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Sample records for fixed-bed gasification research

  1. Fixed bed gasification of solid biomass fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haavisto, I [Condens Oy, Haemeenlinna (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    Fixed bed biomass gasifiers are feasible in the effect range of 100 kW -10 MW. Co-current gasification is available only up to 1 MW for technical reasons. Counter-current gasifiers have been used in Finland and Sweden for 10 years in gasification heating plants, which are a combination of a gasifier and an oil boiler. The plants have proved to have a wide control range, flexible and uncomplicated unmanned operation and an excellent reliability. Counter-current gasifiers can be applied for new heating plants or for converting existing oil and natural gas boilers into using solid fuels. There is a new process development underway, aiming at motor use of the producer gas. The development work involves a new, more flexible cocurrent gasifier and a cleaning step for the counter-current producer gas. (orig.)

  2. Fixed bed gasification of solid biomass fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haavisto, I. [Condens Oy, Haemeenlinna (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Fixed bed biomass gasifiers are feasible in the effect range of 100 kW -10 MW. Co-current gasification is available only up to 1 MW for technical reasons. Counter-current gasifiers have been used in Finland and Sweden for 10 years in gasification heating plants, which are a combination of a gasifier and an oil boiler. The plants have proved to have a wide control range, flexible and uncomplicated unmanned operation and an excellent reliability. Counter-current gasifiers can be applied for new heating plants or for converting existing oil and natural gas boilers into using solid fuels. There is a new process development underway, aiming at motor use of the producer gas. The development work involves a new, more flexible cocurrent gasifier and a cleaning step for the counter-current producer gas. (orig.)

  3. Treatment of Mixed Wastes via Fixed Bed Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1998-10-28

    This report outlines the details of research performed under USDOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC21-96MC33258 to evaluate the ChemChar hazardous waste system for the destruction of mixed wastes, defined as those that contain both RCRA-regulated haz- ardous constituents and radionuclides. The ChemChar gasification system uses a granular carbonaceous char matrix to immobilize wastes and feed them into the gasifier. In the gasifier wastes are subjected to high temperature reducing conditions, which destroy the organic constituents and immobilize radionuclides on the regenerated char. Only about 10 percent of the char is consumed on each pass through the gasifier, and the regenerated char can be used to treat additional wastes. When tested on a 4-inch diameter scale with a continuous feed unit as part of this research, the ChemChar gasification system was found to be effective in destroying RCRA surrogate organic wastes (chlorobenzene, dichloroben- zene, and napht.halene) while retaining on the char RCRA heavy metals (chromium, nickel, lead, and cadmium) as well as a fission product surrogate (cesium) and a plutonium surrogate (cerium). No generation of harmful byproducts was observed. This report describes the design and testing of the ChemChar gasification system and gives the operating procedures to be followed in using the system safely and effectively for mixed waste treatment.

  4. Physical-Mathematical Model for Fixed-Bed Solid Fuel Gasification Process Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slyusarskiy Konstantin V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Phycial-mathmatical model for fixed-bed coal gasification process simulation is proposed. The heterogeneous carbon oxidation chemical reactions were simulated via Arrhenius equation while homogeneous reactions in gas phase were calculated using Gibbs free energy minimization procedure. The syngas component concentration field and fuel conversion distribution as well as syngas final temperature and composition were defined for fixed bed gasification of T-grade coal of Kuznetskiy deposit. The optimal fuel residence time and gasifyer specific productivity were defined. The prevail reactions in oxidizing and reduction zones together with its height were defined.

  5. Distribution of volatile sulphur containing products during fixed bed pyrolysis and gasification of coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furimsky, E.

    1991-08-01

    Various coals were used to study the evolution of H{sub 2}S COS, and SO{sub 2} in a fixed bed reactor. For all types of coal, most of H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2} were released during the devolatilization stage. COS was formed only during the gasification stage in the presence of CO{sub 2}.

  6. Artificial neural network modelling approach for a biomass gasification process in fixed bed gasifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikulandrić, Robert; Lončar, Dražen; Böhning, Dorith; Böhme, Rene; Beckmann, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • 2 Different equilibrium models are developed and their performance is analysed. • Neural network prediction models for 2 different fixed bed gasifier types are developed. • The influence of different input parameters on neural network model performance is analysed. • Methodology for neural network model development for different gasifier types is described. • Neural network models are verified for various operating conditions based on measured data. - Abstract: The number of the small and middle-scale biomass gasification combined heat and power plants as well as syngas production plants has been significantly increased in the last decade mostly due to extensive incentives. However, existing issues regarding syngas quality, process efficiency, emissions and environmental standards are preventing biomass gasification technology to become more economically viable. To encounter these issues, special attention is given to the development of mathematical models which can be used for a process analysis or plant control purposes. The presented paper analyses possibilities of neural networks to predict process parameters with high speed and accuracy. After a related literature review and measurement data analysis, different modelling approaches for the process parameter prediction that can be used for an on-line process control were developed and their performance were analysed. Neural network models showed good capability to predict biomass gasification process parameters with reasonable accuracy and speed. Measurement data for the model development, verification and performance analysis were derived from biomass gasification plant operated by Technical University Dresden

  7. Porous filtering media comparison through wet and dry sampling of fixed bed gasification products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allesina, G.; Pedrazzi, S.; Montermini, L.; Giorgini, L.; Bortolani, G.; Tartarini, P.

    2014-11-01

    The syngas produced by fixed bed gasifiers contains high quantities of particulate and tars. This issue, together with its high temperature, avoids its direct exploitation without a proper cleaning and cooling process. In fact, when the syngas produced by gasification is used in an Internal Combustion engine (IC), the higher the content of tars and particulate, the higher the risk to damage the engine is. If these compounds are not properly removed, the engine may fail to run. A way to avoid engine fails is to intensify the maintenance schedule, but these stops will reduce the system profitability. From a clean syngas does not only follow higher performance of the generator, but also less pollutants in the atmosphere. When is not possible to work on the gasification reactions, the filter plays the most important role in the engine safeguard process. This work is aimed at developing and comparing different porous filters for biomass gasifiers power plants. A drum filter was developed and tested filling it with different filtering media available on the market. As a starting point, the filter was implemented in a Power Pallet 10 kW gasifier produced by the California-based company "ALL Power Labs". The original filter was replaced with different porous biomasses, such as woodchips and corn cobs. Finally, a synthetic zeolites medium was tested and compared with the biological media previously used. The Tar Sampling Protocol (TSP) and a modified "dry" method using the Silica Gel material were applied to evaluate the tars, particulate and water amount in the syngas after the filtration process. Advantages and disadvantages of every filtering media chosen were reported and discussed.

  8. Adiabatic Fixed-Bed Gasification of Colombian Coffee Husk Using Air-Steam Blends for Partial Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Bonilla

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing energy consumption, mostly supplied by fossil fuels, has motivated the research and development of alternative fuel technologies to decrease the humanity’s dependence on fossil fuels, which leads to pollution of natural sources. Small-scale biomass gasification, using air-steam blends for partial oxidation, is a good alternative since biomass is a neutral carbon feedstock for sustainable energy generation. This research presents results obtained from an experimental study on coffee husk (CH gasification, using air-steam blends for partial oxidation in a 10 kW fixed-bed gasifier. Parametric studies on equivalence ratio (ER (1.53 < ER < 6.11 and steam-fuel (SF ratio (0.23 < SF < 0.89 were carried out. The results show that increasing both SF and ER results in a syngas rich in CH4 and H2 but poor in CO. Also, decreased SF and ER decrease the peak temperature (Tpeak at the gasifier combustion zone. The syngas high heating value (HHV ranged from 3112 kJ/SATPm3 to 5085 kJ/SATPm3 and its maximum value was obtained at SF = 0.87 and ER = 4.09. The dry basis molar concentrations of the species, produced under those operating conditions (1.53 < ER < 6.11 and 0.23 < SF < 0.89, were between 1.12 and 4.1% for CH4, between 7.77 and 13.49% for CO, and between 7.54 and 19.07% for H2. Other species were in trace amount.

  9. Effect of small-scale biomass gasification at the state of refractory lining the fixed bed reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janša, Jan, E-mail: jan.jansa@vsb.cz; Peer, Vaclav, E-mail: vaclav.peer@vsb.cz; Pavloková, Petra, E-mail: petra.pavlokova@vsb.cz [VŠB – Technical University of Ostrava, Energy Research Center, 708 33 Ostrava (Czech Republic)

    2016-06-30

    The article deals with the influence of biomass gasification on the condition of the refractory lining of a fixed bed reactor. The refractory lining of the gasifier is one part of the device, which significantly affects the operational reliability and durability. After removing the refractory lining of the gasifier from the experimental reactor, there was done an assessment how gasification of different kinds of biomass reflected on its condition in terms of the main factors affecting its life. Gasification of biomass is reflected on the lining, especially through sticking at the bottom of the reactor. Measures for prolonging the life of lining consist in the reduction of temperature in the reactor, in this case, in order to avoid ash fusion biomass which it is difficult for this type of gasifier.

  10. Fixed-bed gasification for industrial appliances; Gaseificacao em leito fixo para aplicacoes industriais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makray, Zsolt [Termoquip Energia Alternativa, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    1988-12-31

    Wood gasification for industrial thermal processes as an alternative to fuel oil has economic, strategic and air pollution advantages. Since 1981, a Brazilian industry developed a line of down-draft gasifiers for industrial heating in the capacity of 0,3 to 3,0 MW thermal. (author) 3 figs.

  11. Biomass gasification in fixed bed type down draft: theoretical and experimental aspects; Gasificacao de biomassa em leito fixo tipo concorrente: aspectos teoricos e experimentais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Juan Daniel; Andrade, Rubenildo Vieira; Lora, Electo Eduardo Silva [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil). Inst. de Engenharia Mecanica. Nucleo de Excelencia em Geracao Termeletrica e Distribuida

    2008-07-01

    Actually are recognizing the advantages of biomass in reducing dependence on fossil fuels and significant reduction in emissions of greenhouse effect gases such as Co2. Also are known the different conversion of biomass routes for their use or exploitation, such as thermochemical process (gasification, pyrolysis and combustion), the biological process (fermentation and transesterification) and the physical process (densification, reducing grain and mechanical pressing). In this sense, the gasification is regarded as the most promising mechanism to obtain a homogeneous gaseous fuel with sufficient quality in the small scale distributed generation. This work presents some aspects of biomass gasification in fixed bed, as well as some preliminary results in the evaluation and operation of fixed bed down draft gasifier with double stage air supply of the NEST, identifying the adequate air supply quantity (equivalence ratio in the range of 0,35 to 0,45) for obtaining a fuel gas with lower heating value around 4 MJ/N m3. (author)

  12. Preliminary studies of lignocellulosics and waste fuels for fixed bed gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olgun, H [Marmara Research Center, Kocaeli (Turkey). Energy Systems and Environmental Research Institute; Dogru, M; Howarth, C R [University of Newcastle (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemical and Process Engineering; Malik, A A [University of Northumbria, Newcastle (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemical and Life Science

    2001-07-01

    This study was carried out to understand the decomposition behaviour of a range of biofuel and waste feedstock during gasification in a downdraft gasifier. A laboratory scale large sample thermogravimetric analyser (LSTA) is used which allows the data on burn-out characteristics of different fuel particles to be measured under agitated conditions. The conditions chosen simulate the combustion behaviour in a gasifier for a range of biofuels and wastes, namely hazelnut, pistachio, and peanut shells, wood chips and sewage sludge pellets. From this data the activation energy is calculated for a heating rate of 20{sup o}C/min. It was found that, as the weight loss increases, the activation energy decreases. In addition the influence of a range of gasification air/N{sub 2} levels on constituents of the gas released during hazelnut shell decomposition was observed. It was found that the composition of the product gases consisted of CH{sub 4}, H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, C{sub 2}H{sub 4}, C{sub 2}H{sub 6}. This was analysed as function of time for hazelnut shells showing that the primary products are H{sub 2}, CO, CH{sub 4} and CO{sub 2}. (author)

  13. Potentials of Selected Malaysian Biomasses as Co-Gasification Fuels with Oil Palm Fronds in a Fixed-Bed Downdraft Gasifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moni Mohamad Nazmi Zaidi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Oil palm frond (OPF has been successfully gasified to produce syngas and has since deemed as a potential source of biomass fuel in Malaysia. However, if OPF is to be utilized as a main fuel for industrial-scale firing/gasification plant, interruption in fuel supply may occur due to numerous reasons, for instance inefficient fuel processing and ineffective transportation. A secondary supporting solid fuel is therefore necessary as a partial component to the main fuel in such cases, where the secondary fuel is combusted with the main fuel to adhere to main fuel shortage. Gasification of two fuels together, known as co-gasification, is practiced worldwide, some in industrial scale. However, current practice utilizes biomass fuel as the secondary fuel to coal in co-gasification. This investigation explores into the feasibility of co-gasifying two biomass fuels together to produce syngas. OPF was chosen as the primary fuel and a selection of Malaysian biomasses were studied to discover their compatibility with OPF in co-gasification. Biomass selection was made using score-and-rank method and their selection criteria are concisely discussed.

  14. PNNL Coal Gasification Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, Douglas J.; Cabe, James E.; Bearden, Mark D.

    2010-07-28

    This report explains the goals of PNNL in relation to coal gasification research. The long-term intent of this effort is to produce a syngas product for use by internal Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) researchers in materials, catalysts, and instrumentation development. Future work on the project will focus on improving the reliability and performance of the gasifier, with a goal of continuous operation for 4 hours using coal feedstock. In addition, system modifications to increase operational flexibility and reliability or accommodate other fuel sources that can be used for syngas production could be useful.

  15. Fixed-bed Reactor Dynamics and Control - A Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, S. B.

    1986-01-01

    The industrial diversity of fixed bed reactors offers a challenging and relevant set of control problems. These intricate problems arise due to the rather complex dynamics of fixed bed reactors and to the complexity of actual reactor configurations. Many of these control problems are nonlinear...... and multi-variable. During the last decade fixed bed reactor control strategies have been proposed and investigated experimentally. This paper reviews research on these complex control problems with an emphasis upon solutions which have been demon-strated to work in the laboratory and hold promise...

  16. Fixed-bed gasifier and cleanup system engineering summary report through Test Run No. 100

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pater, K. Jr.; Headley, L.; Kovach, J.; Stopek, D.

    1984-06-01

    The state-of-the-art of high-pressure, fixed-bed gasification has been advanced by the many refinements developed over the last 5 years. A novel full-flow gas cleanup system has been installed and tested to clean coal-derived gases. This report summarizes the results of tests conducted on the gasifier and cleanup system from its inception through 1982. Selected process summary data are presented along with results from complementary programs in the areas of environmental research, process simulation, analytical methods development, and component testing. 20 references, 32 figures, 42 tables.

  17. Gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, David J.

    1999-12-01

    Contains Executive Summary and Chapters on: Introduction; Review of driving forces for change; Gasification technology; Versatility of the gasification process; Commercial Application of gasification; Gas turbine development; Fuel Cell Development; Economics of gasification; Global warming and gasification; Discussion; Summary and Conclusions. (Author)

  18. Passive cooling of a fixed bed nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petry, V.J.; Bortoli, A.L. de; Sefidwash, F.

    2005-01-01

    Small nuclear reactors without the need for on-site refuelling have greater simplicity, better compliance with passive safety systems, and are more adequate for countries with small electric grids and limited investment capabilities. Here the passive cooling characteristic of the fixed bed nuclear reactor (FBNR), that is being developed under the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Coordinated Research Project, is studied. A mathematical model is developed to calculate the temperature distribution in the fuel chamber of the reactor. The results demonstrate the passive cooling of this nuclear reactor concept. (authors)

  19. Current results of coal gasification materials research at GRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, V.L.; Barone, S.P.; Meyer, H.S.

    1984-01-01

    Corrosion, erosion/corrosion and mechanical property testing of commercial available materials in coal gasification atmospheres has been supported by the Gas Research Institute (GRI) since 1978. Recent corrosion data developed in the program for gasification and methanation technologies under development by GRI are presented. A brief discussion of typical results of long-term stress-rupture tests in coal gasification atmospheres is included

  20. The fixed bed nuclear reactor concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahin, S.; Sefidvash, F.

    2007-01-01

    The core of a water moderated Fixed Bed Nuclear Reactor (FBNR), possessing, for instance, an electrical power of 40 MW, consists of 1.35 million fuel pellets (9.5 t) with a diameter of 1.5 cm each. The low enriched uranium fuel is made of TRISO type microspheres used in the HTGR, embedded in a graphite matrix and cladded by a shell of 1 mm SiC. Under any thinkable operational condition the fuel temperature will be below 400 C whereas its stability limit is at about 1600 C. The first characteristic of the FBNR is, therefore, its robust fuel under relatively 'cold' operating conditions and - due to the outer SiC - shell layer - the freedom from any hydrogen production. To operate the reactor the fuel pellets are pumped by a flow of water from below into the core regions where they form a stable fixed bed of about 4 cubic meter and become critical for energy production heating the outlet water to about 330 C (at 160 bar) which feeds a steam generator. The new safety feature is now the following: In case of any abnormity (e.g. external power failure, overheating etc.) the circulating pump stops and - due to gravity - the fuel pellets fall automatically out of the core region into a helical 'fuel chamber' underneath the core where their decay heat is transferred passively by natural circulation to a water tank housing the fuel chamber. The safety principle, applied here, is: The loss of an active component (circulating pump) induces a self-controlled, passively working shut-down manoeuvre accompanied by a foolproof decay heat removal without any emergency power system or any human interaction. The fuel chamber is sealed and is transported as the only reactor component to and from the reactor site. There is no possibility to irradiate fertile fuel, too. For a long-life core (larger than a 10 years cycle time) the fuel can either be poisoned by gadolinium-oxide or by a piston type core limiter adjusting the height and controlling thereby the number of the fuel pellets in

  1. A FIXED BED SORPTION SYSTEM FOR DEFLUORIDATION OF GROUND WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayoob Sulaiman

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The presence of excess fluoride in ground water has become a global threat with as many as 200 million people affected in more than 35 countries in all the continents. Of late, there have been significant advances in the knowledge base regarding the effects of excess fluoride on human health. As a result, defluoridation of ground water is regarded as one of the key areas of attention among the universal water community triggering global research. This study describes the sorptive responses of a newly developed adsorbent, alumina cement granules (ALC, in its real-life application in fixed beds, for removing fluoride from the ground waters of a rural Indian village. ALC exhibited almost consistent scavenging capacity at various bed depths in column studies with an enhanced adsorption potential of 0.818 mg/g at a flow rate of 4 ml/min. The Thomas model was examined to describe the sorption process. The process design parameters of the column were obtained by linear regression of the model. In all the conditions examined, the Thomas model could consistently predict its characteristic parameters and describe the breakthrough sorption profiles in the whole range of sorption process.

  2. Nonlinear dynamics and control of a recycle fixed bed reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Recke, Bodil; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is twofold. Primarily to describe the dynamic behaviour that can be observed in a fixed bed reactor with recycle of unconverted reactant. Secondly to describe the possibilities of model reduction in order to facilitate control design. Reactant recycle has been shown...... to introduce periodic solution to the fixed bed reactor, a phenomenon which is not seen for the system without the recycle, at least not within the Peclet number range investigated in the present work. The possibility of model reduction by the methods of modal decomposition, and by characteristics...

  3. Wood Combustion Behaviour in a Fixed Bed Combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokit, Ernie Mat; Aziz, Azhar Abdul; Ghazali, Normah Mohd

    2010-06-01

    Waste wood is used as feedstock for Universiti Teknologi Malaysia's newly-developed two-stage incinerator system. The research goals are to optimize the operation of the thermal system to the primary chamber, to improve its combustion efficiency and to minimize its pollutants formation. The combustion process is evaluated with the variation of fuel's moisture content. For optimum operating condition, where the gasification efficiency is 95.53%, the moisture content of the fuel is best set at 17%; giving outlet operating temperature of 550°C and exhaust gas concentrations with 1213 ppm of CO, 6% of CO2 and 14% of O2 respectively. In line to the experimental work, a computational fluid dynamics software, Fluent is used to simulate the performance of the primary chamber. Here the predicted optimum gasification efficiency stands at 95.49% with CO, CO2 and O2 concentrations as 1301 ppm, 6.5% and 13.5% respectively.

  4. Particle Distribution in a Fixed Bed Down Draft Wood Gasifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hindsgaul, Claus

    2005-01-01

    Char particle samples were collected from six distances above the grate in a fixed bed of a down draft biomass gasifier. Each sample was separated into twelve size fractions by screening through standard sieves in order to determine the local particle size distribution. The ash contents of each...

  5. Dimensioning of aerated submerged fixed bed biofilm reactors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The description of a biofilm mathematical model application for dimensioning an aerated fixed bed biofilm reactor (ASFBBR) for petrochemical wastewater polishing is presented. A simple one-dimensional model of biofilm, developed by P Harremöes, was chosen for this purpose. The model was calibrated and verified ...

  6. Gasification-based energy production systems for different size classes - Potential and state of R and D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurkela, E.

    1997-01-01

    (Conference paper). Different energy production systems based on biomass and waste gasification are being developed in Finland. In 1986-1995 the Finnish gasification research and development activities were almost fully devoted to the development of simplified IGCC power systems suitable to large-scale power production based on pressurized fluid-bed gasification, hot gas cleaning and a combined-cycle process. In the 1990's the atmospheric-pressure gasification activities aiming for small and medium size plants were restarted in Finland. Atmospheric-pressure fixed-bed gasification of wood and peat was commercialized for small-scale district heating applications already in the 1980's. Today research and development in this field aims at developing a combined heat and power plant based on the use of cleaned product gas in internal combustion engines. Another objective is to enlarge the feedstock basis of fixed-bed gasifiers, which at present are limited to the use of piece-shaped fuels such as sod peat and wood chips. Intensive research and development is at present in progress in atmospheric-pressure circulating fluidized-bed gasification of biomass residues and wastes. This gasification technology, earlier commercialized for lime-kiln applications, will lead to co-utilization of local residues and wastes in existing pulverized coal fired boilers. The first demonstration plant is under construction in Finland and there are several projects under planning or design phase in different parts of Europe. 48 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  7. STUDY OF HYDRODYNAMICS IN FIXED BED OF COMPOSITE GRANULAR MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelian Petrescu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at the experimental determination of pressure drop and friction factor at gas flow through fixed beds of granular silica gel, alumina and activated carbon, and establishment of an equation containing a modified friction factor Fm to calculate pressure drop. In order to calculate the modified friction factor, an equation was suggested.The experimental values for pressure drop and friction factor were determined using spherical grains of silica gel, cylindrical grains of alumina and silica gel, alumina and activated carbon impregnated with calcium chloride. By means of the suggested equation, the values of pressure drop in fixed bed were calculated and compared with the experimental values. A good agreement between the predicted and experimental data is noticed.

  8. Numerical modeling of straw combustion in a fixed bed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Haosheng; Jensen, Anker; Glarborg, Peter

    2005-01-01

    . The straw combustion processes include moisture evaporation, straw pyrolysis, gas combustion, and char combustion. The model provides detailed information of the structure of the ignition flame front. Simulated gas species concentrations at the bed surface, ignition flame front rate, and bed temperature......Straw is being used as main renewable energy source in grate boilers in Denmark. For optimizing operating conditions and design parameters, a one-dimensional unsteady heterogeneous mathematical model has been developed and experiments have been carried out for straw combustion in a fixed bed...... are in good agreement with measurements at different operating conditions such as primary air-flow rate, pre-heating of the primary air, oxygen concentration, moisture content in straw, and bulk density of the straw in the fixed bed. A parametric study indicates that the effective heat conductivity, straw...

  9. Anaerobic treatment of winery wastewater in fixed bed reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesh, Rangaraj; Rajinikanth, Rajagopal; Thanikal, Joseph V; Ramanujam, Ramamoorty Alwar; Torrijos, Michel

    2010-06-01

    The treatment of winery wastewater in three upflow anaerobic fixed-bed reactors (S9, S30 and S40) with low density floating supports of varying size and specific surface area was investigated. A maximum OLR of 42 g/l day with 80 +/- 0.5% removal efficiency was attained in S9, which had supports with the highest specific surface area. It was found that the efficiency of the reactors increased with decrease in size and increase in specific surface area of the support media. Total biomass accumulation in the reactors was also found to vary as a function of specific surface area and size of the support medium. The Stover-Kincannon kinetic model predicted satisfactorily the performance of the reactors. The maximum removal rate constant (U(max)) was 161.3, 99.0 and 77.5 g/l day and the saturation value constant (K(B)) was 162.0, 99.5 and 78.0 g/l day for S9, S30 and S40, respectively. Due to their higher biomass retention potential, the supports used in this study offer great promise as media in anaerobic fixed bed reactors. Anaerobic fixed-bed reactors with these supports can be applied as high-rate systems for the treatment of large volumes of wastewaters typically containing readily biodegradable organics, such as the winery wastewater.

  10. Carbon dioxide hydrate formation in a fixed-bed reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, S.; Lang, X. [South China Univ. of Technology, Guangzhou (China). Key Laboratory of Enhanced Heat Transfer and Energy Conservation; Wang, Y.; Liang, D. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou (China). Guangzhou Inst. of Energy Conversion and Guangzhou Center of Natural Gas Hydrate; Sun, X.; Jurcik, B. [Air Liquide Laboratories, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2008-07-01

    Gas hydrates are thermodynamically stable at high pressures and near the freezing temperature of pure water. Methane hydrates occur naturally in sediments in the deep oceans and permafrost regions and constitute an extensive hydrocarbon reservoir. Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) hydrates are of interest as a medium for marine sequestration of anthropogenic carbon dioxide. Sequestering CO{sub 2} as hydrate has potential advantages over most methods proposed for marine CO{sub 2} sequestration. Because this technique requires a shallower depth of injection when compared with other ocean sequestration methods, the costs of CO{sub 2} hydrate sequestration may be lower. Many studies have successfully used different continuous reactor designs to produce CO{sub 2} hydrates in both laboratory and field settings. This paper discussed a study that involved the design and construction of a fixed-bed reactor for simulation of hydrate formation system. Water, river sands and carbon dioxide were used to simulate the seep kind of hydrate formation. Carbon dioxide gas was distributed as small bubbles to enter from the bottom of the fixed-bed reactor. The paper discussed the experimental data and presented a diagram of the gas hydrate reactor system. The morphology as well as the reaction characters of CO{sub 2} hydrate was presented in detail. The results were discussed in terms of experimental phenomena and hydrate formation rate. A mathematical model was proposed for describing the process. 17 refs., 7 figs.

  11. Adsorption of aromatic amino acids in a fixed bed column

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cremasco M.A.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Phenylalanine (Phe and tyrosine (Tyr are two of the twenty amino acids in proteins; they are classified as aromatic amino acids, because both have a benzene ring in their structures. These amino acids are important in the synthesis of several biologically active amines, such as beta-endorphin, a neurotransmitter. Amino acids can be separated by ion-exchange chromatography. In this case, it is important that fixed-bed adsorber design adequately predict the breakthrough curve. This work presents a mathematical model for both fluid and porous phases. In the solution proposed for this model the liquid-phase concentration inside the particles is solved analytically and is related to the liquid-phase concentration in the bed using Duhamel's theorem. The solution for liquid-phase concentration in the bed is then solved numerically instead of analytically. The basic mass transfer parameters are from the literature. The results from the model are compared with those obtained experimentally using Phe and Tyr diluted in aqueous solutions in a fixed bed of PVP (poly-4-vinylpyridine resin.

  12. PERKEMBANGAN BIOFILM NITRIFIKASI DI FIXED BED REACTOR PADA SALINITAS TINGGI

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    Sudarno

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Development of nitrification biomass that is growing attached on carried material was examined by measuring its ammonium or nitrit oxidation rates. Porous ceramic rings (36 pieces were put into the fixed bed reactor (FBR . The fixed bed reactor that was operated continuously for more than 500 day was continued to be operated at a HRT of 1 day, a DO of above 5 mg L-1 and pH of 8. Ammonia concentration in the feeding was 50 mg NH4+-N L-1. At days 1, 5, 12, 20, 33 and 50, six porous ceramic rings were taken out and then ammonia and nitrite removal rate by biofilm in the ceramic rings was separately measured. The measurement of rates was done in small cylindrical glass reactors with initial concentration of ammonia and nitrite was 10 mg N L-1. Until 50 days of incubation AORs were always higher than NORs. Additionally, ammonia oxidizers attach or grow faster in the porous ceramic material than nitrite oxidizers.

  13. Optimization of annatto (Bixa orellana L. drying in fixed bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faria L.J.G.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The drying of annatto seeds (Bixa orellana L., red piave cultivate, was studied in a fixed bed dryer. The best conditions were estimated to minimize the loss of coloring and to obtain final moisture of the seeds in appropriate levels to its conservation and maintenance of quality. The quantification of the influence of entrance variables in the final contents of bixin and moisture seeds and the identification of the optimal point was performed through the techniques of factorial design, response surfaces methodology, canonical analysis and desirability function. It was verified that the final moisture of the seeds may be estimated by a second-order polynomial model and that the final content of bixin is only significantly influenced by the time of drying being described properly by a linear model, for the seeds used in this study.

  14. Bed retained products in swept fixed bed (SFB) coal hydropyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mastral, A.M.; Perez-Surio, M.J. [CSIC, Zaragosa (Spain). Inst. de Carboquimica

    1997-12-31

    The hydropyrolysis of a low rank coal in a swept fixed bed (SFB) reactor is carried out by fixing the hydrogen pressure (40 kg/cm{sup 2}), the hydrogen flow (2 l/min) and the residence time (10 min) at increasing temperatures (400 C, 500 C and 600 C) and coal bed heights (h, 1.5h, 2h, 2.5h and 3h). It is shown that the percentages of tars and char directly depend on the coal bed height and that there is not only a quantitative dependence, but also the height of the coal bed is very important and plays a relevant role on the nature of the conversion products. (orig.)

  15. Biomass utilization for the process of gasification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Spěvák

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomass as one of the renewable resources of energy has bright future in utilization, especially in obtaining various forms of energy (heat, electrical energy, gas.According to the conception of energy policy of the Czech Republic and according to the fulfillment of the indicators of renewable resources using until the year 2010, the research of thermophysical characteristics of biofuels was realized.There were acquired considerable amount of results by combustion and gasification process on the basis of three-year project „Biomass energy parameters.” By means of combustion and gasification tests of various (biomass fuels were acquired the results which were not published so far.Acquired results are published in the fuel sheets, which are divided into four parts. They consist of information on fuel composition, ash composition, testing conditions and measurand overview. Measurements were realized for the process of combustion, fluidized-bed gasification and fixed-bed gasification. Following fuels were tested: Acacia, Pine, Birch, Beech, Spruce, Poplar, Willow, Rape, Amaranth, Corn, Flax, Wheat, Safflower, Mallow, and Sorrel.

  16. Economics of coal conversion processing. Advances in coal gasification: support research. Advances in coal gasification: process development and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    The fall meeting of the American Chemical Society, Division of Fuel Chemistry, was held at Miami Beach, Florida, September 10-15, 1978. Papers involved the economics of coal conversion processing and advances in coal gasification, especially support research and process development and analysis. Fourteen papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA; three papers had been entered previously from other sources. (LTN)

  17. Sustainability and the Fixed Bed Nuclear Reactor (FBNR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhang Sefidvash

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability as a multifaceted and holistic concept is analyzed. Sustainability involves human relationship with elements such as natural environment, economy, power, governance, education and technology with the ultimate purpose of carrying forward an ever-advancing civilization. The Fixed Bed Nuclear Reactor (FBNR is an innovative, small, simple in design, inherently safe, non-proliferating, and environmentally friendly concept that its deployment can generate energy in a sustainable manner contributing to the prosperity of humanity. The development of FBNR will provide electricity as well as desalinated water through a simple but advanced technology for the developing, as well as developed countries. FBNR is environmentally friendly due to its inherent safety and the convenience of using its spent fuel as the source of radiation for irradiation purposes in agriculture, industry, and medicine. Politically, if a ping pong game brought peace between China and USA, a program of development of FBNR supported by the peace loving international community can become a more mature means to bring peace among certain apparently hostile nations who crave sustainable energy, desalinated water and simple advanced technology.

  18. The influence of bamboo-packed configuration to mixing characteristics in a fixed-bed reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detalina, M.; Pradanawati, S. A.; Widyarani; Mamat; Nilawati, D.; Sintawardani, N.

    2018-03-01

    Fixed-bed reactors are commonly used as bioreactors for various applications, including chemicals production and organic wastewater treatment. Bioreactors are fixed with packing materials for attaching microorganisms. Packing materials should have high surface area and enable sufficient fluid flow in the reactor. Natural materials e.g. rocks and fibres are often used as packing materials. Commercially, packing materials are also produced from polymer with the advantage of customizable shapes. The objective of this research was to study the mixing pattern in a packed-bed reactor using bamboo as packing material. Bamboo was selected for its pipe-like and porous form, as well as its abundant availability in Indonesia. The cut bamboo sticks were installed in a reactor in different configurations namely vertical, horizontal, and random. Textile dye was used as a tracer. Our results show that the vertical configuration gave the least liquid resistant flow. Yet, the random configuration was the best configuration during mixing process.

  19. Catalytic and noncatalytic gasification of pyrolysis oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rossum, G.; Kersten, Sascha R.A.; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria

    2007-01-01

    Gasification of pyrolysis oil was studied in a fluidized bed over a wide temperature range (523−914 °C) with and without the use of nickel-based catalysts. Noncatalytically, a typical fuel gas was produced. Both a special designed fluid bed catalyst and a crushed commercial fixed bed catalyst showed

  20. Integrated bioenergy conversion concepts for small scale gasification power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldas, Rizaldo Elauria

    Thermal and biological gasification are promising technologies for addressing the emerging concerns in biomass-based renewable energy, environmental protection and waste management. However, technical barriers such as feedstock quality limitations, tars, and high NOx emissions from biogas fueled engines impact their full utilization and make them suffer at the small scale from the need to purify the raw gas for most downstream processes, including power generation other than direct boiler use. The two separate gasification technologies may be integrated to better address the issues of power generation and waste management and to complement some of each technologies' limitations. This research project investigated the technical feasibility of an integrated thermal and biological gasification concept for parameters critical to appropriately matching an anaerobic digester with a biomass gasifier. Specific studies investigated the thermal gasification characteristics of selected feedstocks in four fixed-bed gasification experiments: (1) updraft gasification of rice hull, (2) indirect-heated gasification of rice hull, (3) updraft gasification of Athel wood, and (4) downdraft gasification of Athel and Eucalyptus woods. The effects of tars and other components of producer gas on anaerobic digestion at mesophilic temperature of 36°C and the biodegradation potentials and soil carbon mineralization of gasification tars during short-term aerobic incubation at 27.5°C were also examined. Experiments brought out the ranges in performance and quality and quantity of gasification products under different operating conditions and showed that within the conditions considered in the study, these gasification products did not adversely impact the overall digester performance. Short-term aerobic incubation demonstrated variable impacts on carbon mineralization depending on tar and soil conditions. Although tars exhibited low biodegradation indices, degradation may be improved if the

  1. Arsenic removal in a sulfidogenic fixed-bed column bioreactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altun, Muslum, E-mail: muslumaltun@hotmail.com [Hacettepe University, Department of Chemistry, Beytepe, Ankara (Turkey); Sahinkaya, Erkan [Istanbul Medeniyet University, Bioengineering Department, Goztepe, Istanbul (Turkey); Durukan, Ilknur; Bektas, Sema [Hacettepe University, Department of Chemistry, Beytepe, Ankara (Turkey); Komnitsas, Kostas [Technical University of Crete, Department of Mineral Resources Engineering, Chania (Greece)

    2014-03-01

    Highlights: • Sulfidogenic treatment of As-containing AMD was investigated. • High rate simultaneous removal of As and Fe was achieved. • As was removed without adding alkalinity or adjusting pH. • As and Fe removal mechanisms were elucidated. - Abstract: In the present study, the bioremoval of arsenic from synthetic acidic wastewater containing arsenate (As{sup 5+}) (0.5–20 mg/L), ferrous iron (Fe{sup 2+}) (100–200 mg/L) and sulfate (2000 mg/L) was investigated in an ethanol fed (780–1560 mg/L chemical oxygen demand (COD)) anaerobic up-flow fixed bed column bioreactor at constant hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 9.6 h. Arsenic removal efficiency was low and averaged 8% in case iron was not supplemented to the synthetic wastewater. Neutral to slightly alkaline pH and high sulfide concentration in the bioreactor retarded the precipitation of arsenic. Addition of 100 mg/L Fe{sup 2+} increased arsenic removal efficiency to 63%. Further increase of influent Fe{sup 2+} concentration to 200 mg/L improved arsenic removal to 85%. Decrease of influent COD concentration to its half, 780 mg/L, resulted in further increase of As removal to 96% when Fe{sup 2+} and As{sup 5+} concentrations remained at 200 mg/L and 20 mg/L, respectively. As a result of the sulfidogenic activity in the bioreactor the effluent pH and alkalinity concentration averaged 7.4 ± 0.2 and 1736 ± 239 mg CaCO{sub 3}/L respectively. Electron flow from ethanol to sulfate averaged 72 ± 10%. X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analyses were carried out to identify the nature of the precipitate generated by sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) activity. Precipitation of arsenic in the form of As{sub 2}S{sub 3} (orpiment) and co-precipitation with ferrous sulfide (FeS), pyrite (FeS{sub 2}) or arsenopyrite (FeAsS) were the main arsenic removal mechanisms.

  2. Status of health and environmental research relative to coal gasification 1976 to the present

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilzbach, K.E.; Reilly, C.A. Jr. (comps.)

    1982-10-01

    Health and environmental research relative to coal gasification conducted by Argonne National Laboratory, the Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory under DOE sponsorship is summarized. The studies have focused on the chemical and toxicological characterization of materials from a range of process streams in five bench-scale, pilot-plant and industrial gasifiers. They also address ecological effects, industrial hygiene, environmental control technology performance, and risk assessment. Following an overview of coal gasification technology and related environmental concerns, integrated summaries of the studies and results in each area are presented and conclusions are drawn. Needed health and environmental research relative to coal gasification is identified.

  3. Complex nonlinear behaviour of a fixed bed reactor with reactant recycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Recke, Bodil; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    1999-01-01

    The fixed bed reactor with reactant recycle investigated in this paper can exhibit periodic solutions. These solutions bifurcate from the steady state in a Hopf bifurcation. The Hopf bifurcation encountered at the lowest value of the inlet concentration turns the steady state unstable and marks......,that the dynamic behaviour of a fixed bed reactor with reactant recycle is much more complex than previously reported....

  4. Applied research and evaluation of process concepts for liquefaction and gasification of western coals. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, W. H.

    1980-09-01

    Fourteen sections, including five subsections, of the final report covering work done between June 1, 1975 to July 31, 1980 on research programs in coal gasification and liquefaction have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  5. Research into Biomass and Waste Gasification in Atmospheric Fluidized Bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skala, Zdenek; Ochrana, Ladislav; Lisy, Martin; Balas, Marek; Kohout, Premysl; Skoblja, Sergej

    2007-07-01

    Considerable attention is paid in the Czech Republic to renewable energy sources. The largest potential, out of them all, have biomass and waste. The aim therefore is to use them in CHP in smaller units (up to 5MWel). These are the subject of the research summarized in our article. The paper presents results of experimental research into gasification in a 100 kW AFB gasifier situated in Energy Institute, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Brno University of Technology, and fitted with gas cleaning equipment. Within the research, study was carried out into gas cleaning taking primary measures in the fluidized bed and using hot filter, metal-based catalytic filter, and wet scrubber. Descriptions and diagrams are given of the gasifier and new ways of cleaning. Results include: Impact of various fuels (farming and forest wastes and fast-growing woods and culm plants) on fuel gas quality. Individual kinds of biomass have very different thermal and physical properties; Efficiency of a variety of cleaning methods on content of dust and tars and comparison of these methods; and, Impact of gasifier process parameters on resultant gas quality. (auth)

  6. Strategy for research, development and demonstration of thermal biomass gasification in Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Morten Tony

    2011-12-15

    Technology for thermal gasification of biomass is one of the key elements to make the vision of an energy system without fossil fuels a reality. Gasification technology can enhance the flexibility needed to maintain a future energy system with a large share of wind power. Furthermore, gasification has advantages in terms of ash recycling and utilisation of vast but challenging biomass residues. Danish companies are globally well advanced with this technology and the market for gasification technology is great in both Denmark and abroad. There is a clear need for targeted technology RD and D in order to reach the last stretch to a commercial breakthrough. The project ''Strategy for research, development and demonstration of thermal biomass gasification in Denmark'' is the Danish industrys contribution to the development of biomass gasification and goes into detail with the RD and D needs. The project has been conducted by FORCE Technology for DI Bioenergy with funding from EUDP, Energinet.dk, DI Bioenergy and FORCE Technology and five stakeholder companies. (LN)

  7. Catalytic Gasification of Lignocellulosic Biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chodimella, Pramod; Seshan, Kulathuiyer; Schlaf, Marcel; Zhang, Z. Conrad

    2015-01-01

    Gasification of lignocellulosic biomass has attracted substantial current research interest. Various possible routes to convert biomass to fuels have been explored. In the present chapter, an overview of the gasification processes and their possible products are discussed. Gasification of solid

  8. Chemical-looping combustion in a reverse-flow fixed bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Lu; Bollas, George M.

    2016-01-01

    A reverse-flow fixed bed reactor concept for CLC (chemical-looping combustion) is explored. The limitations of conventional fixed bed reactors, as applied to CLC, are overcome by reversing the gas flow direction periodically to enhance the mixing characteristics of the bed, thus improving oxygen carrier utilization and energy efficiency with respect to power generation. The reverse-flow reactor is simulated by a dusty-gas model and compared with an equivalent fixed bed reactor without flow reversal. Dynamic optimization is used to calculate conditions at which each reactor operates at maximum energy efficiency. Several cases studies illustrate the benefits of reverse-flow operation for the CLC with CuO and NiO oxygen carriers and methane and syngas fuels. The results show that periodic reversal of the flow during reduction improves the contact between the fuel and unconverted oxygen carrier, enabling the system to suppress unwanted catalytic reactions and axial temperature and conversion gradients. The operational scheme presented reduces the fluctuations of temperature during oxidation and increases the high-temperature heat produced by the process. CLC in a reverse-flow reactor has the potential to achieve higher energy efficiency than conventional fixed bed CLC reactors, when integrated with a downstream gas turbine of a combined cycle power plant. - Highlights: • Reverse-flow fixed bed CLC reactors for combined cycle power systems. • Dynamic optimization tunes operation of batch and transient CLC systems. • The reverse-flow CLC system provides stable turbine-ready gas stream. • Reverse-flow CLC fixed bed reactor has superior CO 2 capture and thermal efficiency.

  9. Formation of N{sub 2} during the fixed-bed pyrolysis of coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Zhiheng; Ohtsuka, Yasuo [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan); Furimsky, E. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    1995-12-31

    Research on the fate of the nitrogen in coal during pyrolysis has attracted increased attention, since it is related with the NO{sub x} and N{sub 2}O emissions during subsequent combustion. It has been reported that coal nitrogen is initially released as tar, which is then converted to HCN and NH{sub 3} through secondary decomposition reactions. However, little attention to N{sub 2} has been paid so far. We have recently found that N{sub 2} is the dominant product in slow heating rate pyrolysis of a subbituminous coal, and that the finely dispersed iron catalyst promotes drastically the formation of N{sub 2} from a brown coal. If coal nitrogen can be removed efficiently as N{sub 2} during pyrolysis, this method would contribute to the reduction of the NO{sub x} and N{sub 2}O emissions, since such pollutants originate mostly from coal nitrogen. Therefore the present study aims at making clear the influence of coal type, pyrolysis conditions, demineralization, and iron catalyst on the formation of N{sub 2} during the fix-bed pyrolysis of several coals with different ranks.

  10. Simultaneous nitrification-denitrification and phosphorus removal in a fixed bed sequencing batch reactor (FBSBR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahimi, Yousef; Torabian, Ali; Mehrdadi, Naser; Shahmoradi, Behzad

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Sludge production in FSBR reactor is 20-30% less than SBR reactor. → FSBR reactor showed more nutrient removal rate than SBR reactor. → FSBR reactor showed less VSS/TSS ratio than SBR reactor. - Abstract: Biological nutrient removal (BNR) was investigated in a fixed bed sequencing batch reactor (FBSBR) in which instead of activated sludge polypropylene carriers were used. The FBSBR performance on carbon and nitrogen removal at different loading rates was significant. COD, TN, and phosphorus removal efficiencies were at range of 90-96%, 60-88%, and 76-90% respectively while these values at SBR reactor were 85-95%, 38-60%, and 20-79% respectively. These results show that the simultaneous nitrification-denitrification (SND) is significantly higher than conventional SBR reactor. The higher total phosphorus (TP) removal in FBSBR correlates with oxygen gradient in biofilm layer. The influence of fixed media on biomass production yield was assessed by monitoring the MLSS concentrations versus COD removal for both reactors and results revealed that the sludge production yield (Y obs ) is significantly less in FBSBR reactors compared with SBR reactor. The FBSBR was more efficient in SND and phosphorus removal. Moreover, it produced less excess sludge but higher in nutrient content and stabilization ratio (less VSS/TSS ratio).

  11. Simultaneous nitrification-denitrification and phosphorus removal in a fixed bed sequencing batch reactor (FBSBR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahimi, Yousef, E-mail: you.rahimi@gmail.com [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Graduate Faculty of Environment, University of Tehran, No. 25 Qods St., Enghelab Ave, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Torabian, Ali, E-mail: atorabi@ut.ac.ir [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Graduate Faculty of Environment, University of Tehran, No. 25 Qods St., Enghelab Ave, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mehrdadi, Naser, E-mail: mehrdadi@ut.ac.ir [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Graduate Faculty of Environment, University of Tehran, No. 25 Qods St., Enghelab Ave, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shahmoradi, Behzad, E-mail: bshahmorady@gmail.com [Department of Environmental Science, University of Mysore, MGM-06 Mysore (India)

    2011-01-30

    Research highlights: {yields} Sludge production in FSBR reactor is 20-30% less than SBR reactor. {yields} FSBR reactor showed more nutrient removal rate than SBR reactor. {yields} FSBR reactor showed less VSS/TSS ratio than SBR reactor. - Abstract: Biological nutrient removal (BNR) was investigated in a fixed bed sequencing batch reactor (FBSBR) in which instead of activated sludge polypropylene carriers were used. The FBSBR performance on carbon and nitrogen removal at different loading rates was significant. COD, TN, and phosphorus removal efficiencies were at range of 90-96%, 60-88%, and 76-90% respectively while these values at SBR reactor were 85-95%, 38-60%, and 20-79% respectively. These results show that the simultaneous nitrification-denitrification (SND) is significantly higher than conventional SBR reactor. The higher total phosphorus (TP) removal in FBSBR correlates with oxygen gradient in biofilm layer. The influence of fixed media on biomass production yield was assessed by monitoring the MLSS concentrations versus COD removal for both reactors and results revealed that the sludge production yield (Y{sub obs}) is significantly less in FBSBR reactors compared with SBR reactor. The FBSBR was more efficient in SND and phosphorus removal. Moreover, it produced less excess sludge but higher in nutrient content and stabilization ratio (less VSS/TSS ratio).

  12. Exchange between the stagnant and flowing zone in gas-flowing solids-fixed bed contactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEKSANDAR P. DUDUKOVIC

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available In countercurrent gas – flowing solids – fixed bed contactors, a fraction of the flowing solids is in motion (dynamic holdup, while the other fraction is resting on the fixed bed elements. In this study it was experimentally proved that the stagnant zone should not be considered as a dead part of the column, but that there is a dynamic exchange between these two portions of flowing solids particles. Combining a mathematical model with tracer experiments, the rate of exchange was determined and it was shown that only a small part (ca. 20 % of the stagnant region should be considered as a dead one.

  13. Design and optimization of a fixed - bed reactor for hydrogen production via bio-ethanol steam reforming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maria A Goula; Olga A Bereketidou; Costas G Economopoulos; Olga A Bereketidou; Costas G Economopoulos

    2006-01-01

    Global climate changes caused by CO 2 emissions are currently debated around the world. Renewable sources of energy are being sought as alternatives to replace fossil fuels. Hydrogen is theoretically the best fuel, environmentally friendly and its combustion reaction leads only to the production of water. Bio-ethanol has been proven to be effective in the production of hydrogen via steam reforming reaction. In this research the steam reforming reaction of bio-ethanol is studied at low temperatures over 15,3 % Ni/La 2 O 3 catalyst. The reaction and kinetic analysis takes place in a fixed - bed reactor in 130 - 250 C in atmospheric pressure. This study lays emphasis on the design and the optimization of the fixed - bed reactor, including the total volume of the reactor, the number and length of the tubes and the degree of ethanol conversion. Finally, it is represented an approach of the total cost of the reactor, according to the design characteristics and the materials that can be used for its construction. (authors)

  14. Study of the Apparent Kinetics of Biomass Gasification Using High-Temperature Steam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alevanau, Aliaksandr

    2010-10-15

    Among the latest achievements in gasification technology, one may list the development of a method to preheat gasification agents using switched ceramic honey combs. The best output from this technology is achieved with use of water steam as a gasification agent, which is heated up to 1600 deg C. The application of these temperatures with steam as a gasification agent provides a cleaner syngas (no nitrogen from air, cracked tars) and the ash melts into easily utilised glass-like sludge. High hydrogen content in output gas is also favourable for end-user applications.Among the other advantages of this technology is the presumable application of fixed-bed-type reactors fed by separately produced and preheated steam. This construction assumes relatively high steam flow rates to deliver the heat needed for endothermic reactions involving biomass. The biomass is to be heated uniformly and evenly in the volume of the whole reactor, providing easier and simpler control and operation in comparison to other types of reactors. To provide potential constructors and exploiters of these reactors with the kinetic data needed for the calculations of vital parameters for both reactor construction and exploitation, basic experimental research of high-temperature steam gasification of four types of industrially produced biomass has been conducted.Kinetic data have been obtained for straw and wood pellets, wood-chip charcoal and compressed charcoal of mixed origin

  15. Staged catalytic gasification/steam reforming of pyrolysis oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rossum, G.; Kersten, Sascha R.A.; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria

    2009-01-01

    Gasification/steam reforming of pyrolysis oil was studied in a staged reactor concept, which consisted of an inert fluidized bed and a catalytic fixed bed. Methane and C2−C3 free syngas is produced at a single temperature around 800 °C at atmospheric pressure. By lowering the temperature of the

  16. Fixed-bed column adsorption of methyl blue using carbon derived ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Axle Wood Carbon (AWC) was used to study the removal of Methyl Blue (MB) from its aqueous solution in a fixed-bed column adsorption system. The adsorbent (AWC) was characterized using SEM and pHPZC. SEM revealed the surface morphology and from the pHPZC determination, it was found that at pH of 8.21 the ...

  17. STUDY OF GAS SEPARATION PROCESS BY DYNAMIC ADSORPTION IN FIXED BED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Solomon

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study of mass transfer at gas separation by dynamic adsorption in fixed bed of impregnated silica gel is presented in this work. By means of a mathematical model based on constants and coefficient easy to evaluate, the distributions of adsorbate concentration in gas and solid phases were determined as a function of time and throughout the height of the fixed bed, under isothermal conditions.With this aim, water vapors from air were adsorbed in a fixed bed of impregnated silica gel. The values of the volumetric mass transfer coefficient, Kv, were determined experimentally at several values of air superficial velocity, an air relative humidity of 69�20at 38 °C. The influence of the gas flow velocity and initial water concentration in adsorbent on the distribution of water concentration in both phases was established as a function of time and throughout the height of the fixed bed. The results obtained allow one to determination of the local adsorption rate.

  18. Performance of a sisal fibre fixed-bed anaerobic digester for biogas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A single stage anaerobic digester employing a sisal fibre waste fixed bed was studied for biogas production from sisal pulp waste. The fibre was colonized by microorganisms involved in biogas production. The sisal pulp waste to be digested was fed from the top and was sprinkled intermittently with recirculating leachate ...

  19. Adsorption of ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin from aqueous solution onto granular activated carbon in fixed bed column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darweesh, Teeba M; Ahmed, Muthanna J

    2017-04-01

    Carbonization of Phoenix dactylifera L stones followed by microwave K 2 CO 3 activation was adopted for preparation of granular activated carbon (KAC). High yield and favorable pore characteristics in terms of surface area and pore volume were reported for KAC as follows: 44%, 852m 2 /g, and 0.671cm 3 /g, respectively. The application of KAC as adsorbent for attraction of ciprofloxacin (CIP) and norfloxacin (NOR) was investigated using fixed bed systems. The effect of flow rate (0.5-1.5ml/min), bed height (15-25cm), and initial drug concentration (75-225mg/l) on the behavior of breakthrough curves was explained. The fixed bed analysis showed the better correlation of breakthrough data by both Thomas and Yoon-Nelson models. Inlet drug concentration was of greatest effect on breakthrough data compared to other fixed bed variables. Experimental and calculated breakthrough data were obtained for CIP and NOR adsorption on KAC, thus being important for design of fixed bed column. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Thermal Analysis of Fluidized Bed and Fixed Bed Latent Heat Thermal Storage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beemkumar, N.; Karthikeyan, A.; Shiva Keshava Reddy, Kota; Rajesh, Kona; Anderson, A.

    2017-05-01

    Thermal energy storage technology is essential because its stores available energy at low cost. Objective of the work is to store the thermal energy in a most efficient method. This work is deal with thermal analysis of fluidized bed and fixed bed latent heat thermal storage (LHTS) system with different encapsulation materials (aluminium, brass and copper). D-Mannitol has been used as phase change material (PCM). Encapsulation material which is in orbicular shape with 4 inch diameter and 2 mm thickness orbicular shaped product is used. Therminol-66 is used as a heat transfer fluid (HTF). Arrangement of encapsulation material is done in two ways namely fluidized bed and fixed bed thermal storage system. Comparison was made between the performance of fixed bed and fluidized bed with different encapsulation material. It is observed that from the economical point of view aluminium in fluidized bed LHTS System has highest efficiency than copper and brass. The thermal energy storage system can be analyzed with fixed bed by varying mass flow rate of oil paves a way to find effective heat energy transfer.

  1. Gasification from waste organic materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Ramírez Rubio

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the fixed bed biomass gasifier operation designed and built by the Clean Development Mechanisms and Energy Management research group, the gasifier equipment and the measurement system. The experiment involved agro-industrial residues (biomass such wood chips, coconut shell, cocoa and coffee husk; some temperatures along the bed, its pressure, inlet air flow and the percentage of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide in the syngas composition were measured. The test results showed that a fuel gas was being obtained which was suitable for use with an internal combustion engine for generating electricity because more carbon monoxide than carbon dioxide was being obtained during several parts of the operation. The gasification experimentation revealed that a gasifier having these characteristics should be ideal for bringing energy to areas where it is hard to obtain it (such as many rural sites in Latin-America or other places where large amounts of agro-industrial wastes are produced. Temperatures of around 1,000°C were obtained in the combustion zone, generating a syngas having more than 20% carbon monoxide in its composition, thereby leading to obtaining combustible gas.

  2. High Temperature Air/Steam Gasification of Biomass Wastes - Stage 1. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blasiak, Wlodzimierz; Szewczyk, Dariusz; Lucas, Carlos; Rafidi, Nabil; Abeyweera Ruchira; Jansson, Anna; Bjoerkman, Eva [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    2003-05-01

    In Jan 2002 the Division of Energy and Furnace Technology started the project High Temperature Air an Steam Gasification (HTAG) of biomass wastes, following the approval made by Swedish Energy Agency. The research proved successful; with the fixed bed updraft gasifier coupled to the highly regenerative preheater equipment able to produce a fuel gas not only from wood pellets but also from wood chips, bark and charcoal with considerably reduced amount of tar. This report provides information on solid biomass conversion into fuel gas as a result of air and steam gasification process performed in a fixed bed updraft gasifier. The first chapter of the report presents the overall objectives and the specific objectives of the work. Chapter 2 summarizes state-of-the-art on the gasification field stating some technical differences between low and high temperature gasification processes. Description and schemes of the experimental test rig are provided in Chapter 3. The equipment used to perform measurements of different sort and that installed in the course of the work is described in Chapter 4. Chapter 5 describes the methodology of experiments conducted whose results were processed and evaluated with help of the scheme of equations presented in Chapter 6, called raw data evaluation. Results of relevant experiments are presented and discussed in Chapter 7. A summary discussion of the tar analysis is presented in Chapter 8. Chapter 9 summarizes the findings of the research work conducted and identifies future efforts to ensure the development of next stage. Final chapter provides a summary of conclusions and recommendations of the work. References are provided at the end of the report. Aimed to assist the understanding of the work done, tables and graphs of experiments conducted, irrespective to their quality, are presented in appendices.

  3. CO-FIRING COAL: FEEDLOT AND LITTER BIOMASS (CFB AND CLB) FUELS IN PULVERIZED FUEL AND FIXED BED BURNERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalyan Annamalai; John Sweeten; Saqib Mukhtar; Ben Thein; Gengsheng Wei; Soyuz Priyadarsan; Senthil Arumugam; Kevin Heflin

    2003-08-28

    Intensive animal feeding operations create large amounts of animal waste that must be safely disposed of in order to avoid environmental degradation. Cattle feedlots and chicken houses are two examples. In feedlots, cattle are confined to small pens and fed a high calorie grain-diet diet in preparation for slaughter. In chicken houses, thousands of chickens are kept in close proximity. In both of these operations, millions of tons of manure are produced every year. The manure could be used as a fuel by mixing it with coal in a 90:10 blend and firing it in an existing coal suspension fired combustion systems. This technique is known as co-firing, and the high temperatures produced by the coal will allow the biomass to be completely combusted. Reburn is a process where a small percentage of fuel called reburn fuel is injected above the NO{sub x} producing, conventional coal fired burners in order to reduce NO{sub x}. The manure could also be used as reburn fuel for reducing NO{sub x} in coal fired plants. An alternate approach of using animal waste is to adopt the gasification process using a fixed bed gasifier and then use the gases for firing in gas turbine combustors. In this report, the cattle manure is referred to as feedlot biomass (FB) and chicken manure as litter biomass (LB). The report generates data on FB and LB fuel characteristics. Co-firing, reburn, and gasification tests of coal, FB, LB, coal: FB blends, and coal: LB blends and modeling on cofiring, reburn systems and economics of use of FB and LB have also been conducted. The biomass fuels are higher in ash, lower in heat content, higher in moisture, and higher in nitrogen and sulfur (which can cause air pollution) compared to coal. Small-scale cofiring experiments revealed that the biomass blends can be successfully fired, and NO{sub x} emissions will be similar to or lower than pollutant emissions when firing coal. Further experiments showed that biomass is twice or more effective than coal when

  4. Fast pyrolysis of hardwood residues using a fixed bed drop-type pyrolyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazlan, Mohammad Amir Firdaus; Uemura, Yoshimitsu; Osman, Noridah B.; Yusup, Suzana

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Pyrolysis of rubber and Meranti wood was conducted by using a drop-type pyrolyzer. • As temperature increase, char yield decrease, but bio-oil and gas yield increase. • Maximum pyrolysis temperature for pyrolysis of RWS is 550 °C and 600 °C for MWS. • Calorific value of bio-char is very high and potential to be used as a solid fuel. • CO and CO 2 are the major gas components in the non-condensable gases by-product. - Abstract: In this research, rubber wood sawdust (RWS) and Meranti wood sawdust (MWS) were pyrolyzed in a fixed bed drop-type pyrolyzer under an inert condition. The first part of the study is to determine the influence of pyrolysis temperature (450, 500, 550, 600, 650 °C) on the yield of pyrolysis products. Pyrolysis of these different residues generate an almost identical maximum amount of bio-oil close to 33 wt.%, but at different maximum temperature (550 °C for pyrolysis of RWS and 600 °C for pyrolysis of MWS). To evaluate the effect of biomass type on the composition and characterization of pyrolysis products, the second part involves the analyses of pyrolysis products from the maximum pyrolysis temperature. Acetic acid, tetrahydrofuran, and benzene were the main bio-oil components. The bio-oil contained high percentage of oxygen and hydrogen, indicating high water content in the bio-oil. High amount of water in bio-oil significantly reduced its calorific value. Under extensive heating, particle size of the bio-char from SEM images decreased due to breakage and shrinkage mechanisms. The major components of non-condensable gases were CO and CO 2

  5. Drying kinetics characteristic of Indonesia lignite coal (IBC) using lab scale fixed bed reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, TaeJin; Jeon, DoMan; Namkung, Hueon; Jang, DongHa; Jeon, Youngshin; Kim, Hyungtaek [Ajou Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of). Div. of Energy Systems Research

    2013-07-01

    Recent instability of energy market arouse a lot of interest about coal which has a tremendous amount of proven coal reserves worldwide. South Korea hold the second rank by importing 80 million tons of coal in 2007 following by Japan. Among various coals, there is disused coal. It's called Low Rank Coal (LRC). Drying process has to be preceded before being utilized as power plant. In this study, drying kinetics of LRC is induced by using a fixed bed reactor. The drying kinetics was deduced from particle size, the inlet gas temperature, the drying time, the gas velocity, and the L/D ratio. The consideration on Reynold's number was taken for correction of gas velocity, particle size, and the L/D ratio was taken for correction packing height of coal. It can be found that active drying of free water and phase boundary reaction is suitable mechanism through the fixed bed reactor experiments.

  6. Parameters estimation for amino acids adsorption in a fixed bed by moment analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Cremasco

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Equilibrium constant and mass transfer parameters are needed for the study of amino acid separation in any process involving adsorption in fixed beds. The adsorption constants, effective diffusion coefficients, and axial dispersion coefficients for two amino acids, L-phenylalanine (Phe and L-tyrosine (Tyr, are determined from a series of pulse tests in a fixed bed packed with PVP (poly-4-vinylpyridine resin. Total bed voidage at different flow rates is estimated from NaCl pulse test data. The effective pore diffusivities of Phe, Tyr, and NaCl are estimated from moment analysis of pulse data. A detailed rate model is then solved numerically and adsorption constants, effective diffusion coefficients, axial dispersion coefficients are determined by moment analysis and compared with the pulse data. The advantage of this method is that the effective intraparticle diffusivities can be determined without the influence of extracolumn dispersion or intracolumn axial dispersion effects.

  7. Mathematical Modeling and Simulation of the Dehydrogenation of Ethyl Benzene to Form Styrene Using Steady-State Fixed Bed Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaidon M. Shakoor

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this research, two models are developed to simulate the steady state fixed bed reactor used for styrene production by ethylbenzene dehydrogenation. The first is one-dimensional model, considered axial gradient only while the second is two-dimensional model considered axial and radial gradients for same variables.The developed mathematical models consisted of nonlinear simultaneous equations in multiple dependent variables. A complete description of the reactor bed involves partial, ordinary differential and algebraic equations (PDEs, ODEs and AEs describing the temperatures, concentrations and pressure drop across the reactor was given. The model equations are solved by finite differences method. The reactor models were coded with Mat lab 6.5 program and various numerical techniques were used to obtain the desired solution.The simulation data for both models were validated with industrial reactor results with a very good concordance.

  8. Study of Pressure Drop in Fixed Bed Reactor Using a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soroush Ahmadi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Pressure drops of water and critical steam flowing in the fixed bed of mono-sized spheres are studied using SolidWorks 2017 Flow Simulation CFD code. The effects of the type of bed formation, flow velocity, density, and pebble size are evaluated. A new equation is concluded from the data, which is able to estimate pressure drop of a packed bed for high particle Reynolds number, from 15,000 to 1,000,000.

  9. Computer-aided modeling framework – a generic modeling template for catalytic membrane fixed bed reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedorova, Marina; Sin, Gürkan; Gani, Rafiqul

    2013-01-01

    and users to generate and test models systematically, efficiently and reliably. In this way, development of products and processes can be faster, cheaper and very efficient. In this contribution, as part of the framework a generic modeling template for the systematic derivation of problem specific catalytic...... membrane fixed bed models is developed. The application of the modeling template is highlighted with a case study related to the modeling of a catalytic membrane reactor coupling dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene with hydrogenation of nitrobenzene....

  10. Fixed bed adsorption of hexavalent chromium onto natural zeolite from air stream

    OpenAIRE

    F. Golbabaei; E. Rahmanzadeh; G. R. Moussavi; A. Faghihi zarandi; M. R. Baneshi

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Chromium (VI) is a known human carcinogenic agent which is used in numerous industrial processes such as electroplating, welding, textile, cement and steel fabrication. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of natural zeolite on the fixed bed adsorption of Cr (VI) from air stream. . Material and Method: In this experimental study, chromium mists were generated by a nebulizer (3A model, Italy). Performance of natural zeolite in the Cr (VI) adsorption and ...

  11. Homogeneity of Continuum Model of an Unsteady State Fixed Bed Reactor for Lean CH4 Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subagjo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the homogeneity of the continuum model of a fixed bed reactor operated in steady state and unsteady state systems for lean CH4 oxidation is investigated. The steady-state fixed bed reactor system was operated under once-through direction, while the unsteady-state fixed bed reactor system was operated under flow reversal. The governing equations consisting of mass and energy balances were solved using the FlexPDE software package, version 6. The model selection is indispensable for an effective calculation since the simulation of a reverse flow reactor is time-consuming. The homogeneous and heterogeneous models for steady state operation gave similar conversions and temperature profiles, with a deviation of 0.12 to 0.14%. For reverse flow operation, the deviations of the continuum models of thepseudo-homogeneous and heterogeneous models were in the range of 25-65%. It is suggested that pseudo-homogeneous models can be applied to steady state systems, whereas heterogeneous models have to be applied to unsteady state systems.

  12. Characteristic Studies of Micron Zinc Particle Hydrolysis in a Fixed Bed Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lv Ming

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Zinc fuel is considered as a kind of promising energy sources for marine propeller. As one of the key steps for zinc marine energy power system, zinc hydrolysis process had been studied experimentally in a fixed bed reactor. In this study, we focus on the characteristics of micron zinc particle hydrolysis. The experimental results suggested that the steam inner diffusion is the controlling step of accumulative zinc particles hydrolysis reaction at a relative lower temperature and a relative higher water partial pressure. In other conditions, the chemical reaction kinetics was the controlling step. And two kinds of chemical reaction kinetics appeared in experiments: the surface reaction and the gas-gas reaction. The latter one occurs usually for larger zinc particles and high reaction temperature. Temperature seems to be one of the most important parameters for the dividing of different reaction mechanisms. Several parameters of the hydrolysis process including heating rate, water partial pressure, the particle size and temperature were also studied in this paper. Results show that the initial reaction temperature of zinc hydrolysis in fixed bed is about 410°C. And the initial reaction temperature increases as the heating rate increases and as the water partial pressure decreases. The total hydrogen yield increases as the heating rate decreases, as the water partial pressure increases, as the zinc particle size decreases, and as the reaction temperature increases. A hydrogen yield of more than 81.5% was obtained in the fixed bed experiments.

  13. LIEKKI 2 - Annual Review 1996. Gasification Research Programme; LIEKKI 2 - Vuosikirja 1996. Seurantaryhmaeraportit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hupa, M; Matinlinna, J [eds.

    1996-12-01

    The LIEKKI 2 program is planned to cover the research work to be performed in the period beginning in 1993 and ending in 1998. LIEKKI 2 is largely a continuation of the combustion and gasification research earlier included in the national research programmes LIEKKI and JALO. The research within the scope of the LIEKKI 2 research programme is aimed at supporting the development of energy conversion techniques relating to combustion and gasification in Finland. Research serving the development of new, more efficient and environmentally sound techniques will receive special attention, but research developing conventional combustion techniques is also to be included in the programme. Another important objective of the programme is to maintain and develop the competence of different research groups in this field of technology on a long term basis. The main research areas are: (1) modelling of the furnace processes, (2) the chemistry of gaseous emission components, (3) ash, aerosols and the behaviour of particles, (4) new combustion and gasification technologies, (5) black liquor, (6) conventional combustion technologies and waste incineration. This part of the book contains the reports of the review group chairmen for 1995 and the entire text of the LIEKKI 2 Board of Directors internal evaluation report. (author)

  14. Temperature profile in a fix-bed reactor and with cylindrical geometry by the method of orthogonal collocation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basta, C.

    1982-01-01

    Using the method of orthogonal colocation the boundary problem for a fix bed with cylindrical geometry was solved. The axial disposal term was despicable and the results were compared with those the explicit finite difference method. (E.G.) [pt

  15. Method for the combustion of a gas, in fixed bed, with an oxidized solid and associated installation

    OpenAIRE

    Abanades García, Juan Carlos; Fernández García, José Ramón

    2014-01-01

    [EN] The present invention pertains to the field of the generation of energy from combustible gases, incorporating the capture of carbon dioxide for use or permanent storage and, specifically relates to cyclical methods of gas combustion with oxidized solids (chemical looping processes), in fixed bed, for solving the problem of controlling temperature in the combustion of gaseous fuels in fixed beds of metal oxides operating at high pressures, and also the associated installation.

  16. Research of Heating Rates Influence on Layer Coal Gasification of Krasnogorsky And Borodinsky Coal Deposit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jankovskiy Stanislav

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental research of heating rate influence on coal samples gasification process of Krasnogorsky and Borodinsky coal deposit ranks A and 2B was done to define optimal heating mode in high intensification of dispersal of inflammable gases conditions. Abundance ratio of carbon monoxide and nitrogen monoxide, water vapor, carbon dioxide at four values of heating rate within the range of 5 to 30 K/min. with further definition of optimal heating rate of coals was stated.

  17. Integrated gasification combined-cycle research development and demonstration activities in the US

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ness, H.M.; Brdar, R.D.

    1996-09-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE)`s Office of Fossil Energy, Morgantown Energy Technology Center, is managing a research development and demonstration (RD&D) program that supports the commercialization of integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) advanced power systems. This overview briefly describes the supporting RD&D activities and the IGCC projects selected for demonstration in the Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Program.

  18. Discussion on 'Solar detoxification of fuel-contaminated groundwater using fixed-bed photocatalysts'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrell, Joseph B.

    1997-03-15

    In a discussion of the 1997 paper by J. C. Crittenden et al. on the solar detoxification of fuel-contaminated groundwater using fixed-bed photocatalysts, the writer indicates a number of problems with the interpretation of the data and invites the authors to speculate on the reaction mechanism in the photocatalytic destruction of BTEX compounds in groundwater. In reply, Crittenden points out that it is not easy to speculate on the reaction mechanism because there are many compounds other than BTEX compounds contained in the water matrix, as well as many unknown compounds and by-products.

  19. Post-treatment of Fly Ash by Ozone in a Fixed Bed Reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kim Hougaard; Melia, M. C.; Jensen, Anker Degn

    2009-01-01

    to be fast. A kinetic model has been formulated, describing the passivation of carbon, and it includes the stoichiometry of the ozone consumption (0.8 mol of O-3/kg of C) and an ineffective ozone loss caused by catalytic decomposition. The simulated results correlated well with the experimental data....... prevents the AEA to be adsorbed. In the present work, two fly ashes have been ozonated in a fixed bed reactor and the results showed that ozonation is a potential post-treatment method that can lower the AEA requirements of a fly ash up to 6 times. The kinetics of the carbon oxidation by ozone was found...

  20. Modeling and Experimental Studies of Mercury Oxidation and Adsorption in a Fixed-Bed Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buitrago, Paula A.; Morrill, Mike; Lighty, JoAnn S.; Silcox, Geoffrey D.

    2009-06-15

    This report presents experimental and modeling mercury oxidation and adsorption data. Fixed-bed and single-particle models of mercury adsorption were developed. The experimental data were obtained with two reactors: a 300-W, methane-fired, tubular, quartz-lined reactor for studying homogeneous oxidation reactions and a fixed-bed reactor, also of quartz, for studying heterogeneous reactions. The latter was attached to the exit of the former to provide realistic combustion gases. The fixed-bed reactor contained one gram of coconut-shell carbon and remained at a temperature of 150°C. All methane, air, SO2, and halogen species were introduced through the burner to produce a radical pool representative of real combustion systems. A Tekran 2537A Analyzer coupled with a wet conditioning system provided speciated mercury concentrations. At 150°C and in the absence of HCl or HBr, the mercury uptake was about 20%. The addition of 50 ppm HCl caused complete capture of all elemental and oxidized mercury species. In the absence of halogens, SO2 increased the mercury adsorption efficiency to up to 30 percent. The extent of adsorption decreased with increasing SO2 concentration when halogens were present. Increasing the HCl concentration to 100 ppm lessened the effect of SO2. The fixed-bed model incorporates Langmuir adsorption kinetics and was developed to predict adsorption of elemental mercury and the effect of multiple flue gas components. This model neglects intraparticle diffusional resistances and is only applicable to pulverized carbon sorbents. It roughly describes experimental data from the literature. The current version includes the ability to account for competitive adsorption between mercury, SO2, and NO2. The single particle model simulates in-flight sorbent capture of elemental mercury. This model was developed to include Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms, rate equations, sorbent feed rate, and

  1. HgCl{sub 2} sorption on lignite activated carbon: Analysis of fixed-bed results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mibeck, Blaise A.F.; Olson, Edwin S.; Miller, Stanley J. [University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center, 15 North 23rd Street, Stop 9018, Grand Forks, ND 58202-9018 (United States)

    2009-11-15

    Factors that influence kinetic reactivity and equilibrium between elemental mercury, carbon, and flue gas components have been the focus of numerous studies. This study pertains to recent bench-scale fixed-bed tests in which activated carbon was exposed to HgCl{sub 2} in a flue gas composition typical of an unscrubbed eastern bituminous coal. Results are discussed in light of a refined binding site model based on the zigzag carbene structures recently proposed for electronic states at the edges of the carbon graphene layers. (author)

  2. Degradation of whey in an anaerobic fixed bed (AnFB) reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Handajani, Marisa

    2004-01-01

    An Anaerobic Fixed Bed (AnFB) reactor was run as an upflow anaerobic reactor with an arrangement of supporting material for growth of a biofilm. The supporting material was made from Liapor-clay-polyethylene sinter lamellas (Herding Co., Amberg). The AnFB reactor was used for treating high concentrations of whey-containing wastewater. Optimal operating conditions for whey treatment at a concentration of COD in the influent of around 50 g whey·l-1 were found for a hydraulic retention ...

  3. Evaluation of advanced coal gasification combined-cycle systems under uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frey, H.C.; Rubin, E.S.

    1992-01-01

    Advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) systems have not been commercially demonstrated, and uncertainties remain regarding their commercial-scale performance and cost. Therefore, a probabilistic evaluation method has been developed and applied to explicitly consider these uncertainties. The insights afforded by this method are illustrated for an IGCC design featuring a fixed-bed gasifier and a hot gas cleanup system. Detailed case studies are conducted to characterize uncertainties in key measures of process performance and cost, evaluate design trade-offs under uncertainty, identify research priorities, evaluate the potential benefits of additional research, compare results for different uncertainty assumptions, and compare the advanced IGCC system to a conventional system under uncertainty. The implications of probabilistic results for research planning and technology selection are discussed in this paper

  4. Remediation of trichloroethylene by bio-precipitated and encapsulated palladium nanoparticles in a fixed bed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennebel, Tom; Verhagen, Pieter; Simoen, Henri; De Gusseme, Bart; Vlaeminck, Siegfried E; Boon, Nico; Verstraete, Willy

    2009-08-01

    Trichloroethylene is a toxic and recalcitrant groundwater pollutant. Palladium nanoparticles bio-precipitated on Shewanella oneidensis were encapsulated in polyurethane, polyacrylamide, alginate, silica or coated on zeolites. The reactivity of these bio-Pd beads and zeolites was tested in batch experiments and trichloroethylene dechlorination followed first order reaction kinetics. The calculated k-values of the encapsulated catalysts were a factor of six lower compared to non-encapsulated bio-Pd. Bio-Pd, used as a catalyst, was able to dechlorinate 100 mgL(-1) trichloroethylene within a time period of 1h. The main reaction product was ethane; yet small levels of chlorinated intermediates were detected. Subsequently polyurethane cubes empowered with bio-Pd were implemented in a fixed bed reactor for the treatment of water containing trichloroethylene. The influent recycle configuration resulted in a cumulative removal of 98% after 22 h. The same reactor in a flow through configuration achieved removal rates up to 1059 mg trichloroethylene g Pd(-1)d(-1). This work showed that fixed bed reactors with bio-Pd polyurethane cubes can be instrumental for remediation of water contaminated with trichloroethylene.

  5. A Photocatalytic Active Adsorbent for Gas Cleaning in a Fixed Bed Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Pucher

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficient photocatalysis for gas cleaning purposes requires a large accessible, illuminated active surface in a simple and compact reactor. Conventional concepts use powdered catalysts, which are nontransparent. Hence a uniform distribution of light is difficult to be attained. Our approach is based on a coarse granular, UV-A light transparent, and highly porous adsorbent that can be used in a simple fixed bed reactor. A novel sol-gel process with rapid micro mixing is used to coat a porous silica substrate with TiO2-based nanoparticles. The resulting material posses a high adsorption capacity and a photocatalytic activity under UV-A illumination (PCAA = photocatalytic active adsorbent. Its photocatalytic performance was studied on the oxidation of trichloroethylene (TCE in a fixed bed reactor setup in continuous and discontinuous operation modes. Continuous operation resulted in a higher conversion rate due to less slip while discontinuous operation is superior for a total oxidation to CO2 due to a user-defined longer residence time.

  6. High temperature CO2 capture using calcium oxide sorbent in a fixed-bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dou Binlin; Song Yongchen; Liu Yingguang; Feng Cong

    2010-01-01

    The gas-solid reaction and breakthrough curve of CO 2 capture using calcium oxide sorbent at high temperature in a fixed-bed reactor are of great importance, and being influenced by a number of factors makes the characterization and prediction of these a difficult problem. In this study, the operating parameters on reaction between solid sorbent and CO 2 gas at high temperature were investigated. The results of the breakthrough curves showed that calcium oxide sorbent in the fixed-bed reactor was capable of reducing the CO 2 level to near zero level with the steam of 10 vol%, and the sorbent in CaO mixed with MgO of 40 wt% had extremely low capacity for CO 2 capture at 550 deg. C. Calcium oxide sorbent after reaction can be easily regenerated at 900 deg. C by pure N 2 flow. The experimental data were analyzed by shrinking core model, and the results showed reaction rates of both fresh and regeneration sorbents with CO 2 were controlled by a combination of the surface chemical reaction and diffusion of product layer.

  7. Dynamic modeling of fixed-bed adsorption of flue gas using a variable mass transfer model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jehun; Lee, Jae W.

    2016-01-01

    This study introduces a dynamic mass transfer model for the fixed-bed adsorption of a flue gas. The derivation of the variable mass transfer coefficient is based on pore diffusion theory and it is a function of effective porosity, temperature, and pressure as well as the adsorbate composition. Adsorption experiments were done at four different pressures (1.8, 5, 10 and 20 bars) and three different temperatures (30, 50 and 70 .deg. C) with zeolite 13X as the adsorbent. To explain the equilibrium adsorption capacity, the Langmuir-Freundlich isotherm model was adopted, and the parameters of the isotherm equation were fitted to the experimental data for a wide range of pressures and temperatures. Then, dynamic simulations were performed using the system equations for material and energy balance with the equilibrium adsorption isotherm data. The optimal mass transfer and heat transfer coefficients were determined after iterative calculations. As a result, the dynamic variable mass transfer model can estimate the adsorption rate for a wide range of concentrations and precisely simulate the fixed-bed adsorption process of a flue gas mixture of carbon dioxide and nitrogen.

  8. Determination of the enzyme reaction rate in a differential fixed-bed reactor: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baruque Filho E.A.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The reaction rate of starch hydrolysis catalyzed by a glucoamylase covalently bound to chitin particles was measured in a Differential Fixed-Bed Reactor (DFBR. Under selected test conditions the initial reaction rate may represent biocatalyst activity. Some aspects which influence measurement of the initial reaction rate of an immobilized enzyme were studied: the amount of desorbed enzyme and its hydrolytic activity, the extent of pore blockage of the biocatalyst caused by substrate solution impurities and the internal and external diffusional mass transfer effects. The results showed that the enzyme glucoamylase was firmly bound to the support, as indicated by the very low amount of desorbed protein found in the recirculating liquid. Although this protein was very active, its contribution to the overall reaction rate was negligible. It was observed that the biocatalyst pores were susceptible to being blocked by the impurities of the starch solution. This latter effect was accumulative, increasing with the number of sequential experiments carried out. When the substrate solution was filtered before use, very reliable determinations of immobilized enzyme reaction rates could be performed in the DFBR. External and internal diffusional resistences usually play a significant role in fixed-bed reactors. However, for the experimental system studied, internal mass transfer effects were not significant, and it was possible to select an operational condition (recirculation flow rate value that minimized the external diffusional limitations.

  9. ELECTRODEPOSITION OF COPPER IONS ON FIXED BED ELECTRODES: KINETIC AND HYDRODYNAMIC STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A.M. Ruotolo

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The kinetic and hydrodynamic behaviour of a fixed-bed electrochemical reactor was studied in terms of current efficiency (CE and energy efficiency (EE. In the kinetic experiments the effects of fixed bed thickness (L, current density (i and initial concentration of copper (C0 were studied. In the hydrodynamic experiments the permeability (k of the electrode and the coefficient for inertial forces (c were also studied as functions of the applied current density. At low current densities and bed thicknesses greater than 1.0 cm, negative CE and EE were observed as a consequence of the dissolution of the porous matrix. At high current densities low CE and EE were observed and a powdery deposit was formed on the surface of the particles. From the results of the kinetic study bed thickness and the range of current densities employed in the hydrodynamic experiments were chosen. In these experiments the electrodeposition process continued until the whole electrode had been clogged and no more electrolyte could pass through it. The relationship between pressure drop and flow rate was well described by the Forchheimer equation. It was observed that the reduction in porosity due to copper electrodeposition causes the flow rate to decrease because of the decrease in electrode permeability, but it had no influence on current efficiency.

  10. Uptake of Cd(II Using Natural Zeolite: Batch and Continuous Fixed-Bed Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luna M. LMarashdeh

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Uptake of Cd(II ions by natural phillipsite tuff was investigated both in shake-flask and fixed-bed columns. Equilibrium uptake, qe, was found to best fit Langmuir adsorption isotherm with a maximum value of 25.78 mg/g. Percent removal of Cd ions was close to 100% from initial metal ion concentrations in the range 50 - 75 mg/L at 5.0 g zeolite/L. Also, qe was found to vary exponentially with zeolite dose. Break points as high as 350 minutes were obtained from bed treatment at favorable conditions of a low solution flow rate and high bed depth. In batch experiments, equilibrium pH increased to < 8.0 excluding chemical precipitation as part of the removal while in fixed-beds the final pH exceeded 9.0. It is suggested that a sieve action of zeolite porous structure plays a role as an uptake mechanism in addition to the ion exchange.

  11. Steam gasification of Bulmer coal in the presence of lignite ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, A.; Furimsky, E.

    1986-01-01

    Steam gasification of blends prepared from Balmer coal and the ash from combustion of Onakawana lignite was performed in a fixed bed reactor. The blends were prepared by co-slurrying followed by drying. In the presence of 20 wt% ash the gasification rate doubled at 830 and 930 C. Direct blending of coal and lignite resulted in an overall increase in carbon conversion at 830 C but had no effect at 930 C. 5 refs.

  12. Conceptual design report -- Gasification Product Improvement Facility (GPIF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadowski, R.S.; Skinner, W.H.; House, L.S.; Duck, R.R. [CRS Sirrine Engineers, Inc., Greenville, SC (United States); Lisauskas, R.A.; Dixit, V.J. [Riley Stoker Corp., Worcester, MA (United States); Morgan, M.E.; Johnson, S.A. [PSI Technology Co., Andover, MA (United States). PowerServe Div.; Boni, A.A. [PSI-Environmental Instruments Corp., Andover, MA (United States)

    1994-09-01

    The problems heretofore with coal gasification and IGCC concepts have been their high cost and historical poor performance of fixed-bed gasifiers, particularly on caking coals. The Gasification Product Improvement Facility (GPIF) project is being developed to solve these problems through the development of a novel coal gasification invention which incorporates pyrolysis (carbonization) with gasification (fixed-bed). It employs a pyrolyzer (carbonizer) to avoid sticky coal agglomeration caused in the conventional process of gradually heating coal through the 400 F to 900 F range. In so doing, the coal is rapidly heated sufficiently such that the coal tar exists in gaseous form rather than as a liquid. Gaseous tars are then thermally cracked prior to the completion of the gasification process. During the subsequent endothermic gasification reactions, volatilized alkali can become chemically bound to aluminosilicates in (or added to) the ash. To reduce NH{sub 3} and HCN from fuel born nitrogen, steam injection is minimized, and residual nitrogen compounds are partially chemically reduced in the cracking stage in the upper gasifier region. Assuming testing confirms successful deployment of all these integrated processes, future IGCC applications will be much simplified, require significantly less mechanical components, and will likely achieve the $1,000/kWe commercialized system cost goal of the GPIF project. This report describes the process and its operation, design of the plant and equipment, site requirements, and the cost and schedule. 23 refs., 45 figs., 23 tabs.

  13. A batch and fixed bed column study for fluorescein removal using chitosan modified by epichlorohydrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, P M O; Francisco, J E; Cajé, J C M; Cassella, R J; Pacheco, W F

    2018-01-02

    This study evaluates the feasibility of commercial chitosan (CQ) and modified chitosan (MQ) by epichlorohydrin to be used as a solid phase to remove fluorescein (FSC) from aqueous solutions by two different approaches: in batch and on a fixed column bed. For the batch study, all parameters that influence sorption capacity were evaluated, such as: pH, mass, ionic strength, temperature and time of contact. In the optimized condition, 75% removal was obtained for FSC using CQ, while the modification allowed an increase up to 99%, as well as an increase in the stability of the polymer. In the fixed column bed study, the influence of all the parameters was evaluated through breakthrough curves, and the thermodynamics parameters of each approach were obtained. The results of these studies demonstrate that the modification with epichlorohydrin enhanced the sorptive properties (from 35% to 95% in fixed bed experiments) and the polymer stability (making it insoluble), making it suitable to be used in wastewater treatment.

  14. Mathematical simulation of hazardous ion retention from radioactive waste in fixed bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohsah, M.A.; Gohneim, M.M.; Othman, S.H.; El-Anadouli, B.E.

    2007-01-01

    Reactor design for fluid-solid, noncatalytic reaction depends on the prediction of the performance of the reactor kinetically. The most mathematical models used to handle fixed bed reactor in which the solid bed constitute one of the reactants, while a second reactant is in the fluid phase are complex and difficult to handle. A new mathematical model which easier to handle has been developed to describe the system under investigation. The model was examined theoretically and experimentally. A column backed with chelating cloth filter to separate radionuclide form radioactive waste solution is used as a practical application for the model. Comparison of the model predictions with the experimental results gives satisfactory agreement at most of the process stages

  15. Hydropyrolysis of extracted Euphorbia rigida in a well-swept fixed-bed tubular reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gercel, H.F.; Putun, A.E.; Putun, E.

    2002-05-01

    Tubular reactor fixed-bed hydropyrolysis experiments have been conducted on a sample of extracted Euphorbia rigida to determine the possibility of being a potential source of renewable fuels and chemical feedstock. The effects of hydropyrolysis temperature and heating rate on the hydropyrolysis yields and chemical compositions have been investigated. The maximum bio-oil yield of 39.8 wt% was obtained in H{sub 2} atmosphere at a hydrogen pressure of 150 bar, a hydrogen flow rate of 5 dm{sup 3} min{sup -} {sup 1}, a hydropyrolysis temperature of 550{sup o}C, and a heating rate of 100{sup o}C min{sup -1}. Then this bio-oil was characterized by elemental analysis and {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques. (author)

  16. Post-combustion CO2 capture with activated carbons using fixed bed adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Mesfer, Mohammed K.; Danish, Mohd; Fahmy, Yasser M.; Rashid, Md. Mamoon

    2018-03-01

    In the current work, the capturing of carbon dioxide from flue gases of post combustion emission using fixed bed adsorption has been carried out. Two grades of commercial activated carbon (sorbent-1 and sorbent-2) were used as adsorbent. Feed consisting of CO2 and N2 mixture was used for carrying out the adsorption. The influence of bed temperature, feed rate, equilibrium partial pressure and initial % CO2 in feed were considered for analyzing adsorption-desorption process. It was found that the total adsorption-desorption cycle time decreases with increased column temperature and feed rates. The time required to achieve the condition of bed saturation decreases with increased bed temperature and feed rates. The amount of CO2 adsorbed/Kg of the adsorbent declines with increased bed temperature with in studied range for sorbent-1 and sorbent-2. It was suggested that the adsorption capacity of the both the sorbents increases with increased partial pressure of the gas.

  17. Fixed-bed hydrogen pyrolysis of rapeseed: product yields and compositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onay, O.; Kockar, O.M.; Gaines, A.F.; Snape, C.E.

    2006-01-01

    The fixed-bed hydro pyrolysis tests have been conducted on a sample of rapeseed to investigate the effect of hydro pyrolysis on the yields and chemical structures of bio-oils, with a view to improving overall product quality. A ammonium dioxydithiomolybdenate catalyst has been used in some tests to further increase conversion. The maximum bio-oil yield of 84% was obtained in hydrogen atmosphere (with catalyst) at hydrogen pressure of 15 MPa, hydrogen flow rate of 10 dm 3 min -1 , hydro pyrolysis temperature of 520 degree C, and heating rate of 5 o Cmin -1 . Then this bio-oil was characterized by elemental analysis and some spectroscopic and chromatographic techniques. And finally, this bio-oil yield and chemical composition compared with oil obtained from fast pyrolysis condition

  18. Transient Effects in Fischer-Tropsch Reactor with a Fixed Bed of Catalyst Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Derevich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on analysis of small temperature disturbances in the Fischer-Tropsch reactor with a fixed bed of catalyst particles various scenarios of thermal instability were investigated. There are two possible scenarios of thermal instability of the reactor. First, thermal explosion may occur due to growth of temperature disturbances inside a catalytic granule. Second scenario connected with loss of thermal stability as a result of an initial increase in temperature in the reactor volume. The boundaries of thermal stability of the reactor were estimated by solving the eigenvalue problems for spherical catalyst particles and cylindrical reactor. Processes of diffusional resistance inside the catalytic granule and heat transfer from wall of the reactor tube are taken into account. Estimation of thermal stability area is compared with the results of numerical simulation of behavior of temperature and concentration of synthesis gas.

  19. Sintering study in vertical fixed bed reactor for synthetic aggregate production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quaresma, D.S.; Neves, A.S.S.; Melo, A.O.; Pereira, L.F.S.; Bezerra, P.T.S.; Macedo, E.N.; Souza, J.A.S.

    2017-01-01

    The synthetic aggregates are being employed in civil construction for the reduction of mineral extraction activities. Within this context, the recycling of industrial waste is the basis of the majority of processes to reduce the exploitation of mineral resources. In this work the sintering in a vertical fixed bed reactor for synthetic aggregate production using 20% pellets and 80% charcoal was studied. The pellets were prepared from a mixture containing clay, charcoal and fly ash. Two experiments varying the speed of air sucking were carried out. The material produced was analyzed by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, measures of their ceramic properties, and particle size analysis. The results showed that the solid-state reactions, during the sintering process, were efficient and the produced material was classified as coarse lightweight aggregate. The process is interesting for the sintering of aggregates, and can be controlled by composition, particle size, temperature gradient and gaseous flow. (author)

  20. Empirical correlations for axial dispersion coefficient and Peclet number in fixed-bed columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastegar, Seyed Omid; Gu, Tingyue

    2017-03-24

    In this work, a new correlation for the axial dispersion coefficient was obtained using experimental data in the literature for axial dispersion in fixed-bed columns packed with particles. The Chung and Wen correlation, the De Ligny correlation are two popular empirical correlations. However, the former lacks the molecular diffusion term and the latter does not consider bed voidage. The new axial dispersion coefficient correlation in this work was based on additional experimental data in the literature by considering both molecular diffusion and bed voidage. It is more comprehensive and accurate. The Peclet number correlation from the new axial dispersion coefficient correlation on the average leads to 12% lower Peclet number values compared to the values from the Chung and Wen correlation, and in many cases much smaller than those from the De Ligny correlation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Hydrodynamic characteristics of a two-phase gas-liquid flow upward through a fixed bed of spherical particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VELIZAR D. STANKOVIC

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of an electrochemically generated gas phase on the hydrodynamic characteristics of a three-phase system has been examined. The two-phase fluid, (gas-liquid, in which the liquid phase is the continuous one, flows through a packed bed with glass spheres. The influence of the liquid velocity was examined, as well as the gas velocity and particle diameter on the pressure drop through the fixed bed. It was found that with increasing liquid velocity (wl = 0.0162–0.03 m/s, the relative pressure drop decreases through the fixed bed. With increasing current density, the pressure drop increases, since greater gas quantities stay behind in the fixed bed. Besides, it was found that with decreasing diameter of the glass particles, the relative pressure drop also decreases. The relationship betweeen the experimentally obtained friction factor and the Reynolds number was established.

  2. Numerical modelling of biomass combustion: Solid conversion processes in a fixed bed furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Md. Rezwanul; Naser, Jamal

    2017-06-01

    Increasing demand for energy and rising concerns over global warming has urged the use of renewable energy sources to carry a sustainable development of the world. Bio mass is a renewable energy which has become an important fuel to produce thermal energy or electricity. It is an eco-friendly source of energy as it reduces carbon dioxide emissions. Combustion of solid biomass is a complex phenomenon due to its large varieties and physical structures. Among various systems, fixed bed combustion is the most commonly used technique for thermal conversion of solid biomass. But inadequate knowledge on complex solid conversion processes has limited the development of such combustion system. Numerical modelling of this combustion system has some advantages over experimental analysis. Many important system parameters (e.g. temperature, density, solid fraction) can be estimated inside the entire domain under different working conditions. In this work, a complete numerical model is used for solid conversion processes of biomass combustion in a fixed bed furnace. The combustion system is divided in to solid and gas phase. This model includes several sub models to characterize the solid phase of the combustion with several variables. User defined subroutines are used to introduce solid phase variables in commercial CFD code. Gas phase of combustion is resolved using built-in module of CFD code. Heat transfer model is modified to predict the temperature of solid and gas phases with special radiation heat transfer solution for considering the high absorptivity of the medium. Considering all solid conversion processes the solid phase variables are evaluated. Results obtained are discussed with reference from an experimental burner.

  3. A comprehensive small and pilot-scale fixed-bed reactor approach for testing Fischer–Tropsch catalyst activity and performance on a BTL route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piyapong Hunpinyo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Ruthenium (Ru-based catalysts were prepared by the sol–gel technique for biomass-to-liquid (BTL operation and had their performance tested under different conditions. The catalytic study was carried out in two steps using a simple and reliable method. In the first step, the effects of reaction temperatures and inlet H2/CO molar feed ratios obtained from biomass gasification were investigated on the catalyst performance. A set of experimental results obtained in a laboratory fixed bed reactor was described and summarized. Moreover, a simplified Langmuir–Hinshelwood–Hougen–Watson (LHHW kinetic model was proposed with two promising models, where the surface decomposition of carbon monoxide was assumed as the rate determining step (RDS. In the second step, a FT pilot plant was conducted to validate the catalyst performance, especially the conversion efficiency, heat and mass transfer effects, and system controllability. The results indicated that our catalyst performances under mild conditions were not significantly different in many regards from those previously reported for a severe condition, as especially Ru-based catalyst can be performed to vary over a wide range of conditions to yield specific liquid productivity. The results in terms of the hydrocarbon product distribution obtained from the pilot scale operations were similar with that obtained from the related lab scale experiments.

  4. On the effect of cross sectional shape on incipient motion and deposition of sediments in fixed bed channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safari Mir-Jafar-Sadegh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The condition of incipient motion and deposition are of the essential issues for the study of sediment transport. This phenomenon is of great importance to hydraulic engineers for designing sewers, drainage, as well as other rigid boundary channels. This is a study carried out with the objectives of describing the effect of cross-sectional shape on incipient motion and deposition of particles in rigid boundary channels. In this research work, the experimental data given by Loveless (1992 and Mohammadi (2005 are used. On the basis of the critical velocity approach, a new incipient motion equation for a V-shaped bottom channel and incipient deposition of sediment particles equations for rigid boundary channels having circular, rectangular, and U-shaped cross sections are obtained. New equations were compared to the other incipient motion equations. The result shows that the cross-sectional shape is an important factor for defining the minimum velocity for no-deposit particles. This study also distinguishes incipient motion of particles from incipient deposition for particles. The results may be useful for designing fixed bed channels with a limited deposition condition.

  5. Wastewater treatment with submerged fixed bed biofilm reactor systems--design rules, operating experiences and ongoing developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlegel, S; Koeser, H

    2007-01-01

    Wastewater treatment systems using bio-films that grow attached to a support media are an alternative to the widely used suspended growth activated sludge process. Different fixed growth biofilm reactors are commercially used for the treatment of municipal as well as industrial wastewater. In this paper a fairly new fixed growth biofilm system, the submerged fixed bed biofilm reactor (SFBBR), is discussed. SFBBRs are based on aerated submerged fixed open structured plastic media for the support of the biofilm. They are generally operated without sludge recirculation in order to avoid clogging of the support media and problems with the control of the biofilm. Reactor and process design considerations for these reactors are reviewed. Measures to ensure the development and maintenance of an active biofilm are examined. SFBBRs have been applied successfully to small wastewater treatment plants where complete nitrification but no high degree of denitrification is necessary. For the pre-treatment of industrial wastewater the use of SFBBRs is advantageous, especially in cases of wastewater with high organic loading or high content of compounds with low biodegradability. Performance data from exemplary commercial plants are given. Ongoing research and development efforts aim at achieving a high simultaneous total nitrogen (TN) removal of aerated SFBBRs and at improving the efficiency of TN removal in anoxic SFBBRs.

  6. Solid diffusion control of the adsorption of basic dyes onto granular activated carbon and natural zeolite in fixed bed columns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. MARINKOVSKI

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available The adsorption of basic dyes from aqueous solutions onto granular activated carbon and natural zeolite was studied using a fixed bed column. The design procedures for fixed bed adsorption columns were investigated for two basic dyes Maxilon Goldgelb GL EC 400 % (MG-400 and Maxilon Schwarz FBL-01 300 % (MS-300. A computer program based on the solid diffusion control model has been developed. The model parameters: solid diffusion coefficient, DS, axial dispersion coefficient, DL and external mass transfer coefficient, kf for all the investigated systems were estimated by means of a best fit approach.

  7. Thermal activation and characterization of clay aiming their use as sorbent in fixed bed columns to remove cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, M.M. da; Rodrigues, M.G.F.; Silva, M.L.P.; Kleinübing, S.J.; Silva, M.G.C.

    2011-01-01

    In this work we studied the removal of cadmium in a synthetic wastewater using clay of Pernambuco - Brazil, in systems of fixed bed column. Clay was thermally activated at 500 °C. The materials were characterized using X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and nitrogen adsorption (BET method). For tests in fixed bed column, we applied a factorial design 2"2 and found that increasing the flow adversely affects the process of removing cadmium concentration while acting positively. The studies showed these materials as promising for the removal of Cd"2"+ ions in synthetic wastewater containing low levels of this metal. (author)

  8. LIEKKI 2 - Combustion and gasification research programme 1993- 1998. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hupa, M [ed.

    1999-12-31

    The six-year Combustion and Gasification Research Programme LIEKKI 2 (1993-1998) was oriented towards research serving the development of energy production technologies based on combustion and gasification. The programme was divided into six research areas: 1. Modelling of the furnace processes (39 projects); 2. Chemistry of gaseous emission components (28); 3. Particle behaviour, ash, aerosols (42); 4. New combustion and gasification technologies (27); 5. Black liquor (33) and 6. Conventional combustion technologies, waste incineration (19). The main aim of the research has been to develop new, more efficient and environmentally friendly techniques. The development of conventional combustion technology has also been an important part of the programme. Another important goal has been to maintain and develop maintain the competence of the research organisations in the combustion area and to intensify their collaboration. Concerning its research contents and its objectives LIEKKI 2, like its forerunner, has not been fuel-specific. The programme has investigated the thermal conversion of oil, gas, black liquor, and coal as well as that of peat, biofuels, and various waste materials, and it has further advanced the know-how concerning the utilisation of these fuels. This approach differs from the usual fuel-specific differentiation, which, for instance, IEA (International Energy Agency) and EU have applied in their research activities. This approach seems in retrospect to have been the right choice. It has been appropriate to stimulate co-operation between parties who would not seek co-operation spontaneously. One example of this is the development of a steelmaking process by a Finnish steel manufacturer under the LIEKKI programme. The programme has also provided synergetic advantages to the development of the recovery boiler processes of the pulp industry. Assessing the impact of the programme is a matter of many facets. The six-year research work and a total

  9. LIEKKI 2 - Combustion and gasification research programme 1993- 1998. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hupa, M. [ed.

    1998-12-31

    The six-year Combustion and Gasification Research Programme LIEKKI 2 (1993-1998) was oriented towards research serving the development of energy production technologies based on combustion and gasification. The programme was divided into six research areas: 1. Modelling of the furnace processes (39 projects); 2. Chemistry of gaseous emission components (28); 3. Particle behaviour, ash, aerosols (42); 4. New combustion and gasification technologies (27); 5. Black liquor (33) and 6. Conventional combustion technologies, waste incineration (19). The main aim of the research has been to develop new, more efficient and environmentally friendly techniques. The development of conventional combustion technology has also been an important part of the programme. Another important goal has been to maintain and develop maintain the competence of the research organisations in the combustion area and to intensify their collaboration. Concerning its research contents and its objectives LIEKKI 2, like its forerunner, has not been fuel-specific. The programme has investigated the thermal conversion of oil, gas, black liquor, and coal as well as that of peat, biofuels, and various waste materials, and it has further advanced the know-how concerning the utilisation of these fuels. This approach differs from the usual fuel-specific differentiation, which, for instance, IEA (International Energy Agency) and EU have applied in their research activities. This approach seems in retrospect to have been the right choice. It has been appropriate to stimulate co-operation between parties who would not seek co-operation spontaneously. One example of this is the development of a steelmaking process by a Finnish steel manufacturer under the LIEKKI programme. The programme has also provided synergetic advantages to the development of the recovery boiler processes of the pulp industry. Assessing the impact of the programme is a matter of many facets. The six-year research work and a total

  10. Nitrification in moving bed and fixed bed biofilters treating effluent water from a large commercial outdoor rainbow trout RAS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suhr, Karin; Pedersen, Per Bovbjerg

    2010-01-01

    The nitrification performance of two fixed bed (FB) biofilters and two moving bed (MB) biofilters was evaluated. They received the same cold (8 degrees C) influent water from a commercial outdoor RAS facility producing rainbow trout (average density 32 kg m(-3)). The filters were constructed as f...

  11. Design Strategy for CO2 Adsorption from Ambient Air Using a Supported Amine Based Sorbent in a Fixed Bed Reactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Qian; Brilman, D. W.F.

    In this work, a fixed bed reactor is evaluated for CO2 capture from ambient air using an amine based ion exchange resin. Using adsorption experiments, the effect of superficial velocity and bed length on process economics is investigated. It is shown that the optimal conditions are found at an

  12. Temperature prediction in a coal fired boiler with a fixed bed by fuzzy logic based on numerical solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biyikoglu, A.; Akcayol, M.A.; Oezdemir, V.; Sivrioglu, M.

    2005-01-01

    In this study, steady state combustion in boilers with a fixed bed has been investigated. Temperature distributions in the combustion chamber of a coal fired boiler with a fixed bed are predicted using fuzzy logic based on data obtained from the numerical solution method for various coal and air feeding rates. The numerical solution method and the discretization of the governing equations of two dimensional turbulent flow in the combustion chamber and one dimensional coal combustion in the fixed bed are explained. Control Volume and Finite Difference Methods are used in the discretization of the equations in the combustion chamber and in the fixed bed, respectively. Results are presented as contours within the solution domain and compared with numerical ones. Comparison of the results shows that the difference between the numerical solution and fuzzy logic prediction throughout the computational domain is less than 1.5%. The statistical coefficient of multiple determinations for the investigated cases is about 0.9993 to 0.9998. This accuracy degree is acceptable in predicting the temperature values. So, it can be concluded that fuzzy logic provides a feasible method for defining the system properties

  13. Continuous synthesis of methanol: heterogeneous hydrogenation of ethylene carbonate over Cu/HMS catalysts in a fixed bed reactor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Cui, Yuanyuan; Wen, Chao; Wang, Bin; Dai, Wei-Lin

    2015-09-18

    Continuous fixed-bed catalytic hydrogenation of ethylene carbonate (EC) to methanol and ethylene glycol (EG), an emerging synthetic process of methanol via indirect conversion of CO2, was successfully performed over Cu/HMS catalysts prepared by the ammonia evaporation (AE) method. The catalysts possessed superb performance with a conversion of 100% and a selectivity to methanol of 74%.

  14. Flow of power-law fluids in fixed beds of cylinders or spheres

    KAUST Repository

    Singh, John P.

    2012-10-29

    An ensemble average of the equations of motion for a Newtonian fluid over particle configurations in a dilute fixed bed of spheres or cylinders yields Brinkman\\'s equations of motion, where the disturbance velocity produced by a test particle is influenced by the Newtonian fluid stress and a body force representing the linear drag on the surrounding particles. We consider a similar analysis for a power-law fluid where the stress τ is related to the rate of strain e by τ = 2m en-1e, where m and n are constants. In this case, the ensemble-averaged momentum equation includes a body force resulting from the nonlinear drag exerted on the surrounding particles, a power-law stress associated with the disturbance velocity of the test particle, and a stress term that is linear with respect to the test particle\\'s disturbance velocity. The latter term results from the interaction of the test particle\\'s velocity disturbance with the random straining motions produced by the neighbouring particles and is important only in shear-thickening fluids where the velocity disturbances of the particles are long-ranged. The solutions to these equations using scaling analyses for dilute beds and numerical simulations using the finite element method are presented. We show that the drag force acting on a particle in a fixed bed can be written as a function of a particle-concentration-dependent length scale at which the fluid velocity disturbance produced by a particle is modified by hydrodynamic interactions with its neighbours. This is also true of the drag on a particle in a periodic array where the length scale is the lattice spacing. The effects of particle interactions on the drag in dilute arrays (periodic or random) of cylinders and spheres in shear-thickening fluids is dramatic, where it arrests the algebraic growth of the disturbance velocity with radial position when n≥ 1 for cylinders and n≥ 2 for spheres. For concentrated random arrays of particles, we adopt an

  15. Mathematic modelling of a fixed-bed gasifier as component of a plant for decentral biomass utilisation; Mathematische Modellierung eines Festbettvergasers als Bestandteil einer Anlage zur dezentralen Nutzung von Biomasse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funk, G.; Krumm, W. [Siegen Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Energie- und Umweltverfahrenstechnik

    2000-07-01

    This paper presents a two-dimensional nonstationary model that describes processes taking place during gasification in a fixed bed. For didactic purposes the process is split up into and described in terms of the partial models ''chemical reaction'', ''drying'', ''heat transfer'' and ''mass flow''. [German] Es wird ein zweidimensionales, instationaeres Modell zur Beschreibung der Vorgaenge bei der Vergasung im Festbett vorgestellt. Dabei werden zylinderfoermige Reaktoren betrachtet. Zur Beschreibung wird der Gesamtvorgang in die Teilmodelle 'chemische Reaktion', 'Trocknung', 'Waermeuebertragung' und 'Massefluss' unterteilt. Die einzelnen Teilmodelle werden vorgestellt. (orig.)

  16. The research and development of pressurized ash agglomerating fluidized bed coal gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang Yitian; Wu Jinhu; Chen Hanshi [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Taiyuan (China). Institute of Coal Chemistry

    1999-11-01

    Coal gasification tests in a pressurized ash agglomeration fluidized bed coal gasifier were carried out. The effects of pressure and temperature on the gasification capacity, carbon conversion, carbon content in discharged ash and gas composition were investigated. Gasification capacity was shown to be in direct proportion to operation pressure. Tests of hot gas dedusting using a moving granular bed were also carried out. 3 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF THE SOLID AND LIQUID WASTE PRODUCTS FROM THE HEAVY METAL CONTAMINATED ENERGY CROPS GASIFICATION PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Werle

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of basic physico-chemical properties of solid (ash and liquid (tar waste products of the gasification process of the heavy metal contaminated energy crops. The gasification process has carried out in a laboratory fixed bed reactor. Three types of energy crops: Miscanthus x giganteus, Sida hermaphrodita and Spartina Pectinata were used. The experimental plots were established on heavy metal contaminated arable land located in Bytom (southern part of Poland, Silesian Voivodship.

  18. Research results of sewage sludge and waste oil disposal by entrained bed gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schingnitz, M.; Goehler, P.; Wenzel, W.; Seidel, W. (Noell-DBI Energie- und Entsorgungstechnik GmbH, Freiberg (Germany))

    1992-01-01

    Presents results of gasifying sewage sludge and waste oil with the GSP technology, developed by the Freiberg Fuel Institute (FRG). The GSP reactor was developed in 1976 for gasification of pulverized brown coal. An industrial reactor of this design operated for over 5 years with a total coal throughput of more than 300,000 t. The design of the gasification generator and the flowsheet of a 3 MW experimental pilot plant for waste gasification are presented. The PCB content in the gasification sludge is 6.14 mg/kg, in waste oil - 160 mg/kg. Gasification takes place at high temperatures of more than 1,400 C for complete destruction of toxic pollutants. Gasification results compare composition of raw gas produced by gasification of brown coal, sewage sludge and waste oil. A detailed list of content of pollutants (PCDD, PCDF, PAH, dioxin and furan) in the gasification gas, in process waters and in solid residue of the process water is provided. It is concluded that the GSP gasification process is suitable for safe disposal of waste with toxic content. 3 refs.

  19. Biofilm development in fixed bed biofilm reactors: experiments and simple models for engineering design purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szilágyi, N; Kovács, R; Kenyeres, I; Csikor, Zs

    2013-01-01

    Biofilm development in a fixed bed biofilm reactor system performing municipal wastewater treatment was monitored aiming at accumulating colonization and maximum biofilm mass data usable in engineering practice for process design purposes. Initially a 6 month experimental period was selected for investigations where the biofilm formation and the performance of the reactors were monitored. The results were analyzed by two methods: for simple, steady-state process design purposes the maximum biofilm mass on carriers versus influent load and a time constant of the biofilm growth were determined, whereas for design approaches using dynamic models a simple biofilm mass prediction model including attachment and detachment mechanisms was selected and fitted to the experimental data. According to a detailed statistical analysis, the collected data have not allowed us to determine both the time constant of biofilm growth and the maximum biofilm mass on carriers at the same time. The observed maximum biofilm mass could be determined with a reasonable error and ranged between 438 gTS/m(2) carrier surface and 843 gTS/m(2), depending on influent load, and hydrodynamic conditions. The parallel analysis of the attachment-detachment model showed that the experimental data set allowed us to determine the attachment rate coefficient which was in the range of 0.05-0.4 m d(-1) depending on influent load and hydrodynamic conditions.

  20. CFD Simulation of Dimethyl Ether Synthesis from Methanol in an Adiabatic Fixed-bed Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Golshadi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A computational fluid dynamic (CFD study of methanol (MeOH to dimethyl ether (DME process in an adiabatic fixed-bed reactor is presented. One of the methods of industrial DME production is the catalytic dehydration of MeOH. Kinetic model was derived based on Bercic rate. The parameters of this equation for a specific catalyst were tuned by solving a one-dimensional homogenous model using MATLAB optimization module. A two-dimensional CFD simulation of the reaction is demonstrated and considered as numerical experiments. A sensitivity analysis was run in order to find the effect of temperature, pressure, and WHSV on the reactor performance. Good agreement was achieved between bench experimental data and the model. The results show that the maximum conversion of reaction (about 85.03% is obtained at WHSV=10 h-1 and T=563.15 K, whereas the inlet temperature has a greater effect on methanol conversion. Moreover, the effect of water in inlet feed on methanol conversion is quantitatively studied. It was concluded that the results obtained from CFD analysis give precise guidelines for further studies on the optimization of reactor performance.

  1. Modeling of convective drying kinetics of Pistachio kernels in a fixed bed drying system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balbay Asım

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Drying kinetics of Pistachio kernels (PKs with initial moisture content of 32.4% (w.b was investigated as a function of drying conditions in a fixed bed drying system. The drying experiments were carried out at different temperatures of drying air (40, 60 and 80°C and air velocities (0.05, 0.075 and 0.1 m/s. Several experiments were performed in terms of mass of PKs (15g and 30g using a constant air velocity of 0.075 m/s. The fit quality of models was evaluated using the determination coefficient (R2, sum square error (SSE and root mean square error (RMSE. Among the selected models, the Midilli et al model was found to be the best models for describing the drying behavior of PKs. The activation energies were calculated as 29.2 kJ/mol and effective diffusivity values were calculated between 1.38 and 4.94x10-10 m2/s depending on air temperatures.

  2. Efficient expansion of mesenchymal stromal cells in a disposable fixed bed culture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizukami, Amanda; Orellana, Maristela D; Caruso, Sâmia R; de Lima Prata, Karen; Covas, Dimas T; Swiech, Kamilla

    2013-01-01

    The need for efficient and reliable technologies for clinical-scale expansion of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) has led to the use of disposable bioreactors and culture systems. Here, we evaluate the expansion of cord blood-derived MSC in a disposable fixed bed culture system. Starting from an initial cell density of 6.0 × 10(7) cells, after 7 days of culture, it was possible to produce of 4.2(±0.8) × 10(8) cells, which represents a fold increase of 7.0 (±1.4). After enzymatic retrieval from Fibra-Cell disks, the cells were able to maintain their potential for differentiation into adipocytes and osteocytes and were positive for many markers common to MSC (CD73, CD90, and CD105). The results obtained in this study demonstrate that MSC can be efficiently expanded in the culture system. This novel approach presents several advantages over the current expansion systems, based on culture flasks or microcarrier-based spinner flasks and represents a key element for MSC cellular therapy according to GMP compliant clinical-scale production system. Copyright © 2013 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  3. Pyrolysis of the lignocellulose fermentation residue by fixed-bed micro reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Ze; Lin, Weigang; Song, Wenli; Wu, Xuexing

    2012-01-01

    Thermal gravimetric (TG) analysis was conducted to compare the fundamental pyrolytic behaviors between the lignocellulose fermentation residue (LFR) and three other biomass raw materials. It was found that the TG weight loss curve of LFR appeared very close to the curve of acidified alkaline lignin (AAL), but different to the material of dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS, also a fermentation residue but obtained from liquor producing process). Pyrolysis of LFR by fixed-bed micro reactor in the range of 430 °C–700 °C was carried out. It was found that the liquid yield had a maximum value at the pyrolytic temperature of 475 °C. The oil phase of the liquid was mainly composed of phenols, and the content of dimethyl phenol and fatty acids decreased with increasing pyrolytic temperature. In the aqueous liquid, besides the most abundant phenol derivatives, small acids and nitrogen containing compounds appeared more. -- Highlights: ► The tense of the paper has been revised. ► The description of the experimental procedure was kept in past tense. ► The expression of ‘fixed bed’ was changed to ‘fixed-bed’.

  4. Synthesis of biodiesel from waste cooking oil using immobilized lipase in fixed bed reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Yingming [School of Environment and Urban Construction, Wuhan University of Science and Engineering, Wuhan 430073 (China); Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Science, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Xiao Bo [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Chang Jie [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China)], E-mail: changjie@scut.edu.cn; Fu Yan [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); Lv Pengmei; Wang Xuewei [Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Science, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2009-03-15

    Waste cooking oil (WCO) is the residue from the kitchen, restaurants, food factories and even human and animal waste which not only harm people's health but also causes environmental pollution. The production of biodiesel from waste cooking oil to partially substitute petroleum diesel is one of the measures for solving the twin problems of environment pollution and energy shortage. In this project, synthesis of biodiesel was catalyzed by immobilized Candida lipase in a three-step fixed bed reactor. The reaction solution was a mixture of WCO, water, methanol and solvent (hexane). The main product was biodiesel consisted of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME), of which methyl oleate was the main component. Effects of lipase, solvent, water, and temperature and flow of the reaction mixture on the synthesis of biodiesel were analyzed. The results indicate that a 91.08% of FAME can be achieved in the end product under optimum conditions. Most of the chemical and physical characters of the biodiesel were superior to the standards for 0 diesel (GB/T 19147) and biodiesel (DIN V51606 and ASTM D-6751)

  5. Synthesis of biodiesel from waste cooking oil using immobilized lipase in fixed bed reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yingming [School of Environment and Urban Construction, Wuhan University of Science and Engineering, Wuhan 430073 (China)]|[Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Science, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Xiao, Bo [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Chang, Jie; Fu, Yan [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); Lv, Pengmei; Wang, Xuewei [Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Science, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2009-03-15

    Waste cooking oil (WCO) is the residue from the kitchen, restaurants, food factories and even human and animal waste which not only harm people's health but also causes environmental pollution. The production of biodiesel from waste cooking oil to partially substitute petroleum diesel is one of the measures for solving the twin problems of environment pollution and energy shortage. In this project, synthesis of biodiesel was catalyzed by immobilized Candida lipase in a three-step fixed bed reactor. The reaction solution was a mixture of WCO, water, methanol and solvent (hexane). The main product was biodiesel consisted of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME), of which methyl oleate was the main component. Effects of lipase, solvent, water, and temperature and flow of the reaction mixture on the synthesis of biodiesel were analyzed. The results indicate that a 91.08% of FAME can be achieved in the end product under optimum conditions. Most of the chemical and physical characters of the biodiesel were superior to the standards for 0diesel (GB/T 19147) and biodiesel (DIN V51606 and ASTM D-6751). (author)

  6. Synthesis of biodiesel from waste cooking oil using immobilized lipase in fixed bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yingming; Xiao Bo; Chang Jie; Fu Yan; Lv Pengmei; Wang Xuewei

    2009-01-01

    Waste cooking oil (WCO) is the residue from the kitchen, restaurants, food factories and even human and animal waste which not only harm people's health but also causes environmental pollution. The production of biodiesel from waste cooking oil to partially substitute petroleum diesel is one of the measures for solving the twin problems of environment pollution and energy shortage. In this project, synthesis of biodiesel was catalyzed by immobilized Candida lipase in a three-step fixed bed reactor. The reaction solution was a mixture of WCO, water, methanol and solvent (hexane). The main product was biodiesel consisted of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME), of which methyl oleate was the main component. Effects of lipase, solvent, water, and temperature and flow of the reaction mixture on the synthesis of biodiesel were analyzed. The results indicate that a 91.08% of FAME can be achieved in the end product under optimum conditions. Most of the chemical and physical characters of the biodiesel were superior to the standards for 0 diesel (GB/T 19147) and biodiesel (DIN V51606 and ASTM D-6751)

  7. Extraction of uranium from sea water with the granular composite adsorbent by using the fixed bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katoh, Shunsaku; Sakane, Kohji; Hirotsu, Takahiro; Fujii, Ayako; Kitamura, Takao

    1981-01-01

    To clarify the technical problems existing in the extraction process of uranium from sea water, uranium was extracted from natural sea water, with the granulated C-Ti-OH composite adsorbent. The adsorption of uranium from sea water was carried out by using the fixed bed that had been designed in our laboratory. The uranium recovery from the sea water was 13.9% in the adsorption process of 56 d. The adsorbed uranium was eluted from the adsorbent with 0.5 N NaHCO 3 -0.5N Na 2 CO 3 soln. at 70 0 C. The elution recovery was 97.4% for 35 h. The uranium contained in the eluate was concentrated twenty times as much as in the anion exchange process, and then 100 times in the solvent extraction process with oxine-chloroform and TOA-kerosene. About 0.7 g of yellow cake was prepared from natural sea water, and it was identified to be pure 2UO 2 .NH 3 .3H 2 O by X-ray diffraction method and X-ray fluorometry. (author)

  8. Passive deca-heat removal in the fixed bed nuclear reactor (FBNR) - 15551

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solano Diaz, E.C.; Luna Aguilera, G.M.; Santos, R.A.; Vaca, D.E.

    2015-01-01

    The Fixed Bed Nuclear Reactor (FBNR) is a Generation IV small reactor concept, where the spherical elements contain Triso-type microspheres with UO 2 , which serves as nuclear fuel. In the event that adverse operation conditions occur, the water pump is automatically shut off and the fuel pebbles fall back by gravity into the fuel chamber. Since the FBNR relies on passive security systems, the removal of the decay heat in the fuel chamber is achieved by contact with quiescent water. In the present paper, a mathematical simulation of the passive cooling of the system was conducted in SOLIDWORKS so as to obtain a temperature profile in the body during the decay heat removal process. Homogenization techniques were employed to smooth out spatial variations across the multiphase system and to derive expression for the effective thermophysical properties that are valid through the macroscopic entry (the chamber). The simulation showed that the chamber's temperature rose from 573 K to its maximum temperature, 1234 K, in the first hour. Afterwards, the temperature fluctuated, but stayed under 552 K. Since the temperature of the system was always kept under the value of the safety parameter (1200 C. degrees) the simulation confirmed that an effective passive cooling of the fuel chamber is indeed feasible. (authors)

  9. Co-pyrolysis of rice straw and polypropylene using fixed-bed pyrolyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izzatie, N. I.; Basha, M. H.; Uemura, Y.; Mazlan, M. A.; Hashim, M. S. M.; Amin, N. A. M.; Hamid, M. F.

    2016-11-01

    The present work encompasses the impact of temperature (450, 500, 550, 600 °C) on the properties of pyrolysis oil and on other product yield for the co-pyrolysis of Polypropylene (PP) plastics and rice straw. Co-pyrolysis of PP plastic and rice straw were conducted in a fixed-bed drop type pyrolyzer under an inert condition to attain maximum oil yield. Physically, the pyrolysis oil is dark-brown in colour with free flowing and has a strong acrid smell. Copyrolysis between these typically obtained in maximum pyrolysis oil yields up to 69% by ratio 1:1 at a maximum temperature of 550 °C. From the maximum yield of pyrolysis oil, characterization of pyrolysis product and effect of biomass type of the composition were evaluated. Pyrolysis oil contains a high water content of 66.137 wt.%. Furfural, 2- methylnaphthalene, tetrahydrofuran (THF), toluene and acetaldehyde were the major organic compounds found in pyrolysis oil of rice straw mixed with PP. Bio-char collected from co-pyrolysis of rice straw mixed with PP plastic has high calorific value of 21.190 kJ/g and also carbon content with 59.02 wt.% and could contribute to high heating value. The non-condensable gases consist of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and methane as the major gas components.

  10. CFD analysis of hot spot formation through a fixed bed reactor of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Aligolzadeh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the interesting methods for conversion of synthesis gas to heavy hydrocarbons is Fischer–Tropsch process. The process has some bottlenecks, such as hot spot formation and low degree of conversion. In this work, computational fluid dynamics technique was used to simulate conversion of synthetic gas and product distribution. Also, hot spot formation in the catalytic fixed-bed reactor was investigated in several runs. Simulation results indicated that hot spot formation occurred more likely in the early and middle part of reactor due to high reaction rates. Based on the simulation results, the temperature of hot spots increased with increase in the inlet temperature as well as pressure. Among the many CFD runs conducted, it is found that the optimal temperature and pressure for Fischer–Tropsch synthesis are 565 K and 20 bar, respectively. As it seems that the reactor shall work very well under optimal conditions, the reaction rates and catalyst duration would simultaneously be maximum .

  11. Co-pyrolysis of corn cob and waste cooking oil in a fixed bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guanyi; Liu, Cong; Ma, Wenchao; Zhang, Xiaoxiong; Li, Yanbin; Yan, Beibei; Zhou, Weihong

    2014-08-01

    Corn cob (CC) and waste cooking oil (WCO) were co-pyrolyzed in a fixed bed. The effects of various temperatures of 500 °C, 550 °C, 600 °C and CC/WCO mass ratios of 1:0, 1:0.1, 1:0.5, 1:1 and 0:1 were investigated, respectively. Results show that co-pyrolysis of CC/WCO produce more liquid and less bio-char than pyrolysis of CC individually. Bio-oil and bio-char yields were found to be largely dependent on temperature and CC/WCO ratios. GC/MS of bio-oil show it consists of different classes and amounts of organic compounds other than that from CC pyrolysis. Temperature of 550 °C and CC/WCO ratio of 1:1 seem to be the optimum considering high bio-oil yields (68.6 wt.%) and good bio-oil properties (HHV of 32.78 MJ/kg). In this case, bio-char of 24.96 MJ/kg appears attractive as a renewable source, while gas with LHV of 16.06 MJ/Nm(3) can be directly used in boilers as fuel. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Research of Heat Rates Effect on the Process Of Fuel-Bed Gasification Of “Balakhtinskoe”, “Osinnikovskoe”, “Krasnogorskoe” and “Borodinskoe” Coal Deposits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zenkov Andrey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental research of fuel-bed gasification at different heating rates was conducted. Release of four gases (CO, NO, H2O, CO2 was determined. Optimal heating rate mode for this method of gasification was established.

  13. Gasification advanced research and technology development (AR and TD) cross-cut meeting and review. [US DOE supported

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    The US Department of Energy gasification advanced research and technology development (AR and TD) cross-cut meeting and review was held June 24 to 26, 1981, at Germantown, Maryland. Forty-eight papers from the proceedings have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  14. Biowaste utilization in the process of co-gasification with bituminous coal and lignite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howaniec, Natalia; Smoliński, Adam

    2017-01-01

    Biowaste utilization in co-gasification with bituminous coal and lignite gives the benefits of stable supplies of a primary energy source – coal and utilization of a zero-emission, waste material (i.e. agriculture waste, sewage sludge, etc.) with higher process efficiency and lower negative environmental impact than biomass or coal gasification, respectively. The main focus of the study presented is co-gasification of bituminous coal or lignite with biowaste to hydrogen-rich gas. The experiments were performed in the laboratory scale fixed-bed reactor installation at 700 and 900 °C. The Hierarchical Clustering Analysis complemented with a color map of studied data were applied in the selection of the optimal operating parameters for biowaste utilization in the co-gasification process based on the experimental data of gasification/co-gasification process as well as physical and chemical properties of fuels tested. The experimental results showed that the carbon conversion rate in co-gasification increased with increasing biomass content in a fuel. The total gas volume and hydrogen volume in co-gasification were higher than the values expected based on the results of the gasification process of the fuels analyzed. - Highlights: • Biowaste co-gasification with bituminous coal/lignite to hydrogen-rich gas. • Steam co-gasification in laboratory scale fixed-bed reactor at 700 and 900 °C. • Hierarchical Clustering Analysis complemented with color map of experimental data. • Carbon conversion increase with increasing biomass content. • The highest total gas and hydrogen volume in co-gasification of C-B20 blend at 900C.

  15. Gasification of oil sand coke: review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furimsky, E. [IMAF Group, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    1998-08-01

    The production of synthetic crude from the tar sands in Western Canada has been steadily increasing. Most of the delayed coke produced by Suncor is combusted on site, whereas all fluid coke produced by Syncrude is stockpiled.The database on the chemical and physical properties of the oil sand coke, including the composition and fusion properties of the mineral matter, has been established. The reactivity of the coke was determined by oxygen chemisorption, fixed bed and fluid bed bench scale gasification and pilot plant gasification. The reactivity of the oil sand coke for gasification is rather low and comparable to high rank coals, such as anthracite. Slurrability tests revealed that a solid concentration in water, approaching 70 wt%, can be achieved. Gasification is the front runner among clean technologies for the conversion of carbonaceous solids to useful products. Several commercial gasifiers are available to cover the wide range of severity. Because of the low reactivity of oil sands coke, high severity conditions are required to achieve high gasification conversion. Such conditions can be attained in entrained bed gasifiers. Gasifiers employing both dry and slurry feeding systems are suitable. A high efficiency, low SO{sub x} and NO{sub x} emissions, as well as a low solid waste production are among the key advantages of the gasification technology compared with thecompeting technologies. Commercial gasification of oil sands coke is delayed because of the availability of natural gas on the site of the upgrading plants. Potential for the transportation of the oil sand coke to USA for electricity generation using the integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) technology was evaluated. 27 refs., 17 figs., 9 tabs.

  16. Enhanced removal of sulfonamide antibiotics by KOH-activated anthracite coal: Batch and fixed-bed studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuo, Linzi; Ai, Jing; Fu, Heyun; Chen, Wei; Zheng, Shourong; Xu, Zhaoyi; Zhu, Dongqiang

    2016-01-01

    The presence of sulfonamide antibiotics in aquatic environments poses potential risks to human health and ecosystems. In the present study, a highly porous activated carbon was prepared by KOH activation of an anthracite coal (Anth-KOH), and its adsorption properties toward two sulfonamides (sulfamethoxazole and sulfapyridine) and three smaller-sized monoaromatics (phenol, 4-nitrophenol and 1,3-dinitrobenzene) were examined in both batch and fixed-bed adsorption experiments to probe the interplay between adsorbate molecular size and adsorbent pore structure. A commercial powder microporous activated carbon (PAC) and a commercial mesoporous carbon (CMK-3) possessing distinct pore properties were included as comparative adsorbents. Among the three adsorbents Anth-KOH exhibited the largest adsorption capacities for all test adsorbates (especially the two sulfonamides) in both batch mode and fixed-bed mode. After being normalized by the adsorbent surface area, the batch adsorption isotherms of sulfonamides on PAC and Anth-KOH were displaced upward relative to the isotherms on CMK-3, likely due to the micropore-filling effect facilitated by the microporosity of adsorbents. In the fixed-bed mode, the surface area-normalized adsorption capacities of Anth-KOH for sulfonamides were close to that of CMK-3, and higher than that of PAC. The irregular, closed micropores of PAC might impede the diffusion of the relatively large-sized sulfonamide molecules and in turn led to lowered fixed-bed adsorption capacities. The overall superior adsorption of sulfonamides on Anth-KOH can be attributed to its large specific surface area (2514 m"2/g), high pore volume (1.23 cm"3/g) and large micropore sizes (centered at 2.0 nm). These findings imply that KOH-activated anthracite coal is a promising adsorbent for the removal of sulfonamide antibiotics from aqueous solution. - Highlights: • A high efficiency adsorbent for sulfonamide removal is prepared from anthracite. • Effects of

  17. Thermodynamic comparison of the FICFB and Viking gasification concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gassner, Martin; Marechal, Francois

    2009-01-01

    Two biomass gasification concepts, i.e. indirectly heated, fast internally circulating fluidised bed (FICFB) gasification with steam as gasifying agent and two-stage, directly heated, fixed bed Viking gasification are compared with respect to their performance as gas generators. Based on adjusted equilibrium equations, the gas composition and the energy requirements for gasification are accurately modelled. Overall energy balances are assessed by an energy integration with the heat cascade concept and considering energy recovery in a steam Rankine cycle. A detailed inventory of energy and exergy losses of the different process sections is presented and potential process improvements due to a better utility choice or feed pretreatment like drying or pyrolysis are discussed. While Viking gasification performs better as an isolated gas generator than state-of-the-art FICFB gasification, there is large potential for improvement of the FICFB system. Furthermore, a concluding analysis of the gasification systems in an integrated plant for synthetic natural gas production shows that FICFB gasification is more suitable overall due to a more advantageous energy conversion related to the producer gas composition.

  18. Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulations of Gas-Phase Radial Dispersion in Fixed Beds with Wall Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony G. Dixon

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The effective medium approach to radial fixed bed dispersion models, in which radial dispersion of mass is superimposed on axial plug flow, is based on a constant effective dispersion coefficient, DT. For packed beds of a small tube-to-particle diameter ratio (N, the experimentally-observed decrease in this parameter near the tube wall is accounted for by a lumped resistance located at the tube wall, the wall mass transfer coefficient km. This work presents validated computational fluid dynamics (CFD simulations to obtain detailed radial velocity and concentration profiles for eight different computer-generated packed tubes of spheres in the range 5.04 ≤ N ≤ 9.3 and over a range of flow rates 87 ≤ Re ≤ 870 where Re is based on superficial velocity and the particle diameter dp. Initial runs with pure air gave axial velocity profiles vz(r averaged over the length of the packing. Then, simulations with the tube wall coated with methane yielded radial concentration profiles. A model with only DT could not describe the radial concentration profiles. The two-parameter model with DT and km agreed better with the bed-center concentration profiles, but not with the sharp decreases in concentration close to the tube wall. A three-parameter model based on classical two-layer mixing length theory, with a wall-function for the decrease in transverse radial convective transport in the near-wall region, showed greatly improved ability to reproduce the near-wall concentration profiles.

  19. Cadmium removal by bioclastic granules (Lithothamnium calcareum): batch and fixed-bed column systems sorption studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veneu, Diego Macedo; Schneider, Claudio Luiz; de Mello Monte, Marisa Bezerra; Cunha, Osvaldo Galvão Caldas; Yokoyama, Lídia

    2017-06-19

    The potential of Bioclastic Granules - BG (calcium-carbonate-based material) using the algae Lithothamnium calcareum as sorbent for the removal of Cd(II) from aqueous solutions by sorption was evaluated through batch and continuous systems tests using a fixed-bed column. Sorption process variables, in particular pH (2-7), particle size (<38-300 μm), initial BG concentration (0.1-1.0 g L -1 ), initial Cd(II) concentrations (5-400 mg L -1 ) and contact time (5-240 min), were evaluated. Adsorption isotherm profiles of Cd(II) per BG were similar to an L-type, or Langmuir type, with the adsorption forming a monolayer of approximately 0.61 μm, with a q max of 188.74 mg g -1 and k L of 0.710 L mg -1 . Thomas's model considers that sorption is not limited to a chemical reaction but is controlled by mass transfer at the interface. In the present study, the obtained value of k Th was 0.895 mL h -1  mg -1 , reaching a sorption capacity q o of 124.4 mg g -1 . For the Yoon-Nelson model, it was possible to obtain two important parameters to describe the behavior of the column, the rate constant (k YN ), obtaining a value of 0.09 h -1 and an τ of 82.12 h corresponding to the time required for sorption to occur of 50% of the solute in the rupture curve. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy analyses coupled to the X-ray dispersive energy system (SEM/EDS) of the BG after the Cd(II) ion sorption tests evidenced the formation of crystals with the prevalence of a new mineral phase (otavite).

  20. Adsorptive control of water in esterification with immobilized enzymes: II. fixed-bed reactor behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensah, P; Gainer, J L; Carta, G

    1998-11-20

    Experimental and theoretical studies are conducted to understand the dynamic behavior of a continuous-flow fixed-bed reactor in which an esterification is catalyzed by an immobilized enzyme in an organic solvent medium. The experimental system consists of a commercial immobilized lipase preparation known as Lipozyme as the biocatalyst, with propionic acid and isoamyl alcohol (dissolved in hexane) as the reaction substrates. A complex dynamic behavior is observed experimentally as a result of the simultaneous occurrence of reaction and adsorption phenomena. Both propionic acid and water are adsorbed by the biocatalyst resulting in lower reaction rates. In addition, an excessive accumulation of water in the reactor leads to a rapid irreversible inactivation of the enzyme. A model based on previously-obtained adsorption isotherms and kinetic expressions, as well as on adsorption rate measurements obtained in this work, is used to predict the concentration and thermodynamic activity of water along the reactor length. The model successfully predicts the dynamic behavior of the reactor and shows that a maximum thermodynamic activity of water occurs at a point at some distance from the reactor entrance. A cation exchange resin in sodium form, packed in the reactor as a selective water adsorbent together with the catalyst particles, is shown to be an effective means for preventing an excessive accumulation of water formed in the reaction. Its use results in longer cycle times and greater productivity. As predicted by the model, the experimental results show that the water adsorbed on the catalyst and on the ion exchange resin can be removed with isoamyl alcohol with no apparent loss in enzyme activity. Copyright 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  1. Models comparative study for heat storage in fixed beds; Estudo comparativo de modelos para armazenamento de calor em leitos fixos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuginski, Junior, Rubens

    1991-07-01

    This work presents comparative results of a numerical investigation of four possible models for the prediction of thermal performance of fixed bed storage units and their thermal design. These models includes Schumann's model, the radial dispersion model, a model that include both axial heat conduction in the fluid phase and admits thermal gradient in the solids particles and finally a two dimensional single phase model. For each of these models a computer code was written and tested to evaluate the computing time of same data and analyze any other computational problems. The tests of thermal performance included particle size, porosity, particle material, flow rate, inlet temperature and heat losses form tank walls and extremities. Dynamics behaviour of the storage units due to transient variation in either flow rate or inlet temperature was also investigated. The results presented include temperature gradients, pressure drop and heat storage. The results obtained are very useful for analysis and design of fixed bed storage units. (author)

  2. Fixed bed sorption of phosphorus from wastewater using iron oxide-based media derived from acid mine drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibrell, Philip L.; Tucker, T.W.

    2012-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) releases to the environment have been implicated in the eutrophication of important water bodies worldwide. Current technology for the removal of P from wastewaters consists of treatment with aluminum (Al) or iron (Fe) salts, but is expensive. The neutralization of acid mine drainage (AMD) generates sludge rich in Fe and Al oxides that has hitherto been considered a waste product, but these sludges could serve as an economical adsorption media for the removal of P from wastewaters. Therefore, we have evaluated an AMD-derived media as a sorbent for P in fixed bed sorption systems. The homogenous surface diffusion model (HSDM) was used to analyze fixed bed test data and to determine the value of related sorption parameters. The surface diffusion modulus Ed was found to be a useful predictor of sorption kinetics. Values of Ed treatment costs while at the same time ameliorating the impacts of P contamination.

  3. Carbonaceous materials in petrochemical wastewater before and after treatment in an aerated submerged fixed-bed biofilm reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Trojanowicz Karol; Wojcik Wlodzimierz

    2016-01-01

    Results of the studies for determining fractions of organic contaminants in a pretreated petrochemical wastewater flowing into a pilot Aerated Submerged Fixed-Bed Biofilm Reactor (ASFBBR) are presented and discussed. The method of chemical oxygen demand (COD) fractionation consisted of physical tests and biological assays. It was found that the main part of the total COD in the petrochemical, pretreated wastewater was soluble organic substance with average value of 57.6%. The fractions of par...

  4. Enhanced removal of sulfonamide antibiotics by KOH-activated anthracite coal: Batch and fixed-bed studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Linzi; Ai, Jing; Fu, Heyun; Chen, Wei; Zheng, Shourong; Xu, Zhaoyi; Zhu, Dongqiang

    2016-04-01

    The presence of sulfonamide antibiotics in aquatic environments poses potential risks to human health and ecosystems. In the present study, a highly porous activated carbon was prepared by KOH activation of an anthracite coal (Anth-KOH), and its adsorption properties toward two sulfonamides (sulfamethoxazole and sulfapyridine) and three smaller-sized monoaromatics (phenol, 4-nitrophenol and 1,3-dinitrobenzene) were examined in both batch and fixed-bed adsorption experiments to probe the interplay between adsorbate molecular size and adsorbent pore structure. A commercial powder microporous activated carbon (PAC) and a commercial mesoporous carbon (CMK-3) possessing distinct pore properties were included as comparative adsorbents. Among the three adsorbents Anth-KOH exhibited the largest adsorption capacities for all test adsorbates (especially the two sulfonamides) in both batch mode and fixed-bed mode. After being normalized by the adsorbent surface area, the batch adsorption isotherms of sulfonamides on PAC and Anth-KOH were displaced upward relative to the isotherms on CMK-3, likely due to the micropore-filling effect facilitated by the microporosity of adsorbents. In the fixed-bed mode, the surface area-normalized adsorption capacities of Anth-KOH for sulfonamides were close to that of CMK-3, and higher than that of PAC. The irregular, closed micropores of PAC might impede the diffusion of the relatively large-sized sulfonamide molecules and in turn led to lowered fixed-bed adsorption capacities. The overall superior adsorption of sulfonamides on Anth-KOH can be attributed to its large specific surface area (2514 m(2)/g), high pore volume (1.23 cm(3)/g) and large micropore sizes (centered at 2.0 nm). These findings imply that KOH-activated anthracite coal is a promising adsorbent for the removal of sulfonamide antibiotics from aqueous solution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Fixed bed sorption of phosphorus from wastewater using iron oxide-based media derived from acid mine drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibrell, Philip L.; Tucker, T.W.

    2012-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) releases to the environment have been implicated in the eutrophication of important water bodies worldwide. Current technology for the removal of P from wastewaters consists of treatment with aluminum (Al) or iron (Fe) salts, but is expensive. The neutralization of acid mine drainage (AMD) generates sludge rich in Fe and Al oxides that has hitherto been considered a waste product, but these sludges could serve as an economical adsorption media for the removal of P from wastewaters. Therefore, we have evaluated an AMD-derived media as a sorbent for P in fixed bed sorption systems. The homogenous surface diffusion model (HSDM) was used to analyze fixed bed test data and to determine the value of related sorption parameters. The surface diffusion modulus Ed was found to be a useful predictor of sorption kinetics. Values of Ed < 0.2 were associated with early breakthrough of P, while more desirable S-shaped breakthrough curves resulted when 0.2 < Ed < 0.5. Computer simulations of the fixed bed process with the HSDM confirmed that if Ed was known, the shape of the breakthrough curve could be calculated. The surface diffusion coefficient D s was a critical factor in the calculation of Ed and could be estimated based on the sorption test conditions such as media characteristics, and influent flow rate and concentration. Optimal test results were obtained with a relatively small media particle size (average particle radius 0.028 cm) and resulted in 96 % removal of P from the influent over 46 days of continuous operation. These results indicate that fixed bed sorption of P would be a feasible option for the utilization of AMD residues, thus helping to decrease AMD treatment costs while at the same time ameliorating the impacts of P contamination.

  6. Coupling membrane pervaporation with a fixed-bed reactor for enhanced esterification of oleic acid with ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Ying; Lv, Enmin; Ma, Lingling; Lu, Jie; Chen, Kexun; Ding, Jincheng

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The reactor coupling membrane pervaporation with a fixed-bed reactor was studied. • The factors effecting the esterification of oleic acid were investigated. • NaA zeolite membrane was used for dehydration in the coupled reactor. - Abstract: Process intensification through membrane pervaporation (PV) integrated with a fixed-bed reactor could be successfully applied to the esterification of oleic acid and ethanol, which is a crucial step in the biodiesel synthesis using waste oil and grease as resource. The properties of the NaA zeolite membrane such as structure, formulation and separation were investigated by scanning electronic microscopy–energy dispersive spectrometry (SEM–EDS), X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and PV dehydration. Results showed that the NaA zeolite membrane had good separating property for removing water from the organics mixture. The operating conditions were optimized as the ethanol to oleic acid molar ratio of 15:1, feedstock flow rate of 1.0 ml/min, reaction temperature of 80.0 °C and catalyst bed height of 132 mm. The final conversion of oleic acid increased from 84.23% to 87.18% by PV using the NaA zeolite membrane at 24.0 h of operation. The membrane showed good PV performance after used for eight successive runs in the PV-assisted esterification. The resin exhibited a much high catalytic activity and operation stability after used for 100 h in the consecutive single pass fixed-bed esterification.

  7. Esterification of oleic acid in a three-phase, fixed-bed reactor packed with a cation exchange resin catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Sung Mo; Kimura, Hiroko; Kusakabe, Katsuki

    2011-01-01

    Esterification of oleic acid was performed in a three-phase fixed-bed reactor with a cation exchange resin catalyst (Amberlyst-15) at high temperature, which was varied from 80 to 120 °C. The fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) yields in the fixed-bed reactor were increased with increases in the reaction temperature, methanol flow rate and bed height. Moreover, the FAME yields were higher than those obtained using a batch reactor due to an equilibrium shift toward the product that resulted from continuous evaporation of the produced water. In addition, there was no catalyst deactivation during the esterification of oleic acid. However, addition of sunflower oil to the oleic acid reduced the FAME yield obtained from simultaneous esterification and transesterification. The FAME yield was 97.5% at a reaction temperature of 100 °C in the fixed-bed with a height of 5 cm when the methanol and oleic acid feed rates were 8.6 and 9.0 mL/h, respectively. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Explanative report on the achievements in research and development of a coal gasification technology in fiscal 1981. Research and development of a low-calorie gasification power generation technology; 1981 nendo sekitan gas ka gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu seika setsumeisho. Teikarori gas ka hatsuden gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-03-01

    This paper describes the development works on a low-calorie gasification power generation technology in research and development of a coal gasification technology in fiscal 1981. The third sub-committee was established in the Coal Gasification Committee, and the sub-committee has summarized a survey report on coal gasification composite power generation upon having held seven discussion meetings. Surveys were carried out on the fluidized bed gasification process and the coal gasification composite power generation systems mainly in Germany and the U.S.A. where development of coal gasification technologies has been advanced. Germany and Britain who use great amount of coal are urged to find ways for how to clear the environmental criteria applied in the EC countries. The U.S.A. is moving forward the development of coal gasification technologies for power generation, chemical materials, and industrial fuel to be used as the substitutes to petroleum. This paper describes the development works at the Electric Power Development Company to realize a coal gasification composite power generation system of 1,000 t/d class. The pressurized fluidized bed system is assumed, and a verification test is scheduled to be performed on the chemical reaction characteristics by using a 40-t/d furnace. The furnace shape will be decided upon executing high-pressure cold model experiments. Fiscal 1981 has fabricated and installed devices for the high-pressure coal feeding system. Operation tests, air tightness tests, and instrumentation tests have verified normal operation. (NEDO)

  9. Biomass Gasification - A synthesis of technical barriers and current research issues for deployment at large scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heyne, Stefan [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Gothenburg (Sweden); Liliedahl, Truls [KTH, Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Marklund, Magnus [Energy Technology Centre, Piteaa (Sweden)

    2013-09-01

    Thermal gasification at large scale for cogeneration of power and heat and/or production of fuels and materials is a main pathway for a sustainable deployment of biomass resources. However, so far no such full scale production exists and biomass gasification projects remain at the pilot or demonstration scale. This report focuses on the key critical technology challenges for the large-scale deployment of the following biomass-based gasification concepts: Direct Fluidized Bed Gasification (FBG), Entrained Flow Gasification (EFG) and indirect Dual Fluidized Bed Gasification (DFBG). The main content in this report is based on responses from a number of experts in biomass gasification obtained from a questionnaire. The survey was composed of a number of more or less specific questions on technical barriers as to the three gasification concepts considered. For formalising the questionnaire, the concept of Technology Readiness Level (TRL 1-9) was used for grading the level of technical maturity of the different sub-processes within the three generic biomass gasification technologies. For direct fluidized bed gasification (FBG) it is mentioned that the technology is already available at commercial scale as air-blown technology and thus that air-blown FBG gasification may be reckoned a mature technology. The remaining technical challenge is the conversion to operation on oxygen with the final goal of producing chemicals or transport fuels. Tar reduction, in particular, and gas cleaning and upgrading in general are by far the most frequently named technical issues considered problematic. Other important aspects are problems that may occur when operating on low-grade fuels - i.e. low-cost fuels. These problems include bed agglomeration/ash sintering as well as alkali fouling. Even the preparation and feeding of these low-grade fuels tend to be problematic and require further development to be used on a commercial scale. Furthermore, efficient char conversion is mentioned by

  10. Analysis of experimental researches of wood gasification process in a continuous layer

    OpenAIRE

    Lys, Stepan; Rymar, Tetyana; Yurasova, Oksana; Bura, Mykhaylo

    2017-01-01

    For today are known quite a bit methods redoing of wood and its wastes in energy, but one of the most perspective is gasification. The construction of the gazogene, on which the row of experiments is conducted with the aim of determination of conformity to law of influence of entrance factors which influence on the process of gasification and on quality of synthesis-gas, was worked out for this purpose. The statistical processing of experimental data enables to define ...

  11. Synergistic combination of biomass torrefaction and co-gasification: Reactivity studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Geng, Ping; Liu, Rui

    2017-12-01

    Two typical biomass feedstocks obtained from woody wastes and agricultural residues were torrefied or mildly pyrolized in a fixed-bed reactor. Effects of the torrefaction conditions on product distributions, compositional and energetic properties of the solid products, char gasification reactivity, and co-gasification behavior between coal and torrefied solids were systematically investigated. Torrefaction pretreatment produced high quality bio-solids with not only increased energy density, but also concentrated alkali and alkaline earth metals (AAEM). As a consequence of greater retention of catalytic elements in the solid products, the chars derived from torrefied biomass exhibited a faster conversion than those derived from raw biomass during CO 2 gasification. Furthermore, co-gasification of coal/torrefied biomass blends exhibited stronger synergy compared to the coal/raw biomass blends. The results and insights provided by this study filled a gap in understanding synergy during co-gasification of coal and torrefied biomass. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Partial oxidation of Raffinate II and other mixtures of n-Butane and n-Butenes to maleic anhydride in a fixed-bed reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Brandstädter, Willi Michael

    2008-01-01

    The utilisation of the C4 streams of steamcrackers by converting raffinate II to maleic anhydride was studied. The oxidation reactions were investigated in a laboratory-scale fixed-bed reactor to determine reaction kinetics. The effects of pore diffusional resistance were investigated and explained. A two-dimensional pseudo-homogeneous reactor model was used for the simulation of a production-scale fixed-bed reactor. A flow scheme of the reactor section including a recycle was proposed.

  13. Sorptive Removal of Cesium and Cobalt Ions in a Fixed bed Column Using Lewatit S100 Cation Exchange Resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Naggar, M.R.; Ibrahim, H.A.; El-Kamash, A.M.

    2014-01-01

    The sorptive removal of cesium and cobalt ions from aqueous solutions in a fixed bed column packed with Lewatit S100® cation exchange resin has been investigated. A preliminary batch studies were performed to estimate the effect of pH and contact time on the sorption process. Results indicated that Cs + and Co 2+ could be efficiently removed using Lewatit S100® at a ph range of 4-7 with more affinity towards Cs than Co 2+ . Kinetic models have been applied to the sorption rate data and the relevant parameters were determined. The obtained results indicated that the sorption of both Cs + and Co 2+ on Lewatit S100 followed pseudo second-order rather than pseudo first-order or Morris-Webber model. Fixed bed experiments were conducted at a constant initial concentration of 100 mg/l whereas the effect of bed depth (3, 4.5 and 6 cm) and volumetric flow rate (3 and 5 ml/min.) on the breakthrough characteristics of the fixed bed sorption systems were determined. The experimental sorption data were fitted to the well-established column models namely; Thomas and BDST models to compute the different model parameters. The higher column sorption capacities were obtained at bed depth of 3 cm with a flow rate of 3 ml/min., for both Cs + and Co 2+ . The BDST model appeared to describe experimental results better than Thomas model. Results indicate that Lewatit S100® is an efficient material for the removal of cesium and cobalt ions from aqueous solutions.

  14. Modeling and Experimental Studies of Mercury Oxidation and Adsorption in a Fixed-Bed and Entrained-Flow Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buitrago, Paula A. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Morrill, Mike [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Lighty, JoAnn S. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Silcox, Geoffrey D. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2009-06-01

    This report presents experimental and modeling mercury oxidation and adsorption data. Fixed-bed and single-particle models of mercury adsorption were developed. The experimental data were obtained with two reactors: a 300-W, methane-fired, tubular, quartz-lined reactor for studying homogeneous oxidation reactions and a fixed-bed reactor, also of quartz, for studying heterogeneous reactions. The latter was attached to the exit of the former to provide realistic combustion gases. The fixed-bed reactor contained one gram of coconut-shell carbon and remained at a temperature of 150°C. All methane, air, SO2, and halogen species were introduced through the burner to produce a radical pool representative of real combustion systems. A Tekran 2537A Analyzer coupled with a wet conditioning system provided speciated mercury concentrations. At 150°C and in the absence of HCl or HBr, the mercury uptake was about 20%. The addition of 50 ppm HCl caused complete capture of all elemental and oxidized mercury species. In the absence of halogens, SO2 increased the mercury adsorption efficiency to up to 30 percent. The extent of adsorption decreased with increasing SO2 concentration when halogens were present. Increasing the HCl concentration to 100 ppm lessened the effect of SO2. The fixed-bed model incorporates Langmuir adsorption kinetics and was developed to predict adsorption of elemental mercury and the effect of multiple flue gas components. This model neglects intraparticle diffusional resistances and is only applicable to pulverized carbon sorbents. It roughly describes experimental data from the literature. The current version includes the ability to account for competitive adsorption between mercury, SO2, and NO2. The single particle model simulates in-flight sorbent capture of elemental mercury. This model was developed to include Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms, rate equations, sorbent feed rate, and

  15. International Seminar on Gasification 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Held, Joergen [ed.

    2008-11-15

    results in a product gas free of nitrogen and hence suitable for production of biomethane. The concept has been proven at the Guessing plant using a slip-stream but still we are awaiting the first commercial plant that produce biomethane suitable as vehicle fuel or for grid injection. Several demonstration projects are related to air-blown gasification and CHP production. The two-stage Viking gasifier developed at Technical University of Denmark produces a gas with low tar content (<5 mg/Nm3) suitable for combined heat and power production where a gas engine is used for the electricity production. The 70 kW{sub th} pilot plant has an electric efficiency of 25 %. With a scale-up to 0.2-2 MW{sub e} and improved internal heat recovery an electric efficiency of >37 % is expected. In Skive, Denmark, biomass gasification in a 20 MW{sub th} gasifier based on technology developed at GTI, USA and commercialized by Carbona, Finland is demonstrated. The total investment cost is 30 million Euro. Expected pay-back time is approx. 10 years. The project is delayed and the official opening is planned to April 2009. The delay reflects the inherent uncertainty related to large-scale demonstration of new technology. There are several other demonstrations related to biomass gasification and gas cleaning on their way and the field of gasification seems to experience a renaissance. Gas engines utilizing gasified biomass are commercially available. GE Jenbacher has installed gas engines in many biomass gasification plants in Europe. The accumulated hours of operation for the gas engines well exceed 100,000 hours. The plants with installed gas engines span over different gasification technologies (e.g. fixed bed - updraft, fixed bed - down draft and indirect gasification) and different gas compositions with lower heating values ranging from 5.4 MJ/Nm3 to 10.5 MJ/Nm3. High CO content in the gas results in high CO emissions from the gas engine which calls for exhaust gas after-treatment. To avoid

  16. Pilot scale testing of biomass feedstocks for use in gasification/gas turbine based power generation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Najewicz, D.J.; Furman, A.H. [General Electric Corporate Research and Development Center, Schenectady, NY (United States)

    1993-12-31

    A biomass gasification pilot program was performed at the GE Corporate Research and Development Center using two types of biomass feedstock. The object of the testing was to determine the properties of biomass product gas and its` suitability as a fuel for gas turbine based power generation cycles. The test program was sponsored by the State of Vermont, the US Environmental Protection Agency, the US Department of Energy and Winrock International/US Agency for International Development. Gasification of bagasse and wood chip feedstock was performed at a feed rate of approximately one ton per hour, using the Ge pressurized fixed bed gasifier and a single stage of cyclone particulate removal, operating at a temperature of 1,000 F. Both biomass feedstocks were found to gasify easily, and gasification capacity was limited by volumetric capacity of the fuel feed equipment. The biomass product gas was analyzed for chemical composition, particulate loading, fuel bound nitrogen levels, sulfur and alkali metal content. The results of the testing indicated the combustion characteristics of the biomass product gas are compatible with gas turbine combustor requirements. However, the particulate removal performance of the pilot facility single stage cyclone was found to be inadequate to meet turbine particulate contamination specifications. In addition, alkali metals found in biomass based fuels, which are known to cause corrosion of high temperature gas turbine components, were found to exceed allowable levels in the fuel gas. These alkali metal compounds are found in the particulate matter (at 1000 F) carried over from the gasifier, thus improved particulate removal technology, designed specifically for biomass particulate characteristics could meet the turbine requirements for both particulate and alkali loading. The paper will present the results of the biomass gasification testing and discuss the development needs in the area of gas clean-up and turbine combustion.

  17. Achievement report for fiscal 1982 on Sunshine Program. Research and development of coal gasification (Feasibility study of fluidized gasification process by pressurized hydrogenation); 1982 nendo sekitan gas ka no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Kaatsu suiten ryudo gas ka process no feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1983-01-01

    This report covers the results of a feasibility study conducted for the 'Research and development of high-calorie gas production technology (Fluidized gasification process by pressurized hydrogenation)' entrusted to the Mifuji Ironworks during the period 1974-1977 and then entrusted to the Babcock-Hitachi K.K. in the period 1978-present. The hydrogenation gasification process is characterized in that hydrogen serves as the gasification agent for the generation of a methane-rich high-calorie gas. It is preferred that the gasification temperature be relatively low and the pressure high for a hydrogenation gasification reaction. Under the Sunshine Program, development efforts are under way to produce a high-calorie gas, clean and its combustion easy to control, under a pressure of 30kg/cm{sup 2}G, more or less. In this pressurized gasification process, it is important to acquire high-concentration hydrogen for hydrogenation gasification simultaneously with the hydrogenation gasification reaction. In order to achieve the goal, a study is made of a new separated reaction type wet gasification furnace capable of generating high-concentration hydrogen efficiently and economically, and research is under way for the development of such a furnace. The results of element studies and of this feasibility study, and future tasks are compiled into this report. (NEDO)

  18. Batch and continuous (fixed-bed column) biosorption of crystal violet by Artocarpus heterophyllus (jackfruit) leaf powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Papita Das; Chakraborty, Sagnik; Chowdhury, Shamik

    2012-04-01

    In this study, batch and fixed-bed column experiments were performed to investigate the biosorption potential of Artocarpus heterophyllus (jackfruit) leaf powder (JLP) to remove crystal violet (CV) from aqueous solutions. Batch biosorption studies were carried out as a function of solution pH, contact time, initial dye concentration and temperature. The biosorption equilibrium data showed excellent fit to the Langmuir isotherm model with maximum monolayer biosorption capacity of 43.39 mg g(-1) at pH 7.0, initial dye concentration=50 mg L(-1), temperature=293 K and contact time=120 min. According to Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) isotherm model, biosorption of CV by JLP was chemisorption. The biosorption kinetics followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Thermodynamic analysis revealed that biosorption of CV from aqueous solution by JLP was a spontaneous and exothermic process. In order to ascertain the practical applicability of the biosorbent, fixed-bed column studies were also performed. The breakthrough time increased with increasing bed height and decreased with increasing flow rate. The Thomas model as well as the BDST model showed good agreement with the experimental results at all the process parameters studied. It can be concluded that JLP is a promising biosorbent for removal of CV from aqueous solutions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Theory and measurements of electrophoretic effects in monolith, fixed-bed, and fluidized-bed plasma reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morin, T.J.

    1989-01-01

    Pressure gradients and secondary flow fields generated by the passage of electrical current in a d.c. gas discharge or gas laser are topics of longstanding interest in the gaseous electronics literature. These hydrodynamic effects of space charge fields and charged particle density gradients have been principally exploited in the development of gas separation and purification processes. In recent characterization studies of fixed-bed and fluidized-bed plasma reactors several anomalous flow features have been observed. These reactors involve the contacting of a high-frequency, resonantly-sustained, disperse gas discharge with granular solids in a fixed or fluidized bed. Anomalies in the measured pressure drops and fluidization velocities have motivated the development of an appropriate theoretical approach to, and some additional experimental investigations of electrophoretic effects in disperse gas discharges. In this paper, a theory which includes the effects of space charge and diffusion is used to estimate the electric field and charged particle density profiles. These profiles are then used to calculate velocity fields and gas flow rates for monolith, fixed-bed, and fluidized-bed reactors. These results are used to rationalize measurements of gas flow rates and axial pressure gradients in high-frequency disperse gas discharges with and without an additional d.c. axial electric field

  20. Pyrolysis of Jatropha curcas pressed cake for bio-oil production in a fixed-bed system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jourabchi, Seyed Amirmostafa; Gan, Suyin; Ng, Hoon Kiat

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The pyrolysis of Jatropha curcas waste in a fixed-bed rig was studied. • Yield, calorific value, water content and acidity of bio-oil were compared. • Empirical correlations for bio-oil yield and specifications were developed. • Optimisation of bio-oil production based on combined specifications was achieved. - Abstract: This study investigated the effects of pyrolysis parameters on the yield and quality of bio-oil from Jatropha curcas pressed cake. This biomass was pyrolysed in a fixed-bed reactor over a temperature range of 573.15 K to 1073.15 K and a nitrogen linear speed range of 7.8 × 10 −5 m/s to 6.7 × 10 −2 m/s. The heating rate and biomass grain size were 50 K/min and <2 mm, respectively. The bio-oils were tested for the gross calorific value, water content and acidity. The pyrolysis process was simulated using Thermo-Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) and Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC) for mass and energy balances analyses. Empirical correlations between the bio-oil specifications and pyrolysis parameters were developed using linear and nonlinear multiple regression methods for process optimisation. At optimum pyrolysis conditions, above 50% of the waste is converted to bio-oil with less than 30% water content, a gross calorific value of 15.12 MJ/kg and a pH of 6.77

  1. A green strategy for desorption of trihalomethanes adsorbed by humin and reuse of the fixed bed column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, G C; Romão, L P C; Santos, M C; Costa, A S; Alexandre, M R

    2012-03-30

    The objective of the present work was to develop a thermal desorption method for the removal of trihalomethanes (THM) adsorbed by humin, followed by multiple recycling of the fixed bed column in order to avoid excessive consumption of materials and reduce operating costs. The results obtained for adsorption on a fixed bed column confirmed the effectiveness of humin as an adsorbent, extracting between 45.9% and 90.1% of the total THM (TTHM). In none of the tests was the column fully saturated after 10h. Experiments involving thermal desorption were used to evaluate the potential of the technique for column regeneration. The adsorptive capacity of the humin bed increased significantly (p<0.05) between the first and fifth desorption cycle, by 18.9%, 18.1%, 24.2%, 20.2% and 24.2% for CHBr(3), CHBr(2)Cl, CHBrCl(2), CHCl(3) and TTHM, respectively. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Fixed-bed biosorption of cadmium using immobilized Scenedesmus obliquus CNW-N cells on loofa (Luffa cylindrica) sponge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bor-Yann; Chen, Chun-Yen; Guo, Wan-Qian; Chang, Hao-Wei; Chen, Wen-Ming; Lee, Duu-Jong; Huang, Chieh-Chen; Ren, Nan-Qi; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2014-05-01

    A continuous fixed-bed biosorption process was established for cadmium (Cd) removal by Scenedesmus obliquus CNW-N (isolated from southern Taiwan) cells immobilized onto loofa sponge. This immobilized-cell biosorption process allows better recovery and reusability of the microalgal biomass. The growth of microalgae on the matrix support with appropriate nutrient supplementation could enhance the overall metal removal activity. Major operating parameters (e.g., feeding flow rate, cycle number of medium replacement, and particle diameter of the sponge) were studied for treatability evaluation. The most promising cell growth on the sponge support was obtained at a flow rate of 0.284 bed volume (BV)/min, sponge particle diameter of 1 cm, and with one cycle of medium replacement. The performance of fixed-bed biosorption (adsorption capacity of 38.4 mg, breakthrough time at 15.5 h) was achieved at a flow rate of 5 ml/min with an influent concentration of 7.5 mg Cd/l. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of hydraulic retention time on hydrodynamic behavior of anaerobic-aerobic fixed bed reactor treating cattle slaughterhouse effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiane Cristina de Freitas

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The study of the hydrodynamic behavior in reactors provides characteristics of the flow regime and its anomalies that can reduce biological processes efficiency due to the decrease of the useful volume and the hydraulic retention time required for the performance of microbial activity. In this study, the hydrodynamic behavior of an anaerobic-aerobic fixed bed reactor, operated with HRT (hydraulic retention time of 24, 18 and 12 hours, was evaluated in the treatment of raw cattle slaughterhouse wastewater. Polyurethane foam and expanded clay were used as support media for biomass immobilization. Experimental data of pulse type stimulus-response assays were performed with eosin Y and bromophenol blue, and adjusted to the single-parameter theoretical models of dispersion and N-continuous stirred tank reactors in series (N-CSTR. N-CSTR model presented the best adjustment for the HRT and tracers evaluated. RDT (residence time distribution curves obtained with N-CSTR model in the assays with bromophenol blue resulted in better adjustment compared to the eosin Y. The predominant flow regime in AAFBR (anaerobic aerobic fixed bed reactor is the N-CSTR in series, as well as the existence of preferential paths and hydraulic short-circuiting.

  4. Media arrangement impacts cell growth in anaerobic fixed-bed reactors treating sugarcane vinasse: Structured vs. randomic biomass immobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Aquino, Samuel; Fuess, Lucas Tadeu; Pires, Eduardo Cleto

    2017-07-01

    This study reports on the application of an innovative structured-bed reactor (FVR) as an alternative to conventional packed-bed reactors (PBRs) to treat high-strength solid-rich wastewaters. Using the FVR prevents solids from accumulating within the fixed-bed, while maintaining the advantages of the biomass immobilization. The long-term operation (330days) of a FVR and a PBR applied to sugarcane vinasse under increasing organic loads (2.4-18.0kgCODm -3 day -1 ) was assessed, focusing on the impacts of the different media arrangements over the production and retention of biomass. Much higher organic matter degradation rates, as well as long-term operational stability and high conversion efficiencies (>80%) confirmed that the FVR performed better than the PBR. Despite the equivalent operating conditions, the biomass growth yield was different in both reactors, i.e., 0.095gVSSg -1 COD (FVR) and 0.066gVSSg -1 COD (PBR), indicating a clear control of the media arrangement over the biomass production in fixed-bed reactors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Fixed-bed adsorption separation of xylene isomers over sio2/silicallite-1 core-shell adsorbents

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Easir A.

    2013-12-29

    SiO2/Silicalite-1 core-shell material has been demonstrated as potential shape selective adsorbent in gas phase separation of p-xylene from a mixture of p/o-xylene isomers. The core-shell composite comprised of large silica core and thin polycrystalline silicalite-1 shell which was synthesized via a self-assembly of silicalite-1 nanocrystals on core silica surface followed by a secondary seeded growth method. The core materials, SiO2 used in this study has mesoporosity with an average pore diameter of 60Å and hence offers no shape selectivity for xylene isomers. However, the shell, silicalite-1 contains rigid pore structures and preferentially adsorbs p-xylene from their isomers mixtures. A series of adsorption fixed bed breakthrough adsorption/desorption experiment was performed to obtain the equilibrium isotherms and adsorption isotherm parameters of xylene isomers. The equilibrium isotherms of xylene isomers follow the Langmuir\\'s model. A chromatographic adsorption model has been used to describe the fixed-bed breakthrough profiles of xylene isomers. The model has successfully predicted the responses of the binary mixtures of p/o-xylene isomers. The SiO2/silicalite-1 core-shell adsorbents have shown para-selectivity as high as 15. © Bangladesh Uni. of Engg. & Tech.

  6. The BGL coal gasification process - development status, operational experience and potential applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, A.R.; Brown, D.J.; H. Hirschfelder [Advantica Technologies Ltd., Loughborough (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-01

    The BGL gasifier's fixed bed mode of operation makes for significant operational differences to the various entrained flow bed gasification processes currently available, whilst the slagging lower half offers considerable advantages over older processes in terms of efficiency and steam usage. This paper reviews operating experience of the BGL process on a variety of feedstocks and presents economic and technical assessments of the application of the BGL gasifier for IGCC, Syngas and SNG applications under current market conditions. Finally there a survey of the status of new BGL gasification projects and the scope of the current BGL technology is offering. 2 figs., 3 tabs., 2 photos.

  7. A Review of Underground Coal Gasification Research and Development in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camp, D. W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-06-26

    An intense and productive period of research and development on underground coal gasification (UCG) took place in the United States from the mid-1970’s through the late 1980’s. It began with the translation and review of Soviet literature and ended with the Rocky Mountain 1 field test. This demonstrated the feasibility of newly-developed technologies that form the basis of many UCG projects around the world today. This period began with little domestic understanding of UCG and ended with an accurate observation-based conceptual model and a corresponding predictive multi-physics mathematical model of the process. The many accomplishments of this period form the main content of this report. This report also covers recent U.S. activities and accomplishments during the period 2004-2015, and touches briefly on the Bureau of Mines efforts between 1948 and 1963. Most of the activities were funded by the United States Department of Energy and its predecessors. While private/commercially-funded activities are reviewed here, the emphasis is on government-funded work. It has a much greater extent of publicly available reports and papers, and they generally contain much greater technical detail. Field tests were the marquis activities around which an integrated multi-faceted program was built. These are described in detail in Section 4. Highlights from modeling efforts are briefly covered, as the program was integrated and well-rounded, with field results informing models and vice-versa. The primary goal of this report is to review what has been learned about UCG from the U.S. experience in aggregate. This includes observations, conclusions, lessons-learned, phenomena understood, and technology developed. The latter sections of this report review these things.

  8. CO-FIRING COAL, FEEDLOT, AND LITTER BIOMASS (CFB AND LFB) FUELS IN PULVERIZED FUEL AND FIXED BED BURNERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalyan Annamalai; John Sweeten; Saqib Mukhtar; Ben Thien; Gengsheng Wei; Soyuz Priyadarsan

    2002-01-01

    result as the levels of N are higher in the biomass fuel than in coal. Further experiments showed that biomass is twice or more effective than coal when used in a reburning process to reduce NO(sub x) emissions. Since crushing costs of biomass fuels may be prohibitive, stoker firing may be cost effective; in order simulate such a firing, future work will investigate the performance of a gasifier when fired with larger sized coal and biomass. It will be a fixed bed gasifier, and will evaluate blends, coal, and biomass. Computer simulations were performed using the PCGC-2 code supplied by BYU and modified by A and M with three mixture fractions for handling animal based biomass fuels in order to include an improved moisture model for handling wet fuels and phosphorus oxidation. Finally the results of the economic analysis show that considerable savings can be achieved with the use of biomass. In the case of higher ash and moisture biomass, the fuel cost savings will be reduced, due to increased transportation costs. A spreadsheet program was created to analyze the fuel savings for a variety of different moisture levels, ash levels, and power plant operating parameters

  9. CO-FIRING COAL, FEEDLOT, AND LITTER BIOMASS (CFB AND LFB) FUELS IN PULVERIZED FUEL AND FIXED BED BURNERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalyan Annamalai; John Sweeten; Saqib Mukhtar; Ben Thien; Gengsheng Wei; Soyuz Priyadarsan

    2002-01-15

    result as the levels of N are higher in the biomass fuel than in coal. Further experiments showed that biomass is twice or more effective than coal when used in a reburning process to reduce NO{sub x} emissions. Since crushing costs of biomass fuels may be prohibitive, stoker firing may be cost effective; in order simulate such a firing, future work will investigate the performance of a gasifier when fired with larger sized coal and biomass. It will be a fixed bed gasifier, and will evaluate blends, coal, and biomass. Computer simulations were performed using the PCGC-2 code supplied by BYU and modified by A&M with three mixture fractions for handling animal based biomass fuels in order to include an improved moisture model for handling wet fuels and phosphorus oxidation. Finally the results of the economic analysis show that considerable savings can be achieved with the use of biomass. In the case of higher ash and moisture biomass, the fuel cost savings will be reduced, due to increased transportation costs. A spreadsheet program was created to analyze the fuel savings for a variety of different moisture levels, ash levels, and power plant operating parameters.

  10. TiO2-photocatalyzed As(III) oxidation in a fixed-bed, flow-through reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Megan A; Hering, Janet G

    2006-07-01

    Compliance with the U.S. drinking water standard for arsenic (As) of 10 microg L(-1) is required in January 2006. This will necessitate implementation of treatment technologies for As removal by thousands of water suppliers. Although a variety of such technologies is available, most require preoxidation of As(III) to As(V) for efficient performance. Previous batch studies with illuminated TiO2 slurries have demonstrated that TiO2-photocatalyzed AS(III) oxidation occurs rapidly. This study examined reaction efficiency in a flow-through, fixed-bed reactor that provides a better model for treatment in practice. Glass beads were coated with mixed P25/sol gel TiO2 and employed in an upflow reactor irradiated from above. The reactor residence time, influent As(III) concentration, number of TiO2 coatings on the beads, solution matrix, and light source were varied to characterize this reaction and determine its feasibility for water treatment. Repeated usage of the same beads in multiple experiments or extended use was found to affect effluent As(V) concentrations but not the steady-state effluent As(III) concentration, which suggests that As(III) oxidation at the TiO2 surface undergoes dynamic sorption equilibration. Catalyst poisoning was not observed either from As(V) or from competitively adsorbing anions, although the higher steady-state effluent As(III) concentrations in synthetic groundwater compared to 5 mM NaNO3 indicated that competitive sorbates in the matrix partially hinder the reaction. A reactive transport model with rate constants proportional to incident light at each bead layer fit the experimental data well despite simplifying assumptions. TiO2-photocatalyzed oxidation of As(III) was also effective under natural sunlight. Limitations to the efficiency of As(III) oxidation in the fixed-bed reactor were attributable to constraints of the reactor geometry, which could be overcome by improved design. The fixed-bed TiO2 reactor offers an environmentally

  11. Biosorption of cobalt(II) with sunflower biomass from aqueous solutions in a fixed bed column and neural networks modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguz, Ensar; Ersoy, Muhammed

    2014-01-01

    The effects of inlet cobalt(II) concentration (20-60 ppm), feed flow rate (8-19 ml/min) and bed height (5-15 cm), initial solution pH (3-5) and particle size (0.25shells of sunflower biomass was found to be 1.82 m(2)/g. A relationship between the predicted results of the ANN model and experimental data was conducted. The ANN model yielded determination coefficient of (R(2) 0.972), standard deviation ratio (0.166), mean absolute error (0.0158) and root mean square error (0.0141). The results indicated that the shells of the sunflower biomass is a suitable biosorbent for the uptake of cobalt(II) in fixed bed columns. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Fixed bed column study for Cu (II) removal from aqueous solution using water hyacinth (Eichornia crassipes) biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhimathi, R; Ramesh, S T; Yadu, Anubhav; Bharathi, K S

    2013-07-01

    This paper reports the results of the study on the performance of low-cost biosorbent water hyacinth (WH) in removing Cu (II) from aqueous solution. The adsorbent material adopted was found to be an efficient media for the removal of Cu (II) in continuous mode using fixed bed column. The column studies were conducted with 10 mg/L metal solution with a flow rate of 10 mL/min with different bed depths such as 10, 20 and 30 cm. The column design parameters like adsorption rate constant, adsorption capacity and minimum bed depth were calculated. It was found that, the adsorption capacity of copper ions by water hyacinth increased by increasing the bed depth and the contact time.

  13. Chromate (CrO2-4) Reduction in Groundwaters by Using Reductive Bacteria in Fixed-Bed Bioreactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battaglia-Brunet, F.; Foucher, S.; Morin, D.; Ignatiadis, I.

    2004-01-01

    A biological method for the reduction Cr(VI), using sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB), was tested in 2-L then 20-L fixed-bed reactors, with H 2 as a low-cost and clean substrate. The systems were inoculated with Desulfomicrobium norvegicum, that proved to be particularly efficient for direct Cr(VI) enzymatic reduction. The bacterial reduction was efficient when some SO 2- 4 was provided in the feeding, in order to allow their growth and to combine the direct enzymatic reduction to the indirect chemical reduction by dissolved H 2 S. The Cr(VI)/SO 2- 4 , ratio in the influent was adjusted in order to avoid excess sulphide production. A real polluted groundwater and an industrial electroplating effluent were treated in the 20-L pilot plant

  14. NUMERICAL SOLUTION OF STEADY STATE DISPERSION FLOW MODEL FOR LACTOSE-LACTASE HYDROLYSIS WITH DIFFERENT KINETICS IN FIXED BED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OLAOSEBIKAN ABIDOYE OLAFADEHAN

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A detailed computational procedure for evaluating lactose hydrolysis with immobilized enzyme in a packed bed tubular reactor under dispersion flow conditions is presented. The dispersion flow model for lactose hydrolysis using different kinetics, taking cognizance of external mass transfer resistances, was solved by the method of orthogonal collocation. The reliability of model simulations was tested using experimental data from a laboratory packed bed column, where the -galactosidase of Kluyveromyces fragilis was immobilized on spherical chitosan beads. Comparison of the simulated results with experimental exit conversion shows that the dispersion flow model and using Michaelis-Menten kinetics with competitive product (galactose inhibition are appropriate to interpret the experimental results and simulate the process of lactose hydrolysis in a fixed bed.

  15. A kinetic study of gaseous potassium capture by coal minerals in a high temperature fixed-bed reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Yuanjing; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Jensen, Anker Degn

    2008-01-01

    The reactions between gaseous potassium chloride and coal minerals were investigated in a lab-scale high temperature fixed-bed reactor using single sorbent pellets. The applied coal minerals included kaolin, mullite, silica, alumina, bituminous coal ash, and lignite coal ash that were formed...... into long cylindrical pellets. Kaolin and bituminous coal ash that both have significant amounts of Si and Al show superior potassium capture characteristics. Experimental results show that capture of potassium by kaolin is independent of the gas oxygen content. Kaolin releases water and forms metakaolin...... when heated at temperatures above 450°C. The amounts of potassium captured by metakaolin pellet decreases with increasing reaction temperature in the range of 900-1300°C and increases again with further increasing the temperature up to 1500°C. There is no reaction of pre-made mullite with KCl...

  16. Evaluation of Two Biosorbents in the Removal of Metal Ions in Aqueous Using a Pilot Scale Fixed-bed System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Gadelha Oliveira

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to investigate the adsorption of toxic metal ions copper, nickel and zinc from aqueous solutions using low cost natural biomass (sugar cane bagasse and green coconut fiber in pilot scale fixed-bed system. The Hydraulic retention time (HRT was 229 minutes and the lowest adsorbent usage rate (AUR found was 0.10 g.L-1 for copper using green coconut fibers. The highest values of adsorption capacities founded were 1.417 and 2.772 mg.g-1 of Cu(II ions for sugarcane bagasse and green coconut fibers, respectively. The results showed that both sugarcane bagasse and green coconut fiber presented potential in the removal of metal ions copper, nickel and zinc ions from aqueous solution and the possible use in wastewater treatment station.

  17. Performance of the fixed-bed of granular activated carbon for the removal of pesticides from water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Alcione Aparecida de Almeida; Ruiz, Giselle Louise de Oliveira; Nonato, Thyara Campos Martins; Müller, Laura Cecilia; Sens, Maurício Luiz

    2018-02-26

    The application of a fixed bed adsorption column of granular activated carbon (FBAC-GAC), in the removal of carbaryl, methomyl and carbofuran at a concentration of 25 μg L -1 for each carbamate, from the public water supply was investigated. For the determination of the presence of pesticides in the water supply, the analytical technique of high-performance liquid chromatography with post-column derivatization was used. Under conditions of constant diffusivity, the FBAC-GAC was saturated after 196 h of operation on a pilot scale. The exhaust rate of the granular activated carbon (GAC) in the FBAC-GAC until the point of saturation was 0.02 kg GAC m -3 of treated water. By comparing a rapid small-scale column test and FBAC-GAC, it was confirmed that the predominant intraparticle diffusivity in the adsorption column was constant diffusivity. Based on the results obtained on a pilot scale, it was possible to estimate the values to be applied in the FBAC-GAC (full scale) to remove the pesticides, which are particle size with an average diameter of 1.5 mm GAC; relationship between the internal diameter of the column and the average diameter of GAC ≥50 in order to avoid preferential flow near the adsorption column wall; surface application rate 240 m 3  m -2  d -1 and an empty bed contact time of 3 min. BV: bed volume; CD: constant diffusivity; EBCT: empty bed contact time; FBAC-GAC: fixed bed adsorption column of granular activated carbon; GAC: granular activated carbon; MPV: maximum permitted values; NOM: natural organic matter; PD: proportional diffusivity; pH PCZ : pH of the zero charge point; SAR: surface application rate; RSSCT: rapid small-scale column test; WTCS: water treated conventional system.

  18. In situ magnetic resonance measurement of conversion, hydrodynamics and mass transfer during single- and two-phase flow in fixed-bed reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladden, L F; Alexander, P; Britton, M M; Mantle, M D; Sederman, A J; Yuen, E H L

    2003-01-01

    In recent years there has been increasing interest in applying magnetic resonance (MR) techniques in areas of engineering and chemical technology. The science that underpins many of these applications is the physics and chemistry of transport and reaction processes in porous materials. Key to the exploitation of MR methods will be our ability to demonstrate that MR yields information that cannot be obtained using conventional measurement techniques in engineering research. This article describes two case studies that highlight the power of MR to give new insights to chemical engineers. First, we demonstrate the application of MR techniques to explore both mass transfer and chemical conversion in situ within a fixed bed of catalyst, and we then use these data to identify the rate-controlling step of the chemical conversion. Second, we implement a rapid imaging technique to study the stability of the gas-liquid distribution in the low- and high-interaction two-phase flow regimes in a trickle-bed reactor.

  19. Demand-driven biogas production from sugar beet silage in a novel fixed bed disc reactor under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terboven, Christiane; Ramm, Patrice; Herrmann, Christiane

    2017-10-01

    A newly developed fixed bed disc reactor (FBDR) which combines biofilm formation on biofilm carriers and reactor agitation in one single system was assessed for its applicability to demand-driven biogas production by variable feeding of sugar beet silage. Five different feeding patterns were studied at an organic loading of 4g VS L -1 d -1 under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions. High methane yields of 449-462L N kg VS were reached. Feeding variable punctual loadings caused immediate response with 1.2- to 3.5-fold increase in biogas production rates within 15min. Although variable feeding did not induce process instability, a temporary decrease in pH-value and methane concentration below 40% occurred. Thermophilic temperature was advantageous as it resulted in a more rapid, higher methane production and less pronounced decrease in methane content after feeding. The FBDR was demonstrated to be well-suited for flexible biogas production, but further research and comparison with traditional reactor systems are required. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A hybrid treatment of ozonation with limestone adsorption processes for the removal of Fe2+ in groundwater: Fixed bed column study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbar, Nor Azliza; Aziz, Hamidi Abdul; Adlan, Mohd Nordin

    2017-10-01

    During pumping of groundwater to the surface, the reaction between dissolved iron (Fe2+) and oxygen causes oxidation to ferric iron (Fe3+), thereby increasing the concentration of Fe2+. In this research, the potential application of ozonation with limestone adsorption to remove Fe2+ from groundwater was investigated through batch ozonation and fixed-bed-column studies. Groundwater samples were collected from a University Science Malaysia tube well (initial concentration of Fe2+, Co=1.563 mg/L). The effect of varying ozone dosages (10, 12.5, 15, 17.5, 20, 22.5, and 25 g/Nm3) was analyzed to determine the optimum ozone dosage for treatment. The characteristics of the column data and breakthrough curve were analyzed and predicted using mathematical models, such as Adam Bohart, Thomas, and Yoon-Nelson models. The data fitted well to the Thomas and Yoon-Nelson models, with correlation coefficient r2>0.93, but not to the Adam Bohart (r2=0.47). The total Fe2+ removed was 72% (final concentration of Fe2+, Ct=0.426 mg/L) at the maximum dosage of 25 g/Nm3 through ozonation only. However, the efficiency of Fe2+ removal was increased up to 99.5% (Ct=0.008 mg/L) when the hybrid treatment of ozonation with limestone adsorption was applied in this study. Thus, this integrated treatment was considerably more effective in removing Fe2+ than single ozonation treatment.

  1. Design, fabrication and initial evaluation of an upflow fixed-bed adsorption column for lead (Pb2+) using Carica papaya seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piquero, Ronald E.

    2005-03-01

    The study is about the adsorption pf lead (Pb 2+ ) using Carica papaya as biosorbent in an upflow continuous fixed-bed adsorption column. A column was designed and fabricated which was used in the experiment. It aimed to determine the effect of flowrates in the adsorption mechanism of the biosorbent. Three flowrates were used in the experiment: 100 mL/min, 150 mL/min, and 200 mL/min. A solution of 100 ppm of unbuffered lead was allowed to pass through a bed of biosorbent that has a length of 15 cm and the amount of lead ions was measured using flame atomic absorption spectroscopy in terms of residual concentration of lead in the outlet stream. The result showed that the 100 mL/min flowrate had the lowest amount of residual concentration measured compared to the 150 mL/min and 200 mL/min. This means that the 100 mL/min had the most lead ions adsorbed. Statistical test like the one-factor anova and t-test were also done in the research. Anova result showed that the flowrate has significant effect in the adsorption of lead ions of the biosorbent while the t-test results showed that the 100 ml/min is the most effective flowrate wherein the bed had adsorbed the most amounts of ions. (Author)

  2. Tar dew point analyser as a tool in biomass gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vreugdenhil, B.J.; Kuipers, J. [ECN Biomass, Coal and Environmental Research, Petten (Netherlands)

    2008-08-15

    Application of the Tar Dew point Analyzer (TDA) in different biomass based gasification systems and subsequent gas cleaning setups has been proven feasible. Such systems include BFB gasifiers, CFB gasifier and fixed bed gasifiers, with tar crackers or different scrubbers for tar removal. Tar dew points obtained with the TDA give direct insight in the performance of the gas cleaning section and help prevent any tar related problems due to condensation. The current TDA is capable of measuring tar dew points between -20 to 200C. This manuscript will present results from 4 different gasification setups. The range of measured tar dew points is -7 to 164C with comparable results from the calculated dew points based on the SPA measurements. Further detail will be presented on the differences between TDA and SPA results and explanations will be given for deviations that occurred. Improvements for the TDA regarding future work will be presented.

  3. Use of moist run-of-mine coal for gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sowka, K.; Duerlich, M.; Rabe, W. (VEB Gaskombinat Fritz Selbmann, Schwarze Pumpe (German Democratic Republic))

    1988-01-01

    A Series of experiments was performed in 1982 and 1986 to assess the feasibility of substituting brown coal briquets by raw brown coal in the fixed bed gasification plant for producing town gas at Schwarze Pumpe, GDR. Raw brown coal (50% coal moisture, screened coal of fractions 20 to 80 mm) had to be mixed with dry briquets to maintain a maximum 35% coal charge moisture. Briquet substitution degree varied from 20 to 50%. Short-term gasification tests were also carried out at an experimental generator examining 80 to 100% substitution degrees. Parameters of generator operation that were achieved are provided. Experiments proved that 50% briquet substitution is technologically feasible in industrial plant operation employing unscreened coal containing all coal fines. An economic assessment is further made that shows substantial energy savings in coal drying and briquetting.

  4. Factors affecting biological reduction of CO{sub 2} into CH{sub 4} using a hydrogenotrophic methanogen in a fixed bed reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Hyung; Pak, Daewon [Seoul National University of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Won Seok [Korea District Heating Corp, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Biological conversion of CO{sub 2} was examined in a fixed bed reactor inoculated with anaerobic mixed culture to investigate influencing factors, the type of packing material and the composition of the feeding gas mixture. During the operation of the fixed bed reactor by feeding the gas mixture (80% H{sub 2} and 20% CO{sub 2} based on volume basis), the volumetric CO{sub 2} conversion rate was higher in the fixed bed reactor packed with sponge due to its large surface area and high mass transfer from gas to liquid phase compared with PS ball. Carbon dioxide loaded into the fixed bed reactor was not completely converted because some of H{sub 2} was used for biomass growth. When a mole ratio of H{sub 2} to CO{sub 2} in the feeding gas mixture increased from 4 to 5, CO{sub 2} was completely converted into CH{sub 4}. The packing material with large surface area is effective in treating gaseous substrate such as CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}. H{sub 2}, electron donor, should be providing more than required according to stoichiometry because some of it is used for biomass growth.

  5. Cultivation and Differentiation of Encapsulated hMSC-TERT in a Disposable Small-Scale Syringe-Like Fixed Bed Reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, Christian; Pohl, Sebastian; Pörtner, Ralf

    2007-01-01

    The use of commercially available plastic syringes is introduced as disposable small-scale fixed bed bioreactors for the cultivation of implantable therapeutic cell systems on the basis of an alginate-encapsulated human mesenchymal stem cell line. The system introduced is fitted with a noninvasiv...

  6. Structural characterisation of pretreated solids from flow-through liquid hot water treatment of sugarcane bagasse in a fixed-bed reactor

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Reddy, P

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Untreated sugarcane bagasse and sugarcane bagasse pretreated with flow-through liquid hot water (LHW) treatment (170-207°C and 204-250 ml/min) in a fixed-bed reactor have been structurally characterised. Field emission gun scanning electron...

  7. Design of adiabatic fixed-bed reactors for the partial oxidation of methane to synthesis gas. Application to production of methanol and hydrogen-for-fuel-cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smet, de C.R.H.; Croon, de M.H.J.M.; Berger, R.J.; Marin, G.B.M.M.; Schouten, J.C.

    2001-01-01

    Adiabatic fixed-bed reactors for the catalytic partial oxidn. (CPO) of methane to synthesis gas were designed at conditions suitable for the prodn. of methanol and hydrogen-for-fuel-cells. A steady-state, one-dimensional heterogeneous reactor model was applied in the simulations. Intra-particle

  8. Absorption of CO2 and H2S in Aqueous Alkanolamine Solutions using a Fixed-Bed Reactor with Cocurrent Downflow Operation in the Pulsing Flow Regime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versteeg, G.F.; Swaaij, W.P.M. van

    1988-01-01

    Absorption rates of H2S and CO2 in several aqueous alkanolamines in a cocurrent downflow fixed-bed reactor operated in the pulse flow regime have been measured in order to obtain information on the potential selectivity and on the mass transfer parameters. From these experiments it can be concluded

  9. Electrochemical treatment of water containing Microcystis aeruginosa in a fixed bed reactor with three-dimensional conductive diamond anodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mascia, Michele; Monasterio, Sara; Vacca, Annalisa; Palmas, Simonetta

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Inactivation of M. aeruginosa was achieved by electrolysis with BDD anodes. • A fixed bed reactor with 3-D electrodes was tested in batch and continuous mode. • The kinetics of the process was determined from batch experiments. • A mathematical model of the process was implemented and validated. • The model was used to predict the system behaviour under different conditions. - Abstract: An electrochemical treatment was investigated to remove Microcystis aeruginosa from water. A fixed bed reactor in flow was tested, which was equipped with electrodes constituted by stacks of grids electrically connected in parallel, with the electric field parallel to the fluid flow. Conductive diamond were used as anodes, platinised Ti as cathode. Electrolyses were performed in continuous and in batch recirculated mode with flow rates corresponding to Re from 10 to 160, current densities in the range 10–60 A m −2 and Cl − concentrations up to 600 g m −3 . The absorbance of chlorophyll-a pigment and the concentration of products and by-products of electrolysis were measured. In continuous experiments without algae in the inlet stream, total oxidants concentrations as equivalent Cl 2 , of about 0.7 g Cl 2 m −3 were measured; the maximum values were obtained at Re = 10 and i = 25 A m −2 , with values strongly dependent on the concentration of Cl − . The highest algae inactivation was obtained under the operative conditions of maximum generation of oxidants; in the presence of microalgae the oxidants concentrations were generally below the detection limit. Results indicated that most of the bulk oxidants electrogenerated is constituted by active chlorine. The prevailing mechanism of M. aeruginosa inactivation is the disinfection by bulk oxidants. The experimental data were quantitatively interpreted through a simple plug flow model, in which the axial dispersion accounts for the non-ideal flow behaviour of the system; the model was successfully

  10. Electrochemical treatment of water containing Microcystis aeruginosa in a fixed bed reactor with three-dimensional conductive diamond anodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mascia, Michele, E-mail: michele.mascia@unica.it; Monasterio, Sara; Vacca, Annalisa; Palmas, Simonetta

    2016-12-05

    Highlights: • Inactivation of M. aeruginosa was achieved by electrolysis with BDD anodes. • A fixed bed reactor with 3-D electrodes was tested in batch and continuous mode. • The kinetics of the process was determined from batch experiments. • A mathematical model of the process was implemented and validated. • The model was used to predict the system behaviour under different conditions. - Abstract: An electrochemical treatment was investigated to remove Microcystis aeruginosa from water. A fixed bed reactor in flow was tested, which was equipped with electrodes constituted by stacks of grids electrically connected in parallel, with the electric field parallel to the fluid flow. Conductive diamond were used as anodes, platinised Ti as cathode. Electrolyses were performed in continuous and in batch recirculated mode with flow rates corresponding to Re from 10 to 160, current densities in the range 10–60 A m{sup −2} and Cl{sup −} concentrations up to 600 g m{sup −3}. The absorbance of chlorophyll-a pigment and the concentration of products and by-products of electrolysis were measured. In continuous experiments without algae in the inlet stream, total oxidants concentrations as equivalent Cl{sub 2}, of about 0.7 g Cl{sub 2} m{sup −3} were measured; the maximum values were obtained at Re = 10 and i = 25 A m{sup −2}, with values strongly dependent on the concentration of Cl{sup −}. The highest algae inactivation was obtained under the operative conditions of maximum generation of oxidants; in the presence of microalgae the oxidants concentrations were generally below the detection limit. Results indicated that most of the bulk oxidants electrogenerated is constituted by active chlorine. The prevailing mechanism of M. aeruginosa inactivation is the disinfection by bulk oxidants. The experimental data were quantitatively interpreted through a simple plug flow model, in which the axial dispersion accounts for the non-ideal flow behaviour of the

  11. Design, scale-up, Six Sigma in processing different feedstocks in a fixed bed downdraft biomass gasifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boravelli, Sai Chandra Teja

    This thesis mainly focuses on design and process development of a downdraft biomass gasification processes. The objective is to develop a gasifier and process of gasification for a continuous steady state process. A lab scale downdraft gasifier was designed to develop the process and obtain optimum operating procedure. Sustainable and dependable sources such as biomass are potential sources of renewable energy and have a reasonable motivation to be used in developing a small scale energy production plant for countries such as Canada where wood stocks are more reliable sources than fossil fuels. This thesis addresses the process of thermal conversion of biomass gasification process in a downdraft reactor. Downdraft biomass gasifiers are relatively cheap and easy to operate because of their design. We constructed a simple biomass gasifier to study the steady state process for different sizes of the reactor. The experimental part of this investigation look at how operating conditions such as feed rate, air flow, the length of the bed, the vibration of the reactor, height and density of syngas flame in combustion flare changes for different sizes of the reactor. These experimental results also compare the trends of tar, char and syngas production for wood pellets in a steady state process. This study also includes biomass gasification process for different wood feedstocks. It compares how shape, size and moisture content of different feedstocks makes a difference in operating conditions for the gasification process. For this, Six Sigma DMAIC techniques were used to analyze and understand how each feedstock makes a significant impact on the process.

  12. Adsorption of phosphate from aqueous solutions and sewage using zirconium loaded okara (ZLO): Fixed-bed column study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, T.A.H.; Ngo, H.H.; Guo, W.S.; Pham, T.Q.; Li, F.M.; Nguyen, T.V.; Bui, X.T.

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the potential of removing phosphorus from aqueous solutions and sewage by Zr(IV)-loaded okara (ZLO) in the fixed-bed column. Soybean residue (okara) was impregnated with 0.25 M Zr(IV) solution to prepare active binding sites for phosphate. The effect of several factors, including flow rate, bed height, initial phosphorus concentration, pH and adsorbent particle size on the performance of ZLO was examined. The maximum dynamic adsorption capacity of ZLO for phosphorus was estimated to be 16.43 mg/g. Breakthrough curve modeling indicated that Adams–Bohart model and Thomas model fitted the experimental data better than Yoon–Nelson model. After treatment with ZLO packed bed column, the effluent could meet the discharge standard for phosphorus in Australia. Successful desorption and regeneration were achieved with 0.2 NaOH and 0.1 HCl, respectively. The results prove that ZLO can be used as a promising phosphorus adsorbent in the dynamic adsorption system. - Highlights: • Dynamic adsorption of P from water and wastewater by Zr(IV)-loaded okara was tested. • Effects of column design parameters on the adsorption performance were investigated. • The dynamic adsorption capacity of Zr(IV)-loaded okara for P was reasonably high. • The spent column was effectively regenerated with 0.2 M NaOH followed by 0.1 M HCl. • Zr(IV)-loaded okara column was efficient in eliminating P from municipal sewage

  13. Simultaneous production of laccase and decolouration of the diazo dye Reactive Black 5 in a fixed-bed bioreactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enayatzamir, Kheirghadam [Department of Chemical Engineering, Rovira i Virgili University, Av. Paisos Catalans 26, 43007 Tarragona (Spain); Department of Soil Science Engineering, University of Tehran, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Alikhani, Hossein A. [Department of Soil Science Engineering, University of Tehran, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rodriguez Couto, Susana [Department of Chemical Engineering, Rovira i Virgili University, Av. Paisos Catalans 26, 43007 Tarragona (Spain)], E-mail: susana.rodriguez@urv.cat

    2009-05-15

    In this paper the production of laccase and the decolouration of the recalcitrant diazo dye Reactive Black 5 (RB5) by the white-rot fungus Trametes pubescens immobilised on stainless steel sponges in a fixed-bed reactor were studied. Laccase production was increased by 10-fold in the presence of RB5 and reached a maximum value of 1025 U/l. Enhanced laccase production in the presence of RB5 in this fungus is an added advantage during biodegradation of RB5-containing effluents. The decolouration of RB5 was due to two processes: dye adsorption onto the fungal mycelium and dye degradation by the laccase enzymes produced by the fungus. RB5 decolouration was performed during four successive batches obtaining high decolouration percentages (74%, 43% and 52% in 24 h for the first, third and four batch, respectively) without addition of redox mediators. Also, the in vitro decolouration of RB5 by the concentrated culture extract, containing mainly laccase, produced in the above bioreactor was studied. The decolouration percentages obtained were considerably lower (around 20% in 24 h) than that attained with the whole culture.

  14. Carbonaceous materials in petrochemical wastewater before and after treatment in an aerated submerged fixed-bed biofilm reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trojanowicz Karol

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Results of the studies for determining fractions of organic contaminants in a pretreated petrochemical wastewater flowing into a pilot Aerated Submerged Fixed-Bed Biofilm Reactor (ASFBBR are presented and discussed. The method of chemical oxygen demand (COD fractionation consisted of physical tests and biological assays. It was found that the main part of the total COD in the petrochemical, pretreated wastewater was soluble organic substance with average value of 57.6%. The fractions of particulate and colloidal organic matter were found to be 31.8% and 10.6%, respectively. About 40% of COD in the influent was determined as readily biodegradable COD. The inert fraction of the soluble organic matter in the petrochemical wastewater constituted about 60% of the influent colloidal and soluble COD. Determination of degree of hydrolysis (DH of the colloidal fraction of COD was also included in the paper. The estimated value of DH was about 62%. Values of the assayed COD fractions were compared with the same parameters obtained for municipal wastewater by other authors.

  15. Optimal oxygen feeding policy to maximize the production of Maleic anhydride in unsteady state fixed bed catalytic reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Ali

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of different oxygen feeding scenarios in a fixed bed reactor for the production of Maleic anhydride (MA is studied. Two reactor configurations were examined. In the first configuration, a cross flow reactor (CFR with 4 discrete feeding points is considered. Another configuration is the conventional packed-bed reactor (PBR with a single feed. Nonlinear Model Predictive Controller (NLMPC was used as optimal controller to operate the CFR in dynamic mode and to optimize the multiple feed dosages in order to enhance the MA yield. The simulation results indicated that different combinations of the four feed ratios can operate the reactor at the best value for the yield provided the first feeding point is kept as low as possible. For the packed bed reactor configuration, a single oxygen feed is considered and is optimized transiently by NLMPC. The simulation outcomes showed that the reactor performance in terms of the produced MA mole fraction can also be enhanced to the same magnitude obtained by CFR configuration. This improvement requires decreasing the oxygen ratio in the reactor single feed by 70%.

  16. Adsorption of phosphate from aqueous solutions and sewage using zirconium loaded okara (ZLO): Fixed-bed column study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, T.A.H. [Centre for Technology in Water and Wastewater, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Technology, Sydney (UTS), 15 Broadway, Ultimo, NSW 2007 (Australia); Ngo, H.H., E-mail: ngohuuhao121@gmail.com [Centre for Technology in Water and Wastewater, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Technology, Sydney (UTS), 15 Broadway, Ultimo, NSW 2007 (Australia); Guo, W.S. [Centre for Technology in Water and Wastewater, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Technology, Sydney (UTS), 15 Broadway, Ultimo, NSW 2007 (Australia); Pham, T.Q. [Faculty of Geography, University of Science, Vietnam National University, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Li, F.M. [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100 (China); Nguyen, T.V. [Centre for Technology in Water and Wastewater, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Technology, Sydney (UTS), 15 Broadway, Ultimo, NSW 2007 (Australia); Bui, X.T. [Environmental Engineering and Management Research Group, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Faculty of Environment and Natural Resources, Ho Chi Minh City University of Technology-Vietnam National University, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam)

    2015-08-01

    This study explores the potential of removing phosphorus from aqueous solutions and sewage by Zr(IV)-loaded okara (ZLO) in the fixed-bed column. Soybean residue (okara) was impregnated with 0.25 M Zr(IV) solution to prepare active binding sites for phosphate. The effect of several factors, including flow rate, bed height, initial phosphorus concentration, pH and adsorbent particle size on the performance of ZLO was examined. The maximum dynamic adsorption capacity of ZLO for phosphorus was estimated to be 16.43 mg/g. Breakthrough curve modeling indicated that Adams–Bohart model and Thomas model fitted the experimental data better than Yoon–Nelson model. After treatment with ZLO packed bed column, the effluent could meet the discharge standard for phosphorus in Australia. Successful desorption and regeneration were achieved with 0.2 NaOH and 0.1 HCl, respectively. The results prove that ZLO can be used as a promising phosphorus adsorbent in the dynamic adsorption system. - Highlights: • Dynamic adsorption of P from water and wastewater by Zr(IV)-loaded okara was tested. • Effects of column design parameters on the adsorption performance were investigated. • The dynamic adsorption capacity of Zr(IV)-loaded okara for P was reasonably high. • The spent column was effectively regenerated with 0.2 M NaOH followed by 0.1 M HCl. • Zr(IV)-loaded okara column was efficient in eliminating P from municipal sewage.

  17. Fixed-bed column study for hexavalent chromium removal and recovery by short-chain polyaniline synthesized on jute fiber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Potsangbam Albino [Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Assam 781039 (India); Chakraborty, Saswati [Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Assam 781039 (India)], E-mail: saswati@iitg.ernet.in

    2009-03-15

    Fixed-bed column studies were conducted to evaluate performance of a short-chain polymer, polyaniline, synthesized on the surface of jute fiber (PANI-jute) for the removal of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] in aqueous environment. Influent pH, column bed depth, influent Cr(VI) concentrations and influent flow rate were variable parameters for the present study. Optimum pH for total chromium removal was observed as 3 by electrostatic attraction of acid chromate ion (HCrO{sub 4}{sup -}) with protonated amine group (NH{sub 3}{sup +}) of PANI-jute. With increase in column bed depth from 40 to 60 cm, total chromium uptake by PANI-jute increased from 4.14 to 4.66 mg/g with subsequent increase in throughput volume from 9.84 to 12.6 L at exhaustion point. The data obtained for total chromium removal were well described by BDST equation till 10% breakthrough. Adsorption rate constant and dynamic bed capacity at 10% breakthrough were observed as 0.01 L/mg h and 1069.46 mg/L, respectively. Adsorbed total chromium was recovered back from PANI-jute as non-toxic Cr(III) after ignition with more than 97% reduction in weight, minimizing the problem of solid waste disposal.

  18. Feasibility analysis of As(III) removal in a continuous flow fixed bed system by modified calcined bauxite (MCB)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhakat, P.B.; Gupta, A.K.; Ayoob, S.

    2007-01-01

    This study examine the feasibility of As(III) removal from aqueous environment by an adsorbent, modified calcined bauxite (MCB) in a continuous flow fixed bed system. MCB exhibited excellent adsorption capacity of 520.2 mg/L (0.39 mg/g) with an adsorption rate constant 0.7658 L/mg h for an influent As(III) concentration of 1 mg/L. In a 2 cm diameter continuous flow fixed MCB bed, a depth of only 1.765 cm was found necessary to produce effluent As(III) concentration of 0.01 mg/L, from an influent of 1 mg/L at a flow rate of 8 mL/min. Also, bed heights of 10, 20, and 30 cm could treat 427.85, 473.88 and 489.17 bed volumes of water, respectively, to breakthrough. A reduction in adsorption capacity of MCB was observed with increase in flow rates. The theoretical service times evaluated from bed depth service time (BDST) approach for different flow rates and influent As(III) concentrations had shown good correlation with the corresponding experimental values. The theoretical breakthrough curve developed from constantly mixed batch reactor (CMBR) isotherm data also correlated well with experimental breakthrough curve

  19. Simultaneous production of laccase and decolouration of the diazo dye Reactive Black 5 in a fixed-bed bioreactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enayatzamir, Kheirghadam; Alikhani, Hossein A.; Rodriguez Couto, Susana

    2009-01-01

    In this paper the production of laccase and the decolouration of the recalcitrant diazo dye Reactive Black 5 (RB5) by the white-rot fungus Trametes pubescens immobilised on stainless steel sponges in a fixed-bed reactor were studied. Laccase production was increased by 10-fold in the presence of RB5 and reached a maximum value of 1025 U/l. Enhanced laccase production in the presence of RB5 in this fungus is an added advantage during biodegradation of RB5-containing effluents. The decolouration of RB5 was due to two processes: dye adsorption onto the fungal mycelium and dye degradation by the laccase enzymes produced by the fungus. RB5 decolouration was performed during four successive batches obtaining high decolouration percentages (74%, 43% and 52% in 24 h for the first, third and four batch, respectively) without addition of redox mediators. Also, the in vitro decolouration of RB5 by the concentrated culture extract, containing mainly laccase, produced in the above bioreactor was studied. The decolouration percentages obtained were considerably lower (around 20% in 24 h) than that attained with the whole culture

  20. Adsorptive Removal of Trichloroethylene in Water by Crop Residue Biochars Pyrolyzed at Contrasting Temperatures: Continuous Fixed-Bed Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Biochar (BC has attracted great attention as an alternative sorbent to activated carbon (AC. Objective of this study was to determine trichloroethylene (TCE removal by soybean stover BC pyrolyzed at 300 (BC300 and 700°C (BC700 in continuous fixed-bed column. Columns packed with BC300, BC700, and AC reached breakthrough time in 1.1, 27.0, and 50.7 h, respectively. BC700 had higher TCE adsorption capacity than BC300 due to its higher surface area, nonpolarity, and aromaticity. The sorption capacities of AC (774.0 mg g−1 and BC700 (515.1 mg g−1 were 21.6 and 14.4 times higher than that of BC300 (35.9 mg g−1. The lower desorption rate of TCE from BC300 than BC700 and AC may be attributed to the strong binding/partition of TCE to the noncarbonized part of BC. Thomas model also adequately described the adsorption data indicating interphase mass transfer. Overall, AC showed best efficiency for removing TCE from water in column experiments. However, although sorption and desorption capabilities of BC700 were a little lower than AC, it is still a good alternative for AC to remove organic contaminants such as TCE from water due to its cost-effectiveness.

  1. Co-pyrolysis of rice straw and Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) using a fixed bed drop type pyrolyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izzatie, N. I.; Basha, M. H.; Uemura, Y.; Hashim, M. S. M.; Amin, N. A. M.; Hamid, M. F.

    2017-10-01

    In this work, co-pyrolysis of rice straw and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) was carried out at different temperatures (450,500,550, and 600°C) at ratio 1:1 by using fixed bed drop-type pyrolyzer. The purpose of this work is to determine the effect of pyrolysis temperature on the product yield. As the temperature increased, the pyrolysis oil increased until it reaches certain high temperature (600°C), the pyrolysis oil decreased as of more NCG were produced. The temperature 550°C is considered as the optimum pyrolysis temperature since it produced the highest amount of pyrolysis oil with 36 wt.%. In pyrolysis oil, the calorific value (13.98kJ/g) was low because of the presence of high water content (52.46 wt.%). Main chemicals group from pyrolysis oil were an aldehyde, ketones, acids, aromatics, and phenol and all compound have abundant of hydrogen and carbon were identified. Co-pyrolysis of rice straw and PET produced a higher amount of carbon oxides and recycling back the NCG could increase liquid and char yields.

  2. Comparative study on pyrolysis of lignocellulosic and algal biomass using a thermogravimetric and a fixed-bed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ting; Tahmasebi, Arash; Yu, Jianglong

    2015-01-01

    Pyrolysis characteristics of four algal and lignocellulosic biomass samples were studied by using a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) and a fixed-bed reactor. The effects of pyrolysis temperature and biomass type on the yield and composition of pyrolysis products were investigated. The average activation energy for pyrolysis of biomass samples by FWO and KAS methods in this study were in the range of 211.09-291.19kJ/mol. CO2 was the main gas component in the early stage of pyrolysis, whereas H2 and CH4 concentrations increased with increasing pyrolysis temperature. Bio-oil from Chlorellavulgaris showed higher content of nitrogen containing compounds compared to lignocellulosic biomass. The concentration of aromatic organic compounds such as phenol and its derivatives were increased with increasing pyrolysis temperature up to 700°C. FTIR analysis results showed that with increasing pyrolysis temperature, the concentration of OH, CH, CO, OCH3, and CO functional groups in char decreased sharply. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. An investigation of the physical and chemical changes occuring in a Fischer-Tropsch fixed bed catalyst during hydrocarbon synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duvenhage, D.J.

    1990-01-01

    Deactivation studies: making use of fixed bed reactors, wet chemical analysis, surface area, pore volume determinations and X-ray diffraction spectrometry, scanning electron microscope spectrometry and secondary ion mass spectrometry techniques; were performed on a low temperature iron Fischer-Tropsch catalyst. It was revealed that this catalyst is mainly deactivated by sulphur poisoning, oxidation of the catalytic reactive phases, sintering of the iron crystallites and to a lesser extent deactivation through fouling of the catalytic surface by carbonaceous deposits. It was found that the top entry section of the catalyst bed deactivated relatively fast, the bottom exit section also deactivated, but not as fast as the top section. The central portion of the catalyst bed was least affected. Sulphur contaminants in the feed gas, even though present in only minute quantities, results in a loss of catalyst performance of the top section of the catalyst bed, while water, produced as a product from the Fischer-Tropsch reaction, oxidized and sintered the catalyst over the bottom section of the catalyst bed. 88 figs., 7 tabs., 224 refs

  4. Adsorptive removal of heavy metals from water using sodium titanate nanofibres loaded onto GAC in fixed-bed columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sounthararajah, D P; Loganathan, P; Kandasamy, J; Vigneswaran, S

    2015-04-28

    Heavy metals are serious pollutants in aquatic environments. A study was undertaken to remove Cu, Cd, Ni, Pb and Zn individually (single metal system) and together (mixed metals system) from water by adsorption onto a sodium titanate nanofibrous material. Langmuir adsorption capacities (mg/g) at 10(-3)M NaNO3 ionic strength in the single metal system were 60, 83, 115 and 149 for Ni, Zn, Cu, and Cd, respectively, at pH 6.5 and 250 for Pb at pH 4.0. In the mixed metals system they decreased at high metals concentrations. In column experiments with 4% titanate material and 96% granular activated carbon (w/w) mixture at pH 5.0, the metals breakthrough times and adsorption capacities (for both single and mixed metals systems) decreased in the order Pb>Cd, Cu>Zn>Ni within 266 bed volumes. The amounts adsorbed were up to 82 times higher depending on the metal in the granular activated carbon+titanate column than in the granular activated carbon column. The study showed that the titanate material has high potential for removing heavy metals from polluted water when used with granular activated carbon at a very low proportion in fixed-bed columns. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Characterization, morphology and composition of biofilm and precipitates from a sulphate-reducing fixed-bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remoundaki, Emmanouela; Kousi, Pavlina; Joulian, Catherine; Battaglia-Brunet, Fabienne; Hatzikioseyian, Artin; Tsezos, Marios

    2008-01-01

    The characteristics of the biofilm and the solids formed during the operation of a sulphate-reducing fixed-bed reactor, fed with a moderately acidic synthetic effluent containing zinc and iron, are presented. A diverse population of δ-Proteobacteria SRB, affiliated to four distinct genera, colonized the system. The morphology, mineralogy and surface chemistry of the precipitates were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX). The XRD patterns observed are characteristic of amorphous solid phases. Peaks corresponding to crystalline iron sulphide, marcasite, sphalerite and wurtzite were also identified. SEM-EDX results confirm the predominance of amorphous phases appearing as a cloudy haze. EDX spectra of spots on the surface of these amorphous phases reveal the predominance of iron, zinc and sulphur indicating the formation of iron and zinc sulphides. The predominance of these amorphous phases and the formation of very fine particles, during the operation of the SRB column, are in agreement and can be explained by the formation pathways of metal sulphides at ambient temperature, alkaline pH and reducing conditions. Solids are precipitated either as (i) amorphous phases deposited on the bed material, as well as on surface of crystals, e.g. Mg 3 (PO 4 ) 2 and (ii) as rod-shaped solids characterized by a rough hazy surface, indicating the encapsulation of bacterial cells by amorphous metal sulphides

  6. Anaerobic degradation of landfill leachate using an upflow anaerobic fixed-bed reactor with microbial sulfate reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Dhia Thabet, Olfa; Bouallagui, Hassib; Cayol, Jean-luc; Ollivier, Bernard; Fardeau, Marie-Laure; Hamdi, Moktar

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated the anaerobic degradation of landfill leachate and sulfate reduction as a function of COD/(SO 4 2- ) ratio in an upflow anaerobic fixed-bed reactor. The reactor, which was inoculated with a mixed consortium, was operated under a constant hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 5 days. We investigated the effect of COD/(SO 4 2- ) ratio variation on the sulfate reduction efficiency, hydrogen sulfide production, chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal, conductivity, and pH variation. The best reactor performance, with significant sulfate reduction efficiency and COD removal efficiency of 91% and 87%, respectively, was reached under a COD/(SO 4 2- ) ratio of 1.17. Under these conditions, microscopic analysis showed the abundance of vibrios and rod-shaped bacterial cells. Two anaerobic bacteria were isolated from the reactor sludge. Phylogenetic studies performed on these strains identified strain A1 as affiliated to Clostridium genus and strain H1 as a new species of sulfate-reducing bacteria affiliated to the Desulfovibrio genus. The closest phylogenetic relative of strain H1 was Desulfovibrio desulfuricans, at 96% similarity for partial 16S RNA gene sequence data. Physiological and metabolic characterization was performed for this strain.

  7. Fixed-bed studies of the interactions between mercury and coal combustion fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunham, Grant E.; DeWall, Raymond A. [Energy and Environmental Research Center, 15 North 23rd Street, Grand Forks, ND 58203 (United States); Senior, Constance L. [Reaction Engineering International, 77 West 200 South, Suite 210, Salt Lake City, UT 84101 (United States)

    2003-08-15

    Sixteen different fly ash samples, generated from both pilot-scale and full-scale combustion systems, were exposed to a simulated flue gas containing either elemental mercury or HgCl{sub 2} in a bench-scale reactor system at the Energy and Environmental Research Center to evaluate the interactions and determine the effects of temperature, mercury species, and ash type on adsorption of mercury and oxidation of elemental mercury. The fly ash samples were characterized for surface area, loss on ignition, and forms of iron in the ash. While many of the ash samples oxidized elemental mercury, not all of the samples that oxidized mercury also captured elemental mercury. However, no capture of elemental mercury was observed without accompanying oxidation. Generally, oxidation of elemental mercury increased with increasing amount of magnetite in the ash. However, one high-carbon subbituminous ash with no magnetite showed considerable mercury oxidation that may have been due to unburned carbon. Surface area as well as the nature of the surface appeared to be important for oxidation and adsorption of elemental mercury. The capacity of the ash samples for HgCl{sub 2} was similar to that for elemental mercury. There was a good correlation between the capacity for HgCl{sub 2} and the surface area; capacity decreased with increasing temperature.

  8. Experimental investigation of wood combustion in a fixed bed with hot air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markovic, Miladin, E-mail: m.markovic@utwente.nl; Bramer, Eddy A.; Brem, Gerrit

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • Upward combustion is a new combustion concept with ignition by hot primary air. • Upward combustion has three stages: short drying, rapid devolatilization and char combustion. • Variation of fuel moisture and inert content have little influence on the combustion. • Experimental comparison between conventional and upward combustion is presented. - Abstract: Waste combustion on a grate with energy recovery is an important pillar of municipal solid waste (MSW) management in the Netherlands. In MSW incinerators fresh waste stacked on a grate enters the combustion chamber, heats up by radiation from the flame above the layer and ignition occurs. Typically, the reaction zone starts at the top of the waste layer and propagates downwards, producing heat for drying and devolatilization of the fresh waste below it until the ignition front reaches the grate. The control of this process is mainly based on empiricism. MSW is a highly inhomogeneous fuel with continuous fluctuating moisture content, heating value and chemical composition. The resulting process fluctuations may cause process control difficulties, fouling and corrosion issues, extra maintenance, and unplanned stops. In the new concept the fuel layer is ignited by means of preheated air (T > 220 °C) from below without any external ignition source. As a result a combustion front will be formed close to the grate and will propagate upwards. That is why this approach is denoted by upward combustion. Experimental research has been carried out in a batch reactor with height of 4.55 m, an inner diameter of 200 mm and a fuel layer height up to 1 m. Due to a high quality two-layer insulation adiabatic conditions can be assumed. The primary air can be preheated up to 350 °C, and the secondary air is distributed via nozzles above the waste layer. During the experiments, temperatures along the height of the reactor, gas composition and total weight decrease are continuously monitored. The influence of

  9. Report on 1977 result of Sunshine Project. Test research for detailed design of coal gasification plant (pressure fluidized gasification method for mixed material of coal/heavy oil); 1977 nendo sekitan gas ka plant no shosai sekkei no tame no shiken kenkyu seika hokokusho. Sekitan jushitsuyu kongo genryo no kaatsu ryudo gas ka hoshiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1978-03-31

    Since fiscal 1974, development has been implemented for the coal/heavy oil hybrid gasification process which converts coal and heavy oil simultaneously to clean fuel gas. With the purpose of obtaining basic data to be reflected on the detailed design of 7,000 Nm{sup 3}/d pilot plant of the subject process started in fiscal 1977, implemented this year were (1) test on high pressure valves and (2) research on operation studies. In (1), a life test device for high pressure operation valves will be designed and manufactured so that basic materials may be obtained for the development of durable operation valves to be used in a high temperature and high pressure coal/heavy oil slurry feeding device. Operation studies of a low pressure slurry feeding device will be continued, accumulating data required for the design of the coal/heavy oil slurry feeding device. In (2), studies will be started on the operation of a 300{phi}(diameter) internal heat type low pressure gasification device, collecting know-how for the model and design of the gasification furnace of the pilot plant. Gasification experiments will be continued using the high pressure gasification device, so that gasification characteristics under a high pressure will be grasped to examine the optimization of gasification conditions. In addition, a fluidized bed quencher test equipment will be designed and manufactured. (NEDO)

  10. Autotrophic denitrification of synthetic nitrate-contaminated groundwater in up-flow fixed-bed bioreactor by pumice as porous media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Tourang1

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Background: Increasing nitrate concentrations in groundwater resources is considered a common environmental and public health problem worldwide. In this research, an autotrophic up-flow bioreactor with pumice as media was used to study the effects of the sulfur-to-nitrogen (S/N ratio and empty bed contact time (EBCT on nitrate removal efficiency and byproducts. Methods: Experiments were carried out in a 3.47 L up-flow, fixed-bed reactor with 3 sampling ports. To evaluate the overall impact of S/N ratio and EBCT on the performance of the bioreactor, several phases with different S/N ratios and EBCTs were applied. Results: At a constant S/N ratio of 3.85 g/g, as EBCT decreased from 24 hours to 2 hours, the nitrate removal efficiency decreased from 98% to 64%. On the other hand, at the desired EBCT of 4 hr, as S/N ratio decreased from 3.85 to 1.51 g/g, nitrate removal efficiency was reduced from 85% to 32%. Changing the EBCT and S/N ratio also affected the effluent nitrite and sulfate concentrations as byproducts. At the S/N ratio of 3.85 g/g and EBCT of 24 hours, effluent nitrite and sulfate concentrations were 0.1 mg NO2--N/L and 463 mg SO4 2-/L, respectively. Decreasing the S/N ratio to 1.51 g/g and the EBCT to 4 hours caused drastic changes in effluent nitrite and sulfate concentrations. Conclusion: The results indicated that the autotrophic denitrification with thiosulfate as electron donor and pumice as media was feasible and applicable for nitrate contaminated groundwater.

  11. Mathematical modeling of the adsorption/desorption characteristics of anthocyanins from muscadine (Vitis rotundifolia cv. Noble) juice pomace on Amberlite FPX66 resin in a fixed bed column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzdevenes, Chad G; Gao, Chi; Sandhu, Amandeep K; Yagiz, Yavuz; Gu, Liwei

    2018-03-24

    Muscadine grape pomace, a by-product of juicing and wine-making, contains significant amounts of anthocyanin 3,5-diglucosides, known to be beneficial to human health. The objective of this research was to use mathematical modeling to investigate the adsorption/desorption characteristics of these anthocyanins from muscadine grape pomace on Amberlite FPX66 resin in a fixed bed column. Anthocyanins were extracted using hot water and ultrasound, and the extracts were loaded onto a resin column at five bed depths (5, 6, 8, 10 and 12 cm) using three flow rates (4, 6 and 8 mL min -1 ). It was found that adsorption on the column fitted the bed depth service time (BDST) model and the empty bed residence time (EBRT) model. Desorption was achieved by eluting the column using ethanol at four concentrations (25, 40, 55 and 70% v/v) and could be described with an empirical sigmoid model. The breakthrough curves of anthocyanins fitted the BDST model for all three flow rates with R 2 values of 0.983, 0.992 and 0.984 respectively. The EBRT model was successfully employed to find the operating lines, which allow for column scale-up while still achieving similar results to those found in a laboratory operation. Desorption with 40% (v/v) ethanol achieved the highest recovery rate of anthocyanins at 79.6%. The mathematical models established in this study can be used in designing a pilot/industrial- scale column for the separation and concentration of anthocyanins from muscadine juice pomace. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Producer gas production of Indonesian biomass in fixed-bed downdraft gasifier as an alternative fuels for internal combustion engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simanjuntak, J. P.; Lisyanto; Daryanto, E.; Tambunan, B. H.

    2018-03-01

    downdraft biomass gasification reactors, coupled with reciprocating internal combustion engines (ICE) are a viable technology for small scale heat and power generation. The direct use of producer gas as fuel subtitution in an ICE could be of great interest since Indonesia has significant land area in different forest types that could be used to produce bioenergy and convert forest materials to bioenergy for use in energy production and the versatility of this engine. This paper will look into the aspect of biomass energie as a contributor to energy mix in Indonesia. This work also contains information gathered from numerous previews study on the downdraft gasifier based on experimental or simulation study on the ability of producer gas as fuels for internal combustion engines aplication. All data will be used to complement the preliminary work on biomass gasification using downdraft to produce producer gas and its application to engines.

  13. Gasification research at Royal Inst. of Technology July 2000 - Jun 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoestroem, Krister [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Technology

    2004-05-01

    The project is subdivided into four sub-projects; (1) Pyrolysis for large biomass particles, (2) Analysis of nitrogen-containing compounds during gasification of biomass, (3) Tar analysis and gas phase reactions, and (4) Means to predict fluidised bed agglomeration/sintering in biomass conversion. Within the sub-project 'Pyrolysis for large biomass particles' a theoretical pyrolysis model has been developed. Different kinetic schemes describing the chemistry of wood pyrolysis have been evaluated. Various shrinkage models have also been developed and evaluated. An overlaying drying model is currently being added to the above model. A major part of the work in this highly theoretical sub-project has to do with code handling and code optimisation. With respect to the sub-project 'Analysis of nitrogen-containing compounds during gasification of biomass' it can be concluded that the feeding position influences ammonia conversion in a fluidised bed. The most likely explanation for this is that the contact between the pyrolysis gas and the oxygen vary depending on the feeding position. Additionally, a extractive method analysis of nitrogen containing hetreocyclical compounds been developed. It is to early to draw definite conclusions with respect to the applicability and quality of this suggested method. Within the sub-project 'Tar analysis and gas phase reactions' our SPA-method has been developed further for analysis of (very) low tar concentrations. The SPA-method is today used almost as a standard in many laboratories. We are actively involved in the pan-European work aiming to standardise tar sampling and tar analysis. The sub-project 'Means to predict fluidised bed agglomeration/sintering in biomass conversion' has resulted in an empirical regression expression for predicting defluidisation/sintering. The basis for the expression are 129 earlier made tests at KTH and TPS. Parameters that seems to influence sintering the most

  14. Continuous adsorption of Pb(II) and methylene blue by engineered graphite oxide coated sand in fixed-bed column

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Ji-Lai, E-mail: jilaigong@gmail.com [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control, Ministry of Education, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Zhang, Yong-Liang; Jiang, Yan [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control, Ministry of Education, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Zeng, Guang-Ming, E-mail: zgming@hnu.edu.cn [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control, Ministry of Education, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Cui, Zhi-Hui; Liu, Ke; Deng, Can-Hui; Niu, Qiu-Ya; Deng, Jiu-Hua [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control, Ministry of Education, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Huan, Shuang-Yan [State Key Laboratory for Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China)

    2015-03-01

    Highlights: • GO-sand was prepared by coating GO on the surface of sand. • Pb(II) and MB were efficiently removed by GO-sand filter in column. • The removal of MB was enhanced with the presence of Pb(II). • GO-sand is low-cost and convenient for its application as packed bed filter. - Abstract: The mixture of several effluents, caused by the improper handling and management of effluents, generated multi-component wastewater containing both metals and dyes, leading to the complicated treatment process. In this study, a continuous adsorption of Pb(II) and methylene blue (MB) has been studied in single and binary solutions by using graphite oxide coated sand (GO-sand) as an adsorbent in a fixed-bed column. GO-sand was analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy before and after analyte adsorption. Compared with sand filter, adsorption quantity and capacity for Pb(II) and MB by GO-sand filter were greatly increased. In Pb(II) and MB single solutions, the experimental parameters were investigated in detail including initial concentration, flow rate, bed depth and pH. Exhaustion time decreased with increasing initial concentration and flow rate, and increased with increasing bed depth and pH. In the Pb(II)-MB binary solution, exhaustion time significantly decreased for Pb(II) adsorption, but increased for MB adsorption. The reason was explained that the more favorable adsorption for MB onto the surface of GO-sand than that for Pb(II), which was derived from π–π interaction between MB and GO on sand surface in packed filter. The Yoon–Nelson model was applied at different concentration of Pb(II) and MB to predict the breakthrough curves. The experimental data were well fit with the model indicating that it was suitable for this column design.

  15. Electrochemical treatment of water containing Microcystis aeruginosa in a fixed bed reactor with three-dimensional conductive diamond anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascia, Michele; Monasterio, Sara; Vacca, Annalisa; Palmas, Simonetta

    2016-12-05

    An electrochemical treatment was investigated to remove Microcystis aeruginosa from water. A fixed bed reactor in flow was tested, which was equipped with electrodes constituted by stacks of grids electrically connected in parallel, with the electric field parallel to the fluid flow. Conductive diamond were used as anodes, platinised Ti as cathode. Electrolyses were performed in continuous and in batch recirculated mode with flow rates corresponding to Re from 10 to 160, current densities in the range 10-60Am(-2) and Cl(-) concentrations up to 600gm(-3). The absorbance of chlorophyll-a pigment and the concentration of products and by-products of electrolysis were measured. In continuous experiments without algae in the inlet stream, total oxidants concentrations as equivalent Cl2, of about 0.7gCl2m(-3) were measured; the maximum values were obtained at Re=10 and i=25Am(-2), with values strongly dependent on the concentration of Cl(-). The highest algae inactivation was obtained under the operative conditions of maximum generation of oxidants; in the presence of microalgae the oxidants concentrations were generally below the detection limit. Results indicated that most of the bulk oxidants electrogenerated is constituted by active chlorine. The prevailing mechanism of M. aeruginosa inactivation is the disinfection by bulk oxidants. The experimental data were quantitatively interpreted through a simple plug flow model, in which the axial dispersion accounts for the non-ideal flow behaviour of the system; the model was successfully used to simulate the performances of the reactor in the single-stack configuration used for the experiments and in multi-stack configurations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Pre-combustion capture of carbon dioxide in a fixed bed reactor using the clathrate hydrate process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babu, Ponnivalavan; Kumar, Rajnish; Linga, Praveen

    2013-01-01

    Hydrate based gas separation (HBGS) process with silica sand and silica gel as contact medium was employed to capture CO 2 from fuel gas mixture. Gas uptake measurement at three different pressures (7.5, 8.5 and 9.0 MPa) and 274.15 K were conducted for hydrate formation kinetics and overall conversion of water to hydrate, rate of hydrate formation were determined. Water conversion of up to 36% was achieved with silica sand bed compared to 13% conversion in the silica gel bed. Effect of driving force on the rate of hydrate formation and gas consumption was significant in silica sand bed whereas it was found to be insignificant in silica gel bed. Hydrate dissociation experiments by thermal stimulation (at constant pressure) alone and a combination of depressurization and thermal stimulation were carried out for complete recovery of the hydrated gas. A driving force of 23 K was found to be sufficient to recover all the hydrated gas within 1 h. This study indicates that silica sand can be an effective porous media for separation of CO 2 from fuel gas when compared to silica gel. - Highlights: ► The clathrate process for pre-combustion capture of carbon dioxide in a novel fixed bed reactor is presented. ► Performance of two contact media (silica gel and silica sand) was investigated. ► Water to hydrate conversion was higher in a silica sand column. ► A pressure reduction and thermal stimulation approach is presented for a complete recovery of the hydrated gas

  17. Thin-film fixed-bed reactor for solar photocatalytic inactivation of Aeromonas hydrophila: influence of water quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Sadia J

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Controlling fish disease is one of the major concerns in contemporary aquaculture. The use of antibiotics or chemical disinfection cannot provide a healthy aquaculture system without residual effects. Water quality is also important in determining the success or failure of fish production. Several solar photocatalytic reactors have been used to treat drinking water or waste water without leaving chemical residues. This study has investigated the impact of several key aspects of water quality on the inactivation of the pathogenic bacterium Aeromonas hydrophila using a pilot-scale thin-film fixed-bed reactor (TFFBR system. Results The level of inactivation of Aeromonas hydrophila ATCC 35654 was determined using a TFFBR with a photocatalytic area of 0.47 m2 under the influence of various water quality variables (pH, conductivity, turbidity and colour under high solar irradiance conditions (980–1100 W m-2, at a flow rate of 4.8 L h-1 through the reactor. Bacterial enumeration were obtained through conventional plate count using trypticase soy agar media, cultured in conventional aerobic conditions to detect healthy cells and under ROS-neutralised conditions to detect both healthy and sub-lethally injured (oxygen-sensitive cells. The results showed that turbidity has a major influence on solar photocatalytic inactivation of A. hydrophila. Humic acids appear to decrease TiO2 effectiveness under full sunlight and reduce microbial inactivation. pH in the range 7–9 and salinity both have no major effect on the extent of photoinactivation or sub-lethal injury. Conclusions This study demonstrates the effectiveness of the TFFBR in the inactivation of Aeromonas hydrophila under the influence of several water quality variables at high solar irradiance, providing an opportunity for the application of solar photocatalysis in aquaculture systems, as long as turbidity remains low.

  18. Batch and fixed-bed adsorption of tartrazine azo-dye onto activated carbon prepared from apricot stones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albroomi, H. I.; Elsayed, M. A.; Baraka, A.; Abdelmaged, M. A.

    2017-07-01

    This work describes the potential of utilizing prepared activated carbon from apricot stones as an efficient adsorbent material for tartrazine (TZ) azo-dye removal in a batch and dynamic adsorption system. The results revealed that activated carbons with well-developed surface area (774 m2/g) and pore volume (1.26 cm3/g) can be manufactured from apricot stones by H3PO4 activation. In batch experiments, effects of the parameters such as initial dye concentration and temperature on the removal of the dye were studied. Equilibrium was achieved in 120 min. Adsorption capacity was found to be dependent on the initial concentration of dye solution, and maximum adsorption was found to be 76 mg/g at 100 mg/L of TZ. The adsorption capacity at equilibrium ( q e) increased from 22.6 to 76 mg/g with an increase in the initial dye concentrations from 25 to 100 mg/L. The thermodynamic parameters such as change in free energy (Δ G 0), enthalpy (Δ H 0) and entropy (Δ S 0) were determined and the positive value of (Δ H) 78.1 (K J mol-1) revealed that adsorption efficiency increased with an increase in the process temperature. In fixed-bed column experiments, the effect of selected operating parameters such as bed depth, flow rate and initial dye concentration on the adsorption capacity was evaluated. Increase in bed height of adsorption columns leads to an extension of breakthrough point as well as the exhaustion time of adsorbent. However, the maximum adsorption capacities decrease with increases of flow rate. The breakthrough data fitted well to bed depth service time and Thomas models with high coefficient of determination, R 2 ≥ 94.

  19. Treatment of petroleum refinery wastewater containing heavily polluting substances in an aerobic submerged fixed-bed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendramel, S; Bassin, J P; Dezotti, M; Sant'Anna, G L

    2015-01-01

    Petroleum refineries produce large amount of wastewaters, which often contain a wide range of different compounds. Some of these constituents may be recalcitrant and therefore difficult to be treated biologically. This study evaluated the capability of an aerobic submerged fixed-bed reactor (ASFBR) containing a corrugated PVC support material for biofilm attachment to treat a complex and high-strength organic wastewater coming from a petroleum refinery. The reactor operation was divided into five experimental runs which lasted more than 250 days. During the reactor operation, the applied volumetric organic load was varied within the range of 0.5-2.4 kgCOD.m(-3).d(-1). Despite the inherent fluctuations on the characteristics of the complex wastewater and the slight decrease in the reactor performance when the influent organic load was increased, the ASFBR showed good stability and allowed to reach chemical oxygen demand, dissolved organic carbon and total suspended solids removals up to 91%, 90% and 92%, respectively. Appreciable ammonium removal was obtained (around 90%). Some challenging aspects of reactor operation such as biofilm quantification and important biofilm constituents (e.g. polysaccharides (PS) and proteins (PT)) were also addressed in this work. Average PS/volatile attached solids (VAS) and PT/VAS ratios were around 6% and 50%, respectively. The support material promoted biofilm attachment without appreciable loss of solids and allowed long-term operation without clogging. Microscopic observations of the microbial community revealed great diversity of higher organisms, such as protozoa and rotifers, suggesting that toxic compounds found in the wastewater were possibly removed in the biofilm.

  20. ADSORPTION OF MANGANESE FROM ACID MINE DRAINAGE EFFLUENTS USING BONE CHAR: CONTINUOUS FIXED BED COLUMN AND BATCH DESORPTION STUDIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. C. Sicupira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractIn the present study, continuous fixed bed column runs were carried out in an attempt to evaluate the feasibility of using bone char for the removal of manganese from acid mine drainage (AMD. Tests using a laboratory solution of pure manganese at typical concentration levels were also performed for comparison purposes. The following operating variables were evaluated: column height, flow rate, and initial pH. Significant variations in resistance to the mass transfer of manganese into the bone char were identified using the Thomas model. A significant effect of the bed height could only be observed in tests using the laboratory solution. No significant change in the breakthrough volume could be observed with different flow rates. By increasing the initial pH from 2.96 to 5.50, the breakthrough volume was also increased. The maximum manganese loading capacity in continuous tests using bone char for AMD effluents was 6.03 mg g-1, as compared to 26.74 mg g-1 when using the laboratory solution. The present study also performed desorption tests, using solutions of HCl, H2SO4, and water, aimed at the reuse of the adsorbent; however, no promising results were obtained due to low desorption levels associated with a relatively high mass loss. Despite the desorption results, the removal of manganese from AMD effluents using bone char as an adsorbent is technically feasible and attends to environmental legislation. It is interesting to note that the use of bone char for manganese removal may avoid the need for pH corrections of effluents after treatment. Moreover, bone char can also serve to remove fluoride ions and other metals, thus representing an interesting alternative material for the treatment of AMD effluents.

  1. International Seminar on Gasification 2009 - Biomass Gasification, Gas Clean-up and Gas Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-10-15

    During the seminar international and national experts gave presentations concerning Biomass gasification, Gas cleaning and gas treatment; and Strategy and policy issues. The presentations give an overview of the current status and what to be expected in terms of development, industrial interest and commercialization of different biomass gasification routes. The following PPT presentations are reproduced in the report: Black Liquor Gasification (Chemrec AB.); Gasification and Alternative Feedstocks for the Production of Synfuels and 2nd Generation Biofuels (Lurgi GmbH); Commercial Scale BtL Production on the Verge of Becoming Reality (Choren Industries GmbH.); Up-draft Biomass Gasification (Babcock and Wilcox Voelund A/S); Heterogeneous Biomass Residues and the Catalytic Synthesis of Alcohols (Enerkem); Status of the GoBiGas-project (Goeteborg Energi AB.); On-going Gasification Activities in Spain (University of Zaragoza,); Biomass Gasification Research in Italy (University of Perugia.); RDandD Needs and Recommendations for the Commercialization of High-efficient Bio-SNG (Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands.); Cleaning and Usage of Product Gas from Biomass Steam Gasification (Vienna University of Technology); Biomass Gasification and Catalytic Tar Cracking Process Development (Research Triangle Institute); Syngas Cleaning with Catalytic Tar Reforming (Franhofer UMSICHT); Biomass Gas Cleaning and Utilization - The Topsoee Perspective (Haldor Topsoee A/S); OLGA Tar Removal Technology (Dahlman); Bio-SNG - Strategy and Activities within E.ON (E.ON Ruhrgas AG); Strategy and Gasification Activities within Sweden (Swedish Energy Agency); 20 TWh/year Biomethane (Swedish Gas Association)

  2. Numerical and experimental studies on effects of moisture content on combustion characteristics of simulated municipal solid wastes in a fixed bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Rui; Ismail, Tamer M.; Ren, Xiaohan; Abd El-Salam, M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The effects of moisture content on the burning process of MSW are investigated. • A two-dimensional mathematical model was built to simulate the combustion process. • Temperature distributions, process rates, gas species were measured and simulated. • The The conversion ratio of C/CO and N/NO in MSW are inverse to moisture content. - Abstract: In order to reveal the features of the combustion process in the porous bed of a waste incinerator, a two-dimensional unsteady state model and experimental study were employed to investigate the combustion process in a fixed bed of municipal solid waste (MSW) on the combustion process in a fixed bed reactor. Conservation equations of the waste bed were implemented to describe the incineration process. The gas phase turbulence was modeled using the k–ε turbulent model and the particle phase was modeled using the kinetic theory of granular flow. The rate of moisture evaporation, devolatilization rate, and char burnout was calculated according to the waste property characters. The simulation results were then compared with experimental data for different moisture content of MSW, which shows that the incineration process of waste in the fixed bed is reasonably simulated. The simulation results of solid temperature, gas species and process rate in the bed are accordant with experimental data. Due to the high moisture content of fuel, moisture evaporation consumes a vast amount of heat, and the evaporation takes up most of the combustion time (about 2/3 of the whole combustion process). The whole bed combustion process reduces greatly as MSW moisture content increases. The experimental and simulation results provide direction for design and optimization of the fixed bed of MSW

  3. Dimensioning of aerated submerged fixed bed biofilm reactors based on a mathematical biofilm model applied to petrochemical wastewater - the link between theory and practice

    OpenAIRE

    Trojanowicz, Karol; Wójcik, Wtodzimierz

    2014-01-01

    The description of a biofilm mathematical model application for dimensioning an aerated fixed bed biofilm reactor (ASFBBR) for petrochemical wastewater polishing is presented. A simple one-dimensional model of biofilm, developed by P Harremöes, was chosen for this purpose. The model was calibrated and verified under conditions of oil-refinery effluent. The results of ASFBBR dimensioning on the basis of the biofilm model were compared with the bioreactor dimensions determined by application of...

  4. Single-stage anaerobic treatment of non-settled slaughterhouse waste water using a fixed-bed reactor. Einstufige anaerobe Behandlung von nicht abgesetztem Schlachthofabwasser in einem Festbettreaktor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tritt, W.P. (Bundesforschungsanstalt fuer Landwirtschaft, Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Technologie); Meyer-Jacob, H.

    1992-01-01

    Along with the determination of the degree of acidification during an intermediate storage of the crude slaughterhouse wastewater and deriving a single-stage or two-stage process, the start-up behaviour of the fixed-bed reactor, its degradation rates in upflow and downflow operation is descirbed. With regard to a subsequent biological denitrification the COD/N ratio of anaerobically treated wastewater is given. (orig.).

  5. Experimental studies of the influence of fuel properties and operational conditions on stoking when combusting fuels in a fixed-bed reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arias, Fabiana; Kolb, T.; Seifert, H.; Gehrmann, Hans-Joachim [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. for Technical Chemistry (ITC)

    2013-09-01

    Besides from knowledge about pollutant emission, knowledge of the combustion behavior of fuels plays a major role in the operation and optimization of combustion plants for waste and biomass. If the fuel is exchanged partly or completely in existing or newly designed grate-type combustion plants, adaptation of technical parameters is usually based on purely empirical studies. In the KLEAA fixed-bed reactor of KIT, Institute for Technical Chemistry (ITC), quantitative data on the combustion behavior can be determined from experimental investigations on the laboratory scale. Based on the characteristics obtained, the combustion behavior on a continuous grate can be estimated, This estimation is based on the assumption that no back mixing of the fuel occurs on the grate. Depending on the type of grate, however, stoking and back mixing play an important role. To improve the quality of the characteristics determined in KLEAA and enhance their transferability to the continuous process, it is necessary to determine the influence of fuel properties and operation conditions on stoking. Work is aimed at further developing the characteristics model taking into account a stoking factor describing the combustion behavior of a non-stoked fixed bed compared to a stoked fixed bed. The main task is to make a systematic study of the major parameters influencing stoking (e.g. stroke length, stroke frequency, geometry of the stoking unit, and fuel properties) in a fixed-bed reactor. The results shall be presented in the form of a semi-empirical equation. It is recommended to first study a model fuel, whose fuel properties are defined exactly and can be adjusted variably. Then, a stoking factor shall be derived from the studies. Possibly, a dimension analysis may be helpful. Finally, the results obtained are to be verified for residue-derived fuel. (orig.)

  6. Numerical and experimental studies on effects of moisture content on combustion characteristics of simulated municipal solid wastes in a fixed bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Rui, E-mail: Sunsr@hit.edu.cn [School of Energy Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, 92, West Dazhi Street, Harbin 150001 (China); Ismail, Tamer M., E-mail: temoil@aucegypt.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Suez Canal University, Ismailia (Egypt); Ren, Xiaohan [School of Energy Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, 92, West Dazhi Street, Harbin 150001 (China); Abd El-Salam, M. [Department of Basic Science, Cairo University, Giza (Egypt)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • The effects of moisture content on the burning process of MSW are investigated. • A two-dimensional mathematical model was built to simulate the combustion process. • Temperature distributions, process rates, gas species were measured and simulated. • The The conversion ratio of C/CO and N/NO in MSW are inverse to moisture content. - Abstract: In order to reveal the features of the combustion process in the porous bed of a waste incinerator, a two-dimensional unsteady state model and experimental study were employed to investigate the combustion process in a fixed bed of municipal solid waste (MSW) on the combustion process in a fixed bed reactor. Conservation equations of the waste bed were implemented to describe the incineration process. The gas phase turbulence was modeled using the k–ε turbulent model and the particle phase was modeled using the kinetic theory of granular flow. The rate of moisture evaporation, devolatilization rate, and char burnout was calculated according to the waste property characters. The simulation results were then compared with experimental data for different moisture content of MSW, which shows that the incineration process of waste in the fixed bed is reasonably simulated. The simulation results of solid temperature, gas species and process rate in the bed are accordant with experimental data. Due to the high moisture content of fuel, moisture evaporation consumes a vast amount of heat, and the evaporation takes up most of the combustion time (about 2/3 of the whole combustion process). The whole bed combustion process reduces greatly as MSW moisture content increases. The experimental and simulation results provide direction for design and optimization of the fixed bed of MSW.

  7. Comparison of the Effects of Fluidized-Bed and Fixed-Bed Reactors in Microwave-Assisted Catalytic Decomposition of TCE by Hydrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Ren

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Trichloroethylene (TCE decomposition by hydrogen with microwave heating under different reaction systems was investigated. The activities of a series of catalysts for microwave-assisted TCE hydrodechlorination were tested through the fixed-bed and the fluidized-bed reactor systems. This study found that the different reaction system is suitable for different catalyst type. And there is an interactive relationship between the catalyst type and the reaction bed type.

  8. Axial Changes of Catalyst Structure and Temperature in a Fixed-Bed Microreactor During Noble Metal Catalysed Partial Oxidation of Methane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hannemann, S.; Grunwaldt, Jan-Dierk; Kimmerle, B.

    2009-01-01

    The catalytic partial oxidation of methane (CPO) over flame-made 2.5%Rh-2.5%Pt/Al2O3 and 2.5%Rh/Al2O3 in 6%CH4/3%O-2/He shows the potential of in situ studies using miniaturized fixed-bed reactors, the importance of spatially resolved studies and its combination with infrared thermography and on-...

  9. Comparative study between fluidized bed and fixed bed reactors in methane reforming with CO2 and O2 to produce syngas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jing Qiangshan; Lou Hui; Mo Liuye; Zheng Xiaoming

    2006-01-01

    Reforming of methane with carbon dioxide and oxygen was investigated over Ni/MgO-SiO 2 catalysts using fixed bed and fluidized bed reactors. The conversions of CH 4 and CO 2 in a fluidized bed reactor were close to thermodynamic equilibrium. The activity and stability of the catalyst in the fixed bed reactor were lower than that in the fluidized bed reactor due to carbon deposition and nickel sintering. TGA and TEM techniques were used to characterize the spent catalysts. The results showed that a lot of whisker carbon was found on the catalyst in the rear of the fixed bed reactor, and no deposited carbon was observed on the catalysts in the fluidized bed reactor after reaction. It is suggested that this phenomenon is related to a permanent circulation of catalyst particles between the oxygen rich and oxygen free zones. That is, fluidization of the catalysts in the fluidized bed reactor favors inhibiting deposited carbon and thermal uniformity in the reactor

  10. Achievement report for fiscal 1981 on research under Sunshine Program. Basic research on high-calorie gas production technology; 1981 nendo sunshinte keikaku kenkyu seika hokokusho. Kokarori gas seizo gijutsu no kiso kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-03-01

    Test and research are conducted for acquiring basic data regarding coal gasification. In the basic research for the development of a high-calorie gas production process, a small moving bed gas furnace is improved, and a high-calorie gas of a heating value of approximately 5,100kcal/m{sup 3} is stably produced at a rate of approximately 20m{sup 3} per diem. The carbon conversion rate turns out to be approximately 37% for the gas, approximately 53% for the residual char, and approximately 10% for a mixture of tar, naphthalene, benzene, phenol, etc. Hydrogen is produced making use of the residual char when a small amount of coal is added, and it is deemed that the first experiment for the development of a moving bed hydrogasification process has been successfully completed. In the study of the mechanism of hydrogasification reaction, the result of a preliminary experiment in a fixed bed pressurized gasification furnace is compared with the data from a continuous gasification experiment, and the relationship is determined between the coal feed rate and the reaction rate. Conducted besides are a basic study of problems relating to operation, basic research on a reaction mechanism (carbonization by rapid heating), estimation of the equilibrium composition of gas generated by coal gasification, etc. (NEDO)

  11. Catalytic mechanism of sodium compounds in black liquor during gasification of coal black liquor slurry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuang Jianping; Zhou Junhu; Zhou Zhijun; Liu Jianzhong; Cen Kefa

    2008-01-01

    The coal black liquor slurry (CBLS) was composed of coal and black pulping liquor, which has plenty of sodium compounds, lignin and cellulose. The sodium compounds have a catalytic effect on the gasification process of coal black liquor slurry, while lignin and cellulose enhance the heat value. Alkali-catalyzed gasification experiments of CBLS and CWS (coal water slurry) are investigated on the thermobalance and fixed bed reactor. The residues of the gasification of CBLS and CWS are analyzed by XRD, SEM and FT-IR. It is found that many micro- and mesopores and zigzag faces exist in the surface of the CBLS coke, which play a key role in the catalytic gasification. Sodium can enhance the reaction potential, weaken the bond of C-O and improve the gasification reaction rate. XRD results show that sodium aluminum silicate and nepheline are the main crystal components of the CBLS and CWS. The C-O stretching vibration peak in the 1060 cm -1 band in the CBLS shifts to 995.65 cm -1 in the CBLS coke after partial gasification. This means that the energy of the C-O stretching vibration in the CBLS carbon matrix decreases, so the structure of the carbon matrix is more liable to react with an oxygen ion or hydroxide ion. The amplitude of the C-O stretching vibration peak is augmented step by step due to the ground-excited level jump of the C-O band

  12. Cow bones char as a green sorbent for fluorides removal from aqueous solutions: batch and fixed-bed studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigri, Elbert M; Cechinel, Maria Alice P; Mayer, Diego A; Mazur, Luciana P; Loureiro, José M; Rocha, Sônia D F; Vilar, Vítor J P

    2017-01-01

    Cow bone char was investigated as sorbent for the defluoridation of aqueous solutions. The cow bone char was characterized in terms of its morphology, chemical composition, and functional groups present on the bone char surface using different analytical techniques: SEM, EDS, N 2 -BET method, and FTIR. Batch equilibrium studies were performed for the bone chars prepared using different procedures. The highest sorption capacities for fluoride were obtained for the acid washed (q = 6.2 ± 0.5 mg/g) and Al-doped (q = 6.4 ± 0.3 mg/g) bone chars. Langmuir and Freundlich models fitted well the equilibrium sorption data. Fluoride removal rate in batch system is fast in the first 5 h, decreasing after this time until achieving equilibrium due to pore diffusion. The presence of carbonate and bicarbonate ions in the aqueous solution contributes to a decrease of the fluoride sorption capacity of the bone char by 79 and 31 %, respectively. Regeneration of the F-loaded bone char using 0.5 M NaOH solution leads to a sorption capacity for fluoride of 3.1 mg/g in the second loading cycle. Fluoride breakthrough curve obtained in a fixed-bed column presents an asymmetrical S-shaped form, with a slow approach of C/C 0  → 1.0 due to pore diffusion phenomena. Considering the guideline value for drinking water of 1.5 mg F - /L, as recommended by World Health Organization, the service cycle for fluoride removal was of 71.0 h ([F - ] feed  ∼ 9 mg/L; flow rate = 1 mL/min; m sorbent  = 12.6 g). A mass transfer model considering the pore diffusion was able to satisfactorily describe the experimental data obtained in batch and continuous systems.

  13. Thin-film fixed-bed reactor (TFFBR for solar photocatalytic inactivation of aquaculture pathogen Aeromonas hydrophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Sadia J

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Outbreaks of infectious diseases by microbial pathogens can cause substantial losses of stock in aquaculture systems. There are several ways to eliminate these pathogens including the use of antibiotics, biocides and conventional disinfectants, but these leave undesirable chemical residues. Conversely, using sunlight for disinfection has the advantage of leaving no chemical residue and is particularly suited to countries with sunny climates. Titanium dioxide (TiO2 is a photocatalyst that increases the effectiveness of solar disinfection. In recent years, several different types of solar photocatalytic reactors coated with TiO2 have been developed for waste water and drinking water treatment. In this study a thin-film fixed-bed reactor (TFFBR, designed as a sloping flat plate reactor coated with P25 DEGUSSA TiO2, was used. Results The level of inactivation of the aquaculture pathogen Aeromonas hydrophila ATCC 35654 was determined after travelling across the TFFBR under various natural sunlight conditions (300-1200 W m-2, at 3 different flow rates (4.8, 8.4 and 16.8 L h-1. Bacterial numbers were determined by conventional plate counting using selective agar media, cultured (i under conventional aerobic conditions to detect healthy cells and (ii under conditions designed to neutralise reactive oxygen species (agar medium supplemented with the peroxide scavenger sodium pyruvate at 0.05% w/v, incubated under anaerobic conditions, to detect both healthy and sub-lethally injured (oxygen-sensitive cells. The results clearly demonstrate that high sunlight intensities (≥ 600 W m-2 and low flow rates (4.8 L h-1 provided optimum conditions for inactivation of A. hydrophila ATCC 3564, with greater overall inactivation and fewer sub-lethally injured cells than at low sunlight intensities or high flow rates. Low sunlight intensities resulted in reduced overall inactivation and greater sub-lethal injury at all flow rates. Conclusions This

  14. Guideline for safe and eco-friendly biomass gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vos, J.; Knoef, H. (BTG biomass technology group, Enschede (Netherlands)); Hauth, M. (Graz Univ. of Technology. Institute of Thermal Engineering, Graz (Austria)) (and others)

    2009-11-15

    The objective of the Gasification Guide project is to accelerate the market penetration of small-scale biomass gasification systems (< 5 MW fuel power) by the development of a Guideline and Software Tool to facilitate risk assessment of HSE aspects. The Guideline may also be applied in retrofitting or converting old thermal plants in the Eastern European countries - with rich biomass recourses - to new gasification plants. The objective of this document is to guide key target groups identifying potential hazards and make a proper risk assessment. The software tool is an additional aid in the risk assessment. This guideline is intended to be a training tool and a resource for workers and employers to safely design, fabricate, construct, operate and maintain small-scale biomass gasification facilities. The Guideline is applicable with the following constraints: 1) The maximum scale of the gasification plant was agreed to be about 1 MW{sub e}. The reason is that large companies do have normally their safety rules in place; 2) This means in principle only fixed bed gasifier designs. However, most parts are also valid to other designs and even other thermal conversion processes; 3) The use of contaminated biomass is beyond the scope of this Guideline. The Guideline contains five major chapters; Chapter 2 briefly describes the gasification technology in general. Chapter 3 gives an overview of major legal framework issues on plant permission and operation. The legal frame is changing and the description is based on the situation by the end of 2007. Chapter 4 explains the theory behind the risk assessment method and risk reduction measures. Chapter 5 is the heart of the Guideline and gives practical examples of good design, operation and maintenance principles. The practical examples and feedback have been received throughout the project and the description is based on mid-2009. Chapter 6 describes the best techniques currently available for emission abatement which are

  15. Survey of Biomass Gasification, Volume II: Principles of Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, T.B. (comp.)

    1979-07-01

    Biomass can be converted by gasification into a clean-burning gaseous fuel that can be used to retrofit existing gas/oil boilers, to power engines, to generate electricity, and as a base for synthesis of methanol, gasoline, ammonia, or methane. This survey describes biomass gasification, associated technologies, and issues in three volumes. Volume I contains the synopsis and executive summary, giving highlights of the findings of the other volumes. In Volume II the technical background necessary for understanding the science, engineering, and commercialization of biomass is presented. In Volume III the present status of gasification processes is described in detail, followed by chapters on economics, gas conditioning, fuel synthesis, the institutional role to be played by the federal government, and recommendations for future research and development.

  16. Gasification reactivities of cokes derived from Athabasca bitumen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furimsky, E.

    1985-10-01

    Gasification reactivities of cokes obtained from Athabasca bitumen by delayed coking and fluid coking were compared in fixed and fluidized bed systems. In both systems the C + O/sub 2/ reaction accounted for the most of converted carbon. The C + H/sub 2/O reaction proceeded to a smaller extent. The bulk reactivity of the fluid coke was higher than that of delayed coke, when comparing -20 to +60 mesh particles in fluidized bed and -14 to +20 mesh particles in fixed bed, respectively. However, the reactivity of the delayed coke expressed per unit of surface area was markedly higher than that of the fluid coke. 9 figs., 7 tabs., 6 refs. (A.V.)

  17. Fixed (slow moving) bed updraft gasification of agricultural residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigouroux, Rolando Zanzi [Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Technology], E-mail: rolando@ket.kth.se; Escalona, Ronoldy Faxas [University of Oriente, Santiago de Cuba (Cuba). Fac. of Mechanical Engineering], E-mail: faxas@fim.uo.edu.cu

    2009-07-01

    Birch, in form of pellets has been gasified in updraft fixed-bed gasifier using air as oxidation agent. The main objectives were to study the effect of the treatment conditions on the distribution of the products and the composition of product gas. The influence of the air flow rates on the composition of the producer gas has been studied. The amount of the biomass used in the experiments was varied between 1 and 4 kg and the flow rate of the air was varied from 1.1 to 2.6 m3/h. Increased airflow rates favored higher temperatures. Excessively high airflow rates resulted in fast consumption of the biomass and it also favored combustion over gasification and thus formation of lower amounts of combustible products. High airflow rates caused also higher yields of tars, due to the shorter residence time of the tar-rich gas in the gasifier and thus unfavorable conditions for tar cracking. (author)

  18. High Performance Gasification with the Two-Stage Gasifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøbel, Benny; Hindsgaul, Claus; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk

    2002-01-01

    , air preheating and pyrolysis, hereby very high energy efficiencies can be achieved. Encouraging results are obtained at a 100 kWth laboratory facility. The tar content in the raw gas is measured to be below 25 mg/Nm3 and around 5 mg/Nm3 after gas cleaning with traditional baghouse filter. Furthermore...... a cold gas efficiency exceeding 90% is obtained. In the original design of the two-stage gasification process, the pyrolysis unit consists of a screw conveyor with external heating, and the char unit is a fixed bed gasifier. This design is well proven during more than 1000 hours of testing with various...... fuels, and is a suitable design for medium size gasifiers....

  19. Morphological study of biomass during the start-up period of a fixed-bed anaerobic reactor treating domestic sewage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Antonio Andrade Lima

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available This work focused on a morphological study of the microorganisms attached to polyurethane foam matrices in a horizontal-flow anaerobic immobilized biomass (HAIB reactor treating domestic sewage. The experiments consisted of monitoring the biomass colonization process of foam matrices in terms of the amount of retained biomass and the morphological characteristics of the cells attached to the support during the start-up period. Non-fluorescent rods and cocci were found to predominate in the process of attachment to the polyurethane foam surface. From the 10th week of operation onwards, an increase was observed in the morphological diversity, mainly due to rods, cocci, and Methanosaeta-like archaeal cells. Hydrodynamic problems, such as bed clogging and channeling occurred in the fixed-bed reactor, mainly due to the production of extracellular polymeric substances and their accumulation in the interstices of the bed causing a gradual deterioration of its performance, which eventually led to the system's collapse. These results demonstrated the importance and usefulness of monitoring the dynamics of the formation of biofilm during the start-up period of HAIB reactors, since it allowed the identification of operational problems.Este trabalho apresenta um estudo morfológico de microrganismos aderidos à espuma de poliuretano em reator anaeróbio horizontal de leito fixo (RAHLF, aplicado ao tratamento de esgoto sanitário. O processo de colonização do suporte pela biomassa anaeróbia e as características morfológicas das células aderidas foram monitorados durante o período de partida do reator. Bacilos e cocos não fluorescentes foram predominantes no processo de aderência direta à espuma de poliuretano. Aumento na diversidade biológica foi observado a partir da 10ª semana de operação do reator, com predominância de bacilos, cocos e arqueas metanogênicas semelhantes a Methanosaeta. Problemas hidrodinâmicos, tais como formação de

  20. Thermodynamic analysis of an integrated gasification solid oxide fuel cell plant combined with an organic Rankine cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pierobon, Leonardo; Rokni, Masoud; Larsen, Ulrik

    2013-01-01

    into a fixed bed gasification plant to produce syngas which fuels the combined solid oxide fuel cells e organic Rankine cycle system to produce electricity. More than a hundred fluids are considered as possible alternative for the organic cycle using non-ideal equations of state (or state-of-the-art equations......A 100 kWe hybrid plant consisting of gasification system, solid oxide fuel cells and organic Rankine cycle is presented. The nominal power is selected based on cultivation area requirement. For the considered output a land of around 0.5 km2 needs to be utilized. Woodchips are introduced...... achieved by simple and double stage organic Rankine cycle plants and around the same efficiency of a combined gasification, solid oxide fuel cells and micro gas turbine plant. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  1. Gasification of rice husks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marzetti, P. (ENEA, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Fonti Alternative e Risparmio Energetico)

    The paper outlines the thermochemical processes and equipment involved in the gasification of rice husks. An assessment is made of the feasibility (availability, technology requirements, economics of production and marketing) of this renewable energy source. Results, reported here in tabular form, of experimental trials at an Italian pilot plant (producing, with the use of 165 kg/h of rice husks, 350,000 kcal/h of gas with a conversion yield of 70%) indicated good feasibility. More research is required to improve the combustion qualities of the final product.

  2. Discussion of the applicability of overdammed fixed-bed reactors in nitrification processes; Beitrag zum Einsatz von ueberstauten Festbettreaktoren zur Nitrifikation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenter, H.O.

    1996-12-31

    The investigation aimed at developing a dimensioning method for overdammed fixed bed nitrification reactors with plug flow which takes account of the reactor height. Further, information was to be obtained for assessing sudden loads and for comparing energy consumption with the data of conventional activated sludge plants. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Ziel dieser Arbeit ist es, fuer ueberstaute, pfropfendurchstroemte Festbettreaktoren zur Nitrifikation einen Bemessungsansatz aufzustellen, welcher den Einfluss der Reaktorhoehe mit beruecksichtigt. Ferner sollten Erkenntnisse zur Beurteilung von Stossbelastungen sowie zum Energiebedarf im Vergleich zu herkoemmlichen Belebungsanlagen gewonnen werden. (orig./SR)

  3. An overview of CFD modelling of small-scale fixed-bed biomass pellet boilers with preliminary results from a simplified approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaney, Joel; Liu Hao; Li Jinxing

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Overview of the overall approach of modelling fixed-bed biomass boilers in CFD. ► Bed sub-models of moisture evaporation, devolatisation and char combustion reviewed. ► A method of embedding a combustion model in discrete fuel zones within the CFD is suggested. ► Includes sample of preliminary results for a 50 kW pellet boiler. ► Clear physical trends predicted. - Abstract: The increasing global energy demand and mounting pressures for CO 2 mitigation call for increased efficient utilization of biomass, particularly for heating domestic and commercial buildings. The authors of the present paper are investigating the optimization of the combustion performance and NO x emissions of a 50 kW biomass pellet boiler fabricated by a UK manufacturer. The boiler has a number of adjustable parameters including the ratio of air flow split between the primary and secondary supplies, the orientation, height, direction and number of the secondary inlets. The optimization of these parameters provides opportunities to improve both the combustion efficiency and NO x emissions. When used carefully in conjunction with experiments, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modelling is a useful tool for rapidly and at minimum cost examining the combustion performance and emissions from a boiler with multiple variable parameters. However, modelling combustion and emissions of a small-scale biomass pellet boiler is not trivial and appropriate fixed-bed models that can be coupled with the CFD code are required. This paper reviews previous approaches specifically relevant to simulating fixed-bed biomass boilers. In the first part it considers approaches to modelling the heterogeneous solid phase and coupling this with the gas phase. The essential components of the sub-models are then overviewed. Importantly, for the optimization process a model is required that has a good balance between accuracy in predicting physical trends, with low computational run time. Finally, a

  4. Propene and l-octene hydroformylation with silica-supported, ionic liquid-phase (SILP) Rh-phosphine catalysts in continuous fixed-bed mode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisager, Anders; Eriksen, Kim Michael; Wasserscheid, Peter

    2003-01-01

    - and liquid-phase hydroformylation of propene and 1-octene, exhibiting TOFs up to 88 h(-1) for SILP Rh-2 catalysts, while only low selectivities up to 74% n-aldehyde (n/iso ratio of 2.8) were obtained. This is the first example of continuous fixed-bed liquid-phase hydroformylation using SILP catalysts.......Supported ionic liquid-phase (SILP) catalysts were made by immobilizing Rh-monophosphine complexes of bis(m-phenylguanidinium) phenylphosphine 1 and NORBOS 2 ligands in 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate, [BMIM] [PF6], on a silica support. The catalysts were active in continuous gas...

  5. Coefficient of solid-gas heat transfer in particle fixed bed; Coeficiente de transferencia de calor gas-solido em leito fixo de particulas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes Filho, Francisco

    1991-03-01

    The work presents a study on heat transfer between gas and solid phases for fixed beds in the absence of mass transfer and chemical reactions. Mathematical models presented in the literature were analyzed concerning to the assumptions made on axial dispersion in the fluid phase and interparticle thermal conductivity. Heat transfer coefficients and their dependency on flow conditions, particles and packed bed characteristics were experimentally determined through the solution of the previous mathematical models. Pressure drop behaviour for the packed beds used for the heat transfer study was also included. (author) 32 refs., 12 figs.

  6. Fluidised-bed combustion of gasification residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korpela, T.; Kudjoi, A.; Hippinen, I.; Heinolainen, A.; Suominen, M.; Lu Yong [Helsinki Univ. of Technology (Finland). Lab of Energy Economics and Power Plant Engineering

    1996-12-01

    Partial gasification processes have been presented as possibilities for future power production. In the processes, the solid materials removed from a gasifier (i.e. fly ash and bed material) contain unburnt fuel and the fuel conversion is increased by burning this gasification residue either in an atmospheric or a pressurised fluidised-bed. In this project, which is a part of European JOULE 2 EXTENSION research programme, the main research objectives are the behaviour of calcium and sulphur compounds in solids and the emissions of sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x} and N{sub 2}O) in pressurised fluidised-bed combustion of gasification residues. (author)

  7. Co-gasification of coal and biomass: Synergy, characterization and reactivity of the residual char.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Junhao; Shao, Jingai; Yang, Haiping; Lin, Guiying; Chen, Yingquan; Wang, Xianhua; Zhang, Wennan; Chen, Hanping

    2017-11-01

    The synergy effect between coal and biomass in their co-gasification was studied in a vertical fixed bed reactor, and the physic-chemical structural characteristics and gasification reactivity of the residual char obtained from co-gasification were also investigated. The results shows that, conversion of the residual char and tar into gas is enhanced due to the synergy effect between coal and biomass. The physical structure of residual char shows more pore on coal char when more biomass is added in the co-gasification. The migration of inorganic elements between coal and biomass was found, the formation and competitive role of K 2 SiO 3 , KAlSiO 4 , and Ca 3 Al 2 (SiO 4 ) 3 is a mechanism behind the synergy. The graphization degree is enhanced but size of graphite crystallite in the residual char decreases with biomass blending ratio increasing. TGA results strongly suggest the big difference in the reactivity of chars derived from coal and biomass in spite of influence from co-gasification. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Thermodynamic Analysis of an Integrated Gasification Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Plant with a Kalina Cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pierobon, Leonardo; Rokni, Masoud

    2015-01-01

    % is achieved; plant size and nominal power are selected based on the required cultivation area. SOFC heat recovery with SKC is compared to a Steam Cycle (SC). Although ammonia-water more accurately fits the temperature profile of the off-gases, the presence of a Hybrid Recuperator enhances the available work......-treated fuel then enters the anode side of the SOFC. Complete fuel oxidation is ensured in a burner by off-gases exiting the SOFC stacks. Off-gases are utilized as heat source for a SKC where a mixture of ammonia and water is expanded in a turbine to produce additional electric power. Thus, a triple novel......A hybrid plant that consists of a gasification system, Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) and a Simple Kalina Cycle (SKC) is investigated. Woodchips are introduced into a fixed bed gasification plant to produce syngas, which is then fed into an integrated SOFC-SKC plant to produce electricity. The pre...

  9. Application of response surface methodology and semi-mechanistic model to optimize fluoride removal using crushed concrete in a fixed-bed column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Bon-Wun; Lee, Chang-Gu; Park, Seong-Jik

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the removal of fluoride from aqueous solutions by using crushed concrete fines as a filter medium under varying conditions of pH 3-7, flow rate of 0.3-0.7 mL/min, and filter depth of 10-20 cm. The performance of fixed-bed columns was evaluated on the basis of the removal ratio (Re), uptake capacity (qe), degree of sorbent used (DoSU), and sorbent usage rate (SUR) obtained from breakthrough curves (BTCs). Three widely used semi-mechanistic models, that is, Bohart-Adams, Thomas, and Yoon-Nelson models, were applied to simulate the BTCs and to derive the design parameters. The Box-Behnken design of response surface methodology (RSM) was used to elucidate the individual and interactive effects of the three operational parameters on the column performance and to optimize these parameters. The results demonstrated that pH is the most important factor in the performance of fluoride removal by a fixed-bed column. The flow rate had a significant negative influence on Re and DoSU, and the effect of filter depth was observed only in the regression model for DoSU. Statistical analysis indicated that the model attained from the RSM study is suitable for describing the semi-mechanistic model parameters.

  10. Process Optimization for Ethyl Ester Production in Fixed Bed Reactor Using Calcium Oxide Impregnated Palm Shell Activated Carbon (CaO/PSAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Buasri

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available : The continuous production of ethyl ester was studied by using a steady-state fixed bed reactor (FBR. Transesterification of palm stearin (PS and waste cooking palm oil (WCPO with ethanol in the presence of calcium oxide impregnated palm shell activated carbon (CaO/PSAC solid catalyst was investigated. This work was determined the optimum conditions for the production of ethyl ester from PS and WCPO in order to obtain fatty acid ethyl ester (FAEE with the highest yield. The effects of reaction variables such as residence time, ethanol/oil molar ratio, reaction temperature, catalyst bed height and reusability of catalyst in a reactor system on the yield of biodiesel were considered. The optimum conditions were the residence time 2-3 h, ethanol/oil molar ratio 16-20, reaction temperature at 800C, and catalyst bed height 300 mm which yielded 89.46% and 83.32% of the PS and WCPO conversion, respectively. CaO/PSAC could be used repeatedly for 4 times without any activation treatment and no obvious activity loss was observed. It has potential for industrial application in the transesterification of triglyceride (TG. The fuel properties of biodiesel were determined. Keywords: biodiesel, calcium oxide, ethyl ester, fixed bed reactor, palm shell activated carbon

  11. BATCH AND FIXED BED ADSORPTION STUDIES OF LEAD (II CATIONS FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS ONTO GRANULAR ACTIVATED CARBON DERIVED FROM MANGOSTANA GARCINIA SHELL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaira Zaman Chowdhury,

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The feasibility of granular activated carbon (GAC derived from Mangostene (Mangostana garcinia fruit shell to remove lead, Pb2+ cations was investigated in batch and fixed bed sorption systems. Batch experiments were carried out to study equilibrium isotherms, kinetics, and thermodynamics by using an initial lead (Pb2+ ions concentration of 50 to 100 mg/L at pH 5.5. Equilibrium data were fitted using Langmuir, Freundlich, and Temkin linear equation models at temperatures 30°C, 50°C, and 70°C. Langmuir maximum monolayer sorption capacity was 25.00 mg/g at 30°C. The experimental data were best represented by pseudo-second-order and Elovich models. The sorption process was found to be feasible, endothermic, and spontaneous. In column experiments, the effects of initial cation concentration (50 mg/L, 70 mg/L, and 100 mg/L, bed height (4.5 cm and 3 cm, and flow rate (1 mL/min and 3 mL/min on the breakthrough characteristics were evaluated. Breakthrough curves were further analyzed by using Thomas and Yoon Nelson models to study column dynamics. The column was regenerated and reused consecutively for four cycles. The result demonstrated that the prepared activated carbon was suitable for removal of Pb2+ from synthetic aqueous solution using batch, as well as fixed bed sorption systems.

  12. Batch and fixed bed adsorption of levofloxacin on granular activated carbon from date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) stones by KOH chemical activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darweesh, Teeba M; Ahmed, Muthanna J

    2017-03-01

    Granular activated carbon (KAC) was prepared from abundant Phoenix dactylifera L. stones by microwave- assisted KOH activation. The characteristics of KAC were tested by pore analyses, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The adsorption behavior of levofloxacin (LEV) antibiotic on KAC with surface area of 817m 2 /g and pore volume of 0.638cm 3 /g were analyzed using batch and fixed bed systems. The equilibrium data collected by batch experiments were well fitted with Langmuir compared to Freundlich and Temkin isotherms. The effect of flow rate (0.5-1.5ml/min), bed height (15-25cm), and initial LEV concentration (75-225mg/l) on the behavior of breakthrough curves was explained. The fixed bed analysis showed the better correlation of breakthrough data by both Thomas and Yoon-Nelson models. High LEV adsorption capacity of 100.3mg/g was reported on KAC, thus being an efficient adsorbent for antibiotic pollutants to protect ecological systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Removal of furan and phenolic compounds from simulated biomass hydrolysates by batch adsorption and continuous fixed-bed column adsorption methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Cheol; Park, Sunkyu

    2016-09-01

    It has been proposed to remove all potential inhibitors and sulfuric acid in biomass hydrolysates generated from dilute-acid pretreatment of biomass, based on three steps of sugar purification process. This study focused on its first step in which furan and phenolic compounds were selectively removed from the simulated hydrolysates using activated charcoal. Batch adsorption experiments demonstrated that the affinity of activated charcoal for each component was highest in the order of vanillic acid, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, furfural, acetic acid, sulfuric acid, and xylose. The affinity of activated charcoal for furan and phenolic compounds proved to be significantly higher than that of the other three components. Four separation strategies were conducted with a combination of batch adsorption and continuous fixed-bed column adsorption methods. It was observed that xylose loss was negligible with near complete removal of furan and phenolic compounds, when at least one fixed-bed column adsorption was implemented in the strategy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Numerical investigation of flow and heat transfer in a novel configuration multi-tubular fixed bed reactor for propylene to acrolein process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Bin; Hao, Li; Zhang, Luhong; Sun, Yongli; Xiao, Xiaoming

    2015-01-01

    In the present contribution, a numerical study of fluid flow and heat transfer performance in a pilot-scale multi-tubular fixed bed reactor for propylene to acrolein oxidation reaction is presented using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method. Firstly, a two-dimensional CFD model is developed to simulate flow behaviors, catalytic oxidation reaction, heat and mass transfer adopting porous medium model on tube side to achieve the temperature distribution and investigate the effect of operation parameters on hot spot temperature. Secondly, based on the conclusions of tube-side, a novel configuration multi-tubular fixed-bed reactor comprising 790 tubes design with disk-and-doughnut baffles is proposed by comparing with segmental baffles reactor and their performance of fluid flow and heat transfer is analyzed to ensure the uniformity condition using molten salt as heat carrier medium on shell-side by three-dimensional CFD method. The results reveal that comprehensive performance of the reactor with disk-and-doughnut baffles is better than that of with segmental baffles. Finally, the effects of operating conditions to control the hot spots are investigated. The results show that the flow velocity range about 0.65 m/s is applicable and the co-current cooling system flow direction is better than counter-current flow to control the hottest temperature.

  15. Determination of the Removal Efficiency of Linear Alkyl Benzene Sulphonate Acids (LAS in Fixed Bed Aeration Tank and Conventional Activated Sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asghar Ebrahimi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Linear Alkyl Benzene Sulphonate Acids (LAS are one of the anionic surfactants that are produced and used in large quantities in different countries and find their way into the natural environment through sewer systems. These compounds may potentially cause environmental hazards in such surface waters as rivers. It is, therefore, necessary to remove as much of these compounds as possible by biological processes in wastewater treatment plants. For this purpose, four parallel biological reactors were constructed that used the conventional activated sludge and aeration tanks with fixed bed on the bench scale in order to evaluate the removal efficiency of LAS. The reactors were operated under conditions similar to domestic wastewater treatment plants. Parameters of interest were measured according to standard methods and ANOVA and T-test were used for the statistical analysis of the data. The results showed that aeration tanks with fixed beds yielded higher values of LAS and COD removal and air consumption compared to the conventional activated sludge system. It was shown that the two systems studied achieved LAS removal efficiencies of 96% and 94% for an influent LAS concentration of 5 mg/L. Further, it was found that the effluents from both systems satisfied water quality standards for discharge into surface waters (

  16. Scaled-up electrochemical reactor with a fixed bed three-dimensional cathode for electro-Fenton process: Application to the treatment of bisphenol A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmayssem, Ayman; Taha, Samir; Hauchard, Didier

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we report on the development of an open undivided electrochemical reactor with a compact fixed bed of glassy carbon pellets as three-dimensional cathode for the application of electro-Fenton process. Bisphenol A (BPA) was chosen as model molecule in order to improve its efficiency to the treatment of persistent pollutants. The study of the BPA removal efficiency in function of the applied current intensity was investigated in order to determine the limiting current of O 2 reduction (optimal conditions of H 2 O 2 production at flow rate of 0.36 m 3 .h −1 ) which was 0.8 A (0.5 A/100 g of glassy carbon pellets). Many parameters have been carried out using this electro-Fenton reactor namely degradation kinetics, influence of anodic reactions on DSA, effect of initial pollutant concentration. In the optimal current condition, the global production rate of H 2 O 2 and ·OH was investigated. The yield of electro-Fenton reaction (conversion of H 2 O 2 to ·OH) was very high (> 90%). The absolute rate of BPA degradation was determined as 4.3 × 10 9 M −1 s −1 . COD, TOC and BOD 5 measurements indicated that only few minutes of treatment by electro-Fenton process were needed to eliminate BPA for dilute solutions (10 and 25 mg.L −1 ). In this case, the biodegradability of the treated solutions occurred rapidly. For higher concentration levels, an efficient removal of BPA appeared for treatment time higher than 1 hour and more than 90 minutes were necessary to obtain the biodegradability of BPA solutions. In optimum conditions, the scale-up of the electrochemical reactor applied to electro-Fenton process was suggested and depended on the concentration level of the pollutant. The operating parameters of the scaled-up reactor might be deduced from the new section of each fixed bed exposed to the flow, from values of liquid flow velocity and from the corresponding limiting current density obtained with the reactor at laboratory scale. The compact fixed bed

  17. Radiative Gasification Apparatus

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This apparatus, developed at EL, determines gasification rate (mass loss rate) of a horizontally oriented specimen exposed in a nitrogen environment to a controlled...

  18. Sintering study in vertical fixed bed reactor for synthetic aggregate production; Estudo da sinterizacao em reator vertical de leito fixo para producao de agregado sintetico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quaresma, D.S.; Neves, A.S.S.; Melo, A.O.; Pereira, L.F.S.; Bezerra, P.T.S.; Macedo, E.N.; Souza, J.A.S., E-mail: danysq@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Quimica

    2017-04-15

    The synthetic aggregates are being employed in civil construction for the reduction of mineral extraction activities. Within this context, the recycling of industrial waste is the basis of the majority of processes to reduce the exploitation of mineral resources. In this work the sintering in a vertical fixed bed reactor for synthetic aggregate production using 20% pellets and 80% charcoal was studied. The pellets were prepared from a mixture containing clay, charcoal and fly ash. Two experiments varying the speed of air sucking were carried out. The material produced was analyzed by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, measures of their ceramic properties, and particle size analysis. The results showed that the solid-state reactions, during the sintering process, were efficient and the produced material was classified as coarse lightweight aggregate. The process is interesting for the sintering of aggregates, and can be controlled by composition, particle size, temperature gradient and gaseous flow. (author)

  19. Fixed-bed column studies of total organic carbon removal from industrial wastewater by use of diatomite decorated with polyethylenimine-functionalized pyroxene nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hethnawi, Afif; Manasrah, Abdallah D; Vitale, Gerardo; Nassar, Nashaat N

    2018-03-01

    In this study, a fixed-bed column adsorption process was employed to remove organic pollutants from a real industrial wastewater effluent using polyethylenimine-functionalized pyroxene nanoparticles (PEI-PY) embedded into Diatomite at very low mass percentage. Various dynamic parameters (e.g., inlet concentration, inlet flow rate, bed height, and PEI-nanoparticle concentration in Diatomite, (%nps)) were investigated to determine the breakthrough behavior. The obtained breakthrough curves were fit with a convection-dispersion model to determine the characteristic parameters based on mass transfer phenomena. The axial dispersion coefficient (D L ) and group of dimensionless numbers; including Renold number (Re), Schmidt number (Sc), and Sherwood number (Sh) were all determined and correlated by Wilson-Geankoplis correlation that was used to estimate the external film diffusion coefficients (Kc) at 0.0015 < Re<55. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Systematic staging design applied to the fixed-bed reactor series for methanol and one-step methanol/dimethyl ether synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manenti, Flavio; Leon-Garzon, Andres R.; Ravaghi-Ardebili, Zohreh; Pirola, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    This work investigates possible design advances in the series of fixed-bed reactors for methanol and dimethyl ether synthesis. Specifically, the systematic staging design proposed by Hillestad [1] is applied to the water-cooled and gas-cooled series of reactors of Lurgi's technology. The procedure leads to new design and operating conditions with respect to the current best industrial practice, with relevant benefits in terms of process yield, energy saving, and net income. The overall mathematical model for the process simulation and optimization is reported in the work together with dedicated sensitivity analysis studies. - Highlights: • Systematic staging design is applied to methanol and methanol/DME synthesis. • New configurations for the synthesis reactor network are proposed and assessed. • Comparison with the industrial best practice is provided. • Energy-process optimization is performed to improve the overall yield of the process

  1. Synthesis and characterization of organic–inorganic core–shell structure nanocomposite and application for Zn ions removal from aqueous solution in a fixed-bed column

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghasemi, Shokoofeh [Faculty of Chemical, Gas and Petroleum Engineering, Semnan University, Semnan 35131-19111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghorbani, Mohsen, E-mail: M.ghorbani@nit.ac.ir [Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Babol University of Technology, P.O. Box 484, Babol (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghazi, Mohsen Mehdipour [Faculty of Chemical, Gas and Petroleum Engineering, Semnan University, Semnan 35131-19111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-12-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles were prepared in one step using ultrasonic radiation and coated by polyrhodanine. • Nanocomposite synthesized with core average diameter of 15 nm and polyrhodanine as shell with thickness of 1.5 nm • Application of products was investigated to separate zinc ions from aqueous solution in a fixed-bed column. • The Adams–Bohart, BDST, Thomas and Yoon–Nelson models used to predict model parameters. • The models were nearly in good agreement with the experimental data. - Abstract: An organic–inorganic core/shell structure, γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/polyrhodanine nanocomposite with γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticle as core with average diameter of 15 nm and polyrhodanine as shell with thickness of 1.5 nm, has been synthesized via chemical oxidation polymerization and applied for adsorption of Zn ions from aqueous solution in a fixed-bed column. The properties of nanocomposite were characterized with transmission electron microscope (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The performance of the column was assessed under variable bed heights (10, 15 and 20 cm) and influent Zn concentrations (50, 100 and 150 ppm) at a constant flow rate (0.5 mL/min). The results demonstrated that the breakthrough curves are S-shaped and the breakthrough time increases with increasing bed height and decreases with increasing influent concentration. Moreover, the dynamics of the adsorption process were evaluated by using Adams–Bohart, bed depth service time (BDST), Thomas and Yoon–Nelson kinetic models. The models were nearly in good agreement with the experimental data.

  2. Feasibility analysis of color removal from textile dyeing wastewater in a fixed-bed column system by surfactant-modified zeolite (SMZ)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozdemir, Ozgur; Turan, Mustafa; Turan, Abdullah Zahid; Faki, Aysegul; Engin, Ahmet Baki

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the ability of surfactant-modified zeolite (SMZ) to remove color from real textile wastewater was investigated. Tests were performed in a fixed-bed column reactor and the surface of natural zeolite was modified with a quaternary amine surfactant hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (HTAB). The zeolite bed that was modified at 1 g L -1 HTAB concentration and HTAB flow rate of 0.015 L min -1 showed good performance in removing color. Effects of wastewater color intensity, flow rates and bed heights were also studied. Wastewater was diluted several times in the ratios of 25%, 50% and 75% in order to assess the influence of wastewater strength. The breakthrough curves of the original and diluted wastewaters are dispersed due to the fact that breakthrough came late at lower color intensities and saturation of the bed appeared faster at higher color intensities. The column had a 3-cm diameter and four different bed heights of 12.5, 25, 37.5 and 50 cm, which treated 5.25, 19.50, 35.25 and 51 L original textile wastewater, respectively, at the breakthrough time at a flow rate of 0.025 L min -1 . The theoretical service times evaluated from bed depth service time (BDST) approach for different column variables. The calculated and theoretical values of the exchange zone height were found with a difference of 27%. The various design parameters obtained from fixed-bed experimental studies showed good correlation with corresponding theoretical values, under different bed heights. The regeneration of the SMZ was also evaluated using a solution consisting of 30 g L -1 NaCl and 1.5 g L -1 NaOH at pH 12 and temperature 30 o C. Twice-regenerated SMZ showed the best performance compared with the others while first- and thrice-regenerated perform lower than the original SMZ.

  3. Hydrogen production by co-gasification of coal and renewables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fermoso, J.; Arias, B.; Rubiera, F.; Arenillas, A.; Pis, J.J. [Instituto Nacional del Carbon, CSIC, Apartado 73, 33080 Oviedo, (Spain)

    2006-07-01

    In this work, co-gasification of two coals with samples of pet-coke, sewage sludge and biomass was conducted at atmospheric pressure in a fixed bed reactor under steam/oxygen atmosphere, in order to evaluate possible synergistic effects during co-gasification. Experiments carried out at non-isothermal conditions for blends of a low volatile bituminous coal and dried sewage sludge, indicated the absence of interactive effects between the blends. The concentration of H{sub 2} and CO could be predicted from the concentrations of the individual components in the blends and their respective mass fractions. The results obtained under isothermal (1000 C) conditions for blends of a high ash coal with pet-coke, and blends with biomass (chestnut) produced less gas yield than the theoretically calculated. However, for the mixtures of coal and biomass the quality of the syngas, expressed by the amount of the produced H{sub 2}+CO and by the H{sub 2}/CO ratio, was not altered. (authors)

  4. Hydrogen production by co-gasification of coal and renewables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fermoso, J.; Arias, B.; Rubiera, F.; Arenillas, A.; Pis, J.J.

    2006-01-01

    In this work, co-gasification of two coals with samples of pet-coke, sewage sludge and biomass was conducted at atmospheric pressure in a fixed bed reactor under steam/oxygen atmosphere, in order to evaluate possible synergistic effects during co-gasification. Experiments carried out at non-isothermal conditions for blends of a low volatile bituminous coal and dried sewage sludge, indicated the absence of interactive effects between the blends. The concentration of H 2 and CO could be predicted from the concentrations of the individual components in the blends and their respective mass fractions. The results obtained under isothermal (1000 C) conditions for blends of a high ash coal with pet-coke, and blends with biomass (chestnut) produced less gas yield than the theoretically calculated. However, for the mixtures of coal and biomass the quality of the syngas, expressed by the amount of the produced H 2 +CO and by the H 2 /CO ratio, was not altered. (authors)

  5. Volatilisation of alkali and alkaline earth metallic species during the gasification of a Victorian brown coal in CO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quyn, Dimple Mody; Li, Chun-Zhu [CRC for Clean Power from Lignite, Department of Chemical Engineering, PO Box 36, Monash University, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Hayashi, Jun-ichiro [Centre for Advanced Research of Energy Conversion Materials, Hokkaido University, N13-W8, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan)

    2005-08-25

    A Victorian brown coal was gasified in a bench-scale quartz fluidised-bed/fixed-bed reactor in order to study the volatilisation of Na, Ca, and Mg during devolatilisation and gasification and their roles in the reactivity of chars. It was found that the majority of Na was volatilised at 900 {sup o}C under all conditions and that a Na retention limit was achieved in the char with the progress of CO{sub 2} gasification. In some cases, the presence of CO{sub 2} during devolatilisation enhanced the Na retention in the char. In contrast, the retention of Ca (and Mg) was unaffected by CO{sub 2} during devolatilisation at 900C but decreased drastically upon nascent char gasification. The fundamental differences in volatilisation between the alkali and alkaline earth metallic species are discussed in this paper.

  6. Process and technological aspects of municipal solid waste gasification. A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arena, Umberto

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Critical assessment of the main commercially available MSW gasifiers. ► Detailed discussion of the basic features of gasification process. ► Description of configurations of gasification-based waste-to-energy units. ► Environmental performance analysis, on the basis of independent sources data. - Abstract: The paper proposes a critical assessment of municipal solid waste gasification today, starting from basic aspects of the process (process types and steps, operating and performance parameters) and arriving to a comparative analysis of the reactors (fixed bed, fluidized bed, entrained bed, vertical shaft, moving grate furnace, rotary kiln, plasma reactor) as well as of the possible plant configurations (heat gasifier and power gasifier) and the environmental performances of the main commercially available gasifiers for municipal solid wastes. The analysis indicates that gasification is a technically viable option for the solid waste conversion, including residual waste from separate collection of municipal solid waste. It is able to meet existing emission limits and can have a remarkable effect on reduction of landfill disposal option.

  7. Steam Gasification of Sawdust Biochar Influenced by Chemical Speciation of Alkali and Alkaline Earth Metallic Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongdong Feng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of chemical speciation (H2O/NH4Ac/HCl-soluble and insoluble of alkali and alkaline earth metallic species on the steam gasification of sawdust biochar was investigated in a lab-scale, fixed-bed reactor, with the method of chemical fractionation analysis. The changes in biochar structures and the evolution of biochar reactivity are discussed, with a focus on the contributions of the chemical speciation of alkali and alkaline earth metallic species (AAEMs on the steam gasification of biochar. The results indicate that H2O/NH4Ac/HCl-soluble AAEMs have a significant effect on biochar gasification rates. The release of K occurs mainly in the form of inorganic salts and hydrated ions, while that of Ca occurs mainly as organic ones. The sp3-rich or sp2-sp3 structures and different chemical-speciation AAEMs function together as the preferred active sites during steam gasification. H2O/HCl-soluble AAEMs could promote the transformation of biochar surface functional groups, from ether/alkene C-O-C to carboxylate COO− in biochar, while they may both be improved by NH4Ac-soluble AAEMs. H2O-soluble AAEMs play a crucial catalytic role in biochar reactivity. The effect of NH4Ac-soluble AAEMs is mainly concentrated in the high-conversion stage (biochar conversion >30%, while that of HCl-soluble AAEMs is reflected in the whole activity-testing stage.

  8. Promoting effect of various biomass ashes on the steam gasification of low-rank coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizkiana, Jenny; Guan, Guoqing; Widayatno, Wahyu Bambang; Hao, Xiaogang; Li, Xiumin; Huang, Wei; Abudula, Abuliti

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Biomass ash was utilized to promote gasification of low rank coal. • Promoting effect of biomass ash highly depended on AAEM content in the ash. • Stability of the ash could be improved by maintaining AAEM amount in the ash. • Different biomass ash could have completely different catalytic activity. - Abstract: Application of biomass ash as a catalyst to improve gasification rate is a promising way for the effective utilization of waste ash as well as for the reduction of cost. Investigation on the catalytic activity of biomass ash to the gasification of low rank coal was performed in details in the present study. Ashes from 3 kinds of biomass, i.e. brown seaweed/BS, eel grass/EG, and rice straw/RS, were separately mixed with coal sample and gasified in a fixed bed downdraft reactor using steam as the gasifying agent. BS and EG ashes enhanced the gas production rate greater than RS ash. Higher catalytic activity of BS or EG ash was mainly attributed to the higher content of alkali and alkaline earth metal (AAEM) and lower content of silica in it. Higher content of silica in the RS ash was identified to have inhibiting effect for the steam gasification of coal. Stable catalytic activity was remained when the amount of AAEM in the regenerated ash was maintained as that of the original one

  9. Hydrogen production by biomass steam gasification in fluidized bed reactor with Co catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazuhiko Tasaka; Atsushi Tsutsumi; Takeshi Furusawa

    2006-01-01

    The catalytic performances of Co/MgO catalysts were investigated in steam gasification of cellulose and steam reforming of tar derived from cellulose gasification. For steam reforming of cellulose tar in a secondary fixed bed reactor, 12 wt.% Co/MgO catalyst attained more than 80% of tar reduction. The amount of produced H 2 and CO 2 increased with the presence of catalyst, and kept same level during 2 hr at 873 K. It is indicated that steam reforming of cellulose tar proceeds sufficiently over Co/MgO catalyst. For steam gasification of cellulose in a fluidized bed reactor, it was found that tar reduction increases with Co loading amount and 36 wt.% Co/MgO catalyst showed 84% of tar reduction. The amounts of produced gas kept for 2 hr indicating that 36 wt.% Co/MgO catalyst is stable during the reaction. It was concluded that these Co catalysts are promising systems for the steam gasification of cellulose and steam reforming of cellulose tar. (authors)

  10. Effect of bioleaching on hydrogen-rich gas production by steam gasification of sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Hanhui; Chen, Zhihua; Huo, Chan; Hu, Mian; Guo, Dabin; Xiao, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Bioleaching can modify the physicochemical property of sewage sludge. • The enhancement is mainly hydrogen. • Bioleaching can enhance the gas production in gasification of sewage sludge. • Study provides an insight for future application of bioleached sewage sludge. - Abstract: Effect of bioleaching on hydrogen-rich gas production by steam gasification of sewage sludge was carried out in a lab-scale fixed-bed reactor. The influence of sewage sludge solids concentrations (6–14% (w/v) in 2% increments) during the bioleaching process and reactor temperature (600–900 °C in 100 °C increments) on gasification product yields and gas composition were studied. Characterization of samples showed that bioleaching treatment, especially in 6% (w/v) sludge solids concentration, led to metal removal effectively and modifications in the physicochemical property of sewage sludge which was favored for gasification. The maximum gas yield (49.4%) and hydrogen content (46.4%) were obtained at 6% (w/v) sludge solids concentration and reactor temperature of 900 °C. Sewage sludge after the bioleaching treatment may be a feasible feedstock for hydrogen-rich gas product.

  11. Shell coal gasification process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennekes, B. [Shell Global Solutions (US) Inc. (United States). Technology Marketing

    2002-07-01

    The presentation, on which 17 slides/overheads are included in the papers, explained the principles of the Shell coal gasification process and the methods incorporated for control of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, particulates and mercury. The economics of the process were discussed. The differences between gasification and burning, and the differences between the Shell process and other processes were discussed.

  12. Thermal activation and characterization of clay aiming their use as sorbent in fixed bed columns to remove cadmium; Ativacao termica e caracterizacao da argila visando sua utilizacao como adsorvente em colunas de leito fixo para a remocao de cadmio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, M.M. da; Rodrigues, M.G.F. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil); Silva, M.L.P. [Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Arido (UFERSA), RN (Brazil); Kleinübing, S.J.; Silva, M.G.C., E-mail: marciliomaximo@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    In this work we studied the removal of cadmium in a synthetic wastewater using clay of Pernambuco - Brazil, in systems of fixed bed column. Clay was thermally activated at 500 °C. The materials were characterized using X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and nitrogen adsorption (BET method). For tests in fixed bed column, we applied a factorial design 2{sup 2} and found that increasing the flow adversely affects the process of removing cadmium concentration while acting positively. The studies showed these materials as promising for the removal of Cd{sup 2+} ions in synthetic wastewater containing low levels of this metal. (author)

  13. Pyrolysis and Gasification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Thomas; Bilitewski, B.

    2011-01-01

    a waste management perspective, pyrolysis and gasification are of relatively little importance as an overall management option. Today, gasification is primarily used on specific waste fractions as opposed to mixed household wastes. The main commercial activity so far has been in Japan, with only limited....... Today gasification is used within a range of applications, the most important of which are conversion of coal into syngas for use as chemical feedstock or energy production; but also gasification of biomass and waste is gaining significant interest as emerging technologies for sustainable energy. From...... success in Europe and North America (Klein et al., 2004). However, pyrolysis and gasification of waste are generally expected to become more widely used in the future. A main reason for this is that public perceptions of waste incineration in some countries is a major obstacle for installing new...

  14. Wood biomass gasification: Technology assessment and prospects in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvadego, C.

    1992-05-01

    This investigation of the technical-economic feasibility of the development and use of wood biomass gasification plants to help meet the energy requirements of developing countries covers the following aspects: resource availability and production; gasification technologies and biomass gasification plant typology; plant operating, maintenance and safety requirements; the use of the biomass derived gas in internal combustion engines and boilers; and the nature of energy requirements in developing countries. The paper concludes with a progress report on biomass gasification research programs being carried out in developing countries world-wide

  15. Syngas production by gasification of aquatic biomass with CO2/O2 and simultaneous removal of H2S and COS using char obtained in the gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanaoka, Toshiaki; Hiasa, Shou; Edashige, Yusuke

    2013-01-01

    Applicability of gulfweed as feedstock for a biomass-to-liquid (BTL) process was studied for both production of gas with high syngas (CO + H 2 ) content via gasification of gulfweed and removal of gaseous impurities using char obtained in the gasification. Gulfweed as aqueous biomass was gasified with He/CO 2 /O 2 using a downdraft fixed-bed gasifier at ambient pressure and 900 °C at equivalence ratios (ER) of 0.1–0.3. The syngas content increased while the conversion to gas on a carbon basis decreased with decreasing ER. At an ER of 0.1 and He/CO 2 /O 2 = 0/85/15%, the syngas content was maximized at 67.6% and conversion to gas on a carbon basis was 94.2%. The behavior of the desulfurization using char obtained during the gasification process at ER = 0.1 and He/CO 2 /O 2 = 0/85/15% was investigated using a downdraft fixed-bed reactor at 250–550 °C under 3 atmospheres (H 2 S/N 2 , COS/N 2 , and a mixture of gases composed of CO, CO 2 , H 2 , N 2 , CH 4 , H 2 S, COS, and steam). The char had a higher COS removal capacity at 350 °C than commercial activated carbon because (Ca,Mg)S crystals were formed during desulfurization. The char simultaneously removed H 2 S and COS from the mixture of gases at 450 °C more efficiently than did activated carbon. These results support this novel BTL process consisting of gasification of gulfweed with CO 2 /O 2 and dry gas cleaning using self-supplied bed material. -- Highlights: • A product gas with high syngas content was produced from the gasification of gulfweed with CO 2 /O 2 . • The syngas content increased with decreasing the equivalence ratio. • The syngas content was maximized at 67.6% at an ER of 0.1 and He/CO 2 /O 2 = 0/85/15%. • The char simultaneously removed H 2 S and COS from a mixture of gases at 450 °C efficiently

  16. Development of a new steady state zero-dimensional simulation model for woody biomass gasification in a full scale plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Formica, Marco; Frigo, Stefano; Gabbrielli, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A simulation model with Aspen Plus is created for a full scale biomass gasification plant. • Test results, equipment data and control logics are considered in the simulation model. • The simulation results are in agreement with the experimental data. • The gasifying air temperature affects largely the energy performance of the gasification plant. • Increasing the equivalent ratio implies a strong reduction of the gasification efficiency. - Abstract: A new steady state zero-dimensional simulation model for a full-scale woody biomass gasification plant with fixed-bed downdraft gasifier has been developed using Aspen Plus®. The model includes the technical characteristics of all the components (gasifier, cyclone, exchangers, piping, etc.) of the plant and works in accordance with its actual main control logics. Simulation results accord with those obtained during an extensive experimental activity. After the model validation, the influence of operating parameters such as the equivalent ratio, the biomass moisture content and the gasifying air temperature on syngas composition have been analyzed in order to assess the operative behavior and the energy performance of the experimental plant. By recovering the sensible heat of the syngas at the outlet of the gasifier, it is possible to obtain higher values of the gasifying air temperature and an improvement of the overall gasification performances.

  17. Analysis of Organic and Inorganic Contaminants in Dried Sewage Sludge and By-Products of Dried Sewage Sludge Gasification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Werle

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic and inorganic contaminants in sewage sludge may cause their presence also in the by-products formed during gasification processes. Thus, this paper presents multidirectional chemical instrumental activation analyses of dried sewage sludge as well as both solid (ash, char coal and liquid (tar by-products formed during sewage gasification in a fixed bed reactor which was carried out to assess the extent of that phenomenon. Significant differences were observed in the type of contaminants present in the solid and liquid by-products from the dried sewage sludge gasification. Except for heavy metals, the characteristics of the contaminants in the by-products, irrespective of their form (solid and liquid, were different from those initially determined in the sewage sludge. It has been found that gasification promotes the migration of certain valuable inorganic compounds from sewage sludge into solid by-products which might be recovered. On the other hand, the liquid by-products resulting from sewage sludge gasification require a separate process for their treatment or disposal due to their considerable loading with toxic and hazardous organic compounds (phenols and their derivatives.

  18. Thermal and biological gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overend, R.P.; Rivard, C.J. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Gasification is being developed to enable a diverse range of biomass resources to meet modern secondary energy uses, especially in the electrical utility sector. Biological or anaerobic gasification in US landfills has resulted in the installation of almost 500 MW(e) of capacity and represents the largest scale application of gasification technology today. The development of integrated gasification combined cycle generation for coal technologies is being paralleled by bagasse and wood thermal gasification systems in Hawaii and Scandinavia, and will lead to significant deployment in the next decade as the current scale-up activities are commercialized. The advantages of highly reactive biomass over coal in the design of process units are being realized as new thermal gasifiers are being scaled up to produce medium-energy-content gas for conversion to synthetic natural gas and transportation fuels and to hydrogen for use in fuel cells. The advent of high solids anaerobic digestion reactors is leading to commercialization of controlled municipal solid waste biological gasification rather than landfill application. In both thermal and biological gasification, high rate process reactors are a necessary development for economic applications that address waste and residue management and the production and use of new crops for energy. The environmental contribution of biomass in reducing greenhouse gas emission will also be improved.

  19. Synthesis of zeolites coal ash in surfactant modified in application and removal of orange 8 acid solution: study in batch, fixed bed column and evaluation ecotoxicological

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magdalena, Carina Pitwak

    2015-01-01

    In this study, synthesized zeolitic material from coal ash and modified cationic surfactant was used for removing the acid dye Orange 8 (AL8) by adsorption process using moving bed and fixed-bed column. The raw material and adsorbents were characterized by different techniques, such as X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, among others. The adsorption of AL8 was performed by moving bed in order to optimize the results when they are launched in a fixed bed. The effects of adsorption on zeolite AL8 were compared: (1) Effect of counterions Br - and Cl - surfactant used in the modification of the zeolite; (2) effect of type of coal ash used as raw material in the synthesis of zeolites (fly and bottom). The following adsorbents were used in the study: fly and bottom zeolite modified by surfactant hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (ZLMS-Br-Br and ZPMS-Br) and fly zeolite modified by surfactant hexadecyltrimethylammonium chloride (ZLMS-Cl). The pseudo-second-order kinetic described the adsorption of the dye on all adsorbents. The equilibrium time was reached 40, 60 and 120 min for ZLMS-Br, ZLMS-Cl and ZPMS-Br, respectively. The adsorption equilibrium was analyzed by the equations of the models of linear and nonlinear isotherms of Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Dubinin- Radushkevivh (DR) and the criterion of best fit was evaluated using the error functions.The DR model was adjusted better to the experimental data for the system AL8 / ZLMS-Br, the Freundlich model for AL8 / ZLMS-Cl and Langmuir for AL8 / ZPMS. According to the Langmuir maximum adsorption capacity was 4.67, 1.48 and 1.38 mg g -1 for ZLMS-Br, ZLMS-Cl and ZPMS-Br, in order. In studies employing fixed bed columns, the effects of inlet concentration (20- 30 mg L -1 ), flow rate (4.0 -5.3 mL min -1 ) and the bed height (5, 5 - 6.5 cm) above the breakthrough curves characteristics in the adsorption system were determined. The Adams-Bohart, Thomas, Yoon-Nelson models were applied to experimental

  20. High Pressure Biomass Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrawal, Pradeep K [Georgia Tech Research Corporation, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2016-07-29

    According to the Billion Ton Report, the U.S. has a large supply of biomass available that can supplement fossil fuels for producing chemicals and transportation fuels. Agricultural waste, forest residue, and energy crops offer potential benefits: renewable feedstock, zero to low CO2 emissions depending on the specific source, and domestic supply availability. Biomass can be converted into chemicals and fuels using one of several approaches: (i) biological platform converts corn into ethanol by using depolymerization of cellulose to form sugars followed by fermentation, (ii) low-temperature pyrolysis to obtain bio-oils which must be treated to reduce oxygen content via HDO hydrodeoxygenation), and (iii) high temperature pyrolysis to produce syngas (CO + H2). This last approach consists of producing syngas using the thermal platform which can be used to produce a variety of chemicals and fuels. The goal of this project was to develop an improved understanding of the gasification of biomass at high pressure conditions and how various gasification parameters might affect the gasification behavior. Since most downstream applications of synags conversion (e.g., alcohol synthesis, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis etc) involve utilizing high pressure catalytic processes, there is an interest in carrying out the biomass gasification at high pressure which can potentially reduce the gasifier size and subsequent downstream cleaning processes. It is traditionally accepted that high pressure should increase the gasification rates (kinetic effect). There is also precedence from coal gasification literature from the 1970s that high pressure gasification would be a beneficial route to consider. Traditional approach of using thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) or high-pressure themogravimetric analyzer (PTGA) worked well in understanding the gasification kinetics of coal gasification which was useful in designing high pressure coal gasification processes. However

  1. Effect of process parameters on removal and recovery of Cd(II) and Cu(II) from electroplating wastewater by fixed-bed column of nano-dimensional titanium (IV) oxide agglomerates

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Debnath, S

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Removal performances of Cd(II) and Cu(II) from water was investigated using agglomerated nanoparticle of hydrous titanium(IV) oxide (NTO) packed fixed bed. The parameters varied were the bed depth, flow rate and feed solution concentrations...

  2. Gasification of Rice Husk in a Downdraft Gasifier: The Effect of Equivalence Ratio on the Gasification Performance, Properties, and Utilization Analysis of Byproducts of Char and Tar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongqing Ma

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Rice husks (RH are a potential biomass source for bio-energy production in China, such as bio-gas production by gasification technology. In this paper, a bench-scale downdraft fixed bed gasifier (DFBG and a tar sampling system were designed. The effect of equivalence ratio (ER on gasification performance in terms of the temperature in the gasifier, the composition distribution of the producer gas, and the tar content in the producer gas was studied. The maximum lower heating value of 4.44 MJ/Nm3, minimum tar content of 1.34 g/Nm3, and maximum cold gas efficiency of 50.85% were obtained at ER of 0.211. In addition, the characteristics of gasification byproducts, namely bio-char and bio-tar, were analyzed. The proximate and ultimate analysis (especially of the alkali metal, the surface morphology, the surface area, and the pore size distribution of the rice husk char (RHC were obtained by the use of X-ray fluorescence (XRF and scanning electron microscopy (SEM, as well as by using the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET method. The components of light tar and heavy tar were obtained by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS.

  3. Ethyl Acetate Synthesis by Coupling of Fixed-bed Reactor and Reactive Distillation Column—Process Integration Aspects

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smejkal, Q.; Kolena, J.; Hanika, Jiří

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 154, 1-3 (2009), s. 236-240 ISSN 1385-8947. [International Conference on Chemical Reactors - CHEMREACTOR -18 /18./. Malta, 23.09.2008-03.10.2008] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : ethyl acetate * esterification * reactive distillation Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 2.816, year: 2009

  4. 3D numerical model of the spherical particle saltation in a channel with a rough fixed bed

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lukerchenko, Nikolay; Piatsevich, Siarhei; Chára, Zdeněk; Vlasák, Pavel

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 2 (2009), s. 100-112 ISSN 0042-790X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA103/06/1487 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : 3D Saltation Model * Bed-Load Transport * Particle-Bed Collision * Particle Rotation * Particle Lateral Dispersion Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 1.000, year: 2009

  5. Effect of bacterial lipase on anaerobic co-digestion of slaughterhouse wastewater and grease in batch condition and continuous fixed-bed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affes, Maha; Aloui, Fathi; Hadrich, Fatma; Loukil, Slim; Sayadi, Sami

    2017-10-10

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of bacterial lipase on biogas production of anaerobic co-digestion of slaughterhouse wastewater (SHWW) and hydrolyzed grease (HG). A neutrophilic Staphylococcus xylosus strain exhibiting lipolytic activity was used to perform microbial hydrolysis pretreatment of poultry slaughterhouse lipid rich waste. Optimum proportion of hydrolyzed grease was evaluated by determining biochemical methane potential. A high biogas production was observed in batch containing a mixture of slaughterhouse composed of 75% SHWW and 25% hydrolyzed grease leading to a biogas yield of 0.6 L/g COD introduced. Fixed bed reactor (FBR) results confirmed that the proportion of 25% of hydrolyzed grease gives the optimum condition for the digester performance. Biogas production was significantly high until an organic loading rate (OLR) of 2 g COD/L. d. This study indicates that the use of biological pre-treatment and FBR for the co-digestion of SHWW and hydrolyzed grease is feasible and effective.

  6. Validation of the catalytic properties of Cu-Os/13X using single fixed bed reactor in selective catalytic reduction of NO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Kwang Seok; Woo, Seong Ihl

    2007-01-01

    Catalytic decomposition of NO over Cu-Os/13X has been carried out in a tubular fixed bed reactor at atmospheric pressure and the results were compared with literature data performed by high-throughput screening (HTS). The activity and durability of Cu-Os/13X prepared by conventional ion-exchange method have been investigated in the presence of H 2 O and SO 2 . It was found that Cu-Os/13X prepared by ion-exchange shows a high activity in a wide temperature range in selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO with C 3 H 6 compared to Cu/13X, proving the existence of more NO adsorption site on Cu-Os/13X. However, Cu-Os/13X exhibited low activity in the presence of water, and was quite different from the result reported in literature. SO 2 resistance is also low and does not recover its original activity when the SO 2 was blocked in the feed gas stream. This result suggested that catalytic activity between combinatorial screening and conventional testing should be compared to confirm the validity of high-throughput screening

  7. Formation of N2 in the fixed-bed pyrolysis of low rank coals and the mechanisms; Koteisho netsubunkai ni okeru teitankatan kara no N2 no sisei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Z.; Otsuka, Y. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Institute for Chemical Reaction Science

    1996-10-28

    In order to establish coal NOx preventive measures, discussions were given on formation of N2 in the fixed-bed pyrolysis of low rank coals and the mechanisms thereof. Chinese ZN coal and German RB coal were used for the discussions. Both coals do not produce N2 at 600{degree}C, and the main product is volatile nitrogen. Conversion into N2 does not depend on heating rates, but increases linearly with increasing temperature, and reaches 65% to 70% at 1200{degree}C. In contrast, char nitrogen decreases linearly with the temperature. More specifically, these phenomena suggest that the char nitrogen or its precursor is the major supply source of N2. When mineral substances are removed by using hydrochloric acid, their catalytic action is lost, and conversion into N2 decreases remarkably. Iron existing in ion-exchanged condition in low-rank coal is reduced and finely diffused into metallic iron particles. The particles react with heterocyclic nitrogen compounds and turn into iron nitride. A solid phase reaction mechanism may be conceived, in which N2 is produced due to decomposition of the iron nitride. 5 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Pyrolysis of waste animal fats in a fixed-bed reactor: Production and characterization of bio-oil and bio-char

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Hassen-Trabelsi, A., E-mail: aidabenhassen@yahoo.fr [Centre de Recherche et de Technologies de l’Energie (CRTEn), Technopôle Borj-Cédria, B.P 95, 2050, Hammam Lif (Tunisia); Kraiem, T. [Centre de Recherche et de Technologies de l’Energie (CRTEn), Technopôle Borj-Cédria, B.P 95, 2050, Hammam Lif (Tunisia); Département de Géologie, Université de Tunis, 2092, Tunis (Tunisia); Naoui, S. [Centre de Recherche et de Technologies de l’Energie (CRTEn), Technopôle Borj-Cédria, B.P 95, 2050, Hammam Lif (Tunisia); Belayouni, H. [Département de Géologie, Université de Tunis, 2092, Tunis (Tunisia)

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • Produced bio-fuels (bio-oil and bio-char) from some animal fatty wastes. • Investigated the effects of main parameters on pyrolysis products distribution. • Determined the suitable conditions for the production of the maximum of bio-oil. • Characterized bio-oils and bio-chars obtained from several animal fatty wastes. - Abstract: Several animal (lamb, poultry and swine) fatty wastes were pyrolyzed under nitrogen, in a laboratory scale fixed-bed reactor and the main products (liquid bio-oil, solid bio-char and syngas) were obtained. The purpose of this study is to produce and characterize bio-oil and bio-char obtained from pyrolysis of animal fatty wastes. The maximum production of bio-oil was achieved at a pyrolysis temperature of 500 °C and a heating rate of 5 °C/min. The chemical (GC–MS analyses) and spectroscopic analyses (FTIR analyses) of bio-oil showed that it is a complex mixture consisting of different classes of organic compounds, i.e., hydrocarbons (alkanes, alkenes, cyclic compounds…etc.), carboxylic acids, aldehydes, ketones, esters,…etc. According to fuel properties, produced bio-oils showed good properties, suitable for its use as an engine fuel or as a potential source for synthetic fuels and chemical feedstock. Obtained bio-chars had low carbon content and high ash content which make them unattractive for as renewable source energy.

  9. Neural fuzzy modelization of copper removal from water by biosorption in fixed-bed columns using olive stone and pinion shell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calero, M; Iáñez-Rodríguez, I; Pérez, A; Martín-Lara, M A; Blázquez, G

    2018-03-01

    Continuous copper biosorption in fixed-bed column by olive stone and pinion shell was studied. The effect of three operational parameters was analyzed: feed flow rate (2-6 ml/min), inlet copper concentration (40-100 mg/L) and bed-height (4.4-13.4 cm). Artificial Neural-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) was used in order to optimize the percentage of copper removal and the retention capacity in the column. The highest percentage of copper retained was achieved at 2 ml/min, 40 mg/L and 4.4 cm. However, the optimum biosorption capacity was obtained at 6 ml/min, 100 mg/L and 13.4 cm. Finally, breakthrough curves were simulated with mathematical traditional models and ANFIS model. The calculated results obtained with each model were compared with experimental data. The best results were given by ANFIS modelling that predicted copper biosorption with high accuracy. Breakthrough curves surfaces, which enable the visualization of the behavior of the system in different process conditions, were represented. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Preparation of a carbon molecular sieve and application to separation of N2, O2 and CO2 in a fixed bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soares J.L.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The emission of CO2 from power plants that burn fossil fuels is the major cause of the accumulation of CO2 in the atmosphere. The separation of CO2 from CO2/air mixtures can play a key role in alleviating this problem. This separation can be carried out by using suitable adsorbents, such as carbon molecular sieves. In this work, a CMS was prepared by deposition of polyfurfuryl alcohol polymer on activated carbon. After deposition of the polymer, the material was carbonized at 800masculineC for 2 hours. This material was used to separate O2/N2 mixtures and CO2 in a fixed bed at room temperature. Experimental breakthrough curves obtained were fitted to theoretical models in order to establish the main mechanisms of mass transfer. The breakthrough curves showed that it is possible to separate O2, N2 and CO2. The shape of the breakthrough curves was not influenced by the total flow, indicating that the gas contact for the gas mixture was good. The experimental data were fitted to theoretical models and it was established that the main mechanism of mass transfer was intraparticle diffusion.

  11. Pyrolysis of oil palm mesocarp fiber and palm frond in a slow-heating fixed-bed reactor: A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, G; Mohd Din, A T; Hameed, B H

    2017-10-01

    Oil palm mesocarp fiber (OPMF) and palm frond (PF) were respectively devolatilized by pyrolysis to OPMF-oil and PF-oil bio-oils and biochars, OPMF-char and PF-char in a slow-heating fixed-bed reactor. In particular, the OPMF-oil and PF-oil were produced to a maximum yield of 48wt% and 47wt% bio-oils at 550°C and 600°C, respectively. The high heating values (HHVs) of OPMF-oil and PF-oil were respectively found to be 23MJ/kg and 21MJ/kg, whereas 24.84MJ/kg and 24.15MJ/kg were for the corresponding biochar. The HHVs of the bio-oils and biochars are associated with low O/C ratios to be higher than those of the corresponding biomass. The Fourier transform infrared spectra and peak area ratios highlighted the effect of pyrolysis temperatures on the bio-oil compositions. The bio-oils are pervaded with numerous oxygenated carbonyl and aromatic compounds as suitable feedstocks for renewable fuels and chemicals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Mathematical Modelling of Catalytic Fixed-Bed Reactor for Carbon Dioxide Reforming of Methane over Rh/Al2O3 Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    New Pei Yee

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available A one-dimensional mathematical model was developed to simulate the performance of catalytic fixed bedreactor for carbon dioxide reforming of methane over Rh/Al2O3 catalyst at atmospheric pressure. The reactionsinvolved in the system are carbon dioxide reforming of methane (CORM and reverse water gas shiftreaction (RWGS. The profiles of CH4 and CO2 conversions, CO and H2 yields, molar flow rate and molefraction of all species as well as reactor temperature along the axial bed of catalyst were simulated. In addition,the effects of different reactor temperature on the reactor performance were also studied. The modelscan also be applied to analyze the performances of lab-scale micro reactor as well as pilot-plant scale reactorwith certain modifications and model verification with experimental data. © 2008 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved.[Received: 20 August 2008; Accepted: 25 September 2008][How to Cite: N.A.S. Amin, I. Istadi, N.P. Yee. (2008. Mathematical Modelling of Catalytic Fixed-Bed Reactor for Carbon Dioxide Reforming of Methane over Rh/Al2O3 Catalyst. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering and Catalysis, 3 (1-3: 21-29. doi:10.9767/bcrec.3.1-3.19.21-29

  13. Thermal-hydraulic study of fixed bed nuclear reactor (FBNR), in FCC, BCC and pseudo-random configurations of the core through CFD method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luna, M.; Chavez, I.; Cajas, D.; Santos, R.

    2015-01-01

    The study of thermal-hydraulic performance of a fixed bed nuclear reactor (FBNR) core and the effect of the porosity was studied by the CFD method with 'SolidWorks' software. The representative sections of three different packed beds arrangements were analyzed: face-centered cubic (FCC), body-centered cubic (BCC), and a pseudo-random, with values of porosity of 0.28, 0.33 and 0.53 respectively. The minimum coolant flow required to avoid the phase change for each one of the configurations was determined. The results show that the heat transfer rate increases when the porosity value decreases, and consequently the minimum coolant flow in each configuration. The results of minimum coolant flow were: 728.51 kg/s for the FCC structure, 372.72 kg/s for the BCC, and 304.96 kg/s for the pseudo-random. Meanwhile, the heat transfer coefficients in each packed bed were 6480 W/m 2 *K, 3718 W/m 2 *K and 3042 W/m 2 *K respectively. Finally the pressure drop was calculated, and the results were 0.588 MPa for FCC configuration, 0.033 MPa for BCC and 0.017 MPa for the pseudo-random one. This means that with a higher porosity, the fluid can circulate easier because there are fewer obstacles to cross, so there are fewer energy losses. (authors)

  14. The effects of fixed-bed drying on the yield and composition of essential oil from long pepper (Piper hispidinervium C. DC leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. P. Braga

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Piper hispidinervium C.DC (Piperaceae is popularly known as long pepper. It grows in degraded areas of natural fields in the state of Acre, Brazil. Its leaves are 3 to 4 % essential oil rich in safrole, within the range of 90 to 94 %. In the chemical industry, safrole is an important raw material, mainly due to two of its derivatives: heliotropin, which is widely used as a fragrance and flavoring agent, and piperonyl butoxide (PBO, a vital ingredient of pyrethroid insecticides. Natural pyrethrum in particular would not be an economical insecticide without the synergistic effect of PBO; therefore, its industrial future is linked to the continued availability of PBO. As a fragrance, safrole has many applications in household products such as floor waxes, polishes, soaps, detergents and cleaning agents. In this work, leaves were dried in a fixed-bed dryer using different drying-air temperatures (35, 40, 45, 50, 55 and 60 ºC and drying times (900, 2700 and 3600 seconds. Essential oil was extracted by cohobation (meaning that the condensed water that comes out of the flask is recycled from both raw and dried leaves. The essential oil yield and safrole content are susceptible to rapid loss of moisture by Piper hispidinervium C. DC leaves. It was observed that the essential oil yield increased twice after the drying process. However, safrole content decreased about 20 percent when temperature was above 50 ºC and drying times were more than 2700 minutes.

  15. Evaluating Design Parameters for Breakthrough Curve Analysis and Kinetics of Fixed Bed Columns for Cu(II Cations Using Lignocellulosic Wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaira Zaman Chowdhury

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A continuous adsorption study for removal of Cu(II cations from wastewater using a fixed-bed column was conducted. A granular carbonaceous activated adsorbent produced by carbonization of the outer rind, or exocarp, of mangostene fruit shell was used for column packing. The effects of feed flow rate, influent cation concentration, and bed depth on the breakthrough curve were investigated at pH 5.5. Experimental analysis confirmed that the breakthrough curves were dependent on flow rate, initial concentration of Cu(II cations, and bed height related to the amount of activated carbon used for column packing. Thomas, Yoon–Nelson, and Adams–Bohart models were applied to analyze the breakthrough curves at different conditions. Linear regression analysis of experimental data demonstrated that Thomas and Yoon–Nelson models were appropriate to explain the breakthrough curve, while the Adams–Bohart model was only applicable to predict the initial part of the dynamic process. It was concluded that the column packed with fruit rind based activated carbon can be used to treat Cu(II-enriched wastewater.

  16. Adsorption in a Fixed-Bed Column and Stability of the Antibiotic Oxytetracycline Supported on Zn(II)-[2-Methylimidazolate] Frameworks in Aqueous Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anceski Bataglion, Giovana; Nogueira Eberlin, Marcos; Machado Ronconi, Célia

    2015-01-01

    A metal-organic framework, Zn-[2-methylimidazolate] frameworks (ZIF-8), was used as adsorbent material to remove different concentrations of oxytetracycline (OTC) antibiotic in a fixed-bed column. The OTC was studied at concentrations of 10, 25 and 40 mg L-1. At 40 mg L-1, the breakthrough point was reached after approximately 10 minutes, while at 10 and 25 mg L-1 this point was reached in about 30 minutes. The highest removal rate of 60% for the 10 mg L-1 concentration was reached after 200 minutes. The highest adsorption capacity (28.3 mg g-1) was attained for 25 mg L-1 of OTC. After the adsorption process, a band shift was observed in the UV-Vis spectrum of the eluate. Additional studies were carried out to determine the cause of this band shift, involving a mass spectrometry (MS) analysis of the supernatant liquid during the process. This investigation revealed that the main route of adsorption consisted of the coordination of OTC with the metallic zinc centers of ZIF-8. The materials were characterized by thermal analysis (TA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), and infrared spectroscopy (IR) before and after adsorption, confirming the presence of OTC in the ZIF-8 and the latter’s structural stability after the adsorption process. PMID:26057121

  17. Adsorption in a Fixed-Bed Column and Stability of the Antibiotic Oxytetracycline Supported on Zn(II-[2-Methylimidazolate] Frameworks in Aqueous Media.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine dos Santos Ferreira da Silva

    Full Text Available A metal-organic framework, Zn-[2-methylimidazolate] frameworks (ZIF-8, was used as adsorbent material to remove different concentrations of oxytetracycline (OTC antibiotic in a fixed-bed column. The OTC was studied at concentrations of 10, 25 and 40 mg L(-1. At 40 mg L(-1, the breakthrough point was reached after approximately 10 minutes, while at 10 and 25 mg L(-1 this point was reached in about 30 minutes. The highest removal rate of 60% for the 10 mg L(-1 concentration was reached after 200 minutes. The highest adsorption capacity (28.3 mg g(-1 was attained for 25 mg L(-1 of OTC. After the adsorption process, a band shift was observed in the UV-Vis spectrum of the eluate. Additional studies were carried out to determine the cause of this band shift, involving a mass spectrometry (MS analysis of the supernatant liquid during the process. This investigation revealed that the main route of adsorption consisted of the coordination of OTC with the metallic zinc centers of ZIF-8. The materials were characterized by thermal analysis (TA, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD, and infrared spectroscopy (IR before and after adsorption, confirming the presence of OTC in the ZIF-8 and the latter's structural stability after the adsorption process.

  18. Optimization of the pyrolysis process of empty fruit bunch (EFB) in a fixed-bed reactor through a central composite design (CCD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Alina Rahayu; Hamzah, Zainab; Daud, Mohamed Zulkali Mohamed

    2014-07-01

    The production of crude palm oil from the processing of palm fresh fruit bunches in the palm oil mills in Malaysia hs resulted in a huge quantity of empty fruit bunch (EFB) accumulated. The EFB was used as a feedstock in the pyrolysis process using a fixed-bed reactor in the present study. The optimization of process parameters such as pyrolysis temperature (factor A), biomass particle size (factor B) and holding time (factor C) were investigated through Central Composite Design (CCD) using Stat-Ease Design Expert software version 7 with bio-oil yield considered as the response. Twenty experimental runs were conducted. The results were completely analyzed by Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). The model was statistically significant. All factors studied were significant with p-values oil from EFB pyrolysis process. A quadratic model equation was developed and employed to predict the highest theoretical bio-oil yield. The maximum bio-oil yield of 46.2 % was achieved at pyrolysis temperature of 442.15 °C using the EFB particle size of 866 μm which corresponded to the EFB particle size in the range of 710-1000 μm and holding time of 483 seconds.

  19. Optimization of the pyrolysis process of empty fruit bunch (EFB) in a fixed-bed reactor through a central composite design (CCD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, Alina Rahayu; Hamzah, Zainab; Daud, Mohamed Zulkali Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    The production of crude palm oil from the processing of palm fresh fruit bunches in the palm oil mills in Malaysia hs resulted in a huge quantity of empty fruit bunch (EFB) accumulated. The EFB was used as a feedstock in the pyrolysis process using a fixed-bed reactor in the present study. The optimization of process parameters such as pyrolysis temperature (factor A), biomass particle size (factor B) and holding time (factor C) were investigated through Central Composite Design (CCD) using Stat-Ease Design Expert software version 7 with bio-oil yield considered as the response. Twenty experimental runs were conducted. The results were completely analyzed by Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). The model was statistically significant. All factors studied were significant with p-values 2 was 0.9564 which indicated that the selected factors and its levels showed high correlation to the production of bio-oil from EFB pyrolysis process. A quadratic model equation was developed and employed to predict the highest theoretical bio-oil yield. The maximum bio-oil yield of 46.2 % was achieved at pyrolysis temperature of 442.15 °C using the EFB particle size of 866 μm which corresponded to the EFB particle size in the range of 710–1000 μm and holding time of 483 seconds

  20. Batch desorption studies and multiple sorption-regeneration cycles in a fixed-bed column for Cd(II) elimination by protonated Sargassum muticum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lodeiro, P.; Herrero, R.; Sastre de Vicente, M.E.

    2006-01-01

    The protonated alga Sargassum muticum was employed in batch desorption studies to find the most appropriate eluting agent for Cd(II)-laden biomass regeneration. Eleven types of eluting solutions at different concentrations were tested, finding elution efficiencies higher than 90% for most of the desorbents studied. Total organic carbon and biomass weight loss measurements were made. The reusability of the protonated alga was also studied using a fixed-bed column. Eleven consecutive sorption-regeneration cycles at a flow rate of 10 mL min -1 were carried out for the removal of 50 mg L -1 Cd(II) solution. A 0.1 M HNO 3 solution was employed as desorbing agent. The column was operated during 605 h for sorption and 66 h for desorption, equivalent to a continuous use during 28 days, with no apparent loss of sorption performance. In these cycles, no diminution of the breakthrough time was found; although, a relative loss of sorption capacity, regarding the found in the first cycle, was observed. The slope of the breakthrough curves experiments a gradual increase reaching its maximum value for the last cycle tested (40% greater than for the first one). The maximum Cd(II) concentration elution peak was achieved in 5 min or less, and the metal effluent concentration was always lower than 0.9 mg L -1 after 1 h of elution. The maximum concentration factor was determined to be between 55 and 109

  1. In-situ catalytic upgrading of biomass pyrolysis vapor: Co-feeding with methanol in a multi-zone fixed bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asadieraghi, Masoud; Wan Daud, Wan Mohd Ashri

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Aromatics yield improved with increasing H/C eff ratio of the feed. • HZSM-5 catalyst was an effective catalyst for in-situ bio-oil upgrading. • Biomass/methanol co-feeding attenuated the coke formation. • Methanol co-feeding enhanced the bio-oil quality. - Abstract: The in-situ catalytic upgrading of the biomass pyrolysis vapor and its mixture with methanol were conducted in a fixed bed multi-zone reactor. The steps were comprised; thermally converting the biomass in the pyrolysis reactor, passing its vapor in contact with the HZSM-5 zeolite catalyst in the presence of methanol vapor, and transformation of the resulting upgraded pyrolysis vapor into the liquid product. The biomass pyrolysis and catalytic pyrolysis vapor upgrading were performed at 500 °C. The highly valuable chemicals production was a function of the hydrogen to carbon effective ratio (H/C eff ) of the feed. This ratio was regulated by changing the relative amount of biomass and methanol. More aromatic hydrocarbons (50.02 wt.%) and less coke deposition on the catalyst (1.3 wt.%) were yielded from the biomass, when methanol was co-fed to the catalytic pyrolysis process (H/C eff = 1.35). In this contribution, the deposited coke on the catalyst was profoundly investigated. The coke, with high contents of oxo-aromatics and aromatic compounds, was generated by polymerization of biomass lignin derived components activated by catalyst acid sites

  2. Pyrolysis of waste animal fats in a fixed-bed reactor: Production and characterization of bio-oil and bio-char

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Hassen-Trabelsi, A.; Kraiem, T.; Naoui, S.; Belayouni, H.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Produced bio-fuels (bio-oil and bio-char) from some animal fatty wastes. • Investigated the effects of main parameters on pyrolysis products distribution. • Determined the suitable conditions for the production of the maximum of bio-oil. • Characterized bio-oils and bio-chars obtained from several animal fatty wastes. - Abstract: Several animal (lamb, poultry and swine) fatty wastes were pyrolyzed under nitrogen, in a laboratory scale fixed-bed reactor and the main products (liquid bio-oil, solid bio-char and syngas) were obtained. The purpose of this study is to produce and characterize bio-oil and bio-char obtained from pyrolysis of animal fatty wastes. The maximum production of bio-oil was achieved at a pyrolysis temperature of 500 °C and a heating rate of 5 °C/min. The chemical (GC–MS analyses) and spectroscopic analyses (FTIR analyses) of bio-oil showed that it is a complex mixture consisting of different classes of organic compounds, i.e., hydrocarbons (alkanes, alkenes, cyclic compounds…etc.), carboxylic acids, aldehydes, ketones, esters,…etc. According to fuel properties, produced bio-oils showed good properties, suitable for its use as an engine fuel or as a potential source for synthetic fuels and chemical feedstock. Obtained bio-chars had low carbon content and high ash content which make them unattractive for as renewable source energy

  3. Gasification - Status and technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Held, Joergen

    2012-06-15

    In this report gasification and gas cleaning techniques for biomass are treated. The main reason for gasifying biomass is to refine the fuel to make it suitable for efficient CHP production, as vehicle fuel or in industrial processes. The focus is on production of synthesis gas that can be used for production of vehicle fuel and for CHP production. Depending on application different types of gasifiers, gasification techniques and process parameters are of interest. Two gasification techniques have been identified as suitable for syngas generation, mainly due to the fact that they allow the production of a nitrogen free gas out of the gasifier; Indirect gasification and pressurized oxygen-blown gasification For CHP production there are no restrictions on the gas composition in terms of nitrogen and here air-blown gasification is of interest as well. The main challenge when it comes to gas cleaning is related to sulphur and tars. There are different concepts and alternatives to handle sulphur and tars. Some of them are based on conventional techniques with well-proven components that are commercially available while others, more advantageous solutions, still need further development.

  4. Achievement report for fiscal 1984 on Sunshine Program. Basic research on coal type and gasification characteristics; 1984 nendo tanshu to gas ka tokusei no kiso kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1985-03-01

    The study of pressurized fluidized gasification of coal chars started in fiscal 1975, and a 0.2t/d unit was in operation until fiscal 1979. Since fiscal 1980, a 1t/d unit has been in operation. In fiscal 1984, an entrained bed gasification furnace was constructed, capable of high-temperature gasification of various coals, and it is now undergoing a test operation. This report consists of pressurized gasification tests for coal char, the result of a study on the effect of coal type on the char gasification reaction rate, and the result of experiments on the treatment of coal liquefaction residue, all accomplished in the 1t/d gasification unit. For the investigation of the effect of coal type, chars of 13 types of coals are subjected to reaction tests in the carbon dioxide gas, and weight reduction rates and changes in residue surface areas are determined while reaction is under way. The results are analyzed and parameters are made clear that enable a quantitative assessment of the effect of coal type on gasification reaction rates. Pulverized grains and coal liquefaction residue are blended and gasified in the fluidized bed in the presence of oxygen and steam. As the result, a gas capable of 2,000kcal/Nm{sup 3} containing 30% hydrogen and 25% carbon monoxide is acquired, when catalyst grains in the residue are segregated. (NEDO)

  5. Chemical looping coal gasification with calcium ferrite and barium ferrite via solid–solid reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siriwardane, Ranjani; Riley, Jarrett; Tian, Hanjing; Richards, George

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • BaFe 2 O 4 and CaFe 2 O 4 are excellent for chemical looping coal gasification. • BaFe 2 O 4 and CaFe 2 O 4 have minimal reactivity with synthesis gas. • Steam enhances the gasification process with these oxygen carriers. • Reaction rates of steam gasification of coal with CaFe 2 O 4 was better than with gaseous oxygen. • Coal gasification appears to be via solid–solid interaction with the oxygen carrier. - Abstract: Coal gasification to produce synthesis gas by chemical looping was investigated with two oxygen carriers, barium ferrite (BaFe 2 O 4 ) and calcium ferrite (CaFe 2 O 4 ). Thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) and fixed-bed flow reactor data indicated that a solid–solid interaction occurred between oxygen carriers and coal to produce synthesis gas. Both thermodynamic analysis and experimental data indicated that BaFe 2 O 4 and CaFe 2 O 4 have high reactivity with coal but have a low reactivity with synthesis gas, which makes them very attractive for the coal gasification process. Adding steam increased the production of hydrogen (H 2 ) and carbon monoxide (CO), but carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) remained low because these oxygen carriers have minimal reactivity with H 2 and CO. Therefore, the combined steam–oxygen carrier produced the highest quantity of synthesis gas. It appeared that neither the water–gas shift reaction nor the water splitting reaction promoted additional H 2 formation with the oxygen carriers when steam was present. Wyodak coal, which is a sub-bituminous coal, had the best gasification yield with oxygen carrier–steam while Illinois #6 coal had the lowest. The rate of gasification and selectivity for synthesis gas production was significantly higher when these oxygen carriers were present during steam gasification of coal. The rates and synthesis gas yields during the temperature ramps of coal–steam with oxygen carriers were better than with gaseous oxygen.

  6. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to High Octane Gasoline: Thermochemical Research Pathway with Indirect Gasification and Methanol Intermediate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Talmadge, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dutta, Abhijit [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hensley, Jesse [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Schaidle, Josh [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Biddy, Mary J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Humbird, David [DWH Process Consulting, Denver, CO (United States); Snowden-Swan, Lesley J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ross, Jeff [Harris Group, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States); Sexton, Danielle [Harris Group, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States); Yap, Raymond [Harris Group, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States); Lukas, John [Harris Group, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) promotes research for enabling cost-competitive liquid fuels production from lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks. The research is geared to advance the state of technology (SOT) of biomass feedstock supply and logistics, conversion, and overall system sustainability. As part of their involvement in this program, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) investigate the economics of conversion pathways through the development of conceptual biorefinery process models. This report describes in detail one potential conversion process for the production of high octane gasoline blendstock via indirect liquefaction (IDL). The steps involve the conversion of biomass to syngas via indirect gasification followed by gas cleanup and catalytic syngas conversion to a methanol intermediate; methanol is then further catalytically converted to high octane hydrocarbons. The conversion process model leverages technologies previously advanced by research funded by the Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) and demonstrated in 2012 with the production of mixed alcohols from biomass. Biomass-derived syngas cleanup via tar and hydrocarbons reforming was one of the key technology advancements as part of that research. The process described in this report evaluates a new technology area with downstream utilization of clean biomass-syngas for the production of high octane hydrocarbon products through a methanol intermediate, i.e., dehydration of methanol to dimethyl ether (DME) which subsequently undergoes homologation to high octane hydrocarbon products.

  7. Simulation of biomass and/or coal gasification systems integrated with fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ersoz, A; Ozdogan, S; Caglayan, E; Olgun, H [TUBITAK Marmara Research Center, Kocaeli (Turkey). Institute of Energy

    2006-11-15

    This paper presents the results of a system simulation study. The HYSYS 3.1 - ASPEN code has been used for simulation. The system consists of a fixed bed gasifier followed by reforming and clean-up units. The produced hydrogen gas is fed to a PEM fuel cell. The gasified hydrocarbons are hazelnut shells, bark, rice straw, animal waste, and two lignites. Hydrocarbon properties, gasification, and reforming process parameters all affect the system efficiency. The effect of the moisture content and oxygen to carbon ratio of the hydrocarbon fees on the fuel processing and overall system efficiencies are presented. The overall efficiency of the system increases with increasing hydrocarbon fees oxygen to carbon ratio; this tendency is more evident at higher moisture levels.

  8. ITM oxygen for gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, P.A.; Foster, E.P. [Air Products and Chemicals Inc., Toronto, ON (Canada); Gunardson, H.H. [Air Products Canada Ltd., Mississauga, ON (Canada)

    2005-11-01

    This paper described a newly developed air separation technology called Ionic Transport Membrane (ITM), which reduces the overall cost of the gasification process. The technology is well suited for advanced energy conversion processes such as integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) that require oxygen and use heavy carbonaceous feedstocks such as residual oils, bitumens, coke and coal. It is also well suited for traditional industrial applications for oxygen and distributed power. Air Products Canada Limited developed the ceramic membrane air separation technology that can reduce the cost of pure oxygen by more than 30 per cent. The separation technology achieves a capital cost reduction of 30 per cent and an energy reduction of 35 per cent over conventional cryogenic air separation. ITM is an electrochemical process that integrates well with the gasification process and an IGCC option for producing electricity from the waste heat generated from gasification. This paper described the integration of ITM technology with both the gasification and IGCC processes and showed the attractive economics of ITM. 6 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs.

  9. Effects of Temperature and Residence Time on the Emissions of PIC and Fine Particles during Fixed Bed Combustion of Conifer Stemwood Pellets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boman, Christoffer; Lindmark, Fredrik; Oehman, Marcus; Nordin, Anders [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Energy Technology and Thermal Process Chemistry; Pettersson, Esbjoern [Energy Technology Centre, Piteaa (Sweden); Westerholm, Roger [Stockholm Univ., Arrhenius Laboratory (Sweden). Dept. of Analytical Chemistry

    2006-07-15

    The use of wood fuel Pellets has proved to be well suited for the small-scale market enabling controlled and efficient combustion with low emission of products of incomplete combustion (PIC). Still a potential for further emission reduction exists and a thorough understanding of the influence of combustion conditions on the emission characteristics of air pollutants like PAH and particulate matter (PM) is important. The objective was to determine the effects of temperature and residence time on the emission performance and characteristics with focus on hydrocarbons and PM during combustion of conifer stemwood Pellets in a laboratory fixed bed reactor (<5 kW). Temperature and residence time after the bed section were varied according to statistical experimental designs (650-970 deg C and 0.5-3.5 s) with the emission responses; CO, organic gaseous carbon, NO, 20 VOC compounds, 43 PAH compounds, PM{sub tot}, fine particle mass/count median diameter (MMD and CMD) and number concentration. Temperature was negatively correlated with the emissions of all studied PIC with limited effects of residence time. The PM{sub tot} emissions of 15-20 mg/MJ was in all cases dominated by fine (<1 {mu}m) particles of K, Na, S, Cl, C, O and Zn. Increased residence time resulted in increased fine particle sizes (i.e. MMD and CMD) and decreased number concentrations. The importance of high temperature (>850 deg C) in the bed zone with intensive, air rich and well mixed isothermal conditions for 0.5-1.0 s in the post combustion zone was illustrated for wood Pellets combustion with almost a total depletion of all studied PIC. The results emphasize the need for further verification studies and technology development work.

  10. Effect of air-assisted backwashing on the performance of an anaerobic fixed-bed bioreactor that simultaneously removes nitrate and arsenic from drinking water sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyaya, Giridhar; Clancy, Tara M; Snyder, Kathryn V; Brown, Jess; Hayes, Kim F; Raskin, Lutgarde

    2012-03-15

    Contaminant removal from drinking water sources under reducing conditions conducive for the growth of denitrifying, arsenate reducing, and sulfate reducing microbes using a fixed-bed bioreactor may require oxygen-free gas (e.g., N2 gas) during backwashing. However, the use of air-assisted backwashing has practical advantages, including simpler operation, improved safety, and lower cost. A study was conducted to evaluate whether replacing N2 gas with air during backwashing would impact performance in a nitrate and arsenic removing anaerobic bioreactor system that consisted of two biologically active carbon reactors in series. Gas-assisted backwashing, comprised of 2 min of gas injection to fluidize the bed and dislodge biomass and solid phase products, was performed in the first reactor (reactor A) every two days. The second reactor (reactor B) was subjected to N2 gas-assisted backwashing every 3-4 months. Complete removal of 50 mg/L NO3- was achieved in reactor A before and after the switch from N2-assisted backwashing (NAB) to air-assisted backwashing (AAB). Substantial sulfate removal was achieved with both backwashing strategies. Prolonged practice of AAB (more than two months), however, diminished sulfate reduction in reactor B somewhat. Arsenic removal in reactor A was impacted slightly by long-term use of AAB, but arsenic removals achieved by the entire system during NAB and AAB periods were not significantly different (p>0.05) and arsenic concentrations were reduced from approximately 200 μg/L to below 20 μg/L. These results indicate that AAB can be implemented in anaerobic nitrate and arsenic removal systems. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Synergetic effect of sewage sludge and biomass co-pyrolysis: A combined study in thermogravimetric analyzer and a fixed bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xuebin; Deng, Shuanghui; Tan, Houzhang; Adeosun, Adewale; Vujanović, Milan; Yang, Fuxin; Duić, Neven

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The synergetic effect of sewage sludge and wheat straw co-pyrolysis was studied. • The mass balance measurement of gas, tar, and char was performed. • The synergetic effect shows strongest under a certain biomass addition ratio around 60%. • The required heat of co-pyrolysis is significantly reduced. - Abstract: Much attention has been given to the valuable products from the pyrolysis of sewage sludge. In this study, the pyrolysis of sewage sludge, biomass (wheat straw) and their mixtures in different proportions were carried out in a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) and fixed-bed reactor. The effects of pyrolysis temperature and percentage of wheat straw in wheat straw–sewage sludge mixtures on product distributions in terms of gas, liquid and char and the gas composition were investigated. Results indicate that there is a significantly synergetic effect during the co-pyrolysis processes of sewage sludge and wheat straw, accelerating the pyrolysis reactions. The synergetic effect resulted in an increase in gas and liquid yields but a decrease in char yield. The gas composition and the synergetic effect degree are strongly affected by the wheat straw proportions, and the strongest synergetic effect of sewage sludge and wheat straw co-pyrolysis appears at the biomass proportion of 60 wt.%. With an increase of temperature, the gas yield from the pyrolysis of sewage sludge increased but the liquid and char yields decreased. Moreover, the required heat of co-pyrolysis is significantly reduced compared with the pyrolysis of sewage sludge and wheat straw pyrolysis alone, because of the exothermic reactions between the ash components in two fuel samples.

  12. Vapor-phase elemental mercury adsorption by Ca(OH){sub 2} impregnated with MnO{sub 2} and Ag in fixed-bed system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y.J. Wang; Y.F. Duan; Z.J. Huang; S.L. Meng; L.G. Yang; C.S. Zhao [Southeast University, Nanjing (China). School of Energy and Environment

    2010-05-15

    The ability of three sorbents (untreated Ca(OH){sub 2}, MnO{sub 2}-impregnated Ca(OH){sub 2} and Ag-impregnated Ca(OH){sub 2}) removing the elemental mercury had been studied using a laboratory-scale fixed-bed reactor at 80{sup o}C under simulated fuel gas conditions. The adsorption performance of the three sorbents was compared by mercury removal efficiency and adsorption capacity. The effect of acid gases such as HCl and SO{sub 2} on the mercury removal was investigated and presented in this article. The results showed that the mercury removal by Ca(OH){sub 2} was mainly controlled by physical mechanisms. In the case of Ca(OH){sub 2}, the presence of both SO{sub 2} and HCl promoted the Hg{sup 0} removal, and compared HCl with SO{sub 2}, HCl had a higher mercury removal than SO{sub 2}. Ca(OH){sub 2} impregnated with MnO{sub 2} had a slightly higher mercury removal than the original Ca(OH){sub 2}, but it was beneficial for mercury speciation. The presence of both SO{sub 2} and HCl promotes the Hg0 removal greatly, which was adsorbed by Ca(OH){sub 2} impregnated with MnO{sub 2}. The Ca(OH){sub 2} impregnated with MnO{sub 2} adsorbed more than 50% total Hg due to the occurrence of chemisorptions. The mercury removal by Ca(OH){sub 2} impregnated with Ag was the highest. This may be because mercury integrated with silver easily that could produce silver amalgam alloy.

  13. Techno-economic analysis of sorption-enhanced steam methane reforming in a fixed bed reactor network integrated with fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diglio, Giuseppe; Hanak, Dawid P.; Bareschino, Piero; Mancusi, Erasmo; Pepe, Francesco; Montagnaro, Fabio; Manovic, Vasilije

    2017-10-01

    Sorption-enhanced steam methane reforming (SE-SMR) is a promising alternative for H2 production with inherent CO2 capture. This study evaluates the techno-economic performance of SE-SMR in a network of fixed beds and its integration with a solid oxide fuel cell (SE-SMR-SOFC) for power generation. The analysis revealed that both proposed systems are characterised by better economic performance than the reference systems. In particular, for SE-SMR the levelised cost of hydrogen is 1.6 €ṡkg-1 and the cost of CO2 avoided is 29.9 €ṡtCO2-1 (2.4 €ṡkg-1 and 50 €ṡtCO2-1, respectively, for SMR with CO2 capture) while for SE-SMR-SOFC the levelised cost of electricity is 0.078 €ṡkWh-1 and the cost of CO2 avoided is 36.9 €ṡtCO2-1 (0.080 €ṡkWh-1 and 80 €ṡtCO2-1, respectively, for natural gas-fired power plant with carbon capture). The sensitivity analysis showed that the specific cost of fuel and the capital cost of fuel cell mainly affect the economic performance of SE-SMR and SE-SMR-SOFC, respectively. The daily revenue of the SE-SMR-SOFC system is higher than that of the natural gas-fired power plant if the difference between the carbon tax and the CO2 transport and storage cost is > 6 €ṡtCO2-1.

  14. Optimization of the pyrolysis process of empty fruit bunch (EFB) in a fixed-bed reactor through a central composite design (CCD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohamed, Alina Rahayu; Hamzah, Zainab; Daud, Mohamed Zulkali Mohamed [School of Bioprocess Engineering, Jejawi Complex of Academics (3), UniMAP, 02600 Arau Perlis (Malaysia)

    2014-07-10

    The production of crude palm oil from the processing of palm fresh fruit bunches in the palm oil mills in Malaysia hs resulted in a huge quantity of empty fruit bunch (EFB) accumulated. The EFB was used as a feedstock in the pyrolysis process using a fixed-bed reactor in the present study. The optimization of process parameters such as pyrolysis temperature (factor A), biomass particle size (factor B) and holding time (factor C) were investigated through Central Composite Design (CCD) using Stat-Ease Design Expert software version 7 with bio-oil yield considered as the response. Twenty experimental runs were conducted. The results were completely analyzed by Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). The model was statistically significant. All factors studied were significant with p-values < 0.05. The pyrolysis temperature (factor A) was considered as the most significant parameter because its F-value of 116.29 was the highest. The value of R{sup 2} was 0.9564 which indicated that the selected factors and its levels showed high correlation to the production of bio-oil from EFB pyrolysis process. A quadratic model equation was developed and employed to predict the highest theoretical bio-oil yield. The maximum bio-oil yield of 46.2 % was achieved at pyrolysis temperature of 442.15 °C using the EFB particle size of 866 μm which corresponded to the EFB particle size in the range of 710–1000 μm and holding time of 483 seconds.

  15. A Hybrid Mineral Battery: Energy Storage and Dissolution Behavior of CuFeS2 in a Fixed Bed Flow Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deen, Kashif Mairaj; Asselin, Edouard

    2018-05-09

    The development of a hybrid system capable of storing energy and the additional benefit of Cu extraction is discussed in this work. A fixed bed flow cell (FBFC) was used in which a composite negative electrode containing CuFeS 2 (80 wt %) and carbon black (20 wt %) in graphite felt was separated from a positive (graphite felt) electrode by a proton-exchange membrane. The anolyte (0.2 m H 2 SO 4 ) and catholyte (0.5 m Fe 2+ in 0.2 m H 2 SO 4 with or without 0.1 m Cu 2+ ) were circulated in the cell. The electrochemical activity of the Fe 2+ /Fe 3+ redox couple over graphite felt significantly improved after the addition of Cu 2+ in the catholyte. Ultimately, in the CuFeS 2 ∥Fe 2+ /Cu 2+ (CFeCu) FBFC system, the specific capacity increased continuously to 26.4 mAh g -1 in 500 galvanostatic charge-discharge (GCD) cycles, compared to the CuFeS 2 ∥Fe 2+ (CFe) system (13.9 mAh g -1 ). Interestingly, the specific discharge energy gradually increased to 3.6 Wh kg -1 in 500 GCD cycles for the CFeCu system compared to 3.29 Wh kg -1 for the CFe system in 150 cycles. In addition to energy storage, 10.75 % Cu was also extracted from the mineral, which is an important feature of the CFeCu system as it would allow Cu extraction and recovery through hydrometallurgical methods. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Hydrogen-Rich Syngas Production from Gasification and Pyrolysis of Solar Dried Sewage Sludge: Experimental and Modeling Investigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aïda Ben Hassen Trabelsi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar dried sewage sludge (SS conversion by pyrolysis and gasification processes has been performed, separately, using two laboratory-scale reactors, a fixed-bed pyrolyzer and a downdraft gasifier, to produce mainly hydrogen-rich syngas. Prior to SS conversion, solar drying has been conducted in order to reduce moisture content (up to 10%. SS characterization reveals that these biosolids could be appropriate materials for gaseous products production. The released gases from SS pyrolysis and gasification present relatively high heating values (up to 9.96 MJ/kg for pyrolysis and 8.02  9.96 MJ/kg for gasification due to their high contents of H2 (up to 11 and 7 wt%, resp. and CH4 (up to 17 and 5 wt%, resp.. The yields of combustible gases (H2 and CH4 show further increase with pyrolysis. Stoichiometric models of both pyrolysis and gasification reactions were determined based on the global biomass formula, CαHβOγNδSε, in order to assist in the products yields optimization.

  17. Report on results of research. Basic studies on characteristics of coal char gasification under pressure; Sekitan char no kaatsuka ni okeru gas ka tokuseino kiso kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1981-03-01

    This paper explains basic studies on characteristics of coal char gasification under pressure. Hydro-gasification of coal needs as a gasifying agent a large amount of hydrogen, which is effectively produced by the water gasification of exhaust unreacted residual char. In fiscal 1975, gasification was tested on Taiheiyo coal carbonized char by an atmospheric fluidized gasifier of 28 mm bore. In fiscal 1976, experiment was conducted under pressure by fully improving the auxiliary safety equipment. The char and gas yield increased with higher pressure in pressurized carbonization by an autoclave. In fiscal 1977, clinker was successfully prevented by using quartz sand for a fluidized medium. In fiscal 1978, two-stage continuous gasification was examined. In fiscal 1979, correlation was determined between operation factors such as gasification pressure, temperature, etc., and clinker formation/char reactivity. An experiment was conducted for particle pop-out using a pressurized fluidized bed of 100 mm inner diameter, with the pop-out quantity found to be proportional to the 0.38th power of a pressure. A high pressure fluidized gasifier was built having a char processing capacity of 1 t/day, 20 atmospheric pressure, and an inner diameter of 100 mm. In fiscal 1980, this device was continuously operated, elucidating problems for the practicability. (NEDO)

  18. Report on the research achievements in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1992. Studies on a direct gasification catalyst; 1992 nendo chokusetsu ekika shokubai ni kansuru kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-10-01

    This paper describes the research achievements in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1992 in studies on a direct gasification catalyst. The paper summarizes the points where the catalyst research has reached to date. The catalyst surface effective for hydrogenation is the metal surface that can dissociate hydrogen. However, metals having large adsorption heat against hydrogen do not show the activity greatly because these metals are difficult of desorbing hydrogen having high dissociating activity. The coal liquefaction system has the surface oxidized by water content, wherein hydrogen dissociation cannot be expected, and sulfides are suitable. When a sulfide catalyst contacts hydrogen, the catalyst itself is desulfurized, producing H{sub 2}S and becomes a low-order sulfide. When atmospheric H{sub 2}S contacts this sulfide, it dissociates into HS and H, and this H behaves as active hydrogen. However, the liquefaction activity can be recognized even in a sulfuric acid type catalyst containing no sulfide whatsoever, wherein the H{sub 2}S partial pressure in the reaction system becomes extremely low. This fact means that the active hydrogen is not necessarily generated by the dissociation of H{sub 2}S. There is no other way but to think that hydrogen is dissociated directly without going through H{sub 2}S. If this is true, it provides a new guideline in developing and designing the future catalysts. (NEDO)

  19. WATER- AND COAL GASIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Nazarov

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the results of gas analysis it has been established that water- and coal gasification is rather satisfactorily described by three thermo-chemical equations. One of these equations is basic and independent and the other two equations depend on the first one.The proposed process scheme makes it possible to explain the known data and also permits to carry out the gasification process and obtain high-quality hydrogen carbon-monoxide which is applicable for practical use.

  20. Radiolytic carbon gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shennan, J.V.

    1980-01-01

    A vast body of knowledge has been accumulated over the past thirty years related to the radiolytic oxidation of the graphite moderator in carbon dioxide cooled Reactors. In the last ten years the dominance of the internal pore structure of the graphite in controlling the rate of carbon gasification has been steadily revealed. The object of this paper is to sift the large body of evidence and show how internal gas composition and hence carbon gasification is controlled by the virgin pore structure and the changes in pore structure brought about by progressive radiolytic oxidation. (author)

  1. FY 1996 report on the results of the development of an entrained bed coal gasification power plant. Part 2. Investigational study of verification plant; 1995 nendo seika hokokusho. Funryusho sekitan gaska hatsuden plant kaihatsu - Sono 2. Jissho plant ni kansuru chosa kenkyu hen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    For the purpose of developing the technology of the integrated coal gasification combined cycle power generation, an investigational study of verification plant was made, and the FY 1996 results were summarized. In this fiscal year, the conceptual design was made of the Nakoso method based on the method of Nakoso pilot plant, the fixed bed method in which fixed bed gas refining facilities tested in Nakoso pilot plant were adopted, and the packed bed method. In the Nakoso method, 5 cases were studied using the air blown two-stage entrained bed for gasifier, dry two-stage fluidized bed for desulfurization and dry granular bed packed bed for dust removal. In the fixed bed method, 2 cases were studied using the air blown two-stage entrained bed for gasifier and dry fixed bed for gas refining. In the packed bed method, 2 cases were studied using the air blown two-stage entrained bed for gasifier and dry packed bed for gas refining. As to gas turbine facilities, 5 cases were studied in which GT output is 115MW - 215MW (output of combined cycle power generation: 220MW - 420MW). (NEDO)

  2. Mathematical modelling of the gasification of cellulose-containing biomass using a zoning model; Mathematische Modellierung der Vergasung zellulosehaltiger Biomasse mit Hilfe eines Zonenmodells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, K; Saller, G; Funk, G; Krumm, W [Siegen Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany). Inst. fuer Energietechnik

    1998-09-01

    The composition of the product gas is decisive for the further process stages. In contrast to coal gasification, which has been investigated for more than a century, there is still a lack of theoretical and experimental knowledge on biomass gasification. The contribution presents a mathematical model that is to provide deeper knowledge of the constant-flow fixed-bed gasifier, which is still widely regarded as a `black box`. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Einen wesentlichen Prozessschritt der thermochemischen Konversion stellt der Vergasungsprozess dar, da die Zusammensetzung des erhaltenen Gases fuer die weiteren Prozessschritte von entscheidender Bedeutung ist. Im Gegensatz zur Vergasung von Kohle, die bereits seit fast 100 Jahren untersucht wird, besteht bei der Vergasung von Biomasse ein starker Nachholbedarf in Bezug auf das theoretische und experimentelle Detailwissen. In diesem Beitrag wird im Rahmen eines mathematischen Modells ein Ansatz vorgestellt, in dem der Gleichstrom-Festbettvergaser, der bisher meist als `blackbox` betrachtet wurde, weiter aufgeschluesselt wird. (orig./SR)

  3. GASIFICATION FOR DISTRIBUTED GENERATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald C. Timpe; Michael D. Mann; Darren D. Schmidt

    2000-05-01

    A recent emphasis in gasification technology development has been directed toward reduced-scale gasifier systems for distributed generation at remote sites. The domestic distributed power generation market over the next decade is expected to be 5-6 gigawatts per year. The global increase is expected at 20 gigawatts over the next decade. The economics of gasification for distributed power generation are significantly improved when fuel transport is minimized. Until recently, gasification technology has been synonymous with coal conversion. Presently, however, interest centers on providing clean-burning fuel to remote sites that are not necessarily near coal supplies but have sufficient alternative carbonaceous material to feed a small gasifier. Gasifiers up to 50 MW are of current interest, with emphasis on those of 5-MW generating capacity. Internal combustion engines offer a more robust system for utilizing the fuel gas, while fuel cells and microturbines offer higher electric conversion efficiencies. The initial focus of this multiyear effort was on internal combustion engines and microturbines as more realistic near-term options for distributed generation. In this project, we studied emerging gasification technologies that can provide gas from regionally available feedstock as fuel to power generators under 30 MW in a distributed generation setting. Larger-scale gasification, primarily coal-fed, has been used commercially for more than 50 years to produce clean synthesis gas for the refining, chemical, and power industries. Commercial-scale gasification activities are under way at 113 sites in 22 countries in North and South America, Europe, Asia, Africa, and Australia, according to the Gasification Technologies Council. Gasification studies were carried out on alfalfa, black liquor (a high-sodium waste from the pulp industry), cow manure, and willow on the laboratory scale and on alfalfa, black liquor, and willow on the bench scale. Initial parametric tests

  4. Reports on 1977 result of Sunshine Project. Research for detailed design of coal gasification plant (studies on operating conditions 'pressurized hydro-fluidized gasification method', dissolution of research equipment); 1977 nendo sekitan gas ka plant no shosai sekkei no tame no shiken kenkyu seika hokokusho. Unten joken no kenkyu 'kaatsu suiten ryudo gas ka hoshiki' kenkyu kaitai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1978-03-31

    The pressurized hydro-fluidized gasification method is such that coal is hydro-gasified under a pressure of 30kg/cm{sup 3} to produce a methane-rich calorie gas. This method is a combination of three independent processes, namely, (1) thermal cracking of coal, (2) hydrogasification of thermally decomposed product, and (3) water gasification for self-contained hydrogen, and is a continuous gasification method in which all processes are operated in a fluidized bed. In fiscal 1976, an operation technique was found in which conditions suitable for each reaction purpose were given to a detached thermal cracking furnace and hydrogasification furnace and in which continuous gasification was still maintained without an adverse effect between the two furnaces. This year, the continuous gasification test will be implemented successively, determining suitable operating conditions for the purpose of increasing methane concentration and improving gasification efficiency, and concurrently extracting device-related problems that impair the continuous operation. With the aim of obtaining a self-contained system for hydrogen, water gasification tests will be conducted, with the optimum conditions determined for the water gasification. An operation test will be carried out for an internal heat type control box, so that the functions under pressurization, durability and operation criteria will be determined. (NEDO)

  5. Underground gasification in Britain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1952-08-29

    A report of the discussion held on the paper Underground Gasification in Britain, by C.A. Masterman (Iron and Coal Trades Rev., Vol. 165, Aug. 22, 1952, pp. 413-422). The water question, preheating the air, controlling the gas, using the product, choosing the site, thickness of seam and faulted areas are discussed.

  6. In-situ catalytic upgrading of biomass pyrolysis vapor: Using a cascade system of various catalysts in a multi-zone fixed bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asadieraghi, Masoud; Wan Daud, Wan Mohd Ashri

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A cascade system of different catalysts exhibited the best performance to produce high quality bio-oil. • Meso-HZSM-5, Ga (1 wt.%)/meso-HZSM-5 and Cu (5 wt.%)/SiO 2 were employed in a cascade system. • The incorporation of the appropriate gallium amount to meso-HZSM-5 enhanced the aromatics selectivity. • Meso-HZSM-5 indicated a very good activity in bio-oil upgrading. - Abstract: The in-situ catalytic upgrading of palm kernel shell (PKS) fast pyrolysis vapors was performed over each individual meso-H-ZSM-5, Ga/meso-HZSM-5 and Cu/SiO 2 catalyst or a cascade system of them in a multi-zone fixed bed reactor. The effects of mesoporosity creation into the parent H-ZSM-5 catalyst and also gallium incorporation into mesoporous H-ZSM-5 on the produced bio-oil chemical composition and distribution were studied. Key upgrading reactions for different oxygenated compounds in pyrolysis oil (small oxygenates, lignin derived and sugar derived components), including aldol condensation, alkylation, hydrogenation, aromatization, and deoxygenation were discussed. The catalysts were characterized using SEM, XRF, XRD, N 2 adsorption and NH 3 -TPD methods. Furthermore, the produced bio-oils (catalytic and non-catalytic) were analyzed using GC–MS, FTIR, CHNS/O elemental analyzer and Karl Fischer titration. Production of the upgraded bio-oil with lower content of oxygenated compound was the main objective of this investigation. Among different catalysts, meso-H-ZSM-5 zeolite demonstrated a very good activity in aromatization and deoxygenation during the upgrading of pyrolytic vapors, although it decreased the bio-oil yield (32.6 wt.%). The gallium incorporation into the meso-HZSM-5 zeolite increased the bio-oil yield from 32.6 wt.% (meso-HZSM-5) to 35.8 wt.% (using 1.0 wt.% Ga). Furthermore, the aromatics selectivity was enhanced when the appropriate amount of gallium (1.0 wt.%) was introduced. A cascade system of various catalysts comprising meso-HZSM-5, Ga (1

  7. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products: Topical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, C.Y.; Merriam, N.W.; Jha, M.C.; Breault, R.W.

    1988-06-01

    Research on mild gasification is discussed. The report is divided into three sections: literature survey of mild gasification processes; literature survey of char, condensibles, and gas upgrading and utilization methods; and industrial market assessment of products of mild gasification. Recommendations are included in each section. (CBS) 248 refs., 58 figs., 62 tabs.

  8. CATALYTIC GASIFICATION OF COAL USING EUTECTIC SALT MIXTURES; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dr. Yaw D. Yeboah; Dr. Yong Xu; Dr. Atul Sheth; Dr. Pradeep Agrawal

    2001-01-01

    The Gas Research Institute (GRI) estimates that by the year 2010, 40% or more of U.S. gas supply will be provided by supplements including substitute natural gas (SNG) from coal. These supplements must be cost competitive with other energy sources. The first generation technologies for coal gasification e.g. the Lurgi Pressure Gasification Process and the relatively newer technologies e.g. the KBW (Westinghouse) Ash Agglomerating Fluidized-Bed, U-Gas Ash Agglomerating Fluidized-Bed, British Gas Corporation/Lurgi Slagging Gasifier, Texaco Moving-Bed Gasifier, and Dow and Shell Gasification Processes, have several disadvantages. These disadvantages include high severities of gasification conditions, low methane production, high oxygen consumption, inability to handle caking coals, and unattractive economics. Another problem encountered in catalytic coal gasification is deactivation of hydroxide forms of alkali and alkaline earth metal catalysts by oxides of carbon (CO(sub x)). To seek solutions to these problems, a team consisting of Clark Atlanta University (CAU, a Historically Black College and University, HBCU), the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) and Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech) proposed to identify suitable low melting eutectic salt mixtures for improved coal gasification. The research objectives of this project were to: Identify appropriate eutectic salt mixture catalysts for coal gasification; Assess agglomeration tendency of catalyzed coal; Evaluate various catalyst impregnation techniques to improve initial catalyst dispersion; Determine catalyst dispersion at high carbon conversion levels; Evaluate effects of major process variables (such as temperature, system pressure, etc.) on coal gasification; Evaluate the recovery, regeneration and recycle of the spent catalysts; and Conduct an analysis and modeling of the gasification process to provide better understanding of the fundamental mechanisms and kinetics of the process

  9. CATALYTIC GASIFICATION OF COAL USING EUTECTIC SALT MIXTURES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Yaw D. Yeboah; Dr. Yong Xu; Dr. Atul Sheth; Dr. Pradeep Agrawal

    2001-12-01

    The Gas Research Institute (GRI) estimates that by the year 2010, 40% or more of U.S. gas supply will be provided by supplements including substitute natural gas (SNG) from coal. These supplements must be cost competitive with other energy sources. The first generation technologies for coal gasification e.g. the Lurgi Pressure Gasification Process and the relatively newer technologies e.g. the KBW (Westinghouse) Ash Agglomerating Fluidized-Bed, U-Gas Ash Agglomerating Fluidized-Bed, British Gas Corporation/Lurgi Slagging Gasifier, Texaco Moving-Bed Gasifier, and Dow and Shell Gasification Processes, have several disadvantages. These disadvantages include high severities of gasification conditions, low methane production, high oxygen consumption, inability to handle caking coals, and unattractive economics. Another problem encountered in catalytic coal gasification is deactivation of hydroxide forms of alkali and alkaline earth metal catalysts by oxides of carbon (CO{sub x}). To seek solutions to these problems, a team consisting of Clark Atlanta University (CAU, a Historically Black College and University, HBCU), the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) and Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech) proposed to identify suitable low melting eutectic salt mixtures for improved coal gasification. The research objectives of this project were to: Identify appropriate eutectic salt mixture catalysts for coal gasification; Assess agglomeration tendency of catalyzed coal; Evaluate various catalyst impregnation techniques to improve initial catalyst dispersion; Determine catalyst dispersion at high carbon conversion levels; Evaluate effects of major process variables (such as temperature, system pressure, etc.) on coal gasification; Evaluate the recovery, regeneration and recycle of the spent catalysts; and Conduct an analysis and modeling of the gasification process to provide better understanding of the fundamental mechanisms and kinetics of the process.

  10. Carbon conversion predictor for fluidized bed gasification of biomass fuels - from TGA measurements to char gasification particle model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konttinen, J.T. [University of Jyvaeskylae, Department of Chemistry, Renewable Energy Programme, POB 35, Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Moilanen, A. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, POB 1000, Espoo (Finland); Martini, N. de; Hupa, M. [Abo Akademi University, Process Chemistry Centre, Combustion and Materials Chemistry, Turku (Finland)

    2012-09-15

    When a solid fuel particle is injected into a hot fluidized bed, the reactivity of fuel char in gasification reactions (between char carbon and steam and CO{sub 2}) plays a significant role for reaching a good carbon conversion. In this paper, the gasification reactivity data of some solid waste recovered fuels (SRF) obtained from thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) experiments is presented. Gas mixtures (H{sub 2}O, H{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, CO), were used in the experiments to find the inhibitive effects of CO and H{sub 2}. Average char gasification reactivity values are determined from the TGA results. Kinetic parameters for char carbon gasification reactivity correlations are determined from this data. The Uniform Conversion model is used to account for the change of gasification reaction rate as function of carbon conversion. Some discrepancies, due to complicated ash-carbon interactions, are subjects of further research. In the carbon conversion predictor, laboratory measured reactivity numbers are converted into carbon conversion numbers in a real-scale fluidized bed gasifier. The predictor is a relatively simple and transparent tool for the comparison of the gasification reactivity of different fuels in fluidized bed gasification. The residence times for solid fuels in fluidized bed gasifiers are simulated. Simulations against some pilot-scale results show reasonable agreement. (orig.)

  11. Advanced Biomass Gasification Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1997-08-01

    DOE has a major initiative under way to demonstrate two high-efficiency gasification systems for converting biomass into electricity. As this fact sheet explains, the Biomass Power Program is cost-sharing two scale-up projects with industry in Hawaii and Vermont that, if successful, will provide substantial market pull for U.S. biomass technologies, and provide a significant market edge over competing foreign technologies.

  12. Biomass Gasification Combined Cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judith A. Kieffer

    2000-07-01

    Gasification combined cycle continues to represent an important defining technology area for the forest products industry. The ''Forest Products Gasification Initiative'', organized under the Industry's Agenda 2020 technology vision and supported by the DOE ''Industries of the Future'' program, is well positioned to guide these technologies to commercial success within a five-to ten-year timeframe given supportive federal budgets and public policy. Commercial success will result in significant environmental and renewable energy goals that are shared by the Industry and the Nation. The Battelle/FERCO LIVG technology, which is the technology of choice for the application reported here, remains of high interest due to characteristics that make it well suited for integration with the infrastructure of a pulp production facility. The capital cost, operating economics and long-term demonstration of this technology area key input to future economically sustainable projects and must be verified by the 200 BDT/day demonstration facility currently operating in Burlington, Vermont. The New Bern application that was the initial objective of this project is not currently economically viable and will not be implemented at this time due to several changes at and around the mill which have occurred since the inception of the project in 1995. The analysis shows that for this technology, and likely other gasification technologies as well, the first few installations will require unique circumstances, or supportive public policies, or both to attract host sites and investors.

  13. Achievement report for fiscal 1993 on developing entrained bed coal gasification power plant. Part 2. Summary of tests and researches on pilot plant operation; 1993 nendo seika hokokusho. Funryusho sekitan gaska hatsuden plant kaihatsu - Sono 2. Pilot plant unten shiken kenkyu no gaiyo hen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-01

    Tests and researches have been carried out on operation of a 200-t/d entrained bed coal gasification pilot plant built with an objective of establishing the coal gasification composite power generation technology. This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 1993. The current fiscal year has performed the test operation on the pilot plant as a whole by using the coal D in continuation from the previous fiscal year. For the gasification furnace facilities, an air variation test was conducted for charging coal into the gasification furnace by using recovered oxygen, wherein satisfactory control was verified on oxygen concentration in the air supplied into the gasification furnace. In the gas refining facilities (dry desulfurizing facilities), the total sulfur concentration at 300 to 650 ppm in the gas produced from the coal gasification furnace was refined to 30 to 100 ppm, having achieved the initial target value. The gas refining facilities (dry dust collecting facilities) have achieved satisfactory result that the entrance dust concentration at 66 to 270 mg/Nm{sup 3} was reduced to the exit dust concentration at 1 to 3 mg/Nm{sup 3}. With respect to the gas turbine facilities, the planned values of output and thermal efficiency were satisfied, having derived good performance characteristics. (NEDO)

  14. Gasification of oil shale by solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingel, Gil

    1992-04-01

    Gasification of oil shales followed by catalytic reforming can yield synthetic gas, which is easily transportable and may be used as a heat source or for producing liquid fuels. The aim of the present work was to study the gasification of oil shales by solar radiation, as a mean of combining these two energy resources. Such a combination results in maximizing the extractable fuel from the shale, as well as enabling us to store solar energy in a chemical bond. In this research special attention was focused upon the question of the possible enhancement of the gasification by direct solar irradiation of the solid carbonaceous feed stock. The oil shale served here as a model feedstock foe other resources such as coal, heavy fuels or biomass all of which can be gasified in the same manner. The experiments were performed at the Weizman institute's solar central receiver, using solar concentrated flux as an energy source for the gasification. The original contributions of this work are : 1) Experimental evidence is presented that concentrated sunlight can be used effectively to carry out highly endothermic chemical reactions in solid particles, which in turn forms an essential element in the open-loop solar chemical heat pipe; 2) The solar-driven gasification of oil shales can be executed with good conversion efficiencies, as well as high synthesis gas yields; 3)There was found substantial increase in deliverable energy compared to the conventional retorting of oil shales, and considerable reduction in the resulting spent shale. 5) A detailed computer model that incorporates all the principal optical and thermal components of the solar concentrator and the chemical reactor has been developed and compared favorably against experimental data. (author)

  15. Removal of phenol by powdered activated carbon prepared from coal gasification tar residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiong-Lei; Shen, Jun; Niu, Yan-Xia; Wang, Yu-Gao; Liu, Gang; Sheng, Qing-Tao

    2018-03-01

    Coal gasification tar residue (CGTR) is a kind of environmentally hazardous byproduct generated in fixed-bed coal gasification process. The CGTR extracted by ethyl acetate was used to prepare powdered activated carbon (PAC), which is applied later for adsorption of phenol. The results showed that the PAC prepared under optimum conditions had enormous mesoporous structure, and the iodine number reached 2030.11 mg/g, with a specific surface area of 1981 m 2 /g and a total pore volume of 0.92 ml/g. Especially, without loading other substances, the PAC, having a strong magnetism, can be easily separated after it adsorbs phenol. The adsorption of phenol by PAC was studied as functions of contact time, temperature, PAC dosage, solution concentration and pH. The results showed a fast adsorption speed and a high adsorption capacity of PAC. The adsorption process was exothermic and conformed to the Freundlich models. The adsorption kinetics fitted better to the pseudo-second-order model. These results show that CGTR can be used as a potential adsorbent of phenols in wastewater.

  16. An evaluation of tannery industry wastewater treatment sludge gasification by artificial neural network modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ongen, Atakan; Kurtulus Ozcan, H.; Arayıcı, Semiha

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • We model calorific value of syn-gas from tannery industry treatment sludge. • We monitor variation of gas composition in produced gas. • Heating value of produced gas is around 1500 kcal/m 3 . • Model predictions are in close accordance with real values. -- Abstract: This paper reports on the calorific value of synthetic gas (syngas) produced by gasification of dewatered sludge derived from treatment of tannery wastewater. Proximate and ultimate analyses of samples were performed. Thermochemical conversion alters the chemical structure of the waste. Dried air was used as a gasification agent at varying flow rates, which allowed the feedstock to be quickly converted into gas by means of different heterogeneous reactions. A lab-scale updraft fixed-bed steel reactor was used for thermochemical conversion of sludge samples. Artificial neural network (ANN) modeling techniques were used to observe variations in the syngas related to operational conditions. Modeled outputs showed that temporal changes of model predictions were in close accordance with real values. Correlation coefficients (r) showed that the ANN used in this study gave results with high sensitivity

  17. An evaluation of tannery industry wastewater treatment sludge gasification by artificial neural network modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ongen, Atakan, E-mail: aongen@istanbul.edu.tr; Kurtulus Ozcan, H.; Arayıcı, Semiha

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • We model calorific value of syn-gas from tannery industry treatment sludge. • We monitor variation of gas composition in produced gas. • Heating value of produced gas is around 1500 kcal/m{sup 3}. • Model predictions are in close accordance with real values. -- Abstract: This paper reports on the calorific value of synthetic gas (syngas) produced by gasification of dewatered sludge derived from treatment of tannery wastewater. Proximate and ultimate analyses of samples were performed. Thermochemical conversion alters the chemical structure of the waste. Dried air was used as a gasification agent at varying flow rates, which allowed the feedstock to be quickly converted into gas by means of different heterogeneous reactions. A lab-scale updraft fixed-bed steel reactor was used for thermochemical conversion of sludge samples. Artificial neural network (ANN) modeling techniques were used to observe variations in the syngas related to operational conditions. Modeled outputs showed that temporal changes of model predictions were in close accordance with real values. Correlation coefficients (r) showed that the ANN used in this study gave results with high sensitivity.

  18. Parametric Gasification of Oak and Pine Feedstocks Using the TCPDU and Slipstream Water-Gas Shift Catalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hrdlicka, J.; Feik, C.; Carpenter, D.; Pomeroy, M.

    2008-12-01

    With oak and pine feedstocks, the Gasification of Biomass to Hydrogen project maximizes hydrogen production using the Full Stream Reformer during water-gas shift fixed-bed reactor testing. Results indicate that higher steam-to-biomass ratio and higher thermal cracker temperature yield higher hydrogen concentration. NREL's techno-economic models and analyses indicate hydrogen production from biomass may be viable at an estimated cost of $1.77/kg (current) and $1.47/kg (advanced in 2015). To verify these estimates, NREL used the Thermochemical Process Development Unit (TCPDU), an integrated system of unit operations that investigates biomass thermochemical conversion to gaseous and liquid fuels and chemicals.

  19. Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) production and gasification in a pilot plant integrated with an Otto cycle ICE through Aspen plus™ modelling: Thermodynamic and economic viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Násner, Albany Milena Lozano; Lora, Electo Eduardo Silva; Palacio, José Carlos Escobar; Rocha, Mateus Henrique; Restrepo, Julian Camilo; Venturini, Osvaldo José; Ratner, Albert

    2017-11-01

    This work deals with the development of a Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) gasification pilot plant using air as a gasification agent. A downdraft fixed bed reactor is integrated with an Otto cycle Internal Combustion Engine (ICE). Modelling was carried out using the Aspen Plus™ software to predict the ideal operational conditions for maximum efficiency. Thermodynamics package used in the simulation comprised the Non-Random Two-Liquid (NRTL) model and the Hayden-O'Connell (HOC) equation of state. As expected, the results indicated that the Equivalence Ratio (ER) has a direct influence over the gasification temperature and the composition of the Raw Produced Gas (RPG), and effects of ER over the Lower Heating Value (LHV) and Cold Gasification Efficiency (CGE) of the RPG are also discussed. A maximum CGE efficiency of 57-60% was reached for ER values between 0.25 and 0.3, also an average reactor temperature values in the range of 680-700°C, with a peak LHV of 5.8MJ/Nm 3 . RPG was burned in an ICE, reaching an electrical power of 50kW el . The economic assessment of the pilot plant implementation was also performed, showing the project is feasible, with power above 120kW el with an initial investment of approximately US$ 300,000. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Subtask 4.2 - Coal Gasification Short Course

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Galbreath

    2009-06-30

    Major utilities, independent power producers, and petroleum and chemical companies are intent on developing a fleet of gasification plants primarily because of high natural gas prices and the implementation of state carbon standards, with federal standards looming. Currently, many projects are being proposed to utilize gasification technologies to produce a synthesis gas or fuel gas stream for the production of hydrogen, liquid fuels, chemicals, and electricity. Financing these projects is challenging because of the complexity, diverse nature of gasification technologies, and the risk associated with certain applications of the technology. The Energy & Environmental Research Center has developed a gasification short course that is designed to provide technical personnel with a broad understanding of gasification technologies and issues, thus mitigating the real or perceived risk associated with the technology. Based on a review of research literature, tutorial presentations, and Web sites on gasification, a short course presentation was prepared. The presentation, consisting of about 500 PowerPoint slides, provides at least 7 hours of instruction tailored to an audience's interests and needs. The initial short course is scheduled to be presented September 9 and 10, 2009, in Grand Forks, North Dakota.

  1. Gasification with nuclear reactor heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisbrodt, I.A.

    1977-01-01

    The energy-political ultimate aims for the introduction of nuclear coal gasification and the present state of technology concerning the HTR reactor, concerning gasification and heat exchanging components are outlined. Presented on the plans a) for hydro-gasification of lignite and for steam gasification of pit coal for the production of synthetic natural gas, and b) for the introduction of a nuclear heat system. The safety and environmental problems to be expected are portrayed. The main points of development, the planned prototype plant and the schedule of the project Pototype plant Nuclear Process heat (PNP) are specified. In a market and economic viability study of nuclear coal gasification, the application potential of SNG, the possible construction programme for the FRG, as well as costs and rentability of SNG production are estimated. (GG) [de

  2. On the gasification of biomass in a steam-oxygen blown CFB gasifier with the focus on gas quality upgrading : Technology background, experiments and mathematical modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siedlecki, M.

    2011-01-01

    This work presents and discusses the results of the research on the gasification of biomass in an atmospheric circulating fluidized bed, with a mixture of steam and oxygen as fluidization / gasification medium. The main objectives of this research were to investigate and improve the gasification

  3. Research and development to prepare and characterize robust coal/biomass mixtures for direct co-feeding into gasification systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felix, Larry [Inst. Of Gas Technology, Des Plaines, IL (United States); Farthing, William [Inst. Of Gas Technology, Des Plaines, IL (United States); Hoekman, S. Kent [Inst. Of Gas Technology, Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2014-12-31

    This project was initiated on October 1, 2010 and utilizes equipment and research supported by the Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, under Award Number DE- FE0005349. It is also based upon previous work supported by the Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, under Award Numbers DOE-DE-FG36-01GOl1082, DE-FG36-02G012011 or DE-EE0000272. The overall goal of the work performed was to demonstrate and assess the economic viability of fast hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) for transforming lignocellulosic biomass into a densified, friable fuel to gasify like coal that can be easily blended with ground coal and coal fines and then be formed into robust, weather-resistant pellets and briquettes.

  4. Syngas production from downdraft gasification of oil palm fronds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atnaw, Samson Mekbib; Sulaiman, Shaharin Anwar; Yusup, Suzana

    2013-01-01

    Study on gasification of OPF (oil palm fronds) is scarce although the biomass constitutes more than 24% of the total oil palm waste. The lack of research related to gasification of oil palm fronds calls for a study on gasification behaviour of the fuel. In this paper the effects of reactor temperature and ER (equivalence ratio) on gas composition, calorific value and gasification efficiency of downdraft gasification of OPF were investigated. The heating value of syngas and the values of cold gas and carbon conversion efficiencies of gasification obtained were found to be comparable with woody biomass. The study showed that oxidation zone temperature above 850 °C is favourable for high concentration of the fuel components of syngas CO, H 2 and CH 4 . Average syngas lower heating value of 5.2 MJ/Nm 3 was obtained for operation with oxidation zone temperatures above 1000 °C, while no significant change in heating value was observed for temperature higher than 1100 °C. The average and peak heating values of 4.8 MJ/Nm 3 and 5.5 MJ/Nm 3 , and cold gas efficiency of 70.2% at optimum equivalence ratio of 0.37 showed that OPF have a high potential as a fuel for gasification. - Highlights: • Kinetic study of pyrolysis and combustion of OPF (oil palm fronds) was done. • Experimental study on syngas production utilizing OPF and parametric study was done. • OPF was found to have a comparable performance with wood in downdraft gasification

  5. Coal gasification plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-09-29

    The proposal concerns a stage in the process of cooling the synthetic gas produced in a coal gasification plant at temperatures above 900/sup 0/C. The purpose is to keep the convection heating surface of the subsequent waste heat plant free of dirt. According to the invention, the waste heat plant has a radiation area connected before it, on the heating surfaces of which the slack carried over solidifies. This radiation area has a hydraulic and thermal cleaning system, which can be raised or lowered in a water bath. The subclaims concern all the constructional characteristics of this cleaning system, which causes the solidified slack to crack.

  6. Hydrogen enriched gas production in a multi-stage downdraft gasification process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutta, A.; Jarungthammachote, S.

    2009-01-01

    To achieve hydrogen enriched and low-tar producer gas, multi-stage air-blown and air-steam gasification were studied in this research. Results showed that the tar content from multi-stage air-blown and air-steam gasification was lower compared to the average value of that from downdraft gasification. It was also seen that an air-steam gasification process could potentially increase the hydrogen concentration in the producer gas in the expense of carbon monoxide; however, the summation of hydrogen and carbon monoxide in the producer gas was increased. (author)

  7. FY 1989 report on the results of the development of the entrained bed coal gasification power plant. Part 1. Element study; 1989 nendo seika hokokusho. Funryusho sekitan gaska hatsuden plant kaihatsu - Sono 1. Yoso kenkyu hen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-03-01

    For the purpose of establishing the technology of integrated coal gasification combined cycle power generation, element study was conducted of a 200t/d entrained bed coal gasification pilot plant, and the FY 1989 results were summarized. In the gasification test using 2t/d gasifier equipment, the following were carried out: test on gasification of the coal proposed for pilot plant, test on changes in coal feed ratio, analysis of trace gas elements in coal, study of the fixed bed gas refining system, etc. In the study of large gas turbine combustor for demonstration machine, development of combustor which makes stable combustion in the low load region possible, development of low NOx combustor which controls the conversion of nitrogen compounds such as ammonia in coal gasification gas to NOx, development of combustor which makes the optimum and effective cooling possible by combining film cooling, impingement cooling, etc. In the study of simulation of the combined power generation total system, verification tests on the control mode switching function of the general load pressure control system, movement to meet anomaly of the control system, integrated cooperation control system, etc. (NEDO)

  8. Optimal processing conditions for a dolomite cracker for cracking of tar from gasification of biomass fuels. Optimale procesbetingelser for en dolomitkrakker til krakning af tjaere fra forgasning af biobraendsler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fjellerup, J.

    1989-08-15

    Gasification of fuels derived from biomass is of interest in connection with combined cycle systems. During gasification tar compounds can be produced, and these can block further stages of the process. As gas turbines are very sensitive to tar compounds it is necessary to remove the tar completely from the gas. The most effective method appears to be catalytic cracking and it is suggested that dolomite is an effective and cheap catalysator. Based on a survey of relevant literature, the aim was to discover optimal conditions for the process of dolomite cracking. It is concluded that it is important to decarbonate the dolomite before use, that dolomite is not suitable for use in fluidized beds as it can become eroded and is subsequently very quickly blown out, and that it is important to hold the temperature at a level of ca. 800 deg. C. Conditions for fixed bed cracking both with and without steam are also desderibed. (AB) 15 refs.

  9. Gasification Plant Cost and Performance Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuel Tam; Alan Nizamoff; Sheldon Kramer; Scott Olson; Francis Lau; Mike Roberts; David Stopek; Robert Zabransky; Jeffrey Hoffmann; Erik Shuster; Nelson Zhan

    2005-05-01

    -blown gasification combined heat and power facility based on the Subtask 3.2 design. The air-blown case was chosen since it was less costly and had a better return on investment than the oxygen-blown gasifier case. Under appropriate conditions, this study showed a combined heat and power air-blown gasification facility could be an attractive option for upgrading or expanding the utilities area of industrial facilities. Subtask 3.4 developed a base case design for a large lignite-fueled IGCC power plant that uses the advanced GE 7FB combustion turbine to be located at a generic North Dakota site. This plant uses low-level waste heat to dry the lignite that otherwise would be rejected to the atmosphere. Although this base case plant design is economically attractive, further enhancements should be investigated. Furthermore, since this is an oxygen-blown facility, it has the potential for capture and sequestration of CO{sub 2}. The third objective for Task 3 was accomplished by having NETL personnel working closely with Nexant and Gas Technology Institute personnel during execution of this project. Technology development will be the key to the long-term commercialization of gasification technologies. This will be important to the integration of this environmentally superior solid fuel technology into the existing mix of power plants and industrial facilities. As a result of this study, several areas have been identified in which research and development will further advance gasification technology. Such areas include improved system availability, development of warm-gas clean up technologies, and improved subsystem designs.

  10. Biomass thermochemical gasification: Experimental studies and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ajay

    The overall goals of this research were to study the biomass thermochemical gasification using experimental and modeling techniques, and to evaluate the cost of industrial gas production and combined heat and power generation. This dissertation includes an extensive review of progresses in biomass thermochemical gasification. Product gases from biomass gasification can be converted to biopower, biofuels and chemicals. However, for its viable commercial applications, the study summarizes the technical challenges in the gasification and downstream processing of product gas. Corn stover and dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS), a non-fermentable byproduct of ethanol production, were used as the biomass feedstocks. One of the objectives was to determine selected physical and chemical properties of corn stover related to thermochemical conversion. The parameters of the reaction kinetics for weight loss were obtained. The next objective was to investigate the effects of temperature, steam to biomass ratio and equivalence ratio on gas composition and efficiencies. DDGS gasification was performed on a lab-scale fluidized-bed gasifier with steam and air as fluidizing and oxidizing agents. Increasing the temperature resulted in increases in hydrogen and methane contents and efficiencies. A model was developed to simulate the performance of a lab-scale gasifier using Aspen Plus(TM) software. Mass balance, energy balance and minimization of Gibbs free energy were applied for the gasification to determine the product gas composition. The final objective was to optimize the process by maximizing the net energy efficiency, and to estimate the cost of industrial gas, and combined heat and power (CHP) at a biomass feedrate of 2000 kg/h. The selling price of gas was estimated to be 11.49/GJ for corn stover, and 13.08/GJ for DDGS. For CHP generation, the electrical and net efficiencies were 37 and 86%, respectively for corn stover, and 34 and 78%, respectively for DDGS. For

  11. Coal gasification in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furfari, S.

    1992-01-01

    This paper first analyzes European energy consumption and supply dynamics within the framework of the European Communities energy and environmental policies calling for the increased use of natural gas, reduced energy consumption, promotion of innovative renewable energy technologies, and the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions. This analysis evidences that, while, at present, the increased use of natural gas is an economically and environmentally advantageous policy, as well as, being strategically sound (in view of Middle East political instability), fuel interchangeability, in particular, the option to use coal, is vital to ensure stability of the currently favourable natural gas prices and offer a locally available energy alternative to foreign supplied sources. Citing the advantages to industry offered by the use of flexible, efficient and clean gaseous fuels, with interchangeability, the paper then illustrates the cost and environmental benefits to be had through the use of high efficiency, low polluting integrated gasification combined-cycle power plants equipped to run on a variety of fuels. In the assessment of technological innovations in this sector, a review is made of some of the commercially most promising gasification processes, e.g., the British Gas-Lurgi (BGL) slagging gasifier, the high-temperature Winkler (HTW) Rheinbraun, and the Krupp Koppers (PRENFLO) moving bed gasifier processes

  12. Coal gasification in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furfari, S [Commissione delle Comunita' Europee, Bruxelles (Belgio). Direzione Generale dell' Energia, Direzione delle Tecnologie

    1992-02-01

    This paper first analyzes European energy consumption and supply dynamics within the framework of the European Communities energy and environmental policies calling for the increased use of natural gas, reduced energy consumption, promotion of innovative renewable energy technologies, and the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions. This analysis evidences that, while, at present, the increased use of natural gas is an economically and environmentally advantageous policy, as well as, being strategically sound (in view of Middle East political instability), fuel interchangeability, in particular, the option to use coal, is vital to ensure stability of the currently favourable natural gas prices and offer a locally available energy alternative to foreign supplied sources. Citing the advantages to industry offered by the use of flexible, efficient and clean gaseous fuels, with interchangeability, the paper then illustrates the cost and environmental benefits to be had through the use of high efficiency, low polluting integrated gasification combined-cycle power plants equipped to run on a variety of fuels. In the assessment of technological innovations in this sector, a review is made of some of the commercially most promising gasification processes, e.g., the British Gas-Lurgi (BGL) slagging gasifier, the high-temperature Winkler (HTW) Rheinbraun, and the Krupp Koppers (PRENFLO) moving bed gasifier processes.

  13. FY 1991 report on the Coal Gasification Committee; 1991 nendo sekitan gasuka iinkai hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-03-01

    The paper reported activities of the Coal Gasification Committee, gasification power generation section and gasification technology section in FY 1991. The 1st Coal Gasification Committee Meeting was held on July 16,1991, and report/discussion were made about an outline of the FY 1991 research plan on the development of coal gasification technology. The 2nd Meeting was held on March 12, 1992, and report/discussion were made about activities of each section meeting and the progress of the development of coal gasification technology. In the section meeting of coal gasification power generation, report/discussion were made about the progress and study object of the development of entrained bed coal gasification power plant and support study for the development of the plant. In the 1st section meeting of coal gasification technology, as to the developmental plan on coal utilization hydrogen production technology, report/discussion were made about design/construction/operational study of pilot plant and support study for pilot plant (study using small equipment, study of trial manufacture of plant use equipment/materials). In the 2nd section meeting, report/discussion were made about the results of the development of coal utilization hydrogen production technology. (NEDO)

  14. Vision of the U.S. biofuel future: a case for hydrogen-enriched biomass gasification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark A. Dietenberger; Mark Anderson

    2007-01-01

    Researchers at the Forest Product Laboratory (FPL) and the University of Wisconsin-Madison (UW) envision a future for biofuels based on biomass gasification with hydrogen enrichment. Synergisms between hydrogen production and biomass gasification technologies will be necessary to avoid being marginalized in the biofuel marketplace. Five feasible engineering solutions...

  15. Entrained Flow Gasification of Biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Ke

    The present Ph. D. thesis describes experimental and modeling investigations on entrained flow gasification of biomass and an experimental investigation on entrained flow cogasification of biomass and coal. A review of the current knowledge of biomass entrained flow gasification is presented....... Biomass gasification experiments were performed in a laboratory-scale atmospheric pressure entrained flow reactor with the aim to investigate the effects of operating parameters and biomass types on syngas products. A wide range of operating parameters was involved: reactor temperature, steam/carbon ratio......, excess air ratio, oxygen concentration, feeder gas flow, and residence time. Wood, straw, and lignin were used as biomass fuels. In general, the carbon conversion was higher than 90 % in the biomass gasification experiments conducted at high temperatures (> 1200 °C). The biomass carbon...

  16. Bench-scale production of liquid fuel from woody biomass via gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanaoka, Toshiaki; Liu, Yanyong; Matsunaga, Kotetsu; Miyazawa, Tomohisa; Hirata, Satoshi; Sakanishi, Kinya [Biomass Technology Research Center, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Suehiro 2-2-2, Hiro, Kure, Hiroshima 737-0197 (Japan)

    2010-08-15

    The bench-scale production of hydrocarbon liquid fuel was achieved from woody biomass via gasification. The daily production capacity of the biomass-to-liquid (BTL) plant used in this study was 7.8 L of hydrocarbon liquid from 48 kg of woody biomass (on a dry basis), corresponding to 0.05 barrels. The BTL process involved the following steps: oxygen-enriched air gasification of the woody biomass, wet and dry gas cleaning, gas compression, carbon dioxide removal, and the Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis reaction. In the gasification step, oxygen-enriched air gasification was carried out using a downdraft fixed-bed gasifier. The content of oxygen, which acts as the gasifying agent, was increased from 21.0 to 56.7 vol%; maximum values of the conversion to gas on a carbon basis and cold gas efficiency-approximately 96 C-mol% and 87.8%, respectively-were obtained at an oxygen content of around 30 vol%. With the increased oxygen content, the concentrations of CO, H{sub 2}, and CO{sub 2} increased from 22.8 to 36.5 vol%, from 16.8 to 28.1 vol%, and from 9.8 to 14.8 vol%, respectively, while that of N{sub 2} decreased from 48.8 to 16.0 vol%. The feed gas for the FT synthesis reaction was obtained by passing the product gas from the gasification step through a scrubber, carbon dioxide removal tower, and desulfurization tower; its composition was 30.8 vol% CO, 25.2 vol% H{sub 2}, 0.9 vol% CO{sub 2}, 2.5 vol% CH{sub 4}, 40.6 vol% N{sub 2}, < 5 ppb H{sub 2}S, and < 5 ppb COS. The hydrocarbon fuel was synthesized in a slurry bed reactor using hexadecane as the solvent and a Co/SiO{sub 2} catalyst. For hydrocarbons with carbon chain lengths of more than 5 carbon atoms (collectively referred to as C{sub 5+}) in the liquid fuel, a selectivity of 87.5% was obtained along with a chain growth probability of 0.84 under the following conditions: 4 MPa, 280 to 340 C, and a ratio of catalyst weight to feed gas rate (W/F) of 9.3 g.h/mol. (author)

  17. Underground gasification in Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1956-11-21

    A paper in Pravda by the Deputy Chief Engineer of the Underground Gasification Department indicates that there are at least three or four pilot plants in operation; one plant near Moscow has operated for 14 years and one in the Donbas for 8 years. The first plant has a daily output of gas corresponding to 400 tons of coal a day and produces a gas of low calorific value. A plant opened in 1956 in the Kuzbas to produce gas of a higher quality. A plant, being built near Moscow in conjunction with a gas turbine electrical power station, will produce gas equivalent in heating value to 220,000 tons of coal a year. A larger plant, being built at Angren in central Asia, will produce gas equivalent in heating value to 700,000 tons of coal a year.

  18. Gasification in a revolving tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speicher, R.F.

    1981-01-01

    The concept of a method for allothermal coal gasification is to refine raw lignite from the Rhine area to high-quality synthesis gas or reduction gas without extracting the water utilizing nuclear process heat in a heated revolving bundle of tubes. Computational models are described for the macroscopic course of events in parallel flow gasification. In the design of the test plant, the principle of drag-in and transport of the tube drier was applied. (DG) [de

  19. Achievement report for fiscal 1981 on Sunshine Program-assisted project. Research and development of coal gasification (Feasibility study and conceptual design regarding high-temperature gasification technology); 1981 nendo sekitan gas ka no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Koon gas ka gijutsu ni kansuru feasibility study oyobi gainen sekkei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-03-01

    The melting point of ash is one of the most important physical properties in the process of coal gasification. A fluidized bed gasification furnace is suitable for the gasification of coal whose ash has a high melting point, but it does not work at temperatures higher than the melting point of the ash. A high-temperature gasification furnace, though not suitable for gasifying coal whose ash has a high melting point, gasifies the kinds of coal that the fluidized bed gasification furnace fails to deal with. Accordingly, almost all kinds of coal are to be appropriately gasified when these two types of gasification furnaces are available. The goal of the development effort is the achievement of a coal utilization factor of 99% or more and a thermal efficiency of 80% or more. The technology elements have to deal with the structure of furnace walls and refractory materials for them, discharge of slag, feeding of raw materials, recovery of exhaust heat, measurement and control, gasification furnace simulation, etc. A proposition is presented on a conceptual design and prototype for a 50t/d pilot plant in which the above-mentioned factors are organically integrated. (NEDO)

  20. Evaluation of polymeric materials packed in fixed bed column for oil water remediation; Avaliacao de materiais polimericos empacotados em colunas de leito fixo para a remediacao de aguas oleosas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Queiros, Yure G.C.; Barros, Cintia Chagas; Oliveira, Roberta S.; Marques, Luiz R.S.; Cunha, Luciana; Lucas, Elizabete F. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Macromoleculas Eloisa Mano], e-mail: yuregomes@ima.ufrj.br, e-mail: elucas@ima.ufrj.br

    2007-07-01

    Polymeric resins are being tried as an alternative material for treating oily waters from the petroleum industry, which have already been treated by conventional methods. The objective of this work has been to evaluate the purification degree of synthetic oily waters when treated in fixed bed columns packed with polymeric resins made up of hydrophilic and lipophilic moieties. The analysis used for characterizing the total grease and oil content (TOG) was fluorimetry. Starting oily waters of average TOG 50 ppm were prepared. Data obtained from eluted waters did not outweigh 10% of the TOG values of starting solutions in some blends of resins with a pretty good mechanical stability under the increase of pressure. Organoclay material showed a good retention performance, but has presented a mechanical instability too, compromising its use for larger amounts of wastewater. (author)

  1. Pyrolysis of soybean oil with H-ZSM5 (Proton-exchange of Zeolite Socony Mobil 5) and MCM41 (Mobil Composition of Matter No. 41) catalysts in a fixed-bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngo, Thanh-An; Kim, Jinsoo; Kim, Sun Kuk; Kim, Seung-Soo

    2010-01-01

    Soybean oil was pyrolyzed with various catalysts in a fixed-bed reactor under nitrogen flow at 420 and 450 o C. The H-ZSM5 catalysts (molar ratio SiO 2 /Al 2 O 3 = 28, 40, and 180) and 2 wt% (Ga, Al or Cu) impregnated MCM41 catalysts were used in order to investigate the effect of catalysts during the pyrolysis process. The gas products in all experiments were mainly methane, ethane and propylene. The liquid products in the presence of H-ZSM5 catalysts were mainly aromatic components while those with metal/MCM41 catalysts were a mixture of alkanes, alkenes, alkadienes, aromatic and carboxylic acids. The highest coke yield of 4.4 wt% was obtained with Ga/MCM41 catalyst at the pyrolysis temperature of 420 o C. The effect of catalysts on product yield and composition was systematically investigated.

  2. Achievement report for fiscal 1981 on research under Sunshine Program. Basic research on plasma-aided coal gasification technology; 1981 nendo sushine keikaku kenkyu seika hokokusho. Sekitan no plasma gas ka gijutsu no kiso kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-03-01

    Researches are conducted for the development of a technology of producing useful gases such as acetylene, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, etc., from coal by the use of the high temperature and high-density energy of the plasma jet. In an experiment using a 100kW 3-port plasma-aided gasification unit, rapid quenching tests are conducted using hydrogen and helium, where the reaction furnace is changed, the specimen feed device is changed, and the plasma torch head is replaced by a high-power head. In a test of the coal specimen, it is found that rapid quenching exerts a great effect on the prevention of re-decomposition of the generated acetylene into hydrogen and carbon black and that a rise in the hydrogen partial pressure results in a great decrease in the quantity of acetylene generated. The said torch head replacement increases the rate of the coal specimen infiltrating into the plasma flame, which brings about an increase in the quantity of acetylene generated. It is found after all that the conventional acetylene yield of 34g/kWh increases to 59g/kWh in a rapid quenching test in which the specimen is dried Akabira coal and the plasma is an argon gas plasma containing 40% hydrogen. (NEDO)

  3. Nordic seminar on biomass gasification and combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    The report comprises a collection of papers from a seminar arranged as a part of the Nordic Energy Research Program. The aim of this program is to strengthen the basic competence in the energy field at universities and research organizations in the Nordic countries. In the program 1991-1994 six areas are selected for cooperation such as energy and society, solid fuels, district heating, petroleum technology, bioenergy and environment, and fuel cells. The topics deal both with biomass combustion and gasification, and combustion of municipal solid waste (MSW) and refuse derived fuel (RDF). A number of 11 papers are prepared. 97 refs., 91 figs., 11 tabs.

  4. Nordic seminar on biomass gasification and combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    The report comprises a collection of papers from a seminar arranged as a part of the Nordic Energy Research Program. The aim of this program is to strengthen the basic competence in the energy field at universities and research organizations in the Nordic countries. In the program 1991-1994 six areas are selected for cooperation such as energy and society, solid fuels, district heating, petroleum technology, bioenergy and environment, and fuel cells. The topics deal both with biomass combustion and gasification, and combustion of municipal solid waste (MSW) and refuse derived fuel (RDF). A number of 11 papers are prepared. 97 refs., 91 figs., 11 tabs.

  5. Nordic seminar on biomass gasification and combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The report comprises a collection of papers from a seminar arranged as a part of the Nordic Energy Research Program. The aim of this program is to strengthen the basic competence in the energy field at universities and research organizations in the Nordic countries. In the program 1991-1994 six areas are selected for cooperation such as energy and society, solid fuels, district heating, petroleum technology, bioenergy and environment, and fuel cells. The topics deal both with biomass combustion and gasification, and combustion of municipal solid waste (MSW) and refuse derived fuel (RDF). A number of 11 papers are prepared. 97 refs., 91 figs., 11 tabs

  6. Wood biomass gasification in the world today

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolikj, Ognjen; Perishikj, Radovan; Mikulikj, Jurica

    1999-01-01

    Today gasification technology of different kinds represents a more and more interesting option of the production of energy forms. The article describes a biomass gasification plant (waste wood) Sydkraft, Vernamo from Sweden. (Author)

  7. FY 1988 report on the committee of the Coal Gasification Committee; 1988 nendo sekitan gaska iinkai hon'iinkai hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-03-01

    The paper reported activities of the committee of the Coal Gasification Committee in FY 1988. In the 1st committee meeting, report/discussion were made on the outline of the FY 1988 research plan on the coal gasification technology development. The distributed data were those on the development of entrained bed coal gasification power generation plant (the state of the development of a 200t/d gasification power generation pilot plant), the results of the operation using entrained bed coal gasification equipment, development of coal utilization hydrogen production technology (design/construction of pilot plant) and development of coal utilization hydrogen production technology (support study of pilot plant, study using small equipment). In the 2nd committee meeting, report/discussion were made on activities of sections such as the gasification power generation section and gasification technology section and the state of progress of the coal gasification technology development. The distributed data were those on the development of an entrained bed coal gasification power generation plant, support study of the development of an entrained bed coal gasification power generation plant, etc. (NEDO)

  8. Kinetics and compensation effects during steam gasification of Fujian anthracite using viscose liquor as catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin Ju; Zhang Ji-yu; Zhong Xue-qing [Fuzhou University, Fuzhou (China). Institute of Chemical Engineering and Technology

    2009-08-15

    Catalytic steam gasification kinetics of Fujian Youxi anthracite using viscose liquor as catalyst was investigated in an isothermal thermo-gravimetric analyzer under ambient pressure. Coal conversions versus reaction time with different viscose liquor concentrations (0-12% NaOH) were measured at the temperature range from 850 to 950{sup o}C. The research shows that the viscose liquor can greatly improve the gasification rate and carbon conversion. The Loading Saturation Level (LSL) of the viscose liquor within the experimental conditions was also determined. The catalytic steam gasification reaction can be well fitted by a shrinking-core model (SCM) and the reaction rate constants are obtained. The kinetic analysis indicates that the catalytic gasification exhibits a prominent compensation effect between the activation energy and the pre-exponential factor. The kinetic equation including the compensation effects for the catalytic steam gasification of Fujian Youxi anthracite using viscose liquor as catalyst is presented. 23 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Gasification of Phycoremediation Algal Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud A. Sharara

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae have been utilized in wastewater treatment strategies in various contexts. Uncontrolled algal species are a cheap and effective remediation strategy. This study investigates the thermochemical potential of wastewater treatment algae (phycoremediation as a means to produce renewable fuel streams and bio-products. Three gasification temperature levels were investigated in an auger gasification platform: 760, 860, and 960 °C. Temperature increases resulted in corresponding increases in CO and H2 concentrations in the producer gas from 12.8% and 4.7% at 760 °C to 16.9% and 11.4% at 960 °C, respectively. Condensable yields ranged between 15.0% and 16.6%, whereas char yields fell between 46.0% and 51.0%. The high ash content (40% on a dry basis was the main cause of the elevated char yields. On the other hand, the relatively high yields of condensables and a high carbon concentration in the char were attributed to the low conversion efficiency in this gasification platform. Combustion kinetics of the raw algae, in a thermogravimetric analyzer, showed three consecutive stages of weight loss: drying, devolatilization, and char oxidation. Increasing the algae gasification temperature led to increases in the temperature of peak char oxidation. Future studies will further investigate improvements to the performance of auger gasification.

  10. The behaviour of gaseous alkali compounds in coal gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nykaenen, J.

    1995-01-01

    In this project the behaviour of alkali compounds emitting from CO 2 /O 2 -and air gasification will be studied by using an equilibrium model developed at the Aabo Akademi. This research project is closely connected to the EU-project coordinated by the Delft University of Technology (DUT). In that project alkali emissions from a 1.6 MW pilot plant are measured. The results from those measurements will be compared with the calculations performed in this LIEKKI 2 -project. Furthermore, in the project carried out at DUT the behaviour of a honeycomb-structured filter under CO 2 /O 2 -gasification environment is going to be studied. (author)

  11. Report for fiscal 1994 by gasification technology subcommittee, Coal Gasification Committee; 1994 nendo sekitan gas ka iinkai gas ka gijutsu bukai hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    As the result of a RUN-9 operation in the research on technologies for hydrogen production from coal and for pilot plants, it is found that the Muswellbrook, Datong, and Blair Athol coals are all suitable for gasification in pilot plants. Their handlability is considerably improved when the grain sizes after crushing are allowed to remain coarse (with the Blair Athol coal still retaining some disadvantage). A concept design is prepared for a HYCOL (hydrogen from coal) process demonstration plant. The reference coal is an imported coal similar to the Taiheiyo coal, and the hydrogen production target is set at 1-million m{sup 3}N/d (590t/d in terms of Taiheiyo coal) and hydrogen purity at 95% or higher. The whole process consists of coal gasification (with oxygen serving as gasification agent), dedusting, conversion to CO, desulfurization and decarboxylation (recovery of sulfur), and methanation. The gasification furnace is a 1-chamber entrained bed type with a 2-stage gyration flow. Dried and pulverized coal is conveyed aboard an air flow into the gasification furnace, where it is thrown into partial combustion reaction with the gasification agent for gasification in a high-temperature zone (1,500-1,600 degrees C), and the ash is taken out as slag. The generated gas is cooled in a heat recovery boiler, dedusted in a cyclone dust filter, and then forwarded to the washing unit. (NEDO)

  12. Underground gasification of coal. [Newman Spinney

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1950-06-16

    This article gives an account of the experimental work on underground gasification at Newman Spinney near Sheffield, England. An attempt was made to develop the percolation technique in flat coal seams but to demonstrate first that gas can be made underground. A borehole system was created on an opencast site where an exposed seam face would allow horizontal drilling to be carried out. Details of trails are given, and drilling techniques, electromagnetic device developed by the Great Britain Post Office Research Branch and radioactive location developed by the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company. An account is given of the inauguration of a series of experiments on May 22, 1950.

  13. Gasification: in search of efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whysall, M. [UOP N.V., Antwerp (Belgium)

    2007-07-01

    Gasification of low cost feed stocks such as coal and heavy residues enables the supply of synthesis gas, hydrogen, power and utilities at a lower cost relative to conventional methodologies. The resulting synthesis gas can be used, after cleaning and sulphur removal, as a fuel or to produce other chemicals such as ammonia, methanol, or Fischer-Tropsch liquids. The paper covers coal and residue upgrading through the use of gasification, conversion and hydroprocessing and its integration with synthesis gas treatment and hydrogen recovery. Residue conversion choices can be influenced by hydrogen cost which can be controlled by integrating hydrogen production, recovery and purification into the gasification complex. Flow-schemes that maximize generation efficiency and minimize capital and operating costs and offer possibilities for CO{sub 2} capture are discussed. 3 figs.

  14. The shell coal gasification process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenders, L.O.M.; Zuideveld, P.O. [Shell Internationale Petroleum Maatschappij B.V., The Hague (Netherlands)

    1995-12-01

    Future Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle (ICGCC) power plants will have superior environmental performance and efficiency. The Shell Coal Gasification Process (SCGP) is a clean coal technology, which can convert a wide range of coals into clean syngas for high efficiency electricity generation in an ICGCC plant. SCGP flexibility has been demonstrated for high-rank bituminous coals to low rank lignites and petroleum coke, and the process is well suited for combined cycle power generation, resulting in efficiencies of 42 to 46% (LHV), depending on choice of coal and gas turbine efficiency. In the Netherlands, a 250 MWe coal gasification combined cycle plant based on Shell technology has been built by Demkolec, a development partnership of the Dutch Electricity Generating Board (N.V. Sep). The construction of the unit was completed end 1993 and is now followed by start-up and a 3 year demonstration period, after that the plant will be part of the Dutch electricity generating system.

  15. Electrical Power and Heat from Crew Waste Using an Integrated Solid Oxide Fuel Cell and Fixed-Bed Gasifier, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ITN Energy Systems, Inc., along with the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC), proposes to develop a highly efficient power generation system capable of...

  16. EXTENDED ALKYLATE PRODUCTION ACTIVITY DURING FIXED-BED SUPERCRITICAL 1-BUTENE/ISOBUTANE ALKYLATION ON SOLID ACID CATALYSTS USING CARBON DIOXIDE AS DILUENT. (R824729)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  17. Biomass gasification for energy production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundberg, H.; Morris, M.; Rensfelt, E. [TPS Termiska Prosesser Ab, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    1997-12-31

    Biomass and waste are becoming increasingly interesting as fuels for efficient and environmentally sound power generation. Circulating fluidized bed (CFB) gasification for biomass and waste has been developed and applied to kilns both in the pulp and paper industry and the cement industry. A demonstration plant in Greve-in- Chianti, Italy includes two 15 MW{sub t}h RDF-fuelled CFB gasifiers of TPS design, the product gas from which is used in a cement kiln or in steam boiler for power generation. For CFB gasification of biomass and waste to reach a wider market, the product gas has to be cleaned effectively so that higher fuel to power efficiencies can be achieved by utilizing power cycles based on engines or gas turbines. TPS has developed both CFB gasification technology and effective secondary stage tar cracking technology. The integrated gasification - gas-cleaning technology is demonstrated today at pilot plant scale. To commercialise the technology, the TPS`s strategy is to first demonstrate the process for relatively clean fuels such as woody biomass and then extend the application to residues from waste recycling. Several demonstration projects are underway to commercialise TPS`s gasification and gas cleaning technology. In UK the ARBRE project developed by ARBRE Energy will construct a gasification plant at Eggborough, North Yorkshire, which will provide gas to a gas turbine and steam turbine generation system, producing 10 MW and exporting 8 Mw of electricity. It has been included in the 1993 tranche of the UK`s Non Fossil Fuel Obligation (NFFO) and has gained financial support from EC`s THERMIE programme as a targeted BIGCC project. (author)

  18. Biomass gasification for energy production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundberg, H; Morris, M; Rensfelt, E [TPS Termiska Prosesser Ab, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    1998-12-31

    Biomass and waste are becoming increasingly interesting as fuels for efficient and environmentally sound power generation. Circulating fluidized bed (CFB) gasification for biomass and waste has been developed and applied to kilns both in the pulp and paper industry and the cement industry. A demonstration plant in Greve-in- Chianti, Italy includes two 15 MW{sub t}h RDF-fuelled CFB gasifiers of TPS design, the product gas from which is used in a cement kiln or in steam boiler for power generation. For CFB gasification of biomass and waste to reach a wider market, the product gas has to be cleaned effectively so that higher fuel to power efficiencies can be achieved by utilizing power cycles based on engines or gas turbines. TPS has developed both CFB gasification technology and effective secondary stage tar cracking technology. The integrated gasification - gas-cleaning technology is demonstrated today at pilot plant scale. To commercialise the technology, the TPS`s strategy is to first demonstrate the process for relatively clean fuels such as woody biomass and then extend the application to residues from waste recycling. Several demonstration projects are underway to commercialise TPS`s gasification and gas cleaning technology. In UK the ARBRE project developed by ARBRE Energy will construct a gasification plant at Eggborough, North Yorkshire, which will provide gas to a gas turbine and steam turbine generation system, producing 10 MW and exporting 8 Mw of electricity. It has been included in the 1993 tranche of the UK`s Non Fossil Fuel Obligation (NFFO) and has gained financial support from EC`s THERMIE programme as a targeted BIGCC project. (author)

  19. Tenth annual underground coal gasification symposium: proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burwell, E.; Docktor, L.; Martin, J.W. (eds.)

    1984-12-01

    The Tenth Annual Underground Coal Gasification Symposium was cosponsored by the Fossil Energy Division of the US Department of Energy and the Morgantown Energy Technology Center's Laramie Projects Office. The purpose of the symposium was to provide a forum for presenting research results and for determining additional research needs in underground coal gasification. This years' meeting was held in Williamsburg, Virginia, during the week of August 12 through 15, 1984. Approximately 120 attendees representing industry, academia, national laboratories, Government, and eight foreign countries participated in the exchange of ideas, results, and future research plans. International representatives included participants from Belgium, Brazil, France, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Spain, West Germany, and Yugoslavia. During the three-day symposium, sixty papers were presented and discussed in four formal presentation sessions and two informal poster sessions. The papers describe interpretation of field test data, results of environmental research, and evaluations of laboratory, modeling, and economic studies. All papers in this Proceedings have been processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  20. Leaching From Biomass Gasification Residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allegrini, Elisa; Boldrin, Alessio; Polletini, A.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to attain an overall characterization of solid residues from biomass gasification. Besides the determination of chemical and physical properties, the work was focused on the study of leaching behaviour. Compliance and pH-dependence leaching tests coupled with geoche......The aim of the present work is to attain an overall characterization of solid residues from biomass gasification. Besides the determination of chemical and physical properties, the work was focused on the study of leaching behaviour. Compliance and pH-dependence leaching tests coupled...

  1. Gasification - effective carbon control. The 8th European gasification conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Sessions covered: new projects and gasifiers; new feedstocks, fuels and syngas treatment; CO{sub 2} capture and hydrogen production; and devices and development. Selected papers have been abstracted separately on the database. The presentations can be downloaded for free from www.icheme.org/gasification2007.

  2. Pretreatment and Feeding of Biomass for Pressurized Entrained Flow Gasification

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svoboda, Karel; Pohořelý, Michael; Hartman, Miloslav; Martinec, J.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 90, č. 5 (2009), s. 629-635 ISSN 0378-3820 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400720701 Grant - others:RFCS(XE) CT/2007/00005 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : biomass * feeding * gasification Subject RIV: DJ - Water Pollution ; Quality Impact factor: 2.321, year: 2009

  3. Gasification of Coal and PET in Fluidized Bed Reactor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pohořelý, Michael; Vosecký, Martin; Kameníková, Petra; Punčochář, Miroslav; Skoblia, Sergej; Staf, M.; Vošta, J.; Koutský, B.; Svoboda, Karel

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 85, 17-18 (2006), s. 2458-2468 ISSN 0016-2361 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA104/04/0829 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : fludized bed * gasification * plastic waste Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 1.358, year: 2006

  4. Biomass gasification for liquid fuel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najser, Jan; Peer, Václav; Vantuch, Martin

    2014-01-01

    In our old fix-bed autothermal gasifier we tested wood chips and wood pellets. We make experiments for Czech company producing agro pellets - pellets made from agricultural waste and fastrenewable natural resources. We tested pellets from wheat and rice straw and hay. These materials can be very perspective, because they dońt compete with food production, they were formed in sufficient quantity and in the place of their treatment. New installation is composed of allothermal biomass fixed bed gasifier with conditioning and using produced syngas for Fischer - Tropsch synthesis. As a gasifying agent will be used steam. Gas purification will have two parts - separation of dust particles using a hot filter and dolomite reactor for decomposition of tars. In next steps, gas will be cooled, compressed and removed of sulphur and chlorine compounds and carbon dioxide. This syngas will be used for liquid fuel synthesis

  5. Biomass gasification for liquid fuel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Najser, Jan, E-mail: jan.najser@vsb.cz, E-mail: vaclav.peer@vsb.cz; Peer, Václav, E-mail: jan.najser@vsb.cz, E-mail: vaclav.peer@vsb.cz [VSB - Technical university of Ostrava, Energy Research Center, 17. listopadu 15/2172, 708 33 Ostrava-Poruba (Czech Republic); Vantuch, Martin [University of Zilina, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Department of Power Engineering, Univerzitna 1, 010 26 Zilina (Slovakia)

    2014-08-06

    In our old fix-bed autothermal gasifier we tested wood chips and wood pellets. We make experiments for Czech company producing agro pellets - pellets made from agricultural waste and fastrenewable natural resources. We tested pellets from wheat and rice straw and hay. These materials can be very perspective, because they dońt compete with food production, they were formed in sufficient quantity and in the place of their treatment. New installation is composed of allothermal biomass fixed bed gasifier with conditioning and using produced syngas for Fischer - Tropsch synthesis. As a gasifying agent will be used steam. Gas purification will have two parts - separation of dust particles using a hot filter and dolomite reactor for decomposition of tars. In next steps, gas will be cooled, compressed and removed of sulphur and chlorine compounds and carbon dioxide. This syngas will be used for liquid fuel synthesis.

  6. Effects of electric current upon catalytic steam reforming of biomass gasification tar model compounds to syngas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao, Jun; Lu, Qiang; Dong, Changqing; Du, Xiaoze; Dahlquist, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • ECR technique was proposed to convert biomass gasification tar model compounds. • Electric current enhanced the reforming efficiency remarkably. • The highest toluene conversion reached 99.9%. • Ni–CeO 2 /γ-Al 2 O 3 exhibited good stability during the ECR performance. - Abstract: Electrochemical catalytic reforming (ECR) technique, known as electric current enhanced catalytic reforming technique, was proposed to convert the biomass gasification tar into syngas. In this study, Ni–CeO 2 /γ-Al 2 O 3 catalyst was prepared, and toluene was employed as the major feedstock for ECR experiments using a fixed-bed lab-scale setup where thermal electrons could be generated and provided to the catalyst. Several factors, including the electric current intensity, reaction temperature and steam/carbon (S/C) ratio, were investigated to reveal their effects on the conversion of toluene as well as the composition of the gas products. Moreover, toluene, two other tar model compounds (benzene and 1-methylnaphthalene) and real tar (tar-containing wastewater) were subjected to the long period catalytic stability tests. All the used catalysts were analyzed to determine their carbon contents. The results indicated that the presence of electric current enhanced the catalytic performance remarkably. The toluene conversion reached 99.9% under the electric current of 4 A, catalytic temperature of 800 °C and S/C ratio of 3. Stable conversion performances of benzene, 1-methylnaphthalene and tar-containing wastewater were also observed in the ECR process. H 2 and CO were the major gas products, while CO 2 and CH 4 were the minor ones. Due to the promising capability, the ECR technique deserves further investigation and application for efficient tar conversion

  7. Plasma gasification process: Modeling, simulation and comparison with conventional air gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janajreh, Isam; Raza, Syed Shabbar; Valmundsson, Arnar Snaer

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Plasma/conventional gasification are modeled via Gibbs energy minimization. ► The model is applied to wide range of feedstock, tire, biomass, coal, oil shale. ► Plasma gasification show high efficiency for tire waste and coal. ► Efficiency is around 42% for plasma and 72% for conventional gasification. ► Lower plasma gasification efficiency justifies hazardous waste energy recovery. - Abstract: In this study, two methods of gasification are developed for the gasification of various feedstock, these are plasma gasification and conventional air gasification. The two methods are based on non-stoichiometric Gibbs energy minimization approach. The model takes into account the different type of feedstocks, which are analyzed at waste to energy lab at Masdar Institute, oxidizer used along with the plasma energy input and accurately evaluates the syngas composition. The developed model is applied for several types of feedstock, i.e. waste tire material, coal, plywood, pine needles, oil shale, and municipal solid waste (MSW), algae, treated/untreated wood, instigating air/steam as the plasma gas and only air as oxidizer for conventional gasification. The results of plasma gasification and conventional air gasification are calculated on the bases of product gas composition and the process efficiency. Results of plasma gasification shows that high gasification efficiency is achievable using both tire waste material and coal, also, the second law efficiency is calculated for plasma gasification that shows a relative high efficiency for tire and coal as compare to other feedstock. The average process efficiency for plasma gasification is calculated to be around 42%. On other hand the result of conventional gasification shows an average efficiency of 72%. The low efficiency of plasma gasification suggest that if only the disposal of hazard waste material is considered then plasma gasification can be a viable option to recover energy.

  8. Report on the achievements in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1993 on development of a jet flow bed gasification electric power plant. Investigative research on a technology to treat coals used for coal gasification (investigation for coal type selection); 1993 nendo funryusho gas ka hatsuden plant kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Sekitan gas kayotan no shori gijutsu ni kansuru chosa kenkyu (tanshu sentei chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1984-03-01

    This paper describes the achievements in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1993 in the investigation for coal type selection. The investigation is purposed to elucidate the status of existence and resources of coals as the raw material for coal gasification and liquefaction, the coal quality features, and the gasification and liquefaction characteristics. The results will be used as the fundamental materials for technological development. Discussions will also be given on the coal applicability to the composite gasification power generation system in which liquefied residue generated in the process are mixed with the supplied coal. Coal quality analysis and a liquefaction test under the standard condition were completed on 389 test samples composed of 136 kinds of coals produced in Canada, Australia, the U.S.A., China and Indonesia. Coal types were enumerated according to the oil yield. A gasification test was performed on the specific gravity separated coals of Chinese coals to discuss the effect of change in the ash amount on the gasification characteristics. A partial coal combustion test revealed that fuel ratio, oxygen partial pressure, and oxygen molar fraction parameters affect the combustion characteristics. The micro-gravity field is effective in discussing the combustion characteristics of particulate groups of dust coal. A coal oxidizing test was performed, wherein oxidizing characteristics and spontaneous ignition performance were estimated successfully from temperature rise of heat stored in coal. The coal type matrix data were prepared. (NEDO)

  9. Gasification of Agroresidues for Syngas Production

    OpenAIRE

    Nadia Cerone; Francesco Zimbardi

    2018-01-01

    Biomass residues from agriculture and agroindustry are suitable sources for the production of energy because they don’t compete with the food chain and they are produced cheaply. Their transformation into heat and power or energy vectors depends on morphology and composition. Shells of almonds and hazelnuts can be easily gasified in fixed beds because of their low fines content and high gas permeation. In this work we investigated the overall process performances and syngas composition,...

  10. The carbon dioxide gasification characteristics of biomass char samples and their effect on coal gasification reactivity during co-gasification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mafu, Lihle D; Neomagus, Hein W J P; Everson, Raymond C; Okolo, Gregory N; Strydom, Christien A; Bunt, John R

    2018-06-01

    The carbon dioxide gasification characteristics of three biomass char samples and bituminous coal char were investigated in a thermogravimetric analyser in the temperature range of 850-950 °C. Char SB exhibited higher reactivities (R i , R s , R f ) than chars SW and HW. Coal char gasification reactivities were observed to be lower than those of the three biomass chars. Correlations between the char reactivities and char characteristics were highlighted. The addition of 10% biomass had no significant impact on the coal char gasification reactivity. However, 20 and 30% biomass additions resulted in increased coal char gasification rate. During co-gasification, chars HW and SW caused increased coal char gasification reactivity at lower conversions, while char SB resulted in increased gasification rates throughout the entire conversion range. Experimental data from biomass char gasification and biomass-coal char co-gasification were well described by the MRPM, while coal char gasification was better described by the RPM. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Biomass gasification in the Netherlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Drift, A. [ECN Biomass and Energy Efficiency, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-07-15

    This reports summarizes the activities, industries, and plants on biomass gasification in the Netherlands. Most of the initiatives somehow relate to waste streams, rather than clean biomass, which may seem logic for a densely populated country as the Netherlands. Furthermore, there is an increasing interest for the production of SNG (Substitute Natural Gas) from biomass, both from governments and industry.

  12. Gasification - Status and Technology; Foergasning - Status och teknik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Held, Joergen

    2011-07-15

    In this report gasification and gas cleaning techniques for biomass are treated. The main reason for gasifying biomass is to refine the fuel to make it suitable for efficient CHP production, as vehicle fuel or in industrial processes. The focus is on production of synthesis gas that can be used for production of vehicle fuel and for CHP production. Depending on application different types of gasifiers, gasification techniques and process parameters are of interest. Two gasification techniques have been identified as suitable for syngas generation, mainly due to the fact that they allow the production of a nitrogen free gas out of the gasifier; Indirect atmospheric gasification and Pressurized oxygen blown gasification For CHP production there are no restrictions on the gas composition in terms of nitrogen and here air-blown gasification is of interest as well. The main challenge when it comes to gas cleaning is related to sulphur and tars. There are different concepts and alternatives to handle sulphur and tars. Some of them is based on conventional techniques with well-proven components that are commercially available while others more advantageous solutions, still need further development. The report deals to a minor extent with the conversion of syngas to synthetic fuels. The ongoing research and development of gasification techniques is extensive, both on national and international level. Although many process concepts and components have been demonstrated, there is still no full-scale plant for the production of synthetic fuels based on biomass. Factors affecting the choice of technology are plant size, operating conditions, the possibility for process integration, access to feedstock, market aspects, incentives and economic instruments et cetera. Increased competition for biofuels will inevitably lead to higher raw material costs. This in turn means that the fuel chains with high efficiency, such as biomethane through gasification and methanation, are favored

  13. Ge extraction from gasification fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oriol Font; Xavier Querol; Angel Lopez-Soler; Jose M. Chimenos; Ana I. Fernandez; Silvia Burgos; Francisco Garcia Pena [Institute of Earth Sciences ' Jaume Almera' , Barcelona (Spain)

    2005-08-01

    Water-soluble germanium species (GeS{sub 2}, GeS and hexagonal-GeO{sub 2}) are generated during coal gasification and retained in fly ash. This fact together with the high market value of this element and the relatively high contents in the fly ashes of the Puertollano Integrated Gasification in Combined Cycle (IGCC) plant directed our research towards the development of an extraction process for this element. Major objectives of this research was to find a low cost and environmentally suitable process. Several water based extraction tests were carried out using different Puertollano IGCC fly ash samples, under different temperatures, water/fly ash ratios, and extraction times. High Ge extraction yields (up to 84%) were obtained at room temperature (25{sup o}C) but also high proportions of other trace elements (impurities) were simultaneously extracted. Increasing the extraction temperature to 50, 90 and 150{sup o}C, Ge extraction yields were kept at similar levels, while reducing the content of impurities, the water/fly ash ratio and extraction time. The experimental data point out the influence of chloride, calcium and sulphide dissolutions on the Ge extraction. 16 refs., 9 figs., 6 tabs.

  14. Roadmap for the commercialisation of biomass gasification. A critical evaluation, tips, questions and pitfalls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huisman, G.H.

    2000-10-01

    Biomass has the potential to be a major replacement of fossil fuels. The world wide availability of biomass is considerable but it is not always in balance with the anticipated consumption. Biomass (wood) has the disadvantage that it has a low energy density and transport costs are, therefore, relatively high. Combustion, being a well-developed technology with many references, is the obvious choice for conversion technology. On the scale that biomass plants are usually constructed, however, the overall efficiency of the combustion system is low. Gasification has the advantage that solid fuel is converted into gaseous fuel which can be used in IC (internal combustion) engines or combined (gas and steam turbine) cycles with high efficiency. Even on a very small scale (several hundred kWe) a biomass-driven IC engine can have an efficiency of around 25%. Gasification has not yet advanced to the stage that it can serve as a reliable conversion technology for supplying electric power to industry or to the national grid. This may be possible on paper but in practice the market needs to be convinced by the success of plants in full operation. The first generation of plants, now under construction, or in operation, have to demonstrate the technology and provide confidence for future developments. Fixed bed gasification in combination with IC engines is more appropriate for small units. The development in micropower units is of particular interest. This development has been initiated for natural gas-fuelled units supplying power and heat to households, apartment blocks or offices. Once the fuel handling problems have been overcome and the units are more reliable and easier to operate, this could be a market with ample cost savings on the basis of mass production. Fluidised bed gasification, integrated with a combined cycle, is probably better suited to larger units, above 10 MWe. After experience has been obtained with units at an atmospheric pressure, the increase of the

  15. Single and multi-component adsorption of salicylic acid, clofibric acid, carbamazepine and caffeine from water onto transition metal modified and partially calcined inorganic-organic pillared clay fixed beds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera-Lafaurie, Wilman A; Román, Félix R; Hernández-Maldonado, Arturo J

    2015-01-23

    Fixed-beds of transition metal (Co(2+), Ni(2+) or Cu(2+)) inorganic-organic pillared clays (IOCs) were prepared to study single- and multi-component non-equilibrium adsorption of a set of pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs: salicylic acid, clofibric acid, carbamazepine and caffeine) from water. Adsorption capacities for single components revealed that the copper(II) IOCs have better affinity toward salicylic and clofibric acid. However, multi-component adsorption tests showed a considerable decrease in adsorption capacity for the acids and an unusual selectivity toward carbamazepine depending on the transition metal. This was attributed to a combination of competition between PPCPs for adsorption sites, adsorbate-adsorbate interactions, and plausible pore blocking caused by carbamazepine. The cobalt(II) IOC bed that was partially calcined to fractionate the surfactant moiety showcased the best selectivity toward caffeine, even during multi-component adsorption. This was due to a combination of a mildly hydrophobic surface and interaction between the PPCP and cobalt(II). In general, the tests suggest that these IOCs may be a potential solution for the removal of PPCPs if employed in a layered-bed configuration, to take care of families of adsorbates in a sequence that would produce sharpened concentration wavefronts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Pre-treatment processes of Azolla filiculoides to remove Pb(II), Cd(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II) from aqueous solution in the batch and fixed-bed reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosravi, Morteza; Rakhshaee, Roohan; Ganji, Masuod Taghi

    2005-12-09

    Intact and treated biomass can remove heavy metals from water and wastewater. This study examined the ability of the activated, semi-intact and inactivated Azolla filiculoides (a small water fern) to remove Pb(2+), Cd(2+), Ni(2+) and Zn(2+) from the aqueous solution. The maximum uptake capacities of these metal ions using the activated Azolla filiculoides by NaOH at pH 10.5 +/- 0.2 and then CaCl(2)/MgCl(2)/NaCl with total concentration of 2 M (2:1:1 mole ratio) in the separate batch reactors were obtained about 271, 111, 71 and 60 mg/g (dry Azolla), respectively. The obtained capacities of maximum adsorption for these kinds of the pre-treated Azolla in the fixed-bed reactors (N(o)) were also very close to the values obtained for the batch reactors (Q(max)). On the other hand, it was shown that HCl, CH(3)OH, C(2)H(5)OH, FeCl(2), SrCl(2), BaCl(2) and AlCl(3) in the pre-treatment processes decreased the ability of Azolla to remove the heavy metals in comparison to the semi-intact Azolla, considerably. The kinetic studies showed that the heavy metals uptake by the activated Azolla was done more rapid than those for the semi-intact Azolla.

  17. A study on purification of Kr and Xe from He carrier gas in HTGR by fixed bed adsorption%吸附法净化高温气冷堆He载气中Kr、Xe的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖翠萍; 郑振宏; 施福恩; 周大森

    2001-01-01

    用椰子壳活性炭吸附剂固定床吸附法去除高温气冷堆He载气中Kr、Xe杂质。获得了Kr、Xe在椰子壳活性炭上的动吸附规律。考察了吸附温度、浓度、流速及床高等因素对保护作用时间、完全饱和时间、吸附容量的影响,获得最佳运行参数。结果表明:采用椰子壳活性炭可以除去高温气冷堆He载气中Kr、Xe等有害杂质,满足净化系统的要求。%The purification of krypton and xenon from the helium carrier gas of high temperature gas-cooled reactor by fixed bed activate carbon adsorption is studied.Experimental data at different adsorptive temperature,concentration,flow rate and bed depth are obtained from isothermal adsorption tests in order to examine the effects of these parameters on adsorption dynamic and for the optimal parameters selection of adsorption process.The results show that krypton and xenon from the helium carrier gas in HTGR can be eliminated by the coconut putamina activated carbon to meet the demands of purification system.

  18. The process research of drying UF4 by microwave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen Guo; Wang Yunbo; Liu Long

    2010-01-01

    This paper make use of microwave to dry UF 4 filter cake, the aim is desorbed adsorption water. The research focus on such process conditions, boat material, thickness of filter cake, drying time, setting temperature, heating power and so on. the research of desorption crystal water of UF 4 that dried by microwave in fixed bed .When UF 4 drying by microwave and claiming by fixed bed, the qualified UF 4 powder is prepared. The research is shown that microwave can desorbs adsorption water which contain in UF 4 filter cake. There is a stable water contents in UF 4 after drying, and the sum of two members is less. After drying by microwave and claiming by fixed bed, the contents of water, UO 2 and UO 2 F 2 are all according to the quality standard. (authors)

  19. Computational fluid dynamic model for glycerol gasification in supercritical water in a tee junction shaped cylindrical reactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yukananto, Riza; Pozarlik, Artur K.; Brem, Gerrit

    2018-01-01

    Gasification in supercritical water is a very promising technology to process wet biomass into a valuable gas. Providing insight of the process behavior is therefore very important. In this research a computational fluid dynamic model is developed to investigate glycerol gasification in

  20. Research on the thermal decomposition of Mongolian Baganuur lignite and Naryn sukhait bituminous coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ariunaa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The technical characteristics, elemental composition of the organic and mineral matters, ash melting behaviors and carbonization and gasification reactivities of coals from Baganuur and Naryn sukhait deposits were investigated. The results of proximate and ultimate analysis confirmed that the coal from Baganuur deposit can be graded as a low rank lignite B2 mark coal and Naryn sukhait coal is a bituminous G mark one. The carbonization and gasification experiments were performed using TGA apparatus and fixed bed quartz reactor. The data obtained with two experimental reactors showed that Baganuur lignite had lower thermal stability and much higher CO2 gasification reactivity at 950°C as compared to those for Naryn sukhait bituminous coal.Mongolian Journal of Chemistry 16 (42, 2015, 22-29

  1. Planning for gasification of cellulosic wastes: Issues, feasibility and case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staniewski, M.E.

    1993-01-01

    Gasification is presented as a concept that can assist municipalities and private companies to reduce the amount of solid waste generated and to utilize the cellulosic fraction of such waste as a biofuel. The technical and economic feasibility of cellulosic waste gasification is examined along with the implications associated with the environmental, social, and regulatory issues within a planning context. Study methods included a literature review, survey research employing nonstructured interviews, and a case study analysis. Opportunities for gasification are focused on regional governments in Ontario. The case study concentrated on the Regional Municipality of Waterloo. Regional governments in Ontario can benefit from utilizing the gasification concept to achieve a substantial reduction in the waste stream in an environmentally sound manner and contribute to solving worldwide problems associated with fossil fuel utilization. However, provincial and public acceptance will affect regional government decisions regarding gasification. Separate legislation should be enacted distinguishing gasification from incineration. In addition, the effectiveness of the environmental approval process must be improved; present procedures consume excess time and resources and act to discourage the involvement of public and private proponents. Public acceptance is likely to be affected by negative experiences associated with solid waste combustion. Nonbiased, reliable information is needed to clarify doubts and stress gasification's potential benefits. 85 refs., 15 figs., 26 tabs

  2. Effect of CaCO_3 addition on ash sintering behaviour during K_2CO_3 catalysed steam gasification of a Chinese lignite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jiguang; Li, Jianbo; Mao, Yandong; Bi, Jicheng; Zhu, Mingming; Zhang, Zhezi; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Dongke

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • K_2CO_3 decreased ash sintering temperature and enhanced ash melting in gasification. • CaCO_3 addition enhanced ash melting and lowered ash sintering temperatures. • CaCO_3 reacted with SiO_2 to form fluxing phases and amorphous materials. • CaCO_3 addition inhibited the potassium aluminium silicate formation. • CaCO_3 addition preserved the catalytic activity of potassium. - Abstract: The ash sintering behaviour of a Chinese lignite (LLI) with different amounts of CaCO_3 addition during K_2CO_3-catalysed gasification was investigated. 0–10 wt% K_2CO_3 was doped into the lignite for catalytic gasification, and CaCO_3 was added into the K_2CO_3-doped samples, varying in the range of 0–20 wt% relative to the lignite, for understanding its impact on ash sintering and catalytic gasification activity. Ash samples were prepared by completely gasifying the lignite samples with steam in a fixed-bed catalytic gasification system operating at 1073 K and atmospheric pressure. Sintering temperature, mineralogy and morphology of the ash samples thus obtained were determined using a pressure-drop sintering device, XRD and SEM-EDS, respectively. The results showed that the ash sintering temperature decreased as the K_2CO_3 addition increased, indicating that K_2CO_3 as the catalyst for gasification would promote ash sintering. SEM imaging analysis showed that all the ash samples from LLI with K_2CO_3 addition were composed of agglomerated particles with smooth surfaces, indicating the ashes had incurred partial melting. The degree of melting became more apparent as the K_2CO_3 addition ratio increased. These molten phases were identified as K-bearing arcanite and kaliophilite, which contributed to the formation of liquid phases at lower temperatures, resulting in lowered ash sintering temperatures. It was also revealed that the addition of CaCO_3 decreased the sintering temperatures of ash samples, indicating that the ash sintering was further

  3. High temperature gas cleaning for pressurized gasification. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alden, H.; Hagstroem, P.; Hallgren, A.; Waldheim, L. [TPS Termiska Processer AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    2000-04-01

    The purpose of the project was to build an apparatus to study pressurized, high temperature gas cleaning of raw gasification gas generated from biomass. A flexible and easy to operate pressurized apparatus was designed and installed for the investigations in high temperature gas cleaning by means of thermal, catalytic or chemical procedures. A semi continuos fuel feeding concept, at a maximum rate of 700 g/h, allowed a very constant formation of a gas product at 700 deg C. The gas product was subsequently introduced into a fixed bed secondary reactor where the actual gas cleanup or reformation was fulfilled. The installation work was divided into four work periods and apart from a few delays the work was carried out according to the time plan. During the first work period (January - June 1994) the technical design, drawings etc. of the reactor and additional parts were completed. All material for the construction was ordered and the installation work was started. The second work period (July - December 1994) was dedicated to the construction and the installation of the different components. Initial tests with the electrical heating elements, control system and gas supply were assigned to the third work period (January - June 1995). After the commissioning and the resulting modifications, initial pyrolysis and tar decomposition experiments were performed. During the fourth and final work period, (June - December 1995) encouraging results from first tests allowed the experimental part of the project work to commence, however in a slightly reduced program. The experimental part of the project work comparatively studied tar decomposition as a function of the process conditions as well as of the choice of catalyst. Two different catalysts, dolomite and a commercial Ni-based catalyst, were evaluated in the unit. Their tar cracking ability in the pressure interval 1 - 20 bar and at cracker bed temperatures between 800 - 900 deg C was compared. Long term tests to study

  4. Achievement report for fiscal 1993 on developing entrained bed coal gasification power plant. Part 1. Element research and technology survey edition; 1993 nendo seika hokokusho. Funryusho sekitan gaska hatsuden plant kaihatsu - Sono 1. Youso kenkyu hen, gijutsu chosa hen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-01

    With an objective of establishing a coal gasification composite power generation technology, R and D works have been carried out on elementary technologies. This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 1993. In the research on the slag utilization technology, discussions were given on the applicability of slag discharged from a 200 t/d pilot plant to fine aggregate for concrete. In the research on a large gas turbine combustor for a demonstration plant, the test conditions were discussed and the reliability of the combustor was analyzed to conduct an actual gas combustion test using the coal D in continuation from the test in the previous fiscal year. In the research on the simulation of a composite power generation system, the simulation models were reviewed and corrected. Load variation simulations were carried out on every operation mode to have conducted comparison with and discussion on the actual plant data. In order to clarify the slagging phenomenon in the 200 t/d pilot plant, a characteristics test was performed by using a 2 t/d furnace. As a result, the combustor ash load and the dynamic pressure in the axial direction in the throat section were presumed to be the large factors for the occurrence of slagging. (NEDO)

  5. Texaco gasification power systems for clean energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quintana, M.E.; Thone, P.W.

    1991-01-01

    The Texaco Gasification Power Systems integrate Texaco's proprietary gasification technology with proven power generation and energy recovery schemes for efficient and environmentally superior fuel utilization. Texaco's commercial experience on gasification spans a period of over 40 years. During this time, the Texaco Gasification Process has been used primarily to manufacture synthesis gas for chemical applications in one hundred commercial installations worldwide. Power generation using the Texaco Gasification Power Systems (TGPS) concept has been successfully demonstrated at the Texaco-sponsored Cool Water Coal Gasification Program in California. The environmental superiority of this technology was demonstrated by the consistent performance of Cool Water in exceeding the strict emission standards of the state of California. Currently, several TGPS projects are under evaluation worldwide for power generation in the range of 90MW to 1300MW

  6. Recent advances in oxygen production for gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunardson, H.H. [Air Products Canada Ltd., Mississauga, ON (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    This paper described the Ionic Transport Membrane (ITM) technology that reduces the overall cost of the gasification process by 7 per cent. Gasification is a proven, but expensive technology for producing hydrogen and synthesis gas from low cost hydrocarbon feedstock. Gasification is also an alternative to conventional steam methane reforming based on natural gas. A key cost element in gasification is the production of oxygen. For that reason, Air Products Canada Limited developed a ceramic membrane air separation technology that can reduce the cost of pure oxygen by more than 30 per cent. The separation technology achieves a capital cost reduction of 30 per cent and an energy reduction of 35 per cent over conventional cryogenic air separation. ITM is an electrochemical process that integrates very well with the gasification process and an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) option for production of electrical power from the waste heat generated from gasification. This paper described the integration of ITM technology with both the gasification and IGCC processes and showed how the superior economics of ITM can allow gasification to compete with steam methane reforming and thereby reduce dependency of oil sands development on increasingly scarce and costly natural gas.

  7. Achievement report for fiscal 1994 on developing entrained bed coal gasification power plant. Part 1. Element research edition and technology survey edition; 1994 nendo seika hokokusho. Funryusho sekitan gaska hatsuden plant kaihatsu - Sono 1. Youso kenkyu hen, gijutsu chosa hen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    With an objective of establishing the coal gasification composite power generation technology, R and D has been carried out on the elementary technologies. This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 1994. In the research on the large gas turbine combustor for the demonstration plant, combustion tests were carried out by using the actual gas from the designed coal (coal D). In addition, the minimum gas flow rate test, fuel calory change test, and fuel switching test were performed from the viewpoint of evaluating the low load stability. Furthermore, in order to evaluate the combustion performance of the tested combustor, such tests were conducted as the combustor pressure loss characteristics test, bypass valve flow rate characteristics test, light oil ignition and light oil combustion test, and tests on the characteristics to switch from light oil to coal gas and the coal gas combustion characteristics. Evaluations were given on the NOx conversion rate, CO, THC, combustion efficiency, metal temperatures, pattern factors, pressure loss, internal pressure variation, and vibration stress. In the simulation research of the composite power generation system, the simulation models were varied according to the actual plant requirements in association with the progress of the tests on the pilot plant. The results of the simulations were reflected to the general load pressure control equipment. (NEDO)

  8. Estimativa das propriedades térmicas efetivas de grãos em um secador de leito fixo Estimation of effective grain thermal properties in a fixed bed dryer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Fregolente

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available A secagem de grãos em leito fixo é um processo complexo, ocorrendo simultaneamente a transferência de calor e de massa, dificultando a estimativa dos parâmetros térmicos efetivos, pois estes podem sofrer variações significativas no decorrer da secagem em função de alterações no teor de umidade. Neste trabalho, este problema foi contornado estimando-se os parâmetros térmicos efetivos no final da secagem, quando o teor de umidade dos grãos que compõem o leito alcança valores de equilíbrio, deixando de existir a transferência de massa, persistindo apenas a transferência de calor em regime permanente. Nestas condições, o leito possui um teor de umidade constante e a estimativa dos parâmetros térmicos efetivos pode ser efetuada a partir do ajuste de um modelo pseudo-homogêneo bidimensional estático à várias medidas de temperatura no leito de grãos no final da secagem. Os resultados indicam que a estratégia utilizada para estimativa da condutividade térmica efetiva radial e do coeficiente efetivo de transferência de calor parede-leito foi adequada. Além do que, constatou-se que dentre os grãos estudados - soja, feijão, milho e trigo - a soja apresenta os menores valores de condutividade efetiva radial, enquanto o trigo apresenta o maior valor do coeficiente de transferência de calor parede-leito.Fixed bed grain drying is a complex process, where mass and heat transfer occur simultaneously, complicating the estimation of the effective thermal parameters, because they can go through significant variations along the drying process, due to moisture content variations. In this work, this problem was avoided by estimating the effective thermal parameters at the end of the drying process, when the grain moisture content reaches equilibrium, and mass transfer stops, persisting only the steady state heat transfer. In these conditions, the bed has a constant moisture content and the estimation of the effective thermal

  9. Numerical Simulation of Fixed-Bed Catalytic Reforming Reactors: Hydrodynamics / Chemical Kinetics Coupling Simulation numérique des réacteurs de reformage catalytique en lit fixe : couplage hydrodynamique-cinétique chimique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferschneider G.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Fixed bed reactors with a single fluid phase are widely used in the refining or petrochemical industries for reaction processes catalysed by a solid phase. The design criteria for industrial reactors are relatively well known. However, they rely on a one-dimensional writing and on the separate resolution of the equation of conservation of mass and energy, and of momentum. Thus, with complex geometries, the influence of hydrodynamics on the effectiveness of the catalyst bed cannot be taken into account. The calculation method proposed is based on the multi-dimensional writing and the simultaneous resolution of the local conservation equations. The example discussed concerns fixed-bed catalytic reactors. These reactors are distinguished by their annular geometry and the radial circulation of the feedstock. The flow is assumed to be axisymmetric. The reaction process is reflected by a simplified kinetic mechanism involving ten chemical species. Calculation of the hydrodynamic (mean velocities, pressure, thermal and mass fields (concentration of each species serves to identify the influence of internal components in two industrial reactor geometries. The map of the quantity of coke formed and deposited on the catalyst, calculated by the model, reveals potential areas of poor operation. Les réacteurs à lit fixe avec une seule phase fluide sont largement utilisés dans l'industrie du raffinage et de la pétrochimie, pour mettre en oeuvre un processus réactionnel catalysé par une phase solide. Les règles de conception des réacteurs industriels sont relativement bien connues. Cependant, elles reposent sur l'écriture monodimensionnelle et la résolution séparée, d'une part, des équations de conservation de la masse et de l'énergie et d'autre part, de la quantité de mouvement. Ainsi dans le cas de géométries complexes, l'influence de l'hydrodynamique sur l'efficacité du lit catalytique ne peut être prise en compte. La méthode de calcul

  10. Italian experience in gasification plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinaldi, N.U.

    1991-01-01

    After tracing the historical highlights representing the development of the Fauser (Montecatini) technology based gasification processes for the production of ammonia and methanol, this paper outlines the key design, operation and performance characteristics of the Montecatini (Italy) process plant for heavy liquid hydrocarbons gasification by means of partial auto-thermal combustion with oxygen. The outline makes evident the technical-economical validity of the Montecatini design solutions which include energy recovery (even the heat dispersed through the gasifier walls is recovered and utilized to produce low pressure steam to preheat the fuel oil); reduced oxygen consumption by the high temperature preheating of all reagents; the ecologically compatible elimination of gas black; as well as, desulfurization with materials recovery. The plant process descriptions come complete with flowsheets. While demonstrating that the Italian developed technology is historically well rooted, the Author stresses that the current design versions of Montecatini gasification plants are up to date with innovative solutions, especially, with regard to pollution abatement, and cites the need for a more concerted marketing effort on the part of local industry to help improve the competitiveness of the Italian made product

  11. Effects of the reduction of the hydraulic retention time to 1.5 days at constant organic loading in CSTR, ASBR, and fixed-bed reactors – Performance and methanogenic community composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, Thomas; Ziganshin, Ayrat M.; Nikolausz, Marcell; Scholwin, Frank; Nelles, Michael; Kleinsteuber, Sabine; Pröter, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    The hydraulic retention time (HRT) is one of the key parameters in biogas processes and often it is postulated that a minimum HRT of 10–25 days is obligatory in continuous stirred tank reactors (CSTR) to prevent a washout of slow growing methanogens. In this study the effects of the reduction of the HRT from 6 to 1.5 days on performance and methanogenic community composition in different systems with and without immobilization operated with simulated thin stillage (STS) at mesophilic conditions and constant organic loading rates (OLR) of 10 g L −1 d −1 of volatile solids were investigated. With the reduction of the HRT process instability was first observed in the anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR) (at HRT of 3 days) followed by the CSTR (at HRT of 2 days). The fixed bed reactor (FBR) was stable until the end of the experiment, but the reduction of the HRT to 1.5 days caused a decrease of the specific biogas production to about 450 L kg −1 of VS compared to about 600 L kg −1 of VS at HRTs of 4–5 days. Methanoculleus and Methanosarcina were the dominant genera under stable process conditions in the CSTR and the ASBR and members of Methanosaeta and Methanospirillum were only present at HRT of 4 days and lower. In the effluent of the FBR Methanosarcina spp. were not detected and Methanosaeta spp. were more abundant then in the other reactors. - Highlights: • A CSTR was operated at high OLR of 10 (g L −1  d −1  VS) and low HRT of 3 days. • Exceeding washout of methanogenic archaea did not take place. • pH and nutrient concentrations influenced the reproduction rate more than HRT. • Methanoculleus and Methanosarcina were the dominant genera in the CSTR

  12. Proceedings of second annual underground coal gasification symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shuck, L Z [ed.

    1976-01-01

    The Second Annual Underground Coal Gasification Symposium was sponsored by the Morgantown Energy Research Center of the US Energy Research and Development Administration and held at Morgantown, WV, August 10-12, 1976. Fifty papers of the proceedings have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. While the majority of the contribution involved ERDA's own work in this area, there were several papers from universities, state organizations, (industrial, engineering or utility companies) and a few from foreign countries. (LTN)

  13. Gasification of peat and biomass in suspension flow 2; Turpeen ja biomassan suspensiokaasutus 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurkela, E.; Hepola, J. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Haukka, P.; Raiko, R. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Lab. of Thermal Engineering

    1995-11-01

    This project is an extension of the earlier Liekki-project 402, which was carried out in 1993-1994 in the Department of Thermal Engineering of Tampere University of Technology (TUT). In the previous project the feasibility of a two-stage entrained-flow gasification was studied by the means of process modeling and pyrolysis experiments. The present project carried out in cooperation with the Gasification Research Group of VTT and TUT. The aims of the project are: (a) to study the formation of blematic tar/soot compounds and nitrogen compounds in the conditions entrained flow gasification of biomass and peat, (b) to study the product yields and kinetics of pyrolysis and (c) to develop simulation methods for entrained flow pyrolysis and gasification. (author)

  14. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products (Task 1), Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knight, R.A.; Gissy, J.L.; Onischak, M.; Babu, S.P.; Carty, R.H. (Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)); Duthie, R.G. (Bechtel Group, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States)); Wootten, J.M. (Peabody Holding Co., Inc., St. Louis, MO (United States))

    1991-09-01

    Under US DOE sponsorship, a project team consisting of the Institute of Gas Technology, Peabody Holding Company, and Bechtel Group, Inc. has been developing an advanced, mild gasification process to process all types of coal and to produce solid and condensable liquid co-products that can open new markets for coal. The three and a half year program (September 1987 to June 1991) consisted of investigations in four main areas. These areas are: (1) Literature Survey of Mild Gasification Processes, Co-Product Upgrading and Utilization, and Market Assessment; (2) Mild Gasification Technology Development: Process Research Unit Tests Using Slipstream Sampling; (3) Bench-Scale Char Upgrading Study; (4) Mild Gasification Technology Development: System Integration Studies. In this report, the literature and market assessment of mild gasification processes are discussed.

  15. TEXACO GASIFICATION PROCESS - INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report summarizes the evaluation of the Texaco Gasification Process (TGP) conducted under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program. The Texaco Gasification Process was developed by Texaco Inc. The TGP is a comm...

  16. Modeling integrated biomass gasification business concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter J. Ince; Ted Bilek; Mark A. Dietenberger

    2011-01-01

    Biomass gasification is an approach to producing energy and/or biofuels that could be integrated into existing forest product production facilities, particularly at pulp mills. Existing process heat and power loads tend to favor integration at existing pulp mills. This paper describes a generic modeling system for evaluating integrated biomass gasification business...

  17. The 7th European gasification conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The theme of the conference was 'extending resources for clean energy'. Sessions covered coal gasification, gasification of biomass and waste, hydrogen and CO{sub 2} capture and storage, and development. The poster papers are also included. Selected papers have been abstracted separately on the Coal Abstracts database.

  18. Downdraft gasification of pellets made of wood, palm-oil residues respective bagasse: Experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erlich, Catharina; Fransson, Torsten H.

    2011-01-01

    The downdraft gasification technology has an increased interest among researchers worldwide due to the possibility to produce mechanical and electrical power from biomass in small-scale to an affordable price. The research is generally focused on improvement of the performance and optimizing of a certain gasifier, on testing different fuels, on increasing the user-friendliness of the gasifier and on finding other uses for the product gas than in an IC-engine, for example liquid fuel production. The main objective with the gasification tests presented here is to further contribute in the field by studying the impact of the char bed properties such as char bed porosity and pressure drop on the gasification performance as well as the impact of fuel particle size and composition on the gasification process in one and the same gasifier. In addition, there is very little gasification data available in literature of 'before disregarded' fuels such as sugar cane bagasse from sugar/alcohol production and empty fruit bunch (EFB) from the palm-oil production. By pelletizing these residues, it is possible to introduce them into downdraft gasification technology which has been done in this study. The results show that one and the same reactor can be used for a variety of fuels in pellet form, but at varying air-fuel ratios, temperature levels, gas compositions and lower heating values. Gasification of wood pellets results in a richer producer gas while EFB pellets give a poorer one with higher contents of non-combustible compounds. In this gasification study, there is almost linear relation between the air-fuel ratio and the cold-gas efficiency for the studied fuels: Higher air-fuel ratios result in better efficiency. The pressure drop in the char bed is higher for more reactive fuels, which in turn is caused by low porosity char beds.

  19. Gasification of biomass for energy production. State of technology in Finland and global market perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilen, C.; Kurkela, E. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Production Technologies

    1997-12-31

    This report reviews the development of the biomass gasification technology in Finland over the last two decades. Information on Finnish biomass resources and use, energy economy and national research policy is provided as background. Global biomass resources and potential energy from biomass markets are also assessed based on available literature, to put the development of the gasification technology into a wider perspective of global biomass utilization for energy production. The increasing use of biomass and other indigenous forms of energy has been part and parcel of the Finnish energy policy for some twenty years. Biomass and peat account for almost 20% of the production of primary energy in Finland. As the consumption of biofuels is significantly lower than the annual growth or renewal, the use of bioenergy is considered to be an important measure of reducing carbon dioxide emissions. Research and development on thermal gasification of solid fuels was initiated in the late 1970s in Finland. The principal aim was to decrease the dependence of Finnish energy economy on imported oil by increasing the utilization potential of indigenous fuels. Development in the early 1980s focused on simple atmospheric-pressure fuel gas applications including a gasification heating plant. Eight Bioneer updraft gasifiers (abt 5 MW{sub th}) were constructed in 1982-1986, and a new Bioneer gasifier was commissioned in eastern Finland in 1996. A Pyroflow circulating fluidised-bed gasifies was also commercialized in the mid-1980s; four gasifiers (15-35 MW{sub th}) were commissioned. In the late 1980s the interest in integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power plants, based on pressurised air gasification of biomass and hot gas cleanup, increased in Finland and in many other countries. The utilization potential for indigenous fuels is mainly in medium-scale combined heat and electricity production (20-150 MW,). Foster Wheeler Energia Oy, Carbona Inc. and Imatran Voima Oy are

  20. Gasification of biomass for energy production. State of technology in Finland and global market perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilen, C.; Kurkela, E.

    1997-01-01

    This report reviews the development of the biomass gasification technology in Finland over the last two decades. Information on Finnish biomass resources and use, energy economy and national research policy is provided as background. Global biomass resources and potential energy from biomass markets are also assessed based on available literature, to put the development of the gasification technology into a wider perspective of global biomass utilization for energy production. The increasing use of biomass and other indigenous forms of energy has been part and parcel of the Finnish energy policy for some twenty years. Biomass and peat account for almost 20% of the production of primary energy in Finland. As the consumption of biofuels is significantly lower than the annual growth or renewal, the use of bioenergy is considered to be an important measure of reducing carbon dioxide emissions. Research and development on thermal gasification of solid fuels was initiated in the late 1970s in Finland. The principal aim was to decrease the dependence of Finnish energy economy on imported oil by increasing the utilization potential of indigenous fuels. Development in the early 1980s focused on simple atmospheric-pressure fuel gas applications including a gasification heating plant. Eight Bioneer updraft gasifiers (abt 5 MW th ) were constructed in 1982-1986, and a new Bioneer gasifier was commissioned in eastern Finland in 1996. A Pyroflow circulating fluidised-bed gasifies was also commercialized in the mid-1980s; four gasifiers (15-35 MW th ) were commissioned. In the late 1980s the interest in integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power plants, based on pressurised air gasification of biomass and hot gas cleanup, increased in Finland and in many other countries. The utilization potential for indigenous fuels is mainly in medium-scale combined heat and electricity production (20-150 MW,). Foster Wheeler Energia Oy, Carbona Inc. and Imatran Voima Oy are the main

  1. Power generation from biomass: Status report on catalytic-allothermal wood gasification. Papers; Energetische Nutzung von Biomasse: Stand der Realisierung der katalytisch-allothermen Holzvergasung. Vortraege

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spindler, H.; Bauermeister, U.; Kliche, H.; Seiffarth, K. (comps.)

    2001-12-01

    The topic of this event is bound up with the activities of FOeST in the field of gasification of biomass in decentralized small plants (< 2 MW{sub el}). The start project was a research work in 1993 to select a gasification process for using wood, sludge or plastic waste, continued 1995 by a research project with gasification tests of tar oil contaminated wood in a small gasification reactor with good results in environmental compatibility. But the following planning process of a demonstration plant for 500 kW{sub el} has shown, that the biomass gasification couldn't reach economic efficiency. Due to the development of an catalytic-partial allothermal gasification process of GNS ltd. it was clear, that the technical efficiency could be increased considerably. So, in 2000, a project started to test this catalytic-partial allothermal gasification in a pilot plant. Today the results of research, development and testing of biomass gasification with catalytic-partial allothermal processing as well as practically experience with a gasification plant, general conditions and further activities for energetically utilisation of biomass in Saxonia-Anhalt will be presented. (orig.)

  2. Gasification of coal making use of nuclear processing heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schilling, H.D.; Bonn, B.; Krauss, U.

    1981-01-01

    In the chapter 'Gasification of coal making use of nuclear processing heat', the steam gasification of brown coal and bituminous coal, the hydrogenating gasification of brown coal including nuclear process heat either by steam cracking methane in the steam reformer or by preheating the gasifying agent, as well as the hydrogenating gasification of bituminous coal are described. (HS) [de

  3. Proposed underground gasification. [United Kingdom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-05-01

    An underground coal gasification experiment which could provide the key to recovering the energy in millions of tonnes of otherwise inaccessible undersea coal reserves is proposed by the NCB. The Board's Headquarters Technical Department hope to carry out a field trial in a six foot thick coal seam about 2000 feet beneath a former wartime airfield near the hamlet of Ossington near Newark, Notts, UK. This paper describes briefly the proposed project, which could cost up to 15 million pounds over five years. It has the backing and financial support of the European Economic Community.

  4. Gas quality prediction in ligno-cellulosic biomass gasification in a co-current gas producer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.; Nganhou, J.; Amie Assouh, A.

    2008-01-01

    Our research covers the energetic valuation of the biomass for electricity production. As electrical energy production is the main drive behind a modern economy, we wanted to make our contribution to the debate by describing a tried technique, whose use on an industrial scale can still be perfected, failing control over the basic principles that support the gasification processes called upon in this industry. Our study describes gasification, which is a process to transform a solid combustible into a gas combustible. The resulting gas can be used as combustible in an internal combustion motor and produce electricity. Our work interprets the experimental results of gasification tests conducted on an available and functional experimental centre and the ENSPY's Decentralized Energy Production Lab. The work involved developing a tool to appreciate the results of the gasification of the ligneous biomass from the stoichiometric composition of the combustible to be gasified and the chemical and mathematical bases of the gasification process. It is an investigation with a view to elaborating a mathematical model based on the concept of compatibility. Its original lies in the quality prediction method for the gas obtained through the gasification of a biomass whose chemical composition is known. (authors)

  5. Investigation of sewage sludge gasification with use of flue gas as a gasifying agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maj Izabella

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of investigation of low-temperature sewage sludge gasification with use of flue gas as a gasifying agent. Tests were conducted in a laboratory stand, equipped with a gasification reactor designed and constructed specifically for this purpose. During presented tests, gas mixture with a composition of typical flue gases was used as a gasifying agent. The measuring system ensures online measurements of syngas composition: CO, CO2, H2, CH4. As a result of gasification process a syngas with combustible components has been obtained. The aim of the research was to determine the usability of sewage sludge for indirect cofiring in power boilers with the use of flue gas from the boiler as a gasifying agent and recirculating the syngas to the boiler’s combustion chamber. Results of presented investigation will be used as a knowledge base for industrial-scale sewage sludge gasification process. Furthermore, toxicity of solid products of the process has been determined by the use of Microtox bioassay. Before tests, solid post-gasification residues have been ground to two particle size fractions and extracted into Milli-Q water. The response of test organisms (bioluminescent Aliivibrio fischeri bacteria in reference to a control sample (bacteria exposed to 2% NaCl solution was measured after 5 and 15 minutes of exposure. The obtained toxicity results proved that thermal treatment of sewage sludge by their gasification reduces their toxicity relative to water organisms.

  6. Techno Economic Analysis of Hydrogen Production by gasification of biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francis Lau

    2002-12-01

    Biomass represents a large potential feedstock resource for environmentally clean processes that produce power or chemicals. It lends itself to both biological and thermal conversion processes and both options are currently being explored. Hydrogen can be produced in a variety of ways. The majority of the hydrogen produced in this country is produced through natural gas reforming and is used as chemical feedstock in refinery operations. In this report we will examine the production of hydrogen by gasification of biomass. Biomass is defined as organic matter that is available on a renewable basis through natural processes or as a by-product of processes that use renewable resources. The majority of biomass is used in combustion processes, in mills that use the renewable resources, to produce electricity for end-use product generation. This report will explore the use of hydrogen as a fuel derived from gasification of three candidate biomass feedstocks: bagasse, switchgrass, and a nutshell mix that consists of 40% almond nutshell, 40% almond prunings, and 20% walnut shell. In this report, an assessment of the technical and economic potential of producing hydrogen from biomass gasification is analyzed. The resource base was assessed to determine a process scale from feedstock costs and availability. Solids handling systems were researched. A GTI proprietary gasifier model was used in combination with a Hysys(reg. sign) design and simulation program to determine the amount of hydrogen that can be produced from each candidate biomass feed. Cost estimations were developed and government programs and incentives were analyzed. Finally, the barriers to the production and commercialization of hydrogen from biomass were determined. The end-use of the hydrogen produced from this system is small PEM fuel cells for automobiles. Pyrolysis of biomass was also considered. Pyrolysis is a reaction in which biomass or coal is partially vaporized by heating. Gasification is a more

  7. Gasification of coal using nuclear process heat. Chapter D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schilling, H.-D.; Bonn, B.; Krauss, U.

    1979-01-01

    In the light of the high price of coal and the enormous advances made recently in nuclear engineering, the possibility of using heat from high-temperature nuclear reactors for gasification processes was discussed as early as the 1960s. The advantages of this technology are summarized. A joint programme of development work is described, in which the Nuclear Research Centre at Juelich is aiming to develop a high-temperature reactor which will supply process heat at as high a temperature as possible, while other organizations are working on the hydrogasification of lignites and hard coals, and steam gasification. Experiments are at present being carried out on a semi-technical scale, and no operational data for large-scale plants are available as yet. (author)

  8. Macauba gasification; Gaseificacao da macauba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos Filho, Jaime dos; Oliveira, Eron Sardinha de [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia da Bahia (IFBA), Vitoria da Conquista, BA (Brazil)], E-mail: jaime@ifba.edu.br; Silva, Jadir Nogueira da; Galvarro, Svetlana Fialho Soria [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil); Chaves, Modesto Antonio [Universidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia (UESB), Itapetinga, BA (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Alimentos

    2009-07-01

    For development of a productive activity, with reduced environmental degradation, the use of renewable energy sources as an important option. The gasification has been increasing among the ways of obtaining energy from biomass, and consists of a process where the necessary oxygen to the complete combustion of a fuel it is restricts and, in high temperatures it generates fuel gas of high-quality. In this direction, this work is justified and has its importance as the study of a renewable energy source, macauba coconut (Acrocomia aculeata [Jacq] Lodd), with the gasification process. The objective of this study is to build a biomass concurrent gasifier and evaluate the viability to provide heating for dehydration of fruits, using the macauba coconut as fuel. It was measured the temperature in five points distributed in both gasifier and combustor chamber, being the input area of primary combustor air and also the speed of rotation of the electric motor, using a factorial 3X3 experimental design with three repetitions and interval of measurements of five minutes. The analytical results take to infer that the macauba coconut have potential to be gasified and used for the dehydration of fruits. (author)

  9. Brown coal gasification made easy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, Chris

    2006-01-01

    Few Victorians will be aware that gas derived from coal was first used in 1849 to provide lighting in a baker's shop in Swanston Street, long before electric lighting came to the State. The first commercial 'gas works' came on stream in 1856 and Melbourne then had street lighting run on gas. By 1892 there were 50 such gas works across the State. Virtually all were fed with black coal imported from New South Wales. Brown coal was first discovered west of Melbourne in 1857, and the Latrobe Valley deposits were identified in the early 1870s. Unfortunately, such wet brown coal did not suit the gas works. Various attempts to commercialise Victorian brown coal met with mixed success as it struggled to compete with imported New South Wales black coal. In June 1924 Yallourn A transmitted the first electric power to Melbourne, and thus began the Latrobe Valley's long association with generating electric power from brown coal. Around 1950, the Metropolitan Gas Company applied for financial assistance to build a towns gas plant using imported German gasification technology which had been originally designed for a brown coal briquette feed. The State Government promptly acquired the company and formed the Gas and Fuel Corporation. The Morwell Gasification Plant was opened on 9 December 1956 and began supplying Melbourne with medium heating value towns gas

  10. Attempts on cardoon gasification in two different circulating fluidized beds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chr. Christodoulou

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Few tests have been carried out in order to evaluate the use of cardoon in gasification and combustion applications most of the researchers dealt with agglomeration problems. The aim of this work is to deal with the agglomeration problem and to present a solution for the utilization of this biofuel at a near industrial application scale. For this reason, two experiments were conducted, one in TU Delft and one in Centre for Research and Technology Hellas (CERTH, using fuel cardoon and 50% w/w cardoon blended with 50% w/w giant reed respectively. Both experimental campaigns were carried out in similar atmospheric circulating fluidized bed gasifiers. Apart from the feedstock, the other differences were the gasification medium and the bed material used in each trial. The oxidizing agent at TUD׳s run was O2/steam, whereas CERTH׳s tests used air. When experiments with the cardoon 50% w/w–giant reed 50% w/w blend were performed no agglomeration problems were presented. Consequently, gasification could be achieved in higher temperature than that of pure cardoon which led to the reduction of tar concentration.

  11. Application of FT-IR Absorption Spectroscopy to Characterize Waste and Bio-Fuels for Pyrolysis and Gasification

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalisz, S.; Svoboda, Karel; Robak, Z.; Baxter, D.; Andersen, L. K.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 8, - (2008), s. 51-52 ISSN 1733-4381 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : ft-Iir spectroscopy * bio-fuels * gasification Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering

  12. Water pollution control for underground coal gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humenick, M.J.

    1984-01-01

    Water pollution arising from underground gasification of coal is one of the important considerations in the eventual commercialization of the process. Because many coal seams which are amenable to in situ gasification are also ground-water aquifers, contaminants may be released to these ground waters during and after gasification. Also, when product gas is processed above ground for use, wastewater streams are generated which are too polluted to be discharged. The purpose of this paper is to characterize the nature of the groundwater and above-ground pollutants, discuss the potential long and short-term effects on ground water, propose control and restoration strategies, and to identify potential wastewater treatment schemes

  13. Coke gasification costs, economics, and commercial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahnke, F.C.; Falsetti, J.S.; Wilson, R.F.

    1996-01-01

    The disposition of petroleum coke remains a problem for modern high conversion refineries. Market uncertainty and the price for coke can prevent the implementation of otherwise attractive projects. The commercially proven Texaco Gasification Process remains an excellent option for clean, cost effective coke disposition as demonstrated by the new coke gasification units coming on-line and under design. Previous papers, have discussed the coke market and general economics of coke gasification. This paper updates the current market situation and economics, and provide more details on cost and performance based on recent studies for commercial plants

  14. Electrofluid gasification of coal with nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulsifer, A.H.; Wheelock, T.D.

    1978-01-01

    The gasification of coal by reaction with steam requires addition of large amounts of energy. This energy can be supplied by a high-temperature nuclear reactor which is coupled to a fluidized bed gasifier either thermally or electrically via an electrofluid gasifier. A comparison of the economics of supplying energy by these two alternatives demonstrates that electrofluid gasification in combination with a high-temperature nuclear reactor may in some circumstances be economically attractive. In addition, a review of recent experiments in small-scale electrofluid gasifiers indicates that this method of gasification is technically feasible. (Auth.)

  15. Electrofluid gasification of coal with nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulsifer, A.H.; Wheelock, T.D.

    1978-01-01

    The gasification of coal by reaction with steam requires the addition of large amounts of energy. This energy can be supplied by a high-temperature nuclear reactor which is coupled to a fluidized bed gasifier either thermally or electrically via an electrofluid gasifier. A comparison of the economics of supplying energy by these two alternatives demonstrates that electrofluid gasification in combination with a high-temperature nuclear reactor may in some circumstances be economically attractive. In addition, a review of recent experiments in small-scale electrofluid gasifiers indicates that this method of gasification is technically feasible

  16. MHD power station with coal gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brzozowski, W.S.; Dul, J.; Pudlik, W.

    1976-01-01

    A description is given of the proposed operating method of a MHD-power station including a complete coal gasification into lean gas with a simultaneous partial gas production for the use of outside consumers. A comparison with coal gasification methods actually being used and full capabilities of power stations heated with coal-derived gas shows distinct advantages resulting from applying the method of coal gasification with waste heat from MHD generators working within the boundaries of the thermal-electric power station. (author)

  17. FY 1989 report on the section meeting of gasification technology of the Coal Gasification Committee; 1989 nendo sekitan gasuka iinkai gasuka gijutsu bukai hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-03-01

    The paper reported activities of the Coal Gasification Committee in FY 1989. The 1st Coal Gasification Committee Meeting was held on July 21,1989, and report/discussion were made about an outline of the FY 1989 research plan. In the 2nd Meeting, report/discussion were made about activities of each of the section meetings and the progress of the development of coal gasification technology. In FY 1998, as the 4th design/construction of pilot plant, manufacture/installation were conducted of a part (equipment of coal supply system/char recycle system) of the gasification process equipment/facilities. As to recycle gas facilities, manufacture of equipment/facilities was conducted. Concerning a part of the pipe rack/central control panel/electric panel, manufacture/installation of equipment were made. In the support study of a pilot plant (trial development of materials for plant use equipment), refractory was studied in terms of the evaluation of durability of furnace materials against liquefaction residue slag, study of furnace materials responsive to liquefaction residue and gasification of high ash melting point coal, etc. (NEDO)

  18. The evolution of gasification processes and reactors and the utilization of the coal gas. A proposition for the implementation of the gasification technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasculete, E.; Iorgulescu, S.

    1996-01-01

    Thermochemical treatment of coal by gasification, considered as a non-polluting technology to turn the coal highly-profitably is one of the alternative ways to produce gas with a high effective caloric capacity. Due to its advantages, the gasification has made through the last few decades significant advances from the point of view of the process efficiency (chemical, thermal), of motor outputs (in m 3 producer gas / m 2 reactor cross section x hour), of the solutions of supplying energy to support the endothermic reactions implied by the process, and especially of the reactors. Reactors have been developed from gas generators. Starting from gas generators various advanced reactors (of 1 st to 3 rd generation) have been developed to produce air gas, water gas or mixed gas. Applications of the producer gas were developed using it either as fuel or as synthesis gas in chemical industry or else as a substitute to the natural gas in combined cycle gas turbines where the gasification plant was integrated. In Romania there are projects in the field of coal gasification, namely at ICPET-RESEARCH, that can offer advanced technologies. One of these projects deals with the construction of the first demonstrative gasification plant based on a highly efficient process and equipped with a 10 G cal/h reactor. (author). 1 tab., 12 refs

  19. Japan`s sunshine project. 17.. 1992 annual summary of coal liquefaction and gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    This report describes the achievement of coal liquefaction and gasification technology development in the Sunshine Project for FY 1992. It presents the research and development of coal liquefaction which includes studies on reaction mechanism of coal liquefaction and catalysts for coal liquefaction, the research and development of coal gasification technologies which includes studies on gasification characteristics of various coals and improvement of coal gasification efficiency, the development of bituminous coal liquefaction which includes engineering, construction and operation of a bituminous coal liquefaction pilot plant and research by a process supporting unit (PSU), the development of brown coal liquefaction which includes research on brown coal liquefaction with a pilot plant and development of techniques for upgrading coal oil from brown coal, the development of common base technologies which includes development of slurry letdown valves and study on upgrading technology of coal-derived distillates, the development of coal-based hydrogen production technology with a pilot plant, the development of technology for entrained flow coal gasification, the assessment of coal hydrogasification, and the international co-operation. 4 refs., 125 figs., 39 tabs.

  20. A study on ultra heavy oil gasification technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kidoguchi, Kazuhiro; Ashizawa, Masami; Taki, Masato; Ishimura, Masato; Takeno, Keiji

    2000-07-01

    Raising the thermal efficiency of a thermal power plant is an important issue from viewpoints of effective energy utilization and environmental protection. In view of raising the thermal efficiency, a gas turbine combined cycle power generation is considered to be very effective. The thermal efficiency of the latest LNG combined cycle power plant has been raised by more than 50%. On the other hand, the diversification of fuels to ensure supply stability is also an important issue, particularly in Japan where natural resources are scarce. Because of excellent handling characteristics petroleum and LNG which produces clean combustion are used in many sectors, and so the demand for such fuels is expected to grow. However, the availability of such fuels is limited, and supplies will be exhausted in the near future. The development of a highly efficient and environment-friendly gas turbine combined cycle using ultra heavy oil such as Orimulsion{trademark} (trademark of BITOR) is thus a significant step towards resolving these two issues. Chubu Electric Power Co, Inc., the Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI), and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. (MHI) conducted a collaboration from 1994 to 1998 with the objective of developing an ultra heavy oil integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC). Construction of the ultra heavy oil gasification testing facility (fuel capacity:2.4t/d) was completed in 1995, and Orimulsion{trademark} gasification tests were carried out in 1995 and 1996. In 1997, the hot dedusting facility with ceramic filter and the water scrubber used as a preprocessor of a wet desulfurization process were installed. Gasification and clean up the syngs tests were carried out on Orimulsion{trademark}, Asmulsion{trademark} (trademark of Nisseki Mitsubishi K.K.), and residue oil in 1997 and 1998. The results of the collaboration effort are described below.

  1. Ceramic membranes for gas processing in coal gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smart, S.; Lin, C.X.C.; Ding, L.; Thambimuthu, K.; da Costa, J.C.D. [University of Queensland, Brisbane, Qld. (Australia)

    2010-07-01

    Pre-combustion options via coal gasification, especially integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) processes, are attracting the attention of governments, industry and the research community as an attractive alternative to conventional power generation. It is possible to build an IGCC plant with CCS with conventional technologies however; these processes are energy intensive and likely to reduce power plant efficiencies. Novel ceramic membrane technologies, in particular molecular sieving silica (MSS) and pervoskite membranes, offer the opportunity to reduce efficiency losses by separating gases at high temperatures and pressures. MSS membranes can be made preferentially selective for H{sub 2}, enabling both enhanced production, via a water-gas shift membrane reactor, and recovery of H{sub 2} from the syngas stream at high temperatures. They also allow CO{sub 2} to be concentrated at high pressures, reducing the compression loads for transportation and enabling simple integration with CO{sub 2} storage or sequestration operations. Perovskite membranes provide a viable alternative to cryogenic distillation for air separation by delivering the tonnage of oxygen required for coal gasification at a reduced cost. In this review we examine ceramic membrane technologies for high temperature gas separation and discuss the operational, mechanical, design and process considerations necessary for their successful integration into IGCC with CCS systems.

  2. Biomass gasification for production of 'green energy'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mambre, V.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the differences between biomass gasification and biomass methanation, two ways of using biomass for decentralized production of energy. The stakes of biomass and biomass gasification for meeting the European and national energy goals and environmental targets are summarized. The gasification principle is described and in particular the FICFB optimized process from Repotec for the production of concentrated syngas. The four different ways of syngas valorization (combined heat and power (CHP), 'green methane' (SNG), 'green hydrogen' (gas shift) and liquid biofuels of 2. generation (Fisher-Tropsch)) are recalled and compared with each other. Finally, the economical and environmental key issues of the global chain are summarized with their technological and scientific key locks. The GAYA R and D project of Gaz de France Suez group, which aims at developing gasification and methanation demonstration plants through different programs with European partners, is briefly presented. (J.S.)

  3. Robustness studies on coal gasification process variables

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    coal before feeding to the gasification process [1]. .... to-control variables will make up the terms in the response surface model for the ... Montgomery (1999) explained that all the Taguchi engineering objectives for a robust ..... software [3].

  4. Volatilisation and catalytic effects of alkali and alkaline earth metallic species during the pyrolysis and gasification of Victorian brown coal. Part IV. Catalytic effects of NaCl and ion-exchangeable Na in coal on char reactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimple Mody Quyn; Hongwei Wu; Jun-ichiro Hayashi; Chun-Zhu Li, [Monash University, Monash, Vic. (Australia). CRC for Clean Power from Lignite, Department of Chemical Engineering

    2003-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the catalytic effects of Na as NaCl or as sodium carboxylates ( COONa) in Victorian brown coal on the char reactivity. A Na-exchanged coal and a set of NaCl-loaded coal samples prepared from a Loy Yang brown coal were pyrolysed in a fluidised-bed/fixed-bed reactor and in a thermogravimetric analyser (TGA). The reactivities of the chars were measured in air at 400{sup o}C using the TGA. The experimental data indicate that the Na in coal as NaCl and as sodium carboxylates ( COONa) had very different catalytic effects on the char reactivity. It is the chemical form and dispersion of Na in char, not in coal, that govern the catalytic effects of Na. For the Na-form (Na-exchanged) coal, the char reactivity increased with increasing pyrolysis temperature from 500 to 700{sup o}C and then decreased with pyrolysis temperature from 700 to 900{sup o}C. The increase in reactivity with pyrolysis temperature (500 700{sup o}C) is mainly due to the changes in the relative distribution of Na in the char matrix and on the pore surface. For the NaCl-loaded coals, when Cl was released during pyrolysis or gasification, the Na originally present in coal as NaCl showed good catalytic effects for the char gasification. Otherwise, Cl would combine with Na in the char to form NaCl during gasification, preventing Na from becoming an active catalyst. Controlling the pyrolysis conditions to favour the release of Cl can be a promising way to transform NaCl in coal into an active catalyst for char gasification. 38 refs., 5 figs.

  5. Calcium addition in straw gasification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risnes, H.; Fjellerup, Jan Søren; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk

    2003-01-01

    The present work focuses on the influence of calcium addition in gasification. The inorganic¿organic element interaction as well as the detailed inorganic¿inorganic elements interaction has been studied. The effect of calcium addition as calcium sugar/molasses solutions to straw significantly...... affected the ash chemistry and the ash sintering tendency but much less the char reactivity. Thermo balance test are made and high-temperature X-ray diffraction measurements are performed, the experimental results indicate that with calcium addition major inorganic¿inorganic reactions take place very late...... in the char conversion process. Comprehensive global equilibrium calculations predicted important characteristics of the inorganic ash residue. Equilibrium calculations predict the formation of liquid salt if sufficient amounts of Ca are added and according to experiments as well as calculations calcium binds...

  6. Thermodynamic approach to biomass gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boissonnet, G.; Seiler, J.M.

    2003-01-01

    The document presents an approach of biomass transformation in presence of steam, hydrogen or oxygen. Calculation results based on thermodynamic equilibrium are discussed. The objective of gasification techniques is to increase the gas content in CO and H 2 . The maximum content in these gases is obtained when thermodynamic equilibrium is approached. Any optimisation action of a process. will, thus, tend to approach thermodynamic equilibrium conditions. On the other hand, such calculations can be used to determine the conditions which lead to an increase in the production of CO and H 2 . An objective is also to determine transformation enthalpies that are an important input for process calculations. Various existing processes are assessed, and associated thermodynamic limitations are evidenced. (author)

  7. Nitrification of highly contaminated waste water with retention of biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weichgrebe, D.

    1992-09-01

    The AIF Research Project No 7698 was concerned with the nitrification of highly contaminated waste water with retention of biomass. A compact system for the nitrification was developed and optimized in the investigations. This is an over-dammed fixed bed reactor with structured packing elements and membrane gasification. The fixed bed reactor was successfully installed in a multi-stage compact plant on the laboratory scale for the biological treatment of dump trickled water. With the conclusion of the investigations, design data are available for the technical scale realisation of nitrification in fixed bed reactors. (orig.) [de

  8. Groundwater and underground coal gasification in Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haluszka, A.; MacMillan, G.; Maev, S.

    2010-01-01

    Underground coal gasification has potential in Alberta. This presentation provided background information on underground coal gasification and discussed groundwater and the Laurus Energy demonstration project. A multi-disciplined approach to project assessment was described with particular reference to geologic and hydrogeologic setting; geologic mapping; and a hydrogeologic numerical model. Underground coal gasification involves the conversion of coal into synthesis gas or syngas. It can be applied to mined coal at the surface or applied to non-mined coal seams using injection and production wells. Underground coal gasification can effect groundwater as the rate of water influx into the coal seams influences the quality and composition of the syngas. Byproducts created include heat as well as water with dissolved concentrations of ammonia, phenols, salts, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, and liquid organic products from the pyrolysis of coal. A process overview of underground coal gasification was also illustrated. It was concluded that underground coal gasification has the potential in Alberta and risks to groundwater could be minimized by a properly designed project. refs., figs.

  9. Low temperature circulating fluidized bed gasification and co-gasification of municipal sewage sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Tobias Pape; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Gøbel, Benny

    2017-01-01

    to the mono-sludge ashes, thereby showing the best fertilizer qualities among all assessed materials. It was also found that bottom ashes from the char reactor contained even less heavy metals than cyclone ashes. It is concluded that LT-CFB gasification and co-gasification is a highly effective way to purify...

  10. Fundamental Study of Black Liquor Gasification Kinetics. Quarterly progress report for the period October 1999 to December 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-01-31

    The overall objective of this research is to evaluate the kinetics of gasification of kraft black liquor under laboratory conditions simulating pressurized, oxygen-blown gasification. The significant independent variables are gasifier temperature, black liquor composition particle size, and particle residence time. The authors will quantify their impact on the concentration of major and trace gas phase species, as well as the composition of condensed phase inorganic products, including specification of the Na- and S-containing compounds and overall carbon conversion.

  11. Report on the research achievements in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1992. Studies on improving the efficiency of coal gasification; 1992 nendo sekitan gas ka no kokoritsuka ni kansuru kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-03-01

    This paper describes the achievements in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1992 in studies on improving the efficiency of coal gasification. Three kinds of coals were gasified under the atmosphere of hydrogen, He or CO2 by using the TPR method. The sulfur removing rate varies depending on coals even under the same reaction atmosphere, and so does the degree of influence of the atmospheric gases depending on coals. Very little effect of the atmospheric gases was found on the sulfur removing rate in Taiheiyo and Wandoan coals. While Tatung coal presents the same removing rate under the atmosphere of He and CO2, it shows 1.8 times greater removing rate under the hydrogen atmosphere. Generation patterns for H{sub 2}S and COS also vary depending on coal types and atmospheric gases. Inorganic sulfur shows the same behavior in the reaction process regardless of coal type and atmosphere, but organic sulfur behaves differently. The sulfur removing rate is determined by how easily the organic sulfur can be removed, which attributes to the difference in kinds and structures of organic sulfur compounds in the coal, together with the gas generation patterns. In order to discuss gasification of char, investigations were performed on effects of coal types and heat treatment temperatures, with regard to the gasification characteristics that can be estimated from the industrial and element analyses. (NEDO)

  12. Achievement report for fiscal 1982 on Sunshine Program. Basic research on plasma-aided coal gasification technology; 1982 nendo sekitan no plasma gas ka gijutsu no kiso kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1983-03-01

    A technology is developed to produce useful gases such as acetylene, hydrogen, and carbon monoxide from coal and coal-related substances making use of the high-temperature high-density energy of plasma jets. Using the newly developed systems, the energy utilization rate is 50% or higher and the yields are 60-100g/kWh for acetylene and 100-160l/kWh for hydrogen. For the achievement of the goal, two types of plasma gasification systems have been developed. One is a '100kW 3-torch plasma gasification system' in which the specimen for gasification is fed to the center of the combined flame for improvement on the contact rate between the specimen and plasma flame. The other is a 'rotating plasma torch system' in which the flame is rotated, and expanded, by an externally provided magnetic field for improvement on the contact rate between the specimen and plasma flame and, simultaneously, for an increase in energy utilization efficiency by feeding the specimen into the discharge region. In this fiscal year, quenching tests are conducted using water and oil so as to establish the difference in quenching effect between quenching agents. What to improve in the systems are clarified. (NEDO)

  13. Japan's New Sunshine Project. 1994 annual summary of coal liquefaction and gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This paper summarizes the report for fiscal 1994 on research and development related to coal liquefaction and gasification. In the research and development of coal liquefaction technologies, reports were given on research of liquefaction characteristics of different coals and liquefaction process thereof, and on research of catalysts for the coal liquefaction. In the research and development of coal gasification technologies, reports were given on fundamental studies on gasification characteristics of different coals. In the research and development of liquefaction technologies for bituminous coal, reports were given on design, construction and operation of a bituminous coal liquefaction pilot plant with a capacity of 150 t/d, and the operation supporting studies on the pilot plant. In the fundamental research on the coal liquefaction process, reports were given on refining technologies and utilization of the refined materials, and studies on environment preservation in applying the coal liquefaction technologies. In the research on hydrogen manufacturing technologies by using the fundamental coal technology, reports were given on design, construction and operational studies of a pilot plant. In the research and development of the coal gasification technologies, reports were given on development of a jet-flow gasified coal electric power plant, selection of coals, and development of a data processing system. (NEDO)

  14. Japan's New Sunshine Project. 1994 annual summary of coal liquefaction and gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This paper summarizes the report for fiscal 1994 on research and development related to coal liquefaction and gasification. In the research and development of coal liquefaction technologies, reports were given on research of liquefaction characteristics of different coals and liquefaction process thereof, and on research of catalysts for the coal liquefaction. In the research and development of coal gasification technologies, reports were given on fundamental studies on gasification characteristics of different coals. In the research and development of liquefaction technologies for bituminous coal, reports were given on design, construction and operation of a bituminous coal liquefaction pilot plant with a capacity of 150 t/d, and the operation supporting studies on the pilot plant. In the fundamental research on the coal liquefaction process, reports were given on refining technologies and utilization of the refined materials, and studies on environment preservation in applying the coal liquefaction technologies. In the research on hydrogen manufacturing technologies by using the fundamental coal technology, reports were given on design, construction and operational studies of a pilot plant. In the research and development of the coal gasification technologies, reports were given on development of a jet-flow gasified coal electric power plant, selection of coals, and development of a data processing system. (NEDO)

  15. Biomass gasification hot gas cleanup for power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiant, B.C.; Bachovchin, D.M. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Orlando, FL (United States); Carty, R.H.; Onischak, M. [Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Horazak, D.A. [Gilbert/Commonwealth, Reading, PA (United States); Ruel, R.H. [The Pacific International Center for High Technology Research, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    1993-12-31

    In support of the US Department of Energy`s Biomass Power Program, a Westinghouse Electric led team consisting of the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT), Gilbert/Commonwealth (G/C), and the Pacific International Center for High Technology Research (PICHTR), is conducting a 30 month research and development program. The program will provide validation of hot gas cleanup technology with a pressurized fluidized bed, air-blown, biomass gasifier for operation of a gas turbine. This paper discusses the gasification and hot gas cleanup processes, scope of work and approach, and the program`s status.

  16. WABASH RIVER COAL GASIFICATION REPOWERING PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2000-09-01

    The close of 1999 marked the completion of the Demonstration Period of the Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project. This Final Report summarizes the engineering and construction phases and details the learning experiences from the first four years of commercial operation that made up the Demonstration Period under Department of Energy (DOE) Cooperative Agreement DE-FC21-92MC29310. This 262 MWe project is a joint venture of Global Energy Inc. (Global acquired Destec Energy's gasification assets from Dynegy in 1999) and PSI Energy, a part of Cinergy Corp. The Joint Venture was formed to participate in the Department of Energy's Clean Coal Technology (CCT) program and to demonstrate coal gasification repowering of an existing generating unit impacted by the Clean Air Act Amendments. The participants jointly developed, separately designed, constructed, own, and are now operating an integrated coal gasification combined-cycle power plant, using Global Energy's E-Gas{trademark} technology (E-Gas{trademark} is the name given to the former Destec technology developed by Dow, Destec, and Dynegy). The E-Gas{trademark} process is integrated with a new General Electric 7FA combustion turbine generator and a heat recovery steam generator in the repowering of a 1950's-vintage Westinghouse steam turbine generator using some pre-existing coal handling facilities, interconnections, and other auxiliaries. The gasification facility utilizes local high sulfur coals (up to 5.9% sulfur) and produces synthetic gas (syngas), sulfur and slag by-products. The Project has the distinction of being the largest single train coal gasification combined-cycle plant in the Western Hemisphere and is the cleanest coal-fired plant of any type in the world. The Project was the first of the CCT integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) projects to achieve commercial operation.

  17. Report on the results of the R and D of a 200 t/d entrained bed coal gasification pilot plant. Summary - Part 2. Volume 3: Results of the study operation and the evaluation; 1986- 200t/nichi funryusho sekitan gaska hatsuden pilot plant no kenkyu seika hokokusho (Matome). Sono 2. Dai 3 hen kenkyu unten seika to sono hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    A project was finished which had been carried out for 11 years since 1986 for technology of the entrained bed coal gasification power generation technology using a 200 t/d coal gasification combined cycle power generation pilot plant, and it was comprehensively summed up. In Volume 3: Results of the study operation and the evaluation, the following were summarized on gasifier: gasification performance of 200 t/d furnace, operation ability of the bituminous coal supply system, stability of char recovery, deposition of slag and char in furnace, discharge characteristics of molten slag, operation characteristics, etc. The following on gas refining facilities: dry desulfurizer, dust remover, new gas refining equipment (fixed bed dust removal/desulfurization system, packed bed desulfuriztion/dust removal system), etc. The following on gas turbine facilities: 12.5 MW gas turbine, large gas turbine, large gas turbine combustor, etc. Additionally, the paper summarized the control system and total function, operation characteristics of the whole pilot plant, relations of environmental preservation, study of the effective slag utilization, collection/study of unfavorable conditions/troubles and matters for the reflection, etc. (NEDO)

  18. Comparative evaluation of kinetic, equilibrium and semi-equilibrium models for biomass gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buragohain, Buljit [Center for Energy, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati – 781 039, Assam (India); Chakma, Sankar; Kumar, Peeush [Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati – 781 039, Assam (India); Mahanta, Pinakeswar [Center for Energy, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati – 781 039, Assam (India); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati – 781 039, Assam (India); Moholkar, Vijayanand S. [Center for Energy, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati – 781 039, Assam (India); Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati – 781 039, Assam (India)

    2013-07-01

    Modeling of biomass gasification has been an active area of research for past two decades. In the published literature, three approaches have been adopted for the modeling of this process, viz. thermodynamic equilibrium, semi-equilibrium and kinetic. In this paper, we have attempted to present a comparative assessment of these three types of models for predicting outcome of the gasification process in a circulating fluidized bed gasifier. Two model biomass, viz. rice husk and wood particles, have been chosen for analysis, with gasification medium being air. Although the trends in molar composition, net yield and LHV of the producer gas predicted by three models are in concurrence, significant quantitative difference is seen in the results. Due to rather slow kinetics of char gasification and tar oxidation, carbon conversion achieved in single pass of biomass through the gasifier, calculated using kinetic model, is quite low, which adversely affects the yield and LHV of the producer gas. Although equilibrium and semi-equilibrium models reveal relative insensitivity of producer gas characteristics towards temperature, the kinetic model shows significant effect of temperature on LHV of the gas at low air ratios. Kinetic models also reveal volume of the gasifier to be an insignificant parameter, as the net yield and LHV of the gas resulting from 6 m and 10 m riser is same. On a whole, the analysis presented in this paper indicates that thermodynamic models are useful tools for quantitative assessment of the gasification process, while kinetic models provide physically more realistic picture.

  19. The influence of chlorine on the gasification of wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scala, C von; Struis, R; Stucki, S [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    Chlorides of the heavy metals copper, lead and zinc inhibit the CO{sub 2}-gasification reaction of charcoal. This is observed either by impregnation the wood with the salts before pyrolysis or by mechanically mixing the salts with the charcoal before gasification. Charcoal impregnated or mixed with ammonium chloride reacts more slowly than untreated charcoal. Treating the charcoal with HCl also influences negatively the gasification reactivity, indicating that chlorine plays an important role in the gasification. (author) 2 figs., 4 refs.

  20. Gasification of wood in a fluidized bed reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, L.C. de; Marti, T; Frankenhaeuser, M [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    A first series of gasification experiments with our fluidized bed gasifier was performed using clean sawdust as fuel. The installation and the analytical systems were tested in a parametric study in which gasification temperature and equivalence ratio were varied. The data acquired will serve to establish the differences between the gasification of clean wood and the gasification of Altholz (scrapwood) and wood/plastics mixtures. (author) 1 fig., 3 tabs., 5 refs.

  1. Design and System Analysis of Quad-Generation Plant Based on Biomass Gasification Integrated with District Heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudra, Souman

    alternative by upgrading existing district heating plant. It provides a generic modeling framework to design flexible energy system in near future. These frameworks address the three main issues arising in the planning and designing of energy system: a) socio impact at both planning and proses design level; b...... in this study. The overall aim of this work is to provide a complete assessment of the technical potential of biomass gasification for local heat and power supply in Denmark and replace of natural gas for the production. This study also finds and defines the future areas of research in the gasification......, it possible to lay a foundation for future gasification based power sector to produce flexible output such as electricity, heat, chemicals or bio-fuels by improving energy system of existing DHP(district heating plant) integrating gasification technology. The present study investigate energy system...

  2. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products (Task 1), Volume 1. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knight, R.A.; Gissy, J.L.; Onischak, M.; Babu, S.P.; Carty, R.H. [Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Duthie, R.G. [Bechtel Group, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States); Wootten, J.M. [Peabody Holding Co., Inc., St. Louis, MO (United States)

    1991-09-01

    Under US DOE sponsorship, a project team consisting of the Institute of Gas Technology, Peabody Holding Company, and Bechtel Group, Inc. has been developing an advanced, mild gasification process to process all types of coal and to produce solid and condensable liquid co-products that can open new markets for coal. The three and a half year program (September 1987 to June 1991) consisted of investigations in four main areas. These areas are: (1) Literature Survey of Mild Gasification Processes, Co-Product Upgrading and Utilization, and Market Assessment; (2) Mild Gasification Technology Development: Process Research Unit Tests Using Slipstream Sampling; (3) Bench-Scale Char Upgrading Study; (4) Mild Gasification Technology Development: System Integration Studies. In this report, the literature and market assessment of mild gasification processes are discussed.

  3. Biofluid process: fluidised-bed gasification of biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dittrich, A. [ATEKO a.s., Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic)

    1996-12-31

    Fluidised-bed gasification of biomass was developed by ATEKO by using long-term experience from coal gasification. An experimental unit was built and a number of tests, first with sawdust gasification, were carried out. A gas combustion engine combined with a power generator was installed and operated in power production. (orig.)

  4. Biofluid process: fluidised-bed gasification of biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dittrich, A [ATEKO a.s., Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic)

    1997-12-31

    Fluidised-bed gasification of biomass was developed by ATEKO by using long-term experience from coal gasification. An experimental unit was built and a number of tests, first with sawdust gasification, were carried out. A gas combustion engine combined with a power generator was installed and operated in power production. (orig.)

  5. Coal gasification and the power production market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howington, K.; Flandermeyer, G.

    1995-01-01

    The US electric power production market is experiencing significant changes sparking interest in the current and future alternatives for power production. Coal gasification technology is being marketed to satisfy the needs of the volatile power production industry. Coal gasification is a promising power production process in which solid coal is burned to produce a synthesis gas (syn gas). The syn gas may be used to fuel combustion integrated into a facility producing electric power. Advantages of this technology include efficient power production, low flue gas emissions, flexible fuel utilization, broad capability for facility integration, useful process byproducts, and decreased waste disposal. The primary disadvantages are relatively high capital costs and lack of proven long-term operating experience. Developers of coal gasification intend to improve on these disadvantages and lop a strong position in the power generation market. This paper is a marketing analysis of the partial oxidation coal gasification processes emerging in the US in response to the market factors of the power production industry. A brief history of these processes is presented, including the results of recent projects exploring the feasibility of integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) as a power production alternative. The current power generation market factors are discussed, and the status of current projects is presented including projected performance

  6. MICRO AUTO GASIFICATION SYSTEM: EMISSIONS ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    A compact, CONEX-housed waste to energy unit, Micro Auto Gasification System (MAGS), was characterized for air emissions from burning of military waste types. The MAGS unit is a dual chamber gasifier with a secondary diesel-fired combustor. Eight tests were conducted with multiple waste types in a 7-day period at the Kilauea Military Camp in Hawai’i. The emissions characterized were chosen based on regulatory emissions limits as well as their ability to cause adverse health effects on humans: particulate matter (PM), mercury, heavy metals, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Three military waste feedstock compositions reflecting the variety of wastes to be encountered in theatre were investigated: standard waste (SW), standard waste with increased plastic content (HP), standard waste without SW food components but added first strike ration (FSR) food and packaging material (termed FSR). A fourth waste was collected from the Kilauea dumpster that served the dining facility and room lodging (KMC). Limited scrubber water and solid ash residue samples were collected to obtain a preliminary characterization of these effluents/residues.Gasifying SW, HP, and KMC resulted in similar PCDD/PCDF stack concentrations, 0.26-0.27 ng TEQ/m3 at 7% O2, while FSR waste generated a notably higher stack concentration of 0.68 ng TEQ/m3 at 7% O2. The PM emission

  7. A critical review on biomass gasification, co-gasification, and their environmental assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Farzad

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Gasification is an efficient process to obtain valuable products from biomass with several potential applications, which has received increasing attention over the last decades. Further development of gasification technology requires innovative and economical gasification methods with high efficiencies. Various conventional mechanisms of biomass gasification as well as new technologies are discussed in this paper. Furthermore, co-gasification of biomass and coal as an efficient method to protect the environment by reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG emissions has been comparatively discussed. In fact, the increasing attention to renewable resources is driven by the climate change due to GHG emissions caused by the widespread utilization of conventional fossil fuels, while biomass gasification is considered as a potentially sustainable and environmentally-friendly technology. Nevertheless, social and environmental aspects should also be taken into account when designing such facilities, to guarantee the sustainable use of biomass. This paper also reviews the life cycle assessment (LCA studies conducted on biomass gasification, considering different technologies and various feedstocks.

  8. Design and Optimization of an Integrated Biomass Gasification and Solid Oxide Fuel Cell System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang-Møller, Christian

    of the different operating conditions reveals an optimum for the chosen pressure ratio with respect to the resulting electrical efficiency. Furthermore, the SOFC operating temperature and fuel utilization should be maintained at a high level and the cathode temperature gradient maximized. Based on 1st and 2nd law...... based on biomass will improve the competitiveness of decentralized CHP production from biomass as well as move the development towards a more sustainable CHP production. The aim of this research is to contribute to enhanced electrical efficiencies and sustainability in future decentralized CHP plants....... The work deals with the coupling of thermal biomass gasification and solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), and specific focus is kept on exploring the potential performance of hybrid CHP systems based on the novel two-stage gasification concept and SOFCs. The two-stage gasification concept is developed...

  9. Gasification of waste. Summary and conclusions of twenty-five years of development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rensfelt, Erik [TPS Termiska Processer AB, Nykoeping (Sweden); Oestman, Anders [Kemiinformation AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2000-04-01

    An overview of nearly thirty years development of waste gasification and pyrolysis technology is given, and some major general conclusions are drawn. The aim has been to give new developers an overview of earlier major attempts to treat MSW/RDF with thermochemical processes, gasification or pyrolysis. Research work in general is not covered, only R and D efforts that have led to substantial testing in pilot scale or demonstration. For further details, especially related to ongoing R and D, readers are referred to other recent reviews. The authors' view is that gasification of RDF with appropriate gas cleaning can play an important role in the future, for environmentally acceptable and efficient energy production. A prerequisite is that some of the major mistakes can be avoided, such as: (1) too rapid scale-up without experimental base, (2) unsuitable pretreatment of MSW to RDF and poor integration with material recycling, and (3) too limited gas/flue gas cleaning.

  10. Biomass Gasification Research and Development Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahring, Birgitte K. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States)

    2014-07-22

    The overall objective of the BioChemCat project was to demonstrate the feasibility of using Advanced Wet Oxidation Steam-Explosion (AWEx) process to open and solubilize lignocellulosic biomass (LBM) coupled to an innovative mixed culture fermentation technology capable of producing a wide range of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) from all sugars present in LBM. The VFAs will then be separated and converted to hydrocarbon biofuel through catalytic upgrading. By continuously removing VFAs as they are produced (extractive fermentation), we were able to recover the VFAs while both eliminating the need for pH adjustment and increasing the fermentation productivity. The recovered VFAs were then esterified and upgraded to hydrocarbon fuels through a parallel series of hydrogenolysis/decarboxylation and dehydration reactions. We also demonstrated that a portion of the residual lignin fraction was solubilized and converted into VFAs, also improving the yields of VFAs. The remaining lignin fraction was then shown to be available (after dewatering and drying) for use as a lignin-enriched fuel pellet or as a feedstock for further processing.

  11. Modelling the low-tar BIG gasification concept[Biomass Integrated gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, Lars; Elmegaard, B.; Qvale, B.; Henriksen, Ulrrik [Technical univ. of Denmark (Denmark); Bentzen, J.D.; Hummelshoej, R. [COWI A/S (Denmark)

    2007-07-01

    A low-tar, high-efficient biomass gasification concept for medium- to large-scale power plants has been designed. The concept is named 'Low-Tar BIG' (BIG = Biomass Integrated Gasification). The concept is based on separate pyrolysis and gasification units. The volatile gases from the pyrolysis (containing tar) are partially oxidised in a separate chamber, and hereby the tar content is dramatically reduced. Thus, the investment, and running cost of a gas cleaning system can be reduced, and the reliability can be increased. Both pyrolysis and gasification chamber are bubbling fluid beds, fluidised with steam. For moist fuels, the gasifier can be integrated with a steam drying process, where the produced steam is used in the pyrolysis/gasification chamber. In this paper, mathematical models and results from initial tests of a laboratory Low-Tar BIG gasifier are presented. Two types of models are presented: 1. The gasifier-dryer applied in different power plant systems: Gas engine, Simple cycle gas turbine, Recuperated gas turbine and Integrated Gasification and Combined Cycle (IGCC). The paper determines the differences in efficiency of these systems and shows that the gasifier will be applicable for very different fuels with different moisture contents, depending on the system. 2. A thermodynamic Low-Tar BIG model. This model is based on mass and heat balance between four reactors: Pyrolysis, partial oxidation, gasification, gas-solid mixer. The paper describes the results from this study and compares the results to actual laboratory tests. The study shows, that the Low-Tar BIG process can use very wet fuels (up to 65-70% moist) and still produce heat and power with a remarkable high electric efficiency. Hereby the process offers the unique combination of large scale gasification and low-cost gas cleaning and use of low-cost fuels which very likely is the necessary combination that will lead to a breakthrough of gasification technology. (au)

  12. Gasification of biomass and coal in a pressurised fluidised bed gasifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andries, J; Jong, W de; Hein, K R.G. [Technische Univ. Delft (Netherlands)

    1998-09-01

    During a 3 year (1996-1998) multinational JOULE project, partly funded by the EU, experimental and theoretical research is being done on co-gasification of biomass (pelletised straw and Miscanthus) and coal in a pressurised fluidised bed reactor. The influence of feedstock and operating conditions on gasification characteristics has been studied using a 1.5 MW{sub th} gasifier, which has been operated at a pressure of 5 bar and temperatures up to 900 C. The project and the test rig are described and results obtained in the first part of the project are presented and analysed. (orig.)

  13. Dynamic models of staged gasification processes. Documentation of gasification simulator; Dynamiske modeller a f trinopdelte forgasningsprocesser. Dokumentation til forgasser simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-02-15

    In connection with the ERP project 'Dynamic modelling of staged gasification processes' a gasification simulator has been constructed. The simulator consists of: a mathematical model of the gasification process developed at Technical University of Denmark, a user interface programme, IGSS, and a communication interface between the two programmes. (BA)

  14. Biomass Gasification Technology Assessment: Consolidated Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worley, M.; Yale, J.

    2012-11-01

    Harris Group Inc. (HGI) was commissioned by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory to assess gasification and tar reforming technologies. Specifically, the assessments focused on gasification and tar reforming technologies that are capable of producing a syngas suitable for further treatment and conversion to liquid fuels. HGI gathered sufficient information to analyze three gasification and tar reforming systems. This report summarizes the equipment, general arrangement of the equipment, operating characteristics, and operating severity for each technology. The order of magnitude capital cost estimates are supported by a basis-of-estimate write-up, which is also included in this report. The report also includes Microsoft Excel workbook models, which can be used to design and price the systems. The models can be used to analyze various operating capacities and pressures. Each model produces a material balance, equipment list, capital cost estimate, equipment drawings and preliminary general arrangement drawings. Example outputs of each model are included in the Appendices.

  15. Pressurized pyrolysis and gasification behaviour of black liquor and biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitty, K.; Backman, R.; Hupa, M. [Aabo Akademi, Turku (Finland)

    1996-12-01

    The objective of this project is to obtain basic experimental data on pyrolysis and gasification of various black liquors and biofuels at elevated pressures, and to model these processes. Liquor-to-liquor differences in conversion behavior of single liquor droplets during gasification at atmospheric pressure were investigated. The applicability of a rate equation developed for catalyzed gasification of carbon was investigated with regard to pressurized black liquor gasification. A neural network was developed to simulate the progression of char conversion during pressurized black liquor gasification. Pyrolysis of black liquor in a pressurized drop-tube furnace was investigated in collaboration with KTH in Stockholm. (author)

  16. Catalytic gasification of oil-shales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapidus, A.; Avakyan, T. [I.M. Gubkin Russian State Univ. of Oil and Gas, Moscow (Russian Federation); Strizhakova, Yu. [Samara State Univ. (Russian Federation)

    2012-07-01

    Nowadays, the problem of complex usage of solid fossil fuels as raw materials for obtaining of motor fuels and chemical products is becoming increasingly important. A one of possible solutions of the problem is their gasification with further processing of gaseous and liquid products. In this work we have investigated the process of thermal and catalytic gasification of Baltic and Kashpir oil-shales. We have shown that, as compared with non-catalytic process, using of nickel catalyst in the reaction increases the yield of gas, as well as hydrogen content in it, and decreases the amount of liquid products. (orig.)

  17. Fiscal 1999 research report. Support project for formation of the energy and environment technology demonstration project (International joint demonstration research). Underground coal gasification and cogeneration power plant construction plan; 1999 nendo sekitan chika gas ka oyobi netsuden heikyu plant kensetsu keikaku seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This research was made as the joint demonstration research project with National Mining University of Ukraine having abundant scientific information on underground coal gasification (UCG) technology. The research themes are as follows: (1) Verification of UCG element technologies, (2) Verification and proposal on combined cycle power generation, (3) Profitability of UCG, and (4) Future trend of UCG. The result of (1) on linking, ignition and UCG reaction process control technologies showed that the level of Ukraine is equivalent to that of leading western countries. Thermal behavior simulation on ground water, and experiment on mass transfer considering environment impact were also made. The result of (2) showed low calorific value of UCG gas, difficulty in use as chemical raw material or power generation fuel, and applicability to only small-scale cogeneration systems. The result of (3) showed the profitability of UCG gas higher than that of general coals. The result of (4) showed that in spite of various problems, UCG is very practical and promising as near future coal use technology. (NEDO)

  18. Biomass Gasification in Internal Circulating Fluidized Beds: a Thermodynamic Predictive Tool

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Miccio, F.; Svoboda, Karel; Schosger, J.-P.; Baxter, D.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 4 (2008), s. 721-726 ISSN 0256-1115 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : fluidized bed * gasification * fluidized bed Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 0.830, year: 2008

  19. Development of the MILENA gasification technology for the production of Bio-SNG

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijden, van der C.M.

    2010-01-01

    The production of Substitute Natural Gas from biomass (Bio-SNG) is an attractive option to reduce CO2 emissions and replace declining fossil natural gas reserves. The Energy research Center of the Netherlands (ECN) is working on the development of the MILENA gasification technology that is ideally

  20. Co-gasification of a lignite/waste-tyre in a moving bed

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Straka, Pavel; Bučko, Z.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 90, č. 10 (2009), s. 1202-1206 ISSN 0378-3820 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA105/07/1407 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : co-gasification * waste-tyre * lignite Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 2.321, year: 2009

  1. Advancement of High Temperature Black Liquor Gasification Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craig Brown; Ingvar Landalv; Ragnar Stare; Jerry Yuan; Nikolai DeMartini; Nasser Ashgriz

    2008-03-31

    Weyerhaeuser operates the world's only commercial high-temperature black liquor gasifier at its pulp mill in New Bern, NC. The unit was started-up in December 1996 and currently processes about 15% of the mill's black liquor. Weyerhaeuser, Chemrec AB (the gasifier technology developer), and the U.S. Department of Energy recognized that the long-term, continuous operation of the New Bern gasifier offered a unique opportunity to advance the state of high temperature black liquor gasification toward the commercial-scale pressurized O2-blown gasification technology needed as a foundation for the Forest Products Bio-Refinery of the future. Weyerhaeuser along with its subcontracting partners submitted a proposal in response to the 2004 joint USDOE and USDA solicitation - 'Biomass Research and Development Initiative'. The Weyerhaeuser project 'Advancement of High Temperature Black Liquor Gasification' was awarded USDOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42259 in November 2004. The overall goal of the DOE sponsored project was to utilize the Chemrec{trademark} black liquor gasification facility at New Bern as a test bed for advancing the development status of molten phase black liquor gasification. In particular, project tasks were directed at improvements to process performance and reliability. The effort featured the development and validation of advanced CFD modeling tools and the application of these tools to direct burner technology modifications. The project also focused on gaining a fundamental understanding and developing practical solutions to address condensate and green liquor scaling issues, and process integration issues related to gasifier dregs and product gas scrubbing. The Project was conducted in two phases with a review point between the phases. Weyerhaeuser pulled together a team of collaborators to undertake these tasks. Chemrec AB, the technology supplier, was intimately involved in most tasks, and focused primarily on the

  2. Commercial low-Btu coal-gasification plant. Feasibility study: General Refractories Company, Florence, Kentucky. Volume I. Project summary. [Wellman-Galusha

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-11-01

    In response to a 1980 Department of Energy solicitation, the General Refractories Company submitted a Proposal for a feasibility study of a low Btu gasification facility for its Florence, KY plant. The proposed facility would substitute low Btu gas from a fixed bed gasifier for natural gas now used in the manufacture of insulation board. The Proposal from General Refractories was prompted by a concern over the rising costs of natural gas, and the anticipation of a severe increase in fuel costs resulting from deregulation. The proposed feasibility study is defined. The intent is to provide General Refractories with the basis upon which to determine the feasibility of incorporating such a facility in Florence. To perform the work, a Grant for which was awarded by the DOE, General Refractories selected Dravo Engineers and Contractors based upon their qualifications in the field of coal conversion, and the fact that Dravo has acquired the rights to the Wellman-Galusha technology. The LBG prices for the five-gasifier case are encouraging. Given the various natural gas forecasts available, there seems to be a reasonable possibility that the five-gasifier LBG prices will break even with natural gas prices somewhere between 1984 and 1989. General Refractories recognizes that there are many uncertainties in developing these natural gas forecasts, and if the present natural gas decontrol plan is not fully implemented some financial risks occur in undertaking the proposed gasification facility. Because of this, General Refractories has decided to wait for more substantiating evidence that natural gas prices will rise as is now being predicted.

  3. Catalytic Steam Reforming of Toluene as a Model Compound of Biomass Gasification Tar Using Ni-CeO2/SBA-15 Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Dahlquist

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Nickel supported on SBA-15 doped with CeO2 catalysts (Ni-CeO2/SBA-15 was prepared, and used for steam reforming of toluene which was selected as a model compound of biomass gasification tar. A fixed-bed lab-scale set was designed and employed to evaluate the catalytic performances of the Ni-CeO2/SBA-15 catalysts. Experiments were performed to reveal the effects of several factors on the toluene conversion and product gas composition, including the reaction temperature, steam/carbon (S/C ratio, and CeO2 loading content. Moreover, the catalysts were subjected to analysis of their carbon contents after the steam reforming experiments, as well as to test the catalytic stability over a long experimental period. The results indicated that the Ni-CeO2/SBA-15 catalysts exhibited promising capabilities on the toluene conversion, anti-coke deposition and catalytic stability. The toluene conversion reached as high as 98.9% at steam reforming temperature of 850 °C and S/C ratio of 3 using the Ni-CeO2(3wt%/SBA-15 catalyst. Negligible coke formation was detected on the used catalyst. The gaseous products mainly consisted of H2 and CO, together with a little CO2 and CH4.

  4. Commercialization Development of Crop Straw Gasification Technologies in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengfeng Zhang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Crop straw gasification technologies are the most promising biomass gasification technologies and have great potential to be further developed in China. However, the commercialization development of gasification technology in China is slow. In this paper, the technical reliability and practicability of crop straw gasification technologies, the economic feasibility of gas supply stations, the economic feasibility of crop straw gasification equipment manufacture enterprises and the social acceptability of crop straw gasification technologies are analyzed. The results show that presently both the atmospheric oxidation gasification technology and the carbonization pyrolysis gasification technology in China are mature and practical, and can provide fuel gas for households. However, there are still a series of problems associated with these technologies that need to be solved for the commercialization development, such as the high tar and CO content of the fuel gas. The economic feasibility of the gas supply stations is different in China. Parts of gas supply stations are unprofitable due to high initial investment, the low fuel gas price and the small numbers of consumers. In addition, the commercialization development of crop straw gasification equipment manufacture enterprises is hindered for the low market demand for gasification equipment which is related to the fund support from the government. The acceptance of the crop straw gasification technologies from both the government and the farmers in China may be a driving force of further commercialization development of the gasification technologies. Then, the crop straw gasification technologies in China have reached at the stage of pre-commercialization. At this stage, the gasification technologies are basically mature and have met many requirements of commercialization, however, some incentives are needed to encourage their further development.

  5. Commercialisation BIVKIN-based gasification technology. Non-confidential version

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Drift, A.; De Kant, H.F.; Rajani, J.B.

    2000-08-01

    In 1996, the Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (ECN) in Petten, Netherlands, developed and built a circulating fluidized bed gasification process BIVKIN (Dutch abbreviation for biomass gasification installation) in co-operation with Novem, Afvalzorg and Stork. The plant was initially used at the ECN location in Petten for the characterisation of more than 15 different biomass species, including wood, sludge, grass and manure. During this test work, it was discovered that BIVKIN was an ideal tool for gasification of such diverse biomass at various thermal outputs. ECN has been conducting tests to improve the gas quality so that such fuel gas can be used for the generation of electricity by the use of a gas engine. In order to bring the BIVKIN technology to the commercial market, ECN, Shell and HoSt performed a study to evaluate the engineering concept and cost of such a design in detail. With this study, co-financed by Novem, the commercial viability of the BIVKIN technology in the electrical output range of 1 to 5 MW, is determined. For this relatively small scale, it is assumed that the extra positive cash flow due to selling the heat can compensate the higher investment per kW compared to large-scale systems where the produced heat generally cannot be used. This report is a reflection of the study to commercialise the BIVKIN technology. The BIVKIN-technology will be compared with alternative technologies commercially available for the power range under consideration. Both technical and economic evaluations will be presented. 12 refs

  6. Proceedings of the seventh annual gasification and gas stream cleanup systems contractors review meeting: Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghate, M.R.; Markel, K.E. Jr.; Jarr, L.A.; Bossart, S.J. (eds.)

    1987-08-01

    On June 16 through 19, 1987, METC sponsored the Seventh Annual Gasification and Gas Stream Cleanup Systems Contractors Review Meeting which was held at the Sheraton Lakeview Conference Center in Morgantown, West Virginia. The primary purpose of the meeting was threefold: to review the technical progress and current status of the gasification and gas stream cleanup projects sponsored by the Department of Energy; to foster technology exchange among participating researchers and other technical communities; to facilitate interactive dialogues which would identify research needs that would make coal-based gasification systems more attractive economically and environmentally. More than 310 representatives of Government, academia, industry, and foreign energy research organizations attended the 4-day meeting. Fifty-three papers and thirty poster dsplays were presented summarizing recent developments in the gasification and gas stream cleanup programs. Volume II covers papers presented at sessions 5 and 6 on system for the production of synthesis gas, and on system for the production of power. All papers have been processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  7. Proceedings of the seventh annual gasification and gas stream cleanup systems contractors review meeting: Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghate, M.R.; Markel, K.E. Jr.; Jarr, L.A.; Bossart, S.J. (eds.)

    1987-08-01

    On June 16 through 19, 1987, METC sponsored the Seventh Annual Gasification and Gas Stream Cleanup Systems Contractors Review Meeting which was held at the Sheraton Lakeview Conference Center in Morgantown, West Virginia. The primary purpose of the meeting was threefold: to review the technical progress and current status of the gasification and gas stream cleanup projects sponsored by the Department of Energy; to foster technology exchange among participating researchers and other technical communities; to facilitate interactive dialogues which would identify research needs that would make coal-based gasification systems more attractive economically and environmentally. More than 310 representatives of Government, academia, industry, and foreign energy research organizations attended the 4-day meeting. Fifty-three papers and thirty poster displays were presented summarizing recent developments in the gasification and gas stream cleanup programs. Volume I covers information presented at sessions 1 through 4 on systems for the production of Co-products and industrial fuel gas, environmental projects, and components and materials. Individual papers have been processed for the Energy Data Base.

  8. Energy from waste by gasification; Energi ur avfall genom foergasning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padban, Nader; Nilsson, Torbjoern; Berge, Niklas [TPS Termiska Processer AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    2002-12-01

    At present the investigation on alternative techniques to solve the problem with the growing amount of the wastes within European countries is a highly propitiated research area. The driving forces behind this priority are the current EU-legislations regarding the ban on landfill of combustible wastes and also the regulation on emission limits from waste treatment plants. The alternatives for waste treatment besides recycling are incineration, direct co-combustion and gasification. Co-combustion of waste with biomass can be considered a short-term solution for the problem but has the disadvantages of decreasing the capacity for clean fuels such as biomass and set demands on intensive modifications in the existing heat or heat and power plants. Waste gasification is an attractive alternative that can compete with incineration and co-combustion processes when the environmental and economical aspects are concerned. The product gas from a waste gasifier can be burned alone in conventional oil fired boilers or be co-fired with biomass in biomass plant. Fuel quality, gas cleaning system and questions related to ash treatment are the key parameters that must be considered in design and construction of a waste gasification process. Gasification of waste fractions that have limited contents of contaminants such as nitrogen, sulfur and chlorine will simplify the gas cleaning procedure and increase the competitiveness of the process. Heavy metals will be in captured in the fly ash if a gas filtering temperature below 200 deg C is applied. Activated carbon can be used as a sorbent for mercury, lime or alkali for capturing chlorine. For fuels with low Zn content a higher gas filtering temperature can be applied. Direct co-combustion or gasification/co-combustion of a fuel with low heating value affects two main parameters in the boiler: the adiabatic combustion temperature and the total capacity of the boiler. It is possible to co-fire: a) sorted MSW: 25%, b) sorted industrial

  9. Technologies and trends in biomass gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stassen, H.E.M.

    1994-01-01

    Background information is given on the growing interest of energy from biomass. After a brief overview of the advantages and disadvantages of biomass gasification systems, a state of the art of the technology is given. Finally, recent developments in the Netherlands and abroad are mentioned. 3 figs

  10. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: TEXACO GASIFICATION PROCESS TEXACO, INC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Texaco Gasification Process (TGP) has operated commercially for nearly 45 years on feeds such as natural gas, liquid petroleum fractions, coal, and petroleum coke. More than 45 plants are either operational or under development in the United States and abroad. Texaco has dev...

  11. MICRO AUTO GASIFICATION SYSTEM: EMISSIONS CHARACTERIZATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    A compact, CONEX-housed waste to energy unit, Micro Auto Gasification System (MAGS), was characterized for air emissions from burning of military waste types. The MAGS unit is a dual chamber gasifier with a secondary diesel-fired combustor. Eight tests were conducted with multipl...

  12. Mississippi Ethanol Gasification Project, Final Scientific / Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearson, Larry, E.

    2007-04-30

    much progress. However, the current state of biological technology is not deemed to be ready commercially. A preliminary estimate of capital and operating costs of a 12000 gallon per day gasification/biological facility was developed for comparison purposes. In addition, during the biological organism screening and testing, some possible alternative products were identified. One such possibility is the biological production of bio-diesel. Additional research is necessary for further evaluation of all of the biological concepts.

  13. Preliminary experimental studies of waste coal gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, S.; Jin, Y.G.; Yu, X.X.; Worrall, R. [CSIRO, Brisbane, QLD (Australia). Advanced Coal Technology

    2013-07-01

    Coal mining is one of Australia's most important industries. It was estimated that coal washery rejects from black coal mining was approximately 1.82 billion tonnes from 1960 to 2009 in Australia, and is projected to produce another one billion tonnes by 2018 at the current production rate. To ensure sustainability of the Australian coal industry, we have explored a new potential pathway to create value from the coal waste through production of liquid fuels or power generation using produced syngas from waste coal gasification. Consequently, environmental and community impacts of the solid waste could be minimized. However, the development of an effective waste coal gasification process is a key to the new pathway. An Australian mine site with a large reserve of waste coal was selected for the study, where raw waste coal samples including coarse rejects and tailings were collected. After investigating the initial raw waste coal samples, float/sink testing was conducted to achieve a desired ash target for laboratory-scale steam gasification testing and performance evaluation. The preliminary gasification test results show that carbon conversions of waste coal gradually increase as the reaction proceeds, which indicates that waste coal can be gasified by a steam gasification process. However, the carbon conversion rates are relatively low, only reaching to 20-30%. Furthermore, the reactivity of waste coal samples with a variety of ash contents under N{sub 2}/air atmosphere have been studied by a home-made thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) apparatus that can make the sample reach the reaction temperature instantly.

  14. Biomass gasification, stage 2 LTH. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjerle, I.; Chambert, L.; Hallgren, A.; Hellgren, R.; Johansson, Anders; Mirazovic, M.; Maartensson, R.; Padban, N.; Ye Zhicheng [comps.] [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Engineering II

    1996-11-01

    This report presents the final report of the first phase of a project dealing with a comprehensive investigation on pressurized biomass gasification. The intention with the project first phase was firstly to design, install and to take in operation a PCFB biomass gasifier. A thorough feasibility study was made during the first half year including extensive calculations on an internal circulating fluidized bed concept. The experimental phase was intended to study pressurized gasification up to 2.5 MPa (N{sub 2}, air) at temperatures in the interval 850-950 deg C. The more specific experimental objective was to examine the impact from various process conditions on the product formation as well as on the function of the different systems. The technical concept has been able to offer novel approaches regarding biomass feeding and PCFB gasification. The first gasification test run was made in December 1993 after almost 18 months of installation work. Extensive work was made during 1994 and the first half of 1995 to find the balance of the PCFB gasifier. It turned out to be very difficult to find operating parameters such that gave a stable circulation of the bed material during gasification mode. Apparently, the produced gas partly changed the pressure profile over the riser which in turn gave unstable operation. After a comprehensive investigation involving more than 100 hours of tests runs it was decided to leave the circulating bed concept and focus on bubbling bed operations. The test rig is currently operating as a bubbling bed gasifier. 4 refs, 24 figs, 6 tabs

  15. Carbon behavior in the cyclic operation of dry desulfurization process for oxy-fuel integrated gasification combined cycle power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Makoto; Akiho, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Power plant with semi-closed gas turbine and O_2–CO_2 coal gasifier was studied. • Dry gas sulfur removal sorbent was improved for durability to carbon deposition. • The improved sorbent showed very low amount of deposited carbon during operation. • The sorbent is regenerable to be used repeatedly in the cyclic operation. • The sorbent exhibited high sulfur-removal performance in the cyclic operation. - Abstract: The dry sulfur-removal process is essential to provide suitable syngas treatment for the oxy-fuel integrated gasification combined cycle power generation plant. It is required that the dry sulfur-removal process to be durable to the carbon deposition due to syngas containing high concentration of carbon monoxide in addition to achieve sufficient performance for sulfur removal. Zinc ferrite sorbent is the most promising candidate for the dry sulfur-removal process. The sorbent was improved to enhance durability to the carbon deposition by modifying preparation. The improved sorbent was prepared from sulfates as the raw materials of zinc ferrite, while the former sorbent was using nitrates as the raw materials. The improved sorbent as well as the former sorbent were evaluated on the performance and carbon deposition tendency in oxy-fuel syngas condition in a fixed bed reactor at elevated pressure and temperature. The results expressed that the improved sorbent has higher desulfurization performance and durability to carbon deposition in the condition expected for cyclic operation of the sulfur-removal process in comparison with the former sorbent. The improved sorbent possessed the superior desulfurization performance as well as the capability for inhibit carbon deposition in the oxy-fuel syngas conditions. The results confirmed the enhanced feasibility of the dry sulfur-removal process by utilizing the improved sorbent.

  16. Gasification : converting low value feedstocks to high value products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koppel, P.; Lorden, D.

    2009-01-01

    This presentation provided a historic overview of the gasification process and described the process chemistry of its two primary reactions, notably partial oxidation and steam reforming. The gasification process involves converting low value carbonaceous solid or liquid feeds to a synthetic gas by reacting the feed with oxygen and steam under high pressure and temperature conditions. Since the gasifier operates under a reducing environment instead of an oxidizing environment, mist sulphur is converted to hydrogen sulphide instead of sulphur dioxide. The gasification process also involves cleaning up synthetic gas and acid gas removal; recovery of conventional sulphur; and combustion or further processing of clean synthetic gas. This presentation also outlined secondary reactions such as methanation, water shift, and carbon formation. The negative effects of gasification were also discussed, with particular reference to syngas; metal carbonyls; soot; and slag. Other topics that were presented included world syngas production capacity by primary feedstock; operating IGCC projects; natural gas demand by oil sands supply and demand considerations; reasons for using the gasification process; gasifier feedstocks; and gasification products. The presentation concluded with a discussion of gasification licensors; gasification technologies; gasification experience; and the regulatory situation for greenhouse gas. Gasification has demonstrated excellent environmental performance with sulphur recovery greater than 99 per cent, depending on the the recovery process chosen. The opportunity also exists for carbon dioxide recovery. tabs., figs.

  17. Biomass low-temperature gasification in a rotary reactor prior to cofiring of syngas in power boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostrowski, Piotr; Maj, Izabella; Kalisz, Sylwester; Polok, Michał

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • An innovative method of gasification with use of flue gas was investigated. • Gasification temperature ranging from 350 °C was considered. • Discussed gasification unit is connected to a power boiler. • Syngas with combustible components is recirculated to the boiler. • Wide range of biomass and waste fuels can be used as a feedstock. - Abstract: The paper presents results of the investigation of an innovative biomass and alternative fuel low-temperature gasification method before co-firing in industrial or power plant boilers. Before running industrial-size installation, laboratory tests were carried out to determine usability of alternative fuels to low-temperature gasification process. Tests were conducted in a laboratory reactor designed and constructed specifically for this purpose. The experimental stand enables recording of the weight loss of a sample and syngas composition. The process occurs for a fuel sample of a constant weight and known granulation and with a flue gas of known composition used as a gasifying agent. The aim of the laboratory research was to determine the usability of selected biomass fuel for indirect co-firing in power boilers and to build a knowledge base for industrial-size process by defining the process kinetics (time for fuel to remain in the reactor), recommended fuel granulation and process temperature. Presented industrial-size gasification unit has been successfully built in Marcel power plant in Radlin town, Poland. It consist an innovative rotary gasification reactor. Gasification process takes place with use of flue gas from coal and coke-oven fired boiler as a gasifying agent with recirculation of resulting gas (syngas) with combustible components: CO, H 2 , CH 4 . C n H m to the boiler’s combustion chamber. The construction of the reactor allows the use of a wide range of fuels (biomass, industrial waste and municipal waste). This paper presents the results of the reactor tests using coniferous

  18. Gasification of Agroresidues for Syngas Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Cerone

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Biomass residues from agriculture and agroindustry are suitable sources for the production of energy because they don’t compete with the food chain and they are produced cheaply. Their transformation into heat and power or energy vectors depends on morphology and composition. Shells of almonds and hazelnuts can be easily gasified in fixed beds because of their low fines content and high gas permeation. In this work we investigated the overall process performances and syngas composition, especially the H2/CO ratio, by changing the air and steam supply. The tests were carried out in a pilot updraft gasifier having a capacity of treating up to 20–30 kg/h of biomass. Experimental data were worked out by surface response analysis as function of the equivalence ratios (ER in relation to the complete combustion and water reaction. By using only air at ER(O2 0.24 the ratio H2/CO in the syngas was 0.33 while adding steam at ER(H2O 0.28 the ratio reached a value of 1.0. The energy conversion efficiency from solid to gas and oils reached maximum values of 76% and 28%, respectively. As anticipated by TGA, hazelnut shells produced less organic volatiles and gas efficiency was generally higher than for almond shells.

  19. Review of the technology for solar gasification of carbonaceous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epstein, M.; Spiewak, I.; Funken, K.H.; Ortner, J.

    1994-01-01

    Research has demonstrated the feasibility of solar assisted gasification of carbonaceous materials to form synthesis gas (syngas). The potential feedstocks range from natural gas, residual oil, biomass, and oil-shale to coal. The expected advantages of such processing are yields of syngas with calorific values above those of the carbonaceous feedstocks, syngas quality suited to production of hydrogen, methanol or bulk Fischer-Tropsch fuels, and the ability to process low-grade and waste materials with essentially no emissions to atmosphere other than small amounts of CO 2 . The review provides some background on solar receiver concepts to reach the high temperatures needed for syngas production, the basic chemistry involved, covers applicable experiments that have been reported with solar inputs and with conventional heating, heat transfer processes, process and energy balances, and cost analysis. Approximately 80 references are cited. The authors present their views on the most promising approaches to solar-assisted gasification, the technology development required, and the ultimate benefits of such development and commercialization

  20. The prospect of hazardous sludge reduction through gasification process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakiki, R.; Wikaningrum, T.; Kurniawan, T.

    2018-01-01

    Biological sludge generated from centralized industrial WWTP is classified as toxic and hazardous waste based on the Indonesian’s Government Regulation No. 101/2014. The amount of mass and volume of sludge produced have an impact in the cost to manage or to dispose. The main objective of this study is to identify the opportunity of gasification technology which can be applied to reduce hazardous sludge quantity before sending to the final disposal. This preliminary study covers the technical and economic assessment of the application of gasification process, which was a combination of lab-scale experimental results and assumptions based on prior research. The results showed that the process was quite effective in reducing the amount and volume of hazardous sludge which results in reducing the disposal costs without causing negative impact on the environment. The reduced mass are moisture and volatile carbon which are decomposed, while residues are fix carbon and other minerals which are not decomposed by thermal process. The economical simulation showed that the project will achieve payback period in 2.5 years, IRR value of 53 % and BC Ratio of 2.3. The further study in the pilot scale to obtain the more accurate design and calculations is recommended.