of the construction. The geometry can, therefore, be treated as uncertain. Uncertainties
Identification of dynamic properties of radial air-foil bearings
Arora, V.; Hoogt, van der P.J.M.; Aarts, R.G.K.M.; Boer, de A.
2010-01-01
Air-foil bearings (AFBs) are self acting hydrodynamic bearings made from sheet metal foils comprised of at least two layers. The innermost “top foil” layer traps a gas pressure film that supports a load while the layer or layers underneath provide an elastic foundation. Air-foil bearings are current
Identification of dynamic properties of radial air-foil bearings
Arora, V.; Hoogt, van der P.J.M.; Aarts, R.G.K.M.; Boer, de A.
2010-01-01
Air-foil bearings (AFBs) are self acting hydrodynamic bearings made from sheet metal foils comprised of at least two layers. The innermost ‘‘top foil’’ layer traps a gas pressure film that supports a load while the layer or layers underneath provide an elastic foundation. Air-foil bearings are curre
Numerical study of the static and pitching RISOe-B1-18 airfoil[STALL
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bertagnolio, F.
2004-01-01
The objective of this report is the better understanding of the physics of the aeroelastic motion of wind turbine blades in order to improve the numerical models used for their design. In this study, the case of the RISOe-B1-18 airfoil which was equipped and measured in an open jet wind tunnel is studied. Two and three dimensional Navier-Stokes calculations using the k-w SST and Detached Eddy Simulation turbulence models are conducted. An engineering semi-empirical dynamic stall model is also used for performing calculations. Computational results are compared to the experimental results that are available both for the static airfoil and in the case of pitching motions. It is shown that the Navier-Stokes simulations can reproduced the main characteristic features of the flow. The DES model seems also to be able to reproduce some details of the unsteady aerodynamics. The Navier-Stokes computations can then be used to improve the performance of the engineering model. (au)
Icing Problems of Wind Turbine Blades in Cold Climates
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hudecz, Adriána
Climatic Wind Tunnel located at FORCE Technology. The aerodynamic forces acting on the blade during ice accretion for different angles of attack at various air temperatures were measured along with the mass of ice and the final ice shape. For all three types of ice accretion, glaze, mixed and rime ice...... that was then used during the numerical study. First, the collected profiles and the settings of the wind tunnel were validated by results of a numerical ice accretion model, TURBICE from VTT, Technical Research Centre of Finland. The wind tunnel parameter value, the median volume diameter, was found...... and on the aerodynamic characteristics of the airfoil. The trend of the reduction of lift coefficients agrees quite well with the wind tunnel test results, although based on the measured and the numerical lift coefficients of the clean airfoil, the presence of the wind tunnel walls had significant influence...
FLEET Velocimetry Measurements on a Transonic Airfoil
Burns, Ross A.; Danehy, Paul M.
2017-01-01
Femtosecond laser electronic excitation tagging (FLEET) velocimetry was used to study the flowfield around a symmetric, transonic airfoil in the NASA Langley 0.3-m TCT facility. A nominal Mach number of 0.85 was investigated with a total pressure of 125 kPa and total temperature of 280 K. Two-components of velocity were measured along vertical profiles at different locations above, below, and aft of the airfoil at angles of attack of 0 deg, 3.5 deg, and 7deg. Measurements were assessed for their accuracy, precision, dynamic range, spatial resolution, and overall measurement uncertainty in the context of the applied flowfield. Measurement precisions as low as 1 m/s were observed, while overall uncertainties ranged from 4 to 5 percent. Velocity profiles within the wake showed sufficient accuracy, precision, and sensitivity to resolve both the mean and fluctuating velocities and general flow physics such as shear layer growth. Evidence of flow separation is found at high angles of attack.
Linearized propulsion theory of flapping airfoils revisited
Fernandez-Feria, Ramon
2016-11-01
A vortical impulse theory is used to compute the thrust of a plunging and pitching airfoil in forward flight within the framework of linear potential flow theory. The result is significantly different from the classical one of Garrick that considered the leading-edge suction and the projection in the flight direction of the pressure force. By taking into account the complete vorticity distribution on the airfoil and the wake the mean thrust coefficient contains a new term that generalizes the leading-edge suction term and depends on Theodorsen function C (k) and on a new complex function C1 (k) of the reduced frequency k. The main qualitative difference with Garrick's theory is that the propulsive efficiency tends to zero as the reduced frequency increases to infinity (as 1 / k), in contrast to Garrick's efficiency that tends to a constant (1 / 2). Consequently, for pure pitching and combined pitching and plunging motions, the maximum of the propulsive efficiency is not reached as k -> ∞ like in Garrick's theory, but at a finite value of the reduced frequency that depends on the remaining non-dimensional parameters. The present analytical results are in good agreement with experimental data and numerical results for small amplitude oscillations. Supported by the Ministerio de Economia y Competitividad of Spain Grant No. DPI2013-40479-P.
EVALUATION OF PERFORMANCE OF HORIZONTAL AXIS WIND TURBINE BLADES BASED ON OPTIMAL ROTOR THEORY
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nitin Tenguria
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Wind energy is a very popular renewable energy resource. In order to increase the use of wind energy, it is important to develop wind turbine rotor with high rotations rates and power coefficient. In this paper, a method for the determination of the aerodynamic performance characteristics using NACA airfoils is given for three bladed horizontal axis wind turbine. Blade geometry is obtained from the best approximation of the calculated theoretical optimum chord and twist distribution of the rotating blade. Optimal rotor theory is used, which is simple enough and accurate enough for rotor design. In this work, eight different airfoils are used to investigate the changes in performance of the blade. Rotor diameter taken is 82 m which is the diameter of VESTAS V82-1.65MW. The airfoils taken are same from root to tip in every blade. The design lift coefficient taken is 1.1. A computer program is generated to automate the complete procedure.
EVALUATION OF PERFORMANCE OF HORIZONTAL AXIS WIND TURBINE BLADES BASED ON OPTIMAL ROTOR THEORY
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nitin Tenguria
2011-06-01
Full Text Available Wind energy is a very popular renewable energy resource. In order to increase the use of wind energy, it is important to develop wind turbine rotor with high rotations rates and power coefficient. In this paper, a method for the determination of the aerodynamic performance characteristics using NACA airfoils is given for three bladed horizontal axis wind turbine. Blade geometry is obtained from the best approximation of the calculated theoretical optimum chord and twist distribution of the rotating blade. Optimal rotor theory is used, which is simple enough and accurate enough for rotor design. In this work, eight different airfoils are used to investigate the changes in performance of the blade. Rotor diameter taken is 82 m which is the diameter of VESTAS V82-1.65MW. The airfoils taken are same from root to tip in every blade. The design lift coefficient taken is 1.1. A computer program is generated to automate the complete procedure.
The Darrieus wind turbine for electrical power generation
Robinson, M. L.
1981-06-01
Aspects of wind as an energy source and the momentum theory of wind turbines are briefly examined. Types of Darrieus wind turbine are described; attention is given to a turbine with airfoil blades curved in troposkein form, and a turbine with straight blades of fixed or variable pitch. The Darrieus vertical-axis wind turbine is then considered with regard to aerodynamics, annual energy output, structures, control systems, and energy storage. Brief reviews of selected Darrieus wind turbine projects are given, including those at Magdalen Islands, Canada, Sandia Laboratories, Reading University, and Australia and New Zealand.
Review paper on wind turbine aerodynamics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Martin Otto Laver; Aagaard Madsen, Helge
2011-01-01
The paper describes the development and description of the aerodynamic models used to estimate the aerodynamic loads on wind turbine constructions. This includes a status of the capabilities of computation fluid dynamics and the need for reliable airfoil data for the simpler engineering models....... Also a discussion of the use of passive and active aerodynamic devices is included such as, e.g., Vortex Generators and distributed active flaps. Finally the problem of wakes in wind farms is addressed and a section of the likely future development of aerodynamic models for wind turbines is included...
Advances in wind turbine blade design and materials
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wind energy is gaining critical ground in the area of renewable energy, with wind energy being predicted to provide up to 8% of the world’s consumption of electricity by 2021. Advances in wind turbine blade design and materials reviews the design and functionality of wind turbine rotor blades...... as well as the requirements and challenges for composite materials used in both current and future designs of wind turbine blades. Part one outlines the challenges and developments in wind turbine blade design, including aerodynamic and aeroelastic design features, fatigue loads on wind turbine blades......, and characteristics of wind turbine blade airfoils. Part two discusses the fatigue behavior of composite wind turbine blades, including the micromechanical modelling and fatigue life prediction of wind turbine blade composite materials, and the effects of resin and reinforcement variations on the fatigue resistance...
Optimum Transonic Airfoils Based on the Euler Equations
Iollo, Angelo; Salas, Manuel, D.
1996-01-01
We solve the problem of determining airfoils that approximate, in a least square sense, given surface pressure distributions in transonic flight regimes. The flow is modeled by means of the Euler equations and the solution procedure is an adjoint- based minimization algorithm that makes use of the inverse Theodorsen transform in order to parameterize the airfoil. Fast convergence to the optimal solution is obtained by means of the pseudo-time method. Results are obtained using three different pressure distributions for several free stream conditions. The airfoils obtained have given a trailing edge angle.
Geometrical effects on the airfoil flow separation and transition
Zhang, Wei
2015-04-25
We present results from direct numerical simulations (DNS) of incompressible flow over two airfoils, NACA-4412 and NACA-0012-64, to investigate the effects of the airfoil geometry on the flow separation and transition patterns at Re=104 and 10 degrees incidence. The two chosen airfoils are geometrically similar except for maximum camber (respectively 4%C and 0 with C the chord length), which results in a larger projection area with respect to the incoming flow for the NACA-4412 airfoil, and a larger leeward surface curvature at the leading edge for the NACA-0012-64 airfoil. The governing equations are discretized using an energy conservative fourth-order spatial discretization scheme. An assessment on the two-point correlation indicates that a spanwise domain size of 0.8C is sufficiently large for the present simulations. We discuss flow separation at the airfoil leading edge, transition of the separated shear layer to three-dimensional flow and subsequently to turbulence. Numerical results reveal a stronger adverse pressure gradient field in the leading edge region of the NACA-0012-64 airfoil due to the rapidly varying surface curvature. As a result, the flow experiences detachment at x/C=0.08, and the separated shear layer transition via Kelvin-Helmholtz mechanism occurs at x/C=0.29 with fully developed turbulent flow around x/C=0.80. These flow development phases are delayed to occur at much downstream positions, respectively, observed around x/C=0.25, 0.71 and 1.15 for the NACA-4412 airfoil. The turbulent intensity, measured by the turbulent fluctuations and turbulent Reynolds stresses, are much larger for NACA-0012-64 from the transition onset until the airfoil trailing edge, while turbulence develops significantly downstream of the trailing edge for the NACA-4412 airfoil. For both airfoils, our DNS results indicate that the mean Reynolds stress u\\'u\\'/U02 reaches its maximum value at a distance from the surface approximately equal to the displacement
Investigation of airfoil leading edge separation control with nanosecond plasma actuator
Zheng, J. G.; Cui, Y. D.; Zhao, Z. J.; Li, J.; Khoo, B. C.
2016-11-01
A combined numerical and experimental investigation of airfoil leading edge flow separation control with a nanosecond dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma actuator is presented. Our study concentrates on describing dynamics of detailed flow actuation process and elucidating the nanosecond DBD actuation mechanism. A loose coupling methodology is employed to perform simulation, which consists of a self-similar plasma model for the description of pulsed discharge and two-dimensional Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations for the calculation of external airflow. A series of simulations of poststall flows around a NACA0015 airfoil is conducted with a Reynolds number range covering both low and high Re at Re=(0.05 ,0.15 ,1.2 ) ×106 . Meanwhile, wind-tunnel experiment is performed for two low Re flows to measure aerodynamic force on airfoil model and transient flow field with time-resolved particle image velocimetry (PIV). The PIV measurement provides possibly the clearest view of flow reattachment process under the actuation of a nanosecond plasma actuator ever observed in experiments, which is highly comparable to that predicted by simulation. It is found from the detailed simulation that the discharge-induced residual heat rather than shock wave plays a dominant role in flow control. For any leading edge separations, the preliminary flow reattachment is realized by residual heat-induced spanwise vortices. After that, the nanosecond actuator functions by continuing exciting flow instability at poststall attack angles or acting as an active trip near stall angle. As a result, the controlled flow is characterized by a train of repetitive, downstream moving vortices over suction surface or an attached turbulent boundary layer, which depends on both angle of attack and Reynolds number. The advection of residual temperature with external flow offers a nanosecond plasma actuator a lot of flexibility to extend its influence region. Animations are provided for
Effects of grit roughness and pitch oscillations on the S810 airfoil
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ramsay, R.R.; Hoffman, M.J.; Gregorek, G.M. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)
1996-01-01
An S810 airfoil model was tested in The Ohio State University Aeronautical and Astronautical Research Laboratory 3 x 5 subsonic wind tunnel under steady state and unsteady conditions. The test defined baseline conditions for steady state angles of attack from -20{degrees} to +40{degrees} and examined unsteady behavior by oscillating the model about its pitch axis for three mean angles, three frequencies, and two amplitudes. For all cases, Reynolds numbers of 0.75, 1, 1.25, and 1.5 million were used. In addition, the above conditions were repeated after the application of leading edge grit roughness (LEGR) to determine contamination effects on the airfoil performance. Baseline steady state results of the S810 testing showed a maximum lift coefficient of 1.15 at 15.2{degrees}angle of attack. The application of LEGR reduced the maximum lift coefficient by 12% and increased the 0.0085 minimum drag coefficient value by 88%. The zero lift pitching moment of -0.0286 showed a 16% reduction in magnitude to -0.0241 with LEGR applied. Data were also obtained for two pitch oscillation amplitudes: {plus_minus}5.5{degrees} and {plus_minus}10{degrees}. The larger amplitude consistently gave a higher maximum lift coefficient than the smaller amplitude and both sets of unsteady maximum lift coefficients were greater than the steady state values. Stall was delayed on the airfoil while the angle of attack was increasing, thereby causing an increase in maximum lift coefficient. A hysteresis behavior was exhibited for all the unsteady test cases. The hysteresis loops were larger for the higher reduced frequencies and for the larger amplitude oscillations. In addition to the hysteresis behavior, an unusual feature of these data were a sudden increase in the lift coefficient where the onset of stall was expected. As in the steady case, the effect of LEGR in the unsteady case was to reduce the lift coefficient at high angles of attack.
Experimental analysis of the shock dynamics on a transonic laminar airfoil
Brion, V.; Dandois, J.; Abart, J.-C.; Paillart, P.
2017-06-01
This paper describes an experimental analysis of the buffet phenomenon on a two-dimensional (2D), transonic, and laminar airfoil at a Reynolds number around 3 · 106. Investigations are carried out in ONERA's S3Ch transonic wind tunnel. The experimental setup allows to vary the Mach number, the angle of attack, and the state of the boundary layer upstream of the shock which can be turbulent or laminar depending on the presence of artificial tripping. Buffet occurs when either the angle of attack or the Mach number is set above a given threshold, which depends upon the particular airfoil, and, as shown here, on the state of the boundary layer. Above the threshold, the boundary layer / shock interaction destabilizes, causing the oscillation of the entire flow field. In the turbulent case, the shock wave moves back and forth over a significant portion of the chord at a frequency of about 75 Hz corresponding to a chord based on Strouhal number St ≃ 0.07, in agreement with previous researches on this phenomenon. In the laminar case, a similar unsteady situation occurs but at a frequency much higher, about 1130 Hz, which corresponds to a Strouhal number of about St ≃ 1. Flow oscillations are limited to the shock foot, the shock itself moving only lightly. The turbulent and laminar bu¨et thresholds are provided. An attempt to apply the classical feedback loop scenario to explain the unsteadiness of the flow in the laminar case is carried out but shows a deceptive agreement with the experimental data. Two other mechanisms of unsteadiness are additionally explored, one based on vortex shedding behind the airfoil and the other on the possible breathing of the laminar separation bubble, which give valuable insights into the §ow physics.
High-Lift System for a Supercritical Airfoil: Simplified by Active Flow Control
Melton, LaTunia Pack; Schaeffler, Norman W.; Lin, John C.
2007-01-01
Active flow control wind tunnel experiments were conducted in the NASA Langley Low-Turbulence Pressure Tunnel using a two-dimensional supercritical high-lift airfoil with a 15% chord hinged leading-edge flap and a 25% chord hinged trailing-edge flap. This paper focuses on the application of zero-net-mass-flux periodic excitation near the airfoil trailing edge flap shoulder at a Mach number of 0.1 and chord Reynolds numbers of 1.2 x 10(exp 6) to 9 x 10(exp 6) with leading- and trailing-edge flap deflections of 25 deg. and 30 deg., respectively. The purpose of the investigation was to increase the zero-net-mass-flux options for controlling trailing edge flap separation by using a larger model than used on the low Reynolds number version of this model and to investigate the effect of flow control at higher Reynolds numbers. Static and dynamic surface pressures and wake pressures were acquired to determine the effects of flow control on airfoil performance. Active flow control was applied both upstream of the trailing edge flap and immediately downstream of the trailing edge flap shoulder and the effects of Reynolds number, excitation frequency and amplitude are presented. The excitations around the trailing edge flap are then combined to control trailing edge flap separation. The combination of two closely spaced actuators around the trailing-edge flap knee was shown to increase the lift produced by an individual actuator. The phase sensitivity between two closely spaced actuators seen at low Reynolds number is confirmed at higher Reynolds numbers. The momentum input required to completely control flow separation on the configuration was larger than that available from the actuators used.
A finite-difference method for transonic airfoil design.
Steger, J. L.; Klineberg, J. M.
1972-01-01
This paper describes an inverse method for designing transonic airfoil sections or for modifying existing profiles. Mixed finite-difference procedures are applied to the equations of transonic small disturbance theory to determine the airfoil shape corresponding to a given surface pressure distribution. The equations are solved for the velocity components in the physical domain and flows with embedded shock waves can be calculated. To facilitate airfoil design, the method allows alternating between inverse and direct calculations to obtain a profile shape that satisfies given geometric constraints. Examples are shown of the application of the technique to improve the performance of several lifting airfoil sections. The extension of the method to three dimensions for designing supercritical wings is also indicated.
Aerodynamic sound of flow past an airfoil
Wang, Meng
1995-01-01
The long term objective of this project is to develop a computational method for predicting the noise of turbulence-airfoil interactions, particularly at the trailing edge. We seek to obtain the energy-containing features of the turbulent boundary layers and the near-wake using Navier-Stokes Simulation (LES or DNS), and then to calculate the far-field acoustic characteristics by means of acoustic analogy theories, using the simulation data as acoustic source functions. Two distinct types of noise can be emitted from airfoil trailing edges. The first, a tonal or narrowband sound caused by vortex shedding, is normally associated with blunt trailing edges, high angles of attack, or laminar flow airfoils. The second source is of broadband nature arising from the aeroacoustic scattering of turbulent eddies by the trailing edge. Due to its importance to airframe noise, rotor and propeller noise, etc., trailing edge noise has been the subject of extensive theoretical (e.g. Crighton & Leppington 1971; Howe 1978) as well as experimental investigations (e.g. Brooks & Hodgson 1981; Blake & Gershfeld 1988). A number of challenges exist concerning acoustic analogy based noise computations. These include the elimination of spurious sound caused by vortices crossing permeable computational boundaries in the wake, the treatment of noncompact source regions, and the accurate description of wave reflection by the solid surface and scattering near the edge. In addition, accurate turbulence statistics in the flow field are required for the evaluation of acoustic source functions. Major efforts to date have been focused on the first two challenges. To this end, a paradigm problem of laminar vortex shedding, generated by a two dimensional, uniform stream past a NACA0012 airfoil, is used to address the relevant numerical issues. Under the low Mach number approximation, the near-field flow quantities are obtained by solving the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations numerically at chord
Turbine airfoil with a compliant outer wall
Campbell, Christian X [Oviedo, FL; Morrison, Jay A [Oviedo, FL
2012-04-03
A turbine airfoil usable in a turbine engine with a cooling system and a compliant dual wall configuration configured to enable thermal expansion between inner and outer layers while eliminating stress formation in the outer layer is disclosed. The compliant dual wall configuration may be formed a dual wall formed from inner and outer layers separated by a support structure. The outer layer may be a compliant layer configured such that the outer layer may thermally expand and thereby reduce the stress within the outer layer. The outer layer may be formed from a nonplanar surface configured to thermally expand. In another embodiment, the outer layer may be planar and include a plurality of slots enabling unrestricted thermal expansion in a direction aligned with the outer layer.
CFD analysis of horizontal axis wind turbine blade for optimum value of power
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chandrala, Monir; Choubey, Abhishek; Gupta, Bharat [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Oriental Institute of Science and Technology, Bhopal (India)
2013-07-01
With the shortage of fossil fuels, alternative energy has been thrust into the national spotlight as a major necessity in order to keep up with the increasing energy demands of the world. Wind energy has been proven one of the most viable sources of renewable energy. A wind turbine is a rotary device that extracts energy from the wind. Rotor blade is a key element in a wind turbine generator system to convert wind energy into mechanical energy. In this paper rotor blade is made up of single airfoil NACA 0018. The CFD analysis of NACA 0018 airfoil is carried out at various blade angles at 32 m/s wind speed. The analysis showed that blade angle of 10 gives optimum power. The pressure and velocity distributions are plotted. These results are compared with wind tunnel experiment values.
CFD analysis of horizontal axis wind turbine blade for optimum value of power
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Monir Chandrala, Abhishek Choubey, Bharat Gupta
2013-01-01
Full Text Available With the shortage of fossil fuels, alternative energy has been thrust into the national spotlight as a major necessity in order to keep up with the increasing energy demands of the world. Wind energy has been proven one of the most viable sources of renewable energy. A wind turbine is a rotary device that extracts energy from the wind. Rotor blade is a key element in a wind turbine generator system to convert wind energy into mechanical energy. In this paper rotor blade is made up of single airfoil NACA 0018. The CFD analysis of NACA 0018 airfoil is carried out at various blade angles at 32 m/s wind speed. The analysis showed that blade angle 10º gives optimum power. The pressure and velocity distributions are plotted. These results are compared with wind tunnel experiment values.
An inverse design method for 2D airfoil
Liang, Zhi-Yong; Cui, Peng; Zhang, Gen-Bao
2010-03-01
The computational method for aerodynamic design of aircraft is applied more universally than before, in which the design of an airfoil is a hot problem. The forward problem is discussed by most relative papers, but inverse method is more useful in practical designs. In this paper, the inverse design of 2D airfoil was investigated. A finite element method based on the variational principle was used for carrying out. Through the simulation, it was shown that the method was fit for the design.
Test results of NREL 10M, special-purpose family of thin airfoils
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Starcher, K.L.; Nelson, V.C.; Wei, Jun [West Texas A& M Univ., Canyon, TX (United States)
1996-12-31
Two 25 kW Carter Wind Systems were tested to determine performance differences between production blades and rotors with NREL Special Purpose Thin Airfoils. Blade design, mold preparation, blade production, and testing were conducted. Design tools were created for computer modeling of the blade. The blades had the same twist, taper, and length as production blades. Flap natural frequency was adjusted to be as similar as possible between rotors, as was blade mass, blade center of gravity and rotor moment of inertia. Data collected were; wind speed at hub height, blade root flap & edgewise loads, main shaft torque, azimuth position, teeter angle, yaw angle and electrical power. These data were collected at 128 Hertz for data sets of eight seconds. This data set was then written to hard disk and the cycle repeated resulting in a file containing five and one half minutes of data. A data run consisted of; preflight checkout/warm-up of equipment, preflight calibration/verification of all sensors on both turbines, collection of five files of data (about thirty minutes of data), post flight calibration/verification of sensors. During this high speed data collection period there were a total of twenty-four data runs collected. Data were collected for wind speeds in the range about 7, 10 and 13 m/s. A data matrix was filled for clean, medium and heavy surface roughness. Baseline power curves, parametric pitch variation runs to establish testing pitch settings, high speed data collection runs with and without applied surface roughness were completed and analyzed. Data were compared using simple arithmetic mean, Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) analysis, rainflow counting algorithms and wavelet analysis. The NREL airfoils showed much less sensitivity to surface roughness. There were minimal root bending load differences. Annual energy production during long term operation is being determined. 9 refs., 7 figs.
Symmetric airfoil geometry effects on leading edge noise.
Gill, James; Zhang, X; Joseph, P
2013-10-01
Computational aeroacoustic methods are applied to the modeling of noise due to interactions between gusts and the leading edge of real symmetric airfoils. Single frequency harmonic gusts are interacted with various airfoil geometries at zero angle of attack. The effects of airfoil thickness and leading edge radius on noise are investigated systematically and independently for the first time, at higher frequencies than previously used in computational methods. Increases in both leading edge radius and thickness are found to reduce the predicted noise. This noise reduction effect becomes greater with increasing frequency and Mach number. The dominant noise reduction mechanism for airfoils with real geometry is found to be related to the leading edge stagnation region. It is shown that accurate leading edge noise predictions can be made when assuming an inviscid meanflow, but that it is not valid to assume a uniform meanflow. Analytic flat plate predictions are found to over-predict the noise due to a NACA 0002 airfoil by up to 3 dB at high frequencies. The accuracy of analytic flat plate solutions can be expected to decrease with increasing airfoil thickness, leading edge radius, gust frequency, and Mach number.
Dynamic Stall Prediction of a Pitching Airfoil using an Adjusted Two-Equation URANS Turbulence Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Galih Bangga
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The necessity in the analysis of dynamic stall becomes increasingly important due to its impact on many streamlined structures such as helicopter and wind turbine rotor blades. The present paper provides Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD predictions of a pitching NACA 0012 airfoil at reduced frequency of 0.1 and at small Reynolds number value of 1.35e5. The simulations were carried out by adjusting the k − ε URANS turbulence model in order to damp the turbulence production in the near wall region. The damping factor was introduced as a function of wall distance in the buffer zone region. Parametric studies on the involving variables were conducted and the effect on the prediction capability was shown. The results were compared with available experimental data and CFD simulations using some selected two-equation turbulence models. An improvement of the lift coefficient prediction was shown even though the results still roughly mimic the experimental data. The flow development under the dynamic stall onset was investigated with regards to the effect of the leading and trailing edge vortices. Furthermore, the characteristics of the flow at several chords length downstream the airfoil were evaluated.
Computational Simulation of the Flow Past an Airfoil for an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
L. Velázquez-Araque
2013-08-01
Full Text Available This paper deals with the numerical simulation of the two-dimensional, incompressible, steady air flow past a NACA 2415 airfoil and four modifications of this one. The modification of this airfoil was made in order to create a blowing outlet with the shape of a step on the suction surface. Therefore, five different locations along the cord line for this blowing outlet were analyzed. This analysis involved the aerodynamic performance which meant obtaining lift, drag and pitching moment coefficients curves as a function of the angle of attack for the situation where the engine of the aerial vehicle is turned off called the no blowing condition by means computational fluid dynamics. The RNG k-ε model is utilized to describe the turbulent flow process. The simulations were held at a Reynolds number of 105. Results allowed obtaining lift and drag forces and pitching moment coefficient and also the location of the separation and reattachment point in some cases for different angles of attack, from 0 to 16 degrees with the smallest increment of 4 degrees. Finally, numerical results were compared with results obtained from wind tunnel tests by means of an aerodynamic balance and also oil and smoke visualization techniques and found to be in very good agreement.
Experimental study of the boundary layer over an airfoil in plunging motion
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
F. Rasi Marzabadi; M. R. Soltani
2012-01-01
This is an experimental study on the boundary layer over an airfoil under steady and unsteady conditions.It specifically deals with the effect of plunging oscillation on the laminar/turbulent characteristics of the boundary layer.The wind tunnel measurements involved surfacemounted hot-film sensors and boundary-layer rake.The experiments were conducted at Reynolds numbers of 0.42 × 106 to 0.84 × 106 and the reduced frequency was varied from 0.01 to 0.1 1.The results of the quasi-wall-shear stress as well as the boundary layer velocity profiles provided important information about the state of the boundary layer over the suction surface of the airfoil in both static and dynamic cases.For the static tests,boundary layer transition occurred through a laminar separation bubble.By increasing the angle of attack,disturbances and the transition location moved toward the leading edge.For the dynamic tests,earlier transition occurred with increasing rather than decreasing effective angle of attack.The mean angle of attack and the oscillating parameters significantly affected the state of the boundary layer.By increasing the reduced frequency,the boundary layer transition was promoted to the upstroke portion of the equivalent angle of attack,but the quasi skin friction coefficient was decreased.
Large Eddy Simulation of Airfoil Self-Noise at High Reynolds Number
Kocheemoolayil, Joseph; Lele, Sanjiva
2015-11-01
The trailing edge noise section (Category 1) of the Benchmark Problems for Airframe Noise Computations (BANC) workshop features five canonical problems. No first-principles based approach free of empiricism and tunable coefficients has successfully predicted trailing edge noise for the five configurations to date. Our simulations predict trailing edge noise accurately for all five configurations. The simulation database is described in detail, highlighting efforts undertaken to validate the results through systematic comparison with dedicated experiments and establish insensitivity to grid resolution, domain size, alleatory uncertainties such as the tripping mechanism used to force transition to turbulence and epistemic uncertainties such as models for unresolved near-wall turbulence. Ongoing efforts to extend the predictive capability to non-canonical configurations featuring flow separation are summarized. A novel, large-span calculation that predicts the flow past a wind turbine airfoil in deep stall with unprecedented accuracy is presented. The simulations predict airfoil noise in the near-stall regime accurately. While the post-stall noise predictions leave room for improvement, significant uncertainties in the experiment might preclude a fair comparison in this regime. We thank Cascade Technologies Inc. for providing access to the CharLES toolkit - a massively-parallel, unstructured large eddy simulation framework.
Ali, Md. Nesar; Alam, Mahbubul; Hossain, Md. Abed; Ahmed, Md. Imteaz
2017-06-01
by several species of birds. Hovering, which is generating only lift through flapping alone rather than as a product of thrust, demands a lot of energy. On the other hand, for practical knowledge we also fabricate the various bird's, insect's & fighter jet wing by using random value of parameter & test those airfoil in wind tunnel. Finally for comparison & achieving analytical knowledge we also test those airfoil model in various simulation software.
Numerical study of Wavy Blade Section for Wind Turbines
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kobæk, C. M.; Hansen, Martin Otto Laver
2016-01-01
relevant for modern wind turbines. The findings in the literature from geometries similar to the hump back whale flipper indicate that the aerodynamic performance can be improved at high angles of attack, but sometimes at the expense of a lower lift slope and increased drag before stall. The numerical...... results for a blade section based on the S809 airfoil are, however, not as promising as some of the findings reported in the literature for the whale flipper at high angles of attack. These first CFD computations using a thicker airfoil and a higher Reynolds number than the whale flipper indicate...
Modal Parameter Identification of New Design of Vertical Axis Wind Turbine
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chougule, Prasad; Nielsen, Søren R.K.
2013-01-01
Vertical axis wind turbines have lower power efficiency than the horizontal axis wind turbines. However vertical axis wind turbines are proven to be economical and noise free on smaller scale. A new design of three bladed vertical axis wind turbine by using two airfoils in construction of each...... blade has been proposed to improve power efficiency. The purpose of two airfoils in blade design of vertical axis wind turbine is to create high lift which in turns gives higher power output. In such case the structural parameter identification is important to understand the system behavior due to its...... first kind of design before experimental analysis. Therefore a study is carried out to determine the natural frequency to avoid unstable state of the system due to rotational frequency of rotor. The present paper outlines a conceptual design of vertical axis wind turbine and a modal analysis by using...
Modal Parameter Identification of New Design of Vertical Axis Wind Turbine
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chougule, Prasad; Nielsen, Søren R.K.
2013-01-01
Vertical axis wind turbines have lower power efficiency than the horizontal axis wind turbines. However vertical axis wind turbines are proven to be economical and noise free on smaller scale. A new design of three bladed vertical axis wind turbine by using two airfoils in construction of each...... blade has been proposed to improve power efficiency. The purpose of two airfoils in blade design of vertical axis wind turbine is to create high lift which in turns gives higher power output. In such case the structural parameter identification is important to understand the system behavior due to its...... first kind of design before experimental analysis. Therefore a study is carried out to determine the natural frequency to avoid unstable state of the system due to rotational frequency of rotor. The present paper outlines a conceptual design of vertical axis wind turbine and a modal analysis by using...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kamruzzaman, M.; Lutz, Th.; Würz, W.;
2012-01-01
-layer properties such as two-point turbulent velocity correlations, the spectra of the associated wall pressure fluctuations and the emitted trailing-edge far-field noise were performed in the laminar wind tunnel of the Institute of Aerodynamics and Gas Dynamics, University of Stuttgart. The measurements were...... carried out for a NACA 643-418 airfoil, at Re = 2.5 ×106, angle of attack of −6° to 6°. Numerical results of different prediction schemes are extensively validated and discussed elaborately. The investigations on the TNO-Blake noise prediction model show that the numerical wall pressure fluctuation...... with measurements in the frequency region higher than 1 kHz, whereas they over-predict the sound pressure level in the low-frequency region. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....
Propagations of fluctuations and flow separation on an unsteadily loaded airfoil
Tenney, Andrew; Lewalle, Jacques
2014-11-01
We analyze pressure data from 18 taps located along the surface of a DU-96-W180 airfoil in bothand steady flow conditions. The conditions were set to mimic the flow conditions experienced by a wind turbine blade under unsteady loading to test and to quantify the effects of several flow control schemes. Here we are interested in the propagation of fluctuations along the pressure and suction sides, particularly in relation to the fluctuating separation point. An unsteady phase of the incoming fluctuations is defined using Morlet wavelets, and phase-conditioned cross-correlations are calculated. Using wavelet-based pattern recognition, individual events in the pressure data are identified with several different algorithms utilizing both the original time series pressure signals and their corresponding scalograms. The data analyzed in this study was collected by G. Wang in the Skytop anechoic chamber at Syracuse University in the spring of 2013; the work of Zhe Bai on this data is also acknowledged.
Turbine Airfoil Leading Edge Film Cooling Bibliography: 1972–1998
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. M. Kercher
2000-01-01
Full Text Available Film cooling for turbine airfoil leading edges has been a common practice for at least 35 years as turbine inlet gas temperatures and pressures have continually increased along with cooling air temperatures for higher engine cycle efficiency. With substantial engine cycle performance improvements from higher gas temperatures, it has become increasingly necessary to film cool nozzle and rotor blade leading edges since external heat transfer coefficients and thus heat load are the highest in this airfoil region. Optimum cooling air requirements in this harsh environment has prompted a significant number of film cooling investigations and analytical studies reported over the past 25 years from academia, industry and government agencies. Substantial progress has been made in understanding the complex nature of leading edge film cooling from airfoil cascades, simulated airfoil leading edges and environment. This bibliography is a report of the open-literature references available which provide information on the complex aero–thermo interaction of leading edge gaseous film cooling with mainstream flow. From much of this investigative information has come successful operational leading edge film cooling design systems capable of sustaining airfoil leading edge durability in very hostile turbine environments.
Interaction of two-dimensional impulsively started airfoils
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WU Fu-bing; ZENG Nian-dong; ZHANG Liang; WU De-ming
2004-01-01
Continuous vorticity panels were used to model general unsteady inviscid, incompressible, two-dimensional flows. The geometry of thc airfoil was approximated by series of short straight segments having endpoints that lie on the actual surface. A piecewise linear, continuous distribution of vorticity over the airfoil surface was used to generate disturbance flow. The no-penetration condition was imposed at the midpoint of each segment and at discrete times. The wake was simulated by a system of point vortices, which moved at local fluid velocity. At each time step, a new wake panel with uniform vorticity distribution was attached to the trailing edge, and the condition of constant circulation around the airfoil and wake was imposed. A new expression for Kutta condition was developed to study the interference effect between two impulsively started NACA0012 airfoils. The tandem arrangement was found to be the most effective to enhance the lift of the rear airfoil. The interference effect between tidal turbine blades was shown clearly.
Aeroelastic Optimization of MW Wind Turbines
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Morten Hartvig; Zahle, Frederik
This report contains the results from the Energy Development and Demonstration Project “Aeroelastic Optimization of MW wind turbine” (AeroOpt). The project has had the following five Work Packages: 1. Geometric non-linear, anisotropic beamelement forHAWC2 2. Closed-loop eigenvalue analysis...... of controlled wind turbines 3. Resonant wave excitation of lateral tower bending modes 4. Development of next generation aerodynamic design tools 5. Advanced design and verification of airfoils The purposes of these Work Packages are briefly described in the Preface and a summary of the results are given...
Aerodynamic forces acting on a passive flow control equipped airfoil in turbulent inflow conditions
Kampers, Gerrit; Peinke, Joachim; Hölling, Michael
2016-11-01
Wind turbines work within turbulent atmospheric flows, with their well known challenging features of intermittent two point statistics. These intermittent statistics have a big impact on wind turbines, concerning fluctuating mechanical loads. Flow control is a promising approach for the reduction of these fluctuations. In this project, an airfoil profile is equipped with mechanically coupled flexible leading and trailing edge flaps, enabling to passively adapt its camber. We expose the profile to different reproducible turbulent inflow conditions, generated with an active grid in a wind tunnel and study the profile's ability to alleviate lift fluctuations. The first experiment is concerned with repeated mexican hat shaped inflow gusts. The corresponding lift reactions of the profile show, that the adaptive camber mechanism is able to alleviate lift fluctuations caused by the inflow gust. In the second experiment, we use different grid excitations to vary the flatness of the inflow angle increments and study the influence of the statistics at different angles of attack. We propose a stochastic Langevin approach to decompose the lift dynamics into a deterministic response and a stochastic part, allowing for a quantitative analysis of the response dynamics. Funded by the German Research Foundation, Ref. No. PE 478/15-1.
Investigation of Airfoil Aeroacoustics with Blowing Control Mechanism
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Baha ZAFER
2016-11-01
Full Text Available In this investigation, it is dealt with computational aero-acoustic analysis of an airfoil with jet blowing. The airfoil shape is selected as NACA0015 profile with jet blowing on upper surface. The calculations of analysis are done by using commercial finite volume solver. The k-ε turbulence model is used for the turbulence modeling and the Ffowcs Williams and Hawking acoustic analogy model is run for determination of acoustic data. The numerical results are compared with experimental data for computed Sound Pressure Level without jet blowing and well agreement is observed. In the case of jet blowing, the effects of different jet angle, velocity ratio and angle of attack on airfoil are investigated and noise levels of non jet cases and jet blowing cases are studied.
A robust inverse inviscid method for airfoil design
Chaviaropoulos, P.; Dedoussis, V.; Papailiou, K. D.
An irrotational inviscid compressible inverse design method for two-dimensional airfoil profiles is described. The method is based on the potential streamfunction formulation, where the physical space on which the boundaries of the airfoil are sought, is mapped onto the (phi, psi) space via a body-fitted coordinate transformation. A novel procedure based on differential geometry arguments is employed to derive the governing equations for the inverse problem, by requiring the curvature of the flat 2-D Euclidean space to be zero. An auxiliary coordinate transformation permits the definition of C-type computational grids on the (phi, psi) plane resulting to a more accurate description of the leading edge region. Geometry is determined by integrating Frenet equations along the grid lines. To validate the method inverse calculation results are compared to direct, `reproduction', calculation results. The design procedure of a new airfoil shape is also presented.
Response of a thin airfoil encountering strong density discontinuity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Marble, F.E. [California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States). Karman Lab. of Fluid Mechanics
1993-12-01
Airfoil theory for unsteady motion has been developed extensively assuming the undisturbed medium to be of uniform density, a restriction accurate for motion in the atmosphere. In some instances, notably for airfoil comprising fan, compressor and turbine blade rows, the undisturbed medium may carry density variations or ``spots``, resulting from non-uniformities in temperature or composition, of a size comparable to the blade chord. This condition exists for turbine blades, immediately downstream of the main burner of a gas turbine engine where the density fluctuations of the order of 50 percent may occur. Disturbances of a somewhat smaller magnitude arise from the ingestion of hot boundary layers into fans, and exhaust into hovercraft. Because these regions of non-uniform density convect with the moving medium, the airfoil experiences a time varying load and moment which the authors calculate.
Integral Textile Structure for 3-D CMC Turbine Airfoils
Marshall, David B. (Inventor); Cox, Brian N. (Inventor); Sudre, Olivier H. (Inventor)
2017-01-01
An integral textile structure for 3-D CMC turbine airfoils includes top and bottom walls made from an angle-interlock weave, each of the walls comprising warp and weft fiber tows. The top and bottom walls are merged on a first side parallel to the warp fiber tows into a single wall along a portion of their widths, with the weft fiber tows making up the single wall interlocked through the wall's thickness such that delamination of the wall is inhibited. The single wall suitably forms the trailing edge of an airfoil; the top and bottom walls are preferably joined along a second side opposite the first side and parallel to the radial fiber tows by a continuously curved section in which the weave structure remains continuous with the weave structure in the top and bottom walls, the continuously curved section being the leading edge of the airfoil.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Luis D. Mendoza
2014-08-01
Full Text Available This paper deals with the prediction of velocity fields on the 2415-3S airfoil which will be used for an unmanned aerial vehicle with internal propulsion system and in this way analyze the air flow through an internal duct of the airfoil using computational fluid dynamics. The main objective is to evaluate the effect of the internal air flow past the airfoil and how this affects the aerodynamic performance by means of lift and drag forces. For this purpose, three different designs of the internal duct were studied; starting from the base 2415-3S airfoil developed in previous investigation, basing on the hypothesis of decreasing the flow separation produced when the propulsive airflow merges the external flow, and in this way obtaining the best configuration. For that purpose, an exhaustive study of the mesh sensitivity was performed. It was used a non-structured mesh since the computational domain is three-dimensional and complex. The selected mesh contains approximately 12.5 million elements. Both the computational domain and the numerical solution were made with commercial CAD and CFD software, respectively. Air, incompressible and steady was analyzed. The boundary conditions are in concordance with experimental setup in the AF 6109 wind tunnel. The k-ε model is utilized to describe the turbulent flow process as followed in references. Results allowed obtaining velocity contours as well as lift and drag coefficients and also the location of separation and reattachment regions in some cases for zero degrees of angle of attack on the internal and external surfaces of the airfoil. Finally, the selection of the configuration with the best aerodynamic performance was made, selecting the option without curved baffles.
A dynamic stall model for airfoils with deformable trailing edges
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Peter Bjørn; Gaunaa, Mac; Bak, Dan Christian
2007-01-01
on an airfoil section undergoing arbitrary motion in heave, lead-lag, pitch, Trailing Edge (TE) flapping. In the linear region, the model reduces to the inviscid model of Gaunaa [4], which includes the aerodynamic effect of a thin airfoil with a deformable camberline in inviscid flow. Therefore, the proposed......The present work contains an extension of the Beddoes-Leishman (B-L) type dynamic stall model, as described by Hansen et al. [7]. In this work a Deformable Trailing Edge Geometry (DTEG) has been added to the dynamic stall model. The model predicts the unsteady aerodynamic forces and moments...
Fischer, A.; Lutz, T.; Kramer, E.; Cordes, U.; Hufnagel, K.; Tropea, C.; Kampers, G.; Hölling, M.; Peinke, J.
2016-09-01
A new passive load reduction system, using coupled leading and trailing edge flaps, was developed at TU Darmstadt and investigated experimentally and numerically. The experiments were performed in the wind tunnel of the University of Oldenburg, where sinusoidal inflow conditions, representing for example the tower blockage effect, were created by means of an active grid. The numerical investigations were performed at the University of Stuttgart, using a quasi two-dimensional setup and a block structured CFD solver. In the present paper, a brief description of the experimental setup is given, whereas the numerical setup, in particular the realisation of the wind tunnel conditions, is presented in more detail. Moreover, a comparison between the measured and simulated loads for an airfoil with and without adaptive camber concept is discussed.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Døssing, Mads
Time series of pressure fluctuations has been obtained using high frequency microphones distributed over the surface of airfoils undergoing wind tunnel tests in the LM Windtunnel, owned by ’LM Glasfiber’, Denmark. The present report describes the dataanalysis, with special attention given...... to transition detection. It is argued that the transition point can be detected by observing the increase in the mean of the Fourier spectre and that thismethod is very stable froma numerical point of view. Other important issues are also discussed, e.g. the variation of pressure standard deviations (sound...... pressure) and Tollmien-Schlichting frequencies. The tests were made at Reynolds and Mach numbers corresponding to the operating conditions of a typical horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT). The Risø B1-18, Risø C2-18 and NACA0015 profiles were tested and the measured transition points are reported....
Effect of pivot location and passive heave on propulsion from a pitching airfoil
Mackowski, A. W.; Williamson, C. H. K.
2017-01-01
We experimentally investigate the propulsive characteristics of a pitching NACA 0012 airfoil section, with emphasis on thrust and propulsive efficiency, at a Reynolds number of 1.7 ×104 . For the sake of mechanical simplicity, we consider an airfoil restricted to a single actuator in the pitching direction. We examine the effect of changing the airfoil's axis of rotation, finding that contrary to Garrick's linear theory, there exists a pitching axis near the airfoil that maximizes propulsive efficiency. Next, we examine the effect of placing passive springs on the airfoil in the heave (transverse) direction using our Cyber-Physical Fluid Dynamics technique. This elastic heaving motion allows the airfoil to combine pitching and heaving modes while being actuated only in the pitching direction. Two sets of dynamics are considered: one case where the airfoil is weighted unevenly and pitched about its center of mass (so that the resulting heaving motion is independent of inertial forces), and another case where the airfoil's center of mass is fixed at its centroid. For pitching at an amplitude of 8∘ and a reduced frequency k of two, we find that elastic heave produces a maximum propulsive efficiency of 35%, compared to 25% without any heave motion. Further, while operating at the same efficiency as the static-pivot case, we find that passive heaving greatly increases the magnitude of the airfoil's thrust. The airfoil configurations with highest propulsive efficiency generally involve pitching near or ahead of the airfoil's leading edge.
Design of a shape adaptive airfoil actuated by a Shape Memory Alloy strip for airplane tail
Shirzadeh, R.; Raissi Charmacani, K.; Tabesh, M.
2011-04-01
Of the factors that mainly affect the efficiency of the wing during a special flow regime, the shape of its airfoil cross section is the most significant. Airfoils are generally designed for a specific flight condition and, therefore, are not fully optimized in all flight conditions. It is very desirable to have an airfoil with the ability to change its shape based on the current regime. Shape memory alloy (SMA) actuators activate in response to changes in the temperature and can recover their original configuration after being deformed. This study presents the development of a method to control the shape of an airfoil using SMA actuators. To predict the thermomechanical behaviors of an SMA thin strip, 3D incremental formulation of the SMA constitutive model is implemented in FEA software package ABAQUS. The interactions between the airfoil structure and SMA thin strip actuator are investigated. Also, the aerodynamic performance of a standard airfoil with a plain flap is compared with an adaptive airfoil.
Optimization of wind turbine rotors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nygaard, Tor Anders
1999-07-01
The Constrained Steepest Descent method has been applied to the optimization of wind turbine rotors through the development of a numerical model. The model consists of an optimization kernel, an aerodynamic model, a structural dynamic model of a rotating beam, and a cost model for the wind turbine. The cost of energy is minimized directly by varying the blade design, the rotational speed and the resulting design of the drive-train and tower. The aerodynamic model is a combination of a fast engineering model based on strip-theory and two and three-dimensional Euler solvers. The two-dimensional Euler solver is used for generation of pre-stall airfoil data. Comparisons with experimental data verify that the engineering model effectively approximates non-stalled flow, except at the blade tip. The three-dimensional Euler solver is in good agreement with the experimental data at the tip, and is therefore a useful supplement for corrections of the tip-loss model, and evaluation of an optimized design. The structural dynamic model evaluates stresses and deformations for the blade. It is based on constitutive relations for a slender beam that are solved with the equations of motions using a finite-difference method. The cost model evaluates the design change of the wind turbine and the resulting costs that occur when a change in blade design modifies the blade mass and the overall forces. The cost model is based on engineering design rules for the drive-train and tower. The model was applied using a Danish 600 kW wind turbine as a reference. Two rotors were optimized using traditional NACA airfoils and a new low-lift airfoil family developed specifically for wind turbine purposes. The cost of energy decreased four percent for the NACA rotor, and seven percent for the low-lift rotor. Optimizations with a high number of degrees of freedom show that a designer has considerable flexibility in choosing some primary parameters such as rated power and rotor diameter, if the rest
Research in aeroelasticity[Wind turbines
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bak, C.
2006-05-15
In the Energy Research Project 'Program for Research in Applied Aeroelasticity' (EFP2005), Risoe National Laboratory (Risoe) and the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) have applied and further developed the tools in the aeroelastic design complex. The main results from the project are: 1) Adding a winglet to a wind turbine blade for minimizing the induced drag of the blade led to the biggest increase in power of 1.4%. 2) Transient wind loads during pitch motion are determined using CFD. Compared to the NREL/NASA Ames test, reasonably good agreement is seen. 3) A general method was developed for the determination of 3D angle of attack for rotating blades from either measurements or numerical computations using CFD. 4) A model of the far wake behind wind turbines was developed for stability studies of the tip vortices in the far wake. 5) Investigating the blade root region showed that the power efficiency, CP, locally can be increased significantly beyond the Betz limit, but that the global CP for the rotor cannot exceed the Betz limit. When including tip losses and a minimum blade drag coefficient, a maximum rotor CP in the range of 0.51-0.52 was obtained. 6) A new airfoil family was designed and a 3D airfoil design tool was developed. Compared to the Risoe-B1 family, the new airfoil family showed similar or improved aerodynamic and structural characteristics. 7) Four different airfoils were analyzed to reveal the differences between 2D and 3D CFD. The major conclusions are the dependency of computational results to transition modelling, and the ability of 3D DES calculations to realistically simulate the turbulent wake of an airfoil in stall. 8) The capability of a theory for simulation of Gaussian turbulence driven gust events was demonstrated by emulating a violent shear gust event from a complex site. An asymptotic model for the PDF of the largest excursion from the mean level, during an arbitrary recurrence period, has been derived for a stochastic
Computational Aerodynamics and Aeroacoustics for Wind Turbines
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Shen, Wen Zhong
To analyse the aerodynamic performance of wind turbine rotors, the main tool in use today is the 1D-Blade Element Momentum (BEM) technique combined with 2D airfoil data. Because of its simplicity, the BEM technique is employed by industry when designing new wind turbine blades. However, in order...... variables (velocity-pressure formulation) are employed as the basic governing equations. However, since fluid mechanical problems essentially are governed by vortex dynamics, it is sometimes advantageous to use the concept of vorticity (defined as the curl of velocity). In vorticity form the Navier...... or actuator/Navier-Stokes computations. A simple and efficient technique for determining the angle of attack for flow past a wind turbine rotor was developed in [11], and in [12] tunnel wall corrections for wind tunnels with closed or open test sections were developed. The second part of the thesis deals...
NACA0015 Measurements in LM Wind Tunnel and Turbulence Generated Noise
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bertagnolio, Franck
A NACA0015 airfoil section was instrumented with an array of highfrequency microphones mounted on its surface and measured in the wind tunnel at LM Glasfiber at various inflow speeds, angles of attack, and with different turbulent inflow conditions. The aim of this work is to analyze these measur......A NACA0015 airfoil section was instrumented with an array of highfrequency microphones mounted on its surface and measured in the wind tunnel at LM Glasfiber at various inflow speeds, angles of attack, and with different turbulent inflow conditions. The aim of this work is to analyze...... these measurement data, including the turbulent inflow characteristics. The airfoil surface pressure data are considered in the perspective of turbulent inflow noise in order to identify the potential for using these data to validate and possibly improve associated noise models from the literature. In addition...
Decomposing the aerodynamic forces of low-Reynolds flapping airfoils
Moriche, Manuel; Garcia-Villalba, Manuel; Flores, Oscar
2016-11-01
We present direct numerical simulations of flow around flapping NACA0012 airfoils at relatively small Reynolds numbers, Re = 1000 . The simulations are carried out with TUCAN, an in-house code that solves the Navier-Stokes equations for an incompressible flow with an immersed boundary method to model the presence of the airfoil. The motion of the airfoil is composed of a vertical translation, heaving, and a rotation about the quarter of the chord, pitching. Both motions are prescribed by sinusoidal laws, with a reduced frequency of k = 1 . 41 , a pitching amplitude of 30deg and a heaving amplitude of one chord. Both, the mean pitch angle and the phase shift between pitching and heaving motions are varied, to build a database with 18 configurations. Four of these cases are analysed in detail using the force decomposition algorithm of Chang (1992) and Martín Alcántara et al. (2015). This method decomposes the total aerodynamic force into added-mass (translation and rotation of the airfoil), a volumetric contribution from the vorticity (circulatory effects) and a surface contribution proportional to viscosity. In particular we will focus on the second, analysing the contribution of the leading and trailing edge vortices that typically appear in these flows. This work has been supported by the Spanish MINECO under Grant TRA2013-41103-P. The authors thankfully acknowledge the computer resources provided by the Red Española de Supercomputacion.
CFD code comparison for 2D airfoil flows
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Niels N.; Méndez, B.; Muñoz, A.;
2016-01-01
The current paper presents the effort, in the EU AVATAR project, to establish the necessary requirements to obtain consistent lift over drag ratios among seven CFD codes. The flow around a 2D airfoil case is studied, for both transitional and fully turbulent conditions at Reynolds numbers of 3 × ...
Airfoil Trailing Edge Noise Generation and Its Surface Pressure Fluctuation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhu, Wei Jun; Shen, Wen Zhong
2015-01-01
In the present work, Large Eddy Simulation (LES) of turbulent flows over a NACA 0015 airfoil is performed. The purpose of such numerical study is to relate the aerodynamic surface pressure with the noise generation. The results from LES are validated against detailed surface pressure measurements...
Extraction of airfoil data using PIV and pressure measurements
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Yang, Hua; Shen, Wen Zhong; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær
2011-01-01
Velocimetry (PIV) flow fields at different rotor azimuth positions are examined for determining sectional airfoil data. The AOA is derived locally by determining the local circulation on the blade from pressure data and subtracting the induction of the bound circulation from the local velocity. The derived...
Stability of Inviscid Flow over Airfoils Admitting Multiple Numerical Solutions
Liu, Ya; Xiong, Juntao; Liu, Feng; Luo, Shijun
2012-11-01
Multiple numerical solutions at the same flight condition are found of inviscid transonic flow over certain airfoils (Jameson et al., AIAA 2011-3509) within some Mach number range. Both symmetric and asymmetric solutions exist for a symmetric airfoil at zero angle of attack. Global linear stability analysis of the multiple solutions is conducted. Linear perturbation equations of the Euler equations around a steady-state solution are formed and discretized numerically. An eigenvalue problem is then constructed using the modal analysis approach. Only a small portion of the eigen spectrum is needed and thus can be found efficiently by using Arnoldi's algorithm. The least stable or unstable mode corresponds to the eigenvalue with the largest real part. Analysis of the NACA 0012 airfoil indicates stability of symmetric solutions of the Euler equations at conditions where buffet is found from unsteady Navier-Stokes equations. Euler solutions of the same airfoil but modified to include the displacement thickness of the boundary layer computed from the Navier-Stokes equations, however, exhibit instability based on the present linear stability analysis. Graduate Student.
Modeling of Airfoil Trailing Edge Flap with Immersed Boundary Method
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhu, Wei Jun; Shen, Wen Zhong; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær
2011-01-01
to simulate the moving part of the trailing edge. Over the main fixed part of the airfoil the Navier-Stokes (NS) equations are solved using a standard body-fitted finite volume technique whereas the moving trailing edge flap is simulated with the immersed boundary method on a curvilinear mesh. The obtained...
Detached Eddy Simulations of an Airfoil in Turbulent Inflow
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gilling, Lasse; Sørensen, Niels; Davidson, Lars
2009-01-01
The effect of resolving inflow turbulence in detached eddy simulations of airfoil flows is studied. Synthetic turbulence is used for inflow boundary condition. The generated turbulence fields are shown to decay according to experimental data as they are convected through the domain with the free ...
Numerical simulation of airfoil trailing edge serration noise
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhu, Wei Jun; Shen, Wen Zhong
In the present work, numerical simulations are carried out for a low noise airfoil with and without serrated Trailing Edge. The Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings acoustic analogy is implemented into the in-house incompressible flow solver EllipSys3D. The instantaneous hydrodynamic pressure and velocity...
Analysis of flow separation over aerodynamic airfoils
Rodríguez Sánchez, Sergio Jesús
2014-01-01
Energy industries are nowadays struggling with the most effcient source of energy generation. The list of energy resources is huge starting with traditional coal and going through the different technologies until reaching the controversial nuclear reactors. One of the most interesting areas in energy generation is the renewable energy technologies. Among the different renewable energy sources, this project will be focused on eolic energy generation via horizontal axis wind turbine...
Convective heat transfer and experimental icing aerodynamics of wind turbine blades
Wang, Xin
The total worldwide base of installed wind energy peak capacity reached 94 GW by the end of 2007, including 1846 MW in Canada. Wind turbine systems are being installed throughout Canada and often in mountains and cold weather regions, due to their high wind energy potential. Harsh cold weather climates, involving turbulence, gusts, icing and lightning strikes in these regions, affect wind turbine performance. Ice accretion and irregular shedding during turbine operation lead to load imbalances, often causing the turbine to shut off. They create excessive turbine vibration and may change the natural frequency of blades as well as promote higher fatigue loads and increase the bending moment of blades. Icing also affects the tower structure by increasing stresses, due to increased loads from ice accretion. This can lead to structural failures, especially when coupled to strong wind loads. Icing also affects the reliability of anemometers, thereby leading to inaccurate wind speed measurements and resulting in resource estimation errors. Icing issues can directly impact personnel safety, due to falling and projected ice. It is therefore important to expand research on wind turbines operating in cold climate areas. This study presents an experimental investigation including three important fundamental aspects: (1) heat transfer characteristics of the airfoil with and without liquid water content (LWC) at varying angles of attack; (2) energy losses of wind energy while a wind turbine is operating under icing conditions; and (3) aerodynamic characteristics of an airfoil during a simulated icing event. A turbine scale model with curved 3-D blades and a DC generator is tested in a large refrigerated wind tunnel, where ice formation is simulated by spraying water droplets. A NACA 63421 airfoil is used to study the characteristics of aerodynamics and convective heat transfer. The current, voltage, rotation of the DC generator and temperature distribution along the airfoil
Wind Tunnel Study of the Electro-Thermal De-Icing of Wind Turbine Blades
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mayer, C.; Ilinca, A.; Fortin, G.; Perron, J. [Anti-icing Materials International Laboratory, Universite du Quebec a Chicoutimi, Quebec, Canada and Wind Energy Group, Universite du Quebec a Rimouski, Quebec (Canada)
2007-07-01
Most of the wind turbines operating in cold climates are facing icing events but very few of them are equipped with blade de-icing systems. Few studies were performed and published on the characteristics of these de-icing systems. In order to optimize the design and power consumption of an electro-thermal de-icing system for wind turbine blades, an experimental set-up was built and used to test the system under icing conditions in a refrigerated wind tunnel. The parameters of the de-icing control system consider only the convective heat transfer at the blade surface during ice accretion. Meteorological data are those gathered from Murdochville's experimental site in Canada. The blade airfoil is a NACA 63 415 and the icing conditions are scaled to be simulated in the icing wind tunnel section. The results show the relation between the meteorological conditions, the ridge formed by liquid water runback, the heating power and the airfoil surface temperature. The study provides useful data for the design of electro-thermal deicing systems for wind turbine blade application.
Robust Airfoil Optimization with Multi-objective Estimation of Distribution Algorithm
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhong Xiaoping; Ding Jifeng; Li Weiji; Zhang Yong
2008-01-01
A transonic airfoil designed by means of classical point-optimization may result in its dramatically inferior performance under off-design conditious. To overcome this shortcoming, robust design is proposed to fred out the optimal profile of an airfoil to maintain its performance in an uncertain environment. The robust airfoil optimization is aimed to minimize mean values and variances of drag coefficients while satisfying the lift and thickness constraints over a range of Maeb numbers. A multi-objective estimation of distribution algorithm is applied to the robust airfoil optimization on the base of the RAE2822 benchmark airfoil. The shape of the airfoil is obtained through superposing ten Hick-Heune shape functions upon the benchmark airfoil. A set of design points is selected according to a uniform design table for aerodynamic evaluation. A Kriging model of drag coefficient is coustrueted with those points to reduce eumputing costs. Over the Maeh range fi'om 0.7 to 0.8, the airfoil generated by the robust optimization has a configuration characterized by supercritical airfoil with low drag coefficients. The small fluctuation in its drag coefficients means that the performance of the robust airfoil is insensitive to variation of Mach number.
Pressure measurements on a rectangular wing with a NACA0012 airfoil during conventional flutter
Rivera, Jose A., Jr.; Dansberry, Bryan E.; Durham, Michael H.; Bennett, Robert M.; Silva, Walter A.
1992-01-01
The Structural Dynamics Division at NASA LaRC has started a wind tunnel activity referred to as the Benchmark Models Program. The primary objective of the program is to acquire measured dynamic instability and corresponding pressure data that will be useful for developing and evaluating aeroelastic type CFD codes currently in use or under development. The program is a multi-year activity that will involve testing of several different models to investigate various aeroelastic phenomena. The first model consisted of a rigid semispan wing having a rectangular planform and a NACA 0012 airfoil shape which was mounted on a flexible two degree-of-freedom mount system. Two wind-tunnel tests were conducted with the first model. Several dynamic instability boundaries were investigated such as a conventional flutter boundary, a transonic plunge instability region near Mach = 0.90, and stall flutter. In addition, wing surface unsteady pressure data were acquired along two model chords located at the 60 to 95-percent span stations during these instabilities. At this time, only the pressure data for the conventional flutter boundary is presented. The conventional flutter boundary and the wing surface unsteady pressure measurements obtained at the conventional flutter boundary test conditions in pressure coefficient form are presented. Wing surface steady pressure measurements obtained with the model mount system rigidized are also presented. These steady pressure data were acquired at essentially the same dynamic pressure at which conventional flutter had been encountered with the mount system flexible.
Development of design tools for reduced aerodynamic noise wind turbines (draw)
Wagner, S.; Guidati, G.; Ostertag, J.; Bareiss, R.; Wittum, G.; Huurdeman, B.; Braun, K.; Hirsch, C.; Kang, S.; Khodak, A.; Overmeire, M. van; Bladt, G.; Nienhaus, A.; Dassen, A.G.M.; Parchen, R.R.; Looijmans, K.
1997-01-01
The major aim of the present project was the development of new predictïon models for the aerodynamic noise generation at wind turbine blades. These models should be transferred to computer codes and should be sensitive enough to consider even small changes in the airfoil geometry. This accuracy is
Comprehensive Aerodynamic Analysis of a 10 MW Wind Turbine Rotor Using 3D CFD
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zahle, Frederik; Bak, Christian; Sørensen, Niels N.
2014-01-01
This article describes a comprehensive aerodynamic analysis carried out on the DTU 10 MW Reference Wind Turbine (DTU 10MW RWT), in which 3D CFD simulations were used to analyse the rotor performance and derive airfoil aerodynamic characteristics for use in aero-elastic simulation tools. The 3D CF...
Energy and exergy efficiency comparison of horizontal and vertical axis wind turbines
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pope, K.; Dincer, I.; Naterer, G.F. [Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology, 2000 Simcoe Street North, Oshawa, Ontario (Canada)
2010-09-15
In this paper, an energy and exergy analysis is performed on four different wind power systems, including both horizontal and vertical axis wind turbines. Significant variability in turbine designs and operating parameters are encompassed through the selection of systems. In particular, two airfoils (NACA 63(2)-215 and FX 63-137) commonly used in horizontal axis wind turbines are compared with two vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs). A Savonius design and Zephyr VAWT benefit from operational attributes in wind conditions that are unsuitable for airfoil type designs. This paper analyzes each system with respect to both the first and second laws of thermodynamics. The aerodynamic performance of each system is numerically analyzed by computational fluid dynamics software, FLUENT. A difference in first and second law efficiencies of between 50 and 53% is predicted for the airfoil systems, whereas 44-55% differences are predicted for the VAWT systems. Key design variables are analyzed and the predicted results are discussed. The exergetic efficiency of each wind turbine is studied for different geometries, design parameters and operating conditions. It is shown that the second law provides unique insight beyond a first law analysis, thereby providing a useful design tool for wind power development. (author)
Manela, A.; Halachmi, M.
2015-06-01
The acoustic signature of side-by-side airfoils, subject to small-amplitude harmonic pitching and incoming flow unsteadiness, is investigated. The two-dimensional near-field problem is formulated using thin-airfoil theory, where flow unsteadiness is modeled as a passing line vortex, and wake evolution is calculated via the Brown and Michael formula. Assuming that the setup is acoustically compact, acoustic radiation is obtained by means of the Powell-Howe acoustic analogy. The associated compact Green's function is calculated numerically using potential-flow analysis of the fluid-structure flow domain. Results, comparing the acoustic radiation of the double-airfoil system to a reference case of a single airfoil, point to several mechanisms of sound attenuation and sound amplification, caused by airfoil-airfoil and airfoils-wake interactions. It is found that counter-phase pitching of the airfoils results in effective cloaking of the system, which otherwise becomes significantly noisy (as a 5/2-power of the pitching frequency) at large frequencies. In addition, depending on the distance between airfoils, in-phase pitching may result in an acoustic signature equivalent to a single airfoil (when the airfoils are adjacent) or to two separate airfoils (when the airfoils are far apart). In general, flow unsteadiness produces more sound when interacting with a double (compared with a single) airfoil setup. However, airfoils' nonlinear wake-wake interactions give rise to a sound reduction mechanism, which becomes most efficient at times when incoming vorticity passes above airfoils' leading and trailing edges. The present scheme can be readily extended to consider the acoustic properties of various double-airfoil configurations, as well as multiple (> 2) airfoil setups.
A New Method for Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine (HAWT Blade Optimization
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohammadreza Mohammadi
2016-02-01
Full Text Available Iran has a great potential for wind energy. This paper introduces optimization of 7 wind turbine blades for small and medium scales in a determined wind condition of Zabol site, Iran, where the average wind speed is considered 7 m /s. Considered wind turbines are 3 bladed and radius of 7 case study turbine blades are 4.5 m, 6.5 m, 8 m, 9 m, 10 m, 15.5 m and 20 m. As the first step, an initial design is performed using one airfoil (NACA 63-215 across the blade. In the next step, every blade is divided into three sections, while the 20 % of first part of the blade is considered as root, the 5% of last the part is considered as tip and the rest of the blade as mid part. Providing necessary input data, suitable airfoils for wind turbines including 43 airfoils are extracted and their experimental data are entered in optimization process. Three variables in this optimization problem would be airfoil type, attack angle and chord, where the objective function is maximum output torque. A MATLAB code was written for design and optimization of the blade, which was validated with a previous experimental work. In addition, a comparison was made to show the effect of optimization with two variables (airfoil type and attack angle versus optimization with three variables (airfoil type, attack angle and chord on output torque increase. Results of this research shows a dramatic increase in comparison to initial designed blade with one airfoil where two variable optimization causes 7.7% to 22.27 % enhancement and three variable optimization causes 17.91% up to 24.48% rise in output torque .Article History: Received Oct 15, 2015; Received in revised form January 2, 2016; Accepted January 14, 2016; Available online How to Cite This Article: Mohammadi, M., Mohammadi, A. and Farahat, S. (2016 A New Method for Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine (HAWT Blade Optimization. Int. Journal of Renewable Energy Development, 5(1,1-8. http://dx.doi.org/10.14710/ijred.5.1.1-8
Influences of some parameters on the performance of a small vertical axis wind turbine
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dumitrache Alexandru
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The effects of various parameters on the performance of a straight bladed vertical axis wind turbine, using the vortex model, have been numerically investigated. A vortex model has been used to evaluate the performance of a vertical axis wind turbine, by means of aerodynamic characteristics of different airfoils for Reynolds numbers between 105 and 106. Parameters such as the thickness and the camber of the blade airfoil, the solidity, the type of blade profile, the number of blades and the pitch angle, which influence the power coefficient, CP, and the start-up regime. This study can be used in the designing an optimal vertical axis wind turbine in a specific location, when the prevailed wind regime is known.
Vortex Interaction and Roll-Up in Unsteady Flow past Tandem Airfoils
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H. Aziz
2016-01-01
Full Text Available A discrete vortex model coupled with a vortex dissipation and vortex core criteria is used to study the unsteady ﬂow past two airfoils in conﬁguration. The unsteady wakes of the airfoils are modeled by discrete vortices and time-stepping is used to predict the individual wake shapes. The coupled ﬂow is solved using a combined zero-normal ﬂow boundary condition and Kelvin condition which result in (2N + 2X(2N + 2 equations. Results are presented showing the eﬀect of airfoil-airfoil and airfoil-wake interaction on the aerodynamic characteristics of the conﬁguration. The eﬀect of relative velocity, rate of pitching and phase-lag are studied on airfoil performance and wake shape is predicted.
Aeroacoustic Calculations of Wind Turbine Noise with the Actuator Line/ Navier-Stokes Technique
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Debertshäuser, Harald; Shen, Wen Zhong; Zhu, Wei Jun
2016-01-01
Noise regulations in many countries are becoming extremely strict and wind turbine noise is thus becoming a barrier for further development of onshore wind turbines. Low noise wind turbine airfoil and blade design is an important technique for noise reduction. However, the ow situation of a wind...... turbine in wind farms is very complicated. In order to accurately model the noise generation and propagation from wind turbines in wind farms,it is urgent to develop a high-fidelity noise model to predict the noise features in complex situations. In the present study, we develop a flow-acoustic splitting...... technique where the wind turbine flow is calculated by using the in-house actuator line/LES/Navier-Stokes technique and the acoustics is obtained by solving the acoustic perturbation equations. In the flow solver, the wind turbine blades are modelled by rotating lines with body forces determined according...
Egolf, T. A.; Landgrebe, A. J.
1981-01-01
The theory for the UTRC Energy Conversion System Performance Analysis (WECSPER) for the prediction of horizontal axis wind turbine performance is presented. Major features of the analysis are the ability to: (1) treat the wind turbine blades as lifting lines with a prescribed wake model; (2) solve for the wake-induced inflow and blade circulation using real nonlinear airfoil data; and (3) iterate internally to obtain a compatible wake transport velocity and blade loading solution. This analysis also provides an approximate treatment of wake distortions due to tower shadow or wind shear profiles. Finally, selected results of internal UTRC application of the analysis to existing wind turbines and correlation with limited test data are described.
2011-05-13
sound production from a hydrofoil and identified three mechanisms: (1) low frequency curvature noise associated with interaction of a turbulent...2002). 2 Technical Approach A two-dimensional, dual-slotted, elliptic circulation control airfoil based on the hydrofoil studied by Rogers...airfoil, shown in Figure 1A, is designed based on the geometry of the hydrofoil previously studied by Rogers & Donnelly (2004). The airfoil’s profile
St.hilaire, A. O.; Carta, F. O.
1983-01-01
The unsteady chordwise force response on the airfoil surface was investigated and its sensitivity to the various system parameters was examined. A further examination of unsteady aerodynamic data on a tunnel spanning wing (both swept and unswept), obtained in a wind tunnel, was performed. The main body of this data analysis was carried out by analyzing the propagation speed of pressure disturbances along the chord and by studying the behavior of the unsteady part of the chordwise pressure distribution at various points of the airfoil pitching cycle. It was found that Mach number effects dominate the approach to and the inception of both static and dynamic stall. The stall angle decreases as the Mach number increases. However, sweep dominates the load behavior within the stall regime. Large phase differences between unswept and swept responses, that do not exist at low lift coefficient, appear once the stall boundary is penetrated. It was also found that reduced frequency is not a reliable indicator of the unsteady aerodynamic response in the high angle of attack regime.
Stability investigation of an airfoil section with active flap control
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bergami, Leonardo; Gaunaa, Mac
2010-01-01
This work presents a method to determine flutter and divergence instability limits for a two-dimensional (2-D) airfoil section fitted with an actively controlled trailing edge flap. This flap consists of a deformable trailing edge, which deformation is governed by control algorithms based...... for fatigue load alleviation. The structural model of the 2-D airfoil section contains three degrees of freedom: heave translation, pitch rotation and flap deflection. A potential flow model provides the aerodynamic forces and their distribution. The unsteady aerodynamics are described using an indicial...... function approximation. Stability of the full aeroservoelastic system is determined through eigenvalue analysis by state-space formulation of the indicial approximation. Validation is carried out against an implementation of the recursive method by Theodorsen and Garrick for flexure-torsion-aileron flutter...
A Theory of Unstaggered Airfoil Cascades in Compressible Flow
Spurr, Robert A.; Allen, H. Julian
1947-01-01
By use of the methods of thin airfoil theory, which include effects of compressibility, rela.tio^as are developed which permit the rapid determination of the pressure distribution over an unstaggered cascade of airfoils of a given profile, and the determination of the profile shape necessary to yield a given pressure distribution for small chord gap ratios, For incompressible flow the results of the theory are compared with available examples obtained by the more exact method of conformal transformation. Although the theory is developed for small chord/gap ratios, these comparisons show that it may be extended to chord/gap ratios of order unity, at least for low speed flows. Choking of cascades, a phenomenon of particular importance in compressor design, is considered.
Control theory based airfoil design using the Euler equations
Jameson, Antony; Reuther, James
1994-01-01
This paper describes the implementation of optimization techniques based on control theory for airfoil design. In our previous work it was shown that control theory could be employed to devise effective optimization procedures for two-dimensional profiles by using the potential flow equation with either a conformal mapping or a general coordinate system. The goal of our present work is to extend the development to treat the Euler equations in two-dimensions by procedures that can readily be generalized to treat complex shapes in three-dimensions. Therefore, we have developed methods which can address airfoil design through either an analytic mapping or an arbitrary grid perturbation method applied to a finite volume discretization of the Euler equations. Here the control law serves to provide computationally inexpensive gradient information to a standard numerical optimization method. Results are presented for both the inverse problem and drag minimization problem.
Unsteady 2D potential-flow forces on a thin variable geometry airfoil undergoing arbitrary motion
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gaunaa, M.
2006-01-01
In this report analytical expressions for the unsteady 2D force distribution on a variable geometry airfoil undergoing arbitrary motion are derived under the assumption of incompressible, irrotational, inviscid flow. The airfoil is represented by itscamberline as in classic thin-airfoil theory...... of the present theory in problems employing the eigenvalue approach, such as stabilityanalysis. The analytical expressions for the forces simplify to all previously known steady and unsteady thin-airfoil solutions. Apart from the obvious applications within active load control/reduction, the current theory can...
Validation of the CQU-DTU-LN1 series of airfoils
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Shen, Wen Zhong; Zhu, Wei Jun; Fischer, Andreas
2014-01-01
The CQU-DTU-LN1 series of airfoils were designed with an objective of high lift and low noise emission. In the design process, the aerodynamic performance is obtained using XFOIL while noise emission is obtained with the BPM model. In this paper we present some validations of the designed CQU......, the designed Cl and Cl/Cd agrees well with the experiment and are in general higher than those of the NACA airfoil. For the acoustic features, the noise emission of the LN118 airfoil is compared with the acoustic measurements and that of the NACA airfoil. Comparisons show that the BPM model can predict...
Inverse airfoil design procedure using a multigrid Navier-Stokes method
Malone, J. B.; Swanson, R. C.
1991-01-01
The Modified Garabedian McFadden (MGM) design procedure was incorporated into an existing 2-D multigrid Navier-Stokes airfoil analysis method. The resulting design method is an iterative procedure based on a residual correction algorithm and permits the automated design of airfoil sections with prescribed surface pressure distributions. The new design method, Multigrid Modified Garabedian McFadden (MG-MGM), is demonstrated for several different transonic pressure distributions obtained from both symmetric and cambered airfoil shapes. The airfoil profiles generated with the MG-MGM code are compared to the original configurations to assess the capabilities of the inverse design method.
Oscillatory Behavior of an Arc Airfoil in Low-Speed Airflow
Molki, Majid; Sattari, Negin
2011-11-01
A computational investigation is conducted to study the oscillatory behavior of an arc airfoil situated in low-speed airflow. The present work is relevant to situations where the conventional rigid airfoils do not apply, such as the flight of bats. The outcome of this study is also beneficial in the design of micro air vehicles with flexible wings. The computations are performed using a deforming mesh to accommodate the airfoil oscillations. An unsteady, spatially second-order algorithm is employed to capture the time-variations of the lift and drag coefficients. A key feature of the present work is the flow response to airfoil oscillations. Fast Fourier Transform was applied to various parameters of the flow. For certain values of angle of attack for the non-oscillating airfoil, the flow has a dominant frequency and a well-defined vortex shedding. For other values of angle of attack, the flow around the non-oscillating airfoil contains many frequencies and has complex vortical structures. However, the oscillating airfoil in all cases makes the flow field periodic with well-defined patterns of vortex shedding. In this work, the flux of vorticity from the airfoil surface into the airflow is computed and compared with the pressure gradient along the surface of the airfoil. Effects of oscillations on magnitude and behavior of aerodynamic forces are also studied.
The S411, S412, and S413 Airfoils
2010-08-01
not as low as at point A, unlike the polars of many laminar-flow airfoils where the drag coefficient within the laminar bucket is nearly constant...in a leading edge that produces a suction peak at higher lift coefficients, which ensures that tran- sition on the upper surface will occur very near...the pressure distribution should look like sketch 3. Sketch 3 No suction peak exists at the leading edge. Instead, a rounded peak occurs aft of the
Design and Experimental Results for the S415 Airfoil
2010-08-01
polars of many laminar-flow airfoils where the drag coefficient within the laminar bucket is nearly constant. (See, for example, ref. 8.) This... suction peak at higher lift coefficients, which ensures that transition on the upper surface will occur very near the leading edge. Thus, the...pressure distribution should look like sketch 3. Sketch 3 No suction peak exists at the leading edge. Instead, a moderately adverse pressure
Design and Experimental Results for the S411 Airfoil
2010-08-01
unlike the polars of many laminar-flow airfoils where the drag coefficient within the laminar bucket is nearly constant. (See, for example, ref. 8...produces a suction peak at higher lift coefficients, which ensures that tran- sition on the upper surface will occur very near the leading edge. Thus...like sketch 3. Sketch 3 No suction peak exists at the leading edge. Instead, a rounded peak occurs aft of the leading edge, which allows some laminar
Design and Experimental Results for the S406 Airfoil
2010-08-01
point B is not as low as at point A, unlike the polars of many laminar-flow airfoils where the drag coefficient within the laminar bucket is nearly...in a leading edge that produces a suction peak at higher lift coefficients, which ensures that transition on the upper surface will occur very near...3. Sketch 3 No suction peak exists at the leading edge. Instead, a rounded peak occurs aft of the leading edge, which allows some laminar flow
Trailing Edge Noise Model Validation and Application to Airfoil Optimization
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bertagnolio, Franck; Aagaard Madsen, Helge; Bak, Christian
2010-01-01
The aim of this article is twofold. First, an existing trailing edge noise model is validated by comparing with airfoil surface pressure fluctuations and far field sound pressure levels measured in three different experiments. The agreement is satisfactory in one case but poor in two other cases...... across the boundary layer near the trailing edge and to a lesser extent by a smaller boundary layer displacement thickness. ©2010 American Society of Mechanical Engineers...
Leading-Edge "Pop-Up" Spoiler For Airfoil
Wilson, John C.; Lance, Michael B.
1991-01-01
New concept places spoiler in leading edge of airfoil, hinged along its trailing edge, so airflow helps to deploy it and force it against mechanical stop. Deployed "pop-up" spoiler quickly eliminates almost all aerodynamic lift of stabilator. Designed to be added to leading edge of existing stabilator, without major rework. Though initial application to be on helicopter stabilators, equally applicable to wings or winglike components.
Characterization of the Flow Separation of a Variable Camber Airfoil
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YANG Wen-Chao; WANG Hui; YANG Jian-Ting; YANG Ji-Ming
2012-01-01
An experimental investigation is carried out to study the How separation behaviors of a variable camber airfoil. The aerodynamic load measurements and related flow visualization show that there are two types of stalls caused by the deformation on the camber: the leading-edge stall and the trailing-edge stall. Static measurements of aerodynamic force show a drastic leading-edge stall, while the serial measurements on an airfoil with camber deformation illustrate a trailing-edge stall and gradual bending-over on the aerodynamic coefficient curve. Under flow separation circumstances, the Bow structure is related not only to current boundary conditions, but also the previous flow characteristics, so the quasi-steady aerodynamic characteristics are significantly distinct from those of the static measurements.%An experimental investigation is carried out to study the flow separation behaviors of a variable camber airfoil.The aerodynamic load measurements and related flow visualization show that there are two types of stalls caused by the deformation on the camber:the leading-edge stall and the trailing-edge stall.Static measurements of aerodynamic force show a drastic leading-edge stall,while the serial measurements on an airfoil with camber deformation illustrate a trailing-edge stall and gradual bending-over on the aerodynamic coefficient curve.Under flow separation circumstances,the flow structure is related not only to current boundary conditions,but also the previous flow characteristics,so the quasi-steady aerodynamic characteristics are significantly distinct from those of the static measurements.
Presentations from the Aeroelastic Workshop - latest results from AeroOpt
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hartvig Hansen, M. (ed.)
2011-10-15
This report contains the slides of the presentations at the Aeroelastic Workshop held at Risoe-DTU for the wind energy industry in Denmark on October 27, 2011. The scientific part of the agenda at this workshop was 1) Detailed and reduced models of dynamic mooring system (Anders M. Hansen). 2) Bend-twist coupling investigation in HAWC2 (Taeseong Kim). 3) Q3UIC - A new aerodynamic airfoil tool including rotational effects (Nestor R. Garcia). 4) Influence of up-scaling on loads, control and aerodynamic modeling (Helge Aa. Madsen). 5) Aerodynamic damping of lateral tower vibrations (Bjarne S. Kallesoee). 6) Open- and closed-loop aeroservoelastic analysis with HAWCStab2 (Morten H. Hansen). 7) Design and test of a thick, flatback, high-lift multielement airfoil (Frederik Zahle). The presented results are mainly obtained in the EUDP project ''Aeroelastic Optimization of MW Wind Turbines (AeroOpt)''. (Author)
Prediction of Film Cooling on Gas Turbine Airfoils
Garg, Vijay K.; Gaugler, Raymond E.
1994-01-01
A three-dimensional Navier-Stokes analysis tool has been developed in order to study the effect of film cooling on the flow and heat transfer characteristics of actual turbine airfoils. An existing code (Arnone et al., 1991) has been modified for the purpose. The code is an explicit, multigrid, cell-centered, finite volume code with an algebraic turbulence model. Eigenvalue scaled artificial dissipation and variable-coefficient implicit residual smoothing are used with a full-multigrid technique. Moreover, Mayle's transition criterion (Mayle, 1991) is used. The effects of film cooling have been incorporated into the code in the form of appropriate boundary conditions at the hole locations on the airfoil surface. Each hole exit is represented by several control volumes, thus providing an ability to study the effect of hole shape on the film-cooling characteristics. Comparison is fair with near mid-span experimental data for four and nine rows of cooling holes, five on the shower head, and two rows each on the pressure and suction surfaces. The computations, however, show a strong spanwise variation of the heat transfer coefficient on the airfoil surface, specially with shower-head cooling.
RANS Simulations of Aerodynamic Performance of NACA 0015 Flapped Airfoil
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sohaib Obeid
2017-01-01
Full Text Available An analysis of 2D subsonic flow over an NACA 0015 airfoil with a 30% trailing edge flap at a constant Reynolds number of 106 for various incidence angles and a range of flap deflections is presented. The steady-state governing equations of continuity and momentum conservation are solved combined with the realizable k-ε turbulence model using the ANSYS-Fluent code (Version 13.7, ANSYS, Inc., Canonsburg, PA, USA. The primary objective of the study is to provide a comprehensive understanding of flow characteristics around the NACA 0015 airfoil as a function of the angle of attack and flap deflection at Re = 106 using the realizable k-ε turbulence model. The results are validated through comparison of the predictions with the free field experimental measurements. Consistent with the experimental observations, the numerical results show that increased flap deflections increase the maximum lift coefficient, move the zero-lift angle of attack (AoA to a more negative value, decrease the stall AoA, while the slope of the lift curve remains unchanged and the curve just shifts upwards. In addition, the numerical simulations provide limits for lift increment Δ C l and Cl, max values to be 1.1 and 2.2, respectively, obtained at a flap deflection of 50°. This investigation demonstrates that the realizable k-ε turbulence model is capable of predicting flow features over an airfoil with and without flap deflections with reasonable accuracy.
Simulasi Numerik Dynamic Stall Pada Airfoil Yang Berosilasi
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Galih S.T.A. Bangga
2012-09-01
Full Text Available Kebutuhan analisa pada sudu helikopter, kompresor, kincir angin dan struktur streamline lainya yang beroperasi pada angle of attack yang tinggi dan melibatkan instationary effects yang disebut dynamic stall menjadi semakin penting. Fenomena ini ditandai dengan naiknya dynamic lift melewati static lift maksimum pada critical static stall angle, vortex yang terbentuk pada leading edge mengakibatkan naiknya suction contribution yang kemudian terkonveksi sepanjang permukaan hingga mencapai trailling edge diikuti terbentuknya trailling edge vortex yang menunjukkan terjadinya lift stall. Fenomena ini sangat berbahaya terhadap struktur airfoil itu sendiri. Secara umum, beban fatique yang ditimbulkan oleh adanya efek histerisis karena fluktuasi gaya lift akibat induksi vibrasi lebih besar dibandingkan kondisi statis. Simulasi numerik dilakukan secara 2D dengan menggunakan profil Boeing-Vertol V23010-1.58 pada α0 = 14.92°. Standard-kω dan SST-kω digunakan sebagai URANS turbulence modelling. Model osilasi dari airfoil disusun dalam suatu user defined function (UDF. Gerakan meshing beserta airfoil diakomodasi dengan menggunakan dynamic mesh approach. Simulasi numerik menunjukkan bahwa, model SST-kω menunjukkan performa yang lebih baik dibandingkan dengan Standard-kω. Fenomena travelling vortex yang terjadi mampu ditangkap dengan baik, meski pada angle of attack yang tinggi URANS turbulence model gagal memprediksikan fenomena yang terjadi karena dominasi efek 3D.
Performance Trades Study for Robust Airfoil Shape Optimization
Li, Wu; Padula, Sharon
2003-01-01
From time to time, existing aircraft need to be redesigned for new missions with modified operating conditions such as required lift or cruise speed. This research is motivated by the needs of conceptual and preliminary design teams for smooth airfoil shapes that are similar to the baseline design but have improved drag performance over a range of flight conditions. The proposed modified profile optimization method (MPOM) modifies a large number of design variables to search for nonintuitive performance improvements, while avoiding off-design performance degradation. Given a good initial design, the MPOM generates fairly smooth airfoils that are better than the baseline without making drastic shape changes. Moreover, the MPOM allows users to gain valuable information by exploring performance trades over various design conditions. Four simulation cases of airfoil optimization in transonic viscous ow are included to demonstrate the usefulness of the MPOM as a performance trades study tool. Simulation results are obtained by solving fully turbulent Navier-Stokes equations and the corresponding discrete adjoint equations using an unstructured grid computational fluid dynamics code FUN2D.
Makhalas, Kharsan Al; Alsehlli, Faisal
2015-01-01
This Bachelor thesis has been written at the Blekinge Institute of Technology. This thesis concentrates on the wind power and their components, also the large wind farm is studied. The electrical power is generated by using the power in wind to drive a wind turbine to produce mechanical power. This mechanical power can be converted into electrical power by using electrical induction generators. There are two types of the wind turbines, the horizontal axis and vertical axis wind turbine, where...
Li, Jiaoyang; Ni, Jiqin
2014-01-01
Wind measurement is needed in many practical and scientific research situations. Some specific applications require to precisely measuring both wind direction and wind speed at the same time. Current commercial sensors for wind direction and wind speed measurement usually use ultrasonic technology and the sensors are very expensive (> $1500). In addition, the sensors are large in dimension and cannot measure airflow patterns in high spatial resolution. Therefore new and low cost wind speed an...
The flow upstream of a row of aligned wind turbine rotors and its effect on power production
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Meyer Forsting, Alexander Raul; Troldborg, Niels; Gaunaa, Mac
2017-01-01
The blockage developing in front of a laterally aligned row of wind turbines and its impact on power production over a single turbine was analysed using two different numerical methods. The inflow direction was varied from orthogonal to the row until 45◦, with the turbines turning into the wind......, thereby resembling a wind turbine testing site or row in a wind park. The numerical methods included computational fluid dynamics (CFD) with an actuator disc representation of the rotor and a simple vortex method. The forces on the actuator disc were either derived from airfoil data of a modern wind...
Aerodynamics Investigation of Faceted Airfoils at Low Reynolds Number
Napolillo, Zachary G.
The desire and demand to fly farther and faster has progressively integrated the concept of optimization with airfoil design, resulting in increasingly complex numerical tools pursuing efficiency often at diminishing returns; while the costs and difficulty associated with fabrication increases with design complexity. Such efficiencies may often be necessary due to the power density limitations of certain aircraft such as small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and micro air vehicles (MAVs). This research, however, focuses on reducing the complexity of airfoils for applications where aerodynamic performance is less important than the efficiency of manufacturing; in this case a Hybrid Projectile. By employing faceted sections to approximate traditional contoured wing sections it may be possible to expedite manufacturing and reduce costs. We applied this method to the development of a low Reynolds number, disposable Hybrid Projectile requiring a 4.5:1 glide ratio, resulting in a series of airfoils which are geometric approximations to highly contoured cross-sections called ShopFoils. This series of airfoils both numerically and experimentally perform within a 10% margin of the SD6060 airfoil at low Re. Additionally, flow visualization has been conducted to qualitatively determine what mechanisms, if any, are responsible for the similarity in performance between the faceted ShopFoil sections and the SD6060. The data obtained by these experiments did not conclusively reveal how the faceted surfaces may influence low Re flow but did indicate that the ShopFoil s did not maintain flow attachment at higher angles of attack than the SD6060. Two reasons are provided for the unexpected performance of the ShopFoil: one is related to downwash effects, which are suspected of placing the outer portion of the span at an effective angle of attack where the ShopFoils outperform the SD6060; the other is the influence of the tip vortex on separation near the wing tips, which possibly
Numerical study of Wavy Blade Section for Wind Turbines
Kobæk, C. M.; Hansen, M. O. L.
2016-09-01
The Wavy Blade concept is inspired by the unique flipper of a humpback whale, characterized by the tubercles located at the leading edge. It has been suggested that this shape may have been a result of a natural selection process, since this flipper under some circumstances can produce higher lift than a flipper having a smooth trailing edge and thus could be potentially beneficial when catching food. A thorough literature study of the Wavy Blade concept is made and followed by CFD computations of two wavy blade geometries and a comparison with their baseline S809 airfoil at conditions more relevant for modern wind turbines. The findings in the literature from geometries similar to the hump back whale flipper indicate that the aerodynamic performance can be improved at high angles of attack, but sometimes at the expense of a lower lift slope and increased drag before stall. The numerical results for a blade section based on the S809 airfoil are, however, not as promising as some of the findings reported in the literature for the whale flipper at high angles of attack. These first CFD computations using a thicker airfoil and a higher Reynolds number than the whale flipper indicate that the results may very well depend on the actual airfoil geometry and perhaps also the Reynolds number, and future studies are necessary in order to illuminate this further.
CFD analysis for H-rotor Darrieus turbine as a low speed wind energy converter
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M.H. Mohamed
2015-03-01
Full Text Available Vertical axis wind turbines like the Darrieus turbine appear to be promising for the conditions of low wind speed, but suffer from a low efficiency compared to horizontal axis turbines. A fully detailed numerical analysis is introduced in this work to improve the global performance of this wind turbine. A comparison between ANSYS Workbench and Gambit meshing tools for the numerical modeling is performed to summarize a final numerical sequence for the Darrieus rotor performance. Then, this model sequence is applied for different blade airfoils to obtain the best performance. Unsteady simulations performed for different speed ratios and based on URANS turbulent calculations using sliding mesh approach. Results show that the accuracy of ANSYS Workbench meshing is improved by using SST K-omega model but it is not recommended for other turbulence models. Moreover, this CFD procedure is used in this paper to assess the turbine performance with different airfoil shapes (25 airfoils. The results introduced new shapes for this turbine with higher efficiency than the regular airfoils by 10%. In addition, blade pitch angle has been studied and the results indicated that the zero pitch angle gives best performance.
Ice Accretion Prediction on Wind Turbines and Consequent Power Losses
Yirtici, Ozcan; Tuncer, Ismail H.; Ozgen, Serkan
2016-09-01
Ice accretion on wind turbine blades modifies the sectional profiles and causes alteration in the aerodynamic characteristic of the blades. The objective of this study is to determine performance losses on wind turbines due to the formation of ice in cold climate regions and mountainous areas where wind energy resources are found. In this study, the Blade Element Momentum method is employed together with an ice accretion prediction tool in order to estimate the ice build-up on wind turbine blades and the energy production for iced and clean blades. The predicted ice shapes of the various airfoil profiles are validated with the experimental data and it is shown that the tool developed is promising to be used in the prediction of power production losses of wind turbines.
Modelling of unsteady airfoil aerodynamics for the prediction of blade standstill vibrations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Skrzypinski, Witold Robert; Gaunaa, Mac; Sørensen, Niels N.;
2012-01-01
In the present work, CFD simulations of the DU96-W-180 airfoil at 26 and 24 deg. angles of attack were performed. 2D RANS and 3D DES computations with non-moving and prescribed motion airfoil suspensions were carried out. The openings of the lift coefficient loops predicted by CFD were different...
Cost Reduction of Large Eddy Simulation of Airfoils in Turbulent Inflow
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gilling, Lasse; Sørensen, Niels; Rethore, Pierre-Elouan
2009-01-01
This paper discusses simulations of airfoil flows by use of computational fluid dynamics. In recent work large eddy simulations (LES) of airfoil flows have proved superior to detached eddy simulations (DES); by resolving the inflow turbulence the agreement with experiments is improved. The scope...
Goradia, S. H.; Lilley, D. E.
1975-01-01
Theoretical and experimental studies are described which were conducted for the purpose of developing a new generalized method for the prediction of profile drag of single component airfoil sections with sharp trailing edges. This method aims at solution for the flow in the wake from the airfoil trailing edge to the large distance in the downstream direction; the profile drag of the given airfoil section can then easily be obtained from the momentum balance once the shape of velocity profile at a large distance from the airfoil trailing edge has been computed. Computer program subroutines have been developed for the computation of the profile drag and flow in the airfoil wake on CDC6600 computer. The required inputs to the computer program consist of free stream conditions and the characteristics of the boundary layers at the airfoil trailing edge or at the point of incipient separation in the neighborhood of airfoil trailing edge. The method described is quite generalized and hence can be extended to the solution of the profile drag for multi-component airfoil sections.
Numerical Solution of Compressible Steady Flows around the RAE 2822 Airfoil
Kryštůfek, P.; Kozel, K.
2014-03-01
The article presents results of a numerical solution of subsonic, transonic and supersonic flows described by the system of Navier-Stokes equations in 2D laminar compressible flows around the RAE 2822 airfoil. Authors used FVM multistage Runge-Kutta method to numerically solve the flows around the RAE 2822 airfoil.
A Numerical Study of Aerodynamic Performance and Noise of a Bionic Airfoil Based on Owl Wing
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiaomin Liu
2014-08-01
Full Text Available Noise reduction and efficiency enhancement are the two important directions in the development of the multiblade centrifugal fan. In this study, we attempt to develop a bionic airfoil based on the owl wing and investigate its aerodynamic performance and noise-reduction mechanism at the relatively low Reynolds number. Firstly, according to the geometric characteristics of the owl wing, a bionic airfoil is constructed as the object of study at Reynolds number of 12,300. Secondly, the large eddy simulation (LES with the Smagorinsky model is adopted to numerically simulate the unsteady flow fields around the bionic airfoil and the standard NACA0006 airfoil. And then, the acoustic sources are extracted from the unsteady flow field data, and the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings (FW-H equation based on Lighthill's acoustic theory is solved to predict the propagation of these acoustic sources. The numerical results show that the lift-to-drag ratio of bionic airfoil is higher than that of the traditional NACA 0006 airfoil because of its deeply concave lower surface geometry. Finally, the sound field of the bionic airfoil is analyzed in detail. The distribution of the A-weighted sound pressure levels, the scaled directivity of the sound, and the distribution of dP/dt on the airfoil surface are provided so that the characteristics of the acoustic sources could be revealed.
Airfoil-shaped micro-mixers for reducing fouling on membrane surfaces
Ho, Clifford K; Altman, Susan J; Clem, Paul G; Hibbs, Michael; Cook, Adam W
2012-10-23
An array of airfoil-shaped micro-mixers that enhances fluid mixing within permeable membrane channels, such as used in reverse-osmosis filtration units, while minimizing additional pressure drop. The enhanced mixing reduces fouling of the membrane surfaces. The airfoil-shaped micro-mixer can also be coated with or comprised of biofouling-resistant (biocidal/germicidal) ingredients.
Hybrid immersed boundary method for airfoils with a trailing-edge flap
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhu, Wei Jun; Behrens, Tim; Shen, Wen Zhong;
2013-01-01
In this paper, a hybrid immersed boundary technique has been developed for simulating turbulent flows past airfoils with moving trailing-edge flaps. Over the main fixed part of the airfoil, the equations are solved using a standard body-fitted finite volume technique, whereas the moving trailing-...
Performance Analysis of NACA2420 as Wind Turbine Propeller Blade
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sulaeman Mustafa
2017-03-01
Full Text Available Wind is one of the popular renewable energy sources which is abundantly available either in land or at sea. The wind energy can be converted into electrical energy using wind turbines or wind energy conversion systems. However, the exploration and utilization of wind energy potential in Indonesia is not optimal yet. Therefore, in the present study, the performance of a NACA2420 airfoil as wind turbine blade is evaluated. The main objective of the present research is to determine the optimum angle of the propeller blade that can deliver the most optimum performance. In order to achieve the objectives, the wind turbine blade model was tested using a wind tunnel at wind speeds varying from 2 to 9 m/s. From this research, it is demonstrated that the tunnel has helped to increase the wind speed. The maximum wind speed was generated from the tunnel when the fan distance was 1.1 m. In addition, the experiment was also carried out by varying the pitch angles to be 00, 50, 80, 150, and 300. From the test measurements, it was found that the pitch angle of 50 produces the most optimal power which was at 221.039 watts with 0.401 of power coefficient.
Vertical axis wind turbine development. Final report, March 1, 1976-June 30, 1977
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Walters, R. E.; Fanucci, J. B.; Hill, P. W.; Migliore, P. G.
1979-07-01
Theoretical and experimental research accomplished in evaluating an innovative concept for vertical axis wind turbines (VAWT) is described. The concept is that of using straight blades composed of circulation controlled airfoil sections. The theoretical analysis has been developed to determine the unsteady lift and moment characteristics of multiple-blade cross-flow wind turbines. To determine the drag data needed as input to the theoretical analysis, an outdoor test model VAWT has been constructed; design details, instrumentation, calibration results, and initial test results are reported. Initial testing was with fixed pitch blades having cross-sections of conventional symmetrical airfoils. Costs of building the test model are included, as well as cost estimates for blades constructed with composite materials. These costs are compared with those of other types of wind turbines.
Rashid, J. M.; Freling, M.; Friedrich, L. A.
1987-01-01
The ability of coatings to provide at least a 2X improvement in particulate erosion resistance for steel, nickel and titanium compressor airfoils was identified and demonstrated. Coating materials evaluated included plasma sprayed cobalt tungsten carbide, nickel carbide and diffusion applied chromium plus boron. Several processing parameters for plasma spray processing and diffusion coating were evaluated to identify coating systems having the most potential for providing airfoil erosion resistance. Based on laboratory results and analytical evaluations, selected coating systems were applied to gas turbine blades and evaluated for surface finish, burner rig erosion resistance and effect on high cycle fatigue strength. Based on these tests, the following coatings were recommended for engine testing: Gator-Gard plasma spray 88WC-12Co on titanium alloy airfoils, plasma spray 83WC-17Co on steel and nickel alloy airfoils, and Cr+B on nickel alloy airfoils.
Stochastic model for aerodynamic force dynamics on wind turbine blades in unsteady wind inflow
Luhur, Muhammad Ramzan; Kühn, Martin; Wächter, Matthias
2015-01-01
The paper presents a stochastic approach to estimate the aerodynamic forces with local dynamics on wind turbine blades in unsteady wind inflow. This is done by integrating a stochastic model of lift and drag dynamics for an airfoil into the aerodynamic simulation software AeroDyn. The model is added as an alternative to the static table lookup approach in blade element momentum (BEM) wake model used by AeroDyn. The stochastic forces are obtained for a rotor blade element using full field turbulence simulated wind data input and compared with the classical BEM and dynamic stall models for identical conditions. The comparison shows that the stochastic model generates additional extended dynamic response in terms of local force fluctuations. Further, the comparison of statistics between the classical BEM, dynamic stall and stochastic models' results in terms of their increment probability density functions gives consistent results.
Unsteady airfoil flows with application to aeroelastic stability
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Johansen, Jeppe
1999-09-01
The present report describes numerical investigation of two-dimensional unsteady airfoil flows with application to aeroelastic stability. The report is divided in two parts. Part A describes the purely aerodynamic part, while Part B includes the aeroelastic part. In Part A a transition prediction algorithm based on a simplified version of the e{sup n} method is proposed. Laminar Boundary Layer instability data are stored in a database from which stability characteristics can be extracted by interpolation. Input to the database are laminar integral boundary layer parameters. These are computed from an integral boundary layer formulation coupled to a Navier-Stokes flow solver. Five different airfoils are considered at fixed angle of attack, and the flow is computed assuming both fully turbulent and transitional flow and compared with experimental data. Results indicate that using a transition model the drag prediction is improved considerably. Also the lift is slightly improved. At high angles of attack transition will affect leading edge separation which again will affect the overall vortex shedding. If the transition point is not properly predicted this will affect the whole hysteresis curve. The transition model developed in the present work showed more stable predictions compared to the empirical transition model. In Part B a simple three degrees-of-freedom (DOF) structural dynamics model is developed and coupled to the aerodynamics models from Part A. A 2nd order accurate time integration scheme is used to solve the equations of motion. Two airfoils are investigated. The aeroelastic models predict stable conditions well at low angle of attack. But at high angles of attack, and where unstable behaviour is expected, only the Navier-Stokes solver predict correct aeroelastic response. The semi-empirical dynamic stall model does not predict vortex shedding and moment correctly leading to an erroneous aerodynamic damping. (au) 5 tabs.; 55 ills., 52 refs.
Flexible Blades for Wind Turbines
Collins, Madeline Carlisle; Macphee, David; Harris, Caleb
2016-11-01
Previous research has shown that windmills with flexible blades are more efficient than those with rigid blades. Flexibility offers passive pitch control, preferable to active pitch control which is costly and requires maintenance. Flexible blades morph such that the blade more closely resembles its design point at part load and over load. The lift-to-drag ratios on individual blades was investigated. A mold was designed and machined from an acrylic slab for the casting of blades with a NACA 0012 cross section. A flexible blade was cast from silicone and a rigid blade was cast from polyurethane. Each of these blades was tested in a wind tunnel, cantilever mounted, spanning the whole test section. The angle of attack was varied by rotating the mount. All tests were performed at the same wind speed. A load cell within the mount measured forces on the blade, from which the lift and drag forces were calculated. The stall point for the flexible blade occurred later than for the rigid blade, which agrees with previous research. Lift-to-drag ratios were larger for the flexible blade at all angles of attack tested. Flexible blades seem to be a viable option for passive pitch control. Future research will include different airfoil cross sections, wind speeds, and blade materials. Funding from NSF REU site Grant EEC 1358991 is greatly appreciated.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chougule, Prasad; Nielsen, Søren R.K.
2014-01-01
problem of self-start inability and has low power coefficient as compare to the horizontal axis wind turbine. These two problems can be eliminated by incorporating the blade pitching mechanism. So, in this paper overview of various pitch control systems is discussed and design of self-acting pitch...... wind turbines are suitable for high wind speed whereas vertical axis wind turbines operate relatively low wind speed area. Vertical axis wind turbines are cost effective and simple in construction as compared to the horizontal axis wind turbine. However, vertical axis wind turbines have inherent...... mechanism is given. A pitch control linkage mechanism for vertical axis wind turbine is modeled by multi-body approach using MSC Software. Aerodynamic loads are predicted from a mathematical model based on double multiple stream tube method. An appropriate airfoil which works at low Reynolds number...
An inverse method with regularity condition for transonic airfoil design
Zhu, Ziqiang; Xia, Zhixun; Wu, Liyi
1991-01-01
It is known from Lighthill's exact solution of the incompressible inverse problem that in the inverse design problem, the surface pressure distribution and the free stream speed cannot both be prescribed independently. This implies the existence of a constraint on the prescribed pressure distribution. The same constraint exists at compressible speeds. Presented here is an inverse design method for transonic airfoils. In this method, the target pressure distribution contains a free parameter that is adjusted during the computation to satisfy the regularity condition. Some design results are presented in order to demonstrate the capabilities of the method.
Progress Towards Computational Method for Circulation Control Airfoils
Swanson, R. C.; Rumsey, C. L.; Anders, S. G.
2005-01-01
The compressible Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations are solved for circulation control airfoil flows. Numerical solutions are computed with both structured and unstructured grid solvers. Several turbulence models are considered, including the Spalart-Allmaras model with and without curvature corrections, the shear stress transport model of Menter, and the k-enstrophy model. Circulation control flows with jet momentum coefficients of 0.03, 0.10, and 0.226 are considered. Comparisons are made between computed and experimental pressure distributions, velocity profiles, Reynolds stress profiles, and streamline patterns. Including curvature effects yields the closest agreement with the measured data.
The S407, S409, and S410 Airfoils
2010-08-01
coefficient at point B is not as low as at point A, unlike the polars of many laminar-flow airfoils where the drag coefficient within the laminar bucket is...feature results in a leading-edge shape that produces a suction peak at higher lift coefficients, which ensures that transition on the upper surface...like sketch 3. Sketch 3 No suction peak exists at the leading edge. Instead, a rounded peak occurs aft of the leading edge, which allows some laminar
Lifetime prediction modeling of airfoils for advanced power generation
Karaivanov, Ventzislav Gueorguiev
The use of gases produced from coal as a turbine fuel offers an attractive means for efficiently generating electric power from our Nation's most abundant fossil fuel resource. The oxy-fuel and hydrogen-fired turbine concepts promise increased efficiency and low emissions on the expense of increased turbine inlet temperature (TIT) and different working fluid. Developing the turbine technology and materials is critical to the creation of these near-zero emission power generation technologies. A computational methodology, based on three-dimensional finite element analysis (FEA) and damage mechanics is presented for predicting the evolution of creep and fatigue in airfoils. We took a first look at airfoil thermal distributions in these advanced turbine systems based on CFD analysis. The damage mechanics-based creep and fatigue models were implemented as user modified routine in commercial package ANSYS. This routine was used to visualize the creep and fatigue damage evolution over airfoils for hydrogen-fired and oxy-fuel turbines concepts, and regions most susceptible to failure were indentified. Model allows for interaction between creep and fatigue damage thus damage due to fatigue and creep processes acting separately in one cycle will affect both the fatigue and creep damage rates in the next cycle. Simulation results were presented for various thermal conductivity of the top coat. Surface maps were created on the airfoil showing the development of the TGO scale and the Al depletion of the bond coat. In conjunction with model development, laboratory-scale experimental validation was executed to evaluate the influence of operational compressive stress levels on the performance of the TBC system. TBC coated single crystal coupons were exposed isothermally in air at 900, 1000, 1100oC with and without compressive load. Exposed samples were cross-sectioned and evaluated with scanning electron microscope (SEM). Performance data was collected based on image analysis
CFD code comparison for 2D airfoil flows
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Niels N.; Méndez, B.; Muñoz, A.
2016-01-01
The current paper presents the effort, in the EU AVATAR project, to establish the necessary requirements to obtain consistent lift over drag ratios among seven CFD codes. The flow around a 2D airfoil case is studied, for both transitional and fully turbulent conditions at Reynolds numbers of 3...... × 106 and 15 × 106. The necessary grid resolution, domain size, and iterative convergence criteria to have consistent results are discussed, and suggestions are given for best practice. For the fully turbulent results four out of seven codes provide consistent results. For the laminar...
Wind Structure and Wind Loading
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brorsen, Michael
The purpose of this note is to provide a short description of wind, i.e. of the flow in the atmosphere of the Earth and the loading caused by wind on structures. The description comprises: causes to the generation of windhe interaction between wind and the surface of the Earthhe stochastic nature...... of windhe interaction between wind and structures, where it is shown that wind loading depends strongly on this interaction...
Aeroelastic optimization of MW wind turbines
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hartvig Hansen, M.; Zahle, F.
2011-12-15
This report contains the results from the Energy Development and Demonstration Project ''Aeroelastic Optimization of MW wind turbine'' (AeroOpt). The project has had the following five Work Packages: 1. Geometric non-linear, anisotropic beam element for HAWC2. 2. Closed-loop eigenvalue analysis of controlled wind turbines. 3. Resonant wave excitation of lateral tower bending modes. 4. Development of next generation aerodynamic design tools. 5. Advanced design and verification of airfoils. The purposes of these Work Packages are briefly described in the Preface and a summary of the results are given in Section 2. Thereafter, the results from each Work Package are described in eight subsequent chapters. (Author)
Uncertainty Quantification for Airfoil Icing using Polynomial Chaos Expansions
DeGennaro, Anthony M; Martinelli, Luigi
2014-01-01
The formation and accretion of ice on the leading edge of a wing can be detrimental to airplane performance. Complicating this reality is the fact that even a small amount of uncertainty in the shape of the accreted ice may result in a large amount of uncertainty in aerodynamic performance metrics (e.g., stall angle of attack). The main focus of this work concerns using the techniques of Polynomial Chaos Expansions (PCE) to quantify icing uncertainty much more quickly than traditional methods (e.g., Monte Carlo). First, we present a brief survey of the literature concerning the physics of wing icing, with the intention of giving a certain amount of intuition for the physical process. Next, we give a brief overview of the background theory of PCE. Finally, we compare the results of Monte Carlo simulations to PCE-based uncertainty quantification for several different airfoil icing scenarios. The results are in good agreement and confirm that PCE methods are much more efficient for the canonical airfoil icing un...
Improvement of airfoil trailing edge bluntness noise model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wei Jun Zhu
2016-02-01
Full Text Available In this article, airfoil trailing edge bluntness noise is investigated using both computational aero-acoustic and semi-empirical approach. For engineering purposes, one of the most commonly used prediction tools for trailing edge noise are based on semi-empirical approaches, for example, the Brooks, Pope, and Marcolini airfoil noise prediction model developed by Brooks, Pope, and Marcolini (NASA Reference Publication 1218, 1989. It was found in previous study that the Brooks, Pope, and Marcolini model tends to over-predict noise at high frequencies. Furthermore, it was observed that this was caused by a lack in the model to predict accurately noise from blunt trailing edges. For more physical understanding of bluntness noise generation, in this study, we also use an advanced in-house developed high-order computational aero-acoustic technique to investigate the details associated with trailing edge bluntness noise. The results from the numerical model form the basis for an improved Brooks, Pope, and Marcolini trailing edge bluntness noise model.
Application of Nontraditional Optimization Techniques for Airfoil Shape Optimization
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. Mukesh
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The method of optimization algorithms is one of the most important parameters which will strongly influence the fidelity of the solution during an aerodynamic shape optimization problem. Nowadays, various optimization methods, such as genetic algorithm (GA, simulated annealing (SA, and particle swarm optimization (PSO, are more widely employed to solve the aerodynamic shape optimization problems. In addition to the optimization method, the geometry parameterization becomes an important factor to be considered during the aerodynamic shape optimization process. The objective of this work is to introduce the knowledge of describing general airfoil geometry using twelve parameters by representing its shape as a polynomial function and coupling this approach with flow solution and optimization algorithms. An aerodynamic shape optimization problem is formulated for NACA 0012 airfoil and solved using the methods of simulated annealing and genetic algorithm for 5.0 deg angle of attack. The results show that the simulated annealing optimization scheme is more effective in finding the optimum solution among the various possible solutions. It is also found that the SA shows more exploitation characteristics as compared to the GA which is considered to be more effective explorer.
Evaluation of Icing Scaling on Swept NACA 0012 Airfoil Models
Tsao, Jen-Ching; Lee, Sam
2012-01-01
Icing scaling tests in the NASA Glenn Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) were performed on swept wing models using existing recommended scaling methods that were originally developed for straight wing. Some needed modifications on the stagnation-point local collection efficiency (i.e., beta(sub 0) calculation and the corresponding convective heat transfer coefficient for swept NACA 0012 airfoil models have been studied and reported in 2009, and the correlations will be used in the current study. The reference tests used a 91.4-cm chord, 152.4-cm span, adjustable sweep airfoil model of NACA 0012 profile at velocities of 100 and 150 knot and MVD of 44 and 93 mm. Scale-to-reference model size ratio was 1:2.4. All tests were conducted at 0deg angle of attack (AoA) and 45deg sweep angle. Ice shape comparison results were presented for stagnation-point freezing fractions in the range of 0.4 to 1.0. Preliminary results showed that good scaling was achieved for the conditions test by using the modified scaling methods developed for swept wing icing.
Implementation of CPFD to Control Active and Passive Airfoil Propulsion
Young, Jay; Asselin, Daniel; Williamson, Charles
2016-11-01
The fluid dynamics of biologically-inspired flapping propulsion provides a fertile testing ground for the field of unsteady aerodynamics, serving as important groundwork for the design and development of fast, mobile underwater vehicles and flapping-wing micro air vehicles (MAVs). There has been a recent surge of interest in these technologies as they provide low cost, compact, and maneuverable means for terrain mapping, search and rescue operations, and reconnaissance. Propulsion by unsteady motions has been fundamentally modeled with an airfoil that heaves and pitches, and previous work has been done to show that actively controlling these motions can generate high thrust and efficiency (Read, Hover & Triantafyllou 2003). In this study, we examine the performance of an airfoil with an actuated heave motion coupled with a passively controlled pitch motion created by simulating the presence of a torsional spring using our cyber-physical fluid dynamics (CPFD) approach (Mackowski & Williamson 2011, 2015, 2016). By using passively controlled pitch, we have effectively eliminated an actuator, decreasing cost and mass, an important step for developing efficient vehicles. In many cases, we have achieved comparable or superior thrust and efficiency values to those obtained using two actively controlled degrees of freedom. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation and the Air Force Office of Scientific Research Grant No. FA9550-15-1-0243, monitored by Dr. Douglas Smith.
Flight tests of a supersonic natural laminar flow airfoil
Frederick, M. A.; Banks, D. W.; Garzon, G. A.; Matisheck, J. R.
2015-06-01
A flight test campaign of a supersonic natural laminar flow airfoil has been recently completed. The test surface was an 80 inch (203 cm) chord and 40 inch (102 cm) span article mounted on the centerline store location of an F-15B airplane. The test article was designed with a leading edge sweep of effectively 0° to minimize boundary layer crossflow. The test article surface was coated with an insulating material to avoid significant heat transfer to and from the test article structure to maintain a quasi-adiabatic wall. An aircraft-mounted infrared camera system was used to determine boundary layer transition and the extent of laminar flow. The tests were flown up to Mach 2.0 and chord Reynolds numbers in excess of 30 million. The objectives of the tests were to determine the extent of laminar flow at high Reynolds numbers and to determine the sensitivity of the flow to disturbances. Both discrete (trip dots) and 2D disturbances (forward-facing steps) were tested. A series of oblique shocks, of yet unknown origin, appeared on the surface, which generated sufficient crossflow to affect transition. Despite the unwanted crossflow, the airfoil performed well. The results indicate that the sensitivity of the flow to the disturbances, which can translate into manufacturing tolerances, was similar to that of subsonic natural laminar flow wings.
Large Eddy Simulation of Turbulent Flows in Wind Energy
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chivaee, Hamid Sarlak
This research is devoted to the Large Eddy Simulation (LES), and to lesser extent, wind tunnel measurements of turbulent flows in wind energy. It starts with an introduction to the LES technique associated with the solution of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations, discretized using a finite...... Reynolds numbers, and thereafter, the fully-developed infinite wind farm boundary later simulations are performed. Sources of inaccuracy in the simulations are investigated and it is found that high Reynolds number flows are more sensitive to the choice of the SGS model than their low Reynolds number...... of attack. Laminar-turbulent transition, generation of laminar boundary layer separation, and formation of stall cells are investigated. The simulated airfoil characteristics are validated against measurements. It is concluded that the LES computations and wind tunnel measurements are in good agreement...
Software tool for horizontal-axis wind turbine simulation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vitale, A.J. [Instituto Argentino de Oceanografia, Camino La Carrindanga Km. 7, 5 CC 804, B8000FWB Bahia Blanca (Argentina); Universidad Tecnologica Nacional Facultad Regional Bahia Blanca, GESE, 11 de Abril 461, B8000LMI Bahia Blanca (Argentina); Dpto. de Ing. Electrica y de Computadoras, Universidad Nacional del Sur, Av. Alem 1253, 8000 Bahia Blanca (Argentina); Rossi, A.P. [Universidad Tecnologica Nacional Facultad Regional Bahia Blanca, GESE, 11 de Abril 461, B8000LMI Bahia Blanca (Argentina); Dpto. de Ing. Electrica y de Computadoras, Universidad Nacional del Sur, Av. Alem 1253, 8000 Bahia Blanca (Argentina)
2008-07-15
The main problem of a wind turbine generator design project is the design of the right blades capable of satisfying the specific energy requirement of an electric system with optimum performance. Once the blade has been designed for optimum operation at a particular rotor angular speed, it is necessary to determine the overall performance of the rotor under the range of wind speed that it will encounter. A software tool that simulates low-power, horizontal-axis wind turbines was developed for this purpose. With this program, the user can calculate the rotor power output for any combination of wind and rotor speeds, with definite blade shape and airfoil characteristics. The software also provides information about distribution of forces along the blade span, for different operational conditions. (author)
Computational method for the design of wind turbine blades
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vitale, A.J. [Instituto Argentino de Oceanografia, Camino La Carrindanga Km. 7.5, CC 804, B8000FWB Bahia Blanca (Argentina); Universidad Tecnologica Nacional Facultad Regional Bahia Blanca, GESE, 11 de Abril 461, B8000LMI Bahia Blanca (Argentina); Universidad Nacional del Sur, Dpto. de Ing. Electrica y de Computadoras, Av. Alem 1253, 8000 Bahia Blanca (Argentina); Rossi, A.P. [Universidad Tecnologica Nacional Facultad Regional Bahia Blanca, GESE, 11 de Abril 461, B8000LMI Bahia Blanca (Argentina); Universidad Nacional del Sur, Dpto. de Ing. Electrica y de Computadoras, Av. Alem 1253, 8000 Bahia Blanca (Argentina)
2008-07-15
Zeus Disenador was developed to design low-power, horizontal-axis wind turbine blades, by means of an iterative algorithm. With this software, it is possible to obtain the optimum blade shape for a wind turbine to satisfy energy requirements of an electric system with optimum rotor efficiency. The number of blades, the airfoil curves and the average wind velocity can be specified by the user. The user can also request particular edge conditions for the width of the blades and for the pitch angle. Results are provided in different windows. Two- and three-dimensional graphics show the aspect of the resultant blade. Numerical results are displayed for blade length, blade surface, pitch angle variation along the blade span, rotor angular speed, rotor efficiency and rotor output power. Software verifications were made by comparing rotor power and rotor efficiency for different designs. Results were similar to those provided by commercial wind generator manufacturers. (author)
Effects of relative thickness on aerodynamic characteristics of airfoil at a low Reynolds number
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ma Dongli
2015-08-01
Full Text Available This study focuses on the characteristics of low Reynolds number flow around airfoil of high-altitude unmanned aerial vehicles (HAUAVs cruising at low speed. Numerical simulation on the flows around several representative airfoils is carried out to investigate the low Reynolds number flow. The water tunnel model tests further validate the accuracy and effectiveness of the numerical method. Then the effects of the relative thickness of airfoil on aerodynamic performance are explored, using the above numerical method, by simulating flows around airfoils of different relative thicknesses (12%, 14%, 16%, 18%, as well as different locations of the maximum relative thickness (x/c = 22%, 26%, 30%, 34%, at a low Reynolds number of 5 × 105. Results show that performance of airfoils at low Reynolds number is mainly affected by the laminar separation bubble. On the premise of good stall characteristics, the value of maximum relative thickness should be as small as possible, and the location of the maximum relative thickness ought to be closer to the trailing edge to obtain fine airfoil performance. The numerical method is feasible for the simulation of low Reynolds number flow. The study can help to provide a basis for the design of low Reynolds number airfoil.
Experimental Study of Thin and Thick Airfoils at Low Reynolds Numbers
Durgesh, Vibhav; Garcia, Elifalet; Johari, Hamid
2015-11-01
A recent surge in applications of unmanned air vehicles in various fields has led to increased interest in understanding the characteristics of airfoils at Reynolds number regime ~104. At these low Re numbers, aerodynamics of an airfoil is influenced by laminar separation and its possible reattachment, which is in contrast to airfoil behavior at high Re numbers. This study focused on comparing the load characteristics of symmetric, thin (NACA-0009) and thick (NACA-0021) airfoils at low Re numbers ~2 - 4 × 104, and angles of attack between 2° to 12°, along with simultaneous flow visualization. The experiments were performed in a low speed flow visualization water tunnel facility, and two-component Laser Doppler Velocimetry was used to quantify the inflow conditions and turbulence intensity. A high precision force/torque transducer was used for the load measurements, while hydrogen bubble technique was used for flow visualization on the suction side of the airfoils. The presentation will discuss the correlation between observed flow structures and instantaneous load on the airfoils, as well as the aerodynamic load characteristics of thin and thick airfoils at low Re numbers.
Unsteady 2D potential-flow forces and a thin variable geometry airfoil undergoing arbitrary motion
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gaunaa, M.
2006-07-15
In this report analytical expressions for the unsteady 2D force distribution on a variable geometry airfoil undergoing arbitrary motion are derived under the assumption of incompressible, irrotational, inviscid flow. The airfoil is represented by its camberline as in classic thin-airfoil theory, and the deflection of the airfoil is given by superposition of chordwise deflection mode shapes. It is shown from the expressions for the forces, that the influence from the shed vorticity in the wake is described by the same time-lag for all chordwise positions on the airfoil. This time-lag term can be approximated using an indicial function approach, making the practical calculation of the aerodynamic response numerically very efficient by use of Duhamel superposition. Furthermore, the indicial function expressions for the time-lag terms are formulated in their equivalent state-space form, allowing for use of the present theory in problems employing the eigenvalue approach, such as stability analysis. The analytical expressions for the forces simplify to all previously known steady and unsteady thin-airfoil solutions. Apart from the obvious applications within active load control/reduction, the current theory can be used for various applications which up to now have been possible only using much more computational costly methods. The propulsive performance of a soft heaving propulsor, and the influence of airfoil camberline elasticity on the flutter limit are two computational examples given in the report that highlight this feature. (au)
On the effect of leading edge blowing on circulation control airfoil aerodynamics
Mclachlan, B. G.
1987-01-01
In the present context the term circulation control is used to denote a method of lift generation that utilizes tangential jet blowing over the upper surface of a rounded trailing edge airfoil to determine the location of the boundary layer separation points, thus setting an effective Kutta condition. At present little information exists on the flow structure generated by circulation control airfoils under leading edge blowing. Consequently, no theoretical methods exist to predict airfoil performance under such conditions. An experimental study of the flow field generated by a two dimensional circulation control airfoil under steady leading and trailing edge blowing was undertaken. The objective was to fundamentally understand the overall flow structure generated and its relation to airfoil performance. Flow visualization was performed to define the overall flow field structure. Measurements of the airfoil forces were also made to provide a correlation of the observed flow field structure to airfoil performance. Preliminary results are presented, specifically on the effect on the flow field structure of leading edge blowing, alone and in conjunction with trailing edge blowing.
Parametric analyses for synthetic jet control on separation and stall over rotor airfoil
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhao Guoqing; Zhao Qijun
2014-01-01
Numerical simulations are performed to investigate the effects of synthetic jet control on separation and stall over rotor airfoils. The preconditioned and unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations coupled with akxshear stream transport turbulence model are employed to accomplish the flowfield simulation of rotor airfoils under jet control. Additionally, a velocity boundary condition modeled by a sinusoidal function is developed to fulfill the perturba-tion effect of periodic jets. The validity of the present CFD procedure is evaluated by the simulated results of an isolated synthetic jet and the jet control case for airfoil NACA0015. Then, parametric analyses are conducted specifically for an OA213 rotor airfoil to investigate the effects of jet param-eters (forcing frequency, jet location and momentum coefficient, jet direction, and distribution of jet arrays) on the control effect of the aerodynamic characteristics of a rotor airfoil. Preliminary results indicate that the efficiency of jet control can be improved with specific frequencies (the best lift-drag ratio at F+=2.0) and jet angles (40? or 75?) when the jets are located near the separation point of the rotor airfoil. Furthermore, as a result of a suitable combination of jet arrays, the lift coefficient of the airfoil can be improved by nearly 100%, and the corresponding drag coefficient decreased by 26.5%in comparison with the single point control case.
SiC/SiC Leading Edge Turbine Airfoil Tested Under Simulated Gas Turbine Conditions
Robinson, R. Craig; Hatton, Kenneth S.
1999-01-01
Silicon-based ceramics have been proposed as component materials for use in gas turbine engine hot-sections. A high pressure burner rig was used to expose both a baseline metal airfoil and ceramic matrix composite leading edge airfoil to typical gas turbine conditions to comparatively evaluate the material response at high temperatures. To eliminate many of the concerns related to an entirely ceramic, rotating airfoil, this study has focused on equipping a stationary metal airfoil with a ceramic leading edge insert to demonstrate the feasibility and benefits of such a configuration. Here, the idea was to allow the SiC/SiC composite to be integrated as the airfoil's leading edge, operating in a "free-floating" or unrestrained manner. and provide temperature relief to the metal blade underneath. The test included cycling the airfoils between simulated idle, lift, and cruise flight conditions. In addition, the airfoils were air-cooled, uniquely instrumented, and exposed to the same internal and external conditions, which included gas temperatures in excess of 1370 C (2500 F). Results show the leading edge insert remained structurally intact after 200 simulated flight cycles with only a slightly oxidized surface. The instrumentation clearly suggested a significant reduction (approximately 600 F) in internal metal temperatures as a result of the ceramic leading edge. The object of this testing was to validate the design and analysis done by Materials Research and Design of Rosemont, PA and to determine the feasibility of this design for the intended application.
Aerodynamic load calculation of horizontal axis wind turbine in non-uniform flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lupo, E.
1982-09-01
An aerodynamic computer program, applicable to upwind rotors, was developed to calculate variable loads on rotor blades due to nonuniform flow. This program takes into account the atmospheric boundary layer, the variation in wind direction, and tower reflection. The aerodynamic analysis is based on a combination of momentum and blade element equations. The aerodynamic conditions and the airloads are for 36 azimuth positions of a rigid blade during its rotation. The inputs of the program are the geometric characteristics of the rotor and blades, the aerodynamic characteristic of the airfoil sections, the wind shear expression, the yaw and tilt angle with wind direction and the rotor-tower diameter ratio for cylindrical towers.
Unsteady two-dimensional potential-flow model for thin variable geometry airfoils
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gaunaa, Mac
2010-01-01
as in classic thin-airfoil theory, and the deflection of the airfoil is given by superposition of chord-wise deflection mode shapes. It is shown from the expressions for the forces that the influence from the shed vorticity in the wake is described by the same time lag for all chord-wise positions...... on the airfoil. This time-lag term can be approximated using an indicial function approach, making the practical calculation of the aerodynamic response numerically very efficient by use of Duhamel superposition. Furthermore, the indicial function expressions for the time-lag terms are formulated...
Natural laminar flow airfoil design considerations for winglets on low-speed airplanes
Vandam, C. P.
1984-01-01
Winglet airfoil section characteristics which significantly influence cruise performance and handling qualities of an airplane are discussed. A good winglet design requires an airfoil section with a low cruise drag coefficient, a high maximum lift coefficient, and a gradual and steady movement of the boundary layer transition location with angle of attack. The first design requirement provides a low crossover lift coefficient of airplane drag polars with winglets off and on. The other requirements prevent nonlinear changes in airplane lateral/directional stability and control characteristics. These requirements are considered in the design of a natural laminar flow airfoil section for winglet applications and chord Reynolds number of 1 to 4 million.
Fluid mechanics mechanisms in the stall process of airfoils for helicopters
Young, W. H., Jr.
1981-01-01
Phenomena that control the flow during the stall portion of a dynamic stall cycle are analyzed, and their effect on blade motion is outlined. Four mechanisms by which dynamic stall may be initiated are identified: (1) bursting of the separation bubble, (2) flow reversal in the turbulent boundary layer on the airfoil upper surface, (3) shock wave-boundary layer interaction behind the airfoil crest, and (4) acoustic wave propagation below the airfoil. The fluid mechanics that contribute to the identified flow phenomena are summarized, and the usefulness of a model that incorporates the required fluid mechanics mechanisms is discussed.
Synthetic-jet-based dynamic stall control on a scaled finite span wind turbine S817 blade
Rice, Thomas; Taylor, Keith; Amitay, Michael
2016-11-01
As wind turbines increase in size, so do many of the adverse effects associated with unsteady flow fields. Yawed flow, unsteady gusts, atmospheric boundary layers, and even free stream turbulence can cause unsteady loading, which are detrimental to the blades' structure. In order to decrease unsteady loading, synthetic jet actuators were installed on a scaled finite span cantilevered wind turbine blade having an S817 airfoil shape. The S817 airfoil shape is of the blade tips on the NREL CART3, which will be used next year on full scale field testing of active flow control. The model has been tested in the wind tunnel with and without active flow control, using load, surface pressure, and PIV measurements to characterize the airfoil's stall behavior during static and dynamic conditions, and the effect of flow control on its aerodynamic performance. Surface-mounted microphones were also used to detect dominant frequencies in the flow field. Dynamic stall was also simulated by pitching the airfoil through stall in a sinusoidal pitching motion. Synthetic jets, placed near the leading edge, were shown to increase lift both in the static and dynamic cases, in addition to attaching the flow and reducing hysteresis during dynamic pitching, showing a decrease in structural loading.
Investigation of vibration on an airfoil aerodynamics at larger incidence%大迎角下翼型振动的气动性能研究
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
解亚军; 叶正寅
2011-01-01
众所周知,风洞试验中的飞机模型,尤其是带有大展弦比机翼的模型有时会出现翼梢振动现象,振动模式主要表现为翼梢沉浮和俯仰形式,以致影响实验结果的精度和可靠性.选取相对厚度较小的NACA0008翼型,在求解非定常Navier-Stokes方程的基础上,采用改进的无限插值理论和绕翼型的C型网格,模拟风洞实验中模型振动条件下的流场,研究振动模式及其不同耦合对流场、尤其是大迎角流场的影响,并考虑了模型弹性轴不同位置对结果的影响.研究结果表明:在临近传统定常失速迎角的大迎角条件下,翼型的振动可以引起翼型大尺度的分离,导致翼型失速的提前发生;振动在不同的相位滞后条件下,对翼型流场的分离程度不尽相同.%It is well known that the model wing may appear obvious vibration in wind tunnel experiments sometimes at high incidence especially in large aspect ratio aircraft models. The vibration modes mainly come in plunging and pitching which seriously affect the precision and reliability of wind tunnel experiments results. In this paper, the investigation of NACA0008 airfoil is carried out. Based on the unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equations, applying the modified infinite interpolation approach and the C type grid, the flow field and aerodynamic characteristics of the airfoil at high incidence are studied for simulating vibrations of wind-tunnel models, especially for the wind-tunnel airplane with high aspect ratio wing. Two vibration models and the phase delay between the different vibrations are also studied. It is shown that the vibrations of the airfoil can cause large scale unsteady separate vortex shedding before the stall incidence,and lead to the stall appearing at some lower incidence than the steady meaning stall incidence.The different phase delay has different effect on the flow-field.
An experimental study of an airfoil with a bio-inspired leading edge device at high angles of attack
Mandadzhiev, Boris A.; Lynch, Michael K.; Chamorro, Leonardo P.; Wissa, Aimy A.
2017-09-01
Robust and predictable aerodynamic performance of unmanned aerial vehicles at the limits of their design envelope is critical for safety and mission adaptability. Deployable aerodynamic surfaces from the wing leading or trailing edges are often used to extend the aerodynamic envelope (e.g. slats and flaps). Birds have also evolved feathers at the leading edge (LE) of their wings, known as the alula, which enables them to perform high angles of attack maneuvers. In this study, a series of wind tunnel experiments are performed to quantify the effect of various deployment parameters of an alula-like LE device on the aerodynamic performance of a cambered airfoil (S1223) at stall and post stall conditions. The alula relative angle of attack, measured from the mean chord of the airfoil, is varied to modulate tip-vortex strength, while the alula deflection angle is varied to modulate the distance between the tip vortex and the wing surface. Integrated lift force measurements were collected at various alula-inspired device configurations. The effect of the alula-inspired device on the boundary layer velocity profile and turbulence intensity were investigated through hot-wire anemometer measurements. Results show that as alula deflection angle increases, the lift coefficient also increase especially at lower alula relative angles of attack. Moreover, at post stall wing angles of attack, the wake velocity deficit is reduced in the presence of alula device, confirming the mitigation of the wing adverse pressure gradient. The results are in strong agreement with measurements taken on bird wings showing delayed flow reversal and extended range of operational angles of attack. An engineered alula-inspired device has the potential to improve mission adaptability in small unmanned air vehicles during low Reynolds number flight.
Numerical study on small scale vertical axis wind turbine
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Parra-Santos Teresa
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The performance of a Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT is numerically analyzed. The set-up is Hdarrieus with three straight blades airfoils NACA attached to a rotating vertical shaft. The wind turbine has solidity equals to the unity operating with wind velocity of 7 m/s. Influence of pitch angle is tested to get design tendencies. 2D, transient, Navier Stokes equations are solved using the code Ansys-Fluent. Conservation equations were solved with a Third-Order MUSCL scheme using SIMPLE to couple pressure and velocity. More than six revolutions must be simulated to get the periodic behavior. Two models of turbulence have been contrasted Realizable k-epsilon and Transition SST concluding the last one show more realistic flow features. Pitch angles of 0º, -6º and -10º have been tested with Tip Speed Ratios ranging from 0.7 and 1.6. The no null pitch angles improve the performance of the wind turbine. Instantaneous and averaged power coefficients as well as detailed flow field around the airfoils are showed.
Design and development of nautilus whorl-wind turbine
R, Pramod; Kumar, G. B. Veeresh; Harsha, P. Sai Sri; Kumar, K. A. Udaya
2017-07-01
Our life is directly related to energy and its consumption, and the issues of energy research are extremely important and highly sensitive. Scientists and researchers attempt to accelerate solutions for wind energy generation, design parameters under the influence of novel policies adopted for energy management and the concerns for global warming and climate change. The objective of this study is to design a small wind turbine that is optimized for the constraints that come with residential use. The study is aimed at designing a wind turbine for tapping the low speed wind in urban locations. The design process includes the selection of the wind turbine type and the determination of the blade airfoil, finding the maximum drag model and manufacturing of the turbine economically. In this study, the Nautilus turbine is modeled, simulated and the characteristic curves are plotted. The cutting in wind speed for the turbine is around 1m/s. The turbine rotates in a range of 20 rpm to 500 rpm at wind speeds 1m/s to 10m/s On a below average day at noon where the wind speed are usually low the turbine recorded an rpm of 120 (average value) at 4m/s wind speeds. This study focuses on a computational fluid dynamics analysis of compressible radially outward flow.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2010-01-01
In order to improve airfoil performance under different flight conditions and to make the performance insensitive to off-design condition at the same time,a multi-objective optimization approach considering robust design has been developed and applied to airfoil design. Non-uniform rational B-spline (NURBS) representation is adopted in airfoil design process,control points and related weights around airfoil are used as design variables. Two airfoil representation cases show that the NURBS method can get airfoil geometry with max geometry error less than 0.0019. By using six-sigma robust approach in multi-objective airfoil design,each sub-objective function of the problem has robustness property. By adopting multi-objective genetic algorithm that is based on non-dominated sorting,a set of non-dominated airfoil solutions with robustness can be obtained in the design. The optimum robust airfoil can be traded off and selected in these non-dominated solutions by design tendency. By using the above methods,a multi-objective robust optimization was conducted for NASA SC0712 airfoil. After performing robust airfoil optimization,the mean value of drag coefficient at Ma0.7-0.8 and the mean value of lift coefficient at post stall regime (Ma0.3) have been improved by 12.2% and 25.4%. By comparing the aerodynamic force coefficients of optimization result,it shows that: different from single robust airfoil design which just improves the property of drag divergence at Ma0.7-0.8,multi-objective robust design can improve both the drag divergence property at Ma0.7-0.8 and stall property at low speed. The design cases show that the multi-objective robust design method makes the airfoil performance robust under different off-design conditions.
Allen, H Julian; Vincenti, Walter G
1944-01-01
Theoretical tunnel-wall corrections are derived for an airfoil of finite thickness and camber in a two-dimensional-flow wind tunnel. The theory takes account of the effects of the wake of the airfoil and of the compressibility of the fluid, and is based upon the assumption that the chord of the airfoil is small in comparison with the height of the tunnel. Consideration is given to the phenomenon of choking at high speeds and its relation to the tunnel-wall corrections. The theoretical results are compared with the small amount of low-speed experimental data available and the agreement is seen to be satisfactory, even for relatively large values of the chord-height ratio.
基于特征正交分解翼型流场反设计方法研究%Airfoil Flow Field Reconstruction via Proper Orthogonal Decomposition
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
叶茂; 徐敏; 姚伟刚; 刘浩
2011-01-01
基于特征正交分解( Proper Orthogonal Decomposition,POD)方法中模态的思想,利用特征正交分解基,通过改变马赫数或迎角来得到相应的流场快照,对流场参数进行重构,基于快照范围内可以得到高精度的重构流场结果.以NACA0012翼型和RAE2822翼型为研究对象,采用POD方法对流场参数进行了重构.验证结果表明,POD方法能高效而精确地重构所需状态下的二维流场参数,并具有一定的外插能力.该方法为数值风洞、流动控制及翼型设计研究提供了理论基础.%A method for reconstructing flow fields that using proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) basis functions or modes with great reduction on the computational cost is presented. Using this approach, it is possible to construct entire aerodynamic flow fields from the knowledge of computed aerodynamic data or measured flow data specified on the aerodynamic surfaces, demonstrating a way to effectively combine experimental and computational data. There are three cases here, varying inflow Mach number to NACA0012 airfoil in subsonic region and RAE2822 airfoil in transonic region. The results demonstrate that the POD procedure could provides effectively high accurate low fields reconstruction when just very little amount of data is known. It is a simple, effective method for digit wind tunnel, flow control, and airfoil design.
Effects of a ground vortex on the aerodynamics of an airfoil
Krothapalli, A.; Leopold, D.
1988-01-01
An experimental investigation was carried out to study the aerodynamics of an airfoil with a rectangular jet exiting from its lower surface at fifty percent of the chord. The airfoil was tested with and without the influence of a ground plane. Surface static pressures were measured on the airfoil at jet to free stream velocity ratios ranging from 0 to 9. From these pressures, the variation of C sub L with velocity ratio was easily determined. The measurements indicated significant positive and negative pressure regions on the lower surface of the airfoil ahead of and after the nozzle exit respectively. The presence of a ground plane enhanced these pressure regions at low velocity ratios, but at a particular ratio for each plane location, a recirculation zone or vortex formed ahead of the jet resulting in decreased pressures and a drop in C sub L.
Airfoil Selection of MAV (Miniature Air Vehicle for Low Reynolds Number
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mayur S. Marathe
2013-12-01
Full Text Available This paper discusses issues and practical requirements of Airfoil for MAV. Here considering the MAV which travel with the speed range between 9-20 m/s. The Airfoil which is been selected on various criteria, i.e. - stable flight, cover maximum distance with minimum force. So here the NACA 2204 is been selected for MAV. The Fluent analysis is done on the airfoil for lift to drag ratio. These MAV are having some purpose i.e.:- they can be use as a spy in enemy area, inspection of hazardous area, where human resource can’t reach. Aerodynamic performance and stability should be considered in the context of the airfoil structural integrity. Particular attention should be paid to the unsteady nature of the flow.
Effect of a round airfoil nose on leading-edge suction
Lan, C. Edward; Su, Ingchung
1987-01-01
Kulfan (1979) assumed that the angle of attack for initial vortex separation on a slender wing with rounded leading edges could be obtained by equating the leading-edge suction (LES) and nose drag coefficients. In the present study, this assumption is examined and is shown to predict reasonably well the initial angle of attack at which laminar separation occurs near the airfoil nose. However, the assumption is shown to be slightly less accurate for thick or cambered airfoils. Attainable LES estimated by Kulfan's method seemed to agree well with that obtained from an airfoil aerodynamics code and experimental data on a NACA 64A009 airfoil at M = 0.4 and Re = 0.86 x 10 to the 6th.
A Method for the Constrained Design of Natural Laminar Flow Airfoils
Green, Bradford E.; Whitesides, John L.; Campbell, Richard L.; Mineck, Raymond E.
1996-01-01
A fully automated iterative design method has been developed by which an airfoil with a substantial amount of natural laminar flow can be designed, while maintaining other aerodynamic and geometric constraints. Drag reductions have been realized using the design method over a range of Mach numbers, Reynolds numbers and airfoil thicknesses. The thrusts of the method are its ability to calculate a target N-Factor distribution that forces the flow to undergo transition at the desired location; the target-pressure-N-Factor relationship that is used to reduce the N-Factors in order to prolong transition; and its ability to design airfoils to meet lift, pitching moment, thickness and leading-edge radius constraints while also being able to meet the natural laminar flow constraint. The method uses several existing CFD codes and can design a new airfoil in only a few days using a Silicon Graphics IRIS workstation.
Modeling the Aerodynamic Lift Produced by Oscillating Airfoils at Low Reynolds Number
Khalid, Muhammad Saif Ullah
2015-01-01
For present study, setting Strouhal Number (St) as control parameter, numerical simulations for flow past oscillating NACA-0012 airfoil at 1,000 Reynolds Numbers (Re) are performed. Temporal profiles of unsteady forces; lift and thrust, and their spectral analysis clearly indicate the solution to be a period-1 attractor for low Strouhal numbers. This study reveals that aerodynamic forces produced by plunging airfoil are independent of initial kinematic conditions of airfoil that proves the existence of limit cycle. Frequencies present in the oscillating lift force are composed of fundamental (fs), even and odd harmonics (3fs) at higher Strouhal numbers. Using numerical simulations, shedding frequencies (f_s) were observed to be nearly equal to the excitation frequencies in all the cases. Unsteady lift force generated due to the plunging airfoil is modeled by modified van der Pol oscillator. Using method of multiple scales and spectral analysis of steady-state CFD solutions, frequencies and damping terms in th...
Optimal Control of Airfoil Flow Separation using Fluidic Excitation
Shahrabi, Arireza F.
This thesis deals with the control of flow separation around a symmetric airfoils with the aid of multiple synthetic jet actuators (SJAs). CFD simulation methods have been implemented to uncover the flow separation regimes and associated properties such as frequencies and momentum ratio. In the first part of the study, the SJA was studied thoroughly. Large Eddy Simulations (LES) were performed for one individual cavity; the time history of SJA of the outlet velocity profile and the net momentum imparted to the flow were analyzed. The studied SJA is asymmetrical and operates with the aid of a piezoelectric (PZT) ceramic circular plate actuator. A three-dimensional mesh for the computational domain of the SJA and the surrounding volume was developed and was used to evaluate the details of the airflow conditions inside the SJA as well as at the outlet. The vibration of the PZT ceramic actuator was used as a boundary condition in the computational model to drive the SJA. Particular attention was given to developing a predictive model of the SJA outlet velocity. Results showed that the SJA velocity output is correlated to the PZT ceramic plate vibration, especially for the first frequency mode. SJAs are a particular class of zero net mass flux (ZNMF) fluidic devices with net imparted momentum to the flow. The net momentum imparted to the flow in the separated region is such that positive enhancement during AFC operations is achieved. Flows around the NACA 0015 airfoil were simulated for a range of operating conditions. Attention was given to the active open and closed loop control solutions for an airfoil with SJA at different angles of attack and flap angles. A large number of simulations using RANS & LES models were performed to study the effects of the momentum ratio (Cμ) in the range of 0 to 11% and of the non-dimensional frequency, F+, in the range of 0 to 2 for the control of flow separation at a practical angle of attack and flap angle. The optimum value of C
Improvement of airfoil trailing edge bluntness noise model
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhu, Wei Jun; Shen, Wen Zhong; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær;
2016-01-01
, Pope, and Marcolini airfoil noise prediction model developed by Brooks, Pope, and Marcolini (NASA Reference Publication 1218, 1989). It was found in previous study that the Brooks, Pope, and Marcolini model tends to over-predict noise at high frequencies. Furthermore, it was observed...... that this was caused by a lack in the model to predict accurately noise from blunt trailing edges. For more physical understanding of bluntness noise generation, in this study, we also use an advanced in-house developed high-order computational aero-acoustic technique to investigate the details associated...... with trailing edge bluntness noise. The results from the numerical model form the basis for an improved Brooks, Pope, and Marcolini trailing edge bluntness noise model....
System and method for manufacture of airfoil components
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Moors, Thomas Michael
2016-11-29
Embodiments of the present disclosure relate generally to systems and methods for manufacturing an airfoil component. The system can include: a geometrical mold; an elongated flexible sleeve having a closed-off interior and positioned within the geometrical mold, wherein the elongated flexible sleeve is further positioned to have a desired geometry; an infusing channel in fluid communication with the closed-off interior of the elongated flexible sleeve and configured to communicate a resinous material thereto; a vacuum channel in fluid communication with the closed-off interior of the elongated flexible sleeve and configured to vacuum seal the closed-off interior of the elongated flexible sleeve; and a glass fiber layer positioned within the closed-off interior of the elongated flexible sleeve.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
孙茂; 于鑫
2003-01-01
The aerodynamic forces and flow structures of two airfoils performing "fling and subsequent translation" and "translation and subsequent clap" are studied by numerically solving the Navier-Stokes equations in moving overset grids. These motions are relevant to the flight of very small insects. The Reynolds number, based on the airfoil chord length c and the translation velocity U, is 17. It is shown that: (1) For two airfoils performing fling and subsequent translation, a large lift is generated both in the fling phase and in the early part of the translation phase. During the fling phase,a pair of leading edge vortices of large strength is generated; the generation of the vortex pair in a short period results in a large time rate of change of fluid impulse, which explains the large lift in this period. During the early part of the translation, the two leading edge vortices move with the airfoils;the relative movement of the vortices also results in a large time rate of change of fluid impulse, which explains the large lift in this part of motion. (In the later part of the translation, the vorticity in the vortices is diffused and convected into the wake.) The time averaged lift coeffcient is approximately 2.4 times as large as that of a single airfoil performing a similar motion. (2) For two airfoils performing translation and subsequent clap, a large lift is generated in the clap phase. During the clap, a pair of trailing edge vortices of large strength are generated; again, the generation of the vortex pair in a short period (which results in a large timerate of change of fluid impulse) is responsible for the large lift in this period. The time averaged lift coefficient is approximately 1.6 times as large as that of a single airfoil performing a similar motion. (3) When the initial distance between the airfoils (in the case of clap, the final distance between the airfoils) varies from 0.1 to 0.2c, the lift on an airfoil decreases only slightly but the torque
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, L.; Tang, X. [Univ. of Central Lancashire. Engineering and Physical Sciences, Preston (United Kingdom); Liu, X. [Univ. of Cumbria. Sustainable Engineering, Workington (United Kingdom)
2012-07-01
The aerodynamic performance of a wind turbine depends very much on its blade geometric design, typically based on the blade element momentum (BEM) theory, which divides the blade into several blade elements. In current blade design practices based on Schmitz rotor design theory, the blade geometric parameters including chord and twist angle distributions are determined based on airfoil aerodynamic data at a specific Reynolds number. However, rotating wind turbine blade elements operate at different Reynolds numbers due to variable wind speed and different blade span locations. Therefore, the blade design through Schmitz rotor theory at a specific Reynolds number does not necessarily provide the best power performance under operational conditions. This paper aims to provide an optimal blade design strategy for horizontal-axis wind turbines operating at different Reynolds numbers. A fixed-pitch variable-speed (FPVS) wind turbine with S809 airfoil is chosen as a case study and a Matlab program which considers Reynolds number effects is developed to determine the optimized chord and twist angle distributions of the blade. The performance of the optimized blade is compared with that of the preliminary blade which is designed based on Schmitz rotor design theory at a specific Reynolds number. The results demonstrate that the proposed blade design optimization strategy can improve the power performance of the wind turbine. This approach can be further developed for any practice of horizontal axis wind turbine blade design. (Author)
Investigation of the Effects of Airfoil-probes on the Aerodynamic Performance of an Axial Compressor
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HE Xiang; MA Hongwei; REN Minglin; XIANG Honghui
2012-01-01
In order to investigate the effects of the airfoil-probes on the aerodynamic performance of an axial compressor,a numerical simulation of 3D flow field is performed in a 1.5-stage axial compressor with airfoil-probes installed at the stator leading-edge (LE).The airfoil-probes have a negative influence on the compressor aerodynamic performance at all operating points.A streamwise vortex is induced by the airfoil-probe along both sides of the blade.At the mid-operating point,the vortex is notable along the pressure side and is relatively small along the suction side (SS).At the near-stall point,the vortex is slightly suppressed in the pressure surface (PS),but becomes remarkable in the suction side.A small local-separation is induced by the interactions between the vortex and the end-wall boundary layer in the corner region near the hub.That the positive pitch angle of the airfoil-probe at 6.5％ span is about 15° plays an important role in the vortex evolution near the hub,which causes the fact that the airfoil-probe near the hub has the largest effects among the four airfoil-probes.In order to get a further understanding of the vortex evolution in the stator in the numerical simulation,a flow visualization experiment in a water tunnel is performed.The flow visualization results give a deep insight into the evolution of the vortex induced by the airfoil-probe.
Chandrasekhara, M.S.; Ahmed, S; Carr, L.W.
1990-01-01
Compressibility effects on the flowfield of an airfoil executing rapid transient pitching motion from 0 - 60 degrees over a wide range of Mach numbers and pitching rates were studied using a stroboscopic schlieren flow visualization technique. The studies have led to the first direct experiments] documentation of multiple shocks on the airfoil upper surface flow for certain conditions. Also, at low Mach numbers, additional coherent vortical structures were found to be ...
Schlieren Studies of Compressibility Effects on Dynamic Stall on Transiently Pitching Airfoils
Chandrasekhara, M.S.; Ahmed, S; Carr, L.W.
2016-01-01
The article of record as published may be found at http://dx.doi.org/10.2514/3.48268 Compressibility effects on the flowfield of an airfoil executing rapid transient pitching motion from 0-60 deg over a wide range of Mach numbers and pitching rates were studied using a stroboscopic schlieren flow visualization technique. The studies have led to the first direct experimental documentation of multiple shocks on the airfoil upper surface flow for certain conditions. Also, at low Mach...
Numerical Solution of Inviscid Compressible Steady Flows around the RAE 2822 Airfoil
Kryštůfek, P.; Kozel, K.
2015-05-01
The article presents results of a numerical solution of subsonic, transonic and supersonic flows described by the system of Euler equations in 2D compressible flows around the RAE 2822 airfoil. Authors used FVM multistage Runge-Kutta method to numerically solve the flows around the RAE 2822 airfoil. The results are compared with the solution using the software Ansys Fluent 15.0.7.
Active Blade Pitch Control for Straight Bladed Darrieus Vertical Axis Wind Turbine of New Design
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chougule, Prasad; Nielsen, Søren R.K.; Basu, Biswajit
2013-01-01
As Development of small vertical axis wind turbines (VAWT) for urban use is becoming an interesting topic both within industry and academia. However, there are few new designs of vertical axis turbines which are customized for building integration. These are getting importance because they operate...... at low rotational speed producing very less noise during operation, although these are less efficient than Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines (HAWT). The efficiency of a VAWT has been significantly improved by H-Darrieus VAWT design based on double airfoil technology as demonstrated by the authors...... multiple stream tube method is used to determine the performance of the H-Darrieus VAWT. The power coefficient is compared with that of a fixed pitch and a variable pitch double airfoil blade VAWT. It is demonstrated that an improvement in power coefficient by 20% is achieved and the turbine could start...
Lift Optimization Study of a Multi-Element Three-Segment Variable Camber Airfoil
Kaul, Upender K.; Nguyen, Nhan T.
2016-01-01
This paper reports a detailed computational high-lift study of the Variable Camber Continuous Trailing Edge Flap (VCCTEF) system carried out to explore the best VCCTEF designs, in conjunction with a leading edge flap called the Variable Camber Krueger (VCK), for take-off and landing. For this purpose, a three-segment variable camber airfoil employed as a performance adaptive aeroelastic wing shaping control effector for a NASA Generic Transport Model (GTM) in landing and take-off configurations is considered. The objective of the study is to define optimal high-lift VCCTEF settings and VCK settings/configurations. A total of 224 combinations of VCK settings/configurations and VCCTEF settings are considered for the inboard GTM wing, where the VCCTEFs are configured as a Fowler flap that forms a slot between the VCCTEF and the main wing. For the VCK settings of deflection angles of 55deg, 60deg and 65deg, 18, 19 and 19 vck configurations, respectively, were considered for each of the 4 different VCCTEF deflection settings. Different vck configurations were defined by varying the horizontal and vertical distance of the vck from the main wing. A computational investigation using a Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) solver was carried out to complement a wind-tunnel experimental study covering three of these configurations with the goal of identifying the most optimal high-lift configurations. Four most optimal high-lift configurations, corresponding to each of the VCK deflection settings, have been identified out of all the different configurations considered in this study yielding the highest lift performance.
An experimental and numerical investigation on the formation of stall-cells on airfoils
Manolesos, M.; Papadakis, G.; Voutsinas, S.
2014-12-01
Stall Cells (SCs) are large scale three-dimensional structures of separated flow that have been observed on the suction side of airfoils designed for or used on wind turbine blades. SCs are unstable in nature but can be stabilised by means of a localized disturbance; here in the form of a zigzag tape covering 10% of the wing span. Based on extensive tuft flow visualisations, the resulting flow was found macroscopically similar to the undisturbed flow. Next a combined investigation was carried out including pressure recordings, Stereo-PIV measurements and CFD simulations. The investigation parameters were the aspect ratio, the angle of attack and the Re number. Tuft and pressure data were found in good agreement. The 3D CFD simulations reproduced the structure of the SCs in qualitative agreement with the experimental data but had a delay of ~3deg in capturing the first appearance of a SC. The error in Cl max prediction was 7% compared to 19% for the 2D cases. Tests show that SCs grow with Re number and angle of attack. Also analysis of the time averaged computational results indicated the presence of three types of vortices: (a) the trailing edge line vortex (TELV) in the wake, (b) the separation line vortex (SLV) over the wing and (c) the SC vortices. The TELV and SLV run parallel to the trailing edge and are of opposite sign, while the SC vortices start normal to the wing suction surface, then bend towards the SC centre and later extend downstream, with their vorticity parallel to the free stream.
Computational Aerodynamic Analysis of Three-Dimensional Ice Shapes on a NACA 23012 Airfoil
Jun, GaRam; Oliden, Daniel; Potapczuk, Mark G.; Tsao, Jen-Ching
2014-01-01
The present study identifies a process for performing computational fluid dynamic calculations of the flow over full three-dimensional (3D) representations of complex ice shapes deposited on aircraft surfaces. Rime and glaze icing geometries formed on a NACA23012 airfoil were obtained during testing in the NASA Glenn Research Centers Icing Research Tunnel (IRT). The ice shape geometries were scanned as a cloud of data points using a 3D laser scanner. The data point clouds were meshed using Geomagic software to create highly accurate models of the ice surface. The surface data was imported into Pointwise grid generation software to create the CFD surface and volume grids. It was determined that generating grids in Pointwise for complex 3D icing geometries was possible using various techniques that depended on the ice shape. Computations of the flow fields over these ice shapes were performed using the NASA National Combustion Code (NCC). Results for a rime ice shape for angle of attack conditions ranging from 0 to 10 degrees and for freestream Mach numbers of 0.10 and 0.18 are presented. For validation of the computational results, comparisons were made to test results from rapid-prototype models of the selected ice accretion shapes, obtained from a separate study in a subsonic wind tunnel at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. The computational and experimental results were compared for values of pressure coefficient and lift. Initial results show fairly good agreement for rime ice accretion simulations across the range of conditions examined. The glaze ice results are promising but require some further examination.
A Critical Assessment of Wind Tunnel Results for the NACA 0012 Airfoil
1987-10-01
AGD luiei tlynsimit Panel Symposium on "Aerodynamic Data Accuracy and Ouslity: P i.lrei Ant in Cpri iv In wina1 Tunnel Testing,’ Naples. ItAlY. 28...polars for untripped conditions, but it is interesting to note that his rF ,.Its with a boundary- layer trip are in fair agreement with the other data
Wind Noise Measurements of Microphones Embedded in the Airfoil of an UAV
2012-10-01
discussed. 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT SAR 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 13 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE...humidity, etc… • MicroSD card data storage. • 2.4 GHz Zigbee Radio for Long-Range command and control up to 4 miles line-of-sight. • 12 VDC supply, 3 W
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiaomin Chen, Ramesh K. Agarwal
2014-01-01
Full Text Available It is well established that the power generated by a Horizontal-Axis Wind Turbine (HAWT is a function of the number of blades B, the tip speed ratio (blade tip speed/wind free-stream velocity and the lift to drag ratio (CL /CD of the airfoil sections of the blade. The previous studies have shown that Blade Element Momentum (BEM theory is capable of evaluating the steady-state performance of wind turbines, in particular it can provide a reasonably good estimate of generated power at a given wind speed. However in more realistic applications, wind turbine operating conditions change from time to time due to variations in wind velocity and the aerodynamic forces change to new steady-state values after the wake settles to a new equilibrium whenever changes in operating conditions occur. The goal of this paper is to modify the quasi-steady BEM theory by including a simple dynamic inflow model to capture the unsteady behavior of wind turbines on a larger time scale. The output power of the wind turbines is calculated using the improved BEM method incorporating the inflow model. The computations are performed for the original NREL Phase II and Phase III turbines and the Risoe turbine all employing the S809 airfoil section for the turbine blades. It is shown by a simple example that the improved BEM theory is capable of evaluating the wind turbine performance in practical situations where operating conditions often vary in time.
Numerical Simulation of Airfoil Aerodynamic Penalties and Mechanisms in Heavy Rain
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhenlong Wu
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Numerical simulations that are conducted on a transport-type airfoil, NACA 64-210, at a Reynolds number of 2.6×106 and LWC of 25 g/m3 explore the aerodynamic penalties and mechanisms that affect airfoil performance in heavy rain conditions. Our simulation results agree well with the experimental data and show significant aerodynamic penalties for the airfoil in heavy rain. The maximum percentage decrease in CL is reached by 13.2% and the maximum percentage increase in CD by 47.6%. Performance degradation in heavy rain at low angles of attack is emulated by an originally creative boundary-layer-tripped technique near the leading edge. Numerical flow visualization technique is used to show premature boundary-layer separation at high angles of attack and the particulate trajectories at various angles of attack. A mathematic model is established to qualitatively study the water film effect on the airfoil geometric changes. All above efforts indicate that two primary mechanisms are accountable for the airfoil aerodynamic penalties. One is to cause premature boundary-layer transition at low AOA and separation at high AOA. The other occurs at times scales consistent with the water film layer, which is thought to alter the airfoil geometry and increase the mass effectively.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Arash Mahboubi Doust
2016-01-01
Full Text Available In this work, a numerical study of two dimensional laminar incompressible flow around the flexible oscillating NACA0012 airfoil is performed using the open source code OpenFOAM. Oscillatory motion types including pitching and flapping is considered. Reynolds number for these motions is assumed fixed at 12000. One of the important issues that must be considered in designing air structures, in particular the aircraft wing, is the interaction between the air and the elastic aircraft wings that is known as the Aeroelastic phenomenon. For this purpose, the effect of airfoil flexibility and flow induced vibration in these motion types is investigated and compared with the case of rigid airfoil. It is observed that the flexibility in both types of motions causes improvement of the thrust which is boosted with increasing the frequency. Contrary to thrust, the significant improvement of lift is only achievable in high frequencies. It was also found that the effect of flexibility on the flapping motion is higher than the pitching motion. For flow control on the airfoil, Dielectric Barrier Discharge plasma actuator is used in the trailing edge of a flexible airfoil, and its effect on the flexible airfoil is also investigated.
Effect of cavity on shock oscillation in transonic flow over RAE2822 supercritical airfoil
Rahman, M. Rizwanur; Labib, Md. Itmam; Hasan, A. B. M. Toufique; Ali, M.; Mitsutake, Y.; Setoguchi, T.
2016-07-01
Transonic flow past a supercritical airfoil is strongly influenced by the interaction of shock wave with boundary layer. This interaction induces unsteady self-sustaining shock wave oscillation, flow instability, drag rise and buffet onset which limit the flight envelop. In the present study, a computational analysis has been carried out to investigate the flow past a supercritical RAE2822 airfoil in transonic speeds. To control the shock wave oscillation, a cavity is introduced on the airfoil surface where shock wave oscillates. Different geometric configurations have been investigated for finding optimum cavity geometry and dimension. Unsteady Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations (RANS) are computed at Mach 0.729 with an angle of attack of 5°. Computed results are well validated with the available experimental data in case of baseline airfoil. However, in case of airfoil with control cavity; it has been observed that the introduction of cavity completely suppresses the unsteady shock wave oscillation. Further, significant drag reduction and successive improvement of aerodynamic performance have been observed in airfoil with shock control cavity.
Mechanism of Water Droplet Breakup Near the Leading Edge of an Airfoil
Vargas, Mario; Sor, Suthyvann; Magarino, Adelaida, Garcia
2012-01-01
This work presents results of an experimental study on droplet deformation and breakup near the leading edge of an airfoil. The experiment was conducted in the rotating rig test cell at the Instituto Nacional de Tecnica Aeroespacial (INTA) in Madrid, Spain. The airfoil model was placed at the end of the rotating arm and a monosize droplet generator produced droplets that fell from above, perpendicular to the path of the airfoil. The interaction between the droplets and the airfoil was captured with high speed imaging and allowed observation of droplet deformation and breakup as the droplet approached the airfoil near the stagnation line. Image processing software was used to measure the position of the droplet centroid, equivalent diameter, perimeter, area, and the major and minor axes of an ellipse superimposed over the deforming droplet. The horizontal and vertical displacement of each droplet against time was also measured, and the velocity, acceleration, Weber number, Bond number, Reynolds number, and the drag coefficients were calculated along the path of the droplet to the beginning of breakup. Droplet deformation is defined and studied against main parameters. The high speed imaging allowed observation of the actual mechanism of breakup and identification of the sequence of configurations from the initiation of the breakup to the disintegration of the droplet. Results and comparisons are presented for droplets of diameters in the range of 500 to 1800 microns, and airfoil velocities of 70 and 90 m/sec.
Drag Coefficient of Water Droplets Approaching the Leading Edge of an Airfoil
Vargas, Mario; Sor, Suthyvann; Magarino, Adelaida Garcia
2013-01-01
This work presents results of an experimental study on droplet deformation and breakup near the leading edge of an airfoil. The experiment was conducted in the rotating rig test cell at the Instituto Nacional de Tecnica Aeroespacial (INTA) in Madrid, Spain. An airfoil model was placed at the end of the rotating arm and a monosize droplet generator produced droplets that fell from above, perpendicular to the path of the airfoil. The interaction between the droplets and the airfoil was captured with high speed imaging and allowed observation of droplet deformation and breakup as the droplet approached the airfoil near the stagnation line. Image processing software was used to measure the position of the droplet centroid, equivalent diameter, perimeter, area, and the major and minor axes of an ellipse superimposed over the deforming droplet. The horizontal and vertical displacement of each droplet against time was also measured, and the velocity, acceleration, Weber number, Bond number, Reynolds number, and the drag coefficients were calculated along the path of the droplet to the beginning of breakup. Results are presented and discussed for drag coefficients of droplets with diameters in the range of 300 to 1800 micrometers, and airfoil velocities of 50, 70 and 90 meters/second. The effect of droplet oscillation on the drag coefficient is discussed.
Cylinder wake influence on the tonal noise and aerodynamic characteristics of a NACA0018 airfoil
Takagi, Y.; Fujisawa, N.; Nakano, T.; Nashimoto, A.
2006-11-01
The influence of cylinder wake on discrete tonal noise and aerodynamic characteristics of a NACA0018 airfoil is studied experimentally in a uniform flow at a moderate Reynolds number. The experiments are carried out by measuring sound pressure levels and spectrum, separation and the reattachment points, pressure distribution, fluid forces, mean-flow and turbulence characteristics around the airfoil with and without the cylinder wake. Present results indicate that the tonal noise from the airfoil is suppressed by the influence of the cylinder wake and the aerodynamic characteristics are improved in comparison with the case without the cylinder wake. These are mainly due to the separation control of boundary layers over the airfoil caused by the wake-induced transition, which is observed by surface flow visualization with liquid- crystal coating. The PIV measurements of the flow field around the airfoil confirm that highly turbulent velocity fluctuation of the cylinder wake induces the transition of the boundary layers and produces an attached boundary layer over the airfoil. Then, the vortex shedding phenomenon near the trailing edge of pressure surface is removed by the influence of the wake and results in the suppression of tonal noise.
Ice Roughness and Thickness Evolution on a Swept NACA 0012 Airfoil
McClain, Stephen T.; Vargas, Mario; Tsao, Jen-Ching
2017-01-01
Several recent studies have been performed in the Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) at NASA Glenn Research Center focusing on the evolution, spatial variations, and proper scaling of ice roughness on airfoils without sweep exposed to icing conditions employed in classical roughness studies. For this study, experiments were performed in the IRT to investigate the ice roughness and thickness evolution on a 91.44-cm (36-in.) chord NACA 0012 airfoil, swept at 30-deg with 0deg angle of attack, and exposed to both Appendix C and Appendix O (SLD) icing conditions. The ice accretion event times used in the study were less than the time required to form substantially three-dimensional structures, such as scallops, on the airfoil surface. Following each ice accretion event, the iced airfoils were scanned using a ROMER Absolute Arm laser-scanning system. The resulting point clouds were then analyzed using the self-organizing map approach of McClain and Kreeger to determine the spatial roughness variations along the surfaces of the iced airfoils. The resulting measurements demonstrate linearly increasing roughness and thickness parameters with ice accretion time. Further, when compared to dimensionless or scaled results from unswept airfoil investigations, the results of this investigation indicate that the mechanisms for early stage roughness and thickness formation on swept wings are similar to those for unswept wings.
Numerical analysis of the s1020 airfoils in tandem under different flapping configurations
Lim, K. B.; Tay, W. B.
2010-05-01
The objective of this project is to improve the performance of the efficiency, thrust and lift of flapping wings in tandem arrangement. This research investigates the effect of the arrangement of the airfoils in tandem on the performance of the airfoils by varying the phase difference and distance between the airfoils. Three flapping configurations from an earlier phase of a research which gives high efficiency, thrust and lift are used in the tandem simulation. It is found all the different flapping configurations show improvement in the efficiency, thrust or lift when the distance between the two airfoils and the phase angle between the heaving positions of the two airfoils are optimal. The average thrust coefficient of the tandem arrangement managed to attain more than twice that of the single one (4.84 vs. 2.05). On the other hand, the average lift coefficient of the tandem arrangement also increased to 4.59, as compared to the original single airfoil value of 3.04. All these results obtained will aid in the design of a better ornithopter with tandem wing arrangement.
Airfoil Aeroelastic Flutter Analysis Based on Modified Leishman-Beddoes Model at Low Mach Number
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
SHAO Song; ZHU Qinghua; ZHANG Chenglin; NI Xianping
2011-01-01
Based on modified Leishman-Beddoes(L-B)state space model at low Mach number(lower than 0.3),the airfoil aeroelastic system is presented in this paper.The main modifications for L-B model include a new dynamic stall criterion and revisions of normal force and pitching moment coefficient.The bifurcation diagrams,the limit cycle oscillation (LCO)phase plane plots and the time domain response figures are applied to investigating the stall flutter bifurcation behavior of airfoil aeroelastic systems with symmetry or asymmetry.It is shown that the symmetric periodical oscillation happens after subcritical bifurcation caused by dynamic stall,and the asymmetric periodical oscillation,which is caused by the interaction of dynamic stall and static divergence,only happens in the airfoil aeroelastic system with asymmetry.Validations of the modified L-B model and the airfoil aeroelastic system are presented with the experimental airload data of NACA0012 and OA207 and experimental stall flutter data of NACA0012 respectively.Results demonstrate that the airfoil aeroelastic system presented in this paper is effective and accurate,which can be applied to the investigation of airfoil stall flutter at low Mach number.
Numerical solutions for a two-dimensional airfoil undergoing unsteady motion
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WU Fu-bing; ZENG Nian-dong; ZHANG Liang; WU De-ming
2004-01-01
Continuous vorticity panels are used to model general unsteady inviscid, incompressible, and two-dimensional flows. The geometry of the airfoil is approximated by series of short straight segments having endpoints that lie on the actual surface. A piecewise linear, continuous distribution of vorticity over the airfoil surface is used to generate disturbance flow. The no-penetration condition is imposed at the midpoint of each segment and at discrete times. The wake is simulated by a system of point vortices, which move at local fluid velocity. At each time step, a new wake panel with uniform vorticity distribution is attached to the trailing edge, and the condition of eonstant circulation around the airfoil and wake is imposed. A new expression for Kutta condition is developed to study (i) the effect of thickness on the lift build-up of an impulsively started airfoil, (ii) the effects of reduced frequency and heave amplitude on the thrust production of flapping airfoils, and (iii) the vortex-airfoil interaction. This work presents some hydrodynamic results for tidalstreaim turbine.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yeoman, J.C. Jr.
1978-12-01
This evaluation of wind turbines is part of a series of Technology Evaluations of possible components and subsystems of community energy systems. Wind turbines, ranging in size from 200 W to 10 MW, are discussed as candidates for prime movers in community systems. Estimates of performance characteristics and cost as a function of rated capacity and rated wind speed are presented. Data concerning material requirements, environmental effects, and operating procedures also are given and are represented empirically to aid computer simulation.
Leading edge embedded fan airfoil concept -- A new powered high lift technology
Phan, Nhan Huu
A new powered-lift airfoil concept called Leading Edge Embedded Fan (LEEF) is proposed for Extremely Short Take-Off and Landing (ESTOL) and Vertical Take-Off and Landing (VTOL) applications. The LEEF airfoil concept is a powered-lift airfoil concept capable of generating thrust and very high lift-coefficient at extreme angles-of attack (AoA). It is designed to activate only at the take-off and landing phases, similar to conventional flaps or slats, allowing the aircraft to operate efficiently at cruise in its conventional configuration. The LEEF concept consists of placing a crossflow fan (CFF) along the leading-edge (LE) of the wing, and the housing is designed to alter the airfoil shape between take-off/landing and cruise configurations with ease. The unique rectangular cross section of the crossflow fan allows for its ease of integration into a conventional subsonic wing. This technology is developed for ESTOL aircraft applications and is most effectively applied to General Aviation (GA) aircraft. Another potential area of application for LEEF is tiltrotor aircraft. Unlike existing powered high-lift systems, the LEEF airfoil uses a local high-pressure air source from cross-flow fans, does not require ducting, and is able to be deployed using distributed electric power systems throughout the wing. In addition to distributed lift augmentation, the LEEF system can provide additional thrust during takeoff and landing operation to supplement the primary cruise propulsion system. Two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations of a conventional airfoil/wing using the NACA 63-3-418 section, commonly used in GA, and a LEEF airfoil/wing embedded into the same airfoil section were carried out to evaluate the advantages of and the costs associated with implementing the LEEF concept. Computational results show that significant lift and augmented thrust are available during LEEF operation while requiring only moderate fan power
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ganley, Jason; Zhang, Jie; Hodge, Bri-Mathias
2016-03-15
Wind energy is a variable and uncertain renewable resource that has long been used to produce mechanical work, and has developed into a large producer of global electricity needs. As renewable sources of energy and feedstocks become more important globally to produce sustainable products, many different processes have started adopting wind power as an energy source. Many times this is through a conversion to hydrogen through electrolysis that allows for a more continuous process input. Other important pathways include methanol and ammonia. As the demand for sustainable products and production pathways increases, and wind power capital costs decrease, the role of wind power in chemical and energy production seems poised to increase significantly.
Investigation of piezoelectric flaps for load alleviation using CFD; Wind turbines
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Heinz, J.C.
2010-03-15
Cost efficient wind power generation demands for large wind turbines with a long lifetime. These demands place high interests on sophisticated load control techniques such as deformable trailing edge flaps. In this work a previously tested prototype airfoil was investigated by using the 2D incompressible RANS solver EllipSys2D. The prototype was built with a Risoe-B1-18 airfoil where piezoelectric actuators THUNDER TH-6R were attached at the trailing edge to realize a movable flap. The results of the simulation were compared to measurements of the previous wind tunnel test and comprehensive steady state computations were conducted to gain information about the general airfoil properties. The model was subsequently used to investigate aero-servo-elastic effects on the 2D airfoil section exposed to a fluctuating inflow. It is explained how a fluctuating inflow was simulated with EllipSys2D and how the CFD solver was coupled with a 3 DOF structural model and with two different control algorithms. Control 1 used the measured AOA in front of the LE as input, Control 2 used the pressure difference between suction and pressure side as input. The model showed a substantial load reduction potential for the present prototype airfoil. For a wind step from 10 m/s to 10.5 m/s the standard deviation of the structural deflection normal to the rotor plane could be reduced with up to 98 % (Control 1) and 96 % (Control 2). A 4 s turbulent inflow with TI=2.2 % could be reduced with up to 81 % (Control 1) and 82 % (Control 2). For a 12 s inflow with TI=2.4 % the standard deviation could be reduced with up to 68 % (Control 1) and 67 % (Control 2). The influence of possible time lags inside the control loop on the reduction potential of the prototype was also investigated. For a 12 s inflow with a tripled turbulence intensity of TI=7.7 % the prototype airfoil could still reach a reduction of up to 54 %. For an extended flap range of -6 to +6 degrees the reduction could be returned to 66
Aerodynamic design and analysis of small horizontal axis wind turbine blades
Tang, Xinzi
This work investigates the aerodynamic design and analysis of small horizontal axis wind turbine blades via the blade element momentum (BEM) based approach and the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) based approach. From this research, it is possible to draw a series of detailed guidelines on small wind turbine blade design and analysis. The research also provides a platform for further comprehensive study using these two approaches. The wake induction corrections and stall corrections of the BEM method were examined through a case study of the NREL/NASA Phase VI wind turbine. A hybrid stall correction model was proposed to analyse wind turbine power performance. The proposed model shows improvement in power prediction for the validation case, compared with the existing stall correction models. The effects of the key rotor parameters of a small wind turbine as well as the blade chord and twist angle distributions on power performance were investigated through two typical wind turbines, i.e. a fixed-pitch variable-speed (FPVS) wind turbine and a fixed-pitch fixed-speed (FPFS) wind turbine. An engineering blade design and analysis code was developed in MATLAB to accommodate aerodynamic design and analysis of the blades.. The linearisation for radial profiles of blade chord and twist angle for the FPFS wind turbine blade design was discussed. Results show that, the proposed linearisation approach leads to reduced manufacturing cost and higher annual energy production (AEP), with minimal effects on the low wind speed performance. Comparative studies of mesh and turbulence models in 2D and 3D CFD modelling were conducted. The CFD predicted lift and drag coefficients of the airfoil S809 were compared with wind tunnel test data and the 3D CFD modelling method of the NREL/NASA Phase VI wind turbine were validated against measurements. Airfoil aerodynamic characterisation and wind turbine power performance as well as 3D flow details were studied. The detailed flow
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kan Kan
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Airfoil is a key factor that influences the hydrodynamic performance of vertical axis tidal current energy turbine. In order to explore the influences from the runner’s blade airfoil towards its hydrodynamic performance, three-dimensional unsteady flow numerical simulation on four airfoils of straight blade H type of tidal current energy turbines was carried out, under the precondition of same turbine compactness. Through investigating the influences from the four different airfoils of H blade towards the runner in terms of its dynamic torque feature and hydropower utilization coefficient, this research has analyzed the hydrodynamic performance of the tidal current energy turbine. As the research result indicates, the maximum dynamic torque value of the single-blade turbine with NACA0015 airfoil is significantly higher than that of the other three airfoils; while the maximum value of the overall runner torque is determined by the operating conditions such as different stream speed etc. As a whole, hydropower utilization coefficient of the turbine with asymmetric airfoil NACA4415 is better than that of the other three airfoils. This research has provided references for the design and airfoil selection for the new type of tidal current energy turbine.
Test techniques for cryogenic wind tunnels
Lawing, Pierce L.
1989-01-01
Some of the testing techniques developed for transonic cryogenic tunnels are presented. Techniques are emphasized which required special development or were unique because of the opportunities offered by cryogenic operation. Measuring the static aerodynamic coefficients normally used to determine component efficiency is discussed. The first topic is testing of two dimensional airfoils at transonic Mach numbers and flight values of Reynolds number. Three dimensional tests of complete configurations and sidewall mounted wings are also described. Since flight Reynolds numbers are of interest, free transition must be allowed. A discussion is given of wind tunnel and model construction effects on transition location. Time dependent phenomena, fluid mechanics, and measurement techniques are examined. The time dependent, or unsteady, aerodynamic test techniques described include testing for flutter, buffet, and oscillating airfoil characteristics. In describing non-intrusive laser techniques, discussions are given regarding optical access, seeding, forward scatter lasers, two-spot lasers, and laser holography. Methods of detecting transition and separation are reported and a new type of skin friction balance is described.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2009-01-01
China’s wind power industry shifts into full gear The global oil crunch and environmental degradation have given rise to an ardent search for alternative and green energies throughout the world. For China, wind power is a choice one and its development is sizzling hot backed by
Wind Tunnel Testing of Microtabs and Microjets for Active Load Control of Wind Turbine Blades
Cooperman, Aubryn Murray
Increases in wind turbine size have made controlling loads on the blades an important consideration for future turbine designs. One approach that could reduce extreme loads and minimize load variation is to incorporate active control devices into the blades that are able to change the aerodynamic forces acting on the turbine. A wind tunnel model has been constructed to allow testing of different active aerodynamic load control devices. Two such devices have been tested in the UC Davis Aeronautical Wind Tunnel: microtabs and microjets. Microtabs are small surfaces oriented perpendicular to an airfoil surface that can be deployed and retracted to alter the lift coefficient of the airfoil. Microjets produce similar effects using air blown perpendicular to the airfoil surface. Results are presented here for both static and dynamic performance of the two devices. Microtabs, located at 95% chord on the lower surface and 90% chord on the upper surface, with a height of 1% chord, produce a change in the lift coefficient of 0.18, increasing lift when deployed on the lower surface and decreasing lift when deployed on the upper surface. Microjets with a momentum coefficient of 0.006 at the same locations produce a change in the lift coefficient of 0.19. The activation time for both devices is less than 0.3 s, which is rapid compared to typical gust rise times. The potential of active device to mitigate changes in loads was tested using simulated gusts. The gusts were produced in the wind tunnel by accelerating the test section air speed at rates of up to 7 ft/s 2. Open-loop control of microtabs was tested in two modes: simultaneous and sequential tab deployment. Activating all tabs along the model span simultaneously was found to produce a change in the loads that occurred more rapidly than a gust. Sequential tab deployment more closely matched the rates of change due to gusts and tab deployment. A closed-loop control system was developed for the microtabs using a simple
Leithead, W E
2007-04-15
From its rebirth in the early 1980s, the rate of development of wind energy has been dramatic. Today, other than hydropower, it is the most important of the renewable sources of power. The UK Government and the EU Commission have adopted targets for renewable energy generation of 10 and 12% of consumption, respectively. Much of this, by necessity, must be met by wind energy. The US Department of Energy has set a goal of 6% of electricity supply from wind energy by 2020. For this potential to be fully realized, several aspects, related to public acceptance, and technical issues, related to the expected increase in penetration on the electricity network and the current drive towards larger wind turbines, need to be resolved. Nevertheless, these challenges will be met and wind energy will, very likely, become increasingly important over the next two decades. An overview of the technology is presented.
Control of unsteady separated flow associated with the dynamic stall of airfoils
Wilder, M. C.
1995-01-01
An effort to understand and control the unsteady separated flow associated with the dynamic stall of airfoils was funded for three years through the NASA cooperative agreement program. As part of this effort a substantial data base was compiled detailing the effects various parameters have on the development of the dynamic stall flow field. Parameters studied include Mach number, pitch rate, and pitch history, as well as Reynolds number (through two different model chord lengths) and the condition of the boundary layer at the leading edge of the airfoil (through application of surface roughness). It was found for free stream Mach numbers as low as 0.4 that a region of supersonic flow forms on the leading edge of the suction surface of the airfoil at moderate angles of attack. The shocks which form in this supersonic region induce boundary-layer separation and advance the dynamic stall process. Under such conditions a supercritical airfoil profile is called for to produce a flow field having a weaker leading-edge pressure gradient and no leading-edge shocks. An airfoil having an adaptive-geometry, or dynamically deformable leading edge (DDLE), is under development as a unique active flow-control device. The DDLE, formed of carbon-fiber composite and fiberglass, can be flexed between a NACA 0012 profile and a supercritical profile in a controllable fashion while the airfoil is executing an angle-of-attack pitch-up maneuver. The dynamic stall data were recorded using point diffraction interferometry (PDI), a noninvasive measurement technique. A new high-speed cinematography system was developed for recording interferometric images. The system is capable of phase-locking with the pitching airfoil motion for real-time documentation of the development of the dynamic stall flow field. Computer-aided image analysis algorithms were developed for fast and accurate reduction of the images, improving interpretation of the results.
An Innovative Approach To Making Ultra Light Weight Wind Turbine Blades
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Suhail Zaki Farooqui
2012-04-01
Full Text Available An innovative mould free method for the fabrication of ultimate light weight small wind turbine blades made out of composites has been suggested in this paper. The method has been practically applied with very satisfactory results. The method is low cost and is specifically suitable for individual small wind turbine makers. The airfoils used are simple to shape and possess good Cl/Cd characteristics. The blades are crafted using galvanized iron sheets, aluminum pipes, hard paper and fiberglass. A computer program is included with tip correction features to design the blades at the required power rating, wind speed, tip speed ratio and the chosen constant angle of attack. Results of the program run for designing 250 and 500 watt wind turbine blades at 8 m/s wind speed and tip speed ratios of 5.5 are tabulated. Performance results of the blades thus produced are also discussed.
Ice accretion modeling for wind turbine rotor blades
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chocron, D.; Brahimi, T.; Paraschivoiu, I.; Bombardier, J.A. [Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal (Canada)
1997-12-31
The increasing application of wind energy in northern climates implies operation of wind turbines under severe atmospheric icing conditions. Such conditions are well known in the Scandinavian countries, Canada and most of Eastern European countries. An extensive study to develop a procedure for the prediction of ice accretion on wind turbines rotor blades appears to be essential for the safe and economic operation of wind turbines in these cold regions. The objective of the present paper is to develop a computer code capable of simulating the shape and amount of ice which may accumulate on horizontal axis wind turbine blades when operating in icing conditions. The resulting code is capable to predict and simulate the formation of ice in rime and glaze conditions, calculate the flow field and particle trajectories and to perform thermodynamic analysis. It also gives the possibility of studying the effect of different parameters that influence ice formation such as temperature, liquid water content, droplet diameter and accretion time. The analysis has been conducted on different typical airfoils as well as on NASA/DOE Mod-0 wind turbine. Results showed that ice accretion on wind turbines may reduce the power output by more than 20%.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Beurskens, H.J.M. [SET Analysis, Kievitlaan 26, 1742 AD Schagen (Netherlands); Brand, A.J. [Energy research Centre of the Netherlands ECN, Unit Wind Energy, P.O. Box 1, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands)
2013-02-15
Over the years, wind energy has become a major source of renewable energy worldwide. The present chapter addresses the wind resource, which is available for exploitation for large-scale electricity production, and its specific physical properties. Furthermore, the technical options available to convert the energy of the air flow into mechanical energy and electricity are described. Specific problems of large-scale integration of wind energy into the grid as well as the present and future market developments are described in this chapter. Finally, environmental aspects are discussed briefly.
Intermittent Flow Regimes in a Transonic Fan Airfoil Cascade
Lepicovsky, J.; McFarland, E. R.; Chima, R. V.; Capece, V. R.; Hayden, J.
2002-01-01
A study was conducted in the NASA Glenn Research Center linear cascade on the intermittent flow on the suction surface of an airfoil section from the tip region of a modern low aspect ratio fan blade. Experimental results revealed that, at a large incidence angle, a range of transonic inlet Mach numbers exist where the leading-edge shock-wave pattern was unstable. Flush mounted high frequency response pressure transducers indicated large local jumps in the pressure in the leading edge area, which generates large intermittent loading on the blade leading edge. These measurements suggest that for an inlet Mach number between 0.9 and 1.0 the flow is bi-stable, randomly switching between subsonic and supersonic flows. Hence, it appears that the change in overall flow conditions in the transonic region is based on the frequency of switching between two stable flow states rather than on the continuous increase of the flow velocity. To date, this flow behavior has only been observed in a linear transonic cascade. Further research is necessary to confirm this phenomenon occurs in actual transonic fans and is not the byproduct of an endwall restricted linear cascade.
Design and construction of an airfoil with controlled flap
Amin, Md. Ruhul; Rahman, S. M. Mahbobur; Mashud, Mohammad; Rabbi, Md. Fazle
2017-06-01
For modern aircrafts maneuvering control and reduction of power loss is a matter of great concern in Aerodynamics. Separation of airflow over the wings of aircraft at high angle of attack or at other situations is a hindrance to proper maneuvering control. As flow separation increases drag force on the aircraft, it consumes excess power. For these reasons much effort and research has gone into the design of aerodynamic surfaces which delay flow separation and keep the local flow attached for as long as possible. One of the simple and cost-effective way is to use a hinged flap on the wing of the aircraft, which lifts and self-adjusts to a position dependent on the aerodynamic forces and flap weight due to reversed flow at increasing angle of attack. There is a limitation of this kind of process. At very high angles of attack, the reversed flow would cause the flap to tip forwards entirely and the effect of the flap would vanish. For recovering this limitation an idea of controlling the movement or rotation of the flap has been proposed in this paper. A light surface was selected as a flap and was coupled to the shaft of a servo motor, which was placed on a model airfoil. For controlling the angle of rotation of the motor as well as the flap arbitrarily, an electronic circuit comprising necessary components was designed and applied to the servo motor successfully.
Pressure measurements on a pitching airfoil in a water channel
Conger, Rand N.; Ramaprian, B. R.
1994-01-01
Measurements of unsteady pressures over a symmetric NACA 0015 airfoil performing pitching maneuvers are reported. The tests were performed in an open-surface water channel specially constructed for this purpose. The design of the apparatus allowed the pressure measurements to be made to a very high degree of spatial and temporal resolution. Reynolds numbers in the range of 5.2 x 10(exp 4) to 2.2 x 10(exp 5) were studied. Although the results qualitatively agreed with earlier studies performed at similar Reynolds numbers, the magnitudes of pressure and aerodynamic forces measured were observed to be much larger than those measured in ealier pitchup studies. They were found, in fact, to be closer to those obtained in some recent high-Reynolds-number experiments. This interesting behavior, which was suspected to be caused by the relatively high freestream turbulence level in the water channel, was explored in some detail. In addition, several issues like the quasisteady and dynamic effects of the pitching process are discussed. The experimental data are all archived and are available for use as a database.
Nonlinear aeroelastic analysis of airfoils: bifurcation and chaos
Lee, B. H. K.; Price, S. J.; Wong, Y. S.
1999-04-01
Different types of structural and aerodynamic nonlinearities commonly encountered in aeronautical engineering are discussed. The equations of motion of a two-dimensional airfoil oscillating in pitch and plunge are derived for a structural nonlinearity using subsonic aerodynamics theory. Three classical nonlinearities, namely, cubic, freeplay and hysteresis are investigated in some detail. The governing equations are reduced to a set of ordinary differential equations suitable for numerical simulations and analytical investigation of the system stability. The onset of Hopf-bifurcation, and amplitudes and frequencies of limit cycle oscillations are investigated, with examples given for a cubic hardening spring. For various geometries of the freeplay, bifurcations and chaos are discussed via the phase plane, Poincaré maps, and Lyapunov spectrum. The route to chaos is investigated from bifurcation diagrams, and for the freeplay nonlinearity it is shown that frequency doubling is the most commonly observed route. Examples of aerodynamic nonlinearities arising from transonic flow and dynamic stall are discussed, and special attention is paid to numerical simulation results for dynamic stall using a time-synthesized method for the unsteady aerodynamics. The assumption of uniform flow is usually not met in practice since perturbations in velocities are encountered in flight. Longitudinal atmospheric turbulence is introduced to show its effect on both the flutter boundary and the onset of Hopf-bifurcation for a cubic restoring force.
Numerical simulations of the NREL S826 airfoil
Sagmo, KF; Bartl, J.; Sætran, L.
2016-09-01
2D and 3D steady state simulations were done using the commercial CFD package Star-CCM+ with three different RANS turbulence models. Lift and drag coefficients were simulated at different angles of attack for the NREL S826 airfoil at a Reynolds number of 100 000, and compared to experimental data obtained at NTNU and at DTU. The Spalart-Allmaras and the Realizable k-epsilon turbulence models reproduced experimental results for lift well in the 2D simulations. The 3D simulations with the Realizable two-layer k-epsilon model predicted essentially the same lift coefficients as the 2D Spalart-Allmaras simulations. A comparison between 2D and 3D simulations with the Realizable k-epsilon model showed a significantly lower prediction in drag by the 2D simulations. From the conducted 3D simulations surface pressure predictions along the wing span were presented, along with volumetric renderings of vorticity. Both showed a high degree of span wise flow variation when going into the stall region, and predicted a flow field resembling that of stall cells for angles of attack above peak lift.
On the acoustics of a circulation control airfoil
Reger, R.; Nickels, A.; Ukeiley, L.; Cattafesta, L. N.
2017-02-01
A two-dimensional elliptical circulation control airfoil model is studied in the Florida State Aeroacoustic Tunnel. Far-field acoustics are obtained via a 55 microphone phased array. Single microphone spectra are also obtained, and it is shown that background noise is significant. In order to circumvent this problem, beamforming is employed. The primary sources of background noise are from the tunnel collector and jet/sidewall interaction. The deconvolution approach to mapping acoustic sources (DAMAS) is employed to remove the effects of the array point spread function. Spectra are acquired by integrating the DAMAS result over the source region. The resulting DAMAS spectral levels are significantly below single microphone levels. Although the DAMAS levels are reduced from those of a single microphone or delay and sum beamforming (DAS), they are still above those of a NACA 0012, estimated using NAFNoise, at the same geometric and free-stream conditions. A scaling analysis is performed on the processed array data. With a constant free-stream velocity and a varying jet velocity the data scale as jet Mach number to the 6th power. If the momentum coefficient is held constant and the free-stream velocity is varied the data scale as free-stream Mach number to the 7th power.
Numerical simulation of the interaction of a vortex with stationary airfoil in transonic flow
Srinivasan, G. R.; Mccroskey, W. J.; Kutler, P.
1984-01-01
A perturbation form of an implicit conservative, noniterative numerical algorithm for the two-dimensional thin layer Navier-Stokes and Euler equations is used to compute the interaction flow-field of a vortex with stationary airfoil. A Lamb-like analytical vortex having a finite core is chosen to interact with a thick (NACA 0012) and a thin (NACA 64A006) airfoil independently in transonic flow. Two different configurations of vortex interaction are studied, viz., (1) when the vortex is fixed at one location in the flowfield, and (2) when the vortex is convecting past the airfoil at freestream velocity. Parallel computations of this interacting flowfield are also done using a version of the Transonic Small Disturbance Code (ATRAN2). A special treatment of the leading edge region for thin airfoils is included in this code. With this, the three methods gave qualitatively similar results for the weaker interactions considered in this study. However, the strongest interactions considered proved to be beyond the capabilities of the small disturbance code. The results also show a far greater influence of the vortex on the airfoil flowfield when the vortex is stationary than when it is convecting with the flow.
Experimental study of ice accretion effects on aerodynamic performance of an NACA 23012 airfoil
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sohrab Gholamhosein Pouryoussefi
2016-06-01
Full Text Available In this paper, the effects of icing on an NACA 23012 airfoil have been studied. Experiments were applied on the clean airfoil, runback ice, horn ice, and spanwise ridge ice at a Reynolds number of 0.6 × 106 over angles of attack from −8° to 20°, and then results are compared. Generally, it is found that ice accretion on the airfoil can contribute to formation of a flow separation bubble on the upper surface downstream from the leading edge. In addition, it is made clear that spanwise ridge ice provides the greatest negative effect on the aerodynamic performance of the airfoil. In this case, the stall angle drops about 10° and the maximum lift coefficient reduces about 50% which is hazardous for an airplane. While horn ice leads to a stall angle drop of about 4° and a maximum lift coefficient reduction to 21%, runback ice has the least effect on the flow pattern around the airfoil and the aerodynamic coefficients so as the stall angle decreases 2° and the maximum lift reduces about 8%.
Thrust generation and wake structure for flow across a pitching airfoil at low Reynolds number
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Intesaaf Ashraf; Amit Agrawal; Majid Hassan Khan; Sooraj P; Atul Srivastava; Atul Sharma
2015-12-01
In this work, we present detailed particle image velocimetry (PIV) based investigation of wake structure of a pitching airfoil. PIV measurements have been carried out for NACA0015 airfoil at Re = 2900 with reduced frequency range of 1.82–10.92 and pitching angle of 5°. Two different wake structures (reverse Kármán shedding and deflected vortex shedding) are observed over this parameter range. The vorticity decreases substantially over a distance of two chord-lengths. The velocity profile indicates a jet-like flow downstream of the airfoil. It is shown that the jet-like flow downstream of the airfoil is however not a sufficient condition for the generation of thrust. The vortex strength is found to be invariant of the pitching frequency. Certain differences from the reported results are noted, which may be because of difference in the airfoil shape. These results can help improve understanding of the flow behavior as the low Reynolds number range is not well studied.
Experimental study of ice accretion effects on aerodynamic performance of an NACA 23012 airfoil
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Masoud Mirzaei; Mohammad-Mahdi Nazemi; Mojtaba Fouladi; Alireza Doostmahmoudi
2016-01-01
In this paper, the effects of icing on an NACA 23012 airfoil have been studied. Exper-iments were applied on the clean airfoil, runback ice, horn ice, and spanwise ridge ice at a Reynolds number of 0.6 ? 106 over angles of attack from ? 8? to 20?, and then results are compared. Gener-ally, it is found that ice accretion on the airfoil can contribute to formation of a flow separation bubble on the upper surface downstream from the leading edge. In addition, it is made clear that spanwise ridge ice provides the greatest negative effect on the aerodynamic performance of the airfoil. In this case, the stall angle drops about 10? and the maximum lift coefficient reduces about 50%which is hazardous for an airplane. While horn ice leads to a stall angle drop of about 4? and a maximum lift coefficient reduction to 21%, runback ice has the least effect on the flow pattern around the airfoil and the aerodynamic coefficients so as the stall angle decreases 2? and the maximum lift reduces about 8%.
2D CFD Analysis of an Airfoil with Active Continuous Trailing Edge Flap
Jaksich, Dylan; Shen, Jinwei
2014-11-01
Efficient and quieter helicopter rotors can be achieved through on-blade control devices, such as active Continuous Trailing-Edge Flaps driven by embedded piezoelectric material. This project aims to develop a CFD simulation tool to predict the aerodynamic characteristics of an airfoil with CTEF using open source code: OpenFOAM. Airfoil meshes used by OpenFOAM are obtained with MATLAB scripts. Once created it is possible to rotate the airfoil to various angles of attack. When the airfoil is properly set up various OpenFOAM properties, such as kinematic viscosity and flow velocity, are altered to achieve the desired testing conditions. Upon completion of a simulation, the program gives the lift, drag, and moment coefficients as well as the pressure and velocity around the airfoil. The simulation is then repeated across multiple angles of attack to give full lift and drag curves. The results are then compared to previous test data and other CFD predictions. This research will lead to further work involving quasi-steady 2D simulations incorporating NASTRAN to model aeroelastic deformation and eventually to 3D aeroelastic simulations. NSF ECE Grant #1358991 supported the first author as an REU student.
Lift on a Steady Airfoil in Low Reynolds Number Shear Flow
Hammer, Patrick; Visbal, Miguel; Naguib, Ahmed; Koochesfahani, Manoochehr
2016-11-01
Current understanding of airfoil aerodynamics is primarily based on a uniform freestream velocity approaching the airfoil, without consideration for possible presence of shear in the approach flow. Inviscid theory by Tsien (1943) shows that a symmetric airfoil at zero angle of attack experiences positive lift, i.e. a shift in the zero-lift angle of attack, in the presence of positive mean shear in the approach flow. In the current work, 2D computations are conducted on a steady NACA 0012 airfoil at a chord Reynolds number of Re = 12,000, at zero angle of attack. A uniform shear profile (i.e. a linear velocity variation) is used for the approach flow by modifying the FDL3DI Navier-Stokes solver (Visbal and Gaitonde, 1999). Interestingly, opposite to the inviscid prediction of Tsien (1943), the results for the airfoil at zero angle of attack show that the average lift is negative in the shear flow. The magnitude of this lift grows as the shear rate increases. Additional results are presented regarding the physics underlying the shear effect on lift. A companion experimental study is also given in a separate presentation. This work was supported by AFOSR Award Number FA9550-15-1-0224.
Tay, W. B.; Lim, K. B.
2010-01-01
This paper investigates the effect of active chordwise flexing on the lift, thrust and propulsive efficiency of three types of airfoils. The factors studied are the flexing center location, standard two-sided flexing as well as a type of single-sided flexing. The airfoils are simulated to flap with four configurations, and the effects of flexing under these configurations are investigated. Results show that flexing is not necessarily beneficial for the performance of the airfoils. However, with the correct parameters, efficiency is as high as 0.76 by placing the flexing centre at the trailing edge. The average thrust coefficient is more than twice as high, from 1.63 to 3.57 with flapping and flexing under the right conditions. Moreover, the single-sided flexing also gives an average lift coefficient as high as 4.61 for the S1020 airfoil. The shape of the airfoil does alter the effect of flexing too. Deviating the flexing phase angle away from 90° does not give a significant improvement to the airfoil’s performance. These results greatly enhance the design of a better performing ornithopter wing.
On the unsteady motion and stability of a heaving airfoil in ground effect
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Juan Molina; Xin Zhang; David Angland
2011-01-01
This study explores the fluid mechanics and force generation capabilities of an inverted heaving airfoil placed close to a moving ground using a URANS solver with the Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model. By varying the mean ground clearance and motion frequency of the airfoil, it was possible to construct a frequency-height diagram of the various forces acting on the airfoil. The ground was found to enhance the downforce and reduce the drag with respect to freestream. The unsteady motion induces hysteresis in the forces' behaviour. At moderate ground clearance, the hysteresis increases with frequency and the airfoil loses energy to the flow, resulting in a stabilizing motion. By analogy with a pitching motion, the airfoil stalls in close proximity to the ground. At low frequencies, the motion is unstable and could lead to stall flutter. A stall flutter analysis was undertaken. At higher frequencies, inviscid effects overcome the large separation and the motion becomes stable. Forced trailing edge vortex shedding appears at high frequencies. The shedding mechanism seems to be independent of ground proximity.However, the wake is altered at low heights as a result of an interaction between the vortices and the ground.
Using Free Flow Energy Cumulation in Wind and Hydro Power Production
2016-01-01
When approaching a conventional wind turbine, the air flow is slowed down and widened. This results in a loss of turbine efficiency. In order to exploit wind or water flow power as effectively as possible, it was suggested that the turbine should be placed inside a shroud, which consists of 4 wing-shaped surfaces. Two internal airfoils improve the turbine performance by speeding up the flow acting on the turbine blades, two external wings create a field of low pressure behind the turbine, thu...
Active Blade Pitch Control for Straight Bladed Darrieus Vertical Axis Wind Turbine of New Design
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chougule, Prasad; Nielsen, Søren R.K.; Basu, Biswajit
2013-01-01
at low rotational speed producing very less noise during operation, although these are less efficient than Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines (HAWT). The efficiency of a VAWT has been significantly improved by H-Darrieus VAWT design based on double airfoil technology as demonstrated by the authors...... in a previous publication. Further, it is well know that the variation of the blade pitch angle during the rotation improves the power efficiency. A blade pitch variation is implemented by active blade pitch control, which operates as per wind speed and position of the blade with respect to the rotor. A double...
Design of low noise wind turbine blades using Betz and Joukowski concepts
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Shen, Wen Zhong; Hrgovan, Iva; Okulov, Valery
2014-01-01
/reference turbine rotor with a diameter of 80 m. To reduce the noise emission from the baseline rotor, the rotor is reconstructed with the low noise CQU-DTU-LN1 series of airfoils which has been tested in the acoustic wind tunnel located at Virginia Tech. Finally, 3MW low noise turbine rotors are designed using......This paper presents the aerodynamic design of low noise wind turbine blades using Betz and Joukowski concepts. The aerodynamic model is based on Blade Element Momentum theory whereas the aeroacoustic prediction model is based on the BPM model. The investigation is started with a 3MW baseline...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — World Wind allows any user to zoom from satellite altitude into any place on Earth, leveraging high resolution LandSat imagery and SRTM elevation data to experience...
Violato, D.; Moore, P.; Scarano, F.
2010-01-01
This work investigates the rod-airfoil air flow by time-resolved Tomographic Particle Image Velocimetry (TR-TOMO PIV) in thin-light volume configuration. Experiments are performed at the region close to the leading edge of a NACA0012 airfoil embedded in the von Karman wake of a cylindrical rod. The
Adaptive neuro-fuzzy methodology for noise assessment of wind turbine.
Shamshirband, Shahaboddin; Petković, Dalibor; Hashim, Roslan; Motamedi, Shervin
2014-01-01
Wind turbine noise is one of the major obstacles for the widespread use of wind energy. Noise tone can greatly increase the annoyance factor and the negative impact on human health. Noise annoyance caused by wind turbines has become an emerging problem in recent years, due to the rapid increase in number of wind turbines, triggered by sustainable energy goals set forward at the national and international level. Up to now, not all aspects of the generation, propagation and perception of wind turbine noise are well understood. For a modern large wind turbine, aerodynamic noise from the blades is generally considered to be the dominant noise source, provided that mechanical noise is adequately eliminated. The sources of aerodynamic noise can be divided into tonal noise, inflow turbulence noise, and airfoil self-noise. Many analytical and experimental acoustical studies performed the wind turbines. Since the wind turbine noise level analyzing by numerical methods or computational fluid dynamics (CFD) could be very challenging and time consuming, soft computing techniques are preferred. To estimate noise level of wind turbine, this paper constructed a process which simulates the wind turbine noise levels in regard to wind speed and sound frequency with adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS). This intelligent estimator is implemented using Matlab/Simulink and the performances are investigated. The simulation results presented in this paper show the effectiveness of the developed method.
Adaptive neuro-fuzzy methodology for noise assessment of wind turbine.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shahaboddin Shamshirband
Full Text Available Wind turbine noise is one of the major obstacles for the widespread use of wind energy. Noise tone can greatly increase the annoyance factor and the negative impact on human health. Noise annoyance caused by wind turbines has become an emerging problem in recent years, due to the rapid increase in number of wind turbines, triggered by sustainable energy goals set forward at the national and international level. Up to now, not all aspects of the generation, propagation and perception of wind turbine noise are well understood. For a modern large wind turbine, aerodynamic noise from the blades is generally considered to be the dominant noise source, provided that mechanical noise is adequately eliminated. The sources of aerodynamic noise can be divided into tonal noise, inflow turbulence noise, and airfoil self-noise. Many analytical and experimental acoustical studies performed the wind turbines. Since the wind turbine noise level analyzing by numerical methods or computational fluid dynamics (CFD could be very challenging and time consuming, soft computing techniques are preferred. To estimate noise level of wind turbine, this paper constructed a process which simulates the wind turbine noise levels in regard to wind speed and sound frequency with adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS. This intelligent estimator is implemented using Matlab/Simulink and the performances are investigated. The simulation results presented in this paper show the effectiveness of the developed method.
Some aspects of flow control over a NACA0015 airfoil using synthetic jets
Parthasarathy, T.; Das, S. P.
2017-04-01
Flow control for performance enhancement over airfoils has become an increasingly important topic. This work details the characteristics of flow control using synthetic jets over a NACA0015 airfoil at a Reynolds number of 896,000 based on the chord length and free stream velocity, and at 20° angle of attack wherein the flow is separated. Numerical simulations were performed to help understand the behaviour of the controlled flow for a range of synthetic jet parameters. Analysis of key flow parameters such as phase averaged pressure and streamline profiles indicate that the synthetic jet is efficient in increasing the lift coefficient; more so for larger jet amplitudes and at smaller angles of jet injection. Behaviour of the flow characteristics for controlled cases has been analysed from the flow structures obtained from the same. This work serves as a platform to qualitatively and quantitatively understand the effects of the jet parameters on the separated flow over the airfoil.
Probabilistic Design of Hollow Airfoil Composite Structure by Using Finite Element Method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mr. Sachin M. Shinde
2014-04-01
Full Text Available This study represents simulation of Airfoil composite beam by using Monte Carlo method. A three dimensional static analysis of large displacement type has been carried out. Finite element analysis of NACA0012 airfoil composite structure has been carried out and uncertainty in bending stress is analyzed. Bending stress was objective function. Chord length , beam length ,elastic modulus in XY,YZ,XZ and shear modulus of epoxy graphite in XY,YZ,XZ, ply angle and ply thickness of airfoil section, force are varied within effective range and their effect on bending stress has been analyzed. In order to validate the results, one loop of simulation is benchmarked from results in literature. Ultimately, best set of probabilistic design variable is proposed to reduce bending stress under static loading condition.
Strong, Stuart L.; Meade, Andrew J., Jr.
1992-01-01
Preliminary results are presented of a finite element/finite difference method (semidiscrete Galerkin method) used to calculate compressible boundary layer flow about airfoils, in which the group finite element scheme is applied to the Dorodnitsyn formulation of the boundary layer equations. The semidiscrete Galerkin (SDG) method promises to be fast, accurate and computationally efficient. The SDG method can also be applied to any smoothly connected airfoil shape without modification and possesses the potential capability of calculating boundary layer solutions beyond flow separation. Results are presented for low speed laminar flow past a circular cylinder and past a NACA 0012 airfoil at zero angle of attack at a Mach number of 0.5. Also shown are results for compressible flow past a flat plate for a Mach number range of 0 to 10 and results for incompressible turbulent flow past a flat plate. All numerical solutions assume an attached boundary layer.
A SIMPLIFIED THEORY FOR UNSTEADY AERODYNAMIC FORCES ACTING ON AN AIRFOIL FLYING ABOVE SEA-WAVES
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
SHENG Qi-hu; WU De-ming; ZHANG Liang
2004-01-01
A simplified theoretical method based on the quasi-steady wing theory was proposed to study the unsteady aerodynamic forces acting on an airfoil flying in non-uniform flow. Comparison between the theoretical results and the numerical results based on nonlinear theory was made. It shows that the simplified theory is a good approximation for the investigation of the aerodynamic characteristics of an airfoil flying above sea-waves. From on the simplified theory it is also found that an airfoil can get thrust from a wave-disturbed airflow and thus the total drag is reduced. And the relationship among the thrust, the flying altitude, the flying speed and the wave parameters was worked out and discussed.
Status of advanced airfoil tests in the Langley 0.3-meter transonic cryogenic tunnel
Ladson, C. L.; Ray, E. J.
1984-01-01
A joint NASA/U.S. industry program to test advanced technology airfoils in the Langley 0.3-meter Transonic Tunnel (TCT) was formulated under the Langley ACEE Project Office. The objectives include providing U.S. industry an opportunity to compare their most advanced airfoils to the latest NASA designs by means of high Reynolds number tests in the same facility. At the same time, industry would again experience in the design and construction of cryogenic test techniques. The status and details of the test program are presented. Typical aerodynamic results obtained, to date, are presented at chord Reynolds number up to 45 x 10(6) and are compared to results from other facilities and theory. Details of a joint agreement between NASA and the Deutsche Forschungs- und Versuchsantalt fur Luft- and Raumfahrt e.V. (DFVLR) for tests of two airfoils are also included. Results of these tests will be made available as soon as practical.
Aerodynamic Design of Airfoils Based on Variable-Domain Variational Finite Element Method
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
陈池; 刘高联
2005-01-01
Designing airfoils according to given pressure (or velocity) distribution is one kind of free boundary problems. Free boundary condition can be coupled with the flow governing equations by variable-domain variational calculus, which makes it possible to calculate simultaneously the flow field and the free boundary. An accurate deduction of the variable-domain variational principles is taken herein to design airfoils in compressible and incompressible flows. Furthermore, two grid types (H and O) are used in the calculation with better results for the O-type grid. It is shown that convergence is accelerated and good results can be obtained even if the initial guessed airfoil shape is a triangle, demonstrating the strong adaptability of this method.
Modeling and computation of flow in a passage with 360 deg turning and multiple airfoils
Shyy, W.; Vu, T. C.
1991-06-01
Numerical modeling of the three-dimensional flows in a spiral casing of a hydraulic turbine, containing a passage of 360-deg turning and multiple elements of airfoils (the so-called distributor), is made. The physical model is based on a novel two-level approach, comprising of (1) a global model that adequately accounts for the geometry of the spiral casing but smears out the details of the distributor and represents the multiple airfoils by a porous medium treatment; and (2) a local model that performs detailed analysis of flow in the distributor region. The global analysis supplies the inlet flow condition for the individual cascade of distributor airfoils, while the distributor analysis yields the information needed for modeling the characteristics of the porous medium. Comparisons of pressure and velocity profiles between measurement and prediction have been made to assess the validity of the present approach. Flow characteristics in the spiral casing are also discussed.
Compressible dynamic stall vorticity ﬂux control using a dynamic camber airfoil
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
M S Chandrasekhara
2007-02-01
This study reports control of compressible dynamic stall through management of its unsteady vorticity using a variable droop leading edge (VDLE) airfoil. Through dynamic adaptation of the airfoil edge incidence, the formation of a dynamic stall vortex was virtually eliminated for Mach numbers of up to 0·4. Consequently, the leading edge vorticity ﬂux was redistributed enabling retention of the dynamic lift. Of even greater importance was the fact that the drag and pitching moment coefﬁcients were reduced by nearly 50%. The camber variations introduced when the leading edge was drooped are explained to be the source of this beneﬁt. Analysis of the peak vorticity ﬂux levels allowed the determination of minimum necessary airfoil adaptation schedule.
Wave propagation in beams with periodic arrays of airfoil-shaped resonating units
Casadei, Filippo; Bertoldi, Katia
2014-12-01
This paper presents an analytical and numerical study on the dispersion properties of an Euler-Bernoulli beam immersed in a steady fluid flow with periodic arrays of airfoil-shaped vibration absorbers attached to it. The resonance characteristics of the airfoils generate strong attenuation of flexural waves in the beam occurring at frequencies defined by the properties of the airfoils and the speed of the incident fluid. Analytical and numerical tools are developed to investigate the effects of the incident flow on the dispersion properties and the bandgaps of the system. Both steady and unsteady aerodynamic models are used to model the lift force and the pitching moment acting on the resonators and their effect on the dispersion relations of the system is evaluated. Finally, an effective medium description of the beam is developed to capture its behavior at long-wavelengths. In this regime, the system can be effectively considered as an acoustic metamaterial with adaptive dispersion properties.
Influence of Reynolds Number on Multi-Objective Aerodynamic Design of a Wind Turbine Blade.
Ge, Mingwei; Fang, Le; Tian, De
2015-01-01
At present, the radius of wind turbine rotors ranges from several meters to one hundred meters, or even more, which extends Reynolds number of the airfoil profile from the order of 105 to 107. Taking the blade for 3MW wind turbines as an example, the influence of Reynolds number on the aerodynamic design of a wind turbine blade is studied. To make the study more general, two kinds of multi-objective optimization are involved: one is based on the maximum power coefficient (CPopt) and the ultimate load, and the other is based on the ultimate load and the annual energy production (AEP). It is found that under the same configuration, the optimal design has a larger CPopt or AEP (CPopt//AEP) for the same ultimate load, or a smaller load for the same CPopt//AEP at higher Reynolds number. At a certain tip-speed ratio or ultimate load, the blade operating at higher Reynolds number should have a larger chord length and twist angle for the maximum Cpopt//AEP. If a wind turbine blade is designed by using an airfoil database with a mismatched Reynolds number from the actual one, both the load and Cpopt//AEP will be incorrectly estimated to some extent. In some cases, the assessment error attributed to Reynolds number is quite significant, which may bring unexpected risks to the earnings and safety of a wind power project.
Parameter study of simplified dragonfly airfoil geometry at Reynolds number of 6000.
Levy, David-Elie; Seifert, Avraham
2010-10-21
Aerodynamic study of a simplified Dragonfly airfoil in gliding flight at Reynolds numbers below 10,000 is motivated by both pure scientific interest and technological applications. At these Reynolds numbers, the natural insect flight could provide inspiration for technology development of Micro UAV's and more. Insect wings are typically characterized by corrugated airfoils. The present study follows a fundamental flow physics study (Levy and Seifert, 2009), that revealed the importance of flow separation from the first corrugation, the roll-up of the separated shear layer to discrete vortices and their role in promoting flow reattachment to the aft arc, as the leading mechanism enabling high-lift, low drag performance of the Dragonfly gliding flight. This paper describes the effect of systematic airfoil geometry variations on the aerodynamic properties of a simplified Dragonfly airfoil at Reynolds number of 6000. The parameter study includes a detailed analysis of small variations of the nominal geometry, such as corrugation placement or height, rear arc and trailing edge shape. Numerical simulations using the 2D laminar Navier-Stokes equations revealed that the flow accelerating over the first corrugation slope is followed by an unsteady pressure recovery, combined with vortex shedding. The latter allows the reattachment of the flow over the rear arc. Also, the drag values are directly linked to the vortices' magnitude. This parametric study shows that geometric variations which reduce the vortices' amplitude, as reduction of the rear cavity depth or the reduction of the rear arc and trailing edge curvature, will reduce the drag values. Other changes will extend the flow reattachment over the rear arc for a larger mean lift coefficients range; such as the negative deflection of the forward flat plate. These changes consequently reduce the drag values at higher mean lift coefficients. The detailed geometry study enabled the definition of a corrugated airfoil
Unsteady aerodynamic modelling of wind turbines
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Coton, F.N.; Galbraith, R.A. [Univ. og Glasgow, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering, Glasgow (United Kingdom)
1997-08-01
The following current and future work is discussed: Collaborative wind tunnel based PIV project to study wind turbine wake structures in head-on and yawed flow. Prescribed wake model has been embedded in a source panel representation of the wind tunnel walls to allow comparison with experiment; Modelling of tower shadow using high resolution but efficient vortex model in tower shadow domain; Extension of model to yawing flow; Upgrading and tuning of unsteady aerodynamic model for low speed, thick airfoil flows. Glasgow has a considerable collection of low speed dynamic stall data. Currently, the Leishman - Beddoes model is not ideally suited to such flows. For example: Range of stall onset criteria used for dynamic stall prediction including Beddoes. Wide variation of stall onset prediction. Beddoes representation was developed primarily with reference to compressible flows. Analyses of low speed data from Glasgow indicate deficiencies in the current model; Predicted versus measured response during ramp down motion. Modification of the Beddoes representation is required to obtain a fit with the measured data. (EG)
Usability of the Selig S1223 Profile Airfoil as a High Lift Hydrofoil for Hydrokinetic Application
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sergio Oller
2016-01-01
Full Text Available This work presents a numerical analysis of the ability of the high lift airfoil profile Selig S1223 for working as hydrofoil under water conditions. The geometry of the hydrofoil blade is designed through a suitable airfoil profile and then studied carefully by means of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD in order to check its hydrodynamic behavior, i.e., including lift and drag analysis, and determinations of streamlines velocities and pressures fields. Finally conclusions on the use of this profile in a possible application for hydrokinetic turbine blades are detailed.
Effects of laminar separation bubbles and turbulent separation on airfoil stall
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dini, P. [Carleton College, Northfield, MN (United States); Coiro, D.P. [Universita di Napoli (Italy)
1997-12-31
An existing two-dimensional, interactive, stall prediction program is extended by improving its laminar separation bubble model. The program now accounts correctly for the effects of the bubble on airfoil performance characteristics when it forms at the mid-chord and on the leading edge. Furthermore, the model can now predict bubble bursting on very sharp leading edges at high angles of attack. The details of the model are discussed in depth. Comparisons of the predicted stall and post-stall pressure distributions show excellent agreement with experimental measurements for several different airfoils at different Reynolds numbers.
Nonlinear angle control of a sectioned airfoil by using shape memory alloys
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Abreu G.
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The present work illustrates an application of shape memory alloys and nonlinear controller applied to the active angular control of a sectioned airfoil. The main objective of the proposed control system is to modify the shape of the profile based on a reference angle. The change of the sectioned airfoil angle is resultant by the effect of shape memory of the alloy due to heating of the wire caused by an electric current that changes its temperature by Joule effect. Considering the presence of plant’s nonlinear effects, especially in the mathematical model of the alloy, this work proposes the application of an on-off control system.
Nonlinear angle control of a sectioned airfoil by using shape memory alloys
Abreu G.; Maestá M.; Faria C.; Lopes V.
2014-01-01
The present work illustrates an application of shape memory alloys and nonlinear controller applied to the active angular control of a sectioned airfoil. The main objective of the proposed control system is to modify the shape of the profile based on a reference angle. The change of the sectioned airfoil angle is resultant by the effect of shape memory of the alloy due to heating of the wire caused by an electric current that changes its temperature by Joule effect. Considering the presence o...
Aerodynamic behaviour of NREL S826 airfoil at Re=100,000
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chivaee, Hamid Sarlak; Mikkelsen, Robert Flemming; Sarmast, Sasan;
2014-01-01
at Fluid Mechanics laboratory of the Technical University of Denmark (DTU). Lift coefficient is obtained from the forge gauge measurements while the drag is measured according to the integration of the wake profiles downstream of the airfoil. The pressure distribution is measured by a set of pressure taps......, there is a better agreement between the drag measurements and computations. It is concluded that LES computations are able to capture the lift and drag polars as well as the pressure distribution around the airfoil with an acceptable accuracy....
An Iterative Method for Estimating Airfoil Deformation due to Solid Particle Erosion
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Valeriu DRAGAN
2014-04-01
Full Text Available Helicopter blades are currently constructed with composite materials enveloping honeycomb cores with only the leading and trailing edges made of metal alloys. In some cases, the erosive wear of the bound between the composite skin and metallic leading edge leads to full blade failure. It is therefore the goal of this paper to provide a method for simulating the way an airfoil is deformed through the erosion process. The method involves computational fluid dynamics simulations, scripts for automatic meshing and spreadsheet calculators for estimating the erosion and, ultimately, the airfoil deformation. Further work could include more complex meshing scripts allowing the use of similar methods for turbo-machineries.
Computational Analysis of the 2415-3S Airfoil Aerodynamic Performance
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Luis Velázquez-Araque
2014-02-01
Full Text Available This paper deals with the numerical simulation of the two-dimensional, incompressible, steady air flow past an airfoil for a solar powered unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV with internal propulsion system. This airfoil results from a NACA 2415 four digits family base airfoil modification [7] and has a propulsive outlet with the shape of a step on the suction surface. The analysis involved the airfoil's aerodynamic performance which meant obtaining lift, drag and pitching moment coefficient curves as a function of the angle of attack (AOA for the condition where the engine of the UAV is turned off called the gliding condition and also for the blowing propulsive condition by means computational fluid dynamics. The computational domain has been discretised using a structured mesh of 188 x 200 tetrahedral elements. The RNG k-Ε model is utilized to describe the turbulent flow process as it was followed in [5]. The simulations were held at a Reynolds number of 300000. Results allowed obtaining lift and drag forces and pitching moment coefficient and also the location of the separation and reattachment points in some cases by means of the wall shear stress on the suction surface as well as velocity contours and streamlines for both conditions at different angles of attack, from 0 to 16 degrees with the smallest increment of 4 degrees. Finally, results from both cases were compared and the influence of the propulsive flow on the aerodynamic characteristics of the airfoil has been analysed turning out that it improves significantly the performance of the airfoil reaching values up to 1,8 times in terms of lift at high angles of attack. [5] Rhie C.M., Chow W.L., Numerical Study of the Turbulent Flow Past an Airfoil with Trailing Edge Separation, AIAA Journal, Vol. 21, No. 11, 1983. [7] Velazquez L., Nožička J, Kulhanek R., Oil and Smoke Flow Visualization past Two-Dimensional Airfoils for an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle, in The 11th Asian Symposium of
Evaluation of a research circulation control airfoil using Navier-Stokes methods
Shrewsbury, George D.
1987-01-01
The compressible Reynolds time averaged Navier-Stokes equations were used to obtain solutions for flows about a two dimensional circulation control airfoil. The governing equations were written in conservation form for a body-fitted coordinate system and solved using an Alternating Direction Implicit (ADI) procedure. A modified algebraic eddy viscosity model was used to define the turbulent characteristics of the flow, including the wall jet flow over the Coanda surface at the trailing edge. Numerical results are compared to experimental data obtained for a research circulation control airfoil geometry. Excellent agreement with the experimental results was obtained.
Investigation of compressibility effects on dynamic stall of pitching airfoil
Sangwan, Jyoti; Sengupta, Tapan K.; Suchandra, Prasoon
2017-07-01
In the present work, effects of compressibility on the dynamic stall of NACA 0012 airfoil, pitching sinusoidally from 5.03° to 24.79°, are investigated computationally using implicit large eddy simulations in a finite difference framework. Simulations of two-dimensional (2D), high Reynolds number, compressible flows are carried out without any transition or turbulence model to capture the physics of the dynamic stall process. The problem is formulated in a body-fixed, rotating, non-inertial frame. High accuracy, dispersion relation preserving optimized upwind compact scheme is used to compute convective flux derivatives, and an optimized three-stage Runge-Kutta method is used for time integration. Results are presented for free stream Mach number M∞ = 0.283, 0.4, and 0.5, where the Mach number is varied independent of the Reynolds number. The computations have been quite successful in capturing the essential features of the dynamic stall mechanism. It is observed that dynamic moment and lift stalls occur at smaller angles of attack as the Mach number increases. Reduction in the size of airload hysteresis loops and maximum attainable load coefficients are observed with increasing Mach number. Weak shock waves are observed near the leading edge (LE) at M∞ = 0.4, and lambda-shock is formed near the LE for M∞ = 0.5. It is observed that with increasing Mach number, the impact of dynamic stall on the aerodynamic loads (Cl, Cd, and Cm) becomes less dramatic as the maximum value attained by these aerodynamic loads decreases with an increase in the Mach number. An increase in positive damping area in the hysteresis loop is observed with an increase in the Mach number, inhibiting possible vulnerability to stall flutter.
Test of 4' x 20' Clark-Y airfoil model in FST
1929-01-01
Test of 4' x 20' Clark-Y airfoil model in Full-Scale Tunnel (FST). On June 26, 1929, Elton W. Miller wrote to George W. Lewis proposing the construction of a model of the full-scale tunnel. 'The excellent energy ratio obtained in the new wind tunnel of the California Institute of Technology suggests that before proceeding with our full scale tunnel design, we ought to investigate the effect on energy ratio of such factors as: 1. small included angle for the exit cone; 2. carefully designed return passages of circular section as far as possible, without sudden changes in cross sections; 3. tightness of walls. It is believed that much useful information can be obtained by building a model of about 1/16 scale, that is, having a closed throat of 2 ft. by 4 ft. The outside dimensions would be about 12 ft. by 25 ft. in plan and the height 4 ft. Two propellers will be required about 28 in. in diameter, each to be driven by direct current motor at a maximum speed of 4500 R.P.M. Provision can be made for altering the length of certain portions, particularly the exit cone, and possibly for the application of boundary layer control in order to effect satisfactory air flow. This model can be constructed in a comparatively short time, using 2 by 4 framing with matched sheathing inside, and where circular sections are desired they can be obtained by nailing sheet metal to wooden ribs, which can be cut on the band saw. It is estimated that three months will be required for the construction and testing of such a model and that the cost will be approximately three thousand dollars, one thousand dollars of which will be for the motors. No suitable location appears to exist in any of our present buildings, and it may be necessary to build it outside and cover it with a roof.' George Lewis responded immediately (June 27) granting the authority to proceed. He urged Langley to expedite construction and to employ extra carpenters if necessary. Funds for the model came from the FST
Abdelrahman, Ahmed; Johnson, David A.
2014-06-01
One of the strategies used to improve performance and increase the life-span of wind turbines is active flow control. It involves the modification of the aerodynamic characteristics of a wind turbine blade by means of moveable aerodynamic control surfaces. Trailing edge flaps are relatively small moveable control surfaces placed at the trailing edge of a blade's airfoil that modify the lift of a blade or airfoil section. An instrumented wind turbine test rig and rotor were specifically developed to enable a wide-range of experiments to investigate the potential of trailing edge flaps as an active control technique. A modular blade based on the S833 airfoil was designed to allow accurate instrumentation and customizable settings. The blade is 1.7 meters long, had a constant 178mm chord and a 6° pitch. The modular aerodynamic parts were 3D printed using plastic PC-ABS material. The blade design point was within the range of wind velocities in the available large test facility. The wind facility is a large open jet wind tunnel with a maximum velocity of 11m/s in the test area. The capability of the developed system was demonstrated through an initial study of the effect of stationary trailing edge flaps on blade load and performance. The investigation focused on measuring the changes in flapwise bending moment and power production for different trailing edge flap spanwise locations and deflection angles. The relationship between the load reduction and deflection angle was linear as expected from theory and the highest reduction was caused by the flap furthest from the rotor center. Overall, the experimental setup proved to be effective in measuring small changes in flapwise bending moment within the wind turbine blade and will provide insight when (active) flap control is targeted.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dyrbye, Claes; Hansen, Svend Ole
pressure to structural response) and design criteria. Starting with an introduction of the wind load chain, the book moves on to meteorological considerations, atmospheric boundary layer, static wind load, dynamic wind load and scaling laws used in wind-tunnel tests. The dynamic wind load covers vibrations......Wind loads have to be taken into account when designing civil engineering structures. The wind load on structures can be systematised by means of the wind load chain: wind climate (global), terrain (wind at low height), aerodynamic response (wind load to pressure), mechanical response (wind...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dyrbye, Claes; Hansen, Svend Ole
pressure to structural response) and design criteria. Starting with an introduction of the wind load chain, the book moves on to meteorological considerations, atmospheric boundary layer, static wind load, dynamic wind load and scaling laws used in wind-tunnel tests. The dynamic wind load covers vibrations......Wind loads have to be taken into account when designing civil engineering structures. The wind load on structures can be systematised by means of the wind load chain: wind climate (global), terrain (wind at low height), aerodynamic response (wind load to pressure), mechanical response (wind...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2010-01-01
Aerodynamic performance of low-Reynolds-number high-lift airfoil makes a great impact on designing a high-efficiency propeller for low-dynamic vehicles in stratosphere. At high altitude,low-Reynolds-number airfoils are supposed to have high lift-drag ratio or high endurance factor at cruising attack angle along with good stall characteristics. To design such a high-performance low-Reynolds-number high-lift airfoil,the paper established a hierarchical multi-objective optimization platform by combing direct search optimization algorithm EXTREM and airfoil flow field solver XFOIL to automatically and quickly calculate aerodynamic performance function of airfoil by computer. It provides an effective solution to multi-point design problem of low-speed low-Reynolds-number airfoil. It can be seen from the results of three typical optimization examples,the new airfoil E387_OPT2,FX63-137_OPT2 and S1223_OPT2 based on hot low-Reynolds-number high-lift airfoils (Eppler 387 airfoil,Wortmann FX63-137 airfoil and S1223 airfoil) can meet the optimization design requirements and have very good aerodynamic characteristics in both design state and non-design state. Thus,the applicability and effectiveness of hierarchical multi-objective optimization platform are verified.
1989-01-01
When Enerpro, Inc. president, Frank J. Bourbeau, attempted to file a patent on a system for synchronizing a wind generator to the electric utility grid, he discovered Marshall Space Flight Center's Frank Nola's power factor controller. Bourbeau advanced the technology and received a NASA license and a patent for his Auto Synchronous Controller (ASC). The ASC reduces generator "inrush current," which occurs when large generators are abruptly brought on line. It controls voltage so the generator is smoothly connected to the utility grid when it reaches its synchronous speed, protecting the components from inrush current damage. Generator efficiency is also increased in light winds by applying lower than rated voltage. Wind energy is utilized to drive turbines to generate electricity for utility companies.
SPIV study of passive flow control on a WT airfoil
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Velte, Clara Marika; Hansen, Martin Otto Laver; Meyer, Knud Erik
2010-01-01
Stereoscopic Particle Image Velocimetry (SPIV) measurements investigating the effect of vortex generators (VGs) on the flow near stall have been carried out in the purpose built LM Glasfiber wind tunnel on a DU 91-W2-250 profile. Measurements have been conducted at Re=0.9*10^6, corresponding...
Flow Separation Control on Airfoil With Pulsed Nanosecond Discharge Actuator
Correale, G.; Popov, I.B.; Ratikin, A.E.; Starikovskii, A.Y.; Hulshoff, S.J.; Veldhuis, L.L.M.
2011-01-01
An experimental study of flow separation control with a nanosecond pulse plasma actuator was performed in wind-tunnel experiments. The discharge used had a pulse width of 12 ns and rising time of 3 ns with voltage up to 12 kV. Repetition frequency was adjustable up to 10 kHz. The first series of exp
Airfoil Self-Noise - Investigation with Particle Image Velocimetry
Pröbsting, S.
2015-01-01
Noise generated aerodynamically by the airflow over a lifting surface is often of concern for applications as diverse as air and ground transportation, heating, ventilation, air-conditioning systems, and wind turbines. The thesis describes the application of advanced optical flow measurements techni
Design and Numerical Calculation of Variable Test Section for Small Supersonic Wind Tunnel
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Václav DVOŘÁK
2010-12-01
Full Text Available The paper is concerned with numerical modelling of transition in a separated boundary layer. The model of laminar/turbulent transition is based on the combination of empirical terms determining position of the transition and averaged Navier – Stokes equations closed by the k – ω SST turbulence model. The model of transition is applied in computation of 2D flow past NACA63A421 airfoil. Computation is performed using the commercial code ANSYS Fluent 6.3.26, in which the transition method is implemented as a User-Defined-Function. Computed distributions of Cp along the airfoil are verified by comparison with experimental data, which were obtained by measurements in a closed circuit wind tunnel at the constant Reynolds number and several angles of attack. Comparisons prove applicability of the implemented transitional model.
Wind-tunnel Tests of the Fowler Variable-area Wing
Weick, Fred E; Platt, Robert C
1932-01-01
The lift, drag, and center of pressure characteristics of a model of the Fowler variable-area wing were measured in the NACA 7 by 10 foot wind tunnel. The Fowler wing consists of a combination of a main wing and an extension surface, also of airfoil section. The extension surface can be entirely retracted within the lower rear portion of the main wing or it can be moved to the rear and downward. The tests were made with the nose of the extension airfoil in various positions near the trailing edge of the main wing and with the surface at various angular deflections. The highest lift coefficient obtained was C(sub L) = 3.17 as compared with 1.27 for the main wing alone.
Computational Acoustic Beamforming for Noise Source Identification for Small Wind Turbines.
Ma, Ping; Lien, Fue-Sang; Yee, Eugene
2017-01-01
This paper develops a computational acoustic beamforming (CAB) methodology for identification of sources of small wind turbine noise. This methodology is validated using the case of the NACA 0012 airfoil trailing edge noise. For this validation case, the predicted acoustic maps were in excellent conformance with the results of the measurements obtained from the acoustic beamforming experiment. Following this validation study, the CAB methodology was applied to the identification of noise sources generated by a commercial small wind turbine. The simulated acoustic maps revealed that the blade tower interaction and the wind turbine nacelle were the two primary mechanisms for sound generation for this small wind turbine at frequencies between 100 and 630 Hz.
Computational Acoustic Beamforming for Noise Source Identification for Small Wind Turbines
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ping Ma
2017-01-01
Full Text Available This paper develops a computational acoustic beamforming (CAB methodology for identification of sources of small wind turbine noise. This methodology is validated using the case of the NACA 0012 airfoil trailing edge noise. For this validation case, the predicted acoustic maps were in excellent conformance with the results of the measurements obtained from the acoustic beamforming experiment. Following this validation study, the CAB methodology was applied to the identification of noise sources generated by a commercial small wind turbine. The simulated acoustic maps revealed that the blade tower interaction and the wind turbine nacelle were the two primary mechanisms for sound generation for this small wind turbine at frequencies between 100 and 630 Hz.
Remote Sensing Wind and Wind Shear System.
Contents: Remote sensing of wind shear and the theory and development of acoustic doppler; Wind studies; A comparison of methods for the remote detection of winds in the airport environment; Acoustic doppler system development; System calibration; Airport operational tests.
Vargas, Mario; Feo, Alex
2011-01-01
This work presents the results of an experimental study on droplet deformation and breakup near the leading edge of an airfoil. The experiment was conducted in the rotating rig test cell at the Instituto Nacional de Tecnica Aeroespacial (INTA) in Madrid, Spain. An airfoil model placed at the end of the rotating arm was moved at speeds of 50 to 90 m/sec. A monosize droplet generator was employed to produce droplets that were allowed to fall from above, perpendicular to the path of the airfoil at a given location. High speed imaging was employed to observe the interaction between the droplets and the airfoil. The high speed imaging allowed observation of droplet deformation and breakup as the droplet approached the airfoil near the stagnation line. A tracking software program was used to measure from the high speed movies the horizontal and vertical displacement of the droplet against time. The velocity, acceleration, Weber number, Bond number, Reynolds number, and the drag coefficients were calculated along the path of a given droplet from beginning of deformation to breakup and/or hitting the airfoil. Results are presented for droplets with a diameter of 490 micrometers at airfoil speeds of 50, 60, 70, 80 and 90 m/sec
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Komatsubara, Kazuyo [Embassy of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, Tokyo (Japan)
2012-06-15
An overview is given of wind energy in Japan: Background; Wind Energy in Japan; Japanese Wind Energy Industry; Government Supports; Useful Links; Major Japanese Companies; Profiles of Major Japanese Companies; Major Wind Energy Projects in Japan.
Development of a fast shape memory alloy based actuator for morphing airfoils
Lara-Quintanilla, A.
2016-01-01
The design of aerodynamic airfoils are optimized for certain conditions. For instance, the shape of the wings of fixed-wing aircrafts are designed and optimized for a certain flight condition (in terms of altitude, speed, aircraft weight, etc.). However, these flight conditions vary significantly du
Development of a fast shape memory alloy based actuator for morphing airfoils
Lara-Quintanilla, A.
2016-01-01
The design of aerodynamic airfoils are optimized for certain conditions. For instance, the shape of the wings of fixed-wing aircrafts are designed and optimized for a certain flight condition (in terms of altitude, speed, aircraft weight, etc.). However, these flight conditions vary significantly du
The semi-discrete Galerkin finite element modelling of compressible viscous flow past an airfoil
Meade, Andrew J., Jr.
1992-01-01
A method is developed to solve the two-dimensional, steady, compressible, turbulent boundary-layer equations and is coupled to an existing Euler solver for attached transonic airfoil analysis problems. The boundary-layer formulation utilizes the semi-discrete Galerkin (SDG) method to model the spatial variable normal to the surface with linear finite elements and the time-like variable with finite differences. A Dorodnitsyn transformed system of equations is used to bound the infinite spatial domain thereby permitting the use of a uniform finite element grid which provides high resolution near the wall and automatically follows boundary-layer growth. The second-order accurate Crank-Nicholson scheme is applied along with a linearization method to take advantage of the parabolic nature of the boundary-layer equations and generate a non-iterative marching routine. The SDG code can be applied to any smoothly-connected airfoil shape without modification and can be coupled to any inviscid flow solver. In this analysis, a direct viscous-inviscid interaction is accomplished between the Euler and boundary-layer codes, through the application of a transpiration velocity boundary condition. Results are presented for compressible turbulent flow past NACA 0012 and RAE 2822 airfoils at various freestream Mach numbers, Reynolds numbers, and angles of attack. All results show good agreement with experiment, and the coupled code proved to be a computationally-efficient and accurate airfoil analysis tool.
Amiet theory extension to predict leading-edge generated noise in compact airfoils
De Santana, L.D.; Schram, C.
2015-01-01
This paper extends the Amiet theory to frequencies where the airfoil can be considered a compact noise source. The original Amiet theory proposes to apply the Schwarzschild theorem in an iterative procedure, which generally leads to noise over-prediction at low-frequencies. To overcome this problem,
Self-sustained Flow-acoustic Interactions in Airfoil Transitional Boundary Layers
2015-07-09
all tested airfoils multiple tones were observed. Tracking the dominant tone at increasing flow speed produces the so-called ladder-type tonal...anecho c w nd tunne of Eco e Centra e de Lyon. Measurements of wa pressure, far- f e d acoust c pressure and ve oc ty f uctuat ons us ng the hot-w re
Development of a fast shape memory alloy based actuator for morphing airfoils
Lara-Quintanilla, A.
2016-01-01
The design of aerodynamic airfoils are optimized for certain conditions. For instance, the shape of the wings of fixed-wing aircrafts are designed and optimized for a certain flight condition (in terms of altitude, speed, aircraft weight, etc.). However, these flight conditions vary significantly
Ground effect on the aerodynamics of a two-dimensional oscillating airfoil
Lu, H.; Lua, K. B.; Lim, T. T.; Yeo, K. S.
2014-07-01
This paper reports results of an experimental investigation into ground effect on the aerodynamics of a two-dimensional elliptic airfoil undergoing simple harmonic translation and rotational motion. Ground clearance ( D) ranging from 1 c to 5 c (where c is the airfoil chord length) was investigated for three rotational amplitudes ( α m) of 30°, 45° and 60° (which respectively translate to mid-stroke angle of attack of 60°, 45° and 30°). For the lowest rotational amplitude of 30°, results show that an airfoil approaching a ground plane experiences a gradual decrease in cycle-averaged lift and drag coefficients until it reaches D ≈ 2.0 c, below which they increase rapidly. Corresponding DPIV measurement indicates that the initial force reduction is associated with the formation of a weaker leading edge vortex and the subsequent force increase below D ≈ 2.0 c may be attributed to stronger wake capture effect. Furthermore, an airfoil oscillating at higher amplitude lessens the initial force reduction when approaching the ground and this subsequently leads to lift distribution that bears striking resemblance to the ground effect on a conventional fixed wing in steady translation.