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Sample records for flashing amber light

  1. light amber and dark amber

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Both samples showed high amount of carbohydrate, that of light amber being higher. The antioxidant vitamins (vitamins A, C and E) content of the two honeys are 4.08± 0.21, 2.22± 0.10and 0.28± 0.03(mg/dl), (for light amber), and 4.42± 0.06, 2.61± 0.11,and 0.26± 0.02 (mg/dl), (for dark amber) respectively. Both samples

  2. Flashing light in microalgae biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Ghosh, Said; Fixler, Dror; Dubinsky, Zvy; Iluz, David

    2016-03-01

    Flashing light can enhance photosynthesis and improve the quality and quantity of microalgal biomass, as it can increase the products of interest by magnitudes. Therefore, the integration of flashing light effect into microalgal cultivation systems should be considered. However, microalgae require a balanced mix of the light/dark cycle for higher growth rates, and respond to light intensity differently according to the pigments acquired or lost during the growth. This review highlights recently published results on flashing light effect on microalgae and its applications in biotechnology, as well as the recently developed bioreactors designed to fulfill this effect. It also discusses how this knowledge can be applied in selecting the optimal light frequencies and intensities with specific technical properties for increasing biomass production and/or the yield of the chemicals of interest by microalgae belonging to different genera. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The design of the light-flash warning light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junli

    2018-05-01

    In today's society, the warning light has been used widely in people's daily life and various industries and agricultures. It is important to protect people's life and security. Light-flashing warning light is a kind of warning light control equipment which can control warning light automatically open and work in the state of blinking after dark, and it can automatically shut down after the dawn. It can achieve the flashing light automatic control and dual function. At present, light-flashing warning lights are mainly used in the projects of municipal construction. It is helpful to warn people and vehicles that passed in the construction site and ensure personal safety through using light-flashing warning light. Its design is simple, its performance is stable and it is also very convince to use it.

  4. Amber light-emitting diode comprising a group III-nitride nanowire active region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, George T.; Li, Qiming; Wierer, Jr., Jonathan J.; Koleske, Daniel

    2014-07-22

    A temperature stable (color and efficiency) III-nitride based amber (585 nm) light-emitting diode is based on a novel hybrid nanowire-planar structure. The arrays of GaN nanowires enable radial InGaN/GaN quantum well LED structures with high indium content and high material quality. The high efficiency and temperature stable direct yellow and red phosphor-free emitters enable high efficiency white LEDs based on the RGYB color-mixing approach.

  5. Photosynthetic efficiency of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii in flashing light

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vejrazka, C.; Janssen, M.G.J.; Streefland, M.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2011-01-01

    Efficient light to biomass conversion in photobioreactors is crucial for economically feasible microalgae production processes. It has been suggested that photosynthesis is enhanced in short light path photobioreactors by mixing-induced flashing light regimes. In this study, photosynthetic

  6. Continuous background light significantly increases flashing-light enhancement of photosynthesis and growth of microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Ghosh, Said; Fixler, Dror; Dubinsky, Zvy; Iluz, David

    2015-01-01

    Under specific conditions, flashing light enhances the photosynthesis rate in comparison to continuous illumination. Here we show that a combination of flashing light and continuous background light with the same integrated photon dose as continuous or flashing light alone can be used to significantly enhance photosynthesis and increase microalgae growth. To test this hypothesis, the green microalga Dunaliella salina was exposed to three different light regimes: continuous light, flashing light, and concomitant application of both. Algal growth was compared under three different integrated light quantities; low, intermediate, and moderately high. Under the combined light regime, there was a substantial increase in all algal growth parameters, with an enhanced photosynthesis rate, within 3days. Our strategy demonstrates a hitherto undescribed significant increase in photosynthesis and algal growth rates, which is beyond the increase by flashing light alone. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. 49 CFR 234.253 - Flashing light units and lamp voltage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flashing light units and lamp voltage. 234.253... Maintenance, Inspection, and Testing Inspections and Tests § 234.253 Flashing light units and lamp voltage. (a... voltage shall be tested when installed and at least once every 12 months thereafter. (c) Each flashing...

  8. Extended Stability of Epinephrine Hydrochloride Injection in Polyvinyl Chloride Bags Stored in Amber Ultraviolet Light-Blocking Bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Matre, Edward T; Ho, Kang C; Lyda, Clark; Fullmer, Beth A; Oldland, Alan R; Kiser, Tyree H

    2017-09-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the stability of epinephrine hydrochloride in 0.9% sodium chloride in polyvinyl chloride bags for up to 60 days. Methods: Dilutions of epinephrine hydrochloride to concentrations of 16 and 64 µg/mL were performed under aseptic conditions. The bags were then placed into ultraviolet light-blocking bags and stored at room temperature (23°C-25°C) or under refrigeration (3°C-5°C). Three samples of each preparation and storage environment were analyzed on days 0, 30, 45, and 60. Physical stability was performed by visual examination. The pH was assessed at baseline and upon final degradation evaluation. Sterility of the samples was not assessed. Chemical stability of epinephrine hydrochloride was evaluated using high-performance liquid chromatography. To determine the stability-indicating nature of the assay, degradation 12 months following preparation was evaluated. Samples were considered stable if there was less than 10% degradation of the initial concentration. Results: Epinephrine hydrochloride diluted to 16 and 64 µg/mL with 0.9% sodium chloride injection and stored in amber ultraviolet light-blocking bags was physically stable throughout the study. No precipitation was observed. At days 30 and 45, all bags had less than 10% degradation. At day 60, all refrigerated bags had less than 10% degradation. Overall, the mean concentration of all measurements demonstrated less than 10% degradation at 60 days at room temperature and under refrigeration. Conclusion: Epinephrine hydrochloride diluted to 16 and 64 µg/mL with 0.9% sodium chloride injection in polyvinyl chloride bags stored in amber ultraviolet light-blocking bags was stable up to 45 days at room temperature and up to 60 days under refrigeration.

  9. Internal quantum efficiency in yellow-amber light emitting AlGaN-InGaN-GaN heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ngo, Thi Huong; Gil, Bernard; Valvin, Pierre [Laboratoire Charles Coulomb – UMR 5221, CNRS and University Montpellier, Case courier 074, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France); Damilano, Benjamin; Lekhal, Kaddour; De Mierry, Philippe [CRHEA-CNRS Centre de Recherche sur l' Hétéro-Epitaxie et ses Applications, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, rue Bernard Gregory, 06560 Valbonne (France)

    2015-09-21

    We determine the internal quantum efficiency of strain-balanced AlGaN-InGaN-GaN hetero-structures designed for yellow-amber light emission, by using a recent model based on the kinetics of the photoluminescence decay initiated by Iwata et al. [J. Appl. Phys. 117, 075701 (2015)]. Our results indicate that low temperature internal quantum efficiencies sit in the 50% range and we measure that adding an AlGaN layer increases the internal quantum efficiency from 50% up to 57% with respect to the GaN-InGaN case. More dramatic, it almost doubles from 2.5% up to 4.3% at room temperature.

  10. Shape deformation of a light flash through a light pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calligaris, F.; Ciuti, P.; Gabrielli, I.; Giacomich, R.

    1976-01-01

    The propagation of a LED light pulse entering a rectangular light pipe under different angles is studied by the single-photon counting technique. A comparison with the theoretical predictions based on geometrical optics is reported. (Auth.)

  11. Flash!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Govert

    2002-04-01

    About three times a day our sky flashes with a powerful pulse of gamma ray bursts (GRB), invisible to human eyes but not to astronomers' instruments. The sources of this intense radiation are likely to be emitting, within the span of seconds or minutes, more energy than the sun will in its entire 10 billion years of life. Where these bursts originate, and how they come to have such incredible energies, is a mystery scientists have been trying to solve for three decades. The phenomenon has resisted study -- the flashes come from random directions in space and vanish without trace -- until very recently. In what could be called a cinematic conflation of Flash Gordon and The Hunt for Red October, Govert Schilling's Flash!: The Hunt for the Biggest Explosions in the Universe describes the exciting and ever-changing field of GRB research. Based on interviews with leading scientists, Flash! provides an insider's account of the scientific challenges involved in unravelling the enigmatic nature of GRBs. A science writer who has followed the drama from the very start, Schilling describes the ambition and jealousy, collegiality and competition, triumph and tragedy, that exists among those who have embarked on this recherche. Govert Schilling is a Dutch science writer and astronomy publicist. He is a contributing editor of Sky and Telescope magazine, and regularly writes for the news sections of Science and New Scientist. Schilling is the astronomy writer for de Volkskrant, one of the largest national daily newspapers in The Netherlands, and frequently talks about the Universe on Dutch radio broadcasts. He is the author of more than twenty popular astronomy books, and hundreds of newspaper and magazine articles on astronomy.

  12. Perception of Temporal Order of Flashing Lights as a Navigation AID

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Luria, S

    1990-01-01

    .... The temporal interval between the flashing lights required to perceive non-simultaneity appeared to increase when the lights were very dim and appeared to decrease when the viewing distance increased...

  13. Motorist actions at a crosswalk with an in-pavement flashing light system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karkee, Ganesh J; Nambisan, Shashi S; Pulugurtha, Srinivas S

    2010-12-01

    An in-pavement flashing light system is used at crosswalks to alert motorists and pedestrians of possible conflicts and to influence their behavior to enhance safety. The relative behaviors of the drivers and the pedestrians affect safety. An evaluation of motorist behavior at a pedestrian crosswalk with an in-pavement flashing light system is presented in this manuscript. Field observations provide the basis to evaluate motorist behavior at a crosswalk with an in-pavement flashing light system. Outcomes of pedestrian and motorists actions were observed to quantify measures of effectiveness (MOEs) such as yielding behavior of motorists, vehicle speeds, and yielding distance from the crosswalk. A before-and-after study design was used. The before condition was prior to the activation of the in-pavement flashing light system and the after condition was after the activation of the in-pavement flashing light system. The study was conducted on a relatively low-volume roadway located in the Henderson, Nevada. The significance of the differences in the MOEs between the 2 study periods was evaluated using statistical analysis tools such as a one-tailed test for proportions and the Welch-Satterthwaite t-test. The results show that the installation of the in-pavement flashing light system increased the yielding behavior of motorists significantly (P pavement flashing light system is seen to be effective to improve motorists' yielding behavior and the speeds of vehicles were also observed to decrease in the presence of pedestrians.

  14. Violation of Bloch's Law That Specifies Reciprocity of Intensity and Duration with Brief Light Flashes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Greene

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available For more than a century researchers have been reporting that the visual impact of a very brief flash is determined by the quantity of photons that the flash delivers. This has been variously described as the Bunsen-Roscoe Law or Bloch's Law, often specified as reciprocity of intensity × duration. Prior research found no evidence for such reciprocity when microsecond-duration flashes from a light-emitting diode array were used to display the major contours of nameable shapes. The present work tested with flash durations ranging up to 100 ms and also found no reciprocity. This departure from classic principles might be due to the specific range of wavelengths of the light-emitting diodes and to a mesopic level of ambient light, which together would preclude activation of rods. The reciprocity of intensity and duration may only be valid with full dark adaptation and very dim flashes that activate rods.

  15. Increased Expression of CCN2 in the Red Flashing Light-Induced Myopia in Guinea Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Visual environment plays an important role in the occurrence of myopia. We previously showed that the different flashing lights could result in distinct effects on the ocular growth and development of myopia. CCN2 has been reported to regulate various cellular functions and biological processes. However, whether CCN2 signaling was involved in the red flashing light-induced myopia still remains unknown. In the present study, we investigated the effects of the red flashing lights exposure on the refraction and axial length of the eyes in vivo and then evaluated their effects on the expression of CCN2 and TGF-β in sclera tissues. Our data showed that the eyes exposed to the red flashing light became more myopic with a significant increase of the axial length and decrease of the refraction. Both CCN2 and TGF-β, as well as p38 MAPK and PI3K, were highly expressed in the sclera tissues exposed to the red flashing light. Both CCN2 and TGF-β were found to have the same gene expression profile in vivo. In conclusion, our findings found that CCN2 signaling pathway plays an important role in the red flashing light-induced myopia in vivo. Moreover, our study establishes a useful animal model for experimental myopia research.

  16. Response of the human circadian system to millisecond flashes of light.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie M Zeitzer

    Full Text Available Ocular light sensitivity is the primary mechanism by which the central circadian clock, located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN, remains synchronized with the external geophysical day. This process is dependent on both the intensity and timing of the light exposure. Little is known about the impact of the duration of light exposure on the synchronization process in humans. In vitro and behavioral data, however, indicate the circadian clock in rodents can respond to sequences of millisecond light flashes. In a cross-over design, we tested the capacity of humans (n = 7 to respond to a sequence of 60 2-msec pulses of moderately bright light (473 lux given over an hour during the night. Compared to a control dark exposure, after which there was a 3.5±7.3 min circadian phase delay, the millisecond light flashes delayed the circadian clock by 45±13 min (p<0.01. These light flashes also concomitantly increased subjective and objective alertness while suppressing delta and sigma activity (p<0.05 in the electroencephalogram (EEG. Our data indicate that phase shifting of the human circadian clock and immediate alerting effects can be observed in response to brief flashes of light. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that the circadian system can temporally integrate extraordinarily brief light exposures.

  17. Electrical, spectral and optical performance of yellow-green and amber micro-pixelated InGaN light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Z.; Liu, N. Y.; Tao, Y. B.; Massoubre, D.; Xie, E. Y.; Hu, X. D.; Chen, Z. Z.; Zhang, G. Y.; Pan, Y. B.; Hao, M. S.; Watson, I. M.; Gu, E.; Dawson, M. D.

    2012-01-01

    Micro-pixelated InGaN LED arrays operating at 560 and 600 nm, respectively, are demonstrated for what the authors believe to be the first time. Such devices offer applications in areas including bioinstrumentation, visible light communications and optoelectronic tweezers. The devices reported are based on new epitaxial structures, retaining conventional (0 0 0 1) orientation, but incorporating electron reservoir layers which enhance the efficiency of radiative combination in the active regions. A measured output optical power density up to 8 W cm-2 (4.4 W cm-2) has been achieved from a representative pixel of the yellow-green (amber) LED array, substantially higher than that from conventional broad-area reference LEDs fabricated from the same wafer material. Furthermore, these micro-LEDs can sustain a high current density, up to 4.5 kA cm-2, before thermal rollover. A significant blueshift of the emission wavelength with increasing injection current is observed, however. This blueshift saturates at 45 nm (50 nm) for the yellow-green (amber) LED array, and numerical simulations have been used to gain insight into the responsible mechanisms in this microstructured format of device. In the relatively low-current-density regime (screening of the piezoelectric field by the injected carriers and the band-filling effect, whereas in the high-current regime, it is mainly due to band-filling. Further development of the epitaxial wafer material is expected to improve the current-dependent spectral stability.

  18. Two-step flash light sintering of copper nanoparticle ink to remove substrate warping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Chung-Hyeon; Joo, Sung-Jun [Department of Mechanical Convergence Engineering, Hanyang University, Haengdang-dong, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hak-Sung, E-mail: kima@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Mechanical Convergence Engineering, Hanyang University, Haengdang-dong, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Nano Science and Technology, Hanyang University, Seoul, 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-30

    Highlights: • We performed the two-step flash light sintering for copper nanoparticle ink to remove substrate warping. • 12 J/cm{sup 2} of preheating and 7 J/cm{sup 2} of main sintering energies were determined as optimum conditions to sinter the copper nanoparticle ink. • The resistivity of two-step sintered copper nanoparticle ink was 3.81 μΩ cm with 5B adhesion level, 2.3 times greater than that of bulk copper. • The two-step sintered case showed a high conductivity without any substrate warping. - Abstract: A two-step flash light sintering process was devised to reduce the warping of polymer substrates during the sintering of copper nanoparticle ink. To determine the optimum sintering conditions of the copper nanoparticle ink, the flash light irradiation conditions (pulse power, pulse number, on-time, and off-time) were varied and optimized. In order to monitor the flash light sintering process, in situ resistance and temperature monitoring of copper nanoink were conducted during the flash light sintering process. Also, a transient heat transfer analysis was performed by using the finite-element program ABAQUS to predict the temperature changes of copper nanoink and polymer substrate. The microstructures of the sintered copper nanoink films were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. Additionally, an X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were used to characterize the crystal phase change of the sintered copper nanoparticles. The resulting two-step flash light sintered copper nanoink films exhibited a low resistivity (3.81 μΩ cm, 2.3 times of that of bulk copper) and 5B level of adhesion strength without warping of the polymer substrate.

  19. Photosynthetic efficiency of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii in attenuated, flashing light

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vejrazka, C.; Janssen, M.G.J.; Streefland, M.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2012-01-01

    As a result of mixing and light attenuation, algae in a photobioreactor (PBR) alternate between light and dark zones and, therefore, experience variations in photon flux density (PFD). These variations in PFD are called light/dark (L/D) cycles. The objective of this study was to determine how these

  20. Two-step flash light sintering process for crack-free inkjet-printed Ag films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sung-Hyeon; Kim, Hak-Sung; Jang, Shin; Lee, Dong-Jun; Oh, Jehoon

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a two-step flash light sintering process for inkjet-printed Ag films is investigated with the aim of improving the quality of sintered Ag films. The flash light sintering process is divided into two steps: a preheating step and a main sintering step. The preheating step is used to remove the organic binder without abrupt vaporization. The main sintering step is used to complete the necking connections among the silver nanoparticles and achieve high electrical conductivity. The process minimizes the damage on the polymer substrate and the interface between the sintered Ag film and polymer substrate. The electrical conductivity is calculated by measuring the resistance and cross-sectional area with an LCR meter and 3D optical profiler, respectively. It is found that the resistivity of the optimal flash light-sintered Ag films (36.32 nΩ m), which is 228.86% of that of bulk silver, is lower than that of thermally sintered ones (40.84 nΩ m). Additionally, the polyimide film used as the substrate is preserved with the inkjet-printed pattern shape during the flash light sintering process without delamination or defects. (paper)

  1. Radicals excess in the retina: A model for light flashes in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narici, L.; De Martino, A.; Brunetti, V.; Rinaldi, A.; Sannita, W.G.; Paci, M.

    2009-01-01

    The risk due to cosmic radiation is a major issue in planning future missions to the Moon or Mars and would be critical if inadequately addressed. Functional risks must also be considered. The perception of light flashes reported by astronauts in space, and ascribed mostly to the action of ionizing radiation in the eye (retina), is an evidence for radiation functional interaction. No detailed model of the ion/retina interaction is yet available. Here we present the first model for a generation mechanism compatible with light flashes in space, and the results of in vitro tests supporting it. The model can be a common end point for the interactions between ionizing radiation and visual system in space. It would also support the assessment of functional radiation risks in space.

  2. Development of virtual photobioreactor for microalgae culture considering turbulent flow and flashing light effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Toru; Hirabayashi, Shinichiro [Department of Ocean Technology, Policy, and Environment, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwa-no-ha, Kashiwa 277-8563 (Japan); Yamada, Daiki [Department of Systems Innovation, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8563 (Japan)

    2010-06-15

    A virtual photobioreactor for mass-culturing microalgae was developed. This is a computer model system combining a numerical simulation code for two-phase turbulent flow of bubbles and continuous medium and a photosynthesis model that can express the flashing light effect. The flashing light effect should be considered because turbulent flow in the reactor gives microalgae a chance to come close to the irradiated surface in the opaque medium at irregular frequency and this intermittent illumination enhances photosynthesis of the algae. The two-phase flow model output the time history of light pass along light ray between the irradiated wall surface of the reactor and the individual algal cell, which was passively moved by turbulent flow. When the history of light intensity, which was calculated from that of the light pass and the Beer-Lambert law, experienced by the cell was given, the photosynthesis model output the amount of O{sub 2} emitted from the cell in every small time interval. Finally, the harvest of the alga was estimated from the amount of the O{sub 2}. As a result, the present model system successfully predicted the algal concentration optimal for the largest O{sub 2} emission at the given light intensity and simulated the growth curve of Chaetoceros gracili. (author)

  3. Development of virtual photobioreactor for microalgae culture considering turbulent flow and flashing light effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Toru; Yamada, Daiki; Hirabayashi, Shinichiro

    2010-01-01

    A virtual photobioreactor for mass-culturing microalgae was developed. This is a computer model system combining a numerical simulation code for two-phase turbulent flow of bubbles and continuous medium and a photosynthesis model that can express the flashing light effect. The flashing light effect should be considered because turbulent flow in the reactor gives microalgae a chance to come close to the irradiated surface in the opaque medium at irregular frequency and this intermittent illumination enhances photosynthesis of the algae. The two-phase flow model output the time history of light pass along light ray between the irradiated wall surface of the reactor and the individual algal cell, which was passively moved by turbulent flow. When the history of light intensity, which was calculated from that of the light pass and the Beer-Lambert law, experienced by the cell was given, the photosynthesis model output the amount of O 2 emitted from the cell in every small time interval. Finally, the harvest of the alga was estimated from the amount of the O 2 . As a result, the present model system successfully predicted the algal concentration optimal for the largest O 2 emission at the given light intensity and simulated the growth curve of Chaetoceros gracili.

  4. Flash light sintered copper precursor/nanoparticle pattern with high electrical conductivity and low porosity for printed electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Wan-Ho; Hwang, Hyun-Jun; Kim, Hak-Sung

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the hybrid copper inks with precursor and nanoparticles were fabricated and sintered via flash light irradiation to achieve highly conductive electrode pattern with low porosity. The hybrid copper ink was made of copper nanoparticles and various copper precursors (e.g., copper(II) chloride, copper(II) nitrate trihydrate, copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate and copper(II) trifluoroacetylacetonate). The printed hybrid copper inks were sintered at room temperature and under ambient conditions using an in-house flash light sintering system. The effects of copper precursor weight fraction and the flash light irradiation conditions (light energy and pulse duration) were investigated. Surfaces of the sintered hybrid copper patterns were analyzed using a scanning electron microscope. Also, spectroscopic characterization techniques such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction were used to investigate the crystal phases of the flash light sintered copper precursors. High conductivity hybrid copper patterns (27.3 μΩ cm), which is comparable to the resistivity of bulk copper (1.68 μΩ cm) were obtained through flash light sintering at room temperature and under ambient conditions. - Highlights: • The hybrid copper inks with precursor and nanoparticles were fabricated. • The hybrid copper ink was sintered via flash light irradiation. • The resistivity of sintered hybrid copper ink was 27.3 μΩ cm. • Highly conductive copper film with low porosity could be achieved

  5. Flash light sintered copper precursor/nanoparticle pattern with high electrical conductivity and low porosity for printed electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Wan-Ho; Hwang, Hyun-Jun [Department of Mechanical Convergence Engineering, Hanyang University, 17 Haendang-Dong, Seongdong-Gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hak-Sung, E-mail: kima@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Mechanical Convergence Engineering, Hanyang University, 17 Haendang-Dong, Seongdong-Gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Nano Science and Technology, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-01

    In this work, the hybrid copper inks with precursor and nanoparticles were fabricated and sintered via flash light irradiation to achieve highly conductive electrode pattern with low porosity. The hybrid copper ink was made of copper nanoparticles and various copper precursors (e.g., copper(II) chloride, copper(II) nitrate trihydrate, copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate and copper(II) trifluoroacetylacetonate). The printed hybrid copper inks were sintered at room temperature and under ambient conditions using an in-house flash light sintering system. The effects of copper precursor weight fraction and the flash light irradiation conditions (light energy and pulse duration) were investigated. Surfaces of the sintered hybrid copper patterns were analyzed using a scanning electron microscope. Also, spectroscopic characterization techniques such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction were used to investigate the crystal phases of the flash light sintered copper precursors. High conductivity hybrid copper patterns (27.3 μΩ cm), which is comparable to the resistivity of bulk copper (1.68 μΩ cm) were obtained through flash light sintering at room temperature and under ambient conditions. - Highlights: • The hybrid copper inks with precursor and nanoparticles were fabricated. • The hybrid copper ink was sintered via flash light irradiation. • The resistivity of sintered hybrid copper ink was 27.3 μΩ cm. • Highly conductive copper film with low porosity could be achieved.

  6. The impact of red light running camera flashes on younger and older drivers' attention and oculomotor control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Timothy J; Vitale, Thomas; Boot, Walter R; Charness, Neil

    2015-12-01

    Recent empirical evidence has suggested that the flashes associated with red light running cameras (RLRCs) distract younger drivers, pulling attention away from the roadway and delaying processing of safety-relevant events. Considering the perceptual and attentional declines that occur with age, older drivers may be especially susceptible to the distracting effects of RLRC flashes, particularly in situations in which the flash is more salient (a bright flash at night compared with the day). The current study examined how age and situational factors potentially influence attention capture by RLRC flashes using covert (cuing effects) and overt (eye movement) indices of capture. We manipulated the salience of the flash by varying its luminance and contrast with respect to the background of the driving scene (either day or night scenes). Results of 2 experiments suggest that simulated RLRC flashes capture observers' attention, but, surprisingly, no age differences in capture were observed. However, an analysis examining early and late eye movements revealed that older adults may have been strategically delaying their eye movements in order to avoid capture. Additionally, older adults took longer to disengage attention following capture, suggesting at least 1 age-related disadvantage in capture situations. Findings have theoretical implications for understanding age differences in attention capture, especially with respect to capture in real-world scenes, and inform future work that should examine how the distracting effects of RLRC flashes influence driver behavior. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Photodynamic Therapy for Cancer Cells Using a Flash Wave Light Xenon Lamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Makoto; Kashikura, Kasumi; Yokoi, Satomi; Koiwa, Yumiko; Tokuoka, Yoshikazu; Kawashima, Norimichi

    We determined photodynamic therapy (PDT) efficacy using a flash wave (FW) and a continuous wave (CW) light, of which the fluence rate was 70 W/cm2, for murine thymic lymphoma cells (EL-4) cultivated in vitro. The irradiation frequency and the pulse width of the FW light were in the range of 1-32 Hz and less than one millisecond, respectively. 5-Aminolevulinic acid-induced protoporphyrin IX (ALA-PpIX) was used as a photosensitizer. When EL-4 with ALA administration was irradiated by the light for 4 h (irradiation fluence: 1.0J/cm2), the survival rate of EL-4 by the FW light was lower than that by the CW light, except for the FW light with irradiation frequency of 32 Hz, and decreased gradually with decreasing irradiation frequency. Moreover, the FW light, especially at lower irradiation frequency, was superior to the CW light for the generation of singlet oxygen in an aqueous PpIX solution. Therefore, thehigher PDT efficacy for EL-4 of the FW light would be caused by the greater generation of singlet oxygen in the cells.

  8. A photobioreactor for microalgae cultivation with internal illumination considering flashing light effect and optimized light-source arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Jin-Yang; Sato, Toru

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • This bioreactor for microalgae provides the optimized arrangement of internal LEDs. • Flashing-light effect of the photosynthesis was demonstrated. • A cell density of 67% of that of the ideal condition was measured. • Numerical simulations predict the largest growth rate of 10.18 g/L/day. - Abstract: In this study, a photobioreactor for mass-culturing microalgae was developed. Because of the optimized arrangement of internal light-emitting diode (LED) illumination, a major advantage to this reactor is that the volume of the reactor vessel is not limited. Using Dunaliella tertiolecta as the microalgae, the bioreactor displayed the flashing-light effect of the microalgae photosynthesis process. This phenomenon was achieved using a series of blue and red LEDs set at appropriate positions within the reactor to evenly distribute the light intensity. Our experimental results suggested that the maximum cell density in the culture experiment was 1.88 × 10"3 cells L"−"1, which is approximately 67% of the maximum density under ideal conditions. The harvest yield of the algae was estimated by a numerical model using measured parameters; it was predicted that the bioreactor developed in this study can attain a high growth rate of D. tertiolecta by controlling the distance between LEDs.

  9. A light writable microfluidic "flash memory": optically addressed actuator array with latched operation for microfluidic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Zhishan; Pal, Rohit; Srivannavit, Onnop; Burns, Mark A; Gulari, Erdogan

    2008-03-01

    This paper presents a novel optically addressed microactuator array (microfluidic "flash memory") with latched operation. Analogous to the address-data bus mediated memory address protocol in electronics, the microactuator array consists of individual phase-change based actuators addressed by localized heating through focused light patterns (address bus), which can be provided by a modified projector or high power laser pointer. A common pressure manifold (data bus) for the entire array is used to generate large deflections of the phase change actuators in the molten phase. The use of phase change material as the working media enables latched operation of the actuator array. After the initial light "writing" during which the phase is temporarily changed to molten, the actuated status is self-maintained by the solid phase of the actuator without power and pressure inputs. The microfluidic flash memory can be re-configured by a new light illumination pattern and common pressure signal. The proposed approach can achieve actuation of arbitrary units in a large-scale array without the need for complex external equipment such as solenoid valves and electrical modules, which leads to significantly simplified system implementation and compact system size. The proposed work therefore provides a flexible, energy-efficient, and low cost multiplexing solution for microfluidic applications based on physical displacements. As an example, the use of the latched microactuator array as "normally closed" or "normally open" microvalves is demonstrated. The phase-change wax is fully encapsulated and thus immune from contamination issues in fluidic environments.

  10. Membrane potential and microsecond to millisecond delayed light emission after a single excitation flash in isolated chloroplasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jursinic, P.; Govindjee; Wraight, C.A.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of light-induced and salt-jump induced membrane potential on microsecond and millisecond delayed light emission from chloroplasts, following a single 10 ns flash, have been studied. Microsecond delayed light emission is shown to be independent of the membrane potential contrary to proposals that the activation energy for delayed light emission can be modulated by transmembrane electric fields. This result is discussed in terms of the possible origin of this short-lived emission. Millisecond delayed light after a single excitation flash is enhanced by membrane potential only if a proton gradient is present. By measuring changes in ms delayed light caused by simultaneous injection of KCl and Na-benzoate (which creates a proton gradient) in the presence of valinomycin, the light-induced potential generated across the thylakoid membrane by a single excitation flash was calibrated and found to be 128 +- 10 mV in agreement with the recent measurements of Zickler and Witt, (FEBS Lett. 66, 142-148 (1976)), based on voltage-dependent ionophores. It is concluded that the secondary charges that give rise to ms delayed light, after a single flash, do not fully span the membrane. (author)

  11. Can pneumocephalus present as flashes of light? A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santanu Ghosh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Orbital emphysema and associated pneumocephalus usually result from trauma to orbital bones or due to sinus disease, allowing air to travel from paranasal sinus into orbit and brain. However, it is extremely rare to have orbital emphysema and pneumocephalus in the absence of orbital wall fracture. In our case, a young male was admitted with severe eye pain, diminution of vision due to sudden exposure of compressed air gun. Examination revealed proptosed, emphysematous right eye with conjunctival laceration. Computed tomography scan of the head and orbit revealed multiple radiolucencies with air in the right orbit and brain extending up to the spinal canal without any evidence of orbital sinus or cranial bone fracture. Visual acuity recovered completely on follow–up; however, 2 weeks following injury, the patient developed disabling flashes of light which the patient perceived as central in location and resolved finally over a period of 3 months. Flashes of light, in our case, could be attributable to unnoticed damage to cerebral vasculature or connective tissue surrounding the optic nerve due to pneumocephalus.

  12. Kinetics of oxygen consumption after a single flash of light in photoreceptors of the drone (Apis mellifera)

    OpenAIRE

    1982-01-01

    The time course of the rate of oxygen consumption (QO2) after a single flash of light has been measured in 300-micrometers slices of drone retina at 22 degrees C. To measure delta QO2(t), the change in QO2 from its level in darkness, the transients of the partial pressure of O2 (PO2) were recorded with O2 microelectrodes simultaneously in two sites in the slice and delta QO2 was calculated by a computer using Fourier transforms. After a 40-ms flash of intense light, delta QO2, reached a peak ...

  13. AMBER User's Manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vay, J.L.; Fawley, W.

    2000-01-01

    AMBER is a Particle-In-Cell (PIC) code which models the evolution of a representative slice of a relativistic electron beam in a linear accelerator. The beam is modeled as a steady flow and therefore no electromagnetic waves: all the fields (external and self-fields) are electrostatic and magnetostatic fields (for a complete description, see chapter 5). The possible elements describing the accelerator lattice are solenoids, accelerating gaps, pipes and apertures. Several kinds of beam distribution can be loaded: KV, gaussian, semi-gaussian, etc. Alternatively, the user can reconstruct (or load) a distribution from the output of another codefile, for example, an interface generating the beam distribution from output produced from EGUN or LSP codes is available as an option. This documentation first describes in detail the input files needed to run AMBER and the procedure to start the executable. The possible data files and graphical output are explained in the two following chapters. The last chapter describes the physics model and numerical techniques used. An example of input files and the result obtained with these inputs are also given in the Appendix

  14. Comparison of the light flash phenomena observed in space and in laboratory experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNulty, P.J.; Pease, V.P.; Bond, V.P.

    1976-01-01

    Astronauts on Apollo and Skylab missions have reported observing a variety of visual phenomena when their eyes were closed and adapted to darkness. These observations were studied under controlled conditions during a number of sessions on board Apollo and Skylab spacecraft and the data available to date on these so-called light flashes is in the form of descriptions of the phenomena and frequency of occurrence. Similar visual phenomena have been demonstrated in a number of laboratories by exposing the eyes of human subjects to beams of neutrons, alphas, pions, and protons. More than one physical mechanism is involved in the laboratory and space phenomena. No direct comparison of the laboratory and space observations has been made by observers who have experienced both. However, the range of visual phenomena observed in the laboratory is consistent with the Apollo and Skylab observations. Measured detection efficiencies can be used to estimate the frequencies with which various phenomena would be observed if the subject was exposed to cosmic rays in space

  15. Heavy ions light flashes and brain functions: recent observations at accelerators and in spaceflight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narici, L [Department of Physics, University of Rome Tor Vergata, and INFN Roma Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Rome (Italy)], E-mail: livio.narici@roma2.infn.it

    2008-07-15

    Interactions between ionizing radiation in space and brain functions, and the related risk assessments, are among the major concerns when programming long permanence in space, especially when outside the protective shield of the Earth's magnetosphere. The light flashes (LF) observed by astronauts in space, mostly when dark adapted, are an example of these interactions; investigations in space and on the ground showed that these effects can originate with the action of ionizing radiation in the eye. Recent findings from ALTEA, an interdisciplinary and multiapproach program devoted to the study of different aspects of the radiation-brain functions interaction, are presented in this paper. These include: (i) study of radiation passing through the astronauts' eyes in the International Space Station ({approx}20 ions min{sup -1}, excluding H and fast and very slow He), measured in conjunction with reporting of the perception of LF; (ii) preliminary electrophysiological evidence of these events in astronauts and in patients during heavy ion therapy; and (iii) in vitro results showing the radiation driven activation of rhodopsin at the start of the phototransduction cascade in the process of vision. These results are in agreement with our previous work on mice. A brief but complete summary of the earlier works is also reported to permit a discussion of the results.

  16. Heavy ions light flashes and brain functions: recent observations at accelerators and in spaceflight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narici, L

    2008-01-01

    Interactions between ionizing radiation in space and brain functions, and the related risk assessments, are among the major concerns when programming long permanence in space, especially when outside the protective shield of the Earth's magnetosphere. The light flashes (LF) observed by astronauts in space, mostly when dark adapted, are an example of these interactions; investigations in space and on the ground showed that these effects can originate with the action of ionizing radiation in the eye. Recent findings from ALTEA, an interdisciplinary and multiapproach program devoted to the study of different aspects of the radiation-brain functions interaction, are presented in this paper. These include: (i) study of radiation passing through the astronauts' eyes in the International Space Station (∼20 ions min -1 , excluding H and fast and very slow He), measured in conjunction with reporting of the perception of LF; (ii) preliminary electrophysiological evidence of these events in astronauts and in patients during heavy ion therapy; and (iii) in vitro results showing the radiation driven activation of rhodopsin at the start of the phototransduction cascade in the process of vision. These results are in agreement with our previous work on mice. A brief but complete summary of the earlier works is also reported to permit a discussion of the results

  17. Strain-compensated (Ga,In)N/(Al,Ga)N/GaN multiple quantum wells for improved yellow/amber light emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lekhal, K.; Damilano, B., E-mail: bd@crhea.cnrs.fr; De Mierry, P.; Vennéguès, P. [CRHEA-CNRS, Centre de Recherche sur l' Hétéro-Epitaxie et ses Applications, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Valbonne 06560 (France); Ngo, H. T.; Rosales, D.; Gil, B. [Laboratoire Charles Coulomb, CNRS-INP-UMR 5221, Université Montpellier 2, F-34095 Montpellier (France); Hussain, S. [CRHEA-CNRS, Centre de Recherche sur l' Hétéro-Epitaxie et ses Applications, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Valbonne 06560 (France); Université de Nice Sophia Antipolis, Parc Valrose, 28 av. Valrose, 06108 Nice cedex 2 (France)

    2015-04-06

    Yellow/amber (570–600 nm) emitting In{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N/Al{sub y}Ga{sub 1−y}N/GaN multiple quantum wells (QWs) have been grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition on GaN-on- sapphire templates. When the (Al,Ga)N thickness of the barrier increases, the room temperature photoluminescence is red-shifted while its yield increases. This is attributed to an increase of the QW internal electric field and an improvement of the material quality due to the compensation of the compressive strain of the In{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N QWs by the Al{sub y}Ga{sub 1−y}N layers, respectively.

  18. Afterglow Observations Shed New Light on the Nature of X-ray Flashes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granot, J

    2005-02-17

    X-ray flashes (XRFs) and X-ray rich gamma-ray bursts (XRGRBs) share many observational characteristics with long duration ({approx}> 2 s) GRBs, but the reason for which the spectral energy distribution of their prompt emission peaks at lower photon energies, E{sub p}, is still a subject of debate. Although many different models have been invoked in order to explain the lower values of E{sub p}, their implications for the afterglow emission were not considered in most cases, mainly because observations of XRF afterglows have become available only recently. Here we examine the predictions of the various XRF models for the afterglow emission, and test them against the observations of XRF 030723 and XRGRB 041006, the events with the best monitored afterglow light curves in their respective class. We show that most existing XRF models are hard to reconcile with the observed afterglow light curves, which are very flat at early times. Such light curves are, however, naturally produced by a roughly uniform jet with relatively sharp edges that is viewed off-axis (i.e. from outside of the jet aperture). This type of model self consistently accommodates both the observed prompt emission and the afterglow light curves of XRGRB 041006 and XRF 030723, implying viewing angles {theta}{sub obs} from the jet axis of ({theta}{sub obs}-{theta}{sub 0}) {approx} 0.15 {theta}{sub 0} and ({theta}{sub obs}-{theta}{sub 0}) {approx} {theta}{sub 0}, respectively, where {theta}{sub 0} {approx} 3{sup o} is the half-opening angle of the jet. This suggests that GRBs, XRGRBs and XRFs are intrinsically similar relativistic jets viewed from different angles. It is then natural to identify GRBs with {gamma}({theta}{sub obs} - {theta}{sub 0}) {approx}< 1, XRGRBs with 1 {approx}< ({theta}{sub obs} - {theta}{sub 0}) {approx}< a few, and XRFs with {gamma}({theta}{sub obs} - {theta}{sub 0}) {approx}> a few, where {gamma} is the Lorentz factor of the outflow near the edge of the jet from which most of the

  19. Further AMBER and Ecolego Intercomparisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maul, Philip; Robinson, Peter; Broed, Robert

    2004-01-01

    The AMBER compartmental modelling software is used by Quintessa in undertaking Performance Assessment (PA) calculations for SKI. SSI and NRPA are supporting the development of Ecolego which is based on the Matlab/Simulink general purpose modelling software for undertaking PA calculations. Intercomparison calculations using AMBER and Ecolego have been undertaken based on calculation cases considered in SKB's SR97 assessment. The reasons for undertaking such intercomparisons included: 1. to give confidence in the use of AMBER and Ecolego for whole system PA calculations for a deep repository; and 2. to provide SKI and SSI with an understanding of some of the technical issues raised by seeking to repeat the SR97 calculations with different models and software. Conclusions drawn from these intercomparisons included: 1. Both modelling packages successfully reproduced SKB's SR97 calculations for the near field, geosphere and biosphere. 2. AMBER and Ecolego calculations were typically in agreement to within one significant figure, but in several instances the SR97 documentation was not sufficiently clear to enable the implementation of the models in AMBER and Ecolego to be unambiguous. In order to gain more information on the comparisons between the two codes, additional intercomparisons have been undertaken using input data from the Vault Safety Case originally undertaken as part of an IAEA research project (ISAM). The comparisons between the AMBER and Ecolego calculations for the ISAM vault safety case have shown excellent agreement. Calculations at specified times generally agree to around three significant figures, and calculations of peak radionuclide fluxes and concentrations agree to two significant figures. This agreement is particularly good given the large number of model compartments and the inclusion of decay changes of up to six members. The most important situation where agreement may not be as good as that generally found is where radionuclides have been

  20. Flash Light Millisecond Self-Assembly of High χ Block Copolymers for Wafer-Scale Sub-10 nm Nanopatterning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hyeong Min; Park, Dae Yong; Jeong, Seong-Jun; Lee, Gil Yong; Kim, Ju Young; Mun, Jeong Ho; Cha, Seung Keun; Lim, Joonwon; Kim, Jun Soo; Kim, Kwang Ho; Lee, Keon Jae; Kim, Sang Ouk

    2017-08-01

    One of the fundamental challenges encountered in successful incorporation of directed self-assembly in sub-10 nm scale practical nanolithography is the process compatibility of block copolymers with a high Flory-Huggins interaction parameter (χ). Herein, reliable, fab-compatible, and ultrafast directed self-assembly of high-χ block copolymers is achieved with intense flash light. The instantaneous heating/quenching process over an extremely high temperature (over 600 °C) by flash light irradiation enables large grain growth of sub-10 nm scale self-assembled nanopatterns without thermal degradation or dewetting in a millisecond time scale. A rapid self-assembly mechanism for a highly ordered morphology is identified based on the kinetics and thermodynamics of the block copolymers with strong segregation. Furthermore, this novel self-assembly mechanism is combined with graphoepitaxy to demonstrate the feasibility of ultrafast directed self-assembly of sub-10 nm nanopatterns over a large area. A chemically modified graphene film is used as a flexible and conformal light-absorbing layer. Subsequently, transparent and mechanically flexible nanolithography with a millisecond photothermal process is achieved leading the way for roll-to-roll processability. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Organic geochemistry of Czech amber

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Havelcová, Martina; Sýkorová, Ivana; Mach, K.; Dvořák, Z.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 1 (2015), s. 146 ISSN 1336-7242. [Zjazd chemikov /67./. 07.09.2015-11.09.2015, Horný Smokovec] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-18482S Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : fossil resin * amber * resinite Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry

  2. Game Theory Model of Traffic Participants within Amber Time at Signalized Intersection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Qi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The traffic light scheme is composed of red, green, and amber lights, and it has been defined clearly for the traffic access of red and green lights; however, the definition of that for the amber light is indistinct, which leads to the appearance of uncertainty factors and serious traffic conflicts during the amber light. At present, the traffic administrations are faced with the decision of whether to forbid passing or not during the amber light in the cities of China. On one hand, it will go against the purpose of setting amber lights if forbidding passing; on the other hand, it may lead to a mess of traffic flow running if not. And meanwhile the drivers are faced with the decision of passing the intersection or stopping during the amber light as well. So the decision-making behavior of traffic administrations and drivers can be converted into a double game model. And through quantification of their earnings in different choice conditions, the optimum decision-making plan under specific conditions could be solved via the Nash equilibrium solution concept. Thus the results will provide a basis for the formulation of the traffic management strategy.

  3. Game Theory Model of Traffic Participants within Amber Time at Signalized Intersection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Weiwei; Wen, Huiying; Fu, Chuanyun; Song, Mo

    2014-01-01

    The traffic light scheme is composed of red, green, and amber lights, and it has been defined clearly for the traffic access of red and green lights; however, the definition of that for the amber light is indistinct, which leads to the appearance of uncertainty factors and serious traffic conflicts during the amber light. At present, the traffic administrations are faced with the decision of whether to forbid passing or not during the amber light in the cities of China. On one hand, it will go against the purpose of setting amber lights if forbidding passing; on the other hand, it may lead to a mess of traffic flow running if not. And meanwhile the drivers are faced with the decision of passing the intersection or stopping during the amber light as well. So the decision-making behavior of traffic administrations and drivers can be converted into a double game model. And through quantification of their earnings in different choice conditions, the optimum decision-making plan under specific conditions could be solved via the Nash equilibrium solution concept. Thus the results will provide a basis for the formulation of the traffic management strategy. PMID:25580108

  4. All-photonic drying and sintering process via flash white light combined with deep-UV and near-infrared irradiation for highly conductive copper nano-ink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Hyun-Jun; Oh, Kyung-Hwan; Kim, Hak-Sung

    2016-01-01

    We developed an ultra-high speed photonic sintering method involving flash white light (FWL) combined with near infrared (NIR) and deep UV light irradiation to produce highly conductive copper nano-ink film. Flash white light irradiation energy and the power of NIR/deep UV were optimized to obtain high conductivity Cu films. Several microscopic and spectroscopic characterization techniques such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), a x-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy were employed to characterize the Cu nano-films. Optimally sintered Cu nano-ink films produced using a deep UV-assisted flash white light sintering technique had the lowest resistivity (7.62 μΩ·cm), which was only 4.5-fold higher than that of bulk Cu film (1.68 μΩ•cm). PMID:26806215

  5. Hot Flashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hot flashes Overview Hot flashes are sudden feelings of warmth, which are usually most intense over the face, neck and chest. Your skin might redden, as if you're blushing. Hot flashes can also cause sweating, and if you ...

  6. Interactions of numerical and temporal stimulus characteristics on the control of response location by brief flashes of light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetterman, J Gregor; Killeen, P Richard

    2011-09-01

    Pigeons pecked on three keys, responses to one of which could be reinforced after 3 flashes of the houselight, to a second key after 6, and to a third key after 12. The flashes were arranged according to variable-interval schedules. Response allocation among the keys was a function of the number of flashes. When flashes were omitted, transitions occurred very late. Increasing flash duration produced a leftward shift in the transitions along a number axis. Increasing reinforcement probability produced a leftward shift, and decreasing reinforcement probability produced a rightward shift. Intermixing different flash rates within sessions separated allocations: Faster flash rates shifted the functions sooner in real time, but later in terms of flash count, and conversely for slower flash rates. A model of control by fading memories of number and time was proposed.

  7. A dual-mode mobile phone microscope using the onboard camera flash and ambient light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, A; Wilson, E R; Thompson, J G; Gibson, B C

    2018-02-19

    Mobile phone microscopes are a natural platform for point-of-care imaging, but current solutions require an externally powered illumination source, thereby adding bulk and cost. We present a mobile phone microscope that uses the internal flash or sunlight as the illumination source, thereby reducing complexity whilst maintaining functionality and performance. The microscope is capable of both brightfield and darkfield imaging modes, enabling microscopic visualisation of samples ranging from plant to mammalian cells. We describe the microscope design principles, assembly process, and demonstrate its imaging capabilities through the visualisation of unlabelled cell nuclei to observing the motility of cattle sperm and zooplankton.

  8. Effectiveness of an extended period of flashing lights and strategic signage to increase the salience of alcohol-gel dispensers for improving hand hygiene compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidi, Babak; Li, Aimee; Patel, Rakesh; Harmsen, Irene E; Sabri, Elham; Kyeremanteng, Kwadwo; D'Egidio, Gianni

    2016-07-01

    Multiple factors affect compliance with hand hygiene, including conspicuity of alcohol-gel dispensers. Previous studies have shown that flashing lights increase hand hygiene compliance; however, the durability of this effect has not been studied. We affixed flashing lights to hand sanitizer dispensers for a total of 6 weeks. Regression analysis was used to compare compliance rates between the beginning and end of the intervention. Our secondary objective was to determine whether compliance rates in cold weather could be improved by adding a sign separated in time and space from the dispensers. Flashing lights improved hand hygiene compliance from 11.8% to 20.7%, and this effect was unchanged over the 6-week study period. Fully charged lights resulted in a greater compliance increase. A preemptive sign did not have a significant effect on hand hygiene rates nor did absolute temperatures. Flashing lights are a simple, inexpensive way of improving hand hygiene. Brighter lights appear to have a greater effect; however, this must be balanced with annoyance in specific settings. Temperature did not have a significant effect; however, this may be because the relationship does not fit a linear model. Other interventions, such as signs, may need to be tailored specifically to individual hospital environments. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. PS II model based analysis of transient fluorescence yield measured on whole leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana after excitation with light flashes of different energies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyaeva, N E; Schmitt, F-J; Paschenko, V Z; Riznichenko, G Yu; Rubin, A B; Renger, G

    2011-02-01

    Our recently presented PS II model (Belyaeva et al., 2008) was improved in order to permit a consistent simulation of Single Flash Induced Transient Fluorescence Yield (SFITFY) traces that were earlier measured by Steffen et al. (2005) on whole leaves of Arabidopsis (A.) thaliana at four different energies of the actinic flash. As the essential modification, the shape of the actinic flash was explicitly taken into account assuming that an exponentially decaying rate simulates the time dependent excitation of PS II by the 10 ns actinic flash. The maximum amplitude of this excitation exceeds that of the measuring light by 9 orders of magnitude. A very good fit of the SFITFY data was achieved in the time domain from 100 ns to 10s for all actinic flash energies (the maximum energy of 7.5 × 10¹⁶ photons/(cm²flash) is set to 100%, the relative energies of weaker actinic flashes were of ∼8%, 4%, ∼1%). Our model allows the calculation and visualization of the transient PS II redox state populations ranging from the dark adapted state, via excitation energy and electron transfer steps induced by pulse excitation, followed by final relaxation into the stationary state eventually attained under the measuring light. It turned out that the rate constants of electron transfer steps are invariant to intensity of the actinic laser flash. In marked contrast, an increase of the actinic flash energy by more than two orders of magnitude from 5.4×10¹⁴ photons/(cm²flash) to 7.5×10¹⁶ photons/(cm²flash), leads to an increase of the extent of fluorescence quenching due to carotenoid triplet (³Car) formation by a factor of 14 and of the recombination reaction between reduced primary pheophytin (Phe(-)) and P680(+) by a factor of 3 while the heat dissipation in the antenna complex remains virtually constant. The modified PS II model offers new opportunities to compare electron transfer and dissipative parameters for different species (e.g. for the green algae and the

  10. Using the human eye to image space radiation or the history and status of the light flash phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuglesang, C [European Astronaut Centre, ESA, Cologne, Germany and Royal Institute of Technolgy (KTH), Stockholm (Sweden)], E-mail: Christer.fuglesang@esa.int

    2007-10-01

    About 80% of people who travel in space experience sudden phosphenes, commonly called light flashes (LF). Although the detailed physiological process is still not known, the LFs are caused by particles in the cosmic radiation field. Indeed, by counting LFs one can even make a crude image of the radiation environment around the Earth. Studies on the space station Mir with the SilEye experiment correlated LFs with charged particles traversing the eye. It was found that a nucleus in the radiation environment has roughly a 1% probability of causing a light flash, whereas the proton's probability is almost three orders of magnitude less. As a function of linear energy transfer (LET), the probability increased with ionization above 10 keV/{mu}m, reaching about 5% at 50 keV/{mu}m. The investigations are continuing on the International Space Station (ISS) with the Alteino/SileEye-3 detector, which is also a precursor to the large Anomalous Long Term Effects on Astronauts (ALTEA) facility. These detectors are also measuring-imaging-the radiation environment inside the ISS, which will be compared to Geant4 simulations from the DESIRE project. To further the understanding of the LF phenomena, a survey among current NASA and ESA astronauts was recently conducted. The LFs are predominantly noticed before sleep and some respondents even thought it disturbed their sleep. The LFs appear white, have elongated shapes, and most interestingly, often come with a sense of motion. Comparing the shapes quoted from space observations with ground experiments done by researchers in the 1970s, it seems likely that some 5-10% of the LFs in space are due to Cherenkov light in the eye. However, the majority is most likely caused by some direct interaction in the retina.

  11. Evidence for marine microfossils from amber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Vincent; Schmidt, Alexander R; Saint Martin, Simona; Struwe, Steffi; Perrichot, Vincent; Saint Martin, Jean-Paul; Grosheny, Danièle; Breton, Gérard; Néraudeau, Didier

    2008-11-11

    Amber usually contains inclusions of terrestrial and rarely limnetic organisms that were embedded in the places were they lived in the amber forests. Therefore, it has been supposed that amber could not have preserved marine organisms. Here, we report the discovery amber-preserved marine microfossils. Diverse marine diatoms as well as radiolarians, sponge spicules, a foraminifer, and a spine of a larval echinoderm were found in Late Albian and Early Cenomanian amber samples of southwestern France. The highly fossiliferous resin samples solidified approximately 100 million years ago on the floor of coastal mixed forests dominated by conifers. The amber forests of southwestern France grew directly along the coast of the Atlantic Ocean and were influenced by the nearby sea: shells and remnants of marine organisms were probably introduced by wind, spray, or high tide from the beach or the sea onto the resin flows.

  12. Variation in rhodopsin kinase expression alters the dim flash response shut off and the light adaptation in rod photoreceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Keisuke; Young, Joyce E; Kefalov, Vladimir J; Khani, Shahrokh C

    2011-08-29

    Rod photoreceptors are exquisitely sensitive light detectors that function in dim light. The timely inactivation of their light responses is critical for the ability of rods to reliably detect and count photons. A key step in the inactivation of the rod transduction is the phosphorylation of the rod visual pigment, rhodopsin, catalyzed by G-protein-dependent receptor kinase 1 (GRK1). Absence of GRK1 greatly prolongs the photoreceptors' light response and enhances their susceptibility to degeneration. This study examined the light responses from mouse rods expressing various levels of GRK1 to evaluate how their function is modulated by rhodopsin inactivation. Transretinal and single-cell rod electrophysiological recordings were obtained from several strains of mice expressing GRK1 at 0.3- to 3-fold the wild-type levels. The effect of GRK1 expression level on the function of mouse rods was examined in darkness and during background adaptation. Altering the expression of GRK1 from 0.3- to 3-fold that in wild-type rods had little effect on the single photon response amplitude. Notably, increasing the expression level of GRK1 accelerated the dim flash response shut off but had no effect on the saturated response shut off. Additionally, GRK1 excess abolished the acceleration of saturated responses shut off during light adaptation. These results demonstrate that rhodopsin inactivation can modulate the kinetics of recovery from dim light stimulation. More importantly, the ratio of rhodopsin kinase to its modulator recoverin appears critical for the proper adaptation of rods and the acceleration of their response shut off in background light.

  13. Photosynthetic efficiency and oxygen evolution of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii under continuous and flashing light.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vejrazka, C.; Janssen, M.; Benvenuti, G.; Streefland, M.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2013-01-01

    As a result of mixing and light attenuation in a photobioreactor (PBR), microalgae experience light/dark (L/D) cycles that can enhance PBR efficiency. One parameter which characterizes L/D cycles is the duty cycle; it determines the time fraction algae spend in the light. The objective of this study

  14. Role of quantum-confined stark effect on bias dependent photoluminescence of N-polar GaN/InGaN multi-quantum disk amber light emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangi, Malleswararao; Mishra, Pawan; Janjua, Bilal; Prabaswara, Aditya; Zhao, Chao; Priante, Davide; Min, Jung-Wook; Ng, Tien Khee; Ooi, Boon S.

    2018-03-01

    We study the impact of quantum-confined stark effect (QCSE) on bias dependent micro-photoluminescence emission of the quantum disk (Q-disk) based nanowires light emitting diodes (NWs-LED) exhibiting the amber colored emission. The NWs are found to be nitrogen polar (N-polar) verified using KOH wet chemical etching and valence band spectrum analysis of high-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The crystal structure and quality of the NWs were investigated by high-angle annular dark field - scanning transmission electron microscopy. The LEDs were fabricated to acquire the bias dependent micro-photoluminescence spectra. We observe a redshift and a blueshift of the μPL peak in the forward and reverse bias conditions, respectively, with reference to zero bias, which is in contrast to the metal-polar InGaN well-based LEDs in the literature. Such opposite shifts of μPL peak emission observed for N-polar NWs-LEDs, in our study, are due to the change in the direction of the internal piezoelectric field. The quenching of PL intensity, under the reverse bias conditions, is ascribed to the reduction of electron-hole overlap. Furthermore, the blueshift of μPL emission with increasing excitation power reveals the suppression of QCSE resulting from the photo-generated carriers. Thereby, our study confirms the presence of QCSE for NWs-LEDs from both bias and power dependent μPL measurements. Thus, this study serves to understand the QCSE in N-polar InGaN Q-disk NWs-LEDs and other related wide-bandgap nitride nanowires, in general.

  15. Role of quantum-confined stark effect on bias dependent photoluminescence of N-polar GaN/InGaN multi-quantum disk amber light emitting diodes

    KAUST Repository

    Tangi, Malleswararao

    2018-03-09

    We study the impact of quantum-confined stark effect (QCSE) on bias dependent micro-photoluminescence emission of the quantum disk (Q-disk) based nanowires light emitting diodes (NWs-LED) exhibiting the amber colored emission. The NWs are found to be nitrogen polar (N-polar) verified using KOH wet chemical etching and valence band spectrum analysis of high-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The crystal structure and quality of the NWs were investigated by high-angle annular dark field - scanning transmission electron microscopy. The LEDs were fabricated to acquire the bias dependent micro-photoluminescence spectra. We observe a redshift and a blueshift of the μPL peak in the forward and reverse bias conditions, respectively, with reference to zero bias, which is in contrast to the metal-polar InGaN well-based LEDs in the literature. Such opposite shifts of μPL peak emission observed for N-polar NWs-LEDs, in our study, are due to the change in the direction of the internal piezoelectric field. The quenching of PL intensity, under the reverse bias conditions, is ascribed to the reduction of electron-hole overlap. Furthermore, the blueshift of μPL emission with increasing excitation power reveals the suppression of QCSE resulting from the photo-generated carriers. Thereby, our study confirms the presence of QCSE for NWs-LEDs from both bias and power dependent μPL measurements. Thus, this study serves to understand the QCSE in N-polar InGaN Q-disk NWs-LEDs and other related wide-bandgap nitride nanowires, in general.

  16. Potential of the FLASH FEL technology for the construction of a kW-scale light source for the next generation lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneidmiller, E.A.; Vogel, V.F.; Weise, H.; Yurkov, M.V.

    2011-08-15

    The driving engine of the Free Electron Laser in Hamburg (FLASH) is an L-band superconducting accelerator. It is designed to operate in burst mode with 800 microsecond pulse duration at a repetition rate of 10 Hz. The maximum accelerated beam current during the macropulse is 9 mA. Our analysis shows that the FLASH technology has great potential since it is possible to construct a FLASH like free electron laser operating at the wavelength of 13.5 and 6.8 nanometer with an average power up to 2.6 kW. Such a source meets the physical requirements for the light source for the next generation lithography. (orig.)

  17. Visualization of normal pleural sinuses with AMBER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarts, N.J.; Kool, L.J.S.; Oestmann, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that ventral and dorsal pleural sinuses are frequently better appreciated with advanced modulated beam equalization radiography (AMBER) than with standard chest radiography. The visualization of the sinuses with both techniques was compared and their typical configuration studied. Four hundred patients without known chest disease were evaluated. Two groups of 200 patients were studied with either AMBER or standard chest radiography. Visualization was evaluated by three radiologists using a four-point scale. The shape of the sinus was traced if sufficiently visible. A significantly larger segment of the respective sinuses was seen with the AMBER technique. The dorsal sinus was significantly easier to trace than the ventral. Various sinus configurations were noted. AMBER improves the visibility of the pleural sinuses. Knowledge of their normal configuration is the precondition for correctly diagnosing lesions hitherto frequently overlooked

  18. The Amber Industry: Development Сhallenges and Combating Amber Trafficking in the Baltic Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volchetskaya Т. S.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the current state and prospective development of the amber industry in the Baltic Sea region. The authors identify the main obstacles to the industry’s development in Russia — poor pricing mechanisms for raw amber, an imbalance between supply and demand, a slow pace of technological modernisation, and a delayed introduction of new technologies and processing techniques. The authors identify gaps in the regulatory framework and highlight problems of legal regulation and law enforcement as regards the amber industry. Combating illegal amber extraction and trafficking is a pressing problem in the Kaliningrad region (Russia and other Baltic region states. The article explores theoretical aspects of the legislative policy on combating illegal amber extraction and trafficking. The authors focus on the relevant law enforcement practices and hold that administrative sanctions for unauthorised amber extraction and trade are not fully effective in Russia. The authors stress the need for introducing criminal liability for a repeated offence and outline opportunities for using forensic gemological examination of amber and amber products.

  19. Protist-like inclusions in amber, as evidenced by Charentes amber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Vincent; Néraudeau, Didier; Adl, Sina M; Breton, Gérard

    2011-05-01

    The mid-Cretaceous amber of France contains thousands of protist-like inclusions similar in shape to some ciliates, flagellates and amoebae. The sheer abundance of these inclusions and their size variation within a single amber piece are not concordant with true fossil protists. French amber is coniferous in origin, which generally does not preserve well protists without cell walls. Thus, it would be surprising if French Cretaceous amber had preserved millions of protists. Here, we present a survey of the protist-like inclusions from French amber and attempt to elucidate their origins. Diverse Cretaceous ambers (from Spain, Germany and Lebanon), also derived from conifer resins, contain thousands of protist-like inclusions. In contrast, Tertiary ambers and modern resins are poor in protist-like fossils. This suggests these inclusions originated from early Cretaceous plant resins, probably secreted with the resin by trees that did not survive after the Cretaceous (such as the Cheirolepidiaceae). A review of the recent literature on amber microfossils indicates several protist-like inclusions that are unlikely to have a biological origin have already been described as real fossil protists. This is problematic in that it will bias our understanding of protist evolution. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Efficiency enhancement of InGaN amber MQWs using nanopillar structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ou, Yiyu; Iida, Daisuke; Liu, Jin

    2018-01-01

    We have investigated the use of nanopillar structures on high indium content InGaN amber multiple quantum well (MQW) samples to enhance the emission efficiency. A significant emission enhancement was observed which can be attributed to the enhancement of internal quantum efficiency and light extr...

  1. Flash grundkursus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    Flash er et programmeringssprog  og kan som sådant ikke noget i sig selv. Kursets mål er, at give den studerende et grundlæggende kendskab til Flash, så det kan bruges til præsentationer på skærm og til produktion af hjemmesider. På kurset arbejdes der med billede, grafik, lyd, video og interakti...

  2. Electrical wire explosion process of copper/silver hybrid nano-particle ink and its sintering via flash white light to achieve high electrical conductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Wan-Ho; Hwang, Yeon-Taek; Lee, Seung-Hyun; Kim, Hak-Sung

    2016-05-20

    In this work, combined silver/copper nanoparticles were fabricated by the electrical explosion of a metal wire. In this method, a high electrical current passes through the metal wire with a high voltage. Consequently, the metal wire evaporates and metal nanoparticles are formed. The diameters of the silver and copper nanoparticles were controlled by changing the voltage conditions. The fabricated silver and copper nano-inks were printed on a flexible polyimide (PI) substrate and sintered at room temperature via a flash light process, using a xenon lamp and varying the light energy. The microstructures of the sintered silver and copper films were observed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and a transmission electron microscope (TEM). To investigate the crystal phases of the flash-light-sintered silver and copper films, x-ray diffraction (XRD) was performed. The absorption wavelengths of the silver and copper nano-inks were measured using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis). Furthermore, the resistivity of the sintered silver and copper films was measured using the four-point probe method and an alpha step. As a result, the fabricated Cu/Ag film shows a high electrical conductivity (4.06 μΩcm), which is comparable to the resistivity of bulk copper (1.68 μΩcm). In addition, the fabricated Cu/Ag nanoparticle film shows superior oxidation stability compared to the Cu nanoparticle film.

  3. Timing in a FLASH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoek, M.; Cardinali, M.; Corell, O.; Dickescheid, M.; Ferretti B., M. I.; Lauth, W.; Schlimme, B. S.; Sfienti, C.; Thiel, M.

    2017-12-01

    A prototype detector, called FLASH (Fast Light Acquiring Start Hodoscope), was built to provide precise Time-of-Flight (TOF) measurements and reference timestamps for detector setups at external beam lines. Radiator bars, made of synthetic fused silica, were coupled to a fast MCP-PMT with 64 channels and read out with custom electronics using Time-over-Threshold (TOT) for signal characterization. The TRB3 system, a high-precision TDC implemented in an FPGA, was used as data acquisition system. The performance of a system consisting of two FLASH units was investigated at a dedicated test experiment at the Mainz Microtron (MAMI) accelerator using its 855 MeV electron beam. The TOT measurement enabled time walk corrections and an overall TOF resolution of ∼70 ps could be achieved which translates into a resolution of ∼50 ps per FLASH unit. The intrinsic resolution of the frontend electronics including the TDC was measured to be less than 25 ps.

  4. The occurrence of amber and sub-amber (copal) in Costa Rica: the case of San Cristobal de Savegre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarado, Guillermo E.; Brenes, Jorge; Brenes, Jose

    2013-01-01

    In Costa Rica, small fragments of amber are found in the Miocene shallow marine clastic sedimentary rocks, such as Formacion Punta Judas (Middle Miocene), Formacion Santa Teresa (Middle Miocene), and Formacion Curre (Middle-Upper Miocene). Sub-amber or copal is found in relative abundance in certain localities in the residual soils in the mountains near San Cristobal de Savegre (Aguirre, Puntarenas). The copal samples have sub-rounded or pearly (21.3%), tabular or laminar (29.6%) and troncoidal (30.4%) forms, but some are intermediate or indefinite (18.7%). Its color varies between orange / red (57.4%), followed by yellow (31.0%) and less frequently light yellow to whitish (11.6%); some samples have insects incorporated. The age of the copal is in the age range of 1670-1780 A.D., based on a calibrated 14 C dating. Although these samples of copal seem to have no commercial value, they could be used by local artisans. (author) [es

  5. Penis morphology in a Burmese amber harvestman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlop, Jason A.; Selden, Paul A.; Giribet, Gonzalo

    2016-02-01

    A unique specimen of the fossil harvestman Halitherses grimaldii Giribet and Dunlop, 2005 (Arachnida: Opiliones) from the Cretaceous (ca. 99 Ma) Burmese amber of Myanmar reveals a fully extended penis. This is the first record of a male copulatory organ of this nature preserved in amber and is of special importance due to the age of the deposit. The penis has a slender, distally flattened truncus, a spatulate heart-shaped glans and a short distal stylus, twisted at the tip. In living harvestmen, the penis yields crucial characters for their systematics. Male genital morphology in H. grimaldii appears to be unique among the wider Dyspnoi clade to which this fossil belongs. The large eyes in the fossil differ markedly from other members of the subfamily Ortholasmatinae to which H. grimaldii was originally referred. Based on recent data, it has been argued that large eyes may be plesiomorphic for Palpatores (i.e. the suborders Eupnoi and Dyspnoi), potentially rendering this character plesiomorphic for the fossil too. Thus, the unique structure of the penis seen here, and the probable lack of diaphanous teeth, present in all other extant non-acropsopilionid Dyspnoi, suggest that H. grimaldii represents a new, extinct family of large-eyed dyspnoid harvestmen, Halithersidae fam. nov.; a higher taxon in amber diagnosed here on both somatic and genital characters.

  6. parasitised feathered dinosaurs as revealed by Cretaceous amber assemblages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñalver, Enrique; Arillo, Antonio; Delclòs, Xavier; Peris, David; Grimaldi, David A; Anderson, Scott R; Nascimbene, Paul C; Pérez-de la Fuente, Ricardo

    2017-12-12

    Ticks are currently among the most prevalent blood-feeding ectoparasites, but their feeding habits and hosts in deep time have long remained speculative. Here, we report direct and indirect evidence in 99 million-year-old Cretaceous amber showing that hard ticks and ticks of the extinct new family Deinocrotonidae fed on blood from feathered dinosaurs, non-avialan or avialan excluding crown-group birds. A †Cornupalpatum burmanicum hard tick is entangled in a pennaceous feather. Two deinocrotonids described as †Deinocroton draculi gen. et sp. nov. have specialised setae from dermestid beetle larvae (hastisetae) attached to their bodies, likely indicating cohabitation in a feathered dinosaur nest. A third conspecific specimen is blood-engorged, its anatomical features suggesting that deinocrotonids fed rapidly to engorgement and had multiple gonotrophic cycles. These findings provide insight into early tick evolution and ecology, and shed light on poorly known arthropod-vertebrate interactions and potential disease transmission during the Mesozoic.

  7. A syncytium model for the interpretation of the phenomenon of anomalous light flashes occurring in the human eye during space missions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maponi, P.; Ricci, M.; Spataro, B.; Zirilli, F.

    2001-01-01

    A syncytium model to study some electrical properties of the eye is proposed in the attempt to explain the phenomenon of anomalous Light Flashes (LF) perceived by astronauts in orbit. Recent experiments, placed on board the Russian Space Station MIR, have investigated the possible causes and have attempted to explain the physical processes and their relation with cosmic rays. It was discussed a mathematical model of some electrical properties of the eye (i.e. the crystalline lens modelled as spherical syncytium), that is a boundary value problem for a system of two coupled elliptic partial differential equations in two unknowns. It was used a numerical method to compute an approximate solution of this mathematical model and it was shown some numerical results that provide a possible (qualitative) explanation of the observed LF phenomenon

  8. Leucine insertion caused by a yeast amber suppressor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liebman, S W [Univ. of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, NY; Stewart, J W; Parker, J H; Sherman, F

    1977-01-01

    The amber suppressor SUP52 can cause the production of approximately 15 to 20% of the normal amount of iso-l-cytochrome c when coupled to the amber (UAG) mutant cyc1-76. The suppressed iso-l-cytochrome c contains a residue of leucine at the position corresponding to the site of the amber codon. SUP52 also supresses another amber allele cyc1-179, but only with a low efficiency of approximately 2%. It does not appear to act at all on ochre (UAA) mutants. SUP52 was found to be on the left arm of chromosome X closely linked to the centromere.

  9. Kinetics of polymer degradation in solution. 6. Laser flash photolysis and pulse radiolysis studies of polymethylvinylketone in solution using the light scattering detection method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindenau, D; Beavan, S W; Beck, G; Schnabel, W [Hahn-Meitner-Institut fuer Kernforschung Berlin G.m.b.H. (Germany, F.R.)

    1977-01-01

    Polymethylvinylketone (PMVK) was irradiated in solution with 2 ..mu..s pulses of 15 MeV electrons or with 15 ns flashes of 262 nm light. The change of the intensity of the light scattered by the solution (LSI) after the irradiation was measured. For the radiolysis experiments, a main chain scission process tausub(1/2) (decr) approximately 20 ..mu..s) and a subsequent crosslinking process (tausub(1/2) (incr) approximately 0.4 sec) could be discriminated. The LSI change pertaining to the main chain degradation was found to be due to disentanglement diffusion, whereas the LSI change pertaining to the crosslinking process could be correlated to a chemical reaction. The rate constant for combination of lateral macroradicals in acetone solution was estimated as 2 k/sub 2/ - (4.5 +- 1.5)10/sup 6/ M/sup -1/ sec/sup -1/. Stationary irradiation with /sup 60/Co-..gamma..-rays showed that PMVK is predominantly crosslinked to form a macrogel when irradiated in the solid state or in solution at concentrations greater than 100 g/l. At lower concentrations, microgel formation occurred. Photolysis of PMVK in solution yielded only main chain degradation. The LSI change was found to be due to disentanglement diffusion as during radiolysis. It was concluded that the same mechanism for main chain rupture is operative as in radiolysis. Stationary irradiations with uv light (lambda > 260 nm ) resulted in main chain degradation; no indication of crosslinking was obtained.

  10. Efficiency enhancement of InGaN amber MQWs using nanopillar structures

    KAUST Repository

    Ou, Yiyu

    2017-09-09

    We have investigated the use of nanopillar structures on high indium content InGaN amber multiple quantum well (MQW) samples to enhance the emission efficiency. A significant emission enhancement was observed which can be attributed to the enhancement of internal quantum efficiency and light extraction efficiency. The size-dependent strain relaxation effect was characterized by photoluminescence, Raman spectroscopy and time-resolved photoluminescence measurements. In addition, the light extraction efficiency of different MQW samples was studied by finite-different time-domain simulations. Compared to the as-grown sample, the nanopillar amber MQW sample with a diameter of 300 nm has demonstrated an emission enhancement by a factor of 23.8.

  11. Efficiency enhancement of InGaN amber MQWs using nanopillar structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ou Yiyu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the use of nanopillar structures on high indium content InGaN amber multiple quantum well (MQW samples to enhance the emission efficiency. A significant emission enhancement was observed which can be attributed to the enhancement of internal quantum efficiency and light extraction efficiency. The size-dependent strain relaxation effect was characterized by photoluminescence, Raman spectroscopy and time-resolved photoluminescence measurements. In addition, the light extraction efficiency of different MQW samples was studied by finite-different time-domain simulations. Compared to the as-grown sample, the nanopillar amber MQW sample with a diameter of 300 nm has demonstrated an emission enhancement by a factor of 23.8.

  12. Efficiency enhancement of InGaN amber MQWs using nanopillar structures

    KAUST Repository

    Ou, Yiyu; Iida, Daisuke; Liu, Jin; Wu, Kaiyu; Ohkawa, Kazuhiro; Boisen, Anja; Petersen, Paul Michael; Ou, Haiyan

    2017-01-01

    We have investigated the use of nanopillar structures on high indium content InGaN amber multiple quantum well (MQW) samples to enhance the emission efficiency. A significant emission enhancement was observed which can be attributed to the enhancement of internal quantum efficiency and light extraction efficiency. The size-dependent strain relaxation effect was characterized by photoluminescence, Raman spectroscopy and time-resolved photoluminescence measurements. In addition, the light extraction efficiency of different MQW samples was studied by finite-different time-domain simulations. Compared to the as-grown sample, the nanopillar amber MQW sample with a diameter of 300 nm has demonstrated an emission enhancement by a factor of 23.8.

  13. Flash evaporator

    OpenAIRE

    1997-01-01

    A device and method for flash evaporating a reagent includes an evaporation chamber that houses a dome on which evaporation occurs. The dome is solid and of high thermal conductivity and mass, and may be heated to a temperature sufficient to vaporize a specific reagent. The reagent is supplied from an external source to the dome through a nozzle, and may be supplied as a continuous stream, as a shower, and as discrete drops. A carrier gas may be introduced into the evaporation chamber and cre...

  14. AMBER: Uma linguagem para o desenvolvimento de sistemas distribuidos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferreira Pires, Luis; Farines, J-M.; Westphall, C.; Guareis de farias, Cléver

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents the architectural model AMBER for the design of distributed systems developed at the University of Twente. This model allows the specification of distributed systems in terms of structures of functional entities and their corresponding behaviour. AMBER was originally developed to

  15. Lygistorrhinidae (Diptera: Bibionomorpha: Sciaroidea in early Eocene Cambay amber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frauke Stebner

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available One new genus and three new species of Lygistorrhinidae in early Eocene Cambay amber from India are described, which significantly increases our knowledge about this group in the Eocene. Lygistorrhina indica n. sp. is the oldest fossil known from this extant genus. Indorrhina sahnii n. gen. et sp. shows morphological similarities to each of the two extant genera Lygistorrhina and Asiorrhina. Palaeognoriste orientale is the third species known from a group that has only been recorded from Eocene Baltic amber before. The latter finding reveals faunal links between Cambay amber and the probably slightly younger Baltic amber, adding further evidence that faunal exchange between Europe/Asia and India took place before the formation of Cambay amber.

  16. Lygistorrhinidae (Diptera: Bibionomorpha: Sciaroidea) in early Eocene Cambay amber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stebner, Frauke; Singh, Hukam; Rust, Jes; Grimaldi, David A

    2017-01-01

    One new genus and three new species of Lygistorrhinidae in early Eocene Cambay amber from India are described, which significantly increases our knowledge about this group in the Eocene. Lygistorrhina indica n. sp. is the oldest fossil known from this extant genus. Indorrhina sahnii n. gen. et sp. shows morphological similarities to each of the two extant genera Lygistorrhina and Asiorrhina . Palaeognoriste orientale is the third species known from a group that has only been recorded from Eocene Baltic amber before. The latter finding reveals faunal links between Cambay amber and the probably slightly younger Baltic amber, adding further evidence that faunal exchange between Europe/Asia and India took place before the formation of Cambay amber.

  17. Tropical and Holarctic Ants in Late Eocene Ambers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perkovsky E. E.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Based on representative collections, the ratio of tropical and Holarctic ant species in Priabonian (Late Eocene Baltic, Bitterfeld (Saxonian, Danish and Rovno ambers is analyzed for the first time. In surveyed representative collections of Baltic amber, the ratios of Holarctic and tropical ant species are from 1.1 to 1.5; with 10 Holarctic and 9 tropical species (out of 31 in the PIN-964 collection, and 9 and 5 species (out of 29 in the Giecewicz collection; the ratio in the representative collection of Saxonian amber is 0.9, 11 Holarctic species vs. 12 tropical species (out of 55; in the representative collection of Rovno amber it is 0.65, 15 vs. 23 species (out of 79; and in the representative collection of Danish amber it is 0.64, 7 vs. 11 species (out of 36. Hence, in representative collections of Baltic amber, Holarctic species clearly prevail not just in terms of the share of their specimens (by 9.8 to 19.6 times, but also by the number of species. In Bitterfeld amber, Holarctic species are somewhat less numerous than tropical ones, but their specimens are 6 times greater. In representative collections of Rovno and Danish ambers, the number of Holarctic species is 1.5 to 1.7 times smaller than that of tropical species, but the number of their specimens is 4.9 to 6.9 times greater. The numbers of tropical and Holarctic species represented by more than one specimen is similar in Priabonian ambers, 25 versus 22, but Holarctic species include four dominants or subdominants. The abundance of temperate elements in the Priabonian amber ant fauna along with the relatively small number of tropical elements greatly distinguishes it from the Middle European Lutetian ant faunas of Messel and Eckfeld in shale, which do not have temperate elements at all. Formica phaethusa Wheeler, Glaphyromyrmex oligocenicus Wheeler, Plagiolepis squamifera Mayr, Proceratium eocenicum Dlussky, Hypoponera atavia (Mayr, Ponera lobulifera Dlussky, Aphaenogaster mersa

  18. Applications of diamond crystal ATR FTIR spectroscopy to the characterization of ambers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiliano, Michel; Asia, Laurence; Onoratini, Gérard; Mille, Gilbert

    2007-08-01

    Diamond crystal ATR FTIR spectroscopy is a rapid technique with virtually no sample preparation which requires small sample amounts and showed potential in the study of ambers. FTIR spectra of ambers present discriminating patterns and can be used to distinguish amber from immature resins as copal, to determine local or Baltic origin of archaeological ambers and to detect most of the falsifications encountered in the amber commercialisation.

  19. The first fossil cyphophthalmid harvestman from Baltic amber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunlop, Jason A.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The first fossil cyphophthalmid harvestman (Opiliones: Cyphophthalmi from Palaeogene (Eocene Baltic amber is described. This is only the third fossil example of this basal harvestman lineage; the others being from the probably slightly younger Bitterfeld amber and the much older, early Cretaceous, Myanmar (Burmese amber. Although incomplete and lacking most of the appendages, the new Baltic amber fossil can be identified as a female. The somatic characters preserved, especially spiracle morphology and the coxo-genital region, allow it to be assigned with some confidence to the extant genus Siro Latreille, 1796 (Sironidae. This fossil is formally described here as Siro balticus sp. nov. It resembles modern North American Siro species more than modern European ones, and can be distinguished principally on its relatively large size and the outline form of the body.

  20. Analysis and Provenience of Minoan and Mycenaean Amber, I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curt W. Beck

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Spectroscopic analysis of amber artifacts excavated in Greece, chiefly of the Bronze Age, can clarify the geographical origins of the material (chiefly Balkan and add to our understanding of trade routes.

  1. Evidence concerning oxidation as a surface reaction in Baltic amber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shashoua, Yvonne

    2012-01-01

    , obtained from pressed amber powder, were subjected to accelerated thermal ageing. Cross-sections of the pellets were analyzed by infrared micro-spectroscopy, in order to identify and quantify changes in chemical properties. The experimental results showed strong oxidation exclusively at the exterior part...... of cross-sections from samples subjected to long-term thermal ageing, confirming that oxidation of Baltic amber starts from the surface....

  2. DIRCM FLASH Flight Tests

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Molocher, Bernhard; Kaltenecker, Anton; Thum-Jaeger, Andrea; Regensburger, Martin; Formery, Martin

    2005-01-01

    .... FLASH operation is as follows: After handover following an alarm from the missile warning system FLASH enters autonomous passive tracking mode for tracking a missiles and sending a laser beam onto the missile...

  3. Flash Platform Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    than would be performed in software”[108]. Uro Tinic, one of the Flash player’s engineers, further clarifies exactly what Flash player 10 hardware...www.adobe.com/products/flashplayer/features/ (Access date: 28 Sep 2009). [109] Uro , T. What Does GPU Acceleration Mean? (online), http...133] Shorten, A. (2009), Design to Development: Flash Catalyst to Flash Builder, In Proceedings of Adobe Max 2009, Los Angeles, CA. 142 DRDC

  4. Microalgal photosynthesis under flashing light

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vejrazka, C.

    2012-01-01

    Microalgae are promising organisms for a biobased economy as a sustainable source of food, feed and fuel. High-density microalgae production could become cost effective in closed photobioreactors (PBR). Therefore, design and optimization of closed PBRs is a topic of ongoing research in both

  5. Evaluating the use of amber in palaeoatmospheric reconstructions: The carbon-isotope variability of modern and Cretaceous conifer resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Corso, Jacopo; Schmidt, Alexander R.; Seyfullah, Leyla J.; Preto, Nereo; Ragazzi, Eugenio; Jenkyns, Hugh C.; Delclòs, Xavier; Néraudeau, Didier; Roghi, Guido

    2017-02-01

    Stable carbon-isotope geochemistry of fossilized tree resin (amber) potentially could be a very useful tool to infer the composition of past atmospheres. To test the reliability of amber as a proxy for the atmosphere, we studied the variability of modern resin δ13C at both local and global scales. An amber δ13C curve was then built for the Cretaceous, a period of abundant resin production, and interpreted in light of data from modern resins. Our data show that hardening changes the pristine δ13C value by causing a 13C-depletion in solid resin when compared to fresh liquid-viscous resin, probably due to the loss of 13C-enriched volatiles. Modern resin δ13C values vary as a function of physiological and environmental parameters in ways that are similar to those described for leaves and wood. Resin δ13C varies between plant species and localities, within the same tree and between different plant tissues by up to 6‰, and in general increases with increasing altitudes of the plant-growing site. We show that, as is the case with modern resin, Cretaceous amber δ13C has a high variability, generally higher than that of other fossil material. Despite the high natural variability, amber shows a negative 2.5-3‰ δ13C trend from the middle Early Cretaceous to the Maastrichtian that parallels published terrestrial δ13C records. This trend mirrors changes in the atmospheric δ13C calculated from the δ13C and δ18O of benthic foraminiferal tests, although the magnitude of the shift is larger in plant material than in the atmosphere. Increasing mean annual precipitation and pO2 could have enhanced plant carbon-isotope fractionation during the Late Cretaceous, whereas changing pCO2 levels seem to have had no effect on plant carbon-isotope fractionation. The results of this study suggest that amber is a powerful fossil plant material for palaeoenvironmental and palaeoclimatic reconstructions. Improvement of the resolution of the existing data coupled with more detailed

  6. Microbe-like inclusions in tree resins and implications for the fossil record of protists in amber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel, V; Lausmaa, J; Sjövall, P; Ragazzi, E; Seyfullah, L J; Schmidt, A R

    2016-07-01

    During the past two decades, a plethora of fossil micro-organisms have been described from various Triassic to Miocene ambers. However, in addition to entrapped microbes, ambers commonly contain microscopic inclusions that sometimes resemble amoebae, ciliates, microfungi, and unicellular algae in size and shape, but do not provide further diagnostic features thereof. For a better assessment of the actual fossil record of unicellular eukaryotes in amber, we studied equivalent inclusions in modern resin of the Araucariaceae; this conifer family comprises important amber-producers in Earth history. Using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS), we investigated the chemical nature of the inclusion matter and the resin matrix. Whereas the matrix, as expected, showed a more hydrocarbon/aromatic-dominated composition, the inclusions contain abundant salt ions and polar organics. However, the absence of signals characteristic for cellular biomass, namely distinctive proteinaceous amino acids and lipid moieties, indicates that the inclusions do not contain microbial cellular matter but salts and hydrophilic organic substances that probably derived from the plant itself. Rather than representing protists or their remains, these microbe-like inclusions, for which we propose the term 'pseudoinclusions', consist of compounds that are immiscible with the terpenoid resin matrix and were probably secreted in small amounts together with the actual resin by the plant tissue. Consequently, reports of protists from amber that are only based on the similarity of the overall shape and size to extant taxa, but do not provide relevant features at light-microscopical and ultrastructural level, cannot be accepted as unambiguous fossil evidence for these particular groups. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Evaluation of Internet websites about floaters and light flashes in patient education Avaliação da informação dos pacientes sobre miopsias e fotopsias através da Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Lima Barbosa

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Flashes of light and floaters are most commonly caused by posterior vitreous separation but may be associated with sight-threatening disorders. Prevention of severe sequelae requires prompt dilated eye examination. Thus, information dissemination is crucial. This study aimed to evaluate the quality of information about floaters and light flashes available for patients on the Internet. METHODS: Cross-sectional study. In July 2005 we evaluated information available on the Internet regarding floaters and light flashes, using two search engines (MetaCrawler and MSN and three key terms ("floaters", "dark spots eye", and "light flashes eye". The quality of each website was evaluated using a score system. The sites were classified as academic, organizational or commercial. Readability, general quality of the website (based on: ownership, purpose, authorship, author qualification, attribution, interactivity, and currency and quality of the specific content (definition, causes, epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis were analyzed. RESULTS: Of 145 websites evaluated, 49 were included. Four sites (8.2% were academic, 9 (18.4% organizational, and 36 (73.4% commercial. In the majority of the sites (53.0% information was poor and quality was not correlated with website classification. CONCLUSIONS: Information about floaters and light flashes available on the Internet is poor.OBJETIVOS: Fotopsias e miopsias são geralmente causadas pelo descolamento do vítreo posterior, mas podem estar associadas a doenças oculares. A prevenção de seqüelas importantes requer o exame rápido e apropriado do paciente. Portanto, o conhecimento pelo paciente é crucial. Este estudo objetivou avaliar a qualidade da informação sobre miopsias e fotopsias disponíveis para acesso dos pacientes na Internet. MÉTODOS: Estudo de corte transversal. Em julho de 2005, avaliamos as informações disponíveis na Internet sobre miopsias e fotopsias, usando duas

  8. IOT Overview: Calibrations of the VLTI Instruments (MIDI and AMBER)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morel, S.; Rantakyrö, F.; Rivinius, T.; Stefl, S.; Hummel, C.; Brillant, S.; Schöller, M.; Percheron, I.; Wittkowski, M.; Richichi, A.; Ballester, P.

    We present here a short review of the calibration processes that are currently applied to the instruments AMBER and MIDI of the VLTI (Very Large Telescope Interferometer) at Paranal. We first introduce the general principles to calibrate the raw data (the "visibilities") that have been measured by long-baseline optical interferometry. Then, we focus on the specific case of the scientific operation of the VLTI instruments. We explain the criteria that have been used to select calibrator stars for the observations with the VLTI instruments, as well as the routine internal calibration techniques. Among these techniques, the "P2VM" (Pixel-to-Visibility Matrix) in the case of AMBER is explained. Also, the daily monitoring of AMBER and MIDI, that has recently been implemented, is shortly introduced.

  9. A new proposal concerning the botanical origin of Baltic amber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Alexander P; Tappert, Ralf; Muehlenbachs, Karlis; Boudreau, Marc; McKellar, Ryan C; Basinger, James F; Garrett, Amber

    2009-10-07

    Baltic amber constitutes the largest known deposit of fossil plant resin and the richest repository of fossil insects of any age. Despite a remarkable legacy of archaeological, geochemical and palaeobiological investigation, the botanical origin of this exceptional resource remains controversial. Here, we use taxonomically explicit applications of solid-state Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) microspectroscopy, coupled with multivariate clustering and palaeobotanical observations, to propose that conifers of the family Sciadopityaceae, closely allied to the sole extant representative, Sciadopitys verticillata, were involved in the genesis of Baltic amber. The fidelity of FTIR-based chemotaxonomic inferences is upheld by modern-fossil comparisons of resins from additional conifer families and genera (Cupressaceae: Metasequoia; Pinaceae: Pinus and Pseudolarix). Our conclusions challenge hypotheses advocating members of either of the families Araucariaceae or Pinaceae as the primary amber-producing trees and correlate favourably with the progressive demise of subtropical forest biomes from northern Europe as palaeotemperatures cooled following the Eocene climate optimum.

  10. A new soldier beetle from Eocene Baltic amber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Fanti

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The family Cantharidae is a worldwide distributed group of flattened and soft-bodied beetles displaying aposematic colouration. These beetles, commonly known as soldier beetles, have an extensive fossil record dating back to the Lower Cretaceous. The majority of fossil material, referred to Cantharidae, is known from amber inclusions. In this paper we describe and illustrate a new soldier beetle Kuskaella macroptera gen. et sp. nov. from the Baltic amber. It is characterised by pronotum of the male parallel-sided in basal third and abruptly narrowed towards apex, and of the female gradually and steadily narrowing from the basal margin to the apex; globular head; unequal maxillary palpomeres with the last segment elongated-globular and pointed; long elytra slightly surpassing the last abdominal segment. This finding is the first described species of both sexes preserved in a single amber piece.

  11. Two new fossil species of Cryptocephalus Geoffroy (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) from Baltic and Dominican Amber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two new species of Cryptocephalus Geoffroy (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) are described and illustrated from fossil resin: Cryptocephalus groehni sp. nov (Baltic amber) and Cryptocephalus kheelorum sp. nov. (Dominican amber). These are the first described species of Cryptocephalinae from fossil resin. ...

  12. Amber Trust on ostmas Tallinna Külmhoone emafirmat / Liis Kängsepp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kängsepp, Liis, 1981-

    2005-01-01

    Skandinaavia-USA investeerimisfond Amber Trust loodab enne aasta lõppu allkirjastada Tallinna Külmhoone emafirma Kauno Pieno Centras ostulepingu. Diagramm: Tallinna Külmhoone majandusnäitajad. Vt. samas: Amber Trust tahab investeerida üle 2 miljardi krooni; Amber laiendas tegevust Vetteli kaudu Soome

  13. Isolation and genetic analysis of amber uvrA and uvrB mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morimyo, M.; Shimazu, Y.; Ishii, N.

    1976-01-01

    Genetic properties of amber uvrA and uvrB mutants of Escherichia coli K-12 are described. The isolation of three amber uvrA and two amber uvrB mutants indicates that the products of these genes are proteins

  14. NAND flash memory technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Aritome, Seiichi

    2016-01-01

    This book discusses basic and advanced NAND flash memory technologies, including the principle of NAND flash, memory cell technologies, multi-bits cell technologies, scaling challenges of memory cell, reliability, and 3-dimensional cell as the future technology. Chapter 1 describes the background and early history of NAND flash. The basic device structures and operations are described in Chapter 2. Next, the author discusses the memory cell technologies focused on scaling in Chapter 3, and introduces the advanced operations for multi-level cells in Chapter 4. The physical limitations for scaling are examined in Chapter 5, and Chapter 6 describes the reliability of NAND flash memory. Chapter 7 examines 3-dimensional (3D) NAND flash memory cells and discusses the pros and cons in structure, process, operations, scalability, and performance. In Chapter 8, challenges of 3D NAND flash memory are dis ussed. Finally, in Chapter 9, the author summarizes and describes the prospect of technologies and market for the fu...

  15. Small-scale (flash) flood early warning in the light of operational requirements: opportunities and limits with regard to user demands, driving data, and hydrologic modeling techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philipp, Andy; Kerl, Florian; Büttner, Uwe; Metzkes, Christine; Singer, Thomas; Wagner, Michael; Schütze, Niels

    2016-05-01

    In recent years, the Free State of Saxony (Eastern Germany) was repeatedly hit by both extensive riverine flooding, as well as flash flood events, emerging foremost from convective heavy rainfall. Especially after a couple of small-scale, yet disastrous events in 2010, preconditions, drivers, and methods for deriving flash flood related early warning products are investigated. This is to clarify the feasibility and the limits of envisaged early warning procedures for small catchments, hit by flashy heavy rain events. Early warning about potentially flash flood prone situations (i.e., with a suitable lead time with regard to required reaction-time needs of the stakeholders involved in flood risk management) needs to take into account not only hydrological, but also meteorological, as well as communication issues. Therefore, we propose a threefold methodology to identify potential benefits and limitations in a real-world warning/reaction context. First, the user demands (with respect to desired/required warning products, preparation times, etc.) are investigated. Second, focusing on small catchments of some hundred square kilometers, two quantitative precipitation forecasts are verified. Third, considering the user needs, as well as the input parameter uncertainty (i.e., foremost emerging from an uncertain QPF), a feasible, yet robust hydrological modeling approach is proposed on the basis of pilot studies, employing deterministic, data-driven, and simple scoring methods.

  16. A potential amber-emitting KCaVO4:Sm3+ nanophosphor for near-UV LEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Pankaj; Kumar, Vinay

    2018-05-01

    The Sm3+ doped KCaVO4 phosphor powders were synthesized via combustion route. The powder X-ray diffraction (pXRD) analysis established the crystalline structure and phase of the phosphor material. Williamson-Hall technique was employed to approximate the mean grain size and lattice micro-strain. The transmission electron microscope (TEM) studies were carried out to confirm the nano-sized grain formation. On 405 nm excitation, the phosphor gave amber emission which was assigned to 4G5/2 → 6HJ/2 (J = 7/2, 9/2) transitions of the Sm3+ ion. The concentration quenching mechanism was studied and the optimum dopant concentration in the phosphor was obtained as 2.0 mol%. The diffuse reflectance (DR) studies were carried out to obtain optical band gap (Eg) and Urbach energy (Ec) of the KCaVO4 phosphor which were estimated as 3.63 eV and 98.6 meV, respectively. The color coordinates (x = 0.61, y = 0.39) of the nanophosphor signified the amber shade in the color gamut. The high luminescent properties of KCaVO4:Sm3+ phosphor suggests that the material can be explored as a potential phosphor to be profitably excited by near-UV LEDs to bridge the amber gap in light emitting diodes (LEDs) for solid state lighting (SSL) applications.

  17. Pro Android Flash

    CERN Document Server

    Chin, Stephen; Campesato, Oswald

    2011-01-01

    Did you know you can take your Flash skills beyond the browser, allowing you to make apps for Android, iOS and the BlackBerry Tablet OS? Build dynamic apps today starting with the easy-to-use Android smartphones and tablets. Then, take your app to other platforms without writing native code. Pro Android Flash is the definitive guide to building Flash and other rich Internet applications (RIAs) on the Android platform. It covers the most popular RIA frameworks for Android developers - Flash and Flex - and shows how to build rich, immersive user experiences on both Android smartphones and tablet

  18. New fossil ants in French Cretaceous amber (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrichot, Vincent; Nel, André; Néraudeau, Didier; Lacau, Sébastien; Guyot, Thierry

    2008-02-01

    Recent studies on the ant phylogeny are mainly based on the molecular analyses of extant subfamilies and do not include the extinct, only Cretaceous subfamily Sphecomyrminae. However, the latter is of major importance for ant relationships, as it is considered the most basal subfamily. Therefore, each new discovery of a Mesozoic ant is of high interest for improving our understanding of their early history and basal relationships. In this paper, a new sphecomyrmine ant, allied to the Burmese amber genus Haidomyrmex, is described from mid-Cretaceous amber of France as Haidomyrmodes mammuthus gen. and sp. n. The diagnosis of the tribe Haidomyrmecini is emended based on the new type material, which includes a gyne (alate female) and two incomplete workers. The genus Sphecomyrmodes, hitherto known by a single species from Burmese amber, is also reported and a new species described as S. occidentalis sp. n. after two workers remarkably preserved in a single piece of Early Cenomanian French amber. The new fossils provide additional information on early ant diversity and relationships and demonstrate that the monophyly of the Sphecomyrminae, as currently defined, is still weakly supported.

  19. GPU acceleration of Dock6's Amber scoring computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hailong; Zhou, Qiongqiong; Li, Bo; Wang, Yongjian; Luan, Zhongzhi; Qian, Depei; Li, Hanlu

    2010-01-01

    Dressing the problem of virtual screening is a long-term goal in the drug discovery field, which if properly solved, can significantly shorten new drugs' R&D cycle. The scoring functionality that evaluates the fitness of the docking result is one of the major challenges in virtual screening. In general, scoring functionality in docking requires a large amount of floating-point calculations, which usually takes several weeks or even months to be finished. This time-consuming procedure is unacceptable, especially when highly fatal and infectious virus arises such as SARS and H1N1, which forces the scoring task to be done in a limited time. This paper presents how to leverage the computational power of GPU to accelerate Dock6's (http://dock.compbio.ucsf.edu/DOCK_6/) Amber (J. Comput. Chem. 25: 1157-1174, 2004) scoring with NVIDIA CUDA (NVIDIA Corporation Technical Staff, Compute Unified Device Architecture - Programming Guide, NVIDIA Corporation, 2008) (Compute Unified Device Architecture) platform. We also discuss many factors that will greatly influence the performance after porting the Amber scoring to GPU, including thread management, data transfer, and divergence hidden. Our experiments show that the GPU-accelerated Amber scoring achieves a 6.5× speedup with respect to the original version running on AMD dual-core CPU for the same problem size. This acceleration makes the Amber scoring more competitive and efficient for large-scale virtual screening problems.

  20. Flash-Type Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshak, William J.

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the significant progress made in the flash-type discrimination algorithm development. The contents include: 1) Highlights of Progress for GLM-R3 Flash-Type discrimination Algorithm Development; 2) Maximum Group Area (MGA) Data; 3) Retrieval Errors from Simulations; and 4) Preliminary Global-scale Retrieval.

  1. AMBER and Ecolego Intercomparisons using Calculations from SR 97

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maul, Philip; Robinson, Peter; Avila, Rodolfo; Broed, Robert; Pereira, Antonio

    2003-08-01

    The AMBER compartmental modelling software has been used by Quintessa in undertaking Performance Assessment (PA) calculations for SKI for the last four years. In particular, it was used in helping to identify key issues in the safety case for SFR 1. SSI and the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA) are supporting the development of Ecolego which is based on the Matlab/Simulink general purpose modelling software and provides a user-friendly Graphical User Interface which is particularly suitable for undertaking PA calculations. At SKI/SSI expert group meetings in September 2002, Quintessa presented some radionuclide transport calculations for a deep repository for spent fuel using AMBER. Comparisons were presented with calculations undertaken by SKB in their SR 97 study. It was agreed that it would be useful to undertake some intercomparison calculations using AMBER and Ecolego based on calculation cases considered in SR 97. The reasons for undertaking such intercomparisons include: 1. to give confidence in the use of AMBER and Ecolego for whole system PA calculations for a deep repository; and 2. to provide SKI and SSI with an understanding of some of the technical issues raised by seeking to repeat the SR 97 calculations with different models and software. This report documents the intercomparison calculations that have been undertaken. The main conclusions that have been drawn are: 1. Both modelling packages could successfully reproduce SKB's SR 97 calculations for the near field, geosphere and biosphere. 2. The results of the deterministic calculations for the near field and both deterministic and probabilistic calculations for the biosphere, where AMBER and Ecolego used compartment models, were typically in agreement to within one significant figure. The identical results for the calculated equilibrium inventories in Bay sediments illustrate that the calculations by AMBER and Ecolego are essentially the same when the compartment models are identical

  2. Mid-infrared spectroscopy for characterization of Baltic amber (succinite)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner-Wysiecka, Ewa

    2018-05-01

    Natural Baltic amber (succinite) is the most appreciated fossil resin of the rich cultural traditions dating back to prehistoric times. Its unequivocal identification is extremely important in many branches of science and trades including archeology, paleontology, chemistry and finally mineralogical and gemological societies. Current methods of modification of natural succinite are more and more sophisticated making the identification of natural Baltic amber often challenging. In article the systematic analytical approach for identification of natural and modified under different conditions succinite, using mid-infrared spectroscopy (transmission, Drifts and ATR techniques) is presented. The correlation between spectral characteristics and properties of succinite is discussed pointing that the understanding of the nature of changes is the key of identification of this precious material.

  3. Structural changes in amber due to uranium mineralization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Havelcová, M.; Machovič, V.; Mizera, Jiří; Sýkorová, I.; Rene, M.; Borecká, L.; Lapčák, L.; Bičáková, O.; Janeček, O.; Dvořák, Z.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 158, JUL (2016), s. 89-101 ISSN 0265-931X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011019 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : fossil resin * amber * Uranium * radiolytic alteration * micro-FTIR * mapping * SEM/EDX Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.310, year: 2016

  4. Structural changes in amber due to uranium mineralization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Havelcová, Martina; Machovič, Vladimír; Mizera, Jiří; Sýkorová, Ivana; René, Miloš; Borecká, Lenka; Lapčák, L.; Bičáková, Olga; Janeček, O.; Dvořák, Z.

    158-159, JUL (2016), s. 89-101 ISSN 0265-931X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-18482S Grant - others:OPPK(XE) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/21538 Program:OPPK Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : fossil resin * amber * uranium * radiolytic alteration * micro-FTIR * mapping * SEM/EDX Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry Impact factor: 2.310, year: 2016

  5. Webspinners in Early Eocene amber from western India (Insecta, Embiodea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Engel

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The family Scelembiidae (Neoembiodea: Embiomorpha: Archembioidea is recorded from Asia for the first time, based on two individuals preserved in Early Eocene amber from the Cambay Basin, western India. Kumarembia hurleyi Engel & Grimaldi, gen. n. et sp. n., is described, figured, and distinguished from other archembioid genera. The genus shares male genitalic features with scelembiids, otherwise known from South America and Africa.

  6. Diversity of Scydmaeninae (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) in Upper Eocene Rovno amber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jałoszyński, Paweł; Perkovsky, Evgeny

    2016-08-25

    Among nearly 1270 inclusions of Coleoptera found in Upper Eocene Rovno amber, 69 were identified as ant-like stone beetles (Scydmaeninae); 34 were possible to unambiguously determine to the tribal level and were studied in detail. Rovnoleptochromus ableptonoides gen. & sp. n. (Mastigitae: Clidicini), Vertheia quadrisetosa gen. & sp. n. (Cephenniitae: Eutheiini), Cephennomicrus giganteus sp. n. (Cephenniitae: Cephenniini), Glaesoconnus unicus gen. & sp. n. (Scydmaenitae: Glandulariini), Rovnoscydmus frontalis gen. & sp. n. (Scydmaenitae: Glandulariini; type species of Rovnoscydmus), Rovnoscydmus microscopicus sp. n., Euconnus (incertae sedis, near Cladoconnus) palaeogenus sp. n. (Scydmaenitae: Glandulariini), and Stenichnus (s. str.) proavus sp. n. (Scydmaenitae: Glandulariini) are described. Additionally, specimens representing one undescribed species of Vertheia, one of Cephennodes, five of Cephennomicrus, one of Euconnus, one of Microscydmus are recorded, and nine specimens representing an unknown number of species of Rovnoscydmus (and two putative Rovnoscydmus), one Euconnus (and one putative Euconnus), two putative Microscydmus and one putative Scydmoraphes were found in the studied material. The composition of Scydmaeninae fauna in Rovno amber is discussed in the context of ecological preferences and distribution of extant taxa. It is concluded that subtropical and tropical taxa were present in the region where Rovno amber has formed, most notably the second genus and species of the extant tribe Clidicini known from the Eocene of Europe, and six species of the extant genus Cephennomicrus, for the first time found in the fossil record. An annotated catalog of nominal species of Scydmaeninae known in the fossil record is given.

  7. Floods and Flash Flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floods and flash flooding Now is the time to determine your area’s flood risk. If you are not sure whether you ... If you are in a floodplain, consider buying flood insurance. Do not drive around barricades. If your ...

  8. Dose rate influence in the response of the amber 3042 perspex Dosimeter, batch l

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieto Miranda, E. F.; Barrera Gonzalez, G.

    2001-01-01

    The answer of the dosimetry systems is affected by several factors , as the temperature, humidity, light, concentration of oxygen, dose rate, energy spectrum and one can also add the technological conditions of the irradiation process. It should be known as these factors influence in each one of the different dosimetry systems and this way to minimize their effect in the value of the absorbed dose and to obtain exact values . The objective of this paper is to know the influence of the dose rate in the value of the absorbed dose in the Amber 3042 Perspex dosimeters, Batch L, for different measurement wavelengths, as well as, the relation between the post-irradiation time and the induced specific absorbance value in function of the absorbed dose

  9. ASSESMENT OF FACTORS AFFECTING THE PRODUCTIVITY OF AMBER CHARKHA AND ERGONOMIC EVALUATION OF WORKERS

    OpenAIRE

    G. V. THAKRE; S. G. PATIL; D. N. AGRAWAL

    2011-01-01

    Increasing demands of the cotton fabrics, now a day has made it necessary to increase the production of cotton fabrics. To increase the production it is necessary to study the factors affecting the performance of the women workers working on Amber charkha. Most of the Amber charkha in rural areas are hand operated (i.e. they runwith the help of human energy input). There are various medical, technical and environmental factors which affect the productivity of women workers working on Amber ch...

  10. Subfamily Limoniinae Speiser, 1909 (Diptera, Limoniidae) from Baltic amber (Eocene): the genus Helius Lepeletier & Serville, 1828.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kania, Iwona

    2014-06-10

    A revision of the genus Helius Lepeletier & Serville, 1828 (Diptera: Limoniidae) from Baltic amber (Eocene) is presented. Redescriptions of 5 species, Helius formosus Krzemiński, 1993, Helius linus Podenas, 2002, Helius minutus (Loew, 1850), Helius mutus Podenas, 2002, Helius pulcher (Loew, 1850) of this genus from Baltic amber are given and documented by photographs and drawings. Four new species of the genus Helius from Baltic amber are described: Helius gedanicus sp. nov., Helius hoffeinsorum sp. nov., Helius similis sp. nov., Helius fossilis sp. nov. A key to species of Helius from Baltic amber is provided. Patterns morphological evolution and the aspects evolutionary history of Helius are discussed.

  11. Professional Flash Lite Mobile Development

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, J G

    2010-01-01

    Discover how to create Flash Lite mobile apps from the ground up. Adobe Flash is an ideal choice for developing rich interactive content for "Flash-enabled" mobile devices; and with this book, you'll learn how to create unique applications with Flash Lite. Through a series of code samples and extensive example applications, you'll explore the core concepts, key features, and best practices of the Flash Lite player. Coverage reveals various ways to develop Flash mobile content, create applications with a cross-platform programming framework based on the Model, View and Controller conc

  12. Foundation Flash Cartoon Animation

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Tim; Rosson, Allan S

    2008-01-01

    One of Flash s most common uses is still animation for cartoons, games, advertising etc, and this book takes a fresh look at the topic, breaking it down pre-production, production, and post production, and looking at each section in detail, and covering topics such as storyboarding, character libraries and camera mechanics like no Flash book has before. The book is written by members of the Emmy award winning ANIMAX team, who have created work for clients such as Disney, AOL, Fox, WWE, ESPN, and Sesame workshop. This book is an opportunity for them to share their secrets, and is written to sui

  13. Flash x-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Q.; Pellinen, D.

    1976-01-01

    The complementary techniques of flash x-ray radiography (FXR) and flash x-ray diffraction (FXD) provide access to a unique domain in nondestructive materials testing. FXR is useful in studies of macroscopic properties during extremely short time intervals, and FXD, the newer technique, is used in studies of microscopic properties. Although these techniques are similar in many respects, there are some substantial differences. FXD generally requires low-voltage, line-radiation sources and extremely accurate timing; FXR is usually less demanding. Phenomena which can be profitably studied by FXR often can also be studied by FXD to permit a complete materials characterization

  14. Theory of optical flashes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    London, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    The theory of optical flashes created by x- and γ-ray burst heating of stars in binaries is reviewed. Calculations of spectra due to steady-state x-ray reprocessing and estimates of the fundamental time scales for the non-steady case are discussed. The results are applied to the extant optical data from x-ray and γ-ray bursters. Finally, I review predictions of flashes from γ-ray bursters detectable by a state of the art all-sky optical monitor

  15. Blue ghosts: a new method for isolating amber mutants defective in essential genes of Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, S; Brickman, E R; Beckwith, J

    1981-01-01

    We describe a technique which permits an easy screening for amber mutants defective in essential genes of Escherichia coli. Using this approach, we have isolated three amber mutants defective in the rho gene. An extension of the technique allows the detection of ochre mutants and transposon inser...

  16. Learning Flash CS4 Professional

    CERN Document Server

    Shupe, Rich

    2009-01-01

    Learning Flash CS4 Professional offers beginners and intermediate Flash developers a unique introduction to the latest version of Adobe's powerful multimedia application. This easy-to-read book is loaded with full-color examples and hands-on tasks to help you master Flash CS4's new motion editor, integrated 3D system, and character control using the new inverse kinematics bones animation system. No previous Flash experience is necessary.

  17. New and revised maimetshid wasps from Cretaceous ambers (Hymenoptera, Maimetshidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Perrichot

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available New material of the wasp family Maimetshidae (Apocrita is presented from four Cretaceous amber deposits – the Neocomian of Lebanon, the Early Albian of Spain, the latest Albian/earliest Cenomanian of France, and the Campanian of Canada. The new record from Canadian Cretaceous amber extends the temporal and paleogeographical range of the family. New material from France is assignable to Guyotemaimetsha enigmatica Perrichot et al. including the first females for the species, while a series of males and females from Spain are described and figured as Iberomaimetsha Ortega-Blanco, Perrichot, and Engel gen. n., with the two new species Iberomaimetsha rasnitsyni Ortega-Blanco, Perrichot, and Engel sp. n. and I. nihtmara Ortega-Blanco, Delclòs, and Engel sp. n.; a single female from Lebanon is described and figured as Ahiromaimetsha najlae Perrichot, Azar, Nel, and Engel gen. et sp. n., and a single male from Canada is described and figured as Ahstemiam cellula McKellar and Engel gen. et sp. n. The taxa are compared with other maimetshids, a key to genera and species is given, and brief comments made on the family.

  18. A Kepler Workflow Tool for Reproducible AMBER GPU Molecular Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purawat, Shweta; Ieong, Pek U; Malmstrom, Robert D; Chan, Garrett J; Yeung, Alan K; Walker, Ross C; Altintas, Ilkay; Amaro, Rommie E

    2017-06-20

    With the drive toward high throughput molecular dynamics (MD) simulations involving ever-greater numbers of simulation replicates run for longer, biologically relevant timescales (microseconds), the need for improved computational methods that facilitate fully automated MD workflows gains more importance. Here we report the development of an automated workflow tool to perform AMBER GPU MD simulations. Our workflow tool capitalizes on the capabilities of the Kepler platform to deliver a flexible, intuitive, and user-friendly environment and the AMBER GPU code for a robust and high-performance simulation engine. Additionally, the workflow tool reduces user input time by automating repetitive processes and facilitates access to GPU clusters, whose high-performance processing power makes simulations of large numerical scale possible. The presented workflow tool facilitates the management and deployment of large sets of MD simulations on heterogeneous computing resources. The workflow tool also performs systematic analysis on the simulation outputs and enhances simulation reproducibility, execution scalability, and MD method development including benchmarking and validation. Copyright © 2017 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Jaan Toomik Flash Artis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1999-01-01

    1999. a. mai-juuni 'Flash Artis' on ajakirja Eesti korrespondendi Ando Keskküla artikkel Jaan Toomikust. Jaan Toomik on kutsutud esinema Londoni The Photographers' Gallery grupinäitusele, tema videot 'Father and Son' näidatakse Londonis avataval näitusel 'Near and Elsewhere' 11.-24. juunini

  20. Inessa Josing Flash Artis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1999-01-01

    'Flash Art'i' 1998. a. nov.-dets. numbris Rosa Martínezi artiklis suvisest Manifesta II näitusest Luxembourg'is on positiivselt mainitud ka Inessa Josingut. Illustratsiooniks toodud seitsmest fotost ühel on I. Josingu aknakujundus 'What Must I Do to be Saved?'

  1. High Brightness OLED Lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spindler, Jeffrey [OLEDWorks LLC; Kondakova, Marina [OLEDWorks LLC; Boroson, Michael [OLEDWorks LLC; Hamer, John [OLEDWorks LLC

    2016-05-25

    In this work we describe the technology developments behind our current and future generations of high brightness OLED lighting panels. We have developed white and amber OLEDs with excellent performance based on the stacking approach. Current products achieve 40-60 lm/W, while future developments focus on achieving 80 lm/W or higher.

  2. Phototoxic effects of commercial photographic flash lamp on rat eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Makoto; Shinoda, Kei; Ohde, Hisao; Tezuka, Keiji; Hida, Tetsuo

    2006-11-01

    To determine whether exposure of the cornea and retina of rats to flashes from a commercial photographic flash lamp is phototoxic. Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 10, 100, or 1,000 flashes of the OPTICAM 16M photographic flash lamp (Fujikoeki, Japan) placed 0.1, 1, or 3 m from the eyes. Corneal damage was assessed by a fluorescein staining score, and the retinal damage by eletroretinography (ERG) and histology before and 24 h after exposure. Exposure of the eyes to 1,000 flashes at 0.1 m increased the fluorescein staining score significantly (P = 0.009, the Mann-Whitney test). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the cornea showed a detachment of the epithelial cells from the surface after this exposure. The amplitude of the a-wave was decreased significantly by 23.0% (P = 0.026) of the amplitude before the exposure, and the b-wave by 19.7% (P = 0.0478) following 1,000 flashes at 0.1 m but not by the other exposures. TUNEL-positive cells were present in the outer nuclear layer only after the extreme exposure, but no significant decrease in retinal thickness was seen under any condition. The fluorescein staining score and ERGs recovered to control levels within 1 week. Light exposure to a photographic flash lamp does not induce damage to the cornea and retina except when they are exposed to 1,000 flashes at 0.1 m.

  3. EEHG at FLASH and DELTA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molo, Robert; Hoener, Markus; Huck, Holger; Hacker, Kirsten; Khan, Shaukat; Schick, Andreas; Ungelenk, Peter; Zeinalzadeh, Maryam [Center for Synchrotron Radiation (DELTA), TU Dortmund University (Germany); Meulen, Peter van der; Salen, Peter [Stockholm University (Sweden); Angelova Hamberg, Gergana; Ziemann, Volker [Uppsala University (Sweden)

    2013-07-01

    The echo-enabled harmonic generation (EEHG) scheme utilizes two modulators with two magnetic chicanes in order to generate an electron density modulation with high harmonic content. In contrast to free-electron lasers (FEL) based on self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE), the radiation of an EEHG FEL has better longitudinal coherence and is naturally synchronized with an external laser, which is advantageous for pump-probe applications. At the free-electron laser in Hamburg (FLASH), an EEHG experiment is currently under preparation. The short-pulse facility at DELTA (a 1.5-GeV synchrotron light source operated by the TU Dortmund University) based on coherent harmonic generation (CHG) will be upgraded using the EEHG technique in order to reach shorter wavelengths.

  4. Flash-Aware Page Replacement Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangxia Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the limited main memory resource of consumer electronics equipped with NAND flash memory as storage device, an efficient page replacement algorithm called FAPRA is proposed for NAND flash memory in the light of its inherent characteristics. FAPRA introduces an efficient victim page selection scheme taking into account the benefit-to-cost ratio for evicting each victim page candidate and the combined recency and frequency value, as well as the erase count of the block to which each page belongs. Since the dirty victim page often contains clean data that exist in both the main memory and the NAND flash memory based storage device, FAPRA only writes the dirty data within the victim page back to the NAND flash memory based storage device in order to reduce the redundant write operations. We conduct a series of trace-driven simulations and experimental results show that our proposed FAPRA algorithm outperforms the state-of-the-art algorithms in terms of page hit ratio, the number of write operations, runtime, and the degree of wear leveling.

  5. Two- and Three-Component Visible Light Photoinitiating Systems for Radical Polymerization Based on Onium Salts: An Overview of Mechanistic and Laser Flash Photolysis Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María L. Gómez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A review of our work on two- and-three component photoinitiator systems is presented. The emphasis is in on visible light polymerization in aqueous media. The systems discussed comprise a synthetic dye as sensitizer and an onium salt as coinitiator, or a dye-amine-onium salt with the amine as coinitiator and the onium salt as an enhancer of the polymerization efficiency. The effect of the composition of the system on the photopolymerization kinetics was analyzed. To this end, the photophysics and photochemistry of the dye under polymerization conditions was explored by means of stationary and time-resolved spectroscopic methods. Different dyes and onium salts were investigated. The action mechanism of the different photoinitiators systems is discussed.

  6. Physics Flash August 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kippen, Karen Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-25

    Physics Flash is the newsletter for the Physics Division at Los Alamos National Laboratory. This newsletter is for August 2016. The following topics are covered: "Accomplishments in the Trident Laser Facility", "David Meyerhofer elected as chair-elect APS Nominating Committee", "HAWC searches for gamma rays from dark matter", "Proton Radiography Facility commissions electromagnetic magnifier", and "Cosmic ray muon computed tomography of spent nuclear fuel in dry storage casks."

  7. The lightning flash

    CERN Document Server

    Cooray, Vernon

    2014-01-01

    With contributions from today's leading lightning engineers and researchers, this updated 2nd edition of Vernon Cooray's classic text, The Lightning Flash provides the reader with an essential introduction to lightning and its impact on electrical and electronic equipment. Providing the reader with a thorough background into almost every aspect of lightning and its impact on electrical and electronic equipment, this new edition is updated throughout and features eight new chapters that bring the science up to date.

  8. Deconstructing continuous flash suppression

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Eunice; Blake, Randolph

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we asked to what extent the depth of interocular suppression engendered by continuous flash suppression (CFS) varies depending on spatiotemporal properties of the suppressed stimulus and CFS suppressor. An answer to this question could have implications for interpreting the results in which CFS influences the processing of different categories of stimuli to different extents. In a series of experiments, we measured the selectivity and depth of suppression (i.e., elevation in co...

  9. Coherent imaging at FLASH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, H N; Bajt, S; Duesterer, S; Treusch, R; Barty, A; Benner, W H; Bogan, M J; Frank, M; Hau-Riege, S P; Woods, B W; Boutet, S; Cavalleri, A; Hajdu, J; Iwan, B; Seibert, M M; Timneanu, N; Marchesini, S; Sakdinawat, A; Sokolowski-Tinten, K

    2009-01-01

    We have carried out high-resolution single-pulse coherent diffractive imaging at the FLASH free-electron laser. The intense focused FEL pulse gives a high-resolution low-noise coherent diffraction pattern of an object before that object turns into a plasma and explodes. In particular we are developing imaging of biological specimens beyond conventional radiation damage resolution limits, developing imaging of ultrafast processes, and testing methods to characterize and perform single-particle imaging.

  10. Physics Flash December 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kippen, Karen Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). ADEPS Communications

    2016-12-01

    This is the December 2016 issue of Physics Flash, the newsletter of the Physics Division of Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). In this issue, the following topics are covered: Novel liquid helium technique to aid highly sensitive search for a neutron electrical dipole moment; Silverleaf: Prototype Red Sage experiments performed at Q-site; John L. Kline named 2016 APS Fellow; Physics students in the news; First Entropy Engine quantum random number generator hits the market; and celebrating service.

  11. Entrapment bias of arthropods in Miocene amber revealed by trapping experiments in a tropical forest in Chiapas, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solórzano Kraemer, Mónica M; Kraemer, Mónica M Solórzano; Kraemer, Atahualpa S; Stebner, Frauke; Bickel, Daniel J; Rust, Jes

    2015-01-01

    All entomological traps have a capturing bias, and amber, viewed as a trap, is no exception. Thus the fauna trapped in amber does not represent the total existing fauna of the former amber forest, rather the fauna living in and around the resin producing tree. In this paper we compare arthropods from a forest very similar to the reconstruction of the Miocene Mexican amber forest, and determine the bias of different trapping methods, including amber. We also show, using cluster analyses, measurements of the trapped arthropods, and guild distribution, that the amber trap is a complex entomological trap not comparable with a single artificial trap. At the order level, the most similar trap to amber is the sticky trap. However, in the case of Diptera, at the family level, the Malaise trap is also very similar to amber. Amber captured a higher diversity of arthropods than each of the artificial traps, based on our study of Mexican amber from the Middle Miocene, a time of climate optimum, where temperature and humidity were probably higher than in modern Central America. We conclude that the size bias is qualitatively independent of the kind of trap for non-extreme values. We suggest that frequent specimens in amber were not necessarily the most frequent arthropods in the former amber forest. Selected taxa with higher numbers of specimens appear in amber because of their ecology and behavior, usually closely related with a tree-inhabiting life. Finally, changes of diversity from the Middle Miocene to Recent time in Central and South America can be analyzed by comparing the rich amber faunas from Mexico and the Dominican Republic with the fauna trapped using sticky and Malaise traps in Central America.

  12. Flashing inception in flowing liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, O.C. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The inception of net vaporization in flashing flows is examined. It is suggested that the flashing inception can be expressed as two additive effects. One is due to the static decompression which is a function of the spinodal limit and also of the expansion rate. The other effect which is a function of Reynolds number and flashing index, is due to the turbulent fluctuations of the flowing liquid. It is shown that by taking a three standard deviation band on the turbulent velocity fluctuations, an adequate representation of the inverse mass flux effect on flashing inception for existing data is obtained

  13. Experimental analysis of motion artifacts in chest radiographs with the AMBER system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boetticher, H. von; Hofmann, K.; Luska, G.

    1999-01-01

    The prerequisites, mechanisms and principles of motion artifacts in AMBER radiographs were analysed. The experiments were performed using metronomes, a moving conventional mammography phantom, and arrangements of oscillating coil spring, spheroid and grid elements. A diagnostic dosimeter and TLDs, respectively, were used to measure exposure times and doses. The deree of distortion in AMBER radiographs depends on the direction of the object movement relative to the AMBER fan beam in a complex manner. The size of the motion artifacts depends on the local exposure time. The maximum value of this time is 75 ms and thus 1.5 times higher than specified by the manufacturer. To interpret AMBER radiographs possible system specific artifacts have to be considered to avoid misinterpretations of potentially significant details. (orig.) [de

  14. Sn whiskers removed by energy photo flashing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, N.; Yang, M.; Novak, J.; Igor, P.; Osterman, M.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Sn whiskers were sintered by intense light flashing (Photosintering). ► Photosintering can effectively eliminate Sn whiskers. ► Photosintering would not damage electronic devices. ► Photosintering is a very promising approach to improve Sn-based electronic surface termination. - Abstract: Sn whiskers have been known to be the major issue resulting in electronic circuit shorts. In this study, we present a novel energy photo flashing approach (photosintering) to shorten and eliminate Sn whiskers. It has been found that photosintering is very effective to modify and remove Sn whiskers; only a sub-millisecond duration photosintering can amazingly get rid of over 90 vol.% of Sn whiskers. Moreover, this photosintering approach has also been proved to cause no damages to electronic devices, suggesting it is a potentially promising way to improve Sn-based electronic surface termination.

  15. The range of bioinclusions and pseudoinclusions preserved in a new Turonian (~90 ma) amber occurrence from Southern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinney, Annie; Mays, Chris; Stilwell, Jeffrey D; Zelenitsky, Darla K; Therrien, François

    2015-01-01

    A new Turonian amber occurrence, representing the oldest in situ amber locality in Australia and the southern-most locality in Gondwana, has recently been discovered in the Otway Basin of Victoria. The amber was collected from petroleum cores and many pieces contain a range of inclusions that can provide information on the depositional history of the resin. To date, one species of fern spore (Cyathidites minor) and one species of lycophyte spore (Kraeuselisporites sp?) have been conclusively identified in the amber, along with filamentous microorganisms and degraded plant matter. Several samples are also rife with pseudoinclusions as reported recently in other ambers. The abundance of preserved particulate debris and wind dispersed spores suggest that the Otway amber formed subaerially. Furthermore, based on the range of bioinclusions and forms of pseudoinclusions preserved within a single piece of amber, the locus of hardening for individual samples is variably interpreted as occurring in the tree tops, on the tree trunk or on the ground surface. Notably, specific inclusion assemblages are associated with certain colours of amber. By extension, and in accordance with recent studies, amber colour may be indicative of depositional environment. Variation in the environment of solidification may, therefore, be sufficient to account for the broad range of morphological characteristics preserved in a single amber deposit.

  16. Vibrational spectroscopy with chromatographic methods in molecular analyses of Moravian amber samples (Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Havelcová, Martina; Machovič, Vladimír; Linhartová, M.; Lapčák, L.; Přichystal, A.; Dvořák, Z.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 128, SEP (2016), 153-160 ISSN 0026-265X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-18482S Grant - others:OPPK(XE) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/21538 Program:OPPK Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : studlovite * valchovite * amber * fossil resin * Baltic amber Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry Impact factor: 3.034, year: 2016

  17. Implementation of project Safe in Amber. Verification study for SFR 1 SAR-08

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomson, Gavin; Herben, Martin; Lloyd, Pam; Rose, Danny; Smith, Chris; Barraclough, Ian (Enviros Consulting Ltd (GB))

    2008-03-15

    This report documents an exercise in which AMBER has been used to represent the models used in Project SAFE, a safety assessment undertaken on SFR 1. (AMBER is a flexible, graphical-user-interface based tool that allows users to build their own dynamic compartmental models to represent the migration, degradation and fate of contaminants in an environmental system. AMBER allows the user to assess routine, accidental and long-term contaminant release.) AMBER has been used to undertake assessment calculations on all of the disposal system, including all disposal tunnels and the Silo, the geosphere and several biosphere modules. The near-field conceptual models were implemented with minimal changes to the approach undertaken previously in Project SAFE. Model complexity varied significantly between individual disposal facilities increasing significantly from the BLA to the BTF and BMA tunnels and Silo. Radionuclide transport through the fractured granite geosphere was approximated using a compartment model approach in AMBER. Several biosphere models were implemented in AMBER including reasonable biosphere development, which considered the evolution of the Forsmark area from coastal to lacustrine to agricultural environments in response to land uplift. Parameters were sampled from distributions and simulations were run for 1,000 realisations. In undertaking the comparison of AMBER with the various codes and calculation tools used in Project SAFE it was necessary to undertake a detailed analysis of the modelling approach previously adopted, with particular focus given to the near-field models. As a result some discrepancies in the implementation of the models and documentation were noted. The exercise demonstrates that AMBER is fully capable of representing the features of the SFR 1 disposal system in a safety assessment suitable for SAR-08

  18. Implementation of project Safe in Amber. Verification study for SFR 1 SAR-08

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomson, Gavin; Herben, Martin; Lloyd, Pam; Rose, Danny; Smith, Chris; Barra clough, Ian

    2008-03-01

    This report documents an exercise in which AMBER has been used to represent the models used in Project SAFE, a safety assessment undertaken on SFR 1. (AMBER is a flexible, graphical-user-interface based tool that allows users to build their own dynamic compartmental models to represent the migration, degradation and fate of contaminants in an environmental system. AMBER allows the user to assess routine, accidental and long-term contaminant release.) AMBER has been used to undertake assessment calculations on all of the disposal system, including all disposal tunnels and the Silo, the geosphere and several biosphere modules. The near-field conceptual models were implemented with minimal changes to the approach undertaken previously in Project SAFE. Model complexity varied significantly between individual disposal facilities increasing significantly from the BLA to the BTF and BMA tunnels and Silo. Radionuclide transport through the fractured granite geosphere was approximated using a compartment model approach in AMBER. Several biosphere models were implemented in AMBER including reasonable biosphere development, which considered the evolution of the Forsmark area from coastal to lacustrine to agricultural environments in response to land uplift. Parameters were sampled from distributions and simulations were run for 1,000 realisations. In undertaking the comparison of AMBER with the various codes and calculation tools used in Project SAFE it was necessary to undertake a detailed analysis of the modelling approach previously adopted, with particular focus given to the near-field models. As a result some discrepancies in the implementation of the models and documentation were noted. The exercise demonstrates that AMBER is fully capable of representing the features of the SFR 1 disposal system in a safety assessment suitable for SAR-08

  19. Terpenoid Compositions and Botanical Origins of Late Cretaceous and Miocene Amber from China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Gongle; Dutta, Suryendu; Paul, Swagata; Wang, Bo; Jacques, Frédéric M. B.

    2014-01-01

    The terpenoid compositions of the Late Cretaceous Xixia amber from Central China and the middle Miocene Zhangpu amber from Southeast China were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to elucidate their botanical origins. The Xixia amber is characterized by sesquiterpenoids, abietane and phyllocladane type diterpenoids, but lacks phenolic abietanes and labdane derivatives. The molecular compositions indicate that the Xixia amber is most likely contributed by the conifer family Araucariaceae, which is today distributed primarily in the Southern Hemisphere, but widely occurred in the Northern Hemisphere during the Mesozoic according to paleobotanical evidence. The middle Miocene Zhangpu amber is characterized by amyrin and amyrone-based triterpenoids and cadalene-based sesquiterpenoids. It is considered derived from the tropical angiosperm family Dipterocarpaceae based on these compounds and the co-occurring fossil winged fruits of the family in Zhangpu. This provides new evidence for the occurrence of a dipterocarp forest in the middle Miocene of Southeast China. It is the first detailed biomarker study for amber from East Asia. PMID:25354364

  20. Seryl-tRNA Synthetases from Methanogenic Archaea: Suppression of Bacterial Amber Mutation and Heterologous Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drasko Boko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Methanogenic archaea possess unusual seryl-tRNA synthetases (SerRS, evolutionarily distinct from the SerRSs found in other archaea, eucaryotes and bacteria. Our recent X-ray structural analysis of Methanosarcina barkeri SerRS revealed an idiosyncratic N-terminal domain and catalytic zinc ion in the active site. To shed further light on substrate discrimination by methanogenic-type SerRS, we set up to explore in vivo the interaction of methanogenic-type SerRSs with their cognate tRNAs in Escherichia coli or Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The expression of various methanogenic-type SerRSs was toxic for E. coli, resulting in the synthesis of erroneous proteins, as revealed by β-galactosidase stability assay. Although SerRSs from methanogenic archaea recognize tRNAsSer from all three domains of life in vitro, the toxicity presumably precluded the complementation of endogenous SerRS function in both, E. coli and S. cerevisiae. However, despite the observed toxicity, coexpression of methanogenic-type SerRS with its cognate tRNA suppressed bacterial amber mutation.

  1. Flash X-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Eiichi

    2003-01-01

    Generation of quasi-monochromatic X-ray by production of weakly ionized line plasma (flash X-ray), high-speed imaging by the X-ray and high-contrast imaging by the characteristic X-ray absorption are described. The equipment for the X-ray is consisted from the high-voltage power supply and condenser, turbo molecular pump, and plasma X-ray tube. The tube has a long linear anticathode to produce the line plasma and flash X-ray at 20 kA current at maximum. X-ray spectrum is measured by the imaging plate equipped in the computed radiography system after diffracted by a LiF single crystal bender. Cu anticathode generates sharp peaks of K X-ray series. The tissue images are presented for vertebra, rabbit ear and heart, and dog heart by X-ray fluoroscopy with Ce anticathode. Generation of K-orbit characteristic X-ray with extremely low bremsstrahung is to be attempted for medical use. (N.I.)

  2. Evaluation of light-emitting diode beacon light fixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    Rotating beacons containing filament light sources have long been used on highway maintenance trucks : to indicate the presence of the truck to other drivers. Because of advances in light-emitting diode (LED) : technologies, flashing lights containin...

  3. Flash pyrolysis fuel oil: BIO-POK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gust, S [Neste Oy, Porvoo (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Flash pyrolysis oil from Ensyn Tech., Canada and Union Fenosa, Spain was combusted with simple pressure atomisation equipment commonly used with light fuel oils in intermediate size (0.1-1 MW) boilers. With a number of modifications to the combustion system, carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrous oxide (NO{sub x}) could be reduced to acceptable levels: CO < 30 ppm and NO{sub x} < 140 ppm. Particulate emissions which were initially very high (Bacharach 4-5) were reduced (Bach. 2-3) by system changes but are still higher than from light fuel oil (Bach. <1). The modifications to the combustion system were: acid resistant progressive cavity pump, higher oil preheat temperature and higher oil pressure than for light fuel oils, refractory section between burner and boiler warmed up to at least 800 deg C. In addition, it was necessary to store pyrolysis oil samples under inert conditions to prevent oxidation and to rinse nozzles with alcohol after shutdown to prevent coking. The complexity and cost of these system modifications are considered to be too great for current grades of flash pyrolysis oil to be sold as a light fuel oil replacement. Improvements to fuel quality will be necessary. The main improvements are lowering of viscosity and improving of stability

  4. Flash pyrolysis fuel oil: BIO-POK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gust, S. [Neste Oy, Porvoo (Finland)

    1995-12-31

    Flash pyrolysis oil from Ensyn Tech., Canada and Union Fenosa, Spain was combusted with simple pressure atomisation equipment commonly used with light fuel oils in intermediate size (0.1-1 MW) boilers. With a number of modifications to the combustion system, carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrous oxide (NO{sub x}) could be reduced to acceptable levels: CO < 30 ppm and NO{sub x} < 140 ppm. Particulate emissions which were initially very high (Bacharach 4-5) were reduced (Bach. 2-3) by system changes but are still higher than from light fuel oil (Bach. <1). The modifications to the combustion system were: acid resistant progressive cavity pump, higher oil preheat temperature and higher oil pressure than for light fuel oils, refractory section between burner and boiler warmed up to at least 800 deg C. In addition, it was necessary to store pyrolysis oil samples under inert conditions to prevent oxidation and to rinse nozzles with alcohol after shutdown to prevent coking. The complexity and cost of these system modifications are considered to be too great for current grades of flash pyrolysis oil to be sold as a light fuel oil replacement. Improvements to fuel quality will be necessary. The main improvements are lowering of viscosity and improving of stability

  5. Flash photolysis of rhodopsin in the cat retina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ripps, H.; Mehaffey, L.; Siegel, I.M.; Ernst, W.; Kemp, C.M.

    1981-01-01

    The bleaching of rhodopsin by short-duration flashes of a xenon discharge lamp was studied in vivo in the cat retina with the aid of a rapid, spectral-scan fundus reflectometer. Difference spectra recorded over a broad range of intensities showed that the bleaching efficacy of high-intensity flashes was less than that of longer duration, steady lights delivering the same amount of energy. Both the empirical results and those derived from a theoretical analysis of flash photolysis indicate that, under the conditions of these experiments, the upper limit of the flash bleaching of rhodopsin in cat is approximately 90%. Although the fact that a full bleach could not be attained is attributable to photoreversal, i.e., the photic regeneration of rhodopsin from its light-sensitive intermediates, the 90% limit is considerably higher than the 50% (or lower) value obtained under other experimental circumstances. Thus, it appears that the duration (approximately 1 ms) and spectral composition of the flash, coupled with the kinetic parameters of the thermal and photic reactions in the cat retina, reduce the light-induced regeneration of rhodopsin to approximately 10%

  6. Red lights flash in nuclear arms race

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    This article discusses the main objections of South Africa - and other countries - to the Treaty on Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) which was opened for signature in 1968. The Kremlin has recently claimed that South Africa is about to explode a nuclear bomb in spite of the fact that South Africa has been relying on the American Energy and Research Development Agency to honour its contract to provide a few kilograms of enriched uranium to start up Koeberg A and also a little plutonium for the research reactors of Safari 1, which is open to full international scrutiny and safeguards. The article considers the amount of nuclear materials which will have been produced by 1980, and what this could mean in terms of nuclear weapons

  7. Laser-flash calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Y.; Nakamura, J.-I.

    1982-01-01

    The heat capacity of vanadium has been measured by laser-flash calorimetry in the temperature region from 80 to 1000 K. The results are compared with available low- and high-temperature heat capacities, and revised thermodynamic values of vanadium are given. No heat-capacity anomaly has been found in the pure vanadium sample over the temperature range investigated, while a small heat-capacity discontinuity, less than 1.2 J.K -1 .mol -1 , has been observed at 220 to 230 K on the same sample but electropolished before measurement. This anomaly disappeared after annealing at 1000 K in vacuo for 1 h and is attributable to the introduction of a small amount of hydrogen during electropolishing. (author)

  8. High precision timing in a FLASH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoek, Matthias; Cardinali, Matteo; Dickescheid, Michael; Schlimme, Soeren; Sfienti, Concettina; Spruck, Bjoern; Thiel, Michaela [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    A segmented highly precise start counter (FLASH) was designed and constructed at the Institute for Nuclear Physics in Mainz. Besides determining a precise reference time, a Time-of-Flight measurement can be performed with two identical FLASH units. Thus, particle identification can be provided for mixed hadron beam environments. The detector design is based on the detection of Cherenkov light produced in fused silica radiator bars with fast multi-anode MCP-PMTs. The segmentation of the radiator improves the timing resolution while allowing a coarse position resolution along one direction. Both, the arrival time and the Time-over-Threshold are determined by the readout electronics, which enables walk correction of the arrival time. The performance of two FLASH units was investigated in test experiments at the Mainz Microton (MAMI) using an electron beam with an energy of 855 MeV and at CERN's PS T9 beam line with a mixed hadron beam with momenta between 3-8 GeV/c. Effective Time-walk correction methods based on Time-over-Threshold were developed for the data analysis. The achieved Time-Of-Flight resolution after applying all corrections was found to be 70 ps. Furthermore, the PID and position resolution capabilities are discussed in this contribution.

  9. Flash spectroscopy of purple membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, A H; Nagle, J F; Lozier, R H

    1987-04-01

    Flash spectroscopy data were obtained for purple membrane fragments at pH 5, 7, and 9 for seven temperatures from 5 degrees to 35 degrees C, at the magic angle for actinic versus measuring beam polarizations, at fifteen wavelengths from 380 to 700 nm, and for about five decades of time from 1 microsecond to completion of the photocycle. Signal-to-noise ratios are as high as 500. Systematic errors involving beam geometries, light scattering, absorption flattening, photoselection, temperature fluctuations, partial dark adaptation of the sample, unwanted actinic effects, and cooperativity were eliminated, compensated for, or are shown to be irrelevant for the conclusions. Using nonlinear least squares techniques, all data at one temperature and one pH were fitted to sums of exponential decays, which is the form required if the system obeys conventional first-order kinetics. The rate constants obtained have well behaved Arrhenius plots. Analysis of the residual errors of the fitting shows that seven exponentials are required to fit the data to the accuracy of the noise level.

  10. Lighting.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-09-01

    Since lighting accounts for about one-third of the energy used in commercial buildings, there is opportunity to conserve. There are two ways to reduce lighting energy use: modify lighting systems so that they used less electricity and/or reduce the number of hours the lights are used. This booklet presents a number of ways to do both. Topics covered include: reassessing lighting levels, reducing lighting levels, increasing bulb & fixture efficiency, using controls to regulate lighting, and taking advantage of daylight.

  11. Construction of a flash-photolysis apparatus having a short discharge time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devillers, C.

    1964-01-01

    Flash photolysis aims at reaching directly the primary mechanisms resulting from the action of light on an absorbent matter. This makes it necessary to produce a flash as short and as bright as possible. Our main effort was directed towards reducing the duration of the flash by decreasing the self-inductance of the discharge circuit. A description of this circuit and study of the characteristics of the apparatus are followed by a short description of the two analytical methods: flash spectrography and absorption spectrophotometry at a given wave-length. (author) [fr

  12. Flashing oscillation in pool water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takamasa, Tomoji; Kondo, Koichi; Hazuku, Tatsuya

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental study of high-pressure saturated water discharging into the pool water. The purpose of the experiment is to clarify the phenomena that occur in blow-down of high-pressure saturated water from the pressure vessel into the water-filled containment in the case of a wall-crack accident or a LOCA in an advanced reactor. The results revealed that a flashing oscillation (FO) occurs when high-pressure saturated water discharges into the pool water, under specified experimental settings. The range of the flashing oscillates between a point very close to and some distance from the vent hole. The pressures in the vent tube and pool water vary according to the flashing oscillation. The pressure oscillation and frequency of flashing position might be caused by the balancing action between the supply of saturated water, flashing at the control volume and its condensation on the steam-water interface. A linear analysis was conducted using a spherical flashing bubble model. The period of the flashing oscillation in the experiments can be explained by theoretical analysis

  13. Flashing coupled density wave oscillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Shengyao; Wu Xinxin; Zhang Youjie

    1997-07-01

    The experiment was performed on the test loop (HRTL-5), which simulates the geometry and system design of the 5 MW reactor. The phenomenon and mechanism of different kinds of two-phase flow instabilities, namely geyser instability, flashing instability and flashing coupled density wave instability are described. The especially interpreted flashing coupled density wave instability has never been studied well, it is analyzed by using a one-dimensional non-thermo equilibrium two-phase flow drift model computer code. Calculations are in good agreement with the experiment results. (5 refs.,5 figs., 1 tab.)

  14. Evaluating amber force fields using computed NMR chemical shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koes, David R; Vries, John K

    2017-10-01

    NMR chemical shifts can be computed from molecular dynamics (MD) simulations using a template matching approach and a library of conformers containing chemical shifts generated from ab initio quantum calculations. This approach has potential utility for evaluating the force fields that underlie these simulations. Imperfections in force fields generate flawed atomic coordinates. Chemical shifts obtained from flawed coordinates have errors that can be traced back to these imperfections. We use this approach to evaluate a series of AMBER force fields that have been refined over the course of two decades (ff94, ff96, ff99SB, ff14SB, ff14ipq, and ff15ipq). For each force field a series of MD simulations are carried out for eight model proteins. The calculated chemical shifts for the 1 H, 15 N, and 13 C a atoms are compared with experimental values. Initial evaluations are based on root mean squared (RMS) errors at the protein level. These results are further refined based on secondary structure and the types of atoms involved in nonbonded interactions. The best chemical shift for identifying force field differences is the shift associated with peptide protons. Examination of the model proteins on a residue by residue basis reveals that force field performance is highly dependent on residue position. Examination of the time course of nonbonded interactions at these sites provides explanations for chemical shift differences at the atomic coordinate level. Results show that the newer ff14ipq and ff15ipq force fields developed with the implicitly polarized charge method perform better than the older force fields. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Eocene and not Cretaceous origin of spider wasps: Fossil evidence from amber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juanita Rodriguez

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Spider wasps had long been proposed to originate in the mid-Cretaceous based on the Burmese amber fossil Bryopompilus interfector Engel and Grimaldi, 2006. We performed a morphological examination of this fossil and determined it does not belong to Pompilidae or any other described hymenopteran family. Instead, we place it in the new family Bryopompilidae. The oldest verifiable member of the Pompilidae is from Baltic amber, which suggests the family probably originated in the Eocene, not in the mid-Cretaceous as previously proposed. The origin of spider wasps appears to be correlated with an increase in spider familial diversity in the Cenozoic. We also we add two genera to the extinct pompilid fauna: Tainopompilus gen. nov., and Paleogenia gen. nov., and describe three new species of fossil spider wasps: Anoplius planeta sp. nov., from Dominican amber (Burdigalian to Langhian; Paleogenia wahisi sp. nov., from Baltic amber (Lutetian to Priabonian; and Tainopompilus argentum sp. nov, from Dominican amber (Chattian to Langhian.

  16. Improving the Efficiency of Free Energy Calculations in the Amber Molecular Dynamics Package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaus, Joseph W; Pierce, Levi T; Walker, Ross C; McCammont, J Andrew

    2013-09-10

    Alchemical transformations are widely used methods to calculate free energies. Amber has traditionally included support for alchemical transformations as part of the sander molecular dynamics (MD) engine. Here we describe the implementation of a more efficient approach to alchemical transformations in the Amber MD package. Specifically we have implemented this new approach within the more computational efficient and scalable pmemd MD engine that is included with the Amber MD package. The majority of the gain in efficiency comes from the improved design of the calculation, which includes better parallel scaling and reduction in the calculation of redundant terms. This new implementation is able to reproduce results from equivalent simulations run with the existing functionality, but at 2.5 times greater computational efficiency. This new implementation is also able to run softcore simulations at the λ end states making direct calculation of free energies more accurate, compared to the extrapolation required in the existing implementation. The updated alchemical transformation functionality will be included in the next major release of Amber (scheduled for release in Q1 2014) and will be available at http://ambermd.org, under the Amber license.

  17. Lighting

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Lighting Systems Test Facilities aid research that improves the energy efficiency of lighting systems. • Gonio-Photometer: Measures illuminance from each portion of...

  18. Observers can reliably identify illusory flashes in the illusory flash paradigm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erp, J.B.F. van; Philippi, T.G.; Werkhoven, P.

    2013-01-01

    In the illusory flash paradigm, a single flash may be experienced as two flashes when accompanied by two beeps or taps, and two flashes may be experienced as a single flash when accompanied by one beep or tap. The classic paradigm restricts responses to '1' and '2' (2-AFC), ignoring possible

  19. Flashing inception in flowing liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, O.C. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The inception of net vaporization in flashing flows is examined. It is suggested that the flashing inception can be expressed as two additive effects. One is due to the static decompression which is a function of the initial temperature and also the expansion rate. The other effect which is a function of Reynolds number and flashing index, is due to the turbulent fluctuations of the flowing liquid. It is shown that by taking a three standard deviation band on the turbulent velocity fluctuations, an adequate representation of the inverse mass flux effect on flashing inception for existing data is obtained. The turbulence effects are combined with the correlation of Alamgir and Lienhard to provide predictive methods recommended for the case where both static and convective decompression effects exist

  20. Research of coal flash hydropyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Z.; Zhu, H.; Wu, Y.; Tang, L.; Cheng, L.; Xu, Z. [East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai (China)

    2001-02-01

    Using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses the organic sufur of seven different Chinese coals and their semi-cokes from flash hydropyrolysis were studied. The results showed that the organic sulfur in coal was alkyal sulfur and thiophene with the peak of XPS located in 163.1-163.5 eV and 164.1-164.5 eV. The relative thiophene content in coal increased with the coal rank. The type of organic sulfur in semi-coke in flash hydropyrolysis was generally thiophene species; its XPS peak also located in 164.1-164.5 eV, and was in accord with its corresponding coal. Total alkyl sulfur and some thiophene sulfur were removed during the flash hydropyrolysis process. The alkyl sulfur had very high activity in hydrogenation reaction. Flash hydropyrolysis was an important new clean-coal technique and had notable desulfurization effect. 13 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. Light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prescott, N.B.; Kristensen, Helle Halkjær; Wathes, C.M.

    2004-01-01

    This chapter presents the effect of artificial light environments (light levels, colour, photoperiod and flicker) on the welfare of broilers in terms of vision, behaviour, lameness and mortality......This chapter presents the effect of artificial light environments (light levels, colour, photoperiod and flicker) on the welfare of broilers in terms of vision, behaviour, lameness and mortality...

  2. New flash mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sackmann, I.

    1980-01-01

    It was found that even for stars evolved away from the red giant branch, a new mixing of nucleo-synthesis products from the hydrogen-burning shells into surface layers was possible, from the penetration of the contaminated intershell region with the H- and He-ionization convection zones. This is due to the helium shell flash driving an immense expansion of an inner carbon pocket, namely, by a factor of 12,000 in radius, a drop in density of about 10 12 , and a cooling of inner pockets normally near 10 8 K to 23,000 K. The surface would be enriched in carbon ( 12 C), helium ( 4 He), and s-process elements, but not significantly in nitrogen ( 14 N), oxygen ( 16 O), or the isotope 13 C. This new type of mixing might provide the missing clue for FG Sagittae. Such a mixing had been suggested by the observations of FG Sagittae, but had been unexplainable by theory up to now

  3. Deconstructing continuous flash suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Eunice; Blake, Randolph

    2012-03-08

    In this paper, we asked to what extent the depth of interocular suppression engendered by continuous flash suppression (CFS) varies depending on spatiotemporal properties of the suppressed stimulus and CFS suppressor. An answer to this question could have implications for interpreting the results in which CFS influences the processing of different categories of stimuli to different extents. In a series of experiments, we measured the selectivity and depth of suppression (i.e., elevation in contrast detection thresholds) as a function of the visual features of the stimulus being suppressed and the stimulus evoking suppression, namely, the popular "Mondrian" CFS stimulus (N. Tsuchiya & C. Koch, 2005). First, we found that CFS differentially suppresses the spatial components of the suppressed stimulus: Observers' sensitivity for stimuli of relatively low spatial frequency or cardinally oriented features was more strongly impaired in comparison to high spatial frequency or obliquely oriented stimuli. Second, we discovered that this feature-selective bias primarily arises from the spatiotemporal structure of the CFS stimulus, particularly within information residing in the low spatial frequency range and within the smooth rather than abrupt luminance changes over time. These results imply that this CFS stimulus operates by selectively attenuating certain classes of low-level signals while leaving others to be potentially encoded during suppression. These findings underscore the importance of considering the contribution of low-level features in stimulus-driven effects that are reported under CFS.

  4. Influence of land-based Kaliningrad (Primorsky) amber mining on coastal zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krek, Alexander; Ulyanova, Marina; Koschavets, Svetlana

    2018-06-01

    In this paper, we report on the pollution in the coastal zone of the South-Eastern Baltic Sea (Russian coast). It was studied through a range of methods, including analyses potential water quality indicators (WQIs) and potentially harmful elements (PHEs). A contamination factor and modified degree of contamination were used for describing the contamination of the sediments by toxic substances. Special attention was paid to activity of the Kaliningrad Amber Combine (KAC), the biggest world amber mining company, located onshore close to the coastal zone (Kaliningrad Region). The amber extraction contribution to the ecological state of the coastal zone was estimated. Contamination of the quarry by metals (Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Pb, Zn) was comparable with contamination of abrasion bench. The pollution of the western coastal zone of the Sambia Peninsula is caused both by land-based anthropogenic developments (including KAC) and natural processes (coastal abrasion). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Arthropods in modern resins reveal if amber accurately recorded forest arthropod communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solórzano Kraemer, Mónica M; Delclòs, Xavier; Clapham, Matthew E; Arillo, Antonio; Peris, David; Jäger, Peter; Stebner, Frauke; Peñalver, Enrique

    2018-05-07

    Amber is an organic multicompound derivative from the polymerization of resin of diverse higher plants. Compared with other modes of fossil preservation, amber records the anatomy of and ecological interactions between ancient soft-bodied organisms with exceptional fidelity. However, it is currently suggested that ambers do not accurately record the composition of arthropod forest paleocommunities, due to crucial taphonomic biases. We evaluated the effects of taphonomic processes on arthropod entrapment by resin from the plant Hymenaea , one of the most important resin-producing trees and a producer of tropical Cenozoic ambers and Anthropocene (or subfossil) resins. We statistically compared natural entrapment by Hymenaea verrucosa tree resin with the ensemble of arthropods trapped by standardized entomological traps around the same tree species. Our results demonstrate that assemblages in resin are more similar to those from sticky traps than from malaise traps, providing an accurate representation of the arthropod fauna living in or near the resiniferous tree, but not of entire arthropod forest communities. Particularly, arthropod groups such as Lepidoptera, Collembola, and some Diptera are underrepresented in resins. However, resin assemblages differed slightly from sticky traps, perhaps because chemical compounds in the resins attract or repel specific insect groups. Ground-dwelling or flying arthropods that use the tree-trunk habitat for feeding or reproduction are also well represented in the resin assemblages, implying that fossil inclusions in amber can reveal fundamental information about biology of the past. These biases have implications for the paleoecological interpretation of the fossil record, principally of Cenozoic amber with angiosperm origin.

  6. Revival and Identification of Bacterial Spores in 25- to 40-Million-Year-Old Dominican Amber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, Raul J.; Borucki, Monica K.

    1995-05-01

    A bacterial spore was revived, cultured, and identified from the abdominal contents of extinct bees preserved for 25 to 40 million years in buried Dominican amber. Rigorous surface decontamination of the amber and aseptic procedures were used during the recovery of the bacterium. Several lines of evidence indicated that the isolated bacterium was of ancient origin and not an extant contaminant. The characteristic enzymatic, biochemical, and 16S ribosomal DNA profiles indicated that the ancient bacterium is most closely related to extant Bacillus sphaericus.

  7. Honeywell optical investigations on FLASH program

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Rourke, Ken; Peterson, Eric; Yount, Larry

    1995-05-01

    The increasing performance and reduction of life cycle cost requirements placed on commercial and military transport aircraft are resulting in more complex, highly integrated aircraft control and management systems. The use of fiber optic data transmission media can make significant contributions in achieving these performance and cost goals. The Honeywell portion of Task 2A on the Fly-by-Light Advanced System Hardware (FLASH) program is evaluating a Primary Flight Control System (PFCS) using pilot and copilot inputs from Active Hand Controllers (AHC) which are optically linked to the primary flight Control Computers (PFCC). Customer involvement is an important element of the Task 2A activity. Establishing customer requirements and perspectives on productization of systems developed under FLASH are key to future product success. The Honeywell elements of the PFCS demonstrator provide a command path that is optically interfaced from crew inputs to commands of distributed, smart actuation subsystems commands. Optical communication architectures are implemented using several protocols including the new AS-1773A 20 Mbps data bus standard. The interconnecting fiber optic cable plant is provided by our Task 1A teammate McDonnell Douglas Aerospace (West). Fiber optic cable plant fabrication uses processed, tools and materials reflecting necessary advances in manufacturing required to make fly-by-light avionics systems marketable.

  8. Flash photolysis of cutinase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neves Petersen, Teresa; Klitgaard, Søren; Skovsen, Esben

    2009-01-01

    Aromatic amino acids play an important role in ultraviolet (UV)-induced photochemical reactions in proteins. In this work, we aim at gaining insight into the photochemical reactions induced by near-UV light excitation of aromatic residues that lead to breakage of disulfide bridges in our model en...... of the formed species and their lifetimes is important for the understanding of UV-induced reactions in humans that lead to light-induced diseases, e.g., skin cancer and cataract formation.......Aromatic amino acids play an important role in ultraviolet (UV)-induced photochemical reactions in proteins. In this work, we aim at gaining insight into the photochemical reactions induced by near-UV light excitation of aromatic residues that lead to breakage of disulfide bridges in our model...... of RSSR *-. Additional mechanisms that may lead to the near disappearance of Trp(*) are discussed. Our study provides insight into one key UV-light-induced reaction in cutinase, i.e., light-induced disruption of disulphide bridges mediated by the excitation of aromatic residues. Knowledge about the nature...

  9. New predatory cockroaches (Insecta: Blattaria: Manipulatoridae fam.n.) from the Upper Cretaceous Myanmar amber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vršanský, Peter; Bechly, Günter

    2015-04-01

    We describe a new extinct lineage Manipulatoridae (new family) of cockroaches from the Upper Cretaceous (Cenomanian) amber of Myanmar. Manipulator modificaputis gen. et sp. n. is a morphologically unique extinct cockroach that represents the first (of a total of 29 known worldwide) cockroach family reported exclusively from the Myanmar amber. This family represents an early side branch of the stem group of Mantodea (most probably a sister group of Eadiidae within Blattaria/Corydioidea) because it has some synapomorphies with the Mantodea (including the stem group and Eadiidae). This family also retains symplesiomorphies that exclude a position in the crown group, and furthermore has unique autapomorphies that exclude a position as a direct ancestor of Mantodea. The unique adaptations such as strongly elongated extremities and freely movable head on a long neck suggest that these animals were pursuit predators. Five additional specimens (including two immatures) reported from the Myanmar amber suggest that this group was relatively rare but belonged to the indigenous and autochthonous inhabitants of the ancient amber forest of the Myanmar region.

  10. Baltileuctra gen. nov., a new genus of Leuctridae (Insecta: Plecoptera) in Baltic amber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhi-Teng

    2018-04-10

    A new genus and species of the stonefly family Leuctridae, Baltileuctra foraminis gen. et sp. nov., is described and illustrated based on a well-preserved male specimen from the Eocene Baltic amber. The new genus possesses typical characters of Leuctridae but has diagnostic characters of the thoracic sclerites and terminalia. The relationship between the new genus and other leuctrids is briefly discussed.

  11. Principles of arc flash protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirschmann, R. B.

    2003-04-01

    Recent developments in NFPA 70E, the electrical safety standards in the United States and Canada, designed to provide for a safe industrial work environment, are discussed. The emphasis in this instance is on arc explosions. Development of an arc flash protective program is discussed under various major components of an electrical safety program. These are: appropriate qualifications and training for workers, safe work practices, appropriate hazard assessment practices for any task exceeding 50V where there is the potential of an arc flash accident, flash protection equipment commensurate with the hazard associated with the task to be performed, layering in protective clothing over all body surfaces, and strict adherence to rules regarding use of safety garments and equipment.

  12. Flash sintering of ceramic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dancer, C. E. J.

    2016-10-01

    During flash sintering, ceramic materials can sinter to high density in a matter of seconds while subjected to electric field and elevated temperature. This process, which occurs at lower furnace temperatures and in shorter times than both conventional ceramic sintering and field-assisted methods such as spark plasma sintering, has the potential to radically reduce the power consumption required for the densification of ceramic materials. This paper reviews the experimental work on flash sintering methods carried out to date, and compares the properties of the materials obtained to those produced by conventional sintering. The flash sintering process is described for oxides of zirconium, yttrium, aluminium, tin, zinc, and titanium; silicon and boron carbide, zirconium diboride, materials for solid oxide fuel applications, ferroelectric materials, and composite materials. While experimental observations have been made on a wide range of materials, understanding of the underlying mechanisms responsible for the onset and latter stages of flash sintering is still elusive. Elements of the proposed theories to explain the observed behaviour include extensive Joule heating throughout the material causing thermal runaway, arrested by the current limitation in the power supply, and the formation of defect avalanches which rapidly and dramatically increase the sample conductivity. Undoubtedly, the flash sintering process is affected by the electric field strength, furnace temperature and current density limit, but also by microstructural features such as the presence of second phase particles or dopants and the particle size in the starting material. While further experimental work and modelling is still required to attain a full understanding capable of predicting the success of the flash sintering process in different materials, the technique non-etheless holds great potential for exceptional control of the ceramic sintering process.

  13. Quick Guide to Flash Catalyst

    CERN Document Server

    Elmansy, Rafiq

    2011-01-01

    How do you transform user interface designs created in Photoshop or Illustrator into interactive web pages? It's easier than you think. This guide shows you how to use Adobe Flash Catalyst to create interactive UIs and website wireframes for Rich Internet Applications-without writing a single line of code. Ideal for web designers, this book introduces Flash Catalyst basics with detailed step-by-step instructions and screenshots that illustrate every part of the process. You'll learn hands-on how to turn your static design or artwork into working user interfaces that can be implemented in Fla

  14. Hot Flashes amd Night Sweats (PDQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Professionals Questions to Ask about Your Treatment Research Hot Flashes and Night Sweats (PDQ®)–Patient Version Overview ... quality of life in many patients with cancer. Hot flashes and night sweats may be side effects ...

  15. Lunar Impact Flash Locations from NASA's Lunar Impact Monitoring Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, D. E.; Suggs, R. M.; Kupferschmidt, L.; Feldman, J.

    2015-01-01

    Meteoroids are small, natural bodies traveling through space, fragments from comets, asteroids, and impact debris from planets. Unlike the Earth, which has an atmosphere that slows, ablates, and disintegrates most meteoroids before they reach the ground, the Moon has little-to-no atmosphere to prevent meteoroids from impacting the lunar surface. Upon impact, the meteoroid's kinetic energy is partitioned into crater excavation, seismic wave production, and the generation of a debris plume. A flash of light associated with the plume is detectable by instruments on Earth. Following the initial observation of a probable Taurid impact flash on the Moon in November 2005,1 the NASA Meteoroid Environment Office (MEO) began a routine monitoring program to observe the Moon for meteoroid impact flashes in early 2006, resulting in the observation of over 330 impacts to date. The main objective of the MEO is to characterize the meteoroid environment for application to spacecraft engineering and operations. The Lunar Impact Monitoring Program provides information about the meteoroid flux in near-Earth space in a size range-tens of grams to a few kilograms-difficult to measure with statistical significance by other means. A bright impact flash detected by the program in March 2013 brought into focus the importance of determining the impact flash location. Prior to this time, the location was estimated to the nearest half-degree by visually comparing the impact imagery to maps of the Moon. Better accuracy was not needed because meteoroid flux calculations did not require high-accuracy impact locations. But such a bright event was thought to have produced a fresh crater detectable from lunar orbit by the NASA spacecraft Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO). The idea of linking the observation of an impact flash with its crater was an appealing one, as it would validate NASA photometric calculations and crater scaling laws developed from hypervelocity gun testing. This idea was

  16. Detection of Malicious Flash Banner Advertisements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirill Alekseevich Samosadnyy

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses the problem of detecting malicious flash advertisements. As a result, detection method based on dynamic analysis that modify flash application and execute it in Adobe Flash player is proposed and evaluated on synthetic and real world examples.

  17. Flash CS4: The Missing Manual

    CERN Document Server

    Grover, Chris

    2008-01-01

    Unlock the power of Flash and bring gorgeous animations to life onscreen. Flash CS4: The Missing Manual includes a complete primer on animation, a guided tour of the program's tools and capabilities, lots of new illustrations, and more details on working with video. Beginners will learn to use the software in no time, and experienced Flash designers will improve their skills.

  18. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN FLASH POINTS OF SOME BINARY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    B. S. Chandravanshi

    Miscellaneous binary blends containing solvent neutral-150 (SN-150), ... viscosity, the flash point test has always been a standard part of a lubricant's specification. ... between structure and flash points of organic compounds [5-12] and fuels [13, 14]. ... in binary mixtures, the gaps between flash points would be high enough.

  19. Jaan Toomik ajakirjas Flash Art

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1999-01-01

    Kunstiajakirja "Flash Art" maikuu numbris Ando Keskküla artikkel, mis annab ülevaate J. Toomiku loomingust ja peatub pikemalt tema olulisematel töödel. 10. juunist J. Toomiku isiknäitus Londoni fotograafide galeriis. Eksponeeritud video "Uisutaja"

  20. Ingmar Muusikuse foto Flash Artis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1999-01-01

    Flash Arti 1999. a. oktoobrinumbris virtuaalse näituse rubriigis Ando Keskküla artikkel radikaalsemast eesti kunstist ja kunstielust postsotsialistlikul ajastul. Illustratsiooniks Liina Siibi fotokompositsioonid, Ingmar Muusikuse foto Raoul Kurvitza, Ene-Liis Semperi ja Kiwa Eesti Panga performance'ist

  1. Undergraduate Separations Utilizing Flash Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, G.

    2000-02-01

    This article describes the procedures used to carry out four flash chromatography experiments: the isolation of the carotenes, chlorophylls and xanthophylls from a spinach extract; the separation of ß-carotene from tetraphenyl cyclopentadienone; the isolation of (+) and (-) carvone from caraway and spearmint oil; and the purification of benzil from benzoin. Apparatus used is nonbreakable, easy to use, and inexpensive.

  2. Light

    CERN Document Server

    Robertson, William C

    2003-01-01

    Why is left right and right left in the mirror? Baffled by the basics of reflection and refraction? Wondering just how the eye works? If you have trouble teaching concepts about light that you don t fully grasp yourself, get help from a book that s both scientifically accurate and entertaining with Light. By combining clear explanations, clever drawings, and activities that use easy-to-find materials, this book covers what science teachers and parents need to know to teach about light with confidence. It uses ray, wave, and particle models of light to explain the basics of reflection and refraction, optical instruments, polarization of light, and interference and diffraction. There s also an entire chapter on how the eye works. Each chapter ends with a Summary and Applications section that reinforces concepts with everyday examples. Whether you need a deeper understanding of how light bends or a good explanation of why the sky is blue, you ll find Light more illuminating and accessible than a college textbook...

  3. Foundation Flash CS4 for Designers

    CERN Document Server

    Green, Tom

    2008-01-01

    In this book, you'll learn:* How to create effective animations using the new Motion Editor and animation tools * How to use the new 3D features to animate objects in 3D space * Best-practice tips and techniques from some of the top Flash practitioners on the planet * How to create captioned video and full-screen video, and deploy HD video using Flash * Techniques for using the Flash UI components as well as XML documents to create stunning,interactive presentations If you're a Flash designer looking for a solid overview of Flash CS4, this book is for you. Through the use of solid and practica

  4. On multiphase negative flash for ideal solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Wei; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2012-01-01

    simpler than the corresponding normal flash algorithm. Unlike normal flash, multiphase negative flash for ideal solutions can diverge if the feasible domain for phase amounts is not closed. This can be judged readily during the iteration process. The algorithm can also be extended to the partial negative......There is a recent interest to solve multiphase negative flash problems where the phase amounts can be negative for normal positive feed composition. Solving such a negative flash problem using successive substitution needs an inner loop for phase distribution calculation at constant fugacity...... coefficients. It is shown that this inner loop, named here as multiphase negative flash for ideal solutions, can be solved either by Michelsen's algorithm for multiphase normal flash, or by its variation which uses F−1 phase amounts as independent variables. In either case, the resulting algorithm is actually...

  5. Evaluation of light-emitting diode beacon light fixtures : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    Rotating beacons containing filament light sources have long been used on highway maintenance trucks : to indicate the presence of the truck to other drivers. Because of advances in light-emitting diode (LED) : technologies, flashing lights containin...

  6. Discovery of a new stonefly genus with three new species from mid-Cretaceous Burmese amber (Plecoptera: Perlidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhi-Teng; Wang, Bo; Du, Yu-Zhou

    2018-02-11

    A new fossil stonefly genus of the subfamily Acroneuriinae Klapálek, 1914 (Plecoptera: Perlidae), Largusoperla gen. nov. is reported based on three well-preserved specimens in mid-Cretaceous amber from northern Myanmar. Three new species of this new genus, L. acus sp. nov, L. flata sp. nov and L. arcus sp. nov. are described and illustrated. This is the first report of stonefly specimens from mid-Cretaceous Burmese amber. The taxonomic placement of the new genus is discussed.

  7. Light

    CERN Document Server

    Ditchburn, R W

    1963-01-01

    This classic study, available for the first time in paperback, clearly demonstrates how quantum theory is a natural development of wave theory, and how these two theories, once thought to be irreconcilable, together comprise a single valid theory of light. Aimed at students with an intermediate-level knowledge of physics, the book first offers a historical introduction to the subject, then covers topics such as wave theory, interference, diffraction, Huygens' Principle, Fermat's Principle, and the accuracy of optical measurements. Additional topics include the velocity of light, relativistic o

  8. Development of ACBIO: A Biosphere Template Using AMBER for a Potential Radioactive Waste Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Youn Myoung; Hwang, Yong Soo; Kang, Chul Hyung; Hahn, Pil Soo

    2005-01-01

    Nuclides in radioactive wastes are assumed to be transported in the geosphere by groundwater and probably discharged into the biosphere. Quantitative evaluation of doses to human beings due to nuclide transport in the geosphere and through the various pathways in the biosphere is the final step of safety assessment of the radioactive waste repository. To calculate the flux to dose conversion factors (DCFs) for nuclides appearing at GBIs with their decay chains, a template ACBIO which is an AMBER case file based on mathematical model for the mass transfer coefficients between the compartments has been developed considering material balance among the compartments in biosphere and then implementing to AMBER, a general and flexible software tool that allows to build dynamic compartment models. An illustrative calculation with ACBIO is shown.

  9. A community intervention: AMBER: Arab American breast cancer education and referral program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayash, Claudia; Axelrod, Deborah; Nejmeh-Khoury, Sana; Aziz, Arwa; Yusr, Afrah; Gany, Francesca M

    2011-12-01

    Although the number of Arab Americans is growing in the United States, there is very little data available on this population's cancer incidence and screening practices. Moreover, there are few interventions addressing their unique needs. This study aims to determine effective strategies for increasing breast cancer screening in at-risk underserved Arab American women. AMBER utilizes a community based participatory approach to conduct formative research and program interventions, including culturally appropriate Arabic language breast cancer education, screening coordination, and cultural competency training for healthcare professionals in New York City. In 2 years, 597 women were educated, 189 underserved women were identified as being in need of assistance, 68 were screened, one new case of breast cancer was detected, and four active cases in need of follow-up reconnected with care. The AMBER model is an important intervention for breast cancer screening and care in the underserved Arab American community.

  10. Biting Midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) from Cambay Amber Indicate that the Eocene Fauna of the Indian Subcontinent Was Not Isolated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stebner, Frauke; Szadziewski, Ryszard; Singh, Hukam; Gunkel, Simon; Rust, Jes

    2017-01-01

    India's unique and highly diverse biota combined with its unique geodynamical history has generated significant interest in the patterns and processes that have shaped the current distribution of India's flora and fauna and their biogeographical relationships. Fifty four million year old Cambay amber from northwestern India provides the opportunity to address questions relating to endemism and biogeographic history by studying fossil insects. Within the present study seven extant and three fossil genera of biting midges are recorded from Cambay amber and five new species are described: Eohelea indica Stebner & Szadziewski n. sp., Gedanohelea gerdesorum Stebner & Szadziewski n. sp., Meunierohelea cambayana Stebner & Szadziewski n. sp., Meunierohelea borkenti Stebner & Szadziewski n. sp., and Meunierohelea orientalis Stebner & Szadziewski n. sp. Fossils of species in the genera Leptoconops Skuse, 1889, Forcipomyia Meigen, 1818, Brachypogon Kieffer, 1899, Stilobezzia Kieffer, 1911, Serromyia Meigen, 1818, and Mantohelea Szadziewski, 1988 are recorded without formal description. Furthermore, one fossil belonging to the genus Camptopterohelea Wirth & Hubert, 1960 is included in the present study. Our study reveals faunal links among Ceratopogonidae from Cambay amber and contemporaneous amber from Fushun, China, Eocene Baltic amber from Europe, as well as the modern Australasian and the Oriental regions. These findings imply that faunal exchange between Europe, Asia and India took place before the formation of Cambay amber in the early Eocene.

  11. Flash pyrolysis fuel oil: bio-pok

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gust, S [Neste Oy, Porvoo (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    Samples of flash pyrolysis liquid produced by Union Fenosa, Spain from pine and straw and samples produced by Ensyn of Canada from mixed hardwoods were combusted with simple pressure atomization equipment commonly used with light fuel oils in intermediate size (0.1-1 MW) boilers. With a number of modifications to the combustion system, carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrous oxide (NO{sub x}) could be reduced to acceptable levels: CO < 30 ppm and NO{sub x} < 140 ppm. Particulate emissions which were initially very high (Bacharach 4-5) were reduced (Bach. 2-3) by system improvements but are still higher than from light fuel oil (Bach. <1). The modifications to the combustion system were: refractory section between burner and boiler, acid resistant progressive cavity pump, higher liquid preheat temperature and higher pressure than for light fuel oils. The main problems with pyrolysis liquids concerns their instability or reactivity. At temperatures above 100 deg C they begin to coke, their viscosity increases during storage and oxygen from air causes skin formation. This requires that special handling procedures are developed for fuel storage, delivery and combustion systems. (orig.)

  12. Spurious dispersion effects at FLASH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prat, Eduard

    2009-07-01

    The performance of the Free-Electron Laser (FEL) process imposes stringent demands on the transverse trajectory and size of the electron beam. Since transverse dispersion changes off-energy particle trajectories and increases the effective beam size, dispersion must be controlled. This thesis treats the concept of dispersion in linacs, and analyses the impact of dispersion on the electron beam and on the FEL process. It presents generation mechanisms for spurious dispersion, quantifying its importance for FLASH (Free-electron Laser in Hamburg) and the XFEL (European X-ray Free-Electron Laser). A method for measuring and correcting dispersion and its implementation in FLASH is described. Experiments of dispersion e ects on the transverse beam quality and on the FEL performance are presented. (orig.)

  13. Flash x-ray cinematography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stein, W.E.

    1976-01-01

    Experiments intended to provide an overview of the potential capabilities and limitations of flash x-ray cinematography as a diagnostic technique for a Fast Reactor Safety Test Facility are described. The results provide estimates of the x-ray pulse intensity required to obtain adequate radiographs of an array of fuel pins in a typical reactor configuration. An estimate of the upper limit on the pulse duration imposed by the reactor background radiation was also determined. X-ray cinematography has been demonstrated at a repetition rate limited only by the recording equipment on hand at the time of these measurements. These preliminary results indicate that flash x-ray cinematography of the motion of fuel in a Fast Reactor Test Facility is technically feasible

  14. Spurious dispersion effects at FLASH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prat, Eduard

    2009-07-15

    The performance of the Free-Electron Laser (FEL) process imposes stringent demands on the transverse trajectory and size of the electron beam. Since transverse dispersion changes off-energy particle trajectories and increases the effective beam size, dispersion must be controlled. This thesis treats the concept of dispersion in linacs, and analyses the impact of dispersion on the electron beam and on the FEL process. It presents generation mechanisms for spurious dispersion, quantifying its importance for FLASH (Free-electron Laser in Hamburg) and the XFEL (European X-ray Free-Electron Laser). A method for measuring and correcting dispersion and its implementation in FLASH is described. Experiments of dispersion e ects on the transverse beam quality and on the FEL performance are presented. (orig.)

  15. Early Cretaceous trypanosomatids associated with fossil sand fly larvae in Burmese amber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Poinar Jr

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Early Cretaceous flagellates with characters typical of trypanosomatids were found in the gut of sand fly larvae, as well as in surrounding debris, in Burmese amber. This discovery supports a hypothesis in which free-living trypanosomatids could have been acquired by sand fly larvae in their feeding environment and then carried transtadially into the adult stage. At some point in time, specific genera were introduced into vertebrates, thus establishing a dixenous life cycle.

  16. A MODEL OF THE INNOVATIVE AMBER CLUSTER AS A CENTRE OF COOPERATION OF AUTHORITIES - BUSINESS - SCIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gleb B. Trifonov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A mechanism of forming an innovative amber cluster was developed, including structural interconnections of cluster partners,a package of basic innovative technologies, which will createa new value chain, new vacancies, provide contributions to theregional budget.A method of analytical estimation was suggested to assess cluster synergism of partners: authorities, business, science/education, culture, which reflects potential possibilities of thecluster model of region development.

  17. Two cloned β thalassemia genes are associated with amber mutations at codon 39

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pergolizzi, Robert; Spritz, Richard A.; Spence, Sally; Goossens, Michel; Kan, Yuet Wai; Bank, Arthur

    1981-01-01

    Two β globin genes from patients with the β+ thalassemia phenotype have been cloned and sequenced. A single nucleotide change from CAG to TAG (an amber mutation) at codon 39 is the only difference from normal in both genes analyzed. The results are consistent with the assumption that both patients are doubly heterozygous for β+ and β° thalassemia, and that we have isolated and analyzed the β° thalassemia gene. Images PMID:6278453

  18. Microplastics in sea coastal zone: Lessons learned from the Baltic amber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubarenko, Irina; Stepanova, Natalia

    2017-05-01

    Baltic amber, adored for its beauty already in Homer's Odyssey (ca. 800 B.C.E), has its material density close to that of wide-spread plastics like polyamide, polystyrene, or acrylic. Migrations of amber stones in the sea and their massive washing ashore have been monitored by Baltic citizens for ages. Based on the collected information, we present the hypothesis on the behaviour of microplastic particles in sea coastal zone. Fresh-to-strong winds generate surface waves, currents and roll-structures, whose joint effect washes ashore from the underwater slope both amber stones and plastics - and carries them back to the sea in a few days. Analysis of underlying hydrophysical processes suggests that sea coastal zone under stormy winds plays a role of a mill for plastics, and negatively buoyant pieces seem to repeatedly migrate between beaches and underwater slopes until they are broken into small enough fragments that can be transported by currents to deeper areas and deposited out of reach of stormy waves. Direct observations on microplastics migrations are urged to prove the hypothesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Early Miocene amber inclusions from Mexico reveal antiquity of mangrove-associated copepods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huys, Rony; Suárez-Morales, Eduardo; Serrano-Sánchez, María de Lourdes; Centeno-García, Elena; Vega, Francisco J

    2016-10-12

    Copepods are aquatic microcrustaceans and represent the most abundant metazoans on Earth, outnumbering insects and nematode worms. Their position of numerical world predominance can be attributed to three principal radiation events, i.e. their major habitat shift into the marine plankton, the colonization of freshwater and semiterrestrial environments, and the evolution of parasitism. Their variety of life strategies has generated an incredible morphological plasticity and disparity in body form and shape that are arguably unrivalled among the Crustacea. Although their chitinous exoskeleton is largely resistant to chemical degradation copepods are exceedingly scarce in the geological record with limited body fossil evidence being available for only three of the eight currently recognized orders. The preservation of aquatic arthropods in amber is unusual but offers a unique insight into ancient subtropical and tropical ecosystems. Here we report the first discovery of amber-preserved harpacticoid copepods, represented by ten putative species belonging to five families, based on Early Miocene (22.8 million years ago) samples from Chiapas, southeast Mexico. Their close resemblance to Recent mangrove-associated copepods highlights the antiquity of the specialized harpacticoid fauna living in this habitat. With the taxa reported herein, the Mexican amber holds the greatest diversity of fossil copepods worldwide.

  20. Hot flashes and sleep in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, Karen E

    2004-12-01

    Sleep disturbances during menopause are often attributed to nocturnal hot flashes and 'sweats' associated with changing hormone patterns. This paper is a comprehensive critical review of the research on the relationship between sleep disturbance and hot flashes in women. Numerous studies have found a relationship between self-reported hot flashes and sleep complaints. However, hot flash studies using objective sleep assessment techniques such as polysomnography, actigraphy, or quantitative analysis of the sleep EEG are surprisingly scarce and have yielded somewhat mixed results. Much of this limited evidence suggests that hot flashes are associated with objectively identified sleep disruption in at least some women. At least some of the negative data may be due to methodological issues such as reliance upon problematic self-reports of nocturnal hot flashes and a lack of concurrent measures of hot flashes and sleep. The recent development of a reliable and non-intrusive method for objectively identifying hot flashes during the night should help address the need for substantial additional research in this area. Several areas of clinical relevance are described, including the effects of discontinuing combined hormone therapy (estrogen plus progesterone) or estrogen-only therapy, the possibility of hot flashes continuing for many years after menopause, and the link between hot flashes and depression.

  1. A Durable Flash Memory Search Tree

    OpenAIRE

    Clay III, James; Wortman, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    We consider the task of optimizing the B-tree data structure, used extensively in operating systems and databases, for sustainable usage on multi-level flash memory. Empirical evidence shows that this new flash memory tree, or FM Tree, extends the operational lifespan of each block of flash memory by a factor of roughly 27 to 70 times, while still supporting logarithmic-time search tree operations.

  2. Evaluation of Flash Bainite in 4130 Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Technical Report ARWSB-TR-11011 Evaluation of Flash Bainite in 4130 Steel G. Vigilante M. Hespos S. Bartolucci...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Evaluation of Flash Bainite in 4130 Steel 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...need to be addressed, the Flash Bainite processing of 4130 steel demonstrates promise for applications needing a combination of high strength with

  3. Construction and performance of large flash chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, F.E.; Bogert, D.; Fisk, R.; Stutte, L.; Walker, J.K.; Wolfson, J.; Abolins, M.; Ernwein, J.; Owen, D.; Lyons, T.

    1979-01-01

    The construction and performance of 12' x 12' flash chambers used in a 340 ton neutrino detector under construction at Fermilab is described. The flash chambers supply digital information with a spatial resolution of 0.2'', and are used to finely sample the shower development of the reaction products of neutrino interactions. The flash chambers are easy and inexpensive to build and are electronically read out

  4. Menopausal Hot Flashes and White Matter Hyperintensities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurston, Rebecca C.; Aizenstein, Howard J.; Derby, Carol A.; Sejdić, Ervin; Maki, Pauline M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Hot flashes are the classic menopausal symptom. Emerging data links hot flashes to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, yet how hot flashes are related to brain health is poorly understood. We examined the relationship between hot flashes - measured via physiologic monitor and self-report - and white matter hyperintensities (WMH) among midlife women. Methods Twenty midlife women ages 40-60 without clinical CVD, with their uterus and both ovaries, and not taking hormone therapy were recruited. Women underwent 24 hours of ambulatory physiologic and diary hot flash monitoring to quantify hot flashes; magnetic resonance imaging to assess WMH burden; 72 hours of actigraphy and questionnaires to quantify sleep; and a blood draw, questionnaires, and physical measures to quantify demographics and CVD risk factors. Test of a priori hypotheses regarding relations between physiologically-monitored and self-reported wake and sleep hot flashes and WMH were conducted in linear regression models. Results More physiologically-monitored hot flashes during sleep were associated with greater WMH, controlling for age, race, and body mass index [beta(standard error)=.0002 (.0001), p=.03]. Findings persisted controlling for sleep characteristics and additional CVD risk factors. No relations were observed for self-reported hot flashes. Conclusions More physiologically-monitored hot flashes during sleep were associated with greater WMH burden among midlife women free of clinical CVD. Results suggest that relations between hot flashes and CVD risk observed in the periphery may extend to the brain. Future work should consider the unique role of sleep hot flashes in brain health. PMID:26057822

  5. Modelling and mitigation of Flash Crashes

    OpenAIRE

    Fry, John; Serbera, Jean-Philippe

    2017-01-01

    The algorithmic trading revolution has had a dramatic effect upon markets. Trading has become faster, and in some ways more efficient, though potentially at the cost higher volatility and increased uncertainty. Stories of predatory trading and flash crashes constitute a new financial reality. Worryingly, highly capitalised stocks may be particularly vulnerable to flash crashes. Amid fears of high-risk technology failures in the global financial system we develop a model for flash crashes....

  6. Flash CS5 The Missing Manual

    CERN Document Server

    Grover, Chris

    2010-01-01

    Once you know how to use Flash, you can create everything from simple animations to high-end desktop applications, but it's a complex tool that can be difficult to master on your own-unless you have this Missing Manual. This book will help you learn all you need to know about Flash CS5 to create animations that bring your ideas to life. Learn animation basics. Find everything you need to know to get started with FlashMaster the Flash tools. Learn the animation and effects toolset, with clear explanations and hands-on examplesUse 3D effects. Rotate and put objects in motion in three dimensions

  7. Search Engine Optimization for Flash Best Practices for Using Flash on the Web

    CERN Document Server

    Perkins, Todd

    2009-01-01

    Search Engine Optimization for Flash dispels the myth that Flash-based websites won't show up in a web search by demonstrating exactly what you can do to make your site fully searchable -- no matter how much Flash it contains. You'll learn best practices for using HTML, CSS and JavaScript, as well as SWFObject, for building sites with Flash that will stand tall in search rankings.

  8. The haptic and the visual flash-lag effect and the role of flash characteristics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knut Drewing

    Full Text Available When a short flash occurs in spatial alignment with a moving object, the moving object is seen ahead the stationary one. Similar to this visual "flash-lag effect" (FLE it has been recently observed for the haptic sense that participants judge a moving hand to be ahead a stationary hand when judged at the moment of a short vibration ("haptic flash" that is applied when the two hands are spatially aligned. We further investigated the haptic FLE. First, we compared participants' performance in two isosensory visual or haptic conditions, in which moving object and flash were presented only in a single modality (visual: sphere and short color change, haptic: hand and vibration, and two bisensory conditions, in which the moving object was presented in both modalities (hand aligned with visible sphere, but the flash was presented only visually or only haptically. The experiment aimed to disentangle contributions of the flash's and the objects' modalities to the FLEs in haptics versus vision. We observed a FLE when the flash was visually displayed, both when the moving object was visual and visuo-haptic. Because the position of a visual flash, but not of an analogue haptic flash, is misjudged relative to a same visuo-haptic moving object, the difference between visual and haptic conditions can be fully attributed to characteristics of the flash. The second experiment confirmed that a haptic FLE can be observed depending on flash characteristics: the FLE increases with decreasing intensity of the flash (slightly modulated by flash duration, which had been previously observed for vision. These findings underline the high relevance of flash characteristics in different senses, and thus fit well with the temporal-sampling framework, where the flash triggers a high-level, supra-modal process of position judgement, the time point of which further depends on the processing time of the flash.

  9. Rh-flash acquisition card

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourrion, O.

    2003-01-01

    The rh-flash card main purpose is to convert and store the image of the analog data present at input into an output buffer, namely in a given timing window besides a stop signal (like a digital oscilloscope). It is conceived in VME format 1U wide with an additional connector. Novelty of this card is its ability to sample at a high frequency, due to flash coders, and this at a high repetition rate. To do that the card allows the storage of the data considered 'useful' and that is done by storing only the data exceeding a certain threshold. This can be useful for instance for viewing peaks in a spectrum, and obtaining their relative location. The goal is to stock and process the data sampled before and after the arrival of a stop signal (what entails a storage depth). A threshold is defined and any peak exceeding its level will really be stored in the output buffer which is readable through the VME bus. The peak values will be stored as well as m preceding and n subsequent values (both programmable). Obviously, if the threshold is zero the system of data processing is off and all data will be stored. The document is structured on six sections titled: 1. Description; 2. Specifications; 3. Explaining the design of channels; 4. Explaining the shared part of the design; 5. Addressing (→ user guide); 6. Software precautions. (author)

  10. NO signatures from lightning flashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stith, J.; Dye, J.; Ridley, B.; Laroche, P.; Defer, E.; Baumann, K.; Hübler, G.; Zerr, R.; Venticinque, M.

    1999-07-01

    In situ measurements of cloud properties, NO, and other trace gases were made in active thunderstorms by two research aircraft. Concurrent measurements from a three-dimensional (3-D) VHF interferometer and the 2-D National Lightning Detection Network were used to determine lightning frequency and location. The CHILL Doppler radar and the NOAA-WP-3D Orion X band Doppler radar were also used to measure storm characteristics. Two case studies from the (STERAO) Stratosphere-Troposphere Experiments: Radiation, Aerosols, and Ozone project in northeastern Colorado during the summer of 1996 are presented. Narrow spikes (0.11-0.96 km across), containing up to 19 ppbv of NO, were observed in the storms. Most were located in or downwind of electrically active regions where the NO produced by lightning would be expected. However, it was difficult to correlate individual flashes with NO spikes. A simple model of the plume of NO from lightning is used to estimate NO production from the mean mixing ratio measured in these spikes. The estimates range from 2.0×1020 to 1.0×1022 molecules of NO per meter of flash length.

  11. Improving care for patients whose recovery is uncertain. The AMBER care bundle: design and implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Irene; Shouls, Susanna; Bristowe, Katherine; Morris, Michelle; Briant, Linda; Robinson, Carole; Caulkin, Ruth; Griffiths, Mathew; Clark, Kieron; Koffman, Jonathan; Hopper, Adrian

    2015-12-01

    Despite preferences to the contrary, 53% of deaths in England occur in hospital. Difficulties in managing clinical uncertainty can result in delayed recognition that a person may be approaching the end of life, and a failure to address his/her preferences. Planning and shared decision-making for hospital patients need to improve where an underlying condition responds poorly to acute medical treatment and there is a risk of dying in the next 1-2 months. This paper suggests an approach to improve this care. A care bundle (the AMBER care bundle) was designed by a multiprofessional development team, which included service users, utilising the model for improvement following an initial scoping exercise. The care bundle includes two identification questions, four subsequent time restricted actions and systematic daily follow-up. This paper describes the development and implementation of a care bundle. From August 2011 to July 2012, 638 patients received care supported by the AMBER care bundle. In total 42.8% died in hospital and a further 14.5% were readmitted as emergencies within 30 days of discharge. Clinical outcome measures are in development. It has been possible to develop a care bundle addressing a complex area of care which can be a lever for cultural change. The implementation of the AMBER care bundle has the potential to improve care of clinically uncertain hospital patients who may be approaching the end of life by supporting their recognition and prompting discussion of their preferences. Outcomes associated with its use are currently being formally evaluated. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  12. uFlip: Understanding Flash IO Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouganim, Luc; Jonsson, Bjørn; Bonnet, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    want to establish what kind of IOs should be favored (or avoided) when designing algorithms and architectures for flash-based systems. In this paper, we focus on flash IO patterns, that capture relevant distribution of IOs in time and space, and our goal is to quantify their performance. We define uFLIP...

  13. Au Contraire: Gifted in a Flash (Mob)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delisle, James R.

    2012-01-01

    A "flash mob" is defined by Wikipedia as "a large group of people who assemble suddenly in a public place, perform an unusual and pointless act for a brief time, then disperse." Fueled by social media and Smartphones, flash mobs have been used, primarily, as entertaining diversions by addicted techies with (apparently) tons of time on their hands.…

  14. Flash memory in embedded Java programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsholm, Stephan Erbs

    This paper introduces a Java execution environment with the capability for storing constant heap data in Flash, thus saving valuable RAM. The extension is motivated by the structure of three industrial applications which demonstrate the need for storing constant data in Flash on small embedded...

  15. Eonandeva gen. nov., a new distinctive genus from Eocene Baltic amber (Diptera: Chironomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakrzewska, Marta; Giłka, Wojciech

    2015-11-20

    A new fossil genus, Eonandeva gen. nov., with two new species: E. helva sp. nov. (type for the genus) and E. latistyla sp. nov., is described from Eocene Baltic amber (~45-40 Ma). Adult males of both new species show the wing venation pattern, shape and chaetotaxy typical for the tribe Tanytarsini. The characters defined as prior apomorphies for the new genus--the gonostylus with a subapical flattened lobe and the stout, strongly elongated superior volsella--separate Eonandeva from the closely related extant genus Nandeva Wiedenbrug, Reiss et Fittkau, 1998.

  16. FLASH Interface; a GUI for managing runtime parameters in FLASH simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Christopher; Tzeferacos, Petros; Weide, Klaus; Lamb, Donald; Flocke, Norbert; Feister, Scott

    2017-10-01

    We present FLASH Interface, a novel graphical user interface (GUI) for managing runtime parameters in simulations performed with the FLASH code. FLASH Interface supports full text search of available parameters; provides descriptions of each parameter's role and function; allows for the filtering of parameters based on categories; performs input validation; and maintains all comments and non-parameter information already present in existing parameter files. The GUI can be used to edit existing parameter files or generate new ones. FLASH Interface is open source and was implemented with the Electron framework, making it available on Mac OSX, Windows, and Linux operating systems. The new interface lowers the entry barrier for new FLASH users and provides an easy-to-use tool for experienced FLASH simulators. U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), NNSA ASC/Alliances Center for Astrophysical Thermonuclear Flashes, U.S. DOE NNSA ASC through the Argonne Institute for Computing in Science, U.S. National Science Foundation.

  17. Organic flash cycles for efficient power production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Tony; Mao, Samuel S.; Greif, Ralph

    2016-03-15

    This disclosure provides systems, methods, and apparatus related to an Organic Flash Cycle (OFC). In one aspect, a modified OFC system includes a pump, a heat exchanger, a flash evaporator, a high pressure turbine, a throttling valve, a mixer, a low pressure turbine, and a condenser. The heat exchanger is coupled to an outlet of the pump. The flash evaporator is coupled to an outlet of the heat exchanger. The high pressure turbine is coupled to a vapor outlet of the flash evaporator. The throttling valve is coupled to a liquid outlet of the flash evaporator. The mixer is coupled to an outlet of the throttling valve and to an outlet of the high pressure turbine. The low pressure turbine is coupled to an outlet of the mixer. The condenser is coupled to an outlet of the low pressure turbine and to an inlet of the pump.

  18. Ca2+-Signal Transduction Inhibitors, Kujiol A and Kujigamberol B, Isolated from Kuji Amber Using a Mutant Yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Takeshi; Koshino, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Shunya; Shimizu, Eisaku; Takahashi, Honoka; Yoshida, Jun; Shinden, Hisao; Tsujimura, Maiko; Kofujita, Hisayoshi; Uesugi, Shota; Kimura, Ken-Ichi

    2018-04-27

    A podocarpatriene and a labdatriene derivative, named kujiol A [13-methyl-8,11,13-podocarpatrien-19-ol (1)] and kujigamberol B [15,20-dinor-5,7,9-labdatrien-13-ol (2)], respectively, were isolated from Kuji amber through detection with the aid of their growth-restoring activity against a mutant yeast strain ( zds1Δ erg3Δ pdr1Δ pdr3Δ), which is known to be hypersensitive with respect to Ca 2+ -signal transduction. The structures were elucidated by spectroscopic data analysis. Compounds 1 and 2 are rare organic compounds from Late Cretaceous amber, and the mutant yeast used seems useful for elucidating a variety of new compounds from Kuji amber specimens, produced before the K-Pg boundary.

  19. A review and phylogeny of Scarabaeine dung beetle fossils (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae, with the description of two Canthochilum species from Dominican amber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei Tarasov

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite the increasing rate of systematic research on scarabaeine dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae, their fossil record has remained largely unrevised. In this paper, we review all 33 named scarabaeine fossils and describe two new species from Dominican amber (Canthochilum alleni sp.n., Canthochilum philipsivieorum sp.n.. We provide a catalogue of all fossil Scarabaeinae and evaluate their assignment to this subfamily, based primarily on the original descriptions but also, where possible, by examining the type specimens. We suggest that only 21 fossil taxa can be reliably assigned to the Scarabaeinae, while the remaining 14 should be treated as doubtful Scarabaeinae. The doubtful scarabaeines include the two oldest dung beetle fossils known from the Cretaceous and we suggest excluding them from any assessments of the minimum age of scarabaeine dung beetles. The earliest reliably described scarabaeine fossil appears to be Lobateuchus parisii, known from Oise amber (France, which shifts the minimum age of the Scarabaeinae to the Eocene (53 Ma. We scored the best-preserved fossils, namely Lobateuchus and the two Canthochilum species described herein, into the character matrix used in a recent morphology-based study of dung beetles, and then inferred their phylogenetic relationships with Bayesian and parsimony methods. All analyses yielded consistent phylogenies where the two fossil Canthochilum are placed in a clade with the extant species of Canthochilum, and Lobateuchus is recovered in a clade with the extant genera Ateuchus and Aphengium. Additionally, we evaluated the distribution of dung beetle fossils in the light of current global dung beetle phylogenetic hypotheses, geological time and biogeography. The presence of only extant genera in the late Oligocene and all later records suggests that the main present-day dung beetle lineages had already been established by the late Oligocene–mid Miocene.

  20. A comparative Study between GoldSim and AMBER Based Biosphere Assessment Models for an HLW Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Youn-Myoung; Hwang, Yong-Soo

    2007-01-01

    To demonstrate the performance of a repository, the dose exposure rate to human being due to long-term nuclide releases from a high-level waste repository (HLW) should be evaluated and the results compared to the dose limit presented by the regulatory bodies. To evaluate such a dose rate to an individual, biosphere assessment models have been developed and implemented for a practical calculation with the aid of such commercial tools as AMBER and GoldSim, both of which are capable of probabilistic and deterministic calculation. AMBER is a general purpose compartment modeling tool and GoldSim is another multipurpose simulation tool for dynamically modeling complex systems, supporting a higher graphical user interface than AMBER and a postprocessing feature. And also unlike AMBER, any kind of compartment scheme can be rather simply constructed with an appropriate transition rate between compartments, GoldSim is designed to facilitate the object-oriented modules to address any specialized programs, similar to solving jig saw puzzles. During the last couple of years a compartment modeling approach for a biosphere has been mainly carried out with AMBER in KAERI in order to conservatively or rather roughly provide dose conversion factors to get the final exposure rate due to a nuclide flux into biosphere over various geosphere-biosphere interfaces (GBIs) calculated through nuclide transport modules. This caused a necessity for a newly devised biosphere model that could be coupled to a nuclide transport model with less conservatism in the frame of the development of a total system performance assessment modeling tool, which could be successfully done with the aid of GoldSim. Therefore, through the current study, some comparison results of the AMBER and the GoldSim approaches for the same case of a biosphere modeling without any consideration of geosphere transport are introduced by extending a previous study

  1. Terrestrial gamma-ray flashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marisaldi, Martino; Fuschino, Fabio; Labanti, Claudio; Tavani, Marco; Argan, Andrea; Del Monte, Ettore; Longo, Francesco; Barbiellini, Guido; Giuliani, Andrea; Trois, Alessio; Bulgarelli, Andrea; Gianotti, Fulvio; Trifoglio, Massimo

    2013-08-01

    Lightning and thunderstorm systems in general have been recently recognized as powerful particle accelerators, capable of producing electrons, positrons, gamma-rays and neutrons with energies as high as several tens of MeV. In fact, these natural systems turn out to be the highest energy and most efficient natural particle accelerators on Earth. Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes (TGFs) are millisecond long, very intense bursts of gamma-rays and are one of the most intriguing manifestation of these natural accelerators. Only three currently operative missions are capable of detecting TGFs from space: the RHESSI, Fermi and AGILE satellites. In this paper we review the characteristics of TGFs, including energy spectrum, timing structure, beam geometry and correlation with lightning, and the basic principles of the associated production models. Then we focus on the recent AGILE discoveries concerning the high energy extension of the TGF spectrum up to 100 MeV, which is difficult to reconcile with current theoretical models.

  2. Terrestrial gamma-ray flashes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marisaldi, Martino; Fuschino, Fabio; Labanti, Claudio; Tavani, Marco; Argan, Andrea; Del Monte, Ettore; Longo, Francesco; Barbiellini, Guido; Giuliani, Andrea; Trois, Alessio; Bulgarelli, Andrea; Gianotti, Fulvio; Trifoglio, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    Lightning and thunderstorm systems in general have been recently recognized as powerful particle accelerators, capable of producing electrons, positrons, gamma-rays and neutrons with energies as high as several tens of MeV. In fact, these natural systems turn out to be the highest energy and most efficient natural particle accelerators on Earth. Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes (TGFs) are millisecond long, very intense bursts of gamma-rays and are one of the most intriguing manifestation of these natural accelerators. Only three currently operative missions are capable of detecting TGFs from space: the RHESSI, Fermi and AGILE satellites. In this paper we review the characteristics of TGFs, including energy spectrum, timing structure, beam geometry and correlation with lightning, and the basic principles of the associated production models. Then we focus on the recent AGILE discoveries concerning the high energy extension of the TGF spectrum up to 100 MeV, which is difficult to reconcile with current theoretical models

  3. [Nikola Tesla: flashes of inspiration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarejo-Galende, Albero; Herrero-San Martín, Alejandro

    2013-01-16

    Nikola Tesla (1856-1943) was one of the greatest inventors in history and a key player in the revolution that led to the large-scale use of electricity. He also made important contributions to such diverse fields as x-rays, remote control, radio, the theory of consciousness or electromagnetism. In his honour, the international unit of magnetic induction was named after him. Yet, his fame is scarce in comparison with that of other inventors of the time, such as Edison, with whom he had several heated arguments. He was a rather odd, reserved person who lived for his inventions, the ideas for which came to him in moments of inspiration. In his autobiography he relates these flashes with a number of neuropsychiatric manifestations, which can be seen to include migraine auras, synaesthesiae, obsessions and compulsions.

  4. Statistical Evolution of the Lightning Flash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoghzoghy, F. G.; Cohen, M.; Said, R.; Inan, U. S.

    2012-12-01

    Natural lightning is one of the most fascinating and powerful electrical processes on Earth. To date, the physics behind this natural phenomenon are not fully understood, due primarily to the difficulty of obtaining measurements inside thunderstorms and to the wide range of timescales involved (from nanoseconds to seconds). Our aim is to use accurate lightning geo-location data from the National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN) to study statistical patterns in lightning, taking advantage of the fact that millions of lightning flashes occur around the globe every day. We present two sets of results, one involving the patterns of flashes in a storm, and a second involving the patterns of strokes in a flash. These patterns can provide a surrogate measure of the timescales and the spatial extents of the underlying physical processes. First, we study the timescales of charge buildup inside thunderstorms. We find that, following a lightning flash, the probability of another neighboring flash decreases and takes tens of seconds to recover. We find that this suppression effect is a function of flash type, stroke peak current, cloud-to-ground (CG) stroke multiplicity, and other lightning and geographical parameters. We find that the probabilities of subsequent flashes are more suppressed following oceanic lightning, or following flashes with higher peak currents and/or higher multiplicities (for CG flashes). Second, we use NLDN data to study the evolution of the strokes within a CG flash. A CG flash typically includes multiple return strokes, which can occur in the same channel or in multiple channels within a few kilometers. We cluster NLDN stroke data into flashes and produce the probability density function of subsequent strokes as a function of distance and time-delays relative to the previous stroke. Using this technique, we investigate processes which occur during the CG lightning flash with nanosecond to millisecond timescales. For instance, our results suggest

  5. Parietal disruption alters audiovisual binding in the sound-induced flash illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamke, Marc R; Vieth, Harrison E; Cottrell, David; Mattingley, Jason B

    2012-09-01

    Selective attention and multisensory integration are fundamental to perception, but little is known about whether, or under what circumstances, these processes interact to shape conscious awareness. Here, we used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to investigate the causal role of attention-related brain networks in multisensory integration between visual and auditory stimuli in the sound-induced flash illusion. The flash illusion is a widely studied multisensory phenomenon in which a single flash of light is falsely perceived as multiple flashes in the presence of irrelevant sounds. We investigated the hypothesis that extrastriate regions involved in selective attention, specifically within the right parietal cortex, exert an influence on the multisensory integrative processes that cause the flash illusion. We found that disruption of the right angular gyrus, but not of the adjacent supramarginal gyrus or of a sensory control site, enhanced participants' veridical perception of the multisensory events, thereby reducing their susceptibility to the illusion. Our findings suggest that the same parietal networks that normally act to enhance perception of attended events also play a role in the binding of auditory and visual stimuli in the sound-induced flash illusion. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of some parameters in the response of the Perspex 3042, Lot L amber dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieto M, E.F.; Barrera G, G.

    2004-01-01

    The answer of the dosimetric systems is affected by several factors, for what should know as these factors they influence in each one of the different dosimetric systems and by this way to minimize its effect in the value of the absorbed dose and to obtain exact dose values. One of the dosimetric systems more used in the high dose dosimetry like routine dosemeter for the control of the irradiation process are the Perspex dosemeters, for their speed in the obtaining the information, their easy manipulation and the precision that they present. To this dosemeters group they belong the same as the Red and Clear the Amber, which are adequate for the measurement of the radiation dose in the range of high doses. The objective of the present work is to obtain the calibration curves of the dosemeters Amber Perspex 3042, Lot L under our work conditions, like they are the irradiation temperatures and of storage and to know the influence of the rate dose in the value of the absorbed dose for different measurement wavelengths, as well as, the relationship among the one post-irradiation time and the specific absorbance value induced in function of the absorbed dose. (Author)

  7. Crown Group Lejeuneaceae and Pleurocarpous Mosses in Early Eocene (Ypresian Indian Amber.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen Heinrichs

    Full Text Available Cambay amber originates from the warmest period of the Eocene, which is also well known for the appearance of early angiosperm-dominated megathermal forests. The humid climate of these forests may have triggered the evolution of epiphytic lineages of bryophytes; however, early Eocene fossils of bryophytes are rare. Here, we present evidence for lejeuneoid liverworts and pleurocarpous mosses in Cambay amber. The preserved morphology of the moss fossil is inconclusive for a detailed taxonomic treatment. The liverwort fossil is, however, distinctive; its zig-zagged stems, suberect complicate-bilobed leaves, large leaf lobules, and small, deeply bifid underleaves suggest a member of Lejeuneaceae subtribe Lejeuneinae (Harpalejeunea, Lejeunea, Microlejeunea. We tested alternative classification possibilities by conducting divergence time estimates based on DNA sequence variation of Lejeuneinae using the age of the fossil for corresponding age constraints. Consideration of the fossil as a stem group member of Microlejeunea or Lejeunea resulted in an Eocene to Late Cretaceous age of the Lejeuneinae crown group. This reconstruction is in good accordance with published divergence time estimates generated without the newly presented fossil evidence. Balancing available evidence, we describe the liverwort fossil as the extinct species Microlejeunea nyiahae, representing the oldest crown group fossil of Lejeuneaceae.

  8. Crown Group Lejeuneaceae and Pleurocarpous Mosses in Early Eocene (Ypresian) Indian Amber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrichs, Jochen; Scheben, Armin; Bechteler, Julia; Lee, Gaik Ee; Schäfer-Verwimp, Alfons; Hedenäs, Lars; Singh, Hukam; Pócs, Tamás; Nascimbene, Paul C; Peralta, Denilson F; Renner, Matt; Schmidt, Alexander R

    2016-01-01

    Cambay amber originates from the warmest period of the Eocene, which is also well known for the appearance of early angiosperm-dominated megathermal forests. The humid climate of these forests may have triggered the evolution of epiphytic lineages of bryophytes; however, early Eocene fossils of bryophytes are rare. Here, we present evidence for lejeuneoid liverworts and pleurocarpous mosses in Cambay amber. The preserved morphology of the moss fossil is inconclusive for a detailed taxonomic treatment. The liverwort fossil is, however, distinctive; its zig-zagged stems, suberect complicate-bilobed leaves, large leaf lobules, and small, deeply bifid underleaves suggest a member of Lejeuneaceae subtribe Lejeuneinae (Harpalejeunea, Lejeunea, Microlejeunea). We tested alternative classification possibilities by conducting divergence time estimates based on DNA sequence variation of Lejeuneinae using the age of the fossil for corresponding age constraints. Consideration of the fossil as a stem group member of Microlejeunea or Lejeunea resulted in an Eocene to Late Cretaceous age of the Lejeuneinae crown group. This reconstruction is in good accordance with published divergence time estimates generated without the newly presented fossil evidence. Balancing available evidence, we describe the liverwort fossil as the extinct species Microlejeunea nyiahae, representing the oldest crown group fossil of Lejeuneaceae.

  9. Non Volatile Flash Memory Radiation Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irom, Farokh; Nguyen, Duc N.; Allen, Greg

    2012-01-01

    Commercial flash memory industry has experienced a fast growth in the recent years, because of their wide spread usage in cell phones, mp3 players and digital cameras. On the other hand, there has been increased interest in the use of high density commercial nonvolatile flash memories in space because of ever increasing data requirements and strict power requirements. Because of flash memories complex structure; they cannot be treated as just simple memories in regards to testing and analysis. It becomes quite challenging to determine how they will respond in radiation environments.

  10. Normal temporal binding window but no sound-induced flash illusion in people with one eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moro, Stefania S; Steeves, Jennifer K E

    2018-04-19

    Integrating vision and hearing is an important way in which we process our rich sensory environment. Partial deprivation of the visual system from the loss of one eye early in life results in adaptive changes in the remaining senses (e.g., Hoover et al. in Exp Brain Res 216:565-74, 2012). The current study investigates whether losing one eye early in life impacts the temporal window in which audiovisual events are integrated and whether there is vulnerability to the sound-induced flash illusion. In Experiment 1, we measured the temporal binding window with a simultaneity judgement task where low-level auditory and visual stimuli were presented at different stimulus onset asynchronies. People with one eye did not differ in the width of their temporal binding window, but they took longer to make judgements compared to binocular viewing controls. In Experiment 2, we measured how many light flashes were perceived when a single flash was paired with multiple auditory beeps in close succession (sound induced flash illusion). Unlike controls, who perceived multiple light flashes with two, three or four beeps, people with one eye were not susceptible to the sound-induced flash illusion. In addition, they took no longer to respond compared to both binocular and monocular (eye-patched) viewing controls. Taken together, these results suggest that the lack of susceptibility to the sound-induced flash illusion in people with one eye cannot be accounted for by the width of the temporal binding window. These results provide evidence for adaptations in audiovisual integration due to the reduction of visual input from the loss of one eye early in life.

  11. Activation of neuron generator of luciola mingrelica luminescence flashes under the effect of pulse X-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bol'shakov, V.Yu.; Drobchenko, E.A.; Landa, S.B.; Pejmer, S.I.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of low-level pulse X-radiation on spontaneous photoactivity and luminous communicative behaviour of Luciola mingrelica has been investigated. It was shown that X-radiation doses of as low as 5x10 -5 Gy increased endogenous flashing activity and disinhibited the reaction of insects to light flashes imitating signals of mating partners. Powerful radiation pulses may influence significantly an instinctive behaviour and its neuronal organization

  12. MR colonography with fecal tagging: comparison between 2D turbo FLASH and 3D FLASH sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papanikolaou, Nickolas; Grammatikakis, John; Maris, Thomas; Prassopoulos, Panos; Gourtsoyiannis, Nicholas; Lauenstein, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare inversion recovery turbo 2D fast low-angle shot (FLASH) and 3D FLASH sequences for fecal-tagged MR colonography studies. Fifteen consecutive patients with indications for colonoscopy underwent MR colonography with fecal tagging. An inversion recovery turbo-FLASH sequence was applied and compared in terms of artifacts presence, efficiency for masking residual stool, and colonic wall conspicuity with a fat-saturated 3D FLASH sequence. Both sequences were acquired following administration of paramagnetic contrast agent. Contrast-to-noise ratio and relative contrast between colonic wall and lumen were calculated and compared for both sequences. Turbo 2D FLASH provided fewer artifacts, higher efficiency for masking the residual stool, and colonic wall conspicuity equivalent to 3D FLASH. An inversion time of 10 ms provided homogeneously low signal intensity of the colonic lumen. Contrast to noise between colonic wall and lumen was significantly higher in the 3D FLASH images, whereas differences in relative contrast were not statistically significant. An optimized inversion-recovery 2D turbo-FLASH sequence provides better fecal tagging results and should be added to the 3D FLASH sequence when designing dark-lumen MR colonography examination protocols. (orig.)

  13. Females of the genus Podmosta (Plecoptera: Nemouridae): comparison of terminalia and a new female record in Baltic Amber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhi-Teng

    2018-04-10

    Based on a specimen preserved in Baltic amber from Lithuania, a new fossil female of the nemourid genus Podmosta Ricker, 1952 is described, illustrated and compared to other described species of the genus. The new female specimen is distinguished from other Podmosta females by the "rabbit-shaped" sclerite on sternum 8.

  14. Photoageing of Baltic amber-influence of daylight radiation behind window glass on surface colour and chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shashoua, Yvonne

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide evidence about the interaction between Baltic amber and daylight behind window glass, essential to understanding the mechanisms by which the material degrades in museum environments and to propose techniques for preventive conservation based on the control...

  15. Description of Pintomyia (Pifanomyia falcaorum sp. n. (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae, a Fossil Sand Fly from Dominican Amber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reginaldo Peçanha Brazil

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available A new species of sand fly, Pintomyia (Pifanomyia falcaorum is described from an amber originated from the northern mountain range of Dominican Republic. The male sand fly specimen is well preserved and most features used in Phlebotominae taxonomy are seen with remarkable clarity.

  16. An unusual new species of Hallodapomimus Herczek, 2000 from the Eocene Baltic amber (Hemiptera, Heteroptera, Miridae, Phylinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksander Herczek

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Hallodapomimus antennatus sp. n. (Hemiptera: Heteroptera, Miridae, Phylinae, Hallodapini is described from a macropterous female found in Eocene Baltic amber. The new species can be recognized readily from the other species of the genus, mainly due to its unusual second antennal segment. A key for the identification of all known fossil Hallodapini is presented.

  17. Ultra-Fast Flash Observatory for the observation of early photons from gamma-ray bursts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Park, I H; Brandt, Søren; Budtz-Jørgensen, Carl

    2013-01-01

    One of the least documented and understood aspects of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) is the rise phase of the optical light curve. The Ultra-Fast Flash Observatory (UFFO) is an effort to address this question through extraordinary opportunities presented by a series of space missions including a small s...

  18. Ultra-Fast Flash Observatory (uffo) for Observation of Early Photons from Gamma Ray Bursts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Park, I. H.; Ahmad, S.; Barrillon, P.

    2013-01-01

    One of the least documented and understood aspects of gamma-ray bursts (GRB) is the rise phase of the optical light curve. The Ultra-Fast Flash Observatory (UFFO) is an effort to address this question through extraordinary opportunities presented by a series of space missions including a small sp...

  19. A global flash flood forecasting system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baugh, Calum; Pappenberger, Florian; Wetterhall, Fredrik; Hewson, Tim; Zsoter, Ervin

    2016-04-01

    The sudden and devastating nature of flash flood events means it is imperative to provide early warnings such as those derived from Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) forecasts. Currently such systems exist on basin, national and continental scales in Europe, North America and Australia but rely on high resolution NWP forecasts or rainfall-radar nowcasting, neither of which have global coverage. To produce global flash flood forecasts this work investigates the possibility of using forecasts from a global NWP system. In particular we: (i) discuss how global NWP can be used for flash flood forecasting and discuss strengths and weaknesses; (ii) demonstrate how a robust evaluation can be performed given the rarity of the event; (iii) highlight the challenges and opportunities in communicating flash flood uncertainty to decision makers; and (iv) explore future developments which would significantly improve global flash flood forecasting. The proposed forecast system uses ensemble surface runoff forecasts from the ECMWF H-TESSEL land surface scheme. A flash flood index is generated using the ERIC (Enhanced Runoff Index based on Climatology) methodology [Raynaud et al., 2014]. This global methodology is applied to a series of flash floods across southern Europe. Results from the system are compared against warnings produced using the higher resolution COSMO-LEPS limited area model. The global system is evaluated by comparing forecasted warning locations against a flash flood database of media reports created in partnership with floodlist.com. To deal with the lack of objectivity in media reports we carefully assess the suitability of different skill scores and apply spatial uncertainty thresholds to the observations. To communicate the uncertainties of the flash flood system output we experiment with a dynamic region-growing algorithm. This automatically clusters regions of similar return period exceedence probabilities, thus presenting the at-risk areas at a spatial

  20. Method for programming a flash memory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brosky, Alexander R.; Locke, William N.; Maher, Conrado M.

    2016-08-23

    A method of programming a flash memory is described. The method includes partitioning a flash memory into a first group having a first level of write-protection, a second group having a second level of write-protection, and a third group having a third level of write-protection. The write-protection of the second and third groups is disabled using an installation adapter. The third group is programmed using a Software Installation Device.

  1. Improving Flash Flood Prediction in Multiple Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broxton, P. D.; Troch, P. A.; Schaffner, M.; Unkrich, C.; Goodrich, D.; Wagener, T.; Yatheendradas, S.

    2009-12-01

    Flash flooding is a major concern in many fast responding headwater catchments . There are many efforts to model and to predict these flood events, though it is not currently possible to adequately predict the nature of flash flood events with a single model, and furthermore, many of these efforts do not even consider snow, which can, by itself, or in combination with rainfall events, cause destructive floods. The current research is aimed at broadening the applicability of flash flood modeling. Specifically, we will take a state of the art flash flood model that is designed to work with warm season precipitation in arid environments, the KINematic runoff and EROSion model (KINEROS2), and combine it with a continuous subsurface flow model and an energy balance snow model. This should improve its predictive capacity in humid environments where lateral subsurface flow significantly contributes to streamflow, and it will make possible the prediction of flooding events that involve rain-on-snow or rapid snowmelt. By modeling changes in the hydrologic state of a catchment before a flood begins, we can also better understand the factors or combination of factors that are necessary to produce large floods. Broadening the applicability of an already state of the art flash flood model, such as KINEROS2, is logical because flash floods can occur in all types of environments, and it may lead to better predictions, which are necessary to preserve life and property.

  2. Moth flies and sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae in Cretaceous Burmese amber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frauke Stebner

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available One new subfamily, four new genera and 10 new species of Psychodidae are described from Burmese amber which significantly increases our knowledge about this group in the Cretaceous. Protopsychodinae n. subfam. probably represents the oldest known ancestor of modern Psychodinae and includes three species within two genera: Datzia setosa gen. et sp. n., Datzia bispina gen. et sp. n., and Mandalayia beumersorum gen. et sp. n. Sycoracinae and Phlebotominae are represented by two genera each in the studied material, Palaeoparasycorax globosus gen. et sp. n., Palaeoparasycorax suppus gen. et sp. n., Parasycorax simplex sp. n., and Phlebotomites aphoe sp. n. and Phlebotomus vetus sp. n., respectively. Bruchomyiinae is represented by Nemopalpus quadrispiculatus sp. n. Furthermore, one genus of an incertae sedis subfamily, Bamara groehni gen. et sp. n., is described. The systematic positions of the new taxa are discussed.

  3. ESR characterization of point defects in amber colored c-BN super abrasive powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nistor, S.V.; Ghica, D.; Stefan, M.; Bouwen, A.; Goovaerts, E.

    2004-01-01

    Cubic boron nitride (c-BN) crystalline superabrasive powder (Borazon ** CBN 400), consisting of 200-300 microns sized amber colored crystallites prepared by HP/HT synthesis, has been examined from 2.1 K to 293 K by X-band ESR spectroscopy. The observed spectrum consists of a component line A1, visible in the whole temperature range, and two component lines A2 and A3, visible at high and low temperatures, respectively. The A1 and A3 lines originate from transitions inside S = 1/2 ground states of distinct paramagnetic species and A2 from transitions inside an excited state of another paramagnetic center. The intensity of the A1 and A3 lines changes differently during in situ low temperature illumination in the UV-VIS range. * Borazon is a registered trademark of Diamond Innovations, Inc. (copyright 2004 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  4. Mid-Cretaceous amber fossils illuminate the past diversity of tropical lizards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daza, Juan D.; Stanley, Edward L.; Wagner, Philipp; Bauer, Aaron M.; Grimaldi, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Modern tropical forests harbor an enormous diversity of squamates, but fossilization in such environments is uncommon and little is known about tropical lizard assemblages of the Mesozoic. We report the oldest lizard assemblage preserved in amber, providing insight into the poorly preserved but potentially diverse mid-Cretaceous paleotropics. Twelve specimens from the Albian-Cenomanian boundary of Myanmar (99 Ma) preserve fine details of soft tissue and osteology, and high-resolution x-ray computed tomography permits detailed comparisons to extant and extinct lizards. The extraordinary preservation allows several specimens to be confidently assigned to groups including stem Gekkota and stem Chamaleonidae. Other taxa are assignable to crown clades on the basis of similar traits. The detailed preservation of osteological and soft tissue characters in these specimens may facilitate their precise phylogenetic placement, making them useful calibration points for molecular divergence time estimates and potential keys for resolving conflicts in higher-order squamate relationships. PMID:26973870

  5. Rovno Amber Ant Assamblage: Bias toward Arboreal Strata or Sampling Effect?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perkovsky E. E.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In 2015 B. Guenard with co-authors indicated that the Rovno amber ant assemblage, as described by G. Dlussky and A. Rasnitsyn (2009, showed modest support for a bias towards arboreal origin comparing the Baltic and Bitterfeld assemblages, although it is not clear whether this reflects a sampling error or a signal of real deviation. Since 2009, the Rovno ant collection has now grown more than twice in volume which makes possible to check if the above inference about the essentially arboreal character of the assemblage is real or due to a sampling error. The comparison provided suggests in favour of the latter reason for the bias revealed by B. Guenard and co-authors. The new and larger data on the Rovno assemblage show that the share of non-arboreal ants is now well comparable with those concerning the Baltic and Bitterfeld assemblages. This holds true for the both total assemblages and subassemblages of worker ants only.

  6. Stability of diclofenac sodium oral suspensions packaged in amber polyvinyl chloride bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Ronald F; Pascuet, Elena; Ma, Carmen; Vaillancourt, Régis

    2010-01-01

    Prescribing of diclofenac for children usually involves a dose different from commercially available strengths. This drug is available only as tablets, which can be divided only so many times before the dose obtained becomes inaccurate. In addition, children may have difficulty swallowing tablets. For these reasons, a compounding formula for a liquid dosage form is essential to ensure effective delivery of the drug to pediatric patients. To develop a compounding formula for diclofenac sodium and to determine the extended physical and chemical stability of this compound when stored in amber polyvinyl chloride (PVC) prescription bottles under refrigeration and at room temperature. A suspension of diclofenac sodium (10 mg/mL) was prepared from commercially available diclofenac sodium tablets, with Ora-Blend as the suspending and flavouring agent. The suspension was packaged in 60-mL amber PVC prescription bottles and stored at either room temperature (23°C) or under refrigeration (5°C). Samples were collected on days 0, 7, 14, 21, 27, 56, and 93. Chemical stability was determined using a validated stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography method. At each sampling time, the suspensions were checked for changes in appearance (i.e., colour, layering, caking, ease of resuspension), odour, and pH. The diclofenac sodium suspensions were very stable, retaining at least 99.5% of the original concentration for up to 93 days, regardless of storage temperature. There were no apparent changes in the physical appearance of the suspensions, nor were there any substantial changes in odour or pH. Suspensions of diclofenac sodium (10 mg/mL) were quantitatively stable but difficult to prepare because of the enteric coating of the tablets. Therefore, it is recommended that diclofenac powder be used for the preparation of suspensions. For pediatric use, palatability is a consideration, and a masking agent should be added before administration. An expiry date of up to

  7. Measuring hot flash phenomenonology using ambulatory prospective digital diaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, William I.; Thurston, Rebecca C.

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study provides the description, protocol, and results from a novel prospective ambulatory digital hot flash phenomenon diary. Methods This study included 152 midlife women with daily hot flashes who completed an ambulatory electronic hot flash diary continuously for the waking hours of 3 consecutive days. In this diary, women recorded their hot flashes and accompanying characteristics and associations as the hot flashes occurred. Results Self-reported hot flash severity on the digital diaries indicated that the majority of hot flashes were rated as mild (41.3%) or moderate (43.7%). Severe (13.1%) and very severe (1.8%) hot flashes were less common. Hot flash bother ratings were rated as mild (43%), or moderate (33.5%), with fewer hot flashes reported bothersome (17.5%) or very bothersome (6%). The majority of hot flashes were reported as occurring on the on the face (78.9%), neck (74.7%), and chest (61.3%). Prickly skin was reported concurrently with 32% of hot flashes, 7% with anxiety and 5% with nausea. A novel finding, 38% of hot flashes were accompanied by a premonitory aura. Conclusion A prospective electronic digital hot flash diary allows for a more precise quantitation of hot flashes while overcoming many of the limitations of commonly employed retrospective questionnaires and paper diaries. Unique insights into the phenomenology, loci and associated characteristics of hot flashes were obtained using this device. The digital hot flash phenomenology diary is recommended for future ambulatory studies of hot flashes as a prospective measure of the hot flash experience. PMID:27404030

  8. FPGA Flash Memory High Speed Data Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, April

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to design and implement a VHDL ONFI Controller module for a Modular Instrumentation System. The goal of the Modular Instrumentation System will be to have a low power device that will store data and send the data at a low speed to a processor. The benefit of such a system will give an advantage over other purchased binary IP due to the capability of allowing NASA to re-use and modify the memory controller module. To accomplish the performance criteria of a low power system, an in house auxiliary board (Flash/ADC board), FPGA development kit, debug board, and modular instrumentation board will be jointly used for the data acquisition. The Flash/ADC board contains four, 1 MSPS, input channel signals and an Open NAND Flash memory module with an analog to digital converter. The ADC, data bits, and control line signals from the board are sent to an Microsemi/Actel FPGA development kit for VHDL programming of the flash memory WRITE, READ, READ STATUS, ERASE, and RESET operation waveforms using Libero software. The debug board will be used for verification of the analog input signal and be able to communicate via serial interface with the module instrumentation. The scope of the new controller module was to find and develop an ONFI controller with the debug board layout designed and completed for manufacture. Successful flash memory operation waveform test routines were completed, simulated, and tested to work on the FPGA board. Through connection of the Flash/ADC board with the FPGA, it was found that the device specifications were not being meet with Vdd reaching half of its voltage. Further testing showed that it was the manufactured Flash/ADC board that contained a misalignment with the ONFI memory module traces. The errors proved to be too great to fix in the time limit set for the project.

  9. A void distribution model-flashing flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riznic, J.; Ishii, M.; Afgan, N.

    1987-01-01

    A new model for flashing flow based on wall nucleations is proposed here and the model predictions are compared with some experimental data. In order to calculate the bubble number density, the bubble number transport equation with a distributed source from the wall nucleation sites was used. Thus it was possible to avoid the usual assumption of a constant bubble number density. Comparisons of the model with the data shows that the model based on the nucleation site density correlation appears to be acceptable to describe the vapor generation in the flashing flow. For the limited data examined, the comparisons show rather satisfactory agreement without using a floating parameter to adjust the model. This result indicated that, at least for the experimental conditions considered here, the mechanistic predictions of the flashing phenomenon is possible on the present wall nucleation based model

  10. Mechanisms of nucleation in flashing flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, F.; Giot, M.

    1989-01-01

    The mechanisms of nucleation have been analysed. Starting from the assumption that the activation of micro-cavities in the wall surfaces is the most probable nucleation mechanism in practical flashing system, the authors study in detail the nucleation in a micro-cavity. A three step nucleation criterion is proposed, namely: trapping cavity, activable cavity and active cavity. Then, a new nucleation model is presented. The output of the model is the prediction of the bubble departure frequency versus the thermodynamic state of the liquid and the geometry of the cavity. The model can also predict the nucleation site density if the nature of the wall and the surface roughness are know. The prediction have been successfully compared with some preliminary experimental results. By combining the present model with Jones'theory, the flashing inception is correctly predicted. The use of this nucleation model for the complete modelling of a flashing non-equilibrium flow is in progress

  11. New Genus and Species of Gall Midges (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae, Porricondylinae, Holoneurini from the Late Eocene Amber of Olevsk (Zhitomir Region, Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedotova Z. A.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Gall midges are reported for the first time in Late Eocene Rovno amber from the Olevsk, Zhitomir Region. This is the second amber locality to yield gall midges in the Zhitomir Region, after Gulyanka. Rovnoholoneurus gen. n. and two new species, Rovnoholoneurus davidi sp. n. and R. miyae sp. n. are described. Bryocrypta laqueata Fedotova, 2005 is transferred to the genus Rovnoholoneurus, and Rovnoholoneurus laqueatus (Fedotova, 2005, comb. n. is established. A key to the species of Rovnoholoneurus is provided.

  12. An Analysis of Total Lightning Flash Rates Over Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzetti, Thomas O.; Fuelberg, Henry E.

    2017-12-01

    Although Florida is known as the "Sunshine State", it also contains the greatest lightning flash densities in the United States. Flash density has received considerable attention in the literature, but lightning flash rate has received much less attention. We use data from the Earth Networks Total Lightning Network (ENTLN) to produce a 5 year (2010-2014) set of statistics regarding total flash rates over Florida and adjacent regions. Instead of tracking individual storms, we superimpose a 0.2° × 0.2° grid over the study region and count both cloud-to-ground (CG) and in-cloud (IC) flashes over 5 min intervals. Results show that the distribution of total flash rates is highly skewed toward small values, whereas the greatest rate is 185 flashes min-1. Greatest average annual flash rates ( 3 flashes min-1) are located near Orlando. The southernmost peninsula, North Florida, and the Florida Panhandle exhibit smaller average annual flash rates ( 1.5 flashes min-1). Large flash rates > 100 flashes min-1 can occur during any season, at any time during the 24 h period, and at any location within the domain. However, they are most likely during the afternoon and early evening in East Central Florida during the spring and summer months.

  13. Period and pulse duration with "strobe" lights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birriel, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Strobe lights have traditionally been discussed in The Physics Teacher in the context of stop action strobe photography. During the Halloween season most department and hardware stores sell inexpensive, compact "strobe" lights (although these can be found online year round). These lights generally sell for under 10 and usually employ LED lights. Most such devices have a rotary switch to adjust the rate at which the LED bulbs flash. This rotary switch is not calibrated—i.e., it has no markings to indicate the rate, but in general the greater the rotation of the switch from the off position, the faster the rate of flashing. We show how these simple devices can be used with a light sensor to study both the frequency of flashing and the duration of the light pulse. We briefly discuss if these devices are truly strobe lights.

  14. Flash Builder 4 and Flex 4 Bible

    CERN Document Server

    Gassner, David

    2010-01-01

    A complete and thorough reference for developers on the new Flex 4 platform. Create desktop applications that behave identically on Windows, Mac OS X, and Linux with Adobe's new Flash Builder 4 platform and this in-depth guide. The book's tutorials and explanations walk you step-by-step through Flash Builder's new, faster tools; the new framework for generating code; how to connect to popular application servers; upgrading from Flex 3; and much more.: Shows you how to create rich applications for the Web and desktop with the very latest version of Flex, with detailed coverage for both new and

  15. Foundation Flash CS5 for Designers

    CERN Document Server

    Green, T

    2010-01-01

    Flash is one of the most engaging, innovative, and versatile technologies available - allowing the creation of anything from animated banners and simple cartoons to Rich Internet Applications, interactive videos, and dynamic user interfaces for web sites, kiosks, devices, or DVDs. The possibilities are endless, and now it just got better. Flash CS5 boasts a host of new features, including better support for mobile devices, a whole new animation engine enabling full manipulation of tweens and paths, custom easing, improved inverse kinematics, a revamped timeline, built-in 3D, and much more. Thi

  16. Perfect Lighting for Facial Photography in Aesthetic Surgery: Ring Light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dölen, Utku Can; Çınar, Selçuk

    2016-04-01

    Photography is indispensable for plastic surgery. On-camera flashes can result in bleached out detail and colour. This is why most of the plastic surgery clinics prefer studio lighting similar to professional photographers'. In this article, we want to share a simple alternative to studio lighting that does not need extra space: Ring light. We took five different photographs of the same person with five different camera and lighting settings: Smartphone and ring light; point and shoot camera and on-camera flash; point and shoot camera and studio lighting; digital single-lens reflex (DLSR) camera and studio lighting; DSLR and ring light. Then, those photographs were assessed objectively with an online survey of five questions answered by three distinct populations: plastic surgeons (n: 28), professional portrait photographers (n: 24) and patients (n: 22) who had facial aesthetic procedures. Compared to the on-camera flash, studio lighting better showed the wrinkles of the subject. The ring light facilitated the perception of the wrinkles by providing homogenous soft light in a circular shape rather than bursting flashes. The combination of a DSLR camera and ring light gave the oldest looking subject according to 64 % of responders. The DSLR camera and the studio lighting demonstrated the youngest looking subject according to 70 % of the responders. The majority of the responders (78 %) chose the combination of DSLR camera and ring light that exhibited the wrinkles the most. We suggest using a ring light to obtain well-lit photographs without loss of detail, with any type of cameras. However, smartphones must be avoided if standard pictures are desired. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266.

  17. Using 20-million-year-old amber to test the super-Arrhenius behaviour of glass-forming systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Simon, Sindee L.; McKenna, Gregory B.

    2013-04-01

    Fossil amber offers the opportunity to investigate the dynamics of glass-forming materials far below the nominal glass transition temperature. This is important in the context of classical theory, as well as some new theories that challenge the idea of an ‘ideal’ glass transition. Here we report results from calorimetric and stress relaxation experiments using a 20-million-year-old Dominican amber. By performing the stress relaxation experiments in a step-wise fashion, we measured the relaxation time at each temperature and, above the fictive temperature of this 20-million-year-old glass, this is an upper bound to the equilibrium relaxation time. The results deviate dramatically from the expectation of classical theory and are consistent with some modern ideas, in which the diverging timescale signature of complex fluids disappears below the glass transition temperature.

  18. A new genus and species of micro bee fly from the Earliest Eocene French amber (Diptera: Mythicomyiidae: Psiloderoidinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myskowiak, Justine; Garrouste, Romain; Nel, Andre

    2016-05-26

    Mythicomyiidae, or micro bee flies, are tiny flies (0.5-5.0 mm) that are found throughout most parts of the world except the highest altitudes and latitudes (Greathead & Evenhuis 2001). Including all extinct and extant taxa, the Mythicomyiidae currently comprise more than 380 valid taxonomic species distributed among 30 genera. The subfamily Psiloderoidinae is especially well represented among the fossil Mythicomyiidae by seven Cretaceous or Cenozoic genera. We here describe a new genus and a new species of this subfamily based on fossils from the Earliest Eocene of Oise (France). A Psiloderoidinae, Proplatypygus matilei Nel & DePloëg, 2004, is already described in this amber. Another mythicomyiid, Eurodoliopteryx inexpectatus Nel, 2006, is the most frequent bombylioid in this amber (Nel & DePloëg, 2004; Nel, 2006).

  19. Evolution and classification of Elaphoglossum and Asplenium ferns on Cuba, and discovery of a Miocene Elaphoglossum in Dominican amber

    OpenAIRE

    Lóriga Piñero, Josmaily

    2018-01-01

    This dissertation deals with the systematics and evolution of Neotropical ferns of the genera Elaphoglossum and Asplenium, with particular focus on the species of Cuba and the West Indies. It also includes an analysis and description of an Elaphoglossum frond fragment preserved in Miocene Dominican amber. The worldwide genera Elaphoglossum with 600 species and Asplenium with 685 species are the most species-rich groups of leptosporangiate ferns. On Cuba, Elaphoglossum has 34 species and Asple...

  20. Determining optimum flash patterns for emergency service vehicles: an experimental investigation using high definition film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Sally; Wylde, Julie; Langham, Martin; Morrow, Andrew

    2014-09-01

    An investigation of how emergency vehicle lighting (EVL) can be improved is reported with reference to an analysis of police vehicle road traffic accidents (Study 1). In Study 2, 37 regular drivers were shown film clips of a marked police vehicle, in which flash rate (1 Hz, 4 Hz) and pattern (single, triple pulse) were varied on the blue Light Emitting Diode (LED) roofbar. Results indicate a 4 Hz flash rate conveys greater urgency than a 1 Hz rate, while a 1 Hz, single flash combination was ranked the least urgent of all combinations. Participants claimed they would leave significantly more space before pulling out in front of an approaching police car (gap acceptance) in the 4 Hz single pulse condition in comparison to other EVL combinations. The preliminary implications for which flash characteristics could prove most optimal for emergency service use are discussed with regard to effects on driver perception and expected driving behaviour. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  1. Flash characteristics of plasma induced by hypervelocity impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Kai [State Key Laboratory of Explosion Science and Technology, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Beijing Automotive Technology Center, Beijing 100021 (China); Long, Renrong, E-mail: longrenrong@bit.edu.cn, E-mail: qmzhang@bit.edu.cn; Zhang, Qingming, E-mail: longrenrong@bit.edu.cn, E-mail: qmzhang@bit.edu.cn; Xue, Yijiang; Ju, Yuanyuan [State Key Laboratory of Explosion Science and Technology, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2016-08-15

    Using a two-stage light gas gun, a series of hypervelocity impact experiments was conducted in which 6.4-mm-diameter spherical 2024-aluminum projectiles impact 23-mm-thick targets made of the same material at velocities of 5.0, 5.6, and 6.3 km/s. Both an optical pyrometer composed of six photomultiplier tubes and a spectrograph were used to measure the flash of the plasma during hypervelocity impact. Experimental results show that, at a projectile velocity of 6.3 km/s, the strong flash lasted about 10 μs and reached a temperature of 4300 K. Based on the known emission lines of AL I, spectral methods can provide the plasma electron temperature. An electron-temperature comparison between experiment and theoretical calculation indicates that single ionization and secondary ionization are the two main ionizing modes at velocities 5.0–6.3 km/s.

  2. Development of BNL Heat Transfer Facility 1: flashing experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonhardt, W.J.; Klein, J.H.; Zimmer, G.A.; Abuaf, N.; Jones, O.C. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    A major area of interest to reactor safety technology is the prediction of actual vapor generation rates under conditions of thermal nonequilibrium as would be encountered during a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) in a light water reactor. In support of the development of advanced codes dealing with LOCA induced flashing, analytical models of the nonequilibrium vapor generation processes of interest have been formulated, and an experimental facility has been constructed to provide data to verify these models. This facility is known as BNL Heat Transfer Facility. The experimental facility consists of a flow loop, test section and the data acquisition and analysis system. The main portion of the flow loop is constructed from three inch nominal (7.6 cm) stainless steel pipe. High purity water is circulated through the loop using a centrifugal pump rated 1500 l/min at 600 kPa. Very close and stable control of all loop parameters is required since flashing is sensitive to very small changes in such parameters as flow rate, subcooling, and pressure

  3. The Green, Amber, Red Delineation of Risk and Need (GARDIAN) management system: a pragmatic approach to optimizing heart health from primary prevention to chronic disease management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrington, Melinda J; Kok, Simone; Jansen, Kiki; Stewart, Simon

    2013-08-01

    A sustained epidemic of cardiovascular disease and related risk factors is a global phenomenon contributing significantly to premature deaths and costly morbidity. Preventative strategies across the full continuum of life, from a population to individual perspective, are not optimally applied. This paper describes a simple and adaptable 'traffic-light' system we have developed to systematically perform individual risk and need delineation in order to 'titrate' the intensity and frequency of healthcare intervention in a cost-effective manner. The GARDIAN (Green Amber Red Delineation of Risk and Need) system is an individual assessment of risk and need that modulates the frequency and intensity of future healthcare intervention. Individual assessment of risk and need for ongoing intervention and support is determined with reference to three domains: (1) clinical stability, (2) gold-standard management, and (3) a broader, holistic assessment of individual circumstance. This can be applied from a primary prevention, secondary prevention, or chronic disease management perspective. Our experience with applying and validating GARDIAN to titrate healthcare resources according to need has been extensive to date, with >5000 individuals profiled in a host of clinical settings. A series of clinical randomized trials will determine the impact of the GARDIAN system on important indices of healthcare utilization and health status. The GARDIAN model to delineating risk and need for varied intensity of management shows strong potential to cost effectively improve health outcomes for both individuals at risk of heart disease and those with established heart disease.

  4. Data for molecular dynamics simulations of B-type cytochrome c oxidase with the Amber force field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longhua Yang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cytochrome c oxidase (CcO is a vital enzyme that catalyzes the reduction of molecular oxygen to water and pumps protons across mitochondrial and bacterial membranes. This article presents parameters for the cofactors of ba3-type CcO that are compatible with the all-atom Amber ff12SB and ff14SB force fields. Specifically, parameters were developed for the CuA pair, heme b, and the dinuclear center that consists of heme a3 and CuB bridged by a hydroperoxo group. The data includes geometries in XYZ coordinate format for cluster models that were employed to compute proton transfer energies and derive bond parameters and point charges for the force field using density functional theory. Also included are the final parameter files that can be employed with the Amber leap program to generate input files for molecular dynamics simulations with the Amber software package. Based on the high resolution (1.8 Å X-ray crystal structure of the ba3-type CcO from Thermus thermophilus (Protein Data Bank ID number PDB: 3S8F, we built a model that is embedded in a POPC lipid bilayer membrane and solvated with TIP3P water molecules and counterions. We provide PDB data files of the initial model and the equilibrated model that can be used for further studies.

  5. Microtomography of the Baltic amber tick Ixodes succineus reveals affinities with the modern Asian disease vector Ixodes ovatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunlop, Jason A.; Apanaskevich, Dmitry A.; Lehmann, Jens; Hoffmann, René; Fusseis, Florian; Ehlke, Moritz; Zachow, Stefan; Xiao, Xianghui

    2016-10-10

    Background: Fossil ticks are extremely rare, whereby Ixodes succineus Weidner, 1964 from Eocene (ca. 44–49 Ma) Baltic amber is one of the oldest examples of a living hard tick genus (Ixodida: Ixodidae). Previous work suggested it was most closely related to the modern and widespread European sheep tick Ixodes ricinus (Linneaus, 1758). Results: Restudy using phase contrast synchrotron x-ray tomography yielded images of exceptional quality. These confirm the fossil’s referral to Ixodes Latreille, 1795, but the characters resolved here suggest instead affinities with the Asian subgenus Partipalpiger Hoogstraal et al., 1973 and its single living (and medically significant) species Ixodes ovatus Neumann, 1899. We redescribe the amber fossil here as Ixodes (Partipalpiger) succineus. Conclusions: Our data suggest that Ixodes ricinus is unlikely to be directly derived from Weidner’s amber species, but instead reveals that the Partipalpiger lineage was originally more widely distributed across the northern hemisphere. The closeness of Ixodes (P.) succineus to a living vector of a wide range of pathogens offers the potential to correlate its spatial and temporal position (northern Europe, nearly 50 million years ago) with the estimated origination dates of various tick-borne diseases.

  6. Molecular and Morphological Evidence Challenges the Records of the Extant Liverwort Ptilidium pulcherrimum in Eocene Baltic Amber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrichs, Jochen; Scheben, Armin; Lee, Gaik Ee; Váňa, Jiří; Schäfer-Verwimp, Alfons; Krings, Michael; Schmidt, Alexander R

    2015-01-01

    Preservation of liverworts in amber, a fossilized tree resin, is often exquisite. Twenty-three fossil species of liverworts have been described to date from Eocene (35-50 Ma) Baltic amber. In addition, two inclusions have been assigned to the extant species Ptilidium pulcherrimum (Ptilidiales or Porellales). However, the presence of the boreal P. pulcherrimum in the subtropical or warm-temperate Baltic amber forest challenges the phytogeographical interpretation of the Eocene flora. A re-investigation of one of the fossils believed to be P. pulcherrimum reveals that this specimen in fact represents the first fossil evidence of the genus Tetralophozia, and thus is re-described here as Tetralophozia groehnii sp. nov. A second fossil initially assigned to P. pulcherrimum is apparently lost, and can be reassessed only based on the original description and illustrations. This fossil is morphologically similar to the extant North Pacific endemic Ptilidium californicum, rather than P. pulcherrimum. Divergence time estimates based on chloroplast DNA sequences provide evidence of a Miocene origin of P. pulcherrimum, and thus also argue against the presence of this taxon in the Eocene. Ptilidium californicum originated 25-43 Ma ago. As a result, we cannot rule out that the Eocene fossil belongs to P. californicum. Alternatively, the fossil might represent a stem lineage element of Ptilidium or an early crown group species with morphological similarities to P. californicum.

  7. Mathematical modeling of the flash converting process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, H.Y.; Perez-Tello, M.; Riihilahti, K.M. [Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    1996-12-31

    An axisymmetric mathematical model for the Kennecott-Outokumpu flash converting process for converting solid copper matte to copper is presented. The model is an adaptation of the comprehensive mathematical model formerly developed at the University of Utah for the flash smelting of copper concentrates. The model incorporates the transport of momentum, heat, mass, and reaction kinetics between gas and particles in a particle-laden turbulent gas jet. The standard k-{epsilon} model is used to describe gas-phase turbulence in an Eulerian framework. The particle-phase is treated from a Lagrangian viewpoint which is coupled to the gas-phase via the source terms in the Eulerian gas-phase governing equations. Matte particles were represented as Cu{sub 2}S yFeS, and assumed to undergo homogeneous oxidation to Cu{sub 2}O, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, and SO{sub 2}. A reaction kinetics mechanism involving both external mass transfer of oxygen gas to the particle surface and diffusion of oxygen through the porous oxide layer is proposed to estimate the particle oxidation rate Predictions of the mathematical model were compared with the experimental data collected in a bench-scale flash converting facility. Good agreement between the model predictions and the measurements was obtained. The model was used to study the effect of different gas-injection configurations on the overall fluid dynamics in a commercial size flash converting shaft. (author)

  8. A hybrid ferroelectric-flash memory cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae Hyo; Byun, Chang Woo; Seok, Ki Hwan; Kim, Hyung Yoon; Chae, Hee Jae; Lee, Sol Kyu; Son, Se Wan; Ahn, Donghwan; Joo, Seung Ki

    2014-09-01

    A ferroelectric-flash (F-flash) memory cells having a metal-ferroelectric-nitride-oxynitride-silicon structure are demonstrated, and the ferroelectric materials were perovskite-dominated Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT) crystallized by Pt gate electrode. The PZT thin-film as a blocking layer improves electrical and memorial performance where programming and erasing mechanism are different from the metal-ferroelectric-insulator-semiconductor device or the conventional silicon-oxide-nitride-oxide-silicon device. F-flash cells exhibit not only the excellent electrical transistor performance, having 442.7 cm2 V-1 s-1 of field-effect mobility, 190 mV dec-1 of substhreshold slope, and 8 × 105 on/off drain current ratio, but also a high reliable memory characteristics, having a large memory window (6.5 V), low-operating voltage (0 to -5 V), faster P/E switching speed (50/500 μs), long retention time (>10 years), and excellent fatigue P/E cycle (>105) due to the boosting effect, amplification effect, and energy band distortion of nitride from the large polarization. All these characteristics correspond to the best performances among conventional flash cells reported so far.

  9. Electro-optical muzzle flash detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieg, Jürgen; Eisele, Christian; Seiffer, Dirk

    2016-10-01

    Localizing a shooter in a complex scenario is a difficult task. Acoustic sensors can be used to detect blast waves. Radar technology permits detection of the projectile. A third method is to detect the muzzle flash using electro-optical devices. Detection of muzzle flash events is possible with focal plane arrays, line and single element detectors. In this paper, we will show that the detection of a muzzle flash works well in the shortwave infrared spectral range. Important for the acceptance of an operational warning system in daily use is a very low false alarm rate. Using data from a detector with a high sampling rate the temporal signature of a potential muzzle flash event can be analyzed and the false alarm rate can be reduced. Another important issue is the realization of an omnidirectional view required on an operational level. It will be shown that a combination of single element detectors and simple optics in an appropriate configuration is a capable solution.

  10. Mathematical modeling of the flash converting process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, H Y; Perez-Tello, M; Riihilahti, K M [Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    1997-12-31

    An axisymmetric mathematical model for the Kennecott-Outokumpu flash converting process for converting solid copper matte to copper is presented. The model is an adaptation of the comprehensive mathematical model formerly developed at the University of Utah for the flash smelting of copper concentrates. The model incorporates the transport of momentum, heat, mass, and reaction kinetics between gas and particles in a particle-laden turbulent gas jet. The standard k-{epsilon} model is used to describe gas-phase turbulence in an Eulerian framework. The particle-phase is treated from a Lagrangian viewpoint which is coupled to the gas-phase via the source terms in the Eulerian gas-phase governing equations. Matte particles were represented as Cu{sub 2}S yFeS, and assumed to undergo homogeneous oxidation to Cu{sub 2}O, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, and SO{sub 2}. A reaction kinetics mechanism involving both external mass transfer of oxygen gas to the particle surface and diffusion of oxygen through the porous oxide layer is proposed to estimate the particle oxidation rate Predictions of the mathematical model were compared with the experimental data collected in a bench-scale flash converting facility. Good agreement between the model predictions and the measurements was obtained. The model was used to study the effect of different gas-injection configurations on the overall fluid dynamics in a commercial size flash converting shaft. (author)

  11. Interactions between Brief Flashed Lines at Threshold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-11

    ORAIAIN 6 OFC ’PO 4 4M FMNTRIGOGNZTO lol in AFI, C 203 2- 44 . NAME OF PFN IG PORAIION lbOFFICE SYMBOL 7il PRO4MEN MINTRUNT INCNIATON NM ,.. .oAFOSR...Cass, P. C. (1986) Facilitatory interactionE between flashed lines. Perceptinn. jj,443-460. omith, P.A. and Cass, P C. (1967) Aliasing in the

  12. In Situ Flash Pyrolysis of Straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Niels

    In-Situ Flash Pyrolysis of Straw Ph.D. dissertation by Niels Bech Submitted: April 2007. Supervisors: Professor Kim Dam-Johansen, Associate Professor Peter Arendt Jensen Erfaringerne med forbrænding af halm opnået gennem et årti har vist, at en proces der kan koncentrere energien på marken, fjerne...

  13. Flash flood modelling for ungauged catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garambois, P.-A.; Roux, H.; Larnier, K.; Dartus, D.

    2012-04-01

    Flash flood is a very intense and quick hydrologic response of a catchment to rainfall. This phenomenon has a high spatial-temporal variability as its generating storm, often hitting small catchments (few km2). Data collected by (Gaume et al. 2009) about 500 flash floods over the last 50 years showed that they could occur everywhere in Europe and more often in the Mediterranean regions, Alpine regions and continental Europe. Given the small spatial-temporal scales and high variability of flash floods, their prediction remains a hard exercise as the necessary data are often scarce. Flash flood prediction on ungauged catchments is one of the challenges of hydrological modelling as defined by (Sivapalan et al. 2003). Several studies have been headed up with the MARINE model (Modélisation de l'Anticipation du Ruissellement et des Inondations pour des évèNements Extrêmes) for the Gard region (France), (Roux et al. 2011), (Castaings et al. 2009). This physically based spatially distributed rainfall runoff model is dedicated to flash flood prediction. The study aims at finding a methodology for flash flood prediction at ungauged locations in the Cévennes-Vivarais region in particular. The regionalization method is based on multiple calibrations on gauged catchments in order to extract model structures (model + parameter values) for each catchment. Several mathematical methods (multiple regressions, transfer functions, krigging…) will then be tested to calculate a regional parameter set. The study also investigates the usability of additional hydrologic indices at different time scales to constrain model predictions from parameters obtained using these indices, and this independently of the model considered. These hydrologic indices gather information on hydrograph shape or catchment dynamic for instance. Results explaining global catchments behaviour are expected that way. The spatial-temporal variability of storms is also described through indices and linked with

  14. Bridging the gap between chewing and sucking in the hemipteroid insects: new insights from Cretaceous amber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshizawa, Kazunori; Lienhard, Charles

    2016-02-11

    The diversity of feeding apparatuses in insects far exceeds that observed in any other animal group. Consequently, tracking mouthpart innovation in insects is one of the keys toward understanding their diversification. In hemipteroid insects (clade Paraneoptera or Acercaria: lice, thrips, aphids, cicadas, bugs, etc.), the transition from chewing to piercing-and-sucking mouthparts is widely regarded as the turning point that enabled hyperdiversification of the Hemiptera, the fifth largest insect order. However, the transitional process from chewing to piercing-and-sucking in the Paraneoptera was hitherto completely unknown. In this paper, we report a well preserved mid Cretaceous amber fossil of the paraneopteran insect family Archipsyllidae and describe it as Mydiognathus eviohlhoffae gen. et sp. n. This species has elongate mandibles and styliform laciniae similar to Hemiptera but retains functional chewing mouthparts. A number of morphological characters place the Archipsyllidae as the sister group of the thrips plus hemipterans, which strongly suggests that the mouthparts of M. eviohlhoffae represent a transitional condition from primitive chewing to derived piercing-and-sucking mouthparts. The clade composed of Archipsyllidae, thrips, and hemipterans is here named Pancondylognatha, a new supra-ordinal taxon. Based on newly obtained information, we also assess the monophyly of the Paraneoptera, which was called into question by recent phylogenomic analyses. A phylogenetic analysis that includes Mydiognathus strongly supports the monophyly of the Paraneoptera.

  15. Extension of the AMBER molecular dynamics software to Intel's Many Integrated Core (MIC) architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needham, Perri J.; Bhuiyan, Ashraf; Walker, Ross C.

    2016-04-01

    We present an implementation of explicit solvent particle mesh Ewald (PME) classical molecular dynamics (MD) within the PMEMD molecular dynamics engine, that forms part of the AMBER v14 MD software package, that makes use of Intel Xeon Phi coprocessors by offloading portions of the PME direct summation and neighbor list build to the coprocessor. We refer to this implementation as pmemd MIC offload and in this paper present the technical details of the algorithm, including basic models for MPI and OpenMP configuration, and analyze the resultant performance. The algorithm provides the best performance improvement for large systems (>400,000 atoms), achieving a ∼35% performance improvement for satellite tobacco mosaic virus (1,067,095 atoms) when 2 Intel E5-2697 v2 processors (2 ×12 cores, 30M cache, 2.7 GHz) are coupled to an Intel Xeon Phi coprocessor (Model 7120P-1.238/1.333 GHz, 61 cores). The implementation utilizes a two-fold decomposition strategy: spatial decomposition using an MPI library and thread-based decomposition using OpenMP. We also present compiler optimization settings that improve the performance on Intel Xeon processors, while retaining simulation accuracy.

  16. Flash photoionization of gamma-ray burst environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Band, David L.; Hartmann, Dieter H.

    1992-01-01

    The H-alpha line emission that a flash-photoionized region emits is calculated. Archival transients, as well as various theoretical predictions, suggest that there may be significant ionizing flux. The limits on the line flux which might be observable indicate that the density must be fairly high for the recombination radiation to be observable. The intense burst radiation is insufficient to melt the dust which will be present in such a dense medium. This dust may attenuate the observable line emission, but does not attenuate the ionizing radiation before it ionizes the neutral medium surrounding the burst source. The dust can also produce a light echo. If there are indeed gamma-ray bursts in dense clouds, then it is possible that the burst was triggered by Bondi-Hoyle accretion from the dense medium, although it is unlikely on statistical grounds that all bursts occur in clouds.

  17. The Status of the Ultra Fast Flash Observatory – Pathfinder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, J.W.; Ahmad, S.; Ahn, K.B.; Barrillon, P.; Brandt, S.; Budtz-Jrgensen, C.; Castro-Tirado, A.J.; Chang, C.-H.; Chang, C.-Y.; Chang, Y.Y.; Chen, C.R.; Chen, P.; Cho, M.; Choi, H.S.; Choi, Y.J.; Connel, P.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; Eyles, C.; Grossan, B.; Huang, J.J.

    2014-01-01

    The Ultra Fast Flash Observatory (UFFO) is a project to study early optical emissions from Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs). The primary scientific goal of UFFO is to see if GRBs can be calibrated with their rising times, so that they could be used as new standard candles. In order to minimize delay in optical follow-up measurements, which is now about 100 sec after trigger from the Swift experiment, we rotate a mirror to redirect light path so that optical measurement can be performed within a second after the trigger. We have developed a pathfinder mission, UFFO-pathfinder to launch on board the Lomonosov satellite in 2012. In this talk, I will present scientific motivations and descriptions of the design and development of UFFO-pathfinder

  18. Physiologically assessed hot flashes and endothelial function among midlife women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurston, Rebecca C; Chang, Yuefang; Barinas-Mitchell, Emma; Jennings, J Richard; von Känel, Roland; Landsittel, Doug P; Matthews, Karen A

    2017-08-01

    Hot flashes are experienced by most midlife women. Emerging data indicate that they may be associated with endothelial dysfunction. No studies have tested whether hot flashes are associated with endothelial function using physiologic measures of hot flashes. We tested whether physiologically assessed hot flashes were associated with poorer endothelial function. We also considered whether age modified associations. Two hundred seventy-two nonsmoking women reporting either daily hot flashes or no hot flashes, aged 40 to 60 years, and free of clinical cardiovascular disease, underwent ambulatory physiologic hot flash and diary hot flash monitoring; a blood draw; and ultrasound measurement of brachial artery flow-mediated dilation to assess endothelial function. Associations between hot flashes and flow-mediated dilation were tested in linear regression models controlling for lumen diameter, demographics, cardiovascular disease risk factors, and estradiol. In multivariable models incorporating cardiovascular disease risk factors, significant interactions by age (P hot flashes (beta [standard error] = -2.07 [0.79], P = 0.01), and more frequent physiologic hot flashes (for each hot flash: beta [standard error] = -0.10 [0.05], P = 0.03, multivariable) were associated with lower flow-mediated dilation. Associations were not accounted for by estradiol. Associations were not observed among the older women (age 54-60 years) or for self-reported hot flash frequency, severity, or bother. Among the younger women, hot flashes explained more variance in flow-mediated dilation than standard cardiovascular disease risk factors or estradiol. Among younger midlife women, frequent hot flashes were associated with poorer endothelial function and may provide information about women's vascular status beyond cardiovascular disease risk factors and estradiol.

  19. Green FLASH: energy efficient real-time control for AO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratadour, D.; Dipper, N.; Biasi, R.; Deneux, H.; Bernard, J.; Brule, J.; Dembet, R.; Doucet, N.; Ferreira, F.; Gendron, E.; Laine, M.; Perret, D.; Rousset, G.; Sevin, A.; Bitenc, U.; Geng, D.; Younger, E.; Andrighettoni, M.; Angerer, G.; Patauner, C.; Pescoller, D.; Porta, F.; Dufourcq, G.; Flaischer, A.; Leclere, J.-B.; Nai, A.; Palazzari, P.; Pretet, D.; Rouaud, C.

    2016-07-01

    The main goal of Green Flash is to design and build a prototype for a Real-Time Controller (RTC) targeting the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT) Adaptive Optics (AO) instrumentation. The E-ELT is a 39m diameter telescope to see first light in the early 2020s. To build this critical component of the telescope operations, the astronomical community is facing technical challenges, emerging from the combination of high data transfer bandwidth, low latency and high throughput requirements, similar to the identified critical barriers on the road to Exascale. With Green Flash, we will propose technical solutions, assess these enabling technologies through prototyping and assemble a full scale demonstrator to be validated with a simulator and tested on sky. With this R&D program we aim at feeding the E-ELT AO systems preliminary design studies, led by the selected first-light instruments consortia, with technological validations supporting the designs of their RTC modules. Our strategy is based on a strong interaction between academic and industrial partners. Components specifications and system requirements are derived from the AO application. Industrial partners lead the development of enabling technologies aiming at innovative tailored solutions with potential wide application range. The academic partners provide the missing links in the ecosystem, targeting their application with mainstream solutions. This increases both the value and market opportunities of the developed products. A prototype harboring all the features is used to assess the performance. It also provides the proof of concept for a resilient modular solution to equip a large scale European scientific facility, while containing the development cost by providing opportunities for return on investment.

  20. An unusual characteristic "flower-like" pattern: flash suppressor burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurcan, Altun

    2012-04-01

    The case on contact shots from firearms with a flash suppressor is rare. When a rifle fitted with a flash suppressor is fired, the emerging soot-laden gas in the barrel escapes from the slits of the flash suppressor. If the shot is contact or near contact, the flash suppressor will produce a characteristic "flower-like" pattern of seared, blackened zones around the entrance. This paper presents the injury pattern of the flash suppressor in a 29-year-old man who committed suicide with a G3 automatic infantry rifle.

  1. Investigations concerning the applicability of X-ray flash interference and laser technology to shock-induced solidification of organic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krehl, Peter; Schaaffs, Werner

    By a dielectric discharge through a thin layer of liquid a hot plasma is created, which expands very fast and builds up around a compression ring of very highly compressed matter. X-ray flash interferences and laser light are applied to investigate the structure of the compression rings. To perform investigation of the fine structure, an X-ray flash machine was developed which permits to obtain with a single flash in less than 1μs Laue patterns of monocrystals, and Debye-Scherrer patterns of polycrystalline substances. The investigation of the compression rings in diverse substances by laser light resulted that the optical transparency and solidification is different in different regions of the compression ring. Therefore important hints for experiments with X-ray flash interferences were obtained

  2. Dissecting a Light Echo

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for audio animation This animation illustrates how a light echo works, and how an optical illusion of material moving outward is created. A light echo occurs when a star explodes, acting like a cosmic flashbulb. The light from this explosion zips through nearby dust clumps, illuminating and heating them up slightly. This brief period of warming causes them to glow in infrared, like a chain of Christmas bulbs lighting up one by one. The animation starts by showing the explosion of a star, which results in a flash of light that moves outward in all directions. The direction of our line of sight from Earth is indicated by the blue arrow. When the light flash reaches surrounding dust, shown here as three dark clouds, the dust is heated up, creating infrared light that begins to travel toward Earth (indicated by the red arrows). Dust closest to the explosion lights up first, while the explosion's shock wave takes longer to reach more distant material. This results in light from different parts of the cloud reaching Earth at different times, creating the illusion of motion over time. As the animation shows, the inclination of the cloud toward our line of sight can result in the material seeming to move both away from and toward the central star.

  3. Flash flood forecasting, warning and risk management: the HYDRATE project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borga, M.; Anagnostou, E.N.; Bloeschl, G.; Creutin, J.-D.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We characterize flash flood events in various regions of Europe. → We provide guidance to improve observations and monitoring of flash floods. → Flash floods are associated to orography and are influenced by initial soil moisture conditions. → Models for flash flood forecasting and flash flood hazard assessment are illustrated and discussed. → We examine implications for flood risk policy and discuss recommendations received from end users. - Abstract: The management of flash flood hazards and risks is a critical component of public safety and quality of life. Flash-floods develop at space and time scales that conventional observation systems are not able to monitor for rainfall and river discharge. Consequently, the atmospheric and hydrological generating mechanisms of flash-floods are poorly understood, leading to highly uncertain forecasts of these events. The objective of the HYDRATE project has been to improve the scientific basis of flash flood forecasting by advancing and harmonising a European-wide innovative flash flood observation strategy and developing a coherent set of technologies and tools for effective early warning systems. To this end, the project included actions on the organization of the existing flash flood data patrimony across Europe. The final aim of HYDRATE was to enhance the capability of flash flood forecasting in ungauged basins by exploiting the extended availability of flash flood data and the improved process understanding. This paper provides a review of the work conducted in HYDRATE with a special emphasis on how this body of research can contribute to guide the policy-life cycle concerning flash flood risk management.

  4. Effect of capacitor loss on discharging characteristics of xenon flash lamp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Chu; Lin Dejiang; Xu Chunmei; Shen Hongbin; Chen Xiaohan

    2012-01-01

    The effect of storage capacitor's loss on the discharging characteristics of the xenon flash lamp was studied, and the xenon flash lamp discharging circuit was analyzed and improved. The capacitor can be equivalent to a series of an ideal capacitor and loss resistance. The improved formula of the xenon lamp discharging characteristics was given when actual capacitance loss is not zero, and the xenon lamp discharging current and discharging power are calculated and analyzed in detail with the increase of the capacitor loss. The results show that the increase of loss will lead to the decrease of xenon lamp discharging current and peak power and the xenon lamp flash time, and influence laser pumping efficiency. The loss will also lead to the capacitor inverse charging in LC discharging circuit; this will influence normal working of the capacitor and decrease the lift of the xenon lamp. The actual energy storage capacitor charging and discharging experiments show that the increase of capacitor loss will lead to the decrease of xenon lamp light-emitting waveform peak, shortening of the flash time and increase of the electrode sputter, thus verity, the reasonableness of theoretical analysis. In addition, the experiments show that environmental factors have very significant impact on the increase of the storage capacitor loss. (authors)

  5. [Study on the discharge properties of xeon flash lamp and experimental measurement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, You-Quan; Miao, Pei-Liang; He, Feng; Gu, Jian; Zhai, Rui-Wei

    2014-07-01

    The Xenon flash lamp is a new type of light source for analytical instrument. The present paper analyzed the discharge process of xenon flash lamp, presented the discharge test system, and conducted experimental measurement of the voltage, current and optical pulse signal in the process of discharge. The results show that in the preliminary discharge, the free electron concentration was at a low level, so the energy was at a low level, then following the gas discharge, numerous free electrons formed in the lamp, resultin in the increase in the concentration of free electrons, therefore discharge current rised rapidly and voltage reduced. The lamp released photons to generate light pulse in the moment of ionic recombination, The pulse xenon lamp light energy output and spectral characteristic is related to electron energy in recombination and combination level of xenon, if the input energy and the energy consumption of the xenon lamp is inconsistent, it will lead to repeated capacitor charging and discharging and produce oscillation waveform. This paper is very useful for understanding the process of xenon lamp discharge, optimizing the driver circuit and the production of xenon flash lamp.

  6. Electrical Safety and Arc Flash Protections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Camp

    2008-03-04

    Over the past four years, the Electrical Safety Program at PPPL has evolved in addressing changing regulatory requirements and lessons learned from accident events, particularly in regards to arc flash hazards and implementing NFPA 70E requirements. This presentation will discuss PPPL's approaches to the areas of electrical hazards evaluation, both shock and arc flash; engineered solutions for hazards mitigation such as remote racking of medium voltage breakers, operational changes for hazards avoidance, targeted personnel training and hazard appropriate personal protective equipment. Practical solutions for nominal voltage identification and zero voltage checks for lockout/tagout will also be covered. Finally, we will review the value of a comprehensive electrical drawing program, employee attitudes expressed as a personal safety work ethic, integrated safety management, and sustained management support for continuous safety improvement.

  7. Electrical Safety and Arc Flash Protections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camp, R.

    2008-01-01

    Over the past four years, the Electrical Safety Program at PPPL has evolved in addressing changing regulatory requirements and lessons learned from accident events, particularly in regards to arc flash hazards and implementing NFPA 70E requirements. This presentation will discuss PPPL's approaches to the areas of electrical hazards evaluation, both shock and arc flash; engineered solutions for hazards mitigation such as remote racking of medium voltage breakers, operational changes for hazards avoidance, targeted personnel training and hazard appropriate personal protective equipment. Practical solutions for nominal voltage identification and zero voltage checks for lockout/tagout will also be covered. Finally, we will review the value of a comprehensive electrical drawing program, employee attitudes expressed as a personal safety work ethic, integrated safety management, and sustained management support for continuous safety improvement.

  8. Study of coal flash hydropyrolysis denitrogenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Lihua; Zhu, Zibin; Zhu, Hongbin; Zhang, Chengfang [Research Institute of Inorganic Chemical Technology, East China University of Science and Technology, 130 Meilong Road, Shanghai 200237 (China)

    2003-05-15

    The hydrodenitrogenation efficiency of 14 types of coals and the reaction mechanism of Zalainouer coal were studied in an experimental entrained bed reactor by flash hydropyrolysis (FHP). The results showed that flash hydropyrolysis is an efficient method for denitrogenation, and that the denitrogenation percentage increases with an increase in temperature and hydrogen pressure. For example, the denitrogenation percentage can reach up to about 60% for Zalainouer coal at 700 C and 6.0 MPa hydrogen pressure. The denitrogenation efficiency of different coal types is related to H/C. According to the conclusion of the study, the denitrogenation percentage increases with the increase in H/C ratio, reaching about 12% when H/C is equal to 0.6, and 40-55% when H/C is above 1.0. The results indicate that FHP is an efficient technique for removing nitrogen in coal.

  9. Fluorescence Lyman-Alpha Stratospheric Hygrometer (FLASH): application on meteorological balloons, long duration balloons and unmanned aerial vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lykov, Alexey; Khaykin, Sergey; Yushkov, Vladimir; Efremov, Denis; Formanyuk, Ivan; Astakhov, Valeriy

    The FLASH instrument is based on the fluorescent method, which uses H2O molecules photodissociation at a wavelength lambda=121.6 nm (Lalpha - hydrogen emission) followed by the measurement of the fluorescence of excited OH radicals. The source of Lyman-alpha radiation is a hydrogen discharge lamp while the detector of OH fluorescence at 308 -316 nm is a photomultiplier run in photon counting mode. The intensity of the fluorescent light as well as the instrument readings is directly proportional to the water vapor mixing ratio under stratospheric conditions with negligible oxygen absorption. Initially designed for rocket-borne application, FLASH has evolved into a light-weight balloon sonde (FLASH-B) for measurements in the upper troposphere and stratosphere on board meteorological and small plastic balloons. This configuration has been used in over 100 soundings at numerous tropical mid-latitude and polar locations within various international field campaigns. An airborne version of FLASH instrument is successfully utilized onboard stratospheric M55-Geophysica aircraft and tropospheric airborne laboratory YAK42-Roshydromet. The hygrometer was modified for application onboard stratospheric long-duration balloons (FLASH-LDB version). This version was successfully used onboard CNES super-pressure balloon launched from SSC Esrange in March 2007 and flown during 10 days. Special design for polar long duration balloon PoGOLite was created for testing work during polar day in June 2013. Installation and measurement peculiarities as well as observational results are presented. Observations of water vapour using FLASH-B instrument, being of high quality are rather costly as the payload recovery is often complicated and most of the time impossible. Following the goal to find a cost-efficient solution, FLASH was adapted for use onboard Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV). This solution was only possible thanks to compactness and light-weight (0.5 kg) of FLASH instrument. The

  10. Ultra-Fast Flash Observatory: Fast Response Space Missions for Early Time Phase of Gamma Ray Bursts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Park, I.H.; Ahmad, S.; Barrillon, P.

    2013-01-01

    One of the unexplored domains in the study of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) is the early time phase of the optical light curve. We have proposed Ultra-Fast Flash Observatory (UFFO) to address this question through extraordinary opportunities presented by a series of small space missions. The UFFO...

  11. Experimental response of an optical sensor used to determine the moment of blast by sensing the flash of the explosion

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roux, A

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available of an optical sensor constructed to measure the light flash of an underwater blast to determine the moment of explosion. By measurement of the time taken between this moment and the time when the shock wave reaches the pressure sensors, accurate measurements...

  12. uFLIP-OC: Understanding Flash I/O Patterns on Open-Channel Solid State Drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Picoli, Ivan Luiz; Villegas Pasco, Carla Ysabela; Jónsson, Björn Thór

    2017-01-01

    on a clean break from the block device abstraction. Open-channel SSDs embed a minimal flash translation layer (FTL) and expose their internals to the host. The Linux open-channel SSD subsystem, LightNVM, lets kernel modules as well as user-space applications control data placement and I/O scheduling...

  13. Pressure drop in flashing flow through obstructions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinle, M.E.; Johnston, B.S.

    1985-01-01

    An experiment was designed to investigate the pressure drop for flashing flow across obstructions of different geometries at various flow rates. Tests were run using two different orifices to determine if the two-phase pressure drop could be characterized by the single phase loss coefficient and the general behavior of the two-phase multiplier. For the geometries studied, it was possible to correlate the multiplier in a geometry-independent fashion

  14. Flash CS3 The Missing Manual

    CERN Document Server

    Grover, Chris

    2008-01-01

    Flash CS3, the latest version of the premier tool for creating web animations and interactive web sites, can be intimidating to learn. This entertaining reference tutorial provides a reader-friendly animation primer and a guided tour of all the program's tools and capabilities. Beginners will learn to use the software in no time, and experienced users will quickly take their skills to the next level.

  15. Flashing evaporation under different pressure levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, Yixiang; Lucas, Dirk; Krepper, Eckhard; Rzehak, Roland

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • CFD simulation based on two-fluid model for flashing boiling inside a vertical pipe. • Effect of pressure level on the maximum thermal energy available for evaporation. • Effect of presumed bubble size on the onset of flashing as well as evaporation rate. • Effect of pressure level on the critical bubble size that can start stable flashing. • Effect of pressure level on nucleation rate and mechanism. - Abstract: Flashing evaporation of water inside a vertical pipe under four pressure levels is investigated both experimentally and numerically. In the experiment depressurization is realized through a blow-off valve, and the evaporation rate is controlled by the opening rate and degree of the valve. In the CFD simulation phase change is assumed to be caused by thermal heat transfer between steam–water interface and the surrounding water. Consequently, the evaporation rate is determined by heat transfer coefficient, interfacial area density as well as liquid superheat degree. The simulated temporal course of cross-section averaged steam volume fraction is compared with the measured one. It is found that the increasing rate and maximum value of steam volume fraction is over-predicted under low-pressure conditions, which is mainly caused by the neglect of bubble growth in the mono-dispersed simulation. The agreement is notably improved by performing poly-dispersed simulations with the inhomogeneous MUSIG approach (IMUSIG). On the other hand an underestimation of the maximum steam volume fraction is observed in high-pressure cases, since the contribution of nucleation to the total steam generation rate becomes large as the system pressure increases. Reliable models for nucleation rate as well as bubble detachment size are indispensable for reliable predictions. An effect of the system pressure level on the nucleation mechanism is observed in the experiment

  16. Flashing subdiffusive ratchets in viscoelastic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharchenko, Vasyl; Goychuk, Igor

    2012-01-01

    We study subdiffusive ratchet transport in periodically and randomly flashing potentials. A central Brownian particle is elastically coupled to the surrounding auxiliary Brownian quasi-particles, which account for the influence of the viscoelastic environment. Similar to standard dynamical modeling of Brownian motion, the external force influences only the motion of the central particle, not affecting directly the environmental degrees of freedom. Just a handful of auxiliary Brownian particles suffices to model subdiffusion over many temporal decades. Time modulation of the potential violates the symmetry of thermal detailed balance and induces an anomalous subdiffusive current which exhibits a remarkably small dispersion at low temperatures, as well as a number of other surprising features such as saturation at low temperatures, and multiple inversions of the transport direction upon a change of the driving frequency in the non-adiabatic regime. It is shown that the subdiffusive current is finite at zero temperature for random flashing and can be finite for periodic flashing for a certain frequency window. Our study generalizes classical Brownian motors towards operating in sticky viscoelastic environments such as the cytosol of biological cells or dense polymer solutions. (paper)

  17. Geographical distribution of hot flash frequencies: considering climatic influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sievert, Lynnette Leidy; Flanagan, Erin K

    2005-10-01

    Laboratory studies suggest that hot flashes are triggered by small elevations in core body temperature acting within a reduced thermoneutral zone, i.e., the temperature range in which a woman neither shivers nor sweats. In the present study, it was hypothesized that women in different populations develop climate-specific thermoneutral zones, and ultimately, population-specific frequencies of hot flashes at menopause. Correlations were predicted between hot flash frequencies and latitude, elevation, and annual temperatures. Data on hot flash frequencies were drawn from 54 studies. Pearson correlation analyses and simple linear regressions were applied, first using all studies, and second using a subset of studies that included participants only to age 60 (n = 36). Regressions were repeated with all studies, controlling for method of hot flash assessment. When analyses were restricted to studies that included women up to age 60, average temperature of the coldest month was a significant predictor of hot flash frequency (P hottest and coldest temperatures was also a significant predictor (P coldest month, difference between hottest and coldest temperatures, and mean annual temperature were significant predictors of hot flash frequency. Women reported fewer hot flashes in warmer temperatures, and more hot flashes with increasing seasonality. These results suggest that acclimatization to coldest temperatures or sensitivity to seasonality may explain part of the population variation in hot flash frequency.

  18. Two flat-backed polydesmidan millipedes from the Miocene Chiapas-amber Lagerstätte, Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Riquelme

    Full Text Available Two species of fossil polydesmidan millipedes (Diplopoda: Polydesmida embedded in amber are described from Miocene strata near Simojovel, in the Chiapas Highlands, Mexico. Maatidesmus paachtun gen. et sp. nov., placed into Chelodesmidae Cook, 1895, and Anbarrhacus adamantis gen. et sp. nov., assigned in the family Platyrhacidae Pocock, 1895. Morphological data from fossil specimens have been recovered using 3D X-ray micro-computed tomography and regular to infrared-reflected microscopy. Both fossil species are recognizable as new primarily but not exclusively, by collum margin modification and remarkable paranotal and metatergite dorsal sculpture.

  19. Two Flat-Backed Polydesmidan Millipedes from the Miocene Chiapas-Amber Lagerstätte, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riquelme, Francisco; Hernández-Patricio, Miguel; Martínez-Dávalos, Arnulfo; Rodríguez-Villafuerte, Mercedes; Montejo-Cruz, Maira; Alvarado-Ortega, Jesús; Ruvalcaba-Sil, José L.; Zúñiga-Mijangos, Luis

    2014-01-01

    Two species of fossil polydesmidan millipedes (Diplopoda: Polydesmida) embedded in amber are described from Miocene strata near Simojovel, in the Chiapas Highlands, Mexico. Maatidesmus paachtun gen. et sp. nov., placed into Chelodesmidae Cook, 1895, and Anbarrhacus adamantis gen. et sp. nov., assigned in the family Platyrhacidae Pocock, 1895. Morphological data from fossil specimens have been recovered using 3D X-ray micro-computed tomography and regular to infrared-reflected microscopy. Both fossil species are recognizable as new primarily but not exclusively, by collum margin modification and remarkable paranotal and metatergite dorsal sculpture. PMID:25162220

  20. Dimensional oscillation. A fast variation of energy embedding gives good results with the AMBER potential energy function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, M E; Crippen, G M

    1991-08-01

    The structure of the AMBER potential energy surface of the cyclic tetrapeptide cyclotetrasarcosyl is analyzed as a function of the dimensionality of coordinate space. It is found that the number of local energy minima decreases as the dimensionality of the space increases until some limit at which point equipotential subspaces appear. The applicability of energy embedding methods to finding global energy minima in this type of energy-conformation space is explored. Dimensional oscillation, a computationally fast variant of energy embedding is introduced and found to sample conformation space widely and to do a good job of finding global and near-global energy minima.

  1. GeckoFTL: Scalable Flash Translation Techniques For Very Large Flash Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dayan, Niv; Bonnet, Philippe; Idreos, Stratos

    2016-01-01

    The volume of metadata needed by a flash translation layer (FTL) is proportional to the storage capacity of a flash device. Ideally, this metadata should reside in the device's integrated RAM to enable fast access. However, as flash devices scale to terabytes, the necessary volume of metadata...... thereby harming performance and device lifetime. In this paper, we identify a key component of the metadata called the Page Validity Bitmap (PVB) as the bottleneck. PVB is used by the garbage-collectors of state-of-the-art FTLs to keep track of which physical pages in the device are invalid. PVB...... constitutes 95% of the FTL's RAM-resident metadata, and recovering PVB after power fails takes a significant proportion of the overall recovery time. To solve this problem, we propose a page-associative FTL called GeckoFTL, whose central innovation is replacing PVB with a new data structure called Logarithmic...

  2. A Comparative Study of Reduced-Variables-Based Flash and Conventional Flash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Wei; Stenby, Erling Halfdan; Michelsen, Michael Locht

    2013-01-01

    ) with zero binary-interaction parameters (BIPs) and later generalized to situations with nonzero-BIP matrices. Most of the studies in the last decade suggest that the reduced-variables methods are much more efficient than the conventional flash method. However, Haugen and Beckner (2011) questioned...... with the conventional minimization-based flash. A test with the use of the SPE 3 example (Kenyon and Behie 1987) showed that the best reduction in time was less than 20% for the extreme situation of 25 components and just one row/column with nonzero BIPs. A better performance can be achieved by a simpler implementation...... directly using the sparsity of the BIP matrix....

  3. Spatio-temporal dimension of lightning flashes based on three-dimensional Lightning Mapping Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Jesús A.; Pineda, Nicolau; Montanyà, Joan; Velde, Oscar van der; Fabró, Ferran; Romero, David

    2017-11-01

    3D mapping system like the LMA - Lightning Mapping Array - are a leap forward in lightning observation. LMA measurements has lead to an improvement on the analysis of the fine structure of lightning, allowing to characterize the duration and maximum extension of the cloud fraction of a lightning flash. During several years of operation, the first LMA deployed in Europe has been providing a large amount of data which now allows a statistical approach to compute the full duration and horizontal extension of the in-cloud phase of a lightning flash. The "Ebro Lightning Mapping Array" (ELMA) is used in the present study. Summer and winter lighting were analyzed for seasonal periods (Dec-Feb and Jun-Aug). A simple method based on an ellipse fitting technique (EFT) has been used to characterize the spatio-temporal dimensions from a set of about 29,000 lightning flashes including both summer and winter events. Results show an average lightning flash duration of 440 ms (450 ms in winter) and a horizontal maximum length of 15.0 km (18.4 km in winter). The uncertainties for summer lightning lengths were about ± 1.2 km and ± 0.7 km for the mean and median values respectively. In case of winter lightning, the level of uncertainty reaches up to 1 km and 0.7 km of mean and median value. The results of the successful correlation of CG discharges with the EFT method, represent 6.9% and 35.5% of the total LMA flashes detected in summer and winter respectively. Additionally, the median value of lightning lengths calculated through this correlative method was approximately 17 km for both seasons. On the other hand, the highest median ratios of lightning length to CG discharges in both summer and winter were reported for positive CG discharges.

  4. Flash memories economic principles of performance, cost and reliability optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Richter, Detlev

    2014-01-01

    The subject of this book is to introduce a model-based quantitative performance indicator methodology applicable for performance, cost and reliability optimization of non-volatile memories. The complex example of flash memories is used to introduce and apply the methodology. It has been developed by the author based on an industrial 2-bit to 4-bit per cell flash development project. For the first time, design and cost aspects of 3D integration of flash memory are treated in this book. Cell, array, performance and reliability effects of flash memories are introduced and analyzed. Key performance parameters are derived to handle the flash complexity. A performance and array memory model is developed and a set of performance indicators characterizing architecture, cost and durability is defined.   Flash memories are selected to apply the Performance Indicator Methodology to quantify design and technology innovation. A graphical representation based on trend lines is introduced to support a requirement based pr...

  5. Lightning activity, rainfall and flash flooding – occasional or interrelated events? A case study in the island of Crete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Koutroulis

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The majority of cyclones passing over Crete in late autumn to early winter originate from southwest, west and northwest and are of varying size and intensity. A number of these cyclones cause flash floods. The present study reports the possible relationships between lighting activity and high precipitation related to flash flood events. In this study an attempt was made to correlate the lightning number and location, recorded by the ZEUS lightning detection system, with the rainfall characteristics for sixteen rain events (4 flood and 12 non-flood events on the island of Crete, during the period 2008–2009. Spatiotemporal analysis of rain and rain rate with flash count was performed with respect to distance (radius of flashes from raingauge location at various temporal scales, in order to examine the correlation of accumulated rainfall and lightning activity. The maximum attained statistical significant correlation was obtained within a circular area of an average radius of 15 km around the raingauge, and an average time lag of flash count prior precipitation accumulation of 15 min. The maximum correlation between the lightning and rainfall data is obtained for shorter time lags for the flood events (15 min than the non-flood events (25 min, that could reflect the faster propagation of flood triggering storms due to high convective activity. Results show increased lightning activity occurring during flood triggering storms, by an average of four times higher. Furthermore, there is evidence that the number of flashes that occur during a precipitation event is related to precipitation depth when the latter is adequate to produce a flood event. Differences between flood and non-flood producing storms need to be further assessed by analyzing more independent parameters, including the synoptic conditions and dominant flash flood hydrological generating processes.

  6. Simple flash evaporator for making thin films of compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemanadhan, M.; Bapanayya, Ch.; Agarwal, S. C. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur 208016 (India)

    2010-07-15

    A simple and compact arrangement for flash evaporation is described. It uses a cell phone vibrator for powder dispensing that can be incorporated into a vacuum deposition chamber without any major alterations. The performance of the flash evaporation system is checked by making thin films of the optical memory chalcogenide glass Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} (GST). Energy dispersive x-ray analysis shows that the flash evaporation preserves the stoichiometry in thin films.

  7. Damage to UV-sensitive cells by short UV in photographic flashes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menezes, S.; Monteiro, C.

    1996-01-01

    Light emitted by electronic photographic flash units is shown to damage bacteria and human skin fibroblasts deficient in repair systems, with survival curves very similar to those produced by 254 nm short UV. The lesions induced by these flashes are as photorepairable by the photolyase enzyme as those induced by 254 nm UV and result in equivalent survival rates. Biological dosimetry performed with microorganisms highly sensitive to UV (Escherichia coli K12 AB2480, deficient in excision and recombinational-dependent repair systems and Bacillus subtilis UVSSP spores, deficient in excision and in a specific spore repair process) revealed that each 1 ms flash of light from the photographic unit used in this work contained the equivalent of 0.25 J m -2 of 254 nm UV, when measured at a distance of 7.0 cm. This dose of UV was found to be lethal to both repair-deficient E. coli bacteria and repair-deficient human skin fibroblasts obtained from xeroderma pigmentosum donors, as well as mutagenic in B/r wild-type and HCR-mutant bacteria. (Author)

  8. Suppression of COTR in electron beam imaging diagnosis at FLASH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Minjie

    2012-05-15

    The Free-Electron Laser in Hamburg (FLASH) demands electron beams with high peak current to generate high-brilliant, coherent X-ray pulses. Magnetic chicanes are used for longitudinal compression of the electron bunches to achieve the required high peak current. During bunch compression process, microstructures with a modulation length comparable to the visible light can be induced inside the bunch. This leads to coherent emission of optical transition radiation (OTR), which may impede the widely used beam diagnostic based on OTR imaging. In this thesis, two methods of using incoherent scintillation light are proposed to circumvent the problem of coherence effects in beam imaging diagnostics. The method of temporal separation has been proved experimentally to have successfully suppressed coherence effects. The longitudinal beam profiles measured using this method are in good agreement with reference measurements, verifying further the reliability of the method. The method of spatial separation has been investigated in preparation studies, from which an improved experimental setup has been designed.

  9. Suppression of COTR in electron beam imaging diagnosis at FLASH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Minjie

    2011-12-01

    The Free-Electron Laser in Hamburg (FLASH) demands electron beams with high peak current to generate high-brilliant, coherent X-ray pulses. Magnetic chicanes are used for longitudinal compression of the electron bunches to achieve the required high peak current. During bunch compression process, microstructures with a modulation length comparable to the visible light can be induced inside the bunch. This leads to coherent emission of optical transition radiation (OTR), which may impede the widely used beam diagnostic based on OTR imaging. In this thesis, two methods of using incoherent scintillation light are proposed to circumvent the problem of coherence effects in beam imaging diagnostics. The method of temporal separation has been proved experimentally to have successfully suppressed coherence effects. The longitudinal beam profiles measured using this method are in good agreement with reference measurements, verifying further the reliability of the method. The method of spatial separation has been investigated in preparation studies, from which an improved experimental setup has been designed.

  10. History of hot flashes and aortic calcification among postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurston, Rebecca C; Kuller, Lewis H; Edmundowicz, Daniel; Matthews, Karen A

    2010-03-01

    Menopausal hot flashes are considered largely a quality-of-life issue. However, emerging research also links hot flashes to cardiovascular risk. In some investigations, this risk is particularly apparent among women using hormone therapy. The aim of this study was to determine whether a longer history of reported hot flashes over the study period was associated with greater aortic and coronary artery calcification. Interactions with hormone therapy use were examined in an exploratory fashion. Participants included 302 women participating in the Healthy Women Study, a longitudinal study of cardiovascular risk during perimenopause and postmenopause, which was initiated in 1983. Hot flashes (any/none) were assessed when women were 1, 2, 5, and 8 years postmenopausal. Electron beam tomography measures of coronary artery calcification and aortic calcification were completed in 1997-2004. Associations between the number of visits with report of hot flashes, divided by the number of visits attended, and aortic or coronary artery calcification (transformed) were examined in linear regression models. Interactions by hormone therapy use were evaluated. Among women using hormone therapy, a longer history of reported hot flashes was associated with increased aortic calcification, controlling for traditional cardiovascular risk factors (b = 2.87, SE = 1.21, P history of hot flashes and coronary artery calcification. Among postmenopausal women using hormone therapy, a longer history of reported hot flashes measured prospectively was associated with increased aortic calcification, controlling for traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Hot flashes may signal adverse cardiovascular changes among certain postmenopausal women.

  11. Flashes and floaters - a practical approach to assessment and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahawita, Shyalle; Simon, Sumu; Gilhotra, Jolly

    2014-04-01

    Flashes and floaters are common ophthalmic issues for which patients may initially present to their general practitioner. It may be a sign of benign, 
age-related changes of the vitreous or more serious retinal detachment. This article provides a guide to the assessment and management of a patient presenting with flashes and floaters. Although most patients presenting with flashes and floaters have benign 
age-related changes, they must be referred to an ophthalmologist to rule out sight-threatening conditions. Key examination features include the nature of the flashes and floaters, whether one or both eyes are affected and changes in visual acuity or visual field.

  12. The echo-enabled harmonic generation options for FLASH II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, Haixiao; Decking, Winfried; Faatz, Bart

    2011-03-01

    FLASH II is an upgrade to the existing free electron laser (FEL) FLASH. The echo-enabled harmonic generation (EEHG) scheme is proposed to be a potential seeding option of FLASH II. In this paper, the possibility of EEHG operation of FLASH II is investigated for the first time. With a combination of existing numerical codes, i.e. a laser-beam interaction code in an undulator (LBICU), a beam tracking code in a chicane (ELEGANT) and an universal FEL simulating code (GENESIS), the effects of beam energy chirp and coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) on EEHG operation are studied as well. In addition, several interesting issues concerning EEHG simulation are discussed. (orig.)

  13. The Evolution and Structure of Extreme Optical Lightning Flashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Michael; Rudlosky, Scott; Deierling, Wiebke

    2017-12-27

    This study documents the composition, morphology, and motion of extreme optical lightning flashes observed by the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS). The furthest separation of LIS events (groups) in any flash is 135 km (89 km), the flash with the largest footprint had an illuminated area of 10,604 km 2 , and the most dendritic flash has 234 visible branches. The longest-duration convective LIS flash lasted 28 s and is overgrouped and not physical. The longest-duration convective-to-stratiform propagating flash lasted 7.4 s, while the longest-duration entirely stratiform flash lasted 4.3 s. The longest series of nearly consecutive groups in time lasted 242 ms. The most radiant recorded LIS group (i.e., "superbolt") is 735 times more radiant than the average group. Factors that impact these optical measures of flash morphology and evolution are discussed. While it is apparent that LIS can record the horizontal development of the lightning channel in some cases, radiative transfer within the cloud limits the flash extent and level of detail measured from orbit. These analyses nonetheless suggest that lightning imagers such as LIS and Geostationary Lightning Mapper can complement ground-based lightning locating systems for studying physical lightning phenomena across large geospatial domains.

  14. Flash CS5.5 The Missing Manual

    CERN Document Server

    Grover, Chris

    2011-01-01

    You can build everything from simple animations to full-fledged iOS and Android apps with Flash CS5.5, but learning this complex program can be difficult-unless you have this fully updated, bestselling guide. Learn how to create gorgeous Flash effects even if you have no programming experience. With Flash CS5.5: The Missing Manual, you'll move from the basics to power-user tools with ease. Learn animation basics. Discover how to turn simple ideas into stunning animations.Master Flash's tools. Learn the animation and effects tools with clear explanations and hands-on examples.Use 3D effects. R

  15. Lutzomyia adiketis sp. n. (Diptera: Phlebotomidae, a vector of Paleoleishmania neotropicum sp. n. (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae in Dominican amber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poinar George

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Amber fossils can be used to trace the history of disease-vector associations because microorganisms are preserved "in situ" inside the alimentary tract and body cavity of blood-sucking insects. Results Lutzomyia adiketis sp. n. (Phlebotomidae: Diptera is described from Dominican amber as a vector of Paleoleishmania neotropicum sp. n. (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae. The fossil sand fly differs from all previously described extinct and extant members of the genus by the following combination of characters: Sc forked with the branches meeting the costa and radius veins; wing L/W value of 4.1; a δ value of 18; a ratio β/α value of 0.86, and the shape and size of the spatulate rods on the ninth sternite. The trypanosomatid is characterized by the structure of its promastigotes, amastigotes and paramastigotes and its transmission by an extinct species of sand fly. Conclusion Morphological characters show that the fossil sand fly is a new extinct species and that it is host to a digenetic species of trypanosomatid. This study provides the first fossil evidence that Neotropical sand flies were vectors of trypanosomatids in the mid-Tertiary (20–30 mya.

  16. Potential of Sm3+ doped LiSrVO4 nanophosphor to fill amber gap in LEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, P.; Kumar, Vinay; Sharma, Vishal; Bedyal, A. K.; Padha, Naresh; Swart, H. C.

    2018-04-01

    The LiSrVO4:Sm3+ phosphor powders were synthesized by the combustion method by varying the concentration of the Sm3+ ions from 0.25 mol% to 2.5 mol%. The powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies confirmed that the phosphors were crystallized as monoclinic structure belonging to space group P2/m and the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed nanosized grains of the powders. The Fourier transform infrared studies (FTIR) established the formation of non-hygroscopic vanadate powders. The photoluminescence (PL) and diffused reflectance studies (DRS) were also carried out and discussed. Under 401 nm excitation, the optimized phosphor exhibited the characteristic 568, 600, 646 and 704 nm emissions of Sm3+ which corresponded to the orange-red (amber) color with (0.59, 0.41) Commission Internationale de' Eclairage (CIE) chromaticity coordinates. Concentration quenching of phosphor intensity on account of non-radiative energy transfer was ascribed to dipole-dipole interaction between activators. DRS study reveals that the host of the phosphor is a wide bandgap material which accommodates the dopant successfully. The present results signify that the LiSrVO4:Sm3+ phosphor can suitably be excited by the GaN family of UV-LEDs chips for efficient amber LEDs applications.

  17. Remarkable preservation of terpenoids and record of volatile signalling in plant-animal interactions from Miocene amber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Suryendu; Mehrotra, Rakesh C; Paul, Swagata; Tiwari, R P; Bhattacharya, Sharmila; Srivastava, Gaurav; Ralte, V Z; Zoramthara, C

    2017-09-08

    Plants produce and release a large array of volatile organic compounds that play many ecological functions. These volatile plant metabolites serve as pollinator attractants, herbivore and pathogen repellents and protect plants from abiotic stresses. To date, the geological evolution of these organic compounds remains unknown. The preservation potential of these metabolites in the fossil record is very poor due to their low boiling points. Here we report a series of volatile sesquiterpenoids, including δ-elemene, α-copaene, β-elemene, β-caryophyllene, α-humulene, germacrene D, δ-cadiene and spathunenol, from early Miocene (~17 million year) amber from eastern India. The survival of these unaltered bioterpenoids can be attributed to the existence of extraordinary taphonomic conditions conducive to the preservation of volatile biomolecules through deep time. Furthermore, the occurrence of these volatiles in the early Miocene amber suggests that the plants from this period had evolved metabolic pathways to synthesize these organic molecules to play an active role in forest ecology, especially in plant-animal interactions.

  18. Description of a new species, Pintomyia dissimilis nov. sp., a phlebotomine fossil from Dominican Republic amber (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanguinette Cristiani

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phlebotomine sandflies are the vectors of etiological agents of leishmaniases in several areas of the world. In the Neotropical Region, the biodiversity of these insects is more than other regions, probably due the long evolutionary period of this group. Miocene amber from Dominican Republic, currently, has a record of 14 extinct species of Phlebotomine sandflies. Results This paper describes a new fossil species of phlebotomine sandfly from amber found in Dominican Republic. This new species is based on morphological characters of a male such as 5° palpomere longer than 3° + 4°, three well-developed spines in the gonostyle, lateral lobe longer than gonocoxite and permit inclusion of the new species in the genus Pintomyia, series serrana. The paramere, with a curvature in the ventral margin, of the middle of the structure, separates the new species from the others fossils or extant species. Conclusion The new species described in the present study named Pintomyia dissimilis nov. sp. is well differenciated from all known species in this genus.

  19. Muzzle flash localization for the dismounted soldier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy Scott, Will

    2015-05-01

    The ability to accurately and rapidly know the precise location of enemy fire would be a substantial capability enhancement to the dismounted soldier. Acoustic gun-shot detections systems can provide an approximate bearing but it is desired to precisely know the location (direction and range) of enemy fire; for example to know from `which window' the fire is coming from. Funded by the UK MOD (via Roke Manor Research) QinetiQ is developing an imaging solution built around an InGaAs camera. This paper presents work that QinetiQ has undertaken on the Muzzle Flash Locator system. Key technical challenges that have been overcome are explained and discussed in this paper. They include; the design of the optical sensor and processing hardware to meet low size, weight and power requirements; the algorithm approach required to maintain sensitivity whilst rejecting false alarms from sources such as close passing insects and sun glint from scene objects; and operation on the move. This work shows that such a sensor can provide sufficient sensitivity to detect muzzle flash events to militarily significant ranges and that such a system can be combined with an acoustic gunshot detection system to minimize the false alarm rate. The muzzle flash sensor developed in this work operates in real-time and has a field of view of approximately 29° (horizontal) by 12° (vertical) with a pixel resolution of 0.13°. The work has demonstrated that extension to a sensor with realistic angular rotation rate is feasible.

  20. Fermi GBM Observations of Terrestrial Gamma Flashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.; Briggs, M. S.; Connaughton, V.; Fishman, G. J.; Bhat, P. N.; Paciesas, W. S.; Preece, R. D.; Kippen, R. M.; vonKienlin, A.; Dwyer, J. R.; hide

    2010-01-01

    In its first two years of operation, the Fermi Gamma Ray Burst Monitor (GBM) has observed 79 Terrestrial Gamma Flashes (TGFs). The thick Bismuth Germanate (BGO) detectors are excellent for TGF spectroscopy, having a high probability of recording the full energy of an incident photon, spanning a broad energy range from 150 keV to 40 MeV, and recording a large number of photons per TGF. Correlations between GBM TGF triggers and lightning sferics detected with the World-Wide Lightning Location Network indicate that TGFs and lightning are simultaneous to within tens of microseconds.

  1. Helium Extraction from LNG End Flash

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Donghoi

    2014-01-01

    Helium is an invaluable element as it is widely used in industry such as cryo-genics and welding due to its unique properties. However, helium shortage is expected in near future because of increasing demand and the anxiety of sup-ply. Consequently, helium production has attracted the attention of industry. The main source of He is natural gas and extracting it from LNG end-flash is considered as the most promising way of producing crude helium. Thus, many process suppliers have proposed proc...

  2. Flash floods in Catalonia: a recurrent situation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llasat, M. C.; Lindbergh, S.; Llasat-Botija, M.; Rodríguez, A.; Zaragoza, A.

    2009-09-01

    A database with information about the social impact produced by all the flood events recorded in Catalonia between 1982 and 2007 has been built. Original information comes from the INUNGAMA database (1900-2000) presented by Barnolas and Llasat (2007), the PRESSGAMA database (1982-2007) (Llasat et al., in rev.) and information from different published works (Barriendos et al, 2003; Barriendos and Pomés, 1993). Social impact has been obtained systematically in basis to news press data and, occasionally, in basis to insurance data. Flood events have been classified in ordinary floods, extraordinary floods and catastrophic ones, following the proposal of Llasat et al (2005). However, having in mind the flash floods effects, some new categories concerning casualties and car damages have also been introduced. The spatial and temporal distribution of these flood events has been analysed. Results have been compared with those obtained for the period 1900-2000 (Barnolas and Llasat, 2007) and 1350-2000 (Barrera et al, 2006). In order to better estimate the social impact and vulnerability some indicators have been defined and analyzed for some specific cases and a specific region. Besides the indicators applied in the INUNCAT Plan to obtain a cartography of flood risk in Catalonia, other ones like the number of cars affected or the number of request received by the meteorological service, has been also taken into account. These indicators allow analyzing global and temporal trends as well as characterizing the events. The selected region has been the Maresme, which is a flood prone region with a great density of population and that experiences every year one or more flash floods. The annual number of floods shows a positive trend that cannot be justified by the rainfall trend. Both vulnerability and hazard components have been considered and a discussion about the flood prevention measures is presented. The third part of this work has been centred in the analysis and

  3. Standard practice for infrared flash thermography of composite panels and repair patches used in aerospace applications

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01

    1.1 This practice describes a procedure for detecting subsurface flaws in composite panels and repair patches using Flash Thermography (FT), in which an infrared (IR) camera is used to detect anomalous cooling behavior of a sample surface after it has been heated with a spatially uniform light pulse from a flash lamp array. 1.2 This practice describes established FT test methods that are currently used by industry, and have demonstrated utility in quality assurance of composite structures during post-manufacturing and in-service examinations. 1.3 This practice has utility for testing of polymer composite panels and repair patches containing, but not limited to, bismaleimide, epoxy, phenolic, poly(amide imide), polybenzimidazole, polyester (thermosetting and thermoplastic), poly(ether ether ketone), poly(ether imide), polyimide (thermosetting and thermoplastic), poly(phenylene sulfide), or polysulfone matrices; and alumina, aramid, boron, carbon, glass, quartz, or silicon carbide fibers. Typical as-fabricate...

  4. Controlled localised melting in silicon by high dose germanium implantation and flash lamp annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voelskow, Matthias; Skorupa, Wolfgang; Pezoldt, Joerg; Kups, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    High intensity light pulse irradiation of monocrystalline silicon wafers is usually accompanied by inhomogeneous surface melting. The aim of the present work is to induce homogeneous buried melting in silicon by germanium implantation and subsequent flash lamp annealing. For this purpose high dose, high energy germanium implantation has been employed to lower the melting temperature of silicon in a predetermined depth region. Subsequent flash lamp irradiation at high energy densities leads to local melting of the germanium rich buried layer, whereby the thickness of the molten layer depends on the irradiation energy density. During the cooling down epitaxial crystallization takes place resulting in a largely defect-free layer. The combination of buried melting and dopant segregation has the potential to produce unusually buried doping profiles or to create strained silicon structures.

  5. Exploring Branded Flash Mobs : A study of the impact of branded flash mobs on consumer behavior and consumer experience

    OpenAIRE

    Grant, Philip

    2014-01-01

    The desire of every marketer is to develop and maintain strong customer relationships. One way this can be accomplished is through effective advertising. Marketers have recently begun to brand flash mobs as a way to effectuate strong brand relationships. Even so, it is unclear whether or not the branding of flash mobs supports or frustrates this pursuit. Therefore, the goal of this thesis is to help marketers understand the potential impact that branded flash mobs may have on consumer behavio...

  6. X-RAY AND GAMMA-RAY FLASHES FROM TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeflich, Peter; Schaefer, Bradley E.

    2009-01-01

    We investigate two potential mechanisms that will produce X-ray and γ-ray flashes from Type Ia supernovae (SN-Ia). The first mechanism is the breakout of the thermonuclear burning front as it reaches the surface of the white dwarf (WD). The second mechanism is the interaction of the rapidly expanding envelope with material within an accretion disk in the progenitor system. Our study is based on the delayed detonation scenario because this can account for the majority of light curves, spectra, and statistical properties of 'Branch-normal' SN-Ia. Based on detailed radiation-hydro calculations which include nuclear networks, we find that both mechanisms produce brief flashes of high-energy radiation with peak luminosities of 10 48 -10 50 erg s -1 . The breakout from the WD surface produces flashes with a rapid exponential decay by 3-4 orders of magnitude on timescales of a few tenths of a second and with most of the radiation in the X-ray and soft γ-ray range. The shocks produced in gases in and around the binary will produce flashes with a characteristic duration of a few seconds with most of the radiation coming out as X-rays and γ-rays. In both mechanisms, we expect a fast rise and slow decline and, after the peak, an evolution from hard to softer radiation due to adiabatic expansion. In many cases, flashes from both mechanisms will be superposed. The X- and γ-ray visibility of an SN-Ia will depend strongly on self-absorption within the progenitor system, specifically on the properties of the accretion disk and its orientation toward the observer. Such X-ray and γ-ray flashes could be detected as triggered events by gamma-ray burst (GRB) detectors on satellites, with events in current GRB catalogs. We have searched through the GRB catalogs (for the BATSE, HETE, and Swift experiments) for GRBs that occur at the extrapolated time of explosion and in the correct direction for known Type Ia supernovae with radial velocity of less than 3000 km s -1 . For the Burst

  7. An electro-optical timing diagnostic for pump-probe experiments at the free-electron laser in Hamburg FLASH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azima, Armin

    2009-07-15

    Femtosecond pump-probe experiments have extensively been used to follow atomic and molecular motion in time. The very intense extreme ultraviolet XUV light of the Free electron LASer in Hamburg FLASH facility allows to investigate fundamental processes such as direct one or few photon inner shell ionizations. A supplementary Ti:Sapphire near infrared femtosecond laser system allows to perform two-color pump-probe experiments with FLASH involving intense laser fields of hugely different photon energies. Within this work a bunch arrival measurement system has been built, which assists these two-color pump-probe experiments to reduce the temporal jitter of FLASH and to increase the temporal resolution. The diagnostic is based upon an electro-optical detection scheme and measures the relative arrival time between the Ti:Sapphire femtosecond pulse and the electron bunch, which generates the self-amplified by stimulated emission SASE XUV pulse in the undulator section of FLASH. Key feature of the diagnostic is a 150 m long glass fiber pulse transport line, which inflicts non-linear dispersion. A dispersion control system to compensate for this higher order dispersion has been developed including the control and programming of a spatial light phase modulator. It was possible to transport a 90 fs FWHM short near infrared femtosecond laser pulse Fourier limited by the dispersion compensated glass fiber. The electro-optical signal induced by the FLASH electron bunch was generated, characterized and optimized. The signal features beside the designated bunch arrival timing capability the additional possibility to measure the longitudinal electron bunch density distribution of an arbitrary bunch of FLASH in a single shot with a temporal resolution of below 100 fs RMS. Timing and bunch analysis capabilities of the developed diagnostic have been cross-checked with other comparable diagnostics at FLASH like the transversal deflecting cavity structure named LOLA. Finally, the

  8. An electro-optical timing diagnostic for pump-probe experiments at the free-electron laser in Hamburg FLASH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azima, Armin

    2009-07-01

    Femtosecond pump-probe experiments have extensively been used to follow atomic and molecular motion in time. The very intense extreme ultraviolet XUV light of the Free electron LASer in Hamburg FLASH facility allows to investigate fundamental processes such as direct one or few photon inner shell ionizations. A supplementary Ti:Sapphire near infrared femtosecond laser system allows to perform two-color pump-probe experiments with FLASH involving intense laser fields of hugely different photon energies. Within this work a bunch arrival measurement system has been built, which assists these two-color pump-probe experiments to reduce the temporal jitter of FLASH and to increase the temporal resolution. The diagnostic is based upon an electro-optical detection scheme and measures the relative arrival time between the Ti:Sapphire femtosecond pulse and the electron bunch, which generates the self-amplified by stimulated emission SASE XUV pulse in the undulator section of FLASH. Key feature of the diagnostic is a 150 m long glass fiber pulse transport line, which inflicts non-linear dispersion. A dispersion control system to compensate for this higher order dispersion has been developed including the control and programming of a spatial light phase modulator. It was possible to transport a 90 fs FWHM short near infrared femtosecond laser pulse Fourier limited by the dispersion compensated glass fiber. The electro-optical signal induced by the FLASH electron bunch was generated, characterized and optimized. The signal features beside the designated bunch arrival timing capability the additional possibility to measure the longitudinal electron bunch density distribution of an arbitrary bunch of FLASH in a single shot with a temporal resolution of below 100 fs RMS. Timing and bunch analysis capabilities of the developed diagnostic have been cross-checked with other comparable diagnostics at FLASH like the transversal deflecting cavity structure named LOLA. Finally, the

  9. Case studies of selected Project "Flash" events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Nicolaides

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Flooding is a consequence of the prevailing meteorological situation, the intensity and duration of precipitation, geomorphology, human activities over a geographical region and other factors. Floods result in damage and destruction of infrastructure and private property and, in some cases, in fatalities. Flash floods are sudden and quite localized in extend, characterized by excessive amounts of rainfall within a short period of time and are distinguished from other floods by their degree of severity. The broader knowledge concerning flash floods is useful for the better understanding of the underlying thermodynamic and dynamic mechanisms, as well as the associated physical processes. The wider understanding of flashfloods can form part of an integrated system for short and very short forecasting of these events. In the present study, the synoptic, dynamic and thermodynamic conditions during the development of a baroclinic depression which affected the area of Cyprus on 6 November 2005 are studied. The depression was associated with extreme weather phenomena, such as thunderstorms, a water spout and high precipitation accumulations. The results indicate the importance of the dynamic parameters in the system's development and the thermodynamic analysis has shown the convective potential of the atmosphere.

  10. Flash Infrared Thermography Contrast Data Analysis Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshti, Ajay

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides information on an IR Contrast technique that involves extracting normalized contrast versus time evolutions from the flash thermography inspection infrared video data. The analysis calculates thermal measurement features from the contrast evolution. In addition, simulation of the contrast evolution is achieved through calibration on measured contrast evolutions from many flat-bottom holes in the subject material. The measurement features and the contrast simulation are used to evaluate flash thermography data in order to characterize delamination-like anomalies. The thermal measurement features relate to the anomaly characteristics. The contrast evolution simulation is matched to the measured contrast evolution over an anomaly to provide an assessment of the anomaly depth and width which correspond to the depth and diameter of the equivalent flat-bottom hole (EFBH) similar to that used as input to the simulation. A similar analysis, in terms of diameter and depth of an equivalent uniform gap (EUG) providing a best match with the measured contrast evolution, is also provided. An edge detection technique called the half-max is used to measure width and length of the anomaly. Results of the half-max width and the EFBH/EUG diameter are compared to evaluate the anomaly. The information provided here is geared towards explaining the IR Contrast technique. Results from a limited amount of validation data on reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) hardware are included in this paper.

  11. Radiation damage in flash memory cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claeys, C.; Ohyama, H.; Simoen, E.; Nakabayashi, M.; Kobayashi, K.

    2002-01-01

    Results are presented of a study on the effects of total ionization dose and displacement damage, induced by high-energy electrons, protons and alphas, on the performance degradation of flash memory cells integrated in a microcomputer. A conventional stacked-gate n-channel flash memory cell using a 0.8 μm n-polysilicon gate technology is employed. Irradiations by 1-MeV electrons and 20-MeV protons and alpha particles were done at room temperature. The impact of the fluence on the input characteristics, threshold voltage shift and drain and gate leakage was investigated. The threshold voltage change for proton and alpha irradiations is about three orders of magnitude larger than that for electrons. The performance degradation is mainly caused by the total ionization dose (TID) damage in the tunnel oxide and in the interpoly dielectric layer and by the creation of interface traps at the Si-SiO 2 interface. The impact of the irradiation temperature on the device degradation was studied for electrons and gammas, pointing out that irradiation at room temperature is mostly the worst case. Finally, attention is given to the impact of isochronal and isothermal annealing on the recovery of the degradation introduced after room temperature proton and electron irradiation

  12. System of ispFlash configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourrion, Olivier

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this module is to allow the use of FPGA components instead of EPLD components which for an equivalent or even inferior capacity are more expensive. For instance, the idea is to replace CPLD components having 512 macro-cells by one FPGA spartan II of Xilinx. However, due to the configuration's volatility, one configuration means is needed to put under voltage. A solution appears to be the using of a high capacity Flash memory coupled to a CPLD of small size to comply with the FPGA configuration protocol; also, one has to provide an in situ configuration means for this memory. Obviously, a product having an equivalent functionality already exists, since Xilinx and ALTERA supply PROMs of serial configuration. Unfortunately, they are expensive and a dealer is implied while the FLASH, the small CPLD and the FPGA spartan II are currently available. In conclusion, by using this assembly, which requires a small supplementary surface and a delay of upmost 240 ms (for the largest FPGA 1 Mbit), one obtains a solution cheaper and more performing than an EPLD of high capacity

  13. Critical flashing flows in nozzles with subcooled inlet conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abuaf, N.; Jones, O.C. Jr.; Wu, B.J.C.

    1983-01-01

    Examination of a large number of experiments dealing with flashing flows in converging and converging-diverging nozzles reveals that knowledge of the flashing inception point is the key to the prediction of critical flow rates. An extension of the static flashing inception correlation of Jones [16] and Alamgir and Lienhard [17] to flowing systems has allowed the determination of the location of flashing inception in nozzle flows with subcooled inlet conditions. It is shown that in all the experiments examined with subcooled inlet regardless of the degree of inlet subcooling, flashing inception invariably occurred very close to the throat. A correlation is given to predict flashing inception in both pipes and nozzles which matches all data available, but is lacking verification in intermediate nozzle geometries where turbulence may be important. A consequence of this behavior is that the critical mass flux may be correlated to the pressure difference between the nozzle inlet and flashing inception, through a single phase liquid discharge coefficient and an accurate prediction of the flashing inception pressure at the throat. Comparison with the available experiments indicate that the predicted mass fluxes are within 5 percent of the measurements

  14. Assessment of vulnerability to extreme flash floods in design storms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eung Seok; Choi, Hyun Il

    2011-07-01

    There has been an increase in the occurrence of sudden local flooding of great volume and short duration caused by heavy or excessive rainfall intensity over a small area, which presents the greatest potential danger threat to the natural environment, human life, public health and property, etc. Such flash floods have rapid runoff and debris flow that rises quickly with little or no advance warning to prevent flood damage. This study develops a flash flood index through the average of the same scale relative severity factors quantifying characteristics of hydrographs generated from a rainfall-runoff model for the long-term observed rainfall data in a small ungauged study basin, and presents regression equations between rainfall characteristics and the flash flood index. The aim of this study is to develop flash flood index-duration-frequency relation curves by combining the rainfall intensity-duration-frequency relation and the flash flood index from probability rainfall data in order to evaluate vulnerability to extreme flash floods in design storms. This study is an initial effort to quantify the flash flood severity of design storms for both existing and planned flood control facilities to cope with residual flood risks due to extreme flash floods that have ocurred frequently in recent years.

  15. Microstructure of wood charcoal prepared by flash heating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kurosaki, F; Ishimaru, K; Hata, T; Bronsveld, P; Kobayashi, E; Imamura, Y

    2003-01-01

    Carbonized wood prepared by flash heating at 800 degreesC for I h shows a different microstructure and surface chemical structure than char formed after slow heating at 4 degreesC/min to 800 degreesC for I h. Flash heating produces pores that are surrounded by aggregates of carbon structures 25 to

  16. Flash radiographic technique applied to fuel injector sprays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vantine, H.C.

    1977-01-01

    A flash radiographic technique, using 50 ns exposure times, was used to study the pattern and density distribution of a fuel injector spray. The experimental apparatus and method are described. An 85 kVp flash x-ray generator, designed and fabricated at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, is utilized. Radiographic images, recorded on standard x-ray films, are digitized and computer processed

  17. Flash-induced fading: Dependence on colour and shape similarity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vergeer, M.L.T.; Lier, R.J. van

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the effects of perceptual grouping by colour and shape similarity on flash-induced perceptual fading. This flash-induced fading effect (Kanai et al, 2003 Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 15 664 - 672) is considered as a time-locked variant of the Troxler effect. In the original

  18. Synthesis of bacteriophage-coded gene products during infection of Escherichia coli with amber mutants of T3 and T7 defective in gene 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Issinger, O G; Hausmann, R

    1973-01-01

    During nonpermissive infection by a T7 amber mutant in gene 1 (phage RNA polymerase-deficient), synthesis of the products of the phage genes 3 (endonuclease), 3, 5 (lysozyme), 5 (DNA polymerase), and 17 (serum blocking power) was shown to occur at about half the rate as during wild-type infection...

  19. Photography in Dermatologic Surgery: Selection of an Appropriate Lighting Solution for a Particular Clinical Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Brian R; Poon, Emily; Alam, Murad

    2018-01-01

    Lighting is an important component of consistent, high-quality dermatologic photography. There are different types of lighting solutions available. To evaluate currently available lighting equipment and methods suitable for procedural dermatology. Overhead lighting, built-in camera flashes, external flash units, studio strobes, and light-emitting diode (LED) light panels were evaluated with regard to their utility for dermatologic surgeons. A set of ideal lighting characteristics was used to examine the capabilities and limitations of each type of lighting solution. Recommendations regarding lighting solutions and optimal usage configurations were made in terms of the context of the clinical environment and the purpose of the image. Overhead lighting may be a convenient option for general documentation. An on-camera lighting solution using a built-in camera flash or a camera-mounted external flash unit provides portability and consistent lighting with minimal training. An off-camera lighting solution with studio strobes, external flash units, or LED light panels provides versatility and even lighting with minimal shadows and glare. The selection of an optimal lighting solution is contingent on practical considerations and the purpose of the image.

  20. At least 10% shorter C–H bonds in cryogenic protein crystal structures than in current AMBER forcefields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pang, Yuan-Ping, E-mail: pang@mayo.edu

    2015-03-06

    High resolution protein crystal structures resolved with X-ray diffraction data at cryogenic temperature are commonly used as experimental data to refine forcefields and evaluate protein folding simulations. However, it has been unclear hitherto whether the C–H bond lengths in cryogenic protein structures are significantly different from those defined in forcefields to affect protein folding simulations. This article reports the finding that the C–H bonds in high resolution cryogenic protein structures are 10–14% shorter than those defined in current AMBER forcefields, according to 3709 C–H bonds in the cryogenic protein structures with resolutions of 0.62–0.79 Å. Also, 20 all-atom, isothermal–isobaric, 0.5-μs molecular dynamics simulations showed that chignolin folded from a fully-extended backbone formation to the native β-hairpin conformation in the simulations using AMBER forcefield FF12SB at 300 K with an aggregated native state population including standard error of 10 ± 4%. However, the aggregated native state population with standard error reduced to 3 ± 2% in the same simulations except that C–H bonds were shortened by 10–14%. Furthermore, the aggregated native state populations with standard errors increased to 35 ± 3% and 26 ± 3% when using FF12MC, which is based on AMBER forcefield FF99, with and without the shortened C–H bonds, respectively. These results show that the 10–14% bond length differences can significantly affect protein folding simulations and suggest that re-parameterization of C–H bonds according to the cryogenic structures could improve the ability of a forcefield to fold proteins in molecular dynamics simulations. - Highlights: • Cryogenic crystal structures are commonly used in computational studies of proteins. • C–H bonds in the cryogenic structures are shorter than those defined in forcefields. • A survey of 3709 C–H bonds shows that the cryogenic bonds are 10–14% shorter. • The

  1. NELIOTA: First temperature measurement of lunar impact flashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonanos, A. Z.; Avdellidou, C.; Liakos, A.; Xilouris, E. M.; Dapergolas, A.; Koschny, D.; Bellas-Velidis, I.; Boumis, P.; Charmandaris, V.; Fytsilis, A.; Maroussis, A.

    2018-04-01

    We report the first scientific results from the NELIOTA (NEO Lunar Impacts and Optical TrAnsients) project, which has recently begun lunar monitoring observations with the 1.2-m Kryoneri telescope. NELIOTA aims to detect faint impact flashes produced by near-Earth meteoroids and asteroids and thereby help constrain the size-frequency distribution of near-Earth objects in the decimeter to meter range. The NELIOTA setup, consisting of two fast-frame cameras observing simultaneously in the R and I bands, enables - for the first time - direct analytical calculation of the flash temperatures. We present the first ten flashes detected, for which we find temperatures in the range 1600 to 3100 K, in agreement with theoretical values. Two of these flashes were detected on multiple frames in both filters and therefore yield the first measurements of the temperature drop for lunar flashes. In addition, we compute the impactor masses, which range between 100 g and 50 kg.

  2. Flood hazard assessment in areas prone to flash flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvočka, Davor; Falconer, Roger A.; Bray, Michaela

    2016-04-01

    Contemporary climate projections suggest that there will be an increase in the occurrence of high-intensity rainfall events in the future. These precipitation extremes are usually the main cause for the emergence of extreme flooding, such as flash flooding. Flash floods are among the most unpredictable, violent and fatal natural hazards in the world. Furthermore, it is expected that flash flooding will occur even more frequently in the future due to more frequent development of extreme weather events, which will greatly increase the danger to people caused by flash flooding. This being the case, there will be a need for high resolution flood hazard maps in areas susceptible to flash flooding. This study investigates what type of flood hazard assessment methods should be used for assessing the flood hazard to people caused by flash flooding. Two different types of flood hazard assessment methods were tested: (i) a widely used method based on an empirical analysis, and (ii) a new, physically based and experimentally calibrated method. Two flash flood events were considered herein, namely: the 2004 Boscastle flash flood and the 2007 Železniki flash flood. The results obtained in this study suggest that in the areas susceptible to extreme flooding, the flood hazard assessment should be conducted using methods based on a mechanics-based analysis. In comparison to standard flood hazard assessment methods, these physically based methods: (i) take into account all of the physical forces, which act on a human body in floodwater, (ii) successfully adapt to abrupt changes in the flow regime, which often occur for flash flood events, and (iii) rapidly assess a flood hazard index in a relatively short period of time.

  3. The October 2014 United States Treasury bond flash crash and the contributory effect of mini flash crashes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary S Levine

    Full Text Available We investigate the causal uncertainty surrounding the flash crash in the U.S. Treasury bond market on October 15, 2014, and the unresolved concern that no clear link has been identified between the start of the flash crash at 9:33 and the opening of the U.S. equity market at 9:30. We consider the contributory effect of mini flash crashes in equity markets, and find that the number of equity mini flash crashes in the three-minute window between market open and the Treasury Flash Crash was 2.6 times larger than the number experienced in any other three-minute window in the prior ten weekdays. We argue that (a this statistically significant finding suggests that mini flash crashes in equity markets both predicted and contributed to the October 2014 U.S. Treasury Bond Flash Crash, and (b mini-flash crashes are important phenomena with negative externalities that deserve much greater scholarly attention.

  4. The October 2014 United States Treasury bond flash crash and the contributory effect of mini flash crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Zachary S; Hale, Scott A; Floridi, Luciano

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the causal uncertainty surrounding the flash crash in the U.S. Treasury bond market on October 15, 2014, and the unresolved concern that no clear link has been identified between the start of the flash crash at 9:33 and the opening of the U.S. equity market at 9:30. We consider the contributory effect of mini flash crashes in equity markets, and find that the number of equity mini flash crashes in the three-minute window between market open and the Treasury Flash Crash was 2.6 times larger than the number experienced in any other three-minute window in the prior ten weekdays. We argue that (a) this statistically significant finding suggests that mini flash crashes in equity markets both predicted and contributed to the October 2014 U.S. Treasury Bond Flash Crash, and (b) mini-flash crashes are important phenomena with negative externalities that deserve much greater scholarly attention.

  5. WMO World Record Lightning Extremes: Longest Reported Flash Distance and Longest Reported Flash Duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Timothy J; Pédeboy, Stéphane; Rison, William; Cerveny, Randall S; Montanyà, Joan; Chauzy, Serge; MacGorman, Donald R; Holle, Ronald L; Ávila, Eldo E; Zhang, Yijun; Carbin, Gregory; Mansell, Edward R; Kuleshov, Yuriy; Peterson, Thomas C; Brunet, Manola; Driouech, Fatima; Krahenbuhl, Daniel S

    2017-06-01

    A World Meteorological Organization weather and climate extremes committee has judged that the world's longest reported distance for a single lightning flash occurred with a horizontal distance of 321 km (199.5 mi) over Oklahoma in 2007, while the world's longest reported duration for a single lightning flash is an event that lasted continuously for 7.74 seconds over southern France in 2012. In addition, the committee has unanimously recommended amendment of the AMS Glossary of Meteorology definition of lightning discharge as a "series of electrical processes taking place within 1 second" by removing the phrase "within one second" and replacing with "continuously." Validation of these new world extremes (a) demonstrates the recent and on-going dramatic augmentations and improvements to regional lightning detection and measurement networks, (b) provides reinforcement regarding the dangers of lightning, and (c) provides new information for lightning engineering concerns.

  6. Flash hydropyrolysis of bituminous coal . III. Research on flash hydropyrolysis tar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, M.; Zhu, Z.; He, Y.; Ding, N.; Tang, L. [East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai (China)

    2000-02-01

    Tar sample obtained by flash hydropyrolysis (FHP) from Dongshen coal at high pressure entrained reactor was investigated. An effect of flash hydropyrolysis temperature on the main components in tar was studied and the quality of the tar was compared with high temperature coke oven tar. The results showed that: the yields of liquid hydrocarbon in FHP tar were more than 15%, which is twofold of that in coke oven tar; the FHP tar has high oil fraction and low pitch; high phenol components and pure condensed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, and low aliphatic hydrocarbon. The components of the FHP tar were simpler than that of high temperature coke oven tar. Therefore, FHP has improved the quantity and quality of tar. 11 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  7. Sphinx, the high speed flash radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    Sphinx (Nanosecond Pulse X-Photon Source) is the most compact (0.1 m 3 ) existing system which can generates short pulses (10 to 30 nanoseconds) of 5 to 180 keV X-photon radiation with a repeating cadence of 100 pulses per second and doses which can reach 2 mR at 1 m. This system was developed by the Research Group on Energetics of Ionized Media (GREMI) from the CNRS (French National Center for Scientific Research) and the University of Orleans (France). Sphinx is the smallest device from a series of compact X-ray sources ranging from 5 to 400 keV. These devices can have several possible applications such as the study of ultra-fast phenomena, the high cadence flash radiography in medicine, biology, materials studies, pre-ionizing of gas lasers, self-excitation and photo-ionization of atoms, molecules or aggregates. (J.S.)

  8. Coherence properties of the radiation from FLASH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneidmiller, E.A.; Yurkov, M.V.

    2015-02-01

    FLASH is the first free electron laser user facility operating in the vacuum ultraviolet and soft x-ray wavelength range. Many user experiments require knowledge of the spatial and temporal coherence properties of the radiation. In this paper we present an analysis of the coherence properties of the radiation for the fundamental and for the higher odd frequency harmonics. We show that temporal and spatial coherence reach maximum close to the FEL saturation but may degrade significantly in the post-saturation regime. We also find that the pointing stability of short FEL pulses is limited due to the fact that non-azimuthal FEL eigenmodes are not sufficiently suppressed. We discuss possible ways for improving the degree of transverse coherence and the pointing stability.

  9. Article coated with flash bonded superhydrophobic particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, John T [Clinton, TN; Blue, Craig A [Knoxville, TN; Kiggans, Jr., James O [Oak Ridge, TN

    2010-07-13

    A method of making article having a superhydrophobic surface includes: providing a solid body defining at least one surface; applying to the surface a plurality of diatomaceous earth particles and/or particles characterized by particle sizes ranging from at least 100 nm to about 10 .mu.m, the particles being further characterized by a plurality of nanopores, wherein at least some of the nanopores provide flow through porosity, the particles being further characterized by a plurality of spaced apart nanostructured features that include a contiguous, protrusive material; flash bonding the particles to the surface so that the particles are adherently bonded to the surface; and applying a hydrophobic coating layer to the surface and the particles so that the hydrophobic coating layer conforms to the nanostructured features.

  10. Collimation techniques for dense object flash radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, K.H.

    1984-08-01

    In explosively driven experiments, flash radiography can record a wealth of information about material densities and boundaries. Obtaining accurate quantitative data from these radiographs requires careful design of the experiment so that one can control and measure the scattered radiation background that is a part of any experiment. We have used collimators at the x-ray source to match the incident x-ray flux to the transmission of the object, thereby reducing the production of scattered radiation while still preserving a complete view of the object. Multi-hole collimators (at the film plane) with a length-to-diameter ratio of approx. 20:1 have been used to measure the scattered radiation field with several exposure geometries and with various shielding methods

  11. Flash photolysis-shock tube studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael, J.V. [Argonne National Laboratory, IL (United States)

    1993-12-01

    Even though this project in the past has concentrated on the measurement of thermal bimolecular reactions of atomic species with stable molecules by the flash or laser photolysis-shock tube (FP- or LP-ST) method using atomic resonance absorption spectrometry (ARAS) as the diagnostic technique, during the past year the authors have concentrated on studies of the thermal decompositions of selected chlorocarbon molecules. These studies are necessary if the degradation of chlorine containing organic molecules by incineration are to be understood at the molecular level. Clearly, destruction of these molecules will not only involve abstraction reactions, when possible, but also thermal decomposition followed by secondary reactions of the initially formed atoms and radicals. Studies on the thermal decomposition of CH{sub 3}Cl are complete, and the curve-of-growth for Cl-atom atomic resonance absorption has been determined. The new thermal decomposition studies are similar to those already reported for CH{sub 3}Cl.

  12. How does the blue-ringed octopus (Hapalochlaena lunulata) flash its blue rings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäthger, Lydia M; Bell, George R R; Kuzirian, Alan M; Allen, Justine J; Hanlon, Roger T

    2012-11-01

    The blue-ringed octopus (Hapalochlaena lunulata), one of the world's most venomous animals, has long captivated and endangered a large audience: children playing at the beach, divers turning over rocks, and biologists researching neurotoxins. These small animals spend much of their time in hiding, showing effective camouflage patterns. When disturbed, the octopus will flash around 60 iridescent blue rings and, when strongly harassed, bite and deliver a neurotoxin that can kill a human. Here, we describe the flashing mechanism and optical properties of these rings. The rings contain physiologically inert multilayer reflectors, arranged to reflect blue-green light in a broad viewing direction. Dark pigmented chromatophores are found beneath and around each ring to enhance contrast. No chromatophores are above the ring; this is unusual for cephalopods, which typically use chromatophores to cover or spectrally modify iridescence. The fast flashes are achieved using muscles under direct neural control. The ring is hidden by contraction of muscles above the iridophores; relaxation of these muscles and contraction of muscles outside the ring expose the iridescence. This mechanism of producing iridescent signals has not previously been reported in cephalopods and we suggest that it is an exceptionally effective way to create a fast and conspicuous warning display.

  13. Development of digital shade guides for color assessment using a digital camera with ring flashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Oi-Hong; Lai, Yu-Lin; Ho, Yi-Ching; Chou, I-Chiang; Lee, Shyh-Yuan

    2011-02-01

    Digital photographs taken with cameras and ring flashes are commonly used for dental documentation. We hypothesized that different illuminants and camera's white balance setups shall influence color rendering of digital images and affect the effectiveness of color matching using digital images. Fifteen ceramic disks of different shades were fabricated and photographed with a digital camera in both automatic white balance (AWB) and custom white balance (CWB) under either light-emitting diode (LED) or electronic ring flash. The Commission Internationale d'Éclairage L*a*b* parameters of the captured images were derived from Photoshop software and served as digital shade guides. We found significantly high correlation coefficients (r² > 0.96) between the respective spectrophotometer standards and those shade guides generated in CWB setups. Moreover, the accuracy of color matching of another set of ceramic disks using digital shade guides, which was verified by ten operators, improved from 67% in AWB to 93% in CWB under LED illuminants. Probably, because of the inconsistent performance of the flashlight and specular reflection, the digital images captured under electronic ring flash in both white balance setups revealed less reliable and relative low-matching ability. In conclusion, the reliability of color matching with digital images is much influenced by the illuminants and camera's white balance setups, while digital shade guides derived under LED illuminants with CWB demonstrate applicable potential in the fields of color assessments.

  14. Measurement of g Using a Flashing LED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzella, T.; Sundermier, J.; Sinacore, J.; Owen, C.; Takai, H.

    2008-10-01

    In one of the classic free-fall experiments, a small mass is attached to a strip of paper tape and both are allowed to fall through a spark timer, where sparks are generated at regular time intervals. Students analyze marks (dots) left on the tape by the timer, thereby generating distance-versus-time data, which they analyze to extract the acceleration due to gravity g with good results. The apparatus, however, is cumbersome and often frustrating for students. High-tech versions of this experiment are done with an object dropped and followed by a motion sensor connected to a computer. The sensor relies on ultrasonic ranging to record distance and time data, which may then be displayed graphically. Students inspect the graphs to determine the value of g. Although the results are excellent, the emphasis on the computer's ability to collect and analyze data leaves little analysis for the students to perform.2 Furthermore, neither technique gives an intuitive display of what is happening. The motivation for our work was to overcome these issues by developing an innovative method for measuring g. In our version of the experiment, students drop a flashing LED at a known frequency and record its trajectory using long exposure photography with a digital camera. Proper choice of flashing LED timing parameters produces an image that allows for an accurate measurement of g and at the same time helps to explain what happens during free fall. The experiment remains high-tech in the sense that students learn to use updated equipment to record data and to carry out the analysis.

  15. A new French flash flood warning service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Saint-Aubin Céline

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The French State services in charge of flood forecasting supervise about 22,000 km among the 120,000 km of the French rivers within a warning procedure called Vigilance Crues (http://www.vigicrues.gouv.fr. Some recent dramatic flood events on small watershed not covered by Vigilance Crues highlight the need for a new warning procedure to anticipate violent flash floods that regularly affect rapid river-basins. Thus the concept emerged of an automatic warning service specifically dedicated to local crisis managers. This service will be less elaborated than Vigilance Crues, probably with false alarms and missed events sometimes, but it will deliver a first information. The generation of the warning is based on a simple rainfall-runoff hydrological model developed by Irstea on all French rivers, fed with radar-gauge rainfall grids provided by Meteo-France. Every fifteen minutes, the hydrological model estimates the discharges on the rivers eligible to the service and determine if certain thresholds corresponding to a high or very high flood are likely to be exceeded. The last step of the real-time system is to determine which municipalities are concerned with flood risk and send them an automatic warning by voice call, optionally by sms or email. A specific web interface is available for users to monitor the evolution of the flood risk on maps that are updated every 15 minutes. This new flash flood warning service will be operational early 2017 as a free service for about 8,000 French municipalities.

  16. Loss of Melanopsin Photoreception and Antagonism of the Histamine H3 Receptor by Ciproxifan Inhibit Light-Induced Sleep in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanuel Muindi

    Full Text Available Light has direct effects on sleep and wakefulness causing arousal in diurnal animals and sleep in nocturnal animals. In the present study, we assessed the modulation of light-induced sleep by melanopsin and the histaminergic system by exposing mice to millisecond light flashes and continuous light respectively. First, we show that the induction of sleep by millisecond light flashes is dose dependent as a function of light flash number. We found that exposure to 60 flashes of light occurring once every 60 seconds for 1-h (120-ms of total light over an hour induced a similar amount of sleep as a continuous bright light pulse. Secondly, the induction of sleep by millisecond light flashes was attenuated in the absence of melanopsin when animals were presented with flashes occurring every 60 seconds over a 3-h period beginning at ZT13. Lastly, the acute administration of a histamine H3 autoreceptor antagonist, ciproxifan, blocked the induction of sleep by a 1-h continuous light pulse during the dark period. Ciproxifan caused a decrease in NREMS delta power and an increase in theta activity during both sleep and wake periods respectively. The data suggest that some form of temporal integration occurs in response to millisecond light flashes, and that this process requires melanopsin photoreception. Furthermore, the pharmacological data suggest that the increase of histaminergic neurotransmission is sufficient to attenuate the light-induced sleep response during the dark period.

  17. Numerical analyses of flashing jet structure and droplet size characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan Riqiang; Jiang Shengyao; Koshizuka, Seiichi; Oka, Yoshiaki; Yamaguchi, Akira; Takata, Takashi

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, flashing jets are numerically simulated using the MPS method. The boiling mode for flashing is identified as surface boiling mode, based on the postulation of jets from a short nozzle under high depressurization. The Homogeneous Non-equilibrium Relaxation Model (HRM) is used for calculating the evaporation rate of flashing. The numerical simulation results show that flashing jets comprise an inner intact core which is surrounded by two-phase droplet flow. The effect of degree of superheat on the jet topological geometry is investigated. With increasing degree of superheat, the topological shape of flashing jets evolves from cylindrical core for low degree of superheat to cone-shaped core for high degree of superheat, and meanwhile the extinction length comes to decrease and tends asymptotically constant as the injection temperature approaches the saturation temperature corresponding to the injection pressure. The analyses of the droplet size distribution engendered from primary breakup of flashing jets show that: two peaks exist for droplet size distribution at lower degree of superheat; however, merely one peak for higher degree of superheat. From droplet size distribution, it is revealed that the primary breakup mechanism of flashing jets can be attributed to dominant mechanical breakup mode plus enhancement via surface evaporation. (author)

  18. Simulated CONUS Flash Flood Climatologies from Distributed Hydrologic Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flamig, Z.; Gourley, J. J.; Vergara, H. J.; Kirstetter, P. E.; Hong, Y.

    2016-12-01

    This study will describe a CONUS flash flood climatology created over the period from 2002 through 2011. The MRMS reanalysis precipitation dataset was used as forcing into the Ensemble Framework For Flash Flood Forecasting (EF5). This high resolution 1-sq km 5-minute dataset is ideal for simulating flash floods with a distributed hydrologic model. EF5 features multiple water balance components including SAC-SMA, CREST, and a hydrophobic model all coupled with kinematic wave routing. The EF5/SAC-SMA and EF5/CREST water balance schemes were used for the creation of dual flash flood climatologies based on the differing water balance principles. For the period from 2002 through 2011 the daily maximum streamflow, unit streamflow, and time of peak streamflow was stored along with the minimum soil moisture. These variables are used to describe the states of the soils right before a flash flood event and the peak streamflow that was simulated during the flash flood event. The results will be shown, compared and contrasted. The resulting model simulations will be verified on basins less than 1,000-sq km with USGS gauges to ensure the distributed hydrologic models are reliable. The results will also be compared spatially to Storm Data flash flood event observations to judge the degree of agreement between the simulated climatologies and observations.

  19. Weak positive cloud-to-ground flashes in Northeastern Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Raul E.; Maier, Michael W.; Garcia-Miguel, Juan A.; Holle, Ronald L.

    1991-01-01

    The frequency distributions of the peak magnetic field associated with the first detected return stroke of positive and negative cloud-to-ground (CG) flashes were studied using lightning data from northeastern Colorado. These data were obtained during 1985 with a medium-to-high gain network of three direction finders (DF's). The median signal strength of positive flashes was almost two times that of the negatives for flashes within 300 km of the DF's, which have an inherent detection-threshold bias that tends to discriminate against weak signals. This bias increases with range, and affects the detection of positive and negative flashes in different ways, because of the differing character of their distributions. Positive flashes appear to have a large percentage of signals clustered around very weak values that are lost to the medium-to-high gain Colorado Detection System very quickly with increasing range. The resulting median for positive signals could thus appear to be much larger than the median for negative signals, which are more clustered around intermediate values. When only flashes very close to the DF's are considered, however, the two distributions have almost identical medians. The large percentage of weak positive signals detected close to the DF's has not been explored previously. They have been suggested to come from intracloud discharges and thus are improperly classified as CG flashes. Evidence in hand, points to their being real positive, albeit weak CG flashes. Whether or not they are real positive ground flashes, it is important to be aware of their presence in data from magnetic DF networks.

  20. Frequency and seasonality of flash floods in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trobec Tajan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to assess and analyse the dynamics of flash flooding events in Slovenia. The paper examines in particular the frequency of flash floods and their seasonal distribution. The methodology is based on the analysis of historical records and modern flood data. The results of a long-term frequency analysis of 138 flash floods that occurred between 1550 and 2015 are presented. Because of the lack of adequate historical flood data prior to 1950 the main analysis is based on data for the periodbetween1951 and2015, while the analysis of data for the period between1550 and1950 is added as a supplement to the main analysis. Analysis of data for the period after 1950 shows that on average 1.3 flash floods occur each year in Slovenia. The linear trend for the number of flash floods is increasing but is not statistically significant. Despite the fact that the majority of Slovenian rivers have one of the peaks in spring and one of the lows in summer, 90% of flash floods actually occur during meteorological summer or autumn - i.e. between June and November, which shows that discharge regimes and flood regimes are not necessarily related. Because of the lack of flood records from the more distant past as well as the large variability of flash flood events in the last several decades, we cannot provide a definitive answer to the question about possible changes in their frequency and seasonality by relying solely on the detected trends. Nevertheless, considering the results of analysis and future climate change scenarios the frequency of flash floods in Slovenia could increase while the period of flash flood occurrence could be extended.

  1. Characteristics of Laser Flash Technique for Thermal Diffusivity Measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, D. G.; Kim, H. M.; Hong, G. P

    2008-08-15

    In relation to selection of thermal conductivity measurement technology, various thermal conductivity measurement technique are investigated for characteristics of each technique and it's measurable range. For the related laser flash techniques, various technical characteristics are reviewed and discussed. Especially, Parker adiabatic model are reviewed because of importance for basic theory of the thermal diffusivity determination. Finite pulse time effect, heat loss effect and non-uniform heating effect, which are main technical factors for laser flash technique, are considered. Finally, characteristics of constituent elements for laser flash measurement system are reviewed and investigated in detail.

  2. Gamma ray flashes add to mystery of upper atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atmospheric electricity research has come a long way since Benjamin Franklin's kite-flying days. But what researchers have been learning lately about above-thunderstorm electricity has wrought a whole new era of mysteries.For a start, last summer a Colorado meteorologist sparked interest in a terrestrial phenomenon that the community first observed more than 100 years ago: optical flashes that occur above thunderstorms—at least 30 km above Earth. Walter Lyons with the Ft. Collins-based Mission Research Corporation, demonstrated that such flashes are not anomalies, as conventional scientific wisdom had held. He filmed hundreds of flashes during a 2-week period.

  3. Freeware eLearning Flash-ECG for learning electrocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanov, Kalle; Kuusi, Timo

    2009-06-01

    Electrocardiographic (ECG) analysis can be taught in eLearning programmes with suitable software that permits the effective use of basic tools such as a ruler and a magnifier, required for measurements. The Flash-ECG (Research & Development Unit for Medical Education, University of Helsinki, Finland) was developed to enable teachers and students to use scanned and archived ECGs on computer screens and classroom projectors. The software requires only a standard web browser with a Flash plug-in and can be integrated with learning environments (Blackboard/WebCT, Moodle). The Flash-ECG is freeware and is available to medical teachers worldwide.

  4. Cardiac and vascular imaging with snapshot FLASH MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthaei, D.; Haase, A.; Norris, D.; Leibfritz, D.; Henrich, D.; Duhmke, E.

    1989-01-01

    Acceleration of fast low-angle-shot (FLASH) MR imaging to about 200 msec measuring time on dedicated MR systems is called snapshot FLASH MR imaging. It snaps real-time series of MR images of the MR relaxation and of physiologic motions with nearly absent motion and susceptibility artifacts. Results in animals (4.7T) and human volunteers (2.0T) show plain vascular and cardiac snapshot FLASH MR images obtained as single shot, triggered reconstructed motion, or real-time films. The reduction of artifacts and the high resolution (triggered, three-dimensional moving heart images are possible) result in favorable applications in myocardial and great vascular disease

  5. Simultaneous measurement of thermal diffusivity and effusivity of solids using the flash technique in the front-face configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pech-May, Nelson Wilbur; Cifuentes, Ángel; Mendioroz, Arantza; Oleaga, Alberto; Salazar, Agustín

    2015-01-01

    Both thermal diffusivity and effusivity (or conductivity) are necessary to characterize the thermal transport properties of a material. The flash method is the most recognized procedure to measure the thermal diffusivity of free-standing opaque plates. However, it fails to simultaneously obtain the thermal effusivity (or conductivity). This is due to the difficulty of knowing the total energy absorbed by the sample surface after the light pulse. In this work, we propose using the flash method in the front-face configuration on a two-layer system made of the unknown plate and a fluid of known thermal properties. We demonstrate that the surface temperature is sensitive to the thermal mismatch between the plate and the fluid, which is governed by their thermal effusivity ratio. In order to verify the validity of the method and to establish its application limits we have performed flash measurements, using a pulsed laser and an infrared camera, on a set of calibrated materials (metals, alloys, ceramics and polymers) covering a wide range of thermal transport properties. These results confirm the ability of the flash method to simultaneously retrieve thermal diffusivity and effusivity in a fast manner in samples whose effusivities are lower than three times the effusivity of the liquid used as backing fluid. (paper)

  6. Development of Ultrafast Laser Flash Methods for Measuring Thermophysical Properties of Thin Films and Boundary Thermal Resistances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Tetsuya; Taketoshi, Naoyuki; Yagi, Takashi

    2011-11-01

    Reliable thermophysical property values of thin films are important to develop advanced industrial technologies such as highly integrated electronic devices, phase-change memories, magneto-optical disks, light-emitting diodes (LEDs), organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), semiconductor lasers (LDs), flat-panel displays, and power electronic devices. In order to meet these requirements, the National Metrology Institute of Japan of the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (NMIJ/AIST) has developed ultrafast laser flash methods heated by picosecond pulse or nanosecond pulse with the same geometrical configuration as the laser flash method, which is the standard method to measure the thermal diffusivity of bulk materials. Since these pulsed light heating methods induce one-dimensional heat diffusion across a well-defined length of the specimen thickness, the absolute value of thermal diffusivity across thin films can be measured reliably. Using these ultrafast laser flash methods, the thermal diffusivity of each layer of multilayered thin films and the boundary thermal resistance between the layers can be determined from the observed transient temperature curves based on the response function method. The thermophysical properties of various thin films important for modern industries such as the transparent conductive films used for flat-panel displays, hard coating films, and multilayered films of next-generation phase-change optical disks have been measured by these methods.

  7. Interim report on flash floods, Area 5 - Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French, R.H.

    1980-09-01

    Examination of the presently available data indicates that consideration must be given to the possibility of flash floods when siting waste management facilities in Area 5 of the Nevada Test Site. 6 figures, 7 tables

  8. The Essential Guide to 3D in Flash

    CERN Document Server

    Olsson, Ronald A

    2010-01-01

    If you are an ActionScript developer or designer and you would like to work with 3D in Flash, this book is for you. You will learn the core Flash 3D concepts, using the open source Away3D engine as a primary tool. Once you have mastered these skills, you will be able to realize the possibilities that the available Flash 3D engines, languages, and technologies have to offer you with Flash and 3D.* Describes 3D concepts in theory and their implementation using Away3D* Dives right in to show readers how to quickly create an interactive, animated 3D scene, and builds on that experience throughout

  9. FORGING DEFECTS ANALYSIS IN SUSPENSION ARMAND FLASH CONTROL

    OpenAIRE

    Mr Jadhav Vijay B. , Prof. Mundhe V.L. , Dr. Narve N.G.

    2018-01-01

    The suspension arms in the process of fogging are made by different material and in that processes get various problems are found. In that paper list out that problem and solving flash wastage problem.

  10. Hot Flashes and Quality of Life among Breast Cancer Patients

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jacobs, Linda A

    2005-01-01

    This ongoing longitudinal study examines hot flashes and Quality of Life (QoL) in breast cancer (BC) patients undergoing initial treatment, and develops a taxonomy of the medical and Complementary and Alternative Medicine...

  11. Dynamic simulation of flash drums using rigorous physical property calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. M. Gonçalves

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of flash drums is simulated using a formulation adequate for phase modeling with equations of state (EOS. The energy and mass balances are written as differential equations for the internal energy and the number of moles of each species. The algebraic equations of the model, solved at each time step, are those of a flash with specified internal energy, volume and mole numbers (UVN flash. A new aspect of our dynamic simulations is the use of direct iterations in phase volumes (instead of pressure for solving the algebraic equations. It was also found that an iterative procedure previously suggested in the literature for UVN flashes becomes unreliable close to phase boundaries and a new alternative is proposed. Another unusual aspect of this work is that the model expressions, including the physical properties and their analytical derivatives, were quickly implemented using computer algebra.

  12. Some design aspects of multistage flash distillation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, Mohammad.

    1975-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of the design variables of multistage flash (MSF) process on the performance and/or the cost of the desalting plant, and to establish certain design trends

  13. Flash-flood potential assessment and mapping by integrating the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Romulus Costache

    2017-06-16

    Jun 16, 2017 ... torrential phenomena considered for the study (training area) and for the results' testing (validating ... Service (USA). At that ... to improve the quality of flash-flood forecasts. ...... offers the possibility to obtain more credible and.

  14. Flash 3D Rendezvous and Docking Sensor, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — 3D Flash Ladar is a breakthrough technology for many emerging and existing 3D vision areas, and sensor improvements will have an impact on nearly all these fields....

  15. Portable flash X-ray systems: applications and techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryant, L.E.

    1976-01-01

    Three portable flash x-ray equipments are described, and applications such as jet and high explosive studies, bullet impact and lead casting experiments are given as well as techniques for triggering and protection of equipment and film

  16. Space Qualified, Radiation Hardened, Dense Monolithic Flash Memory, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Space Micro proposes to build a radiation hardened by design (RHBD) flash memory, using a modified version of our RH-eDRAM Memory Controller to solve all the single...

  17. Sub-second photonic processing of solution-deposited single layer and heterojunction metal oxide thin-film transistors using a high-power xenon flash lamp

    KAUST Repository

    Tetzner, Kornelius; Lin, Yen-Hung; Regoutz, Anna; Seitkhan, Akmaral; Payne, David J.; Anthopoulos, Thomas D.

    2017-01-01

    We report the fabrication of solution-processed In2O3 and In2O3/ZnO heterojunction thin-film transistors (TFTs) where the precursor materials were converted to their semiconducting state using high power light pulses generated by a xenon flash lamp

  18. Flash x-radiography for material motion detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choate, L.M.; Buckalew, W.H.; Posey, L.D.

    1977-01-01

    A significant part of the experimental program dealing with the behavior of prototypic LMFBR fuel pin bundles under mild to severe power transients is that of the observation of fuel/cladding/coolant motion. The feasibility of using electron beam flash x-radiography as a diagnostic tool for safety test facilities is presently under evaluation. A summary of the objectives and approach of the flash x-radiography program is presented

  19. New principle of feeding for flash evaporation MOCVD devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaul, A.R.; Seleznev, B.V.

    1993-01-01

    A novel scheme of flash evaporation feeding for MOCVD processes of multi-component oxide films deposition is proposed. The scheme comprises 1) microdozage of organic solution of solid volatile precursors on the glass fiber belt, 2) evaporation of the solvent and 3) flash evaporation of MOC microdoses from the belt. The functioning of the designed feeder is described and the features of proposed scheme in comparison to existing feeding principles are discussed. (orig.)

  20. Looking for the best flash floods indicators in Mediterranean Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llasat, Maria-Carmen; Llasat-Botija, Montserrat; Turco, Marco

    2010-05-01

    Flash floods are a recurrent hazard in Mediterranean Region. From a global point of view, a distinction between two kinds of floods can be made (Llasat, 2009): a) Short-lived and strongly convective events (cases recorded between 2005 and 2006. This sample has been increased with some selected cases of the European project HYDRATE. Information from all the flash-floods recorded in Catalonia (Spain) since 1982, completed with data about population density and so on, has also been considered.

  1. Automated Studies of Continuing Current in Lightning Flashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Claros, Jose

    Continuing current (CC) is a continuous luminosity in the lightning channel that lasts longer than 10 ms following a lightning return stroke to ground. Lightning flashes following CC are associated with direct damage to power lines and are thought to be responsible for causing lightning-induced forest fires. The development of an algorithm that automates continuing current detection by combining NLDN (National Lightning Detection Network) and LEFA (Langmuir Electric Field Array) datasets for CG flashes will be discussed. The algorithm was applied to thousands of cloud-to-ground (CG) flashes within 40 km of Langmuir Lab, New Mexico measured during the 2013 monsoon season. It counts the number of flashes in a single minute of data and the number of return strokes of an individual lightning flash; records the time and location of each return stroke; performs peak analysis on E-field data, and uses the slope of interstroke interval (ISI) E-field data fits to recognize whether continuing current (CC) exists within the interval. Following CC detection, duration and magnitude are measured. The longest observed C in 5588 flashes was 631 ms. The performance of the algorithm (vs. human judgement) was checked on 100 flashes. At best, the reported algorithm is "correct" 80% of the time, where correct means that multiple stations agree with each other and with a human on both the presence and duration of CC. Of the 100 flashes that were validated against human judgement, 62% were hybrid. Automated analysis detects the first but misses the second return stroke in many cases where the second return stroke is followed by long CC. This problem is also present in human interpretation of field change records.

  2. The Role of Serotonin in Hot Flashes after Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    physiological mechanisms involved in hot flashes c.fter breast cancer will enable us to develop more targeted behavioral and/or pharmacological therapi ...s to be used in lieu of, or in addition to, currently available therapies so that we can eradicate hot flashes and improve the quality of life for...flavorings were most palatable - chocolate mint and orange. We rejected a lemon flavoring as being unpalatable. We eliminated the mid-day snack per

  3. Tutorial Pengenalan Adobe Photoshop Menggunakan Adobe Flash CS3

    OpenAIRE

    Mayoka, Rio

    2011-01-01

    Kajian ini bertujuan untuk membangun sebuah aplikasi yang dapat menjadi alat bantu dalam pembelajaran Adobe Photoshop, dimana terdapat beberapa materi pengenalan dasar Adobe Photoshop. Aplikasi ini suatu gagasan dengan membuat tutorial beranimasi yang interatif. Aplikasi ini dibuat dengan menggunakan Adobe Flash CS3 dan dapat dijalankan dengan Flash player. Aplikasi ini dapat membantu para penggunanya dalam memahami pengenalan Adobe Photoshop, terutama pengenalan tool pada Adob...

  4. Theoretical Characterizaiton of Visual Signatures (Muzzle Flash)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashinski, D. O.; Scales, A. N.; Vanderley, D. L.; Chase, G. M.; di Nallo, O. E.; Byrd, E. F. C.

    2014-05-01

    We are investigating the accuracy of theoretical models used to predict the visible, ultraviolet and infrared spectra of product materials ejected from the muzzle of currently fielded systems. Recent advances in solid propellants has made the management of muzzle signature (flash) a principle issue in weapons development across the calibers. A priori prediction of the electromagnetic spectra of formulations will allow researchers to tailor blends that yield desired signatures and determine spectrographic detection ranges. We are currently employing quantum chemistry methods at various levels of sophistication to optimize molecular geometries, compute vibrational frequencies, and determine the optical spectra of specific gas-phase molecules and radicals of interest. Electronic excitations are being computed using Time Dependent Density Functional Theory (TD-DFT). A comparison of computational results to experimental values found in the literature is used to assess the affect of basis set and functional choice on calculation accuracy. The current status of this work will be presented at the conference. Work supported by the ARL, and USMA.

  5. Production of bio-oil with flash pyrolysis; Biooeljyn tuotanto flash-pyrolyysillae ja sen poltto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyroenen, T [Vapo Oy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    The target of the R and D work is to study the production of bio-oils using Flash-pyrolysis technology and utilisation of the bio-oil in oil-fuelled boilers. The PDU-unit was installed at VTT Energy in Otaniemi in April 1996. The first test were carried out in June. In the whole project Vapo Oy is responsible for: acquiring the 20 kg/h PDU-device for development; follow up of the engine tests; the investment of 5 MW demonstration plant; to carry on the boiler and engine tests with Finnish bio-oils. (orig.)

  6. Bipolar cloud-to-ground lightning flash observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saba, Marcelo M. F.; Schumann, Carina; Warner, Tom A.; Helsdon, John H.; Schulz, Wolfgang; Orville, Richard E.

    2013-10-01

    lightning is usually defined as a lightning flash where the current waveform exhibits a polarity reversal. There are very few reported cases of cloud-to-ground (CG) bipolar flashes using only one channel in the literature. Reports on this type of bipolar flashes are not common due to the fact that in order to confirm that currents of both polarities follow the same channel to the ground, one necessarily needs video records. This study presents five clear observations of single-channel bipolar CG flashes. High-speed video and electric field measurement observations are used and analyzed. Based on the video images obtained and based on previous observations of positive CG flashes with high-speed cameras, we suggest that positive leader branches which do not participate in the initial return stroke of a positive cloud-to-ground flash later generate recoil leaders whose negative ends, upon reaching the branch point, traverse the return stroke channel path to the ground resulting in a subsequent return stroke of opposite polarity.

  7. Spectral measurements of muzzle flash with multispectral and hyperspectral sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastek, M.; Dulski, R.; Trzaskawka, P.; Piątkowski, T.; Polakowski, H.

    2011-08-01

    The paper presents some practical aspects of the measurements of muzzle flash signatures. Selected signatures of sniper shot in typical scenarios has been presented. Signatures registered during all phases of muzzle flash were analyzed. High precision laboratory measurements were made in a special ballistic laboratory and as a result several flash patterns were registered. The field measurements of a muzzle flash were also performed. During the tests several infrared cameras were used, including the measurement class devices with high accuracy and frame rates. The registrations were made in NWIR, SWIR and LWIR spectral bands simultaneously. An ultra fast visual camera was also used for visible spectra registration. Some typical infrared shot signatures were presented. Beside the cameras, the LWIR imaging spectroradiometer HyperCam was also used during the laboratory experiments and the field tests. The signatures collected by the HyperCam device were useful for the determination of spectral characteristics of the muzzle flash, whereas the analysis of thermal images registered during the tests provided the data on temperature distribution in the flash area. As a result of the measurement session the signatures of several types handguns, machine guns and sniper rifles were obtained which will be used in the development of passive infrared systems for sniper detection.

  8. Improving NIR snow pit stratigraphy observations by introducing a controlled NIR light source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, J.; Marshall, H.; Rutter, N.; Karlson, A.

    2013-12-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) photography in a prepared snow pit measures mm-/grain-scale variations in snow structure, as reflectivity is strongly dependent on microstructure and grain size at the NIR wavelengths. We explore using a controlled NIR light source to maximize signal to noise ratio and provide uniform incident, diffuse light on the snow pit wall. NIR light fired from the flash is diffused across and reflected by an umbrella onto the snow pit; the lens filter transmits NIR light onto the spectrum-modified sensor of the DSLR camera. Lenses are designed to refract visible light properly, not NIR light, so there must be a correction applied for the subsequent NIR bright spot. To avoid interpolation and debayering algorithms automatically performed by programs like Adobe's Photoshop on the images, the raw data are analyzed directly in MATLAB. NIR image data show a doubling of the amount of light collected in the same time for flash over ambient lighting. Transitions across layer boundaries in the flash-lit image are detailed by higher camera intensity values than ambient-lit images. Curves plotted using median intensity at each depth, normalized to the average profile intensity, show a separation between flash- and ambient-lit images in the upper 10-15 cm; the ambient-lit image curve asymptotically approaches the level of the flash-lit image curve below 15cm. We hypothesize that the difference is caused by additional ambient light penetrating the upper 10-15 cm of the snowpack from above and transmitting through the wall of the snow pit. This indicates that combining NIR ambient and flash photography could be a powerful technique for studying penetration depth of radiation as a function of microstructure and grain size. The NIR flash images do not increase the relative contrast at layer boundaries; however, the flash more than doubles the amount of recorded light and controls layer noise as well as layer boundary transition noise.

  9. Flash photolysis of chlorine dioxide in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mialocq, Jean-Claude

    1972-01-01

    The primary process when aqueous solutions of chlorine dioxide are flash photo-lysed by light with a wave length greater than 270 nm is: OClO → hν ClO ( 2 Π) + O ( 3 P). The photochemical decomposition is characterized by the formation of small quantities of O ( 3 P) atoms and of equal amounts of chlorine atoms and molecular oxygen, the latter originating in the reaction: ClOO → Cl + O 2 . The isomer ClOO is formed by the germinate recombination of ClO and O, a process which is twice as important as diffusion of the fragments into the mass of the solution and one which represents 30 per cent of the decomposition of the chlorine dioxide. Under our experimental conditions, the lifetime of the ClOO is less than one microsecond. Chlorine atoms are precursors of Cl 2 O 2 , whose UV absorption spectrum has been determined, and which is formed by the reactions: Cl + OClO → Cl 2 O 2 ; Cl + Cl - → Cl 2- ; Cl 2- + OClO → Cl 2 O 2 + Cl - k = (1,0 ±0,1) 10 9 M -1 s -1 . Cl 2 O 2 disappears by a first-order process which leads to the formation of the ions Cl - and ClO 3 - . Competition between the reactions: O ( 3 P) + O 2 → O 3 ; O ( 3 P) + OClO → ClO 3 . ( k OClO + O)/( k O 2 + O) = 1.85±0.25 has been studied and the molar extinction coefficient of ClO 3 determined at its absorption maximum (255 nm): ε 255 nm = (920 ± 90) M -1 cm -1 . (author) [fr

  10. Modeling Studies of Inhomogeneity Effects during Laser Flash Photolysis Experiments: A Reaction-Diffusion Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dóka, Éva; Lente, Gábor

    2017-04-13

    This work presents a rigorous mathematical study of the effect of unavoidable inhomogeneities in laser flash photolysis experiments. There are two different kinds of inhomegenities: the first arises from diffusion, whereas the second one has geometric origins (the shapes of the excitation and detection light beams). Both of these are taken into account in our reported model, which gives rise to a set of reaction-diffusion type partial differential equations. These equations are solved by a specially developed finite volume method. As an example, the aqueous reaction between the sulfate ion radical and iodide ion is used, for which sufficiently detailed experimental data are available from an earlier publication. The results showed that diffusion itself is in general too slow to influence the kinetic curves on the usual time scales of laser flash photolysis experiments. However, the use of the absorbances measured (e.g., to calculate the molar absorption coefficients of transient species) requires very detailed mathematical consideration and full knowledge of the geometrical shapes of the excitation laser beam and the separate detection light beam. It is also noted that the usual pseudo-first-order approach to evaluating the kinetic traces can be used successfully even if the usual large excess condition is not rigorously met in the reaction cell locally.

  11. "Know What to Do If You Encounter a Flash Flood": Mental Models Analysis for Improving Flash Flood Risk Communication and Public Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazrus, Heather; Morss, Rebecca E; Demuth, Julie L; Lazo, Jeffrey K; Bostrom, Ann

    2016-02-01

    Understanding how people view flash flood risks can help improve risk communication, ultimately improving outcomes. This article analyzes data from 26 mental models interviews about flash floods with members of the public in Boulder, Colorado, to understand their perspectives on flash flood risks and mitigation. The analysis includes a comparison between public and professional perspectives by referencing a companion mental models study of Boulder-area professionals. A mental models approach can help to diagnose what people already know about flash flood risks and responses, as well as any critical gaps in their knowledge that might be addressed through improved risk communication. A few public interviewees mentioned most of the key concepts discussed by professionals as important for flash flood warning decision making. However, most interviewees exhibited some incomplete understandings and misconceptions about aspects of flash flood development and exposure, effects, or mitigation that may lead to ineffective warning decisions when a flash flood threatens. These include important misunderstandings about the rapid evolution of flash floods, the speed of water in flash floods, the locations and times that pose the greatest flash flood risk in Boulder, the value of situational awareness and environmental cues, and the most appropriate responses when a flash flood threatens. The findings point to recommendations for ways to improve risk communication, over the long term and when an event threatens, to help people quickly recognize and understand threats, obtain needed information, and make informed decisions in complex, rapidly evolving extreme weather events such as flash floods. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  12. Jet models of X-Ray Flashes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamb, D.Q.; Donaghy, T.Q.; Graziani, C.

    2005-01-01

    One third of all HETE-2-localized bursts are X-Ray Flashes (XRFs), a class of events first identified by Heise in which the fluence in the 2-30 keV energy band exceeds that in the 30-400 keV energy band We summarize recent HETE-2 and other results on the properties of XRFs. These results show that the properties of XRFs, X-ray-rich gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), and GRBs form a continuum, and thus provide evidence that all three kinds of bursts are closely related phenomena. As the most extreme burst population, XRFs provide severe constraints on burst models and unique insights into the structure of GRB jets, the GRB rate, and the nature of Type Ib/Ic supernovae. We briefly mention a number of the physical models that have been proposed to explain XRFs. We then consider two fundamentally different classes of phenomenological jet models: universal jet models, in which it is posited that all GRBs jets are identical and that differences in the observed properties of the bursts are due entirely to differences in the viewing angle; and variable-opening angle jet models, in which it is posited that GRB jets have a distribution of jet opening angles and that differences in the observed properties of the bursts are due to differences in the emissivity and spectra of jets having different opening angles. We consider three shapes far the emissivity as a function of the viewing angle θ ν from the axis of the jet: power law, top hat (or uniform) , and Gaussian (or Fisher). We then discuss the effect of relativistic beaming on each of these models. We show that observations can distinguish between these various models

  13. Low luminance/eyes closed and monochromatic stimulations reduce variability of flash visual evoked potential latency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senthil Kumar Subramanian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Visual evoked potentials are useful in investigating the physiology and pathophysiology of the human visual system. Flash visual evoked potential (FVEP, though technically easier, has less clinical utility because it shows great variations in both latency and amplitude for normal subjects. Aim: To study the effect of eye closure, low luminance, and monochromatic stimulation on the variability of FVEPs. Subjects and Methods: Subjects in self-reported good health in the age group of 18-30 years were divided into three groups. All participants underwent FVEP recording with eyes open and with white light at 0.6 J luminance (standard technique. Next recording was done in group 1 with closed eyes, group 2 with 1.2 and 20 J luminance, and group 3 with red and blue lights, while keeping all the other parameters constant. Two trials were given for each eye, for each technique. The same procedure was repeated at the same clock time on the following day. Statistical Analysis: Variation in FVEP latencies between the individuals (interindividual variability and the variations within the same individual for four trials (intraindividual variability were assessed using coefficient of variance (COV. The technique with lower COV was considered the better method. Results: Recording done with closed eyes, 0.6 J luminance, and monochromatic light (blue > red showed lower interindividual and intraindividual variability in P2 and N2 as compared to standard techniques. Conclusions: Low luminance flash stimulations and monochromatic light will reduce FVEP latency variability and may be clinically useful modifications of FVEP recording technique.

  14. Kinetics of the flash-induced P515 response in relation to the H+-permeability of the membrane bound ATPase in spinach chloroplasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, R.L.; van Kooten, O.; Vredenberg, W.J.

    1985-08-01

    The effect of dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD) on the kinetics of the flash-induced P515 response and on the activity of the ATPase was investigated in isolated spinach chloroplasts. It was found that after the addition of 5 X 10(-8)mol DCCD the rate of ATP hydrolysis induced by a period of 60 sec illumination was decreased to less than 5% of its original value. At this concentration, hardly any effect, if at all, could be detected on the kinetics of the flash-induced P515 response, neither in dark-adapted nor in light-activated chloroplasts. It was concluded that the presence of concentrations of DCCD, sufficiently high to affect the ATPase activity, does not affect the kinetics of the flash-induced P515 response. Since DCCD decreases the H+ permeability of the membrane-bound ATPase, it was concluded that this permeability coefficient for protons is not an important factor in the regulation of the flash-induced membrane potential and, therefore, does not affect the kinetics of the flash-induced P515 response.

  15. Venlafaxine and desvenlafaxine in the management of menopausal hot flashes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson ED

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Vasomotor flushes are common complaints of women during and after menopause, affecting about 75 percent of this population. Estrogen therapy is the most effective treatment for hot flashes. However, there are a significant number of women who have contraindications or choose not to use estrogen due to potential risks such as breast cancer and thromboembolic disorders. These women need alternative options. The selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, venlafaxine and desvenlafaxine, have shown efficacy in alleviating hot flashes.Objective: The purpose of this review is to assess the efficacy and tolerability of these two agents for treatment of hot flashes in healthy postmenopausal women.Methods: A literature search of the MEDLINE and Ovid databases from inception to June 2011 was conducted. Randomized controlled trials, published in English, with human participants were included. Studies included postmenopausal women, and trials with breast cancer only populations were excluded.Results: Venlafaxine reduced hot flashes by 37 to 61 percent and desvenlafaxine by 55 to 69 percent. Both agents were well tolerated. The most common adverse effects were headache, dry mouth, nausea, insomnia, somnolence, and dizziness.Conclusion: Based on the evidence, venlafaxine and desvenlafaxine are both viable options for reducing the frequency and severity of hot flashes.

  16. Search for the radio occulation flash at Jupiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.M.; Tyler, G.L.; Eshleman, V.R.; Wood, G.E.; Lindall, G.F.

    1981-01-01

    The 'evolute flash' a focusing effect caused by the curvature of a planet's limb, was sought in the radio data taken during the occulation of Voyager 1 by Jupiter, using a modified matched-filter technique. The expected frequency structure of the flash signal is double branched, while the intensity structure is highly localized in time. The search for the signal was carried out over a 6.4 s period. The signal parameters were varied to span the uncertainties introduced by imperfect knowledge of the orbit of the spacecraft and the shape of Jupiter. Several peaks at the 8 standard deviation level were present in the filter output. However, these peaks were separated in time by up to 3.3 s, and none could be identified as the flash. From this negative result a lower bound on the absorption along a ray with periapsis near the 4 bar level in Jupiter's atmosphere can be established at 25 dB. Employing the new Voyager results on the structure of the atmosphere of Jupiter and the mixing ratio of the absorbent ammonia, as well as the improved knowledge of flash characteristics resulting from this study, we estimate that the flash would have been detected if the distance behind the planet where the spacecraft trajectory crossed the evolute were at least 20 Jupiter radii, as compared with a value near 7 in the experiment. For focusing at this greater distance, the atmospheric pressure at the ray periapsis would be between 1.5 and 2 bar

  17. Desorption of deuterium from beryllium codeposits using flash heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, J.H., E-mail: jyu@ferp.ucsd.edu [Center for Energy Research, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0417 (United States); Baldwin, M.J.; Doerner, R.P. [Center for Energy Research, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0417 (United States); Pitts, R.A. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Smirnov, R.D. [Center for Energy Research, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0417 (United States); Xu, H.W. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States)

    2013-07-15

    As a result of safety concerns, limits will be placed on the allowable tritium inventory retained inside the ITER vacuum vessel. The primary motivation for the present work is to test the proposed method of removing tritium from main chamber codeposits using radiative heat flashing from controlled ITER plasma shutdowns. Detritiation of Be codeposits is studied in the PISCES-B facility using flash-heating by a 10 ms laser with up to 2 MJ/m{sup 2} of absorbed energy density. Three types of codeposits are flash-heated with layer thickness ranging from 0.1 to 1.2 μm. Less than 25% of the D in the Be layer escapes at ITER-relevant flash energy densities and with peak surface temperature up to ∼900 °C. Repetitive flashing with peak surface temperature of 400–500 °C results in an increased population of higher energy trap sites, implying that transient heating which causes appropriate surface temperature excursion redistributes D among codeposit trap sites.

  18. Environmental Effects on Data Retention in Flash Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Rich; Flowers, David; Bergevin, Keith

    2017-01-01

    Flash technology is being utilized in fuzed munition applications and, based on the development of digital logic devices in the commercial world, usage of flash technology will increase. Antifuse technology, prevalent in non-volatile field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs), will eventually be phased out as new devices have not been developed for approximately a decade. The reliance on flash technology presents a long-term reliability issue for both DoD and NASA safety- and mission-critical applications. A thorough understanding of the data retention failure modes and statistics associated with Flash data retention is of vital concern to the fuze safety community. A key retention parameter for a flash cell is the threshold voltage (VTH), which is an indirect indicator of the amount of charge stored on the cells floating gate. This paper will present the results of our on-going tests: long-term storage at 150 C for a small population of devices, neutron radiation exposure, electrostatic discharge (ESD) testing, and the trends of large populations (over 300 devices for each condition) exposed to three difference temperatures: 25 C, 125 C, and 150 C.

  19. Multi-Level Bitmap Indexes for Flash Memory Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Kesheng; Madduri, Kamesh; Canon, Shane

    2010-07-23

    Due to their low access latency, high read speed, and power-efficient operation, flash memory storage devices are rapidly emerging as an attractive alternative to traditional magnetic storage devices. However, tests show that the most efficient indexing methods are not able to take advantage of the flash memory storage devices. In this paper, we present a set of multi-level bitmap indexes that can effectively take advantage of flash storage devices. These indexing methods use coarsely binned indexes to answer queries approximately, and then use finely binned indexes to refine the answers. Our new methods read significantly lower volumes of data at the expense of an increased disk access count, thus taking full advantage of the improved read speed and low access latency of flash devices. To demonstrate the advantage of these new indexes, we measure their performance on a number of storage systems using a standard data warehousing benchmark called the Set Query Benchmark. We observe that multi-level strategies on flash drives are up to 3 times faster than traditional indexing strategies on magnetic disk drives.

  20. Theoretical investigation of flash vaporisation in a screw expander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasuthevan, Hanushan; Brümmer, Andreas

    2017-08-01

    In the present study flash vaporisation of liquid injection in a twin screw expander for a Trilateral Flash Cycle (TFC) is examined theoretically. The TFC process comprises a pressure increase in the working fluid, followed by heating the liquid close to boiling point. The hot liquid is injected into the working chamber of a screw expander. During this process the pressure of the liquid drops below the saturation pressure, while the temperature of the liquid remains virtually constant. Hence the liquid is superheated and in a metastable state. The liquid jet seeks to achieve a stable state in thermodynamic equilibrium and is therefore partially vaporised. This effect is referred to as flash vaporisation. Accordingly, a two-phase mixture, consisting of vapour and liquid, exists in the working chamber. Thermodynamic simulations were carried out using water as the working fluid for representative screw expander geometry. The simulations presented are performed from two different aspects during the filling process of a screw expander. The first case is the vaporisation of the injected liquid in a state of thermodynamic equilibrium, whereby the two-phase mixture is treated entirely as a compressible and homogeneous gas. The second case considers flashing efficiency. It describes the quantity of flashed vapour and consists of a liquid and vapour domain. Both models are compared and analysed with respect to the operational behaviour of a screw expander.

  1. A high repetition rate XUV seeding source for FLASH2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willner, Arik

    2012-05-01

    Improved performance of free-electron laser (FEL) light sources in terms of timing stability, pulse shape and spectral properties of the amplified FEL pulses is of interest in material science, the fields of ultrafast dynamics, biology, chemistry and even special branches in industry. A promising scheme for such an improvement is direct seeding with high harmonic generation (HHG) in a noble gas target. A free-electron laser seeded by an external extreme ultraviolet (XUV) source is planned for FLASH2 at DESY in Hamburg. The requirements for the XUV/soft X-ray source can be summarized as follows: A repetition rate of at least 100 kHz in a 10 Hz burst is needed at variable wavelengths from 10 to 40 nm and pulse energies of several nJ within a single laser harmonic. This application requires a laser amplifier system with exceptional parameters, mJ-level pulse energy, 10-15 fs pulse duration at 100 kHz (1 MHz) burst repetition rate. A new optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification (OPCPA) system is under development in order to meet these requirements, and very promising results have been achieved in the last three years. In parallel to this development, a new HHG concept is necessary to sustain high average power of the driving laser system and to generate harmonics with high conversion efficiencies. Currently, the highest conversion efficiency with HHG has been demonstrated using gas-filled capillary targets. For our application, only a free-jet target can be used for HHG, in order to overcome damage threshold limitations of HHG target optics at a high repetition rate. A novel dual-gas multijet gas target has been developed and first experiments show remarkable control of the degree of phase matching forming the basis for improved control of the harmonic photon flux and the XUV pulse characteristics. The basic idea behind the dual-gas concept is the insertion of matching zones in between multiple HHG sources. These matching sections are filled with hydrogen which

  2. A high repetition rate XUV seeding source for FLASH2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willner, Arik

    2012-05-15

    Improved performance of free-electron laser (FEL) light sources in terms of timing stability, pulse shape and spectral properties of the amplified FEL pulses is of interest in material science, the fields of ultrafast dynamics, biology, chemistry and even special branches in industry. A promising scheme for such an improvement is direct seeding with high harmonic generation (HHG) in a noble gas target. A free-electron laser seeded by an external extreme ultraviolet (XUV) source is planned for FLASH2 at DESY in Hamburg. The requirements for the XUV/soft X-ray source can be summarized as follows: A repetition rate of at least 100 kHz in a 10 Hz burst is needed at variable wavelengths from 10 to 40 nm and pulse energies of several nJ within a single laser harmonic. This application requires a laser amplifier system with exceptional parameters, mJ-level pulse energy, 10-15 fs pulse duration at 100 kHz (1 MHz) burst repetition rate. A new optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification (OPCPA) system is under development in order to meet these requirements, and very promising results have been achieved in the last three years. In parallel to this development, a new HHG concept is necessary to sustain high average power of the driving laser system and to generate harmonics with high conversion efficiencies. Currently, the highest conversion efficiency with HHG has been demonstrated using gas-filled capillary targets. For our application, only a free-jet target can be used for HHG, in order to overcome damage threshold limitations of HHG target optics at a high repetition rate. A novel dual-gas multijet gas target has been developed and first experiments show remarkable control of the degree of phase matching forming the basis for improved control of the harmonic photon flux and the XUV pulse characteristics. The basic idea behind the dual-gas concept is the insertion of matching zones in between multiple HHG sources. These matching sections are filled with hydrogen which

  3. Replacing HDDs with Solid-State Flash Disks in PXIbus-Based Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Z W; Zeng, L

    2006-01-01

    New security features, constantly decreasing prices, solid-state Flash disks are becoming a popular alternative for replacing failure-prone mechanical Hard Disk Drives (HDDs) in PXIbus-based military systems. The key component in high-capacity solid-state Flash disks is NAND Flash, but with a specification that shows only 100,000-300,000 write/erase cycles, engineers may be concerned that the lifetime of Flash disks cannot meet their application requirements. With the right Flash management, Flash disks are able to provide the reliability and endurance that military applications need

  4. Modeling midwave infrared muzzle flash spectra from unsuppressed and flash-suppressed large caliber munitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steward, Bryan J.; Perram, Glen P.; Gross, Kevin C.

    2012-07-01

    Time-resolved infrared spectra of firings from a 152 mm howitzer were acquired over an 1800-6000 cm-1 spectral range using a Fourier-transform spectrometer. The instrument collected primarily at 32 cm-1 spectral and 100 Hz temporal resolutions. Munitions included unsuppressed and chemically flash suppressed propellants. Secondary combustion occurred with unsuppressed propellants resulting in flash emissions lasting ˜100 ms and dominated by H2O and CO2 spectral structure. Non-combusting plume emissions were one-tenth as intense and approached background levels within 20-40 ms. A low-dimensional phenomenological model was used to reduce the data to temperatures, soot absorbances, and column densities of H2O, CO2, CH4, and CO. The combusting plumes exhibit peak temperatures of ˜1400 K, areas of greater than 32 m2, low soot emissivity of ˜0.04, with nearly all the CO converted to CO2. The non-combusting plumes exhibit lower temperatures of ˜1000 K, areas of ˜5 m2, soot emissivity of greater than 0.38 and CO as the primary product. Maximum fit residual relative to peak intensity are 14% and 8.9% for combusting and non-combusting plumes, respectively. The model was generalized to account for turbulence-induced variations in the muzzle plumes. Distributions of temperature and concentration in 1-2 spatial regions demonstrate a reduction in maximum residuals by 40%. A two-region model of combusting plumes provides a plausible interpretation as a ˜1550 K, optically thick plume core and ˜2550 K, thin, surface-layer flame-front. Temperature rate of change was used to characterize timescales and energy release for plume emissions. Heat of combustion was estimated to be ˜5 MJ/kg.

  5. The Flash-Lag Effect as a Motion-Based Predictive Shift.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina A Khoei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to its inherent neural delays, the visual system has an outdated access to sensory information about the current position of moving objects. In contrast, living organisms are remarkably able to track and intercept moving objects under a large range of challenging environmental conditions. Physiological, behavioral and psychophysical evidences strongly suggest that position coding is extrapolated using an explicit and reliable representation of object's motion but it is still unclear how these two representations interact. For instance, the so-called flash-lag effect supports the idea of a differential processing of position between moving and static objects. Although elucidating such mechanisms is crucial in our understanding of the dynamics of visual processing, a theory is still missing to explain the different facets of this visual illusion. Here, we reconsider several of the key aspects of the flash-lag effect in order to explore the role of motion upon neural coding of objects' position. First, we formalize the problem using a Bayesian modeling framework which includes a graded representation of the degree of belief about visual motion. We introduce a motion-based prediction model as a candidate explanation for the perception of coherent motion. By including the knowledge of a fixed delay, we can model the dynamics of sensory information integration by extrapolating the information acquired at previous instants in time. Next, we simulate the optimal estimation of object position with and without delay compensation and compared it with human perception under a broad range of different psychophysical conditions. Our computational study suggests that the explicit, probabilistic representation of velocity information is crucial in explaining position coding, and therefore the flash-lag effect. We discuss these theoretical results in light of the putative corrective mechanisms that can be used to cancel out the detrimental effects of neural

  6. High-Energy Compton Scattering Light Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Hartemann, Fred V; Barty, C; Crane, John; Gibson, David J; Hartouni, E P; Tremaine, Aaron M

    2005-01-01

    No monochromatic, high-brightness, tunable light sources currently exist above 100 keV. Important applications that would benefit from such new hard x-ray sources include: nuclear resonance fluorescence spectroscopy, time-resolved positron annihilation spectroscopy, and MeV flash radiography. The peak brightness of Compton scattering light sources is derived for head-on collisions and found to scale with the electron beam brightness and the drive laser pulse energy. This gamma 2

  7. Flash Points of Secondary Alcohol and n-Alkane Mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esina, Zoya N; Miroshnikov, Alexander M; Korchuganova, Margarita R

    2015-11-19

    The flash point is one of the most important characteristics used to assess the ignition hazard of mixtures of flammable liquids. To determine the flash points of mixtures of secondary alcohols with n-alkanes, it is necessary to calculate the activity coefficients. In this paper, we use a model that allows us to obtain enthalpy of fusion and enthalpy of vaporization data of the pure components to calculate the liquid-solid equilibrium (LSE) and vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE). Enthalpy of fusion and enthalpy of vaporization data of secondary alcohols in the literature are limited; thus, the prediction of these characteristics was performed using the method of thermodynamic similarity. Additionally, the empirical models provided the critical temperatures and boiling temperatures of the secondary alcohols. The modeled melting enthalpy and enthalpy of vaporization as well as the calculated LSE and VLE flash points were determined for the secondary alcohol and n-alkane mixtures.

  8. Boiling water reactor stability revisited: The effects of flashing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadigaroglu, G. [Institute of Energy Technology, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, ETH, ETH-Zentrum, CLT-C1, CH-8092 Zurich (Switzerland)]. E-mail: yadi@ethz.ch; Askari, B. [Institute of Energy Technology, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, ETH, ETH-Zentrum, CLT-C1, CH-8092 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2005-05-01

    There are numerous investigations of two-phase flow stability with particular emphasis to BWR stability; these have become increasingly sophisticated and complete over the years. The basic features of a new development and frequency-domain code capable of considering all the channels (bundles) in a BWR, flashing of the coolant at low pressure, full coupling with 3D, two-group neutronics, etc. are described. The basic thermal-hydraulic model is used to study the effects of flashing on stability in a BWR-like channel. The behavior of the channel is highly dynamic. Contrary to what could have been intuitively guessed, the effect of flashing is stabilizing; the reasons and mechanisms leading to this are discussed.

  9. Boiling water reactor stability revisited: The effects of flashing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadigaroglu, G.; Askari, B.

    2005-01-01

    There are numerous investigations of two-phase flow stability with particular emphasis to BWR stability; these have become increasingly sophisticated and complete over the years. The basic features of a new development and frequency-domain code capable of considering all the channels (bundles) in a BWR, flashing of the coolant at low pressure, full coupling with 3D, two-group neutronics, etc. are described. The basic thermal-hydraulic model is used to study the effects of flashing on stability in a BWR-like channel. The behavior of the channel is highly dynamic. Contrary to what could have been intuitively guessed, the effect of flashing is stabilizing; the reasons and mechanisms leading to this are discussed

  10. Model of UV flashes due to gigantic blue jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milikh, G M; Shneider, M N

    2008-01-01

    Analysis of UV flashes observed by the UV detector on board the 'Tatiana' microsatellite suggests, based on their location, pulse width and energy of the source of the photons, that the flashes were generated by gigantic blue jets (GBJs). Presented in this paper is a numerical model of UV flashes due to a bunch of long streamers which form a leader, a prong such as that observed in a GBJ. Using a previously developed model of upward propagation of a long streamer in the exponential atmosphere the paper describes temporal evolution of the UV flux generated by a bunch of long streamers, in the given spectral range 300-400 nm used by the UV detector on board 'Tatiana'. The model is in agreement with the observations.

  11. Visualization on triangle concept using Adobe Flash Professional SC6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagita, Laela; Ratih Kusumarini, Adha

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop teaching aids using Adobe Flash Professional CS6 emphasize on Triangle concept. A new alternative way to deliver a basic concept in geometry with visualization is software Adobe Flash Professional CS 6. Research method is research and development with 5 phase of Ploom’s model, namely (1) preliminary, (2) design, (3) realization/ construction, (4) test, evaluation and revision, and 5) implementation. The results showed that teaching aids was valid, practice, and effective. Validity: expert judgement for material score is 3.95 and media expert judgement produce an average score of 3,2, both in the category are valid. Practically: the average of questionnaire response is 4,04 (good). Effectiveness: n-gain test value is 0,36 (medium). It concluded that developed of teaching aids using Adobe Flash CS6 on triangle can improve student achievement.

  12. Flash trajectory imaging of target 3D motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinwei; Zhou, Yan; Fan, Songtao; He, Jun; Liu, Yuliang

    2011-03-01

    We present a flash trajectory imaging technique which can directly obtain target trajectory and realize non-contact measurement of motion parameters by range-gated imaging and time delay integration. Range-gated imaging gives the range of targets and realizes silhouette detection which can directly extract targets from complex background and decrease the complexity of moving target image processing. Time delay integration increases information of one single frame of image so that one can directly gain the moving trajectory. In this paper, we have studied the algorithm about flash trajectory imaging and performed initial experiments which successfully obtained the trajectory of a falling badminton. Our research demonstrates that flash trajectory imaging is an effective approach to imaging target trajectory and can give motion parameters of moving targets.

  13. Flash Flood Type Identification within Catchments in Beijing Mountainous Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, W.

    2017-12-01

    Flash flood is a common type of disaster in mountainous area, Flash flood with the feature of large flow rate, strong flushing force, destructive power, has periodically caused loss to life and destruction to infrastructure in mountainous area. Beijing as China's political, economic and cultural center, the disaster prevention and control work in Beijing mountainous area has always been concerned widely. According to the transport mechanism, sediment concentration and density, the flash flood type identification within catchment can provide basis for making the hazards prevention and mitigation policy. Taking Beijing as the study area, this paper extracted parameters related to catchment morphological and topography features respectively. By using Bayes discriminant, Logistic regression and Random forest, the catchments in Beijing mountainous area were divided into water floods process, fluvial sediment transport process and debris flows process. The results found that Logistic regression analysis showed the highest accuracy, with the overall accuracy of 88.2%. Bayes discriminant and Random forest had poor prediction effects. This study confirmed the ability of morphological and topography features to identify flash flood process. The circularity ratio, elongation ratio and roughness index can be used to explain the flash flood types effectively, and the Melton ratio and elevation relief ratio also did a good job during the identification, whereas the drainage density seemed not to be an issue at this level of detail. Based on the analysis of spatial patterns of flash flood types, fluvial sediment transport process and debris flow process were the dominant hazards, while the pure water flood process was much less. The catchments dominated by fluvial sediment transport process were mainly distributed in the Yan Mountain region, where the fault belts were relatively dense. The debris flow process prone to occur in the Taihang Mountain region thanks to the abundant

  14. Inception and development of voids in flashing liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, O.C. Jr.

    1979-06-01

    Recent work aimed at correctly describing nonequilibrium vapor generation rates in flashing liquids in decompressing flows similar to those which might be encountered in a loss of coolant accident in a nuclear reactor is summarized. Analysis is reviewed which describes the flashing inception superheat in terms of the turbulence intensity for a given expansion rate and initial temperature, and interfacial area density and interfacial heat flux, and the volumetric vapor generation rates. Comparisons with existing data are included and further experiments being undertaken are described, including typical recent results

  15. Fenomena Kerak Dalam Desalinasi Dengan Multi Stage Flash Distillation (Msf)

    OpenAIRE

    Alimah, Siti

    2006-01-01

    SCALING PHENOMENA IN DESALINATION WITH MULTI STAGE FLASH DISTILLATION (MSF). Assessment of scaling phenomena in MSF desalination has been carried out. Scale is one of predominantly problem in multi stage flash (MSF) desalination installation. The main types of scale in MSF are carbonat calcium (CaC03), hydroxide magnesium (Mg(OH)2) dan sulphate calcium (CaS04). CaC03 dan Mg(OH)2 scales result from the thermal decomposition of bicarbonate ion, however sulphate calcium scale result from reactio...

  16. [Contact shot from infantry weapons with a flash-suppressor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdekamp, Markus Grosse; Braunwarth, Roland; Schmidt, Ulrike; Schmidt, Wolfgang; Pollak, Stefan

    2003-01-01

    The number of reports on contact shots from firearms with a flash suppressor attached to the muzzle is small. On the basis of a case report (suicidal shot to the forehead with a Kalschnikow AKMS 47 assault rifle) the morphological peculiarities (characteristics soot pattern, relatively small powder cavity and only minor skin tears in the presence of a bony support) are presented and the conclusions to be drawn from the findings regarding the flash-suppressor, the shot distance, the angle of the shot and the way of holding the weapon are discussed.

  17. Effect of Soybeans on Hot Flashes in Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Mozaffari-khosravi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hot flashes are common and discomfortable signs of menopause that present with blazing sweatiness, sense of hotness, tachycardia and agitation. Hot flashes cause disturbances in daily activity and quality of night sleep. In spite of the effect of Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT on hot flashes, nowadays, there are diverse opinions about HRT and the reason is that it has chronic complications. In addition, the acceptance of HRT by Iranian women is very low. Study of numerous texts has shown that isofliavone present in soybean is a phytoestrogen that could be effective in control of hot flashes. The purpose of the study is to examine the changes in time periods of hot flashes in response to consumption of 74 mg Isoflavone/day present in 60 grams soybeans in menopausal women. Methods: This study was a clinical trial with before and after design that included 31 postmenopausal women. The participants were assessed with respect to daily hot flashes at baseline and after one, two and three months of intervention. Participants consumed daily 60 grams soybeans for 3 months. Blood samples were taken at the start and end of intervention for determining levels of gonadotropins and estradiol. Data was analyzed by SPSS software. Results: There was a decrease in time period of hot flashes from baseline of 5.88±2.61 to 3.45±1.82 after one month, 2.73±1.57 after two months and 2.16±1.48 after three months of consumption of soybeans (P<0.001. There was decrease in levels of FSH, LH & estradiol after 3 months, but this decrease was not significant, except in the case of estradiol. Conclusion: In line with various studies proposing the use of soybeans in the form of concentrate, drink or capsule, this study suggests that consumption of soybeans (60 gr daily as snacks may be a safe and effective method for controlling hot flashes in postmenopausal women..

  18. The xanthophylls in light-harvesting complex II of higher plants: light harvesting and triplet quenching.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peterman, E.J.G.; Gradinaru, C.C.; Calkoen, F.; Borst, J.C.; van Grondelle, R.; van Amerongen, H.

    1997-01-01

    A spectral and functional assignment of the xanthophylls in monomeric and trimeric light-harvesting complex II of green plants has been obtained using HPLC analysis of the pigment composition, laser-flash induced triplet- minus-singlet, fluorescence excitation, and absorption spectra. It is shown

  19. Fundamental properties and atmospheric structure of the red supergiant VY Canis Majoris based on VLTI/AMBER spectro-interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittkowski, M.; Hauschildt, P. H.; Arroyo-Torres, B.; Marcaide, J. M.

    2012-04-01

    Aims: We investigate the atmospheric structure and fundamental properties of the red supergiant VY CMa. Methods: We obtained near-infrared spectro-interferometric observations of VY CMa with spectral resolutions of 35 and 1500 using the AMBER instrument at the VLTI. Results: The visibility data indicate the presence of molecular layers of water vapor and CO in the extended atmosphere with an asymmetric morphology. The uniform disk diameter in the water band around 2.0 μm is increased by ~20% compared to the near-continuum bandpass at 2.20-2.25 μm, and in the CO band at 2.3-2.5 μm it is increased by up to ~50%. The closure phases indicate relatively small deviations from point symmetry close to the photospheric layer, and stronger deviations in the extended H2O and CO layers. Making use of the high spatial and spectral resolution, a near-continuum bandpass can be isolated from contamination by molecular and dusty layers, and the Rosseland-mean photospheric angular diameter is estimated to 11.3 ± 0.3 mas based on a PHOENIX atmosphere model. Together with recent high-precision estimates of the distance and spectro-photometry, this estimate corresponds to a radius of 1420 ± 120 R⊙ and an effective temperature of 3490 ± 90 K. Conclusions: VY CMa exhibits asymmetric, possibly clumpy, atmospheric layers of H2O and CO, which are not co-spatial, within a larger elongated dusty envelope. Our revised fundamental parameters put VY CMa close to the Hayashi limit of recent evolutionary tracks of initial mass 25 M⊙ with rotation or 32 M⊙ without rotation, shortly before evolving blueward in the HR-diagram. Based on observations made with the VLT Interferometer (VLTI) at Paranal Observatory under programme ID 386.D-0012.Figures 2, 3 and 5 are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  20. Genetic variations in vitamin D-related pathways and breast cancer risk in African American women in the AMBER consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Song; Haddad, Stephen A.; Hu, Qiang; Liu, Song; Lunetta, Kathryn L.; Ruiz-Narvaez, Edward A.; Hong, Chi-Chen; Zhu, Qianqian; Sucheston-Campbell, Lara; Cheng, Ting-Yuan David; Bensen, Jeannette T.; Johnson, Candace S.; Trump, Donald L.; Haiman, Christopher A.; Olshan, Andrew F.; Palmer, Julie R.; Ambrosone, Christine B.

    2016-01-01

    Studies of genetic variations in vitamin D-related pathways and breast cancer risk have been conducted mostly in populations of European ancestry, and only sparsely in African Americans (AA), who are known for a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency. We analyzed 24,445 germline variants in 63 genes from vitamin D-related pathways in the African American Breast Cancer Epidemiology and Risk (AMBER) consortium, including 3,663 breast cancer cases and 4,687 controls. Odds ratios (OR) were derived from logistic regression models for overall breast cancer, by estrogen receptor (ER) status (1,983 ER positive and 1,098 ER negative), and for case-only analyses of ER status. None of the three vitamin D-related pathways were associated with breast cancer risk overall or by ER status. Gene-level analyses identified associations with risk for several genes at a nominal p ≤ 0.05, particularly for ER− breast cancer, including rs4647707 in DDB2. In case-only analyses, vitamin D metabolism and signaling pathways were associated with ER− cancer (pathway-level p = 0.02), driven by a single gene CASR (gene-level p = 0.001). The top SNP in CASR was rs112594756 (p = 7 × 10−5, gene-wide corrected p = 0.01), followed by a second signal from a nearby SNP rs6799828 (p = 1 × 10−4, corrected p = 0.03). In summary, several variants in vitamin D pathways were associated with breast cancer risk in AA women. In addition, CASR may be related to tumor ER status, supporting a role of vitamin D or calcium in modifying breast cancer phenotypes. PMID:26650177

  1. Artificial light pollution: Shifting spectral wavelengths to mitigate physiological and health consequences in a nocturnal marsupial mammal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimovski, Alicia M; Robert, Kylie A

    2018-05-02

    The focus of sustainable lighting tends to be on reduced CO 2 emissions and cost savings, but not on the wider environmental effects. Ironically, the introduction of energy-efficient lighting, such as light emitting diodes (LEDs), may be having a great impact on the health of wildlife. These white LEDs are generated with a high content of short-wavelength 'blue' light. While light of any kind can suppress melatonin and the physiological processes it regulates, these short wavelengths are potent suppressors of melatonin. Here, we manipulated the spectral composition of LED lights and tested their capacity to mitigate the physiological and health consequences associated with their use. We experimentally investigated the impact of white LEDs (peak wavelength 448 nm; mean irradiance 2.87 W/m 2 ), long-wavelength shifted amber LEDs (peak wavelength 605 nm; mean irradiance 2.00 W/m 2 ), and no lighting (irradiance from sky glow light treatments. White LED exposed wallabies had significantly suppressed nocturnal melatonin compared to no light and amber LED exposed wallabies, while there was no difference in lipid peroxidation. Antioxidant capacity declined from baseline to week 10 under all treatments. These results provide further evidence that short-wavelength light at night is a potent suppressor of nocturnal melatonin. Importantly, we also illustrate that shifting the spectral output to longer wavelengths could mitigate these negative physiological impacts. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Laser flash-photolysis and gas discharge in N2O-containing mixture: kinetic mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosarev, Ilya; Popov, Nikolay; Starikovskaia, Svetlana; Starikovskiy, Andrey; mipt Team

    2011-10-01

    The paper is devoted to further experimental and theoretical analysis of ignition by ArF laser flash-photolysis and nanosecond discharge in N2O-containing mixture has been done. Additional experiments have been made to assure that laser emission is distributed uniformly throughout the cross-section. The series of experiments was proposed and carried out to check validity of O(1D) determination in experiments on plasma assisted ignition initiated by flash-photolysis. In these experiments, ozone density in the given mixture (mixture composition and kinetics has been preliminary analyzed) was measured using UV light absorption in Hartley band. Good coincidence between experimental data and results of calculations have been obtained Temporal behavior of energy input, electric field and electric current has been measured and analyzed. These data are considered as initial conditions for numerical modeling of the discharge in O2:N2O:H2:Ar = 0.3:1:3:5 mixture. Ion-molecular reactions and reactions of active species production in Ar:H2:O2:N2O mixture were analyzed. The set of reactions to describe chemical transformation in the system due to the discharge action has been selected.

  3. Flash flood disasters analysis and evaluation: a case study of Yiyang County in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haichen; Zhang, Xiaolei; Li, Qing; Qin, Tao; Lei, Xiaohui

    2018-03-01

    Global climate change leads to the more extreme precipitation and more flash flood disasters, which is a serious threat to the mountain inhabitants. To prevent flash flood disasters, China started flash flood disaster control planning and other projects from 2006. Among those measures, non-engineering measures are effective and economical. This paper introduced the framework of flash flood disaster analysis and evaluation in China, followed by a case study of Yiyang County.

  4. Las dos versiones de la De Psalterii Anglicani exemplari animaduersio de Benito Arias Montano en la Biblia Políglota de Amberes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dávila Pérez, Antonio

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the eighth and final volume of the Antwerp Polyglot Arias Montano published a short text titled De Psalterii Anglicani Exemplari Animaduersio. In his defense of the Hebrew original of the Old Testament, Montano set out to warn the reader that some of the more esteemed manuscripts by the so-called Hebrew-haters of his time were of little value. For this purpose, Arias Montano examined a Hebrew manuscript of the Psalter considered to be of particular antiquity and significance by the powerful bishop Wilhelm D. Lindanus, and concluded that it was in fact recent and quite worthless in many aspects, thereby fiercely attacking the latter’s scholarly reputation. This attack, based in part on a false accusation, was the beginning of a scholarly controversy lasting over fifteen years. The present essay calls attention to the fact that two versions of the Animaduersio, very different from each other, can be found in surviving copies of the Polyglot Bible. In order to illuminate the circumstances that led to these versions, the author proposes a threefold goal: (1 to gather the Latin text and the Spanish translation of the two versions of the Animaduersio; (2 to examine the reasons why Arias Montano rewrote his text in the light of the private correspondence of both scholars; (3 and to propose an approximate date for each of the versions.En el octavo y último volumen de la Biblia Regia de Amberes Benito Arias Montano publicaba un breve texto titulado De Psalterii Anglicani exemplari animaduersio. En el marco de su defensa del original hebreo del Antiguo Testamento, su autor consideraba necesario advertir al lector de que algunos de los manuscritos más apreciados por los llamados «misohebreos» de su tiempo carecían de todo valor. Para ello, Arias Montano examinó un manuscrito hebreo del salterio elogiado como muy antiguo y relevante por el poderoso obispo Guillermo D. Lindano, y concluía que el códice era reciente y de escaso valor, cargando de

  5. Flash floods warning technique based on wireless communication networks data

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Noam; Alpert, Pinhas; Messer, Hagit

    2010-05-01

    Flash floods can occur throughout or subsequent to rainfall events, particularly in cases where the precipitation is of high-intensity. Unfortunately, each year these floods cause severe property damage and heavy casualties. At present, there are no sufficient real time flash flood warning facilities found to cope with this phenomenon. Here we show the tremendous potential of flash floods advanced warning based on precipitation measurements of commercial microwave links. As was recently shown, wireless communication networks supply high resolution precipitation measurements at ground level while often being situated in flood prone areas, covering large parts of these hazardous regions. We present the flash flood warning potential of the wireless communication system for two different cases when floods occurred at the Judean desert and at the northern Negev in Israel. In both cases, an advanced warning regarding the hazard could have been announced based on this system. • This research was supported by THE ISRAEL SCIENCE FOUNDATION (grant No. 173/08). This work was also supported by a grant from the Yeshaya Horowitz Association, Jerusalem. Additional support was given by the PROCEMA-BMBF project and by the GLOWA-JR BMBF project.

  6. Delays due to gas diffusion in flash boiling nucleation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanbury, W.T.; McCartney, W.S.

    1976-01-01

    A theoretical model to account for the time delay between decompression and nucleation in flash boiling is presented and analyzed. It shows that gas diffusion can be responsible for delayed nucleation when the critical radius for nucleation and the suspended particle size are of the same order of magnitude

  7. Hot Flashes and Quality of Life among Breast Cancer Patients

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jacobs, Linda A

    2005-01-01

    ... (CAM) interventions used by them. Women are assessed for hot flash intensity/frequency, use of medical and CAM interventions, emotional distress, physical and social functioning, and QoL at diagnosis and at 6, 9, 12, 15, and 18 months...

  8. RAND-Based Formulations for Isothermal Multiphase Flash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paterson, Duncan; Michelsen, Michael L.; Stenby, Erling H.

    2018-01-01

    Two algorithms are proposed for isothermal multiphase flash. These are referred to as modified RAND and vol-RAND. The former uses the chemical potentials and molar-phase amounts as the iteration variables, while the latter uses chemical potentials and phase volumes to cosolve a pressure...

  9. Reduced order modeling of flashing two-phase jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurecky, William, E-mail: william.gurecky@utexas.edu; Schneider, Erich, E-mail: eschneider@mail.utexas.edu; Ballew, Davis, E-mail: davisballew@utexas.edu

    2015-12-01

    Highlights: • Accident simulation requires ability to quickly predict two-phase flashing jet's damage potential. • A reduced order modeling methodology informed by experimental or computational data is described. • Zone of influence volumes are calculated for jets of various upstream thermodynamic conditions. - Abstract: In the event of a Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) in a pressurized water reactor, the escaping coolant produces a highly energetic flashing jet with the potential to damage surrounding structures. In LOCA analysis, the goal is often to evaluate many break scenarios in a Monte Carlo style simulation to evaluate the resilience of a reactor design. Therefore, in order to quickly predict the damage potential of flashing jets, it is of interest to develop a reduced order model that relates the damage potential of a jet to the pressure and temperature upstream of the break and the distance from the break to a given object upon which the jet is impinging. This work presents framework for producing a Reduced Order Model (ROM) that may be informed by measured data, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations, or a combination of both. The model is constructed by performing regression analysis on the pressure field data, allowing the impingement pressure to be quickly reconstructed for any given upstream thermodynamic condition within the range of input data. The model is applicable to both free and fully impinging two-phase flashing jets.

  10. Bio-oil from Flash Pyrolysis of Agricultural Residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrahim, Norazana

    This thesis describes the production of bio-oils from flash pyrolysis of agricultural residues, using a pyrolysis centrifugal reactor (PCR). By thermal degradation of agricultural residues in the PCR, a liquid oil, char and non-condensable gases are produced. The yield of each fraction...

  11. Flash chemistry: flow chemistry that cannot be done in batch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Jun-ichi; Takahashi, Yusuke; Nagaki, Aiichiro

    2013-11-04

    Flash chemistry based on high-resolution reaction time control using flow microreactors enables chemical reactions that cannot be done in batch and serves as a powerful tool for laboratory synthesis of organic compounds and for production in chemical and pharmaceutical industries.

  12. Implementation of Power Efficient Flash Analogue-to-Digital Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taninki Sai Lakshmi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An efficient low power high speed 5-bit 5-GS/s flash analogue-to-digital converter (ADC is proposed in this paper. The designing of a thermometer code to binary code is one of the exacting issues of low power flash ADC. The embodiment consists of two main blocks, a comparator and a digital encoder. To reduce the metastability and the effect of bubble errors, the thermometer code is converted into the gray code and there after translated to binary code through encoder. The proposed encoder is thus implemented by using differential cascade voltage switch logic (DCVSL to maintain high speed and low power dissipation. The proposed 5-bit flash ADC is designed using Cadence 180 nm CMOS technology with a supply rail voltage typically ±0.85 V. The simulation results include a total power dissipation of 46.69 mW, integral nonlinearity (INL value of −0.30 LSB and differential nonlinearity (DNL value of −0.24 LSB, of the flash ADC.

  13. Update on The Ultra-Fast Flash Observatory (UFFO) Pathfinder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grossan, B.; Brandt, Søren; Budtz-Jørgensen, Carl

    2011-01-01

    The Ultra-Fast Flash Observatory (UFFO) uses an X/gamma and an optical/UV instrument to observe gamma-ray bursts (GRB) starting milliseconds after burst trigger and location. The X/gamma instrument, a standard coded-mask camera, locates the GRB and triggers the system. The optical/UV instrument, ...

  14. The Status of the Ultra Fast Flash Observatory - Pathfinder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nam, J. W.; Ahmad, S.; Ahn, K. B.

    2014-01-01

    The Ultra Fast Flash Observatory (UFFO) is a project to study early optical emissions from Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs). The primary scientific goal of UFFO is to see if GRBs can be calibrated with their rising times, so that they could be used as new standard candles. In order to minimize delay in op...

  15. Continuous Flash Suppression: Stimulus Fractionation rather than Integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moors, Pieter; Hesselmann, Guido; Wagemans, Johan; van Ee, Raymond

    2017-10-01

    Recent studies using continuous flash suppression suggest that invisible stimuli are processed as integrated, semantic entities. We challenge the viability of this account, given recent findings on the neural basis of interocular suppression and replication failures of high-profile CFS studies. We conclude that CFS reveals stimulus fractionation in visual cortex. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Flash release an alternative for releasing complex MEMS devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deladi, S.; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    2004-01-01

    A novel time-saving and cost-effective release technique has been developed and is described. The physical nature of the process is explained in combination with experimental observations. The results of the flash release process are compared with those of freeze-drying and supercritical CO2

  17. High-frequency Trading, Algorithmic Finance, and the Flash Crash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borch, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The Flash Crash of 6 May 2010 has an interesting status in discussions of high-frequency trading, i.e. fully automated, superfast computerized trading: it is invoked both as an important illustration of how this field of algorithmic trading operates and, more often, as an example of how fully aut...... about resonance in quantitative finance....

  18. Recovery of Flash Memories for Reliable Mobile Storages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daesung Moon

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available As the mobile appliance is applied to many ubiquitous services and the importance of the information stored in it is increased, the security issue to protect the information becomes one of the major concerns. However, most previous researches focused only on the communication security, not the storage security. Especially, a flash memory whose operational characteristics are different from those of HDD is used increasingly as a storage device for the mobile appliance because of its resistance to physical shock and lower power requirement. In this paper, we propose a flash memory management scheme targeted for guaranteeing the data integrity of the mobile storage. By maintaining the old data specified during the recovery window, we can recover the old data when the mobile appliance is attacked. Also, to reduce the storage requirement for the recovery, we restrict the number of versions to be copied, called Degree of Integrity (DoI. Especially, we consider both the reclaim efficiency and the wear leveling which is a unique characteristic of the flash memory. Based on the performance evaluation, we confirm that the proposed scheme can be acceptable to many applications as a flash memory management scheme for improving data integrity.

  19. Collecting response times using Amazon Mechanical Turk and Adobe Flash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simcox, Travis; Fiez, Julie A

    2014-03-01

    Crowdsourcing systems like Amazon's Mechanical Turk (AMT) allow data to be collected from a large sample of people in a short amount of time. This use has garnered considerable interest from behavioral scientists. So far, most experiments conducted on AMT have focused on survey-type instruments because of difficulties inherent in running many experimental paradigms over the Internet. This study investigated the viability of presenting stimuli and collecting response times using Adobe Flash to run ActionScript 3 code in conjunction with AMT. First, the timing properties of Adobe Flash were investigated using a phototransistor and two desktop computers running under several conditions mimicking those that may be present in research using AMT. This experiment revealed some strengths and weaknesses of the timing capabilities of this method. Next, a flanker task and a lexical decision task implemented in Adobe Flash were administered to participants recruited with AMT. The expected effects in these tasks were replicated. Power analyses were conducted to describe the number of participants needed to replicate these effects. A questionnaire was used to investigate previously undescribed computer use habits of 100 participants on AMT. We conclude that a Flash program in conjunction with AMT can be successfully used for running many experimental paradigms that rely on response times, although experimenters must understand the limitations of the method.

  20. Visual reinforcement audiometry: an Adobe Flash based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atherton, Steve

    2010-09-01

    Visual Reinforcement Audiometry (VRA) is a key behavioural test for young children. It is central to the diagnosis of hearing-impaired infants (1) . Habituation to the visual reinforcement can give misleading results. Medical Illustration ABM University Health Board has designed a collection of Flash animations to overcome this.

  1. Large-scale compensation of errors in pairwise-additive empirical force fields: comparison of AMBER intermolecular terms with rigorous DFT-SAPT calculations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zgarbová, M.; Otyepka, M.; Šponer, Jiří; Hobza, P.; Jurečka, P.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 35 (2010), s. 10476-10493 ISSN 1463-9076 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA203/09/1476 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) LC512; GA MŠk(CZ) GD203/09/H046 Program:LC; GD Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : amber empirical potential * DFT-SAPT * compensation of errors Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 3.454, year: 2010

  2. The Alberta moving beyond breast cancer (AMBER cohort study: a prospective study of physical activity and health-related fitness in breast cancer survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courneya Kerry S

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Limited research has examined the association between physical activity, health-related fitness, and disease outcomes in breast cancer survivors. Here, we present the rationale and design of the Alberta Moving Beyond Breast Cancer (AMBER Study, a prospective cohort study designed specifically to examine the role of physical activity and health-related fitness in breast cancer survivorship from the time of diagnosis and for the balance of life. The AMBER Study will examine the role of physical activity and health-related fitness in facilitating treatment completion, alleviating treatment side effects, hastening recovery after treatments, improving long term quality of life, and reducing the risks of disease recurrence, other chronic diseases, and premature death. Methods/Design The AMBER Study will enroll 1500 newly diagnosed, incident, stage I-IIIc breast cancer survivors in Alberta, Canada over a 5 year period. Assessments will be made at baseline (within 90 days of surgery, 1 year, and 3 years consisting of objective and self-reported measurements of physical activity, health-related fitness, blood collection, lymphedema, patient-reported outcomes, and determinants of physical activity. A final assessment at 5 years will measure patient-reported data only. The cohort members will be followed for an additional 5 years for disease outcomes. Discussion The AMBER cohort will answer key questions related to physical activity and health-related fitness in breast cancer survivors including: (1 the independent and interactive associations of physical activity and health-related fitness with disease outcomes (e.g., recurrence, breast cancer-specific mortality, overall survival, treatment completion rates, symptoms and side effects (e.g., pain, lymphedema, fatigue, neuropathy, quality of life, and psychosocial functioning (e.g., anxiety, depression, self-esteem, happiness, (2 the determinants of physical activity and

  3. PIYAS-Proceeding to Intelligent Service Oriented Memory Allocation for Flash Based Data Centric Sensor Devices in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanam Shahla Rizvi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Flash memory has become a more widespread storage medium for modern wireless devices because of its effective characteristics like non-volatility, small size, light weight, fast access speed, shock resistance, high reliability and low power consumption. Sensor nodes are highly resource constrained in terms of limited processing speed, runtime memory, persistent storage, communication bandwidth and finite energy. Therefore, for wireless sensor networks supporting sense, store, merge and send schemes, an efficient and reliable file system is highly required with consideration of sensor node constraints. In this paper, we propose a novel log structured external NAND flash memory based file system, called Proceeding to Intelligent service oriented memorY Allocation for flash based data centric Sensor devices in wireless sensor networks (PIYAS. This is the extended version of our previously proposed PIYA [1]. The main goals of the PIYAS scheme are to achieve instant mounting and reduced SRAM space by keeping memory mapping information to a very low size of and to provide high query response throughput by allocation of memory to the sensor data by network business rules. The scheme intelligently samples and stores the raw data and provides high in-network data availability by keeping the aggregate data for a longer period of time than any other scheme has done before. We propose effective garbage collection and wear-leveling schemes as well. The experimental results show that PIYAS is an optimized memory management scheme allowing high performance for wireless sensor networks.

  4. PIYAS-proceeding to intelligent service oriented memory allocation for flash based data centric sensor devices in wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, Sanam Shahla; Chung, Tae-Sun

    2010-01-01

    Flash memory has become a more widespread storage medium for modern wireless devices because of its effective characteristics like non-volatility, small size, light weight, fast access speed, shock resistance, high reliability and low power consumption. Sensor nodes are highly resource constrained in terms of limited processing speed, runtime memory, persistent storage, communication bandwidth and finite energy. Therefore, for wireless sensor networks supporting sense, store, merge and send schemes, an efficient and reliable file system is highly required with consideration of sensor node constraints. In this paper, we propose a novel log structured external NAND flash memory based file system, called Proceeding to Intelligent service oriented memorY Allocation for flash based data centric Sensor devices in wireless sensor networks (PIYAS). This is the extended version of our previously proposed PIYA [1]. The main goals of the PIYAS scheme are to achieve instant mounting and reduced SRAM space by keeping memory mapping information to a very low size of and to provide high query response throughput by allocation of memory to the sensor data by network business rules. The scheme intelligently samples and stores the raw data and provides high in-network data availability by keeping the aggregate data for a longer period of time than any other scheme has done before. We propose effective garbage collection and wear-leveling schemes as well. The experimental results show that PIYAS is an optimized memory management scheme allowing high performance for wireless sensor networks.

  5. Machine protection for FLASH and the European XFEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froehlich, Lars

    2009-05-15

    The Free-Electron Laser in Hamburg (FLASH) and the future European X-Ray Free-Electron Laser (XFEL) are sources of brilliant extremeultraviolet and X-ray radiation pulses. Both facilities are based on superconducting linear accelerators (linacs) that can produce and transport electron beams of high average power. With up to 90 kW or up to 600 kW of power, respectively, these beams hold a serious potential to damage accelerator components. This thesis discusses several passive and active machine protection measures needed to ensure safe operation. At FLASH, dark current from the rf gun electron source has activated several accelerator components to unacceptable radiation levels. Its transport through the linac is investigated with detailed tracking simulations using a parallelized and enhanced version of the tracking code Astra; possible remedies are evaluated. Beam losses can lead to the demagnetization of permanent magnet insertion devices. A number of beam loss scenarios typical for FLASH are investigated with shower simulations. A shielding setup is designed and its efficiency is evaluated. For the design parameters of FLASH, it is concluded that the average relative beam loss in the undulators must be controlled to a level of about 10{sup -8}. FLASH is equipped with an active machine protection system (MPS) comprising more than 80 photomultiplier-based beam loss monitors and several subsystems. The maximum response time to beam losses is less than 4 {mu}s. Setup procedures and calibration algorithms for MPS subsystems and components are introduced and operational problems are addressed. Finally, an architecture for a fully programmable machine protection system for the XFEL is presented. Several options for the topology of this system are reviewed, with the result that an availability goal of at least 0.999 for the MPS is achievable with moderate hardware requirements. (orig.)

  6. Machine protection for FLASH and the European XFEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froehlich, Lars

    2009-05-01

    The Free-Electron Laser in Hamburg (FLASH) and the future European X-Ray Free-Electron Laser (XFEL) are sources of brilliant extremeultraviolet and X-ray radiation pulses. Both facilities are based on superconducting linear accelerators (linacs) that can produce and transport electron beams of high average power. With up to 90 kW or up to 600 kW of power, respectively, these beams hold a serious potential to damage accelerator components. This thesis discusses several passive and active machine protection measures needed to ensure safe operation. At FLASH, dark current from the rf gun electron source has activated several accelerator components to unacceptable radiation levels. Its transport through the linac is investigated with detailed tracking simulations using a parallelized and enhanced version of the tracking code Astra; possible remedies are evaluated. Beam losses can lead to the demagnetization of permanent magnet insertion devices. A number of beam loss scenarios typical for FLASH are investigated with shower simulations. A shielding setup is designed and its efficiency is evaluated. For the design parameters of FLASH, it is concluded that the average relative beam loss in the undulators must be controlled to a level of about 10 -8 . FLASH is equipped with an active machine protection system (MPS) comprising more than 80 photomultiplier-based beam loss monitors and several subsystems. The maximum response time to beam losses is less than 4 μs. Setup procedures and calibration algorithms for MPS subsystems and components are introduced and operational problems are addressed. Finally, an architecture for a fully programmable machine protection system for the XFEL is presented. Several options for the topology of this system are reviewed, with the result that an availability goal of at least 0.999 for the MPS is achievable with moderate hardware requirements. (orig.)

  7. Flashing liquid jets and two-phase droplet dispersion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleary, Vincent; Bowen, Phil; Witlox, Henk

    2007-01-01

    The large-scale release of a liquid contained at upstream conditions above its local atmospheric boiling point is a scenario often given consideration in process industry risk analysis. Current-hazard quantification software often employs simplistic equilibrium two-phase approaches. Scaled water experiments have been carried out measuring droplet velocity and droplet size distributions for a range of exit orifice aspect ratios (L/d) and conditions representing low to high superheat. 2D Phase-Doppler Anemometry has been utilised to characterise droplet kinematics and spray quality. Droplet size correlations have been developed for non-flashing, the transition between non-flashing and flashing, and fully flashing jets. Using high-speed shadowography, transition between regimes is defined in terms of criteria identified in the external flow structure. An overview companion paper provides a wider overview of the problem and reports implementation of these correlations into consequence models and subsequent validation. The fluid utilised throughout is water, hence droplet correlations are developed in non-dimensional form to allow extrapolation to other fluids through similarity scaling, although verification of model performance for other fluids is required in future studies. Data is reduced via non-dimensionalisation in terms of the Weber number and Jakob number, essentially representing the fluid mechanics and thermodynamics of the system, respectively. A droplet-size distribution correlation has also been developed, conveniently presented as a volume undersize distribution based on the Rosin-Rammler distribution. Separate correlations are provided for sub-cooled mechanical break-up and fully flashing jets. This form of correlation facilitates rapid estimates of likely mass rainout quantities, as well as full distribution information for more rigorous two-phase thermodynamic modelling in the future

  8. Mutability of bacteriophage M13 by ultraviolet light: role of pyrimidine dimers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaaper, R.M.; Glickman, B.W.

    1982-01-01

    The role of pyrimidine dimers in mutagenesis by ultraviolet light was examined by measuring the UV-induced reversion of six different bacteriophage M13 amber mutants for which the neighboring DNA sequences are known. The mutational response at amber (TAG) codons preceded by a guanine or adenine (where no pyrimidine dimer can be formed) were compared with those preceded by thymine or cytosine (where dimer formation is possible). Equivalent levels of UV-induced mutagenesis were observed at both kinds of sites. This observation demonstrates that there is no requirement for a pyrimidine dimer directly at the site of UV-induced mutation in this single-stranded DNA phage. UV irradiation of the phage was also performed in the presence of Ag + ions, which specifically sensitize the DNA to dimer formation. The two methods of irradiation, when compared at equal survival levels (and presumably equal dimer frequencies), produced equivalent frequencies of reversion of the amber phage. We believe these results indicate that while the presence of pyrimidine dimers may be a prerequisite for UV mutagenesis, the actual mutagenic event can occur at a site some distance removed from a dimer. (orig.)

  9. On the chlorophill a fluorescence yield in chloroplasts upon excitation with twin turnover flashes (TTF) and high frequency flash trains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vredenberg, W.J.; Prasil, O.; Durchan, M.

    2007-01-01

    Chlorophyll fluorescence is routinely taken as a quantifiable measure of the redox state of the primary quinone acceptor QA of PSII. The variable fluorescence in thylakoids increases in a single turnover flash (STF) from its low dark level F o towards a maximum F mSTF when QA becomes reduced. We

  10. The bright optical flash and afterglow from the gamma-ray burst GRB 130427A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestrand, W T; Wren, J A; Panaitescu, A; Wozniak, P R; Davis, H; Palmer, D M; Vianello, G; Omodei, N; Xiong, S; Briggs, M S; Elphick, M; Paciesas, W; Rosing, W

    2014-01-03

    The optical light generated simultaneously with x-rays and gamma rays during a gamma-ray burst (GRB) provides clues about the nature of the explosions that occur as massive stars collapse. We report on the bright optical flash and fading afterglow from powerful burst GRB 130427A. The optical and >100-megaelectron volt (MeV) gamma-ray flux show a close correlation during the first 7000 seconds, which is best explained by reverse shock emission cogenerated in the relativistic burst ejecta as it collides with surrounding material. At later times, optical observations show the emergence of emission generated by a forward shock traversing the circumburst environment. The link between optical afterglow and >100-MeV emission suggests that nearby early peaked afterglows will be the best candidates for studying gamma-ray emission at energies ranging from gigaelectron volts to teraelectron volts.

  11. Flash μ-fluidics: a rapid prototyping method for fabricating microfluidic devices

    KAUST Repository

    Buttner, Ulrich

    2016-08-01

    Microfluidics has advanced in terms of design and structures; however, fabrication methods are time-consuming or expensive relative to facility costs and equipment needed. This work demonstrates a fast and economically viable 2D/3D maskless digital light-projection method based on a stereolithography process. Unlike other fabrication methods, one exposure step is used to form the whole device. Flash microfluidics is achieved by incorporating bonding and channel fabrication of complex structures in just 2.5 s to 4 s and by fabricating channel heights between 25 μm and 150 μm with photopolymer resin. The features of this fabrication technique, such as time and cost saving and easy fabrication, are used to build devices that are mostly needed in microfluidic/lab-on-chip systems. Due to the fast production method and low initial setup costs, the process could be used for point of care applications. © 2016 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  12. Flash μ-fluidics: a rapid prototyping method for fabricating microfluidic devices

    KAUST Repository

    Buttner, Ulrich; Sivashankar, Shilpa; Agambayev, Sumeyra; Mashraei, Yousof; Salama, Khaled N.

    2016-01-01

    Microfluidics has advanced in terms of design and structures; however, fabrication methods are time-consuming or expensive relative to facility costs and equipment needed. This work demonstrates a fast and economically viable 2D/3D maskless digital light-projection method based on a stereolithography process. Unlike other fabrication methods, one exposure step is used to form the whole device. Flash microfluidics is achieved by incorporating bonding and channel fabrication of complex structures in just 2.5 s to 4 s and by fabricating channel heights between 25 μm and 150 μm with photopolymer resin. The features of this fabrication technique, such as time and cost saving and easy fabrication, are used to build devices that are mostly needed in microfluidic/lab-on-chip systems. Due to the fast production method and low initial setup costs, the process could be used for point of care applications. © 2016 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  13. Menopausal Hot Flashes and Carotid Intima Media Thickness Among Midlife Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurston, Rebecca C; Chang, Yuefang; Barinas-Mitchell, Emma; Jennings, J Richard; Landsittel, Doug P; Santoro, Nanette; von Känel, Roland; Matthews, Karen A

    2016-12-01

    There has been a longstanding interest in the role of menopause and its correlates in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in women. Menopausal hot flashes are experienced by most midlife women; emerging data link hot flashes to CVD risk indicators. We tested whether hot flashes, measured via state-of-the-art physiologic methods, were associated with greater subclinical atherosclerosis as assessed by carotid ultrasound. We considered the role of CVD risk factors and estradiol concentrations in these associations. A total of 295 nonsmoking women free of clinical CVD underwent ambulatory physiologic hot flash assessments; a blood draw; and carotid ultrasound measurement of intima media thickness and plaque. Associations between hot flashes and subclinical atherosclerosis were tested in regression models controlling for CVD risk factors and estradiol. More frequent physiologic hot flashes were associated with higher carotid intima media thickness (for each additional hot flash: β [SE]=0.004 [0.001]; P=0.0001; reported hot flash: β [SE]=0.008 [0.002]; P=0.002, multivariable) and plaque (eg, for each additional hot flash, odds ratio [95% confidence interval] plaque index ≥2=1.07 [1.003-1.14]; P=0.04, relative to no plaque, multivariable] among women reporting daily hot flashes; associations were not accounted for by CVD risk factors or by estradiol. Among women reporting hot flashes, hot flashes accounted for more variance in intima media thickness than most CVD risk factors. Among women reporting daily hot flashes, frequent hot flashes may provide information about a woman's vascular status beyond standard CVD risk factors and estradiol. Frequent hot flashes may mark a vulnerable vascular phenotype among midlife women. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  14. Spatial-temporal characteristics of lightning flash size in a supercell storm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhixiao; Zheng, Dong; Zhang, Yijun; Lu, Gaopeng

    2017-11-01

    The flash sizes of a supercell storm, in New Mexico on October 5, 2004, are studied using the observations from the New Mexico Lightning Mapping Array and the Albuquerque, New Mexico, Doppler radar (KABX). First, during the temporal evolution of the supercell, the mean flash size is anti-correlated with the flash rate, following a unary power function, with a correlation coefficient of - 0.87. In addition, the mean flash size is linearly correlated with the area of reflectivity > 30 dBZ at 5 km normalized by the flash rate, with a correlation coefficient of 0.88. Second, in the horizontal, flash size increases along the direction from the region near the convection zone to the adjacent forward anvil. The region of minimum flash size usually corresponds to the region of maximum flash initiation and extent density. The horizontal correspondence between the mean flash size and the flash extent density can also be fitted by a unary power function, and the correlation coefficient is > 0.5 in 50% of the radar volume scans. Furthermore, the quality of fit is positively correlated to the convective intensity. Third, in the vertical direction, the height of the maximum flash initiation density is close to the height of maximum flash extent density, but corresponds to the height where the mean flash size is relatively small. In the discussion, the distribution of the small and dense charge regions when and where convection is vigorous in the storm, is deduced to be responsible for the relationship that flash size is temporally and spatially anti-correlated with flash rate and density, and the convective intensity.

  15. A hybrid type Ia supernova with an early flash triggered by helium-shell detonation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ji-An; Doi, Mamoru; Maeda, Keiichi; Shigeyama, Toshikazu; Nomoto, Ken'ichi; Yasuda, Naoki; Jha, Saurabh W; Tanaka, Masaomi; Morokuma, Tomoki; Tominaga, Nozomu; Ivezić, Željko; Ruiz-Lapuente, Pilar; Stritzinger, Maximilian D; Mazzali, Paolo A; Ashall, Christopher; Mould, Jeremy; Baade, Dietrich; Suzuki, Nao; Connolly, Andrew J; Patat, Ferdinando; Wang, Lifan; Yoachim, Peter; Jones, David; Furusawa, Hisanori; Miyazaki, Satoshi

    2017-10-04

    Type Ia supernovae arise from the thermonuclear explosion of white-dwarf stars that have cores of carbon and oxygen. The uniformity of their light curves makes these supernovae powerful cosmological distance indicators, but there have long been debates about exactly how their explosion is triggered and what kind of companion stars are involved. For example, the recent detection of the early ultraviolet pulse of a peculiar, subluminous type Ia supernova has been claimed as evidence for an interaction between a red-giant or a main-sequence companion and ejecta from a white-dwarf explosion. Here we report observations of a prominent but red optical flash that appears about half a day after the explosion of a type Ia supernova. This supernova shows hybrid features of different supernova subclasses, namely a light curve that is typical of normal-brightness supernovae, but with strong titanium absorption, which is commonly seen in the spectra of subluminous ones. We argue that this early flash does not occur through previously suggested mechanisms such as the companion-ejecta interaction. Instead, our simulations show that it could occur through detonation of a thin helium shell either on a near-Chandrasekhar-mass white dwarf, or on a sub-Chandrasekhar-mass white dwarf merging with a less-massive white dwarf. Our finding provides evidence that one branch of previously proposed explosion models-the helium-ignition branch-does exist in nature, and that such a model may account for the explosions of white dwarfs in a mass range wider than previously supposed.

  16. An unusual characteristic “flower-like” pattern: flash suppressor burns

    OpenAIRE

    Gurcan, Altun

    2012-01-01

    The case on contact shots from firearms with a flash suppressor is rare. When a rifle fitted with a flash suppressor is fired, the emerging soot-laden gas in the barrel escapes from the slits of the flash suppressor. If the shot is contact or near contact, the flash suppressor will produce a characteristic “flower-like” pattern of seared, blackened zones around the entrance. This paper presents the injury pattern of the flash suppressor in a 29-year-old man who committed suicide with a G3 aut...

  17. An unusual characteristic “flower-like” pattern: flash suppressor burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurcan, Altun

    2012-01-01

    The case on contact shots from firearms with a flash suppressor is rare. When a rifle fitted with a flash suppressor is fired, the emerging soot-laden gas in the barrel escapes from the slits of the flash suppressor. If the shot is contact or near contact, the flash suppressor will produce a characteristic “flower-like” pattern of seared, blackened zones around the entrance. This paper presents the injury pattern of the flash suppressor in a 29-year-old man who committed suicide with a G3 automatic infantry rifle. PMID:23935280

  18. Professional Flash Mobile Development Creating Android and iPhone Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Wagner, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Professional Flash Mobile Development: Creating Android and iPhone ApplicationsEverything Flash developers need to know to create native Android and iPhone appsThis Wrox guide shows Flash developers how to create native applications for Android and iPhone mobile devices using Flash. Packed with practical examples, it shows how to build a variety of apps and integrate them with core mobile services such as Accelerometer, GPS, Photo Library,and more.Offers Flash developers the tools to create apps for the Android and iPhone mobile devicesSho

  19. Flash memory management system and method utilizing multiple block list windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, James (Inventor); Gender, Thomas K. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    The present invention provides a flash memory management system and method with increased performance. The flash memory management system provides the ability to efficiently manage and allocate flash memory use in a way that improves reliability and longevity, while maintaining good performance levels. The flash memory management system includes a free block mechanism, a disk maintenance mechanism, and a bad block detection mechanism. The free block mechanism provides efficient sorting of free blocks to facilitate selecting low use blocks for writing. The disk maintenance mechanism provides for the ability to efficiently clean flash memory blocks during processor idle times. The bad block detection mechanism provides the ability to better detect when a block of flash memory is likely to go bad. The flash status mechanism stores information in fast access memory that describes the content and status of the data in the flash disk. The new bank detection mechanism provides the ability to automatically detect when new banks of flash memory are added to the system. Together, these mechanisms provide a flash memory management system that can improve the operational efficiency of systems that utilize flash memory.

  20. Further along the Road Less Traveled: AMBER ff15ipq, an Original Protein Force Field Built on a Self-Consistent Physical Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    We present the AMBER ff15ipq force field for proteins, the second-generation force field developed using the Implicitly Polarized Q (IPolQ) scheme for deriving implicitly polarized atomic charges in the presence of explicit solvent. The ff15ipq force field is a complete rederivation including more than 300 unique atomic charges, 900 unique torsion terms, 60 new angle parameters, and new atomic radii for polar hydrogens. The atomic charges were derived in the context of the SPC/Eb water model, which yields more-accurate rotational diffusion of proteins and enables direct calculation of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxation parameters from molecular dynamics simulations. The atomic radii improve the accuracy of modeling salt bridge interactions relative to contemporary fixed-charge force fields, rectifying a limitation of ff14ipq that resulted from its use of pair-specific Lennard-Jones radii. In addition, ff15ipq reproduces penta-alanine J-coupling constants exceptionally well, gives reasonable agreement with NMR relaxation rates, and maintains the expected conformational propensities of structured proteins/peptides, as well as disordered peptides—all on the microsecond (μs) time scale, which is a critical regime for drug design applications. These encouraging results demonstrate the power and robustness of our automated methods for deriving new force fields. All parameters described here and the mdgx program used to fit them are included in the AmberTools16 distribution. PMID:27399642

  1. PENGEMBANGAN EVALUASI PEMBELAJARAN BERBASIS MULTIMEDIA DENGAN FLASH, PHP, DAN MySQL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Sutopo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Computer-Based Testing (CBT program was launched for years to give test takers the options of taking computerized version of test. The application which generates academic score is developed as a server-side with Adobe Flash. Flash is well known as a powerful and dynamic front-end for the Web. However, Flash is also great interface for server-side applications. PHP can launch server-side script using Flash as a front-end and pass variables back and forth between Flash and the PHP pages. Along with PHP, MySQL can be used to store data and later retrieve it. Using Flash as a front-end, data and variables are passed between the MySQL database, PHP, and Flash to enhance application's functionality in managing databases.

  2. Application of adobe flash media to optimize jigsaw learning model on geometry material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imam, P.; Imam, S.; Ikrar, P.

    2018-05-01

    This study aims to determine and describe the effectiveness of the application of adobe flash media for jigsaw learning model on geometry material. In this study, the modified jigsaw learning with adobe flash media is called jigsaw-flash model. This research was conducted in Surakarta. The research method used is mix method research with exploratory sequential strategy. The results of this study indicate that students feel more comfortable and interested in studying geometry material taught by jigsaw-flash model. In addition, students taught using the jigsaw-flash model are more active and motivated than the students who were taught using ordinary jigsaw models. This shows that the use of the jigsaw-flash model can increase student participation and motivation. It can be concluded that the adobe flash media can be used as a solution to reduce the level of student abstraction in learning mathematics.

  3. Adobe Flash as a medium for online experimentation: a test of reaction time measurement capabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimers, Stian; Stewart, Neil

    2007-08-01

    Adobe Flash can be used to run complex psychological experiments over the Web. We examined the reliability of using Flash to measure reaction times (RTs) using a simple binary-choice task implemented both in Flash and in a Linux-based system known to record RTs with millisecond accuracy. Twenty-four participants were tested in the laboratory using both implementations; they also completed the Flash version on computers of their own choice outside the lab. RTs from the trials run on Flash outside the lab were approximately 20 msec slower than those from trials run on Flash in the lab, which in turn were approximately 10 msec slower than RTs from the trials run on the Linux-based system (baseline condition). RT SDs were similar in all conditions, suggesting that although Flash may overestimate RTs slightly, it does not appear to add significant noise to the data recorded.

  4. Comparison of rapid descriptive sensory methodologies: Free-Choice Profiling, Flash Profile and modified Flash Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Bredie, Wender L P; Sherman, Emma; Harbertson, James F; Heymann, Hildegarde

    2018-04-01

    Rapid sensory methods have been developed as alternatives to traditional sensory descriptive analysis methods. Among them, Free-Choice Profiling (FCP) and Flash Profile (FP) are two that have been known for many years. The objectives of this work were to compare the rating-based FCP and ranking-based FP method; to evaluate the impact of adding adjustments to FP approach; to investigate the influence of the number of assessors on the outcome of modified FP. To achieve these aims, a conventional descriptive analysis (DA), FCP, FP and a modified version of FP were carried out. Red wines made by different grape maturity and ethanol concentration were used for sensory testing. This study showed that DA provided a more detailed and accurate information on products through a quantitative measure of the intensity of sensory attributes than FCP and FP. However, the panel hours for conducting DA were higher than that for rapid methods, and FP was even able to separate the samples to a higher degree than DA. When comparing FCP and FP, this study showed that the ranking-based FP provided a clearer separation of samples than rating-based FCP, but the latter was an easier task for most assessors. When restricting assessors on their use of attributes in FP, the sample space became clearer and the ranking task was simplified. The FP protocol with restricted attribute sets seems to be a promising approach for efficient screening of sensory properties in wine. When increasing the number of assessors from 10 to 20 for conducting the modified FP, the outcome tended to be slightly more stable, however, one should consider the degree of panel training when deciding the optimal number of assessors for conducting FP. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Strobe Light Testing and Kokanee Population Monitoring : Dworshak Dam Impacts Assessment and Fisheries Investigation Project, 97-99 : annual Progress Report for 1998.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maiolie, Melo A.; Harryman, Bill; Ament, William J.

    1999-12-01

    We tested the response of kokanee Oncorhynchus nerka to strobe lights. Testing was conducted on wild, free-ranging fish in their natural environment (i.e., the pelagic region of two large Idaho lakes). Split-beam hydroacoustics were used to record the distance kokanee moved away from the lights as well as the density of kokanee in the area near the lights. In control tests, where the strobe lights were lowered into the lake but kept turned off, kokanee remained within a few meters of the lights. Once the lights began flashing, kokanee quickly moved away from the light source. Kokanee were found to move an average of 30 to 136 m away from the lights in waters with Secchi transparencies from 2.8 to 17.5 m (p=0.00 to p=0.04). Kokanee densities near the lights were significantly lower (p=0.00 to p=0.07) when the lights were turned on than in control samples with no lights flashing. Flash rates of 300, 360, and 450 flashes/min elicited strong avoidance responses from the fish. Kokanee remained at least 24 m away from the lights during our longest test that lasted for 5 h 50 min. Kokanee appeared to be responding to flashes that were well less than 0.00016 lux above background lighting.

  6. Ultraviolet light protection, enhancement of ultraviolet light mutagenesis, and mutator effect of plasmid R46 in Salmonella typhimurium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortelmans, K.E.; Stocker, B.A.D.

    1976-01-01

    Plasmid R46 partially protected Salmonella typhimurium, wild type or uvrB or polA, against the lethal effect of ultraviolet (uv) irradiation, but did not protect recA mutants. The plasmid also increased frequency of uv-induced reversion to His + in all tested his point mutants (wild type for uv sensitivity), including amber, ochre, UGA, missense, and frame-shift mutants. Plasmid R46 also increased uv-induced reversion to His + in uvrB and polA strains, but no uv mutagenic effect was detected in R - or R46-carrying recA derivatives of a his(amber) mutant. The spontaneous reversion frequency of his nonsense mutants of all classes, and of some his missense mutants, was increased about 10-fold when the strains carried R46, but the plasmid had no effect on the spontaneous reversion frequency of some other his missense mutations or of reversion rate of his frame-shift mutants (except for two uvrB derivatives of one single-base insertion mutant). The plasmid increased the ability of wild type, polA, and uvrB hosts to support plaque production by uv-irradiated phage, and made strain LT2 his G46 less sensitive to methyl methane sulfonate and to x rays and more responsive to the mutagenic effect of visible-light irradiation. R46 increased spontaneous reversion frequency of a his(amber) rec + strain, but had no such effect in its recA sublines. Since the plasmid in the absence of host recA function fails to produce its mutator effect, or to confer uv protection or to enhance uv mutagenesis, these three effects may be produced via some mechanism involved in recA-dependent deoxyribonucleic acid repair, perhaps by an increase in activity of the ''error-prone'' component of the inducible repair pathway

  7. Initial Breakdown Pulse Amplitudes in Intracloud and Cloud-to-Ground Lightning Flashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, T. C.; Smith, E. M.; Stolzenburg, M.; Karunarathne, S.; Siedlecki, R. D., II

    2017-12-01

    This study analyzes the largest initial breakdown (IB) pulse in flashes from three storms in Florida. The study was motivated in part by the possibility that IB pulses of IC flashes may cause of terrestrial gamma-ray flashes (TGFs). The range-normalized, zero-to-peak amplitude of the largest IB pulse within each flash was determined along with its altitude, duration, and occurrence time in the flash. Appropriate data were available for 40 intracloud (IC) and 32 cloud-to-ground (CG) flashes. Histograms of the magnitude of the largest IB pulse amplitude by flash type were similar, with mean (median) values of 1.49 (1.05) V/m for IC flashes and -1.35 (-0.87) V/m for CG flashes. The mean amplitude of the largest IC IB pulses are substantially smaller (roughly an order of magnitude smaller) than the few known pulse amplitudes of TGF events and TGF candidate events. The largest IB pulse in 30 IC flashes showed a weak inverse relation between pulse amplitude and altitude. Amplitude of the largest IB pulse for 25 CG flashes showed no altitude correlation. Duration of the largest IB pulse in ICs averaged twice as long as in CGs (96 μs versus 46 μs); all of the CG durations were <100 μs. Among the ICs, there is a positive relation between largest IB pulse duration and amplitude; the linear correlation coefficient is 0.385 with outliers excluded. The largest IB pulse in IC flashes typically occurred at a longer time after the first IB pulse (average 4.1 ms) than was the case in CG flashes (average 0.6 ms). In both flash types, the largest IB pulse was the first IB pulse in about 30% of the cases.

  8. Construction of a flash-photolysis apparatus having a short discharge time; Realisation d'un appareil de photolyse-eclair a faible duree de decharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devillers, C. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    Flash photolysis aims at reaching directly the primary mechanisms resulting from the action of light on an absorbent matter. This makes it necessary to produce a flash as short and as bright as possible. Our main effort was directed towards reducing the duration of the flash by decreasing the self-inductance of the discharge circuit. A description of this circuit and study of the characteristics of the apparatus are followed by a short description of the two analytical methods: flash spectrography and absorption spectrophotometry at a given wave-length. (author) [French] La photolyse-eclair cherche a atteindre directement les mecanismes primaires resultant de l'action de la lumiere sur une matiere absorbante. Ceci amene a produire un eclair aussi bref et intense que possible. Notre effort s'est porte sur la reduction de duree de l'eclair par diminution de la self-induction du circuit de decharge. Une description de ce circuit et une etude des caracteristiques de l'appareil precedent une breve description des deux methodes d'analyse; spectrographie eclair et spectrophotometrie d'absorption a longueur d'onde choisie. (auteur)

  9. Mechanistic model for void distribution in flashing flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riznic, J.; Ishii, M.; Afgan, N.

    1987-01-01

    A problem of discharging of an initially subcooled liquid from a high pressure condition into a low pressure environment is quite important in several industrial systems such as nuclear reactors and chemical reactors. A new model for the flashing process is proposed here based on the wall nucleation theory, bubble growth model and drift-flux bubble transport model. In order to calculate the bubble number density, the bubble number transport equation with a distributed source from the wall nucleation sites is used. The model predictions in terms of the void fraction are compared to Moby Dick and BNL experimental data. It shows that satisfactory agreements could be obtained from the present model without any floating parameter to be adjusted with data. This result indicates that, at least for the experimental conditions considered here, the mechanistic prediction of the flashing phenomenon is possible based on the present wall nucleation based model. 43 refs., 4 figs

  10. Visualizing Library Statistics using Open Flash Chart 2 and Drupal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura K. Wiegand

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Libraries continue to need to demonstrate their value to stakeholders, and while statistics alone do not represent value, they are an important element. We found ourselves, and our stakeholders, uninspired by our infrequently updated bulleted list of statistics on our website and so set out to create a more dynamic and visually appealing look at our statistics. This article outlines how we used our content management system, Drupal, Open Flash Chart and custom programming to convert library statistics into Flash charts, including how to populate the graphs with dynamic data from external sources. The end result is our Library Statistics Dashboard (http://library.uncw.edu/facts_planning/dashboard that visually demonstrates the use, activity and resources in the library via interactive and visually interesting graphs.

  11. Adaptive aperture for Geiger mode avalanche photodiode flash ladar systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liang; Han, Shaokun; Xia, Wenze; Lei, Jieyu

    2018-02-01

    Although the Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode (GM-APD) flash ladar system offers the advantages of high sensitivity and simple construction, its detection performance is influenced not only by the incoming signal-to-noise ratio but also by the absolute number of noise photons. In this paper, we deduce a hyperbolic approximation to estimate the noise-photon number from the false-firing percentage in a GM-APD flash ladar system under dark conditions. By using this hyperbolic approximation function, we introduce a method to adapt the aperture to reduce the number of incoming background-noise photons. Finally, the simulation results show that the adaptive-aperture method decreases the false probability in all cases, increases the detection probability provided that the signal exceeds the noise, and decreases the average ranging error per frame.

  12. Measurement and analysis of coherent synchrotron radiation effects at FLASH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beutner, B.

    2007-12-01

    The vacuum-ultra-violet Free Electron Laser in Hamburg (FLASH) is a linac driven SASE-FEL. High peak currents are produced using magnetic bunch compression chicanes. In these magnetic chicanes, the energy distribution along an electron bunch is changed by eff ects of Coherent Synchrotron Radiation (CSR). Energy changes in dispersive bunch compressor chicanes lead to transverse displacements along the bunch. These CSR induced displacements are studied using a transverse deflecting RF-structure. Experiments and simulations concerning the charge dependence of such transverse displacements are presented and analysed. In these experiments an over-compression scheme is used which reduces the peak current downstream the bunch compressor chicanes. Therefore other self interactions like space charge forces which might complicate the measurements are suppressed. Numerical simulations are used to analyse the beam dynamics under the influence of CSR forces. The results of these numerical simulations are compared with the data obtained in the over-compression experiments at FLASH. (orig.)

  13. Biodiesel Production by Reactive Flash: A Numerical Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Regalado-Méndez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Reactive flash (RF in biodiesel production has been studied in order to investigate steady-state multiplicities, singularities, and effect of biodiesel quality when the RF system approaches to bubble point. The RF was modeled by an index-2 system of differential algebraic equations, the vapor split (ϕ was computed by modified Rachford-Rice equation and modified Raoult’s law computed bubble point, and the continuation analysis was tracked on MATCONT. Results of this study show the existence of turning points, leading to a unique bubble point manifold, (xBiodiesel,T=(0.46,478.41 K, which is a globally stable flashing operation. Also, the results of the simulation in MATLAB® of the dynamic behavior of the RF show that conversion of triglycerides reaches 97% for a residence time of 5.8 minutes and a methanol to triglyceride molar flow ratio of 5 : 1.

  14. Measurement and analysis of coherent synchrotron radiation effects at FLASH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beutner, B.

    2007-12-15

    The vacuum-ultra-violet Free Electron Laser in Hamburg (FLASH) is a linac driven SASE-FEL. High peak currents are produced using magnetic bunch compression chicanes. In these magnetic chicanes, the energy distribution along an electron bunch is changed by eff ects of Coherent Synchrotron Radiation (CSR). Energy changes in dispersive bunch compressor chicanes lead to transverse displacements along the bunch. These CSR induced displacements are studied using a transverse deflecting RF-structure. Experiments and simulations concerning the charge dependence of such transverse displacements are presented and analysed. In these experiments an over-compression scheme is used which reduces the peak current downstream the bunch compressor chicanes. Therefore other self interactions like space charge forces which might complicate the measurements are suppressed. Numerical simulations are used to analyse the beam dynamics under the influence of CSR forces. The results of these numerical simulations are compared with the data obtained in the over-compression experiments at FLASH. (orig.)

  15. uFLIP: Understanding the Energy Consumption of Flash Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørling, Matias; Bonnet, Philippe; Bouganim, Luc

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the energy consumption of flash devices is important for two reasons. First, energy is emerging as a key metric for data management systems. It is thus important to understand how we can reason about the energy consumption of flash devices beyond their approximate aggregate...... consumption (low power consumption in idle mode, average Watt consumption from the data sheets). Second, when measured at a sufficiently fine granularity, the energy consumption of a given device might complement the performance characteristics derived from its response time profile. Indeed, background work...... which is not directly observable with a response time profile appears clearly when energy is used as a metric. In this paper, we discuss the results from the {uFLIP} benchmark applied to four different {SSD} devices using both response time and energy as metric....

  16. Total Lightning Flash Activity Response to Aerosol over China Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengguo Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Twelve years of measurements of aerosol optical depth (AOD, cloud fraction, cloud top height, ice cloud optical thickness and lightning flash density from 2001 to 2012 have been analyzed to investigate the effect of aerosols on electrical activity over an area of China. The results show that increasing aerosol loading inspires the convective intensity, and then increases the lightning flash density. The spatial distribution of the correlation between aerosol loading and electrical activity shows a remarkable regional difference over China. The high-correlation regions embody the positive aerosol microphysical effect on the intensity of the electrical activity, while the large-scale processes may play the main role in convection development and producing lightning in low-correlation regions.

  17. Flash flood modeling with the MARINE hydrological distributed model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estupina-Borrell, V.; Dartus, D.; Ababou, R.

    2006-11-01

    Flash floods are characterized by their violence and the rapidity of their occurrence. Because these events are rare and unpredictable, but also fast and intense, their anticipation with sufficient lead time for warning and broadcasting is a primary subject of research. Because of the heterogeneities of the rain and of the behavior of the surface, spatially distributed hydrological models can lead to a better understanding of the processes and so on they can contribute to a better forecasting of flash flood. Our main goal here is to develop an operational and robust methodology for flash flood forecasting. This methodology should provide relevant data (information) about flood evolution on short time scales, and should be applicable even in locations where direct observations are sparse (e.g. absence of historical and modern rainfalls and streamflows in small mountainous watersheds). The flash flood forecast is obtained by the physically based, space-time distributed hydrological model "MARINE'' (Model of Anticipation of Runoff and INondations for Extreme events). This model is presented and tested in this paper for a real flash flood event. The model consists in two steps, or two components: the first component is a "basin'' flood module which generates flood runoff in the upstream part of the watershed, and the second component is the "stream network'' module, which propagates the flood in the main river and its subsidiaries. The basin flash flood generation model is a rainfall-runoff model that can integrate remotely sensed data. Surface hydraulics equations are solved with enough simplifying hypotheses to allow real time exploitation. The minimum data required by the model are: (i) the Digital Elevation Model, used to calculate slopes that generate runoff, it can be issued from satellite imagery (SPOT) or from French Geographical Institute (IGN); (ii) the rainfall data from meteorological radar, observed or anticipated by the French Meteorological Service (M

  18. Fermi GBM Observations of Terrestrial Gamma-Ray Flashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.; Briggs, M. S.; Connaughton, V.; Fishman, G. J.; Bhat, P. N.; Paciesas, W. S.; Preece, R.; Kippen, R. M.; vonKienlin, A.; Dwyer, J. R.; hide

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation explores the relationship between Terrestrial Gamma-Ray Flashes (TGF) and lightning. Using data from the World-Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN), and the gamma ray observations from Fermi's Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM), the study reviews any causal relationship between TGFs and lightning. The conclusion of the study is that the TGF and lightning are simultaneous with out a causal relationship.

  19. Cuinse2 Thin Film For Solar Cell By Flash Evaporation

    OpenAIRE

    A.H. Soepardjo

    2009-01-01

    Deposition of thin films for material solar cell CuInSe2 are relatively simple. In this research mainly focused on the use of flash evaporation method, and the material created can then be characterized by optical and electrical properties. The optical characterization is done by X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS), and transmission and reflection by UV-VIS spectrophotometry. Electrical characterization is done by utilizing the Hall effect equipment. From these chara...

  20. Flash flood swift water rescues, Texas, 2005–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaidehi Shah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Although rainfall patterns are complex and difficult to predict, climate models suggest precipitation in Texas will occur less frequently and with greater intensity in the future. In combination with rapid population growth and development, extreme rainfall events are likely to lead to flash floods and necessitate swift water rescues. Swift water rescues are used to retrieve person(s from swift water flowing at a rate of 1 knot or greater. Data were obtained from the Texas Fire Marshal’s Office and analyzed to describe spatial and temporal characteristics of rescues. Between 2005 and 2014, 3256 swift water rescues were reported from 136 of 254 (54% counties. Over half (54.6%, n = 1777 occurred in counties known as Flash Flood Alley, which includes Texas’ largest and fastest growing cities. Less than 1.0% (n = 18 were reported from 49 counties designated as completely rural, or with an urban population less than 2500. Increases in swift water rescues were seen between March and September and during major weather events such as tropical storms. Because county-level data was utilized and demographic data was missing in all but 2% (n = 47 of the incidents, our ability to identify populations at risk or target interventions in the future using this data is limited. Despite the frequency of flash flood events and swift water rescues in Texas, knowledge gaps persist that should be addressed through the conduct of interdisciplinary research by epidemiologists and climatologists and by disseminating evidence-based health education and safety programs, particularly in rapidly growing counties that make up Texas’ Flash Flood Alley.

  1. On the Mechanism of Microwave Flash Sintering of Ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yury V. Bykov

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The results of a study of ultra-rapid (flash sintering of oxide ceramic materials under microwave heating with high absorbed power per unit volume of material (10–500 W/cm3 are presented. Ceramic samples of various compositions—Al2O3; Y2O3; MgAl2O4; and Yb(LaO2O3—were sintered using a 24 GHz gyrotron system to a density above 0.98–0.99 of the theoretical value in 0.5–5 min without isothermal hold. An analysis of the experimental data (microwave power; heating and cooling rates along with microstructure characterization provided an insight into the mechanism of flash sintering. Flash sintering occurs when the processing conditions—including the temperature of the sample; the properties of thermal insulation; and the intensity of microwave radiation—facilitate the development of thermal runaway due to an Arrhenius-type dependency of the material’s effective conductivity on temperature. The proper control over the thermal runaway effect is provided by fast regulation of the microwave power. The elevated concentration of defects and impurities in the boundary regions of the grains leads to localized preferential absorption of microwave radiation and results in grain boundary softening/pre-melting. The rapid densification of the granular medium with a reduced viscosity of the grain boundary phase occurs via rotation and sliding of the grains which accommodate their shape due to fast diffusion mass transport through the (quasi-liquid phase. The same mechanism based on a thermal runaway under volumetric heating can be relevant for the effect of flash sintering of various oxide ceramics under a dc/ac voltage applied to the sample.

  2. Terrestrial gamma ray flash production by active lightning leader channels

    OpenAIRE

    İnan, Umran Savaş; Carlson, B. E.; Lehtinen, N. G.

    2017-01-01

    The production of terrestrial gamma ray flashes (TGFs) requires a seed energetic electron source and a strong electric field. Lightning leaders naturally provide seed electrons by cold runaway and strong electric fields by charge accumulation on the channel. We model possible TGF production in such fields by simulating the charges and currents on the channel. The resulting electric fields then drive simulations of runaway relativistic electron avalanche and photon emission. Photon spectra and...

  3. Terrestrial gamma ray flash production by lightning current pulses

    OpenAIRE

    İnan, Umran Savaş; Carlson, B. E.; Lehtinen, N. G.

    2017-01-01

    Terrestrial gamma ray flashes (TGFs) are brief bursts of gamma rays observed by satellites, typically in coincidence with detectable lightning. We incorporate TGF observations and the key physics behind current TGF production theories with lightning physics to produce constraints on TGF production mechanisms. The combined constraints naturally suggest a mechanism for TGF production by current pulses in lightning leader channels. The mechanism involves local field enhancements due to charge re...

  4. Characterization of carbon nanolayers flash evaporated on PET and PTFE

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Švorčík, V.; Hubička, T.; Slepička, P.; Siegel, J.; Kolská, Z.; Bláhová, O.; Macková, Anna; Hnatowicz, Vladimír

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 7 (2009), s. 1770-1778 ISSN 0008-6223 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06041; GA ČR GA106/09/0125 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : carbon nano-layers * flash evaporation * PET Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 4.504, year: 2009

  5. Lessons learned from Khartoum flash flood impacts: An integrated assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Mohamad Ibrahim; Elagib, Nadir Ahmed; Horn, Finlay; Saad, Suhair A G

    2017-12-01

    This study aims at enabling the compilation of key lessons for decision makers and urban planners in rapidly urbanizing cities regarding the identification of representative, chief causal natural and human factors for the increased level of flash flood risk. To achieve this, the impacts of flash flood events of 2013 and 2014 in the capital of Sudan, Khartoum, were assessed using seven integrated approaches, i.e. rainfall data analysis, document analysis of affected people and houses, observational fieldwork in the worst flood affected areas, people's perception of causes and mitigation measures through household interviews, reported drinking water quality, reported water-related diseases and social risk assessment. Several lessons have been developed as follows. Urban planners must recognize the devastating risks of building within natural pathways of ephemeral watercourses. They must also ensure effective drainage infrastructures and physio-geographical investigations prior to developing urban areas. The existing urban drainage systems become ineffective due to blockage by urban waste. Building of unauthorized drainage and embankment structures by locals often cause greater flood problems than normal. The urban runoff is especially problematic for residential areas built within low-lying areas having naturally low infiltration capacity, as surface water can rapidly collect within hollows and depressions, or beside elevated roads that preclude the free flow of floodwater. Weak housing and infrastructure quality are especially vulnerable to flash flooding and even to rainfall directly. Establishment of services infrastructure is imperative for flash flood disaster risk reduction. Water supply should be from lower aquifers to avoid contaminant groundwater. Regular monitoring of water quality and archiving of its indicators help identify water-related diseases and sources of water contamination in the event of environmental disasters such as floods. Though the

  6. Flash-x-radiography for fuel motion studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choate, L.M.; Halbleib, J.A. Sr.; Posey, L.D.

    1976-01-01

    The paper is primarily intended to be a status report on recent activities in the Flash X-ray Radiography/Cinematography area. Studies in the area of source definition as well as associated experimental limitations are discussed. The implications of machine current upon precision uncertainty in measurements of changes in areal density are presented. The radiographic techniques presently being evaluated are discussed. Performance estimates representative of this type of diagnostic tool are presented. Comparison with other results is made

  7. Turbulent spots and scalar flashes in pipe transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrian, Ronald; Wu, Xiaohua; Moin, Parviz

    2017-11-01

    Recent study (Wu et al., PNAS, 1509451112, 2015) demonstrated the feasibility and accuracy of direct computation of the Osborne Reynolds' pipe transition experiment without the unphysical axially periodic boundary condition. Here we use this approach to address three questions: (1) What are the dynamics of turbulent spot generation in pipe transition? (2) How is the succession of scalar flashes, as observed and sketched by Osborne Reynolds, created? (3) What happens to the succession of flashes further downstream? In this study, the inlet disturbance is of radial-mode type imposed through a narrow, three-degree numerical wedge; and the simulation Reynolds number is 6500. Numerical dye is introduced at the inlet plane locally very close to the pipe axis, similar to the needle injection by O. Reynolds. Inception of infant turbulent spots occurs when normal, forward inclined hairpin packets form near the walls from the debris of the inlet perturbations. However, the young and mature turbulent spots consist almost exclusively of reverse, backward leaning hairpin vortices. Scalar flashes appear successively downstream and persist well into the fully-developed turbulent region. Their creation mechanism is addressed. RJA gratefully acknowledges support of the National Science Foundation with NSF Award CBET-0933848.

  8. The SWARF high energy flash X-ray facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, J.F.; Dove, E.W.D.

    1976-06-01

    A description is presented of the SWARF flash radiography facility at AWRE Foulness, which is stated to be the most powerful flash x-ray system available, in the U.K. The machine consists essentially of a Marx generator, a coaxial Blumlein system and an x-ray tube. The voltage output from the Marx generator (about 2.5 MV from an 80 kV input) is applied to a large re-entrant Blumlein pulse-forming line. Near maximum voltage, an adjustable oil switch short-circuits one end of the Blumlein generator and so applies a square voltage pulse of 65 ns duration to the x-ray tube. The x-rays are produced from a tantalum target which forms the anode of a vacuum field emission diode. The facility consists of two field machines positioned so that radiographs can be obtained from different angles. The description is given under the following heads: modus operandi; constructional details; oil installation; electrical details; commissioning, calibration and electrical data; flash radiography in explosives research; operational control of facility, film packs; radiographic results; further developments; overall performance. (U.K.)

  9. Spray structure as generated under homogeneous flash boiling nucleation regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, M.; Levy, Y.; Sher, E.

    2014-01-01

    We show the effect of the initial pressure and temperature on the spatial distribution of droplets size and their velocity profile inside a spray cloud that is generated by a flash boiling mechanism under homogeneous nucleation regime. We used TSI's Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer (PDPA) to characterize the spray. We conclude that the homogeneous nucleation process is strongly affected by the initial liquid temperature while the initial pressure has only a minor effect. The spray shape is not affected by temperature or pressure under homogeneous nucleation regime. We noted that the only visible effect is in the spray opacity. Finally, homogeneous nucleation may be easily achieved by using a simple atomizer construction, and thus is potentially suitable for fuel injection systems in combustors and engines. - Highlights: • We study the characteristics of a spray that is generated by a flash boiling process. • In this study, the flash boiling process occurs under homogeneous nucleation regime. • We used Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer (PDPA) to characterize the spray. • The SMD has been found to be strongly affected by the initial liquid temperature. • Homogeneous nucleation may be easily achieved by using a simple atomizer unit

  10. Detection and spectral measurements of coherent synchrotron radiation at FLASH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behrens, Christopher

    2010-02-15

    The operation of high-gain free-electron laser (FEL) underlies tremendous demands on high quality electron beams with high peak currents. At the Free-Electron-Laser in Hamburg (FLASH), two magnetic bunch compressors are used to compress the electron bunches longitudinally. In the bunch compressor magnets, these short electron bunches generate coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR). This CSR contains information on the longitudinal bunch profile, which is relevant for driving an FEL. In order to investigate coherent synchrotron radiation at the second bunch compressor BC3 at FLASH, a new setup behind the last dipole was installed. For the detection of coherent synchrotron radiation, which is emitted in the infrared regime, pyroelectric detectors were used. These pyroelectric detectors have been calibrated at the free-electron laser FELIX in the wavelength range from 5 {mu}m to 110 {mu}m. For characterisation of the emitted radiation, a transverse scanning device was used to measure the transverse intensity distribution. Various transmission filters were used to obtain additional information about the spectral content. In order to get spectral information with high resolution over a wide wavelength range, a rotating mirror spectrometer using reflective blazed gratings was installed. Using this spectrometer, the first spectral measurements of coherent synchrotron radiation at FLASH in a wavelength range from 10 {mu}m to 160 {mu}m were done. (orig.)

  11. Out-of-phase flashing induced instabilities in CIRCUS facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian Pablo Marcel; Van der Hagen, T.H.J.J. [Interfaculty Reactor Institute, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 15, 2629 JB Delft (Netherlands)

    2005-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Flashing-induced instabilities are very important during the startup phase of natural-circulation boiling water reactors. To study this type of instability an axial fully scaled facility named CIRCUS was constructed. Experiments at low power and low pressure (typical startup conditions) are carried out on this steam/water natural circulation loop with two parallel risers. A detailed measurement of the void-fraction profile is possible by using needle-probes and the use of glass tubes for the riser and core sections allow to use optical techniques for velocity measurements. The flashing and the mechanism of flashing-induced instabilities are analyzed paying special attention on the strong coupling effect between the two riser channels. It is clear from the experiments that the out-of-phase instability is much more susceptible to occur than the in-phase instability in a system with two parallel risers. The instability region is found as soon as the operational boundary between single-phase and two-phase operation is crossed. The relation between the period of the oscillations and the fluid transient time is also investigated. The stability map constructed using this experimental data is also discussed. (authors)

  12. Detection and spectral measurements of coherent synchrotron radiation at FLASH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behrens, Christopher

    2010-02-01

    The operation of high-gain free-electron laser (FEL) underlies tremendous demands on high quality electron beams with high peak currents. At the Free-Electron-Laser in Hamburg (FLASH), two magnetic bunch compressors are used to compress the electron bunches longitudinally. In the bunch compressor magnets, these short electron bunches generate coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR). This CSR contains information on the longitudinal bunch profile, which is relevant for driving an FEL. In order to investigate coherent synchrotron radiation at the second bunch compressor BC3 at FLASH, a new setup behind the last dipole was installed. For the detection of coherent synchrotron radiation, which is emitted in the infrared regime, pyroelectric detectors were used. These pyroelectric detectors have been calibrated at the free-electron laser FELIX in the wavelength range from 5 μm to 110 μm. For characterisation of the emitted radiation, a transverse scanning device was used to measure the transverse intensity distribution. Various transmission filters were used to obtain additional information about the spectral content. In order to get spectral information with high resolution over a wide wavelength range, a rotating mirror spectrometer using reflective blazed gratings was installed. Using this spectrometer, the first spectral measurements of coherent synchrotron radiation at FLASH in a wavelength range from 10 μm to 160 μm were done. (orig.)

  13. MR study of intracranial disease with three-dimensional FLASH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Runge, V.M.; Wood, M.L.; Kaufman, D.M.; Nelson, K.L.; Traill, M.R.; Wolpert, S.M.

    1987-01-01

    A three-dimensional FLASH technique was used to study 36 patients with intracranial disease at 1 T (Siemens Magnetom). This included 15 cases of intracranial neoplastic disease, four with the application of intravenous Gd-DTPA. Contiguous thin sections (1-2 mm thick) were acquired of the entire intracranial contents using one acquisition (scan time of 5-15 minutes). A MIPRON (KONTRON Instruments) image processing work station was used for rapid image display and 3D reconstruction. 3D FLASH was found to be superior to spin-echo imaging at 1 T for the detection of hemorrhage. 3D acquisition also provided superior localization of neoplastic disease. The T1 contrast achieved was comparable to spin-echo technique with a repetition time/echo time of .6/17. The advantages in terms of lesion localization and thin-section imaging with high spatial resolution of the entire brain may lead to use of 3D FLASH in place of conventional spin-echo imaging

  14. Energetic and exergetic Improvement of geothermal single flash cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navid Nazari

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a detailed analysis of a new method for improving energetic and exergetic efficiencies of single flash cycle. The thermodynamic process of the new method consists of extracting a fraction of hot wellhead geothermal brine for the purpose of superheating saturated steam entering the turbine. Computer programming scripts were developed and optimized based on mathematical proposed models for the different components of the systems. The operating parameters such as separator temperature, geofluid wellhead enthalpy and geothermal source temperature are varied to investigate their effects on both net power output and turbine exhaust quality of the systems. Also, full exergy assessment was performed for the new design. The results of separator temperature optimization revealed that specific net power output of the new design can be boosted up to 8% and turbine exhaust quality can be diminished up to 50% as compared to common single flash cycle. In addition, for wells with higher discharge enthalpy, superheating process improve specific net power output even up to 10%. Finally, it was observed that the overall system exergy efficiency was approximately raised 3%. Article History: Received January 5th 2016; Received in revised form June 25th 2016; Accepted July 3rd 2016; Available online How to Cite This Article: Nazari, N. and Porkhial, S. (2016. Energetic and Exergetic Improvement of Geothermal Single Flash Cycle. Int. Journal of Renewable Energy Development, 5(2,129-138. http://dx.doi.org/10.14710/ijred.5.2.129-138 

  15. Effect of the light spectrum of various substrates for inkjet printed conductive structures sintered with intense pulsed light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weise, Dana; Mitra, Kalyan Yoti; Ueberfuhr, Peter; Baumann, Reinhard R.

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the novel method of intense pulsed light (IPL) sintering of a nanoparticle silver ink is presented. Various patterns are printed with the Inkjet technology on two flexible foils with different light spectra. One is a clear Polyethylenterephthalat [PET] foil and the second is a light brownish Polyimide [PI] foil. The samples are flashed with different parameters regarding to pulse intensity and pulse length. Microscopic images are indicating the impact of the flashing parameters and the different light spectra of the substrates on the sintered structures. Sheet and line resistance are measured and the conductivity is calculated. A high influence of the property of the substrate with respect to light absorption and thermal conductivity on the functionality of printed conductive structures could be presented. With this new method of IPL sintering, highly conductive inkjet printed silver patterns could be manufactured within milliseconds on flexible polymeric foils without damaging the substrate

  16. Gun muzzle flash detection using a CMOS single photon avalanche diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merhav, Tomer; Savuskan, Vitali; Nemirovsky, Yael

    2013-10-01

    Si based sensors, in particular CMOS Image sensors, have revolutionized low cost imaging systems but to date have hardly been considered as possible candidates for gun muzzle flash detection, due to performance limitations, and low SNR in the visible spectrum. In this study, a CMOS Single Photon Avalanche Diode (SPAD) module is used to record and sample muzzle flash events in the visible spectrum, from representative weapons, common on the modern battlefield. SPADs possess two crucial properties for muzzle flash imaging - Namely, very high photon detection sensitivity, coupled with a unique ability to convert the optical signal to a digital signal at the source pixel, thus practically eliminating readout noise. This enables high sampling frequencies in the kilohertz range without SNR degradation, in contrast to regular CMOS image sensors. To date, the SPAD has not been utilized for flash detection in an uncontrolled environment, such as gun muzzle flash detection. Gun propellant manufacturers use alkali salts to suppress secondary flashes ignited during the muzzle flash event. Common alkali salts are compounds based on Potassium or Sodium, with spectral emission lines around 769nm and 589nm, respectively. A narrow band filter around the Potassium emission doublet is used in this study to favor the muzzle flash signal over solar radiation. This research will demonstrate the SPAD's ability to accurately sample and reconstruct the temporal behavior of the muzzle flash in the visible wavelength under the specified imaging conditions. The reconstructed signal is clearly distinguishable from background clutter, through exploitation of flash temporal characteristics.

  17. Acupuncture as Treatment of Hot Flashes and the Possible Role of Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Clara E. Spetz Holm

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms behind hot flashes in menopausal women are not fully understood. The flashes in women are probably preceded by and actually initiated by a sudden downward shift in the set point for the core body temperature in the thermoregulatory center that is affected by sex steroids, β-endorphins, and other central neurotransmitters. Treatments that influence these factors may be expected to reduce hot flashes. Since therapy with sex steroids for hot flashes has appeared to cause a number of side effects and risks and women with hot flashes and breast cancer as well as men with prostate cancer and hot flashes are prevented from sex steroid therapy there is a great need for alternative therapies. Acupuncture affecting the opioid system has been suggested as an alternative treatment option for hot flashes in menopausal women and castrated men. The heat loss during hot flashes may be mediated by the potent vasodilator and sweat gland activator calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP the concentration of which increases in plasma during flashes in menopausal women and, according to one study, in castrated men with flushes. There is also evidence for connections between the opioid system and the release of CGRP. In this paper we discuss acupuncture as a treatment alternative for hot flashes and the role of CGRP in this context.

  18. Flash pyrolysis, a process for utilizing contaminated wood; Flash-Pyrolyse - eine Moeglichkeit der stofflichen Verwertung von kontaminiertem Holz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, D.; Wehlte, S.; Faix, O. [Bundesforschungsanstalt fuer Forst- und Holzwirtschaft, Hamburg (Germany). Inst. fuer Holzchemie und Chemische Technologie des Holzes

    1996-12-31

    Flash pyrolysis of wood treated with common pesticides poses no technical probelms. Product yields, with a maximum oil yield at 475 C, are similar to those of untreated wood. Most of the heavy metals are retained by the coal while a small part aheres to the coal layer of the sand bed. The resulting pyrolysis oil contains neither chromium nor copper. (orig) [Deutsch] Die Flash-Pyrolyse der mit den gaengigsten Schutzmitteln behandelten Hoelzer bereitet verfahrenstechnisch keine Probleme. Auch die Produktausbeuten, mit einem oelmaximum bei 475 C, aehneln denen von naturbelassenem Holz. Der groesste Teil der Schwermetalle wurde an die Kohle gebunden, ein geringer Teil blieb auf der Kohleschicht des Sandes haften. Im Hauptprodukt Pyrolyseoel konnten weder Chrom noch Kupfer nachgewiesen werden. (orig)

  19. Flash pyrolysis, a process for utilizing contaminated wood; Flash-Pyrolyse - eine Moeglichkeit der stofflichen Verwertung von kontaminiertem Holz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, D; Wehlte, S; Faix, O [Bundesforschungsanstalt fuer Forst- und Holzwirtschaft, Hamburg (Germany). Inst. fuer Holzchemie und Chemische Technologie des Holzes

    1997-12-31

    Flash pyrolysis of wood treated with common pesticides poses no technical probelms. Product yields, with a maximum oil yield at 475 C, are similar to those of untreated wood. Most of the heavy metals are retained by the coal while a small part aheres to the coal layer of the sand bed. The resulting pyrolysis oil contains neither chromium nor copper. (orig) [Deutsch] Die Flash-Pyrolyse der mit den gaengigsten Schutzmitteln behandelten Hoelzer bereitet verfahrenstechnisch keine Probleme. Auch die Produktausbeuten, mit einem oelmaximum bei 475 C, aehneln denen von naturbelassenem Holz. Der groesste Teil der Schwermetalle wurde an die Kohle gebunden, ein geringer Teil blieb auf der Kohleschicht des Sandes haften. Im Hauptprodukt Pyrolyseoel konnten weder Chrom noch Kupfer nachgewiesen werden. (orig)

  20. Cardiac autonomic function and hot flashes among perimenopausal and postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Carolyn J; Mendes, Wendy Berry; Schembri, Michael; Grady, Deborah; Huang, Alison J

    2017-07-01

    Abnormalities in autonomic function are posited to play a pathophysiologic role in menopausal hot flashes. We examined relationships between resting cardiac autonomic activity and hot flashes in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women. Autonomic function was assessed at baseline and 12 weeks among perimenopausal and postmenopausal women (n = 121, mean age 53 years) in a randomized trial of slow-paced respiration for hot flashes. Pre-ejection period (PEP), a marker of sympathetic activation, was measured with impedance cardiography. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), a marker of parasympathetic activation, was measured with electrocardiography. Participants self-reported hot flash frequency and severity in 7-day symptom diaries. Analysis of covariance models were used to relate autonomic function and hot flash frequency and severity at baseline, and to relate changes in autonomic function to changes in hot flash frequency and severity over 12 weeks, adjusting for age, body mass index, and intervention assignment. PEP was not associated with hot flash frequency or severity at baseline or over 12 weeks (P > 0.05 for all). In contrast, there was a trend toward greater frequency of moderate-to-severe hot flashes with higher RSA at baseline (β = 0.43, P = 0.06), and a positive association between change in RSA and change in frequency of moderate-to-severe hot flashes over 12 weeks (β = 0.63, P = 0.04). Among perimenopausal and postmenopausal women with hot flashes, variations in hot flash frequency and severity were not explained by variations in resting sympathetic activation. Greater parasympathetic activation was associated with more frequent moderate-to-severe hot flashes, which may reflect increased sensitivity to perceiving hot flashes.