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Sample records for fixed-bed gasification research

  1. Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 10. Gasification of Benton lignite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Pooler, A.R.; Pui, D.; Liu, B.; Kittelson, D.

    1985-05-01

    A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort by private industrial participants and governmental agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) Group. This report is the tenth volume in a series of reports describing the atmospheric pressure, fixed-bed gasification of US coals. This specific report describes the gasification of Benton lignite. The period of gasification test was November 1-8, 1983. 16 refs., 22 figs., 19 tabs.

  2. Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 14. Gasification of Kemmerer subbituminous coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Pooler, A.R.; Pui, D.; Liu, B.; Kittelson, D.

    1985-05-01

    A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort by private industrial participants and governmental agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) group. This report is the fourteen volume in a series of reports describing the atmospheric pressure, fixed-bed gasification of US coals. This specific report describes the gasification of Kemmerer subbituminous coal, from August 11, 1984 to August 15, 1984. 4 refs., 20 figs., 13 tabs.

  3. Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 4. Gasification of Leucite Hills subbituminous coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Pooler, A.R.; Pui, D.; Liu, B.; Kittelson, D.

    1985-03-31

    A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort by private industrial participants and governmental agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) Group. This report is the fourth volume in a series of reports describing the atmospheric pressure, fixed-bed gasification of US coals. This specific report describes the gasification of Leucite Hills subbituminous coal from Sweetwater County, Wyoming. The period of the gasification test was April 11-30, 1983. 4 refs., 23 figs., 27 tabs.

  4. Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 11. Gasification of Minnesota peat. [Peat pellets and peat sods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Pooler, A.R.; Pui, D.; Liu, B.; Kittelson, D.

    1985-05-01

    A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a coooperative effort by private industrial participants and governmental agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) Group. This report is the eleventh volume in a series of reports describing the atmospheric pressure, fixed-bed gasification of US coals. This specific report describes the gasification of peat pellets and peat sods during 3 different test periods. 2 refs., 20 figs., 13 tabs.

  5. Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 8. Gasification of River King Illinois No. 6 bituminous coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Pooler, A.R.; Pui, D.; Liu, B.; Kittelson, D.

    1985-05-01

    A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort by private industrial participants and governmental agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) Group. This report is the eighth volume in a series of reports describing the atmospheric pressure, fixed-bed gasification of US coals. This specific report describes the gasification of River King Illinois No. 6 bituminous coal. The period of gasification test was July 28 to August 19, 1983. 6 refs., 23 figs., 25 tabs.

  6. Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 12. Gasification of Absaloka/Robinson subbituminous coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Pooler, A.R.; Pui, D.; Liu, B.; Kittelson, D.

    1985-05-01

    A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort by private industrial particpants and governmental agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) Group. This report is the twelfth volume in a series of reports describing the atmospheric pressure, fixed-bed gasification of US coals. this specific reports describes the gasification of Absaloka/Robinson subbituminous coal. This volume covers the test period June 18, 1984 to June 30, 1984. 4 refs., 20 figs., 18 tabs.

  7. Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 3. Gasification of Rosebud sub-bituminous coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Pooler, A.R.; Pui, D.; Liu, B.; Kittelson, D.

    1985-03-31

    A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort by private industrial participants and governmental agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) Group. This report is the third volume in a series of documents prepared by Black, Sivalls and Bryson, Incorporated and describes the gasification of Rosebud subbituminous coal during the time period November 2-20, 1982. Test results and data are presented for the gasification of the coal and the operation of a slipstream tar scrubber to cool the gas and remove condensed tar. 5 refs., 29 figs., 18 tabs.

  8. Developmental research study of coal-fines agglomeration for fixed-bed gasification. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elmquist, S.A.; Girimont, J.A.; Korosi, F.A.; Kuby, O.A.; Nelson, S.G.; Paulin, M.O.; Peterson, C.A.; Baker, R.L.; Saller, E.

    1983-05-31

    This report presents the results of an intensive program to develop and evaluate agglomerates made from coal fines for use in a fixed-bed gasifier. There were several tasks completed earlier and their results published prior to this final report. These included: Task 1-A, a literature survey of coal agglomeration, binders and techniques used in coal agglomeration, coal and binder treatments and the results of work done by others; Task 1-B, an examination of performance of lump coals in coal gasification, testing and evaluation of the properties of these coals, and evaluation of mine site coal upgrading methods; and Task 1-C/D, a laboratory investigation of coal agglomerates, including wafers, briquettes and pellets, in which the agglomerated coal fines were formed and tested, and the performance of various coal/binder combinations was recorded and evaluated, and factors affecting commercial scale coal agglomeration and gasification were evaluated. These three prior tasks are presented in this report in condensed form.

  9. Fixed bed gasification of solid biomass fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haavisto, I. [Condens Oy, Haemeenlinna (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Fixed bed biomass gasifiers are feasible in the effect range of 100 kW -10 MW. Co-current gasification is available only up to 1 MW for technical reasons. Counter-current gasifiers have been used in Finland and Sweden for 10 years in gasification heating plants, which are a combination of a gasifier and an oil boiler. The plants have proved to have a wide control range, flexible and uncomplicated unmanned operation and an excellent reliability. Counter-current gasifiers can be applied for new heating plants or for converting existing oil and natural gas boilers into using solid fuels. There is a new process development underway, aiming at motor use of the producer gas. The development work involves a new, more flexible cocurrent gasifier and a cleaning step for the counter-current producer gas. (orig.)

  10. Process for fixed bed coal gasification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadowski, Richard S.

    1992-01-01

    The combustion of gas produced from the combination of coal pyrolysis and gasification involves combining a combustible gas coal and an oxidant in a pyrolysis chamber and heating the components to a temperature of at least 1600.degree. F. The products of coal pyrolysis are dispersed from the pyrolyzer directly into the high temperature gasification region of a pressure vessel. Steam and air needed for gasification are introduced in the pressure vessel and the materials exiting the pyrolyzer flow down through the pressure vessel by gravity with sufficient residence time to allow any carbon to form carbon monoxide. Gas produced from these reactions are then released from the pressure vessel and ash is disposed of.

  11. Fixed bed gasification for production of industrial fuel gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-10-01

    This report summarizes the results of technical and economic evaluations of six commercially available, fixed-bed coal gasification processes for the production of industrial fuel gas. The study was performed for DOE and is intended to assist industrial companies in exploring the feasibility of producing gaseous fuels for both retrofit and new industrial plant situations. The report includes a technical analysis of the physical configuration, performance capabilities, and commercial experiments to-date for both air-blown and oxygen-blown fixed bed gasifiers. The product gas from these gasifiers is analyzed economically for three different degrees of cleanliness: (1) hot raw gas, (2) dust-, tar-, and oil-free gas, and (3) dust-, tar-, oil-free and desulfurized gas. The evaluations indicate that low-Btu gases produced from fixed bed gasifiers constitute one of the most logical short-term solutions for helping ease the shortage of natural gas for industrial fuel applications because the technology is well-proven and has been utilized on a commercial scale for several decades both in this country and overseas; time from initiation of design to commercial operation is about two years; the technology is not complicated to construct, operate, or maintain; and a reliable supply of product gas can be generated on-site. The advantages and disadvantages of fixed bed gasification technology are listed. The cost of the low Btu gas is estimated at $2 to $4 per MM Btu depending on gas purity, cost of coal ($20 to $50 per ton) and a number of specified assumptions with respect to financing, reliability, etc. (LTN)

  12. Physical-Mathematical Model for Fixed-Bed Solid Fuel Gasification Process Simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Slyusarskiy Konstantin V.; Korotkikh Alexander G.; Sorokin Ivan V.

    2017-01-01

    Phycial-mathmatical model for fixed-bed coal gasification process simulation is proposed. The heterogeneous carbon oxidation chemical reactions were simulated via Arrhenius equation while homogeneous reactions in gas phase were calculated using Gibbs free energy minimization procedure. The syngas component concentration field and fuel conversion distribution as well as syngas final temperature and composition were defined for fixed bed gasification of T-grade coal of Kuznetskiy deposit. The o...

  13. Mathematical Modelling of the Fixed-Bed Biomass-Coal Co-Gasification Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donskoy Igor G.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers mathematical modelling of downdraft fixed-bed gasification process of the mixtures of woody biomass and coal. Biomass/coal ratio, biomass moisture content and air equivalence ratio are varying parameters. Boundaries of the efficient gasification regimes are estimated.

  14. Treatment of Mixed Wastes via Fixed Bed Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1998-10-28

    This report outlines the details of research performed under USDOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC21-96MC33258 to evaluate the ChemChar hazardous waste system for the destruction of mixed wastes, defined as those that contain both RCRA-regulated haz- ardous constituents and radionuclides. The ChemChar gasification system uses a granular carbonaceous char matrix to immobilize wastes and feed them into the gasifier. In the gasifier wastes are subjected to high temperature reducing conditions, which destroy the organic constituents and immobilize radionuclides on the regenerated char. Only about 10 percent of the char is consumed on each pass through the gasifier, and the regenerated char can be used to treat additional wastes. When tested on a 4-inch diameter scale with a continuous feed unit as part of this research, the ChemChar gasification system was found to be effective in destroying RCRA surrogate organic wastes (chlorobenzene, dichloroben- zene, and napht.halene) while retaining on the char RCRA heavy metals (chromium, nickel, lead, and cadmium) as well as a fission product surrogate (cesium) and a plutonium surrogate (cerium). No generation of harmful byproducts was observed. This report describes the design and testing of the ChemChar gasification system and gives the operating procedures to be followed in using the system safely and effectively for mixed waste treatment.

  15. Physical-Mathematical Model for Fixed-Bed Solid Fuel Gasification Process Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slyusarskiy Konstantin V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Phycial-mathmatical model for fixed-bed coal gasification process simulation is proposed. The heterogeneous carbon oxidation chemical reactions were simulated via Arrhenius equation while homogeneous reactions in gas phase were calculated using Gibbs free energy minimization procedure. The syngas component concentration field and fuel conversion distribution as well as syngas final temperature and composition were defined for fixed bed gasification of T-grade coal of Kuznetskiy deposit. The optimal fuel residence time and gasifyer specific productivity were defined. The prevail reactions in oxidizing and reduction zones together with its height were defined.

  16. Development of novel fixed-bed gasification methods for biomass residues and agrobiofuels; Kiinteaekerroskaasutustekniikan kehitys biopolttoaineille

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurkela, E.; Staahlberg, P.; Simell, P. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    The overall aims of this project were: (1) to show that fixed-bed gasifiers can be designed to operate reliably with realistically available woody residues and energy crops, (2) to develop catalytic gas cleaning technique for engine use, and (3) to find suitable markets where the local conditions are favourable for economically competitive small-scale power and heat production based on this technology. The specific objectives of the project are: (a) To define the requirements to the feedstock quality needed to guarantee reliable operation with respect to fuel flow, pressure drop, ash sintering and tar formation in an existing commercial downdraft gasifier; (b) To collect operation experience from the commercial Bioneer updraft gasifiers in order to update earlier pilot-plant findings of VTT (Technical Research Centre of Finland) concerning the requirements for feedstock quality required for long-term reliable operation in this reactor type; (c) To develop and test a new type of fixed-bed gasifies design, which is based on forced fuel flow and consequently allows the use of low-bulk-density fuels; (d) To develop and test on a PDU scale a simple and reliable secondary catalytic reactor required for complete decomposition of tars, and (e) To evaluate the economic feasibility of different fixed-bed gasification systems on a potential local energy production market (low-cost biomass residues available, high cost of external energy). The work is carried out as an EC/Joule 3 project in close co-operation between the following partners: VTT Energy and Condens Oy of Finland and Finesport Engineering and Antiche Terre soc. coop.r.l of Italy. VTT Energy co-ordinates the project. The work programme is scheduled to be carried out during the period of 1 October 1997 - 30 September 1999

  17. Development of novel fixed-bed gasification methods for biomass residues and agrobiofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurkela, E.; Staahlberg, P.; Simell, P. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-12-01

    The general goals of the project are: (1) to show that fixed-bed gasifiers can be designed to operate reliably with realistically available woody residues and energy crops, (2) to develop catalytic gas cleaning for producing clean gas to the engine use, and (3) to find suitable markets where the local conditions are favorable for economically competitive small-scale power and heat production based on this technology. The specific goals of the project are: to define the requirements to the feedstock quality needed to guarantee reliable operation with respect to the fuel flow, pressure drop, ash sintering and tar formation in an existing commercial downdraft gasifier; to collect experience from the commercial Bioneer updraft gasifiers in order to update earlier pilot-plant findings of VTT concerning requirements for feedstock quality required for long-term reliable operation in this reactor type; to develop and test a new type of the fixed-bed gasifier design, based on forced fuel flow and which consequently allows the use of the low bulk-density fuels; to develop and test on a PDU-scale a simple and reliable secondary catalytic reactor required for complete decomposition of tars; and to evaluate the economic feasibility of different fixed bed gasification systems on a potential local energy production market (low-cost biomass residues available, high cost of external energy). The work is carried out as an EC/Joule 3 project in close co-operation between the following partners: VTT Energy and Condens Oy from Finland, Finesport Engineering and Antiche Terre soc. coop.r.l from Italy. VTT energy coordinates the project. The work programme is scheduled to be carried out during the period Oct. 1st 1997 - Sep. 30th 1999 6 refs. Bioenergy Research programme

  18. Development of novel fixed-bed gasification for biomass residues and agrobiofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurkela, E.; Simell, P.; Staahlberg, P. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). New Energy Technologies; Berna, G. [Finesport Engineering (Italy); Barbagli, F. [Antiche Terre (Italy); Haavisto, I. [Condens Oy (Finland)

    2000-11-01

    The project concerned three different approaches to achieve reliable operation in fixed-bed gasification of available biomass residues. The first approach was based on the pretreatment of fuels for use in standard downdraft gasifiers. The second one was based on using a commercially available updraft fixed-bed gasifier for heating applications. The third was based on the development of a new type of gasifier that were independent of the natural descending fuel flow caused by gravity. The downdraft gasification tests were carried out in Italy in a gasifier-engine-generator facility with a range of Italian biofuels, the aim being to create criteria for fuel selection, collect reliable performance data with suitable fuels and to identify technical possibilities for broadening the feedstock basis by using mixture fuels and additives. The test results and experiences clearly demonstrated the limitations of this type of commercial gasification technology. Operation experiences of commercial updraft gasifiers operating in Finland and Sweden were collected and evaluated. These updraft gasifiers operate well with sod peat and wood chips. However, these gasifiers cannot operate reliably with low-bulk density fibours fuels like bark, sawdust and shavings. The third technical approach was realised by designing, constructing and testing a pilot plant of a new type of gasifier, based on forced fuel flow and suitable for low-bulk-density fibrous biomass fuels. The pilot plant was connected to a secondary catalytic gas cleaning device, which made it possible to produce tar-free gas suitable for engine use. This new fixed-bed gasifier makes it possible to utilise such biomass residues and energy crops that cannot be used in the presently available fixed-bed gasifiers, like forest residue chips, sawdust and crushed bark. However, further work is required to demonstrate the whole gasifier, gas cleaning and engine concept and to define the lifetime and availability of the catalytic

  19. Industrial-scale Fixed-bed Coal Gasification:Modeling, Simulation and Thermodynamic Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何畅; 冯霄; 李安学; 刘永健

    2014-01-01

    We have developed a process model to simulate the behavior of an industrial-scale pressurized Lurgi fixed-bed coal gasifier using Aspen Plus and General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS). Reaction characteristics in the fixed-bed gasifier comprising four sequential reaction zones-drying, pyrolysis, combustion and gasification are respectively modeled. A non-linear programming (NLP) model is developed for the pyrolysis zone to estimate the products composition which includes char, coal gases and distillable liquids. A four-stage model with restricted equilibrium temperature is used to study the thermodynamic equilibrium characteristics and calculate the composi-tion of syngas in the combustion and gasification zones. The thermodynamic analysis shows that the exergetic effi-ciency of the fixed-bed gasifier is mainly determined by the oxygen/coal ratio. The exergetic efficiency of the proc-ess will reach an optimum value of 78.3%when the oxygen/coal and steam/coal mass ratios are 0.14 and 0.80, re-spectively.

  20. Gasification of biomass in a fixed bed downdraft gasifier--a realistic model including tar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman, Niladri Sekhar; Ghosh, Sudip; De, Sudipta

    2012-03-01

    This study presents a model for fixed bed downdraft biomass gasifiers considering tar also as one of the gasification products. A representative tar composition along with its mole fractions, as available in the literature was used as an input parameter within the model. The study used an equilibrium approach for the applicable gasification reactions and also considered possible deviations from equilibrium to further upgrade the equilibrium model to validate a range of reported experimental results. Heat balance was applied to predict the gasification temperature and the predicted values were compared with reported results in literature. A comparative study was made with some reference models available in the literature and also with experimental results reported in the literature. Finally a predicted variation of performance of the gasifier by this validated model for different air-fuel ratio and moisture content was also discussed.

  1. Impact of feedstock properties and operating conditions on sewage sludge gasification in a fixed bed gasifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werle, Sebastian

    2014-10-01

    This work presents results of experimental studies on the gasification process of granulated sewage sludge in a laboratory fixed bed gasifier. Nowadays, there is a large and pressing need for the development of thermal methods for sewage sludge disposal. Gasification is an example of thermal method that has several advantages over the traditional combustion. Gasification leads to a combustible gas, which can be used for the generation of useful forms of final energy. It can also be used in processes, such as the drying of sewage sludge directly in waste treatment plant. In the present work, the operating parameters were varied over a wide range. Parameters, such as air ratio λ = 0.12 to 0.27 and the temperature of air preheating t = 50 °C to 250 °C, were found to influence temperature distribution and syngas properties. The results indicate that the syngas heating value decreases with rising air ratio for all analysed cases: i.e. for both cold and preheated air. The increase in the concentration of the main combustible components was accompanied by a decrease in the concentration of carbon dioxide. Preheating of the gasification agent supports the endothermic gasification and increases hydrogen and carbon monoxide production. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. Calculation of the fixed bed coal gasification regimes by the use of thermodynamic model with macrokinetic constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donskoi, I. G.; Keiko, A. V.; Kozlov, A. N.; Svishchev, D. A.; Shamanskii, V. A.

    2013-12-01

    We discuss an equilibrium model of a fixed-bed solid fuel gasification process that takes into account macrokinetic constraints imposed on the rates of heterophase processes and allows the pyrolysis and gasification processes to be described in a fairly simple manner with the use of thermal analysis data. The results of calculations are compared with the measured parameters characterizing the Azeisk coal steam-air gasification process that were obtained in experiments on a laboratory setup.

  3. Theoretical and experimental studies of fixed-bed coal gasification reactors. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph, B.; Bhattacharya, A.; Salam, L.; Dudukovic, M.P.

    1983-09-01

    A laboratory fixed-bed gasification reactor was designed and built with the objective of collecting operational data for model validation and parameter estimation. The reactor consists of a 4 inch stainless steel tube filled with coal or char. Air and steam is fed at one end of the reactor and the dynamic progress of gasification in the coal or char bed is observed through thermocouples mounted at various radial and axial locations. Product gas compositions are also monitored as a function of time. Results of gasification runs using Wyoming coal are included in this report. In parallel with the experimental study, a two-dimensional model of moving bed gasifiers was developed, coded into a computer program and tested. This model was used to study the laboratory gasifier by setting the coal feed rate equal to zero. The model is based on prior work on steady state and dynamic modeling done at Washington University and published elsewhere in the literature. Comparisons are made between model predictions and experimental results. These are also included in this report. 23 references, 18 figures, 6 tables.

  4. Air gasification of biogas-derived digestate in a downdraft fixed bed gasifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guanyi; Guo, Xiang; Cheng, Zhanjun; Yan, Beibei; Dan, Zeng; Ma, Wenchao

    2017-08-22

    Digestate is a byproduct from biomass anaerobic digestion process. Gasification of dried digestate to produce gasesous product might be a promising route. In this work, air gasification of digestate with high ash content was performed in a downdraft fixed bed gasifier at temperature varying from 600°C to 800°C and air equivalence ratio (ER) ranging from 0.25 to 0.30. The ash melting properties were firstly detected by the Intelligent Ash Melting Point Test, and the by-products (biochar and ash) were analyzed. The results showed that no ash slagging was observed and therefore it is feasible to operate digestate gasification under 800°C and ER ranging from 0.25 to 0.30. High temperature favored gas production, 800°C is proposed for digestate gasification in the present study. ER with a medium value improved gas quality and cold gas efficiency (CGE), and the optimal LHV of 4.78MJ/Nm(3) and CGE of 67.01% were obtained with ER of 0.28. High ER favored the increase of gas yield and decrease of tar concentration, and the optimal gas yield of 2.15 Nm(3)/kg and tar concentration of 1.61g/Nm(3) were achieved with ER of 0.30. Improved molar ratio of H2/CO varying from 1.03 to 1.08 was obtained at 800°C, indicating gaseous product has the potential for chemical synthesis processes (1

  5. Oxygen Gasification of Municipal Solid Waste in a Fixed-bed Gasifier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miaomiao Niu; Yaji Huang⁎; Baosheng Jin; Xinye Wang

    2014-01-01

    abstract Four waste materials, paper, wood, textile and kitchen garbage, in municipal solid waste were gasified separately with oxygen in a fixed bed reactor. The yields of products char, tar and gas, the composition of gas components H2, CO, CO2 and CH4, and the lower heating value (LHV) were examined at temperatures between 700 and 900 °C and equivalence ratio (ER) between 0.14 and 0.32. Characteristics of gas evolution during gasification were inves-tigated. Results show that a higher temperature improves the formation of H2 and CO while lowers the yield of CO2 and CH4. The LHV of syngas increases with temperature and varies in the range of 6-10 MJ·m-3, reaching the maximum at 800 °C or above. As ER increases, both combustible gas component and LHV of syngas decrease while the yield of CO2 rises linearly. The appropriate ER for obtaining high quality gas is in the range of 0.18-0.23. Temperature and ER have significant effects on the product distribution. Higher temperature and ER are favorable for higher gas yield and lower yield of char and tar in the gasification of textile and kitchen garbage. At 800 °C, the gas evolution may be divided into two regions. In the first region, the flow rate of gas increases and then de-creases rapidly, while in the second region the flow rate decreases monotonical y to lower level.

  6. Porous filtering media comparison through wet and dry sampling of fixed bed gasification products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allesina, G.; Pedrazzi, S.; Montermini, L.; Giorgini, L.; Bortolani, G.; Tartarini, P.

    2014-11-01

    The syngas produced by fixed bed gasifiers contains high quantities of particulate and tars. This issue, together with its high temperature, avoids its direct exploitation without a proper cleaning and cooling process. In fact, when the syngas produced by gasification is used in an Internal Combustion engine (IC), the higher the content of tars and particulate, the higher the risk to damage the engine is. If these compounds are not properly removed, the engine may fail to run. A way to avoid engine fails is to intensify the maintenance schedule, but these stops will reduce the system profitability. From a clean syngas does not only follow higher performance of the generator, but also less pollutants in the atmosphere. When is not possible to work on the gasification reactions, the filter plays the most important role in the engine safeguard process. This work is aimed at developing and comparing different porous filters for biomass gasifiers power plants. A drum filter was developed and tested filling it with different filtering media available on the market. As a starting point, the filter was implemented in a Power Pallet 10 kW gasifier produced by the California-based company "ALL Power Labs". The original filter was replaced with different porous biomasses, such as woodchips and corn cobs. Finally, a synthetic zeolites medium was tested and compared with the biological media previously used. The Tar Sampling Protocol (TSP) and a modified "dry" method using the Silica Gel material were applied to evaluate the tars, particulate and water amount in the syngas after the filtration process. Advantages and disadvantages of every filtering media chosen were reported and discussed.

  7. Effect of small-scale biomass gasification at the state of refractory lining the fixed bed reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janša, Jan, E-mail: jan.jansa@vsb.cz; Peer, Vaclav, E-mail: vaclav.peer@vsb.cz; Pavloková, Petra, E-mail: petra.pavlokova@vsb.cz [VŠB – Technical University of Ostrava, Energy Research Center, 708 33 Ostrava (Czech Republic)

    2016-06-30

    The article deals with the influence of biomass gasification on the condition of the refractory lining of a fixed bed reactor. The refractory lining of the gasifier is one part of the device, which significantly affects the operational reliability and durability. After removing the refractory lining of the gasifier from the experimental reactor, there was done an assessment how gasification of different kinds of biomass reflected on its condition in terms of the main factors affecting its life. Gasification of biomass is reflected on the lining, especially through sticking at the bottom of the reactor. Measures for prolonging the life of lining consist in the reduction of temperature in the reactor, in this case, in order to avoid ash fusion biomass which it is difficult for this type of gasifier.

  8. Biological removal of organic constituents in quench water from a slagging, fixed-bed coal-gasification pilot plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stamoudis, V C; Luthy, R G

    1980-02-01

    This study is part of an effort to assess the efficiency of activated-sludge treatment for removal of organic constituents from high-Btu coal-gasification pilot-plant quench waters. A sample of raw-gas quench water was obtained from the Grand Forks Energy and Technology Center's pilot plant, which employs the slagging, fixed-bed gasification process. The quench water generated in the processing of Indian Head lignite was pretreated to reduce ammonia and alkalinity, and then diluted and subjected to long-term biological treatment, followed by detailed characterization and analysis of organic constituents. The pretreated (influent) and treated (effluent) samples were extracted using a methylene chloride, pH-fractionation method to obtain acid, base, and neutral fractions, which were analyzed by capillary-column gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Over 99% of the total extractable and chromatographable organic material in the influent acid fraction was composed of phenol and alkylated phenols. Biological treatment removed these compounds almost completely. Major components of the influent base fraction were alkylated pyridines, anilines, aminopyrroles, imidazoles and/or pyrazoles, diazines, and quinolines. Removal efficiency of these compounds ranged between 90 and 100%. The influent neutral fraction was composed mainly of cycloalkanes, cycloalkenes, naphthalene, indole, acetophenone, and benzonitrile. Alkylated benzenes were generally absent. Removal efficiencies of these compounds were generally very good, except for certain alkylated cycloalkanes and cycloalkenes. Results are compared with those of a similar study on HYGAS coal-gasification quench water.

  9. Experimental study on temperature profile of fixed - bed gasification of oil-palm fronds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atnaw, Samson M.; Sulaiman, Shaharin A.; Moni, M. Nazmi Z.

    2012-06-01

    Currently the world's second largest palm oil producer Malaysia produces large amount of oil palm biomass each year. The abundance of the biomass introduces a challenge to utilize them as main feedstock for heat and energy generation. Although some oil palm parts and derivatives like empty fruit bunch and fibre have been commercialized as fuel, less attention has been given to oil palm fronds (OPF). Initial feasibility and characterization studies of OPF showed that it is highly feasible as fuel for gasification to produce high value gaseous fuel or syngas. This paper discusses the experimental gasification attempt carried out on OPF using a 50 kW lab scale downdraft gasifier and its results. The conducted study focused on the temperature distributions within the reactor and the characteristics of the dynamic temperature profile for each temperature zones during operation. OPF feedstock of one cubic inch in individual size with 15% average moisture content was utilized. An average pyrolysis zone temperature of 324°Cand an average oxidation zone temperature of 796°Cwere obtained over a total gasification period of 74 minutes. A maximum oxidation zone temperature of 952°Cwas obtained at 486 lpm inlet air flow rate and 10 kg/hr feedstock consumption rate. Stable bluish flare was produced for more than 70% of the total gasification time. The recorded temperature profiles produced closely similar patterns with the temperature profiles recorded from the gasification of woody materials. Similar temperature profile was obtained comparing the results from OPF gasification with that of woody biomass. Furthermore, the successful ignition of the syngas produced from OPF gasification ascertained that OPF indeed has a higher potential as gasification feedstock. Hence, more detailed studies need to be done for better understanding in exploiting the biomass as a high prospect alternative energy solution. In addition, a study of the effect of initial moisture content of OPF

  10. Biomass gasification in fixed bed type down draft: theoretical and experimental aspects; Gasificacao de biomassa em leito fixo tipo concorrente: aspectos teoricos e experimentais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Juan Daniel; Andrade, Rubenildo Vieira; Lora, Electo Eduardo Silva [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil). Inst. de Engenharia Mecanica. Nucleo de Excelencia em Geracao Termeletrica e Distribuida

    2008-07-01

    Actually are recognizing the advantages of biomass in reducing dependence on fossil fuels and significant reduction in emissions of greenhouse effect gases such as Co2. Also are known the different conversion of biomass routes for their use or exploitation, such as thermochemical process (gasification, pyrolysis and combustion), the biological process (fermentation and transesterification) and the physical process (densification, reducing grain and mechanical pressing). In this sense, the gasification is regarded as the most promising mechanism to obtain a homogeneous gaseous fuel with sufficient quality in the small scale distributed generation. This work presents some aspects of biomass gasification in fixed bed, as well as some preliminary results in the evaluation and operation of fixed bed down draft gasifier with double stage air supply of the NEST, identifying the adequate air supply quantity (equivalence ratio in the range of 0,35 to 0,45) for obtaining a fuel gas with lower heating value around 4 MJ/N m3. (author)

  11. Utilisation of wood waste and REF with a new fixed-bed gasification method.; Puujaetteiden ja REF-polttoaineiden hyoedyntaeminen uuden kiinteaekerroskaasutusmenetelmaen avulla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurkela, E.; Staahlberg, P. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    2000-07-01

    Energy use of wood waste from wood-processing industries and of recovered fuels (REF) applying novel fixed-bed gasification technology in the size class of 3 - 15 MW will be developed. Data on the suitability of various fuels and mixtures for NOVEL gasifiers, on the capacity of the gasifier, on impurities in product gas, and on gas cleaning technology will be created for investment plans of enterprises participating in the project. The tests of development work will be carried out in a 400 kW pilot plant of VTT Energy with the following fuels: plywood waste, demolition wood, REF3, sludge/peat/wood mixtures and moist bark. The aim is a) to assess the suitability of various wood wastes and mixtures for gasification, b) to study the suitability of the Novel gasification method for REF3 and sludge/wood/ peat mixtures, c) to determine the impurity contents in the product gas (i.a., particulates, alkali/heavy metals, chlorine, tars, nitrogen compounds) during gasification cycles of different fuels, and d) to design and price a cleaning concept that meets the emission standards of waste incineration. The final target is the technical readiness for demonstration projects. The research project comprises three main tasks: 1. Experiments with wood wastes and a reference run with peat: Two-three pilot test runs will be carried out with wood wastes from participating enterprises, i.a., waste wood from plywood and furniture industries, and moist bark. The plywood waste contains sodium-rich resin, which has caused sintering and deposit problems in fluidized-bed and grate boilers. It is neither possible to use bark or light wood wastes from carpentry and furniture industries in conventional updraft gasifiers. A reference test run with sod peat as fuel will also be carried out to compare the results of Novel gasification with experiences obtained at the existing Bioneer gasification plants. 2. Experiments with REF and with sludge/peat mixture: Two-three pilot test runs with REF and

  12. Hydrogen-rich gas production by steam gasification of char from biomass fast pyrolysis in a fixed-bed reactor: influence of temperature and steam on hydrogen yield and syngas composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Feng; Luo, Si-yi; Hu, Zhi-quan; Xiao, Bo; Cheng, Gong

    2010-07-01

    Steam gasification experiments of biomass char were carried out in a fixed-bed reactor. The experiments were completed at bed temperature of 600-850 degrees C, a steam flow rate of 0-0.357 g/min/g of biomass char, and a reaction time of 15min. The aim of this study is to determine the effects of bed temperature and steam flow rate on syngas yield and its compositions. The results showed that both high gasification temperature and introduction of proper steam led to higher yield of dry gas and higher carbon conversion efficiency. However, excessive steam reduced gas yield and carbon conversion efficiency. The maximum dry gas yield was obtained at the gasification temperature of 850 degrees C and steam flow rate of 0.165 g/min/g biomass char.

  13. Experimental investigation of wood chip gasification using downdraft fixed bed gasifier%基于下吸式固定床的木片气化试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马中青; 叶结旺; 赵超; 孙庆丰; 张齐生

    2016-01-01

    Gasification is a thermo-chemical process to convert carbonaceous materials into gaseous products which could be used as a fuel in engines for power generation or in boiler for heat supply. This paper investigated the effect of equivalence ratio (ER) on the gasification performance in terms of the temperature in the gasifier, the composition distribution of the producer gas, and the tar content in the producer gas using a lab-scale downdraft fixed bed gasifier fed by Pinus sylvestris wood chips. In addition, the characteristics of gasification byproducts, namely bio-char and bio-tar, were analyzed. The proximate and ultimate analysis, the surface morphology, the surface area, and the pore size distribution of wood charcoal were obtained by the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) method. The components of light tar and heavy tar were obtained by the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results showed that the optimal ER was 0.251 with the maximum LHV of producer gas (4.55 MJ/Nm3 along with CO of 17.47%, H2 of 14.67%, CO2 of 12.43%, and CH4 of 2.12%), a minimum tar content of 350 mg/Nm3, and a maximum cold gas efficiency of 65.46%. The charcoal was a porous material with a high heating value of 28.17 MJ/kg and a high BET surface area 342 m2/g which could potentially be feedstock for the production of briquettes fuel and activated carbon. The light tar was mainly composed of phenols (36.75%), acetic acid (22.14%) and ketones (13.73%). After refining and dilution, the light tar could be a potential substance to produce plant growth regulator. The heavy tar was mainly composed of heterocyclic aromatics (59.98%), light aromatics (1 ring) (4.71%) and light polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (2-3 ring) (16.48%). The heavy tar could be a potential feedstock for aromatic chemicals production.%樟子松木材是中国一种重要的生物质能源原料,通过气化技术可将其转化为高热值生物燃气,用于内燃

  14. Co-gasification of sewage sludge and woody biomass in a fixed-bed downdraft gasifier: toxicity assessment of solid residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Le; Maneerung, Thawatchai; Ng, Jingwen Charmaine; Neoh, Koon Gee; Bay, Boon Huat; Tong, Yen Wah; Dai, Yanjun; Wang, Chi-Hwa

    2015-02-01

    As the demand for fossil fuels and biofuels increases, the volume of ash generated will correspondingly increase. Even though ash disposal is now strictly regulated in many countries, the increasing volume of ash puts pressure on landfill sites with regard to cost, capacity and maintenance. In addition, the probability of environmental pollution from leakage of bottom ash leachate also increases. The main aim of this research is to investigate the toxicity of bottom ash, which is an unavoidable solid residue arising from biomass gasification, on human cells in vitro. Two human cell lines i.e. HepG2 (liver cell) and MRC-5 (lung fibroblast) were used to study the toxicity of the bottom ash as the toxins in the bottom ash may enter blood circulation by drinking the contaminated water or eating the food grown in bottom ash-contaminated water/soil and the toxic compounds may be carried all over the human body including to important organs such as lung, liver, kidney, and heart. It was found that the bottom ash extract has a high basicity (pH = 9.8-12.2) and a high ionic strength, due to the presence of alkali and alkaline earth metals e.g. K, Na, Ca and Mg. Moreover, it also contains concentrations of heavy metals (e.g. Zn, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni and Mo) and non-toxic organic compounds. Although human beings require these trace elements, excessive levels can be damaging to the body. From the analyses of cell viability (using MTS assay) and morphology (using fluorescence microscope), the high toxicity of the gasification bottom ash extract could be related to effects of high ionic strength, heavy metals or a combination of these two effects. Therefore, our results suggest that the improper disposal of the bottom ash wastes arising from gasification can create potential risks to human health and, thus, it has become a matter of urgency to find alternative options for the disposal of bottom ash wastes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Potentials of Selected Malaysian Biomasses as Co-Gasification Fuels with Oil Palm Fronds in a Fixed-Bed Downdraft Gasifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moni Mohamad Nazmi Zaidi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Oil palm frond (OPF has been successfully gasified to produce syngas and has since deemed as a potential source of biomass fuel in Malaysia. However, if OPF is to be utilized as a main fuel for industrial-scale firing/gasification plant, interruption in fuel supply may occur due to numerous reasons, for instance inefficient fuel processing and ineffective transportation. A secondary supporting solid fuel is therefore necessary as a partial component to the main fuel in such cases, where the secondary fuel is combusted with the main fuel to adhere to main fuel shortage. Gasification of two fuels together, known as co-gasification, is practiced worldwide, some in industrial scale. However, current practice utilizes biomass fuel as the secondary fuel to coal in co-gasification. This investigation explores into the feasibility of co-gasifying two biomass fuels together to produce syngas. OPF was chosen as the primary fuel and a selection of Malaysian biomasses were studied to discover their compatibility with OPF in co-gasification. Biomass selection was made using score-and-rank method and their selection criteria are concisely discussed.

  16. Potentials of Selected Malaysian Biomasses as Co-Gasification Fuels with Oil Palm Fronds in a Fixed-Bed Downdraft Gasifier

    OpenAIRE

    Moni Mohamad Nazmi Zaidi; Sulaiman Shaharin Anwar; Hassan Suhaimi

    2014-01-01

    Oil palm frond (OPF) has been successfully gasified to produce syngas and has since deemed as a potential source of biomass fuel in Malaysia. However, if OPF is to be utilized as a main fuel for industrial-scale firing/gasification plant, interruption in fuel supply may occur due to numerous reasons, for instance inefficient fuel processing and ineffective transportation. A secondary supporting solid fuel is therefore necessary as a partial component to the main fuel in such cases, where the ...

  17. Reaction kinetics study of coal catalytic gasification in lab scale fixed bed reactor%小型固定床煤催化气化动力学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高攀; 顾松园; 钟思青; 金永明; 曹勇

    2015-01-01

    K2CO3 catalytic gasification of Neimeng brown coal was studied in a fixed bed reactor. The effects of catalyst loading, temperature, gasification agents, such as H2O and H2, and partial pressure of H2O on the carbon conversion and reaction rate were investigated. The results showed that K2CO3 could accelerated the rate of coal-steam gasification obviously, and the carbon conversion reached 70% with the addition of only 10% K2CO3 by mass at 700℃, while H2 inhibited the coal-steam gasification seriously. A kinetic reaction equation was proposed based on an n order and Langmuir-Hinshewood expression by evaluating the carbon conversion behavior. The gasification activity significantly increased with steam partial pressure. In the n order expression, the order nwas 0.87 and the activation energy was 169.2kJ/mol, and, in the L-H expression, the activation energy was 121.9kJ/mol.%以K2CO3和内蒙褐煤为研究对象,在小型固定床上考察了催化剂负载量、温度,氢气以及水蒸气分压对碳转化率和气化反应速率的影响。结果表明,K2CO3对煤焦-水蒸气气化反应有明显的催化作用,700℃,当添加10%的K2CO3,碳的转化率为70%,氢气的含量对煤焦-水蒸气的反应有明显的抑制作用,并采用n级速率方程和Langmuir-Hinshelwood速率方程考察了水蒸气分压的影响,分压提高,煤焦-水蒸气气化反应活性提高,采用n级速率方程得到煤-水蒸气气化反应级数为0.87,活化能为169.2kJ/mol;采用L-H方程得到活化能为121.9kJ/mol。

  18. 顶部点火上吸式固定床中农业废弃物气化特性分析%Gasification property of agriculture wastes in an updraft fixed bed gasifier with top-lit ignition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张世红; 李相鹏; 何广昌; 杨海平; 王贤华; 陈汉平

    2013-01-01

      为了了解在固定床气化炉中生物质的气化特性和炉内温度演变规律,该研究采用顶部点火上吸式(top-lit up draft,简称TLUD)固定床气化炉研究了农业废弃物的气化行为,重点考察了不同空气流量下炉内温度分布、燃气成分和热值的变化规律,探讨了生物质气化过程机理。结果表明,气化过程明显分为2个阶段,即挥发份的析出和焦炭的缓慢气化。整个气化过程中燃气的热值可稳定维持在3 MJ/m3以上,温度场的演变过程与波传递具有相似性,花生壳和稻壳的最佳空气当量比分别为0.31和0.35,且其燃气中焦油含量很低,分别为0.25、0.49 g/m3。该研究为TLUD固定床气化炉的设计和运行提供了有益的参考。%The gasification behavior of agriculture waste was investigated using a Top-lit Up Draft (TLUD) fixed-bed gasifier system which consists of four subsystems (gasifier reaction system, temperature monitor system, tar sampling system, and gas measurement system), in an attempt to find out the influence of air flow on the gasifier’s temperature distribution, gas component, and heating value, and discuss the gasification mechanism of biomass. In the study, peanut shells and rice husks were chosen as experiment material. The reactor is made fromФ219 mm×6 mm stainless steel pipe with length of 800 mm. After the reactor filled up with sample materials (about 3.5 kg), a certain amount of air (range from 2.5 m3/h to 4.0 m3/h) was pumped in at the bottom, and the sample was lit at the top. The temperature was then tested by a temperature monitoring system, and the gas product was detected by a Gasboard-3100P-type multi-component portable infrared gas analyzer (Quartet Photoelectric Technology Co., Ltd. Wuhan, China), and the tar was collected by a tar sampling system. From the results of the investigation, the gasification process lasted about 100 min, and was divided into two stages. First

  19. 加压固定床粗煤气再转化工艺研究%Research on reconversion process of pressurized fixed-bed raw coal gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张庆九; 王光龙

    2011-01-01

    Combining the technical characteristics of pressurized fixed-bed gasification process and hydrocarbon conversion process,put forward the reconversion process of pressurized fixed-bed raw coal gas through theoretical analysis. The coal gas water separation,phenolic ammonia recovery,flue gas burner,conversion scrubber,devices in low-temperature methanol washing system and naphtha separation system and so on have been abandoned thanks to the new technology. This technology reduces the fixed asset investment by 4. 69 billion yuan annually (while the present technical process costs 11.725 billion annually) ,saves raw coal by 0. 9684 million to 1. 1818 million tons annually,approximate to 129 million yuan when the price of lignite is 120 yuan per ton,saves DIPE by 2100 tons, lowers methonal consumption by 9600 tons and sodium hydroxide which mass fraction is 32% by 3600 tons; decreases the dusty gas water and oil gas water emission by 1585. 71 t/h while it uesd to pour sewage 1761. 9 t/h, lessens the land area taken by wastewater treatment plant over 17790 m2. It also improves the utilization rate of carbon dioxide and the recovery of sulfur. This reconversion process need less investment in equipments and engineering construction as well as low operating cost and environmentally friendly.%通过理论分析,综合加压固定床煤气化工艺和烃类转化工艺的技术特点,提出加压固定床粗煤气再转化工艺.加压固定床粗煤气再转化工艺取消了现有加压固定床煤气化工艺中煤气水分离、酚氨回收、废气焚烧、变换工艺洗涤塔、低温甲醇洗工艺萃取系统和石脑油分离系统等装置,降低固定资产投资46.9亿元(现用煤气化工艺化工固定资产投资117.25亿元);每年减少使用原料煤96.84万~118.18万t,约合1.29亿元(以褐煤120元/t计);取消使用二异丙基醚0.21万t/a、减少甲醇用量0.96万t/a和质量分数32%的NaOH用量0.36万t/a;取消含尘煤气

  20. Fixed-bed gasifier and cleanup system engineering summary report through Test Run No. 100

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pater, K. Jr.; Headley, L.; Kovach, J.; Stopek, D.

    1984-06-01

    The state-of-the-art of high-pressure, fixed-bed gasification has been advanced by the many refinements developed over the last 5 years. A novel full-flow gas cleanup system has been installed and tested to clean coal-derived gases. This report summarizes the results of tests conducted on the gasifier and cleanup system from its inception through 1982. Selected process summary data are presented along with results from complementary programs in the areas of environmental research, process simulation, analytical methods development, and component testing. 20 references, 32 figures, 42 tables.

  1. 基于流化床热解的中药渣两段气化基础研究%Fundamental study on Chinese herb residue pyrolysis and gasification by combining fluidized bed and fixed bed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪印; 刘殊远; 任明威; 许光文

    2013-01-01

    The tar and char from a fluidized bed Chinese herb residue (CHR) pyrolysis were cracked and gasified in a fixed char bed. The change in chemical species of tar before and after passing through a fixed char bed was analyzed. The results show that increasing the residence time of tar and pyrolysis gas in the char bed from 0 s to 0.95 s causes a significant decrease in the chemical species containing -OH, C-H, C-O, C = O and C=C groups, but leads to an obvious increase in the aromatic species. Introducing steam into the char bed results in the formation of more species containing aromatic rings, C-O and -OH groups, while adding the oxygen to the atmosphere increases the amount of aromatic components but has little effect on the amount of species containing -OH, C-H, C = O, C = C and C-O. Both steam and oxygen are effective to remove tar from the gasification gas, but the effect of steam is relatively weaker. Introducing steam together with oxygen will have a rather higher tar removal efficiency, and the tar in the producer gas can be ignored.%以中药渣为原料,研究了流化床热解和固定床半焦催化/重整焦油及半焦气化的特性,特别是对固定床重整前后焦油中组分的变化进行了分析.结果表明,随着热解气体在固定床半焦中停留时间从0s延长到0.95 s,焦油中-OH、C-H、C-O、C=O和C=C官能团的含量显著减少,芳香类物质含量明显增加;向固定床中加入水蒸气后,焦油中芳香类、C-O和羟基-OH官能团的含量增加;而加入氧气后,焦油中羟基-OH、C-H、羰基C=O、C=C和C-O官能团物质含量变化不大,但芳烃类物质明显增多.虽然向固定床中加入水蒸气或氧气均能降低焦油含量,但水蒸气的作用稍弱,两者联合对焦油脱除和半焦气化效果更好,生成的燃气中基本不含焦油.

  2. Performance Analysis of an Integrated Fixed Bed Gasifier Model for Different Biomass Feedstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharmina Begum

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Energy recovery from biomass by gasification technology has attracted significant interest because it satisfies a key requirement of environmental sustainability by producing near zero emissions. Though it is not a new technology, studies on its integrated process simulation and analysis are limited, in particular for municipal solid waste (MSW gasification. This paper develops an integrated fixed bed gasifier model of biomass gasification using the Advanced System for Process ENngineering (Aspen Plus software for its performance analysis. A computational model was developed on the basis of Gibbs free energy minimization. The model is validated with experimental data of MSW and food waste gasification available in the literature. A reasonable agreement between measured and predicted syngas composition was found. Using the validated model, the effects of operating conditions, namely air-fuel ratio and gasifier temperature, on syngas production are studied. Performance analyses have been done for four different feedstocks, namely wood, coffee bean husks, green wastes and MSWs. The ultimate and proximate analysis data for each feedstock was used for model development. It was found that operating parameters have a significant influence on syngas composition. An air-fuel ratio of 0.3 and gasifier temperature of 700 °C provides optimum performance for a fixed bed gasifier for MSWs, wood wastes, green wastes and coffee bean husks. The developed model can be useful for gasification of other biomasses (e.g., food wastes, rice husks, poultry wastes and sugarcane bagasse to predict the syngas composition. Therefore, the study provides an integrated gasification model which can be used for different biomass feedstocks.

  3. ANALISIS TRANSIEN PADA FIXED BED NUCLEAR REACTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rizaal

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Desain teras Fixed Bed Nuclear Reactor (FBNR yang modular memungkinkan pengendalian daya dapat dilakukan dengan mengatur ketinggian suspended core dan laju aliran massa pendingin. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mempelajari perubahan daya termal teras sebagai akibat perubahan laju aliran massa pendingin yang masuk ke teras reaktor dan perubahan ketinggian suspended core serta mempelajari karakteristik keselamatan melekat yang dimiliki FBNR saat terjadi kegagalan pelepasan kalor (loss of heat sink. Keadaan neutronik teras dimodelkan pada kondisi tunak dengan menggunakan paket program Standard Reactor Analysis Code (SRAC untuk memperoleh data fluks neutron, konstanta grup, fraksi neutron kasip, konstanta peluruhan prekursor neutron kasip, dan beberapa parameter teras penting lainnya. Selanjutnya data tersebut digunakan pada perhitungan transien sebagai syarat awal. Analisis transien dilakukan pada tiga kondisi, yaitu saat terjadi penurunan laju aliran massa pendingin, saat terjadi penurunan ketinggian suspended core, dan saat terjadi kegagalan sistem pelepasan kalor. Hasil yang diperoleh dari penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa penurunan laju aliran massa pendingin sebesar 50%, dari kondisi normal, menyebabkan daya termal teras turun 28% dibanding daya sebelumnya. Penurunan ketinggian suspended core sebesar 30% dari ketinggian normal menyebabkan daya termal teras turun 17% dibanding daya sebelumnya. Sementara untuk kondisi kegagalan sistem pelepasan kalor, daya termal teras mengalami penurunan sebesar 76%. Dengan demikian, pengendalian daya pada FBNR dapat dilakukan dengan mengatur laju aliran massa pendingin dan ketinggian suspended core, serta keselamatan melekat yang handal pada kondisi kegagalan sistem pelepasan kalor. Kata kunci: FBNR, transien, daya, laju aliran massa, suspended core Modular in design enables Fixed Bed Nuclear Reactor (FBNR power controlled by the adjustment of suspended core and coolant flow rate. The main purposes of this paper

  4. Scale-up of fixed-bed chemical looping combustion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kimball, E.; Geerdink, P.; Goetheer, E.L.V.

    2011-01-01

    Fixed-bed chemical looping combustion is currently being studied experimentally with the optimization of systems up to 1 kW. One of the key advantages for using the fixed-bed configuration over fluidized-beds is the flexibility in operating parameters that allows for application of CLC not only to

  5. Changes in char reactivity due to char-oxygen and char-steam reactions using Victorian brown coal in a fixed-bed reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu Zhang; Yonggang Luo; Chunzhu Li; Yonggang Wang

    2015-01-01

    This study was to examine the influence of reactions of char–O2 and char–steam on the char reactivity evolution. A newly-designed fixed-bed reactor was used to conduct gasification experiments using Victorian brown coal at 800 °C. The chars prepared from the gasification experiments were then collected and subjected to reactivity characterisation (ex-situ reactivity) using TGA (thermogravimetric analyser) in air. The results indicate that the char reactivity from TGA was generally high when the char experienced intensive gasification reactions in 0.3%O2 in the fixed-bed reactor. The addition of steam into the gasification not only enhanced the char conversion sig-nificantly but also reduced the char reactivity dramatical y. The curve shapes of the char reactivity with involve-ment of steam were very different from that with O2 gasification, implying the importance of gasifying agents to char properties.

  6. A FIXED BED SORPTION SYSTEM FOR DEFLUORIDATION OF GROUND WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayoob Sulaiman

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The presence of excess fluoride in ground water has become a global threat with as many as 200 million people affected in more than 35 countries in all the continents. Of late, there have been significant advances in the knowledge base regarding the effects of excess fluoride on human health. As a result, defluoridation of ground water is regarded as one of the key areas of attention among the universal water community triggering global research. This study describes the sorptive responses of a newly developed adsorbent, alumina cement granules (ALC, in its real-life application in fixed beds, for removing fluoride from the ground waters of a rural Indian village. ALC exhibited almost consistent scavenging capacity at various bed depths in column studies with an enhanced adsorption potential of 0.818 mg/g at a flow rate of 4 ml/min. The Thomas model was examined to describe the sorption process. The process design parameters of the column were obtained by linear regression of the model. In all the conditions examined, the Thomas model could consistently predict its characteristic parameters and describe the breakthrough sorption profiles in the whole range of sorption process.

  7. Biohydrogen production from tequila vinasses using a fixed bed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buitrón, Germán; Prato-Garcia, Dorian; Zhang, Axue

    2014-01-01

    In Mexico, the industrial production of tequila leads to the discharge of more than 31.2 million of m(3) of vinasse, which causes serious environmental issues because of its acidity, high organic load and the presence of recalcitrant compounds. The aim of this research was to study the feasibility of a fixed bed reactor for the production of biohydrogen by using tequila vinasse as substrate. The experiments were carried out in a continuous mode under mesophilic and acidic conditions. The maximum hydrogen yield and hydrogen production rate were 1.3 mol H2 mol/mol glucose and 72 ± 9 mL H2/(Lreactor h), respectively. Biogas consisted of carbon dioxide (36%) and hydrogen (64%); moreover methane was not observed. The electron-equivalent mass balance fitted satisfactorily (sink of electrons from 0.8 to 7.6%). For vinasses, hydrogen production accounted for 10.9% of the total available electron-equivalents. In the liquid phase, the principal metabolites identified were acetic, butyric and iso-butyric acids, which indicated a butyrate-acetate type fermentation. Tequila vinasses did not result in potential inhibition of the fermentative process. Considering the process as a water treatment system, only 20% of the original carbon was removed (as carbon dioxide and biomass) when the tequila vinasses are used.

  8. Nonlinear dynamics and control of a recycle fixed bed reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Recke, Bodil; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is twofold. Primarily to describe the dynamic behaviour that can be observed in a fixed bed reactor with recycle of unconverted reactant. Secondly to describe the possibilities of model reduction in order to facilitate control design. Reactant recycle has been shown...... to introduce periodic solution to the fixed bed reactor, a phenomenon which is not seen for the system without the recycle, at least not within the Peclet number range investigated in the present work. The possibility of model reduction by the methods of modal decomposition, and by characteristics...

  9. Partial oxidation of sewage sludge briquettes in a updraft fixed bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minsu; Lee, Yongwoon; Park, Jinje; Ryu, Chankook; Ohm, Tae-In

    2016-03-01

    The fixed bed reaction of sewage sludge briquettes was investigated to evaluate the potential applications to gasification, combustion, or production of biochar as soil ameliorator. The reaction had two distinctive stages: ignition propagation and char oxidation. The ignition front of the sludge briquettes propagated at a lower speed, which significantly increased the stoichiometric ratio of overall combustion reaction and peak temperatures. The ignition front also had irregular shapes due to the channeling effects. During the char oxidation stage, the sludge ash agglomerated because of the slow reaction rate and increased CO2 formation. Because of low energy content in the product gas, the large briquettes were not favorable for syngas production. In addition, the low burning rates and ash agglomeration could cause problems in the operation of a grate-type furnace for combustion. However, the char accumulated above the ignition front had similar properties with that from pyrolysis under inert atmosphere. Therefore, the fixed bed reaction under partial oxidation conditions can be applied to produce biochar as soil ameliorator from the sludge briquettes without external heat supply.

  10. On modelling, monitoring and control of fixed bed bioreactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tali-Maamar, N.; Babary, J.P. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 31 - Toulouse (France); Dochain, D. [Universite Catholique de Louvain (UCL), Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)

    1995-12-31

    The working of a denitrification fixed bed bioreactor strongly depends on time and location of observing point, resulting in partial differential equations systems for the functional model. This project tries to extend the application of adaptative linearizing control schemes to non linear distributed parameters bio process. A second goal is to optimize the sensors position. (D.L.) 23 refs.

  11. Operation of fixed-bed chemical looping combustion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kimball, E.; Hamers, H.P.; Cobden, P.D.; Gallucci, F.; Sint Annaland, M. van

    2013-01-01

    Chemical Looping Combustion is an alternative technology for CO2 capture. While most systems utilize dual circulating fluidized-beds, this work shows that fixed-bed Chemical Looping Combustion is a feasible configuration for this technology. The inherent separation of the CO2 from the depleted air

  12. A Fixed Bed Barrier Reactor with Separate Feed of Reactants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neomagus, H.W.J.P.; Saracco, G.; Versteeg, G.F.

    2001-01-01

    A new type of gas-solid reactor was developed and characterised in the series of reactor configurations with separate feed of reactants studied by our group. The novelty in the proposed design lies in the use of a fixed bed of small catalytic particles instead of a porous catalytic membrane. The maj

  13. Particle Distribution in a Fixed Bed Down Draft Wood Gasifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hindsgaul, Claus

    2005-01-01

    Char particle samples were collected from six distances above the grate in a fixed bed of a down draft biomass gasifier. Each sample was separated into twelve size fractions by screening through standard sieves in order to determine the local particle size distribution. The ash contents of each...

  14. Operation of fixed-bed chemical looping combustion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kimball, E.; Hamers, H.P.; Cobden, P.D.; Gallucci, F.; Sint Annaland, M. van

    2013-01-01

    Chemical Looping Combustion is an alternative technology for CO2 capture. While most systems utilize dual circulating fluidized-beds, this work shows that fixed-bed Chemical Looping Combustion is a feasible configuration for this technology. The inherent separation of the CO2 from the depleted air s

  15. A Fixed Bed Barrier Reactor with Separate Feed of Reactants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neomagus, H.W.J.P.; Saracco, G.; Versteeg, G.F.

    2001-01-01

    A new type of gas-solid reactor was developed and characterised in the series of reactor configurations with separate feed of reactants studied by our group. The novelty in the proposed design lies in the use of a fixed bed of small catalytic particles instead of a porous catalytic membrane. The maj

  16. Nonequilibrium effects in fixed-bed interstitial fluid dispersion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kronberg, A.E.; Westerterp, K.R.

    1999-01-01

    Continuum models for the role of the interstitial fluid with respect to mass and heat dispersion in a fixed bed are discussed. It is argued that the departures from local equilibrium and not the concentration and temperature gradients as such should be considered as the driving forces for mass and h

  17. Removal of hydrogen sulfide by clinoptilolite in a fixed bed adsorber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasyerli, S.; Ar, I.; Dogu, G.; Dogu, T. [Gazi University, Ankara (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2002-11-01

    Due to its toxic and corrosive nature, H{sub 2}S should be safely removed from the gases produced in gasification or combustion processes. In this study, adsorption of hydrogen sulfide was investigated on a natural zeolite, namely clinoptilolite. H{sub 2}S adsorption characteristics of Western Anatolian clinoptilolite was studied in a fixed-bed system at different temperatures between 100 and 600{sup o}C at atmospheric pressure. H{sub 2}S adsorption capacity of clinoptilolite was found to be about 0.03 g S/g clinoptilolite at 600{sup o}C. A deactivation model considering concentration dependence of activity term was applied to experimental results and adsorption rate constant and activation energy values were evaluated. Good agreement of the experimental breakthrough curves with the model predictions was observed.

  18. High Performance Gasification with the Two-Stage Gasifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøbel, Benny; Hindsgaul, Claus; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk

    2002-01-01

    Based on more than 15 years of research and practical experience, the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) and COWI Consulting Engineers and Planners AS present the two-stage gasification process, a concept for high efficiency gasification of biomass producing negligible amounts of tars. In the ......Based on more than 15 years of research and practical experience, the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) and COWI Consulting Engineers and Planners AS present the two-stage gasification process, a concept for high efficiency gasification of biomass producing negligible amounts of tars....... In the two-stage gasification concept, the pyrolysis and the gasification processes are physical separated. The volatiles from the pyrolysis are partially oxidized, and the hot gases are used as gasification medium to gasify the char. Hot gases from the gasifier and a combustion unit can be used for drying...... a cold gas efficiency exceeding 90% is obtained. In the original design of the two-stage gasification process, the pyrolysis unit consists of a screw conveyor with external heating, and the char unit is a fixed bed gasifier. This design is well proven during more than 1000 hours of testing with various...

  19. STUDY OF HYDRODYNAMICS IN FIXED BED OF COMPOSITE GRANULAR MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelian Petrescu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at the experimental determination of pressure drop and friction factor at gas flow through fixed beds of granular silica gel, alumina and activated carbon, and establishment of an equation containing a modified friction factor Fm to calculate pressure drop. In order to calculate the modified friction factor, an equation was suggested.The experimental values for pressure drop and friction factor were determined using spherical grains of silica gel, cylindrical grains of alumina and silica gel, alumina and activated carbon impregnated with calcium chloride. By means of the suggested equation, the values of pressure drop in fixed bed were calculated and compared with the experimental values. A good agreement between the predicted and experimental data is noticed.

  20. Survey of biomass gasification. Volume III. Current technology and research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-04-01

    This survey of biomass gasification was written to aid the Department of Energy and the Solar Energy Research Institute Biological and Chemical Conversion Branch in determining the areas of gasification that are ready for commercialization now and those areas in which further research and development will be most productive. Chapter 8 is a survey of gasifier types. Chapter 9 consists of a directory of current manufacturers of gasifiers and gasifier development programs. Chapter 10 is a sampling of current gasification R and D programs and their unique features. Chapter 11 compares air gasification for the conversion of existing gas/oil boiler systems to biomass feedstocks with the price of installing new biomass combustion equipment. Chapter 12 treats gas conditioning as a necessary adjunct to all but close-coupled gasifiers, in which the product is promptly burned. Chapter 13 evaluates, technically and economically, synthesis-gas processes for conversion to methanol, ammonia, gasoline, or methane. Chapter 14 compiles a number of comments that have been assembled from various members of the gasifier community as to possible roles of the government in accelerating the development of gasifier technology and commercialization. Chapter 15 includes recommendations for future gasification research and development.

  1. Investigation of radiative heat transfer in fixed bed biomass furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Klason; X.S. Bai; M. Bahador; T.K. Nilsson; B. Sunden [Lund Institute of Technology, Lund (Sweden). Division of Fluid Mechanics

    2008-08-15

    This paper presents an investigation of the radiative heat transfer process in two fixed bed furnaces firing biomass fuels and the performance of several widely used models for calculation of radiative heat transfer in the free-room of fixed bed furnaces. The effective mean grey gas absorption coefficients are calculated using an optimised version of the exponential wide band model (EWBM) based on an optical mean beam length. Fly-ash and char particles are taken into account using Mie scattering. In the investigated updraft small-scale fixed bed furnace radiative transfer carries heat from the bed to the free-room, whereas in the cross-current bed large-scale industry furnace, radiative transfer brings heat from the hot zones in the free-room to the drying zone of the bed. Not all the investigated models can predict these heat transfer trends, and the sensitivity of results to model parameters is fairly different in the two furnaces. In the small-scale furnace, the gas absorption coefficient predicted by using different optical lengths has great impact on the predicted temperature field. In the large-scale furnaces, the predicted temperature field is less sensitive to the optical length. In both furnaces, with the same radiative properties, the low-computational-cost P1 model predicts a temperature field in the free-room similar to that by the more time consuming SLW model. In general, the radiative heat transfer rates to the fuel bed are not very sensitive to the radiative properties, but they are sensitive to the different radiative heat transfer models. For a realistic prediction of the radiative heat transfer rate to the fuel bed or to the walls, more computationally demanding models such as the FGG or SLW models should be used. 37 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Adsorption of aromatic amino acids in a fixed bed column

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Cremasco

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Phenylalanine (Phe and tyrosine (Tyr are two of the twenty amino acids in proteins; they are classified as aromatic amino acids, because both have a benzene ring in their structures. These amino acids are important in the synthesis of several biologically active amines, such as beta-endorphin, a neurotransmitter. Amino acids can be separated by ion-exchange chromatography. In this case, it is important that fixed-bed adsorber design adequately predict the breakthrough curve. This work presents a mathematical model for both fluid and porous phases. In the solution proposed for this model the liquid-phase concentration inside the particles is solved analytically and is related to the liquid-phase concentration in the bed using Duhamel's theorem. The solution for liquid-phase concentration in the bed is then solved numerically instead of analytically. The basic mass transfer parameters are from the literature. The results from the model are compared with those obtained experimentally using Phe and Tyr diluted in aqueous solutions in a fixed bed of PVP (poly-4-vinylpyridine resin.

  3. Purification of fructooligosaccharides in an activated charcoal fixed bed column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Raquel Cristine; Filho, Francisco Maugeri

    2010-12-31

    Fructooligosaccharides (FOS) are mixtures of oligosaccharides containing mono and disaccharides, therefore, the separation of these sugars results in purer products for human consumption and can be added to various food products (drinks, cookies and yogurt). The aim of this work was the purification of fructooligosaccharides from a mixture of sugars, obtained by enzymatic synthesis, containing fructooligosaccharides, glucose, fructose and sucrose using activated charcoal fixed bed column. Temperature and ethanol concentration effects were analyzed using a 2² central composite design. Good separation conditions were obtained through central composite design. The best separation coefficient between fructooligosaccharides and glucose (ES(fructoolig/gluc)) was 3.99 ± 0.07 and between fructose and fructooligosaccharides (ES(fructoolig/fruct)) was 2.89 ± 0.36 using ethanol 15% (v/v) as eluent, at 50°C. The final FOS purification degree and recovery were about 80% and 97.8%, respectively. The activated charcoal fixed bed columns were shown to be a good alternative for sugar separation, especially for rich mixtures of fructooligosaccharides.

  4. Kinetics of thermophilic anaerobes in fixed-bed reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, M; Romero, L I; Sales, D

    2001-08-01

    The main objective of this study is to estimate growth kinetic constants and the concentration of "active" attached biomass in two anaerobic thermophilic reactors which contain different initial sizes of immobilized anaerobic mixed cultures and decompose distillery wastewater. This paper studies the substrate decomposition in two lab-scale fixed-bed reactors operating at batch conditions with corrugated tubes as support media. It can be demonstrated that high micro-organisms-substrate ratios favor the degradation activity of the different anaerobic cultures, allowing the stable operation without lag-phases and giving better quality in effluent. The kinetic parameters obtained--maximum specific growth rates (mu(max)), non-biodegradable substrate (S(NB)) and "active or viable biomass" concentrations (X(V0))--were obtained by applying the Romero kinetic model [L.I. Romero, 1991. Desarrollo de un modelo matemático general para los procesos fermentativos, Cinética de la degradación anaerobia, Ph.D. Thesis, University of Cádiz (Spain), Serv. Pub. Univ. Cádiz], with COD as substrate and methane (CH4) as the main product of the anaerobic process. This method is suitable to calculate and to differentiate the main kinetic parameters of both the total anaerobic mixed culture and the methanogenic population. Comparison of experimental measured concentration of volatile attached solids (VS(att)) in both reactors with the estimated "active" biomass concentrations obtained by applying Romero kinetic model [L.I. Romero, 1991. Desarrollo de un modelo matemático general para los procesos fermentativos, Cinética de la degradación anaerobia, Ph.D. Thesis, University of Cádiz (Spain), Serv. Pub. Univ. Cádiz] shows that a large amount of inert matter is present in the fixed-bed reactor.

  5. Fixed-bed bioreactor system for the microbial solubilization of coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, C.D.; Strandberg, G.W.

    1987-09-14

    A fixed-bed bioreactor system for the conversion of coal into microbially solubilized coal products. The fixed-bed bioreactor continuously or periodically receives coal and bio-reactants and provides for the large scale production of microbially solubilized coal products in an economical and efficient manner. An oxidation pretreatment process for rendering coal uniformly and more readily susceptible to microbial solubilization may be employed with the fixed-bed bioreactor. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  6. Research results for the energy efficient fermentation of a liquid phase from biological waste. Suspension of biological wastes in the fixed-bed fermenter; Forschungsergebnisse zur energieeffizienten Vergaerung einer aus Bioabfall gewonnenen Fluessigphase. Bioabfallsuspension im Festbettfermenter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saenger, Dorothee [TIG Group GmbH, Wermelskirchen (Germany)

    2013-06-01

    After four years of implementation, the TIG Group GmbH (Husum, Federal Republic of Germany) presents first results of the research and development project for the energy-efficient bio-waste recycling. The project is funded by the Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany) in cooperation with the Entsorgungs-Gesellschaft Westmuensterland mbH (Gescher, Federal Republic of Germany) and the University of Duisburg-Essen.

  7. Environmental implications of small fixed-bed gasifiers for industry. [Assumes 500 small gasifiers in 1990 and 2500 in 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobson, J.E.; Cushman, R.M.; Walsh, P.J.

    1981-05-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory is responsible for an assessment of the environmental implications of small fixed-bed coal gasifiers for industry. The assessment focuses on the industrial utilization of low energy gas (often called low-Btu gas) in the range of 3708 to 7416 kJ/m/sup 3/ manufactured on-site or nearby in a coal-air-steam reaction process. The major risk is in occupational health due to potential exposure to toxic substances. This risk to workers is considerably greater than the risk to the public at large. The major sources of occupational exposure will be process steam leaks, accidental spills, and maintenance operations. The composition of the process stream produced during low-Btu gasification is not well know at present.

  8. Biomass utilization for the process of gasification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Spěvák

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomass as one of the renewable resources of energy has bright future in utilization, especially in obtaining various forms of energy (heat, electrical energy, gas.According to the conception of energy policy of the Czech Republic and according to the fulfillment of the indicators of renewable resources using until the year 2010, the research of thermophysical characteristics of biofuels was realized.There were acquired considerable amount of results by combustion and gasification process on the basis of three-year project „Biomass energy parameters.” By means of combustion and gasification tests of various (biomass fuels were acquired the results which were not published so far.Acquired results are published in the fuel sheets, which are divided into four parts. They consist of information on fuel composition, ash composition, testing conditions and measurand overview. Measurements were realized for the process of combustion, fluidized-bed gasification and fixed-bed gasification. Following fuels were tested: Acacia, Pine, Birch, Beech, Spruce, Poplar, Willow, Rape, Amaranth, Corn, Flax, Wheat, Safflower, Mallow, and Sorrel.

  9. Sustainability and the Fixed Bed Nuclear Reactor (FBNR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhang Sefidvash

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability as a multifaceted and holistic concept is analyzed. Sustainability involves human relationship with elements such as natural environment, economy, power, governance, education and technology with the ultimate purpose of carrying forward an ever-advancing civilization. The Fixed Bed Nuclear Reactor (FBNR is an innovative, small, simple in design, inherently safe, non-proliferating, and environmentally friendly concept that its deployment can generate energy in a sustainable manner contributing to the prosperity of humanity. The development of FBNR will provide electricity as well as desalinated water through a simple but advanced technology for the developing, as well as developed countries. FBNR is environmentally friendly due to its inherent safety and the convenience of using its spent fuel as the source of radiation for irradiation purposes in agriculture, industry, and medicine. Politically, if a ping pong game brought peace between China and USA, a program of development of FBNR supported by the peace loving international community can become a more mature means to bring peace among certain apparently hostile nations who crave sustainable energy, desalinated water and simple advanced technology.

  10. Application and development status of coal gasification technology in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BU Xue-peng; XU Zhen-gang

    2004-01-01

    Introduced the application and development status of coal gasification technology in China. The most widely used coal gasification technology in China is the atmospheric fixed-bed gasifier, its total number is about 9 000. About 30 pressurized fixed-bed gasifiers are in operation, and more than 10 atmospheric fluidized-bed gasifiers were used. There are 13 Texaco entrained-flow bed gasifiers are under operation,10 Texaco and 11 Shell gasifiers that are being installed or imported. About 10 underground gasifiers are under running now. The present R&D of coal gasification technologies are to improve the operation and controlling level of fixed-bed gasification technology, and developing or demonstration of fluidized-bed and entrained-flow bed gasifiers.

  11. Biomass Fuel and Combustion Conditions Selection in a Fixed Bed Combustor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María E. Arce

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The biomass market has experienced an increase in development, leading to research and development efforts that are focused on determining optimal biofuel combustion conditions. Biomass combustion is a complex process that involves divergent parameters and thus requires the use of advanced analysis methods. This study proposes combining grey relational analysis (GRA and error propagation theory (EPT to select a biofuel and its optimal combustion conditions. This research will study three biofuels that are currently used in a region of South Europe (Spain, and the most important variables that affect combustion are the ignition front propagation speed and the highest temperature that is reached at the fixed bed combustor. The results demonstrate that a combination of both theories for the analysis of solid-state thermochemical phenomena enables a fast and simple way of choosing the best configuration for each fuel.

  12. Conversion enhancement of tubular fixed-bed reactor for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis using static mixer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Phavanee Narataruksa; Sabaithip Tungkamani; Karn Pana-Suppamassadu; Phongsak Keeratiwintakorn; Siriluck Nivitchanyong; Piyapong Hunpinyo; Hussanai Sukkathanyawat; Prayut Jiamrittiwong; Visarut Nopparat

    2012-01-01

    Recently,Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) has become an interesting technology because of its potential role in producing biofuels via Biomassto-Liquids (BTL) processes.In Fischer-Tropsch (FT) section,biomass-derived syngas,mainly composed of a mixture of carbon monoxide (CO)and hydrogen (H2),is converted into various forms of hydrocarbon products over a catalyst at specified temperature and pressure.Fixed-bed reactors are typically used for these processes as conventional FT reactors.The fixed-bed or packed-bed type reactor has its drawbacks,which are heat transfer limitation,i.e.a hot spot problem involved highly exothermic characteristics of FT reaction,and mass transfer limitation due to the condensation of liquid hydrocarbon products occurred on catalyst surface.This work is initiated to develop a new chemical reactor design in which a better distribution of gaseous reactants and hydrocarbon products could be achieved,and led to higher throughput and conversion.The main goal of the research is the enhancement of a fixed-bed reactor,focusing on the application of KenicsTM static mixer insertion in the tubular packed-bed reactor.Two FTS experiments were carried out using two reactors i.e.,with and without static mixer insertion within catalytic beds.The modeled syngas used was a mixed gas composed of H2/CO in 2 ∶ 1 molar ratio that was fed at the rate of 30 mL(STP)·min-1 (GHSV ≈ 136 mL·g-1cat·h-1) into the fixed Ru supported aluminum catalyst bed of weight 13.3 g.The reaction was carried out at 180 ℃ and atmospheric pressure continuously for 36 h for both experiments.Both transient and steady-state conversions (in terms of time on stream) were reported.The results revealed that the steady-state CO conversion for the case using the static mixer was approximately 3.5 times higher than that of the case without static mixer.In both cases,the values of chain growth probability of hydrocarbon products (α) for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis were 0.92 and 0.89 for

  13. Economics of coal conversion processing. Advances in coal gasification: support research. Advances in coal gasification: process development and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    The fall meeting of the American Chemical Society, Division of Fuel Chemistry, was held at Miami Beach, Florida, September 10-15, 1978. Papers involved the economics of coal conversion processing and advances in coal gasification, especially support research and process development and analysis. Fourteen papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA; three papers had been entered previously from other sources. (LTN)

  14. S-RHT FIXED-BED HYDROTREATING TECHNOLOGY FOR RESIDUE WITH HIGH SULFUR CONTENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    To meet the demands of processing residue with high sulfur content, Fushun Research Institute of Petroleum and Petrochemicals (FRIPP) successfully developed the fixed-bed residue hydrotreating technology (S-RHT), which is suitable for treating high sulfur residue to produce diesel oil with low sulfur content. the hydrotreated 350 ℃+ residue is also a good feedstock for RFCC. Based on this technology, Maoming Petrochemical Company constructed the hydrotreating unit with a capacity of 2 Mt/a to treat high sulfur residue, in which loaded FZC series catalysts were developed by FRIPP. The unit was first put into commercial operation at the end of 1999. The commercial operation showed that the catalysts have good activities and the products meet the designed specifications.

  15. A novel fixed-bed reactor design incorporating an electrospun PVA/chitosan nanofiber membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esmaeili, Akbar, E-mail: akbaresmaeili@yahoo.com; Beni, Ali Aghababai

    2014-09-15

    Graphical abstract: PVA/Cs nanofiber membrane was prepared by the electrospinning technique. The membrane was installed in a new fixed-bed reactor. The test results showed heavy metals absorbed by the PVA/Cs nanofiber membrane. - Highlights: • PVA/Cs nano-fiber membrane was produced using electrospinning technique. • The prepared nanofiber membrane was mesoporous. • Thermal crosslinking was successful to improve the stability of PVA/Cs nano-fiber membrane. • Experimental data were studied by adsorption isotherm models and thermodynamic relationships. - Abstract: In this research, a novel fixed-bed reactor was designed with a nanofiber membrane composed of a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/chitosan nanofiber blend prepared using an electrospinning technique. The applied voltage, tip-collector distance, and solution flow rate of the electrospinning process were 18 kV, 14.5 cm, and 0.5 mL h{sup −1}, respectively. Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) theory, scanning electron microscope (SEM), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) were employed to characterize and analyze the nanofiber membranes. Homogeneous electrospun nanofibers with an average diameter of 99.47 nm and surface area of 214.12 m{sup 2} g{sup −1} were obtained. Adsorption experiments were carried out in a batch system to investigate the effect of different adsorption parameters such as pH, adsorbent dose, biomass dose, contact time, and temperature. The kinetic data, obtained at the optimal pH of 6, were analyzed by pseudo first-order and pseudo second-order kinetic models. Three isotherm models and thermodynamic parameters (ΔG°, ΔH°, and ΔS°) were applied to describe the equilibrium data of the metal ions adsorbed onto the PVA/chitosan nanofiber membrane.

  16. Arsenic removal in a sulfidogenic fixed-bed column bioreactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altun, Muslum, E-mail: muslumaltun@hotmail.com [Hacettepe University, Department of Chemistry, Beytepe, Ankara (Turkey); Sahinkaya, Erkan [Istanbul Medeniyet University, Bioengineering Department, Goztepe, Istanbul (Turkey); Durukan, Ilknur; Bektas, Sema [Hacettepe University, Department of Chemistry, Beytepe, Ankara (Turkey); Komnitsas, Kostas [Technical University of Crete, Department of Mineral Resources Engineering, Chania (Greece)

    2014-03-01

    Highlights: • Sulfidogenic treatment of As-containing AMD was investigated. • High rate simultaneous removal of As and Fe was achieved. • As was removed without adding alkalinity or adjusting pH. • As and Fe removal mechanisms were elucidated. - Abstract: In the present study, the bioremoval of arsenic from synthetic acidic wastewater containing arsenate (As{sup 5+}) (0.5–20 mg/L), ferrous iron (Fe{sup 2+}) (100–200 mg/L) and sulfate (2000 mg/L) was investigated in an ethanol fed (780–1560 mg/L chemical oxygen demand (COD)) anaerobic up-flow fixed bed column bioreactor at constant hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 9.6 h. Arsenic removal efficiency was low and averaged 8% in case iron was not supplemented to the synthetic wastewater. Neutral to slightly alkaline pH and high sulfide concentration in the bioreactor retarded the precipitation of arsenic. Addition of 100 mg/L Fe{sup 2+} increased arsenic removal efficiency to 63%. Further increase of influent Fe{sup 2+} concentration to 200 mg/L improved arsenic removal to 85%. Decrease of influent COD concentration to its half, 780 mg/L, resulted in further increase of As removal to 96% when Fe{sup 2+} and As{sup 5+} concentrations remained at 200 mg/L and 20 mg/L, respectively. As a result of the sulfidogenic activity in the bioreactor the effluent pH and alkalinity concentration averaged 7.4 ± 0.2 and 1736 ± 239 mg CaCO{sub 3}/L respectively. Electron flow from ethanol to sulfate averaged 72 ± 10%. X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analyses were carried out to identify the nature of the precipitate generated by sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) activity. Precipitation of arsenic in the form of As{sub 2}S{sub 3} (orpiment) and co-precipitation with ferrous sulfide (FeS), pyrite (FeS{sub 2}) or arsenopyrite (FeAsS) were the main arsenic removal mechanisms.

  17. Integrated bioenergy conversion concepts for small scale gasification power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldas, Rizaldo Elauria

    Thermal and biological gasification are promising technologies for addressing the emerging concerns in biomass-based renewable energy, environmental protection and waste management. However, technical barriers such as feedstock quality limitations, tars, and high NOx emissions from biogas fueled engines impact their full utilization and make them suffer at the small scale from the need to purify the raw gas for most downstream processes, including power generation other than direct boiler use. The two separate gasification technologies may be integrated to better address the issues of power generation and waste management and to complement some of each technologies' limitations. This research project investigated the technical feasibility of an integrated thermal and biological gasification concept for parameters critical to appropriately matching an anaerobic digester with a biomass gasifier. Specific studies investigated the thermal gasification characteristics of selected feedstocks in four fixed-bed gasification experiments: (1) updraft gasification of rice hull, (2) indirect-heated gasification of rice hull, (3) updraft gasification of Athel wood, and (4) downdraft gasification of Athel and Eucalyptus woods. The effects of tars and other components of producer gas on anaerobic digestion at mesophilic temperature of 36°C and the biodegradation potentials and soil carbon mineralization of gasification tars during short-term aerobic incubation at 27.5°C were also examined. Experiments brought out the ranges in performance and quality and quantity of gasification products under different operating conditions and showed that within the conditions considered in the study, these gasification products did not adversely impact the overall digester performance. Short-term aerobic incubation demonstrated variable impacts on carbon mineralization depending on tar and soil conditions. Although tars exhibited low biodegradation indices, degradation may be improved if the

  18. Insect cell entrapment, growth and recovering using a single-use fixed-bed bioreactor. Scaling up and recombinant protein production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventini-Monteiro, D; Dubois, S; Astray, R M; Castillo, J; Pereira, C A

    2015-12-20

    Insect cells are largely used for industrial production of vaccines, viral vectors and recombinant proteins as well as in research and development as an important tool for biology and bioprocess studies. They grow in suspension and are semi-adherent cells. Among the cell culture systems enabling scalable bioprocess the single-use fixed-bed iCELLis(®) bioreactors offer great advantages. We have established the conditions for Drosophila melanogaster Schneider 2 (S2) and Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cells entrapment into the fixed-bed, cell growth and recover from the fixed-bed once high cell densities were attained. Our established protocol allowed these cells, at a cell seeding of 2×1E5 cells/microfiber carriers (MC) (3.5×1E6cells/mL; 1.7×1E4cells/cm(2)), to grow inside a 4m(2)/200mL fixed-bed attaining a concentration of 5.3×1E6 cells/MC (9.5×1E7cells/mL; 4.7×1E5 cells/cm(2)) for S2 cells or 4.6×1E6 cells/MC (8×1E7cells/mL; 4.1×1E5cells/cm(2)) for Sf9 cells. By washing the fixed-bed, entrapped cells could then be recovered from the fixed-bed at a high rate (>85%) with high viability (>95%) by increasing the agitation to 1200/1500rpm. Although the cell yields in the fixed-bed bioreactor were comparable to those obtained in a stirred tank (respectively, 1.3×1E10 and 2.5×1E10 total cells), S2 cells stably transfected with a cDNA coding for the rabies virus glycoprotein (RVGP) showed a 30% higher preserved rRVGP production (2.5±0.1 and 1.9±0.1μg/1E7 cells), as evidenced by a conformational ELISA evaluation. These findings demonstrate not only the possibility to entrap, cultivate to high densities and recover insect cells using a single-use fixed-bed bioreactor, but also that this system provides suitable physiological conditions for the entrapped cells to produce a cell membrane associated recombinant protein with higher specific biological activity as compared to classical suspension cell cultures.

  19. Complex nonlinear behaviour of a fixed bed reactor with reactant recycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Recke, Bodil; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    1999-01-01

    The fixed bed reactor with reactant recycle investigated in this paper can exhibit periodic solutions. These solutions bifurcate from the steady state in a Hopf bifurcation. The Hopf bifurcation encountered at the lowest value of the inlet concentration turns the steady state unstable and marks......,that the dynamic behaviour of a fixed bed reactor with reactant recycle is much more complex than previously reported....

  20. Status of health and environmental research relative to coal gasification 1976 to the present

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilzbach, K.E.; Reilly, C.A. Jr. (comps.)

    1982-10-01

    Health and environmental research relative to coal gasification conducted by Argonne National Laboratory, the Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory under DOE sponsorship is summarized. The studies have focused on the chemical and toxicological characterization of materials from a range of process streams in five bench-scale, pilot-plant and industrial gasifiers. They also address ecological effects, industrial hygiene, environmental control technology performance, and risk assessment. Following an overview of coal gasification technology and related environmental concerns, integrated summaries of the studies and results in each area are presented and conclusions are drawn. Needed health and environmental research relative to coal gasification is identified.

  1. Biomass gasification with CHP production: A review of state of the art technology and near future perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jankes Goran G.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a review of the state of the art of biomass gasification and the future of using biomass in Serbia and it presents researches within the project “The Development of a CHP Plant with Biomass Gasification”. The concept of downdraft demonstration unit coupled with gas engine is adopted. Downdraft fixed-bed gasification is generally favored for CHP, owing to the simple and reliable gasifiers and low content of tar and dust in produced gas. The composition and quantity of gas and the amount of air are defined by modeling biomass residues gasification process. The gas (290-400m3/h for 0.5- 0.7MW biomass input obtained by gasification at 800oC with air at atmospheric pressure contains 14% H2, 27% CO, 9% CO2, 2% CH4, and 48% N2, and its net heating value is 4.8-6 MJ/Nm3. The expected gasifier efficiency is up to 80%. The review of the work on biomass gasification has shown that the development of technology has reached the mature stage. There are CHP plants with biomass gasification operating as demonstration plants and several gasification demonstration units are successfully oriented to biofuel production. No attempt has been made here to address the economic feasibility of the system. Economics will be the part of a later work as firmer data are acquired.

  2. Applied research and evaluation of process concepts for liquefaction and gasification of western coals. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, W. H.

    1980-09-01

    Fourteen sections, including five subsections, of the final report covering work done between June 1, 1975 to July 31, 1980 on research programs in coal gasification and liquefaction have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  3. Research into Biomass and Waste Gasification in Atmospheric Fluidized Bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skala, Zdenek; Ochrana, Ladislav; Lisy, Martin; Balas, Marek; Kohout, Premysl; Skoblja, Sergej

    2007-07-01

    Considerable attention is paid in the Czech Republic to renewable energy sources. The largest potential, out of them all, have biomass and waste. The aim therefore is to use them in CHP in smaller units (up to 5MWel). These are the subject of the research summarized in our article. The paper presents results of experimental research into gasification in a 100 kW AFB gasifier situated in Energy Institute, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Brno University of Technology, and fitted with gas cleaning equipment. Within the research, study was carried out into gas cleaning taking primary measures in the fluidized bed and using hot filter, metal-based catalytic filter, and wet scrubber. Descriptions and diagrams are given of the gasifier and new ways of cleaning. Results include: Impact of various fuels (farming and forest wastes and fast-growing woods and culm plants) on fuel gas quality. Individual kinds of biomass have very different thermal and physical properties; Efficiency of a variety of cleaning methods on content of dust and tars and comparison of these methods; and, Impact of gasifier process parameters on resultant gas quality. (auth)

  4. Evaluation of heat transfer in a catalytic fixed bed reactor at high temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. M. JORGE

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Experimental results of fixed-bed heat-transfer experiments with no chemical reaction are presented and discussed. The runs were carried out in a tubular integral reactor heated by an electrical furnace at temperatures in the range of 100 to 500°C. Experimental temperature profiles were determined for the electrical furnace, for the reactor wall, and for the fixed bed center. Industrial catalyst for the prereforming of hydrocarbons was employed as the packing material. The effects of process conditions (furnace temperature, gas flow rate on the heat-transfer coefficients were evaluated. The experimental results were analyzed in terms of the external, wall, and internal thermal resistances, associated in series, and compared with model predictions. Under the conditions studied, the overall coefficient was mostly a function of the external effective heat-transfer coefficient. An alternative data treatment was proposed to determine the internal heat-transfer coefficient in fixed beds when wall temperature is not constant.

  5. The dynamic adsorption of Xe on a fixed bed adsorber at 77 K

    CERN Document Server

    Long, Bin; Wang, Qun- Shu; Feng, Shu- Juan; Zhou, Guo- Qing; Feng, Tian- Cheng; Tian, Yan- Jie; Ma, Huai- Cheng

    2016-01-01

    During the design of fixed bed adsorbers, it is vital to understand the dynamic adsorption properties of the system. Because temperature is one of the most important factors affecting adsorbent performance, such that the dynamic adsorption coefficients tend to increase as the temperature decreases, the dynamic adsorption characteristics of Xe on a fixed bed adsorber at 77 K were studied in the present work to minimize the volume of fixed bed adsorber, employing a variety of adsorbents under different operational conditions. The results show that the adsorption performance of carbon molecular sieve is superior to that of activated carbon. And both operational conditions and the presence of gaseous impurities were found to affect adsorption properties.

  6. Simultaneous nitrification-denitrification and phosphorus removal in a fixed bed sequencing batch reactor (FBSBR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahimi, Yousef, E-mail: you.rahimi@gmail.com [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Graduate Faculty of Environment, University of Tehran, No. 25 Qods St., Enghelab Ave, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Torabian, Ali, E-mail: atorabi@ut.ac.ir [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Graduate Faculty of Environment, University of Tehran, No. 25 Qods St., Enghelab Ave, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mehrdadi, Naser, E-mail: mehrdadi@ut.ac.ir [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Graduate Faculty of Environment, University of Tehran, No. 25 Qods St., Enghelab Ave, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shahmoradi, Behzad, E-mail: bshahmorady@gmail.com [Department of Environmental Science, University of Mysore, MGM-06 Mysore (India)

    2011-01-30

    Research highlights: {yields} Sludge production in FSBR reactor is 20-30% less than SBR reactor. {yields} FSBR reactor showed more nutrient removal rate than SBR reactor. {yields} FSBR reactor showed less VSS/TSS ratio than SBR reactor. - Abstract: Biological nutrient removal (BNR) was investigated in a fixed bed sequencing batch reactor (FBSBR) in which instead of activated sludge polypropylene carriers were used. The FBSBR performance on carbon and nitrogen removal at different loading rates was significant. COD, TN, and phosphorus removal efficiencies were at range of 90-96%, 60-88%, and 76-90% respectively while these values at SBR reactor were 85-95%, 38-60%, and 20-79% respectively. These results show that the simultaneous nitrification-denitrification (SND) is significantly higher than conventional SBR reactor. The higher total phosphorus (TP) removal in FBSBR correlates with oxygen gradient in biofilm layer. The influence of fixed media on biomass production yield was assessed by monitoring the MLSS concentrations versus COD removal for both reactors and results revealed that the sludge production yield (Y{sub obs}) is significantly less in FBSBR reactors compared with SBR reactor. The FBSBR was more efficient in SND and phosphorus removal. Moreover, it produced less excess sludge but higher in nutrient content and stabilization ratio (less VSS/TSS ratio).

  7. A novel fixed-bed reactor design incorporating an electrospun PVA/chitosan nanofiber membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeili, Akbar; Beni, Ali Aghababai

    2014-09-15

    In this research, a novel fixed-bed reactor was designed with a nanofiber membrane composed of a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/chitosan nanofiber blend prepared using an electrospinning technique. The applied voltage, tip-collector distance, and solution flow rate of the electrospinning process were 18 kV, 14.5 cm, and 0.5 mL h(-1), respectively. Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) theory, scanning electron microscope (SEM), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) were employed to characterize and analyze the nanofiber membranes. Homogeneous electrospun nanofibers with an average diameter of 99.47 nm and surface area of 214.12 m(2)g(-1) were obtained. Adsorption experiments were carried out in a batch system to investigate the effect of different adsorption parameters such as pH, adsorbent dose, biomass dose, contact time, and temperature. The kinetic data, obtained at the optimal pH of 6, were analyzed by pseudo first-order and pseudo second-order kinetic models. Three isotherm models and thermodynamic parameters (ΔG°, ΔH°, and ΔS°) were applied to describe the equilibrium data of the metal ions adsorbed onto the PVA/chitosan nanofiber membrane. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of Air Staging Ratios on the Burning Rate and Emissions in an Underfeed Fixed-Bed Biomass Combustor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araceli Regueiro

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This experimental work studies a small-scale biomass combustor (5–12 kW with an underfed fixed bed using low air staging ratios (15%–30%. This document focuses on the influence of the operative parameters on the combustion process, so gaseous emissions and the distribution and concentration of particulate matter have also been recorded. The facility shows good stability and test repeatability. For the studied airflow ranges, the results show that increasing the total airflow rate does not increase the overall air excess ratio because the burning rate is proportionally enhanced (with some slight differences that depend on the air staging ratio. Consequently, the heterogeneous reactions at the bed remain in the so-called oxygen-limited region, and thus the entire bed operates under sub-stoichiometric conditions with regards of the char content of the biomass. In addition, tests using only primary air (no staging may increase the fuel consumption, but in a highly incomplete way, approaching a gasification regime. Some measured burning rates are almost 40% higher than previous results obtained in batch combustors due to the fixed position of the ignition front. The recorded concentration of particulate matter varies between 15 and 75 mg/Nm3, with a main characteristic diameter between 50 and 100 nm.

  9. Development of standardized air-blown coal gasifier/gas turbine concepts for future electric power systems. Volume 2, Appendix A: Fixed bed gasifier and sulfur sorbent regeneration subsystem computer model development: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blough, E.; Russell, W.; Leach, J.W.

    1990-08-01

    Computer models have been developed for evaluating conceptual designs of integrated coal gasification combined cycle power plants. An overall system model was developed for performing thermodynamic cycle analyses, and detailed models were developed for predicting performance characteristics of fixed bed coal gasifiers and hot gas clean up subsystem components. The overall system model performs mass and energy balances and does chemical equilibrium analyses to determine the effects of changes in operating conditions, or to evaluate proposed design changes. An existing plug flow model for fixed bed gasifiers known as the Wen II model was revised and updated. Also, a spread sheet model of zinc ferrite sulfur sorbent regeneration subsystem was developed. Parametric analyses were performed to determine how performance depends on variables in the system design. The work was done to support CRS Sirrine Incorporated in their study of standardized air blown coal gasifier gas turbine concepts.

  10. Strategy for research, development and demonstration of thermal biomass gasification in Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Morten Tony

    2011-12-15

    Technology for thermal gasification of biomass is one of the key elements to make the vision of an energy system without fossil fuels a reality. Gasification technology can enhance the flexibility needed to maintain a future energy system with a large share of wind power. Furthermore, gasification has advantages in terms of ash recycling and utilisation of vast but challenging biomass residues. Danish companies are globally well advanced with this technology and the market for gasification technology is great in both Denmark and abroad. There is a clear need for targeted technology RD and D in order to reach the last stretch to a commercial breakthrough. The project ''Strategy for research, development and demonstration of thermal biomass gasification in Denmark'' is the Danish industrys contribution to the development of biomass gasification and goes into detail with the RD and D needs. The project has been conducted by FORCE Technology for DI Bioenergy with funding from EUDP, Energinet.dk, DI Bioenergy and FORCE Technology and five stakeholder companies. (LN)

  11. Thermal Analysis of Fluidized Bed and Fixed Bed Latent Heat Thermal Storage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beemkumar, N.; Karthikeyan, A.; Shiva Keshava Reddy, Kota; Rajesh, Kona; Anderson, A.

    2017-05-01

    Thermal energy storage technology is essential because its stores available energy at low cost. Objective of the work is to store the thermal energy in a most efficient method. This work is deal with thermal analysis of fluidized bed and fixed bed latent heat thermal storage (LHTS) system with different encapsulation materials (aluminium, brass and copper). D-Mannitol has been used as phase change material (PCM). Encapsulation material which is in orbicular shape with 4 inch diameter and 2 mm thickness orbicular shaped product is used. Therminol-66 is used as a heat transfer fluid (HTF). Arrangement of encapsulation material is done in two ways namely fluidized bed and fixed bed thermal storage system. Comparison was made between the performance of fixed bed and fluidized bed with different encapsulation material. It is observed that from the economical point of view aluminium in fluidized bed LHTS System has highest efficiency than copper and brass. The thermal energy storage system can be analyzed with fixed bed by varying mass flow rate of oil paves a way to find effective heat energy transfer.

  12. A Study on the Fixed-bed Adsorption of Heavy Metal Ions over Chitosan Bead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, K.H. [Department of Petrochemical Engineering, Hanlyo University, Chonnam (Korea)

    1999-02-01

    Fixed-bed adsorption of metal ions on chitosan bead was studied to remove heavy metal ions in waste water. Chitin was extracted from crab shell and chitosan was prepared by deacetylation of the chitin. The chitosan in bead was used as an adsorbent for heavy metal ions. Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm was determined from the experimental results of equilibrium adsorption for individual metal ion (Cu{sup 2+}, Co{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}) on chitosan bead. Adsorption strength of metal ions decreased in the order of Cu{sup 2+}>Co{sup 2+}>Ni{sup 2+} ion. Breakthrough curves of single and multicomponent adsorption for metal ions were obtained from the experimental results of fixed-bed adsorption. The breakthrough curves were analyzed by simulation with fixed-bed adsorption equation based on LDFA (linear driving force approximation) adopted LAS (ideal adsorbed solution) theory which can predict multi-component adsorption isotherm from individual adsorption isotherm. The behavior of fixed bed adsorption for single and multi-component system could be nicely simulated by the equation. 22 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Adsorption of ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin from aqueous solution onto granular activated carbon in fixed bed column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darweesh, Teeba M; Ahmed, Muthanna J

    2017-04-01

    Carbonization of Phoenix dactylifera L stones followed by microwave K2CO3 activation was adopted for preparation of granular activated carbon (KAC). High yield and favorable pore characteristics in terms of surface area and pore volume were reported for KAC as follows: 44%, 852m(2)/g, and 0.671cm(3)/g, respectively. The application of KAC as adsorbent for attraction of ciprofloxacin (CIP) and norfloxacin (NOR) was investigated using fixed bed systems. The effect of flow rate (0.5-1.5ml/min), bed height (15-25cm), and initial drug concentration (75-225mg/l) on the behavior of breakthrough curves was explained. The fixed bed analysis showed the better correlation of breakthrough data by both Thomas and Yoon-Nelson models. Inlet drug concentration was of greatest effect on breakthrough data compared to other fixed bed variables. Experimental and calculated breakthrough data were obtained for CIP and NOR adsorption on KAC, thus being important for design of fixed bed column. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Fixed bed reactor for solid-phase surface derivatization of superparamagnetic nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steitz, Benedikt; Salaklang, Jatuporn; Finka, Andrija; O'Neil, Conlin; Hofmann, Heinrich; Petri-Fink, Alke

    2007-01-01

    The functionalization of nanoparticles is conditio sine qua non in studies of specific interaction with a biological target. Often, their biological functionality is achieved by covalent binding of bioactive molecules on a preexisting single surface coating. The yield and quality of the resulting coated and functionalized superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) can be significantly improved and reaction times reduced by using solid-phase synthesis strategies. In this study, a fixed bed reactor with a quadrupole repulsive arrangement of permanent magnets was assayed for SPION surface derivatization. The magnet array around the fixed bed reactor creates very high magnetic field gradients that enables the immobilization of SPIONs with a diameter as low as 9 nm. The functionalization on the surface of immobilized 25 nm 3-(aminopropyl)trimethoxysilane-coated SPIONs (APS-SPIONs) was performed using fluorescein-isothiocyanate directly, and by the SV40 large T-antigen nuclear localization signal peptide (PKKKRKVGC) conjugated to acryloylpoly(ethylene glycol)-N-hydroxysuccinimide, where the PEG reagent is conjugated first to create a functionalized nanoparticle and the peptide is added to the acryloyl group. We show that the yield of reactant grafted on the surface of the APS-coated SPIONs was higher in solid-phase within the fixed bed reactor compared to conventional liquid-phase chemistry. In summary, the functionalization of SPIONs using a magnetically fixed bed reactor was superior to the liquid-phase reaction in terms of the yield, reaction times required for derivatization, size distribution, and scalability.

  15. Copper removal using a heavy-metal resistant microbial consortium in a fixed-bed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpio, Isis E Mejias; Machado-Santelli, Glaucia; Sakata, Solange Kazumi; Ferreira Filho, Sidney Seckler; Rodrigues, Debora Frigi

    2014-10-01

    A heavy-metal resistant bacterial consortium was obtained from a contaminated river in São Paulo, Brazil and utilized for the design of a fixed-bed column for the removal of copper. Prior to the design of the fixed-bed bioreactor, the copper removal capacity by the live consortium and the effects of copper in the consortium biofilm formation were investigated. The Langmuir model indicated that the sorption capacity of the consortium for copper was 450.0 mg/g dry cells. The biosorption of copper into the microbial biomass was attributed to carboxyl and hydroxyl groups present in the microbial biomass. The effect of copper in planktonic cells to form biofilm under copper rich conditions was investigated with confocal microscopy. The results revealed that biofilm formed after 72 h exposure to copper presented a reduced thickness by 57% when compared to the control; however 84% of the total cells were still alive. The fixed-bed bioreactor was set up by growing the consortium biofilm on granular activated carbon (GAC) and analyzed for copper removal. The biofilm-GAC (BGAC) column retained 45% of the copper mass present in the influent, as opposed to 17% in the control column that contained GAC only. These findings suggest that native microbial communities in sites contaminated with heavy metals can be immobilized in fixed-bed bioreactors and used to treat metal contaminated water.

  16. Study on product distributions and char morphology during rapid co-pyrolysis of platanus wood and lignite in a drop tube fixed-bed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Haiyu; Wang, Shuzhong; Chen, Lin; Wu, Zhiqiang; Zhao, Jun

    2016-06-01

    The rapid co-pyrolytic behavior of platanus wood and Pingzhuang lignite was explored in a drop tube fixed-bed reactor under nitrogen atmosphere. Synergistic effects were evaluated using the deviations between experimental and predicted values of product yields and gas components. Surface morphology of residual chars were also investigated applying the scanning electron microscopy technique (SEM). This study found that the experimental values of gas volume yields were greater than the predicted, and the maximum gas volume yield exhibited with 50% biomass blending ratio at 1000°C. Positive or negative synergistic effects happened in gas components at different blending ratios and temperatures. The SEM results indicated that the differences of char surface morphology were evident. The fractal dimensions of residual chars increased with increasing biomass blending ratio, which may improve their gasification or combustion reactivity. The change in product yields and gas components was attributed to the secondary reactions and tar cracking.

  17. Research on low emission MSW gasification and melting system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Gang; NI Mingjiang; CHI Yong; JIN Yuqi; ZHANG Jiaquan; MIAO Qi; CEN Kefa

    2007-01-01

    In order to eliminate secondary pollution caused by municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration,a MSW gasification and melting process is proposed.The process is expected to reduce the emission of pollutants,especially heavy-metals and dioxins.In this paper,the combustible components of MSW and simulated MSW were gasified in a lab-scale fluidized bed at 400℃-700℃ when the excess air ratio (ER) was between 0.2 and 0.8.The experimental results indicated that the MSW could be gasified effectively in a fluidized bed at approximately 600℃-700℃ when excess air ratio was 0.2-0.4.The melting characteristics of two typical fly ash samples from MSW incinerators were investigated.The results indicated that fly ash of pure MSW incineration could be melted at approximately 1,300℃ and that of MSW and coal co-combustion could be melted at approximately 1,400℃.When temperature was over 1,100℃,more than 99.9% of the dioxins could be decomposed and most of the heavy-metals could be solidified in the slag.Based on the above experiments,two feasible MSW gasification and melting processes were proposed for low calorific value MSW:(1) sieved MSW gasification and melting system,which was based on an idea of multi-recycle;(2) gasification and melting scheme of MSW adding coal as assistant fuel.

  18. High Temperature Air/Steam Gasification of Biomass Wastes - Stage 1. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blasiak, Wlodzimierz; Szewczyk, Dariusz; Lucas, Carlos; Rafidi, Nabil; Abeyweera Ruchira; Jansson, Anna; Bjoerkman, Eva [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    2003-05-01

    In Jan 2002 the Division of Energy and Furnace Technology started the project High Temperature Air an Steam Gasification (HTAG) of biomass wastes, following the approval made by Swedish Energy Agency. The research proved successful; with the fixed bed updraft gasifier coupled to the highly regenerative preheater equipment able to produce a fuel gas not only from wood pellets but also from wood chips, bark and charcoal with considerably reduced amount of tar. This report provides information on solid biomass conversion into fuel gas as a result of air and steam gasification process performed in a fixed bed updraft gasifier. The first chapter of the report presents the overall objectives and the specific objectives of the work. Chapter 2 summarizes state-of-the-art on the gasification field stating some technical differences between low and high temperature gasification processes. Description and schemes of the experimental test rig are provided in Chapter 3. The equipment used to perform measurements of different sort and that installed in the course of the work is described in Chapter 4. Chapter 5 describes the methodology of experiments conducted whose results were processed and evaluated with help of the scheme of equations presented in Chapter 6, called raw data evaluation. Results of relevant experiments are presented and discussed in Chapter 7. A summary discussion of the tar analysis is presented in Chapter 8. Chapter 9 summarizes the findings of the research work conducted and identifies future efforts to ensure the development of next stage. Final chapter provides a summary of conclusions and recommendations of the work. References are provided at the end of the report. Aimed to assist the understanding of the work done, tables and graphs of experiments conducted, irrespective to their quality, are presented in appendices.

  19. Modeling for Anaerobic Fixed-Bed Biofilm Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, B. Y. M.; Pfeffer, J. T.

    1989-06-01

    The specific objectives of this research were: 1. to develop an equilibrium model for chemical aspects of anaerobic reactors; 2. to modify the equilibrium model for non-equilibrium conditions; 3. to incorporate the existing biofilm models into the models above to study the biological and chemical behavior of the fixed-film anaerobic reactors; 4. to experimentally verify the validity of these models; 5. to investigate the biomass-holding ability of difference packing materials for establishing reactor design criteria.

  20. CO-FIRING COAL: FEEDLOT AND LITTER BIOMASS (CFB AND CLB) FUELS IN PULVERIZED FUEL AND FIXED BED BURNERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalyan Annamalai; John Sweeten; Saqib Mukhtar; Ben Thein; Gengsheng Wei; Soyuz Priyadarsan; Senthil Arumugam; Kevin Heflin

    2003-08-28

    Intensive animal feeding operations create large amounts of animal waste that must be safely disposed of in order to avoid environmental degradation. Cattle feedlots and chicken houses are two examples. In feedlots, cattle are confined to small pens and fed a high calorie grain-diet diet in preparation for slaughter. In chicken houses, thousands of chickens are kept in close proximity. In both of these operations, millions of tons of manure are produced every year. The manure could be used as a fuel by mixing it with coal in a 90:10 blend and firing it in an existing coal suspension fired combustion systems. This technique is known as co-firing, and the high temperatures produced by the coal will allow the biomass to be completely combusted. Reburn is a process where a small percentage of fuel called reburn fuel is injected above the NO{sub x} producing, conventional coal fired burners in order to reduce NO{sub x}. The manure could also be used as reburn fuel for reducing NO{sub x} in coal fired plants. An alternate approach of using animal waste is to adopt the gasification process using a fixed bed gasifier and then use the gases for firing in gas turbine combustors. In this report, the cattle manure is referred to as feedlot biomass (FB) and chicken manure as litter biomass (LB). The report generates data on FB and LB fuel characteristics. Co-firing, reburn, and gasification tests of coal, FB, LB, coal: FB blends, and coal: LB blends and modeling on cofiring, reburn systems and economics of use of FB and LB have also been conducted. The biomass fuels are higher in ash, lower in heat content, higher in moisture, and higher in nitrogen and sulfur (which can cause air pollution) compared to coal. Small-scale cofiring experiments revealed that the biomass blends can be successfully fired, and NO{sub x} emissions will be similar to or lower than pollutant emissions when firing coal. Further experiments showed that biomass is twice or more effective than coal when

  1. The assessment of sewage sludge gasification by-products toxicity by ecotoxicologial test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werle, Sebastian; Dudziak, Mariusz

    2015-08-01

    The process of gasification of sewage sludge generates by-products, which may be contaminated with toxic and hazardous substances, both organic and inorganic. It is therefore important to assess the environmental risk associated with this type of waste. The feasibility of using an ecotoxicological tests for this purpose was determined in the presented study. The applied tests contained indicator organisms belonging to various biological groups (bacteria, crustaceans, plants). The subject of the study were solid (ash, char) and liquid (tar) by-products generated during gasification (in a fixed bed reactor) of dried sewage sludge from various wastewater treatment systems. The tested samples were classified based on their toxic effect. The sensitivity of the indicator organisms to the tested material was determined. In-house procedures for the preparation for toxicity analysis of both sewage sludge and by-products generated during the gasification were presented. The scope of work also included the determination of the effect of selected process parameters (temperature, amount of gasifying agent) on the toxicity of gasification by-products depending on the sewage sludge source. It was shown that both the type of sewage sludge and the parameters of the gasification process affects the toxicity of the by-products of gasification. However, the results of toxicity studies also depend on the type of ecotoxicological test used, which is associated with a different sensitivity of the indicator organisms. Nevertheless, it may be concluded that the by-products formed during the gasification of the low toxicity sewage sludge can be regarded as non-toxic or low toxic. However, the results analysis of the gasification of the toxic sludge were not conclusive, which leads to further research needs in this area. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Temperature and time influence on the waste plastics pyrolysis in the fixed bed reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papuga Saša V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyrolysis as a technique of chemical recycling of plastic materials is causing an increasing level of interest as an environmentally and economically acceptable option for the processing of waste materials. Studies of these processes are carried out under different experimental conditions, in different types of reactors and with different raw materials, which makes the comparison of different processes and the direct application of process parameters quite complex. This paper presents the results of investigation of the influence of temperature in the range of 450°C to 525°C, on the yield of the process of pyrolysis of waste plastics mixture, composed of 45% polypropylene, 35% low density polyethylene and 25% high density polyethylene. Also, this paper presents results of the investigation of the effect of the reaction, atintervals of 30-90 [min], on the yield of pyrolysis of the mentioned waste plastics mixture. Research was conducted in a fixed bed pilot reactor, which was developed for this purpose. The results of the research show that at a temperature of 500°C, complete conversion of raw materials was achieved, for a period of 45 [min], with a maximum yield of the pyrolysis oil of 32.80%, yield of the gaseous products of 65.75% and the solid remains of 1.46%. Afurther increase of temperature increases the yield of gaseous products, at the expense of reducing the yield of pyrolysis oil. Obtained pyrolysis oil has a high calorific value of 45.96 [MJ/kg], and in this regard has potential applications as an alternative fuel.

  3. Gasification from waste organic materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Ramírez Rubio

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the fixed bed biomass gasifier operation designed and built by the Clean Development Mechanisms and Energy Management research group, the gasifier equipment and the measurement system. The experiment involved agro-industrial residues (biomass such wood chips, coconut shell, cocoa and coffee husk; some temperatures along the bed, its pressure, inlet air flow and the percentage of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide in the syngas composition were measured. The test results showed that a fuel gas was being obtained which was suitable for use with an internal combustion engine for generating electricity because more carbon monoxide than carbon dioxide was being obtained during several parts of the operation. The gasification experimentation revealed that a gasifier having these characteristics should be ideal for bringing energy to areas where it is hard to obtain it (such as many rural sites in Latin-America or other places where large amounts of agro-industrial wastes are produced. Temperatures of around 1,000°C were obtained in the combustion zone, generating a syngas having more than 20% carbon monoxide in its composition, thereby leading to obtaining combustible gas.

  4. Detecting, Modelling and Measuring Disturbances in Fixed-bed Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermansson, Sven

    2010-07-01

    Combustion of fixed fuel beds in grate furnaces is one of the most common techniques within production of heat and power from solid fuels. The grate furnace used to be a working horse for combustion of hard coal, while today the incitement of using renewable fuel sources has turned biomass and municipal waste into dominating fuel types. These fuels are more conveniently managed by the robust grate furnace than by, for example, fluidised bed or suspension boilers. However, the introduction of the, in many cases, complicated and heterogeneous biomass and waste fuels have, while at the same time subjected to increasingly stringent demands on efficiency and emission of harmful substances, given rise to diffuse challenges to the operation and design of grate furnaces. The influence of the heterogeneous fuels and the low air flow rate required for low nitric oxide emissions are, to a large extent, unclear. The outcome is that different furnaces not only rely on diverging strategies of design and operation - they also show a variety of disturbance characteristics. To make way for more efficient use of modern biomass fuels in grate furnaces, by improving the understanding of the combustion situation and disturbance characteristics, the following steps were made in this study: (1) a set of grate furnaces were investigated separating hands-on problems from underlying research oriented questions, (2) three methods for detecting and measuring disturbances in grate furnaces were developed, and (3) the fundamentals behind disturbances in the part of a fuel bed of grate furnace dominated by char conversion were addressed by mathematical modelling. The outcome of the inventory of furnaces is that fuel-bed channelling and grate material deterioration are common - the first causing increased emissions of unburned carbon compounds and nitric oxides, while the latter giving rise to high material costs and operation failures. In some furnaces, the disturbances could be detected by

  5. Fundamental research on novel process alternatives for coal gasification: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, A H; Knight, R A; Anderson, G L; Feldkirchner, H L; Babu, S P

    1986-10-01

    The Institute of Gas Technology has conducted a fundamental research program to determine the technical feasibility of and to prepare preliminary process evaluations for two new approaches to coal gasification. These two concepts were assessed under two major project tasks: Task 1. CO/sub 2/-Coal Gasification Process Concept; Task 2. Internal Recirculation Catalysts Coal Gasification Process Concept. The first process concept involves CO/sub 2/-O/sub 2/ gasification of coal followed by CO/sub 2/ removal from the hot product gas by a solid MgO-containing sorbent. The sorbent is regenerated by either a thermal- or a pressure-swing step and the CO/sub 2/ released is recycled back to the gasifier. The product is a medium-Btu gas. The second process concept involves the use of novel ''semivolatile'' materials as internal recirculating catalysts for coal gasification. These materials remain in the gasifier because their vapor pressure-temperature behavior is such that they will be in the vapor state at the hotter, char exit part of the reactor and will condense in the colder, coal-inlet part of the reactor. 21 refs., 43 figs., 43 tabs.

  6. Mathematical Modeling and Simulation of the Dehydrogenation of Ethyl Benzene to Form Styrene Using Steady-State Fixed Bed Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaidon M. Shakoor

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this research, two models are developed to simulate the steady state fixed bed reactor used for styrene production by ethylbenzene dehydrogenation. The first is one-dimensional model, considered axial gradient only while the second is two-dimensional model considered axial and radial gradients for same variables.The developed mathematical models consisted of nonlinear simultaneous equations in multiple dependent variables. A complete description of the reactor bed involves partial, ordinary differential and algebraic equations (PDEs, ODEs and AEs describing the temperatures, concentrations and pressure drop across the reactor was given. The model equations are solved by finite differences method. The reactor models were coded with Mat lab 6.5 program and various numerical techniques were used to obtain the desired solution.The simulation data for both models were validated with industrial reactor results with a very good concordance.

  7. Effect of ash content on the combustion process of simulated MSW in the fixed bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Rui; Ismail, Tamer M; Ren, Xiaohan; Abd El-Salam, M

    2016-02-01

    This paper experimentally and numerically investigates the effects of ash content on the combustion process of simulated Municipal Solid Waste (MSW). A fixed-bed experimental reactor was utilized to reveal the combustion characteristics. Temperature distributions, ignition front velocity, and the characteristics of gas species' release were measured and simulated during the combustion process. In the present work, the two-dimensional unsteady mathematical heterogeneous model was developed to simulate the combustion process in the bed, including the process rate model as well as NOx production model. The simulation results in the bed are accordant with the experimental results. The results show that as ash content increases, the lower burning rate of fuel results in char particles leaving the grate without being fully burned, causing a loss of combustible material in the MSW in a fixed bed and therefore reducing the combustion efficiency and increasing the burning time of the MSW. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Parameters estimation for amino acids adsorption in a fixed bed by moment analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Cremasco

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Equilibrium constant and mass transfer parameters are needed for the study of amino acid separation in any process involving adsorption in fixed beds. The adsorption constants, effective diffusion coefficients, and axial dispersion coefficients for two amino acids, L-phenylalanine (Phe and L-tyrosine (Tyr, are determined from a series of pulse tests in a fixed bed packed with PVP (poly-4-vinylpyridine resin. Total bed voidage at different flow rates is estimated from NaCl pulse test data. The effective pore diffusivities of Phe, Tyr, and NaCl are estimated from moment analysis of pulse data. A detailed rate model is then solved numerically and adsorption constants, effective diffusion coefficients, axial dispersion coefficients are determined by moment analysis and compared with the pulse data. The advantage of this method is that the effective intraparticle diffusivities can be determined without the influence of extracolumn dispersion or intracolumn axial dispersion effects.

  9. Evaluation of fructooligosaccharides separation using a fixed-bed column packed with activated charcoal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Raquel Cristine; Mazutti, Marcio A; Albertini, Lilian Buoro; Filho, Francisco Maugeri

    2014-05-25

    Recent studies have shown that the chromatographic separation of mixtures of saccharides may be improved by making use of activated charcoal, a promising low cost material for the separation of sugars, including fructooligosaccharides. In this work, the development of a methodology to separate fructooligosaccharides from glucose, fructose and sucrose, using a fixed bed column packed with activated charcoal is proposed. The influence of temperature, eluant concentration and step gradients were evaluated to increase the separation efficiency and fructooligosaccharide purity. The final degree of fructooligosaccharide purification and separation efficiency were about 94% and 3.03 respectively, using ethanol gradient concentration ranging from 3.5% to 15% (v/v) at 40°C. The fixed bed column packed with the activated charcoal was shown to be a promising alternative for sugar separation, mainly those rich in fructooligosaccharides, leading to solutions of acceptable degrees of purification.

  10. Kinetic studies of elemental mercury adsorption in activated carbon fixed bed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skodras, G; Diamantopoulou, Ir; Pantoleontos, G; Sakellaropoulos, G P

    2008-10-01

    Activated carbons are suitable materials for Hg(0) adsorption in fixed bed operation or in injection process. The fixed bed tests provide good indication of activated carbons effectiveness and service lives, which depend on the rates of Hg(0) adsorption. In order to correlate fixed bed properties and operation conditions, with their adsorptive capacity and saturation time, Hg(0) adsorption tests were realized in a bench-scale unit, consisted of F400 activated carbon fixed bed reactor. Hg(0) adsorption tests were conducted at 50 degrees C, under 0.1 and 0.35 ng/cm(3) Hg(0) initial concentrations and with carbon particle sizes ranging between 75-106 and 150-250 microm. Based on the experimental breakthrough data, kinetic studies were performed to investigate the mechanism of adsorption and the rate controlling steps. Kinetic models evaluated include the Fick's intraparticle diffusion equation, the pseudo-first order model, the pseudo-second order model and Elovich kinetic equation. The obtained experimental results revealed that the increase in particle size resulted in significant decrease of breakthrough time and mercury adsorptive capacity, due to the enhanced internal diffusion limitations and smaller external mass transfer coefficients. Additionally, higher initial mercury concentrations resulted in increased breakthrough time and mercury uptake. From the kinetic studies results it was observed that all the examined models describes efficiently Hg(0) breakthrough curves, from breakpoint up to equilibrium time. The most accurate prediction of the experimental data was achieved by second order model, indicating that the chemisorption rate seems to be the controlling step in the procedure. However, the successful attempt to describe mercury uptake with Fick's diffusion model and the first order kinetic model, reveals that the adsorption mechanism studied was complex and followed both surface adsorption and particle diffusion.

  11. Characteristic Studies of Micron Zinc Particle Hydrolysis in a Fixed Bed Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lv Ming

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Zinc fuel is considered as a kind of promising energy sources for marine propeller. As one of the key steps for zinc marine energy power system, zinc hydrolysis process had been studied experimentally in a fixed bed reactor. In this study, we focus on the characteristics of micron zinc particle hydrolysis. The experimental results suggested that the steam inner diffusion is the controlling step of accumulative zinc particles hydrolysis reaction at a relative lower temperature and a relative higher water partial pressure. In other conditions, the chemical reaction kinetics was the controlling step. And two kinds of chemical reaction kinetics appeared in experiments: the surface reaction and the gas-gas reaction. The latter one occurs usually for larger zinc particles and high reaction temperature. Temperature seems to be one of the most important parameters for the dividing of different reaction mechanisms. Several parameters of the hydrolysis process including heating rate, water partial pressure, the particle size and temperature were also studied in this paper. Results show that the initial reaction temperature of zinc hydrolysis in fixed bed is about 410°C. And the initial reaction temperature increases as the heating rate increases and as the water partial pressure decreases. The total hydrogen yield increases as the heating rate decreases, as the water partial pressure increases, as the zinc particle size decreases, and as the reaction temperature increases. A hydrogen yield of more than 81.5% was obtained in the fixed bed experiments.

  12. Alkylation of benzene using batch and continuous fixed-bed reactors.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nenoff, Tina Maria; Buelna Quijada, Genoveva (Universidad Autonoma de Tamaulipas, Tamaulipas, Mexico)

    2004-09-01

    Alkylation reactions of benzene with propylene using heterogeneous catalysts H{sup +}-{beta} zeolite, MCM-22, and ZSM-5 were studied for their affinity for cumene production. This work focused on the gas-phase reaction using different crystalline catalysts at several temperatures and amounts of reactants using both batch and continuous fixed-bed reactors. The properties of baseline commercial H{sup +}-{beta} catalysts versus versions modified with Ga, La, and Pt were studied. Quantitative analysis of product mixture was performed by gas chromatography. For the batch reactor, {beta}-zeolite produced the highest cumene yield and selectivity of 72% and 92%, respectively, at 225 C. At this temperature, a benzene:propylene dilution of 7:1 molar ratio was the optimum. For the continuous system, cumene production is favored at lower space velocities, higher benzene-to-propylene ratio, and temperatures close to 225 C. Ga modification of the H{sup +}-{beta} zeolite significantly enhanced cumene yield in the continuous fixed-bed reactor at 225 C, from 27% of the unmodified {beta}-zeolite to 36% for the Ga-modified one. The life span of modified {beta}-catalysts was studied in the fixed-bed reactor for the first eight hours of reaction.

  13. Hydrodynamics of concordant and discordant fixed bed open-channel confluences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birjukova Canelas, Olga; Lage Ferreira, Rui Miguel; Heleno Cardoso, António

    2017-04-01

    The detailed characterization of the flow field in river confluences constitutes a relevant step towards the understanding of the hydro-morpho-dynamics of these key zones of the fluvial system. With a few exceptions, existing works on this topic covered concordant bed scenarios, meaning that both confluent channels had the same elevation. This laboratory study aims to contribute to a detailed three-dimensional characterization of the flow field at a fixed bed confluence, as well as to shed light on how bed elevation discordance modifies the flow patterns of the converging flows. While the junction angle and the discharge ratio were kept fixed, two scenarios were studied on the basis of detailed water level and 3D ADV measurements at the denser mesh ever. The internal flow structure of the concordant bed scenario mostly complied with the classical conceptual models. A relevant difference concerns the size of the stagnation zone, much smaller close to the bed of the discordant bed confluence. A more significant difference is a horizontal flow structure, not previously identified in the literature, characterized by strong streamwise mean vorticity and strong secondary motion. It is observed for the discordant bed case, occurring along the inner wall of the main channel and downstream the junction corner. This structure is spatially well-correlated to a pronounced imbalance of cross-stream and vertical normal Reynolds stresses. This highlights the role of Reynolds stress anisotropy (RSA) that is generated in the shear layers than accompany the entrance of the tributary flow. Since this structure is not present in the concordant case, where RSA is also evident, it is argued that convective effects should also play a role in its formation, presumably due to deflection of the flow in the main channel by the tributary. The newly identified secondary motion should, thus, be a combination of Prandtĺs second kind and Prandtĺs first kind of secondary flow. The relative

  14. Fixed-bed column studies on biosorption of crystal violet from aqueous solution by Citrullus lanatus rind and Cyperus rotundus

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bharathi, Kandaswamy Suyamboo; Ramesh, SriKrishna Perumal Thanga

    2013-01-01

    In this study, fixed-bed column experiments were performed to investigate the biosorption potential of two agricultural wastes, Citrullus lanatus rind and Cyperus rotundus to remove Crystal violet (CV...

  15. LIEKKI 2 - Annual Review 1996. Gasification Research Programme; LIEKKI 2 - Vuosikirja 1996. Seurantaryhmaeraportit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hupa, M.; Matinlinna, J. [eds.

    1996-12-01

    The LIEKKI 2 program is planned to cover the research work to be performed in the period beginning in 1993 and ending in 1998. LIEKKI 2 is largely a continuation of the combustion and gasification research earlier included in the national research programmes LIEKKI and JALO. The research within the scope of the LIEKKI 2 research programme is aimed at supporting the development of energy conversion techniques relating to combustion and gasification in Finland. Research serving the development of new, more efficient and environmentally sound techniques will receive special attention, but research developing conventional combustion techniques is also to be included in the programme. Another important objective of the programme is to maintain and develop the competence of different research groups in this field of technology on a long term basis. The main research areas are: (1) modelling of the furnace processes, (2) the chemistry of gaseous emission components, (3) ash, aerosols and the behaviour of particles, (4) new combustion and gasification technologies, (5) black liquor, (6) conventional combustion technologies and waste incineration. This part of the book contains the reports of the review group chairmen for 1995 and the entire text of the LIEKKI 2 Board of Directors internal evaluation report. (author)

  16. Mathematical model for the gasification of coal under pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biba, V.; Macak, J.; Kloss, E.; Malecha, J.

    1978-01-01

    A mathematical model for the the high-pressure gasification of solid fuels in the charged layer is presented which permits the quantitative description of the the static behavior of the generator. Deals with the parameters of reaction kinetics and of the transfer of matter and energy which are necessary for developing the model of a fixed-bed reactor. To obtain a practical model, simplifications are needed which concern the gasification, degasification, and drying processes. They are dealt with individually. For calculating the concentration and temperature profiles for the solid and gas phases along the gasification bed height, a system of differential equations was obtained which was supplemented by some algebraic equations.

  17. Conbustion and gasification technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egsgaard, H. [Risoe National Lab., Plant Res. Dept., Roskilde (Denmark); Hansen, U. [Univ. Rostock (Germany); Arendt Jensen, P.; Glarborg, P. [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Nielsen, C. [ELSAM, Fredericia (Denmark)

    2003-11-01

    The combustion of solid biomass to produce heat is an established technology, be it either the direct generation of heat or some complex process with intermediate conversion steps yielding motive power or electric energy. Traditionally biomass has been converted in grate or stoker type boilers. Use of biomass in simple stoves in developing countries accounts for a large fraction of the global consumption of energy. Modern energy conversion machines are not well suited to burn biofuels as they are designed and optimised for clean gaseous and liquid fuels. During the last twenty years combustion technologies like suspension firing and fluidized bed have been applied. Gasification of wood fuel has a long tradition, especially in small units. A considerable effort has been made towards the use of gasification as part of CHP strategies. One reason for considering gasification is that the combustion of solid biomass is changed into the more attractive process of burning gas and the inorganic material in the biomass does not enter the final combustion zone. The gasifiers fall into three categories: Fixed bed gasifiers, fluidised bed gasifiers and entrained flow gasifiers. Electricity production by SOFC fuel is a way to obtain high efficiency in electricity production. Gasification and SOFC fuel cell conversion systems based on biomass should be considered. The highly purified gasification gas has the potential to be used directly in SOFC cells or alternatively steam-reformed. Thermal conversion of biomass has been investigated for many years as a possible source of renewable liquid fuels. Fast pyrolysis is an advanced process that gives a yield of Biofuels up to 80% on dry feed, typically 65% liquids and 10% non-condensable gases. (BA)

  18. Fixed-bed adsorption study of methylene blue onto pyrolytic tire char

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makrigianni, Vassiliki; Giannakas, Aris; Papadaki, Maria; Albanis, Triantafyllos; Konstantinou, Ioannis

    2016-04-01

    In this work, the adsorption efficiency of acid treated pyrolytic tire char to cationic methylene blue (MB) dye adsorption from aqueous solutions was investigated by fixed-bed adsorption column experiments. The effects of the initial dye concentration (10 - 40 mg L-1) and feed flow rate (50 - 150 mL min -1) with a fixed bed height (15 cm) were studied in order to determine the breakthrough characteristics of the adsorption system. The Adams-Bohart, Yoon-Nelson and Thomas model were applied to the adsorption of MB onto char at different operational conditions to predict the breakthrough curves and to determine the characteristic parameters of the column. The results showed that the maximum adsorbed quantities decreased with increasing flow rate and increased with increasing initial MB concentration. Breakthrough time and exhaustion time increased with decreasing inlet dye concentration and flow rate. In contrast with Adams-Bohart model, Yoon-Nelson model followed by Thomas model were found more suitable to describe the fixed-bed adsorption of methylene blue by char. The correlation coefficient values R2 for both models at different operating conditions are higher than 0.9 and the low average relative error values provided very good fittings of experimental data at different operating conditions. Higher adsorption capacity of 3.85 mg g -1 was obtained at 15 cm of adsorbent bed height, flow rate of 100 mL min -1and initial MB concentration of 40 mg L-1. Although that activated carbons exhibited higher adsorption capacities in the literature, acid-treated pyrolytic tire char was found to be considerably efficient adsorbent for the removal of MB dye column taking into account the advantages of the simpler production process compared to activated carbons, as well as, the availability of waste tire feedstock and concurrent waste tire management.

  19. Large-scale clinical-grade retroviral vector production in a fixed-bed bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiuyan; Olszewska, Malgorzata; Qu, Jinrong; Wasielewska, Teresa; Bartido, Shirley; Hermetet, Gregory; Sadelain, Michel; Rivière, Isabelle

    2015-04-01

    The successful genetic engineering of patient T cells with γ-retroviral vectors expressing chimeric antigen receptors or T-cell receptors for phase II clinical trials and beyond requires the large-scale manufacture of high-titer vector stocks. The production of retroviral vectors from stable packaging cell lines using roller bottles or 10- to 40-layer cell factories is limited by a narrow harvest window, labor intensity, open-system operations, and the requirement for significant incubator space. To circumvent these shortcomings, we optimized the production of vector stocks in a disposable fixed-bed bioreactor using good manufacturing practice-grade packaging cell lines. High-titer vector stocks were harvested over 10 days, representing a much broader harvest window than the 3-day harvest afforded by cell factories. For PG13 and 293Vec packaging cells, the average vector titer and the vector stocks' yield in the bioreactor were higher by 3.2- to 7.3-fold, and 5.6- to 13.1-fold, respectively, than those obtained in cell factories. The vector production was 10.4 and 18.6 times more efficient than in cell factories for PG13 and 293Vec cells, respectively. Furthermore, the vectors produced from the fixed-bed bioreactors passed the release test assays for clinical applications. Therefore, a single vector lot derived from 293Vec is suitable to transduce up to 500 patients cell doses in the context of large clinical trials using chimeric antigen receptors or T-cell receptors. These findings demonstrate for the first time that a robust fixed-bed bioreactor process can be used to produce γ-retroviral vector stocks scalable up to the commercialization phase.

  20. Kinetics of lignite pyrolysis in fixed bed and entrained flow reactors. Technical report No. 17

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scaroni, A. W.; Walker, Jr., P. L.

    1979-08-01

    A laminar flow isothermal furnace has been constructed and used to study lignite pyrolysis in nitrogen at temperatures between 700/sup 0/ and 1000/sup 0/C. Particles of a Texas lignite (Darco Seam) between 41 and 201 microns in mean diameter, are found to flow down the furnace tube with velocities approximated by the summation of the gas plug-flow velocity and particle free-fall velocities. Some particle shrinkage and density changes occur during pyrolysis. Pyrolysis rate is particle size independent and increases with increase in temperature over the range of operating conditions. Ultimate yield of volatiles in the isothermal furnace, which is calculated from the linear relationship between weight loss and change in proximate volatile matter, is 66% of the original dry-ash-free coal and is particle size independent and relatively temperature independent. Ultimate yields of volatiles from fixed beds of pulverized coal are smaller than for dispersed particles of the same size. Proximate volatile matter for the lignite is, for example, 51% of the original dry-ash-free coal. Heating rates drop from about 10,000/sup 0/C/s in the isothermal furnace to about 20/sup 0/C/s in the proximate volatile matter test. Pyrolysis rates decrease and display particle size dependency in fixed beds. This implication of physical rate control is attributed to heat transfer limitations. It is proposed that pyrolysis rate and therefore residence time of volatiles in the fixed bed are important parameters affecting the preponderance of secondary char forming reactions.Also important is the total particle external surface area in the bed. Secondary char formation is considered responsible for yields of volatiles lower than the true volatile content of the lignite as measured in the isothermal furnace.

  1. Large-scale Clinical-grade Retroviral Vector Production in a Fixed-Bed Bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiuyan; Olszewska, Malgorzata; Qu, Jinrong; Wasielewska, Teresa; Bartido, Shirley; Hermetet, Gregory; Sadelain, Michel

    2015-01-01

    The successful genetic engineering of patient T cells with γ-retroviral vectors expressing chimeric antigen receptors or T-cell receptors for phase II clinical trials and beyond requires the large-scale manufacture of high-titer vector stocks. The production of retroviral vectors from stable packaging cell lines using roller bottles or 10- to 40-layer cell factories is limited by a narrow harvest window, labor intensity, open-system operations, and the requirement for significant incubator space. To circumvent these shortcomings, we optimized the production of vector stocks in a disposable fixed-bed bioreactor using good manufacturing practice–grade packaging cell lines. High-titer vector stocks were harvested over 10 days, representing a much broader harvest window than the 3-day harvest afforded by cell factories. For PG13 and 293Vec packaging cells, the average vector titer and the vector stocks’ yield in the bioreactor were higher by 3.2- to 7.3-fold, and 5.6- to 13.1-fold, respectively, than those obtained in cell factories. The vector production was 10.4 and 18.6 times more efficient than in cell factories for PG13 and 293Vec cells, respectively. Furthermore, the vectors produced from the fixed-bed bioreactors passed the release test assays for clinical applications. Therefore, a single vector lot derived from 293Vec is suitable to transduce up to 500 patients cell doses in the context of large clinical trials using chimeric antigen receptors or T-cell receptors. These findings demonstrate for the first time that a robust fixed-bed bioreactor process can be used to produce γ-retroviral vector stocks scalable up to the commercialization phase. PMID:25751502

  2. Modeling and Experimental Studies of Mercury Oxidation and Adsorption in a Fixed-Bed Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buitrago, Paula A.; Morrill, Mike; Lighty, JoAnn S.; Silcox, Geoffrey D.

    2009-06-15

    This report presents experimental and modeling mercury oxidation and adsorption data. Fixed-bed and single-particle models of mercury adsorption were developed. The experimental data were obtained with two reactors: a 300-W, methane-fired, tubular, quartz-lined reactor for studying homogeneous oxidation reactions and a fixed-bed reactor, also of quartz, for studying heterogeneous reactions. The latter was attached to the exit of the former to provide realistic combustion gases. The fixed-bed reactor contained one gram of coconut-shell carbon and remained at a temperature of 150°C. All methane, air, SO2, and halogen species were introduced through the burner to produce a radical pool representative of real combustion systems. A Tekran 2537A Analyzer coupled with a wet conditioning system provided speciated mercury concentrations. At 150°C and in the absence of HCl or HBr, the mercury uptake was about 20%. The addition of 50 ppm HCl caused complete capture of all elemental and oxidized mercury species. In the absence of halogens, SO2 increased the mercury adsorption efficiency to up to 30 percent. The extent of adsorption decreased with increasing SO2 concentration when halogens were present. Increasing the HCl concentration to 100 ppm lessened the effect of SO2. The fixed-bed model incorporates Langmuir adsorption kinetics and was developed to predict adsorption of elemental mercury and the effect of multiple flue gas components. This model neglects intraparticle diffusional resistances and is only applicable to pulverized carbon sorbents. It roughly describes experimental data from the literature. The current version includes the ability to account for competitive adsorption between mercury, SO2, and NO2. The single particle model simulates in-flight sorbent capture of elemental mercury. This model was developed to include Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms, rate equations, sorbent feed rate, and

  3. Modeling the microbial growth and temperature profile in a fixed-bed bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silveira, Christian L; Mazutti, Marcio A; Salau, Nina P G

    2014-10-01

    Aiming to scale up and apply control and optimization strategies, currently is required the development of accurate plant models to forecast the process nonlinear dynamics. In this work, a mathematical model to predict the growth of the Kluyveromyces marxianus and temperature profile in a fixed-bed bioreactor for solid-state fermentation using sugarcane bagasse as substrate was built up. A parameter estimation technique was performed to fit the mathematical model to the experimental data. The estimated parameters and the model fitness were evaluated with statistical analyses. The results have shown the estimated parameters significance, with 95 % confidence intervals, and the good quality of process model to reproduce the experimental data.

  4. Post-treatment of Fly Ash by Ozone in a Fixed Bed Reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kim Hougaard; Melia, M. C.; Jensen, Anker Degn

    2009-01-01

    The residual carbon in fly ash produced from pulverized coal combustion can adsorb the air-entraining admixtures (AEAs) added to enhance air entrainment in concrete. This behavior of the ash can be suppressed by exposing the fly ash to oxidizing species, which oxidizes the carbon surface and thus...... prevents the AEA to be adsorbed. In the present work, two fly ashes have been ozonated in a fixed bed reactor and the results showed that ozonation is a potential post-treatment method that can lower the AEA requirements of a fly ash up to 6 times. The kinetics of the carbon oxidation by ozone was found...

  5. Pyrolysis and gasification-melting of automobile shredder residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Seon Ah; Kim, Woo Hyun; Yun, Jin Han; Min, Tae Jin; Kwak, Yeon Ho; Seo, Yong Chil

    2013-10-01

    Automobile shredder residue (ASR) from end-of-life vehicles (ELVs) in Korea has commonly been disposed of in landfills. Due to the growing number of scrapped cars and the decreasing availability of landfill space, effective technology for reducing ASR is needed. However ASR is a complex mixture, and finding an appropriate treatment is not easy on account of the harmful compounds in ASR. Therefore, research continues to seek an effective treatment technology. However most studies have thus far been performed in the laboratory, whereas few commercial and pilot studies have been performed. This paper studies the pyrolysis and gasification-melting of ASR. The pyrolyis characteristics have been analyzed in a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA), a Lindberg furnace, and a fixed-bed pyrolyzer to study the fundamental characteristics of ASR thermal conversion. As a pilot study, shaft-type gasification-melting was performed. High-temperature gasification-melting was performed in a 5000 kg/day pilot system. The gas yield and syngas (H2 and CO) concentration increase when the reaction temperature increases. Gas with a high calorific value of more than 16,800 kJ/m3 was produced in the pyrolyzer. From the gasification-melting process, syngas of CO (30-40%) and H2(10-15%) was produced, with 5% CH4 produced as well. Slag generation was 17% of the initial ASR, with 5.8% metal content and 4% fly ash. The concentration of CO decreases, whereas the H2, CO2, and CH4 concentrations increase with an increase in the equivalence ratio (ER). The emission levels of dioxin and air pollution compounds except nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) were shown to satisfy Korean regulations.

  6. Research at the Centre for Black Liquor Gasification 2001-2003. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gebart, Rikard; Marklund, Magnus [Energitekniskt Centrum, ETC, Piteaa (Sweden); Westerlund, Lars; Johansson, Lars [Luleaa Univ. of Technology (Sweden). Div. of Energy Technology; Nordin, Anders; Warnqvist, Bjoern; Raaberg, Mattias; Larsson, Anders [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Energy Technology and Thermal Process Chemistry; Theliander, Hans; Richards, Tobias; Wintoko, Joko [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Forest Products and Chemical Engineering

    2004-05-01

    The Centre for Black Liquor Gasification was started as a collaboration between Luleaa University of Technology, ETC, Umeaa University and Chalmers Univ. of Technology early 2001. The collaboration resulted in a research program funded by the Swedish Energy Agency coupled to the planned black liquor gasification development plant at ETC. The project owner for the development plant is Chemrec AB who also owns key patents for a pressurised high temperature process, the so called Chemrec-process. The research program consists of four research projects and one coordination project. This report presents a summary of the results from the research program during 2001-2003. Two of the research projects are applied projects aimed at development of computer models for fluid flow, chemical reactions and heat transfer. The other two projects are more fundamental with focus on the chemical reactions during droplet gasification and smelt formation. The fundamental and the applied projects are strongly interlinked since the submodels developed in the fundamental projects will be implemented in the computer models and the results from preliminary computer simulations will help in identifying the most important phenomena that must be modelled. Significant progress has been achieved at the end of 2003, e.g. generic computer models for the hot part of the process and for the quench cooler has been developed. On the fundamental side, basic thermochemical data that is important for accurate prediction of the gasification process and smelt formation has been determined. A new better model for the swelling of black liquor under pressurised conditions that is expected to improve the prediction of the droplet transport has also been developed.

  7. ELECTRODEPOSITION OF COPPER IONS ON FIXED BED ELECTRODES: KINETIC AND HYDRODYNAMIC STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A.M. Ruotolo

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The kinetic and hydrodynamic behaviour of a fixed-bed electrochemical reactor was studied in terms of current efficiency (CE and energy efficiency (EE. In the kinetic experiments the effects of fixed bed thickness (L, current density (i and initial concentration of copper (C0 were studied. In the hydrodynamic experiments the permeability (k of the electrode and the coefficient for inertial forces (c were also studied as functions of the applied current density. At low current densities and bed thicknesses greater than 1.0 cm, negative CE and EE were observed as a consequence of the dissolution of the porous matrix. At high current densities low CE and EE were observed and a powdery deposit was formed on the surface of the particles. From the results of the kinetic study bed thickness and the range of current densities employed in the hydrodynamic experiments were chosen. In these experiments the electrodeposition process continued until the whole electrode had been clogged and no more electrolyte could pass through it. The relationship between pressure drop and flow rate was well described by the Forchheimer equation. It was observed that the reduction in porosity due to copper electrodeposition causes the flow rate to decrease because of the decrease in electrode permeability, but it had no influence on current efficiency.

  8. Dynamic modeling of fixed-bed adsorption of flue gas using a variable mass transfer model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jehun; Lee, Jae W. [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    This study introduces a dynamic mass transfer model for the fixed-bed adsorption of a flue gas. The derivation of the variable mass transfer coefficient is based on pore diffusion theory and it is a function of effective porosity, temperature, and pressure as well as the adsorbate composition. Adsorption experiments were done at four different pressures (1.8, 5, 10 and 20 bars) and three different temperatures (30, 50 and 70 .deg. C) with zeolite 13X as the adsorbent. To explain the equilibrium adsorption capacity, the Langmuir-Freundlich isotherm model was adopted, and the parameters of the isotherm equation were fitted to the experimental data for a wide range of pressures and temperatures. Then, dynamic simulations were performed using the system equations for material and energy balance with the equilibrium adsorption isotherm data. The optimal mass transfer and heat transfer coefficients were determined after iterative calculations. As a result, the dynamic variable mass transfer model can estimate the adsorption rate for a wide range of concentrations and precisely simulate the fixed-bed adsorption process of a flue gas mixture of carbon dioxide and nitrogen.

  9. Uptake of permanganate from aqueous environment by surfactant modified montmorillonite batch and fixed bed studies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N Mahadevaiah; B Vijayakumar; K Hemalatha; B S Jai Prakash

    2011-12-01

    Organo-clay was prepared by incorporating different amounts (in terms of CEC, ranging from 134–840 mg of quaternary ammonium cation (QACs) such as hexadecytrimethylammonium bromide ([C19H42N]Br) into the montmorillonite clay. Prepared organo-clays are characterized by CHN analyser and XRD to measure the amount of elemental content and interlayer spacing of surfactant modified clay. The batch experiments of sorption of permanganate from aqueous media by organo-clays was studied at different acidic strengths (pH 1–7). The experimental results show that the rate and amount of adsorption of permanganate was higher at lower pH compared to raw montmorillonite. Laboratory fixed bed experiments were conducted to evaluate the breakthrough time and nature of breakthrough curves. The shape of the breakthrough curves shows that the initial cationic surfactant loadings at 1.0 CEC of the clay is enough to enter the permanganate ions in to the interlamellar region of the surfactant modified smectile clays. These fixed bed studies were also applied to quantify the effect of bed-depth and breakthrough time during the uptake of permanganate. Calculation of thermodynamic parameters shows that the sorption of permanganate is spontaneous and follows the first order kinetics.

  10. Racemization of undesired enantiomers: Immobilization of mandelate racemase and application in a fixed bed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrzosek, Katarzyna; Rivera, Mariel A García; Bettenbrock, Katja; Seidel-Morgenstern, Andreas

    2016-03-01

    Production of optically pure products can be based on simple unselective synthesis of racemic mixtures combined with a subsequent separation of the enantiomers; however, this approach suffers from a 50% yield limitation which can be overcome by racemization of the undesired enantiomer and recycling. Application of biocatalyst for the racemization steps offers an attractive option for high-yield manufacturing of commercially valuable compounds. Our work focuses on exploiting the potential of racemization with immobilized mandelate racemase. Immobilization of crude mandelate racemase via covalent attachment was optimized for two supports: Eupergit(®) CM and CNBr-activated Sepharose 4 Fast Flow. To allow coupling of enzymatic reaction with enantioselective chromatography, a mobile phase composition compatible with both processes was used in enzymatic reactor. Kinetic parameters obtained analyzing experiments carried out in a batch reactor could be successfully used to predict fixed-bed reactor performance. The applicability of the immobilized enzyme and the determined kinetic parameters were validated in transient experiments recording responses to pulse injections of R-mandelic acid. The approach investigated can be used for futher design and optimization of high yield combined resolution processes. The characterized fixed-bed enzymatic reactor can be integrated e.g. with chromatographic single- or multicolumn steps in various configurations.

  11. Co-pyrolysis characteristics of sawdust and coal blend in TGA and a fixed bed reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, D.K.; Kim, S.D.; Lee, S.H.; Lee, J.G. [Korean Advanced Institute of Science & Technology, Taejon (Republic of Korea)

    2010-08-15

    Co-pyrolysis characteristics of sawdust and coal blend were determined in TGA and a fixed bed reactor. The yield and conversion of co-pyrolysis of sawdust and coal blend based on volatile matters are higher than those of the sum of sawdust and coal individually. From TGA experiments, weight loss rate of sawdust and coal blend increases above 400{sup o}C and additional weight loss was observed at 700{sup o}C. In a fixed bed at isothermal condition, the synergy to produce more volatiles appeared at 500-700{sup o}C, and the maximum synergy exhibits with a sawdust blending ratio of 0.6 at 600{sup o}C. The gas product yields remarkably increase at lower temperature range by reducing tar yield. The CO yield increases up to 26% at 400{sup o}C and CH{sub 4} yield increases up to 62% at 600{sup o}C compared with the calculated value from the additive model.

  12. Determination of the enzyme reaction rate in a differential fixed-bed reactor: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baruque Filho E.A.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The reaction rate of starch hydrolysis catalyzed by a glucoamylase covalently bound to chitin particles was measured in a Differential Fixed-Bed Reactor (DFBR. Under selected test conditions the initial reaction rate may represent biocatalyst activity. Some aspects which influence measurement of the initial reaction rate of an immobilized enzyme were studied: the amount of desorbed enzyme and its hydrolytic activity, the extent of pore blockage of the biocatalyst caused by substrate solution impurities and the internal and external diffusional mass transfer effects. The results showed that the enzyme glucoamylase was firmly bound to the support, as indicated by the very low amount of desorbed protein found in the recirculating liquid. Although this protein was very active, its contribution to the overall reaction rate was negligible. It was observed that the biocatalyst pores were susceptible to being blocked by the impurities of the starch solution. This latter effect was accumulative, increasing with the number of sequential experiments carried out. When the substrate solution was filtered before use, very reliable determinations of immobilized enzyme reaction rates could be performed in the DFBR. External and internal diffusional resistences usually play a significant role in fixed-bed reactors. However, for the experimental system studied, internal mass transfer effects were not significant, and it was possible to select an operational condition (recirculation flow rate value that minimized the external diffusional limitations.

  13. Production of Polygalacturonases by Aspergillus section Nigri Strains in a Fixed Bed Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Maciel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Polygalacturonases (PG are pectinolytic enzymes that have technological, functional and biological applications in food processing, fruit ripening and plant-fungus interactions, respectively. In the present, a microtitre plate methodology was used for rapid screening of 61 isolates of fungi from Aspergillus section Nigri to assess production of endo- and exo-PG. Studies of scale-up were carried out in a fixed bed reactor operated under different parameters using the best producer strain immobilised in orange peels. Four experiments were conducted under the following conditions: the immobilised cells without aeration; immobilised cells with aeration; immobilised cells with aeration and added pectin; and free cells with aeration. The fermentation was performed for 168 h with removal of sample every 24 h. Aspergillus niger strain URM 5162 showed the highest PG production. The results obtained indicated that the maximum endo- and exo-PG activities (1.18 U·mL−1 and 4.11 U·mL−1, respectively were obtained when the reactor was operating without aeration. The microtitre plate method is a simple way to screen fungal isolates for PG activity detection. The fixed bed reactor with orange peel support and using A. niger URM 5162 is a promising process for PG production at the industrial level.

  14. Production of polygalacturonases by Aspergillus section Nigri strains in a fixed bed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciel, Marília; Ottoni, Cristiane; Santos, Cledir; Lima, Nelson; Moreira, Keila; Souza-Motta, Cristina

    2013-01-28

    Polygalacturonases (PG) are pectinolytic enzymes that have technological, functional and biological applications in food processing, fruit ripening and plant-fungus interactions, respectively. In the present, a microtitre plate methodology was used for rapid screening of 61 isolates of fungi from Aspergillus section Nigri to assess production of endo- and exo-PG. Studies of scale-up were carried out in a fixed bed reactor operated under different parameters using the best producer strain immobilised in orange peels. Four experiments were conducted under the following conditions: the immobilised cells without aeration; immobilised cells with aeration; immobilised cells with aeration and added pectin; and free cells with aeration. The fermentation was performed for 168 h with removal of sample every 24 h. Aspergillus niger strain URM 5162 showed the highest PG production. The results obtained indicated that the maximum endo- and exo-PG activities (1.18 U · mL-1 and 4.11 U · mL-1, respectively) were obtained when the reactor was operating without aeration. The microtitre plate method is a simple way to screen fungal isolates for PG activity detection. The fixed bed reactor with orange peel support and using A. niger URM 5162 is a promising process for PG production at the industrial level.

  15. A Photocatalytic Active Adsorbent for Gas Cleaning in a Fixed Bed Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Pucher

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficient photocatalysis for gas cleaning purposes requires a large accessible, illuminated active surface in a simple and compact reactor. Conventional concepts use powdered catalysts, which are nontransparent. Hence a uniform distribution of light is difficult to be attained. Our approach is based on a coarse granular, UV-A light transparent, and highly porous adsorbent that can be used in a simple fixed bed reactor. A novel sol-gel process with rapid micro mixing is used to coat a porous silica substrate with TiO2-based nanoparticles. The resulting material posses a high adsorption capacity and a photocatalytic activity under UV-A illumination (PCAA = photocatalytic active adsorbent. Its photocatalytic performance was studied on the oxidation of trichloroethylene (TCE in a fixed bed reactor setup in continuous and discontinuous operation modes. Continuous operation resulted in a higher conversion rate due to less slip while discontinuous operation is superior for a total oxidation to CO2 due to a user-defined longer residence time.

  16. Research of Heating Rates Influence on Layer Coal Gasification of Krasnogorsky And Borodinsky Coal Deposit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jankovskiy Stanislav

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental research of heating rate influence on coal samples gasification process of Krasnogorsky and Borodinsky coal deposit ranks A and 2B was done to define optimal heating mode in high intensification of dispersal of inflammable gases conditions. Abundance ratio of carbon monoxide and nitrogen monoxide, water vapor, carbon dioxide at four values of heating rate within the range of 5 to 30 K/min. with further definition of optimal heating rate of coals was stated.

  17. Gasification Product Improvement Facility (GPIF). Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The gasifier selected for development under this contract is an innovative and patented hybrid technology which combines the best features of both fixed-bed and fluidized-bed types. PyGas{trademark}, meaning Pyrolysis Gasification, is well suited for integration into advanced power cycles such as IGCC. It is also well matched to hot gas clean-up technologies currently in development. Unlike other gasification technologies, PyGas can be designed into both large and small scale systems. It is expected that partial repowering with PyGas could be done at a cost of electricity of only 2.78 cents/kWh, more economical than natural gas repowering. It is extremely unfortunate that Government funding for such a noble cause is becoming reduced to the point where current contracts must be canceled. The Gasification Product Improvement Facility (GPIF) project was initiated to provide a test facility to support early commercialization of advanced fixed-bed coal gasification technology at a cost approaching $1,000 per kilowatt for electric power generation applications. The project was to include an innovative, advanced, air-blown, pressurized, fixed-bed, dry-bottom gasifier and a follow-on hot metal oxide gas desulfurization sub-system. To help defray the cost of testing materials, the facility was to be located at a nearby utility coal fired generating site. The patented PyGas{trademark} technology was selected via a competitive bidding process as the candidate which best fit overall DOE objectives. The paper describes the accomplishments to date.

  18. Evaluation of volcanic pumice stone as media in fixed bed sequence batch reactor for atrazine removal from aquatic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derakhshan, Zahra; Ehrampoush, Mohammad Hassan; Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Faramarzian, Mohammad; Mokhtari, Mehdi; Mazloomi, Seyed Mohammad

    2016-12-01

    Atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-1,3,5-triazine) is a component of S-triazine. Its characteristics make it a pollutant of ecosystems and a probable human carcinogen. The present study evaluated volcanic pumice stone as a suitable media for biological growth and biofilm development in a fixed-bed sequencing batch reactor (FBSBR) for atrazine removal from aquatic environments. The FBSBR was fed with synthetic wastewater containing sucrose and atrazine at four hydraulic retention times to assess biodegradation of atrazine by a microbial consortium for removal from aquatic environments. The maximum efficiency for atrazine and soluble chemical oxygen demand removal were 97.9% and 98.9%, respectively. The results of this research showed that the Stover-Kincannon model was a very good fit (R(2) > 99%) for loading atrazine onto the FBSBR. Increasing the initial concentration of atrazine increased the removal efficiency. There was no significant inhibition of the mixed aerobic microbial consortia by the atrazine. Atrazine degradation depended on its initial concentration in the wastewater and the amount of atrazine in the influent. Although this system shows good potential for atrazine removal from aqueous environments, that remaining in the effluent does not yet meet international standards. Further research is required to make this system effective for removal of atrazine from the environment.

  19. Gasification combined cycle power generation - process alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurkela, E.; Korhonen, M.

    1988-01-01

    Interest in Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plants has recently increased also in Finland. The IGCC systems offer the potential of superior efficiency and environmental performance over conventional pulverized coal or peat fired boilers. Potential applications are both large-scale electricity production from coal and medium-scale combined heat and electricity production. In the latter case, the gasification process should also be applicable to peat and wood. Several IGCC processes have been developed in USA and in Europe. These processes differ from each other in many respects. Nearest to commercialization are processes, which employ oxygen gasification and cold gas cleanup. The Cool Water plant, which was brought into operation in 1984 in USA, has demonstrated the feasibility of an IGCC system using Texaco entrained-bed gasifier. Several pressurized fluidized-bed and fixed-bed gasification processes have also reached a pilot or demonstration stage with a wide variety of coals from lignite to hard coal. Pressurized fluidized-bed gasification of peat (Rheinbraun-HTW-process) will also be demonstrated at the peat ammonia plant of Kemira Oy, which will be commissioned in 1988 in Oulu, Finland. Oxygen gasification and cold gas cleanup are, however, economically viable only in large-scale applications. Technology is being developed to simplify the IGCC system, in order to reduce its capital costs and increase its efficiency. Air gasification combined with ho gas cleanup seems to have a great potential of improving the competitiveness of the IGCC system.

  20. Empirical correlations for axial dispersion coefficient and Peclet number in fixed-bed columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastegar, Seyed Omid; Gu, Tingyue

    2017-03-24

    In this work, a new correlation for the axial dispersion coefficient was obtained using experimental data in the literature for axial dispersion in fixed-bed columns packed with particles. The Chung and Wen correlation, the De Ligny correlation are two popular empirical correlations. However, the former lacks the molecular diffusion term and the latter does not consider bed voidage. The new axial dispersion coefficient correlation in this work was based on additional experimental data in the literature by considering both molecular diffusion and bed voidage. It is more comprehensive and accurate. The Peclet number correlation from the new axial dispersion coefficient correlation on the average leads to 12% lower Peclet number values compared to the values from the Chung and Wen correlation, and in many cases much smaller than those from the De Ligny correlation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Kinetic Model of Fixed Bed Reactor with Immobilized Microorganisms for Removing Low-Concentration SO2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    On the basis of the analysis of the process of treating low concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO2) gas in a fixed bed reactor, a kinetic model is proposed for this process after taking into consideration the effects of internal diffusion, cell concentration, and production yield of microorganisms but ignoring the effect of external diffusion. The results obtained from the model simulation show that this model can indicate the influence of the process factors, Cin, η, μmax, Cx, A, h, Km, and Q, on the removal of SO2 and that the prediction of the results by this model is also satisfactory. This kinetic model can also provide some very important indications regarding the preparation of immobilized microorganisms, selection and domestication of proper species of microorganisms, as well as the design of bioreactors.

  2. Removal of hydrogen sulfide using palygorskite in a fixed bed adsorber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, T; Zhang, Q; Sekine, M; Imai, T; Yamamoto, K

    2012-01-01

    This work describes the use of a novel palygorskite, a type of magnesium aluminium silicate clay possessing a high specific surface area and pore surface activity, as a low cost and highly efficient adsorbent for hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) removal. Adsorption of H(2)S on palygorskite pretreated with acid or base was investigated in a fixed bed adsorber. The samples after base pretreatment had better dynamic adsorption performances than raw material and samples pretreated with acid. The H(2)S adsorption capacity decreased with an increase in inlet H(2)S concentration. This can be interpreted by the fact that H(2)S adsorption on the surface of palygorskite is chemisorption. The adsorption capacity increased from 25 to 50 °C, then decreased from 50 to 100 °C, which indicates that chemisorption took place and its better reaction temperature was around 50 °C.

  3. Computer-aided modeling framework – a generic modeling template for catalytic membrane fixed bed reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedorova, Marina; Sin, Gürkan; Gani, Rafiqul

    2013-01-01

    This work focuses on development of computer-aided modeling framework. The framework is a knowledge-based system that is built on a generic modeling language and structured based on workflows for different general modeling tasks. The overall objective of this work is to support the model developers...... and users to generate and test models systematically, efficiently and reliably. In this way, development of products and processes can be faster, cheaper and very efficient. In this contribution, as part of the framework a generic modeling template for the systematic derivation of problem specific catalytic...... membrane fixed bed models is developed. The application of the modeling template is highlighted with a case study related to the modeling of a catalytic membrane reactor coupling dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene with hydrogenation of nitrobenzene....

  4. Laccase-mediated Remazol Brilliant Blue R decolorization in a fixed-bed bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmieri, Gianna; Giardina, Paola; Sannia, Giovanni

    2005-01-01

    A crude laccase mixture preparation from Pleurotus ostreatus cultures supplemented with copper and ferulic acid was used to decolorize the anthraquinonic dye Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR). Performance of this enzymatic system was tested, and a maximum of 70% decolorization was achievable under optimal conditions. The crude preparation was immobilized by entrapment in copper alginate beads attaining 65% yield of laccase activity. Stability of the immobilized laccases was remarkably increased in comparison with that of the free enzyme preparation. Efficiency of the immobilized system was evaluated during stepwise dye additions in batch operations. Under the best conditions, 70% RBBR decolorization was achieved even after 20 cycles, although decolorization time exponentially increased after the 10th cycle. Different fixed-bed bioreactors were prepared and analyzed in continuous decolorization processes. The best performance was obtained by decreasing the amount of enzyme loaded and by improving laccase retention using chitosan-coated alginate beads.

  5. Influence of temperature and particle size on the fixed bed pyrolysis of orange peel residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguiar, L. [Departamento de Mecanica, Universidad de Pinar del Rio, Cuba. Calle Marti 270, final, Pinar del Rio (Cuba); Marquez-Montesinos, F. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidad de Pinar del Rio, Cuba. Calle Marti 270, final, Pinar del Rio (Cuba); Gonzalo, A.; Sanchez, J.L.; Arauzo, J. [Thermochemical Processes Group (GPT), Aragon Institute for Engineering Research (I3A), University of Zaragoza, Maria de Luna 3, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2008-09-15

    Orange peel is a residue from the production of juice. Its energetic valorisation could be interesting in areas where a different use, such as animal feed, is not possible. In order to investigate the viability of energy recovery, the pyrolysis of orange peel residues was studied in a fixed bed reactor, as an initial assessment of this process. The influence of pyrolysis temperature (300-600 C) and particle size (d{sub p}<300{mu}m and d{sub p}>800{mu}m) on product distribution, gas composition and char heating value has been investigated using a factorial design of experiments. Gas, char and water are the main products obtained; tar is only about 6 wt.% of the initial residue. Temperature was found to be the parameter which exerts a more important influence on the results than particle size. (author)

  6. Utilization of activated carbon for the removal of basic dyes in fixed-bed microcolumn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Qada, Emad N. [Department of Chemical Engineering Technology, Yanbu Industrial College, Yanbu, P.O. Box 30346 (Saudi Arabia); Abdelghany, Emad A.; Magdy, Yehia H. [Chemical Eng. Dept., Faculty of Eng., Minia University, Minia, P.O. Box 61519 (Egypt)

    2013-07-01

    Liquid-phase adsorption processes were performed using basic dyes (methylene blue (MB), basic red (BR) and basic yellow (BY)) in an activated carbon microcolumn. The effects of initial dye concentration, column diameter and particle size were investigated. The performance of the fixed-bed adsorber was evaluated through the concept of breakthrough curves. The Thomas model was employed to predict the breakthrough curves and compared with the experimental breakthrough curves. Furthermore, the Empty Bed Residence Time (EBRT) has been applied to the data to determine the minimum residence time and the minimum adsorbent exhaustion rate. Column studies showed effective use of adsorbents. The results reflected the significance of the experimental parameters on the efficient removal of basic dyes from aqueous solution. The Thomas model predicts the experimental data well.

  7. Optimal Fixed Bed Reactor Network Configuration for the Efficient Recycling of CO2 into Methanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Elkamel

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available An optimal design strategy of a network of fixed bed reactors for Methanol Production (MP is proposed in this study. Both methanol production and profit spanning a production period of eight years have been set as objective functions to find the optimal production network. The conservation of mass and energy laws on a heterogeneous model of a single industrial methanol reactor was first developed. The model was solved numerically and was validated with industrial plant data. Different reactor network arrangements were then simulated in order to find an optimal superstructure. It was found that a structure of four reactors (two in series in parallel with another two in series provide maximum production rate. The application of the more realistic objective function of profit showed that a configuration of two parallel reactors is the best configuration. This optimal structure produces 92 tons/day more methanol than a single reactor.

  8. Conceptual design report -- Gasification Product Improvement Facility (GPIF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadowski, R.S.; Skinner, W.H.; House, L.S.; Duck, R.R. [CRS Sirrine Engineers, Inc., Greenville, SC (United States); Lisauskas, R.A.; Dixit, V.J. [Riley Stoker Corp., Worcester, MA (United States); Morgan, M.E.; Johnson, S.A. [PSI Technology Co., Andover, MA (United States). PowerServe Div.; Boni, A.A. [PSI-Environmental Instruments Corp., Andover, MA (United States)

    1994-09-01

    The problems heretofore with coal gasification and IGCC concepts have been their high cost and historical poor performance of fixed-bed gasifiers, particularly on caking coals. The Gasification Product Improvement Facility (GPIF) project is being developed to solve these problems through the development of a novel coal gasification invention which incorporates pyrolysis (carbonization) with gasification (fixed-bed). It employs a pyrolyzer (carbonizer) to avoid sticky coal agglomeration caused in the conventional process of gradually heating coal through the 400 F to 900 F range. In so doing, the coal is rapidly heated sufficiently such that the coal tar exists in gaseous form rather than as a liquid. Gaseous tars are then thermally cracked prior to the completion of the gasification process. During the subsequent endothermic gasification reactions, volatilized alkali can become chemically bound to aluminosilicates in (or added to) the ash. To reduce NH{sub 3} and HCN from fuel born nitrogen, steam injection is minimized, and residual nitrogen compounds are partially chemically reduced in the cracking stage in the upper gasifier region. Assuming testing confirms successful deployment of all these integrated processes, future IGCC applications will be much simplified, require significantly less mechanical components, and will likely achieve the $1,000/kWe commercialized system cost goal of the GPIF project. This report describes the process and its operation, design of the plant and equipment, site requirements, and the cost and schedule. 23 refs., 45 figs., 23 tabs.

  9. Wastewater treatment with submerged fixed bed biofilm reactor systems--design rules, operating experiences and ongoing developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlegel, S; Koeser, H

    2007-01-01

    Wastewater treatment systems using bio-films that grow attached to a support media are an alternative to the widely used suspended growth activated sludge process. Different fixed growth biofilm reactors are commercially used for the treatment of municipal as well as industrial wastewater. In this paper a fairly new fixed growth biofilm system, the submerged fixed bed biofilm reactor (SFBBR), is discussed. SFBBRs are based on aerated submerged fixed open structured plastic media for the support of the biofilm. They are generally operated without sludge recirculation in order to avoid clogging of the support media and problems with the control of the biofilm. Reactor and process design considerations for these reactors are reviewed. Measures to ensure the development and maintenance of an active biofilm are examined. SFBBRs have been applied successfully to small wastewater treatment plants where complete nitrification but no high degree of denitrification is necessary. For the pre-treatment of industrial wastewater the use of SFBBRs is advantageous, especially in cases of wastewater with high organic loading or high content of compounds with low biodegradability. Performance data from exemplary commercial plants are given. Ongoing research and development efforts aim at achieving a high simultaneous total nitrogen (TN) removal of aerated SFBBRs and at improving the efficiency of TN removal in anoxic SFBBRs.

  10. On the effect of cross sectional shape on incipient motion and deposition of sediments in fixed bed channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safari Mir-Jafar-Sadegh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The condition of incipient motion and deposition are of the essential issues for the study of sediment transport. This phenomenon is of great importance to hydraulic engineers for designing sewers, drainage, as well as other rigid boundary channels. This is a study carried out with the objectives of describing the effect of cross-sectional shape on incipient motion and deposition of particles in rigid boundary channels. In this research work, the experimental data given by Loveless (1992 and Mohammadi (2005 are used. On the basis of the critical velocity approach, a new incipient motion equation for a V-shaped bottom channel and incipient deposition of sediment particles equations for rigid boundary channels having circular, rectangular, and U-shaped cross sections are obtained. New equations were compared to the other incipient motion equations. The result shows that the cross-sectional shape is an important factor for defining the minimum velocity for no-deposit particles. This study also distinguishes incipient motion of particles from incipient deposition for particles. The results may be useful for designing fixed bed channels with a limited deposition condition.

  11. Catalytic stepwise nitrate hydrogenation in batch-recycle fixed-bed reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintar, Albin; Batista, Jurka

    2007-10-22

    Pd (1.0 wt.%)-Cu (0.3 wt.%) bimetallic and Pd (1.0 wt.%) monometallic catalysts were synthesized by means of incipient-wetness impregnation technique and deposited on alumina spheres (dp=1.7 mm). The prepared catalysts were tested at T=298 K and p(H2)=1.0 bar in the integrated process of catalytic liquid-phase hydrogenation of aqueous nitrate solutions, in which the denitration step was carried out consecutively in separate, single-flow fixed-bed reactor units operating in a batch-recycle mode. In the first reactor packed with a Pd-Cu bimetallic catalyst, nitrate ions were transformed to nitrites at pH 12.5 with a selectivity as high as 93%; the rest was found in the form of ammonium ions. Liquid-phase nitrite hydrogenation to nitrogen in the second reactor unit packed with a Pd monometallic catalyst was conducted at low pH values of 3.7 and 4.5, respectively. Although these values are well below the pHpzc of examined catalyst (6.1), which assured that the nitrite reduction was carried out over a positively charged catalyst surface, up to 15% (23% in the presence of 5.0 g/l NaCl in the solution) of initial nitrite content was converted to undesired ammonium ions. Since a negligible amount of these species (below 0.5mg/l) was produced at identical operating conditions over a powdered Pd/gamma-Al2O3 catalyst, it is believed that the enhanced production of ammonium ions observed in the second fixed-bed reactor is due to the build-up of pH gradients in liquid-filled pores of spherical catalyst particles. Both Pd-Cu bimetallic and Pd monometallic catalysts were chemically resistant in the investigated range of pH values.

  12. Preparation and Performance of a Fixed Bed Catalyst for the Oxidation of Sodium Mercaptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heming Wang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The activated-carbon supported cobalt pthalocyanine as a fixed bed catalyst (CoPc/C was prepared by impregnation method and its performance on the oxidation of sodium mercaptides in light oil sweetening was investigated. The FTIR, XRD, and SEM analysis indicated that the active component dispersed well on the carrier and the results of the TG analysis showed that CoPc/C has good thermostability. It was tested that the prepared catalyst has a high catalytic activity towards sodium mercaptides. The removal rate of n-C4H9SNa was up to 100 % and for t-C4H9SNa, was 87.5% at a reaction time of 30 min. With the reaction temperature raised from 20 °C to 60 °C at intervals of ten degrees, the oxidation rate increased obviously, especially in the first ten minutes. A kinetic model mainly related to the transfer process was supposed. The catalyst CoPc/C had a good anti-loss performance of the active component both in water and alkali liquor when used. © 2014 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedSubmitted: 20th June 2013; Revised: 1st March 2014; Accepted: 22nd March 2014[How to Cite: Heming, W., Xianshang, L., Lijun, Z., Yulu, Z., Daohong, X., (2014. Preparation and Performance of a Fixed Bed Catalyst for the Oxidation of Sodium Mercaptides. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 9 (2: 87-92.(doi:10.9767/bcrec.9.2.5113.87-92][Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.9.2.5113.87-92] 

  13. Modeling-based optimization of a fixed-bed industrial reactor for oxidative dehydrogenation of propane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ali Darvishi; Razieh Davand; Farhad Khorasheh; Moslem Fattahi

    2016-01-01

    An industrial scale propylene production via oxidative dehydrogenation of propane (ODHP) in multi-tubular re-actors was modeled. Multi-tubular fixed-bed reactor used for ODHP process, employing 10000 of smal diameter tubes immersed in a shel through a proper coolant flows. Herein, a theory-based pseudo-homogeneous model to describe the operation of a fixed bed reactor for the ODHP to correspondence olefin over V2O5/γ-Al2O3 catalyst was presented. Steady state one dimensional model has been developed to identify the operation parameters and to describe the propane and oxygen conversions, gas process and coolant temperatures, as well as other pa-rameters affecting the reactor performance such as pressure. Furthermore, the applied model showed that a double-bed multitubular reactor with intermediate air injection scheme was superior to a single-bed design due to the increasing of propylene selectivity while operating under lower oxygen partial pressures resulting in propane conversion of about 37.3%. The optimized length of the reactor needed to reach 100%conversion of the oxygen was theoretically determined. For the single-bed reactor the optimized length of 11.96 m including 0.5 m of inert section at the entrance region and for the double-bed reactor design the optimized lengths of 5.72 m for the first and 7.32 m for the second reactor were calculated. Ultimately, the use of a distributed oxygen feed with limited number of injection points indicated a significant improvement on the reactor performance in terms of propane conversion and propylene selectivity. Besides, this concept could overcome the reactor run-away temperature problem and enabled operations at the wider range of conditions to obtain enhanced propyl-ene production in an industrial scale reactor.

  14. Numerical modelling of biomass combustion: Solid conversion processes in a fixed bed furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Md. Rezwanul; Naser, Jamal

    2017-06-01

    Increasing demand for energy and rising concerns over global warming has urged the use of renewable energy sources to carry a sustainable development of the world. Bio mass is a renewable energy which has become an important fuel to produce thermal energy or electricity. It is an eco-friendly source of energy as it reduces carbon dioxide emissions. Combustion of solid biomass is a complex phenomenon due to its large varieties and physical structures. Among various systems, fixed bed combustion is the most commonly used technique for thermal conversion of solid biomass. But inadequate knowledge on complex solid conversion processes has limited the development of such combustion system. Numerical modelling of this combustion system has some advantages over experimental analysis. Many important system parameters (e.g. temperature, density, solid fraction) can be estimated inside the entire domain under different working conditions. In this work, a complete numerical model is used for solid conversion processes of biomass combustion in a fixed bed furnace. The combustion system is divided in to solid and gas phase. This model includes several sub models to characterize the solid phase of the combustion with several variables. User defined subroutines are used to introduce solid phase variables in commercial CFD code. Gas phase of combustion is resolved using built-in module of CFD code. Heat transfer model is modified to predict the temperature of solid and gas phases with special radiation heat transfer solution for considering the high absorptivity of the medium. Considering all solid conversion processes the solid phase variables are evaluated. Results obtained are discussed with reference from an experimental burner.

  15. Comparison of the Efficiency of Moving- and Fixed-bed Bioreactors for Treatment of High-strength Synthetic Wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    Rezaee, A.; S Jorfi; Cheshmeh Soltani, R. D

    2012-01-01

    A lab-scale Plexiglas cubic container as a pre-aeration reactor with total volume of 10 L, and two integrated bioreactors including a moving-bed bioreactor (MBBR) and a fixed-bed bioreactor with total volume of 30 L separately were used for experimental study. The main purpose was to compare the performance of moving-bed and fixed-bed reactors for degradation of high organic loading in synthetic wastewater. Varying organic loadings of 0.5 to 9 kg COD m3 d–1 were applied. Generally, the tot...

  16. Cultivation and Differentiation of Encapsulated hMSC-TERT in a Disposable Small-Scale Syringe-Like Fixed Bed Reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, Christian; Pohl, Sebastian; Pörtner, Ralf

    2007-01-01

    The use of commercially available plastic syringes is introduced as disposable small-scale fixed bed bioreactors for the cultivation of implantable therapeutic cell systems on the basis of an alginate-encapsulated human mesenchymal stem cell line. The system introduced is fitted with a noninvasiv...... the fixed bed reactor an interesting option for GMP processes. The cultivation of the encapsulated cells in the fixed bed bioreactor system offered vitalities and adipogenic differentiation similar to well-mixed suspension cultures....

  17. Coal Chemical Gasification Process Schedule Control%煤气化工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李振

    2015-01-01

    介绍了Lurgi炉固定床加压气化、Texaco水煤浆加压气化、Shell 煤气化工艺和 GSP 粉煤气化工艺4种煤气化工艺,阐述了Shell 煤气化工艺和 GSP 粉煤气化工艺的工艺流程,并对其进行了技术分析。%Introduces the Lurgi fixed bed gasification furnace,Texaco coal-water slurry gasification,Shell coal gasifica-tion Process,GSP coal gasification process four kinds of coal gasification process,and which elaborates technical character-istics and process of coal gasification process control of Shell coal gasification process and GSP process.

  18. Gasification of Woody Biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Jianjun; Saayman, Jean; Grace, John R; Ellis, Naoko

    2015-01-01

    Interest in biomass to produce heat, power, liquid fuels, hydrogen, and value-added chemicals with reduced greenhouse gas emissions is increasing worldwide. Gasification is becoming a promising technology for biomass utilization with a positive environmental impact. This review focuses specifically on woody biomass gasification and recent advances in the field. The physical properties, chemical structure, and composition of biomass greatly affect gasification performance, pretreatment, and handling. Primary and secondary catalysts are of key importance to improve the conversion and cracking of tars, and lime-enhanced gasification advantageously combines CO2 capture with gasification. These topics are covered here, including the reaction mechanisms and biomass characterization. Experimental research and industrial experience are investigated to elucidate concepts, processes, and characteristics of woody biomass gasification and to identify challenges.

  19. EPA/AEERL (Environmental Protection Agency/Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory) source testing program for coal-gasification technologies (Kosovo test site)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bombaugh, K.J.; Rhodes, W.J.

    1985-01-01

    The paper summarizes EPA's environmental assessment testing program for synthetic fuels technology, with emphasis on the Kosovo source test and evaluation program. The Kosovo program included: (a) field tests to characterize process waste streams that would be input to control technologies in U.S. synfuels plants, (b) characterization of fugitive emissions, and (c) characterization of components in the ambient air and correlation of those components with source-characterization data. Results from the Kosovo program have been (and are being ) used: (a) to evaluate and select pollution control technologies for U.S. coal-gasification plants using pressurized fixed-bed gasification technology, (b) as input to health studies, (c) to develop worker health and safety programs for U.S. synfuels plants, (d) to acquire environmental permits that address regulated and nonregulated pollutants, (e) to develop supplemental environmental monitoring plans required by the U.S. Synthetic Fuels Corporation, and (f) to develop and validate ambient air-monitoring methodology.

  20. Clean and economical gasification of combined coal and biomass pelletized fuels by industries worldwide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlo Amorino; Alberto Pettinau; Rolf E. Maurer; Evan Hughes; Filippo Larceri; Francesco Repetto; Phil Wellhausen; Peter Lange [Sotacarbo S.p.A. (Italy)

    2007-07-01

    Industrial clean coal utilization is enhanced when gasifying low cost high ash coals combined with locally available biomass and/or biowaste from agricultural and/or industrial operations. The cost of the biowaste is near zero if there is a cost associated with the removal of the biowaste from the industrial site. The clean gas and liquids generated for industrial usage are in the range of 0.12 to 0.15 euro/nM{sup 3} displacing much costlier petroleum or gaseous fuels. Sotacarbo S.P.A. and Ansaldo Ricerche S.r.l. with collaboration of Hamilton Maurer International, Inc. (HMI) have designed, installed and commissioned an advanced single stage fixed-bed gasifier in Sotacarbo's R&D facility in April 2007. Clean coal utilization is enhanced when coal is combined with a biomass or biowaste feedstock. Ansaldo Ricerche and HMI, Inc. designed a single-stage fixed bed biomass gasifier, installed and successfully commissioned in 2001 at ARI's research facility in Genova, Italy. This presentation highlights the simplicity and high efficiency (82 to 87%) of the coal and coal/biomass gasification process. CPM both in the US and Europe has extensive experience with coal fuels preparation (pelletization). The economics and ability to combine coals with biomass to generate an economical and viable gasification fuel pellets are reviewed. This paper presents the ability to utilize coal cleanly with biomass (Bio-coal) to lower fuel costs while enhancing the availability and reliability of industrial energy and reducing CO{sub 2} emissions provides a quantum jump forward for both industries and the environment. 21 refs., 4 figs.

  1. Flow of power-law fluids in fixed beds of cylinders or spheres

    KAUST Repository

    Singh, John P.

    2012-10-29

    An ensemble average of the equations of motion for a Newtonian fluid over particle configurations in a dilute fixed bed of spheres or cylinders yields Brinkman\\'s equations of motion, where the disturbance velocity produced by a test particle is influenced by the Newtonian fluid stress and a body force representing the linear drag on the surrounding particles. We consider a similar analysis for a power-law fluid where the stress τ is related to the rate of strain e by τ = 2m en-1e, where m and n are constants. In this case, the ensemble-averaged momentum equation includes a body force resulting from the nonlinear drag exerted on the surrounding particles, a power-law stress associated with the disturbance velocity of the test particle, and a stress term that is linear with respect to the test particle\\'s disturbance velocity. The latter term results from the interaction of the test particle\\'s velocity disturbance with the random straining motions produced by the neighbouring particles and is important only in shear-thickening fluids where the velocity disturbances of the particles are long-ranged. The solutions to these equations using scaling analyses for dilute beds and numerical simulations using the finite element method are presented. We show that the drag force acting on a particle in a fixed bed can be written as a function of a particle-concentration-dependent length scale at which the fluid velocity disturbance produced by a particle is modified by hydrodynamic interactions with its neighbours. This is also true of the drag on a particle in a periodic array where the length scale is the lattice spacing. The effects of particle interactions on the drag in dilute arrays (periodic or random) of cylinders and spheres in shear-thickening fluids is dramatic, where it arrests the algebraic growth of the disturbance velocity with radial position when n≥ 1 for cylinders and n≥ 2 for spheres. For concentrated random arrays of particles, we adopt an

  2. Gasification performance of switchgrass pretreated with torrefaction and densification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; Various

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate gasification performance of four switchgrass pretreatments (torrefaction at 230 and 270 °C, densification, and combined torrefaction and densification) and three gasification temperatures (700, 800 and 900 °C). Gasification was performed in a fixed-bed externally heated reactor with air as an oxidizing agent. Switchgrass pretreatment and gasification temperature had significant effects on gasification performance such as gas yields, syngas lower heating value (LHV), and carbon conversion and cold gas efficiencies. With an increase in the gasification temperature, yields of H2 and CO, syngas LHV, and gasifier efficiencies increased whereas CH4, CO2 and N2 yields decreased. Among all switchgrass pretreatments, gasification performance of switchgrass with combined torrefaction and densification was the best followed by that of densified, raw and torrefied switchgrass. Gasification of combined torrefied and densified switchgrass resulted in the highest yields of H2 (0.03 kg/kg biomass) and CO (0.72 kg/kg biomass), highest syngas LHV (5.08 MJ m-3), CCE (92.53%), and CGE (68.40%) at the gasification temperature of 900 °C.

  3. CFD analysis of hot spot formation through a fixed bed reactor of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Aligolzadeh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the interesting methods for conversion of synthesis gas to heavy hydrocarbons is Fischer–Tropsch process. The process has some bottlenecks, such as hot spot formation and low degree of conversion. In this work, computational fluid dynamics technique was used to simulate conversion of synthetic gas and product distribution. Also, hot spot formation in the catalytic fixed-bed reactor was investigated in several runs. Simulation results indicated that hot spot formation occurred more likely in the early and middle part of reactor due to high reaction rates. Based on the simulation results, the temperature of hot spots increased with increase in the inlet temperature as well as pressure. Among the many CFD runs conducted, it is found that the optimal temperature and pressure for Fischer–Tropsch synthesis are 565 K and 20 bar, respectively. As it seems that the reactor shall work very well under optimal conditions, the reaction rates and catalyst duration would simultaneously be maximum .

  4. Co-pyrolysis of rice straw and polypropylene using fixed-bed pyrolyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izzatie, N. I.; Basha, M. H.; Uemura, Y.; Mazlan, M. A.; Hashim, M. S. M.; Amin, N. A. M.; Hamid, M. F.

    2016-11-01

    The present work encompasses the impact of temperature (450, 500, 550, 600 °C) on the properties of pyrolysis oil and on other product yield for the co-pyrolysis of Polypropylene (PP) plastics and rice straw. Co-pyrolysis of PP plastic and rice straw were conducted in a fixed-bed drop type pyrolyzer under an inert condition to attain maximum oil yield. Physically, the pyrolysis oil is dark-brown in colour with free flowing and has a strong acrid smell. Copyrolysis between these typically obtained in maximum pyrolysis oil yields up to 69% by ratio 1:1 at a maximum temperature of 550 °C. From the maximum yield of pyrolysis oil, characterization of pyrolysis product and effect of biomass type of the composition were evaluated. Pyrolysis oil contains a high water content of 66.137 wt.%. Furfural, 2- methylnaphthalene, tetrahydrofuran (THF), toluene and acetaldehyde were the major organic compounds found in pyrolysis oil of rice straw mixed with PP. Bio-char collected from co-pyrolysis of rice straw mixed with PP plastic has high calorific value of 21.190 kJ/g and also carbon content with 59.02 wt.% and could contribute to high heating value. The non-condensable gases consist of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and methane as the major gas components.

  5. Production of bio-oil from fixed bed pyrolysis of bagasse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Asadullah; M.A. Rahman; M.M. Ali; M.S. Rahman; M.A. Motin; M.B. Sultan; M.R. Alam [University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi (Bangladesh). Department of Applied Chemistry and Chemical Technology

    2007-11-15

    The objective of this work was to produce renewable liquid fuel (bio-oil) from locally produced bagasse by pyrolysis in a batch feeding and fixed bed reactor. The experiments were performed at different temperatures ranging from 300 to 600{sup o}C. The bio-oil was collected from two condensers of different temperatures and defined as oil-1 and oil-2. The maximum total yield of bio-oil was found to be 66.0 wt% based on bagasse. The carbon based non-condensable gases were CO, CO{sub 2}, methane, ethane, ethene, propane and propene. The density and viscosity of oil-1 were found to be 1130 kg/m{sup 3} and 19.32 centipoise and that were 1050 kg/m{sup 3} and 4.25 centipoise for oil-2, respectively. The higher heating values (HHV) of them were 17.25 and 19.91 MJ/kg, respectively. The pH of the bio-oils was found to be around 3.5 and 4.5 for oil-1 and oil-2, respectively. The water, solid and ash contents of oil-1 and oil-2 were determined and found to be around 15, 0.02 and 0.03 wt% and 11, 0.01 and 0.02 wt%, respectively based on bagasse. 22 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. Fixed-bed pyrolysis and hydropyrolysis of sunflower bagasse: product yields and compositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Putun, A.E.; Kockar, O.M.; Yorgun, S.; Gercel, H.F.; Andresen, J.; Snape, C.E.; Putun, E. [Anadolu University, Eskisehir (Turkey). Dept. of Chemistry

    1996-01-01

    Pyrolysis and hydropyrolysis experiments at different temperatures, heating rates and pressures have been conducted on a sample of sunflower pressed bagasse to investigate the effect of particle size, sweep gas velocity, and hydrogen pressure on the product yields and characteristics. In contrast to coal and oil shales, char and oil yields from sunflower pressed bagasse were found to be largely independent of particle size and sweep gas velocity in a Heinze retort with the oil yield of {approx} 40% w/w being the same as that from a well-swept fixed-bed reactor in which a much smaller sample size was used. The use of high hydrogen pressure ({gt} 50 bar) increased the oil yields by up to {approx} 10% w/w but these increases are much greater when expressed on a carbon basis due to the reduced oxygen contents of the oils. Even at low pressure, it has been estimated that {approx} 40% of the carbon aromatized during pyrolysis. 25 refs., 12 figs., 5 tabs.

  7. Study of coal pyrolysis under pressure in fixed-bed reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yunming, Y.; Li Yonghua; Sha Xingzhong; Ren Deqing

    1987-06-01

    The influence of pressure and temperature on coal pyrolysis was studied using a small fixed-bed reactor. It is shown that in the pressure range 0.1-6.0 MPa, the yields of CH/sub 4/ and C/sub 2/H/sub 6/ and the coal conversion under inert atmosphere increased with pressure, on the contrary, the yield of C/sub 2/H/sub 4/ decreased. The rate of CH/sub 4/ formation of Yuxian coal gave three peaks during heating. The difference between effect of N/sub 2/ atmosphere and that of H/sub 2/ atmosphere was small at low pressure, but it became larger the higher the pressure. Raising the final temperature of pyrolysis from 600 C to 900 C, increased coal conversion, total gas yields, CH/sub 4/, H/sub 2/ and CO yields correspondingly, but yields of C/sub 2/H/sub 6/, C/sub 2/H/sub 4/, CO/sub 2/ and gas composition almost kept constant.

  8. Effects of Pulse Ultrasound on Adsorption of Geniposide on Resin 1300 in a Fixed Bed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆向红; 徐之超; 计建炳

    2011-01-01

    The effects of pulse ultrasound with different pulse parameters on the breakthrough curves of Geniposide on Resin 1300 were studied. The mass transfer model describing the adsorption process was constructed. Adsorption capability and the overall mass-transfer coefficient were obtained by fitting the constructed mass-transfer model and the experimental data. The effects of pulse ultrasound on adsorption of Geniposide on Resin1300 in a fixed bed were studied and compared. Amount of Geniposide adsorbed on Resin 1300 in the presence of ultrasound is lower than that in the absence of ultrasound, but the mass-transfer rate with ultrasonic irradiation is higher than that without ultrasound. Furthermore, mass transfer rate is enhanced by pulse modulation. In the conditions studied, the adsorption equilibrium constant decreases with increasing ultrasonic power, while the overall mass-transfer co-efficient increases. With increasing pulse duty ratio, adsorption equilibrium constant decreases initially, reaches a minimum when pulse duty ratio is 0.5, and then increases. On the contrary, the overall mass-transfer coefficient in-creases initially and reaches a maximum when pulse ratio is 0.5, and then decreases. Effects of pulse period on ad-sorption equilibrium and mass transfer rate reached the peak at pulse period of 28.6 ms.

  9. Investigation of fixed-bed combustion and characterisation of solid fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallet, C.; Rouan, J.-P.; Richard, J.-R. [CNRS, Orleans (France)

    1998-12-31

    Combustion experiments were performed in a laboratory scale pressurized fixed-bed reactor. Two different coal chars, a fir charcoal and different blends of char and charcoal were burnt. The influence of blending, total pressure, oxygen content in the oxidative gases and bed temperature on reaction time and pollutant emissions (NO{sub x} = NO + NO{sub 2} and SO{sub 2}) were studied. Experimental plans and multivariable analysis were used to optimize the number of experiments to be performed. Increase of pressure decreased NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} emissions and slightly affected the reaction times. Adding charcoal to char had only a small effect on reaction time but helped to decrease the NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} emissions. However no synergetic effect was detected. The emissions (expressed as conversion rates of N or S-fuel to NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2}) were directly proportional to the amount of charcoal in the blend. 9 refs., 19 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Fixed bed pyrolysis of biomass solid waste for bio-oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Mohammad Nurul; Ali, Mohamed Hairol Md; Haziq, Miftah

    2017-08-01

    Biomass solid waste in the form of rice husk particle is pyrolyzed in a fixed bed stainless steel pyrolysis reactor of 50 mm diameter and 50 cm length. The biomass solid feedstock is prepared prior to pyrolysis. The reactor bed is heated by means of a cylindrical heater of biomass source. A temperature of 500°C is maintained with an apperent vapor residence time of 3-5 sec. The products obtained are liquid bio-oil, solid char and gases. The liquid product yield is found to be 30% by weight of solid biomass feedstock while the solid product yield is found to be 35% by weight of solid biomass feedtock, the rest is gas. The bio-oil is a single-phase brownish color liquid of acrid smell. The heating value of the oil is determined to be 25 MJ/kg. The density and pH value are found to be 1.125 kg/m3 and 3.78 respectively.

  11. Synthesis of biodiesel from waste cooking oil using immobilized lipase in fixed bed reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yingming [School of Environment and Urban Construction, Wuhan University of Science and Engineering, Wuhan 430073 (China)]|[Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Science, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Xiao, Bo [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Chang, Jie; Fu, Yan [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); Lv, Pengmei; Wang, Xuewei [Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Science, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2009-03-15

    Waste cooking oil (WCO) is the residue from the kitchen, restaurants, food factories and even human and animal waste which not only harm people's health but also causes environmental pollution. The production of biodiesel from waste cooking oil to partially substitute petroleum diesel is one of the measures for solving the twin problems of environment pollution and energy shortage. In this project, synthesis of biodiesel was catalyzed by immobilized Candida lipase in a three-step fixed bed reactor. The reaction solution was a mixture of WCO, water, methanol and solvent (hexane). The main product was biodiesel consisted of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME), of which methyl oleate was the main component. Effects of lipase, solvent, water, and temperature and flow of the reaction mixture on the synthesis of biodiesel were analyzed. The results indicate that a 91.08% of FAME can be achieved in the end product under optimum conditions. Most of the chemical and physical characters of the biodiesel were superior to the standards for 0diesel (GB/T 19147) and biodiesel (DIN V51606 and ASTM D-6751). (author)

  12. Synthesis of biodiesel from waste cooking oil using immobilized lipase in fixed bed reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Yingming [School of Environment and Urban Construction, Wuhan University of Science and Engineering, Wuhan 430073 (China); Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Science, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Xiao Bo [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Chang Jie [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China)], E-mail: changjie@scut.edu.cn; Fu Yan [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); Lv Pengmei; Wang Xuewei [Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Science, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2009-03-15

    Waste cooking oil (WCO) is the residue from the kitchen, restaurants, food factories and even human and animal waste which not only harm people's health but also causes environmental pollution. The production of biodiesel from waste cooking oil to partially substitute petroleum diesel is one of the measures for solving the twin problems of environment pollution and energy shortage. In this project, synthesis of biodiesel was catalyzed by immobilized Candida lipase in a three-step fixed bed reactor. The reaction solution was a mixture of WCO, water, methanol and solvent (hexane). The main product was biodiesel consisted of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME), of which methyl oleate was the main component. Effects of lipase, solvent, water, and temperature and flow of the reaction mixture on the synthesis of biodiesel were analyzed. The results indicate that a 91.08% of FAME can be achieved in the end product under optimum conditions. Most of the chemical and physical characters of the biodiesel were superior to the standards for 0 diesel (GB/T 19147) and biodiesel (DIN V51606 and ASTM D-6751)

  13. Effects of mass transfer and hydrogen pressure on the fixed-bed pyrolysis of sunflower bagasse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Putun, E.; Kockar, O.M.; Gercel, F. [Anadolu Univ., Eskisehir (Turkey)] [and others

    1994-12-31

    There are a number of waste and biomass sources being considered as potential sources of fuels and chemical feedstocks. The economics for biomass pyrolysis are generally considered to be most favourable for (1) plants which grow abundantly and require little cultivation in and lands and (2) wastes available in relatively large quantities from agricultural plants, for example, sunflower and hazel nuts. For the former, one such group of plants is Euphorbiaceae which are characterised by their ability to produce a milky latex, an emulsion of about 30% w/w terpenoids in water. One species in the family, Euphorbia Rigida from Southwestern Anatolia, Turkey is cultivated in close proximity to the sunflower growing regions and their oil extraction plants. The Turkish sunflower oil industry generates 800,000 tons of extraction residue (bagasse) per annum. Thus, both sunflower wastes and latex-producing plants are being considered as feedstocks for a future thermochemical demonstration unit in Turkey. Pyrolysis at relatively high hydrogen pressures (hydropyrolysis) has not been widely investigated for biomass. A potential advantage of hydropyrolysis is the ability to upgrade tar vapours over hydroprocessing catalysts. Fixed-bed pyrolysis and hydropyrolysis experiments have been conducted on sunflower bagasse to assess the effects of mass transfer and hydrogen pressure on oil yield and quality.

  14. Fixed Bed Adsorption of Drugs on Silica Aerogel from Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Caputo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Supercritical adsorption coupled with the high adsorption capacity of silica aerogel allows the preparation of a new kind of delivery systems of poor water soluble drugs. In order to overcome drawbacks of conventional techniques where the use of liquid solvents can cause the fracture of aerogel porous structure, in this work a new adsorption process of drugs from a supercritical mixture is proposed. Adsorption takes place from a fluid solution of the drug in supercritical CO2 and ethanol as cosolvent. A fixed bed adsorption plant has been developed to allow fast mixing of fluid phase and effective contact in the adsorption column. The use of ethanol as cosolvent allows to overcome the limitation of supercritical adsorption due to low solubility of many drugs in supercritical CO2. Adsorption isotherms were measured for one-model substance, nimesulide, at 40°C, and breakthrough curve was experimentally obtained. The drug loading of the drug into silica aerogel was up to 9 wt%. The drug composite was characterized using scanning electron microscopy, and release kinetics of the adsorbed drug were also evaluated by in vitro dissolution tests. The dissolution of nimesulide from loaded aerogel is much faster than dissolution of crystalline nimesulide. Around 80% of nimesulide dissolves from the aerogel within 6 minutes, whereas dissolving 80% of the crystalline drug takes about 90 min.

  15. Lead removal in fixed-bed columns by zeolite and sepiolite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turan, Mustafa; Mart, Ugur; Yüksel, Baris; Celik, Mehmet S

    2005-09-01

    The removal efficiency of zeolite (clinoptilolite) and sepiolite from lead containing aqueous solutions was investigated. A series of experiments were conducted in batch-wise and fixed-bed columns. Synthetic wastewaters containing lead (50 mg l (-1)) and acetic acid (0.001 N) along with untreated and regenerated clinoptilolites and sepiolites were used in the adsorption studies. Batch tests were mainly conducted to isolate the magnitude of lead precipitation from real adsorption. Adsorption isotherms for both abstraction and adsorption were constructed. The removal of lead is found to be a sum of adsorption induced by ion exchange and precipitation of lead hydroxide. The breakthrough curves were obtained under different conditions by plotting the normalized effluent lead concentration (C/C0) versus bed volume (BV). The ion exchange capacity of sepiolite and clinoptilolite for lead removal showed good performance up to approximately 100 and 120 BV where the C/C0 remained below 0.1, respectively. The lead removal capacity of clinoptilolite bed from wastewater containing only lead yielded 45% higher performance compared to that of acetic acid partly due to a decrease in the effluent pH and consequently in precipitation. Also, the presence of acetic acid in the sepiolite column decreased the bed volumes treated by about 40%. Removal efficiency of lead-acetic system both in untreated clinoptilolite and sepiolite columns was found higher than that in regenerated columns.

  16. Efficient expansion of mesenchymal stromal cells in a disposable fixed bed culture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizukami, Amanda; Orellana, Maristela D; Caruso, Sâmia R; de Lima Prata, Karen; Covas, Dimas T; Swiech, Kamilla

    2013-01-01

    The need for efficient and reliable technologies for clinical-scale expansion of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) has led to the use of disposable bioreactors and culture systems. Here, we evaluate the expansion of cord blood-derived MSC in a disposable fixed bed culture system. Starting from an initial cell density of 6.0 × 10(7) cells, after 7 days of culture, it was possible to produce of 4.2(±0.8) × 10(8) cells, which represents a fold increase of 7.0 (±1.4). After enzymatic retrieval from Fibra-Cell disks, the cells were able to maintain their potential for differentiation into adipocytes and osteocytes and were positive for many markers common to MSC (CD73, CD90, and CD105). The results obtained in this study demonstrate that MSC can be efficiently expanded in the culture system. This novel approach presents several advantages over the current expansion systems, based on culture flasks or microcarrier-based spinner flasks and represents a key element for MSC cellular therapy according to GMP compliant clinical-scale production system.

  17. Performance of a fixed-bed biofilm reactor with microbubble aeration in aerobic wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Liu, Junliang; Liu, Chun; Zhang, Jing; Yang, Jingliang

    2016-01-01

    Microbubble aeration is supposed to be highly efficient for oxygen supply in aerobic wastewater treatment. In the present study, the performance of a fixed-bed biofilm reactor microbubble-aerated using a Shirasu porous glass (SPG) membrane system was investigated when treating synthetic municipal wastewater. The biofilm formation on the carriers was enhanced with microbubble aeration due to the strong adhesion of microbubbles to the solid surface. The dissolved oxygen concentration, the removals of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and nitrogen, and the oxygen utilization efficiency were influenced by the organic loading rate at a certain oxygen supply capacity. The relatively optimal organic loading rate was determined as 0.82 kgCOD/(m(3)d) when the oxygen supply capacity was 0.93 kgO(2)/(m(3)d), where COD and ammonia removal efficiencies were 91.7% and 53.9%, respectively. The corresponding SPG membrane area-based COD removal capacity was 6.88 kgCOD/(m(2)d). The oxygen utilization efficiency of microbubble aeration was obviously higher compared to conventional bubble aeration. The simultaneous nitrification and denitrification occurred in the biofilm reactor and the total nitrogen removal efficiency of 50.4% was achieved under these conditions. In addition, the increase in air supply capacity of the SPG membrane system was suggested to improve its energy utilization efficiency.

  18. Breakthrough behavior of granular ferric hydroxide (GFH) fixed-bed adsorption filters: modeling and experimental approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperlich, Alexander; Werner, Arne; Genz, Arne; Amy, Gary; Worch, Eckhard; Jekel, Martin

    2005-03-01

    Breakthrough curves (BTC) for the adsorption of arsenate and salicylic acid onto granulated ferric hydroxide (GFH) in fixed-bed adsorbers were experimentally determined and modeled using the homogeneous surface diffusion model (HSDM). The input parameters for the HSDM, the Freundlich isotherm constants and mass transfer coefficients for film and surface diffusion, were experimentally determined. The BTC for salicylic acid revealed a shape typical for trace organic compound adsorption onto activated carbon, and model results agreed well with the experimental curves. Unlike salicylic acid, arsenate BTCs showed a non-ideal shape with a leveling off at c/c0 approximately 0.6. Model results based on the experimentally derived parameters over-predicted the point of arsenic breakthrough for all simulated curves, lab-scale or full-scale, and were unable to catch the shape of the curve. The use of a much lower surface diffusion coefficient D(S) for modeling led to an improved fit of the later stages of the BTC shape, pointing on a time-dependent D(S). The mechanism for this time dependence is still unknown. Surface precipitation was discussed as one possible removal mechanism for arsenate besides pure adsorption interfering the determination of Freundlich constants and D(S). Rapid small-scale column tests (RSSCT) proved to be a powerful experimental alternative to the modeling procedure for arsenic.

  19. Modeling of convective drying kinetics of Pistachio kernels in a fixed bed drying system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balbay Asım

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Drying kinetics of Pistachio kernels (PKs with initial moisture content of 32.4% (w.b was investigated as a function of drying conditions in a fixed bed drying system. The drying experiments were carried out at different temperatures of drying air (40, 60 and 80°C and air velocities (0.05, 0.075 and 0.1 m/s. Several experiments were performed in terms of mass of PKs (15g and 30g using a constant air velocity of 0.075 m/s. The fit quality of models was evaluated using the determination coefficient (R2, sum square error (SSE and root mean square error (RMSE. Among the selected models, the Midilli et al model was found to be the best models for describing the drying behavior of PKs. The activation energies were calculated as 29.2 kJ/mol and effective diffusivity values were calculated between 1.38 and 4.94x10-10 m2/s depending on air temperatures.

  20. Co-pyrolysis of corn cob and waste cooking oil in a fixed bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guanyi; Liu, Cong; Ma, Wenchao; Zhang, Xiaoxiong; Li, Yanbin; Yan, Beibei; Zhou, Weihong

    2014-08-01

    Corn cob (CC) and waste cooking oil (WCO) were co-pyrolyzed in a fixed bed. The effects of various temperatures of 500 °C, 550 °C, 600 °C and CC/WCO mass ratios of 1:0, 1:0.1, 1:0.5, 1:1 and 0:1 were investigated, respectively. Results show that co-pyrolysis of CC/WCO produce more liquid and less bio-char than pyrolysis of CC individually. Bio-oil and bio-char yields were found to be largely dependent on temperature and CC/WCO ratios. GC/MS of bio-oil show it consists of different classes and amounts of organic compounds other than that from CC pyrolysis. Temperature of 550 °C and CC/WCO ratio of 1:1 seem to be the optimum considering high bio-oil yields (68.6 wt.%) and good bio-oil properties (HHV of 32.78 MJ/kg). In this case, bio-char of 24.96 MJ/kg appears attractive as a renewable source, while gas with LHV of 16.06 MJ/Nm(3) can be directly used in boilers as fuel. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Modeling cesium ion exchange on fixed-bed columns of crystalline silicotitanate granules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latheef, I.M.; Huckman, M.E.; Anthony, R.G.

    2000-05-01

    A mathematical model is presented to simulate Cs exchange in fixed-bed columns of a novel crystalline silicotitanate (CST) material, UOP IONSIV IE-911. A local equilibrium is assumed between the macropores and the solid crystals for the particle material balance. Axial dispersed flow and film mass-transfer resistance are incorporated into the column model. Cs equilibrium isotherms and diffusion coefficients were measured experimentally, and dispersion and film mass-transfer coefficients were estimated from correlations. Cs exchange column experiments were conducted in 5--5.7 M Na solutions and simulated using the proposed model. Best-fit diffusion coefficients from column simulations were compared with previously reported batch values of Gu et al. and Huckman. Cs diffusion coefficients for the column were between 2.5 and 5.0 x 10{sup {minus}11} m{sup 2}/s for 5--5.7 M Na solutions. The effect of the isotherm shape on the Cs diffusion coefficient was investigated. The proposed model provides good fits to experimental data and may be utilized in designing commercial-scale units.

  2. PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF THE SOLID AND LIQUID WASTE PRODUCTS FROM THE HEAVY METAL CONTAMINATED ENERGY CROPS GASIFICATION PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Werle

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of basic physico-chemical properties of solid (ash and liquid (tar waste products of the gasification process of the heavy metal contaminated energy crops. The gasification process has carried out in a laboratory fixed bed reactor. Three types of energy crops: Miscanthus x giganteus, Sida hermaphrodita and Spartina Pectinata were used. The experimental plots were established on heavy metal contaminated arable land located in Bytom (southern part of Poland, Silesian Voivodship.

  3. LIEKKI 2 - Combustion and gasification research programme 1993- 1998. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hupa, M. [ed.

    1998-12-31

    The six-year Combustion and Gasification Research Programme LIEKKI 2 (1993-1998) was oriented towards research serving the development of energy production technologies based on combustion and gasification. The programme was divided into six research areas: 1. Modelling of the furnace processes (39 projects); 2. Chemistry of gaseous emission components (28); 3. Particle behaviour, ash, aerosols (42); 4. New combustion and gasification technologies (27); 5. Black liquor (33) and 6. Conventional combustion technologies, waste incineration (19). The main aim of the research has been to develop new, more efficient and environmentally friendly techniques. The development of conventional combustion technology has also been an important part of the programme. Another important goal has been to maintain and develop maintain the competence of the research organisations in the combustion area and to intensify their collaboration. Concerning its research contents and its objectives LIEKKI 2, like its forerunner, has not been fuel-specific. The programme has investigated the thermal conversion of oil, gas, black liquor, and coal as well as that of peat, biofuels, and various waste materials, and it has further advanced the know-how concerning the utilisation of these fuels. This approach differs from the usual fuel-specific differentiation, which, for instance, IEA (International Energy Agency) and EU have applied in their research activities. This approach seems in retrospect to have been the right choice. It has been appropriate to stimulate co-operation between parties who would not seek co-operation spontaneously. One example of this is the development of a steelmaking process by a Finnish steel manufacturer under the LIEKKI programme. The programme has also provided synergetic advantages to the development of the recovery boiler processes of the pulp industry. Assessing the impact of the programme is a matter of many facets. The six-year research work and a total

  4. Gasification trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simbeck, D.R.; Dickenson, R.L.; Karp, A.D. [SFA Pacific, Inc., Mountain View, CA (United States)

    1997-05-01

    The traditional use of gasification for high value chemicals will continue where fuel prices make gasification more competitive than steam methane reforming. However, oil companies already have the essentials--expertise, fuels, and financing--to be a dominant force in the new world of competitive energy markets. Refinery-based gasification therefore can be expected to proliferate as deregulation of electric power generation promotes the efficiency and economic advantages of cogeneration and trigeneration. The greatest market potential for gasification in the future is electric power generation. In traditional electric utility applications, the efficiency and overall economics of coal gasification may be only marginally superior to those of well-designed, coal-fired steam cycles having state-of-the-art emission controls. Offsetting gasification`s environmental and efficiency advantages in such applications are concerns about capital cost and the need for chemical process expertise. However, power industry deregulation and competition are likely to diminish the importance of large, new central power plants, while imparting increased value to gasification`s strategic advantages, which include: Gasification`s superior environmental performance, particularly in the area of solid wastes; gasification`s superior ability to exploit high-efficiency combustion turbine-based opportunities for combined-cycle and especially cogeneration applications; gasification`s superior ability to exploit a range of fuels--from natural gas and opportunity fuels in the near-to-intermediate term to coal in the longer term, when natural gas prices escalate; and gasification`s superior market economics and flexibility to create and profit from combined power and synthesis gas chemical applications.

  5. Gasification advanced research and technology development (AR and TD) cross-cut meeting and review. [US DOE supported

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    The US Department of Energy gasification advanced research and technology development (AR and TD) cross-cut meeting and review was held June 24 to 26, 1981, at Germantown, Maryland. Forty-eight papers from the proceedings have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  6. Production of phenol-rich bio-oil during catalytic fixed-bed and microwave pyrolysis of palm kernel shell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omoriyekomwan, Joy Esohe; Tahmasebi, Arash; Yu, Jianglong

    2016-05-01

    Catalytic fixed-bed and microwave pyrolysis of palm kernel shell using activated carbon (AC) and lignite char (LC) as catalysts and microwave receptors are investigated. The effects of process parameters including temperature and biomass:catalyst ratio on the yield and composition of pyrolysis products were studied. The addition of catalyst increased the bio-oil yield, but decreased the selectivity of phenol in fixed-bed. Catalytic microwave pyrolysis of PKS significantly enhanced the selectivity of phenol production. The highest concentration of phenol in bio-oil of 64.58 %(area) and total phenolics concentration of 71.24 %(area) were obtained at 500°C using AC. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) results indicated that concentration of OH, CH, CO and CO functional groups in char samples decreased after pyrolysis. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis clearly indicated the development of liquid phase in biomass particles during microwave pyrolysis, and the mechanism is also discussed.

  7. Advanced regeneration and fixed-bed study of ammonium and potassium removal from anaerobic digested wastewater by natural zeolite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xuejun; Zeng, Larry; Jin, Xin

    2013-05-01

    Highly efficient regeneration of natural zeolite was developed in conjunction with the removal of high concentrations of ammonia and potassium from the reverse osmosis effluent of anaerobic-digested wastewater by fixed-bed ion exchange. The elution and uptake behavior of ammonium and potassium in the fixed bed were studied. Both batch desorption tests and on-column regeneration were conducted to develop an optimum regeneration condition compatible with the wastewater requirements. The effectiveness of ammonium elution increased with increasing alkaline concentration. The increase of salt dose significantly enhanced the ammonium maximum in the elution solution. Complete ammonium elution was achieved in 6 bed volumes (BV) when the alkaline and salt concentrations were respectively 0.1 mol/L and 18.6 g/L at a flow rate of 2.5-3.0 BV/hr. Due to the higher affinity of potassium with natural clinoptilolite, complete potassium elution was not achieved in all cases.

  8. Co-pyrolysis of pine sawdust and lignite in a thermogravimetric analyzer and a fixed-bed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yuyao; Tahmasebi, Arash; Yu, Jianglong

    2014-12-01

    Co-pyrolysis characteristics of lignite and pine sawdust were studied in a TGA and a fixed-bed reactor. The effects of pyrolysis temperature and blending ratio on the yield and composition of pyrolysis products (gas, tar, and char) were investigated. TGA experiments showed that pine sawdust decomposition took place at lower temperatures compared to lignite. With increasing the pine sawdust content in the blend, the DTG peaks shifted towards lower temperatures due to synergetic effect. In fixed-bed experiments, the synergetic effect increased the yield of volatile matter compared to the calculated values. The major gases released at low temperatures were CO2 and CO. However, hydrogen was the primary gaseous product at higher temperatures. During co-pyrolysis, concentrations of benzene, naphthalene, and hydrocarbons in the tar decreased, accompanied by an increase in phenols and guaiacol concentrations. With increasing pyrolysis temperature, the OH, aliphatic CH, CO, and CO functional groups in char decomposed substantially.

  9. Electrical conductivity as a state indicator for the start-up period of anaerobic fixed-bed reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, A; Latrille, E; Ribes, J; Bernet, N; Steyer, J P

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to analyse the applicability of electrical conductivity sensors for on-line monitoring the start-up period of an anaerobic fixed-bed reactor. The evolution of bicarbonate concentration and methane production rate was analysed. Strong linear relationships between electrical conductivity and both bicarbonate concentration and methane production rate were observed. On-line estimations of the studied parameters were carried out in a new start-up period by applying simple linear regression models, which resulted in a good concordance between both observed and predicted values. Electrical conductivity sensors were therefore identified as an interesting method for monitoring the start-up period of anaerobic fixed-bed reactors due to its reliability, robustness, easy operation, low cost, and minimum maintenance compared with the currently used sensors.

  10. Fixed bed sorption of phosphorus from wastewater using iron oxide-based media derived from acid mine drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibrell, Philip L.; Tucker, T.W.

    2012-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) releases to the environment have been implicated in the eutrophication of important water bodies worldwide. Current technology for the removal of P from wastewaters consists of treatment with aluminum (Al) or iron (Fe) salts, but is expensive. The neutralization of acid mine drainage (AMD) generates sludge rich in Fe and Al oxides that has hitherto been considered a waste product, but these sludges could serve as an economical adsorption media for the removal of P from wastewaters. Therefore, we have evaluated an AMD-derived media as a sorbent for P in fixed bed sorption systems. The homogenous surface diffusion model (HSDM) was used to analyze fixed bed test data and to determine the value of related sorption parameters. The surface diffusion modulus Ed was found to be a useful predictor of sorption kinetics. Values of Ed < 0.2 were associated with early breakthrough of P, while more desirable S-shaped breakthrough curves resulted when 0.2 < Ed < 0.5. Computer simulations of the fixed bed process with the HSDM confirmed that if Ed was known, the shape of the breakthrough curve could be calculated. The surface diffusion coefficient D s was a critical factor in the calculation of Ed and could be estimated based on the sorption test conditions such as media characteristics, and influent flow rate and concentration. Optimal test results were obtained with a relatively small media particle size (average particle radius 0.028 cm) and resulted in 96 % removal of P from the influent over 46 days of continuous operation. These results indicate that fixed bed sorption of P would be a feasible option for the utilization of AMD residues, thus helping to decrease AMD treatment costs while at the same time ameliorating the impacts of P contamination.

  11. Evaluation of ammonium adsorption in biochar-fixed beds for treatment of anaerobically digested swine slurry: Experimental optimization and modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizito, Simon; Wu, Shubiao; Wandera, Simon Mdondo; Guo, Luchen; Dong, Renjie

    2016-09-01

    Fixed-bed column experiments were performed to investigate the effect of influent concentration, flow rate, and adsorbent bed depth on ammonium adsorption from anaerobically digested swine slurry using three types of biochar made from corncobs (MCB), hardwood (WB), and mixed sawdust pellets (MSB). WB performed better than the other two biochar types with a maximum sorption capacity of 67-114mg/g due to its superior surface area and larger pore volume. Ammonium adsorption kinetics and dynamics depended on the influent NH4(+)-N concentration, applied inflow flow rate, and the depth of the fixed bed. Maximum sorption capacities under influent NH4(+)-N concentration of 500mg/L, were identified to be 114.2mg/g, 108.9mg/g, and 24.7mg/g at inflow rate of 15mL/min for WB, MCB, and MSB, respectively. The data shows that using deeper beds and applying lower flow rates could be a better strategy to increase ammonium adsorption in biochar-fixed beds. Moreover, three kinetic models (Thomas, Adams-Bohart (BDST), and Yoon-Nelson) were applied to the experimental data to predict breakthrough curves and determine characteristic adsorption parameters for process design. The applied models fitted data in the order: Thomas (R(2)=0.971)>BDST (R(2)=0.960)>Yoon-Nelson (R(2)=0.940). It was concluded that ammonium adsorption in biochar-fixed beds could be an effective method for routine cyclic treatment of slurry. However, further effluent polishing is required to meet discharge requirements.

  12. Atomic layer deposition on porous powders with in situ gravimetric monitoring in a modular fixed bed reactor setup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strempel, V. E.; Naumann d'Alnoncourt, R.; Driess, M.; Rosowski, F.

    2017-07-01

    A modular setup for Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) on high-surface powder substrates in fixed bed reactors with a gravimetric in situ monitoring was developed. The design and operation are described in detail. An integrated magnetically suspended balance records mass changes during ALD. The highly versatile setup consists of three modular main units: a dosing unit, a reactor unit, and a downstream unit. The reactor unit includes the balance, a large fixed bed reactor, and a quartz crystal microbalance. The dosing unit is equipped with a complex manifold to deliver gases and gaseous reagents including three different ALD precursors, five oxidizing or reducing agents, and two purge gas lines. The system employs reactor temperatures and pressures in the range of 25-600 °C and 10-3 to 1 bar, respectively. Typically, powder batches between 100 mg and 50 g can be coated. The capabilities of the setup are demonstrated by coating mesoporous SiO2 powder with a thin AlOx (submono) layer using three cycles with trimethylaluminium and H2O. The self-limiting nature of the deposition has been verified with the in situ gravimetric monitoring and full saturation curves are presented. The process parameters were used for a scale-up in a large fixed bed reactor. The samples were analyzed with established analytics such as X-ray diffraction, N2 adsorption, transmission electron microscopy, and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry.

  13. Low-temperature catalytic gasification of wet industrial wastes. FY 1991--1992 interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, D.C.; Neuenschwander, G.G.; Hart, T.R.; Phelps, M.R.; Sealock, L.J. Jr.

    1993-07-01

    A catalytic gasification system operating in a pressurized water environment has been developed and refined at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for over 12 years. Initial experiments were aimed at developing kinetics information for steam gasification of biomass in the presence of catalysts. The combined use of alkali and metal catalysts was reported for gasification of biomass and its components at low temperatures (350{degrees}C to 450{degrees}C). From the fundamental research evolved the concept of a pressurized, catalytic gasification system for converting wet biomass feedstocks to fuel gas. Extensive batch reactor testing and limited continuous reactor system (CRS) testing were undertaken in the development of this system under sponsorship of the US Department of Energy. A wide range of biomass feedstocks were tested, and the importance of the nickel metal catalyst was identified. Specific use of this process for treating food processing wastes was also studied. The concept application was further expanded to encompass cleanup of hazardous wastewater streams, and results were reported for batch reactor tests and continuous reactor tests. Ongoing work at PNL focuses on refining the catalyst and scaling the system to long-term industrial needs. The process is licensed as the Thermochemical Environmental Energy System (TEES{reg_sign}) to Onsite*Ofsite, Inc., of Duarte, California. This report is a follow-on to the 1989--90 interim report [Elliott et al. 1991], which reviewed the results of the studies conducted with a fixed-bed, continuous-feed, tubular reactor. The discussion here provides an overview of experiments on the wide range of potential feedstock materials conducted in a batch reactor; development of new catalyst materials; and tests performed in continuous-flow reactors at three scales. The appendices contain the history and background of the process development, as well as more detailed descriptions and results of the recent studies.

  14. EMERY BIOMASS GASIFICATION POWER SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benjamin Phillips; Scott Hassett; Harry Gatley

    2002-11-27

    Emery Recycling Corporation (now Emery Energy Company, LLC) evaluated the technical and economical feasibility of the Emery Biomass Gasification Power System (EBGPS). The gasifier technology is owned and being developed by Emery. The Emery Gasifier for this project was an oxygen-blown, pressurized, non-slagging gasification process that novelly integrates both fixed-bed and entrained-flow gasification processes into a single vessel. This unique internal geometry of the gasifier vessel will allow for tar and oil destruction within the gasifier. Additionally, the use of novel syngas cleaning processes using sorbents is proposed with the potential to displace traditional amine-based and other syngas cleaning processes. The work scope within this project included: one-dimensional gasifier modeling, overall plant process modeling (ASPEN), feedstock assessment, additional analyses on the proposed syngas cleaning process, plant cost estimating, and, market analysis to determine overall feasibility and applicability of the technology for further development and commercial deployment opportunities. Additionally, the project included the development of a detailed technology development roadmap necessary to commercialize the Emery Gasification technology. Process modeling was used to evaluate both combined cycle and solid oxide fuel cell power configurations. Ten (10) cases were evaluated in an ASPEN model wherein nine (9) cases were IGCC configurations with fuel-to-electricity efficiencies ranging from 38-42% and one (1) case was an IGFC solid oxide case where 53.5% overall plant efficiency was projected. The cost of electricity was determined to be very competitive at scales from 35-71 MWe. Market analysis of feedstock availability showed numerous market opportunities for commercial deployment of the technology with modular capabilities for various plant sizes based on feedstock availability and power demand.

  15. Application of response surface methodology to assess the combined effect of operating variables on high-pressure coal gasification for H2-rich gas production

    OpenAIRE

    Fermoso Domínguez, Javier; Gil Matellanes, María Victoria; Arias Rozada, Borja; González Plaza, Marta; Pevida García, Covadonga; Pis Martínez, José Juan; Rubiera González, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    Coal gasification was performed by means of a high-pressure fixed bed gasifier fitted with a solids feeding system in continuous mode, using oxygen and steam as gasifying agents. The main aim of the paper was to assess the combined effects of the operating variables (temperature, oxygen and steam concentrations) on high-pressure coal gasification. To this end a face centered central composite design (FCCCD) based on response surface methodology (RSM) was used. The response variables studied w...

  16. Gasification and pyrolysis of different biomasses in lab scale system: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gądek W.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Gasification and pyrolysis are very promising technologies for clean energy production especially from low rank fuels. Biomass and wastes with high chlorine, alkali and even heavy metals content are fuels preferential for thermal utilization. However, several problems during combustion in conventional steam boilers occurs e.g. slagging, fouling, chlorine corrosion, boiler efficiency deterioration. New efficient and cost effective technologies are needed, even in small-scale applications. The main objective of this work was to compare the thermochemical behaviour and process parameters effects of different biomass under air gasification and pyrolysis conditions. Three important fuels for European power industry were selected: woody biomass and two residual biomass, such as oat straw and dried citrus wastes. In order to evaluate the possibility to use different feedstocks or to combine and/or integrate them in thermochemical processes, a comparison among typical and untypical feedstocks is needed. Tests performed on small scale fixed bed reactor show the gas yield, its composition and LHV parameter. The results were performed in Royal Institute of Technology (KTH in Sweden during BRISK program (Biofuels Research Infrastructure for Sharing Knowledge.

  17. 煤气化技术工业应用概况及工艺选择(上)%Industrial Application Survey and Process Selection of Coal Gasification Technology (Part I)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建兵

    2014-01-01

    煤气化技术是煤化工产业发展的核心技术,我国庞大的煤化工市场促进了煤气化技术的研发和应用。根据国内、外煤气化技术的实际情况,评述了固定层、流化床、气流床煤气化工艺的主流技术路线及其工艺特点和发展概况,介绍了各种煤气化技术在国内的技术研发和产业化现状。%The coal gasification technology is the core technology in the development of coal chemical industry, and the enormous coal chemical market in China promotes the development and application of coal gasification technology.Based on actual situation at home and abroad, it is reviewed of mainstream technical routes and process characteristics of coal gasification technologies, including fixed-bed, fluid-bed and entrained flow bed, and technology research and development and industrialization status of each coal gasification technology in China is presented.

  18. Synergistic combination of biomass torrefaction and co-gasification: Reactivity studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Geng, Ping; Liu, Rui

    2017-09-01

    Two typical biomass feedstocks obtained from woody wastes and agricultural residues were torrefied or mildly pyrolized in a fixed-bed reactor. Effects of the torrefaction conditions on product distributions, compositional and energetic properties of the solid products, char gasification reactivity, and co-gasification behavior between coal and torrefied solids were systematically investigated. Torrefaction pretreatment produced high quality bio-solids with not only increased energy density, but also concentrated alkali and alkaline earth metals (AAEM). As a consequence of greater retention of catalytic elements in the solid products, the chars derived from torrefied biomass exhibited a faster conversion than those derived from raw biomass during CO2 gasification. Furthermore, co-gasification of coal/torrefied biomass blends exhibited stronger synergy compared to the coal/raw biomass blends. The results and insights provided by this study filled a gap in understanding synergy during co-gasification of coal and torrefied biomass. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Biomass Gasification - A synthesis of technical barriers and current research issues for deployment at large scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heyne, Stefan [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Gothenburg (Sweden); Liliedahl, Truls [KTH, Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Marklund, Magnus [Energy Technology Centre, Piteaa (Sweden)

    2013-09-01

    Thermal gasification at large scale for cogeneration of power and heat and/or production of fuels and materials is a main pathway for a sustainable deployment of biomass resources. However, so far no such full scale production exists and biomass gasification projects remain at the pilot or demonstration scale. This report focuses on the key critical technology challenges for the large-scale deployment of the following biomass-based gasification concepts: Direct Fluidized Bed Gasification (FBG), Entrained Flow Gasification (EFG) and indirect Dual Fluidized Bed Gasification (DFBG). The main content in this report is based on responses from a number of experts in biomass gasification obtained from a questionnaire. The survey was composed of a number of more or less specific questions on technical barriers as to the three gasification concepts considered. For formalising the questionnaire, the concept of Technology Readiness Level (TRL 1-9) was used for grading the level of technical maturity of the different sub-processes within the three generic biomass gasification technologies. For direct fluidized bed gasification (FBG) it is mentioned that the technology is already available at commercial scale as air-blown technology and thus that air-blown FBG gasification may be reckoned a mature technology. The remaining technical challenge is the conversion to operation on oxygen with the final goal of producing chemicals or transport fuels. Tar reduction, in particular, and gas cleaning and upgrading in general are by far the most frequently named technical issues considered problematic. Other important aspects are problems that may occur when operating on low-grade fuels - i.e. low-cost fuels. These problems include bed agglomeration/ash sintering as well as alkali fouling. Even the preparation and feeding of these low-grade fuels tend to be problematic and require further development to be used on a commercial scale. Furthermore, efficient char conversion is mentioned by

  20. Modeling and Experimental Studies of Mercury Oxidation and Adsorption in a Fixed-Bed and Entrained-Flow Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buitrago, Paula A. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Morrill, Mike [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Lighty, JoAnn S. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Silcox, Geoffrey D. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2009-06-01

    This report presents experimental and modeling mercury oxidation and adsorption data. Fixed-bed and single-particle models of mercury adsorption were developed. The experimental data were obtained with two reactors: a 300-W, methane-fired, tubular, quartz-lined reactor for studying homogeneous oxidation reactions and a fixed-bed reactor, also of quartz, for studying heterogeneous reactions. The latter was attached to the exit of the former to provide realistic combustion gases. The fixed-bed reactor contained one gram of coconut-shell carbon and remained at a temperature of 150°C. All methane, air, SO2, and halogen species were introduced through the burner to produce a radical pool representative of real combustion systems. A Tekran 2537A Analyzer coupled with a wet conditioning system provided speciated mercury concentrations. At 150°C and in the absence of HCl or HBr, the mercury uptake was about 20%. The addition of 50 ppm HCl caused complete capture of all elemental and oxidized mercury species. In the absence of halogens, SO2 increased the mercury adsorption efficiency to up to 30 percent. The extent of adsorption decreased with increasing SO2 concentration when halogens were present. Increasing the HCl concentration to 100 ppm lessened the effect of SO2. The fixed-bed model incorporates Langmuir adsorption kinetics and was developed to predict adsorption of elemental mercury and the effect of multiple flue gas components. This model neglects intraparticle diffusional resistances and is only applicable to pulverized carbon sorbents. It roughly describes experimental data from the literature. The current version includes the ability to account for competitive adsorption between mercury, SO2, and NO2. The single particle model simulates in-flight sorbent capture of elemental mercury. This model was developed to include Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms, rate equations, sorbent feed rate, and

  1. Biosorption of copper, cobalt and nickel by marine brown alga Sargassum sp. in fixed-bed column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeili, Akbar; Soufi, Samira; Rustaiyan, Abdolhossein; Safaiyan, Shila; Mirian, Simin; Fallahe, Gila; Moazami, Nasrin

    2007-11-01

    The biosorption of copper, cobalt and nickel by marine brown alga Sargassum sp. were investigated in a fixed-bed column (temperature = 30 degrees C; different pH). Langmuir and Freundlich sorption models were used to represent the equilibrium data. The maximum Cu2+ uptake was obtained at pH 4 and the optimum Co2+ and Ni2+ uptake were at pH 7. Different dosage of biosorbent did not have an effect on the results, but the 3.5 and 5 g of biosorbent were shown higher uptake. The metal removal rates were rapid, with about 80% of the total adsorption tacking place within 40 min.

  2. Improved Generalized Predictive Control Algorithm with Offline and Online Identification and Its Application to Fixed Bed Reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余世明; 王海清

    2003-01-01

    An improved generalized predictive control algorithm is presented in this paper by incorporating offline identification into onlie identification.Unlike the existing generalized predictive control algorithms.the proposed approach divides parameters of a predictive model into the time invariant and time-varying ones,which are treated respectively by offline and onlie identification algorithms.Therefore,both the reliability and accuracy of the predictive model are improved,Two simulation examples of control of a fixed bed reactor show that this new algorithm is not only reliable and stable in the case of uncertainties and abnormal distrubances,but also adaptable to slow time varying processes.

  3. Application and research status of fluidized bed biomass gasification technologies%生物质流化床气化技术应用研究现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟凡彬; 刘建冲; 王贵路; 李晓伟; 张大雷

    2011-01-01

    According to the product s of biomass gasification, the purposes of biomass gasification could be classified into hydrogen production,power generation and synthetic liquid fuel This article introduced the features of hydrogen production from biomass steam gasification technology, catalytic gasification technology and supercritical water gasification technology, analyzed the technological and economic feasibility of fluidized bed biomass gasification and summarized the research status of fluidized bed biomass gasification to liquid fuel technology.It points out that the main bottleneck of biomass fluidized bed gasification technology is to change the stoichiometric ratio, to remove tar and to clean the produced synthesis gas It is surely that the oriented gasification will be the main tendency in the future.%按所得产品不同,可将生物质气化技术分为制氢、发电和合成液体燃料3大类.文章介绍了生物质流化床水蒸气气化制氢、催化气化制氢和超临界水气化制氢的工艺特点;分析了生物质流化床气化发电的技术、经济可行性;简述了生物质流化床气化合成液体燃料的研究现状;指出气化产出气化学当量比调变、焦油去除问题和合成气净化是生物质流化床气化技术应用的主要瓶颈,认为定向气化是今后研究的主要方向.

  4. Advanced regeneration and fixed-bed study of ammonium and potassium removal from anaerobic digested wastewater by natural zeolite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuejun Guo; Larry Zeng; Xin Jin

    2013-01-01

    Highly efficient regeneration of natural zeolite was developed in conjunction with the removal of high concentrations of ammonia and potassium from the reverse osmosis effluent of anaerobic-digested wastewater by fixed-bed ion exchange.The elution and uptake behavior of ammonium and potassium in the fixed bed were studied.Both batch desorption tests and on-column regeneration were conducted to develop an optimum regeneration condition compatible with the wastewater requirements.The effectiveness of ammonium elution increased with increasing alkaline concentration.The increase of salt dose significantly enhanced the ammonium maximum in the elution solution.Complete ammonium elution was achieved in 6 bed volumes (BV) when the alkaline and salt concentrations were respectively 0.1 mol/L and 18.6 g/L at a flow rate of 2.5-3.0 BV/hr.Due to the higher affinity of potassium with natural clinoptilolite,complete potassium elution was not achieved in all cases.

  5. Models comparative study for heat storage in fixed beds; Estudo comparativo de modelos para armazenamento de calor em leitos fixos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuginski Junior, Rubens

    1991-07-01

    This work presents comparative results of a numerical investigation of four possible models for the prediction of thermal performance of fixed bed storage units and their thermal design. These models includes Schumann's model, the radial dispersion model, a model that include both axial heat conduction in the fluid phase and admits thermal gradient in the solids particles and finally a two dimensional single phase model. For each of these models a computer code was written and tested to evaluate the computing time of same data and analyze any other computational problems. The tests of thermal performance included particle size, porosity, particle material, flow rate, inlet temperature and heat losses form tank walls and extremities. Dynamics behaviour of the storage units due to transient variation in either flow rate or inlet temperature was also investigated. The results presented include temperature gradients, pressure drop and heat storage. The results obtained are very useful for analysis and design of fixed bed storage units. (author)

  6. Modeling competitive adsorption of mixtures of volatile organic compounds in a fixed-bed of beaded activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tefera, Dereje Tamiru; Hashisho, Zaher; Philips, John H; Anderson, James E; Nichols, Mark

    2014-05-06

    A two-dimensional mathematical model was developed to study competitive adsorption of n-component mixtures in a fixed-bed adsorber. The model consists of an isotherm equation to predict adsorption equilibria of n-component volatile organic compounds (VOCs) mixture from single component isotherm data, and a dynamic adsorption model, the macroscopic mass, energy and momentum conservation equations, to simulate the competitive adsorption of the n-components onto a fixed-bed of adsorbent. The model was validated with experimentally measured data of competitive adsorption of binary and eight-component VOCs mixtures onto beaded activated carbon (BAC). The mean relative absolute error (MRAE) was used to compare the modeled and measured breakthrough profiles as well as the amounts of adsorbates adsorbed. For the binary and eight-component mixtures, the MRAE of the breakthrough profiles was 13 and 12%, respectively, whereas, the MRAE of the adsorbed amounts was 1 and 2%, respectively. These data show that the model provides accurate prediction of competitive adsorption of multicomponent VOCs mixtures and the competitive adsorption isotherm equation is able to accurately predict equilibrium adsorption of VOCs mixtures.

  7. Batch and continuous (fixed-bed column) biosorption of crystal violet by Artocarpus heterophyllus (jackfruit) leaf powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Papita Das; Chakraborty, Sagnik; Chowdhury, Shamik

    2012-04-01

    In this study, batch and fixed-bed column experiments were performed to investigate the biosorption potential of Artocarpus heterophyllus (jackfruit) leaf powder (JLP) to remove crystal violet (CV) from aqueous solutions. Batch biosorption studies were carried out as a function of solution pH, contact time, initial dye concentration and temperature. The biosorption equilibrium data showed excellent fit to the Langmuir isotherm model with maximum monolayer biosorption capacity of 43.39 mg g(-1) at pH 7.0, initial dye concentration=50 mg L(-1), temperature=293 K and contact time=120 min. According to Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) isotherm model, biosorption of CV by JLP was chemisorption. The biosorption kinetics followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Thermodynamic analysis revealed that biosorption of CV from aqueous solution by JLP was a spontaneous and exothermic process. In order to ascertain the practical applicability of the biosorbent, fixed-bed column studies were also performed. The breakthrough time increased with increasing bed height and decreased with increasing flow rate. The Thomas model as well as the BDST model showed good agreement with the experimental results at all the process parameters studied. It can be concluded that JLP is a promising biosorbent for removal of CV from aqueous solutions.

  8. Media arrangement impacts cell growth in anaerobic fixed-bed reactors treating sugarcane vinasse: Structured vs. randomic biomass immobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Aquino, Samuel; Fuess, Lucas Tadeu; Pires, Eduardo Cleto

    2017-07-01

    This study reports on the application of an innovative structured-bed reactor (FVR) as an alternative to conventional packed-bed reactors (PBRs) to treat high-strength solid-rich wastewaters. Using the FVR prevents solids from accumulating within the fixed-bed, while maintaining the advantages of the biomass immobilization. The long-term operation (330days) of a FVR and a PBR applied to sugarcane vinasse under increasing organic loads (2.4-18.0kgCODm(-3)day(-1)) was assessed, focusing on the impacts of the different media arrangements over the production and retention of biomass. Much higher organic matter degradation rates, as well as long-term operational stability and high conversion efficiencies (>80%) confirmed that the FVR performed better than the PBR. Despite the equivalent operating conditions, the biomass growth yield was different in both reactors, i.e., 0.095gVSSg(-1)COD (FVR) and 0.066gVSSg(-1)COD (PBR), indicating a clear control of the media arrangement over the biomass production in fixed-bed reactors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. REDUCTION OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF OLEAGINUOS WATER BY MEANS OF A FIX BED COLUMN FILLED WITH SUGAR CANE BAGASSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pastora de la C. Martínez Nodal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available From the environmental assessment conducted in the centrifugation process fuel that is used as raw material for generating electricity in Power Plants (CE operating with diesel and the physicochemical characterization of oleaginuos water (ARO that it generates, it was performed the environmental impact assessment of these waters if they are discharged without any treatment. A matrix of importance was made, which allowed us to identify the impact on the actions and factors by the activity and the generated waste. From the physico-chemical characterization of ARO, a sustainable treatment is proposed with the use of a fixed-bed column filled with sugar cane bagasse as biosorbent material to minimize the environmental impact caused by oleaginous water if spilled. A physicochemical characterization was made to the natural sugar cane bagasse in terms of moisture, density, porosity and high adsorption capacity. The results allowed to define the fraction of interest (+1 -2 mm, given by the performance in the screening (41%, the homogeneity of this fraction and sorption capacity (2g diesel/g BN. The breakthrough curve was obtained by a continuous flow system 2 l/h of ARO through a fixed bed of 59.997 g of BN and an initial concentration of hydrocarbon of 1444.9 mg/l. Studies showed that the sugarcane bagasse has potential as biosorbent oil, achieving a significant removal of the indicator total hydrocarbon, of 65%.

  10. Properties of sugarcane waste-derived bio-oils obtained by fixed-bed fire-tube heating pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Mohammad Rofiqul; Parveen, Momtaz; Haniu, Hiroyuki

    2010-06-01

    Agricultural waste in the form of sugarcane bagasse was pyrolyzed in a fixed-bed fire-tube heating reactor under different pyrolysis conditions to determine the role of final temperature, sweeping gas flow rate and feed size on the product yields. Final temperature range studied was between 375 and 575 degrees C and the highest liquid product yield was obtained at 475 degrees C. Liquid products obtained under the most suitable conditions were characterized by physical properties, elemental analysis, GCV, FT-IR, (1)H NMR analysis and distillation. The empirical formula of the bio-oil with heating value of 23.5MJ/kg was established as CH(1.68)O(0.557)N(0.012). Comparison with other approaches showed that the liquid product yield by this simpler reactor system was higher with better physico-chemical properties as fuel. These findings show that fixed-bed fire-tube heating pyrolysis is a good option for production of bio-oils from biomass solid wastes.

  11. Fixed-bed adsorption separation of xylene isomers over sio2/silicallite-1 core-shell adsorbents

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Easir A.

    2013-12-29

    SiO2/Silicalite-1 core-shell material has been demonstrated as potential shape selective adsorbent in gas phase separation of p-xylene from a mixture of p/o-xylene isomers. The core-shell composite comprised of large silica core and thin polycrystalline silicalite-1 shell which was synthesized via a self-assembly of silicalite-1 nanocrystals on core silica surface followed by a secondary seeded growth method. The core materials, SiO2 used in this study has mesoporosity with an average pore diameter of 60Å and hence offers no shape selectivity for xylene isomers. However, the shell, silicalite-1 contains rigid pore structures and preferentially adsorbs p-xylene from their isomers mixtures. A series of adsorption fixed bed breakthrough adsorption/desorption experiment was performed to obtain the equilibrium isotherms and adsorption isotherm parameters of xylene isomers. The equilibrium isotherms of xylene isomers follow the Langmuir\\'s model. A chromatographic adsorption model has been used to describe the fixed-bed breakthrough profiles of xylene isomers. The model has successfully predicted the responses of the binary mixtures of p/o-xylene isomers. The SiO2/silicalite-1 core-shell adsorbents have shown para-selectivity as high as 15. © Bangladesh Uni. of Engg. & Tech.

  12. Effect of Oxidizing Medium on Synthesis Gas Content at Solid Fuel Gasification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korotkikh Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Solid fuel gasification is promising technology in sphere of clean energy. The synthesis gas content for air-blown fixed bed gasification may be defined using Gibbs free energy minimization procedure. The minimization procedure was realized via steepest descent method. The feed consisted of steam, air and coal at standard conditions. The temperature and gas content were calculated at different ratios of coal/steam/air. It was found that optimal syngas content resulted at component ratio of 1.0/0.5/2.2 with the ambient temperature of 1300 K and syngas heating power of 7.7 kJ/m3.

  13. Task 2: Mild gasification technology development process research unit tests using slipstream sampling, February 1988--March 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knight, R.A.; Gissy, J.; Onischak, M.; Babu, S.P.; Wootten, J.M.; Duthie, R.G.

    1990-07-01

    Under USDOE sponsorship, a project team consisting of the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT), Peabody Holding Company, Inc., and Bechtel Group is developing a process for the mild gasification of coal in a 100-pound/hour capacity isothermal process research unit (PRU) at IGT in Chicago. The IGT process is capable of converting bituminous coals to value-added co-products that can open new markets for the US coal industry. The conceptual IGT mild gasification process incorporates an integrated fluidized-/entrained-bed reactor supplying heat indirectly by a combination of char and gas recycle. The use of mild operating conditions (1000{degree} to 1300{degree}F), low pressures (<50 psig), and continuous operation in closed reactors, combined with the sale of value-added co-products, offer an environmentally sound and economical approach to advanced coal utilization. The PRU consists of an 8-inch-ID {times} 8-foot-long fluidized-bed reactor closely coupled to a 4-inch-ID {times} 13-foot-long entrained-bed reactor. The PRU test results have demonstrated process performance, including the effect of coal type and temperature on mild gasification co-product yields and their properties. The fates of the heteroatoms have also been analyzed. 9 refs., 16 figs., 41 tabs.

  14. CO-FIRING COAL, FEEDLOT, AND LITTER BIOMASS (CFB AND LFB) FUELS IN PULVERIZED FUEL AND FIXED BED BURNERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalyan Annamalai; John Sweeten; Saqib Mukhtar; Ben Thien; Gengsheng Wei; Soyuz Priyadarsan

    2002-01-15

    result as the levels of N are higher in the biomass fuel than in coal. Further experiments showed that biomass is twice or more effective than coal when used in a reburning process to reduce NO{sub x} emissions. Since crushing costs of biomass fuels may be prohibitive, stoker firing may be cost effective; in order simulate such a firing, future work will investigate the performance of a gasifier when fired with larger sized coal and biomass. It will be a fixed bed gasifier, and will evaluate blends, coal, and biomass. Computer simulations were performed using the PCGC-2 code supplied by BYU and modified by A&M with three mixture fractions for handling animal based biomass fuels in order to include an improved moisture model for handling wet fuels and phosphorus oxidation. Finally the results of the economic analysis show that considerable savings can be achieved with the use of biomass. In the case of higher ash and moisture biomass, the fuel cost savings will be reduced, due to increased transportation costs. A spreadsheet program was created to analyze the fuel savings for a variety of different moisture levels, ash levels, and power plant operating parameters.

  15. Straw Gasification in a Two-Stage Gasifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Jens Dall; Hindsgaul, Claus; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk

    2002-01-01

    Additive-prepared straw pellets were gasified in the 100 kW two-stage gasifier at The Department of Mechanical Engineering of the Technical University of Denmark (DTU). The fixed bed temperature range was 800-1000°C. In order to avoid bed sintering, as observed earlier with straw gasification...... residues were examined after the test. No agglomeration or sintering was observed in the ash residues. The tar content was measured both by solid phase amino adsorption (SPA) method and cold trapping (Petersen method). Both showed low tar contents (~42 mg/Nm3 without gas cleaning). The particle content...

  16. Field application of a planted fixed bed reactor (PFR) for support media and rhizosphere investigation using undisturbed samples from full-scale constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, A B; Vasconcellos, G R; von Sperling, M; Kuschk, P; Kappelmeyer, U; Vasel, J L

    2015-01-01

    This study presents a novel method for investigations on undisturbed samples from full-scale horizontal subsurface-flow constructed wetlands (HSSFCW). The planted fixed bed reactor (PFR), developed at the Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research (UFZ), is a universal test unit for planted soil filters that reproduces the operational conditions of a constructed wetland (CW) system in laboratory scale. The present research proposes modifications on the PFR original configuration in order to allow its operation in field conditions. A mobile device to obtain undisturbed samples from real-scale HSSFCW was also developed. The experimental setting is presented with two possible operational configurations. The first allows the removal and replacement of undisturbed samples in the CW bed for laboratory investigations, guaranteeing sample integrity with a mobile device. The second allows the continuous operation of the PFR and undisturbed samples as a fraction of the support media, reproducing the same environmental conditions outside the real-scale system. Investigations on the hydrodynamics of the adapted PFR were carried out with saline tracer tests, validating the proposed adaptation. Six adapted PFR units were installed next to full-scale HSSFCW beds and fed with interstitial liquid pumped from two regions of planted and unplanted support media. Fourteen points were monitored along the system, covering carbon fractions, nitrogen and sulfate. The results indicate the method as a promising tool for investigations on CW support media, rhizosphere and open space for studies on CW modeling, respirometry, kinetic parameters, microbial communities, redox potential and plant influence on HSSFCW.

  17. Thermodynamic Analysis of an Integrated Gasification Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Plant with a Kalina Cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pierobon, Leonardo; Rokni, Masoud

    2015-01-01

    A hybrid plant that consists of a gasification system, Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) and a Simple Kalina Cycle (SKC) is investigated. Woodchips are introduced into a fixed bed gasification plant to produce syngas, which is then fed into an integrated SOFC-SKC plant to produce electricity. The pre......-treated fuel then enters the anode side of the SOFC. Complete fuel oxidation is ensured in a burner by off-gases exiting the SOFC stacks. Off-gases are utilized as heat source for a SKC where a mixture of ammonia and water is expanded in a turbine to produce additional electric power. Thus, a triple novel...... system based on a gasification plant, a SOFC plant and a SKC plant is presented and investigated. The system is called IGSKC (Integrated Gasification SOFC Simple Kalina Cycle). The system layout is studied, and the optimal ammonia-water mole fraction is selected. An electrical efficiency of 58...

  18. International Seminar on Gasification 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Held, Joergen (ed.)

    2008-11-15

    results in a product gas free of nitrogen and hence suitable for production of biomethane. The concept has been proven at the Guessing plant using a slip-stream but still we are awaiting the first commercial plant that produce biomethane suitable as vehicle fuel or for grid injection. Several demonstration projects are related to air-blown gasification and CHP production. The two-stage Viking gasifier developed at Technical University of Denmark produces a gas with low tar content (<5 mg/Nm3) suitable for combined heat and power production where a gas engine is used for the electricity production. The 70 kW{sub th} pilot plant has an electric efficiency of 25 %. With a scale-up to 0.2-2 MW{sub e} and improved internal heat recovery an electric efficiency of >37 % is expected. In Skive, Denmark, biomass gasification in a 20 MW{sub th} gasifier based on technology developed at GTI, USA and commercialized by Carbona, Finland is demonstrated. The total investment cost is 30 million Euro. Expected pay-back time is approx. 10 years. The project is delayed and the official opening is planned to April 2009. The delay reflects the inherent uncertainty related to large-scale demonstration of new technology. There are several other demonstrations related to biomass gasification and gas cleaning on their way and the field of gasification seems to experience a renaissance. Gas engines utilizing gasified biomass are commercially available. GE Jenbacher has installed gas engines in many biomass gasification plants in Europe. The accumulated hours of operation for the gas engines well exceed 100,000 hours. The plants with installed gas engines span over different gasification technologies (e.g. fixed bed - updraft, fixed bed - down draft and indirect gasification) and different gas compositions with lower heating values ranging from 5.4 MJ/Nm3 to 10.5 MJ/Nm3. High CO content in the gas results in high CO emissions from the gas engine which calls for exhaust gas after-treatment. To avoid

  19. International Seminar on Gasification 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Held, Joergen (ed.)

    2008-11-15

    results in a product gas free of nitrogen and hence suitable for production of biomethane. The concept has been proven at the Guessing plant using a slip-stream but still we are awaiting the first commercial plant that produce biomethane suitable as vehicle fuel or for grid injection. Several demonstration projects are related to air-blown gasification and CHP production. The two-stage Viking gasifier developed at Technical University of Denmark produces a gas with low tar content (<5 mg/Nm3) suitable for combined heat and power production where a gas engine is used for the electricity production. The 70 kW{sub th} pilot plant has an electric efficiency of 25 %. With a scale-up to 0.2-2 MW{sub e} and improved internal heat recovery an electric efficiency of >37 % is expected. In Skive, Denmark, biomass gasification in a 20 MW{sub th} gasifier based on technology developed at GTI, USA and commercialized by Carbona, Finland is demonstrated. The total investment cost is 30 million Euro. Expected pay-back time is approx. 10 years. The project is delayed and the official opening is planned to April 2009. The delay reflects the inherent uncertainty related to large-scale demonstration of new technology. There are several other demonstrations related to biomass gasification and gas cleaning on their way and the field of gasification seems to experience a renaissance. Gas engines utilizing gasified biomass are commercially available. GE Jenbacher has installed gas engines in many biomass gasification plants in Europe. The accumulated hours of operation for the gas engines well exceed 100,000 hours. The plants with installed gas engines span over different gasification technologies (e.g. fixed bed - updraft, fixed bed - down draft and indirect gasification) and different gas compositions with lower heating values ranging from 5.4 MJ/Nm3 to 10.5 MJ/Nm3. High CO content in the gas results in high CO emissions from the gas engine which calls for exhaust gas after-treatment. To avoid

  20. A Review of Underground Coal Gasification Research and Development in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camp, D. W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-06-26

    An intense and productive period of research and development on underground coal gasification (UCG) took place in the United States from the mid-1970’s through the late 1980’s. It began with the translation and review of Soviet literature and ended with the Rocky Mountain 1 field test. This demonstrated the feasibility of newly-developed technologies that form the basis of many UCG projects around the world today. This period began with little domestic understanding of UCG and ended with an accurate observation-based conceptual model and a corresponding predictive multi-physics mathematical model of the process. The many accomplishments of this period form the main content of this report. This report also covers recent U.S. activities and accomplishments during the period 2004-2015, and touches briefly on the Bureau of Mines efforts between 1948 and 1963. Most of the activities were funded by the United States Department of Energy and its predecessors. While private/commercially-funded activities are reviewed here, the emphasis is on government-funded work. It has a much greater extent of publicly available reports and papers, and they generally contain much greater technical detail. Field tests were the marquis activities around which an integrated multi-faceted program was built. These are described in detail in Section 4. Highlights from modeling efforts are briefly covered, as the program was integrated and well-rounded, with field results informing models and vice-versa. The primary goal of this report is to review what has been learned about UCG from the U.S. experience in aggregate. This includes observations, conclusions, lessons-learned, phenomena understood, and technology developed. The latter sections of this report review these things.

  1. Oxidative coupling of methane in a fixed bed reactor over perovskite catalyst: A simulation study using experimental kinetic model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nakisa Yaghobi; Mir Hamid Reza Ghoreishy

    2008-01-01

    The oxidative coupling of methane (OCM) to ethylene over a perovskite titanate catalyst in a fixed bed reactor was studied experimentally and numerically. The two-dimensional steady state model accounted for separate energy equations for the gas and solid phases coupled with an experimental kinetic model. A lumped kinetic model containing four main species CH4, O2, COx (CO2, CO), and C2 (C2H4 and C2H6) was used with a plug flow reactor model as well. The results from the model agreed with the experimental data. The model was used to analyze the influence of temperature and feed gas composition on the conversion and selectivity of the reactor performance. The analytical results indicate that the conversion decreases, whereas, C2 selectivity increases by increasing gas hourly space velocity (GHSV) and the methane conversion also decreases by increasing the methane to oxygen ratio.

  2. A kinetic study of gaseous potassium capture by coal minerals in a high temperature fixed-bed reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Yuanjing; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Jensen, Anker Degn

    2008-01-01

    The reactions between gaseous potassium chloride and coal minerals were investigated in a lab-scale high temperature fixed-bed reactor using single sorbent pellets. The applied coal minerals included kaolin, mullite, silica, alumina, bituminous coal ash, and lignite coal ash that were formed...... into long cylindrical pellets. Kaolin and bituminous coal ash that both have significant amounts of Si and Al show superior potassium capture characteristics. Experimental results show that capture of potassium by kaolin is independent of the gas oxygen content. Kaolin releases water and forms metakaolin...... at temperatures below 1300°C. However, the weight gain by mullite is only slightly smaller than that by kaolin in the temperature range of 1300-1500°C. A simple model was developed for the gas-solid reaction between potassium vapor and metakaolin pellet at 900°C....

  3. Evaluation of Two Biosorbents in the Removal of Metal Ions in Aqueous Using a Pilot Scale Fixed-bed System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Gadelha Oliveira

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to investigate the adsorption of toxic metal ions copper, nickel and zinc from aqueous solutions using low cost natural biomass (sugar cane bagasse and green coconut fiber in pilot scale fixed-bed system. The Hydraulic retention time (HRT was 229 minutes and the lowest adsorbent usage rate (AUR found was 0.10 g.L-1 for copper using green coconut fibers. The highest values of adsorption capacities founded were 1.417 and 2.772 mg.g-1 of Cu(II ions for sugarcane bagasse and green coconut fibers, respectively. The results showed that both sugarcane bagasse and green coconut fiber presented potential in the removal of metal ions copper, nickel and zinc ions from aqueous solution and the possible use in wastewater treatment station.

  4. Alkylation of Benzene with Propylene in a Flow-Through Membrane Reactor and Fixed-Bed Reactor: Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Rodríguez, Miguel; Gutiérrez-Arzaluz, Mirella; Mugica-Álvarez, Violeta; Aguilar-Pliego, Julia; Pergher, Sibele

    2012-01-01

    Benzene alkylation with propylene was studied in the gas phase using a catalytic membrane reactor and a fixed-bed reactor in the temperature range of 200–300 °C and with a weight hourly space velocity (WHSV) of 51 h−1. β-zeolite was prepared by hydrothermal synthesis using silica, aluminum metal and TEAOH as precursors. The membrane’s XRD patterns showed good crystallinity for the β-zeolite film, while scanning electron microscopy SEM results indicated that its random polycrystalline film was approximately 1 μm thick. The powders’ specific area was determined to be 400 m2·g−1 by N2 adsorption/desorption, and the TPD results indicated an overall acidity of 3.4 mmol NH3·g−1. Relative to the powdered catalyst, the catalytic membrane showed good activity and product selectivity for cumene. PMID:28817013

  5. Study on co-pyrolysis characteristics of rice straw and Shenfu bituminous coal blends in a fixed bed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuaidan; Chen, Xueli; Liu, Aibin; Wang, Li; Yu, Guangsuo

    2014-03-01

    Co-pyrolysis behaviors of rice straw and Shenfu bituminous coal were studied in a fixed bed reactor under nitrogen atmosphere. The pyrolysis temperatures were 700°C, 800°C and 900°C, respectively. Six different biomass ratios were used. Gas, tar components were analyzed by a gas chromatograph and a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry respectively. Under co-pyrolysis conditions, the gas volume yields are higher than the calculated values. Co-pyrolysis tar contains more phenolics, less oxygenate compounds than calculated values. The addition of biomass changes the atmosphere during the pyrolysis process and promotes tar decomposition. The SEM results show that the differences between the blended char and their parents char are not significant. The results of char yields and ultimate analysis also show that no significant interactions exist between the two kinds of particles. The changes of gas yield and components are caused by the secondary reactions and tar decomposition.

  6. Effect of hydrogen combustion reaction on the dehydrogenation of ethane in a fixed-bed catalytic membrane reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Masoud Hasany; Mohammad Malakootikhah; Vahid Rahmanian; Soheila Yaghmaei

    2015-01-01

    A two-dimensional non-isothermal mathematical model has been developed for the ethane dehydrogenation reaction in a fixed-bed catalytic membrane reactor. Since ethane dehydrogenation is an equilibrium reaction, removal of produced hydrogen by the membrane shifts the thermodynamic equilibrium to ethylene production. For further displacement of the dehydrogenation reaction, oxidative dehydrogenation method has been used. Since ethane dehydrogenation is an endothermic reaction, the energy produced by the oxidative dehydrogena-tion method is consumed by the dehydrogenation reaction. The results show that the oxidative dehydrogenation method generated a substantial improvement in the reactor performance in terms of high conversions and significant energy saving. It was also established that the sweep gas velocity in the shell side of the reactor is one of the most important factors in the effectiveness of the reactor.

  7. Lead and Cadmium Removal from Aqueous Medium Using Coir Pith as Adsorbent: Batch and Fixed bed Column Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.M.W.P.K. Amarasinghe

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Coir pith was used as an alternative to commonly available adsorbents for heavy metal ion removal from aqueous solutions. Batch and fixed bed column experiments were conducted to study adsorption characteristics of Cd and Pb onto coir pith. Coir pith is an effective adsorbent for Pb and Cd removal. The adsorbent dose, metal ion concentration and the solution pH affects the degree of adsorption. The maximum adsorption was observed at solution pH values above 5. The equilibrium data was satisfactorily fitted to Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. Pb showed higher adsorption capacity compared to Cd under the experimental conditions. Kinetic studies revealed that Pb and Cd uptake was fast within first 10 to 15 min of contact time and data fits to pseudo second-order model. Breakthrough curve data fits to linear Bed Depth Service Time (BDST model and bed capacities for Pb and Cd were 41 and 28 mg/g of coir pith respectively.

  8. Dry coal feeder development program at Ingersoll-Rand Research, Incorporated. [for coal gasification systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistry, D. K.; Chen, T. N.

    1977-01-01

    A dry coal screw feeder for feeding coal into coal gasification reactors operating at pressures up to 1500 psig is described. Results on the feeder under several different modes of operation are presented. In addition, three piston feeder concepts and their technical and economical merits are discussed.

  9. Demand-driven biogas production from sugar beet silage in a novel fixed bed disc reactor under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terboven, Christiane; Ramm, Patrice; Herrmann, Christiane

    2017-10-01

    A newly developed fixed bed disc reactor (FBDR) which combines biofilm formation on biofilm carriers and reactor agitation in one single system was assessed for its applicability to demand-driven biogas production by variable feeding of sugar beet silage. Five different feeding patterns were studied at an organic loading of 4gVSL(-1)d(-1) under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions. High methane yields of 449-462LNkgVS were reached. Feeding variable punctual loadings caused immediate response with 1.2- to 3.5-fold increase in biogas production rates within 15min. Although variable feeding did not induce process instability, a temporary decrease in pH-value and methane concentration below 40% occurred. Thermophilic temperature was advantageous as it resulted in a more rapid, higher methane production and less pronounced decrease in methane content after feeding. The FBDR was demonstrated to be well-suited for flexible biogas production, but further research and comparison with traditional reactor systems are required. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A highly efficient polyampholyte hydrogel sorbent based fixed-bed process for heavy metal removal in actual industrial effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Guiyin; Luo, Jinming; Liu, Chengbin; Chu, Lin; Ma, Jianhong; Tang, Yanhong; Zeng, Zebing; Luo, Shenglian

    2016-02-01

    High sorption capacity, high sorption rate, and fast separation and regeneration for qualified sorbents used in removing heavy metals from wastewater are urgently needed. In this study, a polyampholyte hydrogel was well designed and prepared via a simple radical polymerization procedure. Due to the remarkable mechanical strength, the three-dimensional polyampholyte hydrogel could be fast separated, easily regenerated and highly reused. The sorption capacities were as high as 216.1 mg/g for Pb(II) and 153.8 mg/g for Cd(II) owing to the existence of the large number of active groups. The adsorption could be conducted in a wide pH range of 3-6 and the equilibrium fast reached in 30 min due to its excellent water penetration for highly accessible to metal ions. The fixed-bed column sorption results indicated that the polyampholyte hydrogel was particularly effective in removing Pb(II) and Cd(II) from actual industrial effluent to meet the regulatory requirements. The treatment volumes of actual smelting effluent using one fixed bed column were as high as 684 bed volumes (BV) (7736 mL) for Pb(II) and 200 BV (2262 mL) for Cd(II). Furthermore, the treatment volumes of actual smelting effluent using tandem three columns reached 924 BV (31,351 mL) for Pb(II) and 250 BV (8483 mL) for Cd(II), producing only 4 BV (136 mL) eluent. Compared with the traditional high density slurry (HDS) process with large amount of sludge, the proposed process would be expected to produce only a small amount of sludge. When the treatment volume was controlled below 209.3 BV (7103 mL), all metal ions in the actual industrial effluent could be effectively removed (hydrogel sorbents for the removal of heavy metal ions from practical wastewater.

  11. Development and Optimization of AAV hFIX Particles by Transient Transfection in an iCELLis(®) Fixed-Bed Bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Alicia D; Piras, Bryan A; Clark, Robert K; Lockey, Timothy D; Meagher, Michael M

    2016-06-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors are increasingly popular in gene therapy because they are unassociated with human disease, replication dependent, and less immunogenic than other viral vectors and can infect a variety of cell types. These vectors have been used in over 130 clinical trials, and one AAV product has been approved for treatment of lipoprotein lipase deficiency in Europe. To meet the demand for the increasing quantities of AAV required for clinical trials and treatment, a scalable high-capacity technology is required. Bioreactors meet these requirements but limited options are available for adherent HEK 293T/17 cells. Here we optimize the transient transfection of HEK293T/17 cells for the production of AAV human factor IX in a disposable fixed-bed bioreactor, the iCELLis(®) Nano (PALL Corporation). A fixed bed in the center of the iCELLis bioreactor is surrounded by culture medium that is pumped through the bed from the bottom of the bioreactor so that a thin film of the medium overflows the bed and is replenished with oxygen and depleted of CO2 as it returns to the surrounding medium reservoir. We show that this fixed-bed bioreactor can support as many as 2.5 × 10(8) cells/ml of fixed bed (1.9 × 10(6) cells/cm(2)). By optimizing culture and transfection parameters such as the concentration of DNA for transfection, day of harvest, size of PEI/DNA particles, and transfection medium, and adding an additional medium change to the process, we increased our yield to as high as 9.0 × 10(14) viral particles per square meter of fixed bed. We also show an average GFP transfection of 97% of cells throughout the fixed bed. These yields make the iCELLis a promising scalable technology for the clinical production of AAV gene therapy products.

  12. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON BIO-OIL PYROLYSIS/GASIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mou Zhang

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to understand the mechanism of bio-oil gasification and the influence of operating parameters on the properties of the gas products. Firstly, the pyrolysis/gasification of bio-oil was performed using a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA. The evaporation of gas products from bio-oil were measured on-line with coupled Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR. The main gas products were CO, CO2, CH4, H2O, and light hydrocarbons, etc. Organics mainly evolved out at lower temperature (100-200°C, while the cracking of heavy hydrocarbon components took place at higher temperature (>200°C. Simultaneously, the gasification behavior of bio-oil was investigated in a fixed bed gasification reactor under different temperature and residence time. The gas product evolving was checked using micro-gas chromatography. It was observed that the yield of CO and H2 increased with increasing gasification temperature above 600°C, and the maximum value was obtained at 800°C. Prolonging the residence time was not favorable for the upgrading of syngas quality.

  13. Gaseous fuels production from dried sewage sludge via air gasification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werle, Sebastian; Dudziak, Mariusz

    2014-07-01

    Gasification is a perspective alternative method of dried sewage sludge thermal treatment. For the purpose of experimental investigations, a laboratory fixed-bed gasifier installation was designed and built. Two sewage sludge (SS) feedstocks, taken from two typical Polish wastewater treatment systems, were analysed: SS1, from a mechanical-biological wastewater treatment system with anaerobic stabilization (fermentation) and high temperature drying; and (SS2) from a mechanical-biological-chemical wastewater treatment system with fermentation and low temperature drying. The gasification results show that greater oxygen content in sewage sludge has a strong influence on the properties of the produced gas. Increasing the air flow caused a decrease in the heating value of the produced gas. Higher hydrogen content in the sewage sludge (from SS1) affected the produced gas composition, which was characterized by high concentrations of combustible components. In the case of the SS1 gasification, ash, charcoal, and tar were produced as byproducts. In the case of SS2 gasification, only ash and tar were produced. SS1 and solid byproducts from its gasification (ash and charcoal) were characterized by lower toxicity in comparison to SS2. However, in all analysed cases, tar samples were toxic.

  14. Research progress in calcium catalytic action during coal gasification%煤气化过程中钙催化作用的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高美琪; 王玉龙; 李凡

    2015-01-01

    Catalytic gasification of coal has been widely investigated. As a catalyst for coal gasification,calcium has been concerned by many researchers. In this paper,the types of calcium that can play catalyst role in coal gasification are summarized. The mechanism and influencing factors of calcium catalytic coal gasification are discussed. It is pointed out that calcium can accelerate the coal gasification rate more effectively because of the synergistic effect when it is selected to catalyze coal gasification together with other materials. Meanwhile , the research on calcium catalytic coal gasification in the near future is prospected. It is suggested that the mechanism of calcium catalytic coal gasification should be further discussed. It is necessary to develop the catalytic coal gasification technology using limestone or slaked lime mixed with other materials,such as black-liquor.%煤的催化气化在国内外已被广泛研究,Ca 作为一种对煤气化反应具有催化作用的碱土金属催化剂也受到许多研究者的关注。本文总结了可作为煤气化反应催化剂的Ca的类型,论述了Ca催化煤气化反应的机理,分析了影响Ca催化作用的主要因素,指出当Ca与其他物质共同作为煤气化反应的催化剂时,往往可以产生协同效应,更有效地催化煤气化反应的进行。同时提出了今后在Ca催化煤气化反应方面所应进行的研究内容,认为进一步探讨Ca在煤气化反应过程中发生的催化机理,开发使用廉价的石灰石、熟石灰,并且与其他物质,尤其是纸浆黑液共同作为煤气化反应的催化剂很有必要。

  15. Structural characterisation of pretreated solids from flow-through liquid hot water treatment of sugarcane bagasse in a fixed-bed reactor

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Reddy, P

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Untreated sugarcane bagasse and sugarcane bagasse pretreated with flow-through liquid hot water (LHW) treatment (170-207°C and 204-250 ml/min) in a fixed-bed reactor have been structurally characterised. Field emission gun scanning electron...

  16. Factors affecting biological reduction of CO{sub 2} into CH{sub 4} using a hydrogenotrophic methanogen in a fixed bed reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Hyung; Pak, Daewon [Seoul National University of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Won Seok [Korea District Heating Corp, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Biological conversion of CO{sub 2} was examined in a fixed bed reactor inoculated with anaerobic mixed culture to investigate influencing factors, the type of packing material and the composition of the feeding gas mixture. During the operation of the fixed bed reactor by feeding the gas mixture (80% H{sub 2} and 20% CO{sub 2} based on volume basis), the volumetric CO{sub 2} conversion rate was higher in the fixed bed reactor packed with sponge due to its large surface area and high mass transfer from gas to liquid phase compared with PS ball. Carbon dioxide loaded into the fixed bed reactor was not completely converted because some of H{sub 2} was used for biomass growth. When a mole ratio of H{sub 2} to CO{sub 2} in the feeding gas mixture increased from 4 to 5, CO{sub 2} was completely converted into CH{sub 4}. The packing material with large surface area is effective in treating gaseous substrate such as CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}. H{sub 2}, electron donor, should be providing more than required according to stoichiometry because some of it is used for biomass growth.

  17. Mathematical Modelling of Coal Gasification Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundararajan, T.; Raghavan, V.; Ajilkumar, A.; Vijay Kumar, K.

    2017-07-01

    Coal is by far the most commonly employed fuel for electrical power generation around the world. While combustion could be the route for coal utilization for high grade coals, gasification becomes the preferred process for low grade coals having higher composition of volatiles or ash. Indian coals suffer from high ash content-nearly 50% by weight in some cases. Instead of transporting such high ash coals, it is more energy efficient to gasify the coal and transport the product syngas. Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plants and Underground Gasification of coal have become attractive technologies for the best utilization of high ash coals. Gasification could be achieved in fixed beds, fluidized beds and entrained beds; faster rates of gasification are possible in fluidized beds and entrained flow systems, because of the small particle sizes and higher gas velocities. The media employed for gasification could involve air/oxygen and steam. Use of oxygen will yield relatively higher calorific value syngas because of the absence of nitrogen. Sequestration of the carbon dioxide after the combustion of the syngas is also easier, if oxygen is used for gasification. Addition of steam can increase hydrogen yield in the syngas and thereby increase the calorific value also. Gasification in the presence of suitable catalysts can increase the composition of methane in the product gas. Several competing heterogenous and homogenous reactions occur during coal major heterogenous reaction pathways, while interactions between carbon monoxide, oxygen, hydrogen, water vapour, methane and carbon dioxide result in several simultaneous gas-phase (homogenous) reactions. The overall product composition of the coal gasification process depends on the input reactant composition, particle size and type of gasifier, and pressure and temperature of the gasifier. The use of catalysts can also selectively change the product composition. At IIT Madras, over the last one decade, both

  18. Effect of temperature and salinity on the wastewater treatment performance of aerobic submerged fixed bed biofilm reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapanova, G; Jank, M; Schlegel, S; Koeser, H

    2007-01-01

    The influence of temperature (5-35 C) and salinity (up to 20 g/l NaCl) on the wastewater purification process in completely mixed and aerated submerged fixed bed biofilm reactors (SFBBRs) was studied. C- and N-conversion in SFBBRs designed according to the DWA (German Association for Water, Wastewater and Waste) rules for carbon removal was investigated for several months on synthetic wastewater. The DOC degradation rate was even at, according to the DWA, high DOC/BOD loading rates not much affected by temperatures between 5-35 degrees C and salt contents up to 20 g/L NaCl. At these high DOC loadings an appreciable ammonium conversion could also be observed. The ammonium conversion proved to be sensitive to temperature and salinity. At 5 degrees C the ammonium removal rate decreased by a factor of five compared to 25-35 degrees C. Under many operation conditions investigated more than 50% of the converted ammonium was transformed into gaseous nitrogen. The addition of 20 g/L NaCl caused a strong inhibition of the ammonium removal rate over the whole temperature range investigated.

  19. Aqueous phase adsorption of cephalexin by walnut shell-based activated carbon: A fixed-bed column study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazari, Ghadir; Abolghasemi, Hossein; Esmaieli, Mohamad; Sadeghi Pouya, Ehsan

    2016-07-01

    The walnut shell was used as a low cost adsorbent to produce activated carbon (AC) for the removal of cephalexin (CFX) from aqueous solution. A fixed-bed column adsorption was carried out using the walnut shell AC. The effect of various parameters like bed height (1.5, 2 and 2.5 cm), flow rate (4.5, 6 and 7.5 mL/min) and initial CFX concentration (50, 100 and 150 mg/L) on the breakthrough characteristics of the adsorption system was investigated at optimum pH 6.5. The highest bed capacity of 211.78 mg/g was obtained using 100 mg/L inlet drug concentration, 2 cm bed height and 4.5 mL/min flow rate. Three kinetic models, namely Adam's-Bohart, Thomas and Yoon-Nelson were applied for analysis of experimental data. The Thomas and Yoon-Nelson models were appropriate for walnut shell AC column design under various conditions. The experimental adsorption capacity values were fitted to the Bangham and intra-particle diffusion models in order to propose adsorption mechanisms. The effect of temperature on the degradation of CFX was also studied.

  20. Carbon Dioxide Captured from Flue Gas by Modified Ca-based Sorbents in Fixed-bed Reactor at High Temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Lei; YU Hongbing; WANG Shengqiang; WANG Haowen; ZHOU Qibin

    2013-01-01

    Four kinds of Ca-based sorbents were prepared by calcination and hydration reactions using different precursors: calcium hydroxide,calcium carbonate,calcium acetate monohydrate and calcium oxide.The CO2 absorption capacity of those sorbents was investigated in a fixed-bed reactor in the temperature range of 350 650 ℃.It was found that all of those sorbents showed higher capacity for CO2 absorption when the operating temperature higher than 450 ℃.The CaAc2-CaO sorbent showed the highest CO2 absorption capacity of 299 mg·g-1.The morphology of those sorbents was examined by scanning electron microscope(SEM),and the changes of composition before and after carbonation were also determined by X-ray diffraction(XRD).Results indicated that those sorbents have the similar chemical compositions and crystalline phases before carbonation reaction [mainly Ca(OH)2],and CaCO3 is the main component after carbonation reaction.The SEM morphology shows clearly that the sorbent pores were filled with reaction products after carbonation reaction,and became much denser than before.The N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms indicated that the CaAc2-CaO and CaCO3-CaO sorbents have higher specific surface area,larger pore volume and appropriate pore size distribution than that of CaO-CaO and Ca(OH)2-CaO.

  1. Investigations on humic acid removal from water using surfactant-modified zeolite as adsorbent in a fixed-bed reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsheikh, Awad F.; Ahmad, Umi Kalthom; Ramli, Zainab

    2016-12-01

    Natural organic matter (NOM) is ubiquitous in aquatic environments and has recently become an issue of worldwide concern in drinking water treatment. The major component of NOM is humic acids (HA). In this study, a natural zeolite (mordenite) was modified employing hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (HDTMA) to enhance greater efficient sites for sorption of HA. The natural zeolite and surfactant-modified zeolite (SMZ) were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR), N2 Adsorption-desorption isotherms and BET-specific surface area, thermographic analysis, derivative thermographic analysis (TGA-DTA) and Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). A fixed-bed reactor was used for the removal of HA and the effects of different experimental parameters such as HDTMA loading levels, HA solution flow rate, solution pH and eluent concentration were investigated. The results indicated that the SMZ bed with HDTMA loading of 75% of external cation exchange capacity (ECEC) at a flow rate of 2 BV/h and pH of 10 showed the greatest enhanced removal efficiency of HA while ethanol solutions (25%v/v) with feed flow rate of 2 BV/h were sufficient for complete regeneration of SMZ and desorption of HA. Measurements of surface area of SMZ indicated that a monolayer formation of the surfactant at those conditions allowed the optimum removal of HA.

  2. Anaerobic degradation of landfill leachate using an upflow anaerobic fixed-bed reactor with microbial sulfate reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thabet, Olfa Ben Dhia; Bouallagui, Hassib; Cayol, Jean-luc; Ollivier, Bernard; Fardeau, Marie-Laure; Hamdi, Moktar

    2009-08-15

    This study evaluated the anaerobic degradation of landfill leachate and sulfate reduction as a function of COD/(SO(4)(2-)) ratio in an upflow anaerobic fixed-bed reactor. The reactor, which was inoculated with a mixed consortium, was operated under a constant hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 5 days. We investigated the effect of COD/(SO(4)(2-)) ratio variation on the sulfate reduction efficiency, hydrogen sulfide production, chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal, conductivity, and pH variation. The best reactor performance, with significant sulfate reduction efficiency and COD removal efficiency of 91% and 87%, respectively, was reached under a COD/(SO(4)(2-)) ratio of 1.17. Under these conditions, microscopic analysis showed the abundance of vibrios and rod-shaped bacterial cells. Two anaerobic bacteria were isolated from the reactor sludge. Phylogenetic studies performed on these strains identified strain A1 as affiliated to Clostridium genus and strain H1 as a new species of sulfate-reducing bacteria affiliated to the Desulfovibrio genus. The closest phylogenetic relative of strain H1 was Desulfovibrio desulfuricans, at 96% similarity for partial 16S RNA gene sequence data. Physiological and metabolic characterization was performed for this strain.

  3. Performance, kinetic, and biodegradation pathway evaluation of anaerobic fixed film fixed bed reactor in removing phthalic acid esters from wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Ehsan; Yousefzadeh, Samira; Ansari, Mohsen; Ghaffari, Hamid Reza; Azari, Ali; Miri, Mohammad; Mesdaghinia, Alireza; Nabizadeh, Ramin; Kakavandi, Babak; Ahmadi, Peyman; Badi, Mojtaba Yegane; Gholami, Mitra; Sharafi, Kiomars; Karimaei, Mostafa; Ghoochani, Mahboobeh; Brahmand, Masoud Binesh; Mohseni, Seyed Mohsen; Sarkhosh, Maryam; Rezaei, Soheila; Asgharnia, Hosseinali; Dehghanifard, Emad; Jafari, Behdad; Mortezapour, Alireza; Moghaddam, Vahid Kazemi; Mahmoudi, Mohammad Molla; Taghipour, Nader

    2017-02-01

    Emerging and hazardous environmental pollutants like phthalic acid esters (PAEs) are one of the recent concerns worldwide. PAEs are considered to have diverse endocrine disrupting effects on human health. Industrial wastewater has been reported as an important environment with high concentrations of PAEs. In the present study, four short-chain PAEs including diallyl phthalate (DAP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), dimethyl phthalate (DMP), and phthalic acid (PA) were selected as a substrate for anaerobic fixed film fixed bed reactor (AnFFFBR). The process performances of AnFFFBR, and also its kinetic behavior, were evaluated to find the best eco-friendly phthalate from the biodegradability point of view. According to the results and kinetic coefficients, removing and mineralizing of DMP occurred at a higher rate than other phthalates. In optimum conditions 92.5, 84.41, and 80.39% of DMP, COD, and TOC were removed. DAP was found as the most bio-refractory phthalate. The second-order (Grau) model was selected as the best model for describing phthalates removal.

  4. Simultaneous production of laccase and decolouration of the diazo dye Reactive Black 5 in a fixed-bed bioreactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enayatzamir, Kheirghadam [Department of Chemical Engineering, Rovira i Virgili University, Av. Paisos Catalans 26, 43007 Tarragona (Spain); Department of Soil Science Engineering, University of Tehran, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Alikhani, Hossein A. [Department of Soil Science Engineering, University of Tehran, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rodriguez Couto, Susana [Department of Chemical Engineering, Rovira i Virgili University, Av. Paisos Catalans 26, 43007 Tarragona (Spain)], E-mail: susana.rodriguez@urv.cat

    2009-05-15

    In this paper the production of laccase and the decolouration of the recalcitrant diazo dye Reactive Black 5 (RB5) by the white-rot fungus Trametes pubescens immobilised on stainless steel sponges in a fixed-bed reactor were studied. Laccase production was increased by 10-fold in the presence of RB5 and reached a maximum value of 1025 U/l. Enhanced laccase production in the presence of RB5 in this fungus is an added advantage during biodegradation of RB5-containing effluents. The decolouration of RB5 was due to two processes: dye adsorption onto the fungal mycelium and dye degradation by the laccase enzymes produced by the fungus. RB5 decolouration was performed during four successive batches obtaining high decolouration percentages (74%, 43% and 52% in 24 h for the first, third and four batch, respectively) without addition of redox mediators. Also, the in vitro decolouration of RB5 by the concentrated culture extract, containing mainly laccase, produced in the above bioreactor was studied. The decolouration percentages obtained were considerably lower (around 20% in 24 h) than that attained with the whole culture.

  5. Carbonaceous materials in petrochemical wastewater before and after treatment in an aerated submerged fixed-bed biofilm reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trojanowicz Karol

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Results of the studies for determining fractions of organic contaminants in a pretreated petrochemical wastewater flowing into a pilot Aerated Submerged Fixed-Bed Biofilm Reactor (ASFBBR are presented and discussed. The method of chemical oxygen demand (COD fractionation consisted of physical tests and biological assays. It was found that the main part of the total COD in the petrochemical, pretreated wastewater was soluble organic substance with average value of 57.6%. The fractions of particulate and colloidal organic matter were found to be 31.8% and 10.6%, respectively. About 40% of COD in the influent was determined as readily biodegradable COD. The inert fraction of the soluble organic matter in the petrochemical wastewater constituted about 60% of the influent colloidal and soluble COD. Determination of degree of hydrolysis (DH of the colloidal fraction of COD was also included in the paper. The estimated value of DH was about 62%. Values of the assayed COD fractions were compared with the same parameters obtained for municipal wastewater by other authors.

  6. Performance, kinetic, and biodegradation pathway evaluation of anaerobic fixed film fixed bed reactor in removing phthalic acid esters from wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Ehsan; Yousefzadeh, Samira; Ansari, Mohsen; Ghaffari, Hamid Reza; Azari, Ali; Miri, Mohammad; Mesdaghinia, Alireza; Nabizadeh, Ramin; Kakavandi, Babak; Ahmadi, Peyman; Badi, Mojtaba Yegane; Gholami, Mitra; Sharafi, Kiomars; Karimaei, Mostafa; Ghoochani, Mahboobeh; Brahmand, Masoud Binesh; Mohseni, Seyed Mohsen; Sarkhosh, Maryam; Rezaei, Soheila; Asgharnia, Hosseinali; Dehghanifard, Emad; Jafari, Behdad; Mortezapour, Alireza; Moghaddam, Vahid Kazemi; Mahmoudi, Mohammad Molla; Taghipour, Nader

    2017-01-01

    Emerging and hazardous environmental pollutants like phthalic acid esters (PAEs) are one of the recent concerns worldwide. PAEs are considered to have diverse endocrine disrupting effects on human health. Industrial wastewater has been reported as an important environment with high concentrations of PAEs. In the present study, four short-chain PAEs including diallyl phthalate (DAP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), dimethyl phthalate (DMP), and phthalic acid (PA) were selected as a substrate for anaerobic fixed film fixed bed reactor (AnFFFBR). The process performances of AnFFFBR, and also its kinetic behavior, were evaluated to find the best eco-friendly phthalate from the biodegradability point of view. According to the results and kinetic coefficients, removing and mineralizing of DMP occurred at a higher rate than other phthalates. In optimum conditions 92.5, 84.41, and 80.39% of DMP, COD, and TOC were removed. DAP was found as the most bio-refractory phthalate. The second-order (Grau) model was selected as the best model for describing phthalates removal. PMID:28216654

  7. Pyrolysis of hazelnut shells in a fixed-bed tubular reactor. Yields and structural analysis of bio-oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puetuen, A.E.; Oezcan, A.; Puetuen, E. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Yunusemre Campus, Anadolu University, 26470 Eskisehir (Turkey)

    1999-09-01

    Fixed-bed pyrolysis experiments have been conducted on a sample of hazelnut shells to determine the possibility of being a potential source of renewable fuels and chemical feedstocks. The effects of pyrolysis temperature and well-sweep gas atmosphere (N{sub 2}) on the pyrolysis yields and chemical compositions have been investigated. The maximum bio-oil yield of 23.1 wt.% was obtained in N{sub 2} atmosphere at a pyrolysis temperature of 500C and heating rate of 7 K min{sup -1}. The pyrolysis products were characterised by elemental analysis and various chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques and also compared with currently utilised transport fuels by simulated distillation. Bio-oil was then fractionated into pentane soluble and insoluble compounds (asphaltenes). Pentane soluble was then solvent fractionated into pentane, toluene, ether and methanol subfractions by fractionated column chromatography. The aliphatic and low-molecular-weight aromatic subfractions of the bio-oil were then analyzed by capillary column gas-liquid chromatography and GC/MS. Further structural analysis of bio-oil and aromatic and polar subfractions FTIR and {sup 1}H-NMR spectra were obtained. The chemical characterization has shown that the bio-oil obtained from hazelnut shells was quite similar to the crude oil and shale oil

  8. Alkylation of Benzene with Propylene in a Flow-Through Membrane Reactor and Fixed-Bed Reactor: Preliminary Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibele Pergher

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Benzene alkylation with propylene was studied in the gas phase using a catalytic membrane reactor and a fixed-bed reactor in the temperature range of 200–300 °C and with a weight hourly space velocity (WHSV of 51 h−1. β-zeolite was prepared by hydrothermal synthesis using silica, aluminum metal and TEAOH as precursors. The membrane’s XRD patterns showed good crystallinity for the β-zeolite film, while scanning electron microscopy SEM results indicated that its random polycrystalline film was approximately 1 μm thick. The powders’ specific area was determined to be 400 m2×g−1 by N2 adsorption/desorption, and the TPD results indicated an overall acidity of 3.4 mmol NH3×g−1. Relative to the powdered catalyst, the catalytic membrane showed good activity and product selectivity for cumene.

  9. Unidimensional heat transfer analysis of elephant grass and sugar cane bagasse slow pyrolysis in a fixed bed reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesa-Perez, J.M.; Cortez, L.A.B. [Faculdade de Engenharia Agricola-FEAGRI/UNICAMP, Cidade Universitaria ' Zeferino Vaz' , Barao Geraldo, CP 6011, 13084-971, Campinas SP (Brazil); Rocha, J.D.; Olivares-Gomez, E. [Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Planejamento Energetico, NIPE/UNICAMP, Cidade Universitaria ' Zeferino Vaz' , Barao Geraldo, CP 6086, 13084-971, Campinas SP (Brazil); Brossard-Perez, L.E. [Faculdad de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidade de Oriente Sede Mella, ave, Las Americas sn, Ampliacion de Terraza, Santiago de Cuba, CP 90 600 (Cuba)

    2005-02-25

    Elephant grass (Pennicetum purpureum) and sugar cane bagasse slow pyrolysis experiments was carried out in a fixed bed reactor. A 20-cm internal diameter and 12-cm-long reactor was used. Particulate biomass filled up the reactor volume. Biomass was loaded into the reactor and heated in the axial direction using an electrical resistance located at the reactor's bottom. In order to control the temperature variation during the biomass pyrolysis process, four thermocouples were installed inside of the reactor. The remain residual mass was constant approximately after 73 min of heating; the running was stopped and remain carbonised; material was manually removed from the reactor. The residue formed three layer of biomass visually different described in detail here. Proximate analysis and higher heating value (HHV) tests were carried out to the material in each layer. Mass loss against time was recorded during experiments. The results indicated that the carbonisation ratio decreases in time because the carbon layer has low thermal conductivity and it does not permit proper heat transfer to the upper layer of biomass. It means that technology that avoids high-temperature gradients during the pyrolysis of bulk-dispersed biomass could avoid the problems described before.

  10. Adsorption of phosphate from aqueous solutions and sewage using zirconium loaded okara (ZLO): Fixed-bed column study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, T.A.H. [Centre for Technology in Water and Wastewater, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Technology, Sydney (UTS), 15 Broadway, Ultimo, NSW 2007 (Australia); Ngo, H.H., E-mail: ngohuuhao121@gmail.com [Centre for Technology in Water and Wastewater, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Technology, Sydney (UTS), 15 Broadway, Ultimo, NSW 2007 (Australia); Guo, W.S. [Centre for Technology in Water and Wastewater, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Technology, Sydney (UTS), 15 Broadway, Ultimo, NSW 2007 (Australia); Pham, T.Q. [Faculty of Geography, University of Science, Vietnam National University, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Li, F.M. [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100 (China); Nguyen, T.V. [Centre for Technology in Water and Wastewater, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Technology, Sydney (UTS), 15 Broadway, Ultimo, NSW 2007 (Australia); Bui, X.T. [Environmental Engineering and Management Research Group, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Faculty of Environment and Natural Resources, Ho Chi Minh City University of Technology-Vietnam National University, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam)

    2015-08-01

    This study explores the potential of removing phosphorus from aqueous solutions and sewage by Zr(IV)-loaded okara (ZLO) in the fixed-bed column. Soybean residue (okara) was impregnated with 0.25 M Zr(IV) solution to prepare active binding sites for phosphate. The effect of several factors, including flow rate, bed height, initial phosphorus concentration, pH and adsorbent particle size on the performance of ZLO was examined. The maximum dynamic adsorption capacity of ZLO for phosphorus was estimated to be 16.43 mg/g. Breakthrough curve modeling indicated that Adams–Bohart model and Thomas model fitted the experimental data better than Yoon–Nelson model. After treatment with ZLO packed bed column, the effluent could meet the discharge standard for phosphorus in Australia. Successful desorption and regeneration were achieved with 0.2 NaOH and 0.1 HCl, respectively. The results prove that ZLO can be used as a promising phosphorus adsorbent in the dynamic adsorption system. - Highlights: • Dynamic adsorption of P from water and wastewater by Zr(IV)-loaded okara was tested. • Effects of column design parameters on the adsorption performance were investigated. • The dynamic adsorption capacity of Zr(IV)-loaded okara for P was reasonably high. • The spent column was effectively regenerated with 0.2 M NaOH followed by 0.1 M HCl. • Zr(IV)-loaded okara column was efficient in eliminating P from municipal sewage.

  11. Fixed-bed column study for hexavalent chromium removal and recovery by short-chain polyaniline synthesized on jute fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Potsangbam Albino; Chakraborty, Saswati

    2009-03-15

    Fixed-bed column studies were conducted to evaluate performance of a short-chain polymer, polyaniline, synthesized on the surface of jute fiber (PANI-jute) for the removal of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] in aqueous environment. Influent pH, column bed depth, influent Cr(VI) concentrations and influent flow rate were variable parameters for the present study. Optimum pH for total chromium removal was observed as 3 by electrostatic attraction of acid chromate ion (HCrO(4)(-)) with protonated amine group (NH(3)(+)) of PANI-jute. With increase in column bed depth from 40 to 60 cm, total chromium uptake by PANI-jute increased from 4.14 to 4.66 mg/g with subsequent increase in throughput volume from 9.84 to 12.6L at exhaustion point. The data obtained for total chromium removal were well described by BDST equation till 10% breakthrough. Adsorption rate constant and dynamic bed capacity at 10% breakthrough were observed as 0.01 L/mgh and 1069.46 mg/L, respectively. Adsorbed total chromium was recovered back from PANI-jute as non-toxic Cr(III) after ignition with more than 97% reduction in weight, minimizing the problem of solid waste disposal.

  12. Study of the degradation of dyes by MnP of Phanerochaete chrysosporium produced in a fixed-bed bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldes, D; Rodríguez Couto, S; Cameselle, C; Sanromán, M A

    2003-04-01

    The production of ligninolytic enzymes by the fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium in a fixed-bed tubular bioreactor, filled with cubes of nylon sponge, operating in semi-solid-state conditions, was studied. Maximum individual manganese-dependent peroxidase (MnP) and lignin peroxidase (LiP) activities of 1293 and 225 U/l were detected. The in vitro decolourisation of two structurally different dyes (Poly R-478, crystal violet) by the extracellular liquid obtained in the above-mentioned bioreactor was monitored in order to determine its degrading capability. The concentration of some compounds (sodium malonate, manganese sulphate) from the reaction mixture was optimised in order to maximise the decolourisation levels. A percentage of Poly R-478 decolourisation of 24% after 15 min of dye incubation was achieved. On the other hand, a methodology for a long treatment of these dyes based on the continuous addition of MnP enzyme and H(2)O(2) was developed. Moreover, this enzymatic treatment was compared with a photochemical decolourisation process. The former allowed to maintain the degradation rate almost constant for a long time, resulting in a decolourisation percentage of 70% and 30% for crystal violet and Poly R-478, respectively, after 2 h of treatment. As for the latter, it was not able to degrade Poly R-478, whereas crystal violet reached a degradation of 40% in 2 h.

  13. Comparative study on pyrolysis of lignocellulosic and algal biomass using a thermogravimetric and a fixed-bed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ting; Tahmasebi, Arash; Yu, Jianglong

    2015-01-01

    Pyrolysis characteristics of four algal and lignocellulosic biomass samples were studied by using a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) and a fixed-bed reactor. The effects of pyrolysis temperature and biomass type on the yield and composition of pyrolysis products were investigated. The average activation energy for pyrolysis of biomass samples by FWO and KAS methods in this study were in the range of 211.09-291.19kJ/mol. CO2 was the main gas component in the early stage of pyrolysis, whereas H2 and CH4 concentrations increased with increasing pyrolysis temperature. Bio-oil from Chlorellavulgaris showed higher content of nitrogen containing compounds compared to lignocellulosic biomass. The concentration of aromatic organic compounds such as phenol and its derivatives were increased with increasing pyrolysis temperature up to 700°C. FTIR analysis results showed that with increasing pyrolysis temperature, the concentration of OH, CH, CO, OCH3, and CO functional groups in char decreased sharply. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Adsorptive removal of heavy metals from water using sodium titanate nanofibres loaded onto GAC in fixed-bed columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sounthararajah, D P; Loganathan, P; Kandasamy, J; Vigneswaran, S

    2015-04-28

    Heavy metals are serious pollutants in aquatic environments. A study was undertaken to remove Cu, Cd, Ni, Pb and Zn individually (single metal system) and together (mixed metals system) from water by adsorption onto a sodium titanate nanofibrous material. Langmuir adsorption capacities (mg/g) at 10(-3)M NaNO3 ionic strength in the single metal system were 60, 83, 115 and 149 for Ni, Zn, Cu, and Cd, respectively, at pH 6.5 and 250 for Pb at pH 4.0. In the mixed metals system they decreased at high metals concentrations. In column experiments with 4% titanate material and 96% granular activated carbon (w/w) mixture at pH 5.0, the metals breakthrough times and adsorption capacities (for both single and mixed metals systems) decreased in the order Pb>Cd, Cu>Zn>Ni within 266 bed volumes. The amounts adsorbed were up to 82 times higher depending on the metal in the granular activated carbon+titanate column than in the granular activated carbon column. The study showed that the titanate material has high potential for removing heavy metals from polluted water when used with granular activated carbon at a very low proportion in fixed-bed columns.

  15. Photodegradation of Methylene Blue in a Batch Fixed Bed Photoreactor Using Activated Carbon Fibers Supported TiO2 Photocatalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅平丰; 赵卓; 彭鹏; 戴学刚

    2008-01-01

    A batch fixed bed photoreactor, using felt-form activated carbon fibers (ACF) supported TiO2 photocatalyst(TiO2/ACF), was developed to carry out photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB) solution. The effects of TiO2 particle size, loaded TiO2 amount, initial MB concentration, airflow rate and successive run on the decomposition rate were investigated. The results showed that photodegradation process followed a pseudo-first-order reaction kinetic law. The apparent first-order reaction constant kapp was larger than 0.047 min-1 with half reaction time t1/2 shorter than 15 min, which was comparable to reported data using suspended Degussa P-25 TiO2 particles. The high degradation rate was mainly attributed to adsorption of MB molecules onto the surface of TiO2/ACF. The photocatalytic efficiency still remained nearly 90% after 12 successive runs, showing that successive usage of the designed photoreactor was possible. The synergic enhancement effect in combination of adsorption with ACF and photodegradation with TiO2 was proved by comparing MB removal rates in the successive degradation and adsorption runs, respectively.

  16. Anaerobic co-digestion of vegetable waste and swine wastewater in high-rate horizontal reactors with fixed bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazareli, Raissa Cristina da Silva; Duda, Rose Maria; Leite, Valderi Duarte; Oliveira, Roberto Alves de

    2016-06-01

    Considering the high waste generation that comes from agriculture and livestock farming, as well as the demand for natural gas, it is necessary to develop sustainable technologies which can reduce environmental impact. There is no available literature on the use of high-rate horizontal anaerobic reactors with fixed bed (HARFB) and continuous feed for the co-digestion of vegetable wastes (VW) and swine wastewater (SW). The aim of this work was to evaluate the reactor performance in terms of methane production, organic matter consumption, and removal of total and thermotolerant coliforms under different proportions of SW and VW, and organic loading rates (OLR) of 4.0, 5.2 and 11.0g COD (Ld)(-)(1). The mixture of SW and VW in the proportions of 90:10, 80:20 and 70:30 (SW:VW) with those OLRs provided great buffering capacity, with partial alkalinity reaching 3552mgL(-1), thereby avoiding the inhibition of methane production by volatile fatty acids produced during the fermentation process. Higher proportions of VW and higher OLR improved volumetric methane production with a maximum value of 1.08LCH4 (Ld)(-)(1), organic matter removal rates up to 98% and total and thermotolerant coliform removal rates of 99% were also observed.

  17. Nitrification in moving bed and fixed bed biofilters treating effluent water from a large commercial outdoor rainbow trout RAS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suhr, Karin; Pedersen, Per Bovbjerg

    2010-01-01

    The nitrification performance of two fixed bed (FB) biofilters and two moving bed (MB) biofilters was evaluated. They received the same cold (8 degrees C) influent water from a commercial outdoor RAS facility producing rainbow trout (average density 32 kg m(-3)). The filters were constructed...... as four identical 5.5 m(3) tanks with different filter media inside and tested simultaneously in duplicate. FB filters were filled with 4.2 m(3) polyethylene netshaped cylinders (Bioblok (R), 200 m(2):n(-3)), and MB filters with 2 m(3) polypropylene carriers (Biomedia, 850 m(2) m(-3)). Nitrification rates...... were measured 3(1/2) months after start-up, and inlet water was supplemented with ammonium chloride in order to determine maximum nitrification rates (0-order kinetics). The filters were conditioned at in inlet TAN concentration of 2.89 +/- 0.1 mg l(-1) and water in-flow ranging from 1 l s(-1) to 4 l s...

  18. Cobalt (II) removal from aqueous solutions by natural hemp fibers: Batch and fixed-bed column studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tofan, Lavinia; Teodosiu, Carmen; Paduraru, Carmen; Wenkert, Rodica

    2013-11-01

    Natural hemp fibers were explored as sorbent for the removal of Co(II) ions from aqueous solutions in batch and dynamic conditions. The batch Co(II) sorption capacity increased up to pH 5, reached the maximum (7.5-7.8 mg/g) over the initial pH of 4.5-5. As the initial concentration of metal ion increased (in the range of 25-200 mg/L), the cobalt uptake was enhanced, but the Co(II) removal efficiency decreased. The batch sorption of Co(II) on the tested hemp follows a pseudo-second order model, which relies on the assumption that the chemisorptions may be the rate-controlling step. The Langmuir model better described the Co(II) sorption process on the natural hemp fibers in comparison with the Freundlich model. This finding complies with the results of fixed-bed studies which emphasize that the optimal solution for describing the behavior of the investigated hemp bed column is provided by the Thomas model. The sorption capacity of the hemp fibers column (15.44 mg/g) performed better than that of the Co(II)-hemp batch system (13.58 mg/g). The possibility to use hemp fibers as an alternative in the Co(II) wastewater treatment should be studied under pilot scale applications, so as to complete the studies concerning the removal efficiencies with technical and economic factors that influence process scale-up.

  19. Lead and Cadmium Removal from Aqueous Medium Using Coir Pith as Adsorbent: Batch and Fixed bed Column Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.M.W.P.K. Amarasinghe

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Coir pith was used as an alternative to commonly available adsorbents for heavy metal ion removal from aqueous solutions. Batch and fixed bed column experiments were conducted to study adsorption characteristics of Cd and Pb onto coir pith. Coir pith is an effective adsorbent for Pb and Cd removal. The adsorbent dose, metal ion concentration and the solution pH affects the degree of adsorption. The maximum adsorption was observed at solution pH values above 5. The equilibrium data was satisfactorily fitted to Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. Pb showed higher adsorption capacity compared to Cd under  the experimental conditions. Kinetic studies revealed that Pb and Cd uptake was fast within first 10 to 15 min of contact time and data fits to pseudo second-order model. Breakthrough curve data fits to linear Bed Depth Service Time (BDST model and bed capacities for Pb and Cd were 41 and 28 mg/g of coir pith respectively.Key words: adsorption, heavy metals, coir pith

  20. Production of biohythane from food waste via an integrated system of continuously stirred tank and anaerobic fixed bed reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeshanew, Martha M; Frunzo, Luigi; Pirozzi, Francesco; Lens, Piet N L; Esposito, Giovanni

    2016-11-01

    The continuous production of biohythane (mixture of biohydrogen and methane) from food waste using an integrated system of a continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) and anaerobic fixed bed reactor (AFBR) was carried out in this study. The system performance was evaluated for an operation period of 200days, by stepwise shortening the hydraulic retention time (HRT). An increasing trend of biohydrogen in the CSTR and methane production rate in the AFBR was observed regardless of the HRT shortening. The highest biohydrogen yield in the CSTR and methane yield in the AFBR were 115.2 (±5.3)L H2/kgVSadded and 334.7 (±18.6)L CH4/kgCODadded, respectively. The AFBR presented a stable operation and excellent performance, indicated by the increased methane production rate at each shortened HRT. Besides, recirculation of the AFBR effluent to the CSTR was effective in providing alkalinity, maintaining the pH in optimal ranges (5.0-5.3) for the hydrogen producing bacteria.

  1. Adsorptive Removal of Trichloroethylene in Water by Crop Residue Biochars Pyrolyzed at Contrasting Temperatures: Continuous Fixed-Bed Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Biochar (BC has attracted great attention as an alternative sorbent to activated carbon (AC. Objective of this study was to determine trichloroethylene (TCE removal by soybean stover BC pyrolyzed at 300 (BC300 and 700°C (BC700 in continuous fixed-bed column. Columns packed with BC300, BC700, and AC reached breakthrough time in 1.1, 27.0, and 50.7 h, respectively. BC700 had higher TCE adsorption capacity than BC300 due to its higher surface area, nonpolarity, and aromaticity. The sorption capacities of AC (774.0 mg g−1 and BC700 (515.1 mg g−1 were 21.6 and 14.4 times higher than that of BC300 (35.9 mg g−1. The lower desorption rate of TCE from BC300 than BC700 and AC may be attributed to the strong binding/partition of TCE to the noncarbonized part of BC. Thomas model also adequately described the adsorption data indicating interphase mass transfer. Overall, AC showed best efficiency for removing TCE from water in column experiments. However, although sorption and desorption capabilities of BC700 were a little lower than AC, it is still a good alternative for AC to remove organic contaminants such as TCE from water due to its cost-effectiveness.

  2. Continuous methane fermentation and the production of vitamin B12 in a fixed-bed reactor packed with loofah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yingnan; Zhang, Zhenya; Lu, Jun; Maekawa, Takaaki

    2004-05-01

    A fixed-bed reactor with acclimated methanogens immobilized on a loofah support was studied on a laboratory scale to evaluate the system producing methane from the mixture of CO(2) and H(2) gas, with the production of vitamin B(12) as a by-product. Fermentation using CO(2)/H(2) acclimated methanogens was conducted in a jar fermentor with hydraulic retention times (HRTs) of three and six days. The performance of the reactor was mainly dependent on the HRT. With an HRT of three days, the methane production rate and the vitamin B(12) concentration in the culture broth were 6.18 l/l-reactor/h and 2.88 mg/l-culture liquid; these values were 11.96 l/l-reactor/h and 37.54 mg/l-culture liquid for an HRT of six days. A higher total cell mass of methanogens retained 42.5 g dry cell/l-culture liquid was achieved in the HRT of six days. The loofah carrier immobilized almost 95% of the methanogens, which led to a more effective bio-reaction. It was also observed that the fermentation system had a better ability to buffer pH, especially for an HRT of six days.

  3. Predicting the propagation of concentration and saturation fronts in fixed-bed filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callery, O; Healy, M G

    2017-10-15

    The phenomenon of adsorption is widely exploited across a range of industries to remove contaminants from gases and liquids. Much recent research has focused on identifying low-cost adsorbents which have the potential to be used as alternatives to expensive industry standards like activated carbons. Evaluating these emerging adsorbents entails a considerable amount of labor intensive and costly testing and analysis. This study proposes a simple, low-cost method to rapidly assess the potential of novel media for potential use in large-scale adsorption filters. The filter media investigated in this study were low-cost adsorbents which have been found to be capable of removing dissolved phosphorus from solution, namely: i) aluminum drinking water treatment residual, and ii) crushed concrete. Data collected from multiple small-scale column tests was used to construct a model capable of describing and predicting the progression of adsorbent saturation and the associated effluent concentration breakthrough curves. This model was used to predict the performance of long-term, large-scale filter columns packed with the same media. The approach proved highly successful, and just 24-36 h of experimental data from the small-scale column experiments were found to provide sufficient information to predict the performance of the large-scale filters for up to three months. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Performance of Ni/dolomite pellet catalyst on gas distribution from cassava rhizome gasification with a modular fixed-bed gasifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sricharoenchaikul, V; Atong, D; Sornkade, P; Nisamaneenate, J

    2016-08-19

    Thermal conversion of cassava rhizome was performed using a modular downdraft gasifier with the addition of Ni-based catalysts as promising tar eliminating and produced gas upgrading techniques. The activities of a synthesized 5% Ni/dolomite pellet catalyst prepared by impregnation method were investigated in a secondary reactor downstream of the gasifier. High reforming activity of the Ni/dolomite pellet catalyst on tar reduction was achieved. The conversion to H2 and CO was improved via steam reforming of methane and char reaction with CO2. Moreover, the formation of CH4 and CxHy was diminished through the tar or condensable hydrocarbon reformed on the catalyst surface. The carbon and hydrogen conversions of cassava rhizome with prepared catalyst were 83.79% and 61.78%, respectively, at an air flow rate of 1.98 m(3)/hr. At this condition, tar formation was low, while the lower heating value was 4.39 MJ/m(3) and H2 to CO molar ratio was 1.22. Generally, the addition of a catalyst not only enhanced gas production, but also reduced tar and particulate matter generation; thus, its implementation should help lessen the pollution control requirement and cost of operation, while allowing higher quality fuel gas production.

  5. Mathematic simulation on gasification of bio-oil in fixed bed reactor%固定床生物油气化反应数学模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘少敏; 陈明强; 杨忠连; 张文涛; 栾中义

    2014-01-01

    生物油气化对提高生物质能利用和保护环境具有重要意义.生物油气化选择乙酸、丙酮、丙三醇、苯酚、糠醛组成的混合物作为生物油模型物,在固定床圆柱形管式反应器进行气化模拟,用吉布斯自由能最小化法对其水蒸气催化重整制氢过程进行热力学分析.应用热动力学方程和质量平衡原理推算反应器模型,估算了反应热力学参数,通过Aspen Plus中的Gibbs反应器模拟生物油在不同温度下产物的平衡组成,计算出化学平衡体系的摩尔定压热容,利用Runge-Kutta法结合Matlab软件进行求解得出催化剂床层气化转化率;考察了反应温度对平衡时气体产物的影响.在固定床圆柱形管式反应器进行气化模拟实验,得出不同反应温度时反应产物气体产率和生物油气化反应较佳反应温度,通过比较得出实验结果与模拟计算值较一致.

  6. Experimental investigation of wood combustion in a fixed bed with hot air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markovic, Miladin, E-mail: m.markovic@utwente.nl; Bramer, Eddy A.; Brem, Gerrit

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • Upward combustion is a new combustion concept with ignition by hot primary air. • Upward combustion has three stages: short drying, rapid devolatilization and char combustion. • Variation of fuel moisture and inert content have little influence on the combustion. • Experimental comparison between conventional and upward combustion is presented. - Abstract: Waste combustion on a grate with energy recovery is an important pillar of municipal solid waste (MSW) management in the Netherlands. In MSW incinerators fresh waste stacked on a grate enters the combustion chamber, heats up by radiation from the flame above the layer and ignition occurs. Typically, the reaction zone starts at the top of the waste layer and propagates downwards, producing heat for drying and devolatilization of the fresh waste below it until the ignition front reaches the grate. The control of this process is mainly based on empiricism. MSW is a highly inhomogeneous fuel with continuous fluctuating moisture content, heating value and chemical composition. The resulting process fluctuations may cause process control difficulties, fouling and corrosion issues, extra maintenance, and unplanned stops. In the new concept the fuel layer is ignited by means of preheated air (T > 220 °C) from below without any external ignition source. As a result a combustion front will be formed close to the grate and will propagate upwards. That is why this approach is denoted by upward combustion. Experimental research has been carried out in a batch reactor with height of 4.55 m, an inner diameter of 200 mm and a fuel layer height up to 1 m. Due to a high quality two-layer insulation adiabatic conditions can be assumed. The primary air can be preheated up to 350 °C, and the secondary air is distributed via nozzles above the waste layer. During the experiments, temperatures along the height of the reactor, gas composition and total weight decrease are continuously monitored. The influence of

  7. Coal gasification and occupational health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, R J; McKay, W J; Evans, J M

    1978-12-01

    Identification and prevention of health effects due to occupational exposures in coal gasification processes requires a basic knowledge of the technological process by which gasification proceeds. This paper presents an overview of the technology and a rational approach to health hazard identification based upon the concept of the unit operation specific micro environment. A final section is devoted to summarizing current research efforts being carried out under the aegis of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health.

  8. Gasification : petcoke gasification for products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, R. [GE Energy, Houston, TX (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Gasification is a partial oxidation process that can convert any hydrocarbon into carbon monoxide and hydrogen (syngas). This presentation discussed integrated coking and gasification to address today's refining challenges. Several case studies were presented. General Electric Energy's quench gasification process was also discussed with particular reference to key characteristics such as its simplicity, low cost, efficiency, reliability and flexibility. Other advantages of the process include its entrained flow, slagging, slurry feed and short residence time. Petcoke was discussed as a suitable gasifier feed. Converting petcoke to hydrogen, steam, and power was also presented. The challenges ahead include the piling up of millions of tons of petcoke; emissions rules shrinking the coke segment; shortage of expensive natural gas; increased needs of hydrogen, steam, and power; plant and fuel level emissions mandates; and reducing the carbon dioxide footprint of oil sands. These challenges may result in excess coke and a hydrogen deficit. The presentation concluded by bringing attention to GE Energy's leadership in gasification technology and an alliance between GE Energy and Schlumberger. figs.

  9. Incorporation of alpha-Ketoglutaric Acid as a Fixed Bed Scrubber Media for the Neutralization of Hydrazine Family Hypergolic Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVor, R. W.; Santiago-Maldonado, E.; Parkerson, J. K.

    2010-01-01

    A candidate scrubber media, alpha-ketoglutaric acid (aKGA) adsorbed onto a silica-based substrate was examined as a potential alternative to the hydrazine-family hypergolic fuel neutralization techniques currently utilized at NASA/Kennedy Space Center (KSC). Helvenson et. al. has indicated that aKGA will react with hydrazines to produce non-hazardous, possibly biodegradable products. Furthermore, the authors have previously tested and demonstrated the use of aKGA aqueous solutions as a replacement neutralizing agent for citric acid, which is currently used as a scrubbing agent in liquid scrubbers at KSC. Specific properties examined include reaction efficiency, the loading capacity of aKGA onto various silica substrates, and the comparison of aKGA media performance to that of the citric acid vapor scrubber systems at KSC and a commercial vapor scrubber media. Preliminary investigations showed hydrophobic aerogel particles to be an ideal substrate for the deposition of the aKGA. Current studies have shown that the laboratory produced aKGA-Aerogel absorbent media are more efficient and cost effective than a commercially available fixed bed scrubber media, although much less cost effective than liquid-based citric acid scrubbers (although possibly safer and less labor intensive). A comparison of all three alternative scrubber technologies (liquid aKGA, solid-phase aKGA, and commercially available sorbent materials) is given considering both hypergolic neutralization capabilities and relative costs (as compared to the current citric acid scrubbing technology in use at NASA/KSC).

  10. Criticality investigations for the fixed bed nuclear reactor using thorium fuel mixed with plutonium or minor actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahin, Suemer [Beykoz Lojistik Meslek Yueksekokulu, Beykoz, Istanbul (Turkey)], E-mail: sumer@gazi.edu.tr; Sahin, Haci Mehmet; Acir, Adem [Beykoz Lojistik Meslek Yueksekokulu, Istanbul (Turkey); Al-Kusayer, Tawfik Ahmed [King Saud University, College of Engineering, P.O. Box 800, Riyadh 11421 (Saudi Arabia)

    2009-08-15

    Prospective fuels for a new reactor type, the so called fixed bed nuclear reactor (FBNR) are investigated with respect to reactor criticality. These are (1) low enriched uranium (LEU); (2) weapon grade plutonium + ThO{sub 2}; (3) reactor grade plutonium + ThO{sub 2}; and (4) minor actinides in the spent fuel of light water reactors (LWRs) + ThO{sub 2}. Reactor grade plutonium and minor actinides are considered as highly radio-active and radio-toxic nuclear waste products so that one can expect that they will have negative fuel costs. The criticality calculations are conducted with SCALE5.1 using S{sub 8}-P{sub 3} approximation in 238 neutron energy groups with 90 groups in thermal energy region. The study has shown that the reactor criticality has lower values with uranium fuel and increases passing to minor actinides, reactor grade plutonium and weapon grade plutonium. Using LEU, an enrichment grade of 9% has resulted with k{sub eff} = 1.2744. Mixed fuel with weapon grade plutonium made of 20% PuO{sub 2} + 80% ThO{sub 2} yields k{sub eff} = 1.2864. Whereas a mixed fuel with reactor grade plutonium made of 35% PuO{sub 2} + 65% ThO{sub 2} brings it to k{sub eff} = 1.267. Even the very hazardous nuclear waste of LWRs, namely minor actinides turn out to be high quality nuclear fuel due to the excellent neutron economy of FBNR. A relatively high reactor criticality of k{sub eff} = 1.2673 is achieved by 50% MAO{sub 2} + 50% ThO{sub 2}. The hazardous actinide nuclear waste products can be transmuted and utilized as fuel in situ. A further output of the study is the possibility of using thorium as breeding material in combination with these new alternative fuels.

  11. Characterisation of Particulate Matter Emitted from Cofiring of Lignite and Agricultural Residues in a Fixed-Bed Combustor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nattasut Mantananont

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is focused on the emission of fixed bed combustor batch operated. Real-time analyser ELPI (electrical low-pressure impactor system was used to size-segregated particulate matter emission ranging from 40 nm to 10 μm. The results show that total number concentration were 3.4×103, 1.6×104, and 1.5×105 particles/cm3⋅kgfuel, while total mass of particles were 12.2, 8.0, and 6.5 mg/Nm3⋅kgfuel for combustion of lignite, rice husk and bagasse, respectively. But it can be noticed that cofiring released more particulate matter. Meanwhile it was found that the effect of ratio of over-fired air to total air supply is more pronounced, since decrease in this ratio, the amount of particles are decreased significantly. For particle size distribution, it can be observed that submicron-sized particles dominate and the most prevailing size is in the range: 50 nm

  12. Continuous adsorption of Pb(II) and methylene blue by engineered graphite oxide coated sand in fixed-bed column

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Ji-Lai, E-mail: jilaigong@gmail.com [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control, Ministry of Education, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Zhang, Yong-Liang; Jiang, Yan [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control, Ministry of Education, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Zeng, Guang-Ming, E-mail: zgming@hnu.edu.cn [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control, Ministry of Education, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Cui, Zhi-Hui; Liu, Ke; Deng, Can-Hui; Niu, Qiu-Ya; Deng, Jiu-Hua [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control, Ministry of Education, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Huan, Shuang-Yan [State Key Laboratory for Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China)

    2015-03-01

    Highlights: • GO-sand was prepared by coating GO on the surface of sand. • Pb(II) and MB were efficiently removed by GO-sand filter in column. • The removal of MB was enhanced with the presence of Pb(II). • GO-sand is low-cost and convenient for its application as packed bed filter. - Abstract: The mixture of several effluents, caused by the improper handling and management of effluents, generated multi-component wastewater containing both metals and dyes, leading to the complicated treatment process. In this study, a continuous adsorption of Pb(II) and methylene blue (MB) has been studied in single and binary solutions by using graphite oxide coated sand (GO-sand) as an adsorbent in a fixed-bed column. GO-sand was analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy before and after analyte adsorption. Compared with sand filter, adsorption quantity and capacity for Pb(II) and MB by GO-sand filter were greatly increased. In Pb(II) and MB single solutions, the experimental parameters were investigated in detail including initial concentration, flow rate, bed depth and pH. Exhaustion time decreased with increasing initial concentration and flow rate, and increased with increasing bed depth and pH. In the Pb(II)-MB binary solution, exhaustion time significantly decreased for Pb(II) adsorption, but increased for MB adsorption. The reason was explained that the more favorable adsorption for MB onto the surface of GO-sand than that for Pb(II), which was derived from π–π interaction between MB and GO on sand surface in packed filter. The Yoon–Nelson model was applied at different concentration of Pb(II) and MB to predict the breakthrough curves. The experimental data were well fit with the model indicating that it was suitable for this column design.

  13. Electrochemical treatment of water containing Microcystis aeruginosa in a fixed bed reactor with three-dimensional conductive diamond anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascia, Michele; Monasterio, Sara; Vacca, Annalisa; Palmas, Simonetta

    2016-12-05

    An electrochemical treatment was investigated to remove Microcystis aeruginosa from water. A fixed bed reactor in flow was tested, which was equipped with electrodes constituted by stacks of grids electrically connected in parallel, with the electric field parallel to the fluid flow. Conductive diamond were used as anodes, platinised Ti as cathode. Electrolyses were performed in continuous and in batch recirculated mode with flow rates corresponding to Re from 10 to 160, current densities in the range 10-60Am(-2) and Cl(-) concentrations up to 600gm(-3). The absorbance of chlorophyll-a pigment and the concentration of products and by-products of electrolysis were measured. In continuous experiments without algae in the inlet stream, total oxidants concentrations as equivalent Cl2, of about 0.7gCl2m(-3) were measured; the maximum values were obtained at Re=10 and i=25Am(-2), with values strongly dependent on the concentration of Cl(-). The highest algae inactivation was obtained under the operative conditions of maximum generation of oxidants; in the presence of microalgae the oxidants concentrations were generally below the detection limit. Results indicated that most of the bulk oxidants electrogenerated is constituted by active chlorine. The prevailing mechanism of M. aeruginosa inactivation is the disinfection by bulk oxidants. The experimental data were quantitatively interpreted through a simple plug flow model, in which the axial dispersion accounts for the non-ideal flow behaviour of the system; the model was successfully used to simulate the performances of the reactor in the single-stack configuration used for the experiments and in multi-stack configurations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Carbonisation of bagasse in a fixed bed reactor: influence of process variables on char yield and characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katyal, S.; Thambimuthu, K.; Valix, M. [University of Sydney (Australia). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2003-04-01

    Carbonisation experiments on samples of sugar cane bagasse were conducted in a static fixed bed reactor to determine the effect of process variables such as temperature, heating rate, inert sweep gas flow rate and particle size on the yield and composition of solid product char. Experiments were performed to the final temperatures of 250-700{sup o}C with heating rates from 5 to 30{sup o}C/min with nitrogen sweep gas flow rate of 350 cc/min. Additional tests were aimed at studying the effect of different flow rates of nitrogen sweep gas from 0 to 700 cc/min during carbonization and different particle size fractions of bagasse. The results showed that as the carbonisation temperature was increased, the yield of char decreased. The reduction in yield was rapid up to a final temperature of 500{sup o}C and was slower thereafter. The yield of char was relatively insensitive to the changes in heating rate and particle size. Increasing the sweep gas flow rate to 350 cc/min reduced the yield of char. It appears the presence of inert sweep gas reduced secondary reactions which promoted char formation. The proximate analysis of the char suggests that fixed carbon and ash content increased with temperature. The char obtained at temperatures higher than 500{sup o}C have high carbon content and is suitable as renewable fuel and for other applications. The carbonization of bagasse has the potential to produce environmental friendly fuels and can assist in reducing deforestation for the production of charcoal. (Author)

  15. Color removal from textile dyebath effluents in a zeolite fixed bed reactor: determination of optimum process conditions using Taguchi method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engin, Ahmet Baki; Ozdemir, Ozgür; Turan, Mustafa; Turan, Abdullah Z

    2008-11-30

    Taguchi method was applied as an experimental design to determine optimum conditions for color removal from textile dyebath house effluents in a zeolite fixed bed reactor. After the parameters were determined to treat real textile wastewater, adsorption experiments were carried out. The breakthrough curves for adsorption studies were constructed under different conditions by plotting the normalized effluent color intensity (C/C(0)) versus time (min) or bed volumes (BV). The chosen experimental parameters and their ranges are: HTAB concentration (C(htab)), 1-7.5 gL(-1); HTAB feeding flowrate (Q(htab)), 0.015-0.075 L min(-1); textile wastewater flowrate (Q(dye)), 0.025-0.050 L min(-1) and zeolite bed height (H(bed)), 25-50 cm, respectively. Mixed orthogonal array L(16) (4(2)x2(2)) for experimental plan and the larger the better response category were selected to determine the optimum conditions. The optimum conditions were found to be as follows: HTAB concentration (C(htab))=1g L(-1), HTAB feeding flowrate (Q(htab))=0.015 L min(-1), textile wastewater flowrate (Q(dye))=0.025 L min(-1) and bed height (H(bed))=50 cm. Under these conditions, the treated wastewater volume reached a maximum while the bed volumes (BV) were about 217. While HTAB concentration, gL(-1) (A); zeolite bed height, cm (D) and wastewater flowrate, L min(-1) (C) were found to be significant parameters, respectively, whereas, HTAB flowrate, L min(-1) (B) was found to be an insignificant parameter.

  16. Color removal from textile dyebath effluents in a zeolite fixed bed reactor: Determination of optimum process conditions using Taguchi method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engin, Ahmet Baki [Sakarya University, Industrial Engineering Department, 54040 Sakarya (Turkey); Ozdemir, Ozguer [Istanbul Technical University, Environmental Engineering Department, 34469 Istanbul (Turkey); Turan, Mustafa [Istanbul Technical University, Environmental Engineering Department, 34469 Istanbul (Turkey)], E-mail: mturan@ins.itu.edu.tr; Turan, Abdullah Z. [Istanbul Technical University, Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering Department, 34469 Istanbul (Turkey)

    2008-11-30

    Taguchi method was applied as an experimental design to determine optimum conditions for color removal from textile dyebath house effluents in a zeolite fixed bed reactor. After the parameters were determined to treat real textile wastewater, adsorption experiments were carried out. The breakthrough curves for adsorption studies were constructed under different conditions by plotting the normalized effluent color intensity (C/C{sub 0}) versus time (min) or bed volumes (BV). The chosen experimental parameters and their ranges are: HTAB concentration (C{sub htab}), 1-7.5 g L{sup -1}; HTAB feeding flowrate (Q{sub htab}), 0.015-0.075 L min{sup -1}; textile wastewater flowrate (Q{sub dye}), 0.025-0.050 L min{sup -1} and zeolite bed height (H{sub bed}), 25-50 cm, respectively. Mixed orthogonal array L{sub 16} (4{sup 2} x 2{sup 2}) for experimental plan and the larger the better response category were selected to determine the optimum conditions. The optimum conditions were found to be as follows: HTAB concentration (C{sub htab}) = 1 g L{sup -1}, HTAB feeding flowrate (Q{sub htab}) = 0.015 L min{sup -1}, textile wastewater flowrate (Q{sub dye}) = 0.025 L min{sup -1} and bed height (H{sub bed}) = 50 cm. Under these conditions, the treated wastewater volume reached a maximum while the bed volumes (BV) were about 217. While HTAB concentration, g L{sup -1} (A); zeolite bed height, cm (D) and wastewater flowrate, L min{sup -1} (C) were found to be significant parameters, respectively, whereas, HTAB flowrate, L min{sup -1} (B) was found to be an insignificant parameter.

  17. Thin-film fixed-bed reactor for solar photocatalytic inactivation of Aeromonas hydrophila: influence of water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Controlling fish disease is one of the major concerns in contemporary aquaculture. The use of antibiotics or chemical disinfection cannot provide a healthy aquaculture system without residual effects. Water quality is also important in determining the success or failure of fish production. Several solar photocatalytic reactors have been used to treat drinking water or waste water without leaving chemical residues. This study has investigated the impact of several key aspects of water quality on the inactivation of the pathogenic bacterium Aeromonas hydrophila using a pilot-scale thin-film fixed-bed reactor (TFFBR) system. Results The level of inactivation of Aeromonas hydrophila ATCC 35654 was determined using a TFFBR with a photocatalytic area of 0.47 m2 under the influence of various water quality variables (pH, conductivity, turbidity and colour) under high solar irradiance conditions (980–1100 W m-2), at a flow rate of 4.8 L h-1 through the reactor. Bacterial enumeration were obtained through conventional plate count using trypticase soy agar media, cultured in conventional aerobic conditions to detect healthy cells and under ROS-neutralised conditions to detect both healthy and sub-lethally injured (oxygen-sensitive) cells. The results showed that turbidity has a major influence on solar photocatalytic inactivation of A. hydrophila. Humic acids appear to decrease TiO2 effectiveness under full sunlight and reduce microbial inactivation. pH in the range 7–9 and salinity both have no major effect on the extent of photoinactivation or sub-lethal injury. Conclusions This study demonstrates the effectiveness of the TFFBR in the inactivation of Aeromonas hydrophila under the influence of several water quality variables at high solar irradiance, providing an opportunity for the application of solar photocatalysis in aquaculture systems, as long as turbidity remains low. PMID:23194331

  18. Treatment of petroleum refinery wastewater containing heavily polluting substances in an aerobic submerged fixed-bed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendramel, S; Bassin, J P; Dezotti, M; Sant'Anna, G L

    2015-01-01

    Petroleum refineries produce large amount of wastewaters, which often contain a wide range of different compounds. Some of these constituents may be recalcitrant and therefore difficult to be treated biologically. This study evaluated the capability of an aerobic submerged fixed-bed reactor (ASFBR) containing a corrugated PVC support material for biofilm attachment to treat a complex and high-strength organic wastewater coming from a petroleum refinery. The reactor operation was divided into five experimental runs which lasted more than 250 days. During the reactor operation, the applied volumetric organic load was varied within the range of 0.5-2.4 kgCOD.m(-3).d(-1). Despite the inherent fluctuations on the characteristics of the complex wastewater and the slight decrease in the reactor performance when the influent organic load was increased, the ASFBR showed good stability and allowed to reach chemical oxygen demand, dissolved organic carbon and total suspended solids removals up to 91%, 90% and 92%, respectively. Appreciable ammonium removal was obtained (around 90%). Some challenging aspects of reactor operation such as biofilm quantification and important biofilm constituents (e.g. polysaccharides (PS) and proteins (PT)) were also addressed in this work. Average PS/volatile attached solids (VAS) and PT/VAS ratios were around 6% and 50%, respectively. The support material promoted biofilm attachment without appreciable loss of solids and allowed long-term operation without clogging. Microscopic observations of the microbial community revealed great diversity of higher organisms, such as protozoa and rotifers, suggesting that toxic compounds found in the wastewater were possibly removed in the biofilm.

  19. Fixed-bed fermentation of rice straw and chicken manure using a mixed culture of marine mesophilic microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbogbo, Frank K; Holtzapple, Mark T

    2007-05-01

    A mixture of rice straw (80%) and chicken manure (20%) was pretreated and fermented to carboxylic acids by using a mixed culture of marine mesophilic microorganisms. Two sets of four fermentors, built from PVC pipes, were used for both biomass pretreatment and fermentation. Four 1L fermentors (F1-F4) were arranged in series, where liquid fermentation products were transferred from one fermentor to the other, to form a train. A liquid volume of 10mL and 15mL were transferred every four days for Trains A and B, respectively. The maximum total acid concentration for F1 in Train A was 34.2g/L and the maximum acid concentration in F2-F4 was approximately 44g/L. The maximum total acid concentration in F1 in Train B was 30.5g/L and the maximum acid concentration in F2-F4 was approximately 48g/L. The conversion in each of the fermentors in Train A varied from 0.821 to 0.879g VS digested/g VS fed and the yield was in the range 0.489-0.609g total acids/g VS fed. The conversion and yield in Train B were 0.741-0.914g VS digested/g VS fed and 0.563-0.669g total acids/g VS fed, respectively. The continuum particle distribution model (CPDM) predicted acid concentrations and retention times in the fixed-bed fermentation system with R(2) of 0.67-0.84 in Trains A and B.

  20. Adsorption of methylene blue from aqueous solution by jackfruit (Artocarpus heteropyllus) leaf powder: A fixed-bed column study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Md Tamez; Rukanuzzaman, Md; Khan, Md Maksudur Rahman; Islam, Md Akhtarul

    2009-08-01

    Continuous fixed-bed studies were undertaken to evaluate the efficiency of jackfruit leaf powder (JLP) as an adsorbent for the removal of methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solution under the effect of various process parameters like bed depth (5-10cm), flow rate (30-50mL/min) and initial MB concentrations (100-300mg/L). The pH at point of zero charge (pH(PZC)) of the adsorbent was determined by the titration method and a value of 3.9 was obtained. A FTIR of the adsorbent was done before and after the adsorption to find the potential adsorption sites for interaction with methylene blue molecules. The results showed that the total adsorbed quantities and equilibrium uptake decreased with increasing flow rate and increased with increasing initial MB concentration. The longest breakthrough time and maximum MB adsorption were obtained at pH 10. The results showed that the column performed well at low flow rate. Also, breakthrough time and exhaustion time increased with increasing bed depth. The bed-depth service time (BDST) model and the Thomas model were applied to the adsorption of MB at different bed depths, flow rates, influent concentrations and pH to predict the breakthrough curves and to determine the characteristic parameters of the column that are useful for process design. The two model predictions were in very good agreement with the experimental results at all the process parameters studied indicating that they were very suitable for JLP column design.

  1. Batch and fixed-bed adsorption of tartrazine azo-dye onto activated carbon prepared from apricot stones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albroomi, H. I.; Elsayed, M. A.; Baraka, A.; Abdelmaged, M. A.

    2017-07-01

    This work describes the potential of utilizing prepared activated carbon from apricot stones as an efficient adsorbent material for tartrazine (TZ) azo-dye removal in a batch and dynamic adsorption system. The results revealed that activated carbons with well-developed surface area (774 m2/g) and pore volume (1.26 cm3/g) can be manufactured from apricot stones by H3PO4 activation. In batch experiments, effects of the parameters such as initial dye concentration and temperature on the removal of the dye were studied. Equilibrium was achieved in 120 min. Adsorption capacity was found to be dependent on the initial concentration of dye solution, and maximum adsorption was found to be 76 mg/g at 100 mg/L of TZ. The adsorption capacity at equilibrium ( q e) increased from 22.6 to 76 mg/g with an increase in the initial dye concentrations from 25 to 100 mg/L. The thermodynamic parameters such as change in free energy (Δ G 0), enthalpy (Δ H 0) and entropy (Δ S 0) were determined and the positive value of (Δ H) 78.1 (K J mol-1) revealed that adsorption efficiency increased with an increase in the process temperature. In fixed-bed column experiments, the effect of selected operating parameters such as bed depth, flow rate and initial dye concentration on the adsorption capacity was evaluated. Increase in bed height of adsorption columns leads to an extension of breakthrough point as well as the exhaustion time of adsorbent. However, the maximum adsorption capacities decrease with increases of flow rate. The breakthrough data fitted well to bed depth service time and Thomas models with high coefficient of determination, R 2 ≥ 94.

  2. Batch and fixed-bed adsorption of tartrazine azo-dye onto activated carbon prepared from apricot stones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albroomi, H. I.; Elsayed, M. A.; Baraka, A.; Abdelmaged, M. A.

    2016-02-01

    This work describes the potential of utilizing prepared activated carbon from apricot stones as an efficient adsorbent material for tartrazine (TZ) azo-dye removal in a batch and dynamic adsorption system. The results revealed that activated carbons with well-developed surface area (774 m2/g) and pore volume (1.26 cm3/g) can be manufactured from apricot stones by H3PO4 activation. In batch experiments, effects of the parameters such as initial dye concentration and temperature on the removal of the dye were studied. Equilibrium was achieved in 120 min. Adsorption capacity was found to be dependent on the initial concentration of dye solution, and maximum adsorption was found to be 76 mg/g at 100 mg/L of TZ. The adsorption capacity at equilibrium (q e) increased from 22.6 to 76 mg/g with an increase in the initial dye concentrations from 25 to 100 mg/L. The thermodynamic parameters such as change in free energy (ΔG 0), enthalpy (ΔH 0) and entropy (ΔS 0) were determined and the positive value of (ΔH) 78.1 (K J mol-1) revealed that adsorption efficiency increased with an increase in the process temperature. In fixed-bed column experiments, the effect of selected operating parameters such as bed depth, flow rate and initial dye concentration on the adsorption capacity was evaluated. Increase in bed height of adsorption columns leads to an extension of breakthrough point as well as the exhaustion time of adsorbent. However, the maximum adsorption capacities decrease with increases of flow rate. The breakthrough data fitted well to bed depth service time and Thomas models with high coefficient of determination, R 2 ≥ 94.

  3. Combustion, pyrolysis, gasification, and liquefaction of biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, T.B.

    1980-09-01

    All the products now obtained from oil can be provided by thermal conversion of the solid fuels biomass and coal. As a feedstock, biomass has many advantages over coal and has the potential to supply up to 20% of US energy by the year 2000 and significant amounts of energy for other countries. However, it is imperative that in producing biomass for energy we practice careful land use. Combustion is the simplest method of producing heat from biomass, using either the traditional fixed-bed combustion on a grate or the fluidized-bed and suspended combustion techniques now being developed. Pyrolysis of biomass is a particularly attractive process if all three products - gas, wood tars, and charcoal - can be used. Gasification of biomass with air is perhaps the most flexible and best-developed process for conversion of biomass to fuel today, yielding a low energy gas that can be burned in existing gas/oil boilers or in engines. Oxygen gasification yields a gas with higher energy content that can be used in pipelines or to fire turbines. In addition, this gas can be used for producing methanol, ammonia, or gasoline by indirect liquefaction. Fast pyrolysis of biomass produces a gas rich in ethylene that can be used to make alcohols or gasoline. Finally, treatment of biomass with high pressure hydrogen can yield liquid fuels through direct liquefaction.

  4. Combustion, pyrolysis, gasification, and liquefaction of biomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, T. B.

    1980-09-01

    The advantages of biomass as a feedstock are examined and biomass conversion techniques are described. Combustion is the simplest method of producing heat from biomass, using either the traditional fixed bed combustion on a grate or the fluidized bed and suspended combustion techniques now being developed. Pyrolysis of biomass is a particularly attractive process if all three products gas, wood tars, and charcoal can be used. Gasification of biomass with air is perhaps the most flexible and best developed process for conversion of biomass to fuel, yielding a low energy gas that can be burned in existing gas/oil boilers or in engines. Oxygen gasification yields a gas with higher energy content that can be used in pipelines or to fire turbines. In addition, this gas can be used for producing methanol, ammonia, or gasoline by indirect liquefaction. Fast pyrolysis of biomass produces a gas rich in ethylene that can be used to make alcohols or gasoline. Finally, treatment of biomass with high pressure hydrogen can yield liquid fuels through direct liquefaction.

  5. Experimental study on MSW gasification and melting technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In order to develop municipal solid waste (MSW) gasification and melting technology, two preliminary experiments and a principle integrated experiment were fulfilled respectively. The gasification characteristics of MSW are studied at 500-750℃ when equivalence ratio (ER) was 0.2-0.5 using a fluidized-bed gasifier. When temperature was 550-700℃ and ER was 0.2-0.4, low heat value (LHV) of syngas reaches 4000-12000 kJ/Nm3. The melting characteristics of fly ash were investigated at 1100-1460℃ using a fixed-bed furnace. It was proved that over 99.9% of dioxins could be decomposed and most heavy-metals could be solidified when temperature was 1100-1300℃. The principle integrated experiment was carried out in a fluidized-bed gasification and swirl-melting system. MSW was gasified efficiently at 550-650℃, swirl-melting furnace maintains at 1200-1300℃ stably and over 95% of fly ash could be caught by the swirl-melting furnace. The results provided much practical experience and basic data to develop MSW gasification and melting technology.

  6. Propagated fixed-bed mixed-acid fermentation: Part I: Effect of volatile solid loading rate and agitation at high pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golub, Kristina W; Forrest, Andrea K; Mercy, Kevin L; Holtzapple, Mark T

    2011-11-01

    Countercurrent fermentation is a high performing process design for mixed-acid fermentation. However, there are high operating costs associated with moving solids, which is an integral component of this configuration. This study investigated the effect of volatile solid loading rate (VSLR) and agitation in propagated fixed-bed fermentation, a configuration which may be more commercially viable. To evaluate the role of agitation on fixed-bed configuration performance, continuous mixing was compared with periodic mixing. VSLR was also varied and not found to affect acid yields. However, increased VSLR and liquid retention time did result in higher conversions, productivity, acid concentrations, but lower selectivities. Agitation was demonstrated to be important for this fermentor configuration, the periodically-mixed fermentation had the lowest conversion and yields. Operating at a high pH (∼9) contributed to the high selectivity to acetic acid, which might be industrially desirable but at the cost of lower yield compared to a neutral pH.

  7. Axial Changes of Catalyst Structure and Temperature in a Fixed-Bed Microreactor During Noble Metal Catalysed Partial Oxidation of Methane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hannemann, S.; Grunwaldt, Jan-Dierk; Kimmerle, B.

    2009-01-01

    The catalytic partial oxidation of methane (CPO) over flame-made 2.5%Rh-2.5%Pt/Al2O3 and 2.5%Rh/Al2O3 in 6%CH4/3%O-2/He shows the potential of in situ studies using miniaturized fixed-bed reactors, the importance of spatially resolved studies and its combination with infrared thermography and on...

  8. Competitive Fixed-Bed Adsorption of Pb(II), Cu(II), and Ni(II) from Aqueous Solution Using Chitosan-Coated Bentonite

    OpenAIRE

    Wan-Chi Tsai; Mark Daniel G. de Luna; Bermillo-Arriesgado, Hanna Lee P.; Futalan, Cybelle M.; Colades, James I.; Meng-Wei Wan

    2016-01-01

    Fixed-bed adsorption studies using chitosan-coated bentonite (CCB) as adsorbent media were investigated for the simultaneous adsorption of Pb(II), Cu(II), and Ni(II) from a multimetal system. The effects of operational parameters such as bed height, flow rate, and initial concentration on the length of mass transfer zone, breakthrough time, exhaustion time, and adsorption capacity at breakthrough were evaluated. With increasing bed height and decreasing flow rate and initial concentration, th...

  9. Numerical and experimental studies on effects of moisture content on combustion characteristics of simulated municipal solid wastes in a fixed bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Rui, E-mail: Sunsr@hit.edu.cn [School of Energy Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, 92, West Dazhi Street, Harbin 150001 (China); Ismail, Tamer M., E-mail: temoil@aucegypt.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Suez Canal University, Ismailia (Egypt); Ren, Xiaohan [School of Energy Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, 92, West Dazhi Street, Harbin 150001 (China); Abd El-Salam, M. [Department of Basic Science, Cairo University, Giza (Egypt)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • The effects of moisture content on the burning process of MSW are investigated. • A two-dimensional mathematical model was built to simulate the combustion process. • Temperature distributions, process rates, gas species were measured and simulated. • The The conversion ratio of C/CO and N/NO in MSW are inverse to moisture content. - Abstract: In order to reveal the features of the combustion process in the porous bed of a waste incinerator, a two-dimensional unsteady state model and experimental study were employed to investigate the combustion process in a fixed bed of municipal solid waste (MSW) on the combustion process in a fixed bed reactor. Conservation equations of the waste bed were implemented to describe the incineration process. The gas phase turbulence was modeled using the k–ε turbulent model and the particle phase was modeled using the kinetic theory of granular flow. The rate of moisture evaporation, devolatilization rate, and char burnout was calculated according to the waste property characters. The simulation results were then compared with experimental data for different moisture content of MSW, which shows that the incineration process of waste in the fixed bed is reasonably simulated. The simulation results of solid temperature, gas species and process rate in the bed are accordant with experimental data. Due to the high moisture content of fuel, moisture evaporation consumes a vast amount of heat, and the evaporation takes up most of the combustion time (about 2/3 of the whole combustion process). The whole bed combustion process reduces greatly as MSW moisture content increases. The experimental and simulation results provide direction for design and optimization of the fixed bed of MSW.

  10. Evaluating Design Parameters for Breakthrough Curve Analysis and Kinetics of Fixed Bed Columns for Cu(II) Cations Using Lignocellulosic Wastes

    OpenAIRE

    Zaira Zaman Chowdhury; Sharifah Bee Abd Hamid; Sharifuddin Mohd Zain

    2014-01-01

    A continuous adsorption study for removal of Cu(II) cations from wastewater using a fixed-bed column was conducted. A granular carbonaceous activated adsorbent produced by carbonization of the outer rind, or exocarp, of mangostene fruit shell was used for column packing. The effects of feed flow rate, influent cation concentration, and bed depth on the breakthrough curve were investigated at pH 5.5. Experimental analysis confirmed that the breakthrough curves were dependent on flow rate, init...

  11. A method of moments for analyzing and predicting the outlet curve for an adsorption process. I. Idealized model for fixed bed adsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blasinski, H.; Krauze, S.M.

    1985-01-01

    An idealized model based on equilibrium and kinetic principles is proposed for fixed-bed adsorption. Seven initial moments of the step response are given in a form which allows their use in the prediction of the outlet response curves. The results of 9 series of tests representing 38 outlet response curves were used to verify the model and the predictive method; good agreement was observed.

  12. Comparison of the Effects of Fluidized-Bed and Fixed-Bed Reactors in Microwave-Assisted Catalytic Decomposition of TCE by Hydrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Ren

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Trichloroethylene (TCE decomposition by hydrogen with microwave heating under different reaction systems was investigated. The activities of a series of catalysts for microwave-assisted TCE hydrodechlorination were tested through the fixed-bed and the fluidized-bed reactor systems. This study found that the different reaction system is suitable for different catalyst type. And there is an interactive relationship between the catalyst type and the reaction bed type.

  13. Gasification system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldipur, Gaurang B.; Anderson, Richard G.; Cherish, Peter

    1983-01-01

    A method and system for injecting coal and process fluids into a fluidized bed gasification reactor. Three concentric tubes extend vertically upward into the fluidized bed. Coal particulates in a transport gas are injected through an inner tube, and an oxygen rich mixture of oxygen and steam are injected through an inner annulus about the inner tube. A gaseous medium relatively lean in oxygen content, such as steam, is injected through an annulus surrounding the inner annulus.

  14. Mussel-inspired Functionalization of Cotton for Nano-catalyst Support and Its Application in a Fixed-bed System with High Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Jiangbo; Xiao, Junwu; Xiao, Fei; Jin, Yunxia; Dong, Yue; Jing, Feng; Wang, Shuai

    2016-02-01

    Inspired by the composition of adhesive and reductive proteins secreted by marine mussels, polydopamine (PDA) was used to coat cotton microfiber (CMF), and then acted as reducing agent for the growth of Pd nanoparticles on PDA coated CMF (PDA@CMF) composites. The resultant CMF@PDA/Pd composites were then packed in a column for the further use in fixed-bed system. For the catalysis of the reduction of 4-nitrophenol, the flow rate of the 4-aminophenol solution (0.5 mM) was as high as 60 mL/min. The obtained fixed-bed system even exhibited superior performance to conventional batch reaction process because it greatly facilitated the efficiency of the catalytic fibers. Consequently, its turnover frequency (TOF) was up to 1.587 min-1, while the TOF in the conventional batch reaction was 0.643 min-1. The catalytic fibers also showed good recyclability, which can be recycled for nine successive cycles without a loss of activity. Furthermore, the catalytic system based on CMF@PDA/Pd can also be applied for Suzuki coupling reaction with the iodobenzene conversion up to 96.7%. The strategy to prepare CMF@PDA/Pd catalytic fixed bed was simple, economical and scalable, which can also be applied for coating different microfibers and loading other noble metal nanoparticles, was amenable for automated industrial processes.

  15. Underground gasification of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koranda, J.

    1986-11-01

    A brief history is given of research in Czechoslovakia, which took 3 main factors into account: environmental protection, geological situation and need to produce gas for use both within the plant and elsewhere. In order to assess economic viability, model studies were performed on following mines: Podlesice (North Bohemia), Vatovce (South Slovakia), Syrenov (East Moravia), Zukovsky Hrbet (Ostrava-Karvina), Stonovska (Ostrava-Karvina) and Merkur (North Bohemia). Figures given in tabular form show that underground gasification at these sites would be cheaper than importing natural gas. Problems are discussed associated with underground gasification and it is concluded that research must be conducted into drilling techniques, drill design, methods of cutting through coal seam between shafts, underground generator design, methods of gasifying several seams with one shaft and methods of dealing with residual pillars.

  16. International Seminar on Gasification 2009 - Biomass Gasification, Gas Clean-up and Gas Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-10-15

    During the seminar international and national experts gave presentations concerning Biomass gasification, Gas cleaning and gas treatment; and Strategy and policy issues. The presentations give an overview of the current status and what to be expected in terms of development, industrial interest and commercialization of different biomass gasification routes. The following PPT presentations are reproduced in the report: Black Liquor Gasification (Chemrec AB.); Gasification and Alternative Feedstocks for the Production of Synfuels and 2nd Generation Biofuels (Lurgi GmbH); Commercial Scale BtL Production on the Verge of Becoming Reality (Choren Industries GmbH.); Up-draft Biomass Gasification (Babcock and Wilcox Voelund A/S); Heterogeneous Biomass Residues and the Catalytic Synthesis of Alcohols (Enerkem); Status of the GoBiGas-project (Goeteborg Energi AB.); On-going Gasification Activities in Spain (University of Zaragoza,); Biomass Gasification Research in Italy (University of Perugia.); RDandD Needs and Recommendations for the Commercialization of High-efficient Bio-SNG (Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands.); Cleaning and Usage of Product Gas from Biomass Steam Gasification (Vienna University of Technology); Biomass Gasification and Catalytic Tar Cracking Process Development (Research Triangle Institute); Syngas Cleaning with Catalytic Tar Reforming (Franhofer UMSICHT); Biomass Gas Cleaning and Utilization - The Topsoee Perspective (Haldor Topsoee A/S); OLGA Tar Removal Technology (Dahlman); Bio-SNG - Strategy and Activities within E.ON (E.ON Ruhrgas AG); Strategy and Gasification Activities within Sweden (Swedish Energy Agency); 20 TWh/year Biomethane (Swedish Gas Association)

  17. Thin-film fixed-bed reactor (TFFBR for solar photocatalytic inactivation of aquaculture pathogen Aeromonas hydrophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Sadia J

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Outbreaks of infectious diseases by microbial pathogens can cause substantial losses of stock in aquaculture systems. There are several ways to eliminate these pathogens including the use of antibiotics, biocides and conventional disinfectants, but these leave undesirable chemical residues. Conversely, using sunlight for disinfection has the advantage of leaving no chemical residue and is particularly suited to countries with sunny climates. Titanium dioxide (TiO2 is a photocatalyst that increases the effectiveness of solar disinfection. In recent years, several different types of solar photocatalytic reactors coated with TiO2 have been developed for waste water and drinking water treatment. In this study a thin-film fixed-bed reactor (TFFBR, designed as a sloping flat plate reactor coated with P25 DEGUSSA TiO2, was used. Results The level of inactivation of the aquaculture pathogen Aeromonas hydrophila ATCC 35654 was determined after travelling across the TFFBR under various natural sunlight conditions (300-1200 W m-2, at 3 different flow rates (4.8, 8.4 and 16.8 L h-1. Bacterial numbers were determined by conventional plate counting using selective agar media, cultured (i under conventional aerobic conditions to detect healthy cells and (ii under conditions designed to neutralise reactive oxygen species (agar medium supplemented with the peroxide scavenger sodium pyruvate at 0.05% w/v, incubated under anaerobic conditions, to detect both healthy and sub-lethally injured (oxygen-sensitive cells. The results clearly demonstrate that high sunlight intensities (≥ 600 W m-2 and low flow rates (4.8 L h-1 provided optimum conditions for inactivation of A. hydrophila ATCC 3564, with greater overall inactivation and fewer sub-lethally injured cells than at low sunlight intensities or high flow rates. Low sunlight intensities resulted in reduced overall inactivation and greater sub-lethal injury at all flow rates. Conclusions This

  18. Modelling of fluid flows and channeling in fixed charbed; Modellering af stroemningsforhold og kanaldannelse i fixed bed koksbed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kvist Jensen, T.; Henriksen, U.; Goebel, B. [Danmarks Tekniske Univ., Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Dall Bentzen, J.; Matlok, S.; Borch, C. [COWI, Lyngby (Denmark)

    2003-12-01

    The main aim of this project has been to build a computerized fluid dynamics model (CFD) describing the fluid dynamics of the gases in a fixed char-bed during gasification of biomass. Uneven char conversion and in extreme cases channels through have been observed in the char-bed of a down draft gasifier. This might lead to a reduced efficiency. In order to examine how an inhomogeneous char-bed affects the gas flow through the bed, a dynamic model was developed to describe the flow distribution in a down draft gasifier. The gas flow distribution through the bed was determined using a thin film model approach. The temperatures in the bed were determined from a thermodynamic model of the gasification process. Model calculations showed that a relatively small fraction of the gas was flowing through a part of the bed that was fuelled with smaller particles compared to a part of the bed that was fuelled with larger particles. Furthermore, the calculations showed that if the height of the two different parts of the bed were not evened out the bed would not be stable. However, if transport of particles from one part of the bed to the other occurred the bed would be stable. Finally, the calculations showed that even a very uneven flow distribution through the bed only reduced the efficiency of the char conversion modestly. The results from this project might help in avoiding unwanted phenomena like channelling and through-burning. (BA)

  19. Research on the Gas Reburning in a Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB System Integrated with Biomass Gasification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changqing Dong

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available N2O emissions from coal fired fluidized-bed combustion are approximately 30–360 mg/Nm3, much higher than that from pulverized coal combustion (less than 30 mg/Nm3. One approach to reduce the N2O is to reburn the biomass gasification gas in the coal-fired fluidized bed. In this paper, the effects of gasified biomass reburning on the integrated boiler system were investigated by both simulation and experimental methods. The simulation as well as experimental results revealed that the increase of the reburning ratio would decrease the theoretical air volume and boiler efficiency, while it would increase the fuel gas volume, combustion and exhuast gas temperature. The experimental results also indicated that the N2O removal could reach as high as 99% when the heat ratio of biomass gas to coal is 10.5%.

  20. Updraft gasification of salmon processing waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this research is to judge the feasibility of gasification for the disposal of waste streams generated through salmon harvesting. Gasification is the process of converting carbonaceous materials into combustible “syngas” in a high temperature (above 700 °C), oxygen deficient environmen...

  1. 两种加压煤气化工艺的比较%Comparison Between Two Types of Coal Gasification Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡洪涛; 范贵鑫

    2012-01-01

    Inherent advantages and disadvantages of the pressurized entrained flow coal gasification process and the pressurized fixed bed coal gasification process is introduced. By analyzing the utilization rate of the high temperature sensible heat from the gas gained from the pressurized entrained flow coal gasification process and the comparison of the features between two different pressurized gasification processes the paper concluded that the pressurized fixed bed coal gasification is a more advantageous process in producing SNG.%介绍了加压气流床煤气化工艺和加压固定床煤气化工艺固有的优点和缺点.分析了加压气流床煤气高温显热的利用率,探讨了加压固定床蒸汽消耗高、废水处理成本高和气化工艺氧耗低的原因.认为煤制天然气选择加压固定床煤气化工艺具有更多的优点.

  2. The U.S. Department of Energy`s integrated gasification combined cycle research, development and demonstration program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brdar, R.D.; Cicero, D.C.

    1996-07-01

    Historically, coal has played a major role as a fuel source for power generation both domestically and abroad. Despite increasingly stringent environmental constraints and affordable natural gas, coal will remain one of the primary fuels for producing electricity. This is due to its abundance throughout the world, low price, ease of transport an export, decreasing capital cost for coal-based systems, and the need to maintain fuel diversity. Recognizing the role coal will continue to play, the US Department of Energy (DOE) is working in partnership with industry to develop ways to use this abundant fuel resource in a manner that is more economical, more efficient and environmentally superior to conventional means to burn coal. The most promising of these technologies is integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) systems. Although IGCC systems offer many advantages, there are still several hurdles that must be overcome before the technology achieves widespread commercial acceptance. The major hurdles to commercialization include reducing capital and operating costs, reducing technical risk, demonstrating environmental and technical performance at commercial scale, and demonstrating system reliability and operability. Overcoming these hurdles, as well as continued progress in improving system efficiency, are the goals of the DOE IGCC research, development and demonstrate (RD and D) program. This paper provides an overview of this integrated RD and D program and describes fundamental areas of technology development, key research projects and their related demonstration scale activities.

  3. Engineering support services for the DOE/GRI coal-gasification research program. Monthly technical progress report, 22 August - 25 September, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bostwick, L.E.; Ethridge, T.R.; Starr, D.W.; Hubbard, D.A.; Koneru, P.B.; Smith, M.R.; Ward, W.E.; Wong, E.W.

    1982-01-01

    The objective of this contract is to provide engineering support services to the Department of Energy/Gas Research Institute in the high Btu coal gasification research program. The gasification research program is to determine the specific process and/or combination of component processing steps that offer the greatest economic potential for commercial application. During September, Kellogg continued active monitoring of operations at Westinghouse, IGT, Peatgas, and BI-GAS. Efforts relative to Hygas, Rockwell, Exxon and Bell were minimal. Test runs monitored and reported here are BI-GAS tests 17E and 17F, Westinghouse PDU test TP-028-3, and IGT Peatgas test 3. Kellog attended meetings on 1 and 22 September to discuss the review of the Hygas final report. Comments on Kellogg's draft report on the Hygas data base evaluation were received. Kellogg's evaluations of PDU operating data from Westinghouse and Exxon continues. The Kellogg report on Peatgas PDU data base evaluation was issued in draft form. At DOE's request, Kellogg began work on an evaluation of the existing data base (by IGT) for single-stage gasification of peat. Work on the descriptive brochure continued, aimed toward issue of a draft in the near future. Kellogg also provided input regarding Westinghouse test runs to a DOE consultant.

  4. Morphological study of biomass during the start-up period of a fixed-bed anaerobic reactor treating domestic sewage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Antonio Andrade Lima

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available This work focused on a morphological study of the microorganisms attached to polyurethane foam matrices in a horizontal-flow anaerobic immobilized biomass (HAIB reactor treating domestic sewage. The experiments consisted of monitoring the biomass colonization process of foam matrices in terms of the amount of retained biomass and the morphological characteristics of the cells attached to the support during the start-up period. Non-fluorescent rods and cocci were found to predominate in the process of attachment to the polyurethane foam surface. From the 10th week of operation onwards, an increase was observed in the morphological diversity, mainly due to rods, cocci, and Methanosaeta-like archaeal cells. Hydrodynamic problems, such as bed clogging and channeling occurred in the fixed-bed reactor, mainly due to the production of extracellular polymeric substances and their accumulation in the interstices of the bed causing a gradual deterioration of its performance, which eventually led to the system's collapse. These results demonstrated the importance and usefulness of monitoring the dynamics of the formation of biofilm during the start-up period of HAIB reactors, since it allowed the identification of operational problems.Este trabalho apresenta um estudo morfológico de microrganismos aderidos à espuma de poliuretano em reator anaeróbio horizontal de leito fixo (RAHLF, aplicado ao tratamento de esgoto sanitário. O processo de colonização do suporte pela biomassa anaeróbia e as características morfológicas das células aderidas foram monitorados durante o período de partida do reator. Bacilos e cocos não fluorescentes foram predominantes no processo de aderência direta à espuma de poliuretano. Aumento na diversidade biológica foi observado a partir da 10ª semana de operação do reator, com predominância de bacilos, cocos e arqueas metanogênicas semelhantes a Methanosaeta. Problemas hidrodinâmicos, tais como formação de

  5. Guideline for safe and eco-friendly biomass gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vos, J.; Knoef, H. (BTG biomass technology group, Enschede (Netherlands)); Hauth, M. (Graz Univ. of Technology. Institute of Thermal Engineering, Graz (Austria)) (and others)

    2009-11-15

    The objective of the Gasification Guide project is to accelerate the market penetration of small-scale biomass gasification systems (< 5 MW fuel power) by the development of a Guideline and Software Tool to facilitate risk assessment of HSE aspects. The Guideline may also be applied in retrofitting or converting old thermal plants in the Eastern European countries - with rich biomass recourses - to new gasification plants. The objective of this document is to guide key target groups identifying potential hazards and make a proper risk assessment. The software tool is an additional aid in the risk assessment. This guideline is intended to be a training tool and a resource for workers and employers to safely design, fabricate, construct, operate and maintain small-scale biomass gasification facilities. The Guideline is applicable with the following constraints: 1) The maximum scale of the gasification plant was agreed to be about 1 MW{sub e}. The reason is that large companies do have normally their safety rules in place; 2) This means in principle only fixed bed gasifier designs. However, most parts are also valid to other designs and even other thermal conversion processes; 3) The use of contaminated biomass is beyond the scope of this Guideline. The Guideline contains five major chapters; Chapter 2 briefly describes the gasification technology in general. Chapter 3 gives an overview of major legal framework issues on plant permission and operation. The legal frame is changing and the description is based on the situation by the end of 2007. Chapter 4 explains the theory behind the risk assessment method and risk reduction measures. Chapter 5 is the heart of the Guideline and gives practical examples of good design, operation and maintenance principles. The practical examples and feedback have been received throughout the project and the description is based on mid-2009. Chapter 6 describes the best techniques currently available for emission abatement which are

  6. Coefficient of solid-gas heat transfer in particle fixed bed; Coeficiente de transferencia de calor gas-solido em leito fixo de particulas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes Filho, Francisco

    1991-03-01

    The work presents a study on heat transfer between gas and solid phases for fixed beds in the absence of mass transfer and chemical reactions. Mathematical models presented in the literature were analyzed concerning to the assumptions made on axial dispersion in the fluid phase and interparticle thermal conductivity. Heat transfer coefficients and their dependency on flow conditions, particles and packed bed characteristics were experimentally determined through the solution of the previous mathematical models. Pressure drop behaviour for the packed beds used for the heat transfer study was also included. (author) 32 refs., 12 figs.

  7. Effects of reaction conditions on hydrogen production and carbon nanofiber properties generated by methane decomposition in a fixed bed reactor using a NiCuAl catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suelves, I.; Pinilla, J.L.; Lazaro, M.J.; Moliner, R. [Instituto de Carboquimica CSIC, Miguel Luesma Castan, 4, 50015 Zaragoza (Spain); Palacios, J.M. [Instituto de Catalisis y Petroleoquimica, CSIC, Cantoblanco, Marie Curie 2, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2009-07-01

    In this paper, the results obtained in the catalytic decomposition of methane in a fixed bed reactor using a NiCuAl catalyst prepared by the fusion method are presented. The influences of reaction temperature and space velocity on hydrogen concentration in the outlet gases, as well as on the properties of the carbon produced, have been investigated. Reaction temperature and the space velocity both increase the reaction rate of methane decomposition, but also cause an increase in the rate of catalyst deactivation. Under the operating conditions used, the carbon product is mainly deposited as nanofibers with textural properties highly correlated with the degree of crystallinity. (author)

  8. Mussel-inspired Functionalization of Cotton for Nano-catalyst Support and Its Application in a Fixed-bed System with High Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Jiangbo Xi; Junwu Xiao; Fei Xiao; Yunxia Jin; Yue Dong; Feng Jing; Shuai Wang

    2016-01-01

    Inspired by the composition of adhesive and reductive proteins secreted by marine mussels, polydopamine (PDA) was used to coat cotton microfiber (CMF), and then acted as reducing agent for the growth of Pd nanoparticles on PDA coated CMF (PDA@CMF) composites. The resultant CMF@PDA/Pd composites were then packed in a column for the further use in fixed-bed system. For the catalysis of the reduction of 4-nitrophenol, the flow rate of the 4-aminophenol solution (0.5 mM) was as high as 60 mL/min....

  9. An Integrated Process of a Two-Stage Fixed Bed Syngas Production and F-T Synthesis for GTL in Remote Gas Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    代小平; 余长春; 等

    2003-01-01

    A novel process for catalytic oxidation of methane to synthesis gas (syngas),which consists of two consecutive fixed-bed reactors with air introduced into the reactors,integrated Fischer-Tropsch synthesis,was investigated.At the Same time,a catalytic combustion technology has been investigated for utilizing the F-T offgas to generate heat or powr energy.The results show that the two-stage fixed reactor process keep away from explosion of CH4/O2.The integrated process is fitted to produce diesel oil and lubricating oil in remote gas field.

  10. Fixed (slow moving) bed updraft gasification of agricultural residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigouroux, Rolando Zanzi [Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Technology], E-mail: rolando@ket.kth.se; Escalona, Ronoldy Faxas [University of Oriente, Santiago de Cuba (Cuba). Fac. of Mechanical Engineering], E-mail: faxas@fim.uo.edu.cu

    2009-07-01

    Birch, in form of pellets has been gasified in updraft fixed-bed gasifier using air as oxidation agent. The main objectives were to study the effect of the treatment conditions on the distribution of the products and the composition of product gas. The influence of the air flow rates on the composition of the producer gas has been studied. The amount of the biomass used in the experiments was varied between 1 and 4 kg and the flow rate of the air was varied from 1.1 to 2.6 m3/h. Increased airflow rates favored higher temperatures. Excessively high airflow rates resulted in fast consumption of the biomass and it also favored combustion over gasification and thus formation of lower amounts of combustible products. High airflow rates caused also higher yields of tars, due to the shorter residence time of the tar-rich gas in the gasifier and thus unfavorable conditions for tar cracking. (author)

  11. Survey of biomass gasification. Volume II. Principles of gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, T.B. (comp.)

    1979-07-01

    Biomass can be converted by gasification into a clean-burning gaseous fuel that can be used to retrofit existing gas/oil boilers, to power engines, to generate electricity, and as a base for synthesis of methanol, gasoline, ammonia, or methane. This survey describes biomass gasification, associated technologies, and issues in three volumes. Volume I contains the synopsis and executive summary, giving highlights of the findings of the other volumes. In Volume II the technical background necessary for understanding the science, engineering, and commercialization of biomass is presented. In Volume III the present status of gasification processes is described in detail, followed by chapters on economics, gas conditioning, fuel synthesis, the institutional role to be played by the federal government, and recommendations for future research and development.

  12. Environmental report for the Gasification Product Improvement Facility (GPIF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadowski, R.S.; Skinner, W.H.; Norris, E.S.; Duck, R.R.; Hass, R.B.; Morgan, M.E.; Helble, J.J.; Johnson, S.A.

    1993-01-01

    The Fossil Energy Program has a mission to develop energy systems that utilize national coal resources in power systems with increased efficiency and environmental compatibility. Coal gasification technology is a versatile candidate that meets this goal. This two phased project consists primarily of the design, construction and operation of a 5-foot inside diameter (minimum) fixed-bed gasifier called PyGas{trademark} and supporting infrastructure (Phase I), and an additional follow on phase consisting of the design, construction and operation of a hot fuel gas cleanup unit (Phase II). Issues expected to be successfully overcome by PyGas{trademark} through its application in this test facility include the processing of high-swelling coals, which causes agglomeration in conventional fixed-bed gasifiers. Such coals comprise 87% of all eastern coals. Other issues expected to be eliminated or significantly reduced include: production of ash clinkers, production of ammonia, the presence of significant tars and fines, and the volatilization of alkalinity in the product fuel gas. A second portion of the NEPA report is concerned with the emission of toxic metal compounds by the gasification process improvement facility (GPIF). The GPIF facility will be located on site at the Fort Martin facility of Allegheny Power Company, and the energy produced (steam) will be directly used by Fort Martin to produce electricity. The coal used at the GPIF facility will be the same coal used by the utility. Therefore, the emissions of the GPIF will be put in context of the entire facility. The GPIF assessment will be divided into four sections: Estimation of the toxic metals content of the raw coal; calculation of the emissions from Fort Martin normally; an estimate of the emission from the GPIF; and a comparison of the two flows.

  13. Pyrolysis and Gasification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Thomas; Bilitewski, B.

    2011-01-01

    Pyrolysis and gasification include processes that thermally convert carbonaceous materials into products such as gas, char, coke, ash, and tar. Overall, pyrolysis generates products like gas, tar, and char, while gasification converts the carboncontaining materials (e.g. the outputs from pyrolysis......) into a mainly gaseous output. The specific output composition and relative amounts of the outputs greatly depend on the input fuel and the overall process configuration. Although pyrolysis processes in many cases also occur in gasification (however prior to the gasification processes), the overall technology...... may often be described as gasification only. Pyrolysis, however, can also be employed without proceeding with gasification. Gasification is by no means a novel process; in the 19th century so-called ‘town gas’ was produced by the gasification of coal and for example used for illumination purposes...

  14. Evaluation of zeolite A for the sorptive removal of Cs+ and Sr2+ ions from aqueous solutions using batch and fixed bed column operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Kamash, A M

    2008-03-01

    Zeolite A was chemically synthesized and evaluated, as inorganic ion exchange material, for the removal of cesium and strontium ions from aqueous solutions in both batch and fixed bed column operations. Batch experiments were carried out as a function of pH, initial ion concentration and temperature. Simple kinetic and thermodynamic models have been applied to the rate and isotherm sorption data and the relevant kinetic and thermodynamic parameters were determined from the graphical presentation of these models. Breakthrough data were determined in a fixed bed column at room temperature (298 K) under the effect of various process parameters like bed depth, flow rate and initial ion concentration. The results showed that the total metal ion uptake and the overall bed capacity decreased with increasing flow rate and increased with increasing initial ion concentrations and bed depth. The dynamics of the ion exchange process was modeled by bed depth service time (BDST) model. The sorption rate constants (K) were found to increase with increase in flow rate indicating that the overall system kinetics was dominated by external mass transfer in the initial part of the sorption process in the column.

  15. Mathematical Modelling of Catalytic Fixed-Bed Reactor for Carbon Dioxide Reforming of Methane over Rh/Al2O3 Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Aishah Saidina Amin

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A one-dimensional mathematical model was developed to simulate the performance of catalytic fixed bed reactor for carbon dioxide reforming of methane over Rh/Al2O3 catalyst at atmospheric pressure. The reactions involved in the system are carbon dioxide reforming of methane (CORM and reverse water gas shift reaction (RWGS. The profiles of CH4 and CO2 conversions, CO and H2 yields, molar flow rate and mole raction of all species as well as reactor temperature along the axial bed of catalyst were simulated. In addition, the effects of different reactor temperature on the reactor performance were also studied. The models can also be applied to analyze the performances of lab-scale micro reactor as well as pilot-plant scale reactor with certain modifications and model verification with experimental data. © 2008 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved.[Received: 20 August 2008; Accepted: 25 September 2008][How to Cite: N.A.S. Amin, I. Istadi, N.P. Yee. (2008. Mathematical Modelling of Catalytic Fixed-Bed Reactor for Carbon Dioxide Reforming of Methane over Rh/Al2O3 Catalyst. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering and Catalysis, 3 (1-3: 21-29.  doi:10.9767/bcrec.3.1-3.7120.21-29][How to Link/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.3.1-3.7120.21-29 || or local: http://ejournal.undip.ac.id/index.php/bcrec/article/view/7120

  16. Process Optimization for Ethyl Ester Production in Fixed Bed Reactor Using Calcium Oxide Impregnated Palm Shell Activated Carbon (CaO/PSAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Buasri

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available : The continuous production of ethyl ester was studied by using a steady-state fixed bed reactor (FBR. Transesterification of palm stearin (PS and waste cooking palm oil (WCPO with ethanol in the presence of calcium oxide impregnated palm shell activated carbon (CaO/PSAC solid catalyst was investigated. This work was determined the optimum conditions for the production of ethyl ester from PS and WCPO in order to obtain fatty acid ethyl ester (FAEE with the highest yield. The effects of reaction variables such as residence time, ethanol/oil molar ratio, reaction temperature, catalyst bed height and reusability of catalyst in a reactor system on the yield of biodiesel were considered. The optimum conditions were the residence time 2-3 h, ethanol/oil molar ratio 16-20, reaction temperature at 800C, and catalyst bed height 300 mm which yielded 89.46% and 83.32% of the PS and WCPO conversion, respectively. CaO/PSAC could be used repeatedly for 4 times without any activation treatment and no obvious activity loss was observed. It has potential for industrial application in the transesterification of triglyceride (TG. The fuel properties of biodiesel were determined. Keywords: biodiesel, calcium oxide, ethyl ester, fixed bed reactor, palm shell activated carbon

  17. Numerical investigation of flow and heat transfer in a novel configuration multi-tubular fixed bed reactor for propylene to acrolein process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Bin; Hao, Li; Zhang, Luhong; Sun, Yongli; Xiao, Xiaoming

    2015-01-01

    In the present contribution, a numerical study of fluid flow and heat transfer performance in a pilot-scale multi-tubular fixed bed reactor for propylene to acrolein oxidation reaction is presented using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method. Firstly, a two-dimensional CFD model is developed to simulate flow behaviors, catalytic oxidation reaction, heat and mass transfer adopting porous medium model on tube side to achieve the temperature distribution and investigate the effect of operation parameters on hot spot temperature. Secondly, based on the conclusions of tube-side, a novel configuration multi-tubular fixed-bed reactor comprising 790 tubes design with disk-and-doughnut baffles is proposed by comparing with segmental baffles reactor and their performance of fluid flow and heat transfer is analyzed to ensure the uniformity condition using molten salt as heat carrier medium on shell-side by three-dimensional CFD method. The results reveal that comprehensive performance of the reactor with disk-and-doughnut baffles is better than that of with segmental baffles. Finally, the effects of operating conditions to control the hot spots are investigated. The results show that the flow velocity range about 0.65 m/s is applicable and the co-current cooling system flow direction is better than counter-current flow to control the hottest temperature.

  18. A mass transfer model for the fixed-bed adsorption of ferulic acid onto a polymeric resin: axial dispersion and intraparticle diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davila-Guzman, Nancy E; Cerino-Córdova, Felipe J; Soto-Regalado, Eduardo; Loredo-Cancino, Margarita; Loredo-Medrano, José A; García-Reyes, Refugio B

    2016-08-01

    In this study, amberlite XAD-16 (XAD-16) bed column system was used to remove ferulic acid (FA) from aqueous solutions. Laboratory-scale column experiments were conducted in downflow fixed bed at initial FA concentration of 1 g/L, initial pH 3, and 25°C. The performance of the adsorbent bed under different flow rates (1.3-7.7 mL/min) was studied. The bed utilization efficiency was in the range of 64.64-72.21% at the studied flow rates. A mass transfer model considering both axial dispersion and intraparticle diffusion was developed to predict the breakthrough curves of FA adsorption on XAD-16. This model predicted the experimental data better than Bohart-Adams model and Thomas model, based on the low deviation between predicted and experimental data. The axial dispersion coefficient value varied from 6.45 × 10(-6) to 1.10 × 10(-6) m(2)/s at flow rate from 1.3 to 7.7 mL/min, whereas the intraparticle diffusion coefficient was 1.04 × 10(-10) m(2)/s, being this last resistance the rate-limiting step. In conclusion, axial dispersion and intraparticle diffusion phenomena play the major role in predicting the adsorption of FA onto XAD-16 in fixed-bed columns.

  19. Performance of a membrane-dialysis bioreactor with a radial-flow fixed bed for the cultivation of a hybridoma cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohmann, A; Pörtner, R; Märkl, H

    1995-10-01

    A bioreactor system for the continuous cultivation of animal cells with a high potential for scale-up is presented. This reactor system consists of radial-flow fixed-bed units coupled with a dialysis module The dialysis membrane enables the supply of low-molecular-weight nutrients and removal of toxic metabolites, while high-molecular-weight nutrients and products (e.g., monoclonal antibodies) are retained and accumulated. This concept was investigated on the laboratory scale in a bioreactor with an integrated dialysis membrane. The efficiency of the reactor system and the reproducibility of the cell activity (hybridoma cells) under certain process conditions could be demonstrated in fermentations up to 77 days. Based on model calculations, an optimized fermentation strategy was formulated and experimentally confirmed. Compared to chemostat cultures with suspended cells, a ten-times higher mAb concentration (383 mg1(-1)) could be obtained. The highest volumetric specific mAb production rate determined was 6.1 mg mAb (1 fixed bed)-1h-1.

  20. Propagated fixed-bed mixed-acid fermentation: effect of volatile solid loading rate and agitation at near-neutral pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golub, Kristina W; Golub, Stacey R; Meysing, Daniel M; Holtzapple, Mark T

    2012-11-01

    To increase conversion and product concentration, mixed-acid fermentation can use a countercurrent strategy where solids and liquids pass in opposite directions through a series of fermentors. To limit the requirement for moving solids, this study employed a propagated fixed-bed fermentation, where solids were stationary and only liquid was transferred. To evaluate the role of agitation, continuous mixing was compared with periodic mixing. The periodically mixed fermentation had similar conversion, but lower yield and selectivity. Increasing volatile solid loading rate from 1.5 to 5.1g non-acid volatile solids/(L(liq)·d) and increasing liquid retention time decreased yield, conversion, selectivity, but increased product concentrations. Compared to a previous study at high pH (~9), this study achieved higher performance at near neutral pH (~6.5) and optimal C-N ratios. Compared to countercurrent fermentation, propagated fixed-bed fermentations have similar selectivities and produce similar proportions of acetic acid, but have lower yields, conversion, productivities, and acid concentrations.

  1. Creation of Pd/Al2O3 Catalyst by a Spray Process for Fixed Bed Reactors and Its Effective Removal of Aqueous Bromate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yu; Sun, Wuzhu; Yang, Weiyi; Li, Qi

    2017-02-01

    Palladium nanoparticles were grown on sub-millimeter activated Al2O3 particle support by spraying H2PdCl4 solution evenly onto the support, followed with a thermal reduction under H2 atmosphere. Compared with its counterpart created by the conventional impregnation method, the Pd/Al2O3 catalyst created by the spray process could enrich the existence of active Pd nanoparticles on the surface of the catalyst support and increase their degree of dispersion, resulting in a much higher activity in the catalytic reduction of bromate in water. The effect of Al2O3 support particle size on the bromate removal rate was also investigated, which demonstrated that smaller support particle size could have higher activity in the catalytic reduction of bromate in water because of its larger exposed surface. This Pd/Al2O3 catalyst could be easily used in the fixed bed reactor due to its large support size and demonstrated excellent stability in the catalytic reduction of bromate in mineral water. This Pd/Al2O3 catalyst also exhibited a good catalytic reduction performance on azo dyes as demonstrated by its effective catalytic hydrogenation of methyl orange. Thus, catalysts prepared by the spray method developed in this work could have the potential to be used in fixed bed reactors for various water treatment practices.

  2. Batch and fixed bed adsorption of levofloxacin on granular activated carbon from date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) stones by KOH chemical activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darweesh, Teeba M; Ahmed, Muthanna J

    2017-03-01

    Granular activated carbon (KAC) was prepared from abundant Phoenix dactylifera L. stones by microwave- assisted KOH activation. The characteristics of KAC were tested by pore analyses, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The adsorption behavior of levofloxacin (LEV) antibiotic on KAC with surface area of 817m(2)/g and pore volume of 0.638cm(3)/g were analyzed using batch and fixed bed systems. The equilibrium data collected by batch experiments were well fitted with Langmuir compared to Freundlich and Temkin isotherms. The effect of flow rate (0.5-1.5ml/min), bed height (15-25cm), and initial LEV concentration (75-225mg/l) on the behavior of breakthrough curves was explained. The fixed bed analysis showed the better correlation of breakthrough data by both Thomas and Yoon-Nelson models. High LEV adsorption capacity of 100.3mg/g was reported on KAC, thus being an efficient adsorbent for antibiotic pollutants to protect ecological systems.

  3. The use of the carbon/nitrogen ratio and specific organic loading rate as tools for improving biohydrogen production in fixed-bed reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mélida del Pilar Anzola-Rojas

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the effect of the carbon/nitrogen (C/N ratio on the hydrogen production from sucrose-based synthetic wastewater in upflow fixed-bed anaerobic reactors. C/N ratios of 40, 90, 140, and 190 (g C/g N were studied using sucrose and urea as the carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively. An optimum hydrogen yield of 3.5 mol H2 mol−1 sucrose was obtained for a C/N ratio of 137 by means of mathematical adjustment. For all C/N ratios, the sucrose removal efficiency reached values greater than 80% and was stable after the transient stage. However, biogas production was not stable at all C/N ratios as a consequence of the continuous decreasing of the specific organic loading rate (SOLR when the biomass accumulated in the fixed-bed, causing the proliferation of H2-consuming microorganisms. It was found that the application of a constant SOLR of 6.0 g sucrose g−1 VSS d−1 stabilized the system.

  4. Pyrolysis of oil-plant wastes in a TGA and a fixed-bed reactor: Thermochemical behaviors, kinetics, and products characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianbiao; Fan, Xiaotian; Jiang, Bo; Mu, Lin; Yao, Pikai; Yin, Hongchao; Song, Xigeng

    2015-09-01

    Pyrolysis characteristics of four distinct oil-plant wastes were investigated using TGA and fixed-bed reactor coupled with GC. TGA experiments showed that the pyrolysis behaviors were related to biomass species and heating rates. As the heating rate increased, TG and DTG curves shifted to the higher temperatures, and the comprehensive devolatilization index obviously increased. The remaining chars from TGA experiments were higher than those obtained from the fixed-bed experiments. The crack of tars at high temperatures enhanced the formation of non-condensable gases. During the pyrolysis, C-O and CO2 were the major gases. Chars FTIR showed that the functional groups of O-H, C-H(n), C=O, C-O, and C-C gradually disappeared from 400 °C on. The kinetic parameters were calculated by Coats-Redfern approach. The results manifested that the most appropriate pyrolysis mechanisms were the order reaction models. The existence of kinetic compensation effect was evident.

  5. Chemical looping coal gasification with calcium ferrite and barium ferrite via solid--solid reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siriwardane, Ranjani [U.S. Department of Energy/NETL; Riley, Jarrett [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education (ORISE), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Tian, Hanjing [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States); Richards, George [U.S. Department of Energy/NETL

    2016-01-01

    Coal gasification to produce synthesis gas by chemical looping was investigated with two oxygen carriers, barium ferrite (BaFe2O4) and calcium ferrite (CaFe2O4). Thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) and fixed-bed flow reactor data indicated that a solid–solid interaction occurred between oxygen carriers and coal to produce synthesis gas. Both thermodynamic analysis and experimental data indicated that BaFe2O4 and CaFe2O4 have high reactivity with coal but have a low reactivity with synthesis gas, which makes them very attractive for the coal gasification process. Adding steam increased the production of hydrogen (H2) and carbon monoxide (CO), but carbon dioxide (CO2) remained low because these oxygen carriers have minimal reactivity with H2 and CO. Therefore, the combined steam–oxygen carrier produced the highest quantity of synthesis gas. It appeared that neither the water–gas shift reaction nor the water splitting reaction promoted additional H2 formation with the oxygen carriers when steam was present. Wyodak coal, which is a sub-bituminous coal, had the best gasification yield with oxygen carrier–steam while Illinois #6 coal had the lowest. The rate of gasification and selectivity for synthesis gas production was significantly higher when these oxygen carriers were present during steam gasification of coal. The rates and synthesis gas yields during the temperature ramps of coal–steam with oxygen carriers were better than with gaseous oxygen.

  6. Hydrogen production from biomass gasification using biochar as a catalyst/support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Dingding; Hu, Qiang; Wang, Daqian; Yang, Haiping; Wu, Chunfei; Wang, Xianhua; Chen, Hanping

    2016-09-01

    Biochar is a promising catalyst/support for biomass gasification. Hydrogen production from biomass steam gasification with biochar or Ni-based biochar has been investigated using a two stage fixed bed reactor. Commercial activated carbon was also studied as a comparison. Catalyst was prepared with an impregnation method and characterized by X-ray diffraction, specific surface and porosity analysis, X-ray fluorescence and scanning electron micrograph. The effects of gasification temperature, steam to biomass ratio, Ni loading and bio-char properties on catalyst activity in terms of hydrogen production were explored. The Ni/AC catalyst showed the best performance at gasification temperature of 800°C, S/B=4, Ni loading of 15wt.%. Texture and composition characterization of the catalysts suggested the interaction between volatiles and biochar promoted the reforming of pyrolysis volatiles. Cotton-char supported Ni exhibited the highest activity of H2 production (64.02vol.%, 92.08mgg(-1) biomass) from biomass gasification, while rice-char showed the lowest H2 production.

  7. Bio-syngas production from agro-industrial biomass residues by steam gasification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacioni, Tatiana Ramos; Soares, Diniara; Domenico, Michele Di; Rosa, Maria Fernanda; Moreira, Regina de Fátima Peralta Muniz; José, Humberto Jorge

    2016-12-01

    This study evaluated the steam gasification potential of three residues from Brazilian agro-industry by assessing their reaction kinetics and syngas production at temperatures from 650 to 850°C and a steam partial pressure range of 0.05 to 0.3bar. The transition temperature between kinetic control and diffusion control regimes was identified. Prior to the gasification tests, the raw biomasses, namely apple pomace, spent coffee grounds and sawdust, were pyrolyzed in a fixed-bed quartz tubular reactor under controlled conditions. Gasification tests were performed isothermally in a magnetic suspension thermobalance and the reaction products were analyzed by a gas chromatograph with TCD/FID detectors. According to the characterization results, the samples presented higher carbon and lower volatile matter contents than the biomasses. Nevertheless, all of the materials had high calorific value. Syngas production was influenced by both temperature and steam partial pressure. Higher concentrations of H2 and CO were found in the conversion range of 50-80% and higher concentrations of CO2 in conversions around 10%, for all the gasified biochars. The H2/CO decreased with increasing temperature, mainly in kinetic control regime, in the lower temperature range. The results indicate the gasification potential of Brazilian biomass residues and are an initial and important step in the development of gasification processes in Brazil. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Co-gasification of coal and biomass: Synergy, characterization and reactivity of the residual char.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Junhao; Shao, Jingai; Yang, Haiping; Lin, Guiying; Chen, Yingquan; Wang, Xianhua; Zhang, Wennan; Chen, Hanping

    2017-11-01

    The synergy effect between coal and biomass in their co-gasification was studied in a vertical fixed bed reactor, and the physic-chemical structural characteristics and gasification reactivity of the residual char obtained from co-gasification were also investigated. The results shows that, conversion of the residual char and tar into gas is enhanced due to the synergy effect between coal and biomass. The physical structure of residual char shows more pore on coal char when more biomass is added in the co-gasification. The migration of inorganic elements between coal and biomass was found, the formation and competitive role of K2SiO3, KAlSiO4, and Ca3Al2(SiO4)3 is a mechanism behind the synergy. The graphization degree is enhanced but size of graphite crystallite in the residual char decreases with biomass blending ratio increasing. TGA results strongly suggest the big difference in the reactivity of chars derived from coal and biomass in spite of influence from co-gasification. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Considerations on coal gasification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzen, J. E.

    1978-01-01

    Commercial processes for the gasification of coal with oxygen are discussed. The Koppers-Totzek process for the gasification of coal dust entrained in a stream of gasifying agents is described in particular detail. The outlook for future applications of coal gasification is presented.

  10. Fluidised-bed combustion of gasification residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korpela, T.; Kudjoi, A.; Hippinen, I.; Heinolainen, A.; Suominen, M.; Lu Yong [Helsinki Univ. of Technology (Finland). Lab of Energy Economics and Power Plant Engineering

    1996-12-01

    Partial gasification processes have been presented as possibilities for future power production. In the processes, the solid materials removed from a gasifier (i.e. fly ash and bed material) contain unburnt fuel and the fuel conversion is increased by burning this gasification residue either in an atmospheric or a pressurised fluidised-bed. In this project, which is a part of European JOULE 2 EXTENSION research programme, the main research objectives are the behaviour of calcium and sulphur compounds in solids and the emissions of sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x} and N{sub 2}O) in pressurised fluidised-bed combustion of gasification residues. (author)

  11. Improvement of bio-oil yield and quality in co-pyrolysis of corncobs and high density polyethylene in a fixed bed reactor at low heating rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supramono, D.; Lusiani, S.

    2016-11-01

    Over the past few decades, interest in developing biomass-derived fuel has been increasing rapidly due to the decrease in fossil fuel reserves. Bio-oil produced by biomass pyrolysis however contains high oxygen compounds resulting in low calorific-value fuel and therefore requiring upgrading. In co-pyrolysis of the feed blend of plastics of High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) and biomass of com cob particles, at some compositions free radicals from plastic decomposition containing more hydrogen radicals are able to bond oxygen radicals originating from biomass to reduce oxygenate compounds in the bio-oil thus increasing bio-oil quality. This phenomenon is usually called synergetic effect. In addition to that, the pattern of heating of the feed blend in the pyrolysis reactor is predicted to affect biooil quality and yield. In a batch reactor, co-pyrolysis of corncobs and HDPE requires low heating rate to reach a peak temperature at temperature rise period followed by heating for some time at peak temperature called holding time at constant temperature period. No research has been carried out to investigate how long holding time is set in co-pyrolysis of plastic and biomass to obtain high yield of bio-oil. Holding time may affect either crosslinking of free radicals in gas phase, which increases char product, or secondary pyrolysis in the gas phase, which increases non-condensable gas in the gas phase of pyrolysis reactor, both of which reduce bio-oil yield. Therefore, holding time of co-pyrolysis affects the mass rate of bio-oil formation as the pyrolysis proceeds and quality of the bio-oil. In the present work, effects of holding time on the yield and quality of bio-oil have been investigated using horizontal fixed bed of the feed blends at heating rate of 5°C, peak temperature of 500°C and N2 flow rate of 700 ml/minute. Holding time was varied from 0 to 70 minutes with 10 minutes interval. To investigate the effects of holding time, the composition of HDPE in the

  12. Effect of Gasifying Medium on the Coal Chemical Looping Gasification with CaSO4 as Oxygen Carrier☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongzhuo Liu; Weihua Jia; Qingjie Guo; Hojung Ryu

    2014-01-01

    The chemical looping gasification uses an oxygen carrier for solid fuel gasification by supplying insufficient lattice oxygen. The effect of gasifying medium on the coal chemical looping gasification with CaSO4 as oxygen carrier is investigated in this paper. The thermodynamical analysis indicates that the addition of steam and CO2 into the system can reduce the reaction temperature, at which the concentration of syngas reaches its maximum value. Experimental result in thermogravimetric analyzer and a fixed-bed reactor shows that the mixture sample goes through three stages, drying stage, pyrolysis stage and chemical looping gasification stage, with the temper-ature for three different gaseous media. The peak fitting and isoconversional methods are used to determine the reaction mechanism of the complex reactions in the chemical looping gasification process. It demonstrates that the gasifying medium (steam or CO2) boosts the chemical looping process by reducing the activation energy in the overall reaction and gasification reactions of coal char. However, the mechanism using steam as the gasifying medium differs from that using CO2. With steam as the gasifying medium, parallel reactions occur in the begin-ning stage, followed by a limiting stage shifting from a kinetic to a diffusion regime. It is opposite to the reaction mechanism with CO2 as the gasifying medium.

  13. Theoretical Research of Coal Gasification Products Burning in Boilers at Tomsk Thermal Power Plant-3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somov A.A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical modeling of primary fuel change into power gas in power generating boiler with productivity of steam 160 t\\h was done. Research of aggregate work on some power modes was completed. Characteristic curves of efficiency coefficient at different loads and ratio on power and natural gases burning were made. Practicability of power gas use as fuel was proved.

  14. Design of a fixed-bed ion-exchange process for the treatment of rinse waters generated in the galvanization process using Laminaria hyperborea as natural cation exchanger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, Luciana P; Pozdniakova, Tatiana A; Mayer, Diego A; Boaventura, Rui A R; Vilar, Vítor J P

    2016-03-01

    In this study, the removal of zinc from galvanization wastewaters was performed in a fixed bed column packed with brown macro-algae Laminaria hyperborea, acting as a natural cation exchanger (resin). The rinse wastewater presents a zinc concentration between 9 and 22 mg/L, a high concentration of light metals (mainly Na and Ca), a high conductivity (0.5-1.5 mS/cm) and a low organic content (DOC = 7-15 mg C/L). The zinc speciation diagram showed that approximately 80% of zinc is in the form of Zn(2+) and ≅20% as ZnSO4, considering the effluent matrix. From all operational conditions tested for zinc uptake (17 treatment of 2.4 m(3)/day of galvanization wastewater, resulting in an estimated reactants cost of 2.44 €/m(3).

  15. The effect of temperature and flow rate on the clarification of the aqueous stevia-extract in a fixed-bed column with zeolites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mantovaneli I. C. C.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Stevia is being used as a sweetener due to its low calorific value and its taste, which is very similar to that of sucrose. After extraction from dried leaves, stevia extract is dark in colour so needs to be clarified for better acceptance by consumers. Adsorption is one of the most important processes in this clarification. In this work the clarification of extract stevia extract in fixed-bed columns with calcium zeolites was studied. Two temperatures (10ºC and 30ºC and six different flow rates (2, 5, 9, 12, 16 and 19 mL/min were studied. The results showed that the mass-transfer coeffcient increases with an increase in flow rate and the length of unused bed reaches a maximum at 9 mL/min for both temperatures. The fit of the Thomas model with the breakthrough data was not very good.

  16. Study of lead ion elimination from aqueous solution in a fixed-bed double column system using longan seed based activated carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumrit Mopoung

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Longan seed based activated carbon has been used for the adsorption of lead ions from aqueous solution in a fixed-bed double column set up. The effects of initial concentration of lead ion (20, 30, 40, and 50 ppm and initial solution pH (4, 7, and 9 were studied to determine the maximum uptake of lead ion at room temperature. It was observed that the adsorption of lead ions onto activated carbon depends on initial pH and initial concentration of lead ions. The optimal value of pH was established as 7. A breakthrough period of approximately 9 h was established for continuous adsorption of lead from a 40 ppm solution at pH 4. The lead ion concentrations in the effluents were below 0.05 ppm during the first 7 h of adsorption.

  17. Removal of Cu(II from Aqueous Solutions using Dried Activated Sludge and Dried Activated Nano-Sludge: Adsorption on a Fixed-Bed Column

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Ahmari

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present time study,dried activated sludge(DAS and dried activated nano sludge(DANS was used for the removal of Cu(II from aqueous solution in a fixed-bed reactor. The effect of important parameters including the flow rate and bed height were examined. Dried activated nano sludge column regeneration using 1 M concentration of HNO3 has been studied.The Thomas model was used for the mathematical description of the adsorption of Copper at different flow rate and various bed height to determine parameters of the column suitable for process design. Both exhaustion time and breakthrough time increased with increasing bed height, while the adsorption bed capacity decreased as the flow rate increased.

  18. Experimental Study of Integrated Ebullated-bed and Fixed-bed for Hydrotreating Mid-Low Temperature Coal Tar to Clean Fuel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meng Zhaohui; Yang Tao; Fang Xiangchen

    2016-01-01

    A new hydrotreating technology integrating the ebullated-bed (EB) and the fixed-bed (FB) hydrogenation was proposed to investigate the efficiency for hydrotreating mid- low-temperature coal tar to clean fuel, and multiple tests at the bench scale were carried out. The results showed that the distillates obtained from EB reactors were greatly upgraded and could meet the requirements of FB unit without discarding any tail oil. The naphtha produced from FB reactors could be fed to the catalytic reforming unit, while a high quality diesel was also obtained. The unconverted oil (UCO) could be fur-ther hydrocracked to clean fuel. It is found that the removal of impurities from the coal tar oil is related with the molecular aggregation structure and composition of the coal tar. Application of the integrated hydrotreating technology to the high-temperature coal tar processing demonstrated that more than half of heavy components could be effectively upgraded.

  19. Purification of L-Lysine in Simulated Moving Bed and Fixed-Bed Chromatography%模拟移动床色谱及固定床色谱纯化L-赖氨酸

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ROBATJAZI Seyed Mortaza; SHOJAOSADATI Seyed Abbas; KARBASY Seyed Mojtaba

    2004-01-01

    L-Lysine was produced by a microbial process utilizing a Corynebacterium glutamicum (ATCC 21799) strain. L-Lysine was purified from the cultivated medium by fixed-bed and simulated moving bed (SMB) chromatography. The separation conditions including pH, eluent concentration and Lys+ and Lys2+ adsorption isotherms were studied in batch adsorption. The column capacity, eluent flow rate and eluent concentration have been studied in fixed-bed chromatography. Maximum purification rate of lysine was obtained as 0.066 g/(g*h) (per gram resin and per hour) at an eluent flow rate of 10 mL/min in fixed-bed chromatography. The results obtained from SMB were 0.11 g/(g*h) for L-lysine purification rate and 96% for L-lysine recovery.

  20. Hydrogen production via catalytic steam reforming of fast pyrolysis bio-oil in a two-stage fixed bed reactor system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, C.; Huang, Q.; Sui, M.; Yan, Y.; Wang, F. [Research Center for Biomass Energy, State Key Laboratory of Bioreactor Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China)

    2008-12-15

    Hydrogen production was prepared via catalytic steam reforming of fast pyrolysis bio-oil in a two-stage fixed bed reactor system. Low-cost catalyst dolomite was chosen for the primary steam reforming of bio-oil in consideration of the unavoidable deactivation caused by direct contact of metal catalyst and bio-oil itself. Nickel-based catalyst Ni/MgO was used in the second stage to increase the purity and the yield of desirable gas product further. Influential parameters such as temperature, steam to carbon ratio (S/C, S/CH{sub 4}), and material space velocity (W{sub B}HSV, GHSV) both for the first and the second reaction stages on gas product yield, carbon selectivity of gas product, CH{sub 4} conversion as well as purity of desirable gas product were investigated. High temperature (> 850 C) and high S/C (> 12) are necessary for efficient conversion of bio-oil to desirable gas product in the first steam reforming stage. Low W{sub B}HSV favors the increase of any gas product yield at any selected temperature and the overall conversion of bio-oil to gas product increases accordingly. Nickel-based catalyst Ni/MgO is effective in purification stage and 100% conversion of CH{sub 4} can be obtained under the conditions of S/CH{sub 4} no less than 2 and temperature no less than 800 C. Low GHSV favors the CH{sub 4} conversion and the maximum CH{sub 4} conversion 100%, desirable gas product purity 100%, and potential hydrogen yield 81.1% can be obtained at 800 C provided that GHSV is no more than 3600 h{sup -} {sup 1}. Carbon deposition behaviors in one-stage reactor prove that the steam reforming of crude bio-oil in a two-stage fixed bed reaction system is necessary and significant. (author)

  1. Feasibility analysis of color removal from textile dyeing wastewater in a fixed-bed column system by surfactant-modified zeolite (SMZ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, Ozgur; Turan, Mustafa; Turan, Abdullah Zahid; Faki, Aysegul; Engin, Ahmet Baki

    2009-07-30

    In this study, the ability of surfactant-modified zeolite (SMZ) to remove color from real textile wastewater was investigated. Tests were performed in a fixed-bed column reactor and the surface of natural zeolite was modified with a quaternary amine surfactant hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (HTAB). The zeolite bed that was modified at 1 g L(-1) HTAB concentration and HTAB flow rate of 0.015 L min(-1) showed good performance in removing color. Effects of wastewater color intensity, flow rates and bed heights were also studied. Wastewater was diluted several times in the ratios of 25%, 50% and 75% in order to assess the influence of wastewater strength. The breakthrough curves of the original and diluted wastewaters are dispersed due to the fact that breakthrough came late at lower color intensities and saturation of the bed appeared faster at higher color intensities. The column had a 3-cm diameter and four different bed heights of 12.5, 25, 37.5 and 50 cm, which treated 5.25, 19.50, 35.25 and 51 L original textile wastewater, respectively, at the breakthrough time at a flow rate of 0.025 L min(-1). The theoretical service times evaluated from bed depth service time (BDST) approach for different column variables. The calculated and theoretical values of the exchange zone height were found with a difference of 27%. The various design parameters obtained from fixed-bed experimental studies showed good correlation with corresponding theoretical values, under different bed heights. The regeneration of the SMZ was also evaluated using a solution consisting of 30 g L(-1) NaCl and 1.5 g L(-1) NaOH at pH 12 and temperature 30 degrees C. Twice-regenerated SMZ showed the best performance compared with the others while first- and thrice-regenerated perform lower than the original SMZ.

  2. Advanced biomass gasification for high-efficiency power. Final activity report of BiGPower Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurkela, E.; Kurkela, M. (eds.)

    2009-11-15

    The BiGPower project was related to the development of 2nd generation high-efficiency biomass-to-electricity technologies, which have the potential to meet the targets of cost effective electricity production from wide range of biomass and waste fuels in size ranges typical to locally available feedstock sources (below 100 MW{sub e}). This project was designed to create the fundamental and technical basis for successful future industrial developments and demonstration projects aiming to commercial breakthrough by 2010-2020. This overall aim was approached by carrying out in pre-competitive manner well-focused R and D activities on the key bottlenecks of advanced biomass gasification power systems. Three promising European gasification technologies in this target size range were selected to form the basis for the development: 1) air-blow novel fixed-bed gasifier for size range of 0.5-5 MWe, 2) steam gasification in a dual-fluidisedbed gasifier for 5-50 MWe and 3) air-blown pressurised fluidised-bed gasification technology for 5-100 MWe. In all biomass gasification processes, the product gas contains several types of gas contaminants, which have to be efficiently removed before utilising the gas in advanced power systems. The key technical solutions developed in the BiGPower project were: a) high-temperature catalytic removal of tars and ammonia by new catalytic methods, and b) development of innovative low cost gas filtration. Three most potential power production cycle alternatives were examined and developed: 1) gas engines, 2) molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) and 3) the simplified Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) process. The performance and techno-economic feasibility of these advanced gasification-topower concepts were examined by carrying out case studies in different European Union. (orig.)

  3. Engineering support services for the DOE/GRI coal gasification research program. Quarterly technical progress report, January-March 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bostwick, L.E.; Ethridge, T.R.; Starr, D.W.; Koneru, P.B.; Hubbard, D.A.; Shah, K.V.; Smith, M.R.; Ward, W.E.; Wong, E.W.

    1982-05-01

    Kellogg continued to actively monitor operations at BI-GAS, Westinghouse and IGT (for peat gasification). Pilot plant/PDU test runs which were monitored and reported included BI-GAS Tests G-18, G-18A and G-18B; Westinghouse PDU Test TP-032-1 and CFSF Test TP-M003; and Peatgas Pilot Plant Test No. 5. Kellogg also monitored winterization/maintenance activities at BI-GAS and Westinghouse and precommissioning of the IGT Wet Carbonization PDU. The final report on the Hygas Data Base Evaluation was issued, while final revisions were completed for the reports concerning PDU data base evaluations of Peatgas and single-stage peat gasification. Efforts toward completion of the brochure describing the DOE/GRI Joint Program proceeded. Normal MPC activities continued. Several technical progress reports were issued during this quarter.

  4. Thermal activation and characterization of clay aiming their use as sorbent in fixed bed columns to remove cadmium; Ativacao termica e caracterizacao da argila visando sua utilizacao como adsorvente em colunas de leito fixo para a remocao de cadmio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, M.M. da; Rodrigues, M.G.F. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil); Silva, M.L.P. [Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Arido (UFERSA), RN (Brazil); Kleinübing, S.J.; Silva, M.G.C., E-mail: marciliomaximo@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    In this work we studied the removal of cadmium in a synthetic wastewater using clay of Pernambuco - Brazil, in systems of fixed bed column. Clay was thermally activated at 500 °C. The materials were characterized using X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and nitrogen adsorption (BET method). For tests in fixed bed column, we applied a factorial design 2{sup 2} and found that increasing the flow adversely affects the process of removing cadmium concentration while acting positively. The studies showed these materials as promising for the removal of Cd{sup 2+} ions in synthetic wastewater containing low levels of this metal. (author)

  5. Volatilisation of alkali and alkaline earth metallic species during the gasification of a Victorian brown coal in CO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quyn, Dimple Mody; Li, Chun-Zhu [CRC for Clean Power from Lignite, Department of Chemical Engineering, PO Box 36, Monash University, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Hayashi, Jun-ichiro [Centre for Advanced Research of Energy Conversion Materials, Hokkaido University, N13-W8, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan)

    2005-08-25

    A Victorian brown coal was gasified in a bench-scale quartz fluidised-bed/fixed-bed reactor in order to study the volatilisation of Na, Ca, and Mg during devolatilisation and gasification and their roles in the reactivity of chars. It was found that the majority of Na was volatilised at 900 {sup o}C under all conditions and that a Na retention limit was achieved in the char with the progress of CO{sub 2} gasification. In some cases, the presence of CO{sub 2} during devolatilisation enhanced the Na retention in the char. In contrast, the retention of Ca (and Mg) was unaffected by CO{sub 2} during devolatilisation at 900C but decreased drastically upon nascent char gasification. The fundamental differences in volatilisation between the alkali and alkaline earth metallic species are discussed in this paper.

  6. Gasification of Tar from Biomass Pyrolysis for Syngas under Different Atmospheres%不同气氛下生物质焦油气化制备合成气

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江程程; 肖波; 胡智泉; 成功; 张艳丽

    2011-01-01

    [Objective ] The effect of the gasification temperature under the different atmospheres on the component of syngas from tar and the characteristics of syngas formation was researched. [ Method | The component and the characteristics of the syngas produced from the gasification of tar through the biomass pyrolysis at different temperature of 500, 600, 700, 800 or 900 ℃. Was studied in a fixed bed reactor of different agents: N2, water atmospheres and CO2 in Lab. [ Results | Under the reactor of three agents: N2, water atmospheres and CO2, the concentration and gasification characteristics of H2, CO and CH4 was improved with the temperature-increasing. The introduction of water steam would obviously improve the concentration of H2 and CO in the produced gas and the concentration of H2 would reach the maximum(45. 22% ) at 800 ℃. The high concentration of carbon dioxide had great inhibition effect on the gasification of tar. [ Conclusion ] The important theoretic reference for the utilization of the gasification of tar and its good-quality was provided.%[目的]研究生物质焦油在不同气氛下气化温度对生物质焦油产气组分与产气特性的影响.[方法]采用实验室规模的固定床反应器研究N,、水蒸气和CO2气氛下,生物质焦油在500、600、700、800、900℃时裂解产气组成及其特性.[结果]在3种反应气氛下,H2、CO和CH4的含量及气体特性均随温度的升高而增加.水蒸气的介入能够明显促进产品气中H,和CO的含量,当温度达到800℃时,H2浓度达到最大值45.22%.CO2浓度过高对生物质焦油的气化反应有明显的抑制作用.[结论]为生物质焦油的气化和生物质的高质化利用提供了重要的理论依据.

  7. Engineering support services for the DOE/GRI coal-gasification research program. Technical and economical comparisons of the Westinghouse and I. G. T. U-Gas coal-gasification processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bostwick, L.E.; Hubbard, D.A.; Laramore, R.W.; Koneru, P.B.

    1981-07-01

    Kellogg was requested by DOE/GRI to prepare technical and economic assessments of the Westinghouse and IGT U-Gas processes such that comparison of the two would be on a consistent basis. Kellogg carried out this task in essentially two phases: (a) preparation of consistent designs of coal-to-SNG plants using the two processes, and (b) evaluation of the design bases in light of research data. Comparable designs and economics were prepared for grass-roots facilities to produce SNG equivalent to 250 billion Btu/day from Pittsburgh No. 8 coal, using the Westinghouse and U-Gas gasifiers. The C.F. Braun Guidelines were followed. The capital and operating costs are almost identical for the two processes. In Kellogg's view, the economics as developed during this study do not show cause to favor either process over the other. The small differences in costs are well within the accuracies of the estimates and should be considered insignificant. Nine differences between the Westinghouse and U-Gas processes are listed which could possibly provide an advantage to one or to the other. Opportunities exist for both processes to enhance efficiencies and/or to reduce costs by optimization of the gas treating and byproduct recovery areas. Kellogg observes that both Westinghouse and U-Gas appear to be very competitive (in economics as developed during this study) with other coal gasification processes evaluated under the Joint DOE/GRI Program.

  8. Radiative Gasification Apparatus

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This apparatus, developed at EL, determines gasification rate (mass loss rate) of a horizontally oriented specimen exposed in a nitrogen environment to a controlled...

  9. Pyrolysis and Gasification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Thomas; Bilitewski, B.

    2011-01-01

    Pyrolysis and gasification include processes that thermally convert carbonaceous materials into products such as gas, char, coke, ash, and tar. Overall, pyrolysis generates products like gas, tar, and char, while gasification converts the carboncontaining materials (e.g. the outputs from pyrolysis....... Today gasification is used within a range of applications, the most important of which are conversion of coal into syngas for use as chemical feedstock or energy production; but also gasification of biomass and waste is gaining significant interest as emerging technologies for sustainable energy. From...

  10. Gasification-based biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    The gasification-based biomass section of the Renewable Energy Technology Characterizations describes the technical and economic status of this emerging renewable energy option for electricity supply.

  11. Woody biomass and RPF gasification using reforming catalyst and calcium oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Jun; Kawamoto, Katsuya; Fukushima, Ryutaro; Tanaka, Shingo

    2011-05-01

    This study focused on steam gasification and reforming of waste biomass using a reforming catalyst. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the durability of a commercial Ni reforming catalyst and the effect of CaO on the reforming behavior, and to clarify detailed factors of catalytic performance, as well as the effect of operating parameters on the characteristics of produced gas composition. Moreover, catalyst regeneration was carried out and the behavior of catalytic activity based on gas composition was investigated. Using a fluidized bed gasifier and a fixed bed reformer, gasification and reforming of waste biomass were carried out. Commercial Ni-based catalyst and calcined limestone (CaO) were applied to the reforming reaction. Temperature of the gasifier and reformer was almost 1023K. Ratio of steam to carbon in the feedstock [molmol(-1)] and equivalence ratio (i.e., ratio of actual to theoretical amount of oxygen) [-] were set at about 2 and 0.3, respectively. The feed rate of the feedstock into the bench-scale gasifier was almost 15kgh(-1). The results of waste biomass gasification confirmed the improvement in H(2) composition by the CO(2) absorption reaction using the reforming catalyst and CaO. In addition, CaO proved to be especially effective in decreasing the tar concentration in the case of woody biomass gasification. Catalytic activity was maintained by means of catalyst regeneration processing by hydrogen reduction after air oxidation when woody biomass was used as feedstock.

  12. Electrical Power and Heat from Crew Waste Using an Integrated Solid Oxide Fuel Cell and Fixed-Bed Gasifier Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ITN Energy Systems, Inc., along with the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC), proposes to develop a highly efficient power generation system capable of...

  13. Experimental investigations of biomass gasification with carbon-dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sircar, Indraneel

    A sustainable energy cycle may include enhanced utilization of solar energy and atmospheric CO2 to produce biomass and enhanced utilization of exhaust CO2 from power plants for synthetic gas production. The reaction of carbon with CO2 is potentially one of the important processes in a future sustainable carbon cycle. Reactions involving carbon and CO2 are also relevant to the chemical process and metal industries. Biomass char has been recognized as a present and future alternative to fossil-fuels for energy production and fuel synthesis. Therefore, biomass char gasification with CO2 recycling is proposed as a sustainable and carbon-neutral energy technology. Biomass char is a complex porous solid and its gasification involves heat and mass transfer processes within pores of multiple sizes from nanometer to millimeter scales. These processes are coupled with heterogeneous chemistry at the internal and external surfaces. Rates for the heterogeneous carbon gasification reactions are affected by inorganic content of the char. Furthermore, pore structure of the char develops with conversion and influences apparent gasification rates. Effective modeling of the gasification reactions has relied on the best available understanding of diffusion processes and kinetic rate property constants from state of the art experiments. Improvement of the influences of inorganic composition, and process parameters, such as pressure and temperature on the gasification reaction rates has been a continuous process. Economic viability of gasification relies on use of optimum catalysts. These aspects of the current status of gasification technologies have motivated the work reported in this dissertation. The reactions between biomass chars and CO2 are investigated to determine the effects of temperature and pressure on the reaction rates for large char particles of relevance to practical gasification technologies. An experimental apparatus consisting of a high-pressure fixed-bed reactor

  14. Development of a supported tri-metallic catalyst and evaluation of the catalytic activity in biomass steam gasification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianfen; Xiao, Bo; Yan, Rong; Xu, Xiaorong

    2009-11-01

    A supported tri-metallic catalyst (nano-Ni-La-Fe/gamma-Al(2)O(3)) was developed for tar reduction and enhanced hydrogen production in biomass steam gasification, with focuses on preventing coke deposition and sintering effects to lengthen the lifetime of developed catalysts. The catalyst was prepared by deposition-precipitation method and characterized by various analytical approaches. Following that, the activity of catalysts in biomass steam gasification was investigated in a bench-scale combined fixed bed reactor. With presence of the catalyst, the content of hydrogen in gas products was increased to over 10 vol.%, the tar removal efficiency reached 99% at 1073 K, and more importantly the coke deposition on the catalyst surfaces and sintering effects were avoided, leading to a long lifetime of catalysts.

  15. Thermodynamic analysis of an integrated gasification solid oxide fuel cell plant combined with an organic Rankine cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pierobon, Leonardo; Rokni, Masoud; Larsen, Ulrik

    2013-01-01

    into a fixed bed gasification plant to produce syngas which fuels the combined solid oxide fuel cells e organic Rankine cycle system to produce electricity. More than a hundred fluids are considered as possible alternative for the organic cycle using non-ideal equations of state (or state-of-the-art equations......A 100 kWe hybrid plant consisting of gasification system, solid oxide fuel cells and organic Rankine cycle is presented. The nominal power is selected based on cultivation area requirement. For the considered output a land of around 0.5 km2 needs to be utilized. Woodchips are introduced...... of state). A genetic algorithm is employed to select the optimal working fluid and the maximum pressure for the bottoming cycle. Thermodynamic and physical properties, environmental impacts and hazard specifications are also considered in the screening process. The results suggest that efficiencies...

  16. Experimental research on catalysts and their catalytic mechanism for hydrogen production by gasification of peanut shell in supercritical water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PEI Aixia; GUO Liejin; JIN Hui

    2007-01-01

    Peanut shell,mixed with sodium carboxymethylcellulose,was gasified at a temperature of 450℃ and a pressure range from 24 to 27 MPa with the presence of different catalysts,including K2CO3,ZnCl2 and Raney-Ni.The experimental results show that different catalysts have greatly different effects on the reaction.Gasification efficiency (GE),hydrogen gasification efficiency (GHE),carbon gasification efficiency (GCE),yield of hydrogen production (YH2) and potential yield of hydrogen production (YPH2) are applied to describe the catalytic efficiency.From the result of gaseous components,ZnCl2 has the highest hydrogen selectivity,K2CO3 is lower,and Raney-Ni is the lowest,but Raney-Ni is the most favorable to gasify biomass among the three catalysts,and its GE,GHE,GcE reach 126.84%,185.71%,94.24%,respectively.As expected,hydrogen selectivity increased and CH4 reduced rapidly when the mixture of ZnCl2 and Raney-Ni is used under the same condition.The optimization mixture appeared when 0.2 g of ZnCl2 was added to 1 g of Raney-Ni,43.56 g·kg-1 of hydrogen production was obtained.In addition,the catalytic mechanisms of different catalysts were analyzed,and the possible reaction pathway was brought forward,which helped to explain the experiment phenomena and results correctly.

  17. Analysis of Organic and Inorganic Contaminants in Dried Sewage Sludge and By-Products of Dried Sewage Sludge Gasification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Werle

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic and inorganic contaminants in sewage sludge may cause their presence also in the by-products formed during gasification processes. Thus, this paper presents multidirectional chemical instrumental activation analyses of dried sewage sludge as well as both solid (ash, char coal and liquid (tar by-products formed during sewage gasification in a fixed bed reactor which was carried out to assess the extent of that phenomenon. Significant differences were observed in the type of contaminants present in the solid and liquid by-products from the dried sewage sludge gasification. Except for heavy metals, the characteristics of the contaminants in the by-products, irrespective of their form (solid and liquid, were different from those initially determined in the sewage sludge. It has been found that gasification promotes the migration of certain valuable inorganic compounds from sewage sludge into solid by-products which might be recovered. On the other hand, the liquid by-products resulting from sewage sludge gasification require a separate process for their treatment or disposal due to their considerable loading with toxic and hazardous organic compounds (phenols and their derivatives.

  18. Gasification of REF and purification of the product gas for boilers; REF:n kaasutus ja kaasun puhdistus kattilakaeyttoeoen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurkela, E.; Nieminen, M. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    2001-07-01

    Gasification of REF as the present coal, peat or oil-fired power plants has many significant advantages compared to other energy use alternatives for refuse. 1. Refuse derived fuels can be used for replace the fossil fuels in high-efficiency CHP plants. 2. Energy use investments on REF are limited to REF processing and gasification investments. Actual boiler and power generation equipment have already been invested, so the need for capital remains clearly lower than with mass incineration. 3. Gasifiers, designed for REF, can use also different kinds of biofuels and industrial byproducts (e.g. plastic wastes) and rejects from materials recycling. 4. Combustion of clean gas in a boiler designed for coal leads usually to reduction of emissions, and especially the dioxin formation and heavy metal emissions can be controlled easier. 5. Replacement of fossil fuels and efficient use of REF have significant effect on reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions (> 1-3 Mt-CO{sub 2} eq.). 6. Different gasification technology can be selected for different scales. This presentation discusses the results obtained in VTT's publicly funded projects and conclusions made on the basis of these results. The development of 15 - 100 MW fluidized-bed gasification technology, and the Novel fixed bed gasification for the scale under 15 MW are reviewed in the presentation.

  19. An experimental and numerical study of wood combustion in a fixed bed using Euler–Lagrange approach (XDEM)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahmoudi, A.H.; Markovic, M.; Peters, B.; Brem, G.

    2015-01-01

    Using biomass as a source of energy has been gradually increasing in last decades, because it is a sustainable and CO2 neutral fuel. In order to improve the performance of gasifiers, academic and industrial researches need to gain insights into the highly complex processes during the combustion of b

  20. Coal gasification. Quarterly report, April-June 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-04-01

    In DOE's program for the conversion of coal to gaseous fuels both high-and low-Btu gasification processes are being developed. High-Btu gas can be distributed economically to consumers in the same pipeline systems now used to carry natural gas. Low-Btu gas, the cheapest of the gaseous fuels produced from coal, can be used economically only on site, either for electric power generation or by industrial and petrochemical plants. High-Btu natural gas has a heating value of 950 to 1000 Btu per standard cubic foot, is composed essentially of methane, and contains virtually no sulfur, carbon monoxide, or free hydrogen. The conversion of coal to High-Btu gas requires a chemical and physical transformation of solid coal. Coals have widely differing chemical and physical properties, depending on where they are mined, and are difficult to process. Therefore, to develop the most suitable techniques for gasifying coal, DOE, together with the American Gas Association (AGA), is sponsoring the development of several advanced conversion processes. Although the basic coal-gasification chemical reactions are the same for each process, each of the processes under development have unique characteristics. A number of the processes for converting coal to high-Btu gas have reached the pilot plant Low-Btu gas, with a heating value of up to 350 Btu per standard cubic foot, is an economical fuel for industrial use as well as for power generation in combined gas-steam turbine power cycles. Because different low-Btu gasification processes are optimum for converting different types of coal, and because of the need to provide commercially acceptable processes at the earliest possible date, DOE is sponsoring the concurrent development of several basic types of gasifiers (fixed-bed, fluidized-bed, and entrained-flow).

  1. Catalytic gasification of biomass (Miscanthus) enhanced by CO2 sorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamboni, I; Debal, M; Matt, M; Girods, P; Kiennemann, A; Rogaume, Y; Courson, C

    2016-11-01

    The main objective of this work concerns the coupling of biomass gasification reaction and CO2 sorption. The study shows the feasibility to promote biomass steam gasification in a dense fluidized bed reactor with CO2 sorption to enhance tar removal and hydrogen production. It also proves the efficiency of CaO-Ca12Al14O33/olivine bi-functional materials to reduce heavy tar production. Experiments have been carried out in a fluidized bed gasifier using steam as the fluidizing medium to improve hydrogen production. Bed materials consisting of CaO-based oxide for CO2 sorption (CaO-Ca12Al14O33) deposited on olivine for tar reduction were synthesized, their structural and textural properties were characterized by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and temperature-programmed reduction (TPR) methods, and the determination of their sorption capacity and stability analyzed by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). It appears that this CaO-Ca12Al14O33/olivine sorbent/catalyst presents a good CO2 sorption stability (for seven cycles of carbonation/decarbonation). Compared to olivine and Fe/olivine in a fixed bed reactor for steam reforming of toluene chosen as tar model compound, it shows a better hydrogen production rate and a lower CO2 selectivity due to its sorption on the CaO phase. In the biomass steam gasification, the use of CaO-Ca12Al14O33/olivine as bed material at 700 °C leads to a higher H2 production than olivine at 800 °C thanks to CO2 sorption. Similar tar concentration and lighter tar production (analyzed by HPLC/UV) are observed. At 700 °C, sorbent addition allows to halve tar content and to eliminate the heaviest tars.

  2. Aspects of stability of K/Al2O3 catalysts for the transesterification of rapeseed oil in batch and fixed-bed reactors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Petr Kutálek; Libor Čapek; Lucie Smoláková; David Kubička; Martin Hájek

    2014-01-01

    Catalytically active, stable, and mechanically durable solid K/Al2O3 catalysts for the transesterifica-tion of rapeseed oil with methanol was studied. In a batch reactor, high catalytic activity was ac-companied by leaching of K species, caused by glycerol, and mechanical destruction of the solid catalyst as a result of contact with the stirrer. In a fixed-bed reactor, some leaching of K species into the liquid phases was also observed, but approached 0 during 30 h of time-on-stream; the activity of the K/Al2O3 catalyst (~83% ester yield) was stable for 100 h of time-on-stream and no mechanical destruction of the catalyst was observed. The populations of K2O and K-O-Al species for fresh and used K/Al2O3 catalysts were compared using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. It was found that some K2O species leached into the liquid phases at the beginning of the reaction.

  3. Mathematical Modelling of Catalytic Fixed-Bed Reactor for Carbon Dioxide Reforming of Methane over Rh/Al2O3 Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    New Pei Yee

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available A one-dimensional mathematical model was developed to simulate the performance of catalytic fixed bedreactor for carbon dioxide reforming of methane over Rh/Al2O3 catalyst at atmospheric pressure. The reactionsinvolved in the system are carbon dioxide reforming of methane (CORM and reverse water gas shiftreaction (RWGS. The profiles of CH4 and CO2 conversions, CO and H2 yields, molar flow rate and molefraction of all species as well as reactor temperature along the axial bed of catalyst were simulated. In addition,the effects of different reactor temperature on the reactor performance were also studied. The modelscan also be applied to analyze the performances of lab-scale micro reactor as well as pilot-plant scale reactorwith certain modifications and model verification with experimental data. © 2008 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved.[Received: 20 August 2008; Accepted: 25 September 2008][How to Cite: N.A.S. Amin, I. Istadi, N.P. Yee. (2008. Mathematical Modelling of Catalytic Fixed-Bed Reactor for Carbon Dioxide Reforming of Methane over Rh/Al2O3 Catalyst. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering and Catalysis, 3 (1-3: 21-29. doi:10.9767/bcrec.3.1-3.19.21-29

  4. Pressurized pyrolysis of rice husk in an inert gas sweeping fixed-bed reactor with a focus on bio-oil deoxygenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yangyang; Zhang, Jie; Wang, Jie

    2014-12-01

    The pyrolysis of rice husk was conducted in a fixed-bed reactor with a sweeping nitrogen gas to investigate the effects of pressure on the pyrolytic behaviors. The release rates of main gases during the pyrolysis, the distributions of four products (char, bio-oil, water and gas), the elemental compositions of char, bio-oil and gas, and the typical compounds in bio-oil were determined. It was found that the elevation of pressure from 0.1MPa to 5.0MPa facilitated the dehydration and decarboxylation of bio-oil, and the bio-oils obtained under the elevated pressures had significantly less oxygen and higher calorific value than those obtained under atmospheric pressure. The former bio-oils embraced more acetic acid, phenols and guaiacols. The elevation of pressure increased the formation of CH4 partially via the gas-phase reactions. An attempt is made in this study to clarify "the pure pressure effect" and "the combined effect with residence time".

  5. Selective hydrogenolysis of raw glycerol to 1,2-propanediol over Cu-ZnO catalysts in fixed-bed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qiang; Xu, Bolian; Tong, Qing; Fan, Yining

    2016-01-01

    The catalytic properties of Cu-ZnO catalysts for glycerol hydrogenolysis to 1,2-propanediol (1,2-PDO) were tested in a fixed-bed reactor at 250 °C and 2.0 MPa H2. The relation between composition, surface properties, and catalytic performance of glycerol hydrogenation of Cu-ZnO catalysts was studied using nitrogen adsorption (BET methods), XRD, H2 temperature-programmed reduction, and N2O chemisorptions. It was found that there was a close link between the surface CuO amount of Cu-ZnO catalyst and the reactivity for glycerol hydrogenation. The Cu-ZnO catalyst (Cu/Zn = 1.86) which had the highest surface Cu amount showed the best catalytic activity for glycerol hydrogenolysis. Furthermore, Cu-ZnO catalyst presented good stability and remarkable catalytic activity for glycerol hydrogenolysis to 1,2-PDO using raw glycerol derived from the fat saponification as feedstock.

  6. The effects of fixed-bed drying on the yield and composition of essential oil from long pepper (Piper hispidinervium C. DC leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. P. Braga

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Piper hispidinervium C.DC (Piperaceae is popularly known as long pepper. It grows in degraded areas of natural fields in the state of Acre, Brazil. Its leaves are 3 to 4 % essential oil rich in safrole, within the range of 90 to 94 %. In the chemical industry, safrole is an important raw material, mainly due to two of its derivatives: heliotropin, which is widely used as a fragrance and flavoring agent, and piperonyl butoxide (PBO, a vital ingredient of pyrethroid insecticides. Natural pyrethrum in particular would not be an economical insecticide without the synergistic effect of PBO; therefore, its industrial future is linked to the continued availability of PBO. As a fragrance, safrole has many applications in household products such as floor waxes, polishes, soaps, detergents and cleaning agents. In this work, leaves were dried in a fixed-bed dryer using different drying-air temperatures (35, 40, 45, 50, 55 and 60 ºC and drying times (900, 2700 and 3600 seconds. Essential oil was extracted by cohobation (meaning that the condensed water that comes out of the flask is recycled from both raw and dried leaves. The essential oil yield and safrole content are susceptible to rapid loss of moisture by Piper hispidinervium C. DC leaves. It was observed that the essential oil yield increased twice after the drying process. However, safrole content decreased about 20 percent when temperature was above 50 ºC and drying times were more than 2700 minutes.

  7. Treatment of photographic processing wastewater by biological activated carbon fixed-bed reactor. Seibutsu kasseitan ni yoru shashin haieki no shori

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirota, H.; Kishino, T. (Ube College, Yamaguchi (Japan)); Ukita, M.; Nakanishi, H. (Yamaguchi Univ., Yamaguchi (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)

    1991-10-10

    Since photographic processing wastewater includes very small quantity but high density of organic and inorganic chemicals, it is one of the difficult wastewaters for water treatment. Although ozone oxidation methods or chemical oxidation methods to reduce COD or BOD have been examined as treatment processes for photographic wastewater, their commercialization have not been progressed yet from the view of efficiency or of costs. In this paper, aerobic microbial film fixed-bed reactor, of which microbes carrier was granular activated carbon (GAC), was used to treat photographic processing wastewater, and its characteristics of biological treatments have been examined. As a result, by treatment experiments of photographic processing wastewater distinguished depending on their resources, it was clarified treatment characteristics were different depending on a sort of photographic wastewater, and that COD was increased by biological treatments. Moreover, based on experiments to be carried out by changing COD loads using mixed wastewater by each photographic processing wasterwater with generic propotion, it could be considered that loading quantity without pH adjustment was approximately 10g{center dot}Kg{sup {minus}1}GAC {center dot}d{sup {minus}1} of COD loading based on carrier weight. Further, there was closed relationship between COD load and COD removal speed. 10 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs.

  8. Preparation of a carbon molecular sieve and application to separation of N{sub 2}, O{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} in a fixed bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, J.L.; Jose, H.J.; Moreira, R.F.P.M. [Univ. Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. of Chemistry and Food Engineering

    2003-03-01

    The emission of CO{sub 2} from power plants that burn fossil fuels is the major cause of the accumulation of CO{sub 2} in the atmosphere. The separation of CO{sub 2} from CO{sub 2}/air mixtures can play a key role in alleviating this problem. This separation can be carried out by using suitable adsorbents, such as carbon molecular sieves. In this work, a CMS was prepared by deposition of polyfurfuryl alcohol polymer on activated carbon. After deposition of the polymer, the material was carbonized at 800{sup o}C for 2 hours. This material was used to separate O-2/N-2 mixtures and CO{sub 2} in a fixed bed at room temperature. Experimental breakthrough curves obtained were fitted to theoretical models in order to establish the main mechanisms of mass transfer. The breakthrough curves showed that it is possible to separate O{sub 2}, N{sub 2} and CO{sub 2}. The shape of the breakthrough curves was not influenced by the total flow, indicating that the gas contact for the gas mixture was good. The experimental data were fitted to theoretical models and it was established that the main mechanism of mass transfer was intraparticle diffusion.

  9. Bimodal porous silica microspheres decorated with polydopamine nano-particles for the adsorption of methylene blue in fixed-bed columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ataei-Germi, Taher; Nematollahzadeh, Ali

    2016-05-15

    Bimodal meso/macro-porous silica microspheres (MSM) were synthesized by a modified sol-emulsion-gel method and then the surface was coated with polydopamine (PDA) nano-particles of 39nm in size. Focusing on the encouraging properties of the synthesized adsorbent, such as high specific surface area (612.3m(2)g(-1), because of mesopores), fast mass transfer (0.9-2.67×10(-3)mLmin(-1)mg, because of macropores), and abundant "adhesive" functional groups of PDA, it was used for the removal of methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solution in a fixed-bed column. The effect of different parameters such as pH, initial concentration, and flow rate was studied. The results revealed that an appropriate sorption condition is an alkaline solution of MB (e.g., pH 10) at low flow rate (less than 5mLmin(-1)). Furthermore, the compatibility of the experimental data with mathematical models such as Thomas and Adams-Bohart was investigated. Both of the models showed a good agreement with the experimental data (R(2)=0.9954-0.9994), and could be applied for the prediction of the column properties and breakthrough curves. Regeneration of the column was performed by using HCl solution with a concentration of 0.1M as an eluent. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Formation of N2 in the fixed-bed pyrolysis of low rank coals and the mechanisms; Koteisho netsubunkai ni okeru teitankatan kara no N2 no sisei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Z.; Otsuka, Y. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Institute for Chemical Reaction Science

    1996-10-28

    In order to establish coal NOx preventive measures, discussions were given on formation of N2 in the fixed-bed pyrolysis of low rank coals and the mechanisms thereof. Chinese ZN coal and German RB coal were used for the discussions. Both coals do not produce N2 at 600{degree}C, and the main product is volatile nitrogen. Conversion into N2 does not depend on heating rates, but increases linearly with increasing temperature, and reaches 65% to 70% at 1200{degree}C. In contrast, char nitrogen decreases linearly with the temperature. More specifically, these phenomena suggest that the char nitrogen or its precursor is the major supply source of N2. When mineral substances are removed by using hydrochloric acid, their catalytic action is lost, and conversion into N2 decreases remarkably. Iron existing in ion-exchanged condition in low-rank coal is reduced and finely diffused into metallic iron particles. The particles react with heterocyclic nitrogen compounds and turn into iron nitride. A solid phase reaction mechanism may be conceived, in which N2 is produced due to decomposition of the iron nitride. 5 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Thermolysis of microalgae and duckweed in a CO₂-swept fixed-bed reactor: bio-oil yield and compositional effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanella, Alejandrina; Muncrief, Rachel; Harold, Michael P; Griffith, David C; Whitton, Norman M; Weber, Robert S

    2012-04-01

    Microalgae and duckweed were grown and harvested over a three-month period in CO(2)-sparged helioreactors and open earthen ponds, respectively. The biomass feedstocks were thermolyzed in a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) and fixed-bed reactor to produce a fuel precursor coined "bioleum". Analysis of the thermolysis kinetics revealed an increase in the activation energy with heating rate for both aquatic species. Activation energies were lower than literature-reported values for lignocellulosics, corroborated by TGA thermolysis of pinewood. Thermolysis of microalgae resulted in higher bioleum and energy yields than for duckweed, reflecting differences in the biomass composition. The algal bioleum properties resemble those of crude petroleum except for higher nitrogen and oxygen content and acid number. Speciation identified 300+ compounds in the oil phase, with similar amounts of hydrocarbons and oxygenates, while acetic acid was the major species in the aqueous phase. The compounds were classified according to their degree of aromaticity, oxygenation, and nitrogenation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Pyrolysis of waste animal fats in a fixed-bed reactor: production and characterization of bio-oil and bio-char.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Hassen-Trabelsi, A; Kraiem, T; Naoui, S; Belayouni, H

    2014-01-01

    Several animal (lamb, poultry and swine) fatty wastes were pyrolyzed under nitrogen, in a laboratory scale fixed-bed reactor and the main products (liquid bio-oil, solid bio-char and syngas) were obtained. The purpose of this study is to produce and characterize bio-oil and bio-char obtained from pyrolysis of animal fatty wastes. The maximum production of bio-oil was achieved at a pyrolysis temperature of 500 °C and a heating rate of 5 °C/min. The chemical (GC-MS analyses) and spectroscopic analyses (FTIR analyses) of bio-oil showed that it is a complex mixture consisting of different classes of organic compounds, i.e., hydrocarbons (alkanes, alkenes, cyclic compounds...etc.), carboxylic acids, aldehydes, ketones, esters,...etc. According to fuel properties, produced bio-oils showed good properties, suitable for its use as an engine fuel or as a potential source for synthetic fuels and chemical feedstock. Obtained bio-chars had low carbon content and high ash content which make them unattractive for as renewable source energy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of lipids and oleic acid on biomass development in anaerobic fixed-bed reactors. Part II: Oleic acid toxicity and biodegradability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, M M; Vieira, J A; Pereira, R M; Pereira, M A; Mota, M

    2001-01-01

    Oleic acid toxicity and biodegradability were followed during long-term operation of two similar anaerobic fixed-bed units. When treating an oleate based effluent, the sludge from the bioreactor that was acclimated with lipids during the first operation period, showed a higher tolerance to oleic acid toxicity (IC50 = 137 mg/l) compared with the sludge fed with a non-fat substrate (IC50 = 80 mg/l). This sludge showed also the highest biodegradation capacity of oleic acid, achieving maximum methane production rates between 33 and 46 mlCH4(STP)/gVS.day and maximum percentages of methanization between 85 and 98% for the range of concentrations between 500 and 900 mg oleate/l. When oleate was the sole carbon source fed to both digesters, the biomass became encapsulated with organic matter, possibly oleate or an intermediate of its degradation, e.g. stearate that was degraded at a maximum rate of 99 mlCH4(STP)/gVS.day. This suggests the possibility of using adsorption-degradation cycles for the treatment of LCFA based effluents. Both tolerance to toxicity and biodegradability of oleic acid were improved by acclimatization with lipids or oleate below a threshold concentration.

  14. Removal of Pb(II) ions from aqueous solution using water hyacinth root by fixed-bed column and ANN modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Tania; Singha, Biswajit; Bar, Nirjhar; Das, Sudip Kumar

    2014-05-30

    Hyacinth root was used as a biosorbent for generating adsorption data in fixed-bed glass column. The influence of different operating parameters like inlet Pb(II) ion concentration, liquid flow rate and bed height on the breakthrough curves and the performance of the column was studied. The result showed that the adsorption efficiency increased with increase in bed height and decreased with increase in inlet Pb(II) ion concentration and flow rate. Increasing the flow rate resulted in shorter time for bed saturation. The result showed that as the bed height increased the availability of more number of adsorption sites in the bed increased, hence the throughput volume of the aqueous solution also increased. The adsorption kinetics was analyzed using different models. It was observed that maximum adsorption capacity increased with increase in flow rate and initial Pb(II) ion concentration but decreased with increase in bed height. Applicability of artificial neural network (ANN) modeling for the prediction of Pb(II) ion removal was also reported by using multilayer perceptron with backpropagation, Levenberg-Marquardt and scaled conjugate algorithms and four different transfer functions in a hidden layer and a linear output transfer function.

  15. Competitive Fixed-Bed Adsorption of Pb(II, Cu(II, and Ni(II from Aqueous Solution Using Chitosan-Coated Bentonite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-Chi Tsai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fixed-bed adsorption studies using chitosan-coated bentonite (CCB as adsorbent media were investigated for the simultaneous adsorption of Pb(II, Cu(II, and Ni(II from a multimetal system. The effects of operational parameters such as bed height, flow rate, and initial concentration on the length of mass transfer zone, breakthrough time, exhaustion time, and adsorption capacity at breakthrough were evaluated. With increasing bed height and decreasing flow rate and initial concentration, the breakthrough and exhaustion time were observed to favorably increase. Moreover, the adsorption capacity at breakthrough was observed to increase with decreasing initial concentration and flow rate and increasing bed height. The maximum adsorption capacity at breakthrough of 13.49 mg/g for Pb(II, 12.14 mg/g for Cu(II, and 10.29 mg/g for Ni(II was attained at an initial influent concentration of 200 mg/L, bed height of 2.0 cm, and flow rate of 0.4 mL/min. Adsorption data were fitted with Adams-Bohart, Thomas, and Yoon-Nelson models. Experimental breakthrough curves were observed to be in good agreement (R2>0.85 and E%<50% with the predicted curves generated by the kinetic models. This study demonstrates the effectiveness of CCB in the removal of Pb(II, Cu(II, and Ni(II from a ternary metal solution.

  16. Determination of Kinetic Parameters for Methane Oxidation over Pt/γ-Al2O3 in a Fixed-Bed Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vita Wonoputri

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes akinetic study for the determination of the kinetic parameters of lean methane emission oxidation over Pt/γ-Al2O3 in a dedicated laboratory scale fixed bed reactor. A model ofthemechanistic reaction kinetic parameters has been developed. The reaction rate model was determined using therate-limiting step method, which was integrated and optimized to find the most suitable model and parameters. Based on this study, the Langmuir-Hinshelwood reaction rate model with the best correlationis the one where the rate-limiting step is thesurface reaction between methane and one adsorbed oxygen atom. The pre-exponential factor and activation energy were 9.19 x 105 and 92.04 kJ/mol, while the methane and oxygen adsorption entropy and enthalpy were –17.46 J/mol.K, –2739.36 J/mol,–16.34 J/mol.K, and –6157.09 J/mol, respectively.

  17. Comparative study of fluidized-bed and fixed-bed reactor for syngas methanation over Ni-W/TiO2-SiO2catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo; Liu; Shengfu; Ji

    2013-01-01

    In this work,syngas methanation over Ni-W/TiO2-SiO2catalyst was studied in a fluidized-bed reactor(FBR)and its performance was compared with a fixed-bed reactor(FIXBR).The effects of main operating variables including feedstock gases space velocity,coke content,bed temperature and sulfur-tolerant stability of 100 h life were investigated.The structure of the catalysts was characterized by XRD,N2adsorptiondesorption and TEM.It is found that under same space velocity from 5000 h 1to 25000 h 1FBR gave a higher CH4yield,lower coke content,and lower bed temperature than those obtained in FIXBR.Ni-W/TiO2-SiO2catalyst possessed excellent sulfur-tolerant stability on the feedstock gases less than 500 ppm H2S in FBR.The carbon deposits formed on the spent catalyst were in the form of carbon fibers in FBR,while in the form of dense accumulation distribution appearance in FIXBR.

  18. Investigations on Cationic Exchange Capacity and Unused Bed Zone according to operational conditions in a Fixed Bed Reactor for water lead removal by a natural zeolite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barthélemy JP.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, attention has been focused on the behaviour of the Cationic Exchange Capacity (CEC and the Unused Bed Zone (UBZ, according to the operating parameters (bed length: L, column diameter: D, particle diameter: d and fl ow rate: Q in a Fixed Bed Reactor (FBR. The investigations are performed for a single-component study of lead on New Zealand clinoptilolite at 25 ± 1°C. The results show a constant operating CEC of 1.00 ± 0.015 meq.g-1 which is independent of the operational parameters listed above. The performance of the operations expressed as UBZ, shows an optimum for the ratio L/D (bed length and column diameter fi xed at 18.1, for Q = 2.9 BV.h-1 (bed volume per hour and particle diameter d = 0.38 mm (the ratio particle diameter on column diameter d/D at 0.057. This maximum performance is reached with the lowest UBZ value of 5.6% of the operating CEC. Overall interpretation drawn from the results according to UBZ shows that decreasing the particles size improves the performance of ion exchange process; as well as decreasing the fl ow rate. Nevertheless, the increase of L/D to a certain extent does not improve ion exchange performances.

  19. Pyrolysis of oil palm mesocarp fiber and palm frond in a slow-heating fixed-bed reactor: A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, G; Mohd Din, A T; Hameed, B H

    2017-10-01

    Oil palm mesocarp fiber (OPMF) and palm frond (PF) were respectively devolatilized by pyrolysis to OPMF-oil and PF-oil bio-oils and biochars, OPMF-char and PF-char in a slow-heating fixed-bed reactor. In particular, the OPMF-oil and PF-oil were produced to a maximum yield of 48wt% and 47wt% bio-oils at 550°C and 600°C, respectively. The high heating values (HHVs) of OPMF-oil and PF-oil were respectively found to be 23MJ/kg and 21MJ/kg, whereas 24.84MJ/kg and 24.15MJ/kg were for the corresponding biochar. The HHVs of the bio-oils and biochars are associated with low O/C ratios to be higher than those of the corresponding biomass. The Fourier transform infrared spectra and peak area ratios highlighted the effect of pyrolysis temperatures on the bio-oil compositions. The bio-oils are pervaded with numerous oxygenated carbonyl and aromatic compounds as suitable feedstocks for renewable fuels and chemicals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Assessment of a microalgae pond for post-treatment of the effluent from an anaerobic fixed bed reactor treating distillery wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travieso, L; Benítez, F; Sánchez, E; Borja, R; León, M; Raposo, F; Rincón, B

    2008-09-01

    An evaluation of the performance of a laboratory-scale microalgae pond treating effluent from an anaerobic fixed bed reactor digesting distillery wastewater was carried out. The microalgae pond operated with an effluent recycling (R) of 10:1 with respect to the influent and at surface organic loading rates of 418 kg COD ha(-1) day(-1) and 92 kg BOD5 ha(-1) day(-1). During the experiment total chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), total solids (TS), total suspended solids (TSS), volatile suspended solids (VSS), total nitrogen, ammonia, total phosphorus, orthophosphate, total chlorophyll (CT) and chlorophyll a (Ca) concentrations were monitored. Overall COD and BOD5 removal efficiencies of 98.2% and 98.8% were obtained. The global solids removal efficiencies were of 93.2%, 92.6% and 97.6% for TS, TSS and VSS, respectively. The removal efficiencies obtained for organic nitrogen and ammonia were 90.2% and 84.1%, respectively. Finally, the removals for total phosphorus and orthophosphate were 85.5% and 87.3%, respectively. It was demonstrated that microalgae grew in this waste by determination of the total chlorophyll and chlorophyll a in the effluent.

  1. Preparation of a carbon molecular sieve and application to separation of N2, O2 and CO2 in a fixed bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soares J.L.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The emission of CO2 from power plants that burn fossil fuels is the major cause of the accumulation of CO2 in the atmosphere. The separation of CO2 from CO2/air mixtures can play a key role in alleviating this problem. This separation can be carried out by using suitable adsorbents, such as carbon molecular sieves. In this work, a CMS was prepared by deposition of polyfurfuryl alcohol polymer on activated carbon. After deposition of the polymer, the material was carbonized at 800masculineC for 2 hours. This material was used to separate O2/N2 mixtures and CO2 in a fixed bed at room temperature. Experimental breakthrough curves obtained were fitted to theoretical models in order to establish the main mechanisms of mass transfer. The breakthrough curves showed that it is possible to separate O2, N2 and CO2. The shape of the breakthrough curves was not influenced by the total flow, indicating that the gas contact for the gas mixture was good. The experimental data were fitted to theoretical models and it was established that the main mechanism of mass transfer was intraparticle diffusion.

  2. Pyrolysis of waste animal fats in a fixed-bed reactor: Production and characterization of bio-oil and bio-char

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Hassen-Trabelsi, A., E-mail: aidabenhassen@yahoo.fr [Centre de Recherche et de Technologies de l’Energie (CRTEn), Technopôle Borj-Cédria, B.P 95, 2050, Hammam Lif (Tunisia); Kraiem, T. [Centre de Recherche et de Technologies de l’Energie (CRTEn), Technopôle Borj-Cédria, B.P 95, 2050, Hammam Lif (Tunisia); Département de Géologie, Université de Tunis, 2092, Tunis (Tunisia); Naoui, S. [Centre de Recherche et de Technologies de l’Energie (CRTEn), Technopôle Borj-Cédria, B.P 95, 2050, Hammam Lif (Tunisia); Belayouni, H. [Département de Géologie, Université de Tunis, 2092, Tunis (Tunisia)

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • Produced bio-fuels (bio-oil and bio-char) from some animal fatty wastes. • Investigated the effects of main parameters on pyrolysis products distribution. • Determined the suitable conditions for the production of the maximum of bio-oil. • Characterized bio-oils and bio-chars obtained from several animal fatty wastes. - Abstract: Several animal (lamb, poultry and swine) fatty wastes were pyrolyzed under nitrogen, in a laboratory scale fixed-bed reactor and the main products (liquid bio-oil, solid bio-char and syngas) were obtained. The purpose of this study is to produce and characterize bio-oil and bio-char obtained from pyrolysis of animal fatty wastes. The maximum production of bio-oil was achieved at a pyrolysis temperature of 500 °C and a heating rate of 5 °C/min. The chemical (GC–MS analyses) and spectroscopic analyses (FTIR analyses) of bio-oil showed that it is a complex mixture consisting of different classes of organic compounds, i.e., hydrocarbons (alkanes, alkenes, cyclic compounds…etc.), carboxylic acids, aldehydes, ketones, esters,…etc. According to fuel properties, produced bio-oils showed good properties, suitable for its use as an engine fuel or as a potential source for synthetic fuels and chemical feedstock. Obtained bio-chars had low carbon content and high ash content which make them unattractive for as renewable source energy.

  3. Adsorption in a Fixed-Bed Column and Stability of the Antibiotic Oxytetracycline Supported on Zn(II-[2-Methylimidazolate] Frameworks in Aqueous Media.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine dos Santos Ferreira da Silva

    Full Text Available A metal-organic framework, Zn-[2-methylimidazolate] frameworks (ZIF-8, was used as adsorbent material to remove different concentrations of oxytetracycline (OTC antibiotic in a fixed-bed column. The OTC was studied at concentrations of 10, 25 and 40 mg L(-1. At 40 mg L(-1, the breakthrough point was reached after approximately 10 minutes, while at 10 and 25 mg L(-1 this point was reached in about 30 minutes. The highest removal rate of 60% for the 10 mg L(-1 concentration was reached after 200 minutes. The highest adsorption capacity (28.3 mg g(-1 was attained for 25 mg L(-1 of OTC. After the adsorption process, a band shift was observed in the UV-Vis spectrum of the eluate. Additional studies were carried out to determine the cause of this band shift, involving a mass spectrometry (MS analysis of the supernatant liquid during the process. This investigation revealed that the main route of adsorption consisted of the coordination of OTC with the metallic zinc centers of ZIF-8. The materials were characterized by thermal analysis (TA, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD, and infrared spectroscopy (IR before and after adsorption, confirming the presence of OTC in the ZIF-8 and the latter's structural stability after the adsorption process.

  4. Catalytic Intermediate Pyrolysis of Napier Grass in a Fixed Bed Reactor with ZSM-5, HZSM-5 and Zinc-Exchanged Zeolite-A as the Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isah Yakub Mohammed

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The environmental impact from the use of fossil fuel cum depletion of the known fossil oil reserves has led to increasing interest in liquid biofuels made from renewable biomass. This study presents the first experimental report on the catalytic pyrolysis of Napier grass, an underutilized biomass source, using ZSM-5, 0.3HZSM-5 and zinc exchanged zeolite-A catalyst. Pyrolysis was conducted in fixed bed reactor at 600 °C, 30 °C/min and 7 L/min nitrogen flow rate. The effect of catalyst-biomass ratio was evaluated with respect to pyrolysis oil yield and composition. Increasing the catalyst loading from 0.5 to 1.0 wt % showed no significant decrease in the bio-oil yield, particularly, the organic phase and thereafter decreased at catalyst loadings of 2.0 and 3.0 wt %. Standard analytical methods were used to establish the composition of the pyrolysis oil, which was made up of various aliphatic hydrocarbons, aromatics and other valuable chemicals and varied greatly with the surface acidity and pore characteristics of the individual catalysts. This study has demonstrated that pyrolysis oil with high fuel quality and value added chemicals can be produced from pyrolysis of Napier grass over acidic zeolite based catalysts.

  5. CFD simulation of fixed-bed methanation reactor with double catalyst layers%双催化层固定床甲烷化反应器 CFD 模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵静; 张亚新; 冉文燊; 程源洪

    2015-01-01

    温度分布直接影响着固定床甲烷化反应器的甲烷产量和设备安全性.以年产 12.75 亿立方煤制天然气绝热甲烷化反应器为研究对象,在建立真实设备三维模型的基础上,利用 ANSYS-CFX 有限元数值模拟的方法,建立多孔介质内化学反应、热交换与质量传递的气-固两相反应器模型,获得了双段固定床甲烷化反应器内部温度、压力、速度场的分布规律及甲烷产率分布.对不同床层结构对应的特征场分布进行了探索,分析了床层结构对各特征场分布的影响,确定了床层结构优化方案,MCR 催化剂床层出口处支撑延长的结构更有利于温度场沿反应器径向的均匀分布和甲烷质量分数的提高.对反应器入口温度、空速、压力对特征参数分布的影响进行了研究,提出了针对本工艺的允许入口参数波动范围.%The temperature distribution has its influence directly on methane production and equipment safety of the fixed-bed methanation reactor. To research the adiabatic methanation reactor which can produce 1.275 billion cubic meters SNG a year, the three-dimensional entity model was set up. A gas-solid two-phase reactor model for chemical reactions, heat exchange and mass transfer in porous media was established by the software ANSYS-CFX. The internal profile of temperature, pressure and velocity field and the methane yield profile in the fixed-bed internal methanation reactor with double catalyst layers were obtained. Based on the finite element numerical simulation method, the characteristic field distributions of different bed structures were explored. The influence of the bed structure on each characteristic field profile was analyzed, and then, the structure optimization of the bed layer was determined. The structure of the end support extend model was more favorable of the temperature profile along the radial of the reactor and the improvement of the methane mass fraction. The entrance

  6. Engineering-support services for the DOE/GRI coal-gasification research program. Monthly technical progress report, 27 February-26 March 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bostwick, L.E.; Ethridge, T.R.; Starr, D.W.; Hubbard, D.A.; Koneru, P.B.; Smith, M.R.; Ward, W.E.; Wong, E.W.; Zeis, L.A.

    1982-04-01

    During March, Kellogg continued to monitor operations at BI-GAS, Westinghouse and IGT Peatgas. Test runs monitored and reported were: BI-Gas tests G-18A and G-18B; Westinghouse PDU test: TP-032-1, and CFSF test TP-M003; Peatgas pilot plant test No. 5 at IGT. Kellog personnel briefed the Gas Research Institute (GRI) Project Advisors in regard to recent tasks and attended the Westinghouse briefing for GRI. Meetings of the DOE/GRI Joint Operating Committee were attended to discuss the Data Base Evaluation of Single-Stage Peat Gasification and the Joint Program Brochure. Kellogg proceeded to finalize the data base evaluation report and to institute necessary changes in the brochure.

  7. Treatment of organic wastewater in anaerobic fixed bed reactor with porous mineral carriers%多孔矿物载体厌氧固定床处理有机废水研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱峰; 潘涌璋; 洪利明; 师波

    2011-01-01

    通过天然浮石和塑料多孔空心球而制成复合式多孔矿物载体应用于厌氧固定床反应器中,研究反应器挂膜性能,以及处理生活污水、啤酒废水效果,应用扫描电镜观察生物膜微生物相的形态结构.结果表明,反应器挂膜69 d后COD去除率稳定在70%以上,初次启动成功;处理生活污水中平均COD去除率为61.72%;处理啤酒废水中COD去除率高于88%,生物膜中微生物优势种群为杆菌和球菌.%A compound porous mineral carrier made from natural pumice and plastic porous hollow ball was applied in the anaerobic fixed bed reactor to study the performance of biofilm culturing, treat the domestic wastewater and beer-brewing wastewater, and observe the morphology and dominant species of microorganism in biofilm with scanning electron microscope (SEM). The research showed that the system started successfully. The removal rate of COD was stabilized above 70% after 69 days in the course of biofilm culturing. The average removal rate of COD for the treatment of domestic wastewater and beer-brewing wastewater was 61.72% and above 88% ,respectively. SEM pictures indicated that the dominant species in biofilm were bacillus and cocci.

  8. An overview of world history of underground coal gasification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konovšek, Damjan; Nadvežnik, Jakob; Medved, Milan

    2017-07-01

    We will give an overview of the activities in the field of underground coal gasification in the world through history. Also we will have a detailed presentation of the most successful and the most recent research and development projects. The currency and scope of the study of coal gasification processes are linked through recent history to the price of crude oil. We will show how by changing oil prices always changes the interest for investment in research in the field of coal gasification. Most coal-producing countries have developed comprehensive programs that include a variety of studies of suitable coal fields, to assess the feasibility and design pilot and commercial projects of underground coal gasification. The latest technologies of drilling in oil and gas industry now enable easier, simpler and more economically viable process underground coal gasification. The trend of increasing research in this area will continue forward until the implementation of commercial projects.

  9. High Pressure Biomass Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrawal, Pradeep K [Georgia Tech Research Corporation, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2016-07-29

    According to the Billion Ton Report, the U.S. has a large supply of biomass available that can supplement fossil fuels for producing chemicals and transportation fuels. Agricultural waste, forest residue, and energy crops offer potential benefits: renewable feedstock, zero to low CO2 emissions depending on the specific source, and domestic supply availability. Biomass can be converted into chemicals and fuels using one of several approaches: (i) biological platform converts corn into ethanol by using depolymerization of cellulose to form sugars followed by fermentation, (ii) low-temperature pyrolysis to obtain bio-oils which must be treated to reduce oxygen content via HDO hydrodeoxygenation), and (iii) high temperature pyrolysis to produce syngas (CO + H2). This last approach consists of producing syngas using the thermal platform which can be used to produce a variety of chemicals and fuels. The goal of this project was to develop an improved understanding of the gasification of biomass at high pressure conditions and how various gasification parameters might affect the gasification behavior. Since most downstream applications of synags conversion (e.g., alcohol synthesis, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis etc) involve utilizing high pressure catalytic processes, there is an interest in carrying out the biomass gasification at high pressure which can potentially reduce the gasifier size and subsequent downstream cleaning processes. It is traditionally accepted that high pressure should increase the gasification rates (kinetic effect). There is also precedence from coal gasification literature from the 1970s that high pressure gasification would be a beneficial route to consider. Traditional approach of using thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) or high-pressure themogravimetric analyzer (PTGA) worked well in understanding the gasification kinetics of coal gasification which was useful in designing high pressure coal gasification processes. However

  10. 生物质半焦CO2气化反应动力学研究%RESEARCH ON KINETICS CHARACTERISTICS OF GASIFICATION BIOMASS SEMI-CHAR WITH CO2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖瑞瑞; 陈雪莉; 王辅臣; 于广锁

    2012-01-01

    The kinetics characteristics of biomass semi-char gasification with C02 were studied with TGA. The main influence factors of gasification kinetics of semi-char and C02, such as biomass semi-chat particle size, pyrolysis temperature and pyrolysis atmosphere were researched. The gasification reaction rate as a function of the conversion degree of carbon was analyzed by random pore model, unreacted core shrinking model and integrated model. The dynamic parameters of semi-char gasification were obtained. The random pore model shows advantage in fitting the experiment data compared with other two models.%采用热天平研究生物质半焦CO2气化反应动力学特性.考察半焦粒径、热解制焦温度以及热解制焦气氛对气化反应碳转化率的影响.采用随机孔模型、未反应芯缩核模型和混合模型对生物质半焦气化反应速率随碳转化率变化的趋势进行拟合,并求出半焦气化的动力学参数,结果表明随机孔模型的拟合效果最好.

  11. Optimization of the pyrolysis process of empty fruit bunch (EFB) in a fixed-bed reactor through a central composite design (CCD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohamed, Alina Rahayu; Hamzah, Zainab; Daud, Mohamed Zulkali Mohamed [School of Bioprocess Engineering, Jejawi Complex of Academics (3), UniMAP, 02600 Arau Perlis (Malaysia)

    2014-07-10

    The production of crude palm oil from the processing of palm fresh fruit bunches in the palm oil mills in Malaysia hs resulted in a huge quantity of empty fruit bunch (EFB) accumulated. The EFB was used as a feedstock in the pyrolysis process using a fixed-bed reactor in the present study. The optimization of process parameters such as pyrolysis temperature (factor A), biomass particle size (factor B) and holding time (factor C) were investigated through Central Composite Design (CCD) using Stat-Ease Design Expert software version 7 with bio-oil yield considered as the response. Twenty experimental runs were conducted. The results were completely analyzed by Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). The model was statistically significant. All factors studied were significant with p-values < 0.05. The pyrolysis temperature (factor A) was considered as the most significant parameter because its F-value of 116.29 was the highest. The value of R{sup 2} was 0.9564 which indicated that the selected factors and its levels showed high correlation to the production of bio-oil from EFB pyrolysis process. A quadratic model equation was developed and employed to predict the highest theoretical bio-oil yield. The maximum bio-oil yield of 46.2 % was achieved at pyrolysis temperature of 442.15 °C using the EFB particle size of 866 μm which corresponded to the EFB particle size in the range of 710–1000 μm and holding time of 483 seconds.

  12. Techno-economic analysis of sorption-enhanced steam methane reforming in a fixed bed reactor network integrated with fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diglio, Giuseppe; Hanak, Dawid P.; Bareschino, Piero; Mancusi, Erasmo; Pepe, Francesco; Montagnaro, Fabio; Manovic, Vasilije

    2017-10-01

    Sorption-enhanced steam methane reforming (SE-SMR) is a promising alternative for H2 production with inherent CO2 capture. This study evaluates the techno-economic performance of SE-SMR in a network of fixed beds and its integration with a solid oxide fuel cell (SE-SMR-SOFC) for power generation. The analysis revealed that both proposed systems are characterised by better economic performance than the reference systems. In particular, for SE-SMR the levelised cost of hydrogen is 1.6 €ṡkg-1 and the cost of CO2 avoided is 29.9 €ṡtCO2-1 (2.4 €ṡkg-1 and 50 €ṡtCO2-1, respectively, for SMR with CO2 capture) while for SE-SMR-SOFC the levelised cost of electricity is 0.078 €ṡkWh-1 and the cost of CO2 avoided is 36.9 €ṡtCO2-1 (0.080 €ṡkWh-1 and 80 €ṡtCO2-1, respectively, for natural gas-fired power plant with carbon capture). The sensitivity analysis showed that the specific cost of fuel and the capital cost of fuel cell mainly affect the economic performance of SE-SMR and SE-SMR-SOFC, respectively. The daily revenue of the SE-SMR-SOFC system is higher than that of the natural gas-fired power plant if the difference between the carbon tax and the CO2 transport and storage cost is > 6 €ṡtCO2-1.

  13. Examination of sulfur-functionalized, copper-doped iron nanoparticles for vapor-phase mercury capture in entrained-flow and fixed-bed systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.E. Meyer; S.K. Sikdar; N.D. Hutson; D. Bhattacharyya [University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering

    2007-09-15

    The use of copper-doped Fe nanoaggregates silanized with organic sulfur as bis-(triethoxy silyl propyl)-tetra sulfide has been investigated for the capture of elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) from the vapor phase for potential power plant applications. Silanization procedures resulted in 70% deposition of the targeted sulfur level, with particles containing approximately 4 wt % S. The addition of copper was found to increase the fixed-bed (total) capacity of this type of sorbent from 170 {+-} {mu}20 g Hg{center_dot}g sorbent{sup -1} with no copper doping to 2730 {+-} 80 {mu}g Hg{center_dot}g sorbent{sup -1} at 1.2 wt % Cu. When no S is deposited, the capacity of Fe/Cu nanoaggregates was only 180 g Hg{center_dot}g sorbent{sup -1}. These findings suggest that a combined Cu-S mechanism is responsible for Hg capture. Moving-bed (injection) testing of the Fe-based sorbents in a simulated flue gas stream showed that the 1.2 wt % Cu sample was able to achieve significant removal of the Hg. At a modest sorbent injection rate of 3.6 x 10{sup -3} g{center_dot}L{sup -1}{center_dot}h{sup -1}, this material showed a steady-state removal capacity of 107.5 {mu}g Hg{center_dot}g sorbent{sup -1} for an inlet concentration of 17.8 {mu}g{center_dot}m{sup -3}. On the basis of only 4% usage of the total capacity during single-pass injection, it might be beneficial to develop methods to separate and recycle these materials to reduce power plant operation costs for Hg emissions control. 17 refs., 5 figs., 10 tabs.

  14. Optimization of the pyrolysis process of empty fruit bunch (EFB) in a fixed-bed reactor through a central composite design (CCD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Alina Rahayu; Hamzah, Zainab; Daud, Mohamed Zulkali Mohamed

    2014-07-01

    The production of crude palm oil from the processing of palm fresh fruit bunches in the palm oil mills in Malaysia hs resulted in a huge quantity of empty fruit bunch (EFB) accumulated. The EFB was used as a feedstock in the pyrolysis process using a fixed-bed reactor in the present study. The optimization of process parameters such as pyrolysis temperature (factor A), biomass particle size (factor B) and holding time (factor C) were investigated through Central Composite Design (CCD) using Stat-Ease Design Expert software version 7 with bio-oil yield considered as the response. Twenty experimental runs were conducted. The results were completely analyzed by Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). The model was statistically significant. All factors studied were significant with p-values < 0.05. The pyrolysis temperature (factor A) was considered as the most significant parameter because its F-value of 116.29 was the highest. The value of R2 was 0.9564 which indicated that the selected factors and its levels showed high correlation to the production of bio-oil from EFB pyrolysis process. A quadratic model equation was developed and employed to predict the highest theoretical bio-oil yield. The maximum bio-oil yield of 46.2 % was achieved at pyrolysis temperature of 442.15 °C using the EFB particle size of 866 μm which corresponded to the EFB particle size in the range of 710-1000 μm and holding time of 483 seconds.

  15. ADVANCED GASIFICATION BY-PRODUCT UTILIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodney Andrews; Aurora Rubel; Jack Groppo; Ari Geertsema; M. Mercedes Maroto-Valer; Zhe Lu; Harold Schobert

    2005-04-01

    The results of laboratory investigations and supporting technical assessments conducted under DOE Subcontract No. DE-FG26-03NT41795 are reported for the period September 1, 2003 to August 31, 2004. This contract is with the University of Kentucky Research Foundation, which supports work with the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research and The Pennsylvania State University Energy Institute. The worked described was part of a project entitled ''Advanced Gasification By-Product Utilization''. This work involves the development of technologies for the separation and characterization of coal gasification slags from operating gasification units, activation of these materials to increase mercury and nitrogen oxide capture efficiency, assessment of these materials as sorbents for mercury and nitrogen oxides, and characterization of these materials for use as polymer fillers.

  16. Retention of arsenic and selenium compounds using limestone in a coal gasification flue gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Somoano, Mercedes; Martinez-Tarazona, M Rosa

    2004-02-01

    Volatile arsenic and selenium compounds present in coals may cause environmental problems during coal combustion and gasification. A possible way to avoid such problems may be the use of solid sorbents capable of retaining these elements from flue gases in gas cleaning systems. Lime and limestone are materials that are extensively employed for the capture of sulfur during coal processing. Moreover, they have also proven to have good retention characteristics for arsenic and selenium during combustion. The aim of this work was to ascertain whether this sorbent is also useful for retaining arsenic and selenium species in gases produced in coal gasification. The study was carried out in a laboratory-scale reactor in which the sorbent was employed as a fixed bed, using synthetic gas mixtures. In these conditions, retention capacities for arsenic may reach 17 mg g(-1) in a gasification atmosphere free of H2S, whereas the presence of H2S implies a significant decrease in arsenic retention. In the case of selenium, H2S does not influence retention which may reach 65 mg g(-1). Post-retention sorbent characterization, thermal stability, and water solubility tests have shown that chemical reaction is one of the mechanisms responsible for the capture of arsenic and selenium, with Ca(AsO2)2 and CaSe being the main compounds formed.

  17. Pressurised gasification of wet ethanol fermentation residue for synthesis gas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koido, Kenji; Hanaoka, Toshiaki; Sakanishi, Kinya

    2013-03-01

    Pressurised steam gasification of wet biomass in a fixed-bed downdraft gasifier was implemented to identify reaction conditions yielding the highest synthesis gas concentration and efficiency, and to examine the generation of sulphur compounds. The gasification of lignin-rich fermentation residue derived from a bench-plant for bioethanol production from woody biomass was investigated at p=0.99MPa and T=750-900°C for steam to biomass ratios (S/B) of 3.4-17 and equivalence ratios (φ) of 3.3-∞. The results showed that the highest concentration of around 70mol% was obtained at T⩾850°C, φ=13 and S/B=3.4, the highest efficiency of 0.26 was obtained at T=900°C, φ=3.3 and S/B=3.4, and sulphur compounds were H2S and COS. For the production of BTL synthesis gas, pressurised gasification has the potential to convert the wet residue below 77.3wt.% moisture contents.

  18. Gasification - Status and technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Held, Joergen

    2012-06-15

    In this report gasification and gas cleaning techniques for biomass are treated. The main reason for gasifying biomass is to refine the fuel to make it suitable for efficient CHP production, as vehicle fuel or in industrial processes. The focus is on production of synthesis gas that can be used for production of vehicle fuel and for CHP production. Depending on application different types of gasifiers, gasification techniques and process parameters are of interest. Two gasification techniques have been identified as suitable for syngas generation, mainly due to the fact that they allow the production of a nitrogen free gas out of the gasifier; Indirect gasification and pressurized oxygen-blown gasification For CHP production there are no restrictions on the gas composition in terms of nitrogen and here air-blown gasification is of interest as well. The main challenge when it comes to gas cleaning is related to sulphur and tars. There are different concepts and alternatives to handle sulphur and tars. Some of them are based on conventional techniques with well-proven components that are commercially available while others, more advantageous solutions, still need further development.

  19. Transformation of chlorine in NaCl-loaded Victorian brown coal during the gasification in steam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Shu; Mohammad Asadullah; Rosalie Hocking; LIN Jian-ying; LI Chun-zhu

    2012-01-01

    This study is to examine the changes in Cl volatilizations and chemical forms in NaCl-loaded Victorian brown coal during gasification in steam at 800 ℃ using Cl K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy.The char samples were prepared in a novel one-stage fluidised-bed/fixed-bed quartz reactor at a fast heating rate.The samples were then collected and sealed in an argon-filled bag in order to minimise possible oxidation of char and Cl by air prior to analysis by XANES.Char-steam reactions were found to significantly affect the transformation of Cl,including the possible formation of chlorine-containing organic structures.On the other hand,volatile-char interactions during the gasificauon appeared to enhance the Cl retention and prevent the formation of organic chlorine compounds in chars.

  20. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to High Octane Gasoline: Thermochemical Research Pathway with Indirect Gasification and Methanol Intermediate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Talmadge, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dutta, Abhijit [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hensley, Jesse [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Schaidle, Josh [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Biddy, Mary J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Humbird, David [DWH Process Consulting, Denver, CO (United States); Snowden-Swan, Lesley J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ross, Jeff [Harris Group, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States); Sexton, Danielle [Harris Group, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States); Yap, Raymond [Harris Group, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States); Lukas, John [Harris Group, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) promotes research for enabling cost-competitive liquid fuels production from lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks. The research is geared to advance the state of technology (SOT) of biomass feedstock supply and logistics, conversion, and overall system sustainability. As part of their involvement in this program, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) investigate the economics of conversion pathways through the development of conceptual biorefinery process models. This report describes in detail one potential conversion process for the production of high octane gasoline blendstock via indirect liquefaction (IDL). The steps involve the conversion of biomass to syngas via indirect gasification followed by gas cleanup and catalytic syngas conversion to a methanol intermediate; methanol is then further catalytically converted to high octane hydrocarbons. The conversion process model leverages technologies previously advanced by research funded by the Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) and demonstrated in 2012 with the production of mixed alcohols from biomass. Biomass-derived syngas cleanup via tar and hydrocarbons reforming was one of the key technology advancements as part of that research. The process described in this report evaluates a new technology area with downstream utilization of clean biomass-syngas for the production of high octane hydrocarbon products through a methanol intermediate, i.e., dehydration of methanol to dimethyl ether (DME) which subsequently undergoes homologation to high octane hydrocarbon products.

  1. Hydrogen-Rich Syngas Production from Gasification and Pyrolysis of Solar Dried Sewage Sludge: Experimental and Modeling Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghrib, Amina; Friaa, Athar; Ouerghi, Aymen; Naoui, Slim; Belayouni, Habib

    2017-01-01

    Solar dried sewage sludge (SS) conversion by pyrolysis and gasification processes has been performed, separately, using two laboratory-scale reactors, a fixed-bed pyrolyzer and a downdraft gasifier, to produce mainly hydrogen-rich syngas. Prior to SS conversion, solar drying has been conducted in order to reduce moisture content (up to 10%). SS characterization reveals that these biosolids could be appropriate materials for gaseous products production. The released gases from SS pyrolysis and gasification present relatively high heating values (up to 9.96 MJ/kg for pyrolysis and 8.02  9.96 MJ/kg for gasification) due to their high contents of H2 (up to 11 and 7 wt%, resp.) and CH4 (up to 17 and 5 wt%, resp.). The yields of combustible gases (H2 and CH4) show further increase with pyrolysis. Stoichiometric models of both pyrolysis and gasification reactions were determined based on the global biomass formula, CαHβOγNδSε, in order to assist in the products yields optimization. PMID:28856162

  2. Hydrogen-Rich Syngas Production from Gasification and Pyrolysis of Solar Dried Sewage Sludge: Experimental and Modeling Investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Hassen Trabelsi, Aïda; Ghrib, Amina; Zaafouri, Kaouther; Friaa, Athar; Ouerghi, Aymen; Naoui, Slim; Belayouni, Habib

    2017-01-01

    Solar dried sewage sludge (SS) conversion by pyrolysis and gasification processes has been performed, separately, using two laboratory-scale reactors, a fixed-bed pyrolyzer and a downdraft gasifier, to produce mainly hydrogen-rich syngas. Prior to SS conversion, solar drying has been conducted in order to reduce moisture content (up to 10%). SS characterization reveals that these biosolids could be appropriate materials for gaseous products production. The released gases from SS pyrolysis and gasification present relatively high heating values (up to 9.96 MJ/kg for pyrolysis and 8.02  9.96 MJ/kg for gasification) due to their high contents of H2 (up to 11 and 7 wt%, resp.) and CH4 (up to 17 and 5 wt%, resp.). The yields of combustible gases (H2 and CH4) show further increase with pyrolysis. Stoichiometric models of both pyrolysis and gasification reactions were determined based on the global biomass formula, CαHβOγNδSε, in order to assist in the products yields optimization.

  3. 煤加氢气化技术研究进展%Progress of Researching Technology of Coal and Hydro-gasification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁申富; 曲旋; 张荣; 毕继诚

    2012-01-01

    阐述了煤加氢气化生产替代天然气(SNG)的优势,分析了国内外几种先进的煤加氢气化技术,并详细介绍了气流床煤加氢气化的研究进展。%The authors expounded advantages of substitution natural gas through technology of coal and hydro-gasification. Then, the authors analyzed some advanced technologies of coal and hydro-gasification at home and abroad, and introduced progress of hydro-gasification of entrained flow.

  4. Studies of catalytic coal gasification with steam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porada Stanisław

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the promising processes, belonging to the so-called clean coal technologies, is catalytic coal gasification. The addition of a catalyst results in an increased process rate, in which synthesis gas is obtained. Therefore, the subject of this research was catalytic gasification of low-ranking coal which, due to a high reactivity, meets the requirements for fuels used in the gasification process. Potassium and calcium cations in an amount of 0.85, 1.7 and 3.4% by weight were used as catalytically active substances. Isothermal measurements were performed at 900°C under a pressure of 2 MPa using steam as a gasifying agent. On the basis of kinetic curves, the performance of main gasification products as well as carbon conversion degree were determined. The performed measurements allowed the determination of the type and amount of catalyst that ensure the most efficient gasification process of the coal ‘Piast’ in an atmosphere of steam.

  5. Integrated coal gasification combined cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, P. C.; Wijffels, J.-B.; Zuideveld, P. L.

    Features of the integrated coal gasification combined cycle power plants are described against the backdrop of the development and first commercial application of the shell coal gasification process. Focus is on the efficiency and excellent environmental performance of the integrated coal gasification combined power plants. Current IGCC projects are given together with an outline of some of the options for integrating coal gasification with combined cycles and also other applications of synthesis gas.

  6. Mathematical modelling of the gasification of cellulose-containing biomass using a zoning model; Mathematische Modellierung der Vergasung zellulosehaltiger Biomasse mit Hilfe eines Zonenmodells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, K.; Saller, G.; Funk, G.; Krumm, W. [Siegen Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany). Inst. fuer Energietechnik

    1998-09-01

    The composition of the product gas is decisive for the further process stages. In contrast to coal gasification, which has been investigated for more than a century, there is still a lack of theoretical and experimental knowledge on biomass gasification. The contribution presents a mathematical model that is to provide deeper knowledge of the constant-flow fixed-bed gasifier, which is still widely regarded as a `black box`. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Einen wesentlichen Prozessschritt der thermochemischen Konversion stellt der Vergasungsprozess dar, da die Zusammensetzung des erhaltenen Gases fuer die weiteren Prozessschritte von entscheidender Bedeutung ist. Im Gegensatz zur Vergasung von Kohle, die bereits seit fast 100 Jahren untersucht wird, besteht bei der Vergasung von Biomasse ein starker Nachholbedarf in Bezug auf das theoretische und experimentelle Detailwissen. In diesem Beitrag wird im Rahmen eines mathematischen Modells ein Ansatz vorgestellt, in dem der Gleichstrom-Festbettvergaser, der bisher meist als `blackbox` betrachtet wurde, weiter aufgeschluesselt wird. (orig./SR)

  7. Potential application of gasification to recycle food waste and rehabilitate acidic soil from secondary forests on degraded land in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhanyu; Koh, Shun Kai; Ng, Wei Cheng; Lim, Reuben C J; Tan, Hugh T W; Tong, Yen Wah; Dai, Yanjun; Chong, Clive; Wang, Chi-Hwa

    2016-05-01

    Gasification is recognized as a green technology as it can harness energy from biomass in the form of syngas without causing severe environmental impacts, yet producing valuable solid residues that can be utilized in other applications. In this study, the feasibility of co-gasification of woody biomass and food waste in different proportions was investigated using a fixed-bed downdraft gasifier. Subsequently, the capability of biochar derived from gasification of woody biomass in the rehabilitation of soil from tropical secondary forests on degraded land (adinandra belukar) was also explored through a water spinach cultivation study using soil-biochar mixtures of different ratios. Gasification of a 60:40 wood waste-food waste mixture (w/w) produced syngas with the highest lower heating value (LHV) 5.29 MJ/m(3)-approximately 0.4-4.0% higher than gasification of 70:30 or 80:20 mixtures, or pure wood waste. Meanwhile, water spinach cultivated in a 2:1 soil-biochar mixture exhibited the best growth performance in terms of height (a 4-fold increment), weight (a 10-fold increment) and leaf surface area (a 5-fold increment) after 8 weeks of cultivation, owing to the high porosity, surface area, nutrient content and alkalinity of biochar. It is concluded that gasification may be an alternative technology to food waste disposal through co-gasification with woody biomass, and that gasification derived biochar is suitable for use as an amendment for the nutrient-poor, acidic soil of adinandra belukar.

  8. 生物质气化与催化剂的研究进展%Research Progress on Biomass Gasification and Catalysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖志良; 左宋林

    2012-01-01

    Biomass gasification is a kind of pyrolysis technology in which biomass materials was converted into combustible gas by means of thermal decomposition of raw materials in high temperature oxidbillity media.In the process of gasification,the variables such as gasification medium,gasification conditions and catalysts were commonly employed to improve gasification efficiency and adjust combustible gas components and eliminate tar that was produced from the thermal decomposition of biomass materials.The effect of types of gasification media and catalyst,and gasification conditions on the components of gaseous products,i.e.,H2 and CO,were reviewed emphatically in this paper.Finally,the future development of biomass gasification was prospected and some problems were presented.%生物质气化是一种在高温氧化性介质作用下将生物质热分解为可燃性气体的热解技术。为了提高生物质气化过程中气化效率、调整可燃性气体组分的含量和去除焦油,通常需要采用不同气化介质、改变气化条件或添加不同的催化剂。本文重点综述了生物质气化所使用的介质和催化剂种类以及气化条件对气化气组分,主要是H2和CO的影响规律。最后对未来生物质气化研究进行了展望,提出了几个待研究解决的问题。

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF A NANO-Ni-La-Fe/Al2O3 CATALYST TO BE USED FOR SYN-GAS PRODUCTION AND TAR REMOVAL AFTER BIOMASS GASIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfen Li

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to develop a supported tri-metallic catalyst (nano-Ni-La-Fe/γ-Al2O3 for tar removal in biomass steam gasification, to significantly enhance the quality of the produced gas. For this purpose, the supported tri-metallic catalysts were prepared by a deposition-precipitation (DP method. Different analytical approaches were used to characterize the synthesized catalysts. The results showed that the prepared tri-metallic catalysts had an egg-shell structure with a specific surface area of 214.7 m2/g. The activity of the catalysts for gas production and tar removal in the process of biomass gasification was also investigated using a bench-scale combined fixed bed reactor. The experiments indicated that the tar yield after adding catalyst was reduced significantly and the efficiency of tar removal reached 99% for the biomass steam gasification at 800oC, while the gas yield after adding catalysts increased markedly and less coke was found over the catalyst. Meanwhile, the compositions of gas products before and after adding catalyst in the process also changed significantly; in particular, the content of hydrogen in catalytic steam gasification was improved by over 10 vol%. Therefore, using the prepared tri-metallic catalyst in biomass gasification can significantly improve the quality of the produced gas and efficiently eliminate the tar generation, preventing coke deposition on the catalyst surfaces, thus demonstrating a long lifetime of the catalyst.

  10. PLASMA GASIFICATION OF WASTE PLASTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Mączka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the process of obtaining liquid fuels and fuel gas in the process of plasma processing of organic materials, including waste plastics. The concept of plasma pyrolysis of plastics was presented and on its basis a prototype installation was developed. The article describes a general rule of operating the installation and its elements in the process and basic operation parameters determined during its start-up. Initial results of processing plastics and the directions further investigations are also discussed. The effect of the research is to be the design of effective technology of obtaining fuels from gasification/pyrolysis of organic waste and biomass.

  11. Aerobic Biodegradation of Per-Treated Methyl Tert-Butyl Ether By Ozonation in an Up-Flow-Fixed-Bed Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sadeghi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem Statement: MTBE is a common pollution of environmental and has become an issue of considerable concern in recent years. It is not readily amenable to remove MTBE by conventional techniques in water treatment. In the present study, the feasibility of the continuous aerobic biodegradation of MTBE, was evaluated in an Up- Flow Fixed Bed Reactor (UFBR. Approach: The UFBR at a constant Hydroulic Retention Time (HRT of 24 h was used as a biological process that receives the intermediates due to partial oxidation of MTBE. The UFBR coupled to ozonation process as a survey system after a primary operation phase that was necessary for creatory of an initial microbial film on the carriers. Residual concentration of MTBE and its major degradation intermediates were measured by gas chromatography. Aqueous concentration of ozone in the reactor and ozone average concentration in off- gas were determined according to the indigo blue method. The COD reduction and BOD5 to COD ratio were selected as biodegradability indexes. Results: Results showed an effective degradation of MTBE in the coupled ozonation-UFBR continuous flow reactor of ten days of operation time. A partial degradation of MTBE in AOPs increases its biodegradation [The BOD5 to COD ratio increased from lowest (0.01 up to a maximum of 0.72] that corresponds to an ozone consumption of 0.62mg per each mg of COD initially present in the solution. The results showed when m. Mol[MTBE]o/m. Mol(o3 = 0.611, the COD removal efficiency was 89% and as this ratio increased up to 1.25, the of COD removal efficiency decreased to 80%. 46-68% removal of the COD was needed before the mixture was considered biodegradable. The highest removal rate of MTBE, 82.91 mg day-1 achieved through out the UFBR runs (87% removal efficiency, In this study, the removal efficiency of MTBE using integrated-process (ozonation followed biological treatment was from 78.5-86.5%. In order to determine of biological removal rate of

  12. A breakthrough in coal gasification technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Tearning up with engineers of the Jincheng Anthracite Mining Group in north China's Shanxi Province, CAS researchers have successfully carried out a 1.0MPa, long-period (up to 72 hours) high-pressure test on a semi- industrial platform of pressurized ash agglomerating fluidized bed (AFB) coal gasification.

  13. A comparative study of anaerobic fixed film baffled reactor and up-flow anaerobic fixed film fixed bed reactor for biological removal of diethyl phthalate from wastewater: a performance, kinetic, biogas, and metabolic pathway study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefzadeh, Samira; Ahmadi, Ehsan; Gholami, Mitra; Ghaffari, Hamid Reza; Azari, Ali; Ansari, Mohsen; Miri, Mohammad; Sharafi, Kiomars; Rezaei, Soheila

    2017-01-01

    Phthalic acid esters, including diethyl phthalate (DEP), which are considered as top-priority and hazardous pollutants, have received significant attention over the last decades. It is vital for industries to select the best treatment technology, especially when the DEP concentration in wastewater is high. Meanwhile, anaerobic biofilm-based reactors are considered as a promising option. Therefore, in the present study, for the biological removal of DEP from synthetic wastewater, two different anaerobic biofilm-based reactors, including anaerobic fixed film baffled reactor (AnFFBR) and up-flow anaerobic fixed film fixed bed reactor (UAnFFFBR), were compared from kinetic and performance standpoints. As in the previous studies, only the kinetic coefficients have been calculated and the relationship between kinetic coefficients and their interpretation has not been evaluated, the other aim of the present study was to fill this research gap. In optimum conditions, 90.31 and 86.91% of COD as well as 91.11 and 88.72% of DEP removal were achieved for the AnFFBR and UAnFFFBR, respectively. According to kinetic coefficients (except biomass yield), the AnFFBR had better performance as it provided a more favorable condition for microbial growth. The Grau model was selected as the best mathematical model for designing and predicting the bioreactors' performance due to its high coefficients of determination (0.97 < R(2)). With regard to the insignificant variations of the calculated Grau kinetic coefficients (KG) when the organic loading rate (with constant HRT) increased, it can be concluded that both of the bioreactors can tolerate high organic loading rate and their performance is not affected by the applied DEP concentrations. Both the bioreactors were capable of treating low-to-high strength DEP wastewater; however, according to the experimental results and obtained kinetic coefficients, the AnFFBR indicated higher performance. Although the AnFFBR can be considered as a

  14. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products: Topical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, C.Y.; Merriam, N.W.; Jha, M.C.; Breault, R.W.

    1988-06-01

    Research on mild gasification is discussed. The report is divided into three sections: literature survey of mild gasification processes; literature survey of char, condensibles, and gas upgrading and utilization methods; and industrial market assessment of products of mild gasification. Recommendations are included in each section. (CBS) 248 refs., 58 figs., 62 tabs.

  15. Application of CO2 As a Gasification Agent in Fixed Bed Coal Gasifier%CO2作为固定层煤气炉气化剂的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李永恒

    2009-01-01

    化肥厂排空的CO2作为固定层煤气炉的气化剂,能有效地提高半水煤气中CO的含量,为企业创造效益.介绍了氮肥厂CO2的来源和CO2在煤气炉内的反应及利用值;提出了建立CO2储气柜、将CO2引入蒸汽缓冲罐以及直接应用等回收CO2的方法.

  16. GASIFICATION FOR DISTRIBUTED GENERATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald C. Timpe; Michael D. Mann; Darren D. Schmidt

    2000-05-01

    A recent emphasis in gasification technology development has been directed toward reduced-scale gasifier systems for distributed generation at remote sites. The domestic distributed power generation market over the next decade is expected to be 5-6 gigawatts per year. The global increase is expected at 20 gigawatts over the next decade. The economics of gasification for distributed power generation are significantly improved when fuel transport is minimized. Until recently, gasification technology has been synonymous with coal conversion. Presently, however, interest centers on providing clean-burning fuel to remote sites that are not necessarily near coal supplies but have sufficient alternative carbonaceous material to feed a small gasifier. Gasifiers up to 50 MW are of current interest, with emphasis on those of 5-MW generating capacity. Internal combustion engines offer a more robust system for utilizing the fuel gas, while fuel cells and microturbines offer higher electric conversion efficiencies. The initial focus of this multiyear effort was on internal combustion engines and microturbines as more realistic near-term options for distributed generation. In this project, we studied emerging gasification technologies that can provide gas from regionally available feedstock as fuel to power generators under 30 MW in a distributed generation setting. Larger-scale gasification, primarily coal-fed, has been used commercially for more than 50 years to produce clean synthesis gas for the refining, chemical, and power industries. Commercial-scale gasification activities are under way at 113 sites in 22 countries in North and South America, Europe, Asia, Africa, and Australia, according to the Gasification Technologies Council. Gasification studies were carried out on alfalfa, black liquor (a high-sodium waste from the pulp industry), cow manure, and willow on the laboratory scale and on alfalfa, black liquor, and willow on the bench scale. Initial parametric tests

  17. Disposal of Soluble Salt Waste from Coal Gasification,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

    AD-A090 419 ARMY ARMAMENT RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT COMMAND ABERO-ETC F/S 13/2 DISPOSAL OF SOLUBLE SALT VBASTE FROM COAL GASIFICATION . 1W JUN 80 C E...use as pipe- line gasjof the Lurgi type will be used as a basis to explain the disposal process. The purpose of the coal gasification plant is to 470 MC...KNIGHT produce methane starting with coal, gasifying it and hydrogenating it. As supplies of low-sulfur coal diminish, coal gasification must operate

  18. CATALYTIC GASIFICATION OF COAL USING EUTECTIC SALT MIXTURES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Yaw D. Yeboah; Dr. Yong Xu; Dr. Atul Sheth; Dr. Pradeep Agrawal

    2001-12-01

    The Gas Research Institute (GRI) estimates that by the year 2010, 40% or more of U.S. gas supply will be provided by supplements including substitute natural gas (SNG) from coal. These supplements must be cost competitive with other energy sources. The first generation technologies for coal gasification e.g. the Lurgi Pressure Gasification Process and the relatively newer technologies e.g. the KBW (Westinghouse) Ash Agglomerating Fluidized-Bed, U-Gas Ash Agglomerating Fluidized-Bed, British Gas Corporation/Lurgi Slagging Gasifier, Texaco Moving-Bed Gasifier, and Dow and Shell Gasification Processes, have several disadvantages. These disadvantages include high severities of gasification conditions, low methane production, high oxygen consumption, inability to handle caking coals, and unattractive economics. Another problem encountered in catalytic coal gasification is deactivation of hydroxide forms of alkali and alkaline earth metal catalysts by oxides of carbon (CO{sub x}). To seek solutions to these problems, a team consisting of Clark Atlanta University (CAU, a Historically Black College and University, HBCU), the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) and Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech) proposed to identify suitable low melting eutectic salt mixtures for improved coal gasification. The research objectives of this project were to: Identify appropriate eutectic salt mixture catalysts for coal gasification; Assess agglomeration tendency of catalyzed coal; Evaluate various catalyst impregnation techniques to improve initial catalyst dispersion; Determine catalyst dispersion at high carbon conversion levels; Evaluate effects of major process variables (such as temperature, system pressure, etc.) on coal gasification; Evaluate the recovery, regeneration and recycle of the spent catalysts; and Conduct an analysis and modeling of the gasification process to provide better understanding of the fundamental mechanisms and kinetics of the process.

  19. H sub 2 S removal from fuel gas during coal gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbasian, J.; Rehmat, A. (Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (USA)); Leppin, D. (Gas Research Institute, Chicago, IL (USA)); Banerjee, D.D. (Center for Research on Sulfur in Coal, Carterville, IL (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Work on the desulfurization reactions in the literature has not sufficiently addressed the reaction conditions in the context of coal gasification processes and the kinetics of the sulfidation reaction at the gasification conditions. This study, which was jointly funded by the Gas Research institute and the State of Illinois Center for Research on sulfur in Coal (CRSC), was undertaken to obtain comprehensive experimental data on the sulfidation reactions at gasification conditions to determine the kinetics of this gas/solid reaction.

  20. Gasification of black liquor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl, Arthur L.

    1987-07-28

    A concentrated aqueous black liquor containing carbonaceous material and alkali metal sulfur compounds is treated in a gasifier vessel containing a relatively shallow molten salt pool at its bottom to form a combustible gas and a sulfide-rich melt. The gasifier vessel, which is preferably pressurized, has a black liquor drying zone at its upper part, a black liquor solids gasification zone located below the drying zone, and a molten salt sulfur reduction zone which comprises the molten salt pool. A first portion of an oxygen-containing gas is introduced into the gas space in the gasification zone immediatley above the molten salt pool. The remainder of the oxygen-containing gas is introduced into the molten salt pool in an amount sufficient to cause gasification of carbonaceous material entering the pool from the gasification zone but not sufficient to create oxidizing conditions in the pool. The total amount of the oxygen-containing gas introduced both above the pool and into the pool constitutes between 25 and 55% of the amount required for complete combustion of the black liquor feed. A combustible gas is withdrawn from an upper portion of the drying zone, and a melt in which the sulfur content is predominantly in the form of alkali metal sulfide is withdrawn from the molten salt sulfur reduction zone.

  1. 固定床不同床深下的米格列醇离子交换性研究%Ion exchange behavior of miglitol in different fixed-bed depth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章结兵; 张小里; 李红亚; 赵彬侠

    2012-01-01

    为考察米格列醇在固定床树脂不同堆积高度下的离子交换吸附行为,采用称量不同量的D001树脂装入离子交换柱中,通过固定床堆积高度的改变,在上样液流速和浓度固定前提下研究米格列醇溶液与树脂间的离子交换规律性,并结合床深服务时间(BDST)模型对此条件下固定床透过曲线进行分析评价.结果表明:固定床堆积高度的增加,提高了树脂与米格列醇溶液间的接触时间和树脂总的可交换离子数,有利于离子交换过程的进行,树脂的吸附质量和吸附率都得到了相应提高,堆积高度的增加使饱和点时间变长,吸附效率变小;对固定床透过曲线进行BDST模型拟合分析,结果表明:该模型与实验值间具有很高的相关系数,计算的相关参数间差异很小,对于该离子交换体系,表明BDST模型能很好地应用于该体系的离子交换吸附过程.%In order to investigate the ion exchange adsorption behavior of miglitol in different fixed bed depth, the different quantitative D001 resins were placed into ion exchange column, and the ion exchange law of miglitol and resins was studied by changing the stack height of fixed bed in premise of the same flow velocity and fixed concentration of sample. In this condition, the breakthrough curves of fixed bed were analyzed and evaluated based on the bed depth service time ( BDST) model. The results show that the contact time of ion exchange and the total exchangeable ion numbers of resins are increased with the augment of the fixed-bed stack height, which is more favorable to ion exchange process. The adsorption capacity and adsorption rate of resin are also increased accordingly. The higher stack height of fixed bed can prolong the equilibrium point time and lower the adsorption efficiency. In addition, the mathematics model of BDST was used to fit the experimental data of fixed-bed breakthrough curves, which shows a high correlation coefficient

  2. A Critical Review of Mineral Matter Related Issues during Gasification of Coal in Fixed, Fluidized, and Entrained Flow Gasifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayaragavan Krishnamoorthy

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Gasification of coal is gaining more popularity due to its clean operation, and its ability to generate products for various markets. However, these technologies are not widely commercialized due to reliability and economic issues. Mineral matter in coal plays an important role in affecting the availability/reliability of a gasifier. Agglomeration in the bed, slag mobility and blockage of the syngas exit section are some of the operations related concerns in fixed-bed gasifiers, while ash deposition and sudden defluidization are the major concerns in fluidized bed gasifiers. In the case of entrained flow gasifiers, syngas cooler fouling and blockage, corrosion and erosion of refractory, and slag mobility are some of the major issues affecting the operations and the reliability of the gasifier. This review is aimed at critically examining various mineral matter related issues contributing to the operation and reliability problems in three types of generic gasifiers (fixed bed, fluidized bed and entrained flow gasifiers. Based on the review, some strategies to counter the potential mineral matter related issues are presented.

  3. Cause analysis and Countermeasures for Fouling in Fixed-bed Residue Hydrotreating Reactor%固定床渣油加氢反应器结垢原因分析及对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴锐; 蒋立敬; 韩照明

    2012-01-01

    Fixed-bed residue hydrotreating is an important process to upgrade heavy oil and a major measure to optimize feedstock of RFCC units.Industrial run results show that fouling in fixed-bed residue hydrotreating reactor is one of the major factors that constraint the unit capacity and long term stable operation.In this paper,causes of fouling in fixed-bed residue hydrotreating reactor were analyzed,and countermeasures to inhibit the reactor from fouling were put forward.By taking effective measures,such as enhancing feedstock management and taking strictly daily operation management,reactor fouling can be alleviated,running period of the unit can be prolonged.%固定床渣油加氢技术是重油改质的重要手段,是优化重油催化裂化装置原料的主要措施.工业运转表明,反应器结垢是制约固定床渣油加氢装置满负荷生产和长周期运转的最重要因素之一.通过对固定床渣油加氢反应器结垢原因的分析,提出了抑制反应器结垢的措施.认为通过采取强化原料管理和严格日常操作管理等措施,能够抑制反应器结垢,延长装置的运转周期.

  4. Engineering support services for the DOE/GRI coal-gasification research program. Quarterly technical progress report, October-December 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bostwick, L.E.; Ethridge, T.R.; Starr, D.W.; Shah, K.V.; Hubbard, D.A.; Koneru, P.B.; Smith, M.R.; Ward, W.E.; Wong, E.W.; Zeis, L.A.

    1982-02-01

    Kellogg continued to actively monitor operations at BI-GAS Westinghouse and IGT (for peat gasification). Pilot plant/PDU testing which was monitored and reported includes Westinghouse PDU tests TP-030-3 and TP-031-3 and CFSF test TP-M003-1; Peatgas Pilot Plant test No. 4; and single-stage peat gasification PDU tests BF-22 and BF-23. Kellogg personnel briefed the GRI Project Advisors on current tasks and a DOE representative on peat-related work. The report on the Hygas Data Base Evaluation was approved for issue. Progress was made toward finalizing the report on the Peatgas Data Base Evaluation and the Descriptive Brochure for the DOE/GRI Joint Program. Work on the evaluation of the data base for single-stage peat gasification continued. Review of the Hygas final report was completed.

  5. Comparison of an Internal Combustion Engine Derating Operated on Producer Gas from Coal and Biomass Gasification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ade Andriansyah Efendi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Gasification is an effective and clean way to convert coal and biomass into useful fuels and chemical feedstocks. Producer gas utilization for internal combustion engine has been studied, not only from biomass gasification but also from coal gasification. This paper compares the research that has done author using coal gasification with other research results using biomass gasification. Coal gasifier performance test conducted with capacity of 20 kg/h coal. The proximate and ultimate analysis of raw coal, ash product and producer gas was conducted and comparised. The result of analysis shows that the efficiency of the coal gasification was 61% while range of gasifier efficiency for biomass is between 50-80%. Meanwhile, the experimental results on the performance of internal combustion engines using gas producer shows that the derating for power generation using coal producer gas was 46% and biomass was 20-50% depend on compression ratio of engine and characteristic of producer gas. 

  6. Entrained Flow Gasification of Biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Ke

    concentration, larger feeder gas flow, and longer residence time. Wood, straw, and lignin had similar gasification behavior except with regard to soot formation. The soot yield was lowest during straw gasification possibly because of its high potassium content. The equilibrium product compositions under...... from straw gasification had quite low content of soot while high contents of volatilizable KCl and K2SO4, and thereby appeared as irregular crystals (> 100 nm). During lignin gasification, the filter sample mainly consisted of soot and nonvolatilizable inorganic matter. The parent wood particles...... the wood soot with respect to both oxidation and CO2 gasification. Besides, the wood soot produced at higher temperature was more reactive than the soot produced at lower temperature. Biomass and coal co-gasification experiments were performed in the same entrained flow reactor. The effect of mixing ratio...

  7. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products (Tasks 2, 3, and 4. 1 to 4. 6), Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knight, R.A.; Gissy, J.L.; Onischak, M.; Babu, S.P.; Carty, R.H. (Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)); Duthie, R.G. (Bechtel Group, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States)); Wootten, J.M. (Peabody Holding Co., Inc., St. Louis, MO (United States))

    1991-09-01

    Volume 2 contains information on the following topics: (1) Mild Gasification Technology Development: Process Research Unit Tests Using Slipstream Sampling; (2) Bench-Scale Char Upgrading Study; (3) Mild Gasification Technology Development: System Integration Studies. (VC)

  8. Autothermal two-stage gasification of low-density waste-derived fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamel, Stefan [Universitaet Siegen, Institut fuer Energietechnik, Paul-Bonatz-Str. 9-11, D-57068 Siegen (Germany); Hasselbach, Holger [Universitaet Siegen, Institut fuer Energietechnik, Paul-Bonatz-Str. 9-11, D-57068 Siegen (Germany); Weil, Steffen [Universitaet Siegen, Institut fuer Energietechnik, Paul-Bonatz-Str. 9-11, D-57068 Siegen (Germany); Krumm, Wolfgang [Universitaet Siegen, Institut fuer Energietechnik, Paul-Bonatz-Str. 9-11, D-57068 Siegen (Germany)]. E-mail: w.krumm@et.mb.uni-siegen.de

    2007-02-15

    In order to increase the efficiency of waste utilization in thermal conversion processes, pre-treatment is advantageous. With the Herhof Stabilat[reg] process, residual domestic waste is upgraded to waste-derived fuel by means of biological drying and mechanical separation of inerts and metals. The dried and homogenized waste-derived Stabilat[reg] fuel has a relatively high calorific value and contains high volatile matter which makes it suitable for gasification. As a result of extensive mechanical treatment, the Stabilat[reg] produced is of a fluffy appearance with a low density. A two-stage gasifier, based on a parallel-arranged bubbling fluidized bed and a fixed bed reactor, has been developed to convert Stabilat[reg] into hydrogen-rich product gas. This paper focuses on the design and construction of the configured laboratory-scale gasifier and experience with its operation. The processing of low-density fluffy waste-derived fuel using small-scale equipment demands special technical solutions for the core components as well as for the peripheral equipment. These are discussed here. The operating results of Stabilat[reg] gasification are also presented.

  9. An evaluation of tannery industry wastewater treatment sludge gasification by artificial neural network modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ongen, Atakan, E-mail: aongen@istanbul.edu.tr; Kurtulus Ozcan, H.; Arayıcı, Semiha

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • We model calorific value of syn-gas from tannery industry treatment sludge. • We monitor variation of gas composition in produced gas. • Heating value of produced gas is around 1500 kcal/m{sup 3}. • Model predictions are in close accordance with real values. -- Abstract: This paper reports on the calorific value of synthetic gas (syngas) produced by gasification of dewatered sludge derived from treatment of tannery wastewater. Proximate and ultimate analyses of samples were performed. Thermochemical conversion alters the chemical structure of the waste. Dried air was used as a gasification agent at varying flow rates, which allowed the feedstock to be quickly converted into gas by means of different heterogeneous reactions. A lab-scale updraft fixed-bed steel reactor was used for thermochemical conversion of sludge samples. Artificial neural network (ANN) modeling techniques were used to observe variations in the syngas related to operational conditions. Modeled outputs showed that temporal changes of model predictions were in close accordance with real values. Correlation coefficients (r) showed that the ANN used in this study gave results with high sensitivity.

  10. Removal of phenol by powdered activated carbon prepared from coal gasification tar residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiong-Lei; Shen, Jun; Niu, Yan-Xia; Wang, Yu-Gao; Liu, Gang; Sheng, Qing-Tao

    2017-04-10

    Coal gasification tar residue (CGTR) is a kind of environmentally hazardous byproduct generated in fixed-bed coal gasification process. The CGTR extracted by ethyl acetate was used to prepare powdered activated carbon (PAC), which is applied later for adsorption of phenol. The results showed that the PAC prepared under optimum conditions had enormous mesoporous structure, and the iodine number reached 2030.11 mg/g, with a specific surface area of 1981 m(2)/g and a total pore volume of 0.92 ml/g. Especially, without loading other substances, the PAC, having a strong magnetism, can be easily separated after it adsorbs phenol. The adsorption of phenol by PAC was studied as functions of contact time, temperature, PAC dosage, solution concentration and pH. The results showed a fast adsorption speed and a high adsorption capacity of PAC. The adsorption process was exothermic and conformed to the Freundlich models. The adsorption kinetics fitted better to the pseudo-second-order model. These results show that CGTR can be used as a potential adsorbent of phenols in wastewater.

  11. Process aspects in combustion and gasification Waste-to-Energy (WtE) units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leckner, Bo

    2015-03-01

    The utilisation of energy in waste, Waste to Energy (WtE), has become increasingly important. Waste is a wide concept, and to focus, the feedstock dealt with here is mostly municipal solid waste. It is found that combustion in grate-fired furnaces is by far the most common mode of fuel conversion compared to fluidized beds and rotary furnaces. Combinations of pyrolysis in rotary furnace or gasification in fluidized or fixed bed with high-temperature combustion are applied particularly in Japan in systems whose purpose is to melt ashes and destroy dioxins. Recently, also in Japan more emphasis is put on WtE. In countries with high heat demand, WtE in the form of heat and power can be quite efficient even in simple grate-fired systems, whereas in warm regions only electricity is generated, and for this product the efficiency of boilers (the steam data) is limited by corrosion from the flue gas. However, combination of cleaned gas from gasification with combustion provides a means to enhance the efficiency of electricity production considerably. Finally, the impact of sorting on the properties of the waste to be fed to boilers or gasifiers is discussed. The description intends to be general, but examples are mostly taken from Europe. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Progress in the field of underground gasification. Report on the 3rd symposium on underground gasification in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckervordersandforth, C.P. (Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany, F.R.). Lehrstuhl und Inst. fuer Eisenhuettenkunde)

    1978-06-01

    The underground gasification programme in the USA is described. The individual concepts within the ERDA (linked vertical well process, packed bed concept, long wall generator concept, steeply dipping beds), essentially differentiate from each other in the method in which the natural permeability of the coal is increased. Projects not within ERDA (Texas utilities project (brown coal gasification), Texas AM-project and Alberta Research Council project) arepresented briefly.

  13. Research on the integration and regularity of the coal gasification polygeneration system%煤气化多联产系统集成及规律研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王明华

    2013-01-01

    We studied the characteristic of chemical and power production process in the coal gasification-based polygeneration system. And we attempted to seek a new path to resolve resource, energy and environment from the intersection of energy science and chemistry science. In order to make simulation research on polygeneration system more accurately, we need to establish model of key parts by means of ASPEN Plus and Thermoflow, then overall system flowsheet simulation integrating with advantages of the two softwares. According to the nature of the physical world itself, including the gradient utilization nature of hydrogen-carbon ratio, pressure, matter and temperature, we should expand energy utilization form and optimize technological process.%研究了以煤气化为核心的多联产系统中化工生产过程与动力生产过程的特点,试图从能源科学与化工科学的交叉领域寻找同时解决资源、能源和环境问题的新途径;为更准确地对多联产系统进行模拟研究,需要借助ASPEN Plus和Thermoflow先建立关键部件的模型,进而综合这两款软件的优势建立全系统的流程模拟,并按照物质世界本身的属性--氢碳比、压力、物质和温度等的梯度利用特征,拓展能量利用形式,优化工艺流程。

  14. Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) production and gasification in a pilot plant integrated with an Otto cycle ICE through Aspen plus™ modelling: Thermodynamic and economic viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Násner, Albany Milena Lozano; Lora, Electo Eduardo Silva; Palacio, José Carlos Escobar; Rocha, Mateus Henrique; Restrepo, Julian Camilo; Venturini, Osvaldo José; Ratner, Albert

    2017-08-07

    This work deals with the development of a Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) gasification pilot plant using air as a gasification agent. A downdraft fixed bed reactor is integrated with an Otto cycle Internal Combustion Engine (ICE). Modelling was carried out using the Aspen Plus™ software to predict the ideal operational conditions for maximum efficiency. Thermodynamics package used in the simulation comprised the Non-Random Two-Liquid (NRTL) model and the Hayden-O'Connell (HOC) equation of state. As expected, the results indicated that the Equivalence Ratio (ER) has a direct influence over the gasification temperature and the composition of the Raw Produced Gas (RPG), and effects of ER over the Lower Heating Value (LHV) and Cold Gasification Efficiency (CGE) of the RPG are also discussed. A maximum CGE efficiency of 57-60% was reached for ER values between 0.25 and 0.3, also an average reactor temperature values in the range of 680-700°C, with a peak LHV of 5.8MJ/Nm(3). RPG was burned in an ICE, reaching an electrical power of 50kWel. The economic assessment of the pilot plant implementation was also performed, showing the project is feasible, with power above 120kWel with an initial investment of approximately US$ 300,000. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Research and Development of Coal Gasification Technology%煤气化技术的研究现状与发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡国峰; 刘勇; 安德成

    2011-01-01

    Coal gasification was the key technology for clean and high-efficiency coal utilization,and also the basis of the development of coal chemical processing.The characteristics of coal gasification technology of Texco,Lugri,Shell,GSP,and Opposed Multi-burner,Two Stage Pulverized Coal,and Ash Agglomerating were introduced,which would provide reference for choice of coal gasification technology.The prospect of China's coal gasification technology was forecasted.%煤气化技术是煤炭高效清洁利用的核心技术,是发展煤化工技术的基础。本文介绍了德士古、鲁奇、壳牌、GSP等国外煤气化技术的工艺特点以及多喷嘴对置、二段干粉及灰熔聚等国内气化技术,为我国企业选择合适的煤气化技术提供参考,并展望了我国煤气化技术的发展方向。

  16. On the gasification of biomass in a steam-oxygen blown CFB gasifier with the focus on gas quality upgrading: technology background, experiments and mathematical modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siedlecki, M.

    2011-01-01

    This work presents and discusses the results of the research on the gasification of biomass in an atmospheric circulating fluidized bed, with a mixture of steam and oxygen as fluidization / gasification medium. The main objectives of this research were to investigate and improve the gasification pro

  17. On the gasification of biomass in a steam-oxygen blown CFB gasifier with the focus on gas quality upgrading: technology background, experiments and mathematical modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siedlecki, M.

    2011-01-01

    This work presents and discusses the results of the research on the gasification of biomass in an atmospheric circulating fluidized bed, with a mixture of steam and oxygen as fluidization / gasification medium. The main objectives of this research were to investigate and improve the gasification pro

  18. 固定床煅烧炉中载铯亚铁氰化钛钾的热分解研究%Thermal Decomposition of Potassium Titanium Hexacyanoferrate (Ⅱ) Loaded with Cesium in a Fixed Bed Calciner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯孝贵; 景山; 吴秋林; 陈靖; 宋崇立

    2007-01-01

    The thermal decomposition of potassium titanium hexacyanoferrate(Ⅱ) (KTiFC) loaded with cesium (referred to as Used Exchanget,or UE) was studied at different flow rate of air in a fixed bed calciner.The calcination process consisted of four stages:ambient temperature-180℃ (stage Ⅰ),180-250℃ (stage Ⅱ),250-400℃ (stage Ⅲ),and constant 400℃ (stage Ⅳ).The most intense reaction occurred in stage Ⅱ.The rate of thermal decomposition was controlled,depending on the O2 flux,by O2 or CN concentration in different stages.Results from differential thermal analysis (DTA) showed that the calcination reaction of the anhydrous UE was exotlaemic, with an approximate heat output of 4.6kJ·g-1,which was so large to cause the possible agglomeration of calcined residues.The agglomeration could be avoided by enhancing heat transfer and controlling the O2 flux.It was found that there was no cyanides in the calcined residues and no CN-bearing gases such as HCN and (CN)2 in the off-gas.It seemed that the catalytic oxidation furnace behind the fixed bed calciner could be cancelled.

  19. 基于CAPE-OPEN的固定床模拟软件的设计与开发%Design and development of simulation software for fixed bed reactors based on CAPE-OPEN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周小波; 粟杨

    2015-01-01

    尽管很多大型模拟软件均能较好的模拟常见操作单元,但对于种类繁多的换热式固定床反应器并不能够很好的模拟,而且各模拟软件之间也缺乏良好的交互性。很多化工装置的反应都是强放热的,必须先进行模拟和设计,从而使化工装置更安全更经济。针对固定床反应器进行了面向对象的分析及建模,并参照CAPE-OPEN标准,设计和开发了固定床模拟软件REACSim。该软件既可以在各个支持CAPE-OPEN接口的大型模拟软件中作为单元操作来进行全流程模拟,又可以独立拥有自己的计算界面计算固定床反应。在草酸二甲酯和甲醇合成流程中的固定床反应器设计中进行了真实的工程化应用,结果表明该软件可以有效预测固定床的生产能力,帮助设计人员优化设计,分析调整固定床的工艺参数。同时,基于CAPE-OPEN标准的固定床模拟软件REACSim具有结构简单,计算灵活,可依托模拟环境的物性库和热力学方法,计算结果准确可靠。%Although a number of large simulation softwares could simulate the common operation units, they couldn’t simulate various heat-exchange type fixed-bed reactors with empirical models and a good interaction was absence in the simulation softwares. Many reactions were strong exothermic in the chemical process, so prediction and design were essential to make chemical equipment more safe and economical. Object-oriented analysis and modeling for a kind of fixed-bed reactor were made with CAPE-OPEN standards, and a software named by “REACSim” was designed and developed. REACSim could be used as a plug in various large-scale simulation softwares of supporting the CAPE-OPEN interface to carry out the whole process simulation, and had also independent calculation interface for calculating the fixed bed reactions. The software was used to simulate and design two fixed bed reactors for synthesis of dimethyl

  20. Subtask 4.2 - Coal Gasification Short Course

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Galbreath

    2009-06-30

    Major utilities, independent power producers, and petroleum and chemical companies are intent on developing a fleet of gasification plants primarily because of high natural gas prices and the implementation of state carbon standards, with federal standards looming. Currently, many projects are being proposed to utilize gasification technologies to produce a synthesis gas or fuel gas stream for the production of hydrogen, liquid fuels, chemicals, and electricity. Financing these projects is challenging because of the complexity, diverse nature of gasification technologies, and the risk associated with certain applications of the technology. The Energy & Environmental Research Center has developed a gasification short course that is designed to provide technical personnel with a broad understanding of gasification technologies and issues, thus mitigating the real or perceived risk associated with the technology. Based on a review of research literature, tutorial presentations, and Web sites on gasification, a short course presentation was prepared. The presentation, consisting of about 500 PowerPoint slides, provides at least 7 hours of instruction tailored to an audience's interests and needs. The initial short course is scheduled to be presented September 9 and 10, 2009, in Grand Forks, North Dakota.

  1. Biomass Gasification Combined Cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judith A. Kieffer

    2000-07-01

    Gasification combined cycle continues to represent an important defining technology area for the forest products industry. The ''Forest Products Gasification Initiative'', organized under the Industry's Agenda 2020 technology vision and supported by the DOE ''Industries of the Future'' program, is well positioned to guide these technologies to commercial success within a five-to ten-year timeframe given supportive federal budgets and public policy. Commercial success will result in significant environmental and renewable energy goals that are shared by the Industry and the Nation. The Battelle/FERCO LIVG technology, which is the technology of choice for the application reported here, remains of high interest due to characteristics that make it well suited for integration with the infrastructure of a pulp production facility. The capital cost, operating economics and long-term demonstration of this technology area key input to future economically sustainable projects and must be verified by the 200 BDT/day demonstration facility currently operating in Burlington, Vermont. The New Bern application that was the initial objective of this project is not currently economically viable and will not be implemented at this time due to several changes at and around the mill which have occurred since the inception of the project in 1995. The analysis shows that for this technology, and likely other gasification technologies as well, the first few installations will require unique circumstances, or supportive public policies, or both to attract host sites and investors.

  2. Catalytic gasification of biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertus, R. J.; Mudge, L. K.; Sealock, L. J., Jr.; Mitchell, D. H.; Weber, S. L.

    1981-12-01

    Methane and methanol synthesis gas can be produced by steam gasification of biomass in the presence of appropriate catalysts. This concept is to use catalysts in a fluidized bed reactor which is heated indirectly. The objective is to determine the technical and economic feasibility of the concept. Technically the concept has been demonstrated on a 50 lb per hr scale. Potential advantages over conventional processes include: no oxygen plant is needed, little tar is produced so gas and water treatment are simplified, and yields and efficiencies are greater than obtained by conventional gasification. Economic studies for a plant processing 2000 T/per day dry wood show that the cost of methanol from wood by catalytic gasification is competitive with the current price of methanol. Similar studies show the cost of methane from wood is competitive with projected future costs of synthetic natural gas. When the plant capacity is decreased to 200 T per day dry wood, neither product is very attractive in today's market.

  3. The Improved Updraft Fixed-bed Biomass Gasifier and Its Application in Steam Boiler Instead of Fuel Oil%改进型固定床上吸式气化炉及其在蒸汽锅炉中的代油燃烧应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜海江; 郭常青; 徐冰嬿; 李宗楠; 刘光华

    2015-01-01

    在蒸汽锅炉进行生物质能源改造中,生物质气化燃气代替煤、油具有成本、环保、政策方面的优势,但必须解决焦油的二次污染问题。本文提出以改进型即中部出气固定床上吸式气化炉生产生物质可燃气,及焦油成分随燃气直接在锅炉炉膛燃烧的技术路线,并以2T/h蒸汽锅炉为例对气化炉的主要结构参数进行设计计算。采用基于锅炉输出蒸汽压力的气化炉鼓风自适应控制方法实现系统的闭环控制。最后通过实际应用案例实测数据的热能计算证明生物质气化燃气在蒸汽锅炉中代替煤、油燃烧的可行性。%For biomass energy transformation in steam boilers, gasification gas has more advantages than coal or oil, such as cost, environmental protection, and policy benefits. However, we must solve the problem of secondary pollution out of tar in its application. In this paper, firstly we propose an improved technical solution, which can produce high heat value, low tar content biomass gas by updraft fixed-bed biomass gasifier with gas outlet in the middle position, and the tar composition burned directly in boiler furnace with biomass gas. Based on the technical solution, we take 2 T/h steam boiler for example to design and calculate the main structure parameters of the gasifier. Next, we provide an intelligent adaptive control on air supply of gasifier according to steam pressure. Finally, the feasibility and efficiency of biomass gas as a new boiler fuel was proved through the test data in practical application cases.

  4. Study of Modeling for Fixed-Bed Adsorption Process and Simulation in Experimental CO Separation Through PSA%固定床吸附分离过程数学模型研究及其在变压吸附CO的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙暠; 宁平; 陈玉保; 陈云华

    2013-01-01

    data.Compared with fixed bed models based on static plug flow assumption,this model fitting for the variable pressure condition is an effective tool in process optimizing design and researches for PSA technique.

  5. Fundamental studies of catalytic gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinemann, H.; Somorjai, G.A.

    1991-06-01

    The major purpose of this project was to finding catalysts which will permit steam gasification of carbonaceous material at reasonable rates and at lower temperatures than currently practiced. This quarter, experiments with steam gasification of graphite were performed. Catalysts studied were potassium, calcium, and nickel oxides. Reaction kinetics are discussed. 28 refs., 34 figs., 8 tabs.

  6. Research and development to prepare and characterize robust coal/biomass mixtures for direct co-feeding into gasification systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felix, Larry [Inst. Of Gas Technology, Des Plaines, IL (United States); Farthing, William [Inst. Of Gas Technology, Des Plaines, IL (United States); Hoekman, S. Kent [Inst. Of Gas Technology, Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2014-12-31

    This project was initiated on October 1, 2010 and utilizes equipment and research supported by the Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, under Award Number DE- FE0005349. It is also based upon previous work supported by the Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, under Award Numbers DOE-DE-FG36-01GOl1082, DE-FG36-02G012011 or DE-EE0000272. The overall goal of the work performed was to demonstrate and assess the economic viability of fast hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) for transforming lignocellulosic biomass into a densified, friable fuel to gasify like coal that can be easily blended with ground coal and coal fines and then be formed into robust, weather-resistant pellets and briquettes.

  7. Gasification Plant Cost and Performance Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuel Tam; Alan Nizamoff; Sheldon Kramer; Scott Olson; Francis Lau; Mike Roberts; David Stopek; Robert Zabransky; Jeffrey Hoffmann; Erik Shuster; Nelson Zhan

    2005-05-01

    -blown gasification combined heat and power facility based on the Subtask 3.2 design. The air-blown case was chosen since it was less costly and had a better return on investment than the oxygen-blown gasifier case. Under appropriate conditions, this study showed a combined heat and power air-blown gasification facility could be an attractive option for upgrading or expanding the utilities area of industrial facilities. Subtask 3.4 developed a base case design for a large lignite-fueled IGCC power plant that uses the advanced GE 7FB combustion turbine to be located at a generic North Dakota site. This plant uses low-level waste heat to dry the lignite that otherwise would be rejected to the atmosphere. Although this base case plant design is economically attractive, further enhancements should be investigated. Furthermore, since this is an oxygen-blown facility, it has the potential for capture and sequestration of CO{sub 2}. The third objective for Task 3 was accomplished by having NETL personnel working closely with Nexant and Gas Technology Institute personnel during execution of this project. Technology development will be the key to the long-term commercialization of gasification technologies. This will be important to the integration of this environmentally superior solid fuel technology into the existing mix of power plants and industrial facilities. As a result of this study, several areas have been identified in which research and development will further advance gasification technology. Such areas include improved system availability, development of warm-gas clean up technologies, and improved subsystem designs.

  8. 煤气化废水深度处理与回用研究进展%Research progress on deep treatment and reclamation of coal gasification wastewater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张润楠; 范晓晨; 贺明睿; 苏延磊; 姜忠义

    2015-01-01

    The treatment of coal gasification wastewater is difficult because of its complex composition and many contaminants with high concentrations, such as oils, phenols and NH3-N. In this paper, the compositions and characteristics of the wastewater from coal gasification were analyzed and the feasibility of recent technologies for the deep treatment and reclamation of it were reviewed. Aiming to overcome the shortcomings of different technologies and to obtain high water recovery, the feasibility of multi-membrane technologies (ultrafiltration, nanofiltration, reverse osmosis, electrodialysis) for treating it deeply was specially discussed. At last, an outlook on the development trends of the technologies for the deep treatment and reclamation of coal gasification wastewater was given.%煤气化废水水质复杂,污染物浓度高,处理难度大.分析了煤气化废水的组成及特点,概述了煤气化废水深度处理与回用的工艺现状.针对不同工艺存在的问题,以提高水回收率为重点,探讨了多膜工艺(超滤、纳滤、反渗透、电渗析)深度处理煤气化废水的可行性,展望了煤气化废水深度处理与资源化利用工艺的发展方向.

  9. Fluidized bed gasification of biomass, waste, and coal, for different applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurkela, E. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Gasification and Gas Cleaning Group

    1998-12-31

    Various energy production systems based on biomass and waste gasification are being developed in Finland by VTT and its industrial partners. In 1986 - 1995, the Finnish gasification R and D activities were almost fully devoted to the development of simplified IGCC power systems suitable to large-scale power production based on pressurised fluid bed gasification, hot gas cleaning, and a combined-cycle process. Within the LIEKKI 2 programme, VTT continued this R and D by carrying out cogasification tests with coal and biomass fuels and by studying the formation of gas contaminants in fluidized bed gasification. In the mid-1990`s, the atmospheric pressure gasification activities aiming at small- and medium-size power plants based on gas/diesel engines were restarted in Finland. Since 1995, intensive R and D is also focused on atmospheric pressure circulating fluidized bed gasification of biomass residues and wastes. This gasification technology earlier commercialised for lime kiln applications is now aiming to co-utilise locally-available residues and wastes in existing pulverised-coal-fired boilers. The research at VTT in this field is related to the gasification of biofuels with problematic ash behaviour and to gas cleaning from alkali/heavy metals and chlorine. The experimental gasification R and D was complemented by techno-economic and market studies focusing on the potentials of different process alternatives. (orig.) 12 refs.

  10. Biomass thermochemical gasification: Experimental studies and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ajay

    The overall goals of this research were to study the biomass thermochemical gasification using experimental and modeling techniques, and to evaluate the cost of industrial gas production and combined heat and power generation. This dissertation includes an extensive review of progresses in biomass thermochemical gasification. Product gases from biomass gasification can be converted to biopower, biofuels and chemicals. However, for its viable commercial applications, the study summarizes the technical challenges in the gasification and downstream processing of product gas. Corn stover and dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS), a non-fermentable byproduct of ethanol production, were used as the biomass feedstocks. One of the objectives was to determine selected physical and chemical properties of corn stover related to thermochemical conversion. The parameters of the reaction kinetics for weight loss were obtained. The next objective was to investigate the effects of temperature, steam to biomass ratio and equivalence ratio on gas composition and efficiencies. DDGS gasification was performed on a lab-scale fluidized-bed gasifier with steam and air as fluidizing and oxidizing agents. Increasing the temperature resulted in increases in hydrogen and methane contents and efficiencies. A model was developed to simulate the performance of a lab-scale gasifier using Aspen Plus(TM) software. Mass balance, energy balance and minimization of Gibbs free energy were applied for the gasification to determine the product gas composition. The final objective was to optimize the process by maximizing the net energy efficiency, and to estimate the cost of industrial gas, and combined heat and power (CHP) at a biomass feedrate of 2000 kg/h. The selling price of gas was estimated to be 11.49/GJ for corn stover, and 13.08/GJ for DDGS. For CHP generation, the electrical and net efficiencies were 37 and 86%, respectively for corn stover, and 34 and 78%, respectively for DDGS. For

  11. Research and development to prepare and characterize robust coal/biomass mixtures for direct co-feeding into gasification systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felix, Larry [Inst. Of Gas Technology, Des Plaines, IL (United States); Farthing, William [Inst. Of Gas Technology, Des Plaines, IL (United States); Hoekman, S. Kent [Inst. Of Gas Technology, Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2014-12-31

    This project was initiated on October 1, 2010 and utilizes equipment and research supported by the Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, under Award Number DE- FE0005349. It is also based upon previous work supported by the Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, under Award Numbers DOE-DE-FG36-01GOl1082, DE-FG36-02G012011 or DE-EE0000272. The overall goal of the work performed was to demonstrate and assess the economic viability of fast hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) for transforming lignocellulosic biomass into a densified, friable fuel to gasify like coal that can be easily blended with ground coal and coal fines and then be formed into robust, weather-resistant pellets and briquettes. The specific objectives of the project include: • Demonstration of the continuous production of a uniform densified and formed feedstock from loblolly pine (a lignocellulosic, short rotation woody crop) in a hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) process development unit (PDU). • Demonstration that finely divided bituminous coal and HTC loblolly pine can be blended to form 90/10 and 70/30 weight-percent mixtures of coal and HTC biomass for further processing by pelletization and briquetting equipment to form robust weather resistant pellets and/or briquettes suitable for transportation and long term storage. • Characterization of the coal-biomass pellets and briquettes to quantify their physical properties (e.g. flow properties, homogeneity, moisture content, particle size and shape), bulk physical properties (e.g. compressibility, heat transfer and friability) and assess their suitability for use as fuels for commercially-available coal gasifiers. • Perform economic analyses using Aspen-based process simulations to determine the costs for deploying and operating HTC processing facilities for the production of robust coal/biomass fuels suitable for fueling commercially-available coal-fired gasifiers. This Final Project Scientific

  12. 生物质组分热解气化特性研究现状%Research status on gasification and pyrolysis characteristics of biomass components

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋林宏; 俞海淼

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve the heating value of the gaseous product and decrease the yield of tar from the pyrolysis and gasification of biomass,the pyrolysis and gasification characteristics of biomass components are investigated widely.The effects of the alkali, temperature,pressure,and heating rate on the pyrolysis and gasification are summarized. The effects of cellulose,hemicellulose,lignin and the interactions between them on the gasification and pyrolysis are also discussed.Besides those,the effects of the interactions among three components,the difference among the biomass model compounds,and the chemical structure of the biomass on the gasification characteristics require some further investigations on the foundation of the two components experiments.At last,the single variable controlled experiments are proposed to study the effect of the single factor.%为了提升生物质气化气热值,减少焦油产率,越来越多的研究者开始试图从生物质组分的角度对热解气化特性进行探索。概述了碱金属、温度、压力、升温速率在热解气化过程中对生物质组分造成的影响,以及纤维素、半纤维素、木质素、萃取物和组分间相互作用对生物质热解气化过程造成的影响。提出了在二组分相互作用研究的基础上,应继续开展三组分相互作用的实验研究,以及生物质模化物和生物质原料化学结构差异对生物质原料热解气化特性的影响。此外,提出了采用单变量对照实验方法研究单变量的作用大小。

  13. Description of a comprehensive mathematical model: Towards a comprehensive biomass particle gasification model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xiyan; Yin, Chungen

    2017-01-01

    Biomass gasification is still a promising technology after over 30 years’ research and development and has success only in a few niche markets. In this paper, a comprehensive mathematical model for biomass particle gasification is developed within a generic particle framework, assuming the feed...

  14. Evaluation of polymeric materials packed in fixed bed column for oil water remediation; Avaliacao de materiais polimericos empacotados em colunas de leito fixo para a remediacao de aguas oleosas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Queiros, Yure G.C.; Barros, Cintia Chagas; Oliveira, Roberta S.; Marques, Luiz R.S.; Cunha, Luciana; Lucas, Elizabete F. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Macromoleculas Eloisa Mano], e-mail: yuregomes@ima.ufrj.br, e-mail: elucas@ima.ufrj.br

    2007-07-01

    Polymeric resins are being tried as an alternative material for treating oily waters from the petroleum industry, which have already been treated by conventional methods. The objective of this work has been to evaluate the purification degree of synthetic oily waters when treated in fixed bed columns packed with polymeric resins made up of hydrophilic and lipophilic moieties. The analysis used for characterizing the total grease and oil content (TOG) was fluorimetry. Starting oily waters of average TOG 50 ppm were prepared. Data obtained from eluted waters did not outweigh 10% of the TOG values of starting solutions in some blends of resins with a pretty good mechanical stability under the increase of pressure. Organoclay material showed a good retention performance, but has presented a mechanical instability too, compromising its use for larger amounts of wastewater. (author)

  15. Catalytic Hydrothermal Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Douglas C.

    2015-05-31

    The term “hydrothermal” used here refers to the processing of biomass in water slurries at elevated temperature and pressure to facilitate the chemical conversion of the organic structures in biomass into useful fuels. The process is meant to provide a means for treating wet biomass materials without drying and to access ionic reaction conditions by maintaining a liquid water processing medium. Typical hydrothermal processing conditions are 523-647K of temperature and operating pressures from 4-22 MPa of pressure. The temperature is sufficient to initiate pyrolytic mechanisms in the biopolymers while the pressure is sufficient to maintain a liquid water processing phase. Hydrothermal gasification is accomplished at the upper end of the process temperature range. It can be considered an extension of the hydrothermal liquefaction mechanisms that begin at the lowest hydrothermal conditions with subsequent decomposition of biopolymer fragments formed in liquefaction to smaller molecules and eventually to gas. Typically, hydrothermal gasification requires an active catalyst to accomplish reasonable rates of gas formation from biomass.

  16. Research Progress on Biomass Gasification and Catalytic Reforming of Biomass Tar%生物质气化技术及焦油裂解催化剂的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王夺; 刘运权

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,biomass gasification technologies and related subjects are reviewed.The optimization design of the gasifier which is different from the traditional gasifier structure and the effect of catalysts on tar reforming and syngas quality are discussed.Finally,the direction for further research and development is pointed out,such as the simulation of biomass gasification reactors,the mechanism of catalytic reaction and its dynamics model establishment.%本文综述了国内外研究机构在生物质气化技术方面的研究进展,主要是对不同于传统气化炉结构的优化设计和对焦油催化裂解所用的催化剂的研究进行了评述,最后指出了进一步的研究与发展方向:如生物质气化反应器的模拟;焦油催化裂解反应机理的研究和动力学模型的建立。

  17. Entrained Flow Gasification of Biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Ke

    of different fuels on syngas products was investigated at 1400 °C with steam addition. The yields of residual particulates (char and/or soot) decreased with increasing straw fraction during straw/wood co-gasification and with increasing biomass fraction (straw or wood) during biomass/coal co......, char-gas and soot-gas reactions, detailed gas-phase reactions, and mass and heat transfer. The model could reasonable predict the yields of syngas products obtained in the biomass gasification experiments. Moreover, the simulation results suggest that the soot can be completely converted and thereby......The present Ph. D. thesis describes experimental and modeling investigations on entrained flow gasification of biomass and an experimental investigation on entrained flow cogasification of biomass and coal. A review of the current knowledge of biomass entrained flow gasification is presented...

  18. Pyrolysis and gasification of biomass in a two-stage bluid bed gasification unit; Pyrolyse og forgasning af biomasse i en to-trins fluid bed forgasser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, M.W.; Henriksen, U. [Danmarks Tekniske Universitet (Denmark); Houmoeller, S. [dk-TEKNIK (Denmark)

    1997-07-01

    A new two-stage atmospheric bubbling fluid bed pyrolysis and gasification unit has been developed to convert straw and wood into a gas to be combusted in engines used for combined heat and power production. The unit combines the known two-stage process based on the fixed bed principle developed at the Department of Energy Engineering at the Technical University of Denmark, with the more compact and easy-to-scale fluid bed technique. The advantages of this combined concept is a relatively simple and easy to scale plant able to convert a wide range of fuels and producing a clean gas with extremely low tar content. Even straw can be converted which is of great importance in Denmark. The first stage, the pyrolysis unit, has been tested extensively as a means of pre-treating the biomass before co-combusting straw with fossil fuels in power plant boilers and it can eliminate the traditional corrosion problems on the boilers. The fluid bed pyrolysis unit converts the biomass into two fractions: A gas fraction to be combusted in the power plant boiler and a solids fraction, containing the major part of alkali and chlorine, to be converted otherwise. The gas fraction contains up to 75 percent of the energy of the input biomass. The idea is to avoid feeding the harmful components as potassium, sodium and chlorine present in the biomass into the boiler, as these components can cause corrosion damages to the super heater, but still supply the boiler with most of the biomass energy. This paper presents the concluded work on the co-combustion unit and the first results on the two-stage fluid bed pyrolysis and gasification unit. (EG)

  19. Coal gasification vessel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loo, Billy W.

    1982-01-01

    A vessel system (10) comprises an outer shell (14) of carbon fibers held in a binder, a coolant circulation mechanism (16) and control mechanism (42) and an inner shell (46) comprised of a refractory material and is of light weight and capable of withstanding the extreme temperature and pressure environment of, for example, a coal gasification process. The control mechanism (42) can be computer controlled and can be used to monitor and modulate the coolant which is provided through the circulation mechanism (16) for cooling and protecting the carbon fiber and outer shell (14). The control mechanism (42) is also used to locate any isolated hot spots which may occur through the local disintegration of the inner refractory shell (46).

  20. Nordic seminar on biomass gasification and combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    The report comprises a collection of papers from a seminar arranged as a part of the Nordic Energy Research Program. The aim of this program is to strengthen the basic competence in the energy field at universities and research organizations in the Nordic countries. In the program 1991-1994 six areas are selected for cooperation such as energy and society, solid fuels, district heating, petroleum technology, bioenergy and environment, and fuel cells. The topics deal both with biomass combustion and gasification, and combustion of municipal solid waste (MSW) and refuse derived fuel (RDF). A number of 11 papers are prepared. 97 refs., 91 figs., 11 tabs.

  1. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products (Tasks 2, 3, and 4.1 to 4.6), Volume 2. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knight, R.A.; Gissy, J.L.; Onischak, M.; Babu, S.P.; Carty, R.H. [Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Duthie, R.G. [Bechtel Group, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States); Wootten, J.M. [Peabody Holding Co., Inc., St. Louis, MO (United States)

    1991-09-01

    Volume 2 contains information on the following topics: (1) Mild Gasification Technology Development: Process Research Unit Tests Using Slipstream Sampling; (2) Bench-Scale Char Upgrading Study; (3) Mild Gasification Technology Development: System Integration Studies. (VC)

  2. Fundamental studies of the mechanism of catalytic reactions with catalysts effective in the gasification of carbon solids and the oxidative coupling of methane. Quarterly report, October 1, 1994--December 31, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iglesia, E.; Perry, D.L.; Heinemann, H.

    1994-12-01

    This report describes research on the oxidative coupling of methane and catalysts involved in coal gasification. Topics include methane pyrolysis and catalysts, and magnetic properties of the coal gasification catalyst Ca-Ni-K-O system.

  3. 国外生物质催化气化催化剂的研究进展%Foreign Research Progress on Catalysts for Catalytic Gasification of Biomass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹金鑫; 宁斌

    2011-01-01

    生物质气化技术已在国内外得到了广泛的开发和运用,但由于合成气中焦油含量较高,影响了合成气的品质,限制了生物质气化技术的应用。在生物质气化过程中应用催化剂可以有效的降低焦油的含量,调整合成气组成。对国外生物质催化气化催化剂的研究进展进行了综述,并提出了我国生物质催化气化技术的研究方向。%The technology of biomass gasification has been developed and applied universally all over the word.However,the higher content of tar affects the quality of syngas and limits the application of biomass gasification technology.Applying catalyst in the biom

  4. Imaging the Underground Coal Gasification Zone with Microgravity Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotyrba Andrzej

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes results of microgravity measurements made on the surface over an underground geo reactor where experimental coal gasification was performed in a shallow seam of coal. The aim of the research was to determine whether, and to what extent, the microgravity method can be used to detect and image a coal gasification zone, especially caverns where the coal was burnt out. In theory, the effects of coal gasification process create caverns and cracks, e.g., zones of altered bulk density. Before the measurements, theoretical density models of completely and partially gasified coal were analysed. Results of the calculations of gravity field response showed that in both cases on the surface over the gasification zone there should be local gravimetric anomalies. Over the geo reactor, two series of gravimetric measurements prior to and after gasification were conducted. Comparison of the results of two measurement series revealed the presence of gravimetric anomalies that could be related to the cavern formation process. Data from these measurements were used to verify theoretical models. After the experiment, a small cavern was detected at the depth of the coal seam by the test borehole drilled in one of the anomalous areas.

  5. Investigation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from coal gasification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hong-cang; Jin, Bao-sheng; Zhong, Zhao-ping; Huang, Ya-ji; Xiao, Rui; Li, Da-ji

    2005-01-01

    The hazardous organic pollutants generated from coal gasification, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons(PAHs), are highly mutagenic and carcinogenic. More researchers have paid particular attention to them. Using air and steam as gasification medium, the experiments of three kinds of coals were carried out in a bench-scale atmospheric fluidized bed gasifier. The contents of the 16 PAHs specified by US EPA in raw coal, slag, bag house coke, cyclone coke and gas were measured by HPLC to study the contents of PAHs in raw coal and the effects of the inherent characters of coals on the formation and release of PAHs in coal gasification. The experimental results showed that the distributions of PAHs in the gasified products are similar to raw coals and the total-PAHs content in coal gasification is higher than in raw coal(except Coal C). The total-PAHs contents increase and then decrease with the rise of fixed carbon and sulfur of coal while there has an opposite variation when volatile matters content increase. The quantities of PAHs reduce with the increase of ash content or the drop of heating value during coal gasification.

  6. Imaging the Underground Coal Gasification Zone with Microgravity Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotyrba, Andrzej; Kortas, Łukasz; Stańczyk, Krzysztof

    2015-06-01

    The paper describes results of microgravity measurements made on the surface over an underground geo reactor where experimental coal gasification was performed in a shallow seam of coal. The aim of the research was to determine whether, and to what extent, the microgravity method can be used to detect and image a coal gasification zone, especially caverns where the coal was burnt out. In theory, the effects of coal gasification process create caverns and cracks, e.g., zones of altered bulk density. Before the measurements, theoretical density models of completely and partially gasified coal were analysed. Results of the calculations of gravity field response showed that in both cases on the surface over the gasification zone there should be local gravimetric anomalies. Over the geo reactor, two series of gravimetric measurements prior to and after gasification were conducted. Comparison of the results of two measurement series revealed the presence of gravimetric anomalies that could be related to the cavern formation process. Data from these measurements were used to verify theoretical models. After the experiment, a small cavern was detected at the depth of the coal seam by the test borehole drilled in one of the anomalous areas.

  7. Investigation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from coal gasification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Hong-cang; JIN Bao-sheng; ZHONG Zhao-ping; HUANG Ya-ji; XIAO Rui; LI Da-ji

    2005-01-01

    The hazardous organic pollutants generated from coal gasification, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons(PAHs), are highly mutagenic and carcinogenic. More researchers have paid particular attention to them. Using air and steam as gasification medium, the experiments of three kinds of coals were carried out in a bench-scale atmospheric fluidized bed gasifier. The contents of the 16 PAHs specified by US EPA in raw coal, slag, bag house coke, cyclone coke and gas were measured by HPLC to study the contents of PAHs in raw coal and the effects of the inherent characters of coals on the formation and release of PAHs in coal gasification. The experimental results showed that the distributions of PAHs in the gasified products are similar to raw coals and the total-PAHs content in coal gasification is higher than in raw coal(except Coal C). The total-PAHs contents increase and then decrease with the rise of fixed carbon and sulfur of coal while there has an opposite variation when volatile matters content increase. The quantities of PAHs reduce with the increase of ash content or the drop of heating value during coal gasification.

  8. Release of fuel-bound nitrogen during biomass gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, J.; Masutani, S.M.; Ishimura, D.M.; Turn, S.Q.; Kinoshita, C.M.

    2000-03-01

    Gasification of four biomass feedstocks (leucaena, sawdust, bagasse, and banagrass) with significantly different fuel-bound nitrogen (FBN) content was investigated to determine the effects of operational parameters and nitrogen content of biomass on the partitioning of FBN among nitrogenous gas species. Experiments were performed using a bench-scale, indirectly heated, fluidized-bed gasifier. Data were obtained over a range of temperatures and equivalence ratios representative of commercial biomass gasification processes. An assay of all major nitrogenous components in the gasification products was performed for the first time, providing a clear accounting of the evolution of FBN. Important findings of this research include the following: (1) NH{sub 3} and N{sub 2} are the dominant species evolved from fuel nitrogen during biomass gasification; >90% of FBN in feedstock is converted to NH{sub 3} and N{sub 2}; (2) relative levels of NH{sub 3} and N{sub 2} are determined by thermochemical reactions in the gasifier; these reactions are affected strongly by temperature; (3) N{sub 2} appears to be primarily produced through the conversion of NH{sub 3} in the gas phase; (4) the structural formula and content of fuel nitrogen in biomass feedstock significantly affect the formation and evolution of nitrogen species during biomass gasification.

  9. Electrodialytic extraction of phosphorus from ash of low-temperature gasification of sewage sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parés Viader, Raimon; Jensen, Pernille Erland; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2015-01-01

    Low-temperature gasification allows the production of energy from biomass with high contents of low melting point compounds, like sewage sludge, and the recycling of the nutrients as P from the resulting ashes as renewable fertiliser. Major drawbacks are, however, the presence of heavy metals...... and the low plant-availability of Al- and Fe- phosphate compounds in the gasification ashes. In the present research, the feasibility of a 2-compartment electrodialytic (ED) setup for P separation from Al, Fe and heavy metals in two different low-temperature gasification ashes was investigated. One ash...... was from gasification of sewage sludge where P was precipitated with Fe and Al salts, from which it was possible to extract up to 26% of the P. The other ash was from co-gasification of a mixture of biologically precipitated sewage sludge and wheat straw pellets. More promising results were obtained...

  10. Technology Assessment Report: Aqueous Sludge Gasification Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    The study reveals that sludge gasification is a potentially suitable alternative to conventional sludge handling and disposal methods. However, very few commercial operations are in existence. The limited pilot, demonstration or commercial application of gasification technology t...

  11. Coal gasification. Quarterly report, October--December 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-05-01

    A number of the processes for converting coal to gas supported by US DOE have reached the pilot plant stage. Laboratory research is also continuing in order to develop data for verifying the feasibility of the specific process and for supporting the operation of the plant. Responsibility for designing, constructing, and operating these pilot plants is given. The most successful test to date was completed in the pilot plant of the BI-GAS Process. The HYGAS Process pilot plant continued testing with Illinois bituminous coal to acquire data necessary to optimize the design of a commercial demonstration plant using the HYGAS process. The Synthane Process pilot plant continued studies of Illinois No. 6 coal. Other processes discussed are: Agglomerating Burner Process, Liquid Phase Methanation Process, Molten Salt Gasification Process, Advanced Coal Gasification System, and Lo-Btu Gasification of Coal for Electric Power Generation. Each project is described briefly with funding, history, and progress during the quarter. (LTN)

  12. Laboratory investigations of in-situ gasification; Laboruntersuchungen zur Untertagevergasung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dornbusch, H.

    1994-12-31

    In the framework of the ``Thermie`` research programme of the EC, an in-situ gasification experiment is going on in Andorra/Terual (Spain) 100 km south of Zaragoza. At the same time, the gasification characteristics of the hard lignite from Andorra are analyzed at the Metallurgical Institute of the RWTH Aachen. It was found that the ash contents of various seams were extremely high. The consequences for gasification are investigated in this report. (orig.) [Deutsch] Im Rahmen des Forschungsprogrammes `Thermie` der Europaeischen Gemeinschaft findet in Andorra/Teruel (Spanien) ca. 100 km suedoestlich von Zaragoza ein Untertagevergasungsversuch statt. Projektbegleitend wird am Institut fuer Eisenhuettenkunde der RWTH Aachen die aus Andorra stammende Hartbraunkohle in den Versuchsanlagen des Instituts in der Abteilung Untertagevergasung hinsichtlich ihrer Vergasbarkeit untersucht. Bei der Analyse der Kohle faellt auf, dass einzelne Floeze extrem hohe Gehalte an Asche beinhalten. Die Auswirkung dieser Tatsache auf das Vergasungsverhalten soll in dieser Arbeit untersucht werden. (orig.)

  13. Kinetic analysis on lignite pyrolysis,combustion and gasification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Xin; WANG Zhihua; ZHOU Zhijun; YOU Zhuo; ZHOU Junhu; CEN Kefa

    2013-01-01

    Pyrolysis and combustion combined polygeneration system is a more efficient way for lignite utilization,and can also produce variety of valuable pyrolysis products.To explore the feasibility of this polygeneration system,thermo-gravimetric analysis on YM lignite and DT bituminous coal was conducted,and the characteristic parameters for pyrolysis,combustion,and gasification were obtained.Moreover,the activation energy of each reaction was calculated by Coats-Redfern method.The experimental results showed that,compared with DT bituminous coal,YM lignite pyrolysis process starts at a lower temperature,and its semi-coke reactivity during combustion and gasification was better.In addition,activation energy calculation indicated that,the apparent activation energy of gasification of both coals were much higher than that of the pyrolysis.Therefore,for lignite,pyrolysis and combustion combined polygeneration system may achieve higher efficiency and be worthy for further research.

  14. Characterization study and five-cycle tests in a fixed-bed reactor of titania-supported nickel oxide as oxygen carriers for the chemical-looping combustion of methane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbella, Beatriz M; de Diego, Luis F; García-Labiano, Francisco; Adánez, Juan; Palaciost, José M

    2005-08-01

    Recent investigations have shown that in the combustion of carbonaceous compounds CO2 and NOx emissions to the atmosphere can be substantially reduced by using a two stage chemical-looping process. In this process, the reduction stage is undertaken in a first reactor in which the framework oxygen of a reducible inorganic oxide is used, instead of the usual atmospheric oxygen, for the combustion of a carbonaceous compound, for instance, methane. The outlet gas from this reactor is mostly composed of CO2 and steam as reaction products and further separation of these two components can be carried out easily by simple condensation of steam. Then, the oxygen carrier found in a reduced state is transported to a second reactor in which carrier regeneration with air takes place at relatively low temperatures, consequently preventing the formation of thermal NOx. Afterward, the regenerated carrier is carried to the first reactor to reinitiate a new cycle and so on for a number of repetitive cycles, while the carrier is able to withstand the severe chemical and thermal stresses involved in every cycle. In this paper, the performance of titania-supported nickel oxides has been investigated in a fixed-bed reactor as oxygen carriers for chemical-looping combustion of methane. Samples with different nickel oxide contents were prepared by successive incipient wet impregnations, and their performance as oxygen carriers was investigated at 900 degrees C and atmospheric pressure in five-cycle fixed-bed reactor tests using pure methane and pure air for the respective reduction and regeneration stages. The evolution of the outlet gas composition in each stage was followed by gas chromatography, and the involved chemical, structural, and textural changes of the carrier in the reactor bed were studied by using different characterization techniques. From the study, it is deduced that the reactivity of these nickel-based oxygen carriers is in the two involved stages and almost independent

  15. Rock massif observation from underground coal gasification point of view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Sasvári

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The Underground coal gasification (UCG of the coal seams is determined by suitable geological structure of the area. The assumption of the qualitative changes of the rock massif can be also enabled by application of geophysical methods (electric resisting methods and geoelectric tomography. This article shows the example of evaluating possibilities of realization of the underground coal gasification in the area of the Upper Nitra Coal Basin in Cíge¾ and Nováky deposits, and recommend the needs of cooperation among geological, geotechnical and geophysical researchers.

  16. Environmental benefits of underground coal gasification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shu-qin; Liu, Jun-hua; Yu, Li

    2002-04-01

    Environmental benefits of underground coal gasification are evaluated. The results showed that through underground coal gasification, gangue discharge is eliminated, sulfur emission is reduced, and the amount of ash, mercury, and tar discharge are decreased. Moreover, effect of underground gasification on underground water is analyzed and CO2 disposal method is put forward.

  17. Environmental benefits of underground coal gasification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Environmental benefits of underground coal gasification are evaluated. The results showed that through underground coal gasification,gangue discharge is eliminated, sulfur emission is reduced, and the amount of ash, mercury, and tar discharge are decreased. Moreover, effect of underground gasification on underground water is analyzed and CO2 disposal method is put forward.

  18. Development of Kinetics and Mathematical Models for High-Pressure Gasification of Lignite-Switchgrass Blends: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-11-447

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iisa, Kristiina [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-04-06

    NREL will work with Participant as a subtier partner under DE-FOA-0000240 titled "Co-Production of Power, Fuels, and Chemicals via Coal/Biomass Mixtures." The goal of the project is to determine the gasification characteristics of switchgrass and lignite mixtures and develop kinetic models. NREL will utilize a pressurized thermogravimetric analyzer to measure the reactivity of chars generated in a pressurized entrained-flow reactor at Participant's facilities and to determine the evolution of gaseous species during pyrolysis of switchgrass-lignite mixtures. Mass spectrometry and Fourier-transform infrared analysis will be used to identify and quantify the gaseous species. The results of the project will aid in defining key reactive properties of mixed coal biomass fuels.

  19. Biomass gasification and energy production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahinpey, N.; Nikoo, M.B. [Regina Univ., SK (Canada). Faculty of Engineering

    2007-07-01

    The ASPEN PLUS simulation program was used to model an atmospheric fluidized bed biomass gasifier. The aim of the study was develop a simulation capable of accurately predicting steady state performance of the gasifier in relation to hydrodynamics and reaction kinetics. The influences of feed decomposition, volatile reactions, gas gasification and gas-solid separation were considered through modularized ASPEN PLUS models. The ASPEN PLUS yield reactor was used to simulate biomass feed decomposition. A separation column model was used to separate volatile materials and solids. Experimental data from a pine biomass gasification experiment conducted in a laboratory-scale fluidized bed gasifier was used to validate the simulation results. Good agreement was shown for gas composition, although carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) rates were slightly underestimated. The study also demonstrated that higher temperatures improved the gasification process and carbon conversion. The optimized gasification process produced more carbon monoxide (CO) and less CO{sub 2}. The introduction of lower temperature steam to the gasification process increased tar output. It was concluded that the conversion efficiency increased when the equivalence ratio was increased. 7 refs., 1 tab., 12 figs.

  20. Attempts on cardoon gasification in two different circulating fluidized beds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christodoulou, C.; Tsekos, C.; Tsalidis, G.A.; Fantini, M.; Panopoulos, K.D.; De Jong, W.; Kakaras, E.

    2014-01-01

    Few tests have been carried out in order to evaluate the use of cardoon in gasification and combustion applications most of the researchers dealt with agglomeration problems. The aim of this work is to deal with the agglomeration problem and to present a solution for the utilization of this biofuel

  1. Advanced Gasification By-Product Utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodney Andrews; Aurora Rubel; Jack Groppo; Ari Geertsema; Frank Huggins; M. Mercedes Maroto-Valer; Brandie M. Markley; Harold Schobert

    2006-02-01

    With the recent passing of new legislation designed to permanently cap and reduce mercury emissions from coal-fired utilities, it is more important than ever to develop and improve upon methods of controlling mercury emissions. One promising technique is carbon sorbent injection into the flue gas of the coal-fired power plant. Currently, this technology is very expensive as costly commercially activated carbons are used as sorbents. There is also a significant lack of understanding of the interaction between mercury vapor and the carbon sorbent, which adds to the difficulty of predicting the amount of sorbent needed for specific plant configurations. Due to its inherent porosity and adsorption properties as well as on-site availability, carbons derived from gasifiers are potential mercury sorbent candidates. Furthermore, because of the increasing restricted use of landfilling, the coal industry is very interested in finding uses for these materials as an alternative to the current disposal practice. The results of laboratory investigations and supporting technical assessments conducted under DOE Subcontract No. DE-FG26-03NT41795 are reported for the period September 1, 2004 to August 31, 2005. This contract is with the University of Kentucky Research Foundation, which supports work with the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research and The Pennsylvania State University Energy Institute. The worked described was part of a project entitled ''Advanced Gasification By-Product Utilization''. This work involves the development of technologies for the separation and characterization of coal gasification slags from operating gasification units, activation of these materials to increase mercury and nitrogen oxide capture efficiency, assessment of these materials as sorbents for mercury and nitrogen oxides, and characterization of these materials for use as polymer fillers.

  2. Characterization of airborne trace metal and trace organic species from coal gasification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, J F; Santhanam, S; Davidson, C I; Flotard, R D; Stetter, J R

    1984-12-01

    Fugitive emissions from a slagging fixed-bed coal-gasification pilot plant were analyzed by flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry, gas chromatography, and mass spectrometry for trace metal and trace organic species. Analysis of the size distributions of airborne particulate matter inside the plant showed an abundance of large metal-containing particles; outdoor distributions in the vicinity of the plant resembled the indoor distributions, suggesting the importance of the gasifier in influencing ambient air quality. This conclusion was further supported by identification of similar organic compounds inside and outside the plant. Trace element enrichment factors based on the earth's crustal composition were greater than those based on the composition of the lignite used in the gasifier, showing the importance of characterizing the proper source material when inverstigating chemical fraction during aerosol formation. Enrichments in the present study were much greater than those found in previous sampling during aborted start-up and cleaning procedures, where normal operating temperatures had not yet been reached. Both studies showed evidence of enrichment factors which decreased with increasing particle size. Although much of the airborne mass was associated with large particles having low respirability, the high concentrations of some metals indoors suggests that further assessment of potential occupational exposures is warranted.

  3. Evaluation of integrated anaerobic/aerobic fixed-bed sequencing batch biofilm reactor for decolorization and biodegradation of azo dye acid red 18: comparison of using two types of packing media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini Koupaie, E; Alavi Moghaddam, M R; Hashemi, S H

    2013-01-01

    Two integrated anaerobic/aerobic fixed-bed sequencing batch biofilm reactor (FB-SBBR) were operated to evaluate decolorization and biodegradation of azo dye Acid Red 18 (AR18). Volcanic pumice stones and a type of plastic media made of polyethylene were used as packing media in FB-SBBR1 and FB-SBBR2, respectively. Decolorization of AR18 in both reactors followed first-order kinetic with respect to dye concentration. More than 63.7% and 71.3% of anaerobically formed 1-naphthylamine-4-sulfonate (1N-4S), as one of the main sulfonated aromatic constituents of AR18 was removed during the aerobic reaction phase in FB-SBBR1 and FB-SBBR2, respectively. Based on statistical analysis, performance of FB-SBBR2 in terms of COD removal as well as biodegradation of 1N-4S was significantly higher than that of FB-SBBR1. Spherical and rod shaped bacteria were the dominant species of bacteria in the biofilm grown on the pumice stones surfaces, while, the biofilm grown on surfaces of the polyethylene media had a fluffy structure.

  4. Scale up and stability test for oxidative coupling of methane over Na2WO4-Mn/SiO2 catalyst in a 200 ml fixed-bed reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haitao Liu; Xiaolai Wang; Dexin Yang; Runxiong Gao; Zhonglai Wang; Jian Yang

    2008-01-01

    The study of scale up for the oxidative coupling of methane (OCM) has been carried out in a 200 ml stainless steel fixed-bed reactor over a 5wt% Na2WO4-1.9wt% Mn/SiO2 (W-Mn/SiO2) catalyst. The effects of reaction conditions were investigated in detail. The results showed that, with increasing reaction temperature, the gas-phase reaction was enhanced and a significant amount of methane was converted into COX; with the CH4/O2 molar ratio of 5, the highest C2 (ethylene and ethane) yield of 25% was achieved; the presence of steam (as diluent) had a positive effect on the C2 selectivity and yield. Under lower methane gaseous hourly space velocity (GHSV), higher selectivity and yield of C2 were obtained as the result of the decrease of released heat energy. In 100 h reaction time, the C2 selectivity of 66%-61 % and C2 yield of 24.2%-25.4% were achieved by a single pass without any significant loss in catalytic performance.

  5. Growth of single-walled carbon nanotubes on a Co-Mo-MgO supported catalyst by the CVD of methane in a fixed bed reactor: Model setting and parameter estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izadi, Nosrat; Rashidi, Ali Morad; Horri, Bahman Amini; Mosoudi, Mohamad Reza; Bozorgzadeh, Hamid Reza; Zeraatkar, Ahmad

    2011-06-01

    In this work methane was decomposed to hydrogen and carbon to determine its kinetic behavior during reaction over a Co-Mo-MgO supported catalyst using the CVD (Chemical Vapor Deposition) technique. Decomposition of methane molecules was performed in a continuous fixed bed reactor to obtain data to simulate methane decomposition in a gas phase heterogeneous media. The products and reactants of reaction were analyzed by molecular sieve column followed by GC-analysis of the fractions to determine the amount of product converted or reactant consumed. The synthesis of single-walled carbon nanotubes was performed at atmospheric pressure, different temperatures and reactant concentrations. The experimental data analyzed to suggest the formula for calculation of the initial specific reaction rate of the carbon nanotubes synthesis, were fitted by several mathematical models derived from different mechanisms based on Longmuir-hinshelwood expression. The suggested mechanism according to dissociation adsorption of methane seems to explain the catalytic performance in the range of operating conditions studied. The apparent activation energy for the growth of SWNTs was estimated according to Arrhenius equation. The as grown SWNTs products were characterized by SEM, TEM and Raman spectroscopy after purification. The catalyst deactivation was found to be dependent on the time, reaction temperature and partial pressure of methane and indicated that the reaction of deactivation can be modeled by a simple apparent second order of reaction.

  6. Characterization and catalytic performance of CeO2-Co/SiO2 catalyst for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis using nitrogen-diluted synthesis gas over a laboratory scale fixed-bed reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoping Dai; Changchun Yu

    2008-01-01

    The surface species of CO hydrogenation on CeO2-Co/SiO2 catalyst were investigated using the techniques of temperature programmed reaction and transient response method. The results indicated that the formation of H2O and CO2 was the competitive reaction for the surface oxygen species, CH4 was produced via the hydrogenation of carbon species step by step, and C2 products were formed by the polymerization of surface-active carbon species (-CH2-). Hydrogen assisted the dissociation of CO. The hydrogenation of surface carbon species was the rate-limiting step in the hydrogenation of CO over CeO2-Co/SiO2 catalyst. The investigation of total pressure, gas hourly space velocity (GHSV), and product distribution using nitrogen-rich synthesis gas as feedstock over a laboratory scale fixed-bed reactor indicated that total pressure and GHSV had a significant effect on the catalytic performance of CeO2-Co/SiO2 catalyst. The removal of heat and control of the reaction temperature were extremely critical steps, which required lower GHSV and appropriate CO conversion to avoid the deactivation of the catalyst. The feedstock of nitrogen-rich synthesis gas was favorable to increase the conversion of CO, but there was a shift of product distribution toward the light hydrocarbon. The nitrogen-rich synthesis gas was feasible for F-T synthesis for the utilization of remote natural gas.

  7. The shell coal gasification process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenders, L.O.M.; Zuideveld, P.O. [Shell Internationale Petroleum Maatschappij B.V., The Hague (Netherlands)

    1995-12-01

    Future Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle (ICGCC) power plants will have superior environmental performance and efficiency. The Shell Coal Gasification Process (SCGP) is a clean coal technology, which can convert a wide range of coals into clean syngas for high efficiency electricity generation in an ICGCC plant. SCGP flexibility has been demonstrated for high-rank bituminous coals to low rank lignites and petroleum coke, and the process is well suited for combined cycle power generation, resulting in efficiencies of 42 to 46% (LHV), depending on choice of coal and gas turbine efficiency. In the Netherlands, a 250 MWe coal gasification combined cycle plant based on Shell technology has been built by Demkolec, a development partnership of the Dutch Electricity Generating Board (N.V. Sep). The construction of the unit was completed end 1993 and is now followed by start-up and a 3 year demonstration period, after that the plant will be part of the Dutch electricity generating system.

  8. Biomass gasification for liquid fuel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najser, Jan; Peer, Václav; Vantuch, Martin

    2014-08-01

    In our old fix-bed autothermal gasifier we tested wood chips and wood pellets. We make experiments for Czech company producing agro pellets - pellets made from agricultural waste and fastrenewable natural resources. We tested pellets from wheat and rice straw and hay. These materials can be very perspective, because they dońt compete with food production, they were formed in sufficient quantity and in the place of their treatment. New installation is composed of allothermal biomass fixed bed gasifier with conditioning and using produced syngas for Fischer - Tropsch synthesis. As a gasifying agent will be used steam. Gas purification will have two parts - separation of dust particles using a hot filter and dolomite reactor for decomposition of tars. In next steps, gas will be cooled, compressed and removed of sulphur and chlorine compounds and carbon dioxide. This syngas will be used for liquid fuel synthesis.

  9. Biomass gasification for liquid fuel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Najser, Jan, E-mail: jan.najser@vsb.cz, E-mail: vaclav.peer@vsb.cz; Peer, Václav, E-mail: jan.najser@vsb.cz, E-mail: vaclav.peer@vsb.cz [VSB - Technical university of Ostrava, Energy Research Center, 17. listopadu 15/2172, 708 33 Ostrava-Poruba (Czech Republic); Vantuch, Martin [University of Zilina, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Department of Power Engineering, Univerzitna 1, 010 26 Zilina (Slovakia)

    2014-08-06

    In our old fix-bed autothermal gasifier we tested wood chips and wood pellets. We make experiments for Czech company producing agro pellets - pellets made from agricultural waste and fastrenewable natural resources. We tested pellets from wheat and rice straw and hay. These materials can be very perspective, because they dońt compete with food production, they were formed in sufficient quantity and in the place of their treatment. New installation is composed of allothermal biomass fixed bed gasifier with conditioning and using produced syngas for Fischer - Tropsch synthesis. As a gasifying agent will be used steam. Gas purification will have two parts - separation of dust particles using a hot filter and dolomite reactor for decomposition of tars. In next steps, gas will be cooled, compressed and removed of sulphur and chlorine compounds and carbon dioxide. This syngas will be used for liquid fuel synthesis.

  10. Research on the thermal decomposition of Mongolian Baganuur lignite and Naryn sukhait bituminous coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ariunaa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The technical characteristics, elemental composition of the organic and mineral matters, ash melting behaviors and carbonization and gasification reactivities of coals from Baganuur and Naryn sukhait deposits were investigated. The results of proximate and ultimate analysis confirmed that the coal from Baganuur deposit can be graded as a low rank lignite B2 mark coal and Naryn sukhait coal is a bituminous G mark one. The carbonization and gasification experiments were performed using TGA apparatus and fixed bed quartz reactor. The data obtained with two experimental reactors showed that Baganuur lignite had lower thermal stability and much higher CO2 gasification reactivity at 950°C as compared to those for Naryn sukhait bituminous coal.Mongolian Journal of Chemistry 16 (42, 2015, 22-29

  11. Biomass gasification for energy production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundberg, H.; Morris, M.; Rensfelt, E. [TPS Termiska Prosesser Ab, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    1997-12-31

    Biomass and waste are becoming increasingly interesting as fuels for efficient and environmentally sound power generation. Circulating fluidized bed (CFB) gasification for biomass and waste has been developed and applied to kilns both in the pulp and paper industry and the cement industry. A demonstration plant in Greve-in- Chianti, Italy includes two 15 MW{sub t}h RDF-fuelled CFB gasifiers of TPS design, the product gas from which is used in a cement kiln or in steam boiler for power generation. For CFB gasification of biomass and waste to reach a wider market, the product gas has to be cleaned effectively so that higher fuel to power efficiencies can be achieved by utilizing power cycles based on engines or gas turbines. TPS has developed both CFB gasification technology and effective secondary stage tar cracking technology. The integrated gasification - gas-cleaning technology is demonstrated today at pilot plant scale. To commercialise the technology, the TPS`s strategy is to first demonstrate the process for relatively clean fuels such as woody biomass and then extend the application to residues from waste recycling. Several demonstration projects are underway to commercialise TPS`s gasification and gas cleaning technology. In UK the ARBRE project developed by ARBRE Energy will construct a gasification plant at Eggborough, North Yorkshire, which will provide gas to a gas turbine and steam turbine generation system, producing 10 MW and exporting 8 Mw of electricity. It has been included in the 1993 tranche of the UK`s Non Fossil Fuel Obligation (NFFO) and has gained financial support from EC`s THERMIE programme as a targeted BIGCC project. (author)

  12. Effects and characterization of an environmentally-friendly, inexpensive composite Iron-Sodium catalyst on coal gasification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monterroso, Rodolfo

    Coal gasification has been commercially used for more than 60 years in the production of fuels and chemicals. Recently, and due to the lowered environmental impacts and high efficiency derived from integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC), this process has received increased attention. Furthermore, upcoming strict CO2 emissions regulations by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) will no longer be achievable by traditional means of coal combustion, therefore, growing dependence on different energy sources has drawn attention to clean coal technologies, such as coal-to-liquids processing, and the core of this process is also gasification. Gasification is an energy intensive process that can be substantially improved in terms of efficiency through the use of catalysts. In this study, the effect of the composite catalyst, FeCO3-Na2CO3, on gasification of a low-sulfur sub-bituminous Wyodak coal from the Powder River Basin (PRB) of Wyoming was investigated. The catalytic effects of the composite catalysts were evaluated by comparing their effluent gas compositions and carbon conversion kinetics to those achieved in the presence of either FeCO3 or Na2CO3 catalyst alone or without the presence of any catalyst. All of the evaluation work was conducted in a fixed bed gasifier at atmospheric pressure. Compared to raw coal with no catalyst, the composite catalyst is efficient in increasing the carbon conversion rate constant by as much as two times within the 700-800°C range due to its ability to reduce the activation energy of gasification by about 30-40%. Compared to pure sodium and iron catalysts, the composite catalyst can increase the yields of desired products H2 and CO at 800°C by 15% and 40%, respectively. The composite catalyst can not only synergize the advantages, but also overcome the challenges of pure iron or pure sodium based catalytic coal gasification processes. Moreover, the mechanisms of this particular catalytic coal gasification process

  13. 考虑焦油的生物质气化过程热力学模型%Research on thermodynamic mathematical model of biomass gasification process with tar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫桂焕; 许敏; 许崇庆; 肖琦; 孙荣峰

    2013-01-01

      在生物质气化过程中焦油是不利产物,由于焦油成分的复杂性,传统生物质气化热力学模型均未考虑焦油。为了研究操作运行条件对燃气成分、焦油等影响,本文引入焦油模型化合物,考虑系统散热和碳不完全转化等因素影响,基于物质平衡、能量平衡和化学反应平衡建立了考虑焦油的生物质气化过程热力学模型。使用Newton-Raphson方法对模型进行了求解。利用文献数据验证了模型的有效性。最后,利用所建模型计算了空气预热温度、空气当量比、水蒸汽添加率等操作条件对燃气成分、焦油含量等指标的影响。结果表明,空气预热温度提高,焦油含量下降,气体热值提高;空气当量比从0.2提高到0.3,焦油含量降低,燃气中有效成分减少;水蒸汽添加率从0增加到10%,焦油含量下降,气化效率提高。研究结果可为生物质能低焦清洁利用提供参考。%Tar is a kind of very harmful product during the biomass gasification process, and it is not considered in the conventional thermodynamic mathematical model because of its components complexity. In order to research the effect of operation condition on ingredients and tar content of the fuel gas, a thermodynamic mathematical model of biomass gasification process with tar was developed based on material balance, energy balance and chemical equilibrium, taking the influences of system heat loss and carbon partial conversion into account. It is well known that the number of identified tar components is more than 100, and the components of quality ratio more than 5%are benzene, toluene, phenol, dimethylbenzene, phenylethylene, naphthalene, and so on. According to the quality equal principle of the main tar components, tar was indicated as the imaginary material C6H6.2O0.2 in the thermodynamic mathematical model. The chemical reactions selected in the model were from the deoxidization process as

  14. Leaching From Biomass Gasification Residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allegrini, Elisa; Boldrin, Alessio; Polletini, A.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to attain an overall characterization of solid residues from biomass gasification. Besides the determination of chemical and physical properties, the work was focused on the study of leaching behaviour. Compliance and pH-dependence leaching tests coupled with geoche......The aim of the present work is to attain an overall characterization of solid residues from biomass gasification. Besides the determination of chemical and physical properties, the work was focused on the study of leaching behaviour. Compliance and pH-dependence leaching tests coupled...

  15. Gasification - Status and Technology; Foergasning - Status och teknik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Held, Joergen

    2011-07-15

    In this report gasification and gas cleaning techniques for biomass are treated. The main reason for gasifying biomass is to refine the fuel to make it suitable for efficient CHP production, as vehicle fuel or in industrial processes. The focus is on production of synthesis gas that can be used for production of vehicle fuel and for CHP production. Depending on application different types of gasifiers, gasification techniques and process parameters are of interest. Two gasification techniques have been identified as suitable for syngas generation, mainly due to the fact that they allow the production of a nitrogen free gas out of the gasifier; Indirect atmospheric gasification and Pressurized oxygen blown gasification For CHP production there are no restrictions on the gas composition in terms of nitrogen and here air-blown gasification is of interest as well. The main challenge when it comes to gas cleaning is related to sulphur and tars. There are different concepts and alternatives to handle sulphur and tars. Some of them is based on conventional techniques with well-proven components that are commercially available while others more advantageous solutions, still need further development. The report deals to a minor extent with the conversion of syngas to synthetic fuels. The ongoing research and development of gasification techniques is extensive, both on national and international level. Although many process concepts and components have been demonstrated, there is still no full-scale plant for the production of synthetic fuels based on biomass. Factors affecting the choice of technology are plant size, operating conditions, the possibility for process integration, access to feedstock, market aspects, incentives and economic instruments et cetera. Increased competition for biofuels will inevitably lead to higher raw material costs. This in turn means that the fuel chains with high efficiency, such as biomethane through gasification and methanation, are favored

  16. Low temperature circulating fluidized bed gasification and co-gasification of municipal sewage sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Tobias Pape; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Gøbel, Benny

    2017-01-01

    The study is part 2 of 2 in an investigation of gasification and co-gasification of municipal sewage sludge in low temperature gasifiers. In this work, solid residuals from thermal gasification and co-gasification of municipal sewage sludge were investigated for their potential use as fertilizer...... to the mono-sludge ashes, thereby showing the best fertilizer qualities among all assessed materials. It was also found that bottom ashes from the char reactor contained even less heavy metals than cyclone ashes. It is concluded that LT-CFB gasification and co-gasification is a highly effective way to purify...

  17. COPROX fixed bed reactor - temperature control schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giunta, P.; Moreno, M.; Marino, F.; Amadeo, N.; Lobarde, M. [Laboratorio de Procesos Cataliticos, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2012-06-15

    Different temperature control schemes for the COPROX stage of a 5-kW fuel cell system were analyzed. It was found that, among the schemes proposed, i.e., co- and countercurrent heat exchange, single adiabatic reactor and series of adiabatic reactors with interstage heat exchange, the best choice for temperature control was the series of adiabatic reactors with interstage heat exchange. This scheme represented the best way to keep the average temperature around 443 K, which was found to be the most suitable temperature for selectivity towards CO oxidation. If hydrogen is produced from ethanol steam reforming, the heat withdrawal can be carried out by the water/ethanol reformer feed mixture, thus contributing to the energy integration of the overall system. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  18. Hydrogen production from biomass over steam gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rauch, R.; Potetz, A.; Hofbauer, H. [Vienna Univ. of Technology (Austria). Inst. of Chemical Engineering; Weber, G. [Bioenergy 2020+, Guessing (Austria)

    2010-12-30

    Renewable hydrogen is one option for a clean energy carrier in the future. There were several research programs in the past, to produce hydrogen on a renewable basis by electrolysis, direct conversion of water or by gasification of biomass. None of these options were developed to a stage, that they could be used on a commercial basis. At the moment almost all hydrogen is produced from fossil fuels and one main consumer of hydrogen are refineries. So a good option to demonstrate the production of renewable hydrogen and bring it later into the market is over refineries. The most economic option to produce renewable hydrogen at the moment is over gasification of biomass. In Austria an indirect gasification system was developed and is demonstrated in Guessing, Austria. The biomass CHP Guessing uses the allothermal steam dual fluidised bed gasifier and produces a high grade product gas, which is used at the moment for the CHP in a gas engine. As there is no nitrogen in the product gas and high hydrogen content, this gas can be also used as synthesis gas or for production of hydrogen. The main aim of this paper is to present the experimental and simulation work to convert biomass into renewable hydrogen. The product gas of the indirect gasification system is mainly hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and methane. Within the ERA-Net project ''OptiBtLGas'' the reforming of methane and the CO-shift reaction was investigated to convert all hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide to hydrogen. On basis of the experimental results the mass- and energy balances of a commercial 100 MW fuel input plant was done. Here 3 different cases of complexity of the overall plant were simulated. The first case was without reforming and CO-shift, only by hydrogen separation. The second case was by including steam - reforming and afterwards separation of hydrogen. The third case includes hydrocarbon reforming, CO-shift and hydrogen separation. In all cases the off-gases (CO

  19. Calcium addition in straw gasification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risnes, H.; Fjellerup, Jan Søren; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk

    2003-01-01

    The present work focuses on the influence of calcium addition in gasification. The inorganic¿organic element interaction as well as the detailed inorganic¿inorganic elements interaction has been studied. The effect of calcium addition as calcium sugar/molasses solutions to straw significantly...