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Sample records for flame photometric detector

  1. An improved multiple flame photometric detector for gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Adrian G; Thurbide, Kevin B

    2015-11-20

    An improved multiple flame photometric detector (mFPD) is introduced, based upon interconnecting fluidic channels within a planar stainless steel (SS) plate. Relative to the previous quartz tube mFPD prototype, the SS mFPD provides a 50% reduction in background emission levels, an orthogonal analytical flame, and easier more sensitive operation. As a result, sulfur response in the SS mFPD spans 4 orders of magnitude, yields a minimum detectable limit near 9×10(-12)gS/s, and has a selectivity approaching 10(4) over carbon. The device also exhibits exceptionally large resistance to hydrocarbon response quenching. Additionally, the SS mFPD uniquely allows analyte emission monitoring in the multiple worker flames for the first time. The findings suggest that this mode can potentially further improve upon the analytical flame response of sulfur (both linear HSO, and quadratic S2) and also phosphorus. Of note, the latter is nearly 20-fold stronger in S/N in the collective worker flames response and provides 6 orders of linearity with a detection limit of about 2.0×10(-13)gP/s. Overall, the results indicate that this new SS design notably improves the analytical performance of the mFPD and can provide a versatile and beneficial monitoring tool for gas chromatography. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Domestic Preparedness Program: Evaluation of the Agilent Gas Chromatograph - Flame Photometric Detector/Mass Selective Detector (GC-FPD/MSD) System Against Chemical Warfare Agents Summary Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Longworth, Terri

    2003-01-01

    This report characterizes the chemical warfare agent (CWA) detection potential of the commercially available Agilent gas chromatograph-flame photometric detector/mass selective detector (GC-FPD/MSD...

  3. Properties of a novel linear sulfur response mode in a multiple flame photometric detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Adrian G; Thurbide, Kevin B

    2014-01-24

    A new linear sulfur response mode was established in the multiple flame photometric detector (mFPD) by monitoring HSO* emission in the red spectral region above 600nm. Optimal conditions for this mode were found by using a 750nm interference filter and oxygen flows to the worker flames of this device that were about 10mL/min larger than those used for monitoring quadratic S2* emission. By employing these parameters, this mode provided a linear response over about 4 orders of magnitude, with a detection limit near 5.8×10(-11)gS/s and a selectivity of sulfur over carbon of about 3.5×10(3). Specifically, the minimum detectable masses for 10 different sulfur analytes investigated ranged from 0.4 to 3.6ng for peak half-widths spanning 4-6s. The response toward ten different sulfur compounds was examined and produced an average reproducibility of 1.7% RSD (n=10) and an average equimolarity value of 1.0±0.1. In contrast to this, a conventional single flame S2* mode comparatively yielded respective values of 6.7% RSD (n=10) and 1.1±0.4. HSO* emission in the mFPD was also found to be relatively much less affected by response quenching due to hydrocarbons compared to a conventional single flame S2* emission mode. Results indicate that this new alternative linear mFPD response mode could be beneficial for sulfur monitoring applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. [Analysis of H2S/PH3/NH3/AsH3/Cl2 by Full-Spectral Flame Photometric Detector].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zhi-jun; Wang, Pu-hong; Li, Zhi-jun; Du, Bin; Guo, Lei; Yu, Jian-hua

    2015-07-01

    Flame photometric analysis technology has been proven to be a rapid and sensitive method for sulfur and phosphorus detection. It has been widely used in environmental inspections, pesticide detection, industrial and agricultural production. By improving the design of the traditional flame photometric detector, using grating and CCD sensor array as a photoelectric conversion device, the types of compounds that can be detected were expanded. Instead of a single point of characteristic spectral lines, full spectral information has been used for qualitative and quantitative analysis of H2S, PH3, NH3, AsH3 and Cl2. Combined with chemometric method, flame photometric analysis technology is expected to become an alternative fast, real-time on-site detection technology to simultaneously detect multiple toxic and harmful gases.

  5. Determination of organophosphorus flame retardants in fish by pressurized liquid extraction using aqueous solutions and solid-phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography-flame photometric detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhanqi; Deng, Yuehua; Yuan, Wenting; He, Huan; Yang, Shaogui; Sun, Cheng

    2014-10-31

    A novel method was developed for the determination of organophosphorus flame retardants (PFRs) in fish. The method consists of a combination of pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) using aqueous solutions and solid-phase microextraction (SPME), followed by gas chromatography-flame photometric detector (GC-FPD). The experimental parameters that influenced extraction efficiency were systematically evaluated. The optimal responses were observed by extracting 1g of fish meat with the solution of water:acetonitrile (90:10, v/v) at 150°C for 5min and acid-washed silica gel used as lipid sorbent. The obtained extract was then analyzed by SPME coupled with GC-FPD without any additional clean-up steps. Under the optimal conditions, the proposed procedure showed a wide linear range (0.90-5000ngg(-1)) obtained by analyzing the spiked fish samples with increasing concentrations of PFRs and correlation coefficient (R) ranged from 0.9900 to 0.9992. The detection limits (S/N=3) were in the range of 0.010-0.208ngg(-1) with standard deviations (RSDs) ranging from 2.0% to 9.0%. The intra-day and inter-day variations were less than 9.0% and 7.8%, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of PFRs in real fish samples with recoveries varying from 79.8% to 107.3%. The results demonstrate that the proposed method is highly effective for analyzing PFRs in fish samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Validation of QuEChERS based method for determination of fenitrothion residues in tomatoes by gas chromatography-flame photometric detector: Decline pattern and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhat, Farag; Boulangé, Julien; Abdelraheem, Ehab; Abd Allah, Osama; Abd El-Hamid, Rania; Abd El-Salam, Shokr

    2017-08-15

    A simple and rapid gas chromatography with flame photometric detector (GC-FPD) determination method was developed to detect residue levels and investigate the dissipation pattern and safe use of fenitrothion in tomatoes. A modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) using an ethyl acetate-based extraction, followed by a dispersive solid-phase extraction (d-SPE) with primary-secondary amine (PSA) and graphite carbon black (GCB) for clean up, was applied prior to GC-FPD analysis. The method showed satisfactory linearity, recovery and precision. The limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) were 0.005 and 0.01mg/kg, respectively. The residue levels of fenitrothion were best described by first order kinetics with a half-life of 2.2days in tomatoes. The potential health risks posed by fenitrothion were not significant, based on supervised residue trial data. The current findings could provide guidance for safe and reasonable use of fenitrothion in tomatoes and prevent health problems to consumers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of volatiles from Ampelopsis brevipedunculata var. heterophylla using GC-olfactometry, GC-MS and GC-pulsed flame photometric detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Atsuhiko; Miyazawa, Mitsuo

    2013-01-01

    Ampelopsis brevipedunculata var. heterophylla is extensively cultivated in Asia, and the dried leaves and branches have a characteristic odor and have been used as a tea. To investigate the odorants contributing to the characteristic odor of A. brevipedunculata var. heterophylla, the aroma extraction dilution analysis method was performed through gas chromatography olfactometry. In addition, volatile sulfur compounds were evaluated using pulsed flame photometric detector. As a result, 86 compounds were identified in the oils of leaves and 78 in branches, accounting for 80.0% and 68.3%, respectively, of the compounds identified. The main compounds in the essential oil of leaves were palmitic acid (12.5%), phenylacetaldehyde (4.1%) and hexahydrofarnesyl acetone (3.9%). On the other hand, the essential oil of branches contained palmitic acid (12.7%), terpinen-4-ol (4.4%) and α-cadinol (3.7%). The total number of odor-active compounds identified in the leaf and branch oils was 39. The most odorous compounds of leaves and branches of A. brevipedunculata var. heterophylla were (E, Z)-2,6-nonadienal (melon, green odor), (E)-2-nonenal (grassy odor), phenylacetaldehyde (honey-like) and (E)-linalool oxide (woody odor).

  8. Flame photometric determination of strontium in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skougstad, Marvin W.

    1957-01-01

    Preliminary search of reported methods of Sr analysis revealed several investigations which have been made for the determination of Sr with the flame photometer, both at relatively low concentrations (0 to 50 ppm Sr) and at higher concentrations. Generally the procedures described involved measurement of Sr emission at either 460.7 mu or at 681 mu. There is disagreement among those reporting methods for Sr as to the preference of the one wavelength over the other. The 681 line (or band) seems to be preferred because of its greater reproducibility and relative freedom from interference. The 460.7 mu line, however, lies in the region of greater sensitivity of the photomultiplier tube, and hence for this reason is preferred by some. This is an advantage, of course, when determining Sr at very low concentrations. This investigation is concerned with determining the optimum conditions for the determination of Sr at low concentration levels in water samples. Early experimental work indicated a greater sensitivity for the 460.7 mu (hereafter designated as 461 mu) Sr line. Therefore, most of the subsequent work was based on a study of the effects of various other materials and conditions on the emission of Sr at this wavelength.

  9. Organotin analysis by gas chromatography-pulsed flame-photometric detection (GC-PFPD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leermakers, M.; Nuyttens, J.; Baeyens, W. [Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Analytical and Environmental Chemistry (ANCH), Brussel (Belgium)

    2005-03-01

    Monobutyltin (MBuT), dibutyltin (DBuT), and tributyltin (TBuT) mixtures have been separated and quantified by gas chromatography with pulsed flame-photometric detection (GC-PFPD). The compounds were first derivatized with NaBEt{sub 4}, then extracted with hexane and injected into the GC in splitless mode. Optimum GC and detector conditions were established. For GC, various injector temperatures and oven temperature programs were tested. For the PFPD detector, gate settings (gate delay and gate width) and detector temperature were optimized. A very good linearity was obtained up to 100-150 ppb for all organotin compounds. The detection limits obtained were: MBuT (0.7 ppb), DBuT (0.8 ppb), and TBuT (0.6 ppb). RSD for repeatability and reproducibility were well below 20% when the instrument was in routine operation. A biological sample (CRM 477) was also analyzed for organotins. Extraction from the biological matrix was performed with TMAH. Besides the increased risk of contamination, the derivatization step seemed to be critical. pH and amount of derivatizing agent were tested. When using an internal standard (TPrT) between 90% and 110% of the certified amounts of organotin were recovered. (orig.)

  10. Flame photometric determination of Na, K and Li in uranium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabato, S.F.; Lordello, A.R.

    1985-01-01

    A flame photometric method for the determination of Na, K and Li in uranium compounds is described. The uranium is separated by solvent extraction from hydrochloric acid medium with tri-butyl phosphate. Amounts of uranium in order of 20 μg/ml don't cause any interference in the photometric results. The element Na presents a residual concentration due to the contamination of the reagents. The relative standard deviation is about 10% for the three elements. The relative error varies with the concentration of the element and it is between 1 and 24% for Na, between O and 12% for K and between O and 33% for Li. (Author) [pt

  11. Flame-photometric determination of boron in alloys with chromatographic separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Telegin, G.F.; Popandopulo, Yu.I.; Grazhuiene, S.S.

    1983-01-01

    A study was made on the possibility of using flame-photometric method for boron determination in iron base alloys. The method of extraction chromatography was used for boron separation from iron. It is possible to reliably determine boron in Fesub(x)Bsub(100-x) alloys only at a concentration ratio of iron to boron <=0.2. The technique for determination of boron in Fesub(x)Bsub(100-x) alloys was developed on the base of the conducted investigation

  12. Flame-photometric determination of boron in alloys with chromatographic separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Telegin, G.F.; Popandopulo, Yu.I.; Grazhuiene, S.S. (AN SSSR, Chernogolovka. Inst. Fiziki Tverdogo Tela)

    1983-01-01

    A study was made on the possibility of using flame-photometric method for boron determination in iron base alloys. The method of extraction chromatography was used for boron separation from iron. It is possible to reliably determine boron in Fesub(x)Bsub(100-x) alloys only at a concentration ratio of iron to boron <=0.2. The technique for determination of boron in Fesub(x)Bsub(100-x) alloys was developed on the base of the conducted investigation.

  13. Flame Photometric Determination of Lithium Contents Down to 10{sup -3} ppm in Water Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joensson, Guenther

    1963-04-15

    A flame photometric method has been developed for determination of submicro contents of lithium in water. The intensity of the emission from lithium increases about three times if 20 % of a mixture of acetone - amyl alcohol (4:1) is added to the sample. Interferences by stray light from sodium present is eliminated with a special absorption filter. Interferences from oxide bands of the alkaline earth metals are completely suppressed after adding aluminium to the sample. With the development of this routine method it is possible by flame photometry to directly determine 0.01 ppm lithium with an error of analysis less than 10 %. Furthermore the investigation shows that, after concentration of the sample by evaporation, contents down to 10{sup -3} ppm can be determined without any difficulty. One person can run up to 50 determinations per day.

  14. A multi-channel photometric detector for multi-component analysis in flow injection analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, A; Huang, J; Geng, L; Xu, J; Zhao, X

    1994-01-01

    The detector, a multi-channel photometric detector, described in this paper was developed using multi-wavelength LEDs (light emitting diode) and phototransistors for absorbance measurement controlled by an Intel 8031 8-bit single chip microcomputer. Up to four flow cells can be attached to the detector. The LEDs and phototransistors are both inexpensive, and reliable. The results given by the detector for simultaneous determination of trace amounts of cobalt and cadmium in zinc sulphate electrolyte are reported. Because of the newly developed detector, this approach employs much less hardware apparatus than by employing conventional photometric detectors.

  15. The Determination of Pesticidal and Non-Pesticidal Organotin Compounds by in situ Ethylation and Capillary Gas Chromatography with Pulsed Flame Photometric Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    The concurrent determination of pesticidal and non-pesticidal organotin compounds in several water matrices, using a simultaneous in situ ethylation and liquid-liquid extraction followed by splitless injection mode capillary gas chromatography with pulsed flame photometric detect...

  16. The Determination of Pesticidal and Non-Pesticidal Organotin Compounds in Water Matrices by in situ Ethylation and Gas Chromatography with Pulsed Flame Photometric Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    The concurrent determination of pesticidal and non-pesticidal organotin compounds in several water matrices, using a simultaneous in situ ethylation and liquid-liquid extraction followed by splitless injection mode capillary gas chromatography with pulsed flame photometric detect...

  17. Simultaneous determination of organophosphorous insecticides in bean samples by gas chromatography - flame photometric detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keyller Bastos Borges

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The indiscriminate use of organophosphorous pesticides (OPPs in crops may leave residues in food and may cause poisoning in the applicators. A method was developed for the determination of five OPPs in bean samples by Gas Chromatography-Flame Photometric Detection (GC-FPD. Validation parameters comprised linearity between 0.24 and 8.56 μg g-1 (r = 0.9985 for diazinon; 0.23 and 8.14 μg g-1 (r = 0.9959 for methyl parathion; 0.28 and 10.25 μg g-1 (r = 0.9987 for methyl pirimiphos; 0.52 and 18.87 μg g-1 (r = 0.9955 for malathion; 0.86 and 13.67 μg g-1 (r = 0.9919 for ethion. The limits of quantification (equal to those of detection were the lowest rates of ranges mentioned above for each compound. The extraction method showed approximately 95% recovery, with CV% < 15%. Although twenty-eight bean samples obtained in the southern region of the state of Minas Gerais,Brazil, were analyzed, they failed to match any of the OPPs under analysis. The absence of OPPs in the samples could be due to the degradation that occurred between the use of OPPs and bean commercialization, levels below the detection /quantification limits and the non-use of OPPs in bean cultivation.

  18. Gas chromatography with flame photometric detection of 31 organophosphorus pesticide residues in Alpinia oxyphylla dried fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiangsheng; Kong, Weijun; Wei, Jianhe; Yang, Meihua

    2014-11-01

    A simple, rapid and effective gas chromatography-flame photometric detection method was established for simultaneous multi-component determination of 31 organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) residues in Alpinia oxyphylla, which is widely consumed as a traditional medicine and food in China. Sample preparation was completed in a single step without any clean-up procedure. All pesticides expressed good linear relationships between 0.004 and 1.0 μg/mL with correlation coefficients higher than 0.9973. The method gave satisfactory recoveries for most pesticides. The limits of detection varied from 1 to 10 ng/mL, and the limits of quantification (LOQs) were between 4 and 30 ng/mL. The proposed method was successfully applied to 55 commercial samples purchased from five different areas. Five pesticide residues were detected in four (7.27%) samples. The positive samples were confirmed by gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Design of the flame detector based on pyroelectric infrared sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Yu, Benhua; Dong, Lei; Li, Kai

    2017-10-01

    As a fire detection device, flame detector has the advantages of short reaction time and long distance. Based on pyroelectric infrared sensor working principle, the passive pyroelectric infrared alarm system is designed, which is mainly used for safety of tunnel to detect whether fire occurred or not. Modelling and Simulation of the pyroelectric Detector Using Labview. An attempt was made to obtain a simple test platform of a pyroelectric detector which would make an excellent basis for the analysis of its dynamic behaviour. After many experiments, This system has sensitive response, high anti-interference ability and safe and reliable performance.

  20. Methane Formation by Flame-Generated Hydrogen Atoms in the Flame Ionization Detector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Torkil; Madsen, Jørgen Øgaard

    1996-01-01

    , and conceivably all hydrocarbons are quantitatively converted into methane at temperatures below 600 C, that is, before the proper combustion has started. The splitting of the C-C bonds is preceded by hydrogenation of double and triple bonds and aromatic rings. The reactions, no doubt, are caused by hydrogen...... atoms, which are formed in the burning hydrogen and which diffuse into the inner core of the flame. The quantitative formation of methane appears to explain the "equal per carbon" rule for the detector response of hydrocarbons, since all carbons are "exchanged" for methane molecules....

  1. Development of a photometric measuring method for soot analysis in flames. Final report; Entwicklung eines photometrischen Messverfahrens zur Russanalyse in Flammen. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weichert, R.; Niemann, J.

    1995-12-31

    The present photometric measuring method for soot analysis in flames meets the following specifications: determination of the volume concentration of soot particles from 2 x 10{sup -7} upwards by means of extinction measurement at three different wavelengths; determination of the particle size distribution of soot particles by means of nephelometry in the range betwenn 20 and 400 nm; contactless measurements on the particle collective in the flame; no need for calibration of the photometric measuring method on the basis of particles of known size and concentration. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Es ergeben sich fuer das entwickelte photometrische Messverfahren zur Russanalyse in Flammen folgende Spezifikationen: - Bestimmung der Volumenkonzentration der Russpartikel ab 2 x 10{sup -7} mittels Extinktionsmessungen bei drei Lichtwellenlaengen, - Ermittlung der Partikelgroessenverteilung der Russpartikel aus Streulichtmessungen im Bereich von 20 bis 400 nm, - beruehrungsfreie Messung in der Flamme am Partikelkollektiv und, - keine Kalibrierung des photometrischen Messverfahrens mit Partikeln bekannter Groesse bzw. bekannter Konzentration erforderlich. (orig./SR)

  2. [Determination of 44 organophosphorus pesticides in food by SPE disk extraction-capillary gas chromatography with pulsed flame photometric detection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xiao-Fei; Yang, Yuan; Sun, Cheng-Jun

    2012-01-01

    To develop a method for the simultaneous determination of 44 organophosphorus pesticides in food by SPE disk extraction-capillary gas chromatography with pulsed flame photometric detection. Organophosphorus pesticides in food were extracted ultrasonically with water. Then the extract was cleaned-up with SPE disk and eluted with ethyl acetate. Finally the eluent was condensed to 1mL under N2 at 55 degrees C. Gas chromatography was applied for quantitative detection of the organophosphorus pesticides in the sample. The linear range of the method for all the pesticides were in the range of 0.01-0.5 mg/kg with correlation coefficients of 0.992-1.000. The detection limits of the method were in the range of 0.0005-0.01 mg/kg. The recoveries for most pesticides were 60%-120% with relative standard deviations of less than 15%. The method is simple, sensitive, environmentally friendly and suitable for the determination of organophosphorous pesticides in food.

  3. A New Supersensitive Flame Detector and its Use for Early Forest Fire Detection

    CERN Document Server

    Peskov, Vladimir

    2007-01-01

    A new flame detector, three orders of magnitude more powerful than the existing ones, is presented. This detector needs to be mass-produced for its use in order to be incorporated in an early forest fire detection system. A project able to implement its use to overcome the forest fire emergency is described.

  4. Organophosphorus pesticide and ester analysis by using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with flame photometric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiangping; Li, Dengkun; Li, Jiequan; Rose, Gavin; Marriott, Philip J

    2013-12-15

    Thirty-seven phosphorus (P)-containing compounds comprising organophosphorus pesticides and organophosphate esters were analyzed by using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with flame photometric detection in P mode (GC × GC-FPD(P)), with a non-polar/moderately polar column set. A suitable modulation temperature and period was chosen based on experimental observation. A number of co-eluting peak pairs on the (1)D column were well separated in 2D space. Excellent FPD(P) detection selectivity, responding to compounds containing the P atom, produces clear 2D GC × GC plots with little interference from complex hydrocarbon matrices. Limits of detection (LOD) were within the range of 0.0021-0.048 μmol L(-1), and linear calibration correlation coefficients (R(2)) for all 37 P-compounds were at least 0.998. The P-compounds were spiked in 2% diesel and good reproducibility for their response areas and retention times was obtained. Spiked recoveries were 88%-157% for 5 μg L(-1) and 80%-138% for 10 μg L(-1) spiked levels. Both (1)tR and (2)tR shifts were noted when the content of diesel was in excess of 5% in the matrix. Soil samples were analyzed by using the developed method; some P-compounds were positively detected. In general, this study shows that GC × GC-FPD(P) is an accurate, sensitive and simple method for P-compound analysis in complicated environmental samples. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. 40 CFR 1065.260 - Flame-ionization detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... For compression-ignition engines, two-stroke spark-ignition engines, and four-stroke spark-ignition... CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Measurement Instruments Hydrocarbon Measurements § 1065.260 Flame... that has compensation algorithms that are functions of other gaseous measurements and the engine's...

  6. Organophosphorus pesticide and ester analysis by using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with flame photometric detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiangping; Li, Dengkun; Li, Jiequan [Nanjing Centre for Disease Control and Prevention, Zizhulin Street, Gulou 210003, Nanjing (China); Rose, Gavin [Department of Environment and Primary Industries, Macleod Centre, Ernest Jones Drive, Macleod, Vic 3085 (Australia); Marriott, Philip J., E-mail: philip.marriott@monash.edu [Australian Centre for Research on Separation Science, School of Chemistry, Monash University, Wellington Road, Clayton 3800 (Australia)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • GC × GC-FPD(P-mode) was applied to detection of 37 phosphorus (P)-containing compounds. • The method improves resolution of P-compounds that coelute in the first dimension. • P-compounds are analyzed with excellent sensitivity supported by cryogenic modulation. • The FPD(P-mode) selectivity allows analysis in high hydrocarbon (H/C) matrix. • Soil samples and spiked chemical weapon compounds in H/C matrix are readily screened. -- Abstract: Thirty-seven phosphorus (P)-containing compounds comprising organophosphorus pesticides and organophosphate esters were analyzed by using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with flame photometric detection in P mode (GC × GC-FPD(P)), with a non-polar/moderately polar column set. A suitable modulation temperature and period was chosen based on experimental observation. A number of co-eluting peak pairs on the {sup 1}D column were well separated in 2D space. Excellent FPD(P) detection selectivity, responding to compounds containing the P atom, produces clear 2D GC × GC plots with little interference from complex hydrocarbon matrices. Limits of detection (LOD) were within the range of 0.0021–0.048 μmol L{sup −1}, and linear calibration correlation coefficients (R{sup 2}) for all 37 P-compounds were at least 0.998. The P-compounds were spiked in 2% diesel and good reproducibility for their response areas and retention times was obtained. Spiked recoveries were 88%–157% for 5 μg L{sup −1} and 80%–138% for 10 μg L{sup −1} spiked levels. Both {sup 1}t{sub R} and {sup 2}t{sub R} shifts were noted when the content of diesel was in excess of 5% in the matrix. Soil samples were analyzed by using the developed method; some P-compounds were positively detected. In general, this study shows that GC × GC-FPD(P) is an accurate, sensitive and simple method for P-compound analysis in complicated environmental samples.

  7. Flame detector operable in presence of proton radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, D. J.; Turnage, J. E.; Linford, R. M. F.; Cornish, S. D. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A detector of ultraviolet radiation for operation in a space vehicle which orbits through high intensity radiation areas is described. Two identical ultraviolet sensor tubes are mounted within a shield which limits to acceptable levels the amount of proton radiation reaching the sensor tubes. The shield has an opening which permits ultraviolet radiation to reach one of the sensing tubes. The shield keeps ultraviolet radiation from reaching the other sensor tube, designated the reference tube. The circuitry of the detector subtracts the output of the reference tube from the output of the sensing tube, and any portion of the output of the sensing tube which is due to proton radiation is offset by the output of the reference tube. A delay circuit in the detector prevents false alarms by keeping statistical variations in the proton radiation sensed by the two sensor tubes from developing an output signal.

  8. A planar micro-flame ionization detector with an integrated guard electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuipers, W J; Müller, J

    2008-01-01

    The flame ionization detector (FID) quantifies small concentrations of organic compounds by flame ionization of hydrocarbons and measurement of the resulting ion current. The ion current represents the number of carbon atoms in the sample gas. The miniaturization of the FID by MEMS technology (µFID) is expected to increase its use, because of reduced oxyhydrogen consumption. This loosens safety precautions and makes portable applications possible. In contrast to a former µFID design, the current planar µFID is designed to prevent environmental air from entering the system and deteriorating the measurement signal. The oxyhydrogen flame burns in the silicon plane of an almost completely encapsulating glass–silicon–glass sandwich. Only a small opening remains for removal of the exhaust gas from the system. In between the detector electrodes, a guard electrode is integrated to intercept and by-pass leak currents past the picoammeter, which then only measures the ion current. Due to the design of the guard electrode, small leak currents are still measured by the picoammeter. Yet, these leak currents can be corrected for to obtain the ion current. Measurements of the ion current as a function of the applied voltage and the sample gas flow show expected FID behaviour

  9. Flame photometric detection of sodium leaks: Tests on a fullscale model for the control gear sodium rig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grundy, B.R.; Knowles, P.

    1971-01-01

    The proposed arrangement for detecting sodium leaks from the large flanges of the Control Gear Sodium Rig (Test Section No. 8, MCTR) at REML is to jacket then in a secondary containment from which air samples will be continuously pumped. Pipework feeds the air to a flame photometer which responds if soditun is present. To prove that sodium smoke could be transferred through the system, tests were performed on a fullscale model by burning small amounts of sodium in different jackets. Large signals free from fluctuations were obtained in all tests, peak response occurring in 2 1/4 minutes or less. The signal quickly cleared after isolating the appropriate vessel. A waiting period of several hours was sufficient to reduce the signal to zero, no cleaning of pipework, etc being necessary. In contrast, samples of two lagging materials heated to 400 °C gave no response with the photometer at maximum sensitivity. (author)

  10. Determination of propineb and its metabolites propylenethiourea and propylenediamine in banana and soil using gas chromatography with flame photometric detection and LC-MS/MS analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Shiming; Wei, Jie; Chen, Zhaojie; Lei, Yuhao; Zhang, Yan; Deng, Cheng; Tan, Huihua; Li, Xuesheng

    2018-03-04

    A sensitive and specific method for the determination of propineb and its metabolites, propylenethiourea (PTU) and propylenediamine (PDA), using gas chromatography with flame photometric detection (GC-FPD) and LC-MS/MS was developed and validated. Propineb and its metabolite residue dynamics in supervised field trials under Good Agricultural Practice (GAP) conditions in banana and soil were studied. Recovery of propineb (as CS 2 ), PDA and PTU ranged from 75.3 to 115.4% with RSD (n = 5) of 1.3-11.1%. The limit of quantification (LOQ) of CS 2 , PDA and PTU ranged from 0.005 to 0.01 mg kg -1 , and the limit of detection (LOD) ranged from 0.0015 to 0.0033 mg kg -1 . Dissipation experiments showed that the half-life of propineb in banana and soil ranged from 4.4 to 13.3 days. PTU was found in banana with a half-life of 31.5-69.3 days, while levels of PDA were less than 0.01 mg kg -1 in banana and soil. It has been suggested that PTU is the major metabolite of propineb in banana. The method was demonstrated to be reliable and sensitive for the routine monitoring of propineb and its metabolites in banana and soil. It also serves as a reference for the detection and monitoring of dithiocarbamates (DTCs) residues and the evaluation of their metabolic pathway.

  11. Determination of organotin compounds by headspace solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-pulsed flame-photometric detection (HS-SPME-GC-PFPD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bravo, Manuel [Universite de Pau et des Pays de L' Adour, Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique, LCABIE, UMR CNRS 5034, Pau (France); Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Laboratorio de Quimica Analitica y Ambiental, Instituto de Quimica, Valparaiso (Chile); Lespes, Gaetane; Gautier, Martine Potin [Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Laboratorio de Quimica Analitica y Ambiental, Instituto de Quimica, Valparaiso (Chile); Gregori, Ida de; Pinochet, Hugo [Universite de Pau et des Pays de L' Adour, Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique, LCABIE, UMR CNRS 5034, Pau (France)

    2005-12-01

    A method based on Headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME, with a 100 {mu}m PDMS-fiber) in combination with gas-chromatography and pulsed flame-photometric detection (GC-PFPD) has been investigated for simultaneous determination of eight organotin compounds. Monobutyltin (MBT), dibutyltin (DBT), tributyltin (TBT), monophenyltin (MPhT), and the semi-volatile diphenyltin (DPhT), triphenyltin (TPhT), monooctyltin (MOcT), and dioctyltin (DOcT) were determined after derivatization with sodium tetraethylborate. The conditions used for the extraction and preconcentration step were optimised by experimental design methodology. Tripropyltin (TPrT) and diheptyltin (DHepT) were used as internal standards for quantification of volatile and semi-volatile organotin compounds, respectively. The analytical precision (RSD) for ten successive injections of a standard mixture containing all the organic tin compounds ranged between 2 and 11%. The limits of detection for all the organotin compounds were sub ng (Sn) L{sup -1} in water and close to ng (Sn) kg{sup -1} in sediments. The accuracy of the method was evaluated by analysis of two certified reference material (CRM) sediment samples. The HS-SPME-GC-PFPD was then applied to the analysis of three harbour sediment samples. The results showed that headspace SPME is an attractive tool for analysis of organotin compounds in solid environmental matrices. (orig.)

  12. [High throuput analysis of organophosphorus pesticide residues and their metabolites in animal original foods by dual gas chromatography-dual pulse flame photometric detection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lixin; Li, Heli; Miao, Hong; Zeng, Fangang; Li, Ruifeng; Chen, Huijing; Zhao, Yunfeng; Wu, Yongning

    2011-10-01

    A method was established for the quantitative determination of 54 organophosphorus pesticide residues and their metabolites in foods of animal origin by dual gas chromatography-dual pulse flame photometric detection. Homogenized samples were extracted with acetone and methylene chloride, and cleaned-up by gel permeation chromatography (GPC). The response of each analyte showed a good linearity with a correlation coefficient not less than 0. 99. The recovery experiments were performed by a blank sample spiked at low, medium and high fortification levels. The recoveries for beef, mutton, pork, chicken were in the range of 50. 5% -128. 1% with the relative standard deviations (n = 6) of 1. 1% -25. 5%, which demonstrated the good precision and accuracy of the present method. The limits of detection for the analytes were in the range of 0. 001 -0. 170 mg/kg, and the limits of quantification were in the range of 0. 002 -0. 455 mg/kg. Animal food samples collected from markets such as meat, liver and kidney were analyzed, and the residues of dichlorovos and disulfoton-sulfoxide were found in the some samples. The established method is sensitive and selective enough to detect organophosphorus pesticide residues in animal foods.

  13. Speciation analysis of organotin compounds in human urine by headspace solid-phase micro-extraction and gas chromatography with pulsed flame photometric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, Aníbal; Lespes, Gaëtane; Quiroz, Waldo; Aguilar, Luis F; Bravo, Manuel A

    2014-07-01

    A new headspace solid-phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME) method followed by gas chromatography with pulsed flame photometric detection (GC-PFPD) analysis has been developed for the simultaneous determination of 11 organotin compounds, including methyl-, butyl-, phenyl- and octyltin derivates, in human urine. The methodology has been validated by the analysis of urine samples fortified with all analytes at different concentration levels, and recovery rates above 87% and relative precisions between 2% and 7% were obtained. Additionally, an experimental-design approach has been used to model the storage stability of organotin compounds in human urine, demonstrating that organotins are highly degraded in this medium, although their stability is satisfactory during the first 4 days of storage at 4 °C and pH=4. Finally, this methodology was applied to urine samples collected from harbor workers exposed to antifouling paints; methyl- and butyltins were detected, confirming human exposure in this type of work environment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Combined contactless conductometric, photometric, and fluorimetric single point detector for capillary separation methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryvolová, Markéta; Preisler, Jan; Foret, Frantisek; Hauser, Peter C; Krásenský, Pavel; Paull, Brett; Macka, Mirek

    2010-01-01

    This work for the first time combines three on-capillary detection methods, namely, capacitively coupled contactless conductometric (C(4)D), photometric (PD), and fluorimetric (FD), in a single (identical) point of detection cell, allowing concurrent measurements at a single point of detection for use in capillary electrophoresis, capillary electrochromatography, and capillary/nanoliquid chromatography. The novel design is based on a standard 6.3 mm i.d. fiber-optic SMA adapter with a drilled opening for the separation capillary to go through, to which two concentrically positioned C(4)D detection electrodes with a detection gap of 7 mm were added on each side acting simultaneously as capillary guides. The optical fibers in the SMA adapter were used for the photometric signal (absorbance), and another optical fiber at a 45 degrees angle to the capillary was applied to collect the emitted light for FD. Light emitting diodes (255 and 470 nm) were used as light sources for the PD and FD detection modes. LOD values were determined under flow-injection conditions to exclude any stacking effects: For the 470 nm LED limits of detection (LODs) for FD and PD were for fluorescein (1 x 10(-8) mol/L) and tartrazine (6 x 10(-6) mol/L), respectively, and the LOD for the C(4)D was for magnesium chloride (5 x 10(-7) mol/L). The advantage of the three different detection signals in a single point is demonstrated in capillary electrophoresis using model mixtures and samples including a mixture of fluorescent and nonfluorescent dyes and common ions, underivatized amino acids, and a fluorescently labeled digest of bovine serum albumin.

  15. Methods of analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory : determination of organophosphate pesticides in bottom sediment by gas chromatography with flame photometric detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Virendra Kumar; Wydoski, Duane S.

    2003-01-01

    A method for the isolation of 20 parent organophosphate pesticides and 5 pesticide degradates from bottom-sediment samples is described. The compound O-ethyl-O-methyl-S-proplyphosphorothioate is reported as an estimated concentration because of variable performance. In this method, the sediment samples are centrifuged to remove excess waster mixed with anhydrous sodium sulfate and Soxhlet extracted overnight with dichloromethane (93 percent) and methanol (7 percent). The extract is concentrated and then filtered through a 0.2-micrometer polytetrafluoroethylene membrane syringe filter. An aliquot of the sample extract is quantitatively injected onto two polystyrene-divinylbenzene gel-permeation chromatographic columns connected in series. The compounds are eluted with dichloromethane and a fraction is collected for analysis, with some coextracted interferences, including elemental sulfur, separated and discarded. The aliquot is concentrated and solvent exchanged to ethyl acetate. The extract is analyzed by dual capillary-column gas chromatography with flame photometric detection. Single-operator method detection limits in sodium sulfate matrix samples ranged from 0.81 to 2 micrograms per kilogram. Method performance was validated by spiking all compounds into three different solid matrices (sodium sulfate, bed sediment from Clear Creek, and bed sediment from Evergreen Lake) at three different concentrations. Eight replicates were analyzed at each concentration in each matrix. Mean recoveries of method compounds spiked in Clear Creek samples ranged from 43 to 110 percent, and those in Evergreen Lake samples ranged from 62 to 118 percent for all pesticides. Mean recoveries of method compounds spiked in reagent sodium sulfate samples ranged from 41 to 101 percent for all pesticides. The only exception was O-ethyl-O-methyl-S-propylphosphorothioate, which had an average recovery of 35 percent, and, thus, sample concentration is reported as estimated ('E' remark code).

  16. [Magnetic solid phase extraction combined with gas chromatography-flame photometric detection for the determination of organophosphorus pesticides in juice samples].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qian; He, Man; Chen, Beibei; Hu, Bin

    2014-10-01

    A novel method for the determination of organophosphorous pesticides (OPPs) in fresh juice samples was developed. Fe3O4 @ P (St-co-MAA) magnetic microparticles were synthesized and modified with styrene (St) and methacrylic acid (MAA) by coating St and MAA on magnetic particles and characterized by a series of techniques. The results indicated that Fe3 O4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) have been successfully modified with St and MAA. Based on the prepared FeO4 @ P (St-co-MAA) magnetic microparticles, a novel method of magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE)-gas chromatography (GC)-flame photometric detection (FPD) was developed for the determination of OPPs. The extraction/desorption conditions of MSPE were optimized, and the analytical performance was evaluated under the optimal conditions. The limits of detection (LODs, S/N = 3) for target OPPs were in the range of 0.013-0.305 μg/L with the RSDs (n = 7) ranging from 3.1% to 8.8%. The enrichment factors varied from 406 to 951. The linear ranges were over three orders of magnitudes (R2 > 0.99) and the reproducibilities were 7.4%-14.5% (n = 5). Finally, the proposed MSPE-GC-FPD method was successfully applied to the analysis of the five OPPs in fresh tomato and strawberry juice samples, with the recoveries of target OPPs in the range of 85.4%-118.9% for the spiked samples. The proposed MSPE-GC-FPD method is featured with low cost, fast separation and high enrichment factor.

  17. Rapid gas chromatography with flame photometric detection of multiple organophosphorus pesticides in Salvia miltiorrhizae after ultrasonication assisted one-step extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shanshan; Liu, Xiaofei; Qin, Jia'an; Yang, Meihua; Zhao, Hongzheng; Wang, Yong; Guo, Weiying; Ma, Zhijie; Kong, Weijun

    2017-11-15

    A simple and rapid gas chromatography-flame photometric detection (GC-FPD) method was developed for the determination of 12 organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) in Salvia miltiorrhizae by using ultrasonication assisted one-step extraction (USAE) without any clean-up steps. Some crucial parameters such as type of extraction solvent were optimized to improve the method performance for trace analysis. Any clean-up steps were negligent as no interferences were detected in the GC-FPD chromatograms for sensitive detection. Under the optimized conditions, limits of detection (LODs) and quantitation (LOQs) for all pesticides were in the range of 0.001-0.002mg/kg and 0.002-0.01mg/kg and 0.002-0.01mg/kg, respectively, which were all below the regulatory maximum residue limits suggested. RSDs for method precision (intra- and inter-day variations) were lower than 6.8% in approval with international regulations. Average recovery rates for all pesticides at three fortification levels (0.5, 1.0 and 5.0mg/kg) were in the range of 71.2-101.0% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) pesticide (dimethoate) out of the 12 targets was simultaneously detected in four samples at concentrations of 0.016-0.02mg/kg. Dichlorvos and omethoate were found in the same sample from Sichuan province at 0.004 and 0.027mg/kg, respectively. Malathion and monocrotophos were determined in the other two samples at 0.014 and 0.028mg/kg, respectively. All the positive samples were confirmed by LC-MS/MS. The simple, reliable and rapid USAE-GC-FPD method with many advantages over traditional techniques would be preferred for trace analysis of multiple pesticides in more complex matrices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Photometrics Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose:The Photometrics Laboratory provides the capability to measure, analyze and characterize radiometric and photometric properties of light sources and filters,...

  19. Cross validation of gas chromatography-flame photometric detection and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry methods for measuring dialkylphosphate metabolites of organophosphate pesticides in human urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prapamontol, Tippawan; Sutan, Kunrunya; Laoyang, Sompong; Hongsibsong, Surat; Lee, Grace; Yano, Yukiko; Hunter, Ronald Elton; Ryan, P Barry; Barr, Dana Boyd; Panuwet, Parinya

    2014-01-01

    We report two analytical methods for the measurement of dialkylphosphate (DAP) metabolites of organophosphate pesticides in human urine. These methods were independently developed/modified and implemented in two separate laboratories and cross validated. The aim was to develop simple, cost effective, and reliable methods that could use available resources and sample matrices in Thailand and the United States. While several methods already exist, we found that direct application of these methods required modification of sample preparation and chromatographic conditions to render accurate, reliable data. The problems encountered with existing methods were attributable to urinary matrix interferences, and differences in the pH of urine samples and reagents used during the extraction and derivatization processes. Thus, we provide information on key parameters that require attention during method modification and execution that affect the ruggedness of the methods. The methods presented here employ gas chromatography (GC) coupled with either flame photometric detection (FPD) or electron impact ionization-mass spectrometry (EI-MS) with isotopic dilution quantification. The limits of detection were reported from 0.10ng/mL urine to 2.5ng/mL urine (for GC-FPD), while the limits of quantification were reported from 0.25ng/mL urine to 2.5ng/mL urine (for GC-MS), for all six common DAP metabolites (i.e., dimethylphosphate, dimethylthiophosphate, dimethyldithiophosphate, diethylphosphate, diethylthiophosphate, and diethyldithiophosphate). Each method showed a relative recovery range of 94-119% (for GC-FPD) and 92-103% (for GC-MS), and relative standard deviations (RSD) of less than 20%. Cross-validation was performed on the same set of urine samples (n=46) collected from pregnant women residing in the agricultural areas of northern Thailand. The results from split sample analysis from both laboratories agreed well for each metabolite, suggesting that each method can produce

  20. Mechanism of the flame ionization detector. II. Isotope effects and heteroatom effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Torkil

    1997-01-01

    The relative molar flame ionization detecton (FID) response (RMR) for a hydrocarbon does not change when deuterium is substituted for hydrogen. The exception is methane for which an inverse deuterium effect of 3..5% is observed for tetradeuteriomethane. [13C]Methane shows an inverse isotope effect...... of 2%. The reason for the small or non-existent isotope effects is that H/2H exchange takes place in the pre-combustion hydrogenolysis in the flame. This was shown by taking samples from the lower part of the flame by means of a fused silica capillary probe. By the same technique the hydrogenolytic...

  1. Mechanism of the flame ionization detector. II. Isotope effects and heteroatom effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Torkil

    1997-01-01

    reactions in the hydrogen flame of compounds added to the hydrogen gas in low concentrations were followed. Alcohols, ethers, ketones, and esters all produced methane and carbon monoxide, while amines produced methane and hydrogen cyanide, halogen compounds methane and hydrogen halide, etc. The FID response...

  2. Analysis of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes in soils by headspace and gas chromatography/flame ionization detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurandir Pereira Pinto

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available The constituents of gasoline: benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX are frequently found in soils due to leaks in fuel storage tanks and they present chronic toxicity. In this work it was developed and validated a methodology of BTEX analysis in soil by gas chromatography/ flame ionization detector and static headspace. The recovery of BTEX in soil samples was evaluated using soils with different textures (sandy and loamy. The analysis method showed good resolution, in a low time of analysis (less than 30 minutes. Limits of quantification of 0.05 mg Kg¯¹ soil for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes are below the guiding values that range from 0.15 to 95 mg Kg¯¹ soil, established to determine soil quality. It was verified that the methodology enables the use of this method for BTEX analysis of soil samples for passive environmental identification of gas stations.

  3. Preliminary evaluation of a method using an FID (flame ionization detector) for measurement of methanol in auto emissions. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabele, P.A.; Ray, W.D.; Duncan, J.; Burton, C.

    1987-09-01

    This report evaluates a simplified technique for estimating methanol emission rates in auto exhaust. The technique, referred to as the FID Bubbled Method or FBM, is based in principle on the fact that, while hydrocarbons are not readily absorbed in water, methanol is. Hence, by using a heated flame ionization detector to measure the organic mass in samples before and after bubbling them in water, the quantity of methanol originally present can be estimated by taking the difference between the measurements. Evaluation of the method was done by comparing methanol measurements using the FBM with measurements made using an established reference method. Results showed poor to fair agreement between the two methods. The FBM appeared better at estimating methanol emission rates from evaporative tests than from exhaust tests and also exhibited better accuracy for samples containing higher levels of methanol

  4. Quantification of Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds with a Flame Ionization Detector Using the Effective Carbon Number Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faiola, C. L.; Erickson, M. H.; Fricaud, V. L.; Wallace, H. W.; Jobson, B. T.; VanReken, T. M.

    2011-12-01

    Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) are emitted into the atmosphere by plants and include structurally complex organic molecules such as monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and their oxygenated derivatives. These BVOCs are among the principle factors influencing the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere in forested regions. BVOC emission rates are often measured by collecting samples onto adsorptive cartridges in the field and then transporting these samples to the laboratory for chromatographic analysis. One of the most commonly used detectors in gas chromatography is the flame ionization detector (FID) due to its broad linear range, high sensitivity, and predictable response to many compounds. The FID response to saturated aliphatic molecules is proportional to carbon number. However, deviations occur as the complexity of the molecular structure increases. To account for these deviations, Sternberg et al. (1962) developed the effective carbon number (ECN) concept, which describes the number of carbons the FID "effectively" responds to. The ECN of a complex molecule can be estimated from the number and type of functional groups present, allowing an estimate of relative response factors for quantification. This approach is particularly useful for applications where samples contain a mixture of organic compounds and standards are not realistically accessible- a common predicament for environmental measurements. ECNs for a limited number of compounds with varying functional groups have been quantified in previous studies. However, there remain large gaps in the variety of compounds for which published data are available. This results in higher than necessary uncertainties when quantifying compounds that are structurally dissimilar to those that have been reported in the literature. The purpose of this study was to determine the ECN for a variety of terpenoid compounds to enable improved quantification of BVOC measurements. A dynamic dilution system was developed to

  5. Development and validation of a multiresidue method for the simultaneous determination of organophosphorus insecticides and their toxic metabolites in sugarcane juice and refined sugar by gas chromatography with flame photometric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasubramanian, Thirumalaiandi; Paramasivam, Mariappan

    2016-06-01

    A multiresidue method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of organophosphorus insecticides and their toxic metabolites in sugarcane juice and refined sugar by gas chromatography with flame photometric detection. Limits of quantification of the method varied between 0.007 and 0.01 μg/g. Ethyl acetate based extraction followed by dispersive solid-phase extraction cleanup with primary secondary amine yielded internationally acceptable recoveries of acephate, chlorpyrifos, dichlorvos, monocrotophos, malathion, malaoxon, phorate, phorate-sulfoxide, phorate-oxon, phorate-sulfone, and quinalphos from selected matrices. The recoveries of target analytes from cane juice were 75.55 ± 0.5-102.57 ± 4.2, 77.45 ± 4.7-103.33 ± 3.3, and 80.55 ± 6.6-105.82 ± 9.8% at 0.01, 0.02, and 0.1 μg/g levels of fortification, respectively. The recoveries from cane sugar were 73.24 ± 3.5-104.47 ± 1.9, 75.23 ± 1.5-116.10 ± 3.7, and 70.75 ± 5.7-110.15 ± 2.7%, respectively at 0.01, 0.02, and 0.1 μg/g levels of fortification. Matrix effect and measurement uncertainty were within the permissible limit (less than 20%) as prescribed for pesticide residue analysis. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Photometric Uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xiao-Duan; Li, Jian-Yang; Clark, Beth Ellen; Golish, Dathon

    2018-01-01

    The OSIRIS-REx spacecraft, launched in September, 2016, will study the asteroid Bennu and return a sample from its surface to Earth in 2023. Bennu is a near-Earth carbonaceous asteroid which will provide insight into the formation and evolution of the solar system. OSIRIS-REx will first approach Bennu in August 2018 and will study the asteroid for approximately two years before sampling. OSIRIS-REx will develop its photometric model (including Lommel-Seelinger, ROLO, McEwen, Minnaert and Akimov) of Bennu with OCAM and OVIRS during the Detailed Survey mission phase. The model developed during this phase will be used to photometrically correct the OCAM and OVIRS data.Here we present the analysis of the error for the photometric corrections. Based on our testing data sets, we find:1. The model uncertainties is only correct when we use the covariance matrix to calculate, because the parameters are highly correlated.2. No evidence of domination of any parameter in each model.3. And both model error and the data error contribute to the final correction error comparably.4. We tested the uncertainty module on fake and real data sets, and find that model performance depends on the data coverage and data quality. These tests gave us a better understanding of how different model behave in different case.5. L-S model is more reliable than others. Maybe because the simulated data are based on L-S model. However, the test on real data (SPDIF) does show slight advantage of L-S, too. ROLO is not reliable to use when calculating bond albedo. The uncertainty of McEwen model is big in most cases. Akimov performs unphysical on SOPIE 1 data.6. Better use L-S as our default choice, this conclusion is based mainly on our test on SOPIE data and IPDIF.

  7. A novel automatic flow method with direct-injection photometric detector for determination of dissolved reactive phosphorus in wastewater and freshwater samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koronkiewicz, Stanislawa; Trifescu, Mihaela; Smoczynski, Lech; Ratnaweera, Harsha; Kalinowski, Slawomir

    2018-02-12

    The novel automatic flow system, direct-injection detector (DID) integrated with multi-pumping flow system (MPFS), dedicated for the photometric determination of orthophosphates in wastewater and freshwater samples is for the first time described. All reagents and the sample were injected simultaneously, in counter-current into the reaction-detection chamber by the system of specially selected for this purpose solenoid micro-pumps. The micro-pumps provided good precision and accuracy of the injected volumes. For the determination of orthophosphates, the molybdenum blue method was employed. The developed method can be used to detect orthophosphate in the range 0.1-12 mg L -1 , with the repeatability (RSD) about 2.2% at 4 mg L -1 and a very high injection throughput of 120 injections h -1 . It was possible to achieve a very small consumption of reagents (10 μL of ammonium molybdate and 10 μL of ascorbic acid) and sample (20 μL). The volume of generated waste was only 440 μL per analysis. The method has been successfully applied, giving a good accuracy, to determination of orthophosphates in complex matrix samples: treated wastewater, lake water and reference sample of groundwater. The developed system is compact, small in both size and weight, requires 12 V in supply voltage, which are desirable for truly portable equipment used in routine analysis. The simplicity of the system should result in its greater long-time reliability comparing to other flow methods previously described.

  8. Application of gas chromatography/flame ionization detector-based metabolite fingerprinting for authentication of Asian palm civet coffee (Kopi Luwak).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumhawan, Udi; Putri, Sastia Prama; Yusianto; Bamba, Takeshi; Fukusaki, Eiichiro

    2015-11-01

    Development of authenticity screening for Asian palm civet coffee, the world-renowned priciest coffee, was previously reported using metabolite profiling through gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). However, a major drawback of this approach is the high cost of the instrument and maintenance. Therefore, an alternative method is needed for quality and authenticity evaluation of civet coffee. A rapid, reliable and cost-effective analysis employing a universal detector, GC coupled with flame ionization detector (FID), and metabolite fingerprinting has been established for discrimination analysis of 37 commercial and non-commercial coffee beans extracts. gas chromatography/flame ionization detector (GC/FID) provided higher sensitivity over a similar range of detected compounds than GC/MS. In combination with multivariate analysis, GC/FID could successfully reproduce quality prediction from GC/MS for differentiation of commercial civet coffee, regular coffee and coffee blend with 50 wt % civet coffee content without prior metabolite details. Our study demonstrated that GC/FID-based metabolite fingerprinting can be effectively actualized as an alternative method for coffee authenticity screening in industries. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Monitoring of monooctanoyl phosphatidylcholine synthesis by enzymatic acidolysis between soybean phosphatidylcholine and caprylic acid by thin-layer chromatography with a flame ionization detector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikbjerg, Anders Falk; Mu, Huiling; Xu, Xuebing

    2005-01-01

    Thin-layer chromatography with flame ionization detector (TLC-FID) method was used for monitoring the production of structured phospholipids (ML-type: L-long chain fatty acids; M-medium chain fatty acids) by enzyme-catalyzed acidolysis between soybean phosphatidylcholine (PC) and caprylic acid....... It was found that the structured PC fractionated into 2-3 distinct bands on both plate thin layer chromatography (TLC) and Chromarod TLC. These 3 bands represented PC of LL-type, ML-type and MM-type, respectively. The TLC-FID method was applied in the present study to examine the influence of enzyme dosage...

  10. Measurement of the photometric characteristics of LEDs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazarenko, L.A.; Zubkov, D.P.

    2015-01-01

    Proposed and implemented a method for measuring LEDs, which is based on self-calibration of the LED goniophotometer facility by using a trap-detector. Designed and manufactured automated goniophotometer, which provides a measurement of high power LEDs at a specified junction temperature. Designed and experimentally researched the photometer with a photometric sphere based diffuser, which meets all requirements of CIE for photometric measurements of LEDs

  11. Spatio-temporal variation of organotin compounds in seawater and sediments from Cape Town harbour, South Africa using gas chromatography with flame photometric detector (GC-FPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein K. Okoro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The spatio-temporal variation of two organotin compounds (OTCs of tributyltin and triphenyltin in the seawater and sediment of Cape Town harbour was investigated. The organotin compounds were determined by GC-FPD following prior extraction with 0.02% tropolone. The concentration of OTCs varies for locations in Cape Town harbour. The concentration of OTCs in seawater ranges from 0.067 ± 0.01 to 111.290 ± 32.20 × 10−3 μg/l for TBT while that of TPT ranges between between ND ± SD and 23008.0 ± 0.03 × 10−3 μg/l respectively between locations. Relatively higher concentrations were measured for TBT and TPT during summer than in winter and spring seasons (p ⩽ 0.05. Apparently, the observed high or low values recorded for TBT in Cape Town harbour could be the result of an increase or decrease in the traffic of ships and boats. TBT was detected in all the sediment samples analysed except for location 9 (entrance to harbour, the two control sites (which are located far away from the inner harbour where boating activities are taking place, and location 12 (Robinson dry dock 2 where the samples were not at all found. For the control sites, antifouling compounds TBT and TPT were not detected throughout except for TBT that was found in control A during summer. The seasonal variation of OTC abundance in sediment was also investigated. The results indicated that TBT is present throughout the seasons but is predominantly present in this order summer > winter > spring.

  12. A Laboratory Experiment To Measure Henry's Law Constants of Volatile Organic Compounds with a Bubble Column and a Gas Chromatography Flame Ionization Detector (GC-FID)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shan-Hu; Mukherjee, Souptik; Brewer, Brittany; Ryan, Raphael; Yu, Huan; Gangoda, Mahinda

    2013-01-01

    An undergraduate laboratory experiment is described to measure Henry's law constants of organic compounds using a bubble column and gas chromatography flame ionization detector (GC-FID). This experiment is designed for upper-division undergraduate laboratory courses and can be implemented in conjunction with physical chemistry, analytical…

  13. Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in palm oil mill effluent by soxhlet extraction and gas chromatography-flame ionization detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nor Fairolzukry Ahmad Rasdy; Mohd Marsin Sanagi; Wan Aini Wan Ibrahim; Ahmedy Abu Naim

    2008-01-01

    A method has been developed for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from palm oil mill effluent based on gas chromatography-flame ionization detection. Extraction of spiked PAHs (napthalene, fluorene phenanthrene, fluoranthene and pyrene) in palm oil waste was carried out by Soxhlet extraction using hexane-dichloromethane (60:40 v/v) as the solvent. Excellent separations were achieved using temperature programmed GC on Ultra-1 fused-silica capillary column (30 m x 250 μm ID), carrier gas helium at a flow rate of 1 mL/ min. (author)

  14. Satellite Photometric Error Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-18

    Satellite Photometric Error Determination Tamara E. Payne, Philip J. Castro, Stephen A. Gregory Applied Optimization 714 East Monument Ave, Suite...advocate the adoption of new techniques based on in-frame photometric calibrations enabled by newly available all-sky star catalogs that contain highly...filter systems will likely be supplanted by the Sloan based filter systems. The Johnson photometric system is a set of filters in the optical

  15. Lipids and Fatty Acids in Algae: Extraction, Fractionation into Lipid Classes, and Analysis by Gas Chromatography Coupled with Flame Ionization Detector (GC-FID).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guihéneuf, Freddy; Schmid, Matthias; Stengel, Dagmar B

    2015-01-01

    Despite the number of biochemical studies exploring algal lipids and fatty acid biosynthesis pathways and profiles, analytical methods used by phycologists for this purpose are often diverse and incompletely described. Potential confusion and potential variability of the results between studies can therefore occur due to change of protocols for lipid extraction and fractionation, as well as fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) preparation before gas chromatography (GC) analyses. Here, we describe a step-by-step procedure for the profiling of neutral and polar lipids using techniques such as solid-liquid extraction (SLE), thin-layer chromatography (TLC), and gas chromatography coupled with flame ionization detector (GC-FID). As an example, in this protocol chapter, analyses of neutral and polar lipids from the marine microalga Pavlova lutheri (an EPA/DHA-rich haptophyte) will be outlined to describe the distribution of fatty acid residues within its major lipid classes. This method has been proven to be a reliable technique to assess changes in lipid and fatty acid profiles in several other microalgal species and seaweeds.

  16. Ethanol concentration in 56 refillable electronic cigarettes liquid formulations determined by headspace gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (HS-GC-FID).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poklis, Justin L; Wolf, Carl E; Peace, Michelle R

    2017-10-01

    Personal battery-powered vaporizers or electronic cigarettes were developed as an alternative to traditional cigarettes. The modern electronic cigarettes were patented in 2004 by Hon Lik in China. In May 2016, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) imposed regulatory statutes on e-cigarettes and their liquid formulations (e-liquids); prior to that, they were unregulated. E-liquids are typically composed of propylene glycol and/or glycerin, flavouring component(s), and active ingredient(s), such as nicotine. Fifty-six commercially available e-liquids, purchased from various sources, contained a variety of flavours and active ingredients. A headspace gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (HS-GC-FID) method was used to analyze these e-liquids for volatiles content. Only one of the e-liquids listed ethanol as a component. The chromatographic separation of volatiles was performed on a Restek BAC-1 column. A linear calibration was generated for ethanol with limits of detection and quantification (LOD/LOQ) of 0.05 mg/mL. Ethanol concentrations in the 56 e-liquids ranged from none detected to 206 mg/mL. The ethanol determined in these products may have been used in flavourants or a solvent; the reason for inclusion cannot be fully ascertained. The implications of vaporizing ethanol as an e-liquid component are unknown. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Investigation of the profile of phenolic compounds in the leaves and stems of Pandiaka heudelotii using gas chromatography coupled with flame ionization detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ifeanacho, Mercy O; Ikewuchi, Catherine C; Ikewuchi, Jude C

    2017-05-01

    The profile of phenolic compounds in the leaves and stems of Pandiaka heudelotii was investigated using gas chromatography coupled with flame ionization detector. The leaves and stems had high flavonoids and benzoic acid derivatives content, and moderate levels of lignans and hydroxycinnamates. Twenty-eight known flavonoids were detected, which consisted mainly of kaempferol (41.93% in leaves and 47.97% in stems), (+)-catechin (17.12% in leaves and 16.11% in stems), quercetin (13.83% in leaves and 9.39% in stems), luteolin (7.34% in leaves and 7.71% in stems), and artemetin (6.53% in leaves and 4.83% in stems). Of the six known hydroxycinnamates detected, chlorogenic acid (80.79% in leaves and 87.56% in stems) and caffeic acid (18.98% in leaves and 12.30% in stems) were the most abundant, while arctigenin (77.81% in leaves and 83.40% in stems) and retusin (13.82% in leaves and 10.59% in stems) were the most abundant of the nine known lignans detected. Twelve known benzoic acid derivatives were detected, consisting mainly of ellagic acid (65.44% in leaves and 72.89% in stems), p-hydroxybenzoic acid (25.10% in leaves and 18.95% in stems), and vanillic acid (8.80% in leaves and 7.30% in stems). The rich phytochemical profile of the leaves and stems is an indication of their ability to serve as sources of nutraceuticals.

  18. Development, optimization, validation and application of faster gas chromatography - flame ionization detector method for the analysis of total petroleum hydrocarbons in contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubair, Abdulrazaq; Pappoe, Michael; James, Lesley A; Hawboldt, Kelly

    2015-12-18

    This paper presents an important new approach to improving the timeliness of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH) analysis in the soil by Gas Chromatography - Flame Ionization Detector (GC-FID) using the CCME Canada-Wide Standard reference method. The Canada-Wide Standard (CWS) method is used for the analysis of petroleum hydrocarbon compounds across Canada. However, inter-laboratory application of this method for the analysis of TPH in the soil has often shown considerable variability in the results. This could be due, in part, to the different gas chromatography (GC) conditions, other steps involved in the method, as well as the soil properties. In addition, there are differences in the interpretation of the GC results, which impacts the determination of the effectiveness of remediation at hydrocarbon-contaminated sites. In this work, multivariate experimental design approach was used to develop and validate the analytical method for a faster quantitative analysis of TPH in (contaminated) soil. A fractional factorial design (fFD) was used to screen six factors to identify the most significant factors impacting the analysis. These factors included: injection volume (μL), injection temperature (°C), oven program (°C/min), detector temperature (°C), carrier gas flow rate (mL/min) and solvent ratio (v/v hexane/dichloromethane). The most important factors (carrier gas flow rate and oven program) were then optimized using a central composite response surface design. Robustness testing and validation of model compares favourably with the experimental results with percentage difference of 2.78% for the analysis time. This research successfully reduced the method's standard analytical time from 20 to 8min with all the carbon fractions eluting. The method was successfully applied for fast TPH analysis of Bunker C oil contaminated soil. A reduced analytical time would offer many benefits including an improved laboratory reporting times, and overall improved clean up

  19. THE ALHAMBRA PHOTOMETRIC SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villegas, T. Aparicio; Alfaro, E. J.; Cabrera-Cano, J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the characterization of the optical range of the ALHAMBRA photometric system, a 20 contiguous, equal-width, medium-band CCD system with wavelength coverage from 3500 A to 9700 A. The photometric description of the system is done by presenting the full response curve as a product of the filters, CCD, and atmospheric transmission curves, and using some first- and second-order moments of this response function. We also introduce the set of standard stars that defines the system, formed by 31 classic spectrophotometric standard stars which have been used in the calibration of other known photometric systems, and 288 stars, flux calibrated homogeneously, from the Next Generation Spectral Library (NGSL). Based on the NGSL, we determine the transformation equations between Sloan Digital Sky Survey ugriz photometry and the ALHAMBRA photometric system, in order to establish some relations between both systems. Finally, we develop and discuss a strategy to calculate the photometric zero points of the different pointings in the ALHAMBRA project.

  20. Photometric Lunar Surface Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nefian, Ara V.; Alexandrov, Oleg; Morattlo, Zachary; Kim, Taemin; Beyer, Ross A.

    2013-01-01

    Accurate photometric reconstruction of the Lunar surface is important in the context of upcoming NASA robotic missions to the Moon and in giving a more accurate understanding of the Lunar soil composition. This paper describes a novel approach for joint estimation of Lunar albedo, camera exposure time, and photometric parameters that utilizes an accurate Lunar-Lambertian reflectance model and previously derived Lunar topography of the area visualized during the Apollo missions. The method introduced here is used in creating the largest Lunar albedo map (16% of the Lunar surface) at the resolution of 10 meters/pixel.

  1. Flame Length

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Flame length was modeled using FlamMap, an interagency fire behavior mapping and analysis program that computes potential fire behavior characteristics. The tool...

  2. Astrometric vs. photometric microlensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dominik, M; Brainerd, TG; Kochanek, CS

    2001-01-01

    I discuss the differences between the properties of astrometric and photometric microlensing and between the arising prospects for survey and follow-up experiments based on these two different signatures. In particular, the prospects for binary stars and extra-solar planets are considered.

  3. Determinação de isotiocianato de benzila em Carica papaya utilizando cromatografia gasosa com detectores seletivos Determination of benzyl isothiocyanate in Carica papaya using gas chromatography with selectives detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Miranda de Castro

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, a method was developed and validated for the quantification of benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC in the fruits of Carica papaya. The quantification of this compound was carried out by gas chromatography (GC with selective detectors - nitrogen phosphorus detector (NPD and flame photometric detector (FPD. The performance of these detectors showed a higher sensitivity of the NPD with a broader linear range of detection. The LOD/LOQ were 0.038/0.100 µg/mL for NPD and 5.78/19.29 µg/mL for FPD. The recovery of the method for BITC was 90,64%. An average value of BITC concentration in all the analyzed samples was 16,23 µg BITC/g.

  4. Photometric microdetermination of malathion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallman, B.J.

    1962-01-01

    Carboxylic esters and lactones react with alkaline hydroxylamine to yield hydroxamates; these in acidic solution form colored iron(III) complexes. A photometric determination of such esters and lactones is thus permitted and has been extensively applied ( I-6). Hestrin ( 3) utilized this method for the microdetermination of acetylcholine and his procedure is much used for the in vitro study of cholinesterase activity and inhibition (4-6).

  5. Multiview photometric stereo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Esteban, Carlos; Vogiatzis, George; Cipolla, Roberto

    2008-03-01

    This paper addresses the problem of obtaining complete, detailed reconstructions of textureless shiny objects. We present an algorithm which uses silhouettes of the object, as well as images obtained under changing illumination conditions. In contrast with previous photometric stereo techniques, ours is not limited to a single viewpoint but produces accurate reconstructions in full 3D. A number of images of the object are obtained from multiple viewpoints, under varying lighting conditions. Starting from the silhouettes, the algorithm recovers camera motion and constructs the object's visual hull. This is then used to recover the illumination and initialise a multi-view photometric stereo scheme to obtain a closed surface reconstruction. There are two main contributions in this paper: Firstly we describe a robust technique to estimate light directions and intensities and secondly, we introduce a novel formulation of photometric stereo which combines multiple viewpoints and hence allows closed surface reconstructions. The algorithm has been implemented as a practical model acquisition system. Here, a quantitative evaluation of the algorithm on synthetic data is presented together with complete reconstructions of challenging real objects. Finally, we show experimentally how even in the case of highly textured objects, this technique can greatly improve on correspondence-based multi-view stereo results.

  6. Flames in vortices & tulip-flame inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dold, J. W.

    This article summarises two areas of research regarding the propagation of flames in flows which involve significant fluid-dynamical motion [1]-[3]. The major difference between the two is that in the first study the fluid motion is present before the arrival of any flame and remains unaffected by the flame [1, 2] while, in the second study it is the flame that is responsible for all of the fluid dynamical effects [3]. It is currently very difficult to study flame-motion in which the medium is both highly disturbed before the arrival of a flame and is further influenced by the passage of the flame.

  7. Supernova Photometric Lightcurve Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Tayeb; Narayan, Gautham

    2016-01-01

    This is a preliminary report on photometric supernova classification. We first explore the properties of supernova light curves, and attempt to restructure the unevenly sampled and sparse data from assorted datasets to allow for processing and classification. The data was primarily drawn from the Dark Energy Survey (DES) simulated data, created for the Supernova Photometric Classification Challenge. This poster shows a method for producing a non-parametric representation of the light curve data, and applying a Random Forest classifier algorithm to distinguish between supernovae types. We examine the impact of Principal Component Analysis to reduce the dimensionality of the dataset, for future classification work. The classification code will be used in a stage of the ANTARES pipeline, created for use on the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope alert data and other wide-field surveys. The final figure-of-merit for the DES data in the r band was 60% for binary classification (Type I vs II).Zaidi was supported by the NOAO/KPNO Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) Program which is funded by the National Science Foundation Research Experiences for Undergraduates Program (AST-1262829).

  8. Photometric stereo endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parot, Vicente; Lim, Daryl; González, Germán; Traverso, Giovanni; Nishioka, Norman S; Vakoc, Benjamin J; Durr, Nicholas J

    2013-07-01

    While color video endoscopy has enabled wide-field examination of the gastrointestinal tract, it often misses or incorrectly classifies lesions. Many of these missed lesions exhibit characteristic three-dimensional surface topographies. An endoscopic system that adds topographical measurements to conventional color imagery could therefore increase lesion detection and improve classification accuracy. We introduce photometric stereo endoscopy (PSE), a technique which allows high spatial frequency components of surface topography to be acquired simultaneously with conventional two-dimensional color imagery. We implement this technique in an endoscopic form factor and demonstrate that it can acquire the topography of small features with complex geometries and heterogeneous optical properties. PSE imaging of ex vivo human gastrointestinal tissue shows that surface topography measurements enable differentiation of abnormal shapes from surrounding normal tissue. Together, these results confirm that the topographical measurements can be obtained with relatively simple hardware in an endoscopic form factor, and suggest the potential of PSE to improve lesion detection and classification in gastrointestinal imaging.

  9. Astronomical Research Institute Photometric Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Tyler R.; Sampson, Ryan; Holmes, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The Astronomical Research Institute (ARI) conducts astrometric and photometric studies of asteroids with a concentration on near-Earth objects (NEOs). A 0.76-m autoscope was used for photometric studies of seven asteroids of which two were main-belt targets and five were NEOs, including one potentially hazardous asteroid (PHA). These objects are: 3122 Florence, 3960 Chaliubieju, 5143 Heracles, (6455) 1992 HE, (36284) 2000 DM8, (62128) 2000 SO1, and 2010 LF86.

  10. Photometric requirements for portable changeable message signs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-09-01

    This project reviewed the performance of pchangeable message signs (PCMSs) and developed photometric standards to establish performance requirements. In addition, researchers developed photometric test methods and recommended them for use in evaluati...

  11. Flame structure of methane inverse diffusion flame

    KAUST Repository

    Elbaz, Ayman M.

    2014-07-01

    This paper presents high speed images of OH-PLIF at 10. kHz simultaneously with 2D PIV (particle image velocimetry) measurements collected along the entire length of an inverse diffusion flame with circumferentially arranged methane fuel jets. For a fixed fuel flow rate, the central air jet Re was varied, leading to four air to fuel velocity ratios, namely Vr = 20.7, 29, 37.4 and 49.8. A double flame structure could be observed composed of a lower fuel entrainment region and an upper mixing and intense combustion region. The entrainment region was enveloped by an early OH layer, and then merged through a very thin OH neck to an annular OH layer located at the shear layer of the air jet. The two branches of this annular OH layer broaden as they moved downstream and eventfully merged together. Three types of events were observed common to all flames: breaks, closures and growing kernels. In upstream regions of the flames, the breaks were counterbalanced by flame closures. These breaks in OH signal were found to occur at locations where locally high velocity flows were impinging on the flame. As the Vr increased to 37.4, the OH layers became discontinuous over the downstream region of the flame, and these regions of low or no OH moved upstream. With further increases in Vr, these OH pockets act as flame kernels, growing as they moved downstream, and became the main mechanism for flame re-ignition. Along the flame length, the direction of the two dimensional principle compressive strain rate axis exhibited a preferred orientation of approximately 45° with respect to the flow direction. Moreover, the OH zones were associated with elongated regions of high vorticity. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

  12. On the Flame Height Definition for Upward Flame Spread

    OpenAIRE

    Consalvi, Jean L; Pizzo, Yannick; Porterie, Bernard; Torero, Jose L

    2007-01-01

    Flame height is defined by the experimentalists as the average position of the luminous flame and, consequently is not directly linked with a quantitative value of a physical parameter. To determine flame heights from both numerical and theoretical results, a more quantifiable criterion is needed to define flame heights and must be in agreement with the experiments to allow comparisons. For wall flames, steady wall flame experiments revealed that flame height may be define...

  13. PHOTOMETRIC REDSHIFTS OF SUBMILLIMETER GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakrabarti, Sukanya; Magnelli, Benjamin; Lutz, Dieter; Berta, Stefano; Popesso, Paola; McKee, Christopher F.; Pozzi, Francesca

    2013-01-01

    We use the photometric redshift method of Chakrabarti and McKee to infer photometric redshifts of submillimeter galaxies with far-IR (FIR) Herschel data obtained as part of the PACS Evolutionary Probe program. For the sample with spectroscopic redshifts, we demonstrate the validity of this method over a large range of redshifts (4 ∼> z ∼> 0.3) and luminosities, finding an average accuracy in (1 + z phot )/(1 + z spec ) of 10%. Thus, this method is more accurate than other FIR photometric redshift methods. This method is different from typical FIR photometric methods in deriving redshifts from the light-to-gas mass (L/M) ratio of infrared-bright galaxies inferred from the FIR spectral energy distribution, rather than dust temperatures. To assess the dependence of our photometric redshift method on the data in this sample, we contrast the average accuracy of our method when we use PACS data, versus SPIRE data, versus both PACS and SPIRE data. We also discuss potential selection effects that may affect the Herschel sample. Once the redshift is derived, we can determine physical properties of infrared-bright galaxies, including the temperature variation within the dust envelope, luminosity, mass, and surface density. We use data from the GOODS-S field to calculate the star formation rate density (SFRD) of submillimeter bright sources detected by AzTEC and PACS. The AzTEC-PACS sources, which have a threshold 850 μm flux ∼> 5 mJy, contribute 15% of the SFRD from all ultraluminous infrared galaxies (L IR ∼> 10 12 L ☉ ), and 3% of the total SFRD at z ∼ 2

  14. Photometric variability in earthshine observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langford, Sally V; Wyithe, J Stuart B; Turner, Edwin L

    2009-04-01

    The identification of an extrasolar planet as Earth-like will depend on the detection of atmospheric signatures or surface non-uniformities. In this paper we present spatially unresolved flux light curves of Earth for the purpose of studying a prototype extrasolar terrestrial planet. Our monitoring of the photometric variability of earthshine revealed changes of up to 23% per hour in the brightness of Earth's scattered light at around 600 nm, due to the removal of specular reflection from the view of the Moon. This variability is accompanied by reddening of the spectrum and results from a change in surface properties across the continental boundary between the Indian Ocean and Africa's east coast. Our results based on earthshine monitoring indicate that specular reflection should provide a useful tool in determining the presence of liquid water on extrasolar planets via photometric observations.

  15. Photometric Orbit of TX UMa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyu-Dong Oh

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available Two-color photometric light curves (Oh and Chan 1984 of the eclipsing binary TX UMa have been analyzed by the method of differential corrections of the model of Wilson and Devinney(1971. The system found to be simi-detached with cooler and less massive component filling its Roche lobe. The absolute dimensions have been derived from the results of the photometric solutions with spectroscopic elements of Hiltner(1945. It is assumed that the B8V primary component is on the zero age main sequence stage of the core hydrogen burning and the secondary os at the core contraction stage after the shell hydrogen burning stage according to the Iben's (1967 evolutional tracks for 3.0m_solar and 1.0m_solar.

  16. Photometric device using optical fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boisde, Gilbert; Perez, J.-J.

    1981-02-01

    Remote measurements in radioactive environment are now possible with optical fibers. Measurement instruments developed by CEA are constitued of: - an optical probe (5 mm to 1 meter optical path length), - a photometric measurement device, - optical fiber links. 'TELEPHOT' is a photometric device for industrial installations. It is uses interferentiel filters for 2 to 5 simultaneous wave lengths. 'CRUDMETER' measures the muddiness of water. It can be equipped with a high sensitivity cell of 50 cm optical path length tested up to 250 bars. Coupling a double beam spectrophotometer to a remote optical probe, up to 1 meter optical path length, is carried out by means of an optical device using optical fibers links, eventually several hundred meter long. For these equipments special step index large core fibers, 1 to 1.5 mm in diameter, have been developed as well connectors. For industrial control and research these instruments offer new prospect thanks to optical fibers use [fr

  17. ACS Photometric Zero Point Verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolphin, Andrew

    2003-07-01

    The uncertainties in the photometric zero points create a fundamental limit to the accuracy of photometry. The current state of the ACS calibration is surprisingly poor, with zero point uncertainties of 0.03 magnitudes in the Johnson filters. The reason for this is that ACS observations of excellent ground-based standard fields, such as the omega Cen field used for WFPC2 calibrations, have not been obtained. Instead, the ACS photometric calibrations are based primarily on semi-emprical synthetic zero points and observations of fields too crowded for accurate ground-based photometry. I propose to remedy this problem by obtaining ACS broadband images of the omega Cen standard field with both the WFC and HRC. This will permit the direct determination of the ACS transformations, and is expected to double the accuracy to which the ACS zero points are known. A second benefit is that it will facilitate the comparison of the WFPC2 and ACS photometric systems, which will be important as WFPC2 is phased out and ACS becomes HST's primary imager.

  18. Lifted Turbulent Jet Flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-14

    flame length L simultaneously with h, and measuring the visible radiation I simultaneously with h. L(t) was found to be nearly uncorrelated with h(t...variation of 7i/2 /76 with ýh. These experiments included measuring the flame length L simultaneously with h, and measuring the visible radiation I...Measurements of Liftoff Height and Flame Length ... 66 4.5 Simultaneous Measurements of Liftoff Height and Radiation ....... 71 4.6 D scussion

  19. Calibrating photometric redshifts of luminous red galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padmanabhan, Nikhil; Budavari, Tamas; Schlegel, David J.; Bridges, Terry; Brinkmann, Jonathan

    2005-01-01

    We discuss the construction of a photometric redshift catalogue of luminous red galaxies (LRGs) from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), emphasizing the principal steps necessary for constructing such a catalogue: (i) photometrically selecting the sample, (ii) measuring photometric redshifts and their error distributions, and (iii) estimating the true redshift distribution. We compare two photometric redshift algorithms for these data and find that they give comparable results. Calibrating against the SDSS and SDSS–2dF (Two Degree Field) spectroscopic surveys, we find that the photometric redshift accuracy is σ~ 0.03 for redshifts less than 0.55 and worsens at higher redshift (~ 0.06 for z < 0.7). These errors are caused by photometric scatter, as well as systematic errors in the templates, filter curves and photometric zero-points. We also parametrize the photometric redshift error distribution with a sum of Gaussians and use this model to deconvolve the errors from the measured photometric redshift distribution to estimate the true redshift distribution. We pay special attention to the stability of this deconvolution, regularizing the method with a prior on the smoothness of the true redshift distribution. The methods that we develop are applicable to general photometric redshift surveys.

  20. Revised photometric elements of XZ And

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giuricin, G.; Mardirossian, F.; Predolin, F.

    1980-01-01

    With the aid of Wood's (1972) computer program we have reanalyzed the photoelectric lightcurves of XZ And, made by Blitzstein (1954) and by Reinhardt (1967), from which appreciably different sets of photometric elements have previously been deduced. The photometric elements that we have derived separately from different lightcurves turned out to be in good agreement. Thus XZ And, whose seondary - somewhat larger than its hotter companion - appears to be roughly a G5-type star, has well-determined photometric elements. (author)

  1. A photometric study of Enceladus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbiscer, Anne J.; Veverka, Joseph

    1994-01-01

    We have supplemented Voyager imaging data from Enceladus (limited to phase angles of 13 deg-43 deg) with recent Earth-based CCD observations to obtain an improved determination of the Bond albedo, to construct an albedo map of the satellite, and to constrain parameters in Hapke's (1986) photometric equation. A major result is evidence of regional variations in the physical properties of Enceladus' surface. The average global photometric properties are described by single scattering albedo omega(sub 0) average = 0.998 +/- 0.001, macroscopic roughness parameter theta average = 6 +/- 1 deg, and Henyey-Greenstein asymmetry parameter g = -0.399 +/- 0.005. The value of theta average is smaller than the 14 deg found by fitting whole-disk data, which include all terrains on Enceladus. The opposition surge amplitude B(sub 0) = 0.21 +/- 0.07 and regolith compaction parameter h = 0.014 +/- 0.02 are loosely constrained by the scarcity of and uncertainty in near-opposition observations. From the solar phase curve we determine the geometric albedo of Enceladus p(sub v) = 0.99 +/- 0.06 and phase integral q = 0.92 +/- 0.05, which corresponds to a spherical albedo A = p(sub v)q = 0.91 +/- 0.1. Since the spectrum of Enceladus is fairly flat, we can approximate the Bond albedo A(sub B) with the spherical albedo. Our photometric analysis is summarized in terms of an albedo map which generally reproduces the satellite's observed lightcurve and indicates that normal reflectances range from 0.9 on the leading hemisphere to 1.4 on the trailing one. The albedo map also revels an albedo variation of 15% from longitudes 170 deg to 200 deg, corresponding to the boundary between the leading and trailing hemispheres.

  2. Sloan Digital Sky Survey Photometric Calibration Revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marriner, John

    2012-01-01

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey calibration is revisited to obtain the most accurate photometric calibration. A small but significant error is found in the flat-fielding of the Photometric telescope used for calibration. Two SDSS star catalogs are compared and the average difference in magnitude as a function of right ascension and declination exhibits small systematic errors in relative calibration. The photometric transformation from the SDSS Photometric Telescope to the 2.5 m telescope is recomputed and compared to synthetic magnitudes computed from measured filter bandpasses.

  3. Sloan Digital Sky Survey Photometric Calibration Revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marriner, John; /Fermilab

    2012-06-29

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey calibration is revisited to obtain the most accurate photometric calibration. A small but significant error is found in the flat-fielding of the Photometric telescope used for calibration. Two SDSS star catalogs are compared and the average difference in magnitude as a function of right ascension and declination exhibits small systematic errors in relative calibration. The photometric transformation from the SDSS Photometric Telescope to the 2.5 m telescope is recomputed and compared to synthetic magnitudes computed from measured filter bandpasses.

  4. Unsteady Flame Embedding

    KAUST Repository

    El-Asrag, Hossam A.

    2011-01-01

    Direct simulation of all the length and time scales relevant to practical combustion processes is computationally prohibitive. When combustion processes are driven by reaction and transport phenomena occurring at the unresolved scales of a numerical simulation, one must introduce a dynamic subgrid model that accounts for the multiscale nature of the problem using information available on a resolvable grid. Here, we discuss a model that captures unsteady flow-flame interactions- including extinction, re-ignition, and history effects-via embedded simulations at the subgrid level. The model efficiently accounts for subgrid flame structure and incorporates detailed chemistry and transport, allowing more accurate prediction of the stretch effect and the heat release. In this chapter we first review the work done in the past thirty years to develop the flame embedding concept. Next we present a formulation for the same concept that is compatible with Large Eddy Simulation in the flamelet regimes. The unsteady flame embedding approach (UFE) treats the flame as an ensemble of locally one-dimensional flames, similar to the flamelet approach. However, a set of elemental one-dimensional flames is used to describe the turbulent flame structure directly at the subgrid level. The calculations employ a one-dimensional unsteady flame model that incorporates unsteady strain rate, curvature, and mixture boundary conditions imposed by the resolved scales. The model is used for closure of the subgrid terms in the context of large eddy simulation. Direct numerical simulation (DNS) data from a flame-vortex interaction problem is used for comparison. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011.

  5. Hydrogen-enriched non-premixed jet flames : analysis of the flame surface, flame normal, flame index and Wobbe index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ranga Dinesh, K.K.J.; Jiang, X.; Oijen, van J.A.

    2014-01-01

    A non-premixed impinging jet flame is studied using three-dimensional direct numerical simulation with detailed chemical kinetics in order to investigate the influence of fuel variability on flame surface, flame normal, flame index and Wobbe index for hydrogen-enriched combustion. Analyses indicate

  6. Flame structure of methane inverse diffusion flame

    KAUST Repository

    Elbaz, Ayman M.; Roberts, William L.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents high speed images of OH-PLIF at 10. kHz simultaneously with 2D PIV (particle image velocimetry) measurements collected along the entire length of an inverse diffusion flame with circumferentially arranged methane fuel jets. For a

  7. The VISTA ZYJHKs photometric system: calibration from 2MASS

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Fernández, C.; Hodgkin, S. T.; Irwin, M. J.; González-Solares, E.; Koposov, S. E.; Lewis, J. R.; Emerson, J. P.; Hewett, P. C.; Yoldaş, A. K.; Riello, M.

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we describe the routine photometric calibration of data taken with the VISTA infrared camera (VIRCAM) instrument on the ESO Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy (VISTA) telescope. The broad-band ZYJHKs data are directly calibrated from Two Micron all Sky Survey (2MASS) point sources visible in every VISTA image. We present the empirical transformations between the 2MASS and VISTA, and Wide-Field Camera and VISTA, photometric systems for regions of low reddening. We investigate the long-term performance of VISTA+VIRCAM. An investigation of the dependence of the photometric calibration on interstellar reddening leads to these conclusions: (1) For all broad-band filters, a linear colour-dependent correction compensates the gross effects of reddening where E(B - V) < 5.0. (2) For Z and Y, there is a significantly larger scatter above E(B - V) = 5.0, and insufficient measurements to adequately constrain the relation beyond this value. (3) The JHKs filters can be corrected to a few per cent up to E(B - V) = 10.0. We analyse spatial systematics over month-long time-scales, both inter- and intradetector and show that these are present only at very low levels in VISTA. We monitor and remove residual detector-to-detector offsets. We compare the calibration of the main pipeline products: pawprints and tiles. We show how variable seeing and transparency affect the final calibration accuracy of VISTA tiles, and discuss a technique, grouting, for mitigating these effects. Comparison between repeated reference fields is used to demonstrate that the VISTA photometry is precise to better than ≃ 2 per cent for the YJHKs bands and 3 per cent for the Z bands. Finally, we present empirically determined offsets to transform VISTA magnitudes into a true Vega system.

  8. Unsteady Flame Embedding

    KAUST Repository

    El-Asrag, Hossam A.; Ghoniem, Ahmed F.

    2011-01-01

    simulation, one must introduce a dynamic subgrid model that accounts for the multiscale nature of the problem using information available on a resolvable grid. Here, we discuss a model that captures unsteady flow-flame interactions- including extinction, re

  9. Photometric Studies of GEO Debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitzer, Patrick; Cowardin, Heather M.; Barker, Edwin; Abercromby, Kira J.; Foreman, Gary; Horstman, Matt

    2009-01-01

    The photometric signature of a debris object can be useful in determining what the physical characteristics of a piece of debris are. We report on optical observations in multiple filters of debris at geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO). Our sample is taken from GEO objects discovered in a survey with the University of Michigan's 0.6-m aperture Schmidt telescope MODEST (for Michigan Orbital DEbris Survey Telescope), and then followed up in real-time with the SMARTS (Small and Medium Aperture Research Telescope System) 0.9-m at CTIO for orbits and photometry. Our goal is to determine 6 parameter orbits and measure colors for all objects fainter than R = 15 th magnitude that are discovered in the MODEST survey. At this magnitude the distribution of observed angular rates changes significantly from that of brighter objects. There are two objectives: 1. Estimate the orbital distribution of objects selected on the basis of two observational criteria: brightness (magnitude) and angular rates. 2. Obtain magnitudes and colors in standard astronomical filters (BVRI) for comparison with reflectance spectra of likely spacecraft materials. What is the faint debris likely to be? In this paper we report on the photometric results. For a sample of 50 objects, more than 90 calibrated sequences of R-B-V-I-R magnitudes have been obtained with the CTIO 0.9-m. For objects that do not show large brightness variations, the colors are largely redder than solar in both B-R and R-I. The width of the color distribution may be intrinsic to the nature of the surfaces, but also could be that we are seeing irregularly shaped objects and measuring the colors at different times with just one telescope. For a smaller sample of objects we have observed with synchronized CCD cameras on the two telescopes. The CTIO 0.9-m observes in B, and MODEST in R. The CCD cameras are electronically linked together so that the start time and duration of observations are the same to better than 50 milliseconds. Thus

  10. Flame generation of sodium chloride aerosol for filter testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, J.; Kinnear, D.I.

    1975-01-01

    A generator for sodium chloride aerosol is described, which when used in conjunction with a sensitive portable sodium flame detector unit, will permit the in-place testing of large filter installations having air throughputs up to about 80,000 m 3 /h, at penetrations down to at least 0.005 percent. (U.S.)

  11. RSO Characterization with Photometric Data Using Machine Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-18

    RSO Characterization with Photometric Data Using Machine Learning Michael Howard Charles River Analytics, Inc. Bernie Klem SASSO, Inc. Joe...and its behavior. This paper explores object characterization methods using photometric data. An important property of RSO photometric signatures is... photometric signature include geometry, orientation, material characteristics and stability. For this reason, it should be possible to recover these

  12. ASTEROID PHOTOMETRIC CATALOG V1.1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Asteroid Photometric Catalog (3rd update), Lagerkvist, et.al., 1993 [LAGERKVISTETAL1993], is a compilation of all asteroid lightcurve photometry published up to...

  13. Photometric Study of Uranian Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesten, Philip R.

    1998-01-01

    The best summary of my work at NASA is expressed in the following abstract, submitted the Division for Planetary Science of the American Astronomical Society and to be presented at the annual meeting in Madison in October. We report photometric measurements of Uranian satellites Miranda, Ariel, Umbriel and Titania (10.4 Aug. 1995), and Neptune's satellite Triton (21.2 Sept. 1995) with the infrared camera (IRCAM) and standard J (1.13 - 1.42 microns), H (1.53 - 1.81 microns), and K (2.00 - 2.41 microns) filters at the 3.8-m UKIRT telescope on Mauna Kea. The individual images frames are 256 x 256 pixels with a platescale of .286 arcsec/pixel, resulting in a 1.22 arc min field of view. This summer brought the IR photometry measurements nearly to a close. As indicated by the abstract above, I will present this work at the annual DPS meeting in October. In anticipation of the opening of the new Carl Sagan Laboratory for Cosmochemisty, of which I will be a participating member, I also devoted a considerable fraction of the summer to learning the biochemistry which underlies the experiments to be conducted. To put the end of the summary close to the beginning, it was a most productive summer.

  14. Photometric properties of Triton hazes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillier, J.; Veverka, J.

    1994-01-01

    Voyager imaging observations of Triton have been used to investigate the characteristics of the atmospheric hazes on Triton at three wavelengths: violet (0.41 micrometers), blue (0.48 micrometers), and green (0.56 micrometers). The globally averaged optical depth is wavelength dependent, varying from 0.034 in green to 0.063 in violet. These photometric results are dominated by the properties of localized discrete clouds rather than by those of the thinner, more widespread haze known to occur on Triton. The cloud particles are bright, with single-scattering albedos near unity at all three wavelengths, suggestive of a transparent icy condensate. The asymmetry parameter (+0.6) and the wavelength dependence of the optical depth both indicate cloud particles 0.2-0.4 micrometers in radius. The clouds are concentrated at 50-60 deg S latitude, where opacities up to three times the global average are observed. This is the same latitude region where most of the evidence for current surface activity is found, suggesting that the clouds may be related to the plumes or at least to some process connected with the sublimation of the south polar cap. The effects of possible temporal variations in the haze opacity are examined. Increases in the haze opacity tend to redden Triton. However, the degree of reddening is not sufficient to explain the full range of observed changed in Triton over the past decade; variations in the surface properties appear to be necessary.

  15. Photometrical Observations "SBIRS GEO-2"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhov, P. P.; Epishev, V. P.; Karpenko, G. F.; Sukhov, K. P.; Kudak, V. I.

    2015-08-01

    Photometrical observations GSS "SBIRS GEO 2" in B,V,R filters were carried near the equinoxes 2014-2015. Used velocity electrophotometer based on the FEU-79 in the pulse-counting mode. Received more than 25 light curves. From the known dimensions are defined; effective reflecting area - Sγλ, the spectral reflectance index - γλ, periods of light variation. Color-indices showed that in the reflected light flux from the GSS prevails "red" component. In the light curves are periodically dips and specular flash. This shows that GSS orbit is not in a static position specified triaxial orientation as in dynamic motion. Assumed following dynamics of the satellite "SBIRS GEO 2" in orbit. Helical scanning the Earth's surface visible infrared sensors satellite occurs with a period P1 = 15.66 sec. and swinging of the GSS about the direction of the motion vector of the satellite in an orbit with P2 = 62.64 sec., from the northern to the southern pole. Thus, during the period of swinging GSS going on 2 scan the visible part of the northern and southern hemispheres. In some dates observations dynamics work satellite in orbit changed.

  16. Strained flamelets for turbulent premixed flames II: Laboratory flame results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolla, H.; Swaminathan, N. [Department of Engineering, Cambridge University, Cambridge CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-15

    The predictive ability of strained flamelets model for turbulent premixed flames is assessed using Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) calculations of laboratory flames covering a wide range of conditions. Reactant-to-product (RtP) opposed flow laminar flames parametrised using the scalar dissipation rate of reaction progress variable are used as strained flamelets. Two turbulent flames: a rod stabilised V-flame studied by Robin et al. [Combust. Flame 153 (2008) 288-315] and a set of pilot stabilised Bunsen flames studied by Chen et al. [Combust. Flame 107 (1996) 223-244] are calculated using a single set of model parameters. The V-flame corresponds to the corrugated flamelets regime. The strained flamelet model and an unstrained flamelet model yield similar predictions which are in good agreement with experimental measurements for this flame. On the other hand, for the Bunsen flames which are in the thin reaction zones regime, the unstrained flamelet model predicts a smaller flame brush compared to experiment. The predictions of the strained flamelets model allowing for fluid-dynamics stretch induced attenuation of the chemical reaction are in good agreement with the experimental data. This model predictions of major and minor species are also in good agreement with experimental data. The results demonstrate that the strained flamelets model using the scalar dissipation rate can be used across the combustion regimes. (author)

  17. The many flavours of photometric redshifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvato, Mara; Ilbert, Olivier; Hoyle, Ben

    2018-06-01

    Since more than 70 years ago, the colours of galaxies derived from flux measurements at different wavelengths have been used to estimate their cosmological distances. Such distance measurements, called photometric redshifts, are necessary for many scientific projects, ranging from investigations of the formation and evolution of galaxies and active galactic nuclei to precision cosmology. The primary benefit of photometric redshifts is that distance estimates can be obtained relatively cheaply for all sources detected in photometric images. The drawback is that these cheap estimates have low precision compared with resource-expensive spectroscopic ones. The methodology for estimating redshifts has been through several revolutions in recent decades, triggered by increasingly stringent requirements on the photometric redshift accuracy. Here, we review the various techniques for obtaining photometric redshifts, from template-fitting to machine learning and hybrid schemes. We also describe state-of-the-art results on current extragalactic samples and explain how survey strategy choices affect redshift accuracy. We close with a description of the photometric redshift efforts planned for upcoming wide-field surveys, which will collect data on billions of galaxies, aiming to investigate, among other matters, the stellar mass assembly and the nature of dark energy.

  18. Flaming on YouTube

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moor, Peter J.; Heuvelman, A.; Verleur, R.

    2010-01-01

    In this explorative study, flaming on YouTube was studied using surveys of YouTube users. Flaming is defined as displaying hostility by insulting, swearing or using otherwise offensive language. Three general conclusions were drawn. First, although many users said that they themselves do not flame,

  19. Three-dimensional stereo by photometric ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolff, L.B.; Angelopoulou, E.

    1994-01-01

    We present a methodology for corresponding a dense set of points on an object surface from photometric values for three-dimensional stereo computation of depth. The methodology utilizes multiple stereo pairs of images, with each stereo pair being taken of the identical scene but under different illumination. With just two stereo pairs of images taken under two different illumination conditions, a stereo pair of ratio images can be produced, one for the ratio of left-hand images and one for the ratio of right-hand images. We demonstrate how the photometric ratios composing these images can be used for accurate correspondence of object points. Object points having the same photometric ratio with respect to two different illumination conditions constitute a well-defined equivalence class of physical constraints defined by local surface orientation relative to illumination conditions. We formally show that for diffuse reflection the photometric ratio is invariant to varying camera characteristics, surface albedo, and viewpoint and that therefore the same photometric ratio in both images of a stereo pair implies the same equivalence class of physical constraints. The correspondence of photometric ratios along epipolar lines in a stereo pair of images under different illumination conditions is a correspondence of equivalent physical constraints, and the determination of depth from stereo can be performed. Whereas illumination planning is required, our photometric-based stereo methodology does not require knowledge of illumination conditions in the actual computation of three-dimensional depth and is applicable to perspective views. This technique extends the stereo determination of three-dimensional depth to smooth featureless surfaces without the use of precisely calibrated lighting. We demonstrate experimental depth maps from a dense set of points on smooth objects of known ground-truth shape, determined to within 1% depth accuracy

  20. Stratified turbulent Bunsen flames : flame surface analysis and flame surface density modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramaekers, W.J.S.; Oijen, van J.A.; Goey, de L.P.H.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper it is investigated whether the Flame Surface Density (FSD) model, developed for turbulent premixed combustion, is also applicable to stratified flames. Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) of turbulent stratified Bunsen flames have been carried out, using the Flamelet Generated Manifold

  1. The effect of photometric and geometric context on photometric and geometric lightness effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Thomas Y; Brainard, David H

    2014-01-24

    We measured the lightness of probe tabs embedded at different orientations in various contextual images presented on a computer-controlled stereo display. Two background context planes met along a horizontal roof-like ridge. Each plane was a graphic rendering of a set of achromatic surfaces with the simulated illumination for each plane controlled independently. Photometric context was varied by changing the difference in simulated illumination intensity between the two background planes. Geometric context was varied by changing the angle between them. We parsed the data into separate photometric effects and geometric effects. For fixed geometry, varying photometric context led to linear changes in both the photometric and geometric effects. Varying geometric context did not produce a statistically reliable change in either the photometric or geometric effects.

  2. Direct Flame Impingement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2005-09-01

    During the DFI process, high velocity flame jets impinge upon the material being heated, creating a high heat transfer rate. As a result, refractory walls and exhaust gases are cooler, which increases thermal efficiency and lowers NOx emissions. Because the jet nozzles are located a few inches from the load, furnace size can be reduced significantly.

  3. Spectral classification by the near infrared photometric parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tignanelli, H.L.; Feinstein, A.

    1985-01-01

    From the analysis of the measurements of KM-type stars done in the near infrared (1 to 3.5 microns: the JHKL bands of Johnsons's system), with an 83 cm reflector and a PbS detector at La Plata Observatory, we try to establish a new photometric classification system that discriminates luminosity class by means of certain parameters defined by infrared colours and infrared magnitudes. Data compiled and homogenized by J.Koornneef of southern bright stars in those bands were also included. The results give us information about the spectral types and reddening of those stars. We also indicate how to calculate the radiation excess that those stars could have. (author)

  4. Flame visualization in power stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hulshof, H J.M.; Thus, A W; Verhage, A J.L. [KEMA - Fossil Power Plants, Arnhem (Netherlands)

    1993-01-01

    The shapes and temperature of flames in power stations, fired with powder coal and gas, have been measured optically. Spectral information in the visible and near infrared is used. Coal flames are visualized in the blue part of the spectrum, natural gas flames are viewed in the light of CH-emission. Temperatures of flames are derived from the best fit of the Planck-curve to the thermal radiation spectrum of coal and char, or to that of soot in the case of gas flames. A measuring method for the velocity distribution inside a gas flame is presented, employing pulsed alkali salt injection. It has been tested on a 100 kW natural gas flame. 3 refs., 9 figs.

  5. Defining photometric peculiar type Ia supernovae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    González-Gaitán, S.; Pignata, G.; Förster, F.; Gutiérrez, C. P.; Bufano, F.; Galbany, L.; Hamuy, M.; De Jaeger, T. [Millennium Institute of Astrophysics, Casilla 36-D, Santiago (Chile); Hsiao, E. Y.; Phillips, M. M. [Carnegie Observatories, Las Campanas Observatory, Casilla 601, La Serena (Chile); Folatelli, G. [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, the University of Tokyo, Kashiwa 277-8583 (Kavli IPMU, WPI) (Japan); Anderson, J. P., E-mail: sgonzale@das.uchile.cl [European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Córdova 3107, Casilla 19, Santiago (Chile)

    2014-11-10

    We present a new photometric identification technique for SN 1991bg-like type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia), i.e., objects with light curve characteristics such as later primary maxima and the absence of a secondary peak in redder filters. This method is capable of selecting this sub-group from the normal type Ia population. Furthermore, we find that recently identified peculiar sub-types such as SNe Iax and super-Chandrasekhar SNe Ia have photometric characteristics similar to 91bg-like SNe Ia, namely, the absence of secondary maxima and shoulders at longer wavelengths, and can also be classified with our technique. The similarity of these different SN Ia sub-groups perhaps suggests common physical conditions. This typing methodology permits the photometric identification of peculiar SNe Ia in large upcoming wide-field surveys either to study them further or to obtain a pure sample of normal SNe Ia for cosmological studies.

  6. Photometric diversity of terrains on Triton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillier, J.; Veverka, J.; Helfenstein, P.; Lee, P.

    1994-01-01

    Voyager disk-resolved images of Triton in the violet (0.41 micrometers) and green (0.56 micrometer wavelengths have been analyzed to derive the photometric characteristics of terrains on Triton. Similar conclusions are found using two distinct but related definitions of photometric units, one based on color ratio and albedo properties (A. S. McEwen, 1990), the other on albedo and brightness ratios at different phase angles (P. Lee et al., 1992). A significant diversity of photometric behavior, much broader than that discovered so far on any other icy satellite, occurs among Triton's terrains. Remarkably, differences in photometric behavior do not correlate well with geologic terrain boundaries defined on the basis of surface morphology. This suggests that in most cases photometric properties on Triton are controlled by thin deposits superposed on underlying geologic units. Single scattering albedos are 0.98 or higher and asymmetry factors range from -0.35 to -0.45 for most units. The most distinct scattering behavior is exhibited by the reddish northern units already identified as the Anomalously Scattering Region (ASR), which scatters light almost isotropically with g = -0.04. In part due to the effects of Triton's clouds and haze, it is difficult to constrain the value of bar-theta, Hapke's macroscopic roughness parameter, precisely for Triton or to map differences in bar-theta among the different photometric terrains. However, our study shows that Triton must be relatively smooth, with bar-theta less than 15-20 degs and suggests that a value of 14 degs is appropriate. The differences in photometric characteristics lead to significantly different phase angle behavior for the various terrains. For example, a terrain (e.g., the ASR) that appears dark relative to another at low phase angles will reverse its contrast (become relatively brighter) at larger phase angles. The photometric parameters have been used to calculate hemispherical albedos for the units and to

  7. V 463 Cyg: revised photometric elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giuricin, G.; Mardirossian, F.; Ferluga, S.

    1982-01-01

    Using Wood's (1972) model we have re-analyzed Vetesnik's (1968) two-colour photoelectric light curves of eclipsing binary V 463 Cyg. Our photometric solutions which confirm the presence of a large amount of third light do not greatly differ from previous results. The eclipsing pair appears to be composed of an A 0 primary attended by a somewhat smaller (around G 5) companion. In view of the large ratio of the radii this component cannot be in the main sequence. It seems to be more advanced in the evolution than the primary, like common secondaries of Algols, and it appears to fill its Roche lobe for our photometric mass ratio. (author)

  8. Multisensor analyzer detector (MSAD) for low cost chemical and aerosol detection and pattern fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, David C.; Merdes, Daniel W.; Lysak, Daniel B., Jr.; Curtis, Richard C.; Lang, Derek C.; Mazzara, Andrew F.; Nicholas, Nicholas C.

    2002-08-01

    MSAD is being developed as a low-cost point detection chemical and biological sensor system designed around an information fusion inference engine that also allows additional sensors to be included in the detection process. The MSAD concept is based on probable cause detection of hazardous chemical vapors and aerosols of either chemical or biological composition using a small portable unit containing an embedded computer system and several integrated sensors with complementary capabilities. The configuration currently envisioned includes a Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) sensor of chemical vapors and a detector of respirable aerosols based on Fraunhofer diffraction. Additional sensors employing Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS), Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) detection, Flame Photometric Detection (FPD), and other principles are candidates for integration into the device; also, available commercial detectors implementing IMS, SAW, and FPD will be made accessible to the unit through RS232 ports. Both feature and decision level information fusion is supported using a Continuous Inference Network (CINET) of fuzzy logic. Each class of agents has a unique CINET with information inputs from a number of available sensors. Missing or low confidence sensor information is gracefully blended out of the output confidence for the particular agent. This approach constitutes a plug and play arrangement between the sensors and the information pattern recognition algorithms. We are currently doing simulant testing and developing out CINETs for actual agent testing at Edgewood Chemical and Biological Center (ECBC) later this year.

  9. Antimony: a flame fighter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintzer, Niki E.; Guberman, David E.

    2015-01-01

    Antimony is a brittle, silvery-white semimetal that conducts heat poorly. The chemical compound antimony trioxide (Sb2O3) is widely used in plastics, rubbers, paints, and textiles, including industrial safety suits and some children’s clothing, to make them resistant to the spread of flames. Also, sodium antimonate (NaSbO3) is used during manufacturing of high-quality glass, which is found in cellular phones.

  10. On the realistic validation of photometric redshifts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck, R.; Lin, C. A.; Ishida, E. E.O.

    2017-01-01

    test of photo-z methods. Using photometry from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and spectroscopy from a collection of sources, we constructed data sets that mimic the biases between the underlying probability distribution of the real spectroscopic and photometric sample. We demonstrate the potential...

  11. Photometric properties of Mars soils analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pommerol, A.; Thomas, N.; Jost, B.; Beck, P.; Okubo, C.; McEwen, A.S.

    2013-01-01

    We have measured the bidirectional reflectance of analogs of dry, wet, and frozen Martian soils over a wide range of phase angles in the visible spectral range. All samples were produced from two geologic samples: the standard JSC Mars-1 soil simulant and Hawaiian basaltic sand. In a first step, experiments were conducted with the dry samples to investigate the effects of surface texture. Comparisons with results independently obtained by different teams with similar samples showed a satisfying reproducibility of the photometric measurements as well as a noticeable influence of surface textures resulting from different sample preparation procedures. In a second step, water was introduced to produce wet and frozen samples and their photometry investigated. Optical microscope images of the samples provided information about their microtexture. Liquid water, even in relatively low amount, resulted in the disappearance of the backscattering peak and the appearance of a forward-scattering peak whose intensity increases with the amount of water. Specular reflections only appeared when water was present in an amount large enough to allow water to form a film at the surface of the sample. Icy samples showed a wide variability of photometric properties depending on the physical properties of the water ice. We discuss the implications of these measurements in terms of the expected photometric behavior of the Martian surface, from equatorial to circum-polar regions. In particular, we propose some simple photometric criteria to improve the identification of wet and/or icy soils from multiple observations under different geometries.

  12. Interstellar Extinction in the Gaia Photometric Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bridžius A.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Three medium-band photometric systems proposed for the Gaia space mission are intercompared in determining color excesses for stars of spectral classes from O to M at V = 18 mag. A possibility of obtaining a three-dimensional map of the interstellar extinction is discussed.

  13. Photometric study of uranyl-terramycin complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sankara Reddy, P B [Government Coll., Cuddapah, Andhra Pradesh (India). Dept. of Chemistry; Reddy, A V.R.; Brahmaji Rao, S [SVU Autonomous Post-Graduate Centre, Anantapur (India). Dept. of Chemistry

    1980-04-01

    The spectrophotometric investigation of uranylterramycin complex in solution has been studied photometrically at pH 1.3. The composition of the complex is established by Job's and Slope ratio methods as 1:1. The stability constant calculated from the data obtained in Job's method is 1.9 x 10/sup 3/. Beer's law is obeyed.

  14. Imaging live humans through smoke and flames using far-infrared digital holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locatelli, M; Pugliese, E; Paturzo, M; Bianco, V; Finizio, A; Pelagotti, A; Poggi, P; Miccio, L; Meucci, R; Ferraro, P

    2013-03-11

    The ability to see behind flames is a key challenge for the industrial field and particularly for the safety field. Development of new technologies to detect live people through smoke and flames in fire scenes is an extremely desirable goal since it can save human lives. The latest technologies, including equipment adopted by fire departments, use infrared bolometers for infrared digital cameras that allow users to see through smoke. However, such detectors are blinded by flame-emitted radiation. Here we show a completely different approach that makes use of lensless digital holography technology in the infrared range for successful imaging through smoke and flames. Notably, we demonstrate that digital holography with a cw laser allows the recording of dynamic human-size targets. In this work, easy detection of live, moving people is achieved through both smoke and flames, thus demonstrating the capability of digital holography at 10.6 μm.

  15. Subwoofer and nanotube butterfly acoustic flame extinction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aliev, Ali E.; Mayo, Nathanael K.; Baughman, Ray H.; Mills, Brent T.; Habtour, Ed

    2017-01-01

    Nonchemical flame control using acoustic waves from a subwoofer and a lightweight carbon nanotube thermoacoustic projector was demonstrated. The intent was to manipulate flame intensity, direction and propagation. The mechanisms of flame suppression using low frequency acoustic waves were discussed.

  16. Photometric Variability of the Be Star Population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labadie-Bartz, Jonathan; Pepper, Joshua; McSwain, M. Virginia [Department of Physics, Lehigh University, 16 Memorial Drive East, Bethlehem, PA 18015 (United States); Bjorkman, J. E.; Bjorkman, K. S. [Ritter Observatory, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, 2801 W. Bancroft, Toledo, OH 43606-3390 (United States); Lund, Michael B.; Rodriguez, Joseph E.; Stassun, Keivan G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Stevens, Daniel J. [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 W. 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); James, David J. [Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, Casilla 603 La Serena (Chile); Kuhn, Rudolf B. [Southern African Large Telescope, P.O. Box 9, Observatory 7935, Cape Town (South Africa); Siverd, Robert J. [Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, 6740 Cortona Drive, Suite 102, Santa Barbara, CA 93117 (United States); Beatty, Thomas G. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Be stars have generally been characterized by the emission lines in their spectra, and especially the time variability of those spectroscopic features. They are known to also exhibit photometric variability at multiple timescales, but have not been broadly compared and analyzed by that behavior. We have taken advantage of the advent of wide-field, long-baseline, and high-cadence photometric surveys that search for transiting exoplanets to perform a comprehensive analysis of brightness variations among a large number of known Be stars. The photometric data comes from the KELT transit survey, with a typical cadence of 30 minutes, a baseline of up to 10 years, photometric precision of about 1%, and coverage of about 60% of the sky. We analyze KELT light curves of 610 known Be stars in both the northern and southern hemispheres in an effort to study their variability. Consistent with other studies of Be star variability, we find most of the stars to be photometrically variable. We derive lower limits on the fraction of stars in our sample that exhibit features consistent with non-radial pulsations (25%), outbursts (36%), and long-term trends in the circumstellar disk (37%), and show how these are correlated with spectral sub-types. Other types of variability, such as those owing to binarity, are also explored. Simultaneous spectroscopy for some of these systems from the Be Star Spectra database allow us to better understand the physical causes for the observed variability, especially in cases of outbursts and changes in the disk.

  17. Photometric Variability of the Be Star Population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labadie-Bartz, Jonathan; Pepper, Joshua; McSwain, M. Virginia; Bjorkman, J. E.; Bjorkman, K. S.; Lund, Michael B.; Rodriguez, Joseph E.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Stevens, Daniel J.; James, David J.; Kuhn, Rudolf B.; Siverd, Robert J.; Beatty, Thomas G.

    2017-01-01

    Be stars have generally been characterized by the emission lines in their spectra, and especially the time variability of those spectroscopic features. They are known to also exhibit photometric variability at multiple timescales, but have not been broadly compared and analyzed by that behavior. We have taken advantage of the advent of wide-field, long-baseline, and high-cadence photometric surveys that search for transiting exoplanets to perform a comprehensive analysis of brightness variations among a large number of known Be stars. The photometric data comes from the KELT transit survey, with a typical cadence of 30 minutes, a baseline of up to 10 years, photometric precision of about 1%, and coverage of about 60% of the sky. We analyze KELT light curves of 610 known Be stars in both the northern and southern hemispheres in an effort to study their variability. Consistent with other studies of Be star variability, we find most of the stars to be photometrically variable. We derive lower limits on the fraction of stars in our sample that exhibit features consistent with non-radial pulsations (25%), outbursts (36%), and long-term trends in the circumstellar disk (37%), and show how these are correlated with spectral sub-types. Other types of variability, such as those owing to binarity, are also explored. Simultaneous spectroscopy for some of these systems from the Be Star Spectra database allow us to better understand the physical causes for the observed variability, especially in cases of outbursts and changes in the disk.

  18. On the theory of turbulent flame velocity

    OpenAIRE

    Bychkov, Vitaly; Akkerman, Vyacheslav; Petchenko, Arkady

    2012-01-01

    The renormalization ideas of self-similar dynamics of a strongly turbulent flame front are applied to the case of a flame with realistically large thermal expansion of the burning matter. In that case a flame front is corrugated both by external turbulence and the intrinsic flame instability. The analytical formulas for the velocity of flame propagation are obtained. It is demonstrated that the flame instability is of principal importance when the integral turbulent length scale is much large...

  19. Investigation of a flame holder geometry effect on flame structure in non-premixed combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashemi, S. A.; Hajialigol, N.; Fattahi, A.; Heydari, R.; Mazaheri, K.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the effect of flame holder geometry on flame structure is studied. The obtained numerical results using realizable k-ε and β-PDF models show a good agreement with experimental data. The results show that increasing in flame holder length decreases flame length and increases flame temperature. Additionally, it is observed that flame lengths decrease by increasing in flame holder radius and increase for larger radii. Furthermore in various radii, the flame temperature is higher for smaller flame lengths. It was found that behavior of flame structure is mainly affected by the mass flow rate of hot gases that come near the reactant by the recirculation zone.

  20. Investigation of a flame holder geometry effect on flame structure in non-premixed combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashemi, S. A.; Hajialigol, N.; Fattahi, A.; Heydari, R. [University of Kashan, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mazaheri, K. [University of Tarbiat Moddares, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-11-15

    In this paper the effect of flame holder geometry on flame structure is studied. The obtained numerical results using realizable k-ε and β-PDF models show a good agreement with experimental data. The results show that increasing in flame holder length decreases flame length and increases flame temperature. Additionally, it is observed that flame lengths decrease by increasing in flame holder radius and increase for larger radii. Furthermore in various radii, the flame temperature is higher for smaller flame lengths. It was found that behavior of flame structure is mainly affected by the mass flow rate of hot gases that come near the reactant by the recirculation zone.

  1. Polydisperse effects in jet spray flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Noam; Greenberg, J. Barry

    2018-01-01

    A laminar jet polydisperse spray diffusion flame is analysed mathematically for the first time using an extension of classical similarity solutions for gaseous jet flames. The analysis enables a comparison to be drawn between conditions for flame stability or flame blow-out for purely gaseous flames and for spray flames. It is found that, in contrast to the Schmidt number criteria relevant to gas flames, droplet size and initial spray polydispersity play a critical role in determining potential flame scenarios. Some qualitative agreement for lift-off height is found when comparing predictions of the theory and sparse independent experimental evidence from the literature.

  2. Standard Practice for Calculation of Photometric Transmittance and Reflectance of Materials to Solar Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1988-01-01

    1.1 This practice describes the calculation of luminous (photometric) transmittance and reflectance of materials from spectral radiant transmittance and reflectance data obtained from Test Method E 903. 1.2 Determination of luminous transmittance by this practice is preferred over measurement of photometric transmittance by methods using the sun as a source and a photometer as detector except for transmitting sheet materials that are inhomogeneous, patterned, or corrugated. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  3. Dynamics and structure of stretched flames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Law, C.K. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

    1993-12-01

    This program aims to gain fundamental understanding on the structure, geometry, and dynamics of laminar premixed flames, and relate these understanding to the practical issues of flame extinction and stabilization. The underlying fundamental interest here is the recent recognition that the response of premixed flames can be profoundly affected by flame stretch, as manifested by flow nonuniformity, flame curvature, and flame/flow unsteadiness. As such, many of the existing understanding on the behavior of premixed flames need to be qualitatively revised. The research program consists of three major thrusts: (1) detailed experimental and computational mapping of the structure of aerodynamically-strained planar flames, with emphasis on the effects of heat loss, nonequidiffusion, and finite residence time on the flame thickness, extent of incomplete reaction, and the state of extinction. (2) Analytical study of the geometry and dynamics of stretch-affected wrinkled flame sheets in simple configurations, as exemplified by the Bunsen flame and the spatially-periodic flame, with emphasis on the effects of nonlinear stretch, the phenomena of flame cusping, smoothing, and tip opening, and their implications on the structure and burning rate of turbulent flames. (3) Stabilization and blowoff of two-dimensional inverted premixed and stabilization and determining the criteria governing flame blowoff. The research is synergistically conducted through the use of laser-based diagnostics, computational simulation of the flame structure with detailed chemistry and transport, and mathematical analysis of the flame dynamics.

  4. Application of photometric models to asteroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowell, E.; Dominque, D.; Hapke, B.

    1989-01-01

    The way an asteroid or other atmosphereless solar system body varies in brightness in response to changing illumination and viewing geometry depends in a very complicated way on the physical and optical properties of its surface and on its overall shape. The authors summarize the formulation and application of recent photometric models by Hapke and by Lumme and Bowell. In both models, the brightness of a rough and porous surface is parametrized in terms of the optical properties of individual particles, by shadowing between particles, and by the way in which light scattered among collections of particles. Both models succeed in their goal of fitting the observed photometric behavior of a wide variety of bodies, but neither has led to a very complete understanding of the properties of asteroid regoliths, primarily because in most cases the parameters in the present models cannot be adequately constrained by observations of integral brightness alone over a restricted range of phase angles

  5. Stellar physics with the ALHAMBRA photometric system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villegas, T Aparicio; Alfaro, E J; Moles, M; Benítez, N; Perea, J; Olmo, A del; Cristóbal-Hornillos, D; Cervio, M; Delgado, R M González; Márquez, I; Masegosa, J; Prada, F; Cabrera-Caño, J; Fernández-Soto, A; Aguerri, J A L; Cepa, J; Broadhurst, T; Castander, F J; Infante, L; Martínez, V J

    2011-01-01

    The ALHAMBRA photometric system was specifically designed to perform a tomography of the Universe in some selected areas. Although mainly designed for extragalactic purposes, its 20 contiguous, equal-width, medium-band photometric system in the optical wavelength range, shows a great capacity for stellar classification. In this contribution we propose a methodology for stellar classification and physical parameter estimation (T eff , log g, [Fe/H], and color excess E(B – V)) based on 18 independent reddening-free Q-values from the ALHAMBRA photometry. Based on the theoretical Spectral library BaSeL 2.2, and applied to 288 stars from the Next Generation spectral Library (NGSL), we discuss the reliability of the method and its dependence on the extinction law used.

  6. Photometric Characterization of the Dark Energy Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, G. M.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Armstrong, R.; Burke, D. L.; Diehl, H. T.; Gruendl, R. A.; Johnson, M. D.; Li, T. S.; Rykoff, E. S.; Walker, A. R.; Wester, W.; Yanny, B.

    2018-05-01

    We characterize the variation in photometric response of the Dark Energy Camera (DECam) across its 520 Mpix science array during 4 years of operation. These variations are measured using high signal-to-noise aperture photometry of >107 stellar images in thousands of exposures of a few selected fields, with the telescope dithered to move the sources around the array. A calibration procedure based on these results brings the rms variation in aperture magnitudes of bright stars on cloudless nights down to 2–3 mmag, with color corrections; and the use of an aperture-correction proxy. The DECam response pattern across the 2° field drifts over months by up to ±9 mmag, in a nearly wavelength-independent low-order pattern. We find no fundamental barriers to pushing global photometric calibrations toward mmag accuracy.

  7. Uncertain Photometric Redshifts with Deep Learning Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Isanto, A.

    2017-06-01

    The need for accurate photometric redshifts estimation is a topic that has fundamental importance in Astronomy, due to the necessity of efficiently obtaining redshift information without the need of spectroscopic analysis. We propose a method for determining accurate multi-modal photo-z probability density functions (PDFs) using Mixture Density Networks (MDN) and Deep Convolutional Networks (DCN). A comparison with a Random Forest (RF) is performed.

  8. A Method for the Analysis of Tabun in Multisol Using Gas Chromatographic Flame Photometric Detection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Logan, Thomas P; Allen, Edward D; Way, Mark R; Swift, Austin T; Soni, Sunil-Datta

    2006-01-01

    ...) standards and GA in Multisol samples at 1% (v/v). Furthermore, the dilutions with CH3CN made the phosphorus mode interference peak present in CHC13 analytically manageable, reduced the interferences of Multisol in the GC...

  9. Procedure for altitude compensation for a flame-photometric sulfur analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hales, J.M.; Easter, R.C.; Lee, R.N.

    1979-01-01

    A calibration scheme, which applies to the Meloy-285 sulfur analyzer, is described. This scheme allows reliable instrument calibration, which automatically compensates for variations in instrument response with altitude

  10. Photometric Defocus Observations of Transiting Extrasolar Planets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias C. Hinse

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We have carried out photometric follow-up observations of bright transiting extrasolar planets using the CbNUOJ 0.6 m telescope. We have tested the possibility of obtaining high photometric precision by applying the telescope defocus technique, allowing the use of several hundred seconds in exposure time for a single measurement. We demonstrate that this technique is capable of obtaining a root-mean-square scatter of sub-millimagnitude order over several hours for a V ~10 host star, typical for transiting planets detected from ground-based survey facilities. We compared our results with transit observations from a telescope operated in in-focus mode. High photometric precision was obtained due to the collection of a larger amount of photons, resulting in a higher signal compared to other random and systematic noise sources. Accurate telescope tracking is likely to further contribute to lowering systematic noise by exposing the same pixels on the CCD. Furthermore, a longer exposure time helps reduce the effect of scintillation noise which otherwise has a significant effect for small-aperture telescopes operated in in-focus mode. Finally we present the results of modelling four light-curves in which a root-mean-square scatter of 0.70 to 2.3 milli-magnitudes was achieved.

  11. Can Selforganizing Maps Accurately Predict Photometric Redshifts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Way, Michael J.; Klose, Christian

    2012-01-01

    We present an unsupervised machine-learning approach that can be employed for estimating photometric redshifts. The proposed method is based on a vector quantization called the self-organizing-map (SOM) approach. A variety of photometrically derived input values were utilized from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey's main galaxy sample, luminous red galaxy, and quasar samples, along with the PHAT0 data set from the Photo-z Accuracy Testing project. Regression results obtained with this new approach were evaluated in terms of root-mean-square error (RMSE) to estimate the accuracy of the photometric redshift estimates. The results demonstrate competitive RMSE and outlier percentages when compared with several other popular approaches, such as artificial neural networks and Gaussian process regression. SOM RMSE results (using delta(z) = z(sub phot) - z(sub spec)) are 0.023 for the main galaxy sample, 0.027 for the luminous red galaxy sample, 0.418 for quasars, and 0.022 for PHAT0 synthetic data. The results demonstrate that there are nonunique solutions for estimating SOM RMSEs. Further research is needed in order to find more robust estimation techniques using SOMs, but the results herein are a positive indication of their capabilities when compared with other well-known methods

  12. Radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This sixth chapter presents the operational principles of the radiation detectors; detection using photographic emulsions; thermoluminescent detectors; gas detectors; scintillation detectors; liquid scintillation detectors; detectors using semiconductor materials; calibration of detectors; Bragg-Gray theory; measurement chain and uncertainties associated to measurements

  13. Mechanistic aspects of ionic reactions in flames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egsgaard, H.; Carlsen, L.

    1993-01-01

    Some fundamentals of the ion chemistry of flames are summarized. Mechanistic aspects of ionic reactions in flames have been studied using a VG PlasmaQuad, the ICP-system being substituted by a simple quartz burner. Simple hydrocarbon flames as well as sulfur-containing flames have been investigated...

  14. DES Science Portal: Computing Photometric Redshifts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gschwend, Julia [LIneA, Rio de Janeiro

    2016-01-01

    An important challenge facing photometric surveys for cosmological purposes, such as the Dark Energy Survey (DES), is the need to produce reliable photometric redshifts (photo-z). The choice of adequate algorithms and configurations and the maintenance of an up-to-date spectroscopic database to build training sets, for example, are challenging tasks when dealing with large amounts of data that are regularly updated and constantly growing. In this paper, we present the first of a series of tools developed by DES, provided as part of the DES Science Portal, an integrated web-based data portal developed to facilitate the scientific analysis of the data, while ensuring the reproducibility of the analysis. We present the DES Science Portal photometric redshift tools, starting from the creation of a spectroscopic sample to training the neural network photo-z codes, to the final estimation of photo-zs for a large photometric catalog. We illustrate this operation by calculating well calibrated photo-zs for a galaxy sample extracted from the DES first year (Y1A1) data. The series of processes mentioned above is run entirely within the Portal environment, which automatically produces validation metrics, and maintains the provenance between the different steps. This system allows us to fine tune the many steps involved in the process of calculating photo-zs, making sure that we do not lose the information on the configurations and inputs of the previous processes. By matching the DES Y1A1 photometry to a spectroscopic sample, we define different training sets that we use to feed the photo-z algorithms already installed at the Portal. Finally, we validate the results under several conditions, including the case of a sample limited to i<22.5 with the color properties close to the full DES Y1A1 photometric data. This way we compare the performance of multiple methods and training configurations. The infrastructure presented here is an effcient way to test several methods of

  15. Role of the outer-edge flame on flame extinction in nitrogen-diluted non-premixed counterflow flames with finite burner diameters

    KAUST Repository

    Chung, Yong Ho; Park, Daegeun; Park, Jeong; Kwon, Oh Boong; Yun, Jin Han; Keel, Sang In

    2013-01-01

    This study of nitrogen-diluted non-premixed counterflow flames with finite burner diameters investigates the important role of the outer-edge flame on flame extinction through experimental and numerical analyses. It explores flame stability diagrams

  16. Flame spraying of polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varacalle, D.J. Jr.; Zeek, D.P.; Couch, K.W.; Benson, D.M.; Kirk, S.M.

    1997-01-01

    Statistical design-of-experiment studies of the thermal spraying of polymer powders are presented. Studies of the subsonic combustion (i.e., Flame) process were conducted in order to determine the quality and economics of polyester and urethane coatings. Thermally sprayed polymer coatings are of interest to several industries for anticorrosion applications, including the chemical, automotive, and aircraft industries. In this study, the coating design has been optimized for a site-specific application using Taguchi-type fractional-factorial experiments. Optimized coating designs are presented for the two powder systems. A substantial range of thermal processing conditions and their effect on the resultant polymer coatings is presented. The coatings were characterized by optical metallography, hardness testing, tensile testing, and compositional analysis. Characterization of the coatings yielded the thickness, bond strength, Knoop microhardness, roughness, deposition efficiency, and porosity. Confirmation testing was accomplished to verify the coating designs

  17. Physical and Chemical Processes in Turbulent Flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-23

    equiangular sectors, defined as the ratio of the actual flame length to the length of a circular-arc of radius equal to the average flame radius. Assuming... flame length ratio obtained directly from the experiments, without any assumption. As explained earlier (Eq. 2.8) the length ratio, (LR=dl(G0)/dl0) is...spherically expanding flames, with the length ratio on the measurement plane, at predefined equiangular sectors, defined as the ratio of the actual flame length to

  18. Nanoparticle filtration performance of NIOSH-certified particulate air-purifying filtering facepiece respirators: evaluation by light scattering photometric and particle number-based test methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rengasamy, Samy; Eimer, Benjamin C

    2012-01-01

    National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) certification test methods employ charge neutralized NaCl or dioctyl phthalate (DOP) aerosols to measure filter penetration levels of air-purifying particulate respirators photometrically using a TSI 8130 automated filter tester at 85 L/min. A previous study in our laboratory found that widely different filter penetration levels were measured for nanoparticles depending on whether a particle number (count)-based detector or a photometric detector was used. The purpose of this study was to better understand the influence of key test parameters, including filter media type, challenge aerosol size range, and detector system. Initial penetration levels for 17 models of NIOSH-approved N-, R-, and P-series filtering facepiece respirators were measured using the TSI 8130 photometric method and compared with the particle number-based penetration (obtained using two ultrafine condensation particle counters) for the same challenge aerosols generated by the TSI 8130. In general, the penetration obtained by the photometric method was less than the penetration obtained with the number-based method. Filter penetration was also measured for ambient room aerosols. Penetration measured by the TSI 8130 photometric method was lower than the number-based ambient aerosol penetration values. Number-based monodisperse NaCl aerosol penetration measurements showed that the most penetrating particle size was in the 50 nm range for all respirator models tested, with the exception of one model at ~200 nm size. Respirator models containing electrostatic filter media also showed lower penetration values with the TSI 8130 photometric method than the number-based penetration obtained for the most penetrating monodisperse particles. Results suggest that to provide a more challenging respirator filter test method than what is currently used for respirators containing electrostatic media, the test method should utilize a sufficient number

  19. Statistical learning modeling method for space debris photometric measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wenjing; Sun, Jinqiu; Zhang, Yanning; Li, Haisen

    2016-03-01

    Photometric measurement is an important way to identify the space debris, but the present methods of photometric measurement have many constraints on star image and need complex image processing. Aiming at the problems, a statistical learning modeling method for space debris photometric measurement is proposed based on the global consistency of the star image, and the statistical information of star images is used to eliminate the measurement noises. First, the known stars on the star image are divided into training stars and testing stars. Then, the training stars are selected as the least squares fitting parameters to construct the photometric measurement model, and the testing stars are used to calculate the measurement accuracy of the photometric measurement model. Experimental results show that, the accuracy of the proposed photometric measurement model is about 0.1 magnitudes.

  20. Neurotoxicity of brominated flame retardants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been commonly used as commercial flame retardants in a variety of products including plastics and textiles. Despite their decreasing usage worldwide, congeners continue to accumulate in the environment, including soil, dust, food, anima...

  1. Extinction of laminar partially premixed flames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aggarwal, Suresh K. [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, 842 W. Taylor Street, Room 2039, MC-251, Chicago, IL 60607-7022 (United States)

    2009-12-15

    Flame extinction represents one of the classical phenomena in combustion science. It is important to a variety of combustion systems in transportation and power generation applications. Flame extinguishment studies are also motivated from the consideration of fire safety and suppression. Such studies have generally considered non-premixed and premixed flames, although fires can often originate in a partially premixed mode, i.e., fuel and oxidizer are partially premixed as they are transported to the reaction zone. Several recent investigations have considered this scenario and focused on the extinction of partially premixed flames (PPFs). Such flames have been described as hybrid flames possessing characteristics of both premixed and non-premixed flames. This paper provides a review of studies dealing with the extinction of PPFs, which represent a broad family of flames, including double, triple (tribrachial), and edge flames. Theoretical, numerical and experimental studies dealing with the extinction of such flames in coflow and counterflow configurations are discussed. Since these flames contain both premixed and non-premixed burning zones, a brief review of the dilution-induced extinction of premixed and non-premixed flames is also provided. For the coflow configuration, processes associated with flame liftoff and blowout are described. Since lifted non-premixed jet flames often contain a partially premixed or an edge-flame structure prior to blowout, the review also considers such flames. While the perspective of this review is broad focusing on the fundamental aspects of flame extinction and blowout, results mostly consider flame extinction caused by the addition of a flame suppressant, with relevance to fire suppression on earth and in space environment. With respect to the latter, the effect of gravity on the extinction of PPFs is discussed. Future research needs are identified. (author)

  2. Edge flame instability in low-strain-rate counterflow diffusion flames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, June Sung; Hwang, Dong Jin; Park, Jeong; Kim, Jeong Soo; Kim, Sungcho [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Sunchon National University, 315 Maegok-dong, Suncheon, Jeonnam 540-742 (Korea, Republic of); Keel, Sang In [Environment & amp; Energy Research Division, Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, P.O. Box 101, Yusung-gu, Taejon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae Kwon [School of Mechanical & amp; Automotive Engineering, Keimyung University, 1000 Sindang-dong, Dalseo-gu, Daegu 704-701 (Korea, Republic of); Noh, Dong Soon [Energy System Research Department, Korea Institute of Energy Research, 71-2 Jang-dong, Yusung-gu, Taejon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-09-15

    Experiments in low-strain-rate methane-air counterflow diffusion flames diluted with nitrogen have been conducted to study flame extinction behavior and edge flame oscillation in which flame length is less than the burner diameter and thus lateral conductive heat loss, in addition to radiative loss, could be high at low global strain rates. The critical mole fraction at flame extinction is examined in terms of velocity ratio and global strain rate. Onset conditions of the edge flame oscillation and the relevant modes are also provided with global strain rate and nitrogen mole fraction in the fuel stream or in terms of fuel Lewis number. It is observed that flame length is intimately relevant to lateral heat loss, and this affects flame extinction and edge flame oscillation considerably. Lateral heat loss causes flame oscillation even at fuel Lewis number less than unity. Edge flame oscillations, which result from the advancing and retreating edge flame motion of the outer flame edge of low-strain-rate flames, are categorized into three modes: a growing, a decaying, and a harmonic-oscillation mode. A flame stability map based on the flame oscillation modes is also provided for low-strain-rate flames. The important contribution of lateral heat loss even to edge flame oscillation is clarified finally. (author)

  3. Flame analysis using image processing techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Her Jie, Albert Chang; Zamli, Ahmad Faizal Ahmad; Zulazlan Shah Zulkifli, Ahmad; Yee, Joanne Lim Mun; Lim, Mooktzeng

    2018-04-01

    This paper presents image processing techniques with the use of fuzzy logic and neural network approach to perform flame analysis. Flame diagnostic is important in the industry to extract relevant information from flame images. Experiment test is carried out in a model industrial burner with different flow rates. Flame features such as luminous and spectral parameters are extracted using image processing and Fast Fourier Transform (FFT). Flame images are acquired using FLIR infrared camera. Non-linearities such as thermal acoustic oscillations and background noise affect the stability of flame. Flame velocity is one of the important characteristics that determines stability of flame. In this paper, an image processing method is proposed to determine flame velocity. Power spectral density (PSD) graph is a good tool for vibration analysis where flame stability can be approximated. However, a more intelligent diagnostic system is needed to automatically determine flame stability. In this paper, flame features of different flow rates are compared and analyzed. The selected flame features are used as inputs to the proposed fuzzy inference system to determine flame stability. Neural network is used to test the performance of the fuzzy inference system.

  4. Stratified turbulent Bunsen flames: flame surface analysis and flame surface density modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaekers, W. J. S.; van Oijen, J. A.; de Goey, L. P. H.

    2012-12-01

    In this paper it is investigated whether the Flame Surface Density (FSD) model, developed for turbulent premixed combustion, is also applicable to stratified flames. Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) of turbulent stratified Bunsen flames have been carried out, using the Flamelet Generated Manifold (FGM) reduction method for reaction kinetics. Before examining the suitability of the FSD model, flame surfaces are characterized in terms of thickness, curvature and stratification. All flames are in the Thin Reaction Zones regime, and the maximum equivalence ratio range covers 0.1⩽φ⩽1.3. For all flames, local flame thicknesses correspond very well to those observed in stretchless, steady premixed flamelets. Extracted curvature radii and mixing length scales are significantly larger than the flame thickness, implying that the stratified flames all burn in a premixed mode. The remaining challenge is accounting for the large variation in (subfilter) mass burning rate. In this contribution, the FSD model is proven to be applicable for Large Eddy Simulations (LES) of stratified flames for the equivalence ratio range 0.1⩽φ⩽1.3. Subfilter mass burning rate variations are taken into account by a subfilter Probability Density Function (PDF) for the mixture fraction, on which the mass burning rate directly depends. A priori analysis point out that for small stratifications (0.4⩽φ⩽1.0), the replacement of the subfilter PDF (obtained from DNS data) by the corresponding Dirac function is appropriate. Integration of the Dirac function with the mass burning rate m=m(φ), can then adequately model the filtered mass burning rate obtained from filtered DNS data. For a larger stratification (0.1⩽φ⩽1.3), and filter widths up to ten flame thicknesses, a β-function for the subfilter PDF yields substantially better predictions than a Dirac function. Finally, inclusion of a simple algebraic model for the FSD resulted only in small additional deviations from DNS data

  5. A CRITICAL ASSESSMENT OF PHOTOMETRIC REDSHIFT METHODS: A CANDELS INVESTIGATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlen, Tomas; Ferguson, Henry C.; Mobasher, Bahram; Faber, Sandra M.; Barro, Guillermo; Guo, Yicheng; Finkelstein, Steven L.; Finlator, Kristian; Fontana, Adriano; Gruetzbauch, Ruth; Johnson, Seth; Pforr, Janine; Dickinson, Mark E.; Salvato, Mara; Wuyts, Stijn; Wiklind, Tommy; Acquaviva, Viviana; Huang, Jiasheng; Huang, Kuang-Han; Newman, Jeffrey A.

    2013-01-01

    We present results from the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS) photometric redshift methods investigation. In this investigation, the results from 11 participants, each using a different combination of photometric redshift code, template spectral energy distributions (SEDs), and priors, are used to examine the properties of photometric redshifts applied to deep fields with broadband multi-wavelength coverage. The photometry used includes U-band through mid-infrared filters and was derived using the TFIT method. Comparing the results, we find that there is no particular code or set of template SEDs that results in significantly better photometric redshifts compared to others. However, we find that codes producing the lowest scatter and outlier fraction utilize a training sample to optimize photometric redshifts by adding zero-point offsets, template adjusting, or adding extra smoothing errors. These results therefore stress the importance of the training procedure. We find a strong dependence of the photometric redshift accuracy on the signal-to-noise ratio of the photometry. On the other hand, we find a weak dependence of the photometric redshift scatter with redshift and galaxy color. We find that most photometric redshift codes quote redshift errors (e.g., 68% confidence intervals) that are too small compared to that expected from the spectroscopic control sample. We find that all codes show a statistically significant bias in the photometric redshifts. However, the bias is in all cases smaller than the scatter; the latter therefore dominates the errors. Finally, we find that combining results from multiple codes significantly decreases the photometric redshift scatter and outlier fraction. We discuss different ways of combining data to produce accurate photometric redshifts and error estimates

  6. Development of Multiple-Element Flame Emission Spectrometer Using CCD Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seney, Caryn S.; Sinclair, Karen V.; Bright, Robin M.; Momoh, Paul O.; Bozeman, Amelia D.

    2005-01-01

    The full wavelength coverage of charge coupled device (CCD) detector when coupled with an echelle spectrography, the system allows for simultaneously multiple element spectroscopy to be performed. The multiple-element flame spectrometer was built and characterized through the analysis of environmentally significant elements such as Ca, K, Na, Cu,…

  7. LED-based Photometric Stereo: Modeling, Calibration and Numerical Solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quéau, Yvain; Durix, Bastien; Wu, Tao

    2018-01-01

    We conduct a thorough study of photometric stereo under nearby point light source illumination, from modeling to numerical solution, through calibration. In the classical formulation of photometric stereo, the luminous fluxes are assumed to be directional, which is very difficult to achieve in pr...

  8. Planck 2013 results. VIII. HFI photometric calibration and mapmaking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Planck Collaboration,; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the processing applied to the HFI cleaned time-ordered data to produce photometrically calibrated maps. HFI observes the sky over a broad range of frequencies, from 100 to 857 GHz. To get the best accuracy on the calibration on such a large range, two different photometric ca...

  9. Photometric Variability in the Faint Sky Variability Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morales-Rueda, L.; Groot, P.J.; Augusteijn, T.; Nelemans, G.A.; Vreeswijk, P.M.; Besselaar, E.J.M. van den

    2005-01-01

    The Faint Sky Variability Survey (FSVS) is aimed at finding photometric and/or astrometric variable objects between 16th and 24th mag on time-scales between tens of minutes and years with photometric precisions ranging from 3 millimag to 0.2 mag. An area of ~23 deg2, located at mid and

  10. Photometric estimation of defect size in radiation direction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuev, V.M.

    1993-01-01

    Factors, affecting accuracy of photometric estimation of defect size in radiation transmission direction, are analyzed. Experimentally obtained dependences of contrast of defect image on its size in radiation transmission direction are presented. Practical recommendations on improving accuracy of photometric estimation of defect size in radiation transmission direction, are developed

  11. Research on flame retardation of wool fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enomoto, Ichiro; Ametani, Kazuo; Sawai, Takeshi

    1990-01-01

    Flame retardant, vinyl phosphonate oligomer, was uniformly impregnated in wool fibers, and by irradiating low energy electron beam or cobalt-60 gamma ray, the flame retardation of fabrics was attempted, as the results, the following knowledges were obtained. At the rate of sticking of flame retardant lower than that in cotton fabrics, sufficient flame retarding property can be given. The flame retarding property withstands 30 times of washing. The lowering of strength due to the processing hardly arose. For the flame retardation, gamma-ray was more effective than electron beam. Since the accidents of burning clothes have occurred frequently, their flame retardation has been demanded. So far the flame retardation of cotton fabrics has been advanced, but this time the research on the flame retardation of wool fabrics was carried out by the same method. The experimental method is explained. As for the performance of the processed fabrics, the rate of sticking of the flame retardant, the efficiency of utilization, the flame retarding property, the endurance in washing and the tensile and tearing strength were examined. As the oxygen index was higher, the flame retarding property was higher, and in the case of the index being more than 27, the flame retarding property is sufficient, that is, the rate of sticking of 6% in serge and 5% in muslin. (K.I.)

  12. Ionization detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steele, D.S.

    1987-01-01

    An ionization detector having an array of detectors has, for example, grounding pads positioned in the spaces between some detectors (data detectors) and other detectors (reference detectors). The grounding pads are kept at zero electric potential, i.e. grounded. The grounding serves to drain away electrons and thereby prevent an unwanted accumulation of charge in the spaces, and cause the electric field lines to be more perpendicular to the detectors in regions near the grounding pads. Alternatively, no empty space is provided there being additional, grounded, detectors provided between the data and reference detectors. (author)

  13. Flame visualization in power stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hulshof, H J.M.; Thus, A W; Verhage, A J.L. [KEMA Fossil Generation, Arnhem (Netherlands)

    1994-01-01

    The study on the title subject is aimed at the determination of the form of the flame and the radiation temperature of the flames of the burners in electric power plants. The adjustment of the burners in a boiler is assessed on the basis of the total performance, in which the NO[sub x]- and CO-concentrations in the flue gases are normative. By comparing the burners mutually, deviating adjustments can be observed, applying optical monitoring techniques. Measurements have been carried out of the coal flames in the unit Gelderland13 of the Dutch energy production company EPON and of the gas flames at the Claus plant A and B of the Dutch energy company EPZ. The final aim of the title study is to draft guidelines, based on the measured flame data, by means of which for every individual burner the adjustment of the fuel supply, the relation with the air supply and the swirl of the combustion air can be optimized

  14. Role of the outer-edge flame on flame extinction in nitrogen-diluted non-premixed counterflow flames with finite burner diameters

    KAUST Repository

    Chung, Yong Ho

    2013-03-01

    This study of nitrogen-diluted non-premixed counterflow flames with finite burner diameters investigates the important role of the outer-edge flame on flame extinction through experimental and numerical analyses. It explores flame stability diagrams mapping the flame extinction response of nitrogen-diluted non-premixed counterflow flames to varying global strain rates in terms of burner diameter, burner gap, and velocity ratio. A critical nitrogen mole fraction exists beyond which the flame cannot be sustained; the critical nitrogen mole fraction versus global strain rate curves have C-shapes for various burner diameters, burner gaps, and velocity ratios. At sufficiently high strain-rate flames, these curves collapse into one curve; therefore, the flames follow the one-dimensional flame response of a typical diffusion flame. Low strain-rate flames are significantly affected by radial conductive heat loss, and therefore flame length. Three flame extinction modes are identified: flame extinction through shrinkage of the outer-edge flame with or without oscillations at the outer-edge flame prior to the extinction, and flame extinction through a flame hole at the flame center. The extinction modes are significantly affected by the behavior of the outer-edge flame. Detailed explanations are provided based on the measured flame-surface temperature and numerical evaluation of the fractional contribution of each term in the energy equation. Radial conductive heat loss at the flame edge to ambience is the main mechanism of extinction through shrinkage of the outer-edge flame in low strain-rate flames. Reduction of the burner diameter can extend the flame extinction mode by shrinking the outer-edge flame in higher strain-rate flames. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Flame Retardants Used in Flexible Polyurethane Foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    The partnership project on flame retardants in furniture seeks to update the health and environmental profiles of flame-retardant chemicals that meet fire safety standards for upholstered consumer products with polyurethane foam

  16. Experiment and Simulation of Autoignition in Jet Flames and its Relevance to Flame Stabilization and Structure

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Noman, Saeed M.

    2016-01-01

    temperature coflow air were studied numerically. Several flame configurations were investigated by varying the initial temperature and fuel mole fraction. Characteristics of chemical kinetics structures for autoignited lifted flames were discussed based on the kinetic structures of homogeneous autoignition and flame propagation of premixed mixtures. Results showed that for autoignited lifted flame with tribrachial structure, a transition from autoignition to flame propagation modes occurs for reasonably stoichiometric mixtures. Characteristics of Mild combustion can be treated as an autoignited lean premixed lifted flame. Transition behavior from Mild combustion to a nozzle-attached flame was also investigated by increasing the fuel mole fraction.

  17. Photometric properties of type II supernovae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbon, R [Osservatorio Astrofisico, Asiago (Italy); Trieste Univ. (Italy). Instituto di Matematica); Ciatti, F; Rosino, L [Osservatorio Astrofisico, Asiago (Italy); Pavia Univ. (Italy))

    1979-02-01

    An analysis of the available photometric observations for type II supernovae is presented. The possibility of drawing average curves by the fitting method, as previously done for type I supernovae, is indicated. Two basic shapes have been put into evidence, the first one (2/3 of the objects) is characterized by the presence of a plateau at intermediate phase, the second one by an almost linear decline. Average curves have been also built for the intrinsic color indices. Peculiar cases are discussed, including the unusual objects of types III-IV. The mean absolute magnitude at maximum for type II supernovae has been determined about Msub(B) = -16.45 (sigma=0.78), as a calibration for their use as distance indicators. The distribution in different morphological types and luminosity classes of the parent galaxies is briefly discussed.

  18. Photometrical research geostationary satellite "SBIRS GEO-2"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhov, P. P.; Epishev, V. P; Sukhov, K. P; Kudak, V. I.

    The multicolor photometrical observations GSS "Sbirs Geo-2" were carried in B,V,R filters out during the autumn equinox 2014 and spring 2015 y. Periodic appearance of many light curves and dips of mirror reflections suggests that the GSS was not in orbit in a static position, predetermined three-axis orientation and in dynamic motion. On the basis of computer modeling suggests the following dynamics GSS "Sbirs Geo-2" in orbit. Helically scanning the visible Earth's surface infrared satellite sensors come with period P1 = 15.66 sec. and the rocking of the GSS about the direction of the motion vector of the satellite in orbit with P2 = 62.64 sec., most likely with the purpose to survey the greatest possible portion of the earth's surface.

  19. Robust photometric stereo using structural light sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Tian-Qi; Cheng, Yue; Shen, Hui-Liang; Du, Xin

    2014-05-01

    We propose a robust photometric stereo method by using structural arrangement of light sources. In the arrangement, light sources are positioned on a planar grid and form a set of collinear combinations. The shadow pixels are detected by adaptive thresholding. The specular highlight and diffuse pixels are distinguished according to their intensity deviations of the collinear combinations, thanks to the special arrangement of light sources. The highlight detection problem is cast as a pattern classification problem and is solved using support vector machine classifiers. Considering the possible misclassification of highlight pixels, the ℓ1 regularization is further employed in normal map estimation. Experimental results on both synthetic and real-world scenes verify that the proposed method can robustly recover the surface normal maps in the case of heavy specular reflection and outperforms the state-of-the-art techniques.

  20. Flame emission, atomic absorption and fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horlick, G.

    1980-01-01

    Six hundred and thirty references are cited in this review. The information in the review is divided into 12 major areas: books, reviews, and bibliographies; fundamental studies in flames; developments in instrumentation; measurement techniques and procedure; flame emission spectrometry; flame atomic absorption spectrometry; flame molecular absorption spectrometry; electrothermal atomization atomic absorption spectroscopy; hydride generation techniques; graphite furnace atomic emission spectrometry; atomic fluorescence spectrometry; and analytical comparisons

  1. Silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klanner, R.

    1984-08-01

    The status and recent progress of silicon detectors for high energy physics is reviewed. Emphasis is put on detectors with high spatial resolution and the use of silicon detectors in calorimeters. (orig.)

  2. PHOTOMETRIC SUPERNOVA CLASSIFICATION WITH MACHINE LEARNING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lochner, Michelle; Peiris, Hiranya V.; Lahav, Ofer; Winter, Max K.; McEwen, Jason D.

    2016-01-01

    Automated photometric supernova classification has become an active area of research in recent years in light of current and upcoming imaging surveys such as the Dark Energy Survey (DES) and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, given that spectroscopic confirmation of type for all supernovae discovered will be impossible. Here, we develop a multi-faceted classification pipeline, combining existing and new approaches. Our pipeline consists of two stages: extracting descriptive features from the light curves and classification using a machine learning algorithm. Our feature extraction methods vary from model-dependent techniques, namely SALT2 fits, to more independent techniques that fit parametric models to curves, to a completely model-independent wavelet approach. We cover a range of representative machine learning algorithms, including naive Bayes, k -nearest neighbors, support vector machines, artificial neural networks, and boosted decision trees (BDTs). We test the pipeline on simulated multi-band DES light curves from the Supernova Photometric Classification Challenge. Using the commonly used area under the curve (AUC) of the Receiver Operating Characteristic as a metric, we find that the SALT2 fits and the wavelet approach, with the BDTs algorithm, each achieve an AUC of 0.98, where 1 represents perfect classification. We find that a representative training set is essential for good classification, whatever the feature set or algorithm, with implications for spectroscopic follow-up. Importantly, we find that by using either the SALT2 or the wavelet feature sets with a BDT algorithm, accurate classification is possible purely from light curve data, without the need for any redshift information.

  3. PHOTOMETRIC SUPERNOVA CLASSIFICATION WITH MACHINE LEARNING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lochner, Michelle; Peiris, Hiranya V.; Lahav, Ofer; Winter, Max K. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); McEwen, Jason D., E-mail: dr.michelle.lochner@gmail.com [Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London, Surrey RH5 6NT (United Kingdom)

    2016-08-01

    Automated photometric supernova classification has become an active area of research in recent years in light of current and upcoming imaging surveys such as the Dark Energy Survey (DES) and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, given that spectroscopic confirmation of type for all supernovae discovered will be impossible. Here, we develop a multi-faceted classification pipeline, combining existing and new approaches. Our pipeline consists of two stages: extracting descriptive features from the light curves and classification using a machine learning algorithm. Our feature extraction methods vary from model-dependent techniques, namely SALT2 fits, to more independent techniques that fit parametric models to curves, to a completely model-independent wavelet approach. We cover a range of representative machine learning algorithms, including naive Bayes, k -nearest neighbors, support vector machines, artificial neural networks, and boosted decision trees (BDTs). We test the pipeline on simulated multi-band DES light curves from the Supernova Photometric Classification Challenge. Using the commonly used area under the curve (AUC) of the Receiver Operating Characteristic as a metric, we find that the SALT2 fits and the wavelet approach, with the BDTs algorithm, each achieve an AUC of 0.98, where 1 represents perfect classification. We find that a representative training set is essential for good classification, whatever the feature set or algorithm, with implications for spectroscopic follow-up. Importantly, we find that by using either the SALT2 or the wavelet feature sets with a BDT algorithm, accurate classification is possible purely from light curve data, without the need for any redshift information.

  4. 30 CFR 14.20 - Flame resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Flame resistance. 14.20 Section 14.20 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF... § 14.20 Flame resistance. Conveyor belts for use in underground coal mines must be flame-resistant and...

  5. TURBULENT OXYGEN FLAMES IN TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aspden, A. J.; Bell, J. B.; Woosley, S. E.

    2011-01-01

    In previous studies, we examined turbulence-flame interactions in carbon-burning thermonuclear flames in Type Ia supernovae. In this study, we consider turbulence-flame interactions in the trailing oxygen flames. The two aims of the paper are to examine the response of the inductive oxygen flame to intense levels of turbulence, and to explore the possibility of transition to detonation in the oxygen flame. Scaling arguments analogous to the carbon flames are presented and then compared against three-dimensional simulations for a range of Damkoehler numbers (Da 16 ) at a fixed Karlovitz number. The simulations suggest that turbulence does not significantly affect the oxygen flame when Da 16 16 >1, turbulence enhances heat transfer and drives the propagation of a flame that is narrower than the corresponding inductive flame would be. Furthermore, burning under these conditions appears to occur as part of a combined carbon-oxygen turbulent flame with complex compound structure. The simulations do not appear to support the possibility of a transition to detonation in the oxygen flame, but do not preclude it either.

  6. Hysteresis and transition in swirling nonpremixed flames

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tummers, M.J.; Hübner, A.W.; van Veen, E.H.; Hanjalic, K.; van der Meer, Theodorus H.

    2009-01-01

    Strongly swirling nonpremixed flames are known to exhibit a hysteresis when transiting from an attached long, sooty, yellow flame to a short lifted blue flame, and vice versa. The upward transition (by increasing the air and fuel flow rates) corresponds to a vortex breakdown, i.e. an abrupt change

  7. Experimental characterization of methane inverse diffusion flame

    KAUST Repository

    Elbaz, Ayman M.

    2014-06-26

    This article presents 10-kHz images of OH-PLIF simultaneously with 2-D PIV measurements in an inverse methane diffusion flame. Under a constant fuel flow rate, the central air jet Re was varied, leading to air to fuel velocity ratio, Vr, to vary from 8.3 to 66.5. Starting from Vr = 20.7, the flame is commonly characterized by three distinct zones. The length of the lower fuel entrainment region is inversely proportional to Vr. The flames investigated resemble a string shear layer confining this zone, and converging into the second distinct region, the flame neck zone. The third region is the rest of the flame, which spreads in a jet-like manner. The inverse diffusion flames exhibit varying degrees of partial premixing, depending upon on the velocity ratio Vr, and this region of partial premixing evolves into a well-mixed reaction zone along the flame centerline. The OH distribution correlated with the changes in the mean characteristics of the flow through reduction in the local Reynolds number due to heat release. The existence of a flame suppresses or laminarizes the turbulence at early axial locations and promotes fluctuations at the flame tip for flames with Vr < 49.8. In addition, the flame jet width can be correlated to the OH distribution. In upstream regions of the flames, the breaks in OH are counterbalanced by flame closures and are governed by edge flame propagation. These local extinctions were found to occur at locations where large flow structures were impinging on the flame and are associated with a locally higher strain rate or correlated to the local high strain rates at the flame hole edges without this flow impinging. Another contributor to re-ignition was found to be growing flame kernels. As the flames approach global blow-off, these kernels become the main mechanism for re-ignition further downstream of the flames. At low Vr, laminarization within the early regions of the flame provides an effective shield, preventing the jet flow from

  8. THE APPARATUS FOR ALIGNMENT OF THE PHOTOMETRIC LAMP FILAMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Dlugunovich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available During photometric measurements involving the use of photometric lamps it is necessary that the filament of lamp takes a strictly predetermined position with respect to the photodetector and the optical axis of the photometric setup. The errors in positioning of alignment filament with respect to the optical axis of the measuring system lead to increase the uncertainty of measurement of the photometric characteristics of the light sources. A typical method for alignment of filament of photometric lamps is based on the use a diopter tubes (telescopes. Using this method, the mounting of filament to the required position is carried out by successive approximations, which requires special concentration and a lot of time. The aim of this work is to develop an apparatus for alignment which allows simultaneous alignment of the filament of lamps in two mutually perpendicular planes. The method and apparatus for alignment of the photometric lamp filament during measurements of the photometric characteristics of light sources based on two digital video cameras is described in this paper. The apparatus allows to simultaneously displaying the image of lamps filament on the computer screen in two mutually perpendicular planes. The apparatus eliminates a large number of functional units requiring elementwise alignment and reduces the time required to carry out the alignment. The apparatus also provides the imaging of lamps filament with opaque coated on the bulb. The apparatus is used at the National standard of light intensity and illuminance units of the Republic of Belarus. 

  9. The VLT FLAMES Tarantula Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evans, C.; Taylor, W.; Sana, H.; Hénault-Brunet, V.; Bagnoli, T.; Bastian, N.; Bestenlehner, J.; Bonanos, A.; Bressert, E.; Brott, I.; Campbell, M.; Cantiello, M.; Carraro, G.; Clark, S.; Costa, E.; Crowther, P.; de Koter, A.; de Mink, S.; Doran, E.; Dufton, P.; Dunstall, P.; Garcia, M.; Gieles, M.; Gräfener, G.; Herrero, A.; Howarth, I.; Izzard, R.; Köhler, K.; Langer, N.; Lennon, D.; Maíz Apellániz, J.; Markova, N.; Najarro, P.; Puls, J.; Ramirez, O.; Sabín-Sanjulián, C.; Simón-Díaz, S.; Smartt, S.; Stroud, V.; van Loon, J.; Vink, J.S.; Walborn, N.

    2011-01-01

    We introduce the VLT FLAMES Tarantula Survey, an ESO Large Programme from which we have obtained optical spectroscopy of over 800 massive stars in the spectacular 30 Doradus region of the Large Magellanic Cloud. A key feature is the use of multi-epoch observations to provide strong constraints on

  10. Photometric normalization of LROC WAC images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, H.; Denevi, B.; Robinson, M. S.; Hapke, B. W.; McEwen, A. S.; LROC Science Team

    2010-12-01

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) Wide Angle Camera (WAC) acquires near global coverage on a monthly basis. The WAC is a push frame sensor with a 90° field of view (FOV) in BW mode and 60° FOV in 7-color mode (320 nm to 689 nm). WAC images are acquired during each orbit in 10° latitude segments with cross track coverage of ~50 km. Before mosaicking, WAC images are radiometrically calibrated to remove instrumental artifacts and to convert at sensor radiance to I/F. Images are also photometrically normalized to common viewing and illumination angles (30° phase), a challenge due to the wide angle nature of the WAC where large differences in phase angle are observed in a single image line (±30°). During a single month the equatorial incidence angle drifts about 28° and over the course of ~1 year the lighting completes a 360° cycle. The light scattering properties of the lunar surface depend on incidence(i), emission(e), and phase(p) angles as well as soil properties such as single-scattering albedo and roughness that vary with terrain type and state of maturity [1]. We first tested a Lommel-Seeliger Correction (LSC) [cos(i)/(cos(i) + cos(e))] [2] with a phase function defined by an exponential decay plus 4th order polynomial term [3] which did not provide an adequate solution. Next we employed a LSC with an exponential 2nd order decay phase correction that was an improvement, but still exhibited unacceptable frame-to-frame residuals. In both cases we fitted the LSC I/F vs. phase angle to derive the phase corrections. To date, the best results are with a lunar-lambert function [4] with exponential 2nd order decay phase correction (LLEXP2) [(A1exp(B1p)+A2exp(B2p)+A3) * cos(i)/(cos(e) + cos(i)) + B3cos(i)]. We derived the parameters for the LLEXP2 from repeat imaging of a small region and then corrected that region with excellent results. When this correction was applied to the whole Moon the results were less than optimal - no surprise given the

  11. Flex-flame burner and combustion method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soupos, Vasilios; Zelepouga, Serguei; Rue, David M.; Abbasi, Hamid A.

    2010-08-24

    A combustion method and apparatus which produce a hybrid flame for heating metals and metal alloys, which hybrid flame has the characteristic of having an oxidant-lean portion proximate the metal or metal alloy and having an oxidant-rich portion disposed above the oxidant lean portion. This hybrid flame is produced by introducing fuel and primary combustion oxidant into the furnace chamber containing the metal or metal alloy in a substoichiometric ratio to produce a fuel-rich flame and by introducing a secondary combustion oxidant into the furnace chamber above the fuel-rich flame in a manner whereby mixing of the secondary combustion oxidant with the fuel-rich flame is delayed for a portion of the length of the flame.

  12. Simulation of flame surface density and burning rate of a premixed turbulent flame using contour advection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, B.H.Y.; Chan, C.K. [Department of Applied Mathematics, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2006-10-15

    In this paper, a 2-dimensional rod-stabilized V-shaped flame is simulated using contour advection with surgery as well as the random vortex method. Effects of turbulence on various quantities, such as flame brush thickness and flame surface density, are investigated. The flame surface density S is estimated using the Bray-Moss-Libby formulation, which involves the use of a mean orientation factor {sigma}{sub c}. As a comparison, values of S are also obtained using Shepherd's model, which employs the values of mean flame surface area and mean flame length. Local flame structure is characterized in terms of turbulent flame brush, orientation factor, and flame surface density. Profiles of S obtained using the two different models are compared and show that discrepancy is more evident with increasing turbulence intensity. (author)

  13. A flame particle tracking analysis of turbulence–chemistry interaction in hydrogen–air premixed flames

    KAUST Repository

    Uranakara, Harshavardhana A.; Chaudhuri, Swetaprovo; Dave, Himanshu L.; Arias, Paul G.; Im, Hong G.

    2015-01-01

    Interactions of turbulence, molecular transport, and energy transport, coupled with chemistry play a crucial role in the evolution of flame surface geometry, propagation, annihilation, and local extinction/re-ignition characteristics of intensely turbulent premixed flames. This study seeks to understand how these interactions affect flame surface annihilation of lean hydrogen–air premixed turbulent flames. Direct numerical simulations (DNSs) are conducted at different parametric conditions with a detailed reaction mechanism and transport properties for hydrogen–air flames. Flame particle tracking (FPT) technique is used to follow specific flame surface segments. An analytical expression for the local displacement flame speed (Sd) of a temperature isosurface is considered, and the contributions of transport, chemistry, and kinematics on the displacement flame speed at different turbulence-flame interaction conditions are identified. In general, the displacement flame speed for the flame particles is found to increase with time for all conditions considered. This is because, eventually all flame surfaces and their resident flame particles approach annihilation by reactant island formation at the end of stretching and folding processes induced by turbulence. Statistics of principal curvature evolving in time, obtained using FPT, suggest that these islands are ellipsoidal on average enclosing fresh reactants. Further examinations show that the increase in Sd is caused by the increased negative curvature of the flame surface and eventual homogenization of temperature gradients as these reactant islands shrink due to flame propagation and turbulent mixing. Finally, the evolution of the normalized, averaged, displacement flame speed vs. stretch Karlovitz number are found to collapse on a narrow band, suggesting that a unified description of flame speed dependence on stretch rate may be possible in the Lagrangian description.

  14. A flame particle tracking analysis of turbulence–chemistry interaction in hydrogen–air premixed flames

    KAUST Repository

    Uranakara, Harshavardhana A.

    2015-11-21

    Interactions of turbulence, molecular transport, and energy transport, coupled with chemistry play a crucial role in the evolution of flame surface geometry, propagation, annihilation, and local extinction/re-ignition characteristics of intensely turbulent premixed flames. This study seeks to understand how these interactions affect flame surface annihilation of lean hydrogen–air premixed turbulent flames. Direct numerical simulations (DNSs) are conducted at different parametric conditions with a detailed reaction mechanism and transport properties for hydrogen–air flames. Flame particle tracking (FPT) technique is used to follow specific flame surface segments. An analytical expression for the local displacement flame speed (Sd) of a temperature isosurface is considered, and the contributions of transport, chemistry, and kinematics on the displacement flame speed at different turbulence-flame interaction conditions are identified. In general, the displacement flame speed for the flame particles is found to increase with time for all conditions considered. This is because, eventually all flame surfaces and their resident flame particles approach annihilation by reactant island formation at the end of stretching and folding processes induced by turbulence. Statistics of principal curvature evolving in time, obtained using FPT, suggest that these islands are ellipsoidal on average enclosing fresh reactants. Further examinations show that the increase in Sd is caused by the increased negative curvature of the flame surface and eventual homogenization of temperature gradients as these reactant islands shrink due to flame propagation and turbulent mixing. Finally, the evolution of the normalized, averaged, displacement flame speed vs. stretch Karlovitz number are found to collapse on a narrow band, suggesting that a unified description of flame speed dependence on stretch rate may be possible in the Lagrangian description.

  15. Photometric Analysis and Period Investigation of the EW Type ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Photometric Analysis and Period Investigation of the EW Type. Eclipsing ... binary with the less massive secondary component filling the inner Roche lobe. ..... Cox 2000) assuming that the primary component is a normal main sequence star.

  16. Theoretical analysis of the conical premixed flame response to upstream velocity disturbances considering flame speed development effects

    OpenAIRE

    Ghazaleh Esmaeelzade; Mohammad Reza Khani; Rouzbeh Riazi; Mohammad Hossein Sabour

    2017-01-01

    The effect of upstream velocity perturbations on the response of a premixed flame was investigated in terms of the flame transfer function dependency on excitation frequency. In this study, the assumption of constant flame speed was extended and the effect of flame speed development was considered; i.e., the flame speed would grow with the time after ignition or with the distance from a flame-holder. In the present study, the kinematics of a conical flame was investigated by linearization of ...

  17. Photometric immersion refractometry of bacterial spores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhardt, P; Beaman, T C; Corner, T R; Greenamyre, J T; Tisa, L S

    1982-01-01

    Photometric immersion refractometry was used to determine the average apparent refractive index (n) of five types of dormant Bacillus spores representing a 600-fold range in moist-heat resistance determined as a D100 value. The n of a spore type increased as the molecular size of various immersion solutes decreased. For comparison of the spore types, the n of the entire spore and of the isolated integument was determined by use of bovine serum albumin, which is excluded from permeating into them. The n of the sporoplast (the structures bounded by the outer pericortex membrane) was determined by use of glucose, which was shown to permeate into the spore only as deeply as the pericortex membrane. Among the various spore types, an exponential increase in the heat resistance correlated with the n of the entire spore and of the sporoplast, but not of the isolated perisporoplast integument. Correlation of the n with the solids content of the entire spore provided a method of experimentally obtaining the refractive index increment (dn/dc), which was constant for the various spore types and enables the calculation of solids and water content from an n. Altogether, the results showed that the total water content is distributed unequally within the dormant spore, with less water in the sporoplast than in the perisporoplast integument, and that the sporoplast becomes more refractile and therefore more dehydrated as the heat resistance becomes greater among the various spore types. PMID:6802796

  18. Photometric stability of the lunar surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieffer, H.H.

    1997-01-01

    The rate at which cratering events currently occur on the Moon is considered in light of their influence on the use of the Moon as a radiometric standard. The radiometric effect of small impact events is determined empirically from the study of Clementine images. Events that would change the integral brightness of the moon by 1% are expected once per 1.4 Gyr. Events that cause a 1% shift in one pixel for low Earth-orbiting instruments with a 1-km nadir field of view are expected approximately once each 43 Myr. Events discernible at 1% radiometric resolution with a 5 arc-sec telescope resolution correspond to crater diameters of approximately 210 m and are expected once every 200 years. These rates are uncertain by a factor of two. For a fixed illumination and observation geometry, the Moon can be considered photometrically stable to 1 ?? 10-8per annum for irradiance, and 1 ?? 10-7per annum for radiance at a resolution common for spacecraft imaging instruments, exceeding reasonable instrument goals by six orders of magnitude. ?? 1997 Academic Press.

  19. Photometric Detection of Extra-Solar Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzes, Artie P.; Cochran, William D.

    2004-01-01

    This NASA Origins Program grant supported the TEMPEST Texas McDonald Photometric Extrasolar Search for Transits) program at McDonald Observatory, which searches for transits of extrasolar planets across the disks of their parent stars. The basic approach is to use a wide-field ground-based telescope (in our case the McDonald Observatory 0.76m telescope and it s Prime Focus Corrector) to search for transits of short period (1-15 day orbits) of close-in hot-Jupiter planets in orbit around a large sample of field stars. The next task is to search these data streams for possible transit events. We collected our first set of test data for this program using the 0.76 m PFC in the summer of 1998. From those data, we developed the optimal observing procedures, including tailoring the stellar density, exposure times, and filters to best-suit the instrument and project. In the summer of 1999, we obtained the first partial season of data on a dedicated field in the constellation Cygnus. These data were used to develop and refine the reduction and analysis procedures to produce high-precision photometry and search for transits in the resulting light curves. The TeMPEST project subsequently obtained three full seasons of data on six different fields using the McDonald Observatory 0.76m PFC.

  20. Photometric functions for photoclinometry and other applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwen, A.S.

    1991-01-01

    Least-squared fits to the brightness profiles across a disk or "limb darkening" described by Hapke's photometric function are found for the simpler Minnaert and lunar-Lambert functions. The simpler functions are needed to reduce the number of unknown parameters in photoclinometry, especially to distinguish the brightness variations of the surface materials from that due to the resolved topography. The limb darkening varies with the Hapke parameters for macroscopic roughness (??), the single-scattering albedo (w), and the asymmetry factor of the particle phase function (g). Both of the simpler functions generally provide good matches to the limb darkening described by Hapke's function, but the lunar-Lambert function is superior when viewing angles are high and when (??) is less than 30??. Although a nonunique solution for the Minnaert function at high phase angles has been described for smooth surfaces, the discrepancy decreases with increasing (??) and virtually disappears when (??) reaches 30?? to 40??. The variation in limb darkening with w and g, pronounced for smooth surfaces, is reduced or eliminated when the Hapke parameters are in the range typical of most planetary surfaces; this result simplifies the problem of photoclinometry across terrains with variable surface materials. The Minnaert or lunar-Lambert fits to published Hapke models will give photoclinometric solutions that are very similar (>1?? slope discrepancy) to the Hapke-function solutions for nearly all of the bodies and terrains thus far modeled by Hapke's function. ?? 1991.

  1. Photometric determination of traces of metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onishi, H.

    1986-01-01

    The first three editions of this widely used classic were published under the title Colorimetric Determination of Traces of Metals, with E.B. Sandell as author. Part I (General Aspects) of the fourth edition was co-authored by E.B. Sandell and H. Onishi and published in 1978. After Sandell's death in 1984, Onishi assumed the monumental task of revising Part II. This book (Part IIA) consists of 21 chapters in which the photometric determinations of the individual metals, aluminium to lithium (including the lanthanoids), are described. Each chapter is divided into three sections: Separations, Methods of Determination, and Applications. The sections on Separations are of general interest and include methods based on precipitation, ion-exchange, chromatography, and liquid-liquid extraction. Molecular absorption and fluorescence techniques are described in the sections on determinations, and the emphasis is on the use of well-established reagents. Several reagents that have been recently introduced for the determination of trace levels of metals are also critically reviewed at the end of each section on methods of determination. Important applications of these methods to the determination of trace metals in complex organic and inorganic materials are described in detail at the end of each chapter

  2. Long-term photometric behaviour of outbursting AM CVn systems

    OpenAIRE

    Levitan, David; Groot, Paul J.; Prince, Thomas A.; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.; Laher, Russ; Ofek, Eran O.; Sesar, Branimir; Surace, Jason

    2015-01-01

    The AM CVn systems are a class of He-rich, post-period minimum, semidetached, ultracompact binaries. Their long-term light curves have been poorly understood due to the few systems known and the long (hundreds of days) recurrence times between outbursts. We present combined photometric light curves from the Lincoln Near Earth Asteroid Research, Catalina Real-Time Transient Survey, and Palomar Transient Factory synoptic surveys to study the photometric variability of these systems over an almo...

  3. Measuring redshift-space distortions using photometric surveys

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, Ashley; Percival, Will; Crocce, M.; Cabre, A.; Gaztanaga, E.

    2011-01-01

    We outline how redshift-space distortions (RSD) can be measured from the angular correlation function w({\\theta}), of galaxies selected from photometric surveys. The natural degeneracy between RSD and galaxy bias can be minimized by comparing results from bins with top-hat galaxy selection in redshift, and bins based on the radial position of galaxy pair centres. This comparison can also be used to test the accuracy of the photometric redshifts. The presence of RSD will be clearly detectable ...

  4. Probabilistic Photometric Redshifts in the Era of Petascale Astronomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrasco Kind, Matias [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States)

    2014-01-01

    With the growth of large photometric surveys, accurately estimating photometric redshifts, preferably as a probability density function (PDF), and fully understanding the implicit systematic uncertainties in this process has become increasingly important. These surveys are expected to obtain images of billions of distinct galaxies. As a result, storing and analyzing all of these photometric redshift PDFs will be non-trivial, and this challenge becomes even more severe if a survey plans to compute and store multiple different PDFs. In this thesis, we have developed an end-to-end framework that will compute accurate and robust photometric redshift PDFs for massive data sets by using two new, state-of-the-art machine learning techniques that are based on a random forest and a random atlas, respectively. By using data from several photometric surveys, we demonstrate the applicability of these new techniques, and we demonstrate that our new approach is among the best techniques currently available. We also show how different techniques can be combined by using novel Bayesian techniques to improve the photometric redshift precision to unprecedented levels while also presenting new approaches to better identify outliers. In addition, our framework provides supplementary information regarding the data being analyzed, including unbiased estimates of the accuracy of the technique without resorting to a validation data set, identification of poor photometric redshift areas within the parameter space occupied by the spectroscopic training data, and a quantification of the relative importance of the variables used during the estimation process. Furthermore, we present a new approach to represent and store photometric redshift PDFs by using a sparse representation with outstanding compression and reconstruction capabilities. We also demonstrate how this framework can also be directly incorporated into cosmological analyses. The new techniques presented in this thesis are crucial

  5. Intensity measurement of automotive headlamps using a photometric vision system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Balvant; Cruz, Jose; Perry, David L.; Himebaugh, Frederic G.

    1996-01-01

    Requirements for automotive head lamp luminous intensity tests are introduced. The rationale for developing a non-goniometric photometric test system is discussed. The design of the Ford photometric vision system (FPVS) is presented, including hardware, software, calibration, and system use. Directional intensity plots and regulatory test results obtained from the system are compared to corresponding results obtained from a Ford goniometric test system. Sources of error for the vision system and goniometer are discussed. Directions for new work are identified.

  6. Transmutation detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viererbl, L., E-mail: vie@ujv.c [Research Centre Rez Ltd. (Czech Republic); Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc (Czech Republic); Lahodova, Z. [Research Centre Rez Ltd. (Czech Republic); Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc (Czech Republic); Klupak, V. [Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc (Czech Republic); Sus, F. [Research Centre Rez Ltd. (Czech Republic); Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc (Czech Republic); Kucera, J. [Research Centre Rez Ltd. (Czech Republic); Nuclear Physics Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic (Czech Republic); Kus, P.; Marek, M. [Research Centre Rez Ltd. (Czech Republic); Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc (Czech Republic)

    2011-03-11

    We have designed a new type of detectors, called transmutation detectors, which can be used primarily for neutron fluence measurement. The transmutation detector method differs from the commonly used activation detector method in evaluation of detector response after irradiation. Instead of radionuclide activity measurement using radiometric methods, the concentration of stable non-gaseous nuclides generated by transmutation in the detector is measured using analytical methods like mass spectrometry. Prospective elements and nuclear reactions for transmutation detectors are listed and initial experimental results are given. The transmutation detector method could be used primarily for long-term measurement of neutron fluence in fission nuclear reactors, but in principle it could be used for any type of radiation that can cause transmutation of nuclides in detectors. This method could also be used for measurement in accelerators or fusion reactors.

  7. Transmutation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viererbl, L.; Lahodova, Z.; Klupak, V.; Sus, F.; Kucera, J.; Kus, P.; Marek, M.

    2011-01-01

    We have designed a new type of detectors, called transmutation detectors, which can be used primarily for neutron fluence measurement. The transmutation detector method differs from the commonly used activation detector method in evaluation of detector response after irradiation. Instead of radionuclide activity measurement using radiometric methods, the concentration of stable non-gaseous nuclides generated by transmutation in the detector is measured using analytical methods like mass spectrometry. Prospective elements and nuclear reactions for transmutation detectors are listed and initial experimental results are given. The transmutation detector method could be used primarily for long-term measurement of neutron fluence in fission nuclear reactors, but in principle it could be used for any type of radiation that can cause transmutation of nuclides in detectors. This method could also be used for measurement in accelerators or fusion reactors.

  8. Impact of flame-wall interaction on premixed flame dynamics and transfer function characteristics

    KAUST Repository

    Kedia, K.S.; Altay, H.M.; Ghoniem, A.F.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we numerically investigate the response of a perforated-plate stabilized laminar methane-air premixed flame to imposed inlet velocity perturbations. A flame model using detailed chemical kinetics mechanism is applied and heat exchange

  9. Extinction of corrugated hydrogen/air flames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizomoto, M.; Asaka, Y.; Ikai, S.; Law, C.K.

    1982-01-01

    Recent studies on flammability limits reveal the importance of flow nonuniformity, flame curvature, and molecular and thermal diffusivities in determining the extinguishability and the associated limits of premixed fuel/air flames. In particular, it is found that conditions which favor extinction of a lean flame may cause intensification of a rich flame. In the present study the authors have experimentally determined the extinction characteristics and limits of highly curved hydrogen/air flames as represented by the opening of bunsen flame tips. Results show that the tip opens at a constant fuel equivalence ratio of phi = 1.15, regardless of the velocity and uniformity of the upstream flow. This critical mixture concentration, while being rich, is still on the lean side of that corresponding to the maximum burning velocity (phi = 1.8), implying that for highly diffusive systems, the relevant reference concentration is that for maximum burning velocity instead of stoichiometry

  10. Detector Unit

    CERN Multimedia

    1960-01-01

    Original detector unit of the Instituut voor Kernfysisch Onderzoek (IKO) BOL project. This detector unit shows that silicon detectors for nuclear physics particle detection were already developed and in use in the 1960's in Amsterdam. Also the idea of putting 'strips' onto the silicon for high spatial resolution of a particle's impact on the detector were implemented in the BOL project which used 64 of these detector units. The IKO BOL project with its silicon particle detectors was designed, built and operated from 1965 to roughly 1977. Detector Unit of the BOL project: These detectors, notably the ‘checkerboard detector’, were developed during the years 1964-1968 in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, by the Natuurkundig Laboratorium of the N.V. Philips Gloeilampen Fabrieken. This was done in close collaboration with the Instituut voor Kernfysisch Onderzoek (IKO) where the read-out electronics for their use in the BOL Project was developed and produced.

  11. Detector trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charpak, G.

    1986-01-01

    The author describes briefly the development of detectors for high energy physics experiments. Especially considered are semiconductor microstrip detectors, drift tubes, holographic bubble chambers, scintillating fiber optics, and calorimeters. (HSI).

  12. Flame Motion In Gas Turbine Burner From Averages Of Single-Pulse Flame Fronts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tylli, N.; Hubschmid, W.; Inauen, A.; Bombach, R.; Schenker, S.; Guethe, F. [Alstom (Switzerland); Haffner, K. [Alstom (Switzerland)

    2005-03-01

    Thermo acoustic instabilities of a gas turbine burner were investigated by flame front localization from measured OH laser-induced fluorescence single pulse signals. The average position of the flame was obtained from the superposition of the single pulse flame fronts at constant phase of the dominant acoustic oscillation. One observes that the flame position varies periodically with the phase angle of the dominant acoustic oscillation. (author)

  13. Infrared detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Rogalski, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    This second edition is fully revised and reorganized, with new chapters concerning third generation and quantum dot detectors, THz detectors, cantilever and antenna coupled detectors, and information on radiometry and IR optics materials. Part IV concerning focal plane arrays is significantly expanded. This book, resembling an encyclopedia of IR detectors, is well illustrated and contains many original references … a really comprehensive book.-F. Sizov, Institute of Semiconductor Physics, National Academy of Sciences, Kiev, Ukraine

  14. Characteristics of Oscillating Flames in a Coaxial Confined Jet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Suk Cha

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Flame characteristics when a non-premixed n-butane jet is ejected into a coaxial cylindrical tube are investigated experimentally. Flame stability depends mainly on the characteristics of flame propagation as well as air entrainment which depend on the jet momentum and on the distance between the nozzle exit and the base of a confined tube. As flow rate increases, the flame lifts off from a nozzle attached diffusion flame and a stationary lifted flame can be stabilized. The liftoff height increases nearly linearly with the average velocity at the nozzle exit. The lifted flame has a tribrachial flame structure, which consists of a rich premixed flame, a lean premixed flame, and a diffusion flame, all extending from a single location. As flow rate further increases, periodically oscillating flames are observed inside the confined tube. Once flame oscillation occurs, the flame undergoes relatively stable oscillation such that it has nearly constant oscillation amplitude and frequency. The criteria of flame oscillation are mapped as functions of nozzle diameter, the distance between nozzle and tube, and jet velocity. This type of flame oscillation can be characterized by Strouhal number in terms of flame oscillation amplitude, frequency, and jet velocity. Buoyancy driven flame oscillation which is one of the viable mechanism for flame oscillation is modeled and the results agrees qualitatively with experimental results, suggesting that the oscillation is due to periodic blowoff and flashback under the influence of buoyancy.

  15. Pole solutions for flame front propagation

    CERN Document Server

    Kupervasser, Oleg

    2015-01-01

    This book deals with solving mathematically the unsteady flame propagation equations. New original mathematical methods for solving complex non-linear equations and investigating their properties are presented. Pole solutions for flame front propagation are developed. Premixed flames and filtration combustion have remarkable properties: the complex nonlinear integro-differential equations for these problems have exact analytical solutions described by the motion of poles in a complex plane. Instead of complex equations, a finite set of ordinary differential equations is applied. These solutions help to investigate analytically and numerically properties of the flame front propagation equations.

  16. Gravitational Effects on Cellular Flame Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunsky, C. M.; Fernandez-Pello, A. C.

    1991-01-01

    An experimental investigation has been conducted of the effect of gravity on the structure of downwardly propagating, cellular premixed propane-oxygen-nitrogen flames anchored on a water-cooled porous-plug burner. The flame is subjected to microgravity conditions in the NASA Lewis 2.2-second drop tower, and flame characteristics are recorded on high-speed film. These are compared to flames at normal gravity conditions with the same equivalence ratio, dilution index, mixture flow rate, and ambient pressure. The results show that the cellular instability band, which is located in the rich mixture region, changes little under the absence of gravity. Lifted normal-gravity flames near the cellular/lifted limits, however, are observed to become cellular when gravity is reduced. Observations of a transient cell growth period following ignition point to heat loss as being an important mechanism in the overall flame stability, dominating the stabilizing effect of buoyancy for these downwardly-propagating burner-anchored flames. The pulsations that are observed in the plume and diffusion flame generated downstream of the premixed flame in the fuel rich cases disappear in microgravity, verifying that these fluctuations are gravity related.

  17. Photoconductor arrays for a spectral-photometric far-infrared camera on SOFIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Juergen; Driescher, Hans; Schubert, Josef; Rabanus, D.; Paul, E.; Roesner, K.

    1998-04-01

    The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy, SOFIA, is a joint US and German project and will start observations from altitudes up to 45,000 ft in late 2001. The 2.5 m telescope is being developed in Germany while the 747- aircraft modifications and preparation of the observatory's operations center is done by a US consortium. Several research institutions and universities of both countries have started to develop science instruments. The DLR Institute of Space Sensor Technology in Berlin plans on a spectral-photometric camera working in the 20 to 220 micrometers wavelength range, using doped silicon and germanium extrinsic photoconductors in large, 2D arrays: silicon blocked-impurity band detectors, Ge:Ga and stressed Ge:Ga. While the silicon array will be commercially available, the germanium arrays have to be developed, including their cryogenic multiplexers. Partner institutions in Germany and the US will support the development of the instrument and its observations.

  18. The Preflight Photometric Calibration of the Extreme-Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope EIT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dere, K. P.; Moses, J. D.; Delaboudiniere, J. -P.; Brunaud, J.; Carabetian, C.; Hochedez, J. -F.; Song, X. Y.; Catura, R. C.; Clette, F.; Defise, J. -M.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents the preflight photometric calibration of the Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (EIT) aboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO). The EIT consists of a Ritchey-Chretien telescope with multilayer coatings applied to four quadrants of the primary and secondary mirrors, several filters and a backside-thinned CCD detector. The quadrants of the EIT optics were used to observe the Sun in 4 wavelength bands that peak near 171, 195, 284, and 304 . Before the launch of SOHO, the EIT mirror reflectivities, the filter transmissivities and the CCD quantum efficiency were measured and these values are described here. The instrumental throughput in terms of an effective area is presented for each of the various mirror quadrant and filter wheel combinations. The response to a coronal plasma as a function of temperature is also determined and the expected count rates are compared to the count rates observed in a coronal hole, the quiet Sun and an active region.

  19. Theoretical analysis of the conical premixed flame response to upstream velocity disturbances considering flame speed development effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghazaleh Esmaeelzade

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of upstream velocity perturbations on the response of a premixed flame was investigated in terms of the flame transfer function dependency on excitation frequency. In this study, the assumption of constant flame speed was extended and the effect of flame speed development was considered; i.e., the flame speed would grow with the time after ignition or with the distance from a flame-holder. In the present study, the kinematics of a conical flame was investigated by linearization of the front tracking equation of flame to uniform and convected fluctuations of the flow velocity and the response was compared with that of a V-shaped flame and the experimental data in the previous studies. The results show that the effect of flame speed development could influence a decreasing gain and increase the phase of the flame response to the uniform velocity oscillations in low and moderate frequencies. Comparing the variations in the gain of flame response upon normalized frequency, show that a conical flame has lower values than the V-flame. In other words, these flames might be less susceptible to combustion instabilities than the V-flames. Furthermore, the variations in phase of the V-flames responses, which show a quasi-linear behavior with normalized frequency, have higher values than the saturated behavior in phase of the conical flame responses. Also, considering that the flame speed development induces an increase in the gain and phase of the conical flame response to the convected velocity oscillations in certain frequencies; because the developed flame front has longer length in comparison to the flame front in constant flame speed model. Therefore, the flame length may be longer than convective wavelength and the heat release would be generated in different points of the flame; consequently the flow oscillations might exert a stronger impact on the unsteady heat release fluctuations.

  20. Photometric Modeling of Simulated Surace-Resolved Bennu Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golish, D.; DellaGiustina, D. N.; Clark, B.; Li, J. Y.; Zou, X. D.; Bennett, C. A.; Lauretta, D. S.

    2017-12-01

    The Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, Security, Regolith Explorer (OSIRIS-REx) is a NASA mission to study and return a sample of asteroid (101955) Bennu. Imaging data from the mission will be used to develop empirical surface-resolved photometric models of Bennu at a series of wavelengths. These models will be used to photometrically correct panchromatic and color base maps of Bennu, compensating for variations due to shadows and photometric angle differences, thereby minimizing seams in mosaicked images. Well-corrected mosaics are critical to the generation of a global hazard map and a global 1064-nm reflectance map which predicts LIDAR response. These data products directly feed into the selection of a site from which to safely acquire a sample. We also require photometric correction for the creation of color ratio maps of Bennu. Color ratios maps provide insight into the composition and geological history of the surface and allow for comparison to other Solar System small bodies. In advance of OSIRIS-REx's arrival at Bennu, we use simulated images to judge the efficacy of both the photometric modeling software and the mission observation plan. Our simulation software is based on USGS's Integrated Software for Imagers and Spectrometers (ISIS) and uses a synthetic shape model, a camera model, and an empirical photometric model to generate simulated images. This approach gives us the flexibility to create simulated images of Bennu based on analog surfaces from other small Solar System bodies and to test our modeling software under those conditions. Our photometric modeling software fits image data to several conventional empirical photometric models and produces the best fit model parameters. The process is largely automated, which is crucial to the efficient production of data products during proximity operations. The software also produces several metrics on the quality of the observations themselves, such as surface coverage and the

  1. Experimental studies of flame stability limits of biogas flame

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Wanneng; Qin Chaokui; Chen Zhiguang; Tong Chao; Liu Pengjun

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Premixed biogas flame stability for RTBs was studied on different conditions. ► An unusual “float off” phenomenon was observed. ► Decrease of port diameter or gas temperature or methane content motivates lifting. ► Increase of methane content or gas temperature or port diameter motivates yellow tipping. ► Lifting curves become straight lines when semi-logarithmic graph paper is applied. - Abstract: Flame stability of premixed biogas flame for Reference Test Burner (RTB) was investigated. In this study, six kinds of test gases were used to simulate biogas in which CO 2 volume fraction varied from 30% to 45%. A series of experiments were conducted on two RTBs with different port diameters and at different outlet unburned mixture temperatures. It was found that the lifting and yellow tipping limits show similar trends regardless of the biogas components, port diameters and mixture temperatures. A “float off” phenomenon could be observed at low gas flow rate and low primary air ratio. Low mixture temperature, small ports and high CO 2 concentration in biogas can lead to the unstable condition of “float off”. The lifting limits are enhanced with an increase of port diameter or mixture temperature and with a decrease of CO 2 concentration. The yellow tipping limits are extended with an increase of CO 2 concentration and with a decrease of mixture temperature or port diameter. In addition, the lifting limit curve becomes a straight line when semi-logarithmic graph paper is applied. The intercept increases with a decrease of the CO 2 concentration in biogas and with an increase of port diameter or gas temperature.

  2. Long photometric cycles in hot algols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mennickent R.E.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We summarize the development of the field of Double Periodic Variables (DPVs, Mennickent et al. 2003 during the last fourteen years, placing these objects in the context of intermediate-mass close interacting binaries similar to β Persei (Algol and β Lyrae (Sheliak which are generally called Algols. DPVs show enigmatic long photometric cycles lasting on average about 33 times the orbital period, and have physical properties resembling, in some aspects, β Lyrae. About 200 of these objects have been found in the Galaxy and the Magellanic Clouds. Light curve models and orbitally resolved spectroscopy indicate that DPVs are semi-detached interacting binaries consisting of a near main-sequence B-type star accreting matter from a cooler giant and surrounded by an optically thick disc. This disc contributes a significant fraction of the system luminosity and its luminosity is larger than expected from the phenomenon of mass accretion alone. In some systems, an optically thin disc component is observed in well developed Balmer emission lines. The optically thick disc shows bright zones up to tens percent hotter than the disc, probably indicating shocks resulting from the gas and disc stream dynamics. We conjecture that a hotspot wind might be one of the channels for a mild systemic mass loss, since evidence for jets, winds or general mass loss has been found in β Lyrae, AUMon, HD170582, OGLE05155332-6925581 and V393 Sco. Also, theoretical work by Van Rensbergen et al. (2008 and Deschamps et al. (2013 suggests that hotspot could drive mass loss from Algols. We give special consideration to the recently published hypothesis for the long-cycle, consisting of variable mass transfer driven by a magnetic dynamo (Schleicher and Mennickent 2017. The Applegate (1992 mechanism should modify cyclically the equatorial radius of the chromospherically active donor producing cycles of enhanced mass loss through the inner Lagrangian point. Chromospheric emission in

  3. Optical Photometric Observations of GEO Debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitzer, Patrick; Rodriquez-Cowardin, Heather M.; Barker, Edwin S.; Abercromby, Kira J.; Kelecy, Thomas M.; Horstman, Matt

    2010-01-01

    We report on a continuing program of optical photometric measurements of faint orbital debris at geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO). These observations can be compared with laboratory studies of actual spacecraft materials in an effort to determine what the faint debris at GEO may be. We have optical observations from Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) in Chile of two samples of debris: 1. GEO objects discovered in a survey with the University of Michigan's 0.6-m aperture Curtis-Schmidt telescope MODEST (for Michigan Orbital DEbris Survey Telescope), and then followed up in real-time with the CTIO/SMARTS 0.9-m for orbits and photometry. Our goal is to determine 6 parameter orbits and measure colors for all objects fainter than R = 15 t11 magnitude that are discovered in the MODEST survey. 2. A smaller sample of high area to mass ratio (AMR) objects discovered independently, and acquired using predictions from orbits derived from independent tracking data collected days prior to the observations. Our optical observations in standard astronomical BVRI filters are done with either telescope, and with the telescope tracking the debris object at the object's angular rate. Observations in different filters are obtained sequentially. We have obtained 71 calibrated sequences of R-B-V-I-R magnitudes. A total of 66 of these sequences have 3 or more good measurements in all filters (not contaminated by star streaks or in Earth's shadow). Most of these sequences show brightness variations, but a small subset has observed brightness variations consistent with that expected from observational errors alone. The majority of these stable objects are redder than a solar color in both B-R and R-I. There is no dependence on color with brightness. For a smaller sample of objects we have observed with synchronized CCD cameras on the two telescopes. The CTIO 0.9-m observes in B, and MODEST in R. The CCD cameras are electronically linked together so that the start time and

  4. Photometric Studies of Orbital Debris at GEO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitzer, Patrick; Cowardin, Heather M.; Barker, Ed; Abercromby, Kira J.; Foreman, Gary; Hortsman, Matt

    2009-01-01

    Orbital debris represents a significant and increasing risk to operational spacecraft. Here we report on photometric observations made in standard BVRI filters at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) in an effort to determine the physical characteristics of optically faint debris at geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO). Our sample is taken from GEO objects discovered in a survey with the University of Michigan s 0.6-m Curtis-Schmidt telescope (known as MODEST, for Michigan Orbital DEbris Survey Telescope), and then followed up in real-time with the CTIO/SMARTS 0.9-m for orbits and photometry. For a sample of 50 objects, calibrated sequences in RB- V-I-R filters have been obtained with the CTIO/SMARTS 0.9-m. For objects that do not show large brightness variations, the colors are largely redder than solar in both B-R and R-I. The width of the color distribution may be intrinsic to the nature of the surfaces, but also could imply that we are seeing irregularly shaped objects and measuring the colors at different times with just one telescope. For irregularly shaped objects tumbling at unknown orientations and rates, such sequential filter measurements using one telescope are subject to large errors for interpretation. If all observations in all filters in a particular sequence are of the same surface at the same solar and viewing angles, then the colors are meaningful. Where this is not the case, interpretation of the observed colors is impossible. For a smaller sample of objects we have observed with synchronized CCD cameras on the two telescopes. The CTIO/SMARTS 0.9-m observes in B, and the Schmidt in R. The CCD cameras are electronically linked together so that the start time and duration of observations are both the same to better than 50 milliseconds. Now the observed B-R color is a true measure of the scattered illuminated area of the debris piece for that observation.

  5. Photometric Studies of GEO Orbital Debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitzer, Patrick; Rodriquez-Cowardin, Heather M.; Barker, Ed; Abercromby, Kira J.; Foreman, Gary; Horstman, Matt

    2009-01-01

    The photometric signature of a debris object can be useful in determining what the physical characteristics of a piece of debris are. We report on optical observations in multiple filters of debris at geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO). Our sample is taken from GEO objects discovered in a survey with the University of Michigan's 0.6-m aperture Schmidt telescope MODEST (for Michigan Orbital DEbris Survey Telescope), and then followed up in real-time with the Cerro Tololo Inter- American Observatory (CTIO) 0.9-m for orbits and photometry. Our goal is to determine 6 parameter orbits and measure colors for all objects fainter than R=15th magnitude that are discovered in the MODEST survey. At this magnitude the distribution of observed angular rates changes significantly from that of brighter objects. There are two objectives: 1. Estimate the orbital distribution of objects selected on the basis of two observational criteria: brightness (magnitude) and angular rates. 2. Obtain magnitudes and colors in standard astronomical filters (BVRI) for comparison with reflectance spectra of likely spacecraft materials. What is the faint debris likely to be? More than 90 calibrated sequences of R-B-V-I-R magnitudes for a sample of 50 objects have been obtained with the CTIO 0.9-m. For objects that do not show large brightness variations, the colors are largely redder than solar in both B-R and R-I. The width of the color distribution may be intrinsic to the nature of the surfaces, but also could be that we are seeing irregularly shaped objects and measuring the colors at different times with just one telescope. For a smaller sample of objects we have observed with synchronized CCD cameras on the two telescopes. The CTIO 0.9-m observes in B, and MODEST in R. The CCD cameras are electronically linked together so that the start time and duration of observations are the same to better than 50 milliseconds. Thus the B-R color is a true measure of the surface of the debris piece facing the

  6. Photometric redshifts of galaxies from SDSS and 2MASS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Tao; Gu Qiusheng; Huang Jiasheng

    2009-01-01

    In order to find the physical parameters which determine the accuracy of photometric redshifts, we compare the spectroscopic and photometric redshifts (photo-z's) for a large sample of ∼ 80000 SDSS-2MASS galaxies. Photo-z's in this paper are estimated by using the artificial neural network photometric redshift method (ANNz). For a subset of ∼40000 randomly selected galaxies, we find that the photometric redshift recovers the spectroscopic redshift distribution very well with rms of 0.016. Our main results are as follows: (1) Using magnitudes directly as input parameters produces more accurate photo-z's than using colors; (2) The inclusion of 2MASS (J, H, K s ) bands does not improve photo-z's significantly, which indicates that near infrared data might not be important for the low-redshift sample; (3) Adding the concentration index (essentially the steepness of the galaxy brightness profile) as an extra input can improve the photo-z's estimation up to ∼ 10 percent; (4) Dividing the sample into early- and late-type galaxies by using the concentration index, normal and abnormal galaxies by using the emission line flux ratios, and red and blue galaxies by using color index (g - r), we can improve the accuracy of photo-z's significantly; (5) Our analysis shows that the outliers (where there is a big difference between the spectroscopic and photometric redshifts) are mainly correlated with galaxy types, e.g., most outliers are late-type (blue) galaxies.

  7. Flame dynamics of a meso-scale heat recirculating combustor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vijayan, V.; Gupta, A.K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

    2010-12-15

    The dynamics of premixed propane-air flame in a meso-scale ceramic combustor has been examined here. The flame characteristics in the combustor were examined by measuring the acoustic emissions and preheat temperatures together with high-speed cinematography. For the small-scale combustor, the volume to surface area ratio is small and hence the walls have significant effect on the global flame structure, flame location and flame dynamics. In addition to the flame-wall thermal coupling there is a coupling between flame and acoustics in the case of confined flames. Flame-wall thermal interactions lead to low frequency flame fluctuations ({proportional_to}100 Hz) depending upon the thermal response of the wall. However, the flame-acoustic interactions can result in a wide range of flame fluctuations ranging from few hundred Hz to few kHz. Wall temperature distribution is one of the factors that control the amount of reactant preheating which in turn effects the location of flame stabilization. Acoustic emission signals and high-speed flame imaging confirmed that for the present case flame-acoustic interactions have more significant effect on flame dynamics. Based on the acoustic emissions, five different flame regimes have been identified; whistling/harmonic mode, rich instability mode, lean instability mode, silent mode and pulsating flame mode. (author)

  8. Integration of a Fire Detector into a Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linford, R. M. F.

    1972-01-01

    A detector sensitive to only the ultraviolet radiation emitted by flames has been selected as the basic element of the NASA Skylab fire detection system. It is sensitive to approximately 10(exp -12)W of radiation and will detect small flames at distances in excess of 3m. The performance of the detector was verified by experiments in an aircraft flying zero-gravity parabolas to simulate the characteristics of a fire which the detector must sense. Extensive investigation and exacting design was necessary to exclude all possible sources of false alarms. Optical measurements were made on all the spacecraft windows to determine the amount of solar radiation transmitted. The lighting systems and the onboard experiments also were appraised for ultraviolet emissions. Proton-accelerator tests were performed to determine the interaction of the Earth's trapped radiation belts with the detectors and the design of the instrument was modified to negate these effects.

  9. Tulip flames: changes in shape of premixed flames propagating in closed tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn-Rankin, D.; Sawyer, R. F.

    The experimental results that are the subject of this communication provide high-speed schlieren images of the closed-tube flame shape that has come to be known as the tulip flame. The schlieren images, along with in-chamber pressure records, help demonstrate the effects of chamber length, equivalence ratio, and igniter geometry on formation of the tulip flame. The pressure/time records show distinct features which correlate with flame shape changes during the transition to tulip. The measurements indicate that the basic tulip flame formation is a robust phenomenon that depends on little except the overall geometry of the combustion vessel.

  10. Improvement of flame resistance of non-flame retardant cables by applying fire protection measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takemura, Yujiro; Segoshi, Yoshinori; Jinno, Susumu; Mii, Kazuki

    2017-01-01

    The new regulatory requirements, which were put in force after the Fukushima Daiichi accident, impose the use of flame retardant cables on the plant components having safety functions for the purpose of fire protection. However, some Japanese nuclear power plants built in the early days use non-flame retardant cables that do not pass the demonstration test to check for the flame resistance. To cope with the new regulatory requirements, a fire protection measure for non-flame retardant cables was introduced to assure flame resistance of non-flame retardant cables equivalent to or higher than that of flame retardant cables. To illustrate the fire protection measure, both non-flame retardant cables and its cable tray are covered with fire protection sheet fabricated from incombustible material to form an assembly. Considering the demonstration test results, it can be concluded that flame resistance performance of non-flame retardant cables equivalent to or higher than that of flame retardant cables can be assured by forming the assembly even if an external fire outside the assembly and internal cable fire inside the assembly are assumed. This paper introduces the design of the assembly consisting of a bundle of cables and a cable tray and summarizes the results of demonstration tests. (author)

  11. Impact of flame-wall interaction on premixed flame dynamics and transfer function characteristics

    KAUST Repository

    Kedia, K.S.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we numerically investigate the response of a perforated-plate stabilized laminar methane-air premixed flame to imposed inlet velocity perturbations. A flame model using detailed chemical kinetics mechanism is applied and heat exchange between the burner plate and the gas mixture is incorporated. Linear transfer functions, for low mean inlet velocity oscillations, are analyzed for different equivalence ratio, mean inlet velocity, plate thermal conductivity and distance between adjacent holes. The oscillations of the heat exchange rate at the top of the burner surface plays a critical role in driving the growth of the perturbations over a wide range of conditions, including resonance. The flame response to the perturbations at its base takes the form of consumption speed oscillations in this region. Flame stand-off distance increases/decreases when the flame-wall interaction strengthens/weakens, impacting the overall dynamics of the heat release. The convective lag between the perturbations and the flame base response govern the phase of heat release rate oscillations. There is an additional convective lag between the perturbations at the flame base and the flame tip which has a weaker impact on the heat release rate oscillations. At higher frequencies, the flame-wall interaction is weaker and the heat release oscillations are driven by the flame area oscillations. The response of the flame to higher amplitude oscillations are used to gain further insight into the mechanisms. © 2010 Published by Elsevier Inc. on behalf of The Combustion Institute. All rights reserved.

  12. Cosmological forecasts from photometric measurements of the angular correlation function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobreira, F.; Rosenfeld, R.; Simoni, F. de; Costa, L. A. N. da; Maia, M. A. G.; Makler, M.

    2011-01-01

    We study forecasts for the accuracy of the determination of cosmological parameters from future large-scale photometric surveys obtained using the full shape of the 2-point galaxy angular correlation function. The effects of linear redshift-space distortion, photometric redshift Gaussian errors, galaxy bias and nonlinearities in the power spectrum are included on our analysis. The Fisher information matrix is constructed with the full covariance matrix, including the correlation between nearby redshift shells arising from the photometric redshift error. We show that under some reasonable assumptions, a survey such as the imminent Dark Energy Survey should be able to constrain the dark energy equation of state parameter w and the cold dark matter density Ω cdm with a precision of the order of 20% and 13%, respectively, from the full shape of the angular correlation function alone. When combined with priors from other observations the precision in the determination of these parameters improve to 8% and 4%, respectively.

  13. Planck 2013 results. VIII. HFI photometric calibration and mapmaking

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P A R; Armitage-Caplan, C; Arnaud, M; Ashdown, M; Atrio-Barandela, F; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Banday, A J; Barreiro, R B; Battaner, E; Benabed, K; Benoît, A; Benoit-Lévy, A; Bernard, J -P; Bersanelli, M; Bertincourt, B; Bielewicz, P; Bobin, J; Bock, J J; Bond, J R; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F R; Boulanger, F; Bridges, M; Bucher, M; Burigana, C; Cardoso, J -F; Catalano, A; Challinor, A; Chamballu, A; Chary, R -R; Chen, X; Chiang, L -Y; Chiang, H C; Christensen, P R; Church, S; Clements, D L; Colombi, S; Colombo, L P L; Combet, C; Couchot, F; Coulais, A; Crill, B P; Curto, A; Cuttaia, F; Danese, L; Davies, R D; de Bernardis, P; de Rosa, A; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Delouis, J -M; Désert, F -X; Dickinson, C; Diego, J M; Dole, H; Donzelli, S; Doré, O; Douspis, M; Dupac, X; Efstathiou, G; Enßlin, T A; Eriksen, H K; Filliard, C; Finelli, F; Forni, O; Frailis, M; Franceschi, E; Galeotta, S; Ganga, K; Giard, M; Giardino, G; Giraud-Héraud, Y; González-Nuevo, J; Górski, K M; Gratton, S; Gregorio, A; Gruppuso, A; Hansen, F K; Hanson, D; Harrison, D; Helou, G; Henrot-Versillé, S; Hernández-Monteagudo, C; Herranz, D; Hildebrandt, S R; Hivon, E; Hobson, M; Holmes, W A; Hornstrup, A; Hovest, W; Huffenberger, K M; Jaffe, T R; Jaffe, A H; Jones, W C; Juvela, M; Keihänen, E; Keskitalo, R; Kisner, T S; Kneissl, R; Knoche, J; Knox, L; Kunz, M; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lagache, G; Lamarre, J -M; Lasenby, A; Laureijs, R J; Lawrence, C R; Jeune, M Le; Lellouch, E; Leonardi, R; Leroy, C; Lesgourgues, J; Liguori, M; Lilje, P B; Linden-Vørnle, M; López-Caniego, M; Lubin, P M; Macías-Pérez, J F; Maffei, B; Mandolesi, N; Maris, M; Marshall, D J; Martin, P G; Martínez-González, E; Masi, S; Matarrese, S; Matthai, F; Maurin, L; Mazzotta, P; McGehee, P; Meinhold, P R; Melchiorri, A; Mendes, L; Mennella, A; Migliaccio, M; Mitra, S; Miville-Deschênes, M -A; Moneti, A; Montier, L; Moreno, R; Morgante, G; Mortlock, D; Munshi, D; Murphy, J A; Naselsky, P; Nati, F; Natoli, P; Netterfield, C B; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H U; Noviello, F; Novikov, D; Novikov, I; Osborne, S; Oxborrow, C A; Paci, F; Pagano, L; Pajot, F; Paladini, R; Paoletti, D; Partridge, B; Pasian, F; Patanchon, G; Perdereau, O; Perotto, L; Perrotta, F; Piacentini, F; Piat, M; Pierpaoli, E; Pietrobon, D; Plaszczynski, S; Pointecouteau, E; Polenta, G; Ponthieu, N; Popa, L; Poutanen, T; Pratt, G W; Prézeau, G; Prunet, S; Puget, J -L; Rachen, J P; Reinecke, M; Remazeilles, M; Renault, C; Ricciardi, S; Riller, T; Ristorcelli, I; Rocha, G; Rosset, C; Roudier, G; Rusholme, B; Santos, D; Savini, G; Shellard, E P S; Spencer, L D; Starck, J -L; Stolyarov, V; Stompor, R; Sudiwala, R; Sunyaev, R; Sureau, F; Sutton, D; Suur-Uski, A -S; Sygnet, J -F; Tauber, J A; Tavagnacco, D; Techene, S; Terenzi, L; Tomasi, M; Tristram, M; Tucci, M; Umana, G; Valenziano, L; Valiviita, J; Van Tent, B; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Vittorio, N; Wade, L A; Wandelt, B D; Yvon, D; Zacchei, A; Zonca, A

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the processing applied to the HFI cleaned time-ordered data to produce photometrically calibrated maps. HFI observes the sky over a broad range of frequencies, from 100 to 857 GHz. To get the best accuracy on the calibration on such a large range, two different photometric calibration schemes have to be used. The 545 and 857 \\GHz\\ data are calibrated using Uranus and Neptune flux density measurements, compared with models of their atmospheric emissions to calibrate the data. The lower frequencies (below 353 GHz) are calibrated using the cosmological microwave background dipole.One of the components of this anisotropy results from the orbital motion of the satellite in the Solar System, and is therefore time-variable. Photometric calibration is thus tightly linked to mapmaking, which also addresses low frequency noise removal. The 2013 released HFI data show some evidence for apparent gain variations of the HFI bolometers' detection chain. These variations were identified by comparing obse...

  14. Morphological and photometric studies of galaxies by electronography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youll, D.P.

    1978-10-01

    Astronomical sources of low surface brightness, or sources with high luminosity gradients can be difficult to observe with photographic techniques. However, developments in electronographic techniques over recent years have made them suitable for precise observations of such objects. The use of these techniques for morphological and photometric studies of galaxies is discussed. Where appropriate, improvements in the methods for recovering information from electronographs, and analysing the data with computers are suggested. These techniques were used to study eight galaxy systems which have compact parts where the luminosity gradients are relatively high. Morphological studies of these systems are presented, together with measurements of some of their photometric parameters. The galaxy NGC 4881 was also studied so that the photometric calibration could be checked against previous studies, and so that the parameters of compact galaxies could be compared against this elliptical galaxy. (author)

  15. Photometric Analysis in the Kepler Science Operations Center Pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twicken, Joseph D.; Clarke, Bruce D.; Bryson, Stephen T.; Tenenbaum, Peter; Wu, Hayley; Jenkins, Jon M.; Girouard, Forrest; Klaus, Todd C.

    2010-01-01

    We describe the Photometric Analysis (PA) software component and its context in the Kepler Science Operations Center (SOC) pipeline. The primary tasks of this module are to compute the photometric flux and photocenters (centroids) for over 160,000 long cadence (thirty minute) and 512 short cadence (one minute) stellar targets from the calibrated pixels in their respective apertures. We discuss the science algorithms for long and short cadence PA: cosmic ray cleaning; background estimation and removal; aperture photometry; and flux-weighted centroiding. We discuss the end-to-end propagation of uncertainties for the science algorithms. Finally, we present examples of photometric apertures, raw flux light curves, and centroid time series from Kepler flight data. PA light curves, centroid time series, and barycentric timestamp corrections are exported to the Multi-mission Archive at Space Telescope [Science Institute] (MAST) and are made available to the general public in accordance with the NASA/Kepler data release policy.

  16. Photometric behavior of SS 433 in 1979 and 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazeh, T.; Tel Aviv University; Wise Observatory, Tel Aviv, Israel); Leibowitz, E.M.; Wise Observatory, Tel Aviv, Israel)

    1981-01-01

    Results and analysis of photometric measurements performed in the last two observing seasons of SS 433 are presented. The light of the star in the V and the B photometric bands varies with a period of either 6.55 or 6.43 days. The periodicity of approximately 164 days is also apparent in the photometric data, with its first and third harmonics. Fluctuations of the order of a half a magnitude within a few hours have also been recorded. The B-V color shows no dependence on the phase of the periodic variations, while it does change by up to 0.25 mag, in an apparent association with the short time scale fluctuations

  17. CHARACTERIZING AND PROPAGATING MODELING UNCERTAINTIES IN PHOTOMETRICALLY DERIVED REDSHIFT DISTRIBUTIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrahamse, Augusta; Knox, Lloyd; Schmidt, Samuel; Thorman, Paul; Anthony Tyson, J.; Zhan Hu

    2011-01-01

    The uncertainty in the redshift distributions of galaxies has a significant potential impact on the cosmological parameter values inferred from multi-band imaging surveys. The accuracy of the photometric redshifts measured in these surveys depends not only on the quality of the flux data, but also on a number of modeling assumptions that enter into both the training set and spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting methods of photometric redshift estimation. In this work we focus on the latter, considering two types of modeling uncertainties: uncertainties in the SED template set and uncertainties in the magnitude and type priors used in a Bayesian photometric redshift estimation method. We find that SED template selection effects dominate over magnitude prior errors. We introduce a method for parameterizing the resulting ignorance of the redshift distributions, and for propagating these uncertainties to uncertainties in cosmological parameters.

  18. Photometric imaging in particle size measurement and surface visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandler, Niklas

    2011-09-30

    The aim of this paper is to give an insight into photometric particle sizing approaches, which differ from the typical particle size measurement of dispersed particles. These approaches can often be advantageous especially for samples that are moist or cohesive, when dispersion of particles is difficult or sometimes impossible. The main focus of this paper is in the use of photometric stereo imaging. The technique allows the reconstruction of three-dimensional images of objects using multiple light sources in illumination. The use of photometric techniques is demonstrated in at-line measurement of granules and on-line measurement during granulation and dry milling. Also, surface visualization and roughness measurements are briefly discussed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. METAPHOR: Probability density estimation for machine learning based photometric redshifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaro, V.; Cavuoti, S.; Brescia, M.; Vellucci, C.; Tortora, C.; Longo, G.

    2017-06-01

    We present METAPHOR (Machine-learning Estimation Tool for Accurate PHOtometric Redshifts), a method able to provide a reliable PDF for photometric galaxy redshifts estimated through empirical techniques. METAPHOR is a modular workflow, mainly based on the MLPQNA neural network as internal engine to derive photometric galaxy redshifts, but giving the possibility to easily replace MLPQNA with any other method to predict photo-z's and their PDF. We present here the results about a validation test of the workflow on the galaxies from SDSS-DR9, showing also the universality of the method by replacing MLPQNA with KNN and Random Forest models. The validation test include also a comparison with the PDF's derived from a traditional SED template fitting method (Le Phare).

  20. Flame surface statistics of constant-pressure turbulent expanding premixed flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Abhishek; Chaudhuri, Swetaprovo; Law, Chung K.

    2014-04-01

    In this paper we investigate the local flame surface statistics of constant-pressure turbulent expanding flames. First the statistics of local length ratio is experimentally determined from high-speed planar Mie scattering images of spherically expanding flames, with the length ratio on the measurement plane, at predefined equiangular sectors, defined as the ratio of the actual flame length to the length of a circular-arc of radius equal to the average radius of the flame. Assuming isotropic distribution of such flame segments we then convolute suitable forms of the length-ratio probability distribution functions (pdfs) to arrive at the corresponding area-ratio pdfs. It is found that both the length ratio and area ratio pdfs are near log-normally distributed and shows self-similar behavior with increasing radius. Near log-normality and rather intermittent behavior of the flame-length ratio suggests similarity with dissipation rate quantities which stimulates multifractal analysis.

  1. CALIBRATING PHOTOMETRIC REDSHIFT DISTRIBUTIONS WITH CROSS-CORRELATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, A. E.

    2010-01-01

    The next generation of proposed galaxy surveys will increase the number of galaxies with photometric redshift identifications by two orders of magnitude, drastically expanding both the redshift range and detection threshold from the current state of the art. Obtaining spectra for a fair subsample of these new data could be cumbersome and expensive. However, adequate calibration of the true redshift distribution of galaxies is vital to tapping the potential of these surveys to illuminate the processes of galaxy evolution and to constrain the underlying cosmology and growth of structure. We examine here an alternative to direct spectroscopic follow-up: calibration of the redshift distribution of photometric galaxies via cross-correlation with an overlapping spectroscopic survey whose members trace the same density field. We review the theory, develop a pipeline to implement the method, apply it to mock data from N-body simulations, and examine the properties of this redshift distribution estimator. We demonstrate that the method is generally effective, but the estimator is weakened by two main factors. One is that the correlation function of the spectroscopic sample must be measured in many bins along the line of sight, which renders the measurement noisy and interferes with high-quality reconstruction of the photometric redshift distribution. Also, the method is not able to disentangle the photometric redshift distribution from redshift dependence in the bias of the photometric sample. We establish the impact of these factors using our mock catalogs. We conclude that it may still be necessary to spectroscopically follow up a fair subsample of the photometric survey data. Nonetheless, it is significant that the method has been successfully implemented on mock data, and with further refinement it may appreciably decrease the number of spectra that will be needed to calibrate future surveys.

  2. Photometric Redshifts with the LSST: Evaluating Survey Observing Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Melissa L.; Connolly, Andrew J.; Ivezić, Željko; Schmidt, Samuel J.; Jones, R. Lynne; Jurić, Mario; Daniel, Scott F.; Yoachim, Peter

    2018-01-01

    In this paper we present and characterize a nearest-neighbors color-matching photometric redshift estimator that features a direct relationship between the precision and accuracy of the input magnitudes and the output photometric redshifts. This aspect makes our estimator an ideal tool for evaluating the impact of changes to LSST survey parameters that affect the measurement errors of the photometry, which is the main motivation of our work (i.e., it is not intended to provide the “best” photometric redshifts for LSST data). We show how the photometric redshifts will improve with time over the 10 year LSST survey and confirm that the nominal distribution of visits per filter provides the most accurate photo-z results. The LSST survey strategy naturally produces observations over a range of airmass, which offers the opportunity of using an SED- and z-dependent atmospheric affect on the observed photometry as a color-independent redshift indicator. We show that measuring this airmass effect and including it as a prior has the potential to improve the photometric redshifts and can ameliorate extreme outliers, but that it will only be adequately measured for the brightest galaxies, which limits its overall impact on LSST photometric redshifts. We furthermore demonstrate how this airmass effect can induce a bias in the photo-z results, and caution against survey strategies that prioritize high-airmass observations for the purpose of improving this prior. Ultimately, we intend for this work to serve as a guide for the expectations and preparations of the LSST science community with regard to the minimum quality of photo-z as the survey progresses.

  3. Simulations of flame generated particles

    KAUST Repository

    Patterson, Robert

    2016-01-05

    The nonlinear structure of the equations describing the evolution of a population of coagulating particles in a flame make the use of stochastic particle methods attractive for numerical purposes. I will present an analysis of the stochastic fluctuations inherent in these numerical methods leading to an efficient sampling technique for steady-state problems. I will also give some examples where stochastic particle methods have been used to explore the effect of uncertain parameters in soot formation models. In conclusion I will try to indicate some of the issues in optimising these methods for the study of uncertain model parameters.

  4. Simulations of flame generated particles

    KAUST Repository

    Patterson, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The nonlinear structure of the equations describing the evolution of a population of coagulating particles in a flame make the use of stochastic particle methods attractive for numerical purposes. I will present an analysis of the stochastic fluctuations inherent in these numerical methods leading to an efficient sampling technique for steady-state problems. I will also give some examples where stochastic particle methods have been used to explore the effect of uncertain parameters in soot formation models. In conclusion I will try to indicate some of the issues in optimising these methods for the study of uncertain model parameters.

  5. Nonequilibrium theory of flame propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merzhanov, A.G.

    1995-01-01

    The nonequilibrium theory of flame propagation is considered as applied to the following three processes of wave propagation: the combustion waves of the second kind, the combustion waves with broad reaction zones, and the combustion waves with chemical stages. Kinetic and combustion wave parameters are presented for different in composition mixtures of boron and transition metals, such as Zr, Hf, Ti, Nb, Ta, Mo, as well as for the Ta-N, Zr-C-H, Nb-B-O systems to illustrate specific features of the above-mentioned processes [ru

  6. Chemical processes in the HNF flame

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ermolin, N.E.; Zarko, V.E.; Keizers, H.L.J.

    2006-01-01

    Results of modeling the HNF flame structure are presented. From an analysis of literature data on the thermal decomposition and combustion of HNF, it is concluded that the dissociative vaporization of HNF proceeds via the route HNFliq → (N2H4)g + (HC(NO 2)3)g. The flame structure is modeled using a

  7. Laser Doppler thermometry in flat flames

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maaren, van A.; Goey, de L.P.H.

    1994-01-01

    Laser Doppler Velocimetry measurements are performed in flat flames, stabilized on a newly developed flat-flame burner. It is shown that the velocity component perpendicular to the main flow direction, induced by expansion in the reaction zone and buoyancy in the burnt gas, is significant. A method

  8. Development of PIV for Microgravity Diffusion Flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Paul S.; Wernet, Mark P.; Yanis, William; Urban, David L.; Sunderland, Peter B.

    2003-01-01

    Results are presented from the application of Particle Image Velocimetry(PIV) to the overfire region of a laminar gas jet diffusion flame in normal gravity. A methane flame burning in air at 0.98 bar was considered. The apparatus demonstrated here is packaged in a drop rig designed for use in the 2.2 second drop tower.

  9. The application of an ultraviolet sensitive fire detector in a manned space vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linford, R. M. F.

    1971-01-01

    Description of a detector which is sensitive to the ultraviolet molecular emissions of flames and has been selected as the basic element of the NASA Skylab fire-detection system. This detector is sensitive to approximately 10 to the minus 12th watts of ultraviolet radiation and will detect small flames at distances in excess of three meters. Its response to a variety of burning spacecraft materials has been investigated both in one-gravity and zero-gravity. The results of experiments conducted in an aircraft flying zero-gravity parabolas in an attempt to simulate the characteristics of a fire which the detector must sense are cited.

  10. Photometric measurements of solar irradiance variations due to sunspots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, G.A.; Herzog, A.D.; Laico, D.E.; Lawrence, J.K.; Templer, M.S.

    1989-01-01

    A photometric telescope constructed to obtain photometric sunspot areas and deficits on a daily basis is described. Data from this Cartesian full disk telescope (CFDT) are analyzed with attention given to the period between June 4 and June 17, 1985 because of the availability of overlapping sunspot area and irradiance deficit data from high-resolution digital spectroheliograms made with the San Fernando Observatory 28 cm vacuum solar telescope and spectroheliograph. The CFDT sunspot deficits suggest a substantial irradiance contribution from faculae and active region plage. 23 refs

  11. Galaxy Tagging: photometric redshift refinement and group richness enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafle, P. R.; Robotham, A. S. G.; Driver, S. P.; Deeley, S.; Norberg, P.; Drinkwater, M. J.; Davies, L. J.

    2018-06-01

    We present a new scheme, galtag, for refining the photometric redshift measurements of faint galaxies by probabilistically tagging them to observed galaxy groups constructed from a brighter, magnitude-limited spectroscopy survey. First, this method is tested on the DESI light-cone data constructed on the GALFORM galaxy formation model to tests its validity. We then apply it to the photometric observations of galaxies in the Kilo-Degree Imaging Survey (KiDS) over a 1 deg2 region centred at 15h. This region contains Galaxy and Mass Assembly (GAMA) deep spectroscopic observations (i-bandhttps://github.com/pkaf/galtag.git.

  12. Photometric investigation of the magnetic star 53 Camelopardalis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muciek, M.; Gertner, J.; North, P.; Rufener, F.

    1985-01-01

    New photometric results obtained in the Geneva system are presented for the star 53 Cam. Earlier photometric results obtained in another system are used as well to show the existence of about four ''null-wavelength regions'' between 3400 and 7700 A and to draw the pseudocontinuum of this star. Assuming axisymmetry about the magnetic axis, a simple model of brightness and equivalent width distribution on the surface of the star are proposed. The distribution of the intensity of the γ 5200 depression is given and a slight inhomogeneity of the distribution of effective temperature is suggested. 28 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs. (author)

  13. [Determination of aluminium in flour foods with photometric method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lan; Zhao, Xin; Zhou, Shuang; Yang, Dajin

    2012-05-01

    To establish a determination method for aluminium in flour foods with photometric method. After samples being treated with microwave digestion and wet digestion, aluminium in staple flour foods was determined by photometric method. There was a good linearity of the result in the range of 0.25 - 5.0 microg/ml aluminium, r = 0.9998; limit of detection (LOD) : 2.3 ng/ml; limit of quantitation (LOQ) : 7 ng/ml. This method of determining aluminium in flour foods is simple, rapid and reliable.

  14. Kinematics and age of 15 stars-photometric solar analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeev, A. I.; Shimansky, V. V.

    2008-03-01

    The radial and space velocities are inferred for 15 stars that are photometric analogs of the Sun. The space velocity components (U, V, W) of most of these stars lie within the 10-60 km/s interval. The star HD 225239, which in our previous papers we classified as a subgiant, has a space velocity exceeding 100 km/s, and belongs to the thick disk. The inferred fundamental parameters of the atmospheres of solar analogs are combined with published evolutionary tracks to estimate the masses and ages of the stars studied. The kinematics of photometric analogs is compared to the data for a large group of solar-type stars.

  15. Photometric Calibration of Consumer Video Cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suggs, Robert; Swift, Wesley, Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Equipment and techniques have been developed to implement a method of photometric calibration of consumer video cameras for imaging of objects that are sufficiently narrow or sufficiently distant to be optically equivalent to point or line sources. Heretofore, it has been difficult to calibrate consumer video cameras, especially in cases of image saturation, because they exhibit nonlinear responses with dynamic ranges much smaller than those of scientific-grade video cameras. The present method not only takes this difficulty in stride but also makes it possible to extend effective dynamic ranges to several powers of ten beyond saturation levels. The method will likely be primarily useful in astronomical photometry. There are also potential commercial applications in medical and industrial imaging of point or line sources in the presence of saturation.This development was prompted by the need to measure brightnesses of debris in amateur video images of the breakup of the Space Shuttle Columbia. The purpose of these measurements is to use the brightness values to estimate relative masses of debris objects. In most of the images, the brightness of the main body of Columbia was found to exceed the dynamic ranges of the cameras. A similar problem arose a few years ago in the analysis of video images of Leonid meteors. The present method is a refined version of the calibration method developed to solve the Leonid calibration problem. In this method, one performs an endto- end calibration of the entire imaging system, including not only the imaging optics and imaging photodetector array but also analog tape recording and playback equipment (if used) and any frame grabber or other analog-to-digital converter (if used). To automatically incorporate the effects of nonlinearity and any other distortions into the calibration, the calibration images are processed in precisely the same manner as are the images of meteors, space-shuttle debris, or other objects that one seeks to

  16. Photometric Exoplanet Characterization and Multimedia Astronomy Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartier, Kimberly M. S.

    The transit method of detecting exoplanets has dominated the search for distant worlds since the success of the Kepler space telescope and will continue to lead the field after the launch of the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite in 2018. But detections are just the beginning. Transit light curves can only reveal a limited amount of information about a planet, and that information is almost entirely dependent on the properties of the host star or stars. This dissertation discusses follow-up techniques to more precisely characterize transiting planets using photometric observations. A high-resolution follow-up imaging program using the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) searched for previously unknown stars nearby the hosts of small and cool Kepler exoplanets and observed a higher-than-expected occurrence rate of stellar multiplicity. The rate of previously unknown stellar multiples has strong implications for the size and habitability of the orbiting planets. Three systems with newly discovered stellar multiplicity, Kepler-296 (2 stars, 5 planets), KOI-2626 (3 stars, 1 planet), and KOI-3049 (2 stars, 1 planet), were characterized in more detail. In the cases of Kepler-296 and KOI-2626, some of the planets lost their previous habitable zone status because of host star ambiguity. Next, the ultra-short period, ultra-hot Jupiter WASP-103b was used as a casestudy to test for the presence of a stratospheric temperature inversion through dayside emission spectroscopy using HST. WASP-103b's near-infrared emission spectrum is consistent with an isothermal or thermally-inverted atmosphere and shows no significant broadband water absorption feature. Detection of an anomalously strong "super- Rayleigh" slope in its optical transmission spectrum prompted follow-up transmission spectroscopy of WASP-103b's atmosphere using the MINiature Radial Velocity Array (MINERVA), which tentatively verified the unexplained "super-Rayleigh" spectral slope. The final follow-up technique for

  17. Gas chromatography with simultaneous detection: Ultraviolet spectroscopy, flame ionization, and mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gras, Ronda; Luong, Jim; Haddad, Paul R; Shellie, Robert A

    2018-05-08

    An effective analytical strategy was developed and implemented to exploit the synergy derived from three different detector classes for gas chromatography, namely ultraviolet spectroscopy, flame ionization, and mass spectrometry for volatile compound analysis. This strategy was achieved by successfully hyphenating a user-selectable multi-wavelength diode array detector featuring a positive temperature coefficient thermistor as an isothermal heater to a gas chromatograph. By exploiting the non-destructive nature of the diode array detector, the effluent from the detector was split to two parallel detectors; namely a quadrupole mass spectrometer and a flame ionization detector. This multi-hyphenated configuration with the use of three detectors is a powerful approach not only for selective detection enhancement but also for improvement in structural elucidation of volatile compounds where fewer fragments can be obtained or for isomeric compound analysis. With the diode array detector capable of generating high resolution gas phase spectra, the information collected provides useful confirmatory information without a total dependence on the chromatographic separation process which is based on retention time. This information-rich approach to chromatography is achieved without incurring extra analytical time, resulting in improvements in compound identification accuracy, analytical productivity, and cost. Chromatographic performance obtained from model compounds was found to be acceptable with a relative standard deviation of the retention times of less than 0.01% RSD, and a repeatability at two levels of concentration of 100 and 1000 ppm (v/v) of less than 5% (n = 10). With this configuration, correlation of data between the three detectors was simplified by having near identical retention times for the analytes studied. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Aerodynamic features of flames in premixed gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheim, A. K.

    1984-01-01

    A variety of experimentally established flame phenomena in premixed gases are interpreted by relating them to basic aerodynamic properties of the flow field. On this basis the essential mechanism of some well known characteristic features of flames stabilized in the wake of a bluff-body or propagating in ducts are revealed. Elementary components of the flame propagation process are shown to be: rotary motion, self-advancement, and expansion. Their consequences are analyzed under a most strict set of idealizations that permit the flow field to be treated as potential in character, while the flame is modelled as a Stefan-like interface capable of exerting a feed-back effect upon the flow field. The results provide an insight into the fundamental fluid-mechanical reasons for the experimentally observed distortions of the flame front, rationalizing in particular its ability to sustain relatively high flow velocities at amazingly low normal burning speeds.

  19. Flame spread along thermally thick horizontal rods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuera, F. J.

    2002-06-01

    An analysis is carried out of the spread of a flame along a horizontal solid fuel rod, for which a weak aiding natural convection flow is established in the underside of the rod by the action of the axial gradient of the pressure variation that gravity generates in the warm gas surrounding the flame. The spread rate is determined in the limit of infinitely fast kinetics, taking into account the effect of radiative losses from the solid surface. The effect of a small inclination of the rod is discussed, pointing out a continuous transition between upward and downward flame spread. Flame spread along flat-bottomed solid cylinders, for which the gradient of the hydrostatically generated pressure drives the flow both along and across the direction of flame propagation, is also analysed.

  20. Flame Structure and Emissions of Strongly-Pulsed Turbulent Diffusion Flames with Swirl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Ying-Hao

    This work studies the turbulent flame structure, the reaction-zone structure and the exhaust emissions of strongly-pulsed, non-premixed flames with co-flow swirl. The fuel injection is controlled by strongly-pulsing the fuel flow by a fast-response solenoid valve such that the fuel flow is completely shut off between pulses. This control strategy allows the fuel injection to be controlled over a wide range of operating conditions, allowing the flame structure to range from isolated fully-modulated puffs to interacting puffs to steady flames. The swirl level is controlled by varying the ratio of the volumetric flow rate of the tangential air to that of the axial air. For strongly-pulsed flames, both with and without swirl, the flame geometry is strongly impacted by the injection time. Flames appear to exhibit compact, puff-like structures for short injection times, while elongated flames, similar in behaviors to steady flames, occur for long injection times. The flames with swirl are found to be shorter for the same fuel injection conditions. The separation/interaction level between flame puffs in these flames is essentially governed by the jet-off time. The separation between flame puffs decreases as swirl is imposed, consistent with the decrease in flame puff celerity due to swirl. The decreased flame length and flame puff celerity are consistent with an increased rate of air entrainment due to swirl. The highest levels of CO emissions are generally found for compact, isolated flame puffs, consistent with the rapid quenching due to rapid dilution with excess air. The imposition of swirl generally results in a decrease in CO levels, suggesting more rapid and complete fuel/air mixing by imposing swirl in the co-flow stream. The levels of NO emissions for most cases are generally below the steady-flame value. The NO levels become comparable to the steady-flame value for sufficiently short jet-off time. The swirled co-flow air can, in some cases, increase the NO

  1. Experiment and Simulation of Autoignition in Jet Flames and its Relevance to Flame Stabilization and Structure

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Noman, Saeed M.

    2016-06-01

    Autoignition characteristics of pre-vaporized iso-octane, primary reference fuels, gasolines, and dimethyl ether (DME) have been investigated experimentally in a coflow with elevated temperature of air. With the coflow air at relatively low initial temperatures below autoignition temperature Tauto, an external ignition source was required to stabilize the flame. Non-autoignited lifted flames had tribrachial edge structures and their liftoff heights correlated well with the jet velocity scaled by the stoichiometric laminar burning velocity, indicating the importance of the edge propagation speed on flame stabilization balanced with local flow velocity. At high initial temperatures over Tauto, the autoignited flames were stabilized without requiring an external ignition source. The autoignited lifted flames exhibited either tribrachial edge structures or Mild combustion behaviors depending on the level of fuel dilution. For the iso-octane and n-heptane fuels, two distinct transition behaviors were observed in the autoignition regime from a nozzle-attached flame to a lifted tribrachial-edge flame and then a sudden transition to lifted Mild combustion as the jet velocity increased at a certain fuel dilution level. The liftoff data of the autoignited flames with tribrachial edges were analyzed based on calculated ignition delay times for the pre-vaporized fuels. Analysis of the experimental data suggested that ignition delay time may be much less sensitive to initial temperature under atmospheric pressure conditions as compared with predictions. For the gasoline fuels for advanced combustion engines (FACEs), and primary reference fuels (PRFs), autoignited liftoff data were correlated with Research Octane Number and Cetane Number. For the DME fuel, planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) of formaldehyde (CH2O) and CH* chemiluminescence were visualized qualitatively. In the autoignition regime for both tribrachial structure and mild combustion, formaldehyde were found

  2. Analysis of flame shapes in turbulent hydrogen jet flames with coaxial air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Hee Jang

    2009-01-01

    This paper addresses the characteristics of flame shapes and flame length in three types of coaxial air flames realizable by varying coaxial air and/or fuel velocity. Forcing coaxial air into turbulent jet flames induces substantial changes in flame shapes and NOx emissions through the complex flow interferences that exist within the mixing region. Mixing enhancement driven by coaxial air results in flame volume decrease, and such a diminished flame volume finally reduces NOx emissions significantly by decreasing NOx formation zone where a fuel/air mixture burns. It is found that mixing in the vicinity of high temperature zone mainly results from the increase of diffusive flux than the convective flux, and that the increase of mass diffusion is amplified as coaxial air is increased. Besides, it is reaffirmed that nonequilibrium chemistry including HO 2 /H 2 O 2 should be taken into account for NOx prediction and scaling analysis by comparing turbulent combustion models. In addition, it is found that coaxial air can break down the self-similarity law of flames by changing mixing mechanism, and that EINOx scaling parameters based on the self-similarity law of simple jet flames may not be eligible in coaxial air flames

  3. Analysis of flame shapes in turbulent hydrogen jet flames with coaxial air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Hee Jang [Korea Aerospace University, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-06-15

    This paper addresses the characteristics of flame shapes and flame length in three types of coaxial air flames realizable by varying coaxial air and/or fuel velocity. Forcing coaxial air into turbulent jet flames induces substantial changes in flame shapes and NOx emissions through the complex flow interferences that exist within the mixing region. Mixing enhancement driven by coaxial air results in flame volume decrease, and such a diminished flame volume finally reduces NOx emissions significantly by decreasing NOx formation zone where a fuel/air mixture burns. It is found that mixing in the vicinity of high temperature zone mainly results from the increase of diffusive flux than the convective flux, and that the increase of mass diffusion is amplified as coaxial air is increased. Besides, it is reaffirmed that nonequilibrium chemistry including HO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} should be taken into account for NOx prediction and scaling analysis by comparing turbulent combustion models. In addition, it is found that coaxial air can break down the self-similarity law of flames by changing mixing mechanism, and that EINOx scaling parameters based on the self-similarity law of simple jet flames may not be eligible in coaxial air flames

  4. Flame Structure and Chemiluminescence Emissions of Inverse Diffusion Flames under Sinusoidally Driven Plasma Discharges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Grazia De Giorgi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Reduction of nitric oxides (NOx in aircraft engines and in gas turbines by lean combustion is of great interest in the design of novel combustion systems. However, the stabilization of the flame under lean conditions is a main issue. In this context, the present work investigates the effects of sinusoidal dielectric barrier discharge (DBD on a lean inverse diffusive methane/air flame in a Bunsen-type burner under different actuation conditions. The flame appearance was investigated with fixed methane loading (mass flux, but with varying inner airflow rate. High-speed flame imaging was done by using an intensified (charge-coupled device CCD camera equipped with different optical filters in order to selectively record signals from the chemiluminescent species OH*, CH*, or CO2* to evaluate the flame behavior in presence of plasma actuation. The electrical power consumption was less than 33 W. It was evident that the plasma flame enhancement was significantly influenced by the plasma discharges, particularly at high inner airflow rates. The flame structure changes drastically when the dissipated plasma power increases. The flame area decreases due to the enhancement of mixing and chemical reactions that lead to a more anchored flame on the quartz exit with a reduction of the flame length.

  5. Thermal-diffusional Instability in White Dwarf Flames: Regimes of Flame Pulsation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xing, Guangzheng; Zhao, Yibo; Zhou, Cheng; Gao, Yang; Law, Chung K. [Center for Combustion Energy, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Modestov, Mikhail, E-mail: gaoyang-00@mails.tsinghua.edu.cn [Nordita, KTH Royal Institute of Technology and Stockholm University, SE-10691, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2017-05-20

    Thermal-diffusional pulsation behaviors in planar as well as outwardly and inwardly propagating white dwarf (WD) carbon flames are systematically studied. In the 1D numerical simulation, the asymptotic degenerate equation of state and simplified one-step reaction rates for nuclear reactions are used to study the flame propagation and pulsation in WDs. The numerical critical Zel’dovich numbers of planar flames at different densities ( ρ = 2, 3, and 4 × 10{sup 7} g cm{sup −3}) and of spherical flames (with curvature c = −0.01, 0, 0.01, and 0.05) at a particular density ( ρ = 2 × 10{sup 7} g cm{sup −3}) are presented. Flame front pulsation in different environmental densities and temperatures are obtained to form the regime diagram of pulsation, showing that carbon flames pulsate in the typical density of 2 × 10{sup 7} g cm{sup −3} and temperature of 0.6 × 10{sup 9} K. While being stable at higher temperatures, at relatively lower temperatures, the amplitude of the flame pulsation becomes larger. In outwardly propagating spherical flames the pulsation instability is enhanced and flames are also easier to quench due to pulsation at small radius, while the inwardly propagating flames are more stable.

  6. Morpho-z: improving photometric redshifts with galaxy morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soo, John Y. H.; Moraes, Bruno; Joachimi, Benjamin; Hartley, William; Lahav, Ofer; Charbonnier, Aldée; Makler, Martín; Pereira, Maria E. S.; Comparat, Johan; Erben, Thomas; Leauthaud, Alexie; Shan, Huanyuan; Van Waerbeke, Ludovic

    2018-04-01

    We conduct a comprehensive study of the effects of incorporating galaxy morphology information in photometric redshift estimation. Using machine learning methods, we assess the changes in the scatter and outlier fraction of photometric redshifts when galaxy size, ellipticity, Sérsic index, and surface brightness are included in training on galaxy samples from the SDSS and the CFHT Stripe-82 Survey (CS82). We show that by adding galaxy morphological parameters to full ugriz photometry, only mild improvements are obtained, while the gains are substantial in cases where fewer passbands are available. For instance, the combination of grz photometry and morphological parameters almost fully recovers the metrics of 5-band photometric redshifts. We demonstrate that with morphology it is possible to determine useful redshift distribution N(z) of galaxy samples without any colour information. We also find that the inclusion of quasar redshifts and associated object sizes in training improves the quality of photometric redshift catalogues, compensating for the lack of a good star-galaxy separator. We further show that morphological information can mitigate biases and scatter due to bad photometry. As an application, we derive both point estimates and posterior distributions of redshifts for the official CS82 catalogue, training on morphology and SDSS Stripe-82 ugriz bands when available. Our redshifts yield a 68th percentile error of 0.058(1 + z), and a outlier fraction of 5.2 per cent. We further include a deep extension trained on morphology and single i-band CS82 photometry.

  7. Photometric Observation and Light Curve Analysis of Binary System ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... Photometric Observation and Light Curve Analysis of Binary System ER-Orionis ... February to April 2008 with the 51 cm telescope of Biruni Observatory of Shiraz University in U, B and V filters (Johnson system) and an RCA 4509 photomultiplier. ... Articles are also visible in Web of Science immediately.

  8. Photometric Study of Fourteen Low-mass Binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korda, D.; Zasche, P.; Wolf, M.; Kučáková, H.; Vraštil, J.; Hoňková, K.

    2017-01-01

    New CCD photometric observations of fourteen short-period low-mass eclipsing binaries (LMBs) in the photometric filters I, R, and V were used for a light curve analysis. A discrepancy remains between observed radii and those derived from the theoretical modeling for LMBs, in general. Mass calibration of all observed LMBs was performed using only the photometric indices. The light curve modeling of these selected systems was completed, yielding the new derived masses and radii for both components. We compared these systems with the compilation of other known double-lined LMB systems with uncertainties of masses and radii less then 5%, which includes 66 components of binaries where both spectroscopy and photometry were combined together. All of our systems are circular short-period binaries, and for some of them, the photospheric spots were also used. A purely photometric study of the light curves without spectroscopy seems unable to achieve high enough precision and accuracy in the masses and radii to act as meaningful test of the M–R relation for low-mass stars.

  9. Stereoscopic and photometric surface reconstruction in scanning electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scherer, S.

    2000-01-01

    The scanning electron microscope (SEM) is one of the most important devices to examine microscopic structures as it offers images of a high contrast range with a large depth of focus. Nevertheless, three-dimensional measurements, as desired in fracture mechanics, have previously not been accomplished. This work presents a system for automatic, robust and dense surface reconstruction in scanning electron microscopy combining new approaches in shape from stereo and shape from photometric stereo. The basic theoretical assumption for a known adaptive window algorithm is shown not to hold in scanning electron microscopy. A constraint derived from this observation yields a new, simplified, hence faster calculation of the adaptive window. The correlation measure itself is obtained by a new ordinal measure coefficient. Shape from photometric stereo in the SEM is formulated by relating the image formation process with conventional photography. An iterative photometric ratio reconstruction is invented based on photometric ratios of backscatter electron images. The performance of the proposed system is evaluated using ground truth data obtained by three alternative shape recovery devices. Most experiments showed relative height accuracy within the tolerances of the alternative devices. (author)

  10. Classical variables in the era of space photometric missions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molnár L.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The space photometric missions like CoRoT and Kepler transformed our view of pulsating stars, including the well-known RR Lyrae and Cepheid classes. The K2, TESS and PLATO missions will expand these investigations to larger sample sizes and to specific stellar populations.

  11. Solving the uncalibrated photometric stereo problem using total variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quéau, Yvain; Lauze, Francois Bernard; Durou, Jean-Denis

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we propose a new method to solve the problem of uncalibrated photometric stereo, making very weak assumptions on the properties of the scene to be reconstructed. Our goal is to solve the generalized bas-relief ambiguity (GBR) by performing a total variation regularization of both...

  12. Photometric observations of Earth-impacting asteroid 2008 TC(3)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kozubal, M.; Gasdia, F.W.; Dantowitz, R.; Scheirich, Peter; Harris, A. W.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 4 (2011), s. 534-542 ISSN 1086-9379 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : asteroid * photometric observations Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 2.719, year: 2011

  13. PHOTOMETRIC EVIDENCE FOR THE OSMOTIC BEHAVIOR OF RAT LIVER MICROSOMES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedeschi, Henry; James, Joseph M.; Anthony, William

    1963-01-01

    Electron microscope observations are consistent with the interpretation that the elements of the endoplasmic reticulum are osmotically active in situ as well as after isolation. More recently, it has been reported that microsomal suspensions equilibrate almost completely with added C14-sucrose and that no osmotic behavior is evident from photometric data. These findings were considered at variance with the electron microscope data. However, equilibration with added label simply attests to a relatively high permeability, and, in addition, the photometric data need not be critical. Osmotic volume changes, measured photometrically, may be masked by concomitant events (e.g., changes in the refractive index of the test solutions at varying osmotic pressures, breakdown of the particles, and agglutination). For these reasons the photometric experiments were repeated. In this work, the reciprocal of optical density of microsomal suspensions was found to vary linearly with the reciprocal of concentration of the medium at constant refractive index. These changes probably correspond to osmotic volume changes, since the effect was found to be (a) independent of substance used and (b) osmotically reversible. The transmission of the suspension was found to vary with the refractive index of the medium, the concentration of particles, and the wavelength of incident light, according to relationships that are similar to or identical with those obtained for mitochondrial suspensions. PMID:14064105

  14. Photometric Study of Fourteen Low-mass Binaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korda, D.; Zasche, P.; Wolf, M.; Kučáková, H.; Vraštil, J. [Astronomical Institute, Charles University, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, CZ-180 00, Praha 8, V Holešovičkách 2 (Czech Republic); Hoňková, K., E-mail: korda@sirrah.troja.mff.cuni.cz [Variable Star and Exoplanet Section of Czech Astronomical Society, Vsetínská 941/78, CZ-757 01, Valašské Meziříčí (Czech Republic)

    2017-07-01

    New CCD photometric observations of fourteen short-period low-mass eclipsing binaries (LMBs) in the photometric filters I, R, and V were used for a light curve analysis. A discrepancy remains between observed radii and those derived from the theoretical modeling for LMBs, in general. Mass calibration of all observed LMBs was performed using only the photometric indices. The light curve modeling of these selected systems was completed, yielding the new derived masses and radii for both components. We compared these systems with the compilation of other known double-lined LMB systems with uncertainties of masses and radii less then 5%, which includes 66 components of binaries where both spectroscopy and photometry were combined together. All of our systems are circular short-period binaries, and for some of them, the photospheric spots were also used. A purely photometric study of the light curves without spectroscopy seems unable to achieve high enough precision and accuracy in the masses and radii to act as meaningful test of the M–R relation for low-mass stars.

  15. ESO & NOT photometric monitoring of the Cloverleaf quasar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ostensen, R; Remy, M; Lindblad, PO; Refsdal, S; Stabell, R; Surdej, J; Barthel, PD; Emanuelsen, PI; Festin, L; Gosset, E; Hainaut, O; Hakala, P; Hjelm, M; Hjorth, J; Hutsemekers, D; Jablonski, M; Kaas, AA; Kristen, H; Larsson, S; Magain, P; Pettersson, B; Pospieszalska-Surdej, A; Smette, A; Teuber, J; Thomsen, B; Van Drom, E

    1997-01-01

    The Cloverleaf quasar, H1413+117, has been photometrically monitored at ESO (La Silla, Chile) and with the NOT (La Palma, Spain) during the period 1987-1994. All good quality CCD frames have been successfully analysed using two independent methods (i.e. an automatic image decomposition technique and

  16. The Young Solar Analogs Project: Initial Photometric Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saken, Jon M.; Gray, R. O.; Corbally, C. J.

    2013-06-01

    Since 2007 we have been conducting spectroscopic monitoring of the Ca II H & K lines and G-band for a sample of 31 YSAs in order to better understand their activity cycles and variations, as well as the effects of young stars on their solar systems. The targets cover the spectral range of stars most likely to contain Earth analogs, F8-K2, and a broad enough range of ages, 0.3 Gyr - 1.5 Gyr, to investigate how activity level changes with stellar age. These studies are already showing possible evidence for activity cycles, large variations in starspot activity, and flaring events. In order to obtain a more complete picture of the nature of the stars' activity and examine the correlations between stellar brightness and chromospheric activity, we have started a complimentary campaign of photometric monitoring of these targets in Johnson B, V, and R, Stromgren v and H-alpha, with the use of a small robotic telescope dedicated to this project. This poster will present some results from the first year of photometric monitoring, focusing on the correlations between the photometric bands, and between the photometric and spectroscopic data, as well as an investigation of short-term (1-2 minutes) spectroscopic variations using data obtained earlier this year on the 1.8 m Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope (VATT).

  17. Photometric Observation and Light Curve Analysis of Binary System ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Photometric observations of the over-contact binary ER ORI were performed during November 2007 and February to April 2008 with the 51cm telescope of Biruni Observatory of Shiraz University in U, B and V filters (Johnson system) and an RCA 4509 photomultiplier. We used these data to obtain the light curves ...

  18. On the Photometric Error Calibration for the Differential Light Curves ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    a value of 1.75 was estimated using the DLCs derived for pairs of steady stars ... apparently steady comparison stars present on the same CCD frame. ...... (2)) on the 262 steady star–star DLCs after accounting for the photometric error.

  19. 21 CFR 862.2160 - Discrete photometric chemistry analyzer for clinical use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discrete photometric chemistry analyzer for... Clinical Laboratory Instruments § 862.2160 Discrete photometric chemistry analyzer for clinical use. (a) Identification. A discrete photometric chemistry analyzer for clinical use is a device intended to duplicate...

  20. The development of an electrochemical technique for in situ calibrating of combustible gas detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumar, J. W.; Lantz, J. B.; Schubert, F. H.

    1976-01-01

    A program to determine the feasibility of performing in situ calibration of combustible gas detectors was successfully completed. Several possible techniques for performing the in situ calibration were proposed. The approach that showed the most promise involved the use of a miniature water vapor electrolysis cell for the generation of hydrogen within the flame arrestor of a combustible gas detector to be used for the purpose of calibrating the combustible gas detectors. A preliminary breadboard of the in situ calibration hardware was designed, fabricated and assembled. The breadboard equipment consisted of a commercially available combustible gas detector, modified to incorporate a water vapor electrolysis cell, and the instrumentation required for controlling the water vapor electrolysis and controlling and calibrating the combustible gas detector. The results showed that operation of the water vapor electrolysis at a given current density for a specific time period resulted in the attainment of a hydrogen concentration plateau within the flame arrestor of the combustible gas detector.

  1. The FLAME project in Atomki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunyadi, M.; Iski, N.

    2011-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Eleven regions of eight Central European countries have launched the FLAME Project in 2010 (Future Laboratory for the diffusion and Application of innovation in Material Sciences and Engineering) to start and manage a new initiative of a network for innovation activities in the MS and E sector. The project aimed at supporting actors in the field of materials science and exploiting their research and commercial potentials. FLAME partners encourage trans-regional cooperation between R and D centres, universities, start-ups and SMEs by helping companies to distribute their innovations and supporting research in transferring results to the market. The project will implement a new cooperation model: the 'Future Lab', where duly trained 'regional facilitation coaches' will assist SMEs in accessing the whole Central European MS and E market and research potential. Each Future Lab will be specialized on thematic fields and help to make efficient use of local and regional potentials. The three Future Labs will be hosted by the Austrian, Italian and Slovenian partner organizations. Figure 1. Competence and innovation landscape on the FLAME website. Source: http://www.flameurope.eu/mse-actors-145.html As the first step of project implementation in 2011 the competence and innovation maps within the participating regions were elaborated in order to list the relevant actors in the MS and E sector (Figure 1). In 2011, each project partner delegated two regional professionals as facilitation coaches to attend four training weeks across Europe. The facilitation coaches play an active role in the exchange of information and in motivating collaboration between research institutions and enterprises on technology based projects. The training sessions were located at four of the project partners: Kapfenberg/Austria (lead partner - Area m Styria); Warsaw/Poland (PP2 - Warsaw University of Technology); Debrecen/Hungary (PP5 - Atomki); Milan/Italy (PP

  2. PHOTOMETRIC SUPERNOVA COSMOLOGY WITH BEAMS AND SDSS-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hlozek, Renee [Oxford Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Keble Road, Oxford, OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Kunz, Martin [Department de physique theorique, Universite de Geneve, 30, quai Ernest-Ansermet, CH-1211 Geneve 4 (Switzerland); Bassett, Bruce; Smith, Mat; Newling, James [African Institute for Mathematical Sciences, 68 Melrose Road, Muizenberg 7945 (South Africa); Varughese, Melvin [Department of Mathematics and Applied Mathematics, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch, Cape Town, 7700 (South Africa); Kessler, Rick; Frieman, Joshua [The Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, The University of Chicago, 933 East 56th Street, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Bernstein, Joseph P.; Kuhlmann, Steve; Marriner, John [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Campbell, Heather; Lampeitl, Hubert; Nichol, Robert C. [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, Dennis Sciama Building Burnaby Road Portsmouth PO1 3FX (United Kingdom); Dilday, Ben [Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, 6740 Cortona Drive, Suite 102, Goleta, CA 93117 (United States); Falck, Bridget; Riess, Adam G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Sako, Masao [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, 203 South 33rd Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Schneider, Donald P., E-mail: rhlozek@astro.princeton.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2012-06-20

    Supernova (SN) cosmology without spectroscopic confirmation is an exciting new frontier, which we address here with the Bayesian Estimation Applied to Multiple Species (BEAMS) algorithm and the full three years of data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey II Supernova Survey (SDSS-II SN). BEAMS is a Bayesian framework for using data from multiple species in statistical inference when one has the probability that each data point belongs to a given species, corresponding in this context to different types of SNe with their probabilities derived from their multi-band light curves. We run the BEAMS algorithm on both Gaussian and more realistic SNANA simulations with of order 10{sup 4} SNe, testing the algorithm against various pitfalls one might expect in the new and somewhat uncharted territory of photometric SN cosmology. We compare the performance of BEAMS to that of both mock spectroscopic surveys and photometric samples that have been cut using typical selection criteria. The latter typically either are biased due to contamination or have significantly larger contours in the cosmological parameters due to small data sets. We then apply BEAMS to the 792 SDSS-II photometric SNe with host spectroscopic redshifts. In this case, BEAMS reduces the area of the {Omega}{sub m}, {Omega}{sub {Lambda}} contours by a factor of three relative to the case where only spectroscopically confirmed data are used (297 SNe). In the case of flatness, the constraints obtained on the matter density applying BEAMS to the photometric SDSS-II data are {Omega}{sup BEAMS}{sub m} = 0.194 {+-} 0.07. This illustrates the potential power of BEAMS for future large photometric SN surveys such as Large Synoptic Survey Telescope.

  3. PHOTOMETRIC SUPERNOVA COSMOLOGY WITH BEAMS AND SDSS-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hlozek, Renée; Kunz, Martin; Bassett, Bruce; Smith, Mat; Newling, James; Varughese, Melvin; Kessler, Rick; Frieman, Joshua; Bernstein, Joseph P.; Kuhlmann, Steve; Marriner, John; Campbell, Heather; Lampeitl, Hubert; Nichol, Robert C.; Dilday, Ben; Falck, Bridget; Riess, Adam G.; Sako, Masao; Schneider, Donald P.

    2012-01-01

    Supernova (SN) cosmology without spectroscopic confirmation is an exciting new frontier, which we address here with the Bayesian Estimation Applied to Multiple Species (BEAMS) algorithm and the full three years of data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey II Supernova Survey (SDSS-II SN). BEAMS is a Bayesian framework for using data from multiple species in statistical inference when one has the probability that each data point belongs to a given species, corresponding in this context to different types of SNe with their probabilities derived from their multi-band light curves. We run the BEAMS algorithm on both Gaussian and more realistic SNANA simulations with of order 10 4 SNe, testing the algorithm against various pitfalls one might expect in the new and somewhat uncharted territory of photometric SN cosmology. We compare the performance of BEAMS to that of both mock spectroscopic surveys and photometric samples that have been cut using typical selection criteria. The latter typically either are biased due to contamination or have significantly larger contours in the cosmological parameters due to small data sets. We then apply BEAMS to the 792 SDSS-II photometric SNe with host spectroscopic redshifts. In this case, BEAMS reduces the area of the Ω m , Ω Λ contours by a factor of three relative to the case where only spectroscopically confirmed data are used (297 SNe). In the case of flatness, the constraints obtained on the matter density applying BEAMS to the photometric SDSS-II data are Ω BEAMS m = 0.194 ± 0.07. This illustrates the potential power of BEAMS for future large photometric SN surveys such as Large Synoptic Survey Telescope.

  4. The dilution effect on the extinction of wall diffusion flame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghiti Nadjib

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic process of the interaction between a turbulent jet diffusion methane flame and a lateral wall was experimentally studied. The evolution of the flame temperature field with the Nitrogen dilution of the methane jet flame was examined. The interaction between the diffusion flame and the lateral wall was investigated for different distance between the wall and the central axes of the jet flame. The dilution is found to play the central role in the flame extinction process. The flame response as the lateral wall approaches from infinity and the increasing of the dilution rate make the flame extinction more rapid than the flame without dilution, when the nitrogen dilution rate increase the flame temperature decrease.

  5. Prediction of flame formation in highly preheated air combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jang Sik; Choi, Gyung Min; Kim, Duck Jool; Katsuki, Masashi

    2008-01-01

    Fundamental information about the ignition position and shape of a flame in highly preheated air combustion was obtained, and the suitability of the suggested reduced kinetic mechanism that reflects the characteristics of the highly preheated air combustion was demonstrated. Flame lift height and flame length with variations of premixed air temperature and oxygen concentration were measured by CH chemiluminescence intensity, and were computed with a reduced kinetic mechanism. Flame attached near a fuel nozzle started to lift when preheated air temperature became close to auto-ignition temperature and/or oxygen concentration reduced. The flame lift height increased but the flame length decreased with decreasing preheated air temperature and flame length reversed after a minimum value. Calculated results showed good agreement with those of experiment within tolerable error. Flame shape shifted from diffusion flame shape to partial premixed flame shape with increasing lift height and this tendency was also observed in the computation results

  6. Prediction of flame formation in highly preheated air combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jang Sik; Choi, Gyung Min; Kim, Duck Jool [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Katsuki, Masashi [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan)

    2008-11-15

    Fundamental information about the ignition position and shape of a flame in highly preheated air combustion was obtained, and the suitability of the suggested reduced kinetic mechanism that reflects the characteristics of the highly preheated air combustion was demonstrated. Flame lift height and flame length with variations of premixed air temperature and oxygen concentration were measured by CH chemiluminescence intensity, and were computed with a reduced kinetic mechanism. Flame attached near a fuel nozzle started to lift when preheated air temperature became close to auto-ignition temperature and/or oxygen concentration reduced. The flame lift height increased but the flame length decreased with decreasing preheated air temperature and flame length reversed after a minimum value. Calculated results showed good agreement with those of experiment within tolerable error. Flame shape shifted from diffusion flame shape to partial premixed flame shape with increasing lift height and this tendency was also observed in the computation results

  7. Flame Speed and Self-Similar Propagation of Expanding Turbulent Premixed Flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhuri, Swetaprovo; Wu, Fujia; Zhu, Delin; Law, Chung K.

    2012-01-01

    In this Letter we present turbulent flame speeds and their scaling from experimental measurements on constant-pressure, unity Lewis number expanding turbulent flames, propagating in nearly homogeneous isotropic turbulence in a dual-chamber, fan-stirred vessel. It is found that the normalized turbulent flame speed as a function of the average radius scales as a turbulent Reynolds number to the one-half power, where the average radius is the length scale and the thermal diffusivity is the transport property, thus showing self-similar propagation. Utilizing this dependence it is found that the turbulent flame speeds from the present expanding flames and those from the Bunsen geometry in the literature can be unified by a turbulent Reynolds number based on flame length scales using recent theoretical results obtained by spectral closure of the transformed G equation.

  8. Systems and methods for controlling flame instability

    KAUST Repository

    Cha, Min Suk

    2016-07-21

    A system (62) for controlling flame instability comprising: a nozzle (66) coupled to a fuel supply line (70), an insulation housing (74) coupled to the nozzle, a combustor (78) coupled to the nozzle via the insulation housing, where the combustor is grounded (80), a pressure sensor (82) coupled to the combustor and configured to detect pressure in the combustor, and an instability controlling assembly coupled to the pressure sensor and to an alternating current power supply (86), where, the instability controlling assembly can control flame instability of a flame in the system based on pressure detected by the pressure sensor.

  9. Aromatics oxidation and soot formation in flames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard, J.B.; Pope, C.J.; Shandross, R.A.; Yadav, T. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge (United States)

    1993-12-01

    This project is concerned with the kinetics and mechanisms of aromatics oxidation and soot and fullerenes formation in flames. The scope includes detailed measurements of profiles of stable and radical species concentrations in low-pressure one-dimensional premixed flames. Intermediate species identifications and mole fractions, fluxes, and net reaction rates calculated from the measured profiles are used to test postulated reaction mechanisms. Particular objectives are to identify and to determine or confirm rate constants for the main benzene oxidation reactions in flames, and to characterize fullerenes and their formation mechanisms and kinetics.

  10. Structure of diffusion flames from a vertical burner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark A. Finney; Dan Jimenez; Jack D. Cohen; Isaac C. Grenfell; Cyle Wold

    2010-01-01

    Non-steady and turbulent flames are commonly observed to produce flame contacts with adjacent fuels during fire spread in a wide range of fuel bed depths. A stationary gas-fired burner (flame wall) was developed to begin study of flame edge variability along an analagous vertical fuel source. This flame wall is surrogate for a combustion interface at the edge of a deep...

  11. Direct numerical simulations of non-premixed ethylene-air flames: Local flame extinction criterion

    KAUST Repository

    Lecoustre, Vivien R.

    2014-11-01

    Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) of ethylene/air diffusion flame extinctions in decaying two-dimensional turbulence were performed. A Damköhler-number-based flame extinction criterion as provided by classical large activation energy asymptotic (AEA) theory is assessed for its validity in predicting flame extinction and compared to one based on Chemical Explosive Mode Analysis (CEMA) of the detailed chemistry. The DNS code solves compressible flow conservation equations using high order finite difference and explicit time integration schemes. The ethylene/air chemistry is simulated with a reduced mechanism that is generated based on the directed relation graph (DRG) based methods along with stiffness removal. The numerical configuration is an ethylene fuel strip embedded in ambient air and exposed to a prescribed decaying turbulent flow field. The emphasis of this study is on the several flame extinction events observed in contrived parametric simulations. A modified viscosity and changing pressure (MVCP) scheme was adopted in order to artificially manipulate the probability of flame extinction. Using MVCP, pressure was changed from the baseline case of 1 atm to 0.1 and 10 atm. In the high pressure MVCP case, the simulated flame is extinction-free, whereas in the low pressure MVCP case, the simulated flame features frequent extinction events and is close to global extinction. Results show that, despite its relative simplicity and provided that the global flame activation temperature is correctly calibrated, the AEA-based flame extinction criterion can accurately predict the simulated flame extinction events. It is also found that the AEA-based criterion provides predictions of flame extinction that are consistent with those provided by a CEMA-based criterion. This study supports the validity of a simple Damköhler-number-based criterion to predict flame extinction in engineering-level CFD models. © 2014 The Combustion Institute.

  12. WFC3 UVIS Detector Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunning, Heather C.; Baggett, Sylvia M.; Gosmeyer, Catherine; Bourque, Matthew; MacKenty, John W.; Anderson, Jay; WFC3 Team

    2015-01-01

    The Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) is a fourth-generation imaging instrument installed on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) during Servicing Mission 4 (SM4) in May 2000. WFC3 has two observational channels, UV/visible (UVIS) and infrared (IR); both have been performing well on-orbit. Since installation, the WFC3 team has been diligent in monitoring the performance of both detectors. The UVIS channel consists of two e2v, backside illuminated, 2Kx4K CCDs arranged in a 2x1 mosaic. We present results from some of the monitoring programs used to check various aspects of the UVIS detector. We discuss the growth trend of hot pixels and the efficacy of regular anneals in controlling the hot pixel population. We detail a pixel population with lowered-sensitivity that evolves during the time between anneals, and is largely reset by each anneal procedure. We discuss the stability of the post-flash LED lamp, used and recommended for CTE mitigation in observations with less than 12 e-/pixel backgrounds. Finally, we summarize long-term photometric trends of the UVIS detector, as well as the absolute gain measurement, used as a proxy for the on-orbit evolution of the UVIS channel.

  13. The Cousins of Stuxnet: Duqu, Flame, and Gauss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márk Félegyházi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Stuxnet was the first targeted malware that received worldwide attention forcausing physical damage in an industrial infrastructure seemingly isolated from the onlineworld. Stuxnet was a powerful targeted cyber-attack, and soon other malware samples were discovered that belong to this family. In this paper, we will first present our analysis of Duqu, an information-collecting malware sharing striking similarities with Stuxnet. Wedescribe our contributions in the investigation ranging from the original detection of Duquvia finding the dropper file to the design of a Duqu detector toolkit. We then continue with the analysis of the Flame advanced information-gathering malware. Flame is unique in thesense that it used advanced cryptographic techniques to masquerade as a legitimate proxyfor the Windows Update service. We also present the newest member of the family, called Gauss, whose unique feature is that one of its modules is encrypted such that it can onlybe decrypted on its target system; hence, the research community has not yet been able to analyze this module. For this particular malware, we designed a Gauss detector serviceand we are currently collecting intelligence information to be able to break its very specialencryption mechanism. Besides explaining the operation of these pieces of malware, wealso examine if and how they could have been detected by vigilant system administrators manually or in a semi-automated manner using available tools. Finally, we discuss lessonsthat the community can learn from these incidents. We focus on technical issues, and avoidspeculations on the origin of these threats and other geopolitical questions.

  14. Cryogenic detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zehnder, A.

    1987-01-01

    Presently the development of new large scale detector systems, used in very high energy physics experiments, is very active. In the low energy range, the introduction of charge coupled devices allows improved spacial and energy resolution. In the keV region, high resolution can only be achieved via the well established diffraction spectrometers with the well-known disadvantage of a small throughput. There exist no efficient detectors for non-ionizing radiation such as coherent nuclear scattering of weakly interacting particles. The development of high resolution solid state detectors in the keV-region with the possibility of nuclear recoil detection is therefore highly desired. Such detectors applied in astro and particle physics would thus allow one to obtain new information not achievable otherwise. Three types of cryogenic detectors exist: Calorimeters/Bolometers. This type is sensitive to the produced excess phonons and measures the deposited energy by detecting the heat pulses. Excess charge carriers should be used to produce phonons. Tunneling junctions. This type is sensitive to excess charge produced by the Cooper pair breakup. Excess phonons should be used to break up Cooper pairs. Superheated superconducting granules (SSG). An SSG detector consists of granules, the metastability of which is disturbed by radiation. The Meissner effect then causes a change in the field distribution of the applied external field, which can be detected. The present paper discusses the basic principle of calorimetric and tunneling junction detectors and some of their applications. 26 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  15. Effect of cylindrical confinement on the determination of laminar flame speeds using outwardly propagating flames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke, Michael P.; Chen, Zheng; Ju, Yiguang; Dryer, Frederick L. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2009-04-15

    The effect of nonspherical (i.e. cylindrical) bomb geometry on the evolution of outwardly propagating flames and the determination of laminar flame speeds using the conventional constant-pressure technique is investigated experimentally and theoretically. The cylindrical chamber boundary modifies the propagation rate through the interaction of the wall with the flow induced by thermal expansion across the flame (even with constant pressure), which leads to significant distortion of the flame surface for large flame radii. These departures from the unconfined case, especially the resulting nonzero burned gas velocities, can lead to significant errors in flame speeds calculated using the conventional assumptions, especially for large flame radii. For example, at a flame radius of 0.5 times the wall radius, the flame speed calculated neglecting confinement effects can be low by {proportional_to}15% (even with constant pressure). A methodology to estimate the effect of nonzero burned gas velocities on the measured flame speed in cylindrical chambers is presented. Modeling and experiments indicate that the effect of confinement can be neglected for flame radii less than 0.3 times the wall radius while still achieving acceptable accuracy (within 3%). The methodology is applied to correct the flame speed for nonzero burned gas speeds, in order to extend the range of flame radii useful for flame speed measurements. Under the proposed scaling, the burned gas speed can be well approximated as a function of only flame radius for a given chamber geometry - i.e. the correction function need only be determined once for an apparatus and then it can be used for any mixture. Results indicate that the flow correction can be used to extract flame speeds for flame radii up to 0.5 times the wall radius with somewhat larger, yet still acceptable uncertainties for the cases studied. Flow-corrected burning velocities are measured for hydrogen and syngas mixtures at atmospheric and

  16. Radial velocity variations of photometrically quiet, chromospherically inactive Kepler stars: A link between RV jitter and photometric flicker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastien, Fabienne A.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Pepper, Joshua [Physics and Astronomy Department, Vanderbilt University, 1807 Station B, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Wright, Jason T. [Center for Exoplanets and Habitable Worlds, 525 Davey Laboratory, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16803 (United States); Aigrain, Suzanne [Sub-department of Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Basri, Gibor [Astronomy Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Johnson, John A. [Department of Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, MC 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Howard, Andrew W. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Walkowicz, Lucianne M. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, 4 Ivy Lane, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2014-02-01

    We compare stellar photometric variability, as measured from Kepler light curves by Basri et al., with measurements of radial velocity (RV) rms variations of all California Planet Search overlap stars. We newly derive rotation periods from the Kepler light curves for all of the stars in our study sample. The RV variations reported herein range from less than 4 to 135 m s{sup –1}, yet the stars all have amplitudes of photometric variability less than 3 mmag, reflecting the preference of the RV program for chromospherically 'quiet' stars. Despite the small size of our sample, we find with high statistical significance that the RV rms manifests strongly in the Fourier power spectrum of the light curve: stars that are noisier in RV have a greater number of frequency components in the light curve. We also find that spot models of the observed light curves systematically underpredict the observed RV variations by factors of ∼2-1000, likely because the low-level photometric variations in our sample are driven by processes not included in simple spot models. The stars best fit by these models tend to have simpler light curves, dominated by a single relatively high-amplitude component of variability. Finally, we demonstrate that the RV rms behavior of our sample can be explained in the context of the photometric variability evolutionary diagram introduced by Bastien et al. We use this diagram to derive the surface gravities of the stars in our sample, revealing many of them to have moved off the main sequence. More generally, we find that the stars with the largest RV rms are those that have evolved onto the 'flicker floor' sequence in that diagram, characterized by relatively low amplitude but highly complex photometric variations which grow as the stars evolve to become subgiants.

  17. Detectors - Electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bregeault, J.; Gabriel, J.L.; Hierle, G.; Lebotlan, P.; Leconte, A.; Lelandais, J.; Mosrin, P.; Munsch, P.; Saur, H.; Tillier, J.

    1998-01-01

    The reports presents the main results obtained in the fields of radiation detectors and associated electronics. In the domain of X-ray gas detectors for the keV range efforts were undertaken to rise the detector efficiency. Multiple gap parallel plate chambers of different types as well as different types of X → e - converters were tested to improve the efficiency (values of 2.4% at 60 KeV were reached). In the field of scintillators a study of new crystals has been carried out (among which Lutetium orthosilicate). CdTe diode strips for obtaining X-ray imaging were studied. The complete study of a linear array of 8 CdTe pixels has been performed and certified. The results are encouraging and point to this method as a satisfying solution. Also, a large dimension programmable chamber was used to study the influence of temperature on the inorganic scintillators in an interval from -40 deg. C to +150 deg. C. Temperature effects on other detectors and electronic circuits were also investigated. In the report mentioned is also the work carried out for the realization of the DEMON neutron multidetector. For neutron halo experiments different large area Si detectors associated with solid and gas position detectors were realized. In the frame of a contract with COGEMA a systematic study of Li doped glasses was undertaken aiming at replacing with a neutron probe the 3 He counters presently utilized in pollution monitoring. An industrial prototype has been realised. Other studies were related to integrated analog chains, materials for Cherenkov detectors, scintillation probes for experiments on fundamental processes, gas position sensitive detectors, etc. In the field of associated electronics there are mentioned the works related to the multidetector INDRA, data acquisition, software gamma spectrometry, automatic gas pressure regulation in detectors, etc

  18. Hydrogen detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumagaya, Hiromichi; Yoshida, Kazuo; Sanada, Kazuo; Chigira, Sadao.

    1994-01-01

    The present invention concerns a hydrogen detector for detecting water-sodium reaction. The hydrogen detector comprises a sensor portion having coiled optical fibers and detects hydrogen on the basis of the increase of light transmission loss upon hydrogen absorption. In the hydrogen detector, optical fibers are wound around and welded to the outer circumference of a quartz rod, as well as the thickness of the clad layer of the optical fiber is reduced by etching. With such procedures, size of the hydrogen detecting sensor portion can be decreased easily. Further, since it can be used at high temperature, diffusion rate is improved to shorten the detection time. (N.H.)

  19. Gas-Flame Brazing of Metals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Asinovskaya, G

    1964-01-01

    .... Since a gas flame implies the presence of considerable heat, the term brazing will be used in this translation save where low heats are specifically indicated, or where both high and low heats...

  20. Systems and methods for controlling flame instability

    KAUST Repository

    Cha, Min; Xiong, Yuan; Chung, Suk-Ho

    2016-01-01

    A system (62) for controlling flame instability comprising: a nozzle (66) coupled to a fuel supply line (70), an insulation housing (74) coupled to the nozzle, a combustor (78) coupled to the nozzle via the insulation housing, where the combustor

  1. Nanocellular foam with solid flame retardant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang; Kelly-Rowley, Anne M.; Bunker, Shana P.; Costeux, Stephane

    2017-11-21

    Prepare nanofoam by (a) providing an aqueous solution of a flame retardant dissolved in an aqueous solvent, wherein the flame retardant is a solid at 23.degree. C. and 101 kiloPascals pressure when in neat form; (b) providing a fluid polymer composition selected from a solution of polymer dissolved in a water-miscible solvent or a latex of polymer particles in a continuous aqueous phase; (c) mixing the aqueous solution of flame retardant with the fluid polymer composition to form a mixture; (d) removing water and, if present, solvent from the mixture to produce a polymeric composition having less than 74 weight-percent flame retardant based on total polymeric composition weight; (e) compound the polymeric composition with a matrix polymer to form a matrix polymer composition; and (f) foam the matrix polymer composition into nanofoam having a porosity of at least 60 percent.

  2. Distribution of electric potential in hydrocarbon flames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fialkov, B.S.; Shcherbakov, N.D.; Plitsyn, V.T.

    1978-01-01

    A study was made of the distribution of electrical potential and temperatures in laminar methane and propane--butane flames when the excess air coefficient in the mixture is changed from 0 to 1.2. 7 references, 3 figures.

  3. CloudFlame: Cyberinfrastructure for combustion research

    KAUST Repository

    Goteng, Gokop; Nettyam, Naveena; Sarathy, Mani

    2013-01-01

    Combustion experiments and chemical kinetics simulations generate huge data that is computationally and data intensive. A cloud-based cyber infrastructure known as Cloud Flame is implemented to improve the computational efficiency, scalability

  4. Synthesis of Nano-Particles in Flames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Tue

    flame burner and a premixed burner with a precursor jet. The experimental setups and results are shown and discussed in detail. Alumina powder with specific surface area between 45 m2/g and 190 m2/g was obtained.Temperature and flow fields of the flame processes are analysed by numerical simulations...... energy expression.Furthermore, the model is validated by comparison with experimental data of the flame synthesis of titania by combustion of TiCl4 previously presented by Pratsinis et al. (1996).The combination of particle dynamics and CFD simulations has proved to be an efficient method......The scope of this work is to investigate the synthesis of aluminum oxide particles in flames from the combustion of an aluminum alkoxide precursor.A general introduction to particles formation in the gas phase is presented with emphasis on the mechanisms that control the particle morphology after...

  5. Numerical modelling of ion transport in flames

    KAUST Repository

    Han, Jie; Belhi, Memdouh; Bisetti, Fabrizio; Sarathy, Mani

    2015-01-01

    that changes in polarizability propagate with decreasing effect from binary transport coefficients to species number densities. We conclude that the chosen polarizability value has a limited effect on the ion distribution in freely propagating flames. We expect

  6. THE PHOTOMETRIC CLASSIFICATION SERVER FOR Pan-STARRS1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saglia, R. P.; Bender, R.; Seitz, S.; Senger, R.; Snigula, J.; Phleps, S.; Wilman, D.; Tonry, J. L.; Burgett, W. S.; Chambers, K. C.; Heasley, J. N.; Kaiser, N.; Magnier, E. A.; Morgan, J. S.; Greisel, N.; Bailer-Jones, C. A. L.; Klement, R. J.; Rix, H.-W.; Smith, K.; Green, P. J.

    2012-01-01

    The Pan-STARRS1 survey is obtaining multi-epoch imaging in five bands (g P1 r P1 i P1 z P1 y P1 ) over the entire sky north of declination –30 deg. We describe here the implementation of the Photometric Classification Server (PCS) for Pan-STARRS1. PCS will allow the automatic classification of objects into star/galaxy/quasar classes based on colors and the measurement of photometric redshifts for extragalactic objects, and will constrain stellar parameters for stellar objects, working at the catalog level. We present tests of the system based on high signal-to-noise photometry derived from the Medium-Deep Fields of Pan-STARRS1, using available spectroscopic surveys as training and/or verification sets. We show that the Pan-STARRS1 photometry delivers classifications and photometric redshifts as good as the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) photometry to the same magnitude limits. In particular, our preliminary results, based on this relatively limited data set down to the SDSS spectroscopic limits, and therefore potentially improvable, show that stars are correctly classified as such in 85% of cases, galaxies in 97%, and QSOs in 84%. False positives are less than 1% for galaxies, ≈19% for stars, and ≈28% for QSOs. Moreover, photometric redshifts for 1000 luminous red galaxies up to redshift 0.5 are determined to 2.4% precision (defined as 1.48 × Median|z phot – z spec |/(1 + z)) with just 0.4% catastrophic outliers and small (–0.5%) residual bias. For bluer galaxies up to the same redshift, the residual bias (on average –0.5%) trend, percentage of catastrophic failures (1.2%), and precision (4.2%) are higher, but still interestingly small for many science applications. Good photometric redshifts (to 5%) can be obtained for at most 60% of the QSOs of the sample. PCS will create a value-added catalog with classifications and photometric redshifts for eventually many millions of sources.

  7. Characterization of flame radiosity in shrubland fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel G. Cruz; Bret W. Butler; Domingos X. Viegas; Pedro Palheiro

    2011-01-01

    The present study is aimed at quantifying the flame radiosity vertical profile and gas temperature in moderate to high intensity spreading fires in shrubland fuels. We report on the results from 11 experimental fires conducted over a range of fire rate of spread and frontal fire intensity varying respectively between 0.04-0.35ms-1 and 468-14,973kWm-1. Flame radiosity,...

  8. DUMAND detector

    CERN Multimedia

    This object is one of the 256 other detectors of the DUMAND (Deep Underwater Muon And Neutrino Detection) experiment. The goal of the experiment was the construction of the first deep ocean high energy neutrino detector, to be placed at 4800 m depth in the Pacific Ocean off Keahole Point on the Big Island of Hawaii. A few years ago, a European conference with Cosmic experiments was organized at CERN as they were projects like DUMAND in Hawaii. Along with the conference, a temporary exhibition was organised as well. It was a collaboration of institutions from Germany, Japan, Switzerland and the U.S.A. CERN had borrowed equipment and objects from different institutes around the world, including this detector of the DUMAND experiment. Most of the equipment were sent back to the institutes, however this detector sphere was offered to a CERN member of the personnel.

  9. Detector applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pehl, R.H.

    1977-10-01

    Semiconductor detectors are now applied to a very wide range of problems. The combination of relatively low cost, excellent energy resolution, and simultaneous broad energy-spectrum analysis is uniquely suited to many applications in both basic and applied physics. Alternative techniques, such as magnetic spectrometers for charged-particle spectroscopy, while offering better energy resolution, are bulky, expensive, and usually far more difficult to use. Furthermore, they do not directly provide the broad energy-spectrum measurements easily accomplished using semiconductor detectors. Scintillation detectors, which are approximately equivalent to semiconductor detectors in convenience and cost, exhibit 10 to 100 times worse energy resolution. However, their high efficiency and large potential size recommend their use in some measurements

  10. NO concentration imaging in turbulent nonpremixed flames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schefer, R.W. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    The importance of NO as a pollutant species is well known. An understanding of the formation characteristics of NO in turbulent hydrocarbon flames is important to both the desired reduction of pollutant emissions and the validation of proposed models for turbulent reacting flows. Of particular interest is the relationship between NO formation and the local flame zone, in which the fuel is oxidized and primary heat release occurs. Planar imaging of NO provides the multipoint statistics needed to relate NO formation to the both the flame zone and the local turbulence characteristics. Planar imaging of NO has been demonstrated in turbulent flames where NO was seeded into the flow at high concentrations (2000 ppm) to determine the gas temperature distribution. The NO concentrations in these experiments were significantly higher than those expected in typical hydrocarbon-air flames, which require a much lower detectability limit for NO measurements. An imaging technique based on laser-induced fluorescence with sufficient sensitivity to study the NO formation mechanism in the stabilization region of turbulent lifted-jet methane flames.

  11. Conical quarl swirl stabilized non-premixed flames: flame and flow field interaction

    KAUST Repository

    Elbaz, Ayman M.; Roberts, William L.

    2017-01-01

    The flame-flow field interaction is studied in non-premixed methane swirl flames stabilized in quartz quarl via simultaneous measurements of the flow field using a stereo PIV and OH-PLIF at 5 KHz repetition rate. Under the same swirl intensity, two flames with different fuel jet velocity were investigated. The time-averaged flow field shows a unique flow pattern at the quarl exit, where two recirculation vortices are formed; a strong recirculation zone formed far from the quarl exit and a larger recirculation zone extending inside the quarl. However, the instantaneous images show that, the flow pattern near the quarl exit plays a vital role in the spatial location and structure of the reaction zone. In the low fuel jet velocity flame, a pair of vortical structures, located precisely at the corners of the quarl exit, cause the flame to roll up into the central region of low speed flow, where the flame sheet then tracks the axial velocity fluctuations. The vorticity field reveals a vortical structure surrounding the reaction zones, which reside on a layer of low compressive strain adjacent to that vortical structure. In the high fuel jet velocity flame, initially a laminar flame sheet resides at the inner shear layer of the main jet, along the interface between incoming fresh gas and high temperature recirculating gas. Further downstream, vortex breakdown alters the flame sheet path toward the central flame region. The lower reaction zones show good correlation to the regions of maximum vorticity and track the regions of low compressive strain associated with the inner shear layer of the jet flow. In both flames the reactions zones conform the passage of the large structure while remaining inside the low speed regions or at the inner shear layer.

  12. Conical quarl swirl stabilized non-premixed flames: flame and flow field interaction

    KAUST Repository

    Elbaz, Ayman M.

    2017-09-19

    The flame-flow field interaction is studied in non-premixed methane swirl flames stabilized in quartz quarl via simultaneous measurements of the flow field using a stereo PIV and OH-PLIF at 5 KHz repetition rate. Under the same swirl intensity, two flames with different fuel jet velocity were investigated. The time-averaged flow field shows a unique flow pattern at the quarl exit, where two recirculation vortices are formed; a strong recirculation zone formed far from the quarl exit and a larger recirculation zone extending inside the quarl. However, the instantaneous images show that, the flow pattern near the quarl exit plays a vital role in the spatial location and structure of the reaction zone. In the low fuel jet velocity flame, a pair of vortical structures, located precisely at the corners of the quarl exit, cause the flame to roll up into the central region of low speed flow, where the flame sheet then tracks the axial velocity fluctuations. The vorticity field reveals a vortical structure surrounding the reaction zones, which reside on a layer of low compressive strain adjacent to that vortical structure. In the high fuel jet velocity flame, initially a laminar flame sheet resides at the inner shear layer of the main jet, along the interface between incoming fresh gas and high temperature recirculating gas. Further downstream, vortex breakdown alters the flame sheet path toward the central flame region. The lower reaction zones show good correlation to the regions of maximum vorticity and track the regions of low compressive strain associated with the inner shear layer of the jet flow. In both flames the reactions zones conform the passage of the large structure while remaining inside the low speed regions or at the inner shear layer.

  13. Smoke detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryant, J.; Howes, J.H.; Smout, D.W.S.

    1979-01-01

    A smoke detector is described which provides a smoke sensing detector and an indicating device and in which a radioactive substance is used in conjunction with two ionisation chambers. The system includes an outer electrode, a collector electrode and an inner electrode which is made of or supports the radioactive substance which, in this case, is 241 Am. The invention takes advantage of the fact that smoke particles can be allowed to enter freely the inner ionisation chamber. (U.K.)

  14. Radiation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillies, W.

    1980-01-01

    The radiation detector for measuring e.g. a neutron flux consists of a central emitter, an insulating shell arranged around it, and a tube-shaped collector enclosing both. The emitter itself is composed of a great number of stranded, spiral wires of small diameter giving a defined flexibility to the detector. For emitter material Pt, Rh, V, Co, Ce, Os or Ta may be used. (DG) [de

  15. Split detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cederstrand, C.N.; Chism, H.R.

    1982-01-01

    A gas analyzer is disclosed which provides a dual channel capability for the simultaneous determination of the presence and concentration of two gases in a stream of sample gas and which has a single infrared source, a single sample cell, two infrared bandpass filters, and two infrared detectors. A separator between the filters and detectors prevents interchange of radiation between the filters. The separator is positioned by fitting it in a slot

  16. Preparation of Flame Retardant Modified with Titanate for Asphalt Binder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Improving the compatibility between flame retardant and asphalt is a difficult task due to the complex nature of the materials. This study explores a low dosage compound flame retardant and seeks to improve the compatibility between flame retardants and asphalt. An orthogonal experiment was designed taking magnesium hydroxide, ammonium polyphosphate, and melamine as factors. The oil absorption and activation index were tested to determine the effect of titanate on the flame retardant additive. The pavement performance test was conducted to evaluate the effect of the flame retardant additive. Oxygen index test was conducted to confirm the effect of flame retardant on flame ability of asphalt binder. The results of this study showed that the new composite flame retardant is more effective in improving the compatibility between flame retardant and asphalt and reducing the limiting oxygen index of asphalt binder tested in this study.

  17. A Photometric Machine-Learning Method to Infer Stellar Metallicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Adam A.

    2015-01-01

    Following its formation, a star's metal content is one of the few factors that can significantly alter its evolution. Measurements of stellar metallicity ([Fe/H]) typically require a spectrum, but spectroscopic surveys are limited to a few x 10(exp 6) targets; photometric surveys, on the other hand, have detected > 10(exp 9) stars. I present a new machine-learning method to predict [Fe/H] from photometric colors measured by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). The training set consists of approx. 120,000 stars with SDSS photometry and reliable [Fe/H] measurements from the SEGUE Stellar Parameters Pipeline (SSPP). For bright stars (g' learning method is similar to the scatter in [Fe/H] measurements from low-resolution spectra..

  18. Selective extraction-photometric determination of cadmium by basic dyes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kish, P P; Balog, J S [Uzhgorodskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (Ukrainian SSR)

    1979-12-01

    Two variants of selective extraction-photometric determination of cadmium with basic dyes have been developed. In the first one, cadmium is extracted as the iodide by a tributyl phosphate solution in benzene from aqueous solutions containing 0.1 M KI (pH 6-10). Then the cadmium is transformed into a coloured ion associate by treatment of the extracts with Malachite Green in the presence of iodide ions. In the second case, the extract is equilibrated with an equeous solutions of Rhodamine B in the presence of KBr. In this variant, the cadmium is transformed into an anionic iodide-bromide complex which reacts with Rhodamine B cations to form an ion associate. Procedures have been developed of selective extraction-photometric determination of cadmium in sulphur, indium-gallium and zinc concentrates, Zn-As-Cd-Se and Zn-As-Cd-Te films, Cd-S-In and Ga-Sb-Cd-Te alloys.

  19. A Photometric Machine-Learning Method to Infer Stellar Metallicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Adam A.

    2015-01-01

    Following its formation, a star's metal content is one of the few factors that can significantly alter its evolution. Measurements of stellar metallicity ([Fe/H]) typically require a spectrum, but spectroscopic surveys are limited to a few x 10(exp 6) targets; photometric surveys, on the other hand, have detected > 10(exp 9) stars. I present a new machine-learning method to predict [Fe/H] from photometric colors measured by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). The training set consists of approx. 120,000 stars with SDSS photometry and reliable [Fe/H] measurements from the SEGUE Stellar Parameters Pipeline (SSPP). For bright stars (g' machine-learning method is similar to the scatter in [Fe/H] measurements from low-resolution spectra..

  20. Photometric study of the pulsating, eclipsing binary OO DRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, X. B.; Deng, L. C.; Tian, J. F.; Wang, K.; Yan, Z. Z.; Luo, C. Q.; Sun, J. J.; Liu, Q. L.; Xin, H. Q.; Zhou, Q.; Luo, Z. Q.

    2014-01-01

    We present a comprehensive photometric study of the pulsating, eclipsing binary OO Dra. Simultaneous B- and V-band photometry of the star was carried out on 14 nights. A revised orbital period and a new ephemeris were derived from the data. The first photometric solution of the binary system and the physical parameters of the component stars are determined. They reveal that OO Dra could be a detached system with a less-massive secondary component nearly filling its Roche lobe. By subtracting the eclipsing light changes from the data, we obtained the intrinsic pulsating light curves of the hotter, massive primary component. A frequency analysis of the residual light yields two confident pulsation modes in both B- and V-band data with the dominant frequency detected at 41.865 c/d. A brief discussion concerning the evolutionary status and the pulsation nature of the binary system is finally given.

  1. Physical characterization of asteroid surfaces from photometric analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helfenstein, P.; Veverka, J.

    1989-01-01

    Rigorous photometric models, like Hapke's equation, can be applied to the analysis of disk-integrated phase curves in order to estimate a variety of regolith physical properties (average particle single-scattering albedo, particle transparency, soil compaction and large-scale roughness). Unfortunately, unambiguous interpretation is difficult due to uncertainties introduced by the irregular shapes of many asteroids and because Earth-based observations are often restricted to small phase angles (<30 degrees). In this chapter, the authors explore in detail how incomplete phase-angle coverage and nonsphericity of asteroids limits the reliable determination of Hapke's photometric parameters from asteroid phase curves. From obtainable Earth-based observations, it is possible to derive useful relative comparisons of single-scattering albedos, opposition-surge amplitudes, and regolith compaction states for different asteroids

  2. An optrode for photometric detection of ammonia in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzanovskii, V. A.

    2017-10-01

    A scheme of constructing an LED optrode for photometric detection of ammonia in air is considered. The components of the device are (1) a glass plate coated with a film of polydimethylsiloxane with an ion-coupled cation of brilliant-green dye, (2) an LED emitting at a wavelength of 655 nm, and (3) a metal housing. The nominal static conversion function, sensitivity, and relative measurement error of the device are analyzed on the basis of mathematical modeling. The obtained results allow one to design an LED optrode capable of carrying out control for automated technological processes, solving problems in the area of security, etc. The device provides the ability to create photometric gas analyzers of ammonia with small overall dimensions, power consumption, and cost.

  3. Blowoff dynamics of bluff body stabilized turbulent premixed flames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaudhuri, Swetaprovo; Kostka, Stanislav; Renfro, Michael W.; Cetegen, Baki M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Connecticut, 191 Auditorium Road, U-3139, Storrs, CT 06269 (United States)

    2010-04-15

    This article concerns the flame dynamics of a bluff body stabilized turbulent premixed flame as it approaches lean blowoff. Time resolved chemiluminescence imaging along with simultaneous particle image velocimetry and OH planar laser-induced fluorescence were utilized in an axisymmetric bluff body stabilized, propane-air flame to determine the sequence of events leading to blowoff and provide a quantitative analysis of the experimental results. It was found that as lean blowoff is approached by reduction of equivalence ratio, flame speed decreases and the flame shape progressively changes from a conical to a columnar shape. For a stably burning conical flame away from blowoff, the flame front envelopes the shear layer vortices. Near blowoff, the columnar flame front and shear layer vortices overlap to induce high local stretch rates that exceed the extinction stretch rates instantaneously and in the mean, resulting in local flame extinction along the shear layers. Following shear layer extinction, fresh reactants can pass through the shear layers to react within the recirculation zone with all other parts of the flame extinguished. This flame kernel within the recirculation zone may survive for a few milliseconds and can reignite the shear layers such that the entire flame is reestablished for a short period. This extinction and reignition event can happen several times before final blowoff which occurs when the flame kernel fails to reignite the shear layers and ultimately leads to total flame extinguishment. (author)

  4. MYRaf: A new Approach with IRAF for Astronomical Photometric Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Y.; Shameoni Niaei, M.; Özeren, F. F.; Yesilyaprak, C.

    2016-12-01

    In this study, the design and some developments of MYRaf software for astronomical photometric reduction are presented. MYRaf software is an easy to use, reliable, and has a fast IRAF aperture photometry GUI tools. MYRaf software is an important step for the automated software process of robotic telescopes, and uses IRAF, PyRAF, matplotlib, ginga, alipy, and Sextractor with the general-purpose and high-level programming language Python and uses the QT framework.

  5. Photometric classification and redshift estimation of LSST Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Mi; Kuhlmann, Steve; Wang, Yun; Kovacs, Eve

    2018-04-01

    Supernova (SN) classification and redshift estimation using photometric data only have become very important for the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST), given the large number of SNe that LSST will observe and the impossibility of spectroscopically following up all the SNe. We investigate the performance of a SN classifier that uses SN colors to classify LSST SNe with the Random Forest classification algorithm. Our classifier results in an AUC of 0.98 which represents excellent classification. We are able to obtain a photometric SN sample containing 99% SNe Ia by choosing a probability threshold. We estimate the photometric redshifts (photo-z) of SNe in our sample by fitting the SN light curves using the SALT2 model with nested sampling. We obtain a mean bias () of 0.012 with σ ( z_phot-z_spec/1+z_spec) = 0.0294 without using a host-galaxy photo-z prior, and a mean bias () of 0.0017 with σ ( z_phot-z_spec/1+z_spec) = 0.0116 using a host-galaxy photo-z prior. Assuming a flat ΛCDM model with Ωm = 0.3, we obtain Ωm of 0.305 ± 0.008 (statistical errors only), using the simulated LSST sample of photometric SNe Ia (with intrinsic scatter σint = 0.11) derived using our methodology without using host-galaxy photo-z prior. Our method will help boost the power of SNe from the LSST as cosmological probes.

  6. Low-Cost Photometric Calibration for Interactive Relighting

    OpenAIRE

    Loscos , Céline; Drettakis , George

    2000-01-01

    International audience; Computer augmented reality is a rapidly emerging field allowing users to mix virtual and real worlds. Our interest is to allow relighting and remodelling of real scenes, using a reflectance estimation method. Most previous work focused on the quality of the results without considering the expense in computation and the price of acquisition equipment. In this paper, we present a low–cost photometric calibration method which improves the reflectance estimate of real scen...

  7. Extractive photometric determination of zirconium in magnetic alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutyrev, I.M.; Chernysheva, G.M.; Basargin, N.N.; Mikheev, N.I.

    1996-01-01

    A method for extractive photometric determination of Zr in magnetic alloys is presented. Extractive system - trioctylamine in toluene -H 2 SO 4 -Zr ensure selective and rapid (in single extraction) separation of Zr from Fe(3), Fe(2), Co, Ni, Cu, Al, Ti, Cr(3), Mn, Si, P, Nb, and Ta. The reliability of the method is confirmed in determination of Zr in the standerd sample SS 132c

  8. Determinação de metil-etil-cetona em amostras de urina com amostragem por micro extração em fase sólida (MEFS em headspace associada à cromatografia gasosa com detector de ionização de chama (CG-DIC Determination of methyl ethyl ketone in urine samples by headspace solid phase micro extraction (SPME sampling associated to gas chromatography with flame-ionization detectoR (GC-FID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Venzon Antunes

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Methyl ethyl ketone (MEK is a solvent commonly used in chemical, paint and shoe industry. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a method for urinary quantification of MEK, employing headspace solid phase micro extraction sampling (SPME coupled to gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID. The calibration curve (y=4.6851x-0.0011 presented good linearity with r²=0.9993. Accuracy (94-109%, intra-assay precision (4.07-5.91% and inter-assay precision (3.03-5.62% were acceptable. The quantification limit was 0.19 mg/L. This low cost method can be used routinely in the biological monitoring of occupational exposure to MEK, according to the requirements of the Brazilian legislation.

  9. Flame synthesis of zinc oxide nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merchan-Merchan, Wilson, E-mail: wmerchan-merchan@ou.edu [School of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Farahani, Moien Farmahini [School of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019 (United States)

    2013-02-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We report a single-step flame method for the synthesis of Zn oxide nanocrystals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Diverse flame positions lead to a variation of Zn oxide nanocrystal growth. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The synthesized crystals have polyhedral, pipet- and needle-like shape. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High length-to-diameter aspect-ratio crystals appear in a higher temperature flame. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The crystal growth mechanism corresponds to vapor-to-solid conversion. - Abstract: Distinctive zinc oxide (ZnO) nanocrystals were synthesized on the surface of Zn probes using a counter-flow flame medium formed by methane/acetylene and oxygen-enriched air streams. The source material, a zinc wire with a purity of {approx}99.99% and diameter of 1 mm, was introduced through a sleeve into the oxygen rich region of the flame. The position of the probe/sleeve was varied within the flame medium resulting in growth variation of ZnO nanocrystals on the surface of the probe. The shape and structural parameters of the grown crystals strongly depend on the flame position. Structural variations of the synthesized crystals include single-crystalline ZnO nanorods and microprisms (ZMPs) (the ZMPs have less than a few micrometers in length and several hundred nanometers in cross section) with a large number of facets and complex axial symmetry with a nanorod protruding from their tips. The protruding rods are less than 100 nm in diameter and lengths are less than 1 {mu}m. The protruding nanorods can be elongated several times by increasing the residence time of the probe/sleeve inside the oxygen-rich flame or by varying the flame position. At different flame heights, nanorods having higher length-to-diameter aspect-ratio can be synthesized. A lattice spacing of {approx}0.26 nm was measured for the synthesized nanorods, which can be closely correlated with the (0 0 2) interplanar spacing of hexagonal ZnO (Wurtzite) cells

  10. Flame Structure of Vitiated Fuel-Rich Inverse Diffusion Flames in a Cross-Flow (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    downstream of the slot. The flame length increases as the blowing ratio increases as a result of the greater mass of air which reacts. Ignition of...attributed to the greater penetration of the jet into the cross-stream. It is noted that the flame lengths are similar for the different blowing ratios

  11. Laminar Flame Speeds of Gasoline Surrogates Measured with the Flat Flame Method

    KAUST Repository

    Liao, Y.-H.; Roberts, William L.

    2016-01-01

    © 2016 American Chemical Society. The adiabatic, laminar flame speeds of gasoline surrogates at atmospheric pressure over a range of equivalence ratios of = 0.8-1.3 and unburned gas temperatures of 298-400 K are measured with the flat flame method

  12. On the dynamics of flame edges in diffusion-flame/vortex interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermanns, Miguel; Linan, Amable [Departamento de Motopropulsion y Termofluidodinamica, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Pza. Cardenal Cisneros 3, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Vera, Marcos [Area de Mecanica de Fluidos, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911 Leganes (Spain)

    2007-04-15

    We analyze the local flame extinction and reignition of a counterflow diffusion flame perturbed by a laminar vortex ring. Local flame extinction leads to the appearance of flame edges separating the burning and extinguished regions of the distorted mixing layer. The dynamics of these edges is modeled based on previous numerical results, with heat release effects fully taken into account, which provide the propagation velocity of triple and edge flames in terms of the upstream unperturbed value of the scalar dissipation. The temporal evolution of the mixing layer is determined using the classical mixture fraction approach, with both unsteady and curvature effects taken into account. Although variable density effects play an important role in exothermic reacting mixing layers, in this paper the description of the mixing layer is carried out using the constant density approximation, leading to a simplified analytical description of the flow field. The mathematical model reveals the relevant nondimensional parameters governing diffusion-flame/vortex interactions and provides the parameter range for the more relevant regime of local flame extinction followed by reignition via flame edges. Despite the simplicity of the model, the results show very good agreement with previously published experimental results. (author)

  13. Dynamical and photometric models of star formation in tidal tails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallin, J.F.

    1990-01-01

    An investigation into the causes of star formation in tidal tails has been conducted using a restricted three-body dynamical model in conjunction with a broadband photometric evolutionary code. Test particles are initially placed in circular orbits around a softened point mass and then perturbed by a companion passing in a parabotic orbit. During the passage, the density evolution of the galaxy is examined both in regions within the disk and in selected comoving regions in the tidal features. Even without the inclusion of self-gravity and hydrodynamics, regions of compression form inside the disk, along the tidal tail, and in the tidal bridge causing local density increases of up to 500 percent. By assuming that the density changes relate to the star-formation rate via a Schmidt (1959) law, limits on the density changes needed to make detectable changes in the colors are calculated. A spiral galaxy population is synthesized and the effects of modest changes in the star-formation rate are explored using a broadband photometric evolutionary code. Density changes similar to those found in the dynamical models will cause detectable changes in the colors of a stellar population. From these models, it is determined that the blue colors and knotty features observed in the tidal features of some galaxies result from increased rates of star formation induced by tidally produced density increases. Limitations of this model are discussed along with photometric evolutionary models based on the density evolution in the tails. 52 refs

  14. ArborZ: PHOTOMETRIC REDSHIFTS USING BOOSTED DECISION TREES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerdes, David W.; Sypniewski, Adam J.; McKay, Timothy A.; Hao, Jiangang; Weis, Matthew R.; Wechsler, Risa H.; Busha, Michael T.

    2010-01-01

    Precision photometric redshifts will be essential for extracting cosmological parameters from the next generation of wide-area imaging surveys. In this paper, we introduce a photometric redshift algorithm, ArborZ, based on the machine-learning technique of boosted decision trees. We study the algorithm using galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and from mock catalogs intended to simulate both the SDSS and the upcoming Dark Energy Survey. We show that it improves upon the performance of existing algorithms. Moreover, the method naturally leads to the reconstruction of a full probability density function (PDF) for the photometric redshift of each galaxy, not merely a single 'best estimate' and error, and also provides a photo-z quality figure of merit for each galaxy that can be used to reject outliers. We show that the stacked PDFs yield a more accurate reconstruction of the redshift distribution N(z). We discuss limitations of the current algorithm and ideas for future work.

  15. Photometric Calibration of the SPRED at the FTU Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    May, M J

    1999-01-01

    The SPRED spectrometer was photometrically calibrated by using the FTU tokamak plasma and the Grazing Incidence Time Resolving Spectrometer (GRITS) from the Johns Hopkins University [Stratton, Nucl. Fusion, Vol. 24, No. 6, pp. 767-777, 1984]. The photometric calibration of the GRITS spectrometer was transferred to the SPRED [Fonck, R.J., Applied Optics, Vol. 21, No. 12, p. 2115 (1982)] by directly comparing the intensity of bright lines emitted from the FTU tokamak plasma that were simultaneously measured by both spectrometers. The GRITS spectrometer (λ = 10 - 360 (angstrom); Δλ ∼ 0.7 (angstrom)) was photometrically calibrated in the 50 - 360 (angstrom) spectral range at the SURF II synchrotron light source at NIST in Gaithersburg MD in August 1997. The calibration of each SPRED grating was performed separately. These gratings covered the short wavelengths: 100 - 300 (angstrom)(Δλ - 1.4 (angstrom)) and the long wavelengths: 200 - 1800 (angstrom) (Δλ ∼ 7 (angstrom)). This calibration should be accurate until the microchannel plate of the SPRED is exposed to atmospheric pressure. This calibration is similar to the one obtained by Stratton [Stratton, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 57 (8), pp. 204,3 August 1986

  16. Multicolor photometric study of M31 globular clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Zhou; Ma Jun; Zhou Xu

    2009-01-01

    We present the photometry of 30 globular clusters (GCs) and GC candidates in 15 intermediate-band filters covering the wavelength region from ∼3000 to ∼10000 A using the archival CCD images of M31 observed as part of the Beijing - Arizona - Taiwan - Connecticut (BATC) Multicolor Sky Survey. We transform these intermediate-band photometric data into the photometry in the standard U BV RI broad-bands. These M31 GC candidates are selected from the Revised Bologna Catalog (RBC V.3.5), and most of these candidates do not have any photometric data. Therefore, the presented photometric data are a supplement to the RBC V.3.5. We find that 4 out of 61 GCs and GC candidates in RBC V.3.5 do not show any signal on the BATC images at their locations. By applying a linear fit of the distribution in the color-magnitude diagram of blue GCs and GC candidates using data from the RBC V.3.5, in this study, we find the 'blue-tilt' of blue M31 GCs with a high confidence at 99.95% or 3.47σ for the confirmed GCs, and > 99.99% or 4.87σ for GCs and GC candidates. (research papers)

  17. Infrared and CCD photometric study of spiral galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manousoyannaki, I.

    1986-01-01

    Infrared J (1.2 μm), H (1.6 μm), and K (2.2 μm) photometry is presented for a subsample of galaxies with morphological types of Sc and Sb of the sample types Sc and Sb of the sample by Rubin et al. and one edge-on spiral galaxy. After an overview of the science of infrared photometry, accurate photometric magnitudes are derived via curves of growth that have been computed using a compiled catalogue of galaxies observed in the infrared. The catalogue is presented in Appendix I. The photometric data are used to derive mass to light ratio distribution and the colors for each galaxy. Several correlations of photometric and dynamical quantities are examined and discussed as integral properties of the two morphological types. The main result of this analysis is that the mass to H-light ratio is independent of radius and of H-luminosity and is a good measure of the stellar component of the galaxy. Emphasis is placed on the Tully-Fisher, absolute magnitude vs log (rotational velocity), relation and its application to derive distances of galaxies. The data are used to derive surface brightness distribution profiles and decompose the profiles to spheroidal and disk components. The radial distribution of color in these galaxies is also discussed

  18. A simple micro-photometric method for urinary iodine determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Gabriele; Lindorfer, Heidelinde; Kieweg, Heidi; Marculescu, Rodrig; Hoffmann, Martha; Gessl, Alois; Sager, Manfred; Bieglmayer, Christian

    2011-10-01

    Urinary iodide concentration (UIC) is useful to evaluate nutritional iodine status. In clinical settings UIC helps to exclude blocking of the thyroid gland by excessive endogenous iodine, if diagnostic or therapeutic administration of radio-iodine is indicated. Therefore, this study established a simple test for the measurement of UIC. UIC was analyzed in urine samples of 200 patients. Samples were pre-treated at 95°C for 45 min with ammonium persulfate in a thermal cycler, followed by a photometric Sandell-Kolthoff reaction (SK) carried out in microtiter plates. For method comparison, UIC was analyzed in 30 samples by inductivity coupled plasma mass spectro-metry (ICP-MS) as a reference method. Incubation conditions were optimized concerning recovery. The photometric test correlated well to the reference method (SK=0.91*ICP-MS+1, r=0.962) and presented with a functional sensitivity of 20 μg/L. UIC of patient samples ranged from photometric test provides satisfactory results and can be performed with the basic equipment of a clinical laboratory.

  19. Sloan Digital Sky Survey photometric telescope automation and observing software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eric H. Neilsen, Jr.; email = neilsen@fnal.gov

    2002-01-01

    The photometric telescope (PT) provides observations necessary for the photometric calibration of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). Because the attention of the observing staff is occupied by the operation of the 2.5 meter telescope which takes the survey data proper, the PT must reliably take data with little supervision. In this paper we describe the PT's observing program, MOP, which automates most tasks necessary for observing. MOP's automated target selection is closely modeled on the actions a human observer might take, and is built upon a user interface that can be (and has been) used for manual operation. This results in an interface that makes it easy for an observer to track the activities of the automating procedures and intervene with minimum disturbance when necessary. MOP selects targets from the same list of standard star and calibration fields presented to the user, and chooses standard star fields covering ranges of airmass, color, and time necessary to monitor atmospheric extinction and produce a photometric solution. The software determines when additional standard star fields are unnecessary, and selects survey calibration fields according to availability and priority. Other automated features of MOP, such as maintaining the focus and keeping a night log, are also built around still functional manual interfaces, allowing the observer to be as active in observing as desired; MOP's automated features may be used as tools for manual observing, ignored entirely, or allowed to run the telescope with minimal supervision when taking routine data

  20. A PHOTOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF SEVENTEEN BINARY STARS USING SPECKLE IMAGING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, James W.; Baptista, Brian J.; Horch, Elliott P.; Franz, Otto; Van Altena, William F.

    2009-01-01

    Magnitude differences obtained from speckle imaging are used in combination with other data in the literature to place the components of binary star systems on the H-R diagram. Isochrones are compared with the positions obtained, and a best-fit isochrone is determined for each system, yielding both masses of the components as well as an age range consistent with the system parameters. Seventeen systems are studied, 12 of which were observed with the 0.6 m Lowell-Tololo Telescope at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory and six of which were observed with the WIYN 3.5 m Telescope (The WIYN Observatory is a joint facility of the University of Wisconsin-Madison, Indiana University, Yale University, and the National Optical Astronomy Observatories) at Kitt Peak. One system was observed from both sites. In comparing photometric masses to mass information from orbit determinations, we find that the photometric masses agree very well with the dynamical masses, and are generally more precise. For three systems, no dynamical masses exist at present, and therefore the photometrically determined values are the first mass estimates derived for these components.

  1. Derivation of photometric redshifts for the 3XMM catalogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgantopoulos, I.; Corral, A.; Mountrichas, G.; Ruiz, A.; Masoura, V.; Fotopoulou, S.; Watson, M.

    2017-10-01

    We present the results from our ESA Prodex project that aims to derive photometric redshifts for the 3XMM catalogue. The 3XMM DR-6 offers the largest X-ray survey, containing 470,000 unique sources over 1000 sq. degrees. We cross-correlate the X-ray positions with optical and near-IR catalogues using Bayesian statistics. The optical catalogue used so far is the SDSS while currently we are employing the recently released PANSTARRS catalogue. In the near IR we use the Viking, VHS, UKIDS surveys and also the WISE W1 and W2 filters. The estimation of photometric redshifts is based on the TPZ software. The training sample is based on X-ray selected samples with available SDSS spectroscopy. We present here the results for the 40,000 3XMM sources with available SDSS counterparts. Our analysis provides very reliable photometric redshifts with sigma(mad)=0.05 and a fraction of outliers of 8% for the optically extended sources. We discuss the wide range of applications that are feasible using this unprecedented resource.

  2. Turbulence-flame interactions in DNS of a laboratory high Karlovitz premixed turbulent jet flame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haiou; Hawkes, Evatt R.; Chen, Jacqueline H.

    2016-09-01

    In the present work, direct numerical simulation (DNS) of a laboratory premixed turbulent jet flame was performed to study turbulence-flame interactions. The turbulent flame features moderate Reynolds number and high Karlovitz number (Ka). The orientations of the flame normal vector n, the vorticity vector ω and the principal strain rate eigenvectors ei are examined. The in-plane and out-of-plane angles are introduced to quantify the vector orientations, which also measure the flame geometry and the vortical structures. A general observation is that the distributions of these angles are more isotropic downstream as the flame and the flow become more developed. The out-of-plane angle of the flame normal vector, β, is a key parameter in developing the correction of 2D measurements to estimate the corresponding 3D quantities. The DNS results show that the correction factor is unity at the inlet and approaches its theoretical value of an isotropic distribution downstream. The alignment characteristics of n, ω and ei, which reflect the interactions of turbulence and flame, are also studied. Similar to a passive scalar gradient in non-reacting flows, the flame normal has a tendency to align with the most compressive strain rate, e3, in the flame, indicating that turbulence contributes to the production of scalar gradient. The vorticity dynamics are examined via the vortex stretching term, which was found to be the predominant source of vorticity generation balanced by dissipation, in the enstrophy transport equation. It is found that although the vorticity preferentially aligns with the intermediate strain rate, e2, the contribution of the most extensive strain rate, e1, to vortex stretching is comparable with that of the intermediate strain rate, e2. This is because the eigenvalue of the most extensive strain rate, λ1, is always large and positive. It is confirmed that the vorticity vector is preferentially positioned along the flame tangential plane, contributing

  3. Combined contactless conductometric, photometric, and fluorimetric single point detector for capillary separation methods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ryvolová, M.; Preisler, J.; Foret, František; Hauser, P.C.; Krásenský, P.; Paull, B.; Macka, M.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 82, č. 1 (2010), s. 129-135 ISSN 0003-2700 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06023 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : induced flourescence detection * light-emitting -diode * conductivity detection Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 5.874, year: 2010

  4. Mid-cervical flame-shaped pseudo-occlusion: diagnostic performance of mid-cervical flame-shaped extracranial internal carotid artery sign on computed tomographic angiography in hyperacute ischemic stroke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prakkamakul, Supada; Pitakvej, Nantaporn [King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital the Thai Red Cross Society, Department of Radiology, Bangkok (Thailand); Dumrongpisutikul, Netsiri; Lerdlum, Sukalaya [King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital the Thai Red Cross Society, Department of Radiology, Bangkok (Thailand); Chulalongkorn University, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Bangkok (Thailand)

    2017-10-15

    Flame-shaped pseudo-occlusion of the extracranial internal carotid artery (ICA) is a flow-related phenomenon that creates computed tomographic angiography (CTA) and digital subtraction angiography (DSA) findings that mimic tandem intracranial-extracranial ICA occlusion or dissection. We aim to determine the diagnostic performance of mid-cervical flame-shaped extracranial ICA sign on CTA in hyperacute ischemic stroke patients. We retrospectively included consecutive anterior circulation ischemic stroke patients presenting within 6 h of symptom onset who underwent 4D brain CTA and arterial-phase neck CTA using a 320-detector CT scanner during August 2012 to July 2015. Two blinded readers independently reviewed arterial-phase neck CTA and characterized the extracranial ICA configurations into mid-cervical flame-shaped, proximal blunt/beak-shaped, and tubular-shaped groups. 4D whole brain CTA was used as a reference standard for intracranial ICA occlusion detection. Diagnostic performance of the mid-cervical flame-shaped extracranial ICA sign and interobserver reliability were calculated. Of the 81 cases, 11 had isolated intracranial ICA occlusion, and 6 had true extracranial ICA occlusion. Mid-cervical flame-shaped extracranial ICA sign was found in 45.5% (5/11) of isolated intracranial ICA occlusions but none in the true extracranial ICA occlusion group. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and accuracy of the mid-cervical flame-shaped extracranial ICA sign for the detection of isolated intracranial ICA occlusion were 45.5, 100, 100, 92.1, and 92.6%, respectively. Interobserver reliability was 0.90. The mid-cervical flame-shaped extracranial ICA sign may suggest the presence of isolated intracranial ICA occlusion and allow reliable exclusion of tandem extracranial-intracranial ICA occlusion in hyperacute ischemic stroke setting. (orig.)

  5. Mid-cervical flame-shaped pseudo-occlusion: diagnostic performance of mid-cervical flame-shaped extracranial internal carotid artery sign on computed tomographic angiography in hyperacute ischemic stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prakkamakul, Supada; Pitakvej, Nantaporn; Dumrongpisutikul, Netsiri; Lerdlum, Sukalaya

    2017-01-01

    Flame-shaped pseudo-occlusion of the extracranial internal carotid artery (ICA) is a flow-related phenomenon that creates computed tomographic angiography (CTA) and digital subtraction angiography (DSA) findings that mimic tandem intracranial-extracranial ICA occlusion or dissection. We aim to determine the diagnostic performance of mid-cervical flame-shaped extracranial ICA sign on CTA in hyperacute ischemic stroke patients. We retrospectively included consecutive anterior circulation ischemic stroke patients presenting within 6 h of symptom onset who underwent 4D brain CTA and arterial-phase neck CTA using a 320-detector CT scanner during August 2012 to July 2015. Two blinded readers independently reviewed arterial-phase neck CTA and characterized the extracranial ICA configurations into mid-cervical flame-shaped, proximal blunt/beak-shaped, and tubular-shaped groups. 4D whole brain CTA was used as a reference standard for intracranial ICA occlusion detection. Diagnostic performance of the mid-cervical flame-shaped extracranial ICA sign and interobserver reliability were calculated. Of the 81 cases, 11 had isolated intracranial ICA occlusion, and 6 had true extracranial ICA occlusion. Mid-cervical flame-shaped extracranial ICA sign was found in 45.5% (5/11) of isolated intracranial ICA occlusions but none in the true extracranial ICA occlusion group. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and accuracy of the mid-cervical flame-shaped extracranial ICA sign for the detection of isolated intracranial ICA occlusion were 45.5, 100, 100, 92.1, and 92.6%, respectively. Interobserver reliability was 0.90. The mid-cervical flame-shaped extracranial ICA sign may suggest the presence of isolated intracranial ICA occlusion and allow reliable exclusion of tandem extracranial-intracranial ICA occlusion in hyperacute ischemic stroke setting. (orig.)

  6. Flame Quenching Dynamics of High Velocity Flames in Rectangular Cross-section Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Mahuthannan, Ariff Magdoom; Lacoste, Deanna; Damazo, Jason; Kwon, Eddie; Roberts, William L.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding flame quenching for different conditions is necessary to develop safety devices like flame arrestors. In practical applications, the speed of a deflagration in the lab-fixed reference frame will be a strong function of the geometry through which the deflagration propagates. This study reports on the effect of the flame speed, at the entrance of a quenching section, on the quenching distance. A 2D rectangular channel joining two main spherical vessels is considered for studying this effect. Two different velocity regimes are investigated and referred to as configurations A, and B. For configuration A, the velocity of the flame is 20 m/s, while it is about 100 m/s for configuration B. Methane-air stoichiometric mixtures at 1 bar and 298 K are used. Simultaneous dynamic pressure measurements along with schlieren imaging are used to analyze the quenching of the flame. Risk assessment of re-ignition is also reported and analyzed.

  7. Flame Quenching Dynamics of High Velocity Flames in Rectangular Cross-section Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Mahuthannan, Ariff Magdoom

    2017-01-05

    Understanding flame quenching for different conditions is necessary to develop safety devices like flame arrestors. In practical applications, the speed of a deflagration in the lab-fixed reference frame will be a strong function of the geometry through which the deflagration propagates. This study reports on the effect of the flame speed, at the entrance of a quenching section, on the quenching distance. A 2D rectangular channel joining two main spherical vessels is considered for studying this effect. Two different velocity regimes are investigated and referred to as configurations A, and B. For configuration A, the velocity of the flame is 20 m/s, while it is about 100 m/s for configuration B. Methane-air stoichiometric mixtures at 1 bar and 298 K are used. Simultaneous dynamic pressure measurements along with schlieren imaging are used to analyze the quenching of the flame. Risk assessment of re-ignition is also reported and analyzed.

  8. Radiation Effects on the Thermodiffusive Instability of Premixed Flames on a Cylindrical Porous Flame Holder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Minglong; Yang, Lijun

    2017-10-01

    A linear analysis method was used to investigate the mechanics of radiation heat loss and mass transfer in the porous wall of premixed annular flames and their effect on thermodiffusive instability. The dispersion relation between the disturbance wave growth rate and wavenumber was calculated numerically. Results showed that radiation heat loss elevated the annular flame slightly away from the porous wall. In the annular flame with small Lewis numbers, radiation heat loss changed the thermodiffusive instability from a pulsating to a cellular state, while for the large Lewis numbers, only the pulsating instability was represented. Increasing radiation heat loss and the radius of the porous wall enhanced the instability of the annular flames. Heat losses decreased with the continued increase in thickness of the porous wall and the decrease in porosity. Annular flames with long-wave mode along the angular direction were more unstable than the shortwave mode.

  9. A, a Brominated Flame Retardant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomomi Takeshita

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA, a brominated flame retardant, has been found to exacerbate pneumonia in respiratory syncytial virus- (RSV- infected mice. We examined the effect of Brazilian propolis (AF-08 on the exacerbation of RSV infection by TBBPA exposure in mice. Mice were fed a powdered diet mixed with 1% TBBPA alone, 0.02% AF-08 alone, or 1% TBBPA and 0.02% AF-08 for four weeks and then intranasally infected with RSV. TBBPA exposure increased the pulmonary virus titer and level of IFN-γ, a representative marker of pneumonia due to RSV infection, in the lungs of infected mice without toxicity. AF-08 was significantly effective in reducing the virus titers and IFN-γ level increased by TBBPA exposure. Also, AF-08 significantly reduced proinflammatory cytokine (TNF-α and IL-6 levels in the lungs of RSV-infected mice with TBBPA exposure, but Th2 cytokine (IL-4 and IL-10 levels were not evidently increased. Neither TBBPA exposure nor AF-08 treatment affected the anti-RSV antibody production in RSV-infected mice. In flow cytometry analysis, AF-08 seemed to be effective in reducing the ratio of pulmonary CD8a+ cells in RSV-infected mice with TBBPA exposure. TBBPA and AF-08 did not exhibit anti-RSV activity in vitro. Thus, AF-08 probably ameliorated pneumonia exacerbated by TBBPA exposure in RSV-infected mice by limiting excess cellular immune responses.

  10. Enhancement of flame development by microwave-assisted spark ignition in constant volume combustion chamber

    KAUST Repository

    Wolk, Benjamin; DeFilippo, Anthony; Chen, Jyh-Yuan; Dibble, Robert; Nishiyama, Atsushi; Ikeda, Yuji

    2013-01-01

    -thermal chemical kinetic enhancement from energy deposition to free electrons in the flame front and (2) induced flame wrinkling from excitation of flame (plasma) instability. The enhancement of flame development by microwaves diminishes as the initial pressure

  11. Gravity Effects Observed In Partially Premixed Flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puri, Ishwar K.; Aggarwal, Suresh K.; Lock, Andrew J.; Gauguly, Ranjan; Hegde, Uday

    2003-01-01

    Partially premixed flames (PPFs) contain a rich premixed fuel air mixture in a pocket or stream, and, for complete combustion to occur, they require the transport of oxidizer from an appropriately oxidizer-rich (or fuel-lean) mixture that is present in another pocket or stream. Partial oxidation reactions occur in fuel-rich portions of the mixture and any remaining unburned fuel and/or intermediate species are consumed in the oxidizer-rich portions. Partial premixing, therefore, represents that condition when the equivalence ratio (phi) in one portion of the flowfield is greater than unity, and in another section its value is less than unity. In general, for combustion to occur efficiently, the global equivalence ratio is in the range fuel-lean to stoichiometric. These flames can be established by design by placing a fuel-rich mixture in contact with a fuel-lean mixture, but they also occur otherwise in many practical systems, which include nonpremixed lifted flames, turbulent nonpremixed combustion, spray flames, and unwanted fires. Other practical applications of PPFs are reported elsewhere. Although extensive experimental studies have been conducted on premixed and nonpremixed flames under microgravity, there is a absence of previous experimental work on burner stabilized PPFs in this regard. Previous numerical studies by our group employing a detailed numerical model showed gravity effects to be significant on the PPF structure. We report on the results of microgravity experiments conducted on two-dimensional (established on a Wolfhard-Parker slot burner) and axisymmetric flames (on a coannular burner) that were investigated in a self-contained multipurpose rig. Thermocouple and radiometer data were also used to characterize the thermal transport in the flame.

  12. Shaped detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, R.W.

    1981-01-01

    A radiation detector or detector array which has a non-constant spatial response, is disclosed individually and in combination with a tomographic scanner. The detector has a first dimension which is oriented parallel to the plane of the scan circle in the scanner. Along the first dimension, the detector is most responsive to radiation received along a centered segment of the dimension and less responsive to radiation received along edge segments. This non-constant spatial response can be achieved in a detector comprised of a scintillation crystal and a photoelectric transducer. The scintillation crystal in one embodiment is composed of three crystals arranged in layers, with the center crystal having the greatest light conversion efficiency. In another embodiment, the crystal is covered with a reflective substance around the center segment and a less reflective substance around the remainder. In another embodiment, an optical coupling which transmits light from adjacent the center segment with the greatest intensity couples the scintillation crystal and the photoelectric transducer. In yet another embodiment, the photoelectric transducer comprises three photodiodes, one receiving light produced adjacent the central segment and the other two receiving light produced adjacent the edge segments. The outputs of the three photodiodes are combined with a differential amplifier

  13. EVOLUTION OF GALAXY LUMINOSITY FUNCTION USING PHOTOMETRIC REDSHIFTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, B. H. F.; Pellegrini, P. S.; Da Costa, L. N.; Maia, M. A. G.; Ogando, R. L. C.; De Simoni, F.; Benoist, C.; Makler, M.; Mesquita, A. A.

    2011-01-01

    We examine the impact of using photometric redshifts for studying the evolution of both the global galaxy luminosity function (LF) and that for different galaxy types. To this end, we compare the LFs obtained using photometric redshifts from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey (CFHTLS) D1 field with those from the spectroscopic survey VIMOS VLT Deep Survey (VVDS) comprising ∼4800 galaxies. We find that for z ≤ 2.0, in the interval of magnitudes considered by this survey, the LFs obtained using photometric and spectroscopic redshifts show a remarkable agreement. This good agreement led us to use all four Deep fields of the CFHTLS comprising ∼386,000 galaxies to compute the LF of the combined fields and directly estimate the error in the parameters based on the field-to-field variation. We find that the characteristic absolute magnitude M* of Schechter fits fades by ∼0.7 mag from z ∼ 1.8 to z ∼ 0.3, while the characteristic density φ* increases by a factor of ∼4 in the same redshift interval. We use the galaxy classification provided by the template fitting program used to compute photometric redshifts and split the sample into galaxy types. We find that these Schechter parameters evolve differently for each galaxy type, an indication that their evolution is a combination of several effects: galaxy merging, star formation quenching, and mass assembly. All these results are compatible with those obtained by different spectroscopic surveys such as VVDS, DEEP2, and zCosmos, which reinforces the fact that photometric redshifts can be used to study galaxy evolution, at least for the redshift bins adopted so far. This is of great interest since future very large imaging surveys containing hundreds of millions of galaxies will allow us to obtain important precise measurements to constrain the evolution of the LF and to explore the dependence of this evolution on morphology and/or color helping constrain the mechanisms of galaxy evolution.

  14. CALIBRATION OF THE MEARTH PHOTOMETRIC SYSTEM: OPTICAL MAGNITUDES AND PHOTOMETRIC METALLICITY ESTIMATES FOR 1802 NEARBY M-DWARFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dittmann, Jason A.; Irwin, Jonathan M.; Charbonneau, David; Newton, Elisabeth R.

    2016-01-01

    The MEarth Project is a photometric survey systematically searching the smallest stars near the Sun for transiting rocky planets. Since 2008, MEarth has taken approximately two million images of 1844 stars suspected to be mid-to-late M dwarfs. We have augmented this survey by taking nightly exposures of photometric standard stars and have utilized this data to photometrically calibrate the MEarth system, identify photometric nights, and obtain an optical magnitude with 1.5% precision for each M dwarf system. Each optical magnitude is an average over many years of data, and therefore should be largely immune to stellar variability and flaring. We combine this with trigonometric distance measurements, spectroscopic metallicity measurements, and 2MASS infrared magnitude measurements in order to derive a color–magnitude–metallicity relation across the mid-to-late M dwarf spectral sequence that can reproduce spectroscopic metallicity determinations to a precision of 0.1 dex. We release optical magnitudes and metallicity estimates for 1567 M dwarfs, many of which did not have an accurate determination of either prior to this work. For an additional 277 stars without a trigonometric parallax, we provide an estimate of the distance, assuming solar neighborhood metallicity. We find that the median metallicity for a volume-limited sample of stars within 20 pc of the Sun is [Fe/H] = −0.03 ± 0.008, and that 29/565 of these stars have a metallicity of [Fe/H] = −0.5 or lower, similar to the low-metallicity distribution of nearby G dwarfs. When combined with the results of ongoing and future planet surveys targeting these objects, the metallicity estimates presented here will be important for assessing the significance of any putative planet–metallicity correlation

  15. CALIBRATION OF THE MEARTH PHOTOMETRIC SYSTEM: OPTICAL MAGNITUDES AND PHOTOMETRIC METALLICITY ESTIMATES FOR 1802 NEARBY M-DWARFS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dittmann, Jason A.; Irwin, Jonathan M.; Charbonneau, David; Newton, Elisabeth R. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2016-02-20

    The MEarth Project is a photometric survey systematically searching the smallest stars near the Sun for transiting rocky planets. Since 2008, MEarth has taken approximately two million images of 1844 stars suspected to be mid-to-late M dwarfs. We have augmented this survey by taking nightly exposures of photometric standard stars and have utilized this data to photometrically calibrate the MEarth system, identify photometric nights, and obtain an optical magnitude with 1.5% precision for each M dwarf system. Each optical magnitude is an average over many years of data, and therefore should be largely immune to stellar variability and flaring. We combine this with trigonometric distance measurements, spectroscopic metallicity measurements, and 2MASS infrared magnitude measurements in order to derive a color–magnitude–metallicity relation across the mid-to-late M dwarf spectral sequence that can reproduce spectroscopic metallicity determinations to a precision of 0.1 dex. We release optical magnitudes and metallicity estimates for 1567 M dwarfs, many of which did not have an accurate determination of either prior to this work. For an additional 277 stars without a trigonometric parallax, we provide an estimate of the distance, assuming solar neighborhood metallicity. We find that the median metallicity for a volume-limited sample of stars within 20 pc of the Sun is [Fe/H] = −0.03 ± 0.008, and that 29/565 of these stars have a metallicity of [Fe/H] = −0.5 or lower, similar to the low-metallicity distribution of nearby G dwarfs. When combined with the results of ongoing and future planet surveys targeting these objects, the metallicity estimates presented here will be important for assessing the significance of any putative planet–metallicity correlation.

  16. Sooting turbulent jet flame: characterization and quantitative soot measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, M.; Geigle, K. P.; Meier, W.; Crosland, B. M.; Thomson, K. A.; Smallwood, G. J.

    2011-08-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modelers require high-quality experimental data sets for validation of their numerical tools. Preferred features for numerical simulations of a sooting, turbulent test case flame are simplicity (no pilot flame), well-defined boundary conditions, and sufficient soot production. This paper proposes a non-premixed C2H4/air turbulent jet flame to fill this role and presents an extensive database for soot model validation. The sooting turbulent jet flame has a total visible flame length of approximately 400 mm and a fuel-jet Reynolds number of 10,000. The flame has a measured lift-off height of 26 mm which acts as a sensitive marker for CFD model validation, while this novel compiled experimental database of soot properties, temperature and velocity maps are useful for the validation of kinetic soot models and numerical flame simulations. Due to the relatively simple burner design which produces a flame with sufficient soot concentration while meeting modelers' needs with respect to boundary conditions and flame specifications as well as the present lack of a sooting "standard flame", this flame is suggested as a new reference turbulent sooting flame. The flame characterization presented here involved a variety of optical diagnostics including quantitative 2D laser-induced incandescence (2D-LII), shifted-vibrational coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (SV-CARS), and particle image velocimetry (PIV). Producing an accurate and comprehensive characterization of a transient sooting flame was challenging and required optimization of these diagnostics. In this respect, we present the first simultaneous, instantaneous PIV, and LII measurements in a heavily sooting flame environment. Simultaneous soot and flow field measurements can provide new insights into the interaction between a turbulent vortex and flame chemistry, especially since soot structures in turbulent flames are known to be small and often treated in a statistical manner.

  17. Control of confined nonpremixed flames using a microjet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, Ashok; Ganguly, Ranjan; Puri, Ishwar K.

    2005-01-01

    Industrial burners, such as those used in materials processing furnaces, require precise control over the flame length, width, overall shape and other physical flame attributes. The mechanism used to control the flame topology should be relatively simple, safe, and devoid of an emissions penalty. We have explored the feasibility of hydrodynamic control of confined nonpremixed flames by injecting air through a high-momentum microjet. An innovative strategy for the control of flame shape and luminosity is demonstrated based on a high-momentum coaxial microjet injected along the center of a confined nonpremixed flame burning in a coflowing oxidizer stream. The introduction of the microjet shortens a nonpremixed flame and reduces the amplitude of the buoyancy-induced flickering. For a microjet-assisted flame, the flame length is more sensitive to the fuel flowrate than for laminar or turbulent nonpremixed flames. This provides greater flexibility for the dynamic control of their flame lengths. Measurements of NO x and CO emissions show that the method is robust. Effective flame control without an emissions penalty is possible over a large range of microjet velocities that significantly alter the flame shape. Since the influence of the microjet is primarily of a hydrodynamic nature, inert microjet fluids like recirculated exhaust gas can also be used in practical devices

  18. Control of confined nonpremixed flames using a microjet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinha, A.; Puri, I.K. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States). Dept. of Engineering Science and Mechanics; Ganguly, R. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States). Dept. of Engineering Science and Mechanics; Jadavpur Univ., Calcutta (India). Dept. of Power Engineering

    2005-06-01

    Industrial burners, such as those used in materials processing furnaces, require precise control over the flame length, width, overall shape and other physical flame attributes. The mechanism used to control the flame topology should be relatively simple, safe, and devoid of an emissions penalty. We have explored the feasibility of hydrodynamic control of confined nonpremixed flames by injecting air through a high-momentum microjet. An innovative strategy for the control of flame shape and luminosity is demonstrated based on a high-momentum coaxial microjet injected along the center of a confined nonpremixed flame burning in a coflowing oxidizer stream. The introduction of the microjet shortens a nonpremixed flame and reduces the amplitude of the buoyancy-induced flickering. For a microjet-assisted flame, the flame length is more sensitive to the fuel flowrate than for laminar or turbulent nonpremixed flames. This provides greater flexibility for the dynamic control of their flame lengths. Measurements of NO{sub x} and CO emissions show that the method is robust. Effective flame control without an emissions penalty is possible over a large range of microjet velocities that significantly alter the flame shape. Since the influence of the microjet is primarily of a hydrodynamic nature, inert microjet fluids like recirculated exhaust gas can also be used in practical devices. (Author)

  19. BES detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, J.Z.; Bian, Q.; Chen, G.M.; Chen, L.J.; Chen, S.N.; Chen, Y.Q.; Chen, Z.Q.; Chi, Y.K.; Cui, H.C.; Cui, X.Z.; Deng, S.S.; Deng, Y.W.; Ding, H.L.; Dong, B.Z.; Dong, X.S.; Du, X.; Du, Z.Z.; Feng, C.; Feng, Z.; Fu, Z.S.; Gao, C.S.; Gao, M.L.; Gao, S.Q.; Gao, W.X.; Gao, Y.N.; Gu, S.D.; Gu, W.X.; Guan, Y.Z.; Guo, H.F.; Guo, Y.N.; Guo, Y.Y.; Han, S.W.; Han, Y.; Hao, W.; He, J.; He, K.R.; He, M.J.; Hou, X.J.; Hu, G.Y.; Hu, J.S.; Hu, J.W.; Huang, D.Q.; Huang, Y.Z.; Jia, Q.P.; Jiang, C.H.; Ju, Q.; Lai, Y.F.; Lang, P.F.; Li, D.S.; Li, F.; Li, H.; Li Jia; Li, J.T.; Li Jin; Li, L.L.; Li, P.Q.; Li, Q.M.; Li, R.B.; Li, S.Q.; Li, W.; Li, W.G.; Li, Z.X.; Liang, G.N.; Lin, F.C.; Lin, S.Z.; Lin, W.; Liu, Q.; Liu, R.G.; Liu, W.; Liu, X.; Liu, Z.A.; Liu, Z.Y.; Lu, C.G.; Lu, W.D.; Lu, Z.Y.; Lu, J.G.; Ma, D.H.; Ma, E.C.; Ma, J.M.; Mao, H.S.; Mao, Z.P.; Meng, X.C.; Ni, H.L.; Nie, J.; Nie, Z.D.; Niu, W.P.; Pan, L.J.; Qi, N.D.; Qian, J.J.; Qu, Y.H.; Que, Y.K.; Rong, G.; Ruan, T.Z.; Shao, Y.Y.; Shen, B.W.; Shen, D.L.; Shen, J.; Sheng, H.Y.; Sheng, J.P.; Shi, H.Z.; Song, X.F.; Sun, H.S.; Tang, F.K.; Tang, S.Q.; Tian, W.H.; Wang, F.; Wang, G.Y.; Wang, J.G.; Wang, J.Y.; Wang, L.S.; Wang, L.Z.; Wang, M.; Wang, P.; Wang, P.L.; Wang, S.M.; Wang, S.Q.; Wang, T.J.; Wang, X.W.; Wang, Y.Y.; Wang, Z.H.; Wang, Z.J.; Wei, C.L.; Wei, Z.Z.; Wu, J.W.; Wu, S.H.; Wu, S.Q.; Wu, W.M.; Wu, X.D.; Wu, Z.D.; Xi, D.M.; Xia, X.M.; Xiao, J.; Xie, P.P.; Xie, X.X.; Xu, J.G.; Xu, R.S.; Xu, Z.Q.; Xuan, B.C.; Xue, S.T.; Yan, J.; Yan, S.P.; Yan, W.G.; Yang, C.Z.; Yang, C.M.; Yang, C.Y.; Yang, X.F.; Yang, X.R.; Ye, M.H.; Yu, C.H.; Yu, C.S.; Yu, Z.Q.; Zhang, B.Y.; Zhang, C.D.; Zhang, C.C.; Zhang, C.Y.; Zhang, D.H.; Zhang, G.; Zhang, H.Y.; Zhang, H.L.; Zhang, J.W.; Zhang, L.S.; Zhang, S.Q.; Zhang, Y.P.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Y.M.; Zhao, D.X.; Zhao, J.W.; Zhao, M.; Zhao, P.D.; Zhao, P.P.; Zhao, W.R.; Zhao, Z.G.; Zhao, Z.Q.; Zheng, J.P.; Zheng, L.S.; Zheng, M.; Zheng, W.S.; Zheng, Z.P.; Zhong, G.P.; Zhou, G.P.; Zhou, H.S.; Zhou, J.; Zhou Li; Zhou Lin; Zhou, M.; Zhou, Y.S.; Zhou, Y.H.; Zhu, G.S.; Zhu, Q.M.; Zhu, S.G.; Zhu, Y.C.; Zhu, Y.S.; Zhuang, B.A.

    1994-01-01

    The Beijing Spectrometer (BES) is a general purpose solenoidal detector at the Beijing Electron Positron Collider (BEPC). It is designed to study exclusive final states in e + e - annihilations at the center of mass energy from 3.0 to 5.6 GeV. This requires large solid angle coverage combined with good charged particle momentum resolution, good particle identification and high photon detection efficiency at low energies. In this paper we describe the construction and the performance of BES detector. (orig.)

  20. Characteristics of diffusion flames with accelerated motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lou Bo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to present an experiment to study the characteristics of a laminar diffusion flame under acceleration. A Bunsen burner (nozzle diameter 8 mm, using liquefied petroleum gas as its fuel, was ignited under acceleration. The temperature field and the diffusion flame angle of inclination were visualised with the assistance of the visual display technology incorporated in MATLAB™. Results show that the 2-d temperature field under different accelerations matched the variation in average temperatures: they both experience three variations at different time and velocity stages. The greater acceleration has a faster change in average temperature with time, due to the accumulation of combustion heat: the smaller acceleration has a higher average temperature at the same speed. No matter what acceleration was used, in time, the flame angle of inclination increased, but the growth rate decreased until an angle of 90°: this could be explained by analysis of the force distribution within the flame. It is also found that, initially, the growth rate of angle with velocity under the greater acceleration was always smaller than that at lower accelerations; it was also different in flames with uniform velocity fire conditions.

  1. Chaotic radiation/turbulence interactions in flames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menguec, M.P.; McDonough, J.M.

    1998-11-01

    In this paper, the authors present a review of their recent efforts to model chaotic radiation-turbulence interactions in flames. The main focus is to characterize soot volume fraction fluctuations in turbulent diffusion flames, as they strongly contribute to these interaction. The approach is based on the hypothesis that the fluctuations of properties in turbulent flames are deterministic in nature, rather than random. The authors first discuss the theoretical details and then they briefly outline the experiments conducted to measure the scattered light signals from fluctuating soot particles along the axis of an ethylene-air diffusion flame. They compare the power spectra and time series obtained from experiments against the ad-hoc and rigorous models derived using a series of logistic maps. These logistic maps can be used in simulation of the fluctuations in these type of flames, without extensive computational effort or sacrifice of physical detail. Availability of accurate models of these kinds allows investigation of radiation-turbulence interactions at a more fundamental level than it was previously possible.

  2. The State-of-the-art HST Astro-photometric Analysis of the Core of ω Centauri. I. The Catalog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellini, A.; Anderson, J.; Van der Marel, R. P. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Dr., Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Bedin, L. R.; Piotto, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica, Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, v.co dell’Osservatorio 5, Padova I-35122 (Italy); King, I. R. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195, USA (United States); Cool, A., E-mail: bellini@stsci.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, San Francisco State University, 1600 Holloway Ave., San Francisco, CA 94132 (United States)

    2017-06-10

    We have constructed the most comprehensive catalog of photometry and proper motions ever assembled for a globular cluster (GC). The core of ω Cen has been imaged over 650 times through WFC3's UVIS and IR channels for the purpose of detector calibration. There exist from 4 to over 60 exposures through each of 26 filters stretching continuously from F225W in the UV to F160W in the infrared. Furthermore, the 11 yr baseline between these data and a 2002 ACS survey has allowed us to more than double the proper-motion accuracy and triple the number of well-measured stars compared to our previous groundbreaking effort. This totally unprecedented complete spectral coverage of over 470,000 stars within the cluster’s core, from the tip of the red giant branch down to the white dwarfs, provides the best astro-photometric observational database yet to understand the multiple-population phenomenon in any GC. In this first paper of the series, we describe in detail the data-reduction processes and deliver the astro-photometric catalog to the astronomical community.

  3. Estimation of position and velocity for a low dynamic vehicle in near space using nonresolved photometric and astrometric data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Nan; Li, Chuang; Chong, Yaqin

    2017-01-20

    An estimation method for indirectly observable parameters for a typical low dynamic vehicle (LDV) is presented. The estimation method utilizes apparent magnitude, azimuth angle, and elevation angle to estimate the position and velocity of a typical LDV, such as a high altitude balloon (HAB). In order to validate the accuracy of the estimated parameters gained from an unscented Kalman filter, two sets of experiments are carried out to obtain the nonresolved photometric and astrometric data. In the experiments, a HAB launch is planned; models of the HAB dynamics and kinematics and observation models are built to use as time update and measurement update functions, respectively. When the HAB is launched, a ground-based optoelectronic detector is used to capture the object images, which are processed using aperture photometry technology to obtain the time-varying apparent magnitude of the HAB. Two sets of actual and estimated parameters are given to clearly indicate the parameter differences. Two sets of errors between the actual and estimated parameters are also given to show how the estimated position and velocity differ with respect to the observation time. The similar distribution curve results from the two scenarios, which agree within 3σ, verify that nonresolved photometric and astrometric data can be used to estimate the indirectly observable state parameters (position and velocity) for a typical LDV. This technique can be applied to small and dim space objects in the future.

  4. Flame-vortex interaction and mixing behaviors of turbulent non-premixed jet flames under acoustic forcing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Munki; Choi, Youngil; Oh, Jeongseog; Yoon, Youngbin [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea)

    2009-12-15

    This study examines the effect of acoustic excitation using forced coaxial air on the flame characteristics of turbulent hydrogen non-premixed flames. A resonance frequency was selected to acoustically excite the coaxial air jet due to its ability to effectively amplify the acoustic amplitude and reduce flame length and NO{sub x} emissions. Acoustic excitation causes the flame length to decrease by 15% and consequently, a 25% reduction in EINO{sub x} is achieved, compared to coaxial air flames without acoustic excitation at the same coaxial air to fuel velocity ratio. Moreover, acoustic excitation induces periodical fluctuation of the coaxial air velocity, thus resulting in slight fluctuation of the fuel velocity. From phase-lock PIV and OH PLIF measurement, the local flow properties at the flame surface were investigated under acoustic forcing. During flame-vortex interaction in the near field region, the entrainment velocity and the flame surface area increased locally near the vortex. This increase in flame surface area and entrainment velocity is believed to be a crucial factor in reducing flame length and NO{sub x} emission in coaxial jet flames with acoustic excitation. Local flame extinction occurred frequently when subjected to an excessive strain rate, indicating that intense mass transfer of fuel and air occurs radially inward at the flame surface. (author)

  5. Early structure of LPG partially premixed conically stabilized flames

    KAUST Repository

    Elbaz, Ayman M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents experimental investigation of LPG partially premixed turbulent flames stabilized within a conical nozzle burner under constant degree of partial premixing. The stability limits and mean flame structure are presented based

  6. Mode Selection in Flame-Vortex driven Combustion Instabilities

    KAUST Repository

    Speth, Ray; Hong, Seung Hyuck; Shanbogue, Santosh; Ghoniem, Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    is governed by a combustion-related time delay inversely proportional to the flame speed. Our model predicts the transition between distinct operating modes. We introduce non-dimensional parameters characterizing the flame speed and stretch rate, and develop a

  7. Effect of hydrogen addition on autoignited methane lifted flames

    KAUST Repository

    Choin, Byung Chul; Chung, Suk-Ho

    2012-01-01

    Autoignited lifted flames in laminar jets with hydrogen-enriched methane fuels have been investigated experimentally in heated coflow air. The results showed that the autoignited lifted flame of the methane/hydrogen mixture, which had an initial

  8. Ion measurements in premixed methane-oxygen flames

    KAUST Repository

    Alquaity, Awad; Hourani, Nadim; Chahine, May; Selim, Hatem; Sarathy, Mani; Farooq, Aamir

    2014-01-01

    Mass Spectrometer (MBMS) is utilized to measure ion concentration profiles in premixed methane-oxygen-argon burner-stabilized flames. Lean, stoichiometric and rich flames at atmospheric pressure are used to study the dependence of ion chemistry

  9. Visualization of ionic wind in laminar jet flames

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Daegeun

    2017-07-03

    Electric field, when it is applied to hydrocarbon flames, generates ionic wind due to the electric body force on charge carrying species. Ionic wind has been shown to influence soot emission, propagation speed, and stability of flames; however, a detailed behavior of ionic wind and its effects on flames is still not clear. Here, we investigated the dynamic behaviors of flames and ionic wind in the presence of direct current (DC) and alternating current (AC) electric fields in nonpremixed and premixed jet flames with a jet nozzle placed between two parallel electrodes. We observed a skewed flame toward a lower potential electrode with DC and lower frequency AC (e.g., 10Hz) and a steady flame with higher frequencies AC (1000Hz), while we found that the ionic wind blew toward both the anode and cathode regardless of flame type (nonpremixed or premixed) or the source of the electric field (DC and AC).

  10. Beam steering effects in turbulent high pressure flames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemmerling, B; Kaeppeli, B [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    The propagation of a laser beam through a flame is influenced by variations of the optical density. Especially in turbulent high pressure flames this may seriously limit the use of laser diagnostic methods. (author) 1 fig., 2 refs.

  11. Flame acceleration in the early stages of burning in tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bychkov, Vitaly; Fru, Gordon; Petchenko, Arkady [Institute of Physics, Umeaa University, S-901 87 Umeaa (Sweden); Akkerman, V' yacheslav [Institute of Physics, Umeaa University, S-901 87 Umeaa (Sweden); Nuclear Safety Institute (IBRAE) of Russian Academy of Sciences, B. Tulskaya 52, 115191 Moscow (Russian Federation); Eriksson, Lars-Erik [Department of Applied Mechanics, Chalmers University of Technology, 412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2007-09-15

    Acceleration of premixed laminar flames in the early stages of burning in long tubes is considered. The acceleration mechanism was suggested earlier by Clanet and Searby [Combust. Flame 105 (1996) 225]. Acceleration happens due to the initial ignition geometry at the tube axis when a flame develops to a finger-shaped front, with surface area growing exponentially in time. Flame surface area grows quite fast but only for a short time. The analytical theory of flame acceleration is developed, which determines the growth rate, the total acceleration time, and the maximal increase of the flame surface area. Direct numerical simulations of the process are performed for the complete set of combustion equations. The simulations results and the theory are in good agreement with the previous experiments. The numerical simulations also demonstrate flame deceleration, which follows acceleration, and the so-called ''tulip flames''. (author)

  12. Vertex detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lueth, V.

    1992-07-01

    The purpose of a vertex detector is to measure position and angles of charged particle tracks to sufficient precision so as to be able to separate tracks originating from decay vertices from those produced at the interaction vertex. Such measurements are interesting because they permit the detection of weakly decaying particles with lifetimes down to 10 -13 s, among them the τ lepton and charm and beauty hadrons. These two lectures are intended to introduce the reader to the different techniques for the detection of secondary vertices that have been developed over the past decades. The first lecture includes a brief introduction to the methods used to detect secondary vertices and to estimate particle lifetimes. It describes the traditional technologies, based on photographic recording in emulsions and on film of bubble chambers, and introduces fast electronic registration of signals derived from scintillating fibers, drift chambers and gaseous micro-strip chambers. The second lecture is devoted to solid state detectors. It begins with a brief introduction into semiconductor devices, and then describes the application of large arrays of strip and pixel diodes for charged particle tracking. These lectures can only serve as an introduction the topic of vertex detectors. Time and space do not allow for an in-depth coverage of many of the interesting aspects of vertex detector design and operation

  13. Smoke detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macdonald, E.

    1976-01-01

    A smoke detector is described consisting of a ventilated ionisation chamber having a number of electrodes and containing a radioactive source in the form of a foil supported on the surface of the electrodes. This electrode consists of a plastic material treated with graphite to render it electrically conductive. (U.K.)

  14. Semiconductor Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortina, E.

    2007-01-01

    Particle detectors based on semiconductor materials are among the few devices used for particle detection that are available to the public at large. In fact we are surrounded by them in our daily lives: they are used in photoelectric cells for opening doors, in digital photographic and video camera, and in bar code readers at supermarket cash registers. (Author)

  15. Capillary detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konijn, J.; Winter, K.; Vilain, P.; Wilquet, G.; Fabre, J.P.; Kozarenko, E.; Kreslo, I.; Goldberg, J.; Hoepfner, K.; Bay, A.; Currat, C.; Koppenburg, P.; Frekers, D.; Wolff, T.; Buontempo, S.; Ereditato, A.; Frenkel, A.; Liberti, B.; Martellotti, G.; Penso, G.; Ekimov, A.; Golovkin, S.; Govorun, V.; Medvedkov, A.; Vasil'chenko, V.

    1998-01-01

    The option for a microvertex detector using glass capillary arrays filled with liquid scintillator is presented. The status of capillary layers development and possible read-out techniques for high rate environment are reported. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  16. Flame Driving of Longitudinal Instabilities in Liquid Fueled Dump Combustors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-10-01

    for the first * natural frequency of 80 Hz. As the flame length is much smaller than the acoustic wavelength at 80 Hz the pressure is constant over...release at different locations along the flame. The reason for this is that the flame length is equivalent to several vortical wavelengths as is evident...pressure minimum there was a large radla- flame length . In all cases, it was ?ound that the tion signal at the driving frequency. On the theory

  17. Acoustic Signature from Flames as a Combustion Diagnostic Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-11-01

    empirical visual flame length had to be input to the computer for the inversion method to give good results. That is, if the experiment cnd inversion...method were asked to yield the flame length , poor results were obtained. Since this wa3 part of the information sought for practical application of the...to small experimental uncertainty. The method gave reasonably good results for the open flame but substantial input (the flame length ) had to be

  18. Effects of wind velocity and slope on flame properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    David R. Weise; Gregory S. Biging

    1996-01-01

    Abstract: The combined effects of wind velocity and percent slope on flame length and angle were measured in an open-topped, tilting wind tunnel by burning fuel beds composed of vertical birch sticks and aspen excelsior. Mean flame length ranged from 0.08 to 1.69 m; 0.25 m was the maximum observed flame length for most backing fires. Flame angle ranged from -46o to 50o...

  19. Experimental Studies of Hydrocarbon Flame Phenomena: Enabling Combustion Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-30

    flames," Physics of Fluids , vol. 7, no. 6, pp. 1447-54, 1995. [8] K. Lyons, " Toward an understanding of the stabilization mechanisms of lifted...Experimental Studies of Hydrocarbon Flame Phenomena: Enabling Combustion Control This report summarizes the research accomplished in the project...34Experimental Studies of Hydrocarbon Flame Phenomena: Enabling Combustion Control". The main areas of activity are: a) electrostatic flame and flow

  20. Ion structure and sequence of ion formation in acetylene flames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larionova, I.A.; Fialkov, B.S.; Kalinich, K.YA.; Fialkov, A.B.; Ospanov, B.S.

    1993-06-01

    Results of a study of the ion composition of acetylene-air flames burning at low pressures are reported. Data on ion formation are compared for flames of saturated hydrocarbons, oxygen-containing fuels, and acetylene. It is shown that the characteristics of ion formation in the flame front and directly ahead of it are similar to those observed in flames of other fuels. These characteristics, however, are different in the low-temperature region. 9 refs.

  1. Effectiveness of Flame Retardants in TufFoam.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abelow, Alexis Elizabeth [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Nissen, April [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Massey, Lee Taylor [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Whinnery, LeRoy L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-12-01

    An investigation of polyurethane foam filled with known flame retardant fillers including hydroxides, melamine, phosphate-containing compounds, and melamine phosphates was carried out to produce a low-cost material with high flame retardant efficiency. The impact of flame retardant fillers on the physical properties such a s composite foam density, glass transition temperature, storage modulus, and thermal expansion of composite foams was investigated with the goal of synthesizing a robust rigid foam with excellent flame retardant properties.

  2. White Flame Energy switches to backhoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiscor, S.

    2005-06-01

    The mountaintop coal operator, White Flame Energy has switched to different truck-shovel arrangement. Along with many surface mining operations throughout central Appalachia, the company is using hoe-configured hydraulic excavators as opposed to the traditional front-shovel arrangements. Located in Varney, WV, White Flame Energy uses two Terex O & K mining shovels, an RH170 and an RH 200, which have the capacity to move 2 million cu yards per month from five seams, primarily the Coalburg, Stockton, and No 5 Block and associated rider seams. The article records conversations on the operations with Mike Vines, the general manager, and Don Nicewonder, the owner of White Flame Energy. 2 photos.

  3. Aerothermodynamic properties of stretched flames in enclosures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotman, D. A.; Oppenheim, A. K.

    Flames are stretched by being pulled along their frontal surface by the flow field in which they reside. Their trajectories tend to approach particle paths, acquiring eventually the role of contact boundaries, -interfaces between the burnt and unburnt medium that may broaden solely as a consequence of diffusion. Fundamental properties of flow fields governing such flames are determined here on the basis of the zero Mach number model, providng a rational method of approach to the computational analysis of combustion fields in enclosures where, besides the aerodynamic properties flow, the thermodynamic process of compression must be taken into account. To illustrate its application, the method is used to reveal the mechanism of formation of a tulip-shape flame in a rectangular enclosure under nonturbulent flow conditions.

  4. Photometric investigation of the Herbig Ae/Be star MWC 297. I. Quasisimultaneous UBVRIJHK observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergner, Yu.K.; Kozlov, V.P.; Krivtsov, A.A.; Miroshnichenko, A.S.; Yudin, R.V.; Yutanov, N.Yu.; Dzhakusheva, K.G.; Kuratov, K.S.; Mukanov, D.B.

    1988-01-01

    In order to make a statistical investigation of the photometric variability of the young star MWC 297 a number of quasisimultaneous observations in the photometric bands UBVRIJHK has been made. The coefficients of the correlation between the variations of the brightness in the different photometric bands have been determined by the proposed method. An anticorrelation between the variations in the bands U and K has been found. A possible mechanisms of the irregular variability of the star is proposed

  5. Numerical modelling of ion transport in flames

    KAUST Repository

    Han, Jie

    2015-10-20

    This paper presents a modelling framework to compute the diffusivity and mobility of ions in flames. The (n, 6, 4) interaction potential is adopted to model collisions between neutral and charged species. All required parameters in the potential are related to the polarizability of the species pair via semi-empirical formulas, which are derived using the most recently published data or best estimates. The resulting framework permits computation of the transport coefficients of any ion found in a hydrocarbon flame. The accuracy of the proposed method is evaluated by comparing its predictions with experimental data on the mobility of selected ions in single-component neutral gases. Based on this analysis, the value of a model constant available in the literature is modified in order to improve the model\\'s predictions. The newly determined ion transport coefficients are used as part of a previously developed numerical approach to compute the distribution of charged species in a freely propagating premixed lean CH4/O2 flame. Since a significant scatter of polarizability data exists in the literature, the effects of changes in polarizability on ion transport properties and the spatial distribution of ions in flames are explored. Our analysis shows that changes in polarizability propagate with decreasing effect from binary transport coefficients to species number densities. We conclude that the chosen polarizability value has a limited effect on the ion distribution in freely propagating flames. We expect that the modelling framework proposed here will benefit future efforts in modelling the effect of external voltages on flames. Supplemental data for this article can be accessed at http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13647830.2015.1090018. © 2015 Taylor & Francis.

  6. Laminar flame properties and flame acceleration prediction of hydrogen-methane mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coudoro, K. [Inst. de Combustion, Aerothermique, Reactivite et Environnement CNRS Orleans (France); Inst. de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, DSR/SAGR, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Chaumeix, N. [Inst. de Combustion, Aerothermique, Reactivite et Environnement CNRS Orleans (France); Bentaib, A. [Inst. de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, DSR/SAGR, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Paillard, C-E. [Inst. de Combustion, Aerothermique, Reactivite et Environnement CNRS Orleans (France)

    2011-07-01

    The combustion of a binary mixture of methane and hydrogen has been studied using 2 different experimental setups: the spherical bomb to investigate the fundamental flame properties of this mixture with air, initially at 100 kPa, at different initial temperatures (300 - 363 K) and for a wide range of equivalence ratios (0.8 - 1.4); ENACCEF to investigate the flame acceleration phenomena in smooth tube for mixtures initially at ambient conditions and for equivalence ratios ranging between 0.57 and 0.84. A detailed kinetic mechanism has been used to derive the activation energies needed for the flame acceleration analysis. (author)

  7. Gaschromatographic proof of nitrous oxide concentrations in air by means of radiation ionization detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popp, P.; Schoentube, E.; Oppermann, G.

    1985-01-01

    For the analysis of nitrous oxide concentrations at workplaces in operating theatres, gaschromatography is a particularly suitable method if it is possible to measure nitrous oxide concentrations in the ppm to ppb region. For this, most frequently used gaschromatographic detectors (flame ionization detector, thermal conductivity detector) are unsuitable, whereas radiation ionization detectors can be used successfully. The investigations using detectors designed at the Central Institute for Isotopes and Radiation Research of the GDR Academy of Sciences showed that a high-temperature electron-capture detector (ECD), working at a temperatur of 250 0 C, enables the determination of traces of nitrous oxide with a detection limit of about 200 ppb, while the helium detector has a limit of 50 ppb of nitrous oxide in room air. Since the helium detector requires extremely pure carrier gas, the high-temperature ECD appears more suitable for analyzing nitrous oxide. (author)

  8. Experimental Investigation of Turbulent Flames in Hypersonic Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    the flow direction and (b) typical flame length scales seen in the OH-PLIF image with Mach 4.5 freestream (high turbulence) at P0 = 0.65 bar, T0...flame structures (3 mm) are observed at the upstream location of area 1 where the combustion localization first appears. The typical flame length scale

  9. Brominated flame retardants: occurrence, dietary intake and risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winter-Sorkina R de; Bakker MI; Wolterink G; Zeijlmaker MJ; SIR

    2006-01-01

    Brominated flame retardants have entered the human food chain. For the time being the occurrence of these chemicals in Dutch food does not pose a human health risk. However, this might easily change at increasing contents of flame retardants in Dutch food. The monitoring of brominated flame

  10. 30 CFR 75.600-1 - Approved cables; flame resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approved cables; flame resistance. 75.600-1 Section 75.600-1 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE... cables; flame resistance. Cables shall be accepted or approved by MSHA as flame resistant. [57 FR 61223...

  11. A PHOTOMETRIC REDSHIFT OF z ∼ 9.4 FOR GRB 090429B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cucchiara, A.; Fox, D. B.; Wu, X. F.; Toma, K.; Levan, A. J.; Tanvir, N. R.; Rowlinson, A.; Ukwatta, T. N.; Berger, E.; Kruehler, T.; Greiner, J.; Olivares, F. E.; Yoldas, A. Kuepcue; Amati, L.; Sakamoto, T.; Roth, K.; Stephens, A.; Fritz, Alexander; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Hjorth, J.

    2011-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) serve as powerful probes of the early universe, with their luminous afterglows revealing the locations and physical properties of star-forming galaxies at the highest redshifts, and potentially locating first-generation (Population III) stars. Since GRB afterglows have intrinsically very simple spectra, they allow robust redshifts from low signal-to-noise spectroscopy, or photometry. Here we present a photometric redshift of z ∼ 9.4 for the Swift detected GRB 090429B based on deep observations with Gemini-North, the Very Large Telescope, and the GRB Optical and Near-infrared Detector. Assuming a Small Magellanic Cloud dust law (which has been found in a majority of GRB sight lines), the 90% likelihood range for the redshift is 9.06 7. The non-detection of the host galaxy to deep limits (Y(AB) ∼ 28, which would correspond roughly to 0.001L* at z = 1) in our late-time optical and infrared observations with the Hubble Space Telescope strongly supports the extreme-redshift origin of GRB 090429B, since we would expect to have detected any low-z galaxy, even if it were highly dusty. Finally, the energetics of GRB 090429B are comparable to those of other GRBs and suggest that its progenitor is not greatly different from those of lower redshift bursts.

  12. Dynamic and photometric evolutionary models of tidal tails and ripples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallin, J.F.

    1989-01-01

    An investigation into the causes of star formation in tidal tails has been conducted using a restricted three-body dynamical model in conjunction with a broad-band photometric evolutionary code. In these models, regions of compression form inside the disk and along the tidal tail and tidal bridge. The effects these density changes have on the colors of the tidal features are examined with a broad-band photometric evolutionary code. A spiral galaxy population is synthesized and the effects of modest changes in the star formation rate are explored. Limits on the density changes needed to make detectable changes in the colors are calculated using a Schmidt (1959) law. These models suggest that the blue colors and knotty features observed in the tidal features of some galaxies result from increased rates of star formation induced by tidally produced density increases. Limitations of this model are discussed along with photometric evolutionary models based on the density evolution in the tails. The Lynds and Toomre (1976) interpretation of ring galaxies as the natural result of a nearly head-on collision between a disk galaxy and a companion galaxy has become widely accepted. Similarly, Quinn's (1984) interpretation of the shells in elliptical galaxies as the aftermath of the cannibalization of a low-mass companion has been quite successful in accounting for the observations. Restricted three-body calculations of high inclination, low impact parameter encounters demonstrate that the shell-like ripples observed in a number of disk galaxies can also be produced as collisional artifacts from internal oscillations much as in ring galaxies

  13. EPA Method 614: The Determination of Organophosphorus Pesticides in Municipal and Industrial Wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Method 614 describes procedures for preparation and analysis of samples for determination of organophosphate pesticides in industrial and municipal discharges using a GC with a phosphorus-specific flame photometric detector (FPD).

  14. Gas Chromatographic Analysis of Sulfur Mustard in Diethyl Phthalate

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lancaster, Paul

    1998-01-01

    ...) that had been trapped in the solvent, diethyl phthalate (DEP) is described. The method utilises the improved sensitivity and selectivity offered by the new Pulsed Flame Photometric Detector to detect routinely samples containing...

  15. Flexible PVC flame retarded with expandable graphite

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Focke, WW

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available this outstanding fire resistance. Thus flame-retardant (FR) and smoke-suppressant (SS) additives must be incorporated in order to meet product test specifications such as oxygen index, heat release rate, smoke evolution, or the extent of burning [1]. Levchik... plot for the composites fabricated in this work. For a material to be effectively flame retarded both the fire load and the fire growth index should assume low values. Figure 11 shows a dramatic decrease for all the EG composites relative to the neat...

  16. Flame-Vortex Interactions Imaged in Microgravity - To Assess the Theory Flame Stretch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, James F.

    2001-01-01

    The goals of this research are to: 1) Assess the Theory of Flame Stretch by operating a unique flame-vortex experiment under microgravity conditions in the NASA Glenn 2.2 Second Drop Tower (drops to identify operating conditions have been completed); 2) Obtain high speed shadowgraph images (500-1000 frames/s) using the drop rig (images were obtained at one-g, and the NASA Kodak RO camera is being mounted on the drop rig); 3) Obtain shadowgraph and PIV images at 1-g while varying the effects of buoyancy by controlling the Froude number (completed); 4) Numerically model the inwardly-propagating spherical flame that is observed in the experiment using full chemistry and the RUN 1DL code (completed); 5) Send images of the flame shape to Dr. G. Patniak at NRL who is numerically simulating the entire flame-vortex interaction of the present experiment (data transfer completed); and 6) Assess the feasibility of obtaining PIV velocity field images in the drop rig, which would be useful (but not required) for our assessment of the Theory of Flame Stretch (PIV images were obtained at one-g using same low laser power that is available from fiber optic cable in drop tower). The motivation for the work is to obtain novel measurement needed to develop a physically accurate model of turbulent combustion that can help in the control of engine pollutants. The unique experiment allows, for the first time, the detailed study of a negatively-curved (negatively stretched) flame, which is one of the five fundamental types of premixed flames. While there have been studies of flat flames, positively-curved (outwardly-propagating) cases and positively-strained (counterflow) cases, this is the first detailed study of a negatively-curved (inwardly-propagating) flame. The first set of drops in the 2.2 Second Drop Tower showed that microgravity provides more favorable conditions for achieving inwardly-propagating flames (IPFs) than 1-g. A vortex interacts with a flame and creates a spherical

  17. Photometric and emission-spectrometric determination of boron in steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thierig, D.

    1982-01-01

    A method for the photometric determination of boron in unalloyed and alloyed steels is described, in which Curcumine is used as reagent. A separation of boron is not necessary. Limit of detection: 0.0003% B. The decomposition of boron nitride in the steel is achieved by heating the whole sample in fuming sulphuric acid/phosphoric acid. For the emission spectrometric investigation of solid steel samples and for the spectrochemical analysis of solutions with plasma excitation working parameters are given and possibilities of interferences are demonstrated. (orig.) [de

  18. A photometric map of interstellar reddening within 100 PC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, C. L.; Johnston, L.; Crawford, D. L.

    1982-12-01

    Color excesses and distances are calculated for 300 bright, northern, late F stars using uvby beta photometric indices. The data allow an extension of the earlier maps by Perry and Johnston of the spatial distribution of interstellar reddening into the local (r less than 100 pc) solar neighborhood. Some definite conclusions are made regarding the distribution of interstellar dust in the northern hemisphere and within 300 pc of the sun by merging these results and the polarimetric observations by Tinbergen (1982) for 180 stars within 35 pc of the sun.

  19. Probing dark energy with lensing magnification in photometric surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Michael D

    2014-02-14

    I present an estimator for the angular cross correlation of two tracers of the cosmological large-scale structure that utilizes redshift information to isolate separate physical contributions. The estimator is derived by solving the Limber equation for a reweighting of the foreground tracer that nulls either clustering or lensing contributions to the cross correlation function. Applied to future photometric surveys, the estimator can enhance the measurement of gravitational lensing magnification effects to provide a competitive independent constraint on the dark energy equation of state.

  20. Photometric determination of yttrium in zirconium-containing materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbina, T.M.; Polezhaev, Yu.M.

    1984-01-01

    Comparative evaluation of the effect of different ways of eliminating the zirconium interfering effect on the results of yttrium photometric determination with arsenazo 2 in artificial mixtures of Y 2 O 3 and ZrO 2 , containing 5 and 10 mol.% Y 2 O 3 , has been carried out. The effect of Zr is eliminated by means of its precipitation by ammonium solution in the form of hydroxide and using camouflaging with 25% sulfosalicylic acid. Both ways do not provide a correct enough result. The use of non-reagent thermohydrolytic Zr precipitation during the analysis of zirconium-containing materials permits to obtain correct and well-reproducible results

  1. Photometric monitoring of pre-main sequence stars - 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, A.; Davies, J.K.; Kilkenny, D.; Bode, M.F.

    1989-01-01

    A discussion is presented of the infrared and optical photometric variability of the pre-main sequence stars BF Ori and UX Ori. In the former case, the reddening that occurs during decline, at both optical and infrared wavelengths, is consistent with variable extinction by circumstellar grains having an interstellar-like reddening law. While in the case of UX Ori, the data suggest variability due to starspots. In both cases, a study of the polarimetric variability would be valuable to confirm these conclusions. (author)

  2. Evolution of the clustering of photometrically selected SDSS galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, Ashley; Percival, Will; Brunner, R.

    2010-01-01

    We measure the angular auto-correlation functions, ω(θ), of Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) galaxies selected to have photometric redshifts 0.1 < z < 0.4 and absolute r-band magnitudes Mr < −21.2. We split these galaxies into five overlapping redshift shells of width 0.1 and measure ω(θ) in each subsample in order to investigate the evolution of SDSS galaxies. We find that the bias increases substantially with redshift – much more so than one would expect for a passively evolving sample. We u...

  3. LES of a laboratory-scale turbulent premixed bunsen flame using FSD, PCM-FPI and thickened flame models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernandez Perez, F.E.; Yuen, F.T.C.; Groth, C.P.T.; Gülder, O.L.

    2011-01-01

    Large-eddy simulations (LES) of a turbulent premixed Bunsen flame were carried out with three subfilter-scale (SFS) modelling approaches for turbulent premixed combustion. One approach is based on the artificially thickened flame and power-law flame wrinkling models, the second approach is based on

  4. Measurements and Experimental Database Review for Laminar Flame Speed Premixed Ch4/Air Flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubrilin, I. A.; Matveev, S. S.; Matveev, S. G.; Idrisov, D. V.

    2018-01-01

    Laminar flame speed (SL ) of CH4 was determined at atmospheric pressure and initial gas temperatures in range from 298 to 358 K. The heat flux method was employed to measure the flame speed in non-stretched flames. The kinetic mechanism GRI 3.0 [1] were used to simulate SL . The measurements were compared with available literature results. The data determined with the heat flux method agree with some previous burner measurements and disagree with the data from some vessel closed method and counterflow method. The GRI 3.0 mechanism was able to reproduce the present experiments. Laminar flame speed was determined at pressures range from of 1 to 20 atmospheres through mechanism GRI 3.0. Based on experimental data and calculations was obtained SL dependence on pressure and temperature. The resulting of dependence recommended use during the numerical simulation of methane combustion.

  5. Progress in the development of a S-RETGEM-based detector for an early forest fire warning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charpak, G.; Benaben, P.; Breuil, P.; Martinengo, P.; Nappi, E.; Peskov, V.

    2009-12-01

    We present a prototype of a Strip Resistive Thick GEM (S-RETGEM) photosensitive gaseous detector filled with Ne and ethylferrocene (EF) vapours at a total pressure of 1 atm for an early forest fire detection system. Measurements show that it is one hundred times more sensitive than the best commercial ultraviolet (UV) flame detectors; and therefore, it is able to reliably detect a flame of ~ 1.5 × 1.5 × 1.5 m3 at a distance of about 1 km. An additional and unique feature of this detector is its imaging capability, which in combination with other techniques, may significantly reduce false fire alarms rate when operating in an automatic mode. Preliminary results conducted with air-filled photosensitive gaseous detectors are also presented. The main advantages of this approach include both the simplicity of manufacturing and affordability of construction materials such as plastics and glues specifically reducing detector production cost. The sensitivity of these air-filled detectors at certain conditions may be as high as those filled with Ne and EF. Long-term tests of such sealed detectors indicate a significant progress in this direction. We believe that our detectors utilized in addition to other flame and smoke sensors will exceptionally increase the capability to detect forest fire at a very early stage of development. Our future efforts will be focused on attempts to commercialize such detectors utilizing our aforementioned findings.

  6. Neutron detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Andrew C [Knoxville, TN; Jardret,; Vincent, D [Powell, TN

    2011-04-05

    A neutron detector has a volume of neutron moderating material and a plurality of individual neutron sensing elements dispersed at selected locations throughout the moderator, and particularly arranged so that some of the detecting elements are closer to the surface of the moderator assembly and others are more deeply embedded. The arrangement captures some thermalized neutrons that might otherwise be scattered away from a single, centrally located detector element. Different geometrical arrangements may be used while preserving its fundamental characteristics. Different types of neutron sensing elements may be used, which may operate on any of a number of physical principles to perform the function of sensing a neutron, either by a capture or a scattering reaction, and converting that reaction to a detectable signal. High detection efficiency, an ability to acquire spectral information, and directional sensitivity may be obtained.

  7. Ionization detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, E E

    1976-02-27

    This invention concerns a fire detection system making use of a beta source. The ionisation detector includes a first and second chamber respectively comprising a first and second electrode, preferably a plate, with a common electrode separating the first and second chamber. Communication is provided between these chambers through a set of orifices and each chamber also has a set of orifices for communication with the ambient atmosphere. One or both chambers can comprise a particle source, preferably beta. The detector also has an adjustable electrode housed in one of the chambers to regulate the voltage between the fixed electrode of this chamber and the common electrode located between the chambers. The electrodes of the structure are connected to a detection circuit that spots a change in the ionisation current when a fire alarm condition arises. The detection circuit of a new type includes a relaxation oscillator with a programmable unijunction transistor and a light emitting diode.

  8. MUST detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumenfeld, Y.; Auger, F.; Sauvestre, J.E.

    1999-01-01

    The IPN-Orsay, in collaboration with the SPhN-Saclay and the DPTA Bruyeres, has built an array of 8 telescopes based on Si-strip technology for the study of direct reactions induced by radioactive beams. The detectors are described, along with the compact high density VXI electronics and the stand-alone data acquisition system developed in the laboratory. One telescope was tested using an 40 Ar beam and the measured performances are discussed. (authors)

  9. Radiation detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohata, Shuichi; Takeuchi, Yoji

    1968-10-30

    Herein disclosed is an ionization chamber the airtightness of which can be readily tested. The ionization chamber is characterized in that a small amount of helium gas is filled in the chamber in combination with other ionization gases such as argon gas, xenon gas and the like. Helium leakage from the chamber is measured by a known helium gas sensor in a vacuum vessel. Hence the long term drift of the radiation detector sensitivity may be determined.

  10. Effect of Oxygen Enrichment in Propane Laminar Diffusion Flames under Microgravity and Earth Gravity Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Pramod; Singh, Ravinder

    2017-06-01

    Diffusion flames are the most common type of flame which we see in our daily life such as candle flame and match-stick flame. Also, they are the most used flames in practical combustion system such as industrial burner (coal fired, gas fired or oil fired), diesel engines, gas turbines, and solid fuel rockets. In the present study, steady-state global chemistry calculations for 24 different flames were performed using an axisymmetric computational fluid dynamics code (UNICORN). Computation involved simulations of inverse and normal diffusion flames of propane in earth and microgravity condition with varying oxidizer compositions (21, 30, 50, 100 % O2, by mole, in N2). 2 cases were compared with the experimental result for validating the computational model. These flames were stabilized on a 5.5 mm diameter burner with 10 mm of burner length. The effect of oxygen enrichment and variation in gravity (earth gravity and microgravity) on shape and size of diffusion flames, flame temperature, flame velocity have been studied from the computational result obtained. Oxygen enrichment resulted in significant increase in flame temperature for both types of diffusion flames. Also, oxygen enrichment and gravity variation have significant effect on the flame configuration of normal diffusion flames in comparison with inverse diffusion flames. Microgravity normal diffusion flames are spherical in shape and much wider in comparison to earth gravity normal diffusion flames. In inverse diffusion flames, microgravity flames were wider than earth gravity flames. However, microgravity inverse flames were not spherical in shape.

  11. Characteristics of transitional and turbulent jet diffusion flames in microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadori, Yousef M.; Small, James F., Jr.; Hegde, Uday G.; Zhou, Liming; Stocker, Dennis P.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents the ground-based results obtained to date in preparation of a proposed space experiment to study the role of large-scale structures in microgravity transitional and turbulent gas-jet diffusion flames by investigating the dynamics of vortex/flame interactions and their influence on flame characteristics. The overall objective is to gain an understanding of the fundamental characteristics of transitional and turbulent gas-jet diffusion flames. Understanding of the role of large-scale structures on the characteristics of microgravity transitional and turbulent flames will ultimately lead to improved understanding of normal-gravity turbulent combustion.

  12. Measurements of Turbulent Flame Speed and Integral Length Scales in a Lean Stationary Premixed Flame

    OpenAIRE

    Klingmann, Jens; Johansson, Bengt

    1998-01-01

    Turbulent premixed natural gas - air flame velocities have been measured in a stationary axi-symmetric burner using LDA. The flame was stabilized by letting the flow retard toward a stagnation plate downstream of the burner exit. Turbulence was generated by letting the flow pass through a plate with drilled holes. Three different hole diameters were used, 3, 6 and 10 mm, in order to achieve different turbulent length scales. Turbulent integral length scales were measured using two-point LD...

  13. A PHOTOMETRICALLY AND MORPHOLOGICALLY VARIABLE INFRARED NEBULA IN L483

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connelley, Michael S.; Hodapp, Klaus W.; Fuller, Gary A.

    2009-01-01

    We present narrow and broad K-band observations of the Class 0/I source IRAS 18148-0440 that span 17 years. The infrared nebula associated with this protostar in the L483 dark cloud is both morphologically and photometrically variable on a timescale of only a few months. This nebula appears to be an infrared analog to other well known optically visible variable nebulae associated with young stars, such as Hubble's Variable Nebula. Along with Cepheus A, this is one of the first large variable nebulae to be found that is only visible in the infrared. The variability of this nebula is most likely due to changing illumination of the cloud rather than any motion of the structure in the nebula. Both morphological and photometric changes are observed on a timescale only a few times longer than the light crossing time of the nebula, suggesting very rapid intrinsic changes in the illumination of the nebula. Our narrowband observations also found that H 2 knots are found nearly twice as far to the east of the source as to its west, and that H 2 emission extends farther east of the source than the previously known CO outflow.

  14. DETECTION OF KOI-13.01 USING THE PHOTOMETRIC ORBIT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shporer, Avi; Jenkins, Jon M.; Seader, Shawn E.; Smith, Jeffrey C.; Thompson, Susan E.; Twicken, Joseph D.; Rowe, Jason F.; Sanderfer, Dwight T.; Still, Martin D.; Welsh, William F.

    2011-01-01

    We use the KOI-13 transiting star-planet system as a test case for the recently developed BEER algorithm, aimed at identifying non-transiting low-mass companions by detecting the photometric variability induced by the companion along its orbit. Such photometric variability is generated by three mechanisms: the beaming effect, tidal ellipsoidal distortion, and reflection/heating. We use data from three Kepler quarters, from the first year of the mission, while ignoring measurements within the transit and occultation, and show that the planet's ephemeris is clearly detected. We fit for the amplitude of each of the three effects and use the beaming effect amplitude to estimate the planet's minimum mass, which results in M p sin i = 9.2 ± 1.1 M J (assuming the host star parameters derived by Szabo et al.). Our results show that non-transiting star-planet systems similar to KOI-13.01 can be detected in Kepler data, including a measurement of the orbital ephemeris and the planet's minimum mass. Moreover, we derive a realistic estimate of the amplitudes uncertainties, and use it to show that data obtained during the entire lifetime of the Kepler mission of 3.5 years will allow detecting non-transiting close-in low-mass companions orbiting bright stars, down to the few Jupiter mass level. Data from the Kepler Extended Mission, if funded by NASA, will further improve the detection capabilities.

  15. Hierarchical Matching and Regression with Application to Photometric Redshift Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtagh, Fionn

    2017-06-01

    This work emphasizes that heterogeneity, diversity, discontinuity, and discreteness in data is to be exploited in classification and regression problems. A global a priori model may not be desirable. For data analytics in cosmology, this is motivated by the variety of cosmological objects such as elliptical, spiral, active, and merging galaxies at a wide range of redshifts. Our aim is matching and similarity-based analytics that takes account of discrete relationships in the data. The information structure of the data is represented by a hierarchy or tree where the branch structure, rather than just the proximity, is important. The representation is related to p-adic number theory. The clustering or binning of the data values, related to the precision of the measurements, has a central role in this methodology. If used for regression, our approach is a method of cluster-wise regression, generalizing nearest neighbour regression. Both to exemplify this analytics approach, and to demonstrate computational benefits, we address the well-known photometric redshift or `photo-z' problem, seeking to match Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) spectroscopic and photometric redshifts.

  16. Photometric Calibration of the Gemini South Adaptive Optics Imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Sarah Anne; Rodrigo Carrasco Damele, Eleazar; Thomas-Osip, Joanna

    2017-01-01

    The Gemini South Adaptive Optics Imager (GSAOI) is an instrument available on the Gemini South telescope at Cerro Pachon, Chile, utilizing the Gemini Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics System (GeMS). In order to allow users to easily perform photometry with this instrument and to monitor any changes in the instrument in the future, we seek to set up a process for performing photometric calibration with standard star observations taken across the time of the instrument’s operation. We construct a Python-based pipeline that includes IRAF wrappers for reduction and combines the AstroPy photutils package and original Python scripts with the IRAF apphot and photcal packages to carry out photometry and linear regression fitting. Using the pipeline, we examine standard star observations made with GSAOI on 68 nights between 2013 and 2015 in order to determine the nightly photometric zero points in the J, H, Kshort, and K bands. This work is based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, processed using the Gemini IRAF and gemini_python packages, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación Productiva (Argentina), and Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação (Brazil).

  17. Improving Photometric Calibration of Meteor Video Camera Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlert, Steven; Kingery, Aaron; Suggs, Robert

    2017-01-01

    We present the results of new calibration tests performed by the NASA Meteoroid Environment Office (MEO) designed to help quantify and minimize systematic uncertainties in meteor photometry from video camera observations. These systematic uncertainties can be categorized by two main sources: an imperfect understanding of the linearity correction for the MEO's Watec 902H2 Ultimate video cameras and uncertainties in meteor magnitudes arising from transformations between the Watec camera's Sony EX-View HAD bandpass and the bandpasses used to determine reference star magnitudes. To address the first point, we have measured the linearity response of the MEO's standard meteor video cameras using two independent laboratory tests on eight cameras. Our empirically determined linearity correction is critical for performing accurate photometry at low camera intensity levels. With regards to the second point, we have calculated synthetic magnitudes in the EX bandpass for reference stars. These synthetic magnitudes enable direct calculations of the meteor's photometric flux within the camera bandpass without requiring any assumptions of its spectral energy distribution. Systematic uncertainties in the synthetic magnitudes of individual reference stars are estimated at approx. 0.20 mag, and are limited by the available spectral information in the reference catalogs. These two improvements allow for zero-points accurate to 0.05 - 0.10 mag in both filtered and unfiltered camera observations with no evidence for lingering systematics. These improvements are essential to accurately measuring photometric masses of individual meteors and source mass indexes.

  18. Astrometric and photometric study of the open cluster NGC 2323

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin M.Y.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a study of the open cluster NGC 2323 using astrometric and photometric data. In our study we used two methods that are able to separate open cluster’s stars from those that belong to the stellar background. Our results of calculations by these two methods indicate that: 1 according to the membership probability, NGC 2323 should contain 497 stars, 2 the cluster center should be at 07h 02m 48.s02 and -08° 20' 17''74,3 the limiting radius of NGC 2323 is 2.31 ± 0.04 pc, the surface number density at this radius is 98.16 stars pc −2, 4 the magnitude function has a maximum at about mv = 14 mag, 5 the total mass of NGC 2323 is estimated dynamically by using astrometric data to be 890 M_, and statistically by using photometric data to be 900 M_, and 6 the distance and age of the cluster are found to be equal to 900 ± 100 pc, and 140 ± 20 Myr, respectively. Finally the dynamical evolution parameter τ of the cluster is about 436.2.

  19. PNN NGC 246: A Complex Photometric Behaviour That Requires Wet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez J. M. González

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a study over three single-site campaigns to investigate the photometric behaviour of the PNN NGC 246. We observed this object in 2000 and 2001. The analysis of the light curves indicates complex and variable temporal spectra. Using wavelet analysis we have found evidences for changes on time scales of hours in the 2000 dataset. The temporal spectra obtained during 2001 are quite different from the results of the previous year. The modulations in the light curve are more noticeable and the temporal spectra present a higher number of modulation frequencies. One peculiar characteristic is the presence of a variable harmonic structure related to one of these modulation frequencies. This complex photometric behaviour may be explained by a more complicated unresolved combination of modulation frequencies, but more likely due to a combination of pulsations of the star plus modulations related to interaction with a close companion, maybe indicating a disc. However, these characteristics cannot be confirmed from single site observations. The complex and variable behaviour of NGC 246 needs the WET co-operation in order to completely resolve its light curve.

  20. A Photometric Machine-Learning Method to Infer Stellar Metallicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Adam A.

    2015-01-01

    Following its formation, a star's metal content is one of the few factors that can significantly alter its evolution. Measurements of stellar metallicity ([Fe/H]) typically require a spectrum, but spectroscopic surveys are limited to a few x 10(exp 6) targets; photometric surveys, on the other hand, have detected > 10(exp 9) stars. I present a new machine-learning method to predict [Fe/H] from photometric colors measured by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). The training set consists of approx. 120,000 stars with SDSS photometry and reliable [Fe/H] measurements from the SEGUE Stellar Parameters Pipeline (SSPP). For bright stars (g' < or = 18 mag), with 4500 K < or = Teff < or = 7000 K, corresponding to those with the most reliable SSPP estimates, I find that the model predicts [Fe/H] values with a root-mean-squared-error (RMSE) of approx.0.27 dex. The RMSE from this machine-learning method is similar to the scatter in [Fe/H] measurements from low-resolution spectra..

  1. A PHOTOMETRIC METALLICITY ESTIMATE OF THE VIRGO STELLAR OVERDENSITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, Deokkeun; Johnson, Jennifer A.; Pinsonneault, Marc H.; Terndrup, Donald M.; Masseron, Thomas; Beers, Timothy C.; Lee, Young Sun; Delahaye, Franck; Yanny, Brian

    2009-01-01

    We determine photometric metal abundance estimates for individual main-sequence stars in the Virgo Overdensity (VOD), which covers almost 1000 deg 2 on the sky, based on a calibration of the metallicity sensitivity of stellar isochrones in the gri filter passbands using field stars with well-determined spectroscopic metal abundances. Despite the low precision of the method for individual stars, we derive [Fe/H] = -2.0 ± 0.1(internal) ± 0.5(systematic) for the metal abundance of the VOD from photometric measurements of 0.7 million stars in the northern Galactic hemisphere with heliocentric distances from ∼10 kpc to ∼20 kpc. The metallicity of the VOD is indistinguishable, within Δ[Fe/H] ≤ 0.2, from that of field halo stars covering the same distance range. This initial application suggests that the Sloan Digital Sky Survey gri passbands can be used to probe the properties of main-sequence stars beyond ∼10 kpc, complementing studies of nearby stars from more metallicity-sensitive color indices that involve the u passband.

  2. Measuring Cosmological Parameters with Photometrically Classified Pan-STARRS Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, David; Scolnic, Daniel; Riess, Adam; Rest, Armin; Kirshner, Robert; Berger, Edo; Kessler, Rick; Pan, Yen-Chen; Foley, Ryan; Chornock, Ryan; Ortega, Carolyn; Challis, Peter; Burgett, William; Chambers, Kenneth; Draper, Peter; Flewelling, Heather; Huber, Mark; Kaiser, Nick; Kudritzki, Rolf; Metcalfe, Nigel; Tonry, John; Wainscoat, Richard J.; Waters, Chris; Gall, E. E. E.; Kotak, Rubina; McCrum, Matt; Smartt, Stephen; Smith, Ken

    2018-01-01

    We use nearly 1,200 supernovae (SNe) from Pan-STARRS and ~200 low-z (z energy equation of state parameter w to be -0.986±0.058 (stat+sys). If we allow w to evolve with redshift as w(a) = w0 + wa(1-a), we find w0 = -0.923±0.148 and wa = -0.404±0.797. These results are consistent with measurements of cosmological parameters from the JLA and from a new analysis of 1049 spectroscopically confirmed SNe Ia (Scolnic et al. 2017). We try four different photometric classification priors for Pan-STARRS SNe and two alternate ways of modeling the CC SN contamination, finding that none of these variants gives a w that differs by more than 1% from the baseline measurement. The systematic uncertainty on w due to marginalizing over the CC SN contamination, σwCC = 0.019, is approximately equal to the photometric calibration uncertainty and is lower than the systematic uncertainty in the SN\\,Ia dispersion model (σwdisp = 0.024). Our data provide one of the best current constraints on w, demonstrating that samples with ~5% CC SN contamination can give competitive cosmological constraints when the contaminating distribution is marginalized over in a Bayesian framework.

  3. A photometric function of planetary surfaces for gourmets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shkuratov, Yuriy; Korokhin, Viktor; Shevchenko, Vasilij; Mikhalchenko, Olga; Belskaya, Irina; Kaydash, Vadym; Videen, Gorden; Zubko, Evgenij; Velikodsky, Yuriy

    2018-03-01

    A new photometric model with small number of parameters is presented. The model is based on an assumption that there exist such surfaces for which spatial brightness variations caused by small topography undulations can be reproduced exactly by corresponding spatial variations of albedo. This indistinguishability results in a differential equation suggesting a new photometric function that generalizes, in particular, the Akimov disk-function. Our model provides excellent fits in a wide phase-angle range for integral observations of asteroids of different albedos. We also carried out fitting to integral observations of the Moon and Mercury, confirming difficulties in describing Mercury's phase function at large phase angles, which were also found for the Hapke model. Comparisons of global latitude and longitude trends with our model calculations have shown good coincidence for the Moon. To retrieve the lunar trends, we use the phase-ratio technique, applying it to our telescope observations. Mapping the model parameters using LROC WAC data were carried out for a region comprising the Reiner Gamma formation. This mapping allows us to calculate phase-ratio images of the region, showing at large phase angles systematically steeper phase curves of young craters and smaller steepness for the very Reiner Gamma formation.

  4. AMICO: optimized detection of galaxy clusters in photometric surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellagamba, Fabio; Roncarelli, Mauro; Maturi, Matteo; Moscardini, Lauro

    2018-02-01

    We present Adaptive Matched Identifier of Clustered Objects (AMICO), a new algorithm for the detection of galaxy clusters in photometric surveys. AMICO is based on the Optimal Filtering technique, which allows to maximize the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of the clusters. In this work, we focus on the new iterative approach to the extraction of cluster candidates from the map produced by the filter. In particular, we provide a definition of membership probability for the galaxies close to any cluster candidate, which allows us to remove its imprint from the map, allowing the detection of smaller structures. As demonstrated in our tests, this method allows the deblending of close-by and aligned structures in more than 50 per cent of the cases for objects at radial distance equal to 0.5 × R200 or redshift distance equal to 2 × σz, being σz the typical uncertainty of photometric redshifts. Running AMICO on mocks derived from N-body simulations and semi-analytical modelling of the galaxy evolution, we obtain a consistent mass-amplitude relation through the redshift range of 0.3 slope of ∼0.55 and a logarithmic scatter of ∼0.14. The fraction of false detections is steeply decreasing with S/N and negligible at S/N > 5.

  5. USING COLORS TO IMPROVE PHOTOMETRIC METALLICITY ESTIMATES FOR GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, N. E.; Soderberg, A. M.; Levesque, E. M.

    2013-01-01

    There is a well known correlation between the mass and metallicity of star-forming galaxies. Because mass is correlated with luminosity, this relation is often exploited, when spectroscopy is not available, to estimate galaxy metallicities based on single band photometry. However, we show that galaxy color is typically more effective than luminosity as a predictor of metallicity. This is a consequence of the correlation between color and the galaxy mass-to-light ratio and the recently discovered correlation between star formation rate (SFR) and residuals from the mass-metallicity relation. Using Sloan Digital Sky Survey spectroscopy of ∼180, 000 nearby galaxies, we derive 'LZC relations', empirical relations between metallicity (in seven common strong line diagnostics), luminosity, and color (in 10 filter pairs and four methods of photometry). We show that these relations allow photometric metallicity estimates, based on luminosity and a single optical color, that are ∼50% more precise than those made based on luminosity alone; galaxy metallicity can be estimated to within ∼0.05-0.1 dex of the spectroscopically derived value depending on the diagnostic used. Including color information in photometric metallicity estimates also reduces systematic biases for populations skewed toward high or low SFR environments, as we illustrate using the host galaxy of the supernova SN 2010ay. This new tool will lend more statistical power to studies of galaxy populations, such as supernova and gamma-ray burst host environments, in ongoing and future wide-field imaging surveys

  6. Photometric Metallicities of the Small and Large Magellanic Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Amy Elizabeth

    2018-06-01

    In the field of astronomy, the study of galaxies is vitally important to understanding the structure and evolution of the universe. Within the study of galaxies, of particular interest are the Small and Large Magellanic Clouds (SMC and LMC, respectively), two of the Milky Way’s closest and most massive satellite galaxies. Their close proximity make them ideal candidates for understanding astrophysical processes such as galaxy interactions. In order to fully understand the Magellanic Clouds, it is imperative that the metallicity of the clouds be mapped in detail. In order to accomplish this task, I will use data from the Survey of Magellanic Stellar History (SMASH) which is a deep, multi-band (ugriz) photometric survey of the Magellanic Clouds that contains approximately 400 million objects in 197 fully-calibrated fields. SMASH is an extensive and deep photometric data set that enables the full-scale study of the galactic structure in the Clouds. The SMASH u-band is sensitive to metallicity for main-sequence turn-off stars which we calibrate using SDSS spectroscopy in overlapping regions (mainly standard star fields). The final steps will be to make metallicity maps of the main bodies and peripheries of the LMC and SMC. Ultimately, these metallicity maps will help us trace out population gradients in the Clouds and uncover the origin of their very extended stellar peripheries.

  7. Photometric metallicity map of the Small Magellanic Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, S.; Subramaniam, A.; Cole, A. A.; Sohn, Y.-J.

    2018-04-01

    We have created an estimated metallicity map of the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) using the Magellanic Cloud Photometric Survey (MCPS) and Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment (OGLE III) photometric data. This is a first of its kind map of metallicity up to a radius of ˜2.5°. We identify the Red Giant Branch (RGB) in the V, (V - I) colour-magnitude diagrams of small sub-regions of varying sizes in both data sets. We use the slope of the RGB as an indicator of the average metallicity of a sub-region and calibrate the RGB slope to metallicity using available spectroscopic data for selected sub-regions. The average metallicity of the SMC is found to be [Fe/H] = -0.94 dex (σ[Fe/H] = 0.09) from OGLE III and [Fe/H] = -0.95 dex (σ[Fe/H] = 0.08) from MCPS. We confirm a shallow but significant metallicity gradient within the inner SMC up to a radius of 2.5° (-0.045 ± 0.004 to -0.067 ± 0.006 dex deg-1).

  8. Brominated flame retardants and endocrine disruption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, J.G.; Becher, G.; Berg, van den M.; Boer, de J.; Leonards, P.E.G.

    2003-01-01

    From an environmental point of view, an increasing important group of organohalogen compounds are the brominated flame retardants (BFRs), which are widely used in polymers and textiles and applied in construction materials, furniture, and electronic equipment. BFRs with the highest production volume

  9. Brominated flame retardants and endocrine disruption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Joseph G.; Becher, Georg; Van Den Berg, Martin; Leonards, Pim E G

    2003-01-01

    From an environmental point of view, an increasing important group of organo-halogen compounds are the brominated flame retardants (BFRs), which are widely used in polymers and textiles and applied in construction materials, furniture, and electronic equipment. BFRs with the highest production

  10. The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taylor, W.D.; Evans, C.J.; Henault-Brunet, V.; Bastian, N.; Beletsky, Y.; Bestenlehner, J.; Brott, I.; Cantiello, M.; Carraro, G.; Clark, J.S.; Crowther, P.A.; de Koter, A.; de Mink, S.E.; Doran, E.; Dufton, P.L.; Dunstall, P.; Gieles, M.; Grafener, G.; Herrero, A.; Howarth, I.D.; Langer, N.; Lennon, D.J.; Maiz-Apellaniz, J; Markova, N.; Najarro, P.; Puls, J.; Sana, H.A.A.; Simon-Diaz, S.; Smartt, S.J.; Stroud, V.E.; van Loon, J.T.; Vink, J.S.; Walborn, N.R.

    2011-01-01

    The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey is an ESO Large Programme that has provided multi-epoch spectroscopy of over 1000 stars in the 30 Doradus region in the Large Magellanic Cloud. Armed with this unique dataset the assembled consortium is now addressing a broad range of fundamental questions in both

  11. Experimental characterization of methane inverse diffusion flame

    KAUST Repository

    Elbaz, Ayman M.; Roberts, William L.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents 10-kHz images of OH-PLIF simultaneously with 2-D PIV measurements in an inverse methane diffusion flame. Under a constant fuel flow rate, the central air jet Re was varied, leading to air to fuel velocity ratio, Vr, to vary

  12. An automated wavelength selection for flame spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurteau, M.; Mislan, J.P.; Ashley, R.W.

    1976-01-01

    A simple electro-mechanical programming system is described for use with a flame spectrophotometer. Its application for automated sequential multi-element analysis is illustrated. Reproducibility of wavelength settings are within +-0.5 A. Precision and sensitivities are at least as good as those obtained for single element determinations. (author)

  13. Optimization of Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Optimization of Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry for Measurement of High Concentrations of Arsenic and Selenium. ... This procedure allowed a rapid determination of As from minimum 4.462 mg/L to higher concentrations without sample pretreatment. Besides As, this method successfully measured Se concentrations ...

  14. Flame assisted synthesis of catalytic ceramic membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Johnny; Mosleh, Majid; Johannessen, Tue

    2004-01-01

    technology it is possible to make supported catalysts, composite metal oxides, catalytically active surfaces, and porous ceramic membranes. Membrane layers can be formed by using a porous substrate tube (or surface) as a nano-particle filter. The aerosol gas from the flame is led through a porous substrate...

  15. Effects of ionizing radiation on cryogenic infrared detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, S. H.; Silverberg, R. F.; Lakew, B.

    1989-01-01

    The Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE) is one of three experiments to be carried aboard the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite scheduled to be launched by NASA on a Delta rocket in 1989. The DIRBE is a cryogenic absolute photometer operating in a liquid helium dewar at 1.5 K. Photometric stability is a principal requirement for achieving the scientific objectives of this experiment. The Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS), launched in 1983, which used detectors similar to those in DIRBE, revealed substantial changes in detector responsivity following exposure to ionizing radiation encountered on passage through the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA). Since the COBE will use the same 900 Km sun-synchronous orbit as IRAS, ionizing radiation-induced performance changes in the detectors were a major concern. Here, ionizing radiation tests carried out on all the DIRBE photodetectors are reported. Responsivity changes following exposure to gamma rays, protons, and alpha particle are discussed. The detector performance was monitored following a simulated entire mission life dose. In addition, the response of the detectors to individual particle interactions was measured. The InSb photovoltaic detectors and the Blocked Impurity Band (BIB) detectors revealed no significant change in responsivity following radiation exposure. The Ge:Ga detectors show large effects which were greatly reduced by proper thermal annealing.

  16. Laminar Flame Speeds of Gasoline Surrogates Measured with the Flat Flame Method

    KAUST Repository

    Liao, Y.-H.

    2016-01-27

    © 2016 American Chemical Society. The adiabatic, laminar flame speeds of gasoline surrogates at atmospheric pressure over a range of equivalence ratios of = 0.8-1.3 and unburned gas temperatures of 298-400 K are measured with the flat flame method, which produces a one-dimensional flat flame free of stretch. Surrogates used in the current work are the primary reference fuels (PRFs, mixtures of n-heptane and isooctane), the toluene reference fuels (TRFs, mixtures of toluene and PRFs), and the ethanol reference fuels (ERFs, mixtures of ethanol and PRFs). In general, there is good agreement between the present work and the literature data for single-component fuel and PRF mixtures. Surrogates of TRF mixtures are found to exhibit comparable flame speeds to a real gasoline, while there is discrepancy observed between isooctane and gasoline. Moreover, the laminar flame speeds of TRF mixtures with similar fractions of n-heptane are found to be insensitive to the quantity of toluene in the mixture. Mixtures of ERFs exhibit comparable flame speeds to those of TRFs with similar mole fractions of n-heptane and isooctane.

  17. Flame retardancy and thermal degradation of cotton textiles based on UV-curable flame retardant coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xing, Weiyi [State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzai Road, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Suzhou Institute for Advanced Study, University of Science and Technology of China, 166 Ren' ai Road, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China); Jie, Ganxin [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Adaptability for Industrial Products, China National Electric Apparatus Research Institute, Guangzhou 510300 (China); Song, Lei; Hu, Shuang; Lv, Xiaoqi; Wang, Xin [State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzai Road, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Hu, Yuan, E-mail: yuanhu@ustc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzai Road, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Suzhou Institute for Advanced Study, University of Science and Technology of China, 166 Ren' ai Road, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China)

    2011-01-20

    The flame retardant coatings were prepared through UV-curable technique using tri(acryloyloxyethyl) phosphate (TAEP) and triglycidyl isocyanurate acrylate (TGICA). Results from FTIR-ATR spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that flame retardant coatings were successfully coated onto the surface of cotton fabrics. The flame retardancy of the treated fabrics was studied by Micro-scale Combustion Calorimeter (MCC) and limited oxygen index (LOI). The cottons coated flame retardant coatings had the lower peak heat release rate (PHRR), heat release capacity (HRC), total heat of combustion (THC) and higher LOI value compared with untreated cotton. The results from TGA test showed that the flame retardant coatings lowered the decomposition temperature of treated fabric. The thermal decomposition of cottons was monitored by real time FTIR analysis and thermogravimetric analysis/infrared spectrometry (TGA-IR). The enhanced flame retardant action might be caused by thermal decomposition of TAEP structure, producing acidic intermediates, which could react with fabrics to alter its thermal decomposition process.

  18. Turbulent Flame Speed Scaling for Positive Markstein Number Expanding Flames in Near Isotropic Turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhuri, Swetaprovo; Wu, Fujia; Law, Chung

    2012-11-01

    In this work we clarify the role of Markstein diffusivity on turbulent flame speed and it's scaling, from analysis and experimental measurements on constant-pressure expanding flames propagating in near isotropic turbulence. For all C0-C4 hydrocarbon-air mixtures presented in this work and recently published C8 data from Leeds, the normalized turbulent flame speed data of individual mixtures approximately follows the recent theoretical and experimental ReT, f 0 . 5 scaling, where the average radius is the length scale and thermal diffusivity is the transport property. We observe that for a constant ReT, f 0 . 5 , the normalized turbulent flame speed decreases with increasing Mk. This could be explained by considering Markstein diffusivity as the large wavenumber, flame surface fluctuation dissipation mechanism. As originally suggested by the theory, replacing thermal diffusivity with Markstein diffusivity in the turbulence Reynolds number definition above, the present and Leeds dataset could be scaled by the new ReT, f 0 . 5 irrespective of the fuel considered, equivalence ratio, pressure and turbulence intensity for positive Mk flames. This work was supported by the Combustion Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences under Award Number DE-SC0001198 and by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research.

  19. Analysis of Flame Extinguishment and Height in Low Frequency Acoustically Excited Methane Jet Diffusion Flame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Ruowen; Kang, Ruxue; Liu, Chen; Zhang, Zhiyang; Zhi, Youran

    2018-01-01

    The exploration of microgravity conditions in space is increasing and existing fire extinguishing technology is often inadequate for fire safety in this special environment. As a result, improving the efficiency of portable extinguishers is of growing importance. In this work, a visual study of the effects on methane jet diffusion flames by low frequency sound waves is conducted to assess the extinguishing ability of sound waves. With a small-scale sound wave extinguishing bench, the extinguishing ability of certain frequencies of sound waves are identified, and the response of the flame height is observed and analyzed. Results show that the flame structure changes with disturbance due to low frequency sound waves of 60-100 Hz, and quenches at effective frequencies in the range of 60-90 Hz. In this range, 60 Hz is considered to be the quick extinguishing frequency, while 70-90 Hz is the stable extinguishing frequency range. For a fixed frequency, the flame height decreases with sound pressure level (SPL). The flame height exhibits the greatest sensitivity to the 60 Hz acoustic waves, and the least to the 100 Hz acoustic waves. The flame height decreases almost identically with disturbance by 70-90 Hz acoustic waves.

  20. Tomographic reconstruction of OH* chemiluminescence in two interacting turbulent flames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worth, Nicholas A; Dawson, James R

    2013-01-01

    The tomographic reconstruction of OH* chemiluminescence was performed on two interacting turbulent premixed bluff-body stabilized flames under steady flow conditions and acoustic excitation. These measurements elucidate the complex three-dimensional (3D) vortex–flame interactions which have previously not been accessible. The experiment was performed using a single camera and intensifier, with multiple views acquired by repositioning the camera, permitting calculation of the mean and phase-averaged volumetric OH* distributions. The reconstructed flame structure and phase-averaged dynamics are compared with OH planar laser-induced fluorescence and flame surface density measurements for the first time. The volumetric data revealed that the large-scale vortex–flame structures formed along the shear layers of each flame collide when the two flames meet, resulting in complex 3D flame structures in between the two flames. With a fairly simple experimental setup, it is shown that the tomographic reconstruction of OH* chemiluminescence in forced flames is a powerful tool that can yield important physical insights into large-scale 3D flame dynamics that are important in combustion instability. (paper)

  1. Premixed Flames Under Microgravity and Normal Gravity Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krikunova, Anastasia I.; Son, Eduard E.

    2018-03-01

    Premixed conical CH4-air flames were studied experimentally and numerically under normal straight, reversed gravity conditions and microgravity. Low-gravity experiments were performed in Drop tower. Classical Bunsen-type burner was used to find out features of gravity influence on the combustion processes. Mixture equivalence ratio was varied from 0.8 to 1.3. Wide range of flow velocity allows to study both laminar and weakly turbulized flames. High-speed flame chemoluminescence video-recording was used as diagnostic. The investigations were performed at atmospheric pressure. As results normalized flame height, laminar flame speed were measured, also features of flame instabilities were shown. Low- and high-frequency flame-instabilities (oscillations) have a various nature as velocity fluctuations, preferential diffusion instability, hydrodynamic and Rayleigh-Taylor ones etc., that was explored and demonstrated.

  2. Pt coating on flame-generated carbon particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, In Dae; Lee, Dong Geun

    2008-01-01

    Carbon black, activated carbon and carbon nanotube have been used as supporting materials for precious metal catalysts used in fuel cell electrodes. One-step flame synthesis method is used to coat 2-5nm Pt dots on flame-generated carbon particles. By adjusting flame temperature, gas flow rates and resident time of particles in flame, we can obtain Pt/C nano catalyst-support composite particles. Additional injection of hydrogen gas facilitates pyrolysis of Pt precursor in flame. The size of as-incepted Pt dots increases along the flame due to longer resident time and sintering in high temperature flame. Surface coverage and dispersion of the Pt dots is varied at different sampling heights and confirmed by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Energy Dispersive Spectra (EDS) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). Crystallinity and surface bonding groups of carbon are investigated through X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscoy (XPS) and Raman spectroscopy

  3. Leading-Edge Velocities and Lifted Methane Jet Flame Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Wang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Current interest exists in understanding reaction-zone dynamics and mechanisms with respect to how they counterpropagate against incoming reactants. Images of flame position and flow-field morphology are presented from flame chemiluminescence and particle image velocimetry (PIV measurements. In the present study, PIV experiments were carried out to measure the methane jet lifted-flame flow-field velocities in the vicinity of the flame leading edge. Specifically, velocity fields within the high-temperature zone were examined in detail, which complements previous studies, whose prime focus is the flow-field upstream of the high-temperature boundary. PIV data is used not only to determine the velocities, but, along with chemiluminescence images, to also indicate the approximate location of the reaction zone (further supported by/through the leading-edge flame velocity distributions. The velocity results indirectly support the concept that the flame is anchored primarily through the mechanism of partially premixed flame propagation.

  4. Effect of realistic and filtered stellar photometric noise on the detection of moons using photometric transit timing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewis K.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The photometric transit timing technique was proposed by Szabó et al. (2006 as a method for discovering moons of transiting extrasolar planets. In the preliminary analysis of this technique, it was assumed that the noise in the transit lightcurve was well described by uncorrelated white noise. However, this assumption is not necessarily realistic. To determine the effect of using more realistic lightcurves, transit timing uncertainties are calculated for the case of white noise, measured solar photometric noise and measured solar photometric noise that has been filtered. It is found that for light curves contaminated with realistic photometric noise, the transit timing uncertainties are dramatically increased (and thus moon detection reduced. In addition, we find that while filtering reduced this problem, it did not negate it.

  5. Assembling and Using an LED-Based Detector to Monitor Absorbance Changes during Acid-Base Titrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Willy G.; Cavalheiro, E´der T. G.

    2015-01-01

    A simple photometric assembly based in an LED as a light source and a photodiode as a detector is proposed in order to follow the absorbance changes as a function of the titrant volume added during the course of acid-base titrations in the presence of a suitable visual indicator. The simplicity and low cost of the electronic device allow the…

  6. Acoustic radiation from weakly wrinkled premixed flames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lieuwen, Tim; Mohan, Sripathi; Rajaram, Rajesh; Preetham, [School of Aerospace Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332-0150 (United States)

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a theoretical analysis of acoustic radiation from weakly wrinkled (i.e., u'/S{sub L}<1) premixed flames. Specifically, it determines the transfer function relating the spectrum of the acoustic pressure oscillations, P'({omega}), to that of the turbulent velocity fluctuations in the approach flow, U'({omega}). In the weakly wrinkled limit, this transfer function is local in frequency space; i.e., velocity fluctuations at a frequency {omega} distort the flame and generate sound at the same frequency. This transfer function primarily depends upon the flame Strouhal number St (based on mean flow velocity and flame length) and the correlation length, {lambda}, of the flow fluctuations. For cases where the ratio of the correlation length and duct radius {lambda}/a>>1, the acoustic pressure and turbulent velocity power spectra are related by P'({omega})-{omega}{sup 2}U'({omega}) and P'({omega})-U'({omega}) for St<<1 and St>>1, respectively. For cases where {lambda}/a<<1, the transfer functions take the form P'({omega})-{omega}{sup 2}({lambda}/a){sup 2}U'({omega}) and P'({omega})-{omega}{sup 2}({lambda}/a){sup 2}({psi}-{delta}ln({lambda}/a))U'({omega}) for St<<1 and St>>1, respectively, where (PS) and {delta} are constants. The latter result demonstrates that this transfer function does not exhibit a simple power law relationship in the high frequency region of the spectra. The simultaneous dependence of this pressure-velocity transfer function upon the Strouhal number and correlation length suggests a mechanism for the experimentally observed maximum in acoustic spectra and provides some insight into the controversy in the literature over how this peak should scale with the flame Strouhal number.

  7. Speciation of four selenium compounds using high performance liquid chromatography with on-line detection by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry or flame atomic absorption spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Gitte Alsing; Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt

    1997-01-01

    An analytical method for the speciation of selenomethionine, selenocystine, selenite and selenate by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with atomic spectrometric detection is presented. An organic polymeric strong anion exchange column was used as the stationary phase in combination...... spectrometry (ICP-MS). The signal-to-noise ratio of the FAAS detector was optimized using a hydrogen-argon entrained-air flame and a slotted-tube atom trap (STAT) in the flame. The limit of detection (3 sigma) achieved by the HPLC-FAAS system was 1 mg L-1 of selenium (100 mu L injections) for each of the four...

  8. Autoignited lifted flames of dimethyl ether in heated coflow air

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Noman, Saeed M.

    2018-05-16

    Autoignited lifted flames of dimethyl ether (DME) in laminar nonpremixed jets with high-temperature coflow air have been studied experimentally. When the initial temperature was elevated to over 860 K, an autoignition occurred without requiring an external ignition source. A planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) technique for formaldehyde (CH2O) visualized qualitatively the zone of low temperature kinetics in a premixed flame. Two flame configurations were investigated; (1) autoignited lifted flames with tribrachial edge having three distinct branches of a lean and a rich premixed flame wings with a trailing diffusion flame and (2) autoignited lifted flames with mild combustion when the fuel was highly diluted. For the autoignited tribrachial edge flames at critical autoignition conditions, exhibiting repetitive extinction and re-ignition phenomena near a blowout condition, the characteristic flow time (liftoff height scaled with jet velocity) was correlated with the square of the ignition delay time of the stoichiometric mixture. The liftoff heights were also correlated as a function of jet velocity times the square of ignition delay time. Formaldehydes were observed between the fuel nozzle and the lifted flame edge, emphasizing a low-temperature kinetics for autoignited lifted flames, while for a non-autoignited lifted flame, formaldehydes were observed near a thin luminous flame zone.For the autoignited lifted flames with mild combustion, especially at a high temperature, a unique non-monotonic liftoff height behavior was observed; decreasing and then increasing liftoff height with jet velocity. This behavior was similar to the binary mixture fuels of CH4/H2 and CO/H2 observed previously. A transient homogeneous autoignition analysis suggested that such decreasing behavior with jet velocity can be attributed to partial oxidation characteristics of DME in producing appreciable amounts of CH4/CO/H2 ahead of the edge flame region.

  9. Autoignited lifted flames of dimethyl ether in heated coflow air

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Noman, Saeed M.; Choi, Byung Chul; Chung, Suk-Ho

    2018-01-01

    Autoignited lifted flames of dimethyl ether (DME) in laminar nonpremixed jets with high-temperature coflow air have been studied experimentally. When the initial temperature was elevated to over 860 K, an autoignition occurred without requiring an external ignition source. A planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) technique for formaldehyde (CH2O) visualized qualitatively the zone of low temperature kinetics in a premixed flame. Two flame configurations were investigated; (1) autoignited lifted flames with tribrachial edge having three distinct branches of a lean and a rich premixed flame wings with a trailing diffusion flame and (2) autoignited lifted flames with mild combustion when the fuel was highly diluted. For the autoignited tribrachial edge flames at critical autoignition conditions, exhibiting repetitive extinction and re-ignition phenomena near a blowout condition, the characteristic flow time (liftoff height scaled with jet velocity) was correlated with the square of the ignition delay time of the stoichiometric mixture. The liftoff heights were also correlated as a function of jet velocity times the square of ignition delay time. Formaldehydes were observed between the fuel nozzle and the lifted flame edge, emphasizing a low-temperature kinetics for autoignited lifted flames, while for a non-autoignited lifted flame, formaldehydes were observed near a thin luminous flame zone.For the autoignited lifted flames with mild combustion, especially at a high temperature, a unique non-monotonic liftoff height behavior was observed; decreasing and then increasing liftoff height with jet velocity. This behavior was similar to the binary mixture fuels of CH4/H2 and CO/H2 observed previously. A transient homogeneous autoignition analysis suggested that such decreasing behavior with jet velocity can be attributed to partial oxidation characteristics of DME in producing appreciable amounts of CH4/CO/H2 ahead of the edge flame region.

  10. A non-convex variational approach to photometric stereo under inaccurate lighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quéau, Yvain; Wu, Tao; Lauze, Francois Bernard

    2017-01-01

    This paper tackles the photometric stereo problem in the presence of inaccurate lighting, obtained either by calibration or by an uncalibrated photometric stereo method. Based on a precise modeling of noise and outliers, a robust variational approach is introduced. It explicitly accounts for self...

  11. Photometric data from some photographs of Mars obtained with the Automatic Interplanetary Station 'Mars 3'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botvinova, V.V.; Bugaenko, O.I.; Koval, I.K.; Narajeva, M.K.; Selivanov, A.S.

    1974-01-01

    The results of detailed photometric treatment of Mars photographs obtained with the Automatic Interplanetary Station 'Mars 3' in three wavelengths are given. Photometric maps of the Martian surface have been constructed; a thin layer observed near the limb has been investigated. (Auth.)

  12. Dissecting Photometric Redshift for Active Galactic Nucleus Using XMM- and Chandra-COSMOS Samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salvato, M.; Ilbert, O.; Hasinger, G.; Rau, A.; Civano, F.; Zamorani, G.; Brusa, M.; Elvis, M.; Vignali, C.; Aussel, H.; Comastri, A.; Fiore, F.; Le Floc'h, E.; Mainieri, V.; Bardelli, S.; Bolzonella, M.; Bongiorno, A.; Capak, P.; Caputi, K.; Cappelluti, N.; Carollo, C. M.; Contini, T.; Garilli, B.; Iovino, A.; Fotopoulou, S.; Fruscione, A.; Gilli, R.; Halliday, C.; Kneib, J. -P.; Kakazu, Y.; Kartaltepe, J. S.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Kovac, K.; Ideue, Y.; Ikeda, H.; Impey, C. D.; Le Fevre, O.; Lamareille, F.; Lanzuisi, G.; Le Borgne, J. -F.; Le Brun, V.; Lilly, S.; Maier, C.; Manohar, S.; Masters, D.; McCracken, H.; Messias, H.; Mignoli, M.; Mobasher, B.; Nagao, T.; Pello, R.; Puccetti, S.; Perez-Montero, E.; Renzini, A.; Sargent, M.; Sanders, D. B.; Scodeggio, M.; Scoville, N.; Shopbell, P.; Silvermann, J.; Taniguchi, Y.; Tasca, L.; Tresse, L.; Trump, J. R.; Zucca, E.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we release accurate photometric redshifts for 1692 counterparts to Chandra sources in the central square degree of the Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS) field. The availability of a large training set of spectroscopic redshifts that extends to faint magnitudes enabled photometric

  13. Methods of photometric analysis of ore-enclosing rocks and ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danchev, V.I.

    1985-01-01

    A photometric method for investigation of colour of sedimentary rocks being of importance in prospecting for uranium deposits is considered. Attention is paid to sample preparation for analysis, protometry procedure. An example of using the photometric method for studying carbonate uranium-bearing rocks is given

  14. Behaviors of tribrachial edge flames and their interactions in a triple-port burner

    KAUST Repository

    Yamamoto, Kazuhiro

    2015-05-01

    In a triple-port burner, various non-premixed flames have been observed previously. Especially for the case with two lifted flames, such configuration could be suitable in studying interaction between two tribrachial flames. In the present study, the flame characteristics have been investigated numerically by adopting a reduced kinetic mechanism in the triple-port burner. Four different types of flame configurations, including two attached flames, inner lifted/outer attached flames, inner attached/outer lifted flames, and twin lifted flames, were successfully simulated depending on the flow conditions. The representative edge propagation speed of a single lifted flame or an upstream lifted flame in the case of twin lifted flames increased as the liftoff height became higher. In the twin lifted flames, the inner lifted flame was affected appreciably when the other flame was located further upstream such that the lifted flame located further downstream encountered the axial velocity acceleration induced by the gas expansion from the lifted flame located upstream, while thermal effects were not observed since the temperature of the incoming flow toward the lifted flame was not affected. A unique flip-flop behavior between the inner and outer flames, observed experimentally previously, was successfully captured in the simulation such that the inner lifted flame became attached to the nozzle as the liftoff height of the outer lifted flame grew higher with an increase in the outer air velocity.

  15. Smoke detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fung, C.K.

    1981-01-01

    This describes a smoke detector comprising a self-luminous light source and a photosensitive device which is so arranged that the light source is changed by the presence of smoke in a detecting region. A gaseous tritium light source is used. This consists of a borosilicate glass bulb with an internal phosphor coating, filled with tritium gas. The tritium emits low energy beta particles which cause the phosphor to glow. This is a reliable light source which needs no external power source. The photosensitive device may be a phototransistor and may drive a warning device through a directly coupled transistor amplifier. (U.K.)

  16. Simulation analysis of photometric data for attitude estimation of unresolved space objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xiaoping; Gou, Ruixin; Liu, Hao; Hu, Heng; Wang, Yang

    2017-10-01

    The attitude information acquisition of unresolved space objects, such as micro-nano satellites and GEO objects under the way of ground-based optical observations, is a challenge to space surveillance. In this paper, a useful method is proposed to estimate the SO attitude state according to the simulation analysis of photometric data in different attitude states. The object shape model was established and the parameters of the BRDF model were determined, then the space object photometric model was established. Furthermore, the photometric data of space objects in different states are analyzed by simulation and the regular characteristics of the photometric curves are summarized. The simulation results show that the photometric characteristics are useful for attitude inversion in a unique way. Thus, a new idea is provided for space object identification in this paper.

  17. Development of new hole-type avalanche detectors and the first results of their applications

    CERN Document Server

    Charpak, Georges; Breuil, P.; Di Mauro, A.; Martinengo, P.; Peskov, V.

    2008-01-01

    We have developed a new detector of photons and charged particles- a hole-type structure with electrodes made of a double layered resistive material: a thin low resistive layer coated with a layer having a much higher resistivity. One of the unique features of this detector is its capability to operate at high gas gains (up to 10E4) in air or in gas mixtures with air. They can also operate in a cascaded mode or be combined with other detectors, for example with GEM. This opens new avenues in their applications. Several prototypes of these devices based on new detectors and oriented on practical applications were developed and successfully tested: a detector of soft X-rays and alpha particles, a flame sensor, a detector of dangerous gases. All of these detectors could operate stably even in humid air and/or in dusty conditions. The main advantages of these detectors are their simplicity, low cost and high sensitivity. For example, due to the avalanche multiplication, the detectors of flames and dangerous gases...

  18. Eclipsing binaries observed with the WIRE satellite I. Discovery and photometric analysis of the new bright A0 IV eclipsing binary psi centauri

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruntt, Hans; Southworth, J.; Penny, A. J.

    2006-01-01

    Stars: fundamental parameters, binaries: close, eclipsing, techniques: photometric Udgivelsesdato: Sep.......Stars: fundamental parameters, binaries: close, eclipsing, techniques: photometric Udgivelsesdato: Sep....

  19. Effect of Low Frequency Burner Vibrations on the Characteristics of Jet Diffusion Flames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Kanthasamy

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical vibrations introduced in diffusion flame burners significantly affect the flame characteristics. In this experimental study, the effects of axial vibrations on the characteristics of laminar diffusion flames are investigated systematically. The effect of the frequency and amplitude of the vibrations on the flame height oscillations and flame stability is brought out. The amplitude of flame height oscillations is found to increase with increase in both frequency and amplitude of burner vibrations. Vibrations are shown to enhance stability of diffusion flames. Although flame lifts-off sooner with vibrations, stability of the flame increases.

  20. Turbulent premixed flames on fractal-grid-generated turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soulopoulos, N; Kerl, J; Sponfeldner, T; Beyrau, F; Hardalupas, Y; Taylor, A M K P [Mechanical Engineering Department, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Vassilicos, J C, E-mail: ns6@ic.ac.uk [Department of Aeronautics, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2013-12-15

    A space-filling, low blockage fractal grid is used as a novel turbulence generator in a premixed turbulent flame stabilized by a rod. The study compares the flame behaviour with a fractal grid to the behaviour when a standard square mesh grid with the same effective mesh size and solidity as the fractal grid is used. The isothermal gas flow turbulence characteristics, including mean flow velocity and rms of velocity fluctuations and Taylor length, were evaluated from hot-wire measurements. The behaviour of the flames was assessed with direct chemiluminescence emission from the flame and high-speed OH-laser-induced fluorescence. The characteristics of the two flames are considered in terms of turbulent flame thickness, local flame curvature and turbulent flame speed. It is found that, for the same flow rate and stoichiometry and at the same distance downstream of the location of the grid, fractal-grid-generated turbulence leads to a more turbulent flame with enhanced burning rate and increased flame surface area. (paper)

  1. Determination and Scaling of Thermo Acoustic Characteristics of Premixed Flames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. R. Alemela

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates the determination and the scaling of thermo acoustical characteristics of lean premixed flames as used in gas turbine combustion systems. In the first part, alternative methods to characterize experimentally the flame dynamics are outlined and are compared on the example of a scaled model of an industrial gas turbine burner. Transfer matrix results from the most general direct method are contrasted with data obtained from the hybrid method, which is based on Rankine-Hugoniot relations and the experimental flame transfer function obtained from OH*-chemiluminescence measurements. Also the new network model based regression method is assessed, which is based on a n – τ – σ dynamic flame model. The results indicate very good consistency between the three techniques, providing a global check of the methods/tools used for analyzing the thermo acoustic mechanisms of flames. In the second part, scaling rules are developed that allow to calculate the dynamic flame characteristics at different operation points. Towards this a geometric flame length model is formulated. Together with the other operational data of the flame it provides the dynamic flame model parameters at these points. The comparison between the measured and modeled flame lengths as well as the n – τ – σ parameters shows an excellent agreement.

  2. Photometric Separation of Stellar Properties Using SDSS Filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenz, Dawn D.; Newberg, Jo; Rosner, Robert; Richards, Gordon T.; Stoughton, Chris

    1998-12-01

    Using synthetic photometry of Kurucz model spectra, we explore the colors of stars as a function of temperature, metallicity, and surface gravity with Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) filters, u'g'r'i'z'. The synthetic colors show qualitative agreement with the few published observations in these filters. We find that the locus of synthetic stars is basically two-dimensional for 4500 advantageous to use more than two colors when determining stellar properties by color. Strategic observations in SDSS filters are required to resolve the source of a ~5% discrepancy between synthetic colors of Gunn-Stryker stars, Kurucz models, and external determinations of the metallicities and surface gravities. The synthetic star colors can be used to investigate the properties of any normal star and to construct analytic expressions for the photometric prediction of stellar properties in special cases.

  3. Photometric determination of phosphorus in zircon concentrate and potassium hexafluorozirconate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polonskaya, I.A.; Fominykh, N.L.

    1978-01-01

    A method for direct photometric phosphorus determination in the materials, containing considerable zirconium amounts is developed. Phosphorus is determined in a form of reduced heteropolyacid with the use of ascorbic acid and potassium antimonyltartrate in sulfuric acid medium. To remove zirconium effect, a graduation diagram is drawn at the background of zirconium, which is bound into a stable fluoride complex in the presence of H 3 BO 3 . Under the above conditions the coloring developes after 30-40 min and remains stable for 24 hrs. A proportional dependence between phosphorus concentration and optical density is observed in the range of 10-160 mg of Zr. The method sensitivity is 5x10 -5 %

  4. Revised photometric elements of the eclipsing binary TW Dra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giuricin, G.; Mardirossian, F.; Predolin, F.

    1980-01-01

    The photoelectric light curves of TW Dra obtained by Baglow (1952) and by Waltser (1978) have been re-analysed by means of Wood's (1972) model in order to obtain accurate photometric elements. Significantly different elements have resulted from the two sets of observations, but more confidence can be given to the elements deduced from Walter's (1978) data. Radii and luminosities have been computed with the aid of Popper's (1978) new values for masses. TW Dra is confirmed to be a typical sd-system, having a distrinctly oversized and overluminous secondary. Interestingly, the primary appears to be slightly more luminous than expected for a Main-Sequences star, in agreement with theoretical predictions for present primaries of mass-exchange binaries systems. (orig.)

  5. Direct photometric determination of fluorides in potassium chloride and iodide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dedkova, V.P.; Savvin, S.B.

    1985-01-01

    An attempt is made to apply the technique of determining fluorides with xylenol orange and sulfochlorophenol S as being the most sensitive in the analysis of of fiber optics. It is known that an increase of the sensitivity of the determination can be achieved on increasing the sample size of the substance to be analyzed, and the length of the absorbing layer. However, a high salt background may have a strong influence on the course of the reaction, and a supplementary of this effect is mad. Potassium chloride and iodide were selected as model compounds. A direct photometric procedure is proposed for determining fluorides in the samples, with a determination limit of 5 x 10 -6 %. Such a low determination limit is achieved by increasing the sample weight to 3 g, by increasing the length of the absorbing layer in the cell to 50 mm, and by using a highly sensitive reaction for determining fluorides with zirconium and xylenol orange

  6. Photometric observations of V470 Cygni (HD 228911)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebbighausen, E.G.; Lester, D.; Stearns, S.; Straton, P; Sykes, M.

    1975-01-01

    Previous photometric observations of this type B2 spectroscopic binary with a 1.87d period have shown small but not well-defined light variations suggesting that it is an eclipsing binary with a rather small orbital inclination. In the summer of 1974 the authors obtained photoelectrically 2060 individual V observations and 2100 B observations of V470 Cygni at the Pine Mountain Observatory of the University of Oregon. The total light range in both colors is nearly 0.02m and the form of the light curve suggests that this object is an ellipsoidal binary. A new epoch of primary minimum and period are derived. All of the data combined are insufficient to confirm Pearce's suggestion of apsidal motion

  7. Photometric observations of local rocket-atmosphere interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, R. G. H.; Murtagh, D. P.; Witt, G.; Stegman, J.

    1983-06-01

    Photometric measurements from rocket flights which recorded a strong foreign luminance in the altitude region between 90 and 130 km are reported. From one Nike-Orion rocket the luminance appeared on both up-leg and down-leg; from a series of Petrel rockets the luminance was apparent only on the down-leg. The data suggest that the luminance may be distributed mainly in the wake region along the rocket trajectory. The luminance is believed to be due to a local interaction between the rocket and the atmosphere although the precise nature of the interaction is unknown. It was measured at wavelengths ranging from 275 nm to 1.61 microns and may be caused by a combination of reactions.

  8. Optical and near-infrared photometric study of NGC 6724

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendary, Reda; Tadross, Ashraf; Hasan, Priya; Osman, Anas; Essam, Ahmed

    2018-02-01

    BVRI CCD photometry of the poorly studied open cluster NGC 6724 has been carried out down to a limiting magnitude of V∼20 mag. The stars of the cluster have been observed using the Newtonian focus (f/4.84) of the 74-inch telescope at Kottamia Astronomical Observatory in Egypt. Also, the 2MASS - JHK system is used to confirm the results we obtained. The main photometric parameters have been estimated for the present object; the diameter is found to be 6 arcmin, the distance is 1530±60 pc from the Sun and the age is 900±50 Myr. The optical reddening E(B-V)=0.65 {mag}, while the infrared reddening is E(J-H)=0.20 {mag}. The slope of the mass function distribution and the relaxation time estimations indicate that cluster NGC 6724 is dynamically relaxed.

  9. Photometric observations of nine Transneptunian objects and Centaurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hromakina, T.; Perna, D.; Belskaya, I.; Dotto, E.; Rossi, A.; Bisi, F.

    2018-02-01

    We present the results of photometric observations of six Transneptunian objects and three Centaurs, estimations of their rotational periods and corresponding amplitudes. For six of them we present also lower limits of density values. All observations were made using 3.6-m TNG telescope (La Palma, Spain). For four objects - (148975) 2001 XA255, (281371) 2008 FC76, (315898) 2008 QD4, and 2008 CT190 - the estimation of short-term variability was made for the first time. We confirm rotation period values for two objects: (55636) 2002 TX300 and (202421) 2005 UQ513, and improve the precision of previously reported rotational period values for other three - (120178) 2003 OP32, (145452) 2005 RN43, (444030) 2004 NT33 - by using both our and literature data. We also discuss here that small distant bodies, similar to asteroids in the Main belt, tend to have double-peaked rotational periods caused by the elongated shape rather than surface albedo variations.

  10. Photometric intensity and polarization measurements of the solar corona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcdougal, D. S.

    1971-01-01

    Use of a satellite photometric observatory (SPO) to measure the solar corona from Miahuatlan, Mexico during the Mar. 7, 1970, total eclipse of the sun. The SPO is equipped with a 24-in. Cassegrainian telescope, a four-channel photoelectric photometer, a Wollaston prism, and a rotating half-wave plate. Simultaneous measurements were made of the two orthogonal components of coronal light in the B and R bands of the UBVRI system. A 1-minute arc aperture was scanned from the lunar disk center out to five solar radii in a series of spirals of gradually increasing radius. For the first time, simultaneous multicolor intensity, degree, and angle of polarization profiles are computed from photoelectric measurements. Comparison of the variations of the measurements for each spiral scan yield a detailed picture of the intensity and polarization features in the K corona.

  11. Early structure of LPG partially premixed conically stabilized flames

    KAUST Repository

    Elbaz, Ayman M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents experimental investigation of LPG partially premixed turbulent flames stabilized within a conical nozzle burner under constant degree of partial premixing. The stability limits and mean flame structure are presented based on the mean gas temperature and the concentration of CO, O 2, NO, and HC at the flame early region of reaction. The investigation covered the influence of the nozzle cone angle, the jet exit velocity and the jet equivalence ratio. The stability results show that the flames with cone are more stable than those without cone. For conical stabilized flames, the stability results exhibit three different sensitivity regions between the jet velocity and equivalence ratio. The inflame measurements prove that the flame stability could be attributed to the triple flame structure at the flame leading edge. The data show that the triple flame structure is influenced by cone angle, the jet velocity and the equivalence ratio. The flame is believed to be controlled by the recirculation flow inside the cone. Increasing the cone angle induced higher air entrainment to the reaction zone as depicted by a higher O 2 concentration within the flame leading edge. Increasing the jet velocity to a certain limit enhances the intensity of combustion at the flame leading edge, while excessive increase in jet velocity reduces this intensity. At a fixed jet velocity the higher the equivalence ratio, the higher the amount of fuel diffused and engulfed to the reaction zone, the more delay of the combustion completion and the higher the emission concentrations of the flame. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

  12. Chemical kinetic model uncertainty minimization through laminar flame speed measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Okjoo; Veloo, Peter S.; Sheen, David A.; Tao, Yujie; Egolfopoulos, Fokion N.; Wang, Hai

    2016-01-01

    Laminar flame speed measurements were carried for mixture of air with eight C3-4 hydrocarbons (propene, propane, 1,3-butadiene, 1-butene, 2-butene, iso-butene, n-butane, and iso-butane) at the room temperature and ambient pressure. Along with C1-2 hydrocarbon data reported in a recent study, the entire dataset was used to demonstrate how laminar flame speed data can be utilized to explore and minimize the uncertainties in a reaction model for foundation fuels. The USC Mech II kinetic model was chosen as a case study. The method of uncertainty minimization using polynomial chaos expansions (MUM-PCE) (D.A. Sheen and H. Wang, Combust. Flame 2011, 158, 2358–2374) was employed to constrain the model uncertainty for laminar flame speed predictions. Results demonstrate that a reaction model constrained only by the laminar flame speed values of methane/air flames notably reduces the uncertainty in the predictions of the laminar flame speeds of C3 and C4 alkanes, because the key chemical pathways of all of these flames are similar to each other. The uncertainty in model predictions for flames of unsaturated C3-4 hydrocarbons remain significant without considering fuel specific laminar flames speeds in the constraining target data set, because the secondary rate controlling reaction steps are different from those in the saturated alkanes. It is shown that the constraints provided by the laminar flame speeds of the foundation fuels could reduce notably the uncertainties in the predictions of laminar flame speeds of C4 alcohol/air mixtures. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that an accurate prediction of the laminar flame speed of a particular C4 alcohol/air mixture is better achieved through measurements for key molecular intermediates formed during the pyrolysis and oxidation of the parent fuel. PMID:27890938

  13. Flame spread over inclined electrical wires with AC electric fields

    KAUST Repository

    Lim, Seung J.

    2017-07-21

    Flame spread over polyethylene-insulated electrical wires was studied experimentally with applied alternating current (AC) by varying the inclination angle (θ), applied voltage (VAC), and frequency (fAC). For the baseline case with no electric field applied, the flame spread rate and the flame width of downwardly spreading flames (DSFs) decreased from the horizontal case for −20° ≤ θ < 0° and maintained near constant values for −90° ≤ θ < −20°, while the flame spread rate increased appreciably as the inclination angle of upwardly spreading flames (USFs) increased. When an AC electric field was applied, the behavior of flame spread rate in DSFs (USFs) could be classified into two (three) sub-regimes characterized by various functional dependences on VAC, fAC, and θ. In nearly all cases of DSFs, a globular molten polyethylene formed ahead of the spreading flame edge, occasionally dripping onto the ground. In these cases, an effective flame spread rate was defined to represent the burning rate by measuring the mass loss due to dripping. This effective spread rate was independent of AC frequency, while it decreased linearly with voltage and was independent of the inclination angle. In DSFs, when excessively high voltage and frequency were applied, the dripping led to flame extinction during propagation and the extinction frequency correlated well with applied voltage. In USFs, when high voltage and frequency were applied, multiple globular molten PEs formed at several locations, leading to ejections of multiple small flame segments from the main flame, thereby reducing the flame spread rate, which could be attributed to the electrospray phenomenon.

  14. Miniature photometric stereo system for textile surface structure reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorpas, Dimitris; Kampouris, Christos; Malassiotis, Sotiris

    2013-04-01

    In this work a miniature photometric stereo system is presented, targeting the three-dimensional structural reconstruction of various fabric types. This is a supportive module to a robot system, attempting to solve the well known "laundry problem". The miniature device has been designed for mounting onto the robot gripper. It is composed of a low-cost off-the-shelf camera, operating in macro mode, and eight light emitting diodes. The synchronization between image acquisition and lighting direction is controlled by an Arduino Nano board and software triggering. The ambient light has been addressed by a cylindrical enclosure. The direction of illumination is recovered by locating the reflection or the brightest point on a mirror sphere, while a flatfielding process compensates for the non-uniform illumination. For the evaluation of this prototype, the classical photometric stereo methodology has been used. The preliminary results on a large number of textiles are very promising for the successful integration of the miniature module to the robot system. The required interaction with the robot is implemented through the estimation of the Brenner's focus measure. This metric successfully assesses the focus quality with reduced time requirements in comparison to other well accepted focus metrics. Besides the targeting application, the small size of the developed system makes it a very promising candidate for applications with space restrictions, like the quality control in industrial production lines or object recognition based on structural information and in applications where easiness in operation and light-weight are required, like those in the Biomedical field, and especially in dermatology.

  15. Forward Global Photometric Calibration of the Dark Energy Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, D. L.; Rykoff, E. S.; Allam, S.; Annis, J.; Bechtol, K.; Bernstein, G. M.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Finley, D. A.; Gruendl, R. A.; James, D. J.; Kent, S.; Kessler, R.; Kuhlmann, S.; Lasker, J.; Li, T. S.; Scolnic, D.; Smith, J.; Tucker, D. L.; Wester, W.; Yanny, B.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Abdalla, F. B.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bertin, E.; Carnero Rosell, A.; Carrasco Kind, M.; Carretero, J.; Cunha, C. E.; D’Andrea, C. B.; da Costa, L. N.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Doel, P.; Estrada, J.; García-Bellido, J.; Gruen, D.; Gutierrez, G.; Honscheid, K.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Maia, M. A. G.; March, M.; Marshall, J. L.; Melchior, P.; Menanteau, F.; Miquel, R.; Plazas, A. A.; Sako, M.; Sanchez, E.; Scarpine, V.; Schindler, R.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Smith, M.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Suchyta, E.; Tarle, G.; Walker, A. R.; DES Collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Many scientific goals for the Dark Energy Survey (DES) require the calibration of optical/NIR broadband b = grizY photometry that is stable in time and uniform over the celestial sky to one percent or better. It is also necessary to limit to similar accuracy systematic uncertainty in the calibrated broadband magnitudes due to uncertainty in the spectrum of the source. Here we present a “Forward Global Calibration Method (FGCM)” for photometric calibration of the DES, and we present results of its application to the first three years of the survey (Y3A1). The FGCM combines data taken with auxiliary instrumentation at the observatory with data from the broadband survey imaging itself and models of the instrument and atmosphere to estimate the spatial and time dependences of the passbands of individual DES survey exposures. “Standard” passbands that are typical of the passbands encountered during the survey are chosen. The passband of any individual observation is combined with an estimate of the source spectral shape to yield a magnitude {m}b{std} in the standard system. This “chromatic correction” to the standard system is necessary to achieve subpercent calibrations and in particular, to resolve ambiguity between the broadband brightness of a source and the shape of its SED. The FGCM achieves a reproducible and stable photometric calibration of standard magnitudes {m}b{std} of stellar sources over the multiyear Y3A1 data sample with residual random calibration errors of σ =6{--}7 {mmag} per exposure. The accuracy of the calibration is uniform across the 5000 {\\deg }2 DES footprint to within σ =7 {mmag}. The systematic uncertainties of magnitudes in the standard system due to the spectra of sources are less than 5 {mmag} for main-sequence stars with 0.5< g-i< 3.0.

  16. Forward Global Photometric Calibration of the Dark Energy Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke, D. L.; Rykoff, E. S.; Allam, S.; Annis, J.; Bechtol, K.; Bernstein, G. M.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Finley, D. A.; Gruendl, R. A.; James, D. J.; Kent, S.; Kessler, R.; Kuhlmann, S.; Lasker, J.; Li, T. S.; Scolnic, D.; Smith, J.; Tucker, D. L.; Wester, W.; Yanny, B.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Abdalla, F. B.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bertin, E.; Rosell, A. Carnero; Kind, M. Carrasco; Carretero, J.; Cunha, C. E.; D’Andrea, C. B.; da Costa, L. N.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Doel, P.; Estrada, J.; García-Bellido, J.; Gruen, D.; Gutierrez, G.; Honscheid, K.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Maia, M. A. G.; March, M.; Marshall, J. L.; Melchior, P.; Menanteau, F.; Miquel, R.; Plazas, A. A.; Sako, M.; Sanchez, E.; Scarpine, V.; Schindler, R.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Smith, M.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Suchyta, E.; Tarle, G.; Walker, A. R.

    2017-12-28

    Many scientific goals for the Dark Energy Survey (DES) require calibration of optical/NIR broadband $b = grizY$ photometry that is stable in time and uniform over the celestial sky to one percent or better. It is also necessary to limit to similar accuracy systematic uncertainty in the calibrated broadband magnitudes due to uncertainty in the spectrum of the source. Here we present a "Forward Global Calibration Method (FGCM)" for photometric calibration of the DES, and we present results of its application to the first three years of the survey (Y3A1). The FGCM combines data taken with auxiliary instrumentation at the observatory with data from the broad-band survey imaging itself and models of the instrument and atmosphere to estimate the spatial- and time-dependence of the passbands of individual DES survey exposures. "Standard" passbands are chosen that are typical of the passbands encountered during the survey. The passband of any individual observation is combined with an estimate of the source spectral shape to yield a magnitude $m_b^{\\mathrm{std}}$ in the standard system. This "chromatic correction" to the standard system is necessary to achieve sub-percent calibrations. The FGCM achieves reproducible and stable photometric calibration of standard magnitudes $m_b^{\\mathrm{std}}$ of stellar sources over the multi-year Y3A1 data sample with residual random calibration errors of $\\sigma=5-6\\,\\mathrm{mmag}$ per exposure. The accuracy of the calibration is uniform across the $5000\\,\\mathrm{deg}^2$ DES footprint to within $\\sigma=7\\,\\mathrm{mmag}$. The systematic uncertainties of magnitudes in the standard system due to the spectra of sources are less than $5\\,\\mathrm{mmag}$ for main sequence stars with $0.5

  17. RSO Characterization from Photometric Data Using Machine Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, M.; Klem, B.; Gorman, J.

    Object characterization is the description of a resident space object (RSO), its capabilities and its behavior. While astrometric data has been used extensively for object detection, location, and characterization, photometric data has been less widely applied and remains a promising area for improving RSO characterization. RSO characteristics which may influence changes in light intensity with respect to changes in viewing angle or orientation signature include geometry, orientation, components material properties, stability and other characteristics. However, most RSO characterization is presently performed manually and on an individual basis by space analysts and there is a need for efficient and automated methods to perform characterization. This paper discusses the application of machine learning techniques to characterization of RSOs in the geosynchronous altitude regime using photometric data. We develop simulated signatures in the visible spectral band of three basic RSO types, with variations in object orientation, material characteristics, size and attitude and attempt to recover these properties through object characterization techniques. We generate observations by sampling noisy measurements from the simulated signature. Next, we extract a set of features from the observations and train machine learning algorithms to classify the signatures. We consider the effectiveness of a set of binary classifiers trained to individually recognize separate cases. The results of each classifier are combined together to produce a final output characterization of an input observation. Experiments with varying levels of noise are presented, and we evaluate models with respect to classification accuracy and other criteria. The end result of this process is a unique methodology for exploiting the use usefulness and applicability of machine learning to an important space sensing and identification process. This material is based upon work supported by the United States

  18. Numerical study of laminar nonpremixed methane flames in coflow jets: Autoignited lifted flames with tribrachial edges and MILD combustion at elevated temperatures

    KAUST Repository

    M. Al-Noman, Saeed

    2016-07-07

    Autoignition characteristics of laminar nonpremixed methane jet flames in high-temperature coflow air are studied numerically. Several flame configurations are investigated by varying the initial temperature and fuel mole fraction. At a relatively low initial temperature, a non-autoignited nozzle-attached flame is simulated at relatively low jet velocity. When the initial temperature is higher than that required for autoignition, two regimes are investigated: an autoignited lifted flame with tribrachial edge structure and an autoignited lifted flame with Mild combustion. The autoignited lifted flame with tribrachial edge exhibited three branches: lean and rich premixed flame wings and a trailing diffusion flame. Characteristics of kinetic structure for autoignited lifted flames are discussed based on the kinetic structures of homogeneous autoignition and flame propagation of stoichiometric mixture. Results showed that a transition from autoignition to flame propagation modes occurs for reasonably stoichiometric mixtures. The autoignited lifted flame with Mild combustion occurs when methane fuel is highly diluted with nitrogen. The kinetic structure analysis shows that the characteristics of Mild combustion can be treated as an autoignited lean premixed lifted flame. Transition behavior from Mild combustion to nozzle-attached flame was investigated by increasing the fuel mole fraction. As the maximum flame temperature increases with decreasing liftoff height, the kinetic structure showed a transition behavior from autoignition to flame propagation of a lean premixed flame. © 2016 The Combustion Institute

  19. Flame Retardant Polyamide Fibres: The Challenge of Minimising Flame Retardant Additive Contents with Added Nanoclays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Horrocks

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This work shows that halogen-free, flame retarded polyamide 6 (PA6, fabrics may be produced in which component fibres still have acceptable tensile properties and low levels (preferably ≤10 wt % of additives by incorporating a nanoclay along with two types of flame retardant formulations. The latter include (i aluminium diethyl phosphinate (AlPi at 10 wt %, known to work principally in the vapour phase and (ii ammonium sulphamate (AS/dipentaerythritol (DP system present at 2.5 and 1 wt % respectively, believed to be condense phase active. The nanoclay chosen is an organically modified montmorillonite clay, Cloisite 25A. The effect of each additive system is analysed in terms of its ability to maximise both filament tensile properties relative to 100% PA6 and flame retardant behaviour of knitted fabrics in a vertical orientation. None of the AlPi-containing formulations achieved self-extinguishability, although the presence of nanoclay promoted lower burning and melt dripping rates. The AS/DP-containing formulations with total flame retardant levels of 5.5 wt % or less showed far superior properties and with nanoclay, showed fabric extinction times ≤ 39 s and reduced melt dripping. The tensile and flammability results, supported by thermogravimetric analysis, have been interpreted in terms of the mechanism of action of each flame retardant/nanoclay type.

  20. Influence of Pilot Flame Parameters on the Stability of Turbulent Jet Flames

    KAUST Repository

    Guiberti, Thibault F.

    2016-11-08

    This paper presents a comprehensive study of the effects of pilot parameters on flame stability in a turbulent jet flame. The Sydney inhomogeneous piloted burner is employed as the experimental platform with two main fuels, namely, compressed natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas. Various concentrations of five gases are used in the pilot stream, hydrogen, acetylene, oxygen, nitrogen, and argon, to enable a sufficient range in exploring the following parameters: pilot heat release, temperature, burnt gas velocity, equivalence ratio, and H/C ratio. The experimental results are mainly presented in the form of blow-off limits and supported by simple calculations, which simulate various conditions of the pilot–mixture interface. It is found that increasing the pilot adiabatic flame temperature benefits the flame stability and has an even greater influence than the heat release, which is also known to enhance the blow-off limits. Conversely, increasing the pilot burnt gas velocity reduces the blow-off velocity, except for the limiting case when the jet is fully non-premixed. The H/C ratio has negligible effects, while resorting to lean pilots significantly increases the stability of globally rich partially premixed and premixed jets. Such findings are consistent with trends obtained from laminar flame calculations for rich fuel/air mixtures issuing against hot combustion products to simulate the pilot stream.

  1. Strained flamelets for turbulent premixed flames, I: Formulation and planar flame results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolla, H.; Swaminathan, N. [Department of Engineering, Cambridge University, Cambridge CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom)

    2010-05-15

    A strained flamelet model is proposed for turbulent premixed flames using scalar dissipation rate as a parameter. The scalar dissipation rate of reaction progress variable is a suitable quantity to describe the flamelet structure since it is governed by convection-diffusion-reaction balance and it is defined at every location in the flamelets, which are represented by laminar flames in reactant-to-product opposed flow configuration. The mean reaction rate is obtained by using the flamelets reaction rate and the joint pdf of the progress variable and its dissipation rate. The marginal pdf of the progress variable is presumed to be {beta}-pdf and the pdf of the conditional dissipation rate is taken to be log-normal. The conditional mean dissipation rate is obtained from modelled mean dissipation rate. This reaction rate closure is assessed using RANS calculations of statistically planar flames in the corrugated flamelets and thin reaction zones regimes. The flame speeds calculated using this closure are close to the experimental data of Abdel-Gayed et al. (1987) for flames in both the regimes. Comparisons with other reaction rate closures showed the benefits of the strained flamelets approach. (author)

  2. Analysis of Flame Characteristics in a Laboratory-Scale Turbulent Lifted Jet Flame via DNS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiou Wang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A fully compressible 3D solver for reacting flows has been developed and applied to investigate a turbulent lifted jet flame in a vitiated coflow by means of direct numerical simulation (DNS to validate the solver and analyze the flame characteristics. An eighth-order central differencing scheme is used for spatial discretization and a fourth-order Runge-Kutta method is employed for time integration. The DNS results agree well with the experimental measurements for the conditional means of reactive scalars. However, the lift-off height is under predicted. The mean axial velocity develops into a self-similar profile after x/D = 6. The normalized flame index is employed to characterize the combustion regime. It is found that at the flame base the gradients of the reactants are opposed and diffusion combustion is dominant. Further downstream, the contribution of premixed combustion increases and peaks at x/D = 8. Finally, the stabilization process is examined. The turbulent lifted flame is proved to stabilize in the lean mixtures and low scalar dissipation rate regions.

  3. Electrical Aspects of Flames in Microgravity Combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn-Rankin, D.; Strayer, B.; Weinberg, F.; Carleton, F.

    1999-01-01

    A principal characteristic of combustion in microgravity is the absence of buoyancy driven flows. In some cases, such as for spherically symmetrical droplet burning, the absence of buoyancy is desirable for matching analytical treatments with experiments. In other cases, however, it can be more valuable to arbitrarily control the flame's convective environment independent of the environmental gravitational condition. To accomplish this, we propose the use of ion generated winds driven by electric fields to control local convection of flames. Such control can produce reduced buoyancy (effectively zero buoyancy) conditions in the laboratory in 1-g facilitating a wide range of laser diagnostics that can probe the system without special packaging required for drop tower or flight tests. In addition, the electric field generated ionic winds allow varying gravitational convection equivalents even if the test occurs in reduced gravity environments.

  4. Flame-in-gas-shield and miniature diffusion flame hydride atomizers for atomic fluorescence spectrometry: optimization and comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marschner, Karel; Musil, Stanislav; Dědina, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    A detailed optimization of relevant experimental parameters of two hydride atomizers for atomic fluorescence spectrometry: flame-in-gas-shield atomizer with a two-channel shielding unit and a standard atomizer for atomic fluorescence spectrometry, miniature diffusion flame, was performed. Arsine, generated by the reaction with NaBH 4 in a flow injection arrangement, was chosen as the model hydride. Analytical characteristics of both the atomizers (sensitivity, noise, limits of detection) were compared. Under optimum conditions sensitivity obtained with flame-in-gas-shield atomizer was approximately twice higher than with miniature diffusion flame. The additional advantage of flame-in-gas-shield atomizer is significantly lower flame emission resulting in a better signal to noise ratio. The resulting arsenic limits of detection for miniature diffusion flame and flame-in-gas-shield atomizer were 3.8 ng l −1 and 1.0 ng l −1 , respectively. - Highlights: • We optimized and compared two hydride atomizers for atomic fluorescence spectrometry. • Miniature diffusion flame and flame-in-gas-shield atomizer were optimized. • The limit of detection for arsenic was 1.0 ng l −1

  5. Flame-in-gas-shield and miniature diffusion flame hydride atomizers for atomic fluorescence spectrometry: optimization and comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marschner, Karel, E-mail: karel.marschner@biomed.cas.cz [Institute of Analytical Chemistry of the ASCR, v. v. i., Veveří 97, 602 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Science, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Albertov 8, 128 43 Prague (Czech Republic); Musil, Stanislav; Dědina, Jiří [Institute of Analytical Chemistry of the ASCR, v. v. i., Veveří 97, 602 00 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2015-07-01

    A detailed optimization of relevant experimental parameters of two hydride atomizers for atomic fluorescence spectrometry: flame-in-gas-shield atomizer with a two-channel shielding unit and a standard atomizer for atomic fluorescence spectrometry, miniature diffusion flame, was performed. Arsine, generated by the reaction with NaBH{sub 4} in a flow injection arrangement, was chosen as the model hydride. Analytical characteristics of both the atomizers (sensitivity, noise, limits of detection) were compared. Under optimum conditions sensitivity obtained with flame-in-gas-shield atomizer was approximately twice higher than with miniature diffusion flame. The additional advantage of flame-in-gas-shield atomizer is significantly lower flame emission resulting in a better signal to noise ratio. The resulting arsenic limits of detection for miniature diffusion flame and flame-in-gas-shield atomizer were 3.8 ng l{sup −1} and 1.0 ng l{sup −1}, respectively. - Highlights: • We optimized and compared two hydride atomizers for atomic fluorescence spectrometry. • Miniature diffusion flame and flame-in-gas-shield atomizer were optimized. • The limit of detection for arsenic was 1.0 ng l{sup −1}.

  6. Flame-sintered ceramic exoelectron dosimeter samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petel, M.; Holzapfel, G.

    1979-01-01

    New techniques for the preparation of integrating solid state dosimeters, particularly exoelectron dosimeters, have been initiated. The procedure consists in melting the powdered dosimeter materials in a hot, fast gas stream and depositing the ceramic layer. The gas stream is generated either through a chemical flame or by an electrical arc plasma. Results will be reported on the system Al 2 O 3 /stainless steel as a first step to a usable exoelectron dosimeter

  7. Radiation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conrad, B.; Finkenzeller, J.; Kiiehn, G.; Lichtenberg, W.

    1984-01-01

    In an exemplary embodiment, a flat radiation beam is detected having a common electrode disposed parallel to the beam plane at one side and a common support with a series of individual conductors providing electrodes opposite successive portions of the common electrode and lying in a plane also parallel to the beam plane. The beam may be fan-shaped and the individual electrodes may be aligned with respective ray paths separated by uniform angular increments in the beam plane. The individual conductors and the connection thereof to the exterior of the detector housing may be formed on an insulator which can be folded into a T-shape for leading the supply conductors for alternate individual conductors toward terminals at opposite sides of the chamber

  8. Particle detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Hilke, Hans Jürgen; Joram, Christian; CERN. Geneva

    1991-01-01

    Lecture 5: Detector characteristics: ALEPH Experiment cut through the devices and events - Discuss the principles of the main techniques applied to particle detection ( including front-end electronics), the construction and performance of some of the devices presently in operartion and a few ideas on the future performance. Lecture 4-pt. b Following the Scintillators. Lecture 4-pt. a : Scintillators - Used for: -Timing (TOF, Trigger) - Energy Measurement (Calorimeters) - Tracking (Fibres) Basic scintillation processes- Inorganic Scintillators - Organic Scintil - Discuss the principles of the main techniques applied to particle detection ( including front-end electronics), the construction and performance of some of the devices presently in operation and a fiew ideas on future developpement session 3 - part. b Following Calorimeters lecture 3-pt. a Calorimeters - determine energy E by total absorption of charged or neutral particles - fraction of E is transformed into measurable quantities - try to acheive sig...

  9. Smoke detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryant, J.

    1979-01-01

    An ionization smoke detector consisting of two electrodes defining an ionization chamber permitting entry of smoke, a radioactive source to ionize gas in the chamber and a potential difference applied across the first and second electrodes to cause an ion current to flow is described. The current is affected by entry of smoke. An auxiliary electrode is positioned in the ionization chamber between the first and second electrodes, and it is arranged to maintain or create a potential difference between the first electrode and the auxiliary electrode. The auxiliary electrode may be used for testing or for adjustment of sensitivity. A collector electrode divides the chamber into two regions with the auxiliary electrode in the outer sensing region. (U.K.)

  10. Ionization detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, E.E.

    1980-01-01

    A safe and reliable apparatus for detecting products of combustion and aerosols in the atmosphere was developed which uses a beta source. It is easy to adjust for optimum performance. The ionization detector comprises a double chamber; one of the chambers is the basic sensing chamber. The sensing chamber is ported to both the secondary chambers to account for slow ambient changes in the atmosphere outside of the chamber. The voltages from the ionization chamber are adjusted with electrodes in each chamber. The ionization chamber contains baffles to direct the air to be sensed as well as an electrostatic screen. A unique electronic circuit provides an inexpensive and reliable means for detecting the signal change which occurs in the ionization chamber. The decision level of the alarm circuit can be adjusted to allow for any desired sensitivity. (D.N.)

  11. Flames in fractal grid generated turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goh, K H H; Hampp, F; Lindstedt, R P [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Geipel, P, E-mail: p.lindstedt@imperial.ac.uk [Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery AB, SE-612 83 Finspong (Sweden)

    2013-12-15

    Twin premixed turbulent opposed jet flames were stabilized for lean mixtures of air with methane and propane in fractal grid generated turbulence. A density segregation method was applied alongside particle image velocimetry to obtain velocity and scalar statistics. It is shown that the current fractal grids increase the turbulence levels by around a factor of 2. Proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) was applied to show that the fractal grids produce slightly larger turbulent structures that decay at a slower rate as compared to conventional perforated plates. Conditional POD (CPOD) was also implemented using the density segregation technique and the results show that CPOD is essential to segregate the relative structures and turbulent kinetic energy distributions in each stream. The Kolmogorov length scales were also estimated providing values {approx}0.1 and {approx}0.5 mm in the reactants and products, respectively. Resolved profiles of flame surface density indicate that a thin flame assumption leading to bimodal statistics is not perfectly valid under the current conditions and it is expected that the data obtained will be of significant value to the development of computational methods that can provide information on the conditional structure of turbulence. It is concluded that the increase in the turbulent Reynolds number is without any negative impact on other parameters and that fractal grids provide a route towards removing the classical problem of a relatively low ratio of turbulent to bulk strain associated with the opposed jet configuration. (paper)

  12. Dependence of flame length on cross sections of burners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackeschmidt, M.

    1983-06-01

    This article analyzes the relation between the shape of burner muzzle and the resulting flame jet in a combustion chamber. Geometrical shapes of burner muzzles, either square, circular or triangular are compared as well as proportions of flame dimensions. A formula for calculating flame lengths is derived, for which the mathematical value 'contact profile radius' for burner muzzle shape is introduced. The formula for calculating flame lengths allows a partial replacement of the empirical flame mixing factor according to N.Q. Toai, 1981. The geometrical analysis does not include thermodynamic and reaction kinetic studies, which may be necessary for evaluating heterogenous (coal dust) combustion flames with longer burning time. (12 refs.)

  13. Dynamics of premixed hydrogen/air flames in mesoscale channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pizza, Gianmarco [Paul Scherrer Institute, Combustion Research, CH-5232, Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Aerothermochemistry and Combustion Systems Laboratory, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, CH-8092, Zurich (Switzerland); Frouzakis, Christos E.; Boulouchos, Konstantinos [Aerothermochemistry and Combustion Systems Laboratory, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, CH-8092, Zurich (Switzerland); Mantzaras, John [Paul Scherrer Institute, Combustion Research, CH-5232, Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Tomboulides, Ananias G. [Department of Engineering and Management of Energy Resources, University of Western Macedonia, 50100 Kozani (Greece)

    2008-10-15

    Direct numerical simulation with detailed chemistry and transport is used to study the stabilization and dynamics of lean ({phi}=0.5) premixed hydrogen/air atmospheric pressure flames in mesoscale planar channels. Channel heights of h=2, 4, and 7 mm, and inflow velocities in the range 0.3{<=}U{sub IN}{<=}1100cm/ s are investigated. Six different burning modes are identified: mild combustion, ignition/extinction, closed steady symmetric flames, open steady symmetric flames, oscillating and, finally, asymmetric flames. Chaotic behavior of cellular flame structures is observed for certain values of U{sub IN}. Stability maps delineating the regions of the different flame types are finally constructed. (author)

  14. Recent measurements of flame acceleration in semiconfined geometries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abou-Arab, T.W. (King Fahd Univ. of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (SA). Mechanical Engineering Dept.); Enayet, M.M.; Kamel, M.M. (Cairo Univ., Giza (EG). Mechanical Power Engineering Dept.)

    1991-04-01

    Turbulent premixed combustion under certain conditions may lead to large flame speeds sufficient to cause significant damage to nearby structures. Experiments, both large and small scale, have confirmed that obstructions cause severe flame acceleration to occur. In these cases, flame speeds as high as 800 ms{sup -1} may be achieved. In this work experimental investigation of some factors affecting flame acceleration in a semiconfined channel has been carried out. The experimental facility and the developed ionization gap measuring technique are also described. It has been found that the presence of obstacles, degree of confinement, height of fuel-air cloud (FAC), as well as fuel concentration gradient in the FAC have profound effects on the rate at which the flame accelerates. Finally, consideration of the flame acceleration as a possible mechanism for the transition to detonation will be discussed. (author).

  15. Hydrodynamic model of hydrogen-flame propagation in reactor vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baer, M.R.; Ratzel, A.C.

    1982-01-01

    A hydrodynamic model for hydrogen flame propagation in reactor geometries is presented. This model is consistent with the theory of slow combustion in which the gasdynamic field equations are treated in the limit of small Mach numbers. To the lowest order, pressure is spatially uniform. The flame is treated as a density and entropy discontinuity which propagates at prescribed burning velocities, corresponding to laminar or turbulent flames. Radiation cooling of the burned combustion gases and possible preheating of the unburned gases during propagation of the flame is included using a molecular gas-band thermal radiation model. Application of this model has been developed for 1-D variable area flame propagation. Multidimensional effects induced by hydrodynamics and buoyancy are introduced as a correction to the burn velocity (which reflects a modification of planar flame surface to a distorted surface) using experimentally measured pressure-rise time data for hydrogen/air deflagrations in cylindrical vessels

  16. Quasar Photometric Redshifts and Candidate Selection: A New Algorithm Based on Optical and Mid-infrared Photometric Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qian; Wu, Xue-Bing; Fan, Xiaohui; Jiang, Linhua; McGreer, Ian; Green, Richard; Yang, Jinyi; Schindler, Jan-Torge; Wang, Feige; Zuo, Wenwen; Fu, Yuming

    2017-12-01

    We present a new algorithm to estimate quasar photometric redshifts (photo-zs), by considering the asymmetries in the relative flux distributions of quasars. The relative flux models are built with multivariate Skew-t distributions in the multidimensional space of relative fluxes as a function of redshift and magnitude. For 151,392 quasars in the SDSS, we achieve a photo-z accuracy, defined as the fraction of quasars with the difference between the photo-z z p and the spectroscopic redshift z s , | {{Δ }}z| =| {z}s-{z}p| /(1+{z}s) within 0.1, of 74%. Combining the WISE W1 and W2 infrared data with the SDSS data, the photo-z accuracy is enhanced to 87%. Using the Pan-STARRS1 or DECaLS photometry with WISE W1 and W2 data, the photo-z accuracies are 79% and 72%, respectively. The prior probabilities as a function of magnitude for quasars, stars, and galaxies are calculated, respectively, based on (1) the quasar luminosity function, (2) the Milky Way synthetic simulation with the Besançon model, and (3) the Bayesian Galaxy Photometric Redshift estimation. The relative fluxes of stars are obtained with the Padova isochrones, and the relative fluxes of galaxies are modeled through galaxy templates. We test our classification method to select quasars using the DECaLS g, r, z, and WISE W1 and W2 photometry. The quasar selection completeness is higher than 70% for a wide redshift range 0.5publicly available.

  17. Large-eddy simulation of a turbulent piloted methane/air diffusion flame (Sandia flame D)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitsch, H.; Steiner, H.

    2000-01-01

    The Lagrangian Flamelet Model is formulated as a combustion model for large-eddy simulations of turbulent jet diffusion flames. The model is applied in a large-eddy simulation of a piloted partially premixed methane/air diffusion flame (Sandia flame D). The results of the simulation are compared to experimental data of the mean and RMS of the axial velocity and the mixture fraction and the unconditional and conditional averages of temperature and various species mass fractions, including CO and NO. All quantities are in good agreement with the experiments. The results indicate in accordance with experimental findings that regions of high strain appear in layer like structures, which are directed inwards and tend to align with the reaction zone, where the turbulence is fully developed. The analysis of the conditional temperature and mass fractions reveals a strong influence of the partial premixing of the fuel. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  18. Response of fire detectors to different smokes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjoerkman, J.; Keski-Rahkonen, O.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to characterize the behavior of fire alarm systems based on smoke detectors on smoldering fires especially cable fires in nuclear power plants (NPP). Full-scale fire experiments were carried out in a laboratory designed according to the standard EN54-9. The laboratory was instrumented with additional equipment such as thermocouples and flow meters which are not used in standard fire sensitivity tests. This allows the results to be used as experimental data for validation tasks of numerical fire simulation computerized fluid dynamics (CFD)-codes. The ultimate goal of the research is to model theoretically smoldering and flaming cable fires, their smoke production, transfer of smoke to detectors, as well as the response of detectors and fire alarm systems to potential fires. This would allow the use of numerical fire simulation to predict fire hazards in different fire scenarios found important in PSA (probability safety assessment) of NPPs. This report concentrates on explaining full-scale fire experiments in the smoke sensitivity laboratory and experimental results from fire tests of detectors. Validation tasks with CFD-codes will be first carried out 'blind' without any idea about corresponding experimental results. Accordingly, the experimental results cannot be published in this report. (orig.)

  19. The Coherent Flame Model for Turbulent Chemical Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    numerical integration of the resulting differential equations. The model predicts the flame length and superficial comparison with experiments suggest a...value for the single universal constant. The theory correctly predicts the change of flame length with changes in stoich- iometric ratio for the...indicate the X will be some where between 0.1 and 0.5. Figure 13 is presented to show the effect of equivalence ratio, , on the flame length when the

  20. Isomer-specific combustion chemistry in allene and propyne flames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Nils; Miller, James A. [Combustion Research Facility, Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Westmoreland, Phillip R. [Department of Chem. Engineering, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Kasper, Tina [Combustion Research Facility, Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Bielefeld University, D-33615 Bielefeld (Germany); Kohse-Hoeinghaus, Katharina [Department of Chemistry, Bielefeld University, D-33615 Bielefeld (Germany); Wang, Juan; Cool, Terrill A. [School of Applied and Engineering Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

    2009-11-15

    A combined experimental and modeling study is performed to clarify the isomer-specific combustion chemistry in flames fueled by the C{sub 3}H{sub 4} isomers allene and propyne. To this end, mole fraction profiles of several flame species in stoichiometric allene (propyne)/O{sub 2}/Ar flames are analyzed by means of a chemical kinetic model. The premixed flames are stabilized on a flat-flame burner under a reduced pressure of 25 Torr (=33.3 mbar). Quantitative species profiles are determined by flame-sampling molecular-beam mass spectrometry, and the isomer-specific flame compositions are unraveled by employing photoionization with tunable vacuum-ultraviolet synchrotron radiation. The temperature profiles are measured by OH laser-induced fluorescence. Experimental and modeled mole fraction profiles of selected flame species are discussed with respect to the isomer-specific combustion chemistry in both flames. The emphasis is put on main reaction pathways of fuel consumption, of allene and propyne isomerization, and of isomer-specific formation of C{sub 6} aromatic species. The present model includes the latest theoretical rate coefficients for reactions on a C{sub 3}H{sub 5} potential [J.A. Miller, J.P. Senosiain, S.J. Klippenstein, Y. Georgievskii, J. Phys. Chem. A 112 (2008) 9429-9438] and for the propargyl recombination reactions [Y. Georgievskii, S.J. Klippenstein, J.A. Miller, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 9 (2007) 4259-4268]. Larger peak mole fractions of propargyl, allyl, and benzene are observed in the allene flame than in the propyne flame. In these flames virtually all of the benzene is formed by the propargyl recombination reaction. (author)

  1. Data-driven, Interpretable Photometric Redshifts Trained on Heterogeneous and Unrepresentative Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leistedt, Boris; Hogg, David W., E-mail: boris.leistedt@nyu.edu, E-mail: david.hogg@nyu.edu [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, New York University, New York, NY 10003 (United States)

    2017-03-20

    We present a new method for inferring photometric redshifts in deep galaxy and quasar surveys, based on a data-driven model of latent spectral energy distributions (SEDs) and a physical model of photometric fluxes as a function of redshift. This conceptually novel approach combines the advantages of both machine learning methods and template fitting methods by building template SEDs directly from the spectroscopic training data. This is made computationally tractable with Gaussian processes operating in flux–redshift space, encoding the physics of redshifts and the projection of galaxy SEDs onto photometric bandpasses. This method alleviates the need to acquire representative training data or to construct detailed galaxy SED models; it requires only that the photometric bandpasses and calibrations be known or have parameterized unknowns. The training data can consist of a combination of spectroscopic and deep many-band photometric data with reliable redshifts, which do not need to entirely spatially overlap with the target survey of interest or even involve the same photometric bands. We showcase the method on the i -magnitude-selected, spectroscopically confirmed galaxies in the COSMOS field. The model is trained on the deepest bands (from SUBARU and HST ) and photometric redshifts are derived using the shallower SDSS optical bands only. We demonstrate that we obtain accurate redshift point estimates and probability distributions despite the training and target sets having very different redshift distributions, noise properties, and even photometric bands. Our model can also be used to predict missing photometric fluxes or to simulate populations of galaxies with realistic fluxes and redshifts, for example.

  2. Data-driven, Interpretable Photometric Redshifts Trained on Heterogeneous and Unrepresentative Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leistedt, Boris; Hogg, David W.

    2017-01-01

    We present a new method for inferring photometric redshifts in deep galaxy and quasar surveys, based on a data-driven model of latent spectral energy distributions (SEDs) and a physical model of photometric fluxes as a function of redshift. This conceptually novel approach combines the advantages of both machine learning methods and template fitting methods by building template SEDs directly from the spectroscopic training data. This is made computationally tractable with Gaussian processes operating in flux–redshift space, encoding the physics of redshifts and the projection of galaxy SEDs onto photometric bandpasses. This method alleviates the need to acquire representative training data or to construct detailed galaxy SED models; it requires only that the photometric bandpasses and calibrations be known or have parameterized unknowns. The training data can consist of a combination of spectroscopic and deep many-band photometric data with reliable redshifts, which do not need to entirely spatially overlap with the target survey of interest or even involve the same photometric bands. We showcase the method on the i -magnitude-selected, spectroscopically confirmed galaxies in the COSMOS field. The model is trained on the deepest bands (from SUBARU and HST ) and photometric redshifts are derived using the shallower SDSS optical bands only. We demonstrate that we obtain accurate redshift point estimates and probability distributions despite the training and target sets having very different redshift distributions, noise properties, and even photometric bands. Our model can also be used to predict missing photometric fluxes or to simulate populations of galaxies with realistic fluxes and redshifts, for example.

  3. Leveraging 3D-HST Grism Redshifts to Quantify Photometric Redshift Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezanson, Rachel; Wake, David A.; Brammer, Gabriel B.; van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Franx, Marijn; Labbé, Ivo; Leja, Joel; Momcheva, Ivelina G.; Nelson, Erica J.; Quadri, Ryan F.; Skelton, Rosalind E.; Weiner, Benjamin J.; Whitaker, Katherine E.

    2016-05-01

    We present a study of photometric redshift accuracy in the 3D-HST photometric catalogs, using 3D-HST grism redshifts to quantify and dissect trends in redshift accuracy for galaxies brighter than JH IR > 24 with an unprecedented and representative high-redshift galaxy sample. We find an average scatter of 0.0197 ± 0.0003(1 + z) in the Skelton et al. photometric redshifts. Photometric redshift accuracy decreases with magnitude and redshift, but does not vary monotonically with color or stellar mass. The 1σ scatter lies between 0.01 and 0.03 (1 + z) for galaxies of all masses and colors below z 2), dusty star-forming galaxies for which the scatter increases to ˜0.1 (1 + z). We find that photometric redshifts depend significantly on galaxy size; the largest galaxies at fixed magnitude have photo-zs with up to ˜30% more scatter and ˜5 times the outlier rate. Although the overall photometric redshift accuracy for quiescent galaxies is better than that for star-forming galaxies, scatter depends more strongly on magnitude and redshift than on galaxy type. We verify these trends using the redshift distributions of close pairs and extend the analysis to fainter objects, where photometric redshift errors further increase to ˜0.046 (1 + z) at {H}F160W=26. We demonstrate that photometric redshift accuracy is strongly filter dependent and quantify the contribution of multiple filter combinations. We evaluate the widths of redshift probability distribution functions and find that error estimates are underestimated by a factor of ˜1.1-1.6, but that uniformly broadening the distribution does not adequately account for fitting outliers. Finally, we suggest possible applications of these data in planning for current and future surveys and simulate photometric redshift performance in the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, Dark Energy Survey (DES), and combined DES and Vista Hemisphere surveys.

  4. Silicon radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutz, G.

    1995-01-01

    An introduction to and an overview of function principles and properties of semiconductor radiation detectors is attempted. The paper is addressed to people interested in detector development but not already experts in the field of semiconductor detectors. (orig.)

  5. Investigation of flame structure in plasma-assisted turbulent premixed methane-air flame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hualei, ZHANG; Liming, HE; Jinlu, YU; Wentao, QI; Gaocheng, CHEN

    2018-02-01

    The mechanism of plasma-assisted combustion at increasing discharge voltage is investigated in detail at two distinctive system schemes (pretreatment of reactants and direct in situ discharge). OH-planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) technique is used to diagnose the turbulent structure methane-air flame, and the experimental apparatus consists of dump burner, plasma-generating system, gas supply system and OH-PLIF system. Results have shown that the effect of pretreatment of reactants on flame can be categorized into three regimes: regime I for voltage lower than 6.6 kV; regime II for voltage between 6.6 and 11.1 kV; and regime III for voltage between 11.1 and 12.5 kV. In regime I, aerodynamic effect and slower oxidation of higher hydrocarbons generated around the inner electrode tip plays a dominate role, while in regime III, the temperature rising effect will probably superimpose on the chemical effect and amplify it. For wire-cylinder dielectric barrier discharge reactor with spatially uneven electric field, the amount of radicals and hydrocarbons are decreased monotonically in radial direction which affects the flame shape. With regard to in situ plasma discharge in flames, the discharge pattern changes from streamer type to glow type. Compared with the case of reactants pretreatment, the flame propagates further in the upstream direction. In the discharge region, the OH intensity is highest for in situ plasma assisted combustion, indicating that the plasma energy is coupled into flame reaction zone.

  6. Turbulent Premixed Flame Propagation in Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, S.; Disseau, M.; Chakravarthy, V. K.; Jagoda, J.

    1997-01-01

    A facility in which turbulent Couette flow could be generated in a microgravity environment was designed and built. To fit into the NASA Lewis drop tower the device had to be very compact. This means that edge effects and flow re-circulation were expected to affect the flow. The flow was thoroughly investigated using LDV and was found to be largely two dimensional away from the edges with constant turbulence intensities in the core. Slight flow asymmetries are introduced by the non symmetric re-circulation of the fluid outside the test region. Belt flutter problems were remedied by adding a pair of guide plates to the belt. In general, the flow field was found to be quite similar to previously investigated Couette flows. However, turbulence levels and associated shear stresses were higher. This is probably due to the confined re-circulation zone reintroducing turbulence into the test section. An estimate of the length scales in the flow showed that the measurements were able to resolve nearly all the length scales of interest. Using a new LES method for subgrid combustion it has been demonstrated that the new procedure is computational feasible even on workstation type environment. It is found that this model is capable of capturing the propagation of the premixed names by resolving the flame in the LES grid within 2-3 grid points. In contrast, conventional LES results in numerical smearing of the flame and completely inaccurate estimate of the turbulent propagation speed. Preliminary study suggests that there is observable effect of buoyancy in the 1g environment suggesting the need for microgravity experiments of the upcoming experimental combustion studies. With the cold flow properties characterized, an identical hot flow facility is under construction. It is assumed that the turbulence properties ahead of the flame in this new device will closely match the results obtained here. This is required since the hot facility will not enable LDV measurements. The

  7. FIELD TEST OF THE FLAME QUALITY INDICATOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudin, Andrew M; Butcher, Thomas; Troost, Henry

    2003-02-04

    The flame quality indicator concept was developed at BNL specifically to monitor the brightness of the flame in a small oil burner and to provide a ''call for service'' notification when the brightness has changed from its setpoint, either high or low. In prior development work BNL has explored the response of this system to operational upsets such as excess air changes, fouled atomizer nozzles, poor fuel quality, etc. Insight Technologies, Inc. and Honeywell, Inc. have licensed this technology from the U.S. Department of Energy and have been cooperating to develop product offerings which meet industry needs with an optimal combination of function and price. Honeywell has recently completed the development of the Flame Quality Monitor (FQM or Honeywell QS7100F). This is a small module which connects via a serial cable to the burners primary operating control. Primary advantages of this approach are simplicity, cost, and ease of installation. Call-for-service conditions are output in the form of front panel indicator lights and contact closure which can trigger a range of external communication options. Under this project a field test was conducted of the FQM in cooperation with service organizations in Virginia, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, New York, and Connecticut. At total of 83 field sites were included. At each site the FQM was installed in parallel with another embodiment of this concept--the Insight AFQI. The AFQI incorporates a modem and provides the ability to provide detailed information on the trends in the flame quality over the course of the two year test period. The test site population was comprised of 79.5% boilers, 13.7% warm air furnaces, and 6.8% water heaters. Nearly all were of residential size--with firing rates ranging from 0.6 gallons of oil per hour to 1.25. During the course of the test program the monitoring equipment successfully identified problems including: plugged fuel lines, fouled nozzles, collapsed combustion

  8. A Spectroscopic and Photometric Study of Gravitational Microlensing Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Stephen R.

    2000-08-01

    Gravitational microlensing has generated a great deal of scientific interest over recent years. This has been largely due to the realization of its wide-reaching applications, such as the search for dark matter, the detection of planets, and the study of Galactic structure. A significant observational advance has been that most microlensing events can be identified in real-time while the source is still being lensed. More than 400 microlensing events have now been detected towards the Galactic bulge and Magellanic Clouds by the microlensing survey teams EROS, MACHO, OGLE, DUO, and MOA. The real-time detection of these events allows detailed follow-up observations with much denser sampling, both photometrically and spectroscopically. The research undertaken in this project on photometric studies of gravitational microlensing events has been performed as a member of the PLANET (Probing Lensing Anomalies NETwork) collaboration. This is a worldwide collaboration formed in the early part of 1995 to study microlensing anomalies - departures from an achromatic point source, point lens light curve - through rapidly-sampled, multi-band, photometry. PLANET has demonstrated that it can achieve 1% photometry under ideal circumstances, making PLANET observations sensitive to detection of Earth-mass planets which require characterization of 1%--2% deviations from a standard microlensing light curve. The photometric work in this project involved over 5 months using the 1.0 m telescope at Canopus Observatory in Australia, and 3 separate observing runs using the 0.9 m telescope at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) in Chile. Methods were developed to reduce the vast amount of photometric data using the image analysis software MIDAS and the photometry package DoPHOT. Modelling routines were then written to analyse a selection of the resulting light curves in order to detect any deviation from an achromatic point source - point lens light curve. The photometric

  9. Flame dynamics in a micro-channeled combustor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, Taaha; Balachandran, Ramanarayanan; Markides, Christos N.

    2015-01-01

    The increasing use of Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) has generated a significant interest in combustion-based power generation technologies, as a replacement of traditional electrochemical batteries which are plagued by low energy densities, short operational lives and low power-to-size and power-to-weight ratios. Moreover, the versatility of integrated combustion-based systems provides added scope for combined heat and power generation. This paper describes a study into the dynamics of premixed flames in a micro-channeled combustor. The details of the design and the geometry of the combustor are presented in the work by Kariuki and Balachandran [1]. This work showed that there were different modes of operation (periodic, a-periodic and stable), and that in the periodic mode the flame accelerated towards the injection manifold after entering the channels. The current study investigates these flames further. We will show that the flame enters the channel and propagates towards the injection manifold as a planar flame for a short distance, after which the flame shape and propagation is found to be chaotic in the middle section of the channel. Finally, the flame quenches when it reaches the injector slots. The glow plug position in the exhaust side ignites another flame, and the process repeats. It is found that an increase in air flow rate results in a considerable increase in the length (and associated time) over which the planar flame travels once it has entered a micro-channel, and a significant decrease in the time between its conversion into a chaotic flame and its extinction. It is well known from the literature that inside small channels the flame propagation is strongly influenced by the flow conditions and thermal management. An increase of the combustor block temperature at high flow rates has little effect on the flame lengths and times, whereas at low flow rates the time over which the planar flame front can be observed decreases and the time of

  10. Log-Normality and Multifractal Analysis of Flame Surface Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Abhishek; Chaudhuri, Swetaprovo; Law, Chung K.

    2013-11-01

    The turbulent flame surface is typically highly wrinkled and folded at a multitude of scales controlled by various flame properties. It is useful if the information contained in this complex geometry can be projected onto a simpler regular geometry for the use of spectral, wavelet or multifractal analyses. Here we investigate local flame surface statistics of turbulent flame expanding under constant pressure. First the statistics of local length ratio is experimentally obtained from high-speed Mie scattering images. For spherically expanding flame, length ratio on the measurement plane, at predefined equiangular sectors is defined as the ratio of the actual flame length to the length of a circular-arc of radius equal to the average radius of the flame. Assuming isotropic distribution of such flame segments we convolute suitable forms of the length-ratio probability distribution functions (pdfs) to arrive at corresponding area-ratio pdfs. Both the pdfs are found to be near log-normally distributed and shows self-similar behavior with increasing radius. Near log-normality and rather intermittent behavior of the flame-length ratio suggests similarity with dissipation rate quantities which stimulates multifractal analysis. Currently at Indian Institute of Science, India.

  11. The structure of horizontal hydrogen-steam diffusion flames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, C.K.; Guerrero, A.

    1997-01-01

    This paper summarizes a systematic study on the stability, peak temperature and flame length of various horizontal hydrogen-steam diffusion flames in air. Results from this study are discussed in terms of their impact on hydrogen management in a nuclear containment building after a nuclear reactor accident. They show that, for a certain range of emerging hydrogen-steam compositions, a stable diffusion flame can anchor itself at the break in the primary heat transport system. The length of this flame can be up to 100 times the break diameter. This implies that creation of a stable diffusion flame at the break is a possible outcome of the deliberate ignition mitigation scheme. The high temperature and heat flux from a diffusion flame can threaten nearby equipment. However, due to the presence of steam and turbulent mixing with surrounding air, the peak temperatures of these diffusion flames are much lower than the adiabatic constant pressure combustion temperature of a stoichiometric hydrogen-air mixture. These results suggest that the threat of a diffusion flame anchored at the break may be less severe than conservative analysis would indicate. Furthermore, such a flame can remove hydrogen at the source and minimize the possibility of a global gas explosion. (author)

  12. Measurements of turbulent premixed flame dynamics using cinema stereoscopic PIV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinberg, Adam M.; Driscoll, James F. [University of Michigan, Department of Aerospace Engineering, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Ceccio, Steven L. [University of Michigan, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2008-06-15

    A new experimental method is described that provides high-speed movies of turbulent premixed flame wrinkling dynamics and the associated vorticity fields. This method employs cinema stereoscopic particle image velocimetry and has been applied to a turbulent slot Bunsen flame. Three-component velocity fields were measured with high temporal and spatial resolutions of 0.9 ms and 140{mu}m, respectively. The flame-front location was determined using a new multi-step method based on particle image gradients, which is described. Comparisons are made between flame fronts found with this method and simultaneous CH-PLIF images. These show that the flame contour determined corresponds well to the true location of maximum gas density gradient. Time histories of typical eddy-flame interactions are reported and several important phenomena identified. Outwardly rotating eddy pairs wrinkle the flame and are attenuated at they pass through the flamelet. Significant flame-generated vorticity is produced downstream of the wrinkled tip. Similar wrinkles are caused by larger groups of outwardly rotating eddies. Inwardly rotating pairs cause significant convex wrinkles that grow as the flame propagates. These wrinkles encounter other eddies that alter their behavior. The effects of the hydrodynamic and diffusive instabilities are observed and found to be significant contributors to the formation and propagation of wrinkles. (orig.)

  13. Structure of Partially Premixed Flames and Advanced Solid Propellants

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Branch, Melvyn

    1998-01-01

    The combustion of solid rocket propellants of advanced energetic materials involves a complex process of decomposition and condensed phase reactions in the solid propellant, gaseous flame reactions...

  14. Flame dynamics in a micro-channeled combustor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussain, Taaha; Balachandran, Ramanarayanan, E-mail: r.balachandran@ucl.ac.uk [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University College London, London (United Kingdom); Markides, Christos N. [Clean Energy Processes Laboratory, Department of Chemical Engineering, Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom)

    2015-01-22

    The increasing use of Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) has generated a significant interest in combustion-based power generation technologies, as a replacement of traditional electrochemical batteries which are plagued by low energy densities, short operational lives and low power-to-size and power-to-weight ratios. Moreover, the versatility of integrated combustion-based systems provides added scope for combined heat and power generation. This paper describes a study into the dynamics of premixed flames in a micro-channeled combustor. The details of the design and the geometry of the combustor are presented in the work by Kariuki and Balachandran [1]. This work showed that there were different modes of operation (periodic, a-periodic and stable), and that in the periodic mode the flame accelerated towards the injection manifold after entering the channels. The current study investigates these flames further. We will show that the flame enters the channel and propagates towards the injection manifold as a planar flame for a short distance, after which the flame shape and propagation is found to be chaotic in the middle section of the channel. Finally, the flame quenches when it reaches the injector slots. The glow plug position in the exhaust side ignites another flame, and the process repeats. It is found that an increase in air flow rate results in a considerable increase in the length (and associated time) over which the planar flame travels once it has entered a micro-channel, and a significant decrease in the time between its conversion into a chaotic flame and its extinction. It is well known from the literature that inside small channels the flame propagation is strongly influenced by the flow conditions and thermal management. An increase of the combustor block temperature at high flow rates has little effect on the flame lengths and times, whereas at low flow rates the time over which the planar flame front can be observed decreases and the time of

  15. Calibration of the photometric method of heavy ion charge measurements in emulsion using a CCD camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudzia, D.; Wilczynska, B.; Wilczynski, H.

    2002-01-01

    A previously developed method of heavy ion charge measurements in emulsion has been significantly improved. The charge measurements are based on analysis of photometric profiles of the particle tracks in emulsion. These profiles are obtained using a CCD camera mounted on an optical microscope. So far, the manual charge determination by delta ray counting had to be used for calibration of the photometric method. In this paper a complete procedure for calibration of the photometric method is shown, without resorting to the manual method

  16. Behaviors of tribrachial edge flames and their interactions in a triple-port burner

    KAUST Repository

    Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Isobe, Yusuke; Hayashi, Naoki; Yamashita, Hiroshi; Chung, Suk-Ho

    2015-01-01

    In a triple-port burner, various non-premixed flames have been observed previously. Especially for the case with two lifted flames, such configuration could be suitable in studying interaction between two tribrachial flames. In the present study

  17. Turbulent structure and dynamics of swirled, strongly pulsed jet diffusion flames

    KAUST Repository

    Liao, Ying-Hao; Hermanson, James C.

    2013-01-01

    The structure and dynamics of swirled, strongly pulsed, turbulent jet diffusion flames were examined experimentally in a co-flow swirl combustor. The dynamics of the large-scale flame structures, including variations in flame dimensions, the degree

  18. The blow-off mechanism of a bluff-body stabilized laminar premixed flame

    KAUST Repository

    Kedia, Kushal S.; Ghoniem, Ahmed F.

    2015-01-01

    the end of the recirculation zone. Blow-off started by flame pinching separating the flame into an upstream moving (carried within the recirculation zone) and a downstream convecting (detached from the recirculation zone) flame piece. Within the range

  19. Flame kernel generation and propagation in turbulent partially premixed hydrocarbon jet

    KAUST Repository

    Mansour, Mohy S.; Elbaz, Ayman M.; Zayed, M. F.

    2014-01-01

    Flame development, propagation, stability, combustion efficiency, pollution formation, and overall system efficiency are affected by the early stage of flame generation defined as flame kernel. Studying the effects of turbulence and chemistry

  20. POLYAMIDE 6 WITH A FLAME RETARDANT ENCAPSULATED BY POLYAMIDE 66: FLAME RETARDATION, THERMO-DECOMPOSITION AND THE POTENTIAL MECHANISM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-cheng Xiong; Li Chen; Bin Zhao; De-yi Wang; Yu-zhong Wang

    2012-01-01

    A novel encapsulated flame retardant containing phosphorus-nitrogen (MSMM-Al-P) was prepared by encapsulating with polyamide 66 (PA66-MSMM-Al-P) for the flame retardation of polyamide 6 (PA6).The structure and thermal properties of PA66-MSMM-Al-P were characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy,X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis.The flammability of PA6 containing' flame retardants (MSMMAl-P and PA66-MSMM-Al-P) was investigated by the limiting oxygen index test,vertical burning test and cone calorimeter.The flame retardancy and cone calorimetric analyses suggested a synergistic effect between PA66 and MSMM-Al-P in the flame-retardant PA6.Thermal stability of the flame-retardant PA6 was also investigated.