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Sample records for fixation extraosseuse du

  1. Extraosseus Ewing sarcoma: An uncommon periclavicular location

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Albarello, MD

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A rapidly enlarging right sternoclavicular mass in a young male was labeled as a nonspecific mass. MRI played a crucial role in characterizing the lesion, helping to define the possible mesenchymal origin and the relative involvement of the surrounding structures. We also discuss the differential diagnosis of an extraosseus Ewing sarcoma (ES, with its imaging findings.

  2. Extraosseous radiotracer uptake on bone scan in beta-thalassemia: report of one case; Fixation extraosseuse du radiotraceur lors de la realisation d'une scintigraphie du squelette chez un patient atteint de beta-thalassemie: a propos d'un cas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guezguez, M.; Nouira, M.; Sfar, R.; Chatti, K.; Ben Fradj, M.; Ben Ali, K.; Ajmi, S.; Essabbah, H. [CHU Sahloul, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Sousse (Tunisia); Zrour, S. [EPS F. Bourguiba, Service de Rhumatologie, Monastir (Tunisia)

    2009-10-15

    Red blood cell transfusion, main therapeutic modality of beta-thalassemia, leads to iron overload which may perturb several metabolic ways. The aim of this paper is to illustrate the uptake abnormalities observed on bone scan of thalassaemic patients and to discuss mechanisms of extraosseous accumulation of the radiopharmaceutical in this pathology. We report a 16-year-old child suffering from beta-thalassemia major undergoing transfusion therapy. A bone scan was indicated to look for osseous infection. This study revealed a little skeletal uptake and abnormal liver, splenic and renal accumulation. A repeat bone scan, performed three weeks later showed a better skeletal uptake which enabled the discovery of focal abnormalities and made the diagnostic easier. The effect of iron overload on radiopharmaceuticals uptake in bone scan is known since 1975. Dissociation of {sup 99m}Tc from the carrier ligand due to the presence of iron excess seems the most plausible hypothesis. Free {sup 99m}Tc can be bound to other tissular substrates which can explain extraosseous uptake. The normally available pool for bone is reduced and then the skeletal uptake decreased. This report limits considerably the sensitivity of the bone scan. A well-led iron chelation and eventually the use of diuretic drug may guarantee a better quality of bone scan images. (authors)

  3. Bilan phosphore du sol et fixation de l'azote dans fermes laitières biologiques de l'Ontario et de la Nouvelle-Écosse

    OpenAIRE

    Main, Michael; Lynch, Derek; Ward, Amanda; Voroney, Paul; Schneider, Kim; Juurlink, Shelly

    2010-01-01

    Les légumineuses sont une source importante d'azote (N) en production biologique. Toutefois, il est prouvé que de trop faibles intrants peuvent entraîner une carence de phosphore du sol (P) dans les fermes laitières biologiques (Roberts et coll., 2008), et une réduction possible du rendement des cultures et de la fixation de N par les légumineuses fourragères. La présente étude vise à évaluer le lien entre la dynamique du P du sol et la fixation de l’azote par les légumineuses en gestion biol...

  4. Breast cancer: influence of biochemical and anatomo-pathological factors on the {sup 18}F-F.D.G. fixation;Cancer du sein: influence des facteurs biochimiques et anatomopathologiques sur la fixation du {sup 18}F-FDG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groheux, D.; Hindie, E.; Vercellino, L.; Moretti, J.L. [Hopital Saint-louis, Service de medecine nucleaire, 75 - Paris (France); Giacchetti, S.; Misset, J.L.; Espie, M. [Hopital Saint-louis, Service des maladies du sein, 75 - Paris (France); Porcher, R. [Hopital Saint-louis, unite de biostatistique, 75 - Paris (France); Lehmann-Che, J. [Hopital Saint-louis, service de biochimie, 75 - Paris (France); De Roquancourt, A. [Hopital Saint-louis, service d' anatomie pathologique, 75 - Paris (France)

    2010-05-15

    The detection of the breast cancer by PET {sup 18}F-F.D.G. depends on the size and nature of the tumor. By disregarding the effect of partial volume, the aim of this work has been to show the impact of biochemical and anatomo-pathological factors on the {sup 18}F-F.D.G. fixation. (N.C.)

  5. Prognosis factors of the metastatic thyroid differentiated cancer: value of the iodo-fixation on the secondary sites; Facteurs pronostiques du cancer differencie thyroidien metastatique: valeur de la iodo-fixation sur les sites secondaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benisvy, D.; Benoliel, J.; Fontana, X.; Bussiere, F.; Darcourt, J. [Service de medecine nucleaire, centre Antoine-Lacassagne, Nice, (France); Chamorey, E. [unite de biostatistique, centre Antoine-Lacassagne, Nice, (France)

    2009-05-15

    The survival of patients with a differentiated thyroid cancer of follicle strain with distant metastases is very variable, going from 14 to 95% at ten year. The study of factors influencing the prognosis stays essential in order to adapt the therapy. Conclusions: According to the results published in other series, the prognosis variables were age, histology, metastases extension and the number of ira therapies. On the other hand, the existence of iodine fixation at the metastases level was not significantly correlated to a better survival. This study enlightens the importance to quantify objectively the character iodo fixing of metastases, that cannot be evaluated after resection of the remainder on a whole body scintigraphy with a strong dose. (N.C.)

  6. In vitro binding of plutonium to human transferrin and competition reaction with ferric ions; Fixation in vitro du plutonium sur la siderophiline humaine et reaction de competition avec l'ion ferrique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massey, P.; Lafuma, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    Plutonium was found to bind strongly to human transferrin, however a maximum capacity of absorption was observed. Presaturation with iron of transferrin resulted in a decrease of plutonium binding, but it still remained appreciable. It was largely affected by the pH as well as by the degree of ferric saturation of the transferrin. (authors) [French] Le plutonium se fixe solidement sur la siderophiline humaine, toutefois on assiste a une capacite d'absorption limite. Une presaturation par le fer de la siderophiline, diminue l'attraction du plutonium, cependant celle-ci reste importante. L'influence du pH est tres importante ainsi que les degres de saturation ferrique de la siderophiline. (auteurs)

  7. Latarjet Fixation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvi, Hasham M.; Monroe, Emily J.; Muriuki, Muturi; Verma, Rajat N.; Marra, Guido; Saltzman, Matthew D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Attritional bone loss in patients with recurrent anterior instability has successfully been treated with a bone block procedure such as the Latarjet. It has not been previously demonstrated whether cortical or cancellous screws are superior when used for this procedure. Purpose: To assess the strength of stainless steel cortical screws versus stainless steel cannulated cancellous screws in the Latarjet procedure. Study Design: Controlled laboratory study. Methods: Ten fresh-frozen matched-pair shoulder specimens were randomized into 2 separate fixation groups: (1) 3.5-mm stainless steel cortical screws and (2) 4.0-mm stainless steel partially threaded cannulated cancellous screws. Shoulder specimens were dissected free of all soft tissue and a 25% glenoid defect was created. The coracoid process was osteomized, placed at the site of the glenoid defect, and fixed in place with 2 parallel screws. Results: All 10 specimens failed by screw cutout. Nine of 10 specimens failed by progressive displacement with an increased number of cycles. One specimen in the 4.0-mm screw group failed by catastrophic failure on initiation of the testing protocol. The 3.5-mm screws had a mean of 274 cycles (SD, ±171 cycles; range, 10-443 cycles) to failure. The 4.0-mm screws had a mean of 135 cycles (SD, ±141 cycles; range, 0-284 cycles) to failure. There was no statistically significant difference between the 2 types of screws for cycles required to cause failure (P = .144). Conclusion: There was no statistically significant difference in energy or cycles to failure when comparing the stainless steel cortical screws versus partially threaded cannulated cancellous screws. Clinical Relevance: Latarjet may be performed using cortical or cancellous screws without a clear advantage of either option. PMID:27158630

  8. Du fratinoj

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    Vivis iam du fratinoj-Aje kaj Fatme.Iliapatrino estis duon-patrino por Fatme kaj in neamis.Foje i diris al sia edzo:-Faru kion ajn,sed mi ne plu volas vidiFatme.La sekvan tagon la patro forkondukis la

  9. modelisation du comportement hydrologique du bassin versant du ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LGE

    caractéristiques physiographiques du bassin dans le modèle permet la mise en évidence de son ... espèces les plus hygrophiles du secteur ombrophile. ...... [13] - F. HENDRICKX, Impact hydrologique d‟un changement climatique sur le bassin du ... LOPES, On the effect of uncertainty in spatial distribution of rainfall on ...

  10. Pourfour Du Petit syndrome after interscalene block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mysore Chandramouli Basappji Santhosh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Interscalene block is commonly associated with reversible ipsilateral phrenic nerve block, recurrent laryngeal nerve block, and cervical sympathetic plexus block, presenting as Horner′s syndrome. We report a very rare Pourfour Du Petit syndrome which has a clinical presentation opposite to that of Horner′s syndrome in a 24-year-old male who was given interscalene block for open reduction and internal fixation of fracture upper third shaft of left humerus.

  11. Pourfour Du Petit syndrome after interscalene block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhosh, Mysore Chandramouli Basappji; Pai, Rohini B; Rao, Raghavendra P

    2013-04-01

    Interscalene block is commonly associated with reversible ipsilateral phrenic nerve block, recurrent laryngeal nerve block, and cervical sympathetic plexus block, presenting as Horner's syndrome. We report a very rare Pourfour Du Petit syndrome which has a clinical presentation opposite to that of Horner's syndrome in a 24-year-old male who was given interscalene block for open reduction and internal fixation of fracture upper third shaft of left humerus.

  12. La maquette digitale du tunnel du LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Brouns, G

    2000-01-01

    Pour l'installation du LHC et son équipement périphérique (ligne cryogénique, câbles, tuyauterie, etc.) dans le tunnel du LEP, une maquette digitale CAO doit être faite. Après un rappel de la définition théorique du tunnel du LEP, cette LHC project Note décrit comment sont utilisées et intégrées d'anciennes et de nouvelles mesures du tunnel pour arriver à un ensemble de données qui permettent de construire la maquette digitale (CAO) du tunnel du LHC. Ensuite, les résultats sont comparés à leur valeur théorique d'une part, et aux anciennes valeurs disponibles d'autre part.

  13. Photographic fixative poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Photographic developer poisoning; Hydroquinone poisoning; Quinone poisoning; Sulfite poisoning ... Quinones Sodium thiosulfate Sodium sulfite/bisulfite Boric acid Photographic fixative can also break down (decompose) to form ...

  14. Les aciers inoxydables dans les fixations

    CERN Document Server

    CETIM

    2010-01-01

    Cet ouvrage, qui fait la synthèse de plusieurs travaux menés par le Cetim, propose une vue d'ensemble sur les aciers inoxydables utilisés pour les fixations. Au sommaire : les normes EN, ISO et ATSM qui s'y rapportent , les désignations symboliques , les nuances et caractéristiques mécaniques , les différentes formes de corrosion, les méthodes pour les détecter , les règles du métier , les mises en oeuvre. L'ouvrage comprend plusieurs fiches matériaux et des tableaux qui présentent les équivalences entre les désignations.

  15. Learning about Cri du Chat Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Learning About Prostate Cancer Learning About Cri du Chat Syndrome What is cri du chat syndrome? What ... cri du chat syndrome What is cri du chat syndrome? Cri du chat syndrome - also known as ...

  16. "Cirque du Freak."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivett, Miriam

    2002-01-01

    Considers the marketing strategies that underpin the success of the "Cirque du Freak" series. Describes how "Cirque du Freak" is an account of events in the life of schoolboy Darren Shan. Notes that it is another reworking of the vampire narrative, a sub-genre of horror writing that has proved highly popular with both adult and…

  17. "Cirque du Freak."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivett, Miriam

    2002-01-01

    Considers the marketing strategies that underpin the success of the "Cirque du Freak" series. Describes how "Cirque du Freak" is an account of events in the life of schoolboy Darren Shan. Notes that it is another reworking of the vampire narrative, a sub-genre of horror writing that has proved highly popular with both adult and…

  18. Restaurant du Rivage, Vevey

    OpenAIRE

    Basini, Sari Bianca; Glocki, Ryszard Nikodem

    2015-01-01

    Après cinquante ans de mutilations, d'abandon et de spéculations économiques, le complexe du château de l'Aile et de la salle du Castillo à Vevey doit redéfinir son rôle public par rapport à la place du Marché et au Jardin du Rivage. S'appuyant sur la mémoire historique en ajoutant une unité à l'ensemble, nous créons un îlot regroupant des fonctions publiques. Il dessert ainsi l'espace ouvert environnant en articulant la relation entre le jardin et la place. L'élargissement de la promenade du...

  19. Posterior transodontoid fixation: A new fixation (Kotil technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadir Kotil

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Anterior odontoid screw fixation or posterior C1-2 fusion techniques are routinely used in the treatment of Type II odontoid fractures, but these techniques may be inadequate in some types of odontoid fractures. In this new technique (Kotil technique, through a posterior bilateral approach, transarticular screw fixation was performed at the non-dominant vertebral artery (VA side and posterior transodontoid fixation technique was performed at the dominant VA side. C1-2 complex fusion was aimed with unilateral transarticular fixation and odontoid fixation with posterior transodontoid screw fixation. Cervical spinal computed tomography (CT of a 40-year-old male patient involved in a motor vehicle accident revealed an anteriorly dislocated Type II oblique dens fracture, not reducible by closed traction. Before the operation, the patient was found to have a dominant right VA with Doppler ultrasound. He was operated through a posterior approach. At first, transarticular screw fixation was performed at the non-dominant (left side, and then fixation of the odontoid fracture was achieved by directing the contralateral screw (supplemental screw medially and toward the apex. Cancellous autograft was scattered for fusion without the need for structural bone graft or wiring. Postoperative cervical spinal CT of the patient revealed that stabilization was maintained with transarticular screw fixation and reduction and fixation of the odontoid process was achieved completely by posterior transodontoid screw fixation. The patient is at the sixth month of follow-up and complete fusion has developed. With this new surgical technique, C1-2 fusion is maintained with transarticular screw fixation and odontoid process is fixed by concomitant contralateral posterior transodontoid screw (supplemental screw fixation; thus, this technique both stabilizes the C1-2 complex and fixes the odontoid process and the corpus in atypical odontoid fractures, appearing as an

  20. Atlas du Liban

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramez Philippe Maalouf

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Compte-rendu de l’ouvrage Atlas du Liban: territoires et société, sous la direction d’Éric Verdeil, Ghaleb Faour et Sébastien Velut, édition franco-libanaise de l’IFPO (Institut Français du Proche-Orient et du CNRS Liban (Conseil National de la Recherche Scientifique – Liban, Beyrouth 2007.Resenha do livro Atlas du Liban: territoires et société, sob a direção de Éric Verdeil, Ghaleb Faour e Sébastien Velut, editado por iniciativa franco-libanesa do IFPO (Institut Français du Proche-Orient e pelo CNRS Liban (Conseil National de la Recherche Scientifique – Liban, Beirute, 2007.Review of Atlas du Liban: territoires et société, edited by Éric Verdeil, Ghaleb Faour and Sébastien Velut, french-lebanese edition by IFPO (Institut Français du Proche-Orient and CNRS Liban (Conseil National de la Recherche Scientifique – Liban Beirut, 2007.

  1. Ecologie du phytoplancton du lac Kivu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarmento, H.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Speciation within the African Coffee Pathogen. Cet article analyse s'il est avantageux d'utiliser le compost au lieu de l'engrais minéral pour produire la laitue dans la zone urbaine et péri-urbaine de Yaoundé. Les résultats de terrain montrent l'obtention de rendements et profits plus élevés lorsqu'on utilise le compost. Les résultats de la fonction de production Cobb-Douglas prouvent que l'utilisation du compost est statistiquement significative pour expliquer la variation de rendement de la laitue et que le compost est l'intrant le plus productif. D'autres résultats montrent que le compost fournit la matière organique utile au sol et que les besoins d'irrigation en eau de la culture sont réduits grâce à l'utilisation du compost. Par conséquent, malgré le fait que l'application du compost demande une main-d'oeuvre beaucoup plus élevée, son utilisation est généralement bénéfique pour les agriculteurs vivant aux alentours de Yaoundé. Les programmes de vulgarisation de cet intrant pour encourager son adoption devraient donc figurer parmi les points prioritaires dans la politique agricole du gouvernement camerounais.

  2. CARBON DIOXIDE FIXATION.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FUJITA,E.

    2000-01-12

    Solar carbon dioxide fixation offers the possibility of a renewable source of chemicals and fuels in the future. Its realization rests on future advances in the efficiency of solar energy collection and development of suitable catalysts for CO{sub 2} conversion. Recent achievements in the efficiency of solar energy conversion and in catalysis suggest that this approach holds a great deal of promise for contributing to future needs for fuels and chemicals.

  3. Improving Carbon Fixation Pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Ducat, Daniel C.; Silver, Pamela A

    2012-01-01

    A recent resurgence in basic and applied research on photosynthesis has been driven in part by recognition that fulfilling future food and energy requirements will necessitate improvements in crop carbon-fixation efficiencies. Photosynthesis in traditional terrestrial crops is being reexamined in light of molecular strategies employed by photosynthetic microbes to enhance the activity of the Calvin cycle. Synthetic biology is well-situated to provide original approaches for compartmentalizing...

  4. MODELES EPIDEMIOLOGIQUES DU SIDA

    OpenAIRE

    M MERAIHI; F. L RAHMANI

    2009-01-01

    L’objectif de cet article est de présenter la modélisation mathématique de la propagation de l’infection dans le contexte de la transmission du virus de l’immunodéficience humaine (VIH) et du syndrome d’immunodéficience acquise (SIDA). Ces modèles sont basés en partie sur les modèles proposés dans le domaine de la modélisation mathématique du SIDA.

  5. Types du Caucase

    OpenAIRE

    Makhacheva, Taus

    2015-01-01

    Tiré du site Internet de Onestar Press: "Types du Caucase - antique postcard collection/ 2013 to the present time. Coming from the personal archive of the artist, these postcards date back to the 19th century and can be considered representative for the "popularized ethnography" of the Russian Empire. Their primitive typology follows the classical rules of exotization : they depict "pittoresque" groups from various tribes, families or nationalities, or representatives of diverse professions. ...

  6. Les outils du CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    1999-01-01

    C'est le plus grand centre mondial de recherche en physique des particules. Les outils du Laboratoire, accélérateurs et détecteurs de particules, figurent parmi les instruments scientifiques les plus complexes au monde. Des prix Nobels ont d'ailleurs été attribués aux physiciens du CERN pour leurs développements.

  7. External fixators in haemophilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, V; Srivastava, A; PalaniKumar, C; Daniel, A J; Mathews, V; Babu, N; Chandy, M; Sundararaj, G D

    2004-01-01

    External fixators (EF) are not commonly used for patients with haemophilia. We describe the use of EF (Ilizarov, AO- uni- and bi-planar fixators and Charnley clamp) in nine patients (mean age: 19.2 years; range: 9-37) with haemophilia for the following indications - arthrodesis of infected joints, treatment of open fractures and osteoclasis. EF required an average of nine skin punctures [range: 4-17 were maintained for a period of 15 weeks (range: 8-29.5), without regular factor replacement, till bone healing was adequate and were removed with a single dose of factor infusion]. The mean preoperative factor level achieved was 85% (range: 64-102%). Much lower levels were subsequently maintained till wound healing. The average total factor consumption was 430 IU kg(-1) (range: 240-870), administered over a period of 17 days (range: 9-44). There were no major complications related to EF except in a patient who developed inhibitors. In conclusion, EF can be used safely in haemophilic patients who do not have inhibitors and does not require prolonged factor replacement.

  8. Flexible fixation and fracture healing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmal, Hagen; Strohm, Peter C; Jaeger, Martin

    2011-01-01

    to the bone surface than external fixator bars. External fixators have the advantage of being less expensive, highly flexible, and technically less demanding. They remain an integral part of orthopaedic surgery for emergent stabilization, for pediatric fractures, for definitive osteosynthesis in certain...

  9. Eighth international congress on nitrogen fixation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of the Eighth International Congress on Nitrogen Fixation held May 20--26, 1990 in Knoxville, Tennessee. The volume contains abstracts of individual presentations. Sessions were entitled Recent Advances in the Chemistry of Nitrogen Fixation, Plant-microbe Interactions, Limiting Factors of Nitrogen Fixation, Nitrogen Fixation and the Environment, Bacterial Systems, Nitrogen Fixation in Agriculture and Industry, Plant Function, and Nitrogen Fixation and Evolution.

  10. Le rythme du silence

    OpenAIRE

    Meschonnic, Henri

    2017-01-01

    1. Pour rompre le silence Dire « rythme du silence », c’est non seulement penser le silence comme langage, et parfois la réalisation maximale du langage, mais aussi parcourir les acceptions de la notion de silence. De ce qui n’est pas dit, ou qu’on est incapable de dire à ce que les mots ne peuvent pas dire, le fameux indicible, mais aussi l’innommable, et la censure, faire silence sur, jusqu’au problème poétique. Il y a aussi une langue de bois du silence. Et aussi le silence de ce qu’on ent...

  11. La profanation du montage

    OpenAIRE

    Hildebrandt, Toni

    2017-01-01

    Cet article examine les liens entre, pour l’aspect technique, le plan séquence et le montage, et, pour l’aspect philosophico-historique, la vie quotidienne et la politique mondiale, du point de vue d’une profanation capable de désamorcer la puissance et avec une attention particulière portée à l’unique film expérimental de Pasolini : La sequenza del fiore di (1968). Ce court métrage n’a pas seulement un statut spécial dans la filmographie de Pasolini, il marque aussi un tournant du tragique v...

  12. Historique du Web

    CERN Multimedia

    TV8 Mont-Blanc

    1995-01-01

    Documentaire court qui retrace l'implication de différentes personalités à la création du Web. Entrevues avec Robert Cailliau, Chris Llewellyn-Smith, David Williams, Tim Berners-Lee, Mike Sendall, Brian Carpenter.

  13. La foret du Banco

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, de J.

    1983-01-01

    Deze publicatie over het Nationaal Park 'La Forêt du Banco' nabij Abidjan, Ivoorkust, verschijnt als resultaat van vier jaar veldwerk (1972-1976) in dat land.Het Centre Néerlandais, onderzoeks- en stageverblijf van de Landbouwhogeschool, was basis en de faciliteiten verleend door het Franse ORSTOM-i

  14. Origine du vieux slave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witold Mańczak

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Comme, pour prouver l'identité du vieux slave et du vieux bulgare, on invoque uniquement des critères phonétiques, rappelons que l'orientaliste allemand du XVIIe siècle Ludolf affirmait déjà que "die Sprachverwandtschaft offenbart sich nicht im Wörterbuch, sondern in der Grammatik"3. Pendant les 300 dernières années, tellement d'autorites ant approuvé !l’opinion de Ludolf qu'elle est devenue un dogme de la linguistique. Pourtant il nous est venu à l'esprit de le confronter avec des faits et ainsi nous sommes arrivé à la conclusion qu'en réalité, c'est le vocabulaire (et non la phonétique et la flexion qui décide du degre de la parenté des langues4. Voici des arguments à l'appui de cette thèse.

  15. Molecular Biology of Nitrogen Fixation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugam, K. T.; Valentine, Raymond C.

    1975-01-01

    Reports that as a result of our increasing knowledge of the molecular biology of nitrogen fixation it might eventually be possible to increase the biological production of nitrogenous fertilizer from atmospheric nitrogen. (GS)

  16. Aux origines du monde

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    "C'est l'histoire d'une aventure humaine, scientifique, international qui a vu le jour il y a cinquante ans, aux confins de la Suisse et du département de l'Ain. Le plus grand laboratoire de physique des particules du monde, le Cern, a été fondé en 1954. Les festivités organisées à l occasion de cet anniversaire connaîtront leur point d'orgue le 16 octobre prochain, avec portes-ouvertes, accueil de personallités et inauguration d'un monumnet spécifique, le Globe de l'innovation" (2 pages)

  17. Images du Valais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micheline COSINSCHI

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available Une étude des revenus fiscaux ventilés par branches économiques permet de clore un ouvrage portant sur ce canton alpin suisse par excellence qu’est le Valais. Pris comme traceurs de l’activité régionale, l’analyse de leurs configurations spatiales permet une évaluation pouvant être considérée comme une mesure de l’efficacité différentielle du système socio-spatial valaisan. L’article décrit certains processus qui ont permis la réalisation du dernier chapitre d’un atlas portant sur le Valais.

  18. CHOEUR DU CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    CHOEUR DU CERN

    2010-01-01

    Les répétitions du chœur du CERN reprendront le mercredi 15 septembre à 20.00 heures à l’amphithéâtre principal – bâtiment 500. Au programme la préparation de notre concert de Noël avec la Missa Brevis, KV115, de Léopold Mozart et de la musique de Noël d’Europe. Les personnes qui aiment chanter, notamment des sopranes et des ténors, sont les bienvenues. Pour tout contact s’adresser à : Baudouin Bleus - (tél.CERN 767 82 44) -(baudouin.bleus@cern.ch) ou Martin Gatehouse ( martin.gatehouse@wanadoo.fr) ou Jean-Paul Diss (jean-pauldiss@wanadoo.fr).  

  19. Les Cahiers du CREAD

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    les littératures économique et gestionnaire, mais souvent dans ces travaux, l'effet de ... chiffre d'affaires du nouvel ensemble résultant de la vente des produits mieux .... syndicalisme, droit de grève), fiscales (différents taux d'imposition, etc.) .... nouvel ensemble et aussi, les différentes relations avec les alliances verticales ...

  20. La mesure du danger

    CERN Document Server

    Manceron, Vanessa; Revet, Sandrine

    2014-01-01

    La mesure du danger permet d’explorer des dangers de nature aussi diverse que la délinquance, la pollution, l’écueil maritime, la maladie ou l’attaque sorcellaire, l’extinction d’espèces animales ou végétales, voire de la Planète tout entière. Au croisement de la sociologie, de l’anthropologie et de l’histoire, les différents articles analysent les pratiques concrètes de mesure pour tenter de comprendre ce qui se produit au cours de l’opération d’évaluation du danger sans préjuger de la nature de celui-ci. L’anthropologie a contribué à la réflexion sur l’infortune en s’intéressant aux temporalités de l’après : maladies, catastrophes, pandémies, etc. et en cherchant à rendre compte de l’expérience des victimes, de leur vie ordinaire bouleversée, de la recomposition du quotidien. Elle s’intéresse aussi aux autres types de mesures, les savoirs incorporés, qui reposent sur l’odorat, la vue ou le toucher et ceux qui ressortent d’une épistémologie « non ...

  1. Har du sikret din alderdom?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiens, Bente; Aagaard, Peter Gjerndrup

    2006-01-01

    Daglig fysisk aktivitet kan betragtes som indbetaling op din personlige helbredspension. Jo mere du sætter ind på kontoen, og jo oftere du gør det, jo større er sandsynligheden for, at du lever længere og får et sundere helbred. Og det er aldrig for sent at starte med indbetalingerne....

  2. Femoral Reconstruction Using External Fixation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yevgeniy Palatnik

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The use of an external fixator for the purpose of distraction osteogenesis has been applied to a wide range of orthopedic problems caused by such diverse etiologies as congenital disease, metabolic conditions, infections, traumatic injuries, and congenital short stature. The purpose of this study was to analyze our experience of utilizing this method in patients undergoing a variety of orthopedic procedures of the femur. Methods. We retrospectively reviewed our experience of using external fixation for femoral reconstruction. Three subgroups were defined based on the primary reconstruction goal lengthening, deformity correction, and repair of nonunion/bone defect. Factors such as leg length discrepancy (LLD, limb alignment, and external fixation time and complications were evaluated for the entire group and the 3 subgroups. Results. There was substantial improvement in the overall LLD, femoral length discrepancy, and limb alignment as measured by mechanical axis deviation (MAD and lateral distal femoral angle (LDFA for the entire group as well as the subgroups. Conclusions. The Ilizarov external fixator allows for decreased surgical exposure and preservation of blood supply to bone, avoidance of bone grafting and internal fixation, and simultaneous lengthening and deformity correction, making it a very useful technique for femoral reconstruction.

  3. Les pirogues du Maroni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie François

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Sur le Maroni, fleuve frontière entre la Guyane française et le Surinam, les pirogues amarrées le long des berges se comptent par centaines. Elles représentent le seul moyen de transport pour les milliers de personnes vivant sur les rives du Maroni. Les différentes formes de pirogues sont révélatrices de la diversité géographique du Maroni et de la diversité culturelle des populations. Les Amérindiens du littoral naviguent uniquement dans l’estuaire du fleuve. Ils construisent des pirogues larges, hautes et terminées à la poupe par une haute étrave qui fend les vagues. Ces pirogues sont construites à partir d’une coque monoxyle expansée et rehaussée d’un ou de deux bordages. En chauffant la grume évidée, le bois acquiert une certaine plasticité qui permet d’écarter les flancs et d’obtenir une coque très large à partir d’un arbre de faible diamètre. Les Bushinenge, populations d’origine africaine qui ont déserté les grandes plantations de la Guyane hollandaise dès le début du XVIIe siècle et se sont installées sur les deux rives du Maroni, ont développé des formes de pirogues adaptées au passage des sauts. Leurs pirogues, construites également en expansant la coque au feu, sont étroites et longues et possèdent des extrémités curvilignes qui dépassent largement au–dessus du bordage. Les longues pirogues à moteur comme les canots–pagaies sont ornés de motifs d’entrelacs appelés tembé ; et de décors d’inspiration contemporaine. L’inventaire des pirogues du Maroni a mis en évidence la richesse et la vitalité du patrimoine nautique de cette région au début du XXIe siècle, tant au niveau des formes des embarcations que des décors et des pratiques de navigation.On the Maroni river, natural border between French Guyana and the Surinam, canoes tied to the river banks can be counted by the hundreds. They are the only mean of transportation for thousands of people living along the

  4. L'Origine du Monde

    CERN Multimedia

    CNET & Ecole Polytechnique Paris; Vincent Ferreira

    1996-01-01

    Création, théologie, science, découverte, recherche, religion, condition humaine.Avec Maurice Jacob physicien, Hubert Curien Président du Conseil du CERN, Michael Doser physicien, Frère Emile Communauté de Taizé.

  5. discours du Directeur General

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2007-01-01

    L'année 2007 est une année très spéciale pour le CERN. Je vous propose de nous retrouver pour faire le point sur les activités en cours. Rendez-vous le mercredi 27 juin à 15h00 dans l'amphithéâtre principal. La transmission simultanée sera assurée dans les amphithéâtres IT, AT, AB Prevessin et dans la Salle du Conseil. Robert Aymar

  6. Biomechanical analysis of fracture fixation with external fixator in vivo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the different ways of measuring the main axial strain during treatment with an external fixator and to find the suitable compression loaded by the external fixator at an early stage.Methods: Eighteen healthy big-ear rabbits were randomly divided into two groups according to different measuring methods: Group A and Group B. In Group A,a strain gauge was affixed to the external tibial cortex with 502 glue, and in Group B, a bone cement-coated strain gauge was installed on the internal tibial cortex. Groups A and B were divided into two subgroups A1, A2 and B1,B2, respectively, according to the pressure of half of and the same as the body weight. A Z-shaped left mid-shaft tibial osteotomy was performed and fixed by an external fixator. Results: The scaler curves of Group A changed dramatically during the early stage. The trendlines of the internal and external cortex went consistently after reaching the stable stage while the latter strain value was higher than the former. The time for Group B reaching the stable stage was short, but its absolute strain value was less than that of Group A. Before they were pressed to the stable stage, the declined speed of Subgroup A1 was more slowly than that of Subgroup A2 while the results of Subgroups B1 and B2 were same. Group A had an ascending trend after it declined while Group B didn't have. After they reached the stable stage, both Subgroups A1 and A2 had a declining trend while Subgroup A2 was more quickly than Subgroup Al, Subgroup B1 was kept at a definite level while Subgroup B2 fluctuated.Conclusions: The axial strain under external fixator can be measured by bone cement coated-strain gauge in vivo. The data may suggest that half of the body weight load was suitable for external fixator.

  7. First metatarsophalangeal joint arthrodesis: current fixation options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Jared L; McGlamry, Michael C

    2011-04-01

    This article reviews the current literature on first metatarsophalangeal joint arthrodesis rates using various forms of fixation, as well as reviewing biomechanical studies comparing the strengths of the different fixation options that are available.

  8. Complications of rigid internal fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Chris A; Lin, Kant Y

    2009-03-01

    Over the past 20 years, there have been many advances in the development of bone fixation systems used in the practice of craniomaxillofacial surgery. As surgical practices have evolved, the complications of each technologic advance have changed accordingly. Interfragmentary instability of interosseous wiring has been replaced by the risk of exposure, infection, and palpability of plate and screw fixation systems. The improved rigidity of plate fixation requires anatomic alignment of fracture fragments. Failure to obtain proper alignment has led to the phenomenon known as "open internal fixation" of fracture fragments without proper reduction. The size of the plates has decreased to minimize palpability and exposure. However limitations in their application have been encountered due to the physiologic forces of the muscles of mastication and bone healing. In the pediatric population, the long-standing presence of plates in the cranial vault resulted in reports of transcranial migration and growth restriction. These findings led to the development of resorbable plating systems, which are associated with self-limited plate palpability and soft tissue inflammatory reactions. Any rigid system including these produces growth restriction in varying amounts. In this discussion, we review the reported complication rates of miniplating and microplating systems as well as absorptive plating systems in elective and traumatic craniofacial surgery.

  9. Understanding Nitrogen Fixation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul J. Chirik

    2012-05-25

    synthesis of ammonia, NH{sub 3}, from its elements, H{sub 2} and N{sub 2}, via the venerable Haber-Bosch process is one of the most significant technological achievements of the past century. Our research program seeks to discover new transition metal reagents and catalysts to disrupt the strong N {triple_bond} N bond in N{sub 2} and create new, fundamental chemical linkages for the construction of molecules with application as fuels, fertilizers and fine chemicals. With DOE support, our group has discovered a mild method for ammonia synthesis in solution as well as new methods for the construction of nitrogen-carbon bonds directly from N{sub 2}. Ideally these achievements will evolve into more efficient nitrogen fixation schemes that circumvent the high energy demands of industrial ammonia synthesis. Industrially, atmospheric nitrogen enters the synthetic cycle by the well-established Haber-Bosch process whereby N{sub 2} is hydrogenated to ammonia at high temperature and pressure. The commercialization of this reaction represents one of the greatest technological achievements of the 20th century as Haber-Bosch ammonia is responsible for supporting approximately 50% of the world's population and serves as the source of half of the nitrogen in the human body. The extreme reaction conditions required for an economical process have significant energy consequences, consuming 1% of the world's energy supply mostly in the form of pollution-intensive coal. Moreover, industrial H{sub 2} synthesis via the water gas shift reaction and the steam reforming of methane is fossil fuel intensive and produces CO{sub 2} as a byproduct. New synthetic methods that promote this thermodynamically favored transformation ({Delta}G{sup o} = -4.1 kcal/mol) under milder conditions or completely obviate it are therefore desirable. Most nitrogen-containing organic molecules are derived from ammonia (and hence rely on the Haber-Bosch and H{sub 2} synthesis processes) and direct synthesis from

  10. Les risques du travail

    CERN Document Server

    Thébaud-Mony, Annie

    2015-01-01

    Depuis les années 1990, les conditions de travail se sont peu à peu imposées dans le débat social. Néanmoins, la situation reste critique. Les risques traditionnels n'ont pas disparu : les manutentions lourdes, l'exposition professionnelle aux cancérogènes, au bruit ou aux vibrations demeurent répandues... De plus, certaines " améliorations " n'ont fait que déplacer et dissimuler les problèmes, telle l'externalisation des risques grâce à la sous-traitance. Dans le même temps, les transformations du travail et des modalités de gestion de la main-d'œuvre ont fragilisé les collectifs et accru l'isolement des salariés, conduisant à une montée visible de la souffrance psychique. Face à ces évolutions, il est plus que jamais nécessaire que tous les acteurs concernés, en particulier les salariés eux-mêmes et leurs représentants, s'approprient les connaissances indispensables pour améliorer la protection de la santé sur les lieux du travail. Tel est le but de ce livre, qui renouvelle int�...

  11. Les formes du fond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Maffesoli

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Il n'est pas vrai que la nature a horreur du vide. Peut-être même s'y complait-elle. Le creux est aussi une modalité de l'être. Il est possible de s'y nicher, de s'y lover paresseusement et, ainsi, de se protéger contre l'angoisse du temps qui passe. Le creux des apparences est, à certains moments, une des formes d'expression de la vie sociale. Encore faut-il savoir le reconnaître. Certes, nous avons tous une existence personnelle, mais nous sommes, également, les représentants, parfois même les victimes, d'un "esprit commun", peut-être même d'un "inconscient collectif" qui s'est constitué de siècle en siècle. Et, très souvent, là où nous croyons exprimer nos propres idées, nous ne sommes que les porte-voix, les figurants d'un vaste "theatrum mundi" aux dimensions infinies.

  12. Choeur du CERN : Concert

    CERN Document Server

    CERN Choir

    2017-01-01

    Une œuvre à découvrir! La grande Missa pro defunctis de François-Joseph Gossec (1734-1829) est le chef-d’œuvre tôt venu (à vingt-cinq ans) d’un compositeur qui vivra encore 70 ans après sa création. Elle a connu la gloire, puis s’est fait un peu oublier. Pas du tout le monde cependant : des musicologues ont montré ce que le Requiem de Mozart lui devait ; et il suffit de l’avoir entendue pour comprendre pourquoi Berlioz (qui avait vingt-six ans à la mort de Gossec) en a été impressionné : les nombreux cuivres et bois répartis dans des endroits plus ou moins cachés de la salle de concert pour exprimer les frayeurs du Jugement dernier annoncent son Requiem – et celui de Verdi. Mais « plus encore que par...

  13. Options for acetabular fixation surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klika, Alison K; Murray, Trevor G; Darwiche, Hussein; Barsoum, Wael K

    2007-01-01

    Aseptic loosening is the most common cause for revision total hip arthroplasty (THA). Due to poor long-term results with cemented acetabular components, cementless implants that rely on biologic fixation became popular in the United States for both primary and revision procedures in the early 1980s. Cementless acetabular components used in THA have been reported to have superior radiographic performance compared with cemented fixation, although the optimal method of acetabular fixation remains controversial. Cementless acetabular components require initial implant stability to allow for bone ingrowth and remodeling into the acetabular shell, providing long-term durability of the prosthesis. Many improved implant materials are available to facilitate bone growth and remodeling, including the 3 most common surface treatments; fibermesh, sintered beads, and plasma spray coatings. Recently added to these are porous metal surfaces, which have increased porosity and optimal pore sizes when compared with titanium fibermesh. The most studied of these materials is the titanium fibermesh fixation surface, which has demonstrated a mechanical failure rate of 1% at 10 to 15 years. This technology utilizes the diffusion bonding process to attach fiber metal pads to a titanium substrate using heat and pressure. The sintered bead fixation surface offers a porous coating of various sizes of spherical beads, achieved by the sintering process, and has been shown to provide long-term fixation. While there are less long-term published data regarding the titanium plasma spray surface, its early results have provided evidence of its durability, even in the face of significant osteolysis. The most recently added alternative fixation surface is porous tantalum metal, which offers potentially greater bone ingrowth and bone graft incorporation due to its high porosity (80%) and low modulus of elasticity (3 MPa). Porous tantalum implants have shown early favorable clinical results and have

  14. Jouer du piano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fériel Kaddour

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available La réflexion s’appuie dans un premier temps sur une opposition entre deux attitudes de pianistes  à l’égard du travail à l’instrument : Gould, qui revendique une séparation d’avec le clavier pour ne privilégier que la lecture; Arrau, dont la technique au contraire vise à « faire corps » avec son piano. L’étude de ces deux démarches d’interprètes conduit à une conclusion croisée : l’abstraction gouldienne n’est rien d’autre qu’un déplacement du jeu vers d’autres instruments (ceux qui servent à la prise de son et au montage de ses enregistrements ; le « faire-corps » hérité de la culture pianistique romantique est plus dialectique que fusionnel, et en cela implique une capacité de mise à distance. A partir de cette double conclusion, on tâche enfin de repenser la place du jeu à l’instrument dans la mise en œuvre d’une interprétation, en interrogeant le dialogue qui s’instaure entre la partition telle qu’elle s’écrit et le geste tel qu’il se joue.Our study leans on an opposition between two pianists' attitudes about their work with the instrument. Gould claims a necessary separation from the keyboard in order to prioritize reading. Arrau, on the contrary, relies on a technique which consists in “being one” with his piano. The analysis of these two interprets’ behaviours leads to a crossed conclusion: the gouldian abstraction is nothing else than a displacement of the playing towards another kind of instruments, the ones he uses in sound recording and cut up; Arrau’s “being one” is more dialectic than at first sight, and it therefore implies a real distancing from the piano. This constatation leads to rethink the place of the piano playing in the setting of an interpretation, and to highlight the real dialogue which develops itself between the score as it has been written and the gesture as it is played.

  15. Mechanical Comparison of Headless Screw Fixation and Locking Plate Fixation for Talar Neck Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakasli, Ahmet; Hapa, Onur; Erduran, Mehmet; Dincer, Cemal; Cecen, Berivan; Havitcioglu, Hasan

    2015-01-01

    For talar neck fractures, open reduction and internal fixation have been thought to facilitate revascularization and prevent osteonecrosis. Newer screw systems allow for placement of cannulated headless screws, which provide compression by virtue of a variable pitch thread. The present study compared the biomechanical fixation strength of cannulated headless variable-pitch screw fixation and locking plate fixation. A reproducible talar neck fracture was created in 14 fresh cadaver talar necks. Talar head fixation was then performed using 2 cannulated headless variable-pitch 4-mm/5-mm diameter (4/5) screws (Acutrak; Acumed, Hillsboro, OR) and locking plate fixation. Headless variable-pitch screw fixation had lower failure displacement than did locking plate fixation. No statistically significant differences were found in failure stiffness, yield stiffness (p = .655), yield load (p = .142), or ultimate load between the 2 fixation techniques. Cannulated headless variable-pitch screw fixation resulted in better failure displacement than locking plate fixation in a cadaveric talus model and could be considered a viable option for talus fracture fixation. Headless, fully threaded, variable-pitch screw fixation has inherent advantages compared with locking plate fixation, because it might cause less damage to the articular surface and can compress the fracture for improved reduction. Additionally, plate fixation can increase the risk of avascular necrosis owing to the wider incision and dissection of soft tissues.

  16. Effect of induced aniseikonia on fixation performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remole, A

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine to what extent induced aniseikonia affects fixation performance. Aniseikonia was induced in the vertical meridian only, whereas fixation alignment was monitored in the horizontal meridian. A previously developed technique based on the dependency of border enhancement bandwidth on fixation eccentricity was used to monitor deviations from central fixation during fusion. Stress on the fusion mechanism was supplied by controlled increments of forced horizontal vergence. It was found that deviation from central fixation in the horizontal meridian generally increases with increasing amounts of vertical aniseikonia. The effect is particularly pronounced for small amounts of aniseikonia.

  17. Histoire et esthétique de la danse de ballet au XIXe siècle - Quelques aspects au prisme du genre, féminisation du ballet et stigmatisation des danseurs

    OpenAIRE

    Marquié, Hélène

    2014-01-01

    "Histoire et esthétique de la danse de ballet au XIXe siècle - Quelques aspects au prisme du genre, féminisation du ballet et stigmatisation des danseurs" est une synthèse de travaux sur la danse de ballet au XIXe siècle, à partir d'une problématique initiale concernant la fixation de la féminisation - à la fois symbolique et des pratiques - de la danse. Quatre chapitres et un divertissement composent ce mémoire. Le premier chapitre porte sur la question des sources et des spécificités des ma...

  18. Le sacre du printemps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Pumain

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Cybergeo aura six ans en avril : dans la réalité du virtuel, dans l'univers récent et fluctuant de la publication en ligne, cela fait de nous, tout à la fois, des pionniers et des vétérans. De façon plus surprenante, il se trouve que nous sommes aussi uniques : parmi toutes les revues électroniques de sciences sociales, aucune ne combine comme Cybergeo ancienneté, publication exclusivement électronique, liberté d'accès au texte intégral, édition et gestion par des chercheurs, et comité de lec...

  19. Le Brahmane du Komintern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Burgos

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Le Brahmane du Komintern, largometraje documental del realizador francés Vladimir León, constituye un ejercicio ejemplar de investigación histórica y  de lograda factura de realización. Y, pese a no haber contado con la ayuda de ninguno organismo público, se trata de un ambicioso proyecto que cubre una amplia extensión geográfica que abarca: Estados Unidos, México, Moscú, Berlín, y la India. Gira en torno a una figura que tuvo en su tiempo su hora de gloria. Un bengalí, hijo de braman, la c...

  20. Cultures du travail

    OpenAIRE

    de Bonnault-Cornu, Phanette; Charrasse, David; Herberich-Marx, Geneviève; Lamy, Yvon; Lazier, Isabelle; Mairot, Philippe; Morel, Alain; Périssère, Michèle; Raphaël, Freddy; Ribeill, Georges; Salmeron, Pierre; Vant, André

    2015-01-01

    Qu’est-ce qu’une culture du travail ? Comment la définir autrement qu’en opposition à la culture savante ? Quelles relations une société entretient-elle avec son ou ses industries ? Comment définir et appréhender ce qu’on appelle la culture d’entreprise ? A ces questions ethnologues, sociologues, géographes et historiens apportent ici des réponses.Ce livre est aussi consacré à l’intérêt que ces sociétés, villes, petites régions, entreprises, portent à ce qui constitue leur patrimoine industri...

  1. OPERATION DU FOISONNEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Djelveh

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Mousses alimentaires sont un sous-ensemble des aliments connus sous le nom de produits fouettés ou des produits aérés. Ils sont des produits formulés avec des qualités telles que la légèreté et la souplesse et sont principalement consommés à l'apéritif ou au dessert. Les produits en mousse obtenue par dispersion d'un gaz dans une matrice alimentaire (la phase continue ont connu un développement croissant au cours des années 80 et 90. Le processus d'aération liés à leurs activités de production est appelée l'expansion ou à fouetter. Le document présente les principaux-paramètres du procédé du point permanent de la formulation, la mise en œuvre processus dans les installations pilotes et à l'échelle industrielle, la caractérisation des produits finis, la base énergétique de l'échelle de processus en place, et le lien entre la formulation, émulsion préparation de l'expansion. Cette vue d'ensemble de l'opération d'expansion continue, nous a permis de mettre en évidence le fait qu'il ya des opérations de l'unité encore mal décrite par le génie des procédés et pour lesquels les méthodes et outils pour l'extrapolation et la prédiction sont encore à leurs balbutiements.

  2. Nitrogen fixation by marine cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehr, Jonathan P

    2011-04-01

    Discrepancies between estimates of oceanic N(2) fixation and nitrogen (N) losses through denitrification have focused research on identifying N(2)-fixing cyanobacteria and quantifying cyanobacterial N(2) fixation. Previously unrecognized cultivated and uncultivated unicellular cyanobacteria have been discovered that are widely distributed, and some have very unusual properties. Uncultivated unicellular N(2)-fixing cyanobacteria (UCYN-A) lack major metabolic pathways including the tricarboxylic acid cycle and oxygen-evolving photosystem II. Genomes of the oceanic N(2)-fixing cyanobacteria are highly conserved at the DNA level, and genetic diversity is maintained by genome rearrangements. The major cyanobacterial groups have different physiological and ecological constraints that result in highly variable geographic distributions, with implications for the marine N-cycle budget.

  3. Implant fixation by bone ingrowth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kienapfel, H; Sprey, C; Wilke, A; Griss, P

    1999-04-01

    The term osseointegration referred originally to an intimate contact of bone tissue with the surface of a titanium implant; the term bone ingrowth refers to bone formation within an irregular (beads, wire mesh, casting voids, cut grooves) surface of an implant. The section dealing with the historical background describes the development of macroporous, microporous, and textured surfaces with an emphasis on the evolution of porous and textured metal surfaces. The principal requirements for osseointegration and bone ingrowth are systematically reviewed as follows: i) the physiology of osseointegration and bone ingrowth, including biomaterial biocompatibility with respect to cellular and matrix response at the interface; ii) the implant surface geometry characteristics; iii) implant micromotion and fixation modes; and iv) the implant-bone interface distances. Based on current methods of bone ingrowth assessment, this article comparatively reviews and discusses the results of experimental studies with the objective of determining local and systemic factors that enhance bone ingrowth fixation.

  4. Sur quelques Ichthyurus du Tonkin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gestro, R.

    1906-01-01

    Les espèces d Ichthyurus du Tonkin connues jusqu’ici étaient seulement trois: denticornis Gestro, décrite d’abord du Tenasserim (récoltes de feu Mr. L. Fea) et retrouvée ensuite dans le Haut Tonkin par S. A. R. le Prince Henri d’Orléans; Henrici Gestro, découverte par ce même explorateur, et dont le

  5. Abnormal Fixational Eye Movements in Amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Aasef G; Otero-Millan, Jorge; Kumar, Priyanka; Ghasia, Fatema F

    2016-01-01

    Fixational saccades shift the foveal image to counteract visual fading related to neural adaptation. Drifts are slow eye movements between two adjacent fixational saccades. We quantified fixational saccades and asked whether their changes could be attributed to pathologic drifts seen in amblyopia, one of the most common causes of blindness in childhood. Thirty-six pediatric subjects with varying severity of amblyopia and eleven healthy age-matched controls held their gaze on a visual target. Eye movements were measured with high-resolution video-oculography during fellow eye-viewing and amblyopic eye-viewing conditions. Fixational saccades and drifts were analyzed in the amblyopic and fellow eye and compared with controls. We found an increase in the amplitude with decreased frequency of fixational saccades in children with amblyopia. These alterations in fixational eye movements correlated with the severity of their amblyopia. There was also an increase in eye position variance during drifts in amblyopes. There was no correlation between the eye position variance or the eye velocity during ocular drifts and the amplitude of subsequent fixational saccade. Our findings suggest that abnormalities in fixational saccades in amblyopia are independent of the ocular drift. This investigation of amblyopia in pediatric age group quantitatively characterizes the fixation instability. Impaired properties of fixational saccades could be the consequence of abnormal processing and reorganization of the visual system in amblyopia. Paucity in the visual feedback during amblyopic eye-viewing condition can attribute to the increased eye position variance and drift velocity.

  6. Comparison of the safety of three methods of lumbar transpedicular screw fixation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To choose a proper method of lumbar transpedicular screw fixation at different lumbar levels among the three methods ( Roy-Camille's method, Magerl's method and Du's method) in the Chinese population.Methods: Three-dimensional ( 3-D ) images were reconstructed with image data of 42 adult lumbar segments that were scanned by Electron Beam CT. The three methods of lumbar pedicle screw fixation were simulated on the 3-D reconstructed images and the parameters of implanting pedicle screws were measured.Results: There was statistically significant difference at the distance from the entrance point to the pedicle axis between the three methods (P < 0. 001). The distances measured by Du's method were shortest from L1 to L4,and the distances measured by Magerl's method were shortest at L5 (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference from L1 to L2 (P > 0.05) but significant difference from L3 to L5 at inserting safe ranges of TSA (transverse section angle) was found between the three methods (P <0.05). From L3 to L4, the inserting safe ranges of TSA measured by Du's and Magerl's methods were significantly larger than that measured by Roy-Camille's method (P <0.05), but there was no significant difference between them (P > 0.05). At L5, the inserting safe ranges of TSA measured by Magerl's method were largest among the three methods (P < 0.05).Conclusions: Among the three methods, Du's method is the best choice from L1 to LA because its distance from the entrance point to the pedicle axis is shortest and the safe range of TSA is largest; Magerl's method can be used from L3 to L5 and is the best choice at L5; Roy-Camille's method is applicable at L1 and L2.

  7. Intramedullary foot fixation for midfoot Charcot neuroarthropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamm, Bradley M; Siddiqui, Noman A; Nair, Ajitha K; LaPorta, Guido

    2012-01-01

    Midfoot Charcot collapse commonly occurs through the tarsometatarsal and/or midtarsal joints, which creates the characteristic "rocker bottom" deformity. Intramedullary metatarsal fixation spanning the tarsus into the talus and/or calcaneus is a recently developed method for addressing unstable midfoot Charcot deformity. The intramedullary foot fixation technique has various advantages when addressing midfoot Charcot deformity in the neuropathic patient. These advantages include anatomical realignment, minimally invasive fixation technique, formal multiple joint fusion, adjacent joint fixation beyond the level of Charcot collapse, rigid interosseus fixation, and preservation of foot length. The goals of the intramedullary foot fixation procedure are to create a stable, plantigrade, and ulcer-free foot, which allows the patient to ambulate with custom-molded orthotics and shoes.

  8. Le bal du loup

    CERN Multimedia

    Happy Children's Home

    2013-01-01

    The Bord'eau amateur theatre group will graciously perform a play of their creation Le bal du loup Saturday 19 October 2013 at 20:00 Sunday 20 October at 17:00 in the Théâtre des Grottes Rue Louis Favre 43, 1201 Genève Children from age 12 upwards. Summary: The new-elected mayoress of a small village would like to clean up the town by prohibiting alcohol and getting rid of its prostitutes. Then along comes « Massimo Lupo » the pimp... The performances will be given to support the Happy Children's Home charity, which runs a foster-home in Pokhara for Nepali children:  http://www.happychildrenshome.org/ Admission : minimum charge of 10 CHF per person requested, to cover the cost of technical assistance and theatre rental. Any profit will be used solely for the foster-home. At the end of each performance members of the HCH charity will be happy to answer any questions you may have. The theatre has 86 seats, thank you for reserv...

  9. Le collisionneur du futur?

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Audiovisual Service

    2009-01-01

    Pourquoi deux études parallèles pour un même collisionneur linéaire ? Loin d’être un double effort et un gaspillage de ressources, ces deux études s’inscrivent dans une stratégie de complémentarité afin de fournir la meilleure technologie requise par la physique du futur. Vendredi 12 juin a eu lieu au CERN la première réunion conjointe CLIC et ILC. Elle n’a pas été avare de bons résultats et d’importantes décisions. Le Collisionneur Linéaire International (ILC) et le Collisionneur Linéaire Compact (CLIC) sont deux études qui font, tous deux, appel à des technologies de pointe. A première vue en compétition, les deux études sont en réalité complémentaires et elles ont un objectif commun : proposer dans les plus brefs délais et au moindre coût, l‘accélérateur linéaire le mieux adapté pour prendre le relais de la physique des très hautes énergies après le LHC.

  10. Comparison of fixation disparity curve parameters obtained with the Wesson and Saladin fixation disparity cards

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ngan, Janice; Goss, David A; Despirito, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    This study compared fixation curve parameters with two commercially available fixation disparity cards, one that has been available for several years, the Wesson card, and a new one, the Saladin card...

  11. Modeling fixation locations using spatial point processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthelmé, Simon; Trukenbrod, Hans; Engbert, Ralf; Wichmann, Felix

    2013-10-01

    Whenever eye movements are measured, a central part of the analysis has to do with where subjects fixate and why they fixated where they fixated. To a first approximation, a set of fixations can be viewed as a set of points in space; this implies that fixations are spatial data and that the analysis of fixation locations can be beneficially thought of as a spatial statistics problem. We argue that thinking of fixation locations as arising from point processes is a very fruitful framework for eye-movement data, helping turn qualitative questions into quantitative ones. We provide a tutorial introduction to some of the main ideas of the field of spatial statistics, focusing especially on spatial Poisson processes. We show how point processes help relate image properties to fixation locations. In particular we show how point processes naturally express the idea that image features' predictability for fixations may vary from one image to another. We review other methods of analysis used in the literature, show how they relate to point process theory, and argue that thinking in terms of point processes substantially extends the range of analyses that can be performed and clarify their interpretation.

  12. Effets du fluor et du phosphogypse chez les organismes marins

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, J.L.; Le Guellec, Anne-marie; Cosson, R.

    1982-01-01

    Dans le cadre général des recherches visant à déterminer l'action des effluents industriels et plus précisément du fluor dans le cas de cette étude, le programme dont les résultats sont présentés avait pour but de déterminer les effets de cet élément sur les organismes marins. Trois aspects essentiels ont été envisagés : - Effets létaux du fluor ; - effets du fluor sur certaines fonctions éthologiques ; - bio-accumulation de l'élément par les organismes marins.

  13. Main: 1DU5 [RPSD[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1DU5 トウモロコシ Corn Zea mays L. Zeamatin Precursor. Name=Zlp; Zea Mays Molecule: Zeama...NNACPVFKKDEYCCVGSAANDCHPTNYSRYFKGQCPDAYSYPKDDATSTFTCPAGTNYKVVFCP corn_1DU5.jpg ...

  14. Gestion durable du paysage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-David Gerber

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Le paysage est de plus en plus perçu comme une ressource. À ce titre, il est nécessaire de trouver des instruments juridiques, politiques ou économiques susceptibles de gérer cette « ressource-paysage » sur le long terme. Le gouvernement suisse a introduit récemment l’instrument des parcs naturels régionaux, organisés selon le modèle français, dans sa législation de protection de la nature et du paysage. Une mise en regard des nouveaux parcs avec des structures de gestion beaucoup plus anciennes, les bourgeoisies et les corporations, permet de mettre en évidence les forces et les faiblesses de chacun de ces instruments dans leur contribution à résoudre les rivalités d’usage entre acteurs utilisant ou influençant la ressource paysage. Cette comparaison permet de formuler des recommandations pratiques concernant la gestion de cette ressource.The landscape is increasingly perceived as a resource. For this reason, it is necessary to find legal, political and economic instruments that will succeed in managing this “resource landscape” in the long term. The Swiss government recently introduced the instrument of regional nature parks into the legislation governing nature and landscape preservation; the proposed parks are organized on the basis of the French model. The examination of the new parks from the perspective of much older management structures, i.e. the civic municipalities (bourgeoisies and corporations, makes it possible to demonstrate the strengths and weaknesses of each of these instruments in their contribution to the resolution of use rivalries between actors who use or influence the resource landscape. This comparison also enables the formulation of practical recommendations regarding the management of this resource.

  15. Cri du Chat syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cerruti Mainardi Paola

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Cri du Chat syndrome (CdCS is a genetic disease resulting from a deletion of variable size occurring on the short arm of chromosome 5 (5p-. The incidence ranges from 1:15,000 to 1:50,000 live-born infants. The main clinical features are a high-pitched monochromatic cry, microcephaly, broad nasal bridge, epicanthal folds, micrognathia, abnormal dermatoglyphics, and severe psychomotor and mental retardation. Malformations, although not very frequent, may be present: cardiac, neurological and renal abnormalities, preauricular tags, syndactyly, hypospadias, and cryptorchidism. Molecular cytogenetic analysis has allowed a cytogenetic and phenotypic map of 5p to be defined, even if results from the studies reported up to now are not completely in agreement. Genotype-phenotype correlation studies showed a clinical and cytogenetic variability. The identification of phenotypic subsets associated with a specific size and type of deletion is of diagnostic and prognostic relevance. Specific growth and psychomotor development charts have been established. Two genes, Semaphorin F (SEMAF and δ-catenin (CTNND2, which have been mapped to the "critical regions", are potentially involved in cerebral development and their deletion may be associated with mental retardation in CdCS patients. Deletion of the telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT gene, localised to 5p15.33, could contribute to the phenotypic changes in CdCS. The critical regions were recently refined by using array comparative genomic hybridisation. The cat-like cry critical region was further narrowed using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR and three candidate genes were characterised in this region. The diagnosis is based on typical clinical manifestations. Karyotype analysis and, in doubtful cases, FISH analysis will confirm the diagnosis. There is no specific therapy for CdCS but early rehabilitative and educational interventions improve the prognosis and considerable

  16. Les paradoxes du littoral Swahili

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Bart

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Le contact entre l'océan Indien occidental et le continent africain a forgé l'identité et l'originalité du littoral swahili. Cette interface, longue d'environ 2 000 kilomètres, du sud de la Somalie au nord du Mozambique, constitue un monde original où, au gré de traditions anciennes de circulation maritime et continentale se sont diffusées et mêlées des influences culturelles venues du continent africain, de la péninsule arabique et de la péninsule indienne. Le développement du continent, du littoral et des archipels s'inscrit dans une double logique de fragmentation et d'ouverture au monde. Dans cette vaste aire géographique, le rôle de relais des îles et des axes de pénétration continentale à partir des ports est essentiel.The identity and the original features of the Swahili seashore mainly proceed from the contact of African mainland and western indian Ocean. This coastal interface, stretching over 2 000 kilometres from southern Somalia to northern Mozambique, is characterized by ancient traditions of trade movements through maritime areas and mainland as well, which spread and mixed different cultural influences originating from Africa and both Arabic and Indian peninsulas. The development of this area is linked to both fragmentation and opening dynamics. In such a wide area, the relaying function of islands and continental corridors from main harbours is very important.

  17. ETUDE GEOCHIMIQUE ET ISOTOPIQUE DES EAUX SUPERFICIELLES DU BASSIN VERSANT DU FURAN ET DES EAUX MINERALES DU GRABEN DU FOREZ, EST DU MASSIF CENTRAL FRANÇAIS

    OpenAIRE

    Gal, Frédérick

    2005-01-01

    Ce travail est basé sur l'étude d'un continuum eau de pluie – eau de surface – eau minérale, en utilisant différents outils chimiques et géochimiques. La zone d'étude se situe en bordure Est du Massif Central Français. Elle comprend des entités géographiques et géologiques variées (complexe granito-gneissique et cristallophyllien – Monts du Forez et du Lyonnais d'âge hercynien, graben Oligocène du Forez à venues volcaniques miocènes).La première partie repose sur l'étude en isotopes stables (...

  18. Outcome of rail fixator system in reconstructing bone gap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Lakhani

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: All patients well tolerated rail fixator with good functional results and gap reconstruction. Easy application of rail fixator and comfortable distraction procedure suggest rail fixator a good alternative for gap reconstruction of limbs.

  19. Stability of unicortical locked fixation versus bicortical non-locked fixation for forearm fractures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Timothy J.Pater; Steve I Grindel; Gregory J.Schmeling; Mei Wang

    2014-01-01

    Locking plate fixation is being widely applied for fixation of forearm fractures and has many potential advantages, such as fixed angle fixation and improved construct stability, especially in osteoporotic bone. Biomechanical data comparing locking devices to commonly used Low Contact Dynamic Compression (LCDCP) plates for the fixation of forearm fractures has been lacking. The purpose of this study was to compare the fixation stability of a 3.5-mm unicortical locked plate with bicortical non-locked LCDCP plates. Six matched pairs of fresh frozen cadaveric forearms were randomly assigned to unicortical locked and bicortical unlocked groups. Non-destructive four-point bending and torsional test was performed on the ulna and radius separately, using a servohydraulic testing system to obtain construct stiffness of the intact specimens and specimens after osteotomy and plating. The specimens were then loaded to failure to test the fixation strength. The locked unicortical fixation showed significantly higher bending stiffness than the unlocked bicortical fixation, but with significantly lower stiffness and strength in torsion. Fixation strength was comparable between the two groups under bending, but significantly greater in the bicortical non-locked group under torsion. Findings from this study suggest that postoperative rehabilitation protocols may need modification to limit torsional loading in the early stage when using locked unicortical fixation. The study also points out the potential advantage of a hybrid fixation that combines locked unicortical and unlocked bicortical screws.

  20. Réflexion sur l’origine du processus de segmentation du marche du travail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attia Nicole

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available (francuski Ce travail propose une réflexion sur l'origine du processus de segmentation du marché du travail par rapport à l'entreprise. Se situe-t-elle au sein même de l'entreprise ou en amont, c'est à dire entre les entreprises? Cela revient à se demander si on peut avoir une approche microéconomique ou macroéconomique de la segmentation et, à s'interroger sur le rôle réel tenu par les firmes dans le processus. Déterminant pour la théorie, ce rôle est à repenser selon la réponse apportée à notre question.

  1. Comparison of fixation disparity curve parameters obtained with the Wesson and Saladin fixation disparity cards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngan, Janice; Goss, David A; Despirito, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    This study compared fixation curve parameters with two commercially available fixation disparity cards, one that has been available for several years, the Wesson card, and a new one, the Saladin card. Fixation disparity curves were measured on 50 subjects with the Wesson fixation disparity card and the Saladin fixation disparity card. The x intercepts were on average more in the base-in direction with the Wesson card than with the Saladin card. The y intercepts were shifted in the exo direction with the Wesson card compared with the Saladin card. The slope with the Wesson card was steeper than the slope obtained with the Saladin card. The distribution of curve types was also different with the two different instruments. Fixation disparity curves measured with these two instruments are different, and separate norms should be used for each fixation disparity measurement method.

  2. Effect of Additive on Sulfur-fixation Process of Sulfur-fixation Agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Jun-lin; QIU Jian-rong; ZHAO Gai-ju; LOU Jin-ping; HAN Chun-hua

    2003-01-01

    The crystallization behavior of desulfurization product is directly related to its high-temperatureresistant ability. Effects of the additive on the sulfur-fixation efficiency of the Ba-sulfur-fixation agent and also on the crystallization behavior of the sulfur-fixation product were studied when CaCO3 and BaCO3 were used as the desulfurization agent and MgO and SrCO3 used as the assistant sulfur-fixation agent. The result shows that increase of sulfur-fixation capability for the additive is not owe to their directly react to form sulfate or interact with CaCO3 and BaCO3 to form composite mineral heat-resistant in high temperature, but owe to their activation to sulfur-fixation reaction of the sulfur-fixation agent.

  3. Eighth international congress on nitrogen fixation. Final program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-31

    This volume contains the proceedings of the Eighth International Congress on Nitrogen Fixation held May 20--26, 1990 in Knoxville, Tennessee. The volume contains abstracts of individual presentations. Sessions were entitled Recent Advances in the Chemistry of Nitrogen Fixation, Plant-microbe Interactions, Limiting Factors of Nitrogen Fixation, Nitrogen Fixation and the Environment, Bacterial Systems, Nitrogen Fixation in Agriculture and Industry, Plant Function, and Nitrogen Fixation and Evolution.

  4. External fixation combined with limited internal fixation in the treatment of pilon tibia fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golubović Zoran

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Intraarticular fractures of the tibial plafond (pilon fractures belong to the group of most severe fractures. They are usually caused by high-energy trauma and frequently associated with a marked soft-tissue damage. Surgical treatment has replaced the traditional nonoperative treatment. The aim of this study was to present the results of the treatment of distal tibial intraarticular fracture by the use of internal fixation, as well as the combination of minimal internal fixation and external fixation. Methods. The study included 47 patients with pilon tibia fractures who went through at the Clinic for Orthopedics and Traumatology, School of Medicine, Niš (1995-2004. Within the analyzed group there were 33 (70.2% males and 14 (29.8% females. The patients mean age was 45.8 years. In the first group, which consisted of 22 patients, open reduction and internal fixation of both the tibia and the fibula was performed in the two separate incisions. The second group consisted of 25 patients managed with external fixation by external fixator "Mitković" with limited internal fixation. Besides external fixation, a minimal internal fixation was performed by the use of Kirschner wires and screws. The patients were followed-up inside a 24-months-period. Results. The obtained was a substantially high number of complications after open reduction and internal fixation in the group of patients. There was no difference in a long-term clinical outcome. Postoperative osteitis, as the most severe complication in the management of closed pilon tibia fractures, was not registered in the second group. Conclusion. Considering the results obtained in this study, it can be concluded that external fixation by the "Mitković" external fixator with the minimal internal fixation is a satisfactory method for the treatment of fractures of the tibial plafond causing less complications than internal fixation. .

  5. Cri-du-chat syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Didden, H.C.M.; Curfs, L.M.G

    2013-01-01

    Cri-du-chat syndrome is a genetic disease resulting from a deletion occurring on the short arm of chromosome 5 (5p-). The incidence ranges from 1:15 000 to 1:50 000 live-born infants. Its main clinical features are a high-pitched monochromatic cry, microcephaly, broad nasal bridge, epicanthal folds,

  6. Dinitrogen fixation in aphotic oxygenated marine environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyal eRahav

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We measured N2 fixation rates from oceanic zones that have traditionally been ignored as sources of biological N2 fixation; the aphotic, fully oxygenated, nitrate (NO3--rich, waters of the oligotrophic Levantine Basin (LB and the Gulf of Aqaba (GA. N2 fixation rates measured from pelagic aphotic waters to depths up to 720 m, during the mixed and stratified periods, ranged from 0.01 nmol N L-1 d-1 to 0.38 nmol N L-1 d-1. N2 fixation rates correlated significantly with bacterial productivity and heterotrophic diazotrophs were identified from aphotic as well as photic depths. Dissolved free amino acid amendments to whole water from the GA enhanced bacterial productivity by 2to 3.5 and N2 fixation rates by ~ 2 fold in samples collected from aphotic depths while in amendments to water from photic depths bacterial productivity increased 2 to 6 fold while N2 fixation rates increased by a factor of 2 to 4 illustrating that both BP an heterotrophic N2 fixation are carbon limited. Experimental manipulations of aphotic waters from the LB demonstrated a significant positive correlation between transparent exopolymeric particles (TEP concentration and N2 fixation rates. This suggests that sinking organic material and high carbon (C: nitrogen (N micro-environments (such as TEP-based aggregates or marine snow could support high heterotrophic N2 fixation rates in oxygenated surface waters and in the aphotic zones. Indeed, our calculations show that aphotic N2 fixation accounted for 37 to 75 % of the total daily integrated N2 fixation rates at both locations in the Mediterranean and Red Seas with rates equal or greater to those measured from the photic layers. Moreover, our results indicate that that while N2 fixation may be limited in the surface waters, aphotic, pelagic N2 fixation may contribute significantly to new N inputs in other oligotrophic basins, yet it is currently not included in regional or global N budgets.

  7. Immaturity of Visual Fixations in Dyslexic Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiadi, Aimé; Gérard, Christophe-Loïc; Peyre, Hugo; Bui-Quoc, Emmanuel; Bucci, Maria Pia

    2016-01-01

    To our knowledge, behavioral studies recording visual fixations abilities in dyslexic children are scarce. The object of this article is to explore further the visual fixation ability in dyslexics compared to chronological age-matched and reading age-matched non-dyslexic children. Fifty-five dyslexic children from 7 to 14 years old, 55 chronological age-matched non-dyslexic children and 55 reading age-matched non-dyslexic children participated to this study. Eye movements from both eyes were recorded horizontally and vertically by a video-oculography system (EyeBrain(®) T2). The fixation task consisted in fixating a white-filled circle appearing in the center of the screen for 30 s. Results showed that dyslexic children produced a significantly higher number of unwanted saccades than both groups of non-dyslexic children. Moreover, the number of unwanted saccades significantly decreased with age in both groups of non-dyslexic children, but not in dyslexics. Furthermore, dyslexics made more saccades during the last 15 s of fixation period with respect to both groups of non-dyslexic children. Such poor visual fixation capability in dyslexic children could be due to impaired attention abilities, as well as to an immaturity of the cortical areas controlling the fixation system.

  8. Immaturity of Visual Fixations in Dyslexic Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TIADI eBi Kuyami Guy Aimé

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available To our knowledge, behavioral studies recording visual fixations abilities in dyslexic children are scarce. The object of this paper is to explore further the visual fixation ability in dyslexics compared to chronological age-matched and reading age-matched non-dyslexic children. Fifty-five dyslexic children from 7 to 14 years old, fifty-five chronological age-matched non-dyslexic children and fifty-five reading age-matched non-dyslexic children participated to this study. Eye movements from both eyes were recorded horizontally and vertically by a video-oculography system (EyeBrain® T2. The fixation task consisted in fixating a white-filled circle appearing in the centre of the screen for 30 seconds. Results showed that dyslexic children produced a significantly higher number of unwanted saccades than both groups of non-dyslexic children. Moreover, the number of unwanted saccades significantly decreased with age in both groups of non-dyslexic children, but not in dyslexics. Furthermore, dyslexics made more saccades during the last 15 sec of fixation period with respect to both groups of non-dyslexic children. Such poor visual fixation capability in dyslexic children could be due to impaired attention abilities, as well as to an immaturity of the cortical areas controlling the fixation system.

  9. Biomechanical Analysis of Latarjet Screw Fixation: Comparison of Screw Types and Fixation Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jason J; Hamamoto, Jason T; Leroux, Timothy S; Saccomanno, Maristella F; Jain, Akshay; Khair, Mahmoud M; Mellano, Christen R; Shewman, Elizabeth F; Nicholson, Gregory P; Romeo, Anthony A; Cole, Brian J; Verma, Nikhil N

    2017-09-01

    To compare the initial fixation stability, failure strength, and mode of failure of 5 different screw types and fixation methods commonly used for the classic Latarjet procedure. Thirty-five fresh-frozen cadaveric shoulder specimens were allocated into 5 groups. A 25% anteroinferior glenoid defect was created, and a classic Latarjet coracoid transfer procedure was performed. All grafts were fixed with 2 screws, differing by screw type and/or fixation method. The groups included partially threaded solid 4.0-mm cancellous screws with bicortical fixation, partially threaded solid 4.0-mm cancellous screws with unicortical fixation, fully threaded solid 3.5-mm cortical screws with bicortical fixation, partially threaded cannulated 4.0-mm cancellous screws with bicortical fixation, and partially threaded cannulated 4.0-mm captured screws with bicortical fixation. All screws were stainless steel. Outcomes included cyclic creep and secant stiffness during cyclic loading, as well as load and work to failure during the failure test. Intergroup comparisons were made by a 1-way analysis of variance. There were no significant differences among different screw types or fixation methods in cyclic creep or secant stiffness after cyclic loading or in load to failure or work to failure during the failure test. Post-failure radiographs showed evidence of screw bending in only 1 specimen that underwent the Latarjet procedure with partially threaded solid cancellous screws with bicortical fixation. The mode of failure for all specimens analyzed was screw cutout. In this biomechanical study, screw type and fixation method did not significantly influence biomechanical performance in a classic Latarjet procedure. When performing this procedure, surgeons may continue to select the screw type and method of fixation (unicortical or bicortical) based on preference; however, further studies are required to determine the optimal method of treatment. Surgeons may choose the screw type and

  10. Caractérisation des sables et morphologie du fond du lac du ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrateur

    Map of this lake 26 years after its setting in water. Key words : Dam .... La méthode d'interpolation retenue est l'IDW (Inverse Distance Weighting) avec un pas .... Figure 2 : Répartition des faciès de surface des sédiments du lac de Taabo. 3.3.

  11. LES GITES PLOMBO-ZINCIFERES DU DISTRICT MINIER DU KOUDIAT SIDU AUSUD DU KEF EN TUNISIE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Jurković

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available Les auteurs ont dćcrit l:i stratigiaphie. I.i tectonique, le corps de minerals, la paragenese et la genese dcs gttes Koudiat Sidri situ&s environ 20 km au sud de la ville du Kef en Tunisie.

  12. Carbon dioxide fixation in isolated Kalanchoe chloroplasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levi, C.; Gibbs, M.

    1975-07-01

    Chloroplasts isolated from Kalanchoe diagremontiana leaves were capable of photosynthesizing at a rate of 5.4 ..mu..moles of CO/sub 2/ per milligram of chlorophyll per hour. The dark rate of fixation was about 1 percent of the light rate. A high photosynthetic rate was associated with low starch content of the leaves. Ribose 5-phosphate, fructose 1, 6-diphosphate, and dithiothreitol stimulated fixation, whereas phosphoenolpyruvate and azide were inhibitors. The products of CO/sub 2/ fixation were primarily those of the photosynthetic carbon reduction cycle. (auth)

  13. Le parcours migratoire de jeunes ruraux du bled du kif

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Mouna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Cet article analyse le parcours migratoire des jeunes ruraux originaires des zones de production du cannabis, jeunes qui cherchent à briser les chaînes de soumission et d’humiliation vécues au quotidien. Pour les jeunes concernés par notre étude, la migration constitue un moyen de s’intégrer dans des réseaux transnationaux et ainsi d’entamer une carrière de beznass (commerçant du cannabis. Ce parcours « initiatique » permet à ces jeunes de revenir au bled avec de nouvelles idées, des moyens accrus, et de jouer un rôle actif dans l’économie locale – qui reste pour eux focalisée sur la production de cannabis, cette dernière restant néanmoins officiellement interdite.

  14. Paul Celan in Translation: "Du sei wie du"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Felstiner

    1983-09-01

    Full Text Available Translating the lyric poetry of Paul Celan, especially his later poems, carries not only the endemic challenge and difficulty of any verse translation, but the added incentive of doing justice to a writer whose whole recourse after the Holocaust—whose sanctuary, if he was to have any at all—he sought in language itself, specifically in the Muttersprache , the mother tongue that was as well the tongue of those who murdered his mother and father. This essay exposes a process of translating "Du sei wie du" (1970, which perhaps more than any other poem by Celan, at once solicits and defies translation, moving as it does from modern to medieval German, and closing with Hebrew words from Isaiah— a messianic imperative that shows Celan verging as ever on his Jewish identity.

  15. Dynamique narrative du texte, du film et de la musique

    OpenAIRE

    Wildgen, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    La narrativité est foncièrement liée à la dynamique des événements et des actions représentés, et elle dépend du champ pragmatique narrateur/récepteur, c’est-à-dire du discours narratif. Cette dynamique demande une théorisation adéquate, par exemple au sein de la théorie des systèmes dynamiques ou de l’analyse vectorielle, et elle se manifeste dans des modalités différentes. Nous présentons des exemples d’analyse dans la modalité linguistique (récit oral spontané, conte populaire), dans la mo...

  16. Methanotrophy Induces Nitrogen Fixation in Boreal Mosses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiirola, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    Many methanotrophic bacterial groups fix nitrogen in laboratory conditions. Furthermore, nitrogen (N) is a limiting nutrient in many environments where methane concentrations are highest. Despite these facts, methane-induced N fixation has previously been overlooked, possibly due to methodological problems. To study the possible link between methanotrophy and diazotrophy in terrestrial and aquatic habitats, we measured the co-occurrence of these two processes in boreal forest, peatland and stream mosses using a stable isotope labeling approach (15 N2 and 13 CH4 double labeling) and sequencing of the nifH gene marker. N fixation associated with forest mosses was dependent on the annual N deposition, whereas methane stimulate N fixation neither in high (>3 kg N ha -1 yr -1) nor low deposition areas, which was in accordance with the nifH gene sequencing showing that forest mosses (Pleurozium schreberi and Hylocomium splendens ) carried mainly cyanobacterial N fixers. On the other extreme, in stream mosses (Fontinalis sp.) methane was actively oxidized throughout the year, whereas N fixation showed seasonal fluctuation. The co-occurrence of the two processes in single cell level was proven by co-localizing both N and methane-carbon fixation with the secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) approach. Methanotrophy and diazotrophy was also studied in peatlands of different primary successional stages in the land-uplift coast of Bothnian Bay, in the Siikajoki chronosequence, where N accumulation rates in peat profiles indicate significant N fixation. Based on experimental evidence it was counted that methane-induced N fixation explained over one-third of the new N input in the younger peatland successional stages, where the highest N fixation rates and highest methane oxidation activities co-occurred in the water-submerged Sphagnum moss vegetation. The linkage between methanotrophic carbon cycling and N fixation may therefore constitute an important mechanism in the rapid

  17. L’Harmonie du monde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martine Clouzot

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available La Bourgogne est particulièrement bien présente et représentée dans l’exposition sur la musique et ses représentations au Moyen Âge organisée par Isabelle Marchesin (université de Poitiers, Christine Laloue (conservatrice du Patrimoine au Musée et Martine Clouzot (université de Bourgogne, au Musée de la Musique à Paris du 26 mars au 27 juin 2004. En Côte-d’Or, à Dijon, la Bibliothèque municipale a donné son accord officiel pour le prêt de la Bible d’Etienne Harding, les Moralia in Job et u...

  18. Nitrogen Fixation in Denitrified Marine Waters

    OpenAIRE

    Camila Fernandez; Laura Farías; Osvaldo Ulloa

    2011-01-01

    Nitrogen fixation is an essential process that biologically transforms atmospheric dinitrogen gas to ammonia, therefore compensating for nitrogen losses occurring via denitrification and anammox. Currently, inputs and losses of nitrogen to the ocean resulting from these processes are thought to be spatially separated: nitrogen fixation takes place primarily in open ocean environments (mainly through diazotrophic cyanobacteria), whereas nitrogen losses occur in oxygen-depleted intermediate wat...

  19. L'energie du moustique

    CERN Document Server

    Augereau, J F

    2002-01-01

    ENSEMBLE DE QUATRE ARTICLES - LARGE HADRON COLLIDER: Le dernier accelerateur de particules du CERN, le LEP, produisait des faisceaux d'electrons de 100 GeV chacun. Le LHC, qui accelere des faisceaux de protons, leur communiquera une energie de 7 TeV chacun. Une energie a la fois colossale et derisoire. Un TeV represente a peu pres l'energie cinetique d'un moustique (1/2 page).

  20. Revision du Genre Aseraggodes Kaup

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chabanaud, P.

    1930-01-01

    Le présent travail comprend la définition du genre Aseraggodes Kaup et la revision, sous forme d'une clef dichotomique, de toutes les espèces qui le composent, revision établie d'après les types eux-mêmes de ces espèces. Ce genre Aseraggodes appartient à la famille des Soleidae et à la sousfamille

  1. Collecting uncollectables: Joachim Du Bellay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gro Bjørnerud Mo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Lists of wonders have circulated for millennia. Over and over, such inventories of spectacular man made constructions have been rewritten, re-edited and reimagi-ned. Both the wonders and the lists of wonders, preferably of the seven, have had a profound and long-lasting effect, and have been abundantly imitated, copied and reworked. Renaissance creative thinking was obsessed with the seven wonders of the ancient world, and early-modern Europe experienced a surge of visual and verbal depictions of wonders. This article is about a remarkable list of seven wonders, included in one of Joachim Du Bellay's canonical poems on Roman antiquities (Antiquités de Rome, published in Paris in 1558. Du Bellay shapes his list of wonders by exploring pat-terns of both repetition and mutability. Almost imperceptibly, he starts suggesting connections between 16th-century Rome and distant civilizations. Through the eyes of a fictive traveller and collector, the poet venerates the greatness and la-ments the loss of ancient buildings, sites and works of art, slowly developing a ver-bal, visual and open-ended gallery, creating a collection of crumbling or vanished, mainly Roman, architecture. This poetic display of ruins and dust in the Eternal City is nourished by the attraction of the inevitable destruction of past splendour and beauty. In the sonnets, Du Bellay imitates classical models and patterns. Whi-le compiling powerful images and stories of destruction, he combines techniques associated with both a modern concept of copy and more ancient theories of co-pia. In this context, this article also explores whether Pliny's Natural History might be a source for the imaginary collection of lost sites and wonders in Du Bellay's Antiquit's.

  2. Strain-stress analysis of lower limb with applied fixator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrázek M.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares physiological state of tibia before and after application of an external fixator. The fixator systems’ models but also model of tibia are loaded in the direction of body axis. The paper is focused on the examination of differences in stiffness before and after the application of fixation. Two types of axial external fixators are compared. Both fixators differ in their construction. The first fixator is two-frame and fixation rods are used for fixing the bone tissue (variant I. The second one is fixed into tibia with screws (variant II. We have found out that the two-frame external fixator has much bigger stiffness during limb fixation than the fixator with one body. Much higher deformations compared to physiological state of tibia occur in the variant II.

  3. Maxwellian Eye Fixation during Natural Scene Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Duchesne

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available When we explore a visual scene, our eyes make saccades to jump rapidly from one area to another and fixate regions of interest to extract useful information. While the role of fixation eye movements in vision has been widely studied, their random nature has been a hitherto neglected issue. Here we conducted two experiments to examine the Maxwellian nature of eye movements during fixation. In Experiment 1, eight participants were asked to perform free viewing of natural scenes displayed on a computer screen while their eye movements were recorded. For each participant, the probability density function (PDF of eye movement amplitude during fixation obeyed the law established by Maxwell for describing molecule velocity in gas. Only the mean amplitude of eye movements varied with expertise, which was lower in experts than novice participants. In Experiment 2, two participants underwent fixed time, free viewing of natural scenes and of their scrambled version while their eye movements were recorded. Again, the PDF of eye movement amplitude during fixation obeyed Maxwell’s law for each participant and for each scene condition (normal or scrambled. The results suggest that eye fixation during natural scene perception describes a random motion regardless of top-down or of bottom-up processes.

  4. Fixational eye movements predict visual sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholes, Chris; McGraw, Paul V; Nyström, Marcus; Roach, Neil W

    2015-10-22

    During steady fixation, observers make small fixational saccades at a rate of around 1-2 per second. Presentation of a visual stimulus triggers a biphasic modulation in fixational saccade rate-an initial inhibition followed by a period of elevated rate and a subsequent return to baseline. Here we show that, during passive viewing, this rate signature is highly sensitive to small changes in stimulus contrast. By training a linear support vector machine to classify trials in which a stimulus is either present or absent, we directly compared the contrast sensitivity of fixational eye movements with individuals' psychophysical judgements. Classification accuracy closely matched psychophysical performance, and predicted individuals' threshold estimates with less bias and overall error than those obtained using specific features of the signature. Performance of the classifier was robust to changes in the training set (novel subjects and/or contrasts) and good prediction accuracy was obtained with a practicable number of trials. Our results indicate a tight coupling between the sensitivity of visual perceptual judgements and fixational eye control mechanisms. This raises the possibility that fixational saccades could provide a novel and objective means of estimating visual contrast sensitivity without the need for observers to make any explicit judgement.

  5. Variable Nitrogen Fixation in Wild Populus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon L Doty

    Full Text Available The microbiome of plants is diverse, and like that of animals, is important for overall health and nutrient acquisition. In legumes and actinorhizal plants, a portion of essential nitrogen (N is obtained through symbiosis with nodule-inhabiting, N2-fixing microorganisms. However, a variety of non-nodulating plant species can also thrive in natural, low-N settings. Some of these species may rely on endophytes, microorganisms that live within plants, to fix N2 gas into usable forms. Here we report the first direct evidence of N2 fixation in the early successional wild tree, Populus trichocarpa, a non-leguminous tree, from its native riparian habitat. In order to measure N2 fixation, surface-sterilized cuttings of wild poplar were assayed using both 15N2 incorporation and the commonly used acetylene reduction assay. The 15N label was incorporated at high levels in a subset of cuttings, suggesting a high level of N-fixation. Similarly, acetylene was reduced to ethylene in some samples. The microbiota of the cuttings was highly variable, both in numbers of cultured bacteria and in genetic diversity. Our results indicated that associative N2-fixation occurred within wild poplar and that a non-uniformity in the distribution of endophytic bacteria may explain the variability in N-fixation activity. These results point to the need for molecular studies to decipher the required microbial consortia and conditions for effective endophytic N2-fixation in trees.

  6. Prairie du Chien: A Historical Study,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-10-01

    Naudouwessee with whom this governor made peace and introduced trade and commerce among the whole nation. His son the successor told me that some of the...Nicholas Perrot, French Commandant of the West, with a party of couriers du bois and voyageurs descended the Wisconsin River and erected Fort St...number of traders and voyageurs settled at Prairie du Chien. Thomas Anderson who settled at Prairie du Chien in 1800 described the conditions on his

  7. Genetics Home Reference: cri-du-chat syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Conditions cri-du-chat syndrome cri-du-chat syndrome Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse ... PDF Open All Close All Description Cri-du-chat (cat's cry) syndrome, also known as 5p- (5p ...

  8. Au fil du temps (1976 ou la loi du seuil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Singer

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Ayant choisi de vivre dans un camion, les héros d’Au fil du temps (film de Wim Wenders de 1976 font du seuil une expérience particulière. Celle de la rupture avec toute idée de foyer et celle du refus d’appartenance à la terre natale, cette terre allemande traversée par une frontière le long de laquelle ils vont voyager, et qui les renvoie à chaque instant aux traumatismes de l’Histoire. Sur le pare-brise du camion, l’extérieur (campagnes indifférenciées, villes à l’abandon… et l’intérieur se superposent. Au fil du temps questionne le paysage : il s’agit d’en décoller un à un les mythes qui le recouvrent. L’image alors n’est plus surface mais volume à traverser, à lacérer et découvrir ce qui est tissé dans le paysage. La démarche de Wenders est alors proche de celle d’un de ses contemporains : Anselm Kiefer. Le paysage allemand provoque le rejet parce qu’il y a là toujours plus que le visible : des strates et des strates de culpabilité que le mythe - et c’est sa fonction - a recouvert. Et qu’il s’agira ici, de soulever. Le choix du nomadisme, c’est celui d’un état de l’humanité antérieur à l’idée de patrie. Et c’est aussi celui de la solitude, comme prix à payer à ce refus d’appartenance et à cette mise à jour des mythes. L’appartenance à la terre allemande et à son Histoire est profondément problématique parce que les pères sont fondamentalement coupables. On se reconnaîtra alors des pères de substitution : des pères de cinéma (Nicholas Ray ou Fritz Lang. Et l’on substituera l’Histoire du cinéma à l’Histoire. Bruno est réparateur ambulant de projecteurs et Au fil du temps dressera, au gré de ses pérégrinations, un état des lieux du cinéma allemand des années soixante-dix : déliquescent, colonisé par les images hollywoodiennes. Il faut que cela change : état du cinéma ; état des protagonistes solitaires en quête d’une identit

  9. Nitrogen fixation in trees - 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobereiner, J.; Gauthier, D.L.; Diem, H.G.; Dommergues, Y.R.; Bonetti, R.; Oliveira, L.A.; Magalhaes, F.M.M.; Faria, S.M. de; Franco, A.A.; Menandro, M.S.

    1984-01-01

    Six papers are presented from the symposium. Dobereiner, J.; Nodulation and nitrogen fixation in leguminous trees, 83-90, (15 ref.), reviews studies on Brazilian species. Gauthier, D.L., Diem, H.G., Dommergues, Y.R., Tropical and subtropical actinorhizal plants, 119-136, (Refs. 50), reports on studies on Casuarinaceae. Bonetti, R., Oliveira, L.A., Magalhaes, F.M.M.; Rhizobium populations and occurrence of VA mycorrhizae in plantations of forest trees, 137-142, (Refs. 15), studies Amazonia stands of Cedrelinga catenaeformis, Calophyllum brasiliense, Dipteryx odorata, D. potiphylla, Carapa guianensis, Goupia glabra, Tabebuia serratifolia, Clarisia racemosa, Pithecellobium racemosum, Vouacapoua pallidior, Eperua bijuga, and Diplotropis species. Nodulation was observed in Cedrelinga catenaeformis and V. pallidior. Faria, S.M. de, Franco, A.A., Menandro, M.S., Jesus, R.M. de, Baitello, J.B.; Aguiar, O.T. de, Doebereiner, J; survey of nodulation in leguminous tree species native to southeastern Brazil, 143-153, (Refs. 7), reports on 119 species, with first reports of nodulation in the genera Bowdichia, Poecilanthe, Melanoxylon, Moldenhaurea (Moldenhawera), and Pseudosamanea. Gaiad, S., Carpanezzi, A.A.; Occurrence of Rhizobium in Leguminosae of silvicultural interest for south Brazil, 155-158, (Refs. 2). Nodulation is reported in Mimosa scabrella, Acacia mearnsii, A. longifolia various trinervis, Enterolobium contortisiliquum, and Erythrina falcata. Magalhaes, L.M.S., Blum, W.E.H., Nodulation and growth of Cedrelinga catanaeformis in experimental stands in the Manaus region - Amazonas, 159-164, (Refs. 5). Results indicate that C. catenaeformis can be used in degraded areas of very low soil fertility.

  10. Finite element analysis of posterior cervical fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Y; Wang, H H; Jin, A M; Zhang, L; Min, S X; Liu, C L; Qiu, S J; Shu, X Q

    2015-02-01

    Despite largely, used in the past, biomechanical test, to investigate the fixation techniques of subaxial cervical spine, information is lacking about the internal structural response to external loading. It is not yet clear which technique represents the best choice and whether stabilization devices can be efficient and beneficial for three-column injuries (TCI). The different posterior cervical fixation techniques (pedicle screw PS, lateral mass screw LS, and transarticular screw TS) have respective indications. A detailed, geometrically accurate, nonlinear C3-C7 finite element model (FEM) had been successfully developed and validated. Then three FEMs were reconstructed from different fixation techniques after C4-C6 TCI. A compressive preload of 74N combined with a pure moment of 1.8 Nm in flexion, extension, left-right lateral bending, and left-right axial rotation was applied to the FEMs. The ROM results showed that there were obvious significant differences when comparing the different fixation techniques. PS and TS techniques can provide better immediate stabilization, compared to LS technique. The stress results showed that the variability of von Mises stress in the TS fixation device was minimum and LS fixation device was maximum. Furthermore, the screws inserted by TS technique had high stress concentration at the middle part of the screws. Screw inserted by PS and LS techniques had higher stress concentration at the actual cap-rod-screw interface. The research considers that spinal surgeon should first consider using the TS technique to treat cervical TCI. If PS technique is used, we should eventually prolong the need for external bracing in order to reduce the higher risk of fracture on fixation devices. If LS technique is used, we should add anterior cervical operation for acquire a better immediate stabilization. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Fixation of metallic sulfosalicylate complexes on an anionic exchange resin; Fixation de complexes metalliques sulfosalicylate dans une resine echangeuse d'anions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cahuzac, S. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-06-01

    +}; UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} - Co{sup 2+}; UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} - Mn{sup 2+} and UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} - Cd{sup 2+}), as well as the purification of a uranyl sulfosalicylate solution. (author) [French] Les ions sulfosalicylate ayant des proprietes acido-basiques, il s'ensuit que les complexes sulfosalicylate ont une stabilite apparente qui varie avec le pH. Par suite, la fixation des sulfosalicylates dans une resine echangeuse d'anions depend du pH de la solution qui est en equilibre avec la resine. Nous avons consacre notre etude a l'influence du pH sur la fixation dans une resine echangeuse d'anions (Dowex 1 x 4), des anions sulfosalicylate, d'une part, et des complexes metalliques sulfosalicylate, d'autre part. Dans une premiere partie, nous avons determine par analyse frontale, la repartition des ions sulfosalicylate dans la resine, suivant le pH et la concentration totale de sulfo-salicylate dans la solution aqueuse en equilibre avec la resine. Les constantes d'echange de ces ions entre la resine et la solution, ont ete calculees. Dans une seconde partie, nous avons etudie la fixation des complexes sulfosalicylate anioniques du Fe(III), Al(III), Cr(III), Cu(II), Ni(II), Co(II), Zn(II), Mn(II), Cd(II), Fe(II) et UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}. Les mesures des coefficients de partage de ces differents elements entre la resine et la solution, ont permis une interpretation des modes de fixation des ions metalliques, ainsi que le calcul de leur constante d'echange entre la resine et la solution. Nous avons etabli, pour chaque element metallique etudie, la relation entre son coefficient de partage, le pH et la concentration totale du complexant en solution. Une telle relation permet de prevoir, dans des conditions donnees, la nature des especes en solution et dans la resine, ainsi que le coefficient de partage d'un element metallique. Enfin, dans une troisieme partie, nous avons utilise les resultats obtenus precedemment pour realiser quelques

  12. Métastases gastro-intestinales du cancer du sein: à propos de 2 cas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loubna, Mezouar; Mohamed, El Hfid; Tijani, El Harroudi; Fouzia, Ghadouani; Hanane, Haj Kacem; Zouhour, Bourhaleb; Asmae, Ouabdelmoumen

    2013-01-01

    Le cancer du sein est le cancer le plus fréquent chez la femme, notamment au Maroc, avec un taux de mortalité élevé. Les métastases gastro-intestinales d'un carcinome canalaire du sein sont rares. Leur diagnostic est difficile du fait de la nature non spécifique des symptômes. Nous rapportons deux observations originales de métastases gastroduodénales d'un cancer canalaire infiltrant du sein. Les métastases gastro-intestinales du cancer du sein sont très rares; la présence de symptômes gastro-intestinaux chez une malade ayant un antécédent de cancer du sein doit faire suspecter une atteinte métastatique gastro-intestinale. PMID:24198876

  13. The fixation and saccade P3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandekar, Sangita; Ding, Jian; Privitera, Claudio; Carney, Thom; Klein, Stanley A

    2012-01-01

    Although most instances of object recognition during natural viewing occur in the presence of saccades, the neural correlates of objection recognition have almost exclusively been examined during fixation. Recent studies have indicated that there are post-saccadic modulations of neural activity immediately following eye movement landing; however, whether post-saccadic modulations affect relatively late occurring cognitive components such as the P3 has not been explored. The P3 as conventionally measured at fixation is commonly used in brain computer interfaces, hence characterizing the post-saccadic P3 could aid in the development of improved brain computer interfaces that allow for eye movements. In this study, the P3 observed after saccadic landing was compared to the P3 measured at fixation. No significant differences in P3 start time, temporal persistence, or amplitude were found between fixation and saccade trials. Importantly, sensory neural responses canceled in the target minus distracter comparisons used to identify the P3. Our results indicate that relatively late occurring cognitive neural components such as the P3 are likely less sensitive to post saccadic modulations than sensory neural components and other neural activity occurring shortly after eye movement landing. Furthermore, due to the similarity of the fixation and saccade P3, we conclude that the P3 following saccadic landing could possibly be used as a viable signal in brain computer interfaces allowing for eye movements.

  14. Session du Conseil du CERN : le ministre britannique, Robert Jackson, souligne l'intérêt de on pays pour l'avenir du CERN : décisions du Conseil pour la mise en oeuvre des recommandations du Comité d'évaluation du CERN: départ anticipé pour 200 membres au moins du personnel - mise à jour de la méthode de calcule pour les contributions des Etats Membres au budget

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Press Office. Geneva

    1988-01-01

    Session du Conseil du CERN : le ministre britannique, Robert Jackson, souligne l'intérêt de on pays pour l'avenir du CERN : décisions du Conseil pour la mise en oeuvre des recommandations du Comité d'évaluation du CERN: départ anticipé pour 200 membres au moins du personnel - mise à jour de la méthode de calcule pour les contributions des Etats Membres au budget

  15. Des Taiwanais dans Ie sud du Fujian

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Se trouvant dans le sud-est de la Chine au bord dela mer, la province du Fujian s’appelle aussi toutsimplement "Min". Les anc(?)tres d’une grande partie de lapopulation de Taiwan sont venus du Fujian (Min). Les deux

  16. Le vide univers du tout et du rien

    CERN Document Server

    Diner, Simon

    1997-01-01

    Pourquoi l'Univers plutôt que le vide ? Le temps et l'espace existent-ils en l'absence de l'Univers ? Que reste-t-il quand tout est enlevé ? Pourquoi quelque chose plutôt que rien ? Depuis des siècles, ces interrogations mobilisent philosophes et physiciens. Mais aujourd'hui, le vide n'est pas le rien. Il serait même l'acteur central de l'histoire de la matière et de l'Univers, le partenaire privilégié de la physique. Vide et matière ne sont plus deux manifestations séparées de la nature, mais deux aspects d'une même réalité. Le vide est l'état de base dont la matière émerge, sans couper son cordon ombilical Le vide comme Univers du rien cède la place au vide comme Univers du tout. Que le vide puisse être conçu par les physiciens comme réservoir potentiel d'univers, voici qui ne devrait laisser personne indifférent. Ce livre ouvre un débat et nous convie à une réflexion surprenante.

  17. Image du savoir, image du pouvoir dans le Lapidaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta LACOMBA

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available À travers le prologue et les enluminures de présentation, le Lapidaire d’Alphonse X oriente l’interprétation de l’œuvre. Ces paratextes mettent en avant le rôle capital du savoir, représenté par la métaphore du trésor caché, qui a ici une valeur topique. Ils mettent également en exergue le rôle que s’attribue le roi dans la transmission de ce savoir, et placent cette nouvelle attribution royale au cœur de son projet politique.A través del prólogo y las miniaturas de presentación, el Lapidario de Alfonso X orienta la interpretación de la obra. Estos paratextos subrayan el papel capital del saber, representado por la metáfora del tesoro escondido, que tiene aquí un valor tópico. Ponen asimismo de manifiesto el papel que se atribuye el monarca en la transmisión de ese saber y colocan esta nueva atribución real en el centro de su proyecto político.

  18. Les esclaves du commandant Quiquandon

    OpenAIRE

    Tymowski, Michal

    2003-01-01

    Le 10 janvier 1895, Albert Grodet, gouverneur général du Soudan français, adressa au ministère des Colonies une dépêche accusant le commandant Quiquandon, dirigeant de la région Nord-Est (Ségou), d'exploiter illégalement un domaine sur lequel travaillent 140 esclaves. À partir de ce cas particulier, l'auteur analyse les conflits qui existaient à l'époque entre l'administration civile et un groupe d'officiers soudanais. Il se demande si la possession d'esclaves par des officiers, prenant...

  19. Du comptoir à la toge

    OpenAIRE

    Buti, Gilbert

    2007-01-01

    Descendant d’une famille de petits notables du Dauphiné, Antoine Anthoine (1749-1826) qui n’a pas pu accéder à la magistrature se destine à la marchandise. Après un apprentissage à Marseille au comptoir des Seimandy, il est nommé, par ces négociants, régisseur pour leur commandite de Constantinople. La mobilisation de sa proche parenté et les soutiens des pouvoirs politiques locaux, nationaux et internationaux lui permettent d’obtenir une mission destinée à ouvrir le commerce de la Russie mér...

  20. Aventures radiophoniques du Nouveau Roman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice Nickel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available  Aventures radiophoniques du Nouveau Roman Colloque international organisé par l’Université Paul-Valéry Montpellier, en partenariat avec l’Université de Stuttgart 19-20 novembre 2015   Organisateurs :  Pierre-Marie Héron, Annie Pibarot, Université Paul-Valéry Montpellier, centre de recherche Rirra21. Françoise Joly, Beatrice Nickel, Universität Stuttgart 

  1. Chemical and physical basics of routine formaldehyde fixation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rooban Thavarajah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Formaldehyde is the widely employed fixative that has been studied for decades. The chemistry of fixation has been studied widely since the early 20 th century. However, very few studies have been focused on the actual physics/chemistry aspect of process of this fixation. This article attempts to explain the chemistry of formaldehyde fixation and also to study the physical aspects involved in the fixation. The factors involved in the fixation process are discussed using well documented mathematical and physical formulae. The deeper understanding of these factors will enable pathologist to optimize the factors and use them in their favor.

  2. Control and Functions of Fixational Eye Movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucci, Michele; Poletti, Martina

    2016-01-01

    Humans and other species explore a visual scene by rapidly shifting their gaze 2-3 times every second. Although the eyes may appear immobile in the brief intervals in between saccades, microscopic (fixational) eye movements are always present, even when attending to a single point. These movements occur during the very periods in which visual information is acquired and processed and their functions have long been debated. Recent technical advances in controlling retinal stimulation during normal oculomotor activity have shed new light on the visual contributions of fixational eye movements and their degree of control. The emerging body of evidence, reviewed in this article, indicates that fixational eye movements are important components of the strategy by which the visual system processes fine spatial details, enabling both precise positioning of the stimulus on the retina and encoding of spatial information into the joint space-time domain.

  3. Breast specimen shrinkage following formalin fixation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horn CL

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Christopher L Horn, Christopher Naugler Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Calgary, and Calgary Laboratory Services, Calgary, AB, Canada Abstract: Accurate measurement of primary breast tumors and subsequent surgical margin assessment is critical for pathology reporting and resulting patient therapy. Anecdotal observations from pathology laboratory staff indicate possible shrinkage of breast cancer specimens due to the formalin fixation process. As a result, we conducted a prospective study to investigate the possible shrinkage effects of formalin fixation on breast cancer specimens. The results revealed no significant changes in tumor size, but there were significant changes in the distance to all surgical resection margins from the unfixed to fixed state. This shrinkage effect could interfere with the accuracy of determining distance to margin assessment and tumor-free margin assessment. Thus, changes in these measurements due to the formalin fixation process have the potential to alter treatment options for the patient. Keywords: breast margins, formalin, shrinkage, cancer

  4. Biometric recognition via fixation density maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigas, Ioannis; Komogortsev, Oleg V.

    2014-05-01

    This work introduces and evaluates a novel eye movement-driven biometric approach that employs eye fixation density maps for person identification. The proposed feature offers a dynamic representation of the biometric identity, storing rich information regarding the behavioral and physical eye movement characteristics of the individuals. The innate ability of fixation density maps to capture the spatial layout of the eye movements in conjunction with their probabilistic nature makes them a particularly suitable option as an eye movement biometrical trait in cases when free-viewing stimuli is presented. In order to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach, the method is evaluated on three different datasets containing a wide gamut of stimuli types, such as static images, video and text segments. The obtained results indicate a minimum EER (Equal Error Rate) of 18.3 %, revealing the perspectives on the utilization of fixation density maps as an enhancing biometrical cue during identification scenarios in dynamic visual environments.

  5. Cosmetic arm lengthening with monorail fixator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hemendra Kumar Agrawal; Balvinder Singh; Mohit Garg; Vipin Khatkar; Sumit Batra; Vinod Kumar Sharma

    2015-01-01

    Upper limb length discrepancy is a rare occurrence.Humerus shortening may need specialized treatment to restore the functional and cosmetic status of upper limb.We report a case of humerus lengthening of 9 cm with a monorail external fixator and the result was observed during a 2-year follow-up.Humerus lengthening needs specialized focus as it is not only a cosmetic issue but also a functional demand.The monorail unilateral fixator is more functional and cosmetically acceptable,and thus becomes an effective treatment option.

  6. Ab externo scleral fixation of intraocular lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, D Snow; Hater, Michael A; Cionni, Robert J; Crandall, Alan S

    2012-08-01

    We describe an ab externo technique that facilitates IOL scleral fixation and reduces the risk associated with previous ab externo scleral fixation techniques. This technique uses a microvitreoretinal blade and an internal limiting membrane forceps to create sclerotomies and retrieve the suture, respectively. Dr. Cionni is a consultant to Morcher GmbH, Stuttgart, Germany. Dr. Crandall is a consultant to Alcon Laboratories, Inc., Ft. Worth, Texas, USA. No other author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2012 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Skeletal Fixation in a Mutilated Hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Praveen; Sankaran, Ajeesh; Sabapathy, S Raja

    2016-11-01

    Hand fracture fixation in mutilating injuries is characterized by multiple challenges due to possible skeletal disorganization and concomitant severe injury of soft tissue structures. The effects of skeletal disruption are best analyzed as divided into specific locales in the hand: radial, ulnar, proximal, and distal. Functional consequences of injuries in each of these regions are discussed. Although a variety of implants are now in vogue, K-wire fixation has stood the test of time and is especially useful in multiple fracture situations. Segmental bone loss is quite common in such injuries, which can be safely reconstructed in a staged manner. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Fixation Property of Copper Triazole Wood Preservatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    According to AWPA E11-2006 standard,copper fixation rates of several copper-based formulations,such as ammoniacal copper,amine copper,and ammoniacal-ethanolamine copper,as well as alkaline copper quaternary(ACQ),were tested and compared in this paper.And the fixation rates of tebuconazole(TEB) and propiconazole(PPZ) in several formulations,such as copper azole,emulsified type and solvent type,were also compared.The determination of copper content in the leachate was analyzed by atomic absorption spectrom...

  9. Sociologie et sociolinguistique du franbreu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben-Rafael Eliezer

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Des enquêtes ont montré que plus de 20 % des adultes israéliens ont quelque connaissance du français. Parmi cette population, 250 000 à 300 000 personnes pouvaient être considérées comme francophones. Le français a affirmé une présence importante – pas toujours reconnue – dès la phase cruciale du développement de cette société. Une immigration de masse suivit la création de l’État (1948 dont la population a quasiment triplé en moins de deux décennies, avec l’arrivée de plus de 200 000 immigrants d’Afrique du Nord et des dizaines de milliers des Balkans et du Moyen-Orient. Beaucoup parmi ces immigrants étaient francophones – le français étant pour eux soit la première langue soit une deuxième qu’ils contrôlaient. C’est depuis lors que la présence du français est devenue démographiquement significative dans la société israélienne, se prolongeant de nos jours dans l’immigration en provenance de France qui se poursuit jusqu’à aujourd’hui. Comme nous l’avons montré ailleurs (Ben-Rafael et Ben-Rafael 2013, Israël fait l’expérience simultanée de plusieurs francophonies originales qui diffèrent par leurs sources aussi bien que leurs expressions (Ben-Rafael et Ben-Rafael 2013. Un premier modèle est le « français vernaculaire » (voir Boudras-Chapon 2008 amené par les immigrants de classes défavorisées arrivant d’Afrique du nord qui se sont regroupés en Israël. Leur français n’a offert qu’une faible résistance à l’hébreu qui s’est imposée dans le processus d’intégration. Un bilinguisme fonctionnant sur un mode additif au début qui s’est mué progressivement en modèle soustractif. Un second modèle concerne les immigrants de même origine ainsi que des immigrants francophones d’autres pays (pays balkaniques, Turquie ou Egypte formant une strate instruite de classe moyenne, pour qui le français était d’utilisation quotidienne aussi bien que de langue de

  10. Rejets et environnement du CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Vojtyla, P

    2007-01-01

    La radioactivité de l’environnement autour de l’Organisation Européenne pour la Recherche Nucléaire (CERN) et les doses de rayonnements qui en résultent pour la population avoisinante sont contrôlées par la Commission de Sécurité du CERN et de manière indépendante par les autorités compétentes des deux États Hôtes, l’Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN) côté France et l’Office Fédéral de la Santé Publique (OFSP) côté Suisse (voire Chapitre 8.6). Dans ce rapport, les résultats de mesures concernent en particulier le territoire suisse. L’ensemble des mesures effectuées en 2006 prouve que le fonctionnement des installations du CERN était sans conséquence radiologique sur l’environnement et la population. Le contrôle des émissions montre que les rejets effectifs se situent, également en 2006, nettement en dessous des limites réglementaires. Ce constat est confirmé par le contrôle des immissions dans l’environnement. Le CERN a bien respecté en 2...

  11. Bases en technique du vide

    CERN Document Server

    Rouviere, Nelly

    2017-01-01

    Cette seconde édition, 20 ans après la première, devrait continuer à aider les techniciens pour la réalisation de leur système de vide. La technologie du vide est utilisée, à présent, dans de nombreux domaines très différents les uns des autres et avec des matériels très fiables. Or, elle est souvent bien peu étudiée, de plus, c'est une discipline où le savoir-faire prend tout son sens. Malheureusement la transmission par des ingénieurs et techniciens expérimentés ne se fait plus ou trop rapidement. La technologie du vide fait appel à la physique, à la chimie, à la mécanique, à la métallurgie, au dessin industriel, à l'électronique, à la thermique, etc. Cette discipline demande donc de maîtriser des techniques de domaines très divers, et ce n'est pas chose facile. Chaque installation est en soi un cas particulier avec ses besoins, sa façon de traiter les matériaux et celle d'utiliser les matériels. Les systèmes de vide sont parfois copiés d'un laboratoire à un autre et le...

  12. Mini-plate fixation versus suture suspensory fixation in cervical laminoplasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng-Yu; Ma, Lei; Huo, Li-Shuang; Cao, Yan-Xiang; Yang, Da-Long; Wang, Hui; Yang, Si-Dong; Ding, Wen-Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Both the mini-plate fixation and suture suspensory fixation techniques are extensively applied in cervical laminoplasty, but which technique is superior has not been ascertained. The purpose of this meta-analysis is to compare the results between mini-plate fixation and suture suspensory fixation in cervical laminoplasty for the patients with multilevel cervical compressive myelopathy. Methods: PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane library, CNKI, and WANFANG were searched for studies that compared mini-plate fixation and suture suspensory fixation in cervical laminoplasty up to November 1, 2016. We calculated odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) for dichotomous outcomes and mean difference (MD) with 95% CI for continuous outcomes. Review Manager 5.3 was used for the statistical analyses. Results: A total of 25 studies, involving 1603 participants, were included in this review. The results of this meta-analysis indicated that there were statistically significant differences in postoperative Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) scores (MD = 0.67, 95% CI: 0.34–0.99, P statistically significant difference in C5 palsy (OR = 0.82, 95% CI: 0.37–1.84, P = 0.63). Conclusions: As compared with suture suspensory fixation, mini-plate fixation in cervical laminoplasty appears to achieve better clinical and radiographic outcomes with fewer surgical complications. However, mini-plate fixation is associated with bigger surgical trauma. This conclusion should be interpreted cautiously and more high-quality, randomized controlled trials are needed in the future. PMID:28151906

  13. Posterior fixation suture and convergence excess esotropia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffen; Auffarth; Kolling

    1998-09-01

    The present study investigates the results of Cuppers' 'Fadenoperation' in patients with non-accommodative convergence excess esotropia. Particular attention is given to postoperative eye alignment at distance fixation. Group 1 (n=96) included patients with a 'normal' convergence excess. The manifest near angles (mean ET 16.73 degrees +/- 6.33 degrees, range 4 degrees -33 degrees ) were roughly twice the size of the distance angles (mean ET 6.50 degrees +/- 3.62 degrees, range 0 degrees -14 degrees ). These patients were treated with a bilateral fadenoperation of the medial recti without additional eye muscle surgery. Three months after surgery, the mean postoperative angles were XT 0.5 degrees +/- 3.3 degrees (range XT 11 degrees -ET 5 degrees ) for distance fixation, and ET 2.7 degrees +/- 3.6 degrees (range XT 5 degrees -ET 14 degrees ) for near fixation, respectively. Postoperative convergent angles at near fixation >ET 10 degrees were present in two patients (1.9%). Group 2 (n=21) included patients with a mean preoperative distance angle of ET 9.2 degrees +/- 3.7 degrees (range 6 degrees -16 degrees ) and a mean preoperative near angle of ET 23.4 degrees +/- 3.1 degrees (range 16 degrees -31 degrees ). These patients were operated on with a bilateral fadenoperation of the medial recti and a simultaneous recession of one or both medial rectus muscles. Mean postoperative angles were XT 0.5 degrees +/- 4.6 degrees (range XT 12 degrees -ET 7 degrees ) for distance fixation and ET 1.4 degrees +/- 4.5 degrees (range XT 8 degrees -ET 13 degrees ) for near fixation, respectively. In this group, 2 patients (10.6%) had a postoperative exotropia >XT 5 degrees at distance fixation, and two patients had residual esotropia>ET 10 degrees at near fixation. Group 3 (n=17) included patients with a pronounced non-accommodative convergence excess. Near angle values (mean of 17.8 degrees +/- 5.3 degrees, range ET 7 degrees -26 degrees ) were several times higher than the distance

  14. De Sumer à Seattle, le voyage du bout du monde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Walther

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available « Les affaires qui se nouent par-dessus les frontières qui séparent les peuples ne font pas que ces frontières n'existent pas » notait Émile Durkheim en 1895 (1895 : 113. Un peu plus d’un siècle plus tard, l’ouvrage de William J. Bernstein intitulé A Splendid Exchange et sous-titré de manière inspirée How Trade Shaped the World vient apporter une confirmation étayée au sociologue français. De Sumer où fut introduit le commerce du cuivre 3000 ans avant Jésus-Christ, à Seattle où se tint la tr...

  15. Le cas du Haut-Adige ou Tyrol du Sud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Licia Bagini Scantamburlo

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available La situation de cette région italienne est vraiment emblématique des rapports entre « les territoires et l’identité » à cause de la présence de différentes communautés linguistiques autochtones, dont les plus importantes sont les minorités germanophone et latine. S’il est vrai que cette situation existe également dans d’autres régions italiennes, il est incontestable que dans le Haut-Adige/Tyrol du Sud elle présente des caractéristiques très spécifiques et uniques pour l’Italie, car les italo...

  16. COMMUNICATION DU CREDIT AGRICOLE - French version only

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    La Direction du Crédit Agricole informe son aimable clientèle du CERN des jours et heures d'ouverture de l'agence du site de Prévessin à compter du mardi 14 janvier 2003 : 1. Horaires pour les opérations bancaires courantes 7 jours sur 7 et 24h/24 avec l'espace libre service bancaire. 2. Horaires conseil du mardi au vendredi - Mardi, de 9h. à 12h. et de 14h.15 à 16h.30. - Mercredi, jeudi et vendredi, de 9h. à 12h. et de 13h.30 à 16h.30. Deux collaboratrices au lieu d'une seront désormais présentes toute la journée du mardi au vendredi pour vous accueillir, vous informer et vous conseiller en crédits et placements (réception conseil sur rendez-vous). Autre nouveauté : les mêmes conseillers seront aussi à votre disposition le samedi, sur notre agence de Gex, de 8h.15 à 13h.05, notamment pour les études de financements habitat. La Direction et toute l'équipe de l'agence du Crédit Agricole vous souhaitent une excellent année 2003.

  17. Approche de prise en charge du trouble du spectre de l’autisme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Patrick F.; Thomas, Roger E.; Lee, Patricia A.

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Se pencher sur les critères diagnostiques du trouble du spectre de l’autisme (TSA) comme les définit le Manuel diagnostique et statistique des troubles mentaux, cinquième édition (DSM-V), et concevoir une approche de prise en charge du TSA à l’aide du cadre CanMEDS–Médecine familiale (CanMEDS-MF). Sources d’information Le DSM-V, publié par l’American Psychiatric Association en mai 2013, énonce de nouveaux critères diagnostiques du TSA. Le cadre CanMEDS-MF du Collège des médecins de famille du Canada fournit un plan d’orientation pour la prise en charge complexe du TSA. Nous avons utilisé des données recueillies par le Centers for Disease Control and Prevention afin de déterminer la prévalence du TSA, ainsi que la revue systématique et méta-analyse détaillée effectuée par le National Institute for Health and Care Excellence du R.-U. pour ses lignes directrices sur le TSA dans le but d’évaluer les données probantes issues de plus de 100 interventions. Message principal Selon les données du Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, la prévalence du TSA se chiffrait à 1 sur 88 en 2008 aux États-Unis. La classification du TSA dans la quatrième édition du DSM incluait l’autisme, le syndrome d’Asperger, le trouble envahissant du développement et le trouble désintégratif de l’enfance. La dernière révision du DSM-V réunit tous ces troubles sous la mention TSA, avec différents niveaux de sévérité. La prise en charge du TSA est complexe; elle exige les efforts d’une équipe multidisciplinaire ainsi que des soins continus. Les rôles CanMEDS-MF fournissent un cadre de prise en charge. Conclusion Les médecins de famille sont au cœur de l’équipe de soins multidisciplinaire pour le TSA, et le cadre CanMEDS-MF tient lieu de plan détaillé pour guider la prise en charge d’un enfant atteint de TSA et aider la famille de cet enfant.

  18. Nouvelles du Centre Aéré de l’Association du Personnel du CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Jardin d'enfants

    2015-01-01

    Cet été 2015, durant quatre semaines d’été, le Centre Aéré a accueilli plus de 40 enfants âgés de 4 à 6 ans. Devant le succès rencontré, et à la demande des parents, il a été décidé d’en doubler la capacité maximale. A l'été 2016, du 4 au 29 juillet, la structure pourra accueillir les enfants de 4 ans révolus et de moins de 7 ans (nés après le 31/07/2009 mais avant  01/07/2012). Les inscriptions se feront à la semaine durant le mois d'Avril 2016. Les programmes sont en cours d'élaboration cependant nous pouvons déjà vous communiquer le thème conducteur du centre qui sera : à la découverte d'un continent différent chaque ...

  19. Fibrin sealant for mesh fixation in laparoscopic umbilical hernia repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, J R; Bisgaard, T; Assaadzadeh, S;

    2013-01-01

    Fibrin sealant for mesh fixation has significant positive effects on early outcome after laparoscopic ventral hernia repair (LVHR) compared with titanium tacks. Whether fibrin sealant fixation also results in better long-term outcome is unknown.......Fibrin sealant for mesh fixation has significant positive effects on early outcome after laparoscopic ventral hernia repair (LVHR) compared with titanium tacks. Whether fibrin sealant fixation also results in better long-term outcome is unknown....

  20. Biomechanical evaluation of fixation degree of fragments by periosteal osteosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barabash Yu.A.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Expansion of indications for surgery and plate osteosynthesis of long bones points to increased number of complications caused by instability of fragments, that can be associated in their turn with constructive features or iatrogenic factors. Insufficient rigidity of fragment fixation is due to incorrect technical treatment and wrong choice of fixator. Biomechanical parameters of periosteal fixation rigidity have been experimentally proved, depending on fixator lever

  1. Biomechanical Stability of Four Fixation Constructs for Distal Radius Fractures

    OpenAIRE

    Capo, John T.; Kinchelow, Tosca; Brooks, Kenneth; Tan, Virak; Manigrasso, Michaele; Francisco, Kristin

    2009-01-01

    Implants available for distal radius fracture fixation include dorsal nonlocked plating (DNLP), volar locked plating (VLP), radial–ulnar dual-column locked plating (DCPs), and locked intramedullary fixation (IMN). This study examines the biomechanical properties of these four different fixation constructs. In 28 fresh-frozen radii, a wedge osteotomy was performed, creating an unstable fracture model and the four fixation constructs employed (DNLP, VLP, DCPs, and IMN). Dorsal bending loads wer...

  2. Acuity, crowding, reading and fixation stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkenberg, Helle K; Rubin, Gary S; Bex, Peter J

    2007-01-01

    People with age-related macular disease frequently experience reading difficulty that could be attributed to poor acuity, elevated crowding or unstable fixation associated with peripheral visual field dependence. We examine how the size, location, spacing and instability of retinal images affect the visibility of letters and words at different eccentricities. Fixation instability was simulated in normally sighted observers by randomly jittering single or crowded letters or words along a circular arc of fixed eccentricity. Visual performance was assessed at different levels of instability with forced choice measurements of acuity, crowding and reading speed in a rapid serial visual presentation paradigm. In the periphery: (1) acuity declined; (2) crowding increased for acuity- and eccentricity-corrected targets; and (3), the rate of reading fell with acuity-, crowding- and eccentricity-corrected targets. Acuity and crowding were unaffected by even high levels of image instability. However, reading speed decreased with image instability, even though the visibility of the component letters was unaffected. The results show that reading performance cannot be standardised across the visual field by correcting the size, spacing and eccentricity of letters or words. The results suggest that unstable fixation may contribute to reading difficulties in people with low vision and therefore that rehabilitation may benefit from fixation training.

  3. Locking plate fixation for proximal humerus fractures.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Burke, Neil G

    2012-02-01

    Locking plates are increasingly used to surgically treat proximal humerus fractures. Knowledge of the bone quality of the proximal humerus is important. Studies have shown the medial and dorsal aspects of the proximal humeral head to have the highest bone strength, and this should be exploited by fixation techniques, particularly in elderly patients with osteoporosis. The goals of surgery for proximal humeral fractures should involve minimal soft tissue dissection and achieve anatomic reduction of the head complex with sufficient stability to allow for early shoulder mobilization. This article reviews various treatment options, in particular locking plate fixation. Locking plate fixation is associated with a high complication rate, such as avascular necrosis (7.9%), screw cutout (11.6%), and revision surgery (13.7%). These complications are frequently due to the varus deformation of the humeral head. Strategic screw placement in the humeral head would minimize the possibility of loss of fracture reduction and potential hardware complications. Locking plate fixation is a good surgical option for the management of proximal humerus fractures. Complications can be avoided by using better bone stock and by careful screw placement in the humeral head.

  4. Osteomyelitis in burn patients requiring skeletal fixation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barret, JP; Desai, MH; Herndon, DN

    2000-01-01

    Deep and severe burns often present with the exposure of musculoskeletal structures and severe deformities. Skeletal fixation, suspension and/or traction are part of their comprehensive treatment. Several factors put burn patients at risk for osteomyelitis, osteosynthesis material being one of them.

  5. Nitrogen fixation in the phyllosphere of Gramineae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bessems, E.P.M.

    1973-01-01

    The investigation was carried out with Zea mays , grown under temperate conditions, and with Tripsacum laxum Nash, grown in the tropics. The conditions for nitrogen fixation were found to be unfavourable in the leachate, obtained by spray irrigation of the aerial plant

  6. Synthetic biology for CO2 fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Fuyu; Cai, Zhen; Li, Yin

    2016-11-01

    Recycling of carbon dioxide (CO2) into fuels and chemicals is a potential approach to reduce CO2 emission and fossil-fuel consumption. Autotrophic microbes can utilize energy from light, hydrogen, or sulfur to assimilate atmospheric CO2 into organic compounds at ambient temperature and pressure. This provides a feasible way for biological production of fuels and chemicals from CO2 under normal conditions. Recently great progress has been made in this research area, and dozens of CO2-derived fuels and chemicals have been reported to be synthesized by autotrophic microbes. This is accompanied by investigations into natural CO2-fixation pathways and the rapid development of new technologies in synthetic biology. This review first summarizes the six natural CO2-fixation pathways reported to date, followed by an overview of recent progress in the design and engineering of CO2-fixation pathways as well as energy supply patterns using the concept and tools of synthetic biology. Finally, we will discuss future prospects in biological fixation of CO2.

  7. Behind the discovery of "Nissenbaum's fixative".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissenbaum, G

    2001-01-01

    The author describes the serendipitous discovery, conception, development, and history of Nissenbaum's Fixative while an undergraduate biology major in the early 1950s. The subsequent uses, applications, and modifications over the past forty-seven years are also described. Some of the modifications omitted from his short original paper are mentioned. Highlights of his subsequent career in the field of medicine are noted.

  8. Treating Somatic Fixation: A Biopsychosocial Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Susan H.; Campbell, Thomas; Seaburn, David

    1991-01-01

    Somatic fixation occurs when the patient or physician focuses exclusively on the biomedical aspects of a complex illness. Individual, family, and cultural factors promote the expression of emotional experience through physical symptoms. The physician or treatment team establishes a collaborative relationship with the patient and family, integrating biomedical and psychosocial evaluations and respecting the patient's defenses. PMID:21228995

  9. Headspace analysis of foams and fixatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harper, Kyle [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Truong, Thanh-Tam [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Magwood, Leroy [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Peters, Brent [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Nicholson, James [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Washington, II, Aaron L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-07-27

    In the process of decontaminating and decommissioning (D&D) older nuclear facilities, special precautions must be taken with removable or airborne contamination. One possible strategy utilizes foams and fixatives to affix these loose contaminants. Many foams and fixatives are already commercially available, either generically or sold specifically for D&D. However, due to a lack of revelant testing in a radioactive environment, additional verification is needed to confirm that these products not only affix contamination to their surfaces, but also will function in a D&D environment. Several significant safety factors, including flammability and worker safety, can be analyzed through the process of headspace analysis, a technique that analyzes the off gas formed before or during the curing process of the foam/fixative, usually using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). This process focuses on the volatile components of a chemical, which move freely between the solid/liquid form within the sample and the gaseous form in the area above the sample (the headspace). Between possibly hot conditions in a D&D situation and heat created in a foaming reaction, the volatility of many chemicals can change, and thus different gasses can be released at different times throughout the reaction. This project focused on analysis of volatile chemicals involved in the process of using foams and fixatives to identify any potential hazardous or flammable compounds.

  10. External fixation for phalangeal and metacarpal fractures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drenth, DJ; Klasen, HJ

    From 1987 to 1993 we treated 33 patients with 29 phalangeal and seven metacarpal fractures by external fixation using a mini-Hoffmann device. There were 27 open and 25 comminuted fractures, In 12 patients one or more tendons was involved, The mean follow-up was 4.4 years, Complications occurred in

  11. Sylvain Fagot, Le cirque. Entre culture du corps et culture du risque

    OpenAIRE

    Crochet-Giacometti, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    Cet ouvrage écrit par Sylvain Fagot, chercheur en sociologie associé à l'université du Québec, et auteur d'une thèse soutenue en 2003 intitulée « Ethno-sociologie du cirque. Arts de la piste / Arts du corps / Arts du risque », s'intéresse à un monde peu connu : celui du cirque. L'objectif y est de montrer comment chaque forme du cirque, le cirque dit « classique » et le cirque dit « nouveau », ont des stratégies sociales et économiques différentes mais surtout un rapport au corps et au risque...

  12. Radio-chemical dosage of {sup 90}Sr in large volumes of drinking water; Dosage radiochimique du {sup 90}Sr sur des volumes importants d'eaux potables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeanmaire, L.; Patti, F.; Bullier, D. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-07-01

    I. Principle of the method: 1. Fixing on a resin of all the cations present in the water. 2. Elution using 5 N nitric acid and precipitation of strontium as the carbonate. 3. Concentration of the strontium using the fuming nitric acid method. 4. Purification of the strontium on a resin by selective elution with ammonium citrate. 5. The strontium-90 is measured by separation at the {sup 90}Y equilibrium in the form of the oxalate which is then counted. II. Advantages of the method The concentration of the radio-activity starting from large volumes (100 l) is generally tedious but this method which makes use of a fixation on a cationic resin makes it very simple. The rest of the method consists of a series of simple chemical operations using ion-exchange on resins and coprecipitation. Finally, it is possible to dose stable strontium. (authors) [French] I. Principe du dosage 1. Fixation sur resine de tous les cations presents dans l'eau, 2. Elution par l'acide nitrique 5 N et precipitation du strontium sous forme de carbonate. 3. Concentration du strontium par la methode a l'acide nitrique fumant. 4. Purification du strontium sur resine par elution selective au citrate d'ammonium. 5. Le strontium-90 est dose par separation a l'equilibre du {sup 90}Y sous forme d'oxalate qui est compte. II. Interet de la methode La concentration de la radioactivite a partir de volumes importants (100 l) est generalement fastidieuse, la technique proposee rend cette phase tres simple en utilisant une fixation sur resine cationique. Le reste de la technique est une suite d'operations chimiques simples a realiser, faisant appel a l'echange d'ions sur resine et a la coprecipitation. Enfin, il est possible de realiser le dosage du strontium stable. (auteurs)

  13. 21 CFR 872.4880 - Intraosseous fixation screw or wire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Intraosseous fixation screw or wire. 872.4880... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4880 Intraosseous fixation screw or wire. (a) Identification. An intraosseous fixation screw or wire is a metal device intended to be...

  14. EFFECT OF EMBEDDING METHODS VERSUS FIXATIVE TYPE ON KARYOMETRIC MEASURES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BOON, ME; VANDERPOEL, HG; TAN, CJA; KOK, LP

    1994-01-01

    The influence of fixation and embedding methods in seven urologic tumor samples was studied karyometrically for 12 preparatory techniques. Routine histologic formalin fixation was compared with Carbowax and Kryofix fixatives. Also, histologic material was studied embedded in paraffin and plastic (GM

  15. Characterization for Soil Fixation by Polyelectrolyte Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yong Suk; Kwon, Sang Woon; Yang, Heeman; Lee, Kune Woo; Seo, Bumkyoung; Moon, Jei Kwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    According to report, the radioactivity bulk (approx. 95%) is localized within topsoil. Therefore soil surface on topsoil should be fixed to prevent the spreading of the contaminated soils with Cs-137 by wind and water erosion. Many methods have been developing for soil fixation to remove radioactive contaminants in soil and prevent to diffuse radioactive materials. Various materials have been also used as fixatives such as clays, molecular sieves, polymer, and petroleum based products. One of the methods is a soil fixation or solidification using polyelectrolyte. Polyelectrolytes have many ionic groups and make into the polyelectrolyte complex (PEC) due to electrostatic interaction of polyanion and polycation in an aqueous solution. It can be avoids using the chemical cross-linking agents, and reducing the possible toxicity and other undesirable effects of the reagents. PEC can fix soil particles by flocculation and formation of crust between soil. The method can also prevent a spread of radioactive material by floating on a soil surface. Recently, PEC used for the solidification of soil near the Fukushima nuclear power plant in Japan. The decontamination efficiency of the surface soils reached 90%, and dust release was effectively suppressed during the removal of surface soils. In this study, it was investigated the fixation of the soil by PEC to avoid the spread of the contamination in addition to the separation of soil and PEC. The physicochemical properties of polyelectrolyte complex solution and the stability of fixed soil by PEC were investigated. The mode of the addition is important to prepare the polyelectrolytes complex without PAA agglomerate. The concentration of salt in the polyelectrolyte complex solution is a very important parameter for the soil fixation.

  16. Chapitre VI. Prudence du financement

    OpenAIRE

    Jambard, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    L’histoire financière de la société permet de comprendre bien des traits de son histoire. Comme toutes les entreprises du bâtiment et des travaux publics, la Société Auxiliaire s’est trouvée devant la nécessité de disposer d’importants capitaux circulants. Grâce à une gestion financière efficace, elle est, en général, parvenue à dégager de son activité les fonds nécessaires, bien que l’aisance de la trésorerie quotidienne n’ait été acquise qu’avec la reconversion. Les années 1927-1946 sont ce...

  17. DU COTÉ DE CHEZ SOI

    OpenAIRE

    Marc Smeets

    2013-01-01

    Le voyage en Hollande, au XIXe siècle, s'inscrit dans une longue tradition où résonnent les notions de liberté, tolérance et commerce, mais il acquiert aussi une spécificité étant donné l’importance que prend la figure du « chez soi » : les Pays-Bas, terre d'agrément où le voyageur français se sent à l'aise et où il aimerait, si possible, vivre. Proust, de ce point de vue-là, ne fait rien de neuf quand il rêve dans la Recherche d'une « vie domestique » en terre batave. Les Pays-Bas, pour le v...

  18. L’abolition du vieillissement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Reindl

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available I « L’humanité vieillit à un rythme inimaginable. (... »« L’humanité vieillit à un rythme inimaginable. Nous devons résoudre le problème de notre propre vieillissement pour résoudre celui du monde entier. » M. Schirrmacher, l’un des intellectuels médiatiques les plus connus de l’Allemagne, joue comme toujours de façon magistrale la partition de l’effroi. Il ne se contente nullement de s’arranger avec son propre vieillissement, mais il veut sauver le monde à travers « une révolution militante...

  19. Sulphite metabolism; Metabolisme du sulfite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fromageot, P.; Chapeville, F. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    Although the formation of sulphite by micro-organisms was observed as early as 1914 by Neuberg, it was only in 1932 that Nightingale showed it to be present inside cells, in the case of tomato leaf stalks, its formation being due to the reaction: SO{sub 3}H{sup -} + (S{sub 2}O{sub 3}){sub 2}{sup --} {yields} S{sub 2}O{sub 3}{sup --} + O{sub 3}S{sub 2}O{sub 3}{sup --}. The presence of the thiosulphate formed was shown by the high refractive index of its barium salt. Today we have a certain amount of data concerning the formation and use of sulphite in the living cell, even through the knowledge is still incomplete. In this article we will describe and discuss the facts which are known, with particular reference to the oxidation of sulphite. (author) [French] Si la formation de sulfite par des micro-organismes a ete observee des 1914 par Neuberg, sa presence a l'interieur des cellules a ete demontree pour la premiere fois par Nightingale en 1932, dans des tiges et des feuilles de tomates, par la reaction: SO{sub 3}H{sup -} + (S{sub 2}O{sub 3}){sub 2}{sup --} {yields} S{sub 2}O{sub 3}{sup --} + O{sub 3}S{sub 2}O{sub 3}{sup --}. Le thiosulfate forme etait mis en evidence par l'indice de refraction eleve de son sel de baryum. Aujourd'hui on possede un certain nombre de donnees, cependant encore tres incompletes, sur la formation du sulfite et son utilisation par la cellule vivante. Dans cet expose nous decrirons et discuterons quelques-unes de ces acquisitions, tout particulierement celles relatives a l'oxydation du sulfite. (auteur)

  20. Sulphite metabolism; Metabolisme du sulfite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fromageot, P.; Chapeville, F. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    Although the formation of sulphite by micro-organisms was observed as early as 1914 by Neuberg, it was only in 1932 that Nightingale showed it to be present inside cells, in the case of tomato leaf stalks, its formation being due to the reaction: SO{sub 3}H{sup -} + (S{sub 2}O{sub 3}){sub 2}{sup --} {yields} S{sub 2}O{sub 3}{sup --} + O{sub 3}S{sub 2}O{sub 3}{sup --}. The presence of the thiosulphate formed was shown by the high refractive index of its barium salt. Today we have a certain amount of data concerning the formation and use of sulphite in the living cell, even through the knowledge is still incomplete. In this article we will describe and discuss the facts which are known, with particular reference to the oxidation of sulphite. (author) [French] Si la formation de sulfite par des micro-organismes a ete observee des 1914 par Neuberg, sa presence a l'interieur des cellules a ete demontree pour la premiere fois par Nightingale en 1932, dans des tiges et des feuilles de tomates, par la reaction: SO{sub 3}H{sup -} + (S{sub 2}O{sub 3}){sub 2}{sup --} {yields} S{sub 2}O{sub 3}{sup --} + O{sub 3}S{sub 2}O{sub 3}{sup --}. Le thiosulfate forme etait mis en evidence par l'indice de refraction eleve de son sel de baryum. Aujourd'hui on possede un certain nombre de donnees, cependant encore tres incompletes, sur la formation du sulfite et son utilisation par la cellule vivante. Dans cet expose nous decrirons et discuterons quelques-unes de ces acquisitions, tout particulierement celles relatives a l'oxydation du sulfite. (auteur)

  1. Daphne du Maurier' unustatud jutud / Udo Uibo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Uibo, Udo, 1956-

    2011-01-01

    Ajalehe "The Independent" teatel kavatseb kirjastus "Virago" maikuus avaldada Daphne Du Maurier lühiproosa kogumiku "Nukk" (The Doll), mille on koostanud tema loomingu suur austaja Ann Willmore ja mis sisaldab 13 unustatud ja seni avaldamata novelli

  2. Flaubert et Du Camp : quelques remarques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Brix

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Les spécialistes de Flaubert ont fait de nombreux reproches à Maxime Du Camp et ne prêtent plus guère d’attention à ce qu’il a écrit. C’est une situation très regrettable, qui prive les lecteurs d’informations nombreuses, susceptibles d’éclairer les enjeux mais aussi les impasses et les contradictions du projet esthétique de Flaubert. Quelques cas significatifs sont évoqués dans le présent article, qui se penche plus particulièrement sur la ressemblance entre un passage du livre de Du Camp Le Nil (1854 et les lignes de L’Éducation sentimentale (1869 qui rapportent l’“apparition” de Mme Arnoux.

  3. Inauguration du C/R Forum (Belgique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Le 16 février dernier, la Vlaamse beroepsvereniging Conservatie en Restauratie Forum (C/R Forum a été constituée à l'initiative de 18 personnes du milieu de la conservation/restauration et du secteur de la protection du patrimoine. Etant donné que la conservation et la gestion du patrimoine culturel mobilier et immobilier de même que la formation et la recherche relèvent des communautés et des régions, la nécessité est apparue depuis un certain temps de créer une organisation Flamande au sei...

  4. Daphne du Maurier' unustatud jutud / Udo Uibo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Uibo, Udo, 1956-

    2011-01-01

    Ajalehe "The Independent" teatel kavatseb kirjastus "Virago" maikuus avaldada Daphne Du Maurier lühiproosa kogumiku "Nukk" (The Doll), mille on koostanud tema loomingu suur austaja Ann Willmore ja mis sisaldab 13 unustatud ja seni avaldamata novelli

  5. A Prospective Randomized Trial to Assess Fixation Strategies for Severe Open Tibia Fractures: Modern Ring External Fixators Versus Internal Fixation (FIXIT Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    OʼToole, Robert V; Gary, Joshua L; Reider, Lisa; Bosse, Michael J; Gordon, Wade T; Hutson, James; Quinnan, Stephen M; Castillo, Renan C; Scharfstein, Daniel O; MacKenzie, Ellen J

    2017-04-01

    The treatment of high-energy open tibia fractures is challenging in both the military and civilian environments. Treatment with modern ring external fixation may reduce complications common in these patients. However, no study has rigorously compared outcomes of modern ring external fixation with commonly used internal fixation approaches. The FIXIT study is a prospective, multicenter randomized trial comparing 1-year outcomes after treatment of severe open tibial shaft fractures with modern external ring fixation versus internal fixation among men and women of ages 18-64. The primary outcome is rehospitalization for major limb complications. Secondary outcomes include infection, fracture healing, limb function, and patient-reported outcomes including physical function and pain. One-year treatment costs and patient satisfaction will be compared between the 2 groups, and the percentage of Gustilo IIIB fractures that can be salvaged without soft tissue flap among patients receiving external fixation will be estimated.

  6. Femoral Aperture Fixation Improves Anterior Cruciate Ligament Graft Function When Added to Cortical Suspensory Fixation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Mark D.; Shadbolt, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    Background: Recommendations for bone tunnel placement during anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction have become more precise. However, these recommendations differ neither with the choice of graft nor with the method of fixation used. The influence of the method of femoral fixation used on the biomechanical function of a soft tissue ACL graft remains unknown. Hypothesis: Our null hypothesis was that adding femoral aperture fixation to femoral cortical fixation, using the same bone tunnels, will not alter the control of anterior translation (AT) and internal rotation (IR) during ACL reconstruction using a hamstring graft. Study Design: Controlled laboratory study. Methods: A total of 22 patients with an acute isolated ACL rupture underwent reconstruction using a single-bundle autologous hamstring graft. Computer navigation was used intraoperatively to plot the AT and IR during the pivot-shift test before reconstruction, after ACL reconstruction using cortical suspensory fixation, and after the addition of femoral aperture fixation. Statistical analysis (analysis of variance) was used to compare the AT and IR during the pivot shift at each stage in the procedure. Results: Before ACL reconstruction, the mean (±SD) AT was 14.2 ± 7.3 mm and mean IR was 17.2° ± 5.5°. After reconstruction using femoral cortical suspension, these figures were significantly reduced to 6.2 ± 3.5 mm and 12.5° ± 3.20°, respectively (P < .001). The addition of the aperture fixation was associated with a further significant reduction to 4.6 ± 3.2 mm and 10.4° ± 2.7°, respectively (P < .001). Conclusion: The addition of femoral aperture fixation to suspensory fixation results in a significant reduction in both the AT and IR that occurs during the pivot-shift assessment immediately after ACL reconstruction using autologous hamstring graft. Clinical Relevance: The most precise positioning of bone tunnels during soft tissue ACL reconstruction needs to take into consideration

  7. DU-127090 Solvay/H Lundbeck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, William

    2003-01-01

    DU-127090 is a mixed dopamine antagonist/serotonin agonist in development by Solvay and H Lundbeck as a potential treatment for psychosis and schizophrenia, for which it is in phase II clinical trials. In August 2002, phase II trials were ongoing and Lundbeck expected to commence phase III trials in 2003 and file an NDA after 2004. DU-127090 is also under development for Parkinson's disease, for which it is in phase I clinical trials.

  8. La fin du risque zéro : du homegrown jihadism au terrorisme du loup solitaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rémi Baudouï

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Le risque zéro représente un moment historique particulier dans la conceptualisation de la socio-politique du risque. Son application repose au début des années 1980 sur l’hypothèse de la possibilité de progresser dans le domaine de l’anticipation et de la gestion sécuritaire des crises potentielles au point de pouvoir prémunir les populations contre toute forme de menace. Il fut employé dans les domaines de la protection civile et de la sécurité militaire. Comme élément de gouvernance politique, il réfutait l’idée selon laquelle le risque existe en préalable comme catégorie d’acceptabilité collective de la menace.

  9. Aux frontières du politique et du religieux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Sylvanise

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The Autobiography of Miss Jane Pittman met en scène de manière spectaculaire deux figures de leadership noir-américain au XIXe siècle (Ned et au XXe siècle (Jimmy. Ned, fils adoptif de Jane Pittman, se rebaptise Professor Douglass en hommage au leader abolitionniste Frederick Douglass. S’il est fondamentalement laïc (il est instituteur, le texte lui confère néanmoins une dimension religieuse, notamment dans le chapitre intitulé « The Sermon at the River » , qui renvoie à la fois à Moïse (le fleuve et à Jésus (le sermon sur la montagne. Abattu par un tueur à gages, Ned est un martyr dont l’histoire était déjà écrite. Le personnage de Jimmy, attendu par toute une communauté comme le messie (alors que lui aussi est un laïc et un homme qui perd la foi, s’inscrit dans la même histoire. Lettré, éloquent et impliqué dans le mouvement pour les droits civils, il est assassiné comme son prédécesseur. Dans les deux cas, le texte lie donc le politique et le biblique comme s’il ne faisait qu’un : être un leader politique, c’est être un preacher et un messie qui guide le peuple. Il est possible de lire l’évocation de ces deux hommes à la lumière d’une certaine actualité. Ned et Jimmy connaissent en effet un sort proche de celui de Malcolm X et de Martin Luther King, récemment assassinés au moment de l’écriture de The Autobiography of Miss Jane Pittman. C’est l’histoire de la répression du leadership noir, au travers du portrait de deux de ses avatars, qui peut donc se lire en creux ici.

  10. Southwick Osteotomy Stabilised with External Fixator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubor, Predrag; Mitkovic, Milorad; Grubor, Milan

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Epiphysiolysis of the femoral head is the most common accident occurring towards the end of pre-puberty and puberty growth. Case report: The author describes the experience in the treatment of chronic epiphysiolysis in two patients treated by Southwick osteotomy. The site is accessed by way of a 15-cm long lateral skin incision and the trochanteric region is reached through the layers. The osteotomy angles prepared beforehand on a thin aluminium model are used to mark the Southwick osteotomy site on the anterior and lateral sides at the level of the lesser trochanter. Before performing the trochanteric osteotomy, two Mitković convergent pins type M20 are applied distally and proximally, above the planned osteotomy site. A tenotomy of the iliopsas muscle is performed, and then the previously marked bone triangle is redissected up to three quarters of the width of the femur. The distal part of the femur is rotated inwards, so that the patella is turned towards the ceiling. The osteotomised fragments of the femur are adapted, repositioned and fixated by installing an external fixator on the previously placed pins. Two more pins are placed, one proximally and one distally, with a view to adequately stabilising the femur. The patient was mobile from day two after the surgery. If, after the surgery, the lead surgeon realises that there is a requirement to make a correction of 5, 10 and 15 degrees of the valgus, varus, anteversion or retroversion deformity, the correction shall be performed without surgically opening the patient, using the fixator pins. Conclusion: After performing a Southwick osteotomy it is easier to adapt, reposition and fixate the osteotomised fragments of the femur using a fixator type M20. Adequate stability allows regaining mobility quickly, which in turn is the best prevention of chondrolysis of the hip. It is possible to make post-operative valgus, varus, anteversion and retroversion corrections of 5, 10 and 15 degrees

  11. Fixation-coexistence transition in spatial populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall'Asta, Luca; Caccioli, Fabio; Beghè, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Balancing selection is a special case of frequency-dependent selection that is known to be the major force for the maintenance of biodiversity and polymorphism in natural populations. In finite populations, genetic drift eventually drives the population to fixation to the detriment of biodiversity. The interplay between selection and genetic drift is much richer in spatially extended populations, where the local density of individuals can be low even in the limit of infinitely large systems. We consider the limit of low local density of individuals (strong genetic drift) that is well represented by a modified voter model. We show analytically the existence of a non-equilibrium phase transition between a region in which fixation always occurs and a coexistence phase for a one-dimensional system. We also provide a characterization of the dynamical properties of the system, in particular for what concerns the coarsening behavior and the speed of propagation of heterozygosity above the threshold.

  12. Fixation of tritium gas by rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichimasa, Y.; Ichimasa, M.; Shiba, T.; Oda, M.; Akita, Y.

    1986-01-01

    The oxidation rate of tritium gas (HT) in the rat was determined using a one-way circuit inhalation apparatus. To eliminate tritiated water (HTO) produced by the apparatus, three traps (a -60/sup 0/C cold trap, a silica gel column and molecular sieves) were used. The oxidation rate was found to be 15.2 Bq per kg of blood per hour for each Bq or HT per ml of inhaled air. This rate was approximately one-third that obtained previously by other workers using a closed circuit inhalation system. No significant differences in tritium concentration were detected between blood and tissues. The fixation of HT by rat faecal suspension under aerobic and anaerobic conditions was determined. Fixation under anaerobic conditions was greater than under aerobic conditions.

  13. Translaminar facetal screw (magerl′s fixation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajasekaran S

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Translaminar facet screw fixation (TLFS achieves stabilization of the vertebral motion segment by screws inserted at the base of the spinous process, through the opposite lamina, traversing the facet joint, and ending in the base of the transverse process. It is simple, does not require any specialized equipment, and has the advantages of being a procedure of lesser magnitude, lesser operative time, less cost and few complication rate. Recently there is growing interest in this technique to augment the anterior lumbar fusions to achieve global fusion less invasively. In this review article, we discuss the clinical and biomechanical considerations, surgical technique, indications, contraindications and recent developments of TLFS fixation in lumbar spine fusion.

  14. Original Paper Performances comparées du HDL-cholestérol et du ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CT/HDL-C) et du HDL-Cholestérol est le meilleur prédicteur du SMet chez les adultes béninois. L'étude de ..... d'hypertension artérielle avaient observé qu'une ... facteurs tels que l'alimentation et l'activité physique sur les lipides sanguins.

  15. Engagez-vous, devenez délégué(e) du personnel du CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Dans notre ECHO N° 275, nous avons annoncé les élections à venir au Conseil du personnel du CERN. Dans le présent ECHO, nous vous informons du lancement du processus des élections qui débute par le dépôt des candidatures. Tous les titulaires, boursiers et associés, qui sont aussi membres de l’Association du personnel, peuvent s’engager et déposer leur candidature entre le 11 septembre à 08 h 00 et le 13 octobre 2017 à 17 h 00. N’hésitez plus, remplissez le formulaire de candidature, présentez-vous aux élections au Conseil du personnel afin de pouvoir représenter et défendre vos collègues du personnel du CERN. ÊTRE DÉLÉGUÉ(E), C’EST QUOI ? Poser la question à plusieurs d...

  16. Subtrochanteric femur fracture treated by intramedullary fixation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zu-Bin Zhou; Song Chen; You-Shui Gao; Yu-Qiang Sun; Chang-Qing Zhang; Yao Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To discuss surgical technique, operative efficacy and clinical outcome of intramedullary fixation in the treatment of subtrochanteric femur fractures.Methods: From February 2011 to February 2013, 76 cases of subtrochanteric femur fractures were treated by intramedullary fixation in our hospital, including 53 males and 23 females, with the age range of 37 -72 years (mean 53.5 years).According to Seinsheimer classification, there were 2 cases of type Ⅰ, 7 type Ⅱ,15 type Ⅲ, 23 type Ⅳ and 29 type Ⅴ.Firstly, all patients underwent closed reduction with the guidance of C-arm fluoroscopy in a traction table.Two cases of type Ⅰ and 3 cases of type Ⅲ fractures had ideal closed reduction followed by internal fixation.The others needed additional limited open reduction.Radiographic examination was used to evaluate callus formation and fracture healing in postoperative 1, 3, 6 and 12 months follow-up.Functional recovery was evaluated by Harris Hip Scoring (HHS) system.Results: Patients were followed up for 6-12 months.All fractures were healed except one patient with delayed union.The average bone union time was 4.5 months.According to HHS system, 65 cases were considered as excellent in functional recovery, 8 good, 2 fair and 1 poor.The proportion of the patients with excellent and good recovery was 96.05%.Conclusion: Intramedullary fixation is feasible for the treatment of subtrochanteric femur fracture.The accuracy of intraoperative reduction and surgical skill are important for the clinical outcome and the patients' prognosis.

  17. [Complications of open reduction and internal fixation versus external fixation for unstable distal radius fractures: a meta-analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Z; Yuan, Z Z; Ma, J X; Ma, X L

    2016-12-20

    Objective: To make a systematic assessment of the complications of open reduction and internal fixation versus external fixation for unstable distal radius fractures. Method: A computer-based online search of PubMed, ScienceDirect, EMBASE, BIOSIS, Springer and Cochrane Library were performed.The randomized and controlled trials of open reduction and internal fixation versus external fixation for unstable distal radius fractures were collected.The included trials were screened out strictly based on the criterion of inclusion and exclusion.The quality of included trials was evaluated.RevMan 5.0 was used for data analysis. Result: A total of 17 studies involving 1 402 patients were included.There were 687 patients with open reduction and internal fixation and 715 with external fixation.The results of Meta-analysis indicated that there were statistically significant differences with regard to the postoperatively total complications, infection, malunion, tendon rupture (I(2)=8%, RR=0.77(95%CI 0.65-0.91, Z=3.10, P0.05). Conclusion: Postoperative complications are present in both open reduction and internal fixation and external fixation.Compared with external fixation, open reduction and internal fixation is lower in total complications postoperatively, infection and malunion, but external fixation has lower tendon rupture incidence.

  18. Nitrogen fixation in Red Sea seagrass meadows

    KAUST Repository

    Abdallah, Malak

    2017-05-01

    Seagrasses are key coastal ecosystems, providing many ecosystem services. Seagrasses increase biodiversity as they provide habitat for a large set of organisms. In addition, their structure provides hiding places to avoid predation. Seagrasses can grow in shallow marine coastal areas, but several factors regulate their growth and distribution. Seagrasses can uptake different kinds of organic and inorganic nutrients through their leaves and roots. Nitrogen and phosphorous are the most important nutrients for seagrass growth. Biological nitrogen fixation is the conversion of atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia by diazotrophic bacteria. This process provides a significant source of nitrogen for seagrass growth. The nitrogen fixation is controlled by the nif genes which are found in diazotrophs. The main goal of the project is to measure nitrogen fixation rates on seagrass sediments, in order to compare among various seagrass species from the Red Sea. Moreover, we will compare the fixing rates of the Vegetated areas with the bare sediments. This project will help to ascertain the role of nitrogen fixing bacteria in the development of seagrass meadows.

  19. Biokinetics and dosimetry of depleted uranium (DU) in rats implanted with DU fragments.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guilmette, Ray A.; Hahn, Fletcher F.; Durbin, P. W.

    2004-01-01

    A number of U. S. veterans of the Persian Gulf War were wounded with depleted uranium (DU) metal fragments as a result of 'friendly fire' incidents, in which Abrams tanks and Bradley fighting vehicles were struck by DU anti-armor munitions. Some of the crew members who survived were left with multiple small fragments of DU in their muscles and soft tissues. The number, size and location of the fragments made them inoperable in general, and therefore subject to long-term retention. Because there was inadequate data to predict the potential carcinogenicity of DU fragments in soft tissues, Hahn et al. (2003) conducted a lifespan cancer study in rats. As part of that study, a number of rats were maintained to study the biokinetics and dosimetry of DU implanted intramuscularly in male Wistar rats. Typically, four metal fragments, either as cylindrical pellets or square wafers were implanted into the biceps femoris muscles of the rats. Urine samples were collected periodically during their lifespans, and DU was analyzed in kidneys and eviscerated carcass (minus the implant sites) at death. The daily DU urinary excretion rate increased steeply during the first 30 d after implantation peaking at about 90 d at 3-10 x 10{sup -3}%/d. During the first 150 d, the average excretion rate was 2.4 x 10{sup -3}%/d, decreasing thereafter to about 1 x 10{sup -3}%/d. Serial radiographs were made of the wound sites to monitor gross morphologic changes in the DU implant and the surrounding tissue. As early as 1 w after implantation, radiographs showed the presence of surface corrosion and small, dense bodies near the original implant, presumably DU. This corrosion from the surface of the implant continued with time, but did not result in an increasing amount of DU reaching the blood and urine after the first 3 mo. During this 3-mo period, connective tissue capsules formed around the implants, and are hypothesized to have reduced the access of DU to tissue fluids by limiting the

  20. Comportement du carbone aux joints de grains du molybdène

    OpenAIRE

    1994-01-01

    Pas de résumé en anglais; La mise en évidence et l'interprétation du rôle bénéfique du carbone et du rôle néfaste de l'oxygène sur la cohésion intergranulaire du molybdène en l'absence de précipitation visible au MEB constituaient le but de cette étude. Une méthode efficace de purification du molybdène a été mise au point. Les mesures de la concentration intergranulaire de carbone en fonction de la température de carburation et de la teneur volumique ont été effectuées à l'aide d'un spectromè...

  1. DU COTÉ DE CHEZ SOI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Smeets

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Le voyage en Hollande, au XIXe siècle, s'inscrit dans une longue tradition où résonnent les notions de liberté, tolérance et commerce, mais il acquiert aussi une spécificité étant donné l’importance que prend la figure du « chez soi » : les Pays-Bas, terre d'agrément où le voyageur français se sent à l'aise et où il aimerait, si possible, vivre. Proust, de ce point de vue-là, ne fait rien de neuf quand il rêve dans la Recherche d'une « vie domestique » en terre batave. Les Pays-Bas, pour le voyageur français au XIXe, c'est le home sweet home.

  2. Computational investigations of mechanical failures of internal plate fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, G; Schmutz, B; Wullschleger, M; Pearcy, M J; Schuetz, M A

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigated the biomechanics of two clinical cases of bone fracture treatments. Both fractures were treated with the same locking compression plate but with different numbers of screws as well as different plate materials. The fracture treated with 12 screws (rigid fixation) failed at 7 weeks with the plate breaking; the fracture with six screws (flexible fixation) endured the entire healing process. It was hypothesized that the plate failure in the unsuccessful case was due to the material fatigue induced by stress concentration in the plate. As the two clinical cases had different fracture locations and different plate materials, finite element simulations were undertaken for each fractured bone fixed by both a rigid and a flexible method. This enabled comparisons to be made between the rigid and flexible fixation methods. The fatigue life was assessed for each fixation method. The results showed that the stress in the rigid fixation methods could be significantly higher than that in flexible fixation methods. The fatigue analyses showed that, with the stress level in flexible fixation (i.e. with fewer screws), the plate was able to endure 2000 days, and that the plate in rigid fixation could fail by fatigue fracture in 20 days. The paper concludes that the rigid fixation method resulted in serious stress concentrations in the plate, which induced fatigue failure. The flexible fixation gave sufficient stability and was better for fracture healing.

  3. Retrospective comparison of percutaneous fixation and volar internal fixation of distal radius fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano-Calderón, Santiago A; Doornberg, Job N; Ring, David

    2008-06-01

    A change in the practice of a single surgeon provided an opportunity for retrospective comparison of comparable cohorts treated with percutaneous fixation (17 patients) or a volar plate and screws (23 patients) an average of 30 months after surgery. The final evaluation was performed according to the Gartland and Werley and Mayo rating systems and the DASH questionnaire. There were no significant differences on the average scores for the percutaneous and volar plating groups, respectively: Gartland and Werley, 4 vs 5; Mayo, 82 vs 83; and DASH score 13 for both cohorts. Motion, grip, and radiographical parameters were likewise comparable. Volar internal plate and screw fixation can achieve results comparable to percutaneous fixation techniques in the treatment of fractures of the distal radius.

  4. Fixation of displaced subcapital femoral fractures. Compression screw fixation versus double divergent pins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, J; Howie, C R; Armour, P C

    1988-03-01

    One hundred and twenty-seven consecutive patients with displaced subcapital fractures of the femoral neck (Garden Grade III or IV) all under 80 years of age and independently mobile, were randomly allocated to fixation with either double divergent pins or a single sliding screw-plate device. The incidence of non-union and infection in the sliding screw-plate group was significantly higher, and we believe that when internal fixation is considered appropriate multiple pinning should be used. Mobility after treatment was disappointing in about half of the patients, and we feel that internal fixation can only be justified in patients who are physiologically well preserved and who maintain a high level of activity.

  5. Weigners fixative-an alternative to formalin fixation for histology with improved preservation of nucleic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klopfleisch, R; von Deetzen, M; Weiss, A Th; Weigner, J; Weigner, F; Plendl, J; Gruber, A D

    2013-01-01

    Formalin fixation and paraffin embedding (FFPE) is the standard method for tissue storage in histopathology. However, FFPE has disadvantages in terms of user health, environment, and nucleic acid integrity. Weigners fixative has been suggested as an alternative for embalming cadavers in human and veterinary anatomy. The present study tested the applicability of Weigners for histology and immunohistochemistry and the preservation of nucleic acids. To this end, a set of organs was fixed for 2 days and up to 6 months in Weigners (WFPE) or formalin. WFPE tissues from the skin, brain, lymphatic tissues, liver, and muscle had good morphologic preservation, comparable to formalin fixation. The quality of kidney and lung samples was inferior to FFPE material due to less accentuated nuclear staining and retention of proteinaceous interstitial fluids. Azan, Turnbull blue, toluidin, and immunohistochemical stainings for CD79a, cytokeratin, vimentin, and von Willebrand factor led to comparable results with both fixates. Of note, immunohistochemical detection of CD3 was possible after 6 months in WFPE but not in FFPE tissues. mRNA, miRNA, and DNA from WFPE tissues had superior quality and allowed for amplification of miRNA, 400-bp-long mRNA, and 1000-bp-long DNA fragments after 6 months of fixation in WFPE. In summary, Weigners fixative is a nonhazardous alternative to formalin, which provides a good morphologic preservation of most organs, a similar sensitivity for protein detection, and a superior preservation of nucleic acids. Weigners may therefore be a promising alternative to cryopreservation and may be embraced by people affected by formalin allergies.

  6. Results of application of external fixation with different types of fixators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grubor Predrag

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Extra-focal or external fixation is the method of fracture fixation through the healthy part of the bone using pins or wires. Objective. The aim was to determine which external splints (Ortofix, Mitković, Charnley and Ilizarov had the best biomechanical properties in primary stabilization of spiral, transverse and commutative bone fractures. Methods. To determine the investigation methodology of biomechanical characteristics of the external fixator we used mathematical and computer simulator (software, juvidur physical model and clinical examination. Results. Values of advancing fragments in millimetres obtained by the study of mathematical and computer simulator (software: Charnley - 0.080 mm, Mitković M 20 - 0.785 mm, Ilizarov - 2.245 mm and Ortofix - 1.400 mm. In testing the juvidur model the following values were obtained: the external fixator Mitković M20 - 1.380 mm, Ortofix - 1.470 mm, Ilizarov - 2.410 mm, and Charnley - 2.510 mm. Clinical research of biomechanical characteristics of the effect of vertical force yielded the following results: Mitković M20 - 0.89 mm, Ortofix - 0.14 mm, Charnley - 0.80 mm and Ilizarov - 1.23 mm. Conclusion. When determining the total number of the stability test splints under the effect of vertical force (compression and force effect in antero-posterior, later-lateral plane of cross, spiral and comminuted long bone fractures, the best unified biomechanical stability was shown by the following external fixators: firstly, Mitković M20 (0.93mm, secondly, Charnley fixator (1.14 mm, thirdly, Ortofix (1.22 mm, and fourthly, Ilizarov (1.60 mm.

  7. Cirque du Monde as a health intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Cynthia; Drouin, Mélodie-Anne; Marcoux, Jérémie; Garel, Patricia; Bochud, Emmanuel; Théberge, Julie; Aubertin, Patrice; Favreau, Gil; Fleet, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To present Cirque du Soleil’s social circus program, Cirque du Monde, to explore its potential as a primary health care tool for family physicians. Data sources A review of the literature in PubMed, the Cochrane Library, PsycINFO, LaPresse, Eureka, Google Scholar, and Érudit using the key words circus, social circus, Cirque du Monde, and Cirque du Soleil; a Montreal-based initiative, Espace Transition, modeled on Cirque du Monde; and personal communication with Cirque du Soleil’s Social Circus Training Advisor. Study selection The first 50 articles or websites identified for each key word in each of the databases were examined on the basis of their titles and abstracts in the case of articles, and on the basis of their titles and page content in the case of websites. Articles and websites that explored an aspect of social circuses or that described an intervention that involved circuses were then retained for analysis. Because all literature on social circuses was searched, no criterion for year of publication was used. Synthesis No articles on the social circus as a health intervention were found. One study on the use of the circus as an intervention in schools was identified. It demonstrated an increase in self-esteem in the children who took part. One study on the use of the circus in a First Nations community was found; it contained nonspecific, qualitative findings. The other articles identified were merely descriptions of social circuses. One website was identified on the use of the social circus to help youth who had been treated in a hospital setting for major psychiatric disorders to re-enter the community. The team in the pediatric psychiatry department at Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Sainte-Justine, the children’s hospital in Montreal, Que, was contacted; they were leading this project, called Espace Transition. The unpublished preliminary findings of its pilot project demonstrate substantial improvements in overall patient

  8. Établissements recevant du public

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    Synthèse pour les installations électriques, des règles de sécurité contre les risques d’incendie et de panique dans les établissements recevant du public (ERP), selon l’arrêté du 25 juin 1980 modifié. L'ouvrage traite à la fois des dispositions communes aux établissements du 1er groupe (1ère à 4ème catégorie), du 2ème groupe (5ème catégorie) et des règles particulières applicables aux différents types d'établissements (structures d'accueil pour personnes âgées ou handicapées, hôtels, magasins de vente, restaurants et débit de boisson, établissements de soins, administration, châpiteaux, etc...) Sont ainsi notamment traités, dans le cadre des dispositions communes aux établissements du 1er groupe, pour les installations électriques normales : les installations des appareils, tableaux et canalisations, les locaux électriques et installation de machines, l'éclairage normal des locaux accessibles au public, le chauffage et la ventilation, l'installation d'eau chaude sanita...

  9. L’internationalisation du roman arabe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr Dalia Khraibani

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available La littérature arabe est presque invisible dans l’espace littéraire mondiale pour des raisons diverses. Pourtant, des écrivains réussissent à s’imposer sur la scène littéraire internationale et leurs œuvres deviennent des chefs d’œuvre de la littérature mondiale. Parmi ces écrivains, nous citons Tayeb Saleh qui connaît un succès international surtout avec la parution de son second roman "Saison de migration vers le Nord". Notre étude vise à montrer comment ce roman par son contenu et sa forme, occupe une place de choix dans la littérature mondiale. En effet, nous allons examiner le contexte historique de l’émergence du roman qui joue un rôle dans sa diffusion au niveau mondial. L’une des clés de réussite du roman est la technique narrative qui retient l’haleine du lecteur dès la première page. De plus, le roman répond à l’horizon d’attente du lectorat occidental en représentant des images particulières de la société arabo-africaine qui correspondent aux stéréotypes et clichés du public occidental vis-à-vis des Arabes.

  10. Influence du pH, d'acides aminés et de diverses substances organiques sur la fongitoxicité du pyriméthanil, du glufosinate, du captafol, du cymoxanil et du fenpiclonil vis-à-vis de certaines souches de Botrytis cinerea

    OpenAIRE

    1994-01-01

    L’effet du pyriméthanil, du fenpiclonil, du captafol, du glufosinate et du cymoxanil sur l’élongation des filaments germinatifs des spores de Botrytis cinerea est étudié dans diverses conditions culturales du champignon. Si le fenpiclonil présente un niveau d’activité stable entre pH 3,6 et 7,3, en revanche les autres pesticides voient leur toxicité chuter dans des milieux acides (ex pyriméthanil) ou neutres à faiblement basiques (ex captafol, cymoxanil, glufosinate). L’adjonction d’extrait d...

  11. De Gainsborough à Turner : l'âge d'or du paysage et du portrait anglais dans les collections du musée du Louvre

    OpenAIRE

    Adrien, Muriel

    2015-01-01

    L’exposition De Gainsborough à Turner : l'âge d'or du paysage et du portrait anglais dans les collections du musée du Louvre co-organisée par le Musée du Louvre, le Musée d’Art et d’Archéologie de Valence et le Musée des Beaux-arts de Quimper présentait une sélection de 35 peintures de la collection du Louvre, complétée par 38 dessins du département des Arts Graphiques. Les commissaires de l'exposition étaient : Guillaume Faroult, conservateur en charge des peintures françaises du 18ème siècl...

  12. Improving Saliency Models by Predicting Human Fixation Patches

    KAUST Repository

    Dubey, Rachit

    2015-04-16

    There is growing interest in studying the Human Visual System (HVS) to supplement and improve the performance of computer vision tasks. A major challenge for current visual saliency models is predicting saliency in cluttered scenes (i.e. high false positive rate). In this paper, we propose a fixation patch detector that predicts image patches that contain human fixations with high probability. Our proposed model detects sparse fixation patches with an accuracy of 84 % and eliminates non-fixation patches with an accuracy of 84 % demonstrating that low-level image features can indeed be used to short-list and identify human fixation patches. We then show how these detected fixation patches can be used as saliency priors for popular saliency models, thus, reducing false positives while maintaining true positives. Extensive experimental results show that our proposed approach allows state-of-the-art saliency methods to achieve better prediction performance on benchmark datasets.

  13. Overcoming Design Fixation Through Education and Creativity Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howard, Thomas J.; Maier, Anja; Onarheim, Balder

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports an experiment on the topic design fixation using 12 teams of masters students working on three design problems from (Jansson and Smith 1991). The objective of the experiment is to determine the effectiveness of two interventions to help overcome fixation on example solutions....... The first intervention consisted of educating each team on the phenomena and effects of design fixation. The results showed that this intervention reduced the number of fixation elements in comparison to the control group (p=0.025). The second intervention involved using Dix et als' (2006) 'Bad Ideas...... of ideas produced per group and the groups' fixation ratios, adding to the quantity breads novelty debate. Finally, the study also provided further evidence of the hypothesis by Agogué et al (2011) that example solutions constructed from restrictive partitions have a greater fixation affect....

  14. Analyse énonciative du point du vue, narration et analyse de discours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Rabatel

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Cet article montre que l’analyse énonciative du point de vue (PDV, en rupture avec la typologie des focalisations de Genette, peut renouveler partiellement la narratologie, à la condition de substituter à l’approche immanentiste du récit une analyse interactionnelle de la narration. L’article présente d’abord l’approche énonciative du PDV, en appui des théories de Ducrot, et, sur cette base, propose diverses modalités de PDV (représenté, raconté, asserté qui donnent corps au point de vue des personnages ou du narrateur en modifiant sensiblement les analyses de Genette. Dans une deuxième partie, l’article envisage le rôle des PDV dans la narration, notamment dans la réévaluation des dimensions cognitive et pragmatique de la mimésis, puis dans les mécanismes inférentiels-interprétatifs, proches du système de sympathie de Jouve, enfin, dans la revalorisation du rôle du narrateur •puisque ce dernier se construit dans le même temps qu’il construit ses personnages.

  15. Science et technologie du collage

    CERN Document Server

    Cognard, Jacques

    2003-01-01

    L'Homme a su coller avant de savoir écrire et compter. Le collage est en effet l'une des premières techniques d'assemblage d'une structure que l'homme ait utilisée, technique qui n'est devenue science qu'au début du 20e siècle avec la fabrication des premières colles synthétiques. Cette science de l'adhésion a considérablement progressé ces dix dernières années et ce livre présente l'état actuel des connaissances en décrivant les progrès considérables réalisés dans la compréhension des phénomènes fondamentaux qui font qu'un collage tient bien et durablement. Après l'exposé des bases scientifiques nécessaires et des modèles théoriques récents, l'auteur introduit la distinction entre collages faibles et collages forts puis expose les difficultés rencontrées dans les cas pratiques, difficultés souvent dues à la complexité de la chimie des surfaces et des réactions surface-polymère. L'ouvrage se termine par la présentation de quelques applications récentes, en particulier dans...

  16. Les métamorphoses du pouvoir

    OpenAIRE

    Adler, Alfred

    2004-01-01

    On sait que la sorcellerie en Afrique peut s'exercer du faible au fort ou l'inverse. Les situations qui sont ici analysées sont celles où les rois ou les chefs sont expressément désignés comme sorciers, soit qu'ils le deviennent du fait même de leur investiture, soit qu'il leur ait fallu le devenir pour accéder au pouvoir et le conserver face à des rivaux usant des mêmes moyens. Quoi qu'il en soit, un roi-sorcier offre une figure paradoxale du pouvoir, et cela doublement : garant de l'...

  17. Au fond de la logique du lieu.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augustin Berque

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available L’école de Kyôto ( Kyôto gakuha est cette mouvance philosophique, née dans l’entre-deux-guerres, dont le Nihonshi jiten ( Dictionnaire historique du Japon des éditions Iwanami donne la présentation suivante : 1 École centrée sur la Faculté de philosophie de l’Université de Kyôto dans les années Taishô et Shôwa. Elle débuta autour de Nishida Kitarô et de Tanabe Hajime, mais on la connaît plutôt du fait que peu après le début de la guerre du Pacifique, en 1942, ...

  18. Oncoplastie avec conservation mammaire dans le traitement du cancer du sein: à propos de 16 cas

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Le cancer du sein est actuellement le cancer le plus fréquent chez la femme, et pose un véritable problème diagnostique et thérapeutique. Le dépistage des lésions à un stade de plus en plus précoce, a permis une extension des indications du traitement conservateur radiochirurgical, qui était initialement limitées aux tumeurs de moins de 3 cm, unifocales, non inflammatoires. Par ailleurs, l'utilisation de traitements préopératoires permet d’étendre les indications du traitement conservateur à ...

  19. Transient cortical excitation at the onset of visual fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkai, Csaba; Lakatos, Peter; Chen, Chi-Ming; Pincze, Zsuzsa; Karmos, Gyorgy; Schroeder, Charles E

    2008-01-01

    Primates actively examine the visual world by rapidly shifting gaze (fixation) over the elements in a scene. Despite this fact, we typically study vision by presenting stimuli with gaze held constant. To better understand the dynamics of natural vision, we examined how the onset of visual fixation affects ongoing neuronal activity in the absence of visual stimulation. We used multiunit activity and current source density measurements to index neuronal firing patterns and underlying synaptic processes in macaque V1. Initial averaging of neural activity synchronized to the onset of fixation suggested that a brief period of cortical excitation follows each fixation. Subsequent single-trial analyses revealed that 1) neuronal oscillation phase transits from random to a highly organized state just after the fixation onset, 2) this phase concentration is accompanied by increased spectral power in several frequency bands, and 3) visual response amplitude is enhanced at the specific oscillatory phase associated with fixation. We hypothesize that nonvisual inputs are used by the brain to increase cortical excitability at fixation onset, thus "priming" the system for new visual inputs generated at fixation. Despite remaining mechanistic questions, it appears that analysis of fixation-related responses may be useful in studying natural vision.

  20. Complications of halo fixation of the cervical spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Victor M; Silber, Jeff S; Siddiqi, Farhan N; Kondrachov, Dmitriy; Lipetz, Jason S; Lonner, Baron

    2005-06-01

    Halo fixators play an integral role in stabilizing the cervical spine. They are most widely used after upper cervical to midcervical spine fractures and dislocations and as a supplement to various surgical fixation techniques. Compared with supine cervical traction techniques, halo fixators allow early patient mobilization and shorten hospital stays. The incidence of halo-fixator complications remains high. Minor complications include pin loosening, localized infection, periorbital edema, superficial pressure sores, and unsightly scars. Major complications include pin penetration, osteomyelitis, subdural abscess, nerve palsies, fracture overdistraction, and persistent instability. Many of these potential complications can be avoided with proper pin placement and meticulous pin care.

  1. Principles of intramedullary pin and wire fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, P E

    1991-02-01

    Knowledge and experience in the proper use of IM pins, K-wires, and orthopedic wire is a valuable asset to the veterinarian's ability to successfully repair a variety of long bone fractures. Most long bone fractures are amenable to repair with this form of fixation. When the principles of application are violated or the implants are used when contraindicated, complications often occur. Proper use of these implants results in the successful management of complex fractures to the satisfaction of both the animal owner and the veterinarian (Fig 10).

  2. Rib Fracture Fixation: Indications and Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senekjian, Lara; Nirula, Raminder

    2017-01-01

    Rib fractures are a frequently identified injury in the trauma population. Not only are multiple rib fractures painful, but they are associated with an increased risk of adverse outcomes. Pneumonia in particular can be devastating, especially to an elderly patient, but other complications such as prolonged ventilation and increased intensive care and hospital durations of stay have a negative impact on the patient. Computed tomography scan is the best modality to diagnosis rib fractures but the treatment of fractures is still evolving. Currently patient care involves a multidisciplinary approach that includes pain control, aggressive pulmonary therapy, and possibly surgical fixation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Symposium on nitrogen fixation in tropical trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobereiner, J.

    1984-01-01

    A special issue containing the proceedings of an international symposium held on 19-24 September 1983 at Rio de Janeiro. Some 35 papers were presented in six sessions: Importance of leguminous trees (2 papers); Occurrence of leguminous trees (5); Nitrogen fixation in trees (12); Utilization of nitrogen fixing trees (7); Nutrition of leguminous trees (5); and Agroforestry systems (4). Recommendations of the symposium are presented on p. 341-344 (Pt, En), and a List of nitrogen fixing trees which should receive immediate attention in Brazil (26 species) is given on p. 345.

  4. Biological fixation in anterior cruciate ligament surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Hwa Chen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Successful anterior cruciate ligament (ACL reconstruction with tendon graft requires extensive tendon-to-bone healing in the bone tunnels and progressive graft ligamentization for biological, structural, and functional recovery of the ACL. Improvement in graft-to-bone healing is crucial for facilitating early, aggressive rehabilitation after surgery to ensure an early return to pre-injury activity levels. The use of various biomaterials for enhancing the healing of tendon grafts in bone tunnels has been developed. With the biological enhancement of tendon-to-bone healing, biological fixation of the tendon graft in the tunnel can be achieved in ACL reconstruction.

  5. [The experimental investigations upon the influence of ocular fixation on habituation of postural reflexes in pigeon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaźmierczak, H

    1994-01-01

    The subject of investigation was the influence of ocular fixation on acquisition of habituation in experimental rotatory test in pigeons. The habituation training was performed in the three difference conditions: with full ocular fixation, fixation partly reduced and fixation excluded. Author confirmed that habituation with fixation excluded gave the best results of habituation of postural reflexes and head nystagmus in pigeons in rotatory training.

  6. Treatment of Gustilo grade Ⅲ leg fractures by external fixation associated with limited internal fixation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Chun-qiang; ZHENG Hong-yu; WANG Bing; HUANG He; HE Fei; ZHAO Xue-ling

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To explore the clinical ef-fects of external fixation associated with limited internal fixa-tion on treatment of Gustilo grade Ⅲ leg fractures.Methods: From July 2006 to December 2008, 40 cases of Gustilo grade Ⅲ leg fiactures were emergently treated in our unit with external fixation frames.Soft tissue injuries were grouped according to the Gustilo classification as ⅢA in 17 cases, ⅢB in 13 cases, and ⅢC in 10 cases.All the patients were debrided within 8 hours, and then fracture reposition was preformed to reestablish the leg alignment.Limited internal fixation with plates and screws were per-formed on all the Gustilo Ilia cases and 10 Gustilo ⅢB cases at the first operation.But all the Gustilo ⅢC cases and 3 Gustilo ⅢB cases who had severe soft tissue injuries and bone loss only received Vacuum-sealing drainage (VSD).Broad-spectrum antibiotics were regularly used and VSD must be especially maintained easy and smooth for one week or more after operation.Limited internal fixation and transplanted free skin flaps or adjacent musculocutaneous flaps were not used to close wounds until the conditions of the wounds had been improved.Results: The first operations were completed within 90-210 minutes (170 minutes on average).The blood trans-fusions were from 400 ml to 1500 ml (those used for anti-shock preoperatively not included).All the 40 patients in this study were followed up for 6-28 months, 20.5 months on average.The lower limb function was evaluated accord-ing to the comprehensive evaluation standards of leg func-tion one year after operation and the results of 28 cases were excellent, 9 were good and 3 were poor.Conclusion: External fixation associated with limited internal fixation to treat Gustilo grade Ⅲ leg fractures can get satisfactory early clinical therapeutic effects.

  7. Eco-imposition du capital, emploi et développement industriel durable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Dupont

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available En remplaçant la part des cotisations sociales à la charge de l’employeur par un éco-impôt sur le capital polluant, l’Etat peut inciter les entreprises à investir dans les trajectoires technologiques de la durabilité. Cet article expose un modèle macroéconomique à trois facteurs qui montre comment la fixation conjointe et combinée du taux de cotisations sociales et du taux d'éco-impôt peut assurer la stabilité globale des prix, garantir la neutralité budgétaire et conserver en l’état la compétitivité prix. Contrôlée par le ministère du développement durable, la déformation de la fonction de production provoquée par une fiscalité directe favorable au capital non polluant et au travail augmente le volume de l’emploi et améliore la qualité environnementale sans détériorer la compétitivité ni déséquilibrer les comptes sociaux.Replacing the welfare cost by an eco-taxation based on polluting capital can incite companies to invest in the technological trajectories for sustainability. This paper proposes a macroeconomic three factors model in which the jointed and combined determination of welfare cost and eco-taxation rates can maintain the global price stability, guarantees the budget balance of fiscal transfers and keeps the state of the competitiveness price as it was before. Controlled by the ministry of sustainable development, the deformation of the function of production, caused by a direct tax system favorable to the non-polluting capital and to the labour, increases the employment and improves the environmental quality without negative effects on competitiveness and social accounts.

  8. Apport du rayonnement synchrotron à l'étude de cheveux archéologiques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, L.; Chevallier, P.; Doucet, J.; Simionovici, A.; Tsoucaris, G.; Walter, P.

    2002-07-01

    La préservation dans certains contextes archéologiques des cheveux humains et des fibres animales est favorisée par leur transformation chimique au contact d'objets métalliques. Afin de mieux comprendre les phénomènes complexes mis en jeu, nous avons étudié expérimentalement la fixation de cations métalliques (Cu et Pb) dans des cheveux modèles à partir de différentes méthodes de caractérisation utilisant le rayonnement X synchrotron. Nous avons ainsi pu mettre en évidence la fixation spécifique d'une partie de ces cations au sein des lipides structurés du cheveu. La comparaison entre échantillons modèles et archéologiques apporte de nouvelles données concernant les premières étapes d'altération des cheveux archéologiques.

  9. Open Reduction and Internal Fixation of Mandibular Fracture without Rigid Maxillomandibular Fixation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Anwar, Mohammad Waheed

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The ability to treat fracture with open reduction and internal fixation (OR/IF has dramatically revolutionized the approach to mandible fracture. With OR/IF, the postoperative role of rigid maxillomandibular fixation (MMF has declined, but it is used to maintain proper occlusion until internal fixation of the fracture is achieved. Objective To assess intraoperative manual MMF during OR/IF of selected cases of mandibular fractures. Methods This prospective study was conducted on 80 patients with isolated mandibular fractures managed by OR/IF using two titanium miniplates. The patients were classified into two groups: a control group (40 patients treated by OR/IF after intraoperative rigid MMF followed by immediate MMF removal, and a study group (40 patients treated by rigid MMF, which was replaced by temporary intraoperative manual MMF (3MF until plate fixation. Results There were no significant differences of the postoperative complication and dental occlusion, although a highly significant reduction of operative time was achieved in the 3MF group. Patient who received the 3MF technique had statistically significantly better average intrinsic vertical mouth opening in the early postoperative period (1 week after surgery, and normal mouth opening could be achieved in all cases in both groups 8 weeks after surgery. Conclusions Intraoperative rigid MMF is not mandatory and can be replaced in selected cases of fracture mandible by manual maintenance of proper dental occlusion until hardware fixation, gaining the advantages of shorter operative time and less risk of blood-transmitted diseases to the surgical team and the patient in addition to the benefits of immediate postoperative mandible mobilization.

  10. A COMPARATIVE STUDY IN LAPAROSCOPIC INGUINAL HERNIA REPAIR BETWEEN FIXATION VS NON-FIXATION OF MESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayush

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION An inguinal hernia is a weakness in the wall of the abdominal cavity that is large enough to allow escape of soft body tissue or internal organ, especially a part of the intestine. It usually appears as a lump and for some peoples can cause pain and discomfort, limit daily activities and the ability to work. If the bowel strangulates or becomes obstructed it can be life-threatening. A hernia is repaired generally using a synthetic mesh either with open surgery or increasingly using less invasive laparoscopic procedures. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES To compare and evaluate Laparoscopic hernia repair (trans-abdominal pre-peritoneal and total extra peritoneal repair (TAPP & TEP using Prolene mesh with or without fixation. MATERIAL AND METHODS Our study was conducted in dept. of surgery, Government Medical College and associated Dr. Susheela Tiwari Hospital. A total sample of 100 patients who underwent inguinal hernia repair as an elective surgery. 50 of whom underwent fixation of mesh (fixation will be done either by tacker or suture. Rest 5o underwent non fixation of mesh. RESULTS In our study Statistically there was non-significant heterogeneity in operating time (p = 0.15, post-operative pain (p = 0.45, post-operative complications (p = 0.55 and length of hospital stay (p = 0.11 were statistically comparable between two techniques of mesh fixation in LIHR. The risk of developing chronic groin pain (p = 0.67 and risk of hernia recurrence (p = 0.77 was also similar. CONCLUSION NMF in LIHR does not increase the risk of hernia recurrence. It is comparable with TMF in terms of operation time, post-operative pain, post-operative complications, length of hospital stay and chronic groin pain. Therefore, based upon the results of our study NMF approach may be adopted routinely and safely in LIHR.

  11. Le Flaubert de Charles Du Bos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Neefs

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Charles Du Bos a porté une attention constante à l’œuvre de Flaubert (à l’exclusion de Bouvard et Pécuchet qui semble ne pas exister pour lui, à Madame Bovary et à L’Éducation sentimentale en particulier. La mise en relation de son étude : « Sur le milieu intérieur chez Flaubert », écrite en 1921, avec des textes du Journal de 1923 et de 1937, les rapprochements avec Gogol, Thomas Hardy, Tolstoï, Baudelaire, Henry James qui traversent les écrits de Du Bos, permettent de suivre ce que celui-ci décrit comme « l’expérience spirituelle » d’une matérialité comprise dans la conquête de la triple exigence du Beau, du Vivant et du Vrai. Du Bos décèle la force de l’œuvre de Flaubert dans la « disproportion » du style, et dans la puissance d’absorption qui fait la densité de cette prose, et qui désigne un extraordinaire travail de conversion. L’obscure expérience spirituelle ainsi poursuivie est celle d’un absolu de l’art, expérience paradoxale d’un « mystique qui ne croit à rien » (comme se désignait Flaubert lui-même, que le critique lie à une interrogation sur sa propre conversion.Charles Du Bos devoted an unflagging attention to Flaubert’s work (except for Bouvard et Pécuchet, which, apparently, according to him did not exist, to Madame Bovary and in particular L’Éducation sentimentale. The connection between his essay “Sur le milieu intérieur chez Flaubert”, written in 1921, and extracts from his Journal, from 1923 to 1937, the comparisons with Gogol, Thomas Hardy, Tolstoy, Baudelaire, and Henry James that run through the writings of Du Bos, allow us to follow what he terms “the spiritual experience” of a materiality encompassed in the conquest of the triple demand of the Beautiful, the Living, the Truth. Du Bos detects the power of Flaubert’s work in the “disproportion” of his style, and the power of absorption that forms the density of his prose, showing an

  12. L’ombre du Condor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franck Gaudichaud

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Si l’on observe aujourd’hui, avec un regard d’historien, le Cône Sud à la fin des années soixante soixante-dix et que par, la suite, on tourne une page de quelques années, pour fixer la même partie du monde, le constat est sans appel : le sous-continent latino-américain est passé, en général, d’une phase de forte mobilisation et politisation sociale, montée en puissance de partis et organisations révolutionnaires, surgissements de gouvernements populistes de gauche ou progressistes – appelant à une rupture avec l’impérialisme –, à un reflux généralisé du mouvement ouvrier, une ère de violence politique étatisée, la destruction massive de tous les espaces d’expression et de participation démocratiques, l’écrasement physique et idéologique sans relâche des militants et mouvements révolutionnaires, la mise en place de modèles économiques capitalistes dirigistes puis/ou néolibéraux. Que s’est-il passé ? Quel fil conducteur a été rompu et par quels moyens l’Amérique Latine a été conduite à ce reflux des luttes sociales ? Pour répondre à cette question, nous nous contenterons dans cet article de focaliser notre objectif sur un aspect spécifique et essentiel de ce retournement de tendance que vit alors l���Amérique Latine : celui de la mise en place d’un terrorisme d’Etat contre-révolutionnaire transnational, appuyé par l’impérialisme américain, nommé « l’Opération Condor ». Dans cet article, il s’agit de montrer le fonctionnement d’un terrorisme hégémonique dont l’impact sur les sociétés latino-américaines est considérable en termes de destruction du mouvement social, des activités culturelles et de l’ensemble de la vie sociale et politique qui restent marquées, encore aujourd’hui à des degrés divers, par la violence, la peur et l’atomisation structurelle.Si miramos hoy en día, desde una perspectiva histórica, el Cono Sur hacia finales de

  13. Perspectives in Biological Nitrogen Fixation Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi Cheng

    2008-01-01

    Nitrogen fixation, along with photosynthesis is the basis of all life on earth. Current understanding suggests that no plant fixes its own nitrogen. Some plants (mainly legumes) fix nitrogen via symbiotic anaerobic microorganisms (mainly rhizobia). The nature of biological nitrogen fixation is that the dinitrogenase catalyzes the reaction-splitting triple-bond inert atmospheric nitrogen (N2) into organic ammonia molecule (NH3). All known nitrogenases are found to be prokaryotic,multi.complex and normally oxygen liable. Not surprisingly, the engineering of autonomous nitrogen-fixing plants would be a long-term effort because it requires the assembly of a complex enzyme and provision of anaerobic conditions. However,in the light of evolving protein catalysts, the anaerobic enzyme has almost certainly been replaced in many reactions by the more efficient and irreversible aerobic version that uses O2. On the other hand, nature has shown numerous examples of evolutionary convergence where an enzyme catalyzing a highly specific, O2-requiring reaction has an oxygen-independent counterpart, able to carry out the same reaction under anoxic conditions. In this review, I attempt to take the reader on a simplified journey from conventional nitrogenase complex to a possible simplified version of a yet to be discovered Ilght-utilizing nitrogenase.

  14. Biological Nitrogen Fixation: Perspective and Limitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N D Purwantari

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The demand of chemical fertilizer, N in particular will be increasing until 2020. In Indonesia, the demand of fertilizer from 1999 – 2002 increased 37.5 and 12.4% for urea and ammonium sulphate, respectively. At the same time, the price of this fertilizer is also increasing and it can not be afforded by the farmer. Other problem in using chemical fertilizer is damaging to the soil and environment. One of the problem solvings for this condition is to maximize biological nitrogen fixation (BNF. BNF is the fixation of N atmosphere by association between soil bacteria rhizobia and leguminous plant. BNF is sustainable and environmentally friendly in providing nitrogen fertilizer. Therefore, it would reduce the requirement of chemical nitrogen fertilizer for the plant. Gliricidia sepium fixes 170 kg N/ha/12 months, equivalent with 377 kg urea, Sesbania sesban 179 kg N/ha/10 months, equivalent 397 kg with urea, soybean 26 – 57 kg/2 months equivalent with 57 – 126 kg urea. The amount of N2- fixed varies, affected by species, environmental and biological factors. There are some limitations in applying this technology. The effect of N contribution is very slow at the beginning but in the long term, it would be beneficial for plant production and at the same time, maintain condition of physical and chemical of soil, soil microbes and therefore soil fertility.

  15. Nitrogen Fixation and Hydrogen Metabolism in Cyanobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bothe, Hermann; Schmitz, Oliver; Yates, M. Geoffrey; Newton, William E.

    2010-01-01

    Summary: This review summarizes recent aspects of (di)nitrogen fixation and (di)hydrogen metabolism, with emphasis on cyanobacteria. These organisms possess several types of the enzyme complexes catalyzing N2 fixation and/or H2 formation or oxidation, namely, two Mo nitrogenases, a V nitrogenase, and two hydrogenases. The two cyanobacterial Ni hydrogenases are differentiated as either uptake or bidirectional hydrogenases. The different forms of both the nitrogenases and hydrogenases are encoded by different sets of genes, and their organization on the chromosome can vary from one cyanobacterium to another. Factors regulating the expression of these genes are emerging from recent studies. New ideas on the potential physiological and ecological roles of nitrogenases and hydrogenases are presented. There is a renewed interest in exploiting cyanobacteria in solar energy conversion programs to generate H2 as a source of combustible energy. To enhance the rates of H2 production, the emphasis perhaps needs not to be on more efficient hydrogenases and nitrogenases or on the transfer of foreign enzymes into cyanobacteria. A likely better strategy is to exploit the use of radiant solar energy by the photosynthetic electron transport system to enhance the rates of H2 formation and so improve the chances of utilizing cyanobacteria as a source for the generation of clean energy. PMID:21119016

  16. Analysis of Bone Fixation Methods in Digital Replantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Woo; Kim, Jin Soo; Roh, Si Young; Lee, Kyung Jin

    2017-01-01

    Background Adequate fixation of replanted digits is essential not only for short-term healing but for long-term function. Various bony fixation methods using Kirschner (K-) and intraosseous wire are available in replantation. We examined clinical and radiographic outcomes of fixation methods on bone union after digital replantation. Methods A single institutional retrospective review identified 992 patients who had undergone 1,247 successful replantations between July 2009 and September 2015. Exclusion criteria included amputations of the distal phalanx, comminuted fractures, and intra-articular fractures. Patients were classified according to 5 categories of fixation methods: single K-wire, double longitudinal K-wires, cross K-wires, wire with, and wire without K-wire support. Bone union was evaluated by 5-month postoperative X-ray and fixation outcomes were compared across the 5 groups. Results The exclusion criteria were applied, and 88 patients with 103 replanted digits remained for analysis. Single K-wire fixation was used in 40 digits, double longitudinal K-wires in 30, and cross fixation in 14. Wire with and without K-wire support was required in 15 and 4 digits. Nonunion was observed in 32 digits (31.1%), of which 13 required additional operations such as bone graft or corrective osteotomy. The highest percent of nonunion was observed after cross fixation (35.7%) and the lowest after wire alone (25.0%). Conclusions In this study, contrary to general knowledge, we found that single K-wire fixation was not associated with poorer outcomes. Successful bone union outcomes may be achieved by careful selection of bone fixation methods. This study provides useful information for planning bone fixation in digital replantation. PMID:28194348

  17. Stravinsky : figures clownesques du spectacle dansé

    OpenAIRE

    Frey, Leonard H.

    2013-01-01

    L’origine du mot clown remonte au vieux Scandinave klunni (lourdaud / benêt). Comme nous avons pu en juger au cours de ces rencontres, la sémantique historique du terme a connu de nombreuses variations, a été, au fil du temps, soumise aux fluctuations plus ou moins heureuses imposées par le théâtre. Dans cette étude, je me propose d’étudier l’iconographie de la représentation du clown à travers l’une des variantes du spectacle, la danse, le ballet et les musiques d’Igor Stravinsky. Au cours d...

  18. Une force venant du futur chercherait à saboter l'expérience du LHC...

    CERN Multimedia

    Scappaticci, Bruno

    2009-01-01

    "A quelques jours de la reprise de l'expérience du LHC, on ne parle plus de la menace d'un trou noir, mais deux physicines souteinnent aujourd'hui une tout autres hypothèse: la nature, depuis le futur, va continuer de contrarier les travaux du Cern, afin d'éviter à l'Homme de mettre le doigt là où il ne faut pas..." (1.5 pages)

  19. OGM : vers une définition commune du contenu du problème ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Icart Jean-Claude

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Les divergences croissantes depuis des années entre experts, responsables économiques, et acteurs sociaux et « citoyens » au sujet des OGM, ont pu être analysées à juste titre, comme exprimant la difficulté de dégager une « définition commune du contenu du problème »1.

  20. Utilisation du langage signal pour l'etude d'algorithmes de traitement du Signal electrocardiographique

    OpenAIRE

    Médigue, Claire; Clairambault, Jean; Kauffmann, François; Sorine, Michel; Cursi-Dascalova, Lilia

    1992-01-01

    Projet SOSSO; Pour etudier la maturation du Systeme Nerveux Autonome (SNA) chez les nouveaux nes, on analyse la Variabilite du Rythme Cardiaque (VRC), en relation avec d'autres informations biologiques telles que les changements de stades de sommeil. La VRC est calculee par la Transformee de Fourier a Court Terme dans trois bandes de frequence : la haute frequence, refletant le controle para sympathique seul et liee au cycle respiratoire ; les moyenne et basse frequences, refletant a la fois ...

  1. Nitrogen fixation in boreal peatlands: the effects of increased N deposition on N2-fixation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popma, J. M.; Wieder, R.; Lamers, L.; Vile, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    Boreal peatlands are of great importance to global carbon and nitrogen cycling. While covering only 3-4 % of the terrestrial surface, they account for 25-30 % of the world's soil C and 9-15 % of the world's soil N. In Western Canada atmospheric dry deposition rates are extremely low: approximately 1 kg N ha-1 yr-1. Though these systems have been functioning as net sinks over the past 11,000 years, natural and anthropogenic disturbances might compromise the historical balance of C and N. Biological N2-fixation has recently been shown to represent a very significant input of N into these systems, contributing to 62% of total N in Western Canada. Interactions between N deposition and biological N2-fixation are as yet, unknown, but the impact of elevated deposition of N-compounds from increased industrial expansion of oil sands mining to peatlands, is concerning. Given that nitrogenase, the enzyme responsible for catalyzing N2-fixation, is energetically costly when active, enhanced inputs of atmospheric N deposition could be a major determinant for enzyme activity and rates of biological N input to these bogs. Understanding interactions between N deposition and N2 fixation in boreal peatlands can aid in predicting the consequences of increased N deposition and setting critical loads. We conducted a field-fertilization experiment in a poor fen in Alberta, Canada, to determine the effects of enhanced N deposition on a dominant fen species Sphagnum angustifolium. The experiment consisted of seven N treatments: Control, 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 kg N ha-1 y1, n=3. N2-fixation was measured during summer 2012 and 2013 using the acetylene reduction assay (ARA). ARA rates were converted to rates of N2-fixation by calibrating ARA with paired 15N2-incubations. In both 2012 and 2013, with increasing N deposition from 0 kg N ha-1 yr-1 to 25 kg N ha-1 yr-1, rates of N2 fixation decreased, with highest rates in the 0 kg N ha-1 yr-1 treatment mosses (54.2 × 1.40; 48.58 × 7.12 kg N ha

  2. ESTIMATION DU MODELE LINEAIRE GENERALISE ET APPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malika CHIKHI

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Cet article présente  le modèle linéaire généralisé englobant les  techniques de modélisation telles que la régression linéaire, la régression logistique, la régression  log linéaire et la régression  de Poisson . On Commence par la présentation des modèles  des lois exponentielles pour ensuite estimer les paramètres du modèle par la méthode du maximum de vraisemblance. Par la suite on teste les coefficients du modèle pour voir leurs significations et leurs intervalles de confiances, en utilisant le test de Wald qui porte sur la signification  de la vraie valeur du paramètre  basé sur l'estimation de l'échantillon.

  3. Clinical Application of the Du Channel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘淑娅; 王世杰

    2003-01-01

    @@ The authors have, in recent years, obtained quite good therapeutic results in their acupuncture treatment of mental diseases, heat syndromes and cerebrovascular diseases through treating mainly the Du Channel with the methods of resuscitating and regulating the mind, and clearing and activating the channels and collaterals. The illustrative cases are reported below.

  4. Annonce du diagnostic et rupture biographique

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    du cancer en Tunisie , maladie chronique identifiée parmi les plus répandues ... et quelques tentatives de redéploiement des activités des praticiens .... appréhendant ainsi la nature de la souffrance physique mais aussi morale, ces cliniciens.

  5. Prejudice: From Allport to DuBois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, Stanley O., Jr.; Reed, Edward S.

    1995-01-01

    Examines the differences between Gordon Allport's and W. E. B. DuBois's theories on the origins of prejudice and the impact of discrimination on the personality and social development of blacks. The article argues that prejudice is a historically developed process, not a universal feature of human psychology. Implications for U.S. race relations…

  6. Le PT à la conquête du pouvoir

    OpenAIRE

    Mendes, Candido

    2014-01-01

    LES PREMIERS PAS DU PT AU POUVOIR La première victoire du PT pour l′accès à un exécutif fut celle de la candidate Maria Luiza, en 1989, dans la capitale du Ceará, Fortaleza. Son arrivée au pouvoir démontra à la fois un certain manque d′expérience personnel ainsi qu′un bégaiement des cadres du parti, trop empreints de la radicalité, de l′utopie de gauche, du culte des « razzias » de pureté politique, du changement complet de tous les acteurs du pouvoir, tant la victoire était marquée par le dé...

  7. Tightrope fixation of ankle syndesmosis injuries: clinical outcome, complications and technique modification.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Naqvi, Gohar A

    2012-06-01

    Ankle syndesmotic injuries are complex and require anatomic reduction and fixation. Tightrope fixation is a relatively new technique and we present the largest series of syndesmosis fixation using Arthrex Tightrope™ (Naples, FL, USA).

  8. Comparative study of the results of compound tibial shaft fractures treated by Ilizarov ring fixators and limb reconstruction system fixators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chandra Prakash Pal; Harish Kumar; Deepak Kumar; K.S.Dinkar; Vivek Mittal; Naveen Kumar Singh

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Ilizarov ring fixator and limb reconstruction system (LRS) fixators have been used in the management of complex tibial fractures with severe soft tissue injuries, compound tibial fractures, and infected tibial nonunion for which conventional internal fixation cannot be contemplated.Fracture union and distraction osteogenesis can be done simultaneously with these external fixators, allowing early weight bearing.Several previous studies have shown almost equal results of rail and ring fixators for the compound tibial shaft fractures.Thus we performed a prospective study to evaluate the union rate, functional outcome and amount of limb lengthening after the treatment of compound tibial shaft fractures with or without infected nonunion by ring or LRS fixators.Methods: This prospective study was done at Sarojini Naidu Medical College and Hospital, Agra, India and included 32 patients of compound tibial shaft fractures with or without infected nonunion.There were 26 males and 6 females and the average age was 40 years.Patients were randomly divided into two groups (n =16 for each): one underwent Ilizarov fixation and the other received LRS fixation.Cases were followed up for 3-24 months, 6 months on average from September 2012 to October 2014.Functional and radiological outcomes were assessed using the Association for the Study and Application of Methods of Ilizarov (ASAMI) criteria for both rail and ring fixators.Results: Union was achieved in all cases.Radiological outcome was found excellent in 68.75%, good in 18.75% and fair in 12.50% of cases treated by rail fixators whereas it was excellent in 56.25%, good in 18.75%, fair in 12.50% and poor in 12.50% of cases treated by ring fixators.Functional result was satisfactory in 75.00% of cases treated by rail fixator and 68.75% of cases treated by ring fixators whereas the corresponding rate of unsatisfactory was 25.00% vs.31.25%.Conclusion: In our short-term assessment, LRS fixators show a

  9. Modeling evolution using the probability of fixation: history and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCandlish, David M; Stoltzfus, Arlin

    2014-09-01

    Many models of evolution calculate the rate of evolution by multiplying the rate at which new mutations originate within a population by a probability of fixation. Here we review the historical origins, contemporary applications, and evolutionary implications of these "origin-fixation" models, which are widely used in evolutionary genetics, molecular evolution, and phylogenetics. Origin-fixation models were first introduced in 1969, in association with an emerging view of "molecular" evolution. Early origin-fixation models were used to calculate an instantaneous rate of evolution across a large number of independently evolving loci; in the 1980s and 1990s, a second wave of origin-fixation models emerged to address a sequence of fixation events at a single locus. Although origin fixation models have been applied to a broad array of problems in contemporary evolutionary research, their rise in popularity has not been accompanied by an increased appreciation of their restrictive assumptions or their distinctive implications. We argue that origin-fixation models constitute a coherent theory of mutation-limited evolution that contrasts sharply with theories of evolution that rely on the presence of standing genetic variation. A major unsolved question in evolutionary biology is the degree to which these models provide an accurate approximation of evolution in natural populations.

  10. Sacroiliac screw fixation: A mini review of surgical technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernando Raphael Alvis-Miranda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The sacral percutaneous fixation has many advantages but can be associated with a significant exposure to X-ray radiation. Currently, sacroiliac screw fixation represents the only minimally invasive technique to stabilize the posterior pelvic ring. It is a technique that should be used by experienced surgeons. We present a practical review of important aspects of this technique.

  11. Sacroiliac screw fixation: A mini review of surgical technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvis-Miranda, Hernando Raphael; Farid-Escorcia, Hector; Alcalá-Cerra, Gabriel; Castellar-Leones, Sandra Milena; Moscote-Salazar, Luis Rafael

    2014-01-01

    The sacral percutaneous fixation has many advantages but can be associated with a significant exposure to X-ray radiation. Currently, sacroiliac screw fixation represents the only minimally invasive technique to stabilize the posterior pelvic ring. It is a technique that should be used by experienced surgeons. We present a practical review of important aspects of this technique. PMID:25336831

  12. Overcoming Organizational Fixation: Creating and Sustaining an Innovation Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stempfle, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    Fixation on established paradigms and practices can severely limit the capability of organizations to change, thereby jeopardizing the ability of organizations to keep up with changes in their environment and new technological developments. Overcoming organizational fixation is therefore a requirement for any organization that strives to achieve…

  13. Narcotisation, fixation and preservation experiments with marine zooplankton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heyman, R.P.

    1981-01-01

    In this report narcotisation, fixation and preservation experiments with marine zooplankton are described. Narcotisation turns out to be useless for mixed plankton samples. M.S. 222 works well as narcotisation medium for organisms to be photographed. Fixation with 4% formalin proved to be a necessar

  14. Improving the fixation of an artificial intervertebral disc

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijkelkamp, MF; Hayen, J; Veldhuizen, AG; Van Horn, [No Value; Verkerke, GJ

    2002-01-01

    The fixation of an artificial intervertebral disc has been studied especially with respect to the dimensions, the convexity of the endplates and the size of the fixation elements. From literature and cadaveric vertebrae, the dimensions and shape of the lumbar vertebral endplates were determined and

  15. Overcoming Organizational Fixation: Creating and Sustaining an Innovation Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stempfle, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    Fixation on established paradigms and practices can severely limit the capability of organizations to change, thereby jeopardizing the ability of organizations to keep up with changes in their environment and new technological developments. Overcoming organizational fixation is therefore a requirement for any organization that strives to achieve…

  16. Microbial community shifts influence patterns in tropical forest nitrogen fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Sasha C; Townsend, Alan R; Cleveland, Cory C; Nemergut, Diana R

    2010-10-01

    The role of biodiversity in ecosystem function receives substantial attention, yet despite the diversity and functional relevance of microorganisms, relationships between microbial community structure and ecosystem processes remain largely unknown. We used tropical rain forest fertilization plots to directly compare the relative abundance, composition and diversity of free-living nitrogen (N)-fixer communities to in situ leaf litter N fixation rates. N fixation rates varied greatly within the landscape, and 'hotspots' of high N fixation activity were observed in both control and phosphorus (P)-fertilized plots. Compared with zones of average activity, the N fixation 'hotspots' in unfertilized plots were characterized by marked differences in N-fixer community composition and had substantially higher overall diversity. P additions increased the efficiency of N-fixer communities, resulting in elevated rates of fixation per nifH gene. Furthermore, P fertilization increased N fixation rates and N-fixer abundance, eliminated a highly novel group of N-fixers, and increased N-fixer diversity. Yet the relationships between diversity and function were not simple, and coupling rate measurements to indicators of community structure revealed a biological dynamism not apparent from process measurements alone. Taken together, these data suggest that the rain forest litter layer maintains high N fixation rates and unique N-fixing organisms and that, as observed in plant community ecology, structural shifts in N-fixing communities may partially explain significant differences in system-scale N fixation rates.

  17. Low Carbon Costs of Nitrogen Fixation in Tropical Dry Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gei, M. G.; Powers, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    Legume tree species with the ability to fix nitrogen (N) are highly diverse and widespread across tropical forests but in particular in the dry tropics. Their ecological success in lower latitudes has been called a "paradox": soil N in the tropics is thought to be high, while acquiring N through fixation incurs high energetic costs. However, the long held assumptions that N fixation is limited by photosynthate and that N fixation penalizes plant productivity have rarely been tested, particularly in legume tree species. We show results from three different experiments where we grew eleven species of tropical dry forest legumes. We quantified plant biomass and N fixation using nodulation and the 15N natural isotope abundance (Ndfa or nitrogen derived from fixation). These data show little evidence for costs of N fixation in seedlings grown under different soil fertility, light regimes, and with different microbial communities. Seedling productivity did not incur major costs because of N fixation: indeed, the average slope between Ndfa and biomass was positive (range in slopes: -0.03 to 0.3). Moreover, foliar N, which varied among species, was tightly constrained and not correlated with Ndfa. This finding implies that legume species have a target N that does not change depending on N acquisition strategies. The process of N fixation in tropical legumes may be more carbon efficient than previously thought. This view is more consistent with the hyperabundance of members of this family in tropical ecosystems.

  18. A systematic review on dynamic versus static distal tibiofibular fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inge, S Y; Pull Ter Gunne, A F; Aarts, C A M; Bemelman, M

    2016-12-01

    In the last couple of years dynamic fixation for syndesmosis injuries, using a suture-button technique, raised more interest due to its advantages over the static fixation. In the current systematic review suture-button fixation is compared to the traditionally applied static fixation in unstable ankle fractures accompanied with distal tibiofibular syndesmosis injury, including the functional outcome, post-operative complications, reoperation rate, recurrent diastasis and financial aspects. A computerized literature search using PubMed/MEDLINE and EMBASE was conducted in search of suitable articles between January 2006 and February 2016. A total of 4 suture-button studies, 5 suture-button vs. static fixation studies and 1 study discussing the financial aspects were identified. The AOFAS of 104 patients treated with the suture-button device was 91.08 points with an average study-follow up of 24.85 months. The AOFAS of 106 patients treated with a static fixation device was 87.95 with an average follow-up of 24.78 months. Removal of the suture-button device was reported in 10.5% of 229 patients and removal of the screws in 38.5%. Dynamic fixation demonstrated to be a viable alternative to the static fixation device, with lower reoperation rates and less complications. They can accurately stabilize the ruptured syndesmosis without device breakage or loss of reduction. 1A economic/decision. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. sign hip construct: achieving hip fracture fixation without using an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The aim of this study was to assess outcomes of using the SIGN Hip Construct (SHC) to achieve ... The majority (76%) of patients were ambulatory within. 3 days after the surgery. ... Conclusion: Using the SIGN Hip Construct, hip fracture fixation can be ... elderly has made stable reduction and internal fixation.

  20. STUDY ON SPANNING EXTERNAL FIXATORS FOR PERIARTICULAR OPEN FRACTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanth Maddila

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Open fractures which occur close to any fracture need immobilisation for the soft tissues to heal. Some open fractures are even fixed with provisional fixations to maintain the alignment of the fractures. The provisional fixation needs to be augmented with external support, which can be given by spanning external fixators across a joint. MATERIALS AND METHODS Our study consists of 38 open fractures of the lower limbs, which are of Gustilo-Anderson’s type IIIB, an MT4 of AO-ASIF soft tissue injury classification essentially requiring open wound management as well as fracture fixation. Wound lavage and debridements are carried out till the soft tissues show granulations. The position in which joint is immobilised is functional and with access to open wound for dressings and inspection without any displacement of the fracture as well as creeping granulation tissue. RESULTS All the cases in our study are maintained with functional position till soft tissue cover is achieved and provisional fixation is done with definitive fixation after soft tissue cover with skin grafting. CONCLUSION Spanning external fixators are useful in maintaining functional positions as well as augmenting the provisional fixation of the compound fractures.

  1. Femoral fractures : indications an[d] biomechanics of external fixation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.H. Broekhuizen (Tom); B. van Linge

    1988-01-01

    textabstractInternal fixation can be carried out in various ways. For femoral shaft fractures, an (interlocking) nail is becoming increasingly popular, instead of open realignment of the fracture. External fixation, which has become a generally accepted method of treating fractures of the lower

  2. Sébastien Broca, Utopie du logiciel libre. Du bricolage informatique à la réinvention sociale

    OpenAIRE

    Goëta, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    Traitant des pratiques et des conceptions du logiciel libre mais aussi, plus largement, du mouvement pour l’ouverture des savoirs, Utopie du logiciel libre ambitionne, premièrement, de nourrir une réflexion critique sur l’ethos du libre au sens d’un « ensemble de valeurs qui constituent un cadre pour l’action et s’actualisent dans des pratiques » (p. 24) et, deuxièmement, d’élaborer une sociologie critique du libre. Reprenant la notion d’utopie concrète chez Ernst Bloch (Le principe Espérance...

  3. Néotoponymie contestée à Potchefstroom / Tlokwe (Province du Nord-Ouest, Afrique du Sud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam Houssay-Holzschuch

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Illustration 1 - Extrait du site de la municipalité de Potchefstroom / TlokweSource : http://www.potch.co.za/newsarchive/streetnames.htmlIllustration 2- Potchefstroom (Afrique du SudAuteur : Béatrice Obry-Guyot, début décembre 2007.Illustration 3 - Extrait du plan Google Map de PotchefstroomSource : Google Map.La question toponymique en Afrique du Sud sur la longue durée porte sur deux thèmes essentiels porteurs de controverses : le plurilinguisme et le marquage symbolique et mémoriel du te...

  4. Esquisse du parlementarisme et du monopartisme en Afrique: le cas du Togo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. B. van Rouveroy van Nieuwaal

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available Witnessed the last hundred years profound political and constitutional changes. In this respect there are many differences between African States depending on which kind of colonial overlord has been the ruling power. The African State was a juridical entity in international law, but was it also, at the time of independence, an empirical entity in national fact?In almost all cases the empirical reality as a functioning government was still primarily the presence of European bureaucrats who has embodied the colonial state. Independence therefore opened a gap between the international legitimacy and the internal marginality of many emergent African State. The gap often presented a real political dilemma to the new African rulers: they usually could retain European officials only by compromising their national independence and could dispense with them only at the risk of undermining governmental performance. After adoption of European constitutional law and with, initially, a high degree of similarity between most constitutions in French-speaking Africa, nowadays these constitutions differ widely, contrary to the Commonwealth Africa that has experienced fewer innovations and constitutional breakdowns.Parliamentary systems of government gave way to One Party Systems, introduced in many cases by the national army, as the best equiped, trained, paid and organised power in the country. This has been the political and constitutional development in Togo as well. Since 1969, it has a One Party System, the Rassemblement du Peuple Togolais, founded by the President of the Togolese Republic, Gen. Gnassingbé Eyadéma. But, as everywhere else, doubts are growing about the effectiveness of the One Party System. Are the Togolese perspectives such that Eyadéma is willing to have an open mind and to be all ears for the critics to his own creation? Another intriguing question is to know in which way the Africantraditional authorities (" chieftancy", as the core

  5. Overcoming design fixation through education and creativity methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howard, Thomas J.; Maier, Anja; Onarheim, Balder;

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports an experiment on the topic design fixation using 12 teams of masters students working on three design problems from (Jansson and Smith 1991). The objective of the experiment is to determine the effectiveness of two interventions to help overcome fixation on example solutions....... The first intervention consisted of educating each team on the phenomena and effects of design fixation. The results showed that this intervention reduced the number of fixation elements in comparison to the control group (p=0.025). The second intervention involved using Dix et als' (2006) 'Bad Ideas......' method during a final design task. The results showed that the method did not help the teams as it caused the fixation ratio to increase and the number of ideas per team to decrease. In addition to the above mentioned interventions, the experiment also revealed a negative correlation between the number...

  6. Stiffness analysis of the sarafix external fixator of composite materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedim Pervan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a structural analysis of the CAD model three versions fixators Sarafix which to explore the possibility of introducing composite materials in the construction of the connecting rod fixators comparing values of displacement and stiffness at characteristic points structure. Namely, we investigated constructional performance of fixators Sarafix with a connecting rod formed from three different composite materials, the same matrix (epoxy resin with three different types of fibers (E glass, kevlar 49 and carbon M55J. Results of structural analysis fixators Sarafix with a connecting rod made of composite materials are compared with the results of tubular connecting rod fixators made of stainless steel. After comparing the results, from the aspect of stiffness, we gave the final considerations about composite material which provides an adequate substitution for the existing material.

  7. Surgical Revision after Sacroiliac Joint Fixation or Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Timothy

    2017-01-01

    Background Minimally invasive sacroiliac joint (SIJ) fusion has been shown to be safe and effective for the treatment of SIJ dysfunction. Multiple devices are available to perform SIJ fixation or fusion. Surgical revision rates after these procedures have not been directly compared. Methods We retrospectively identified all patients in our practice who underwent SIJ fixation or fusion between 2003 and 2015. Using both chart review and focused contact with individual patients, we determined the likelihood of surgical revision. Revision rates were compared using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Results Thirty-eight patients underwent SIJ fixation with screws and 274 patients underwent SIJ fusion using triangular titanium implants. Four-year cumulative revision rates were 30.8% for fixation and 5.7% for fusion. Conclusions In our study, SIJ fixation with screws had a much higher revision rate compared to SIJ fusion with triangular titanium implants designed for bone adherence.

  8. Callus patterns in femur lengthening using a monolateral external fixator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaac, Dileep; Fernandez, Harry; Song, Hae-Ryong; Kim, Tae-Young; Kumar Shyam, Ashok [Korea University Medical Centre, Guro Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Rare Diseases Institute, Seoul (Korea); Lee, Seok-Hyun [Dongguk University International Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Ilsan (Korea); Lee, Jong-Chan [Korea University, Department of Statistics, Seoul (Korea)

    2008-04-15

    We studied the callus pattern seen in femoral lengthening using monolateral external fixator to determine whether callus types and shapes can predict the final outcome of the procedure. The radiographs of 41 cases of femoral lengthening (33 unilateral and 8 bilateral) in 33 patients with a mean age 11.9 years (range 4-22 years) were retrospectively analysed by four observers and classified into different shapes and types in concordance with the Ru Li classification. The classification was tested for concurrence and reproducibility by inter-observer studies. An average of 6.2 cm of lengthening (range 3-10.8) was achieved with an external fixator index of 36.5 (range 20.9-55.3). The fusiform type of callus (fixator index 32.04, maturation index 21.6) showed the best result followed by the cylinder type of callus (fixator index 35.7, maturation index 22.3) and the lateral type of callus (fixator index 33.2, maturation index 21.5). However, the concave type of callus showed poor results with a fixator index of 49.4 and a maturation index of 37.1. The homogeneous path showed the best results (fixator index 30.4, maturation index 18.6). The heterogeneous path also showed good results (fixator index 36.4, maturation index 23.9). The mixed path (fixator index 42.5, maturation index 30.8) and the lucent path (fixator index 45.1, maturation index 32.8) showed poor results. Analysis of the callus pattern helps the surgeon to predict the outcome of the procedure and guide him in planning any additional interventions if necessary. (orig.)

  9. Do you like what you see? : The role of first fixation and total fixation duration in consumer choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Laan, Laura N.; Hooge, Ignace T C; De Ridder, Denise T D; Viergever, Max A.; Smeets, Paul A M

    2015-01-01

    Although there has been recent growing interest in the associations between measures of visual attention and consumer choice, there is still uncertainty about the role of the first fixation in consumer choice and the factors that drive total fixation duration. The study aimed (1) to investigate the

  10. External Fixation versus two-stage Open Reduction Internal Fixation of distal intra-articular Tibia fractures; a Systematic Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladeby Erichsen, Julie; Jensen, Carsten; Damborg, Frank Lindhøj

    Internal Fixation (ORIF) or External Fixation (EF). Method : A search was conducted using PUBMED, Embase, Cochrane Central, Open Grey, Orthopaedic Proceedings and WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform. Studies with level of evidence I-IV comparing EF with two-stage ORIF of DIATF in patients...

  11. Do you like what you see? The role of first fixation and total fixation duration in consumer choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laan, van der L.N.; Hooge, I.T.C.; Ridder, de D.T.D.; Viergever, M.A.; Smeets, P.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Although there has been recent growing interest in the associations between measures of visual attention and consumer choice, there is still uncertainty about the role of the first fixation in consumer choice and the factors that drive total fixation duration. The study aimed (1) to investigate the

  12. Do you like what you see? The role of first fixation and total fixation duration in consumer choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Laan, Laura N.; Hooge, Ignace T C; De Ridder, Denise T D; Viergever, Max A.; Smeets, Paul A M

    2015-01-01

    Although there has been recent growing interest in the associations between measures of visual attention and consumer choice, there is still uncertainty about the role of the first fixation in consumer choice and the factors that drive total fixation duration. The study aimed (1) to investigate the

  13. Sand Dunes Fixation in Baiji District, Iraq

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This study was carried out at Sand Dunes Stabilization Researches Station in Baiji district (230 ln north of Baghdad, Iraq) to evaluate the effects of local soil conditioners manufactured from oil derivatives and plant residuals on sand dunes fixation as the first step for sand dunes stabilization. The results indicate that the fuel oil has the first place in improving wind erosion parameters in the study area, such as increasing mean weight diameter, dry aggregates percentage, the needed time for complete disaggregation by dry sieving, and decreasing the disaggregation rates. Bitumen emulsion occupies the second place, while the plant residuals occupies the third place and has slight effects on the studied parameters. Effects of conditioners on natural vegetation cover are negative in oil derivatives treatments,while positive in plants residuals treatments.

  14. Acute bony bankart lesion and surgical fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Michael D; Provencher, Matthew T

    2009-10-01

    The patient was a 25-year-old man who sustained a traumatic left anterior shoulder dislocation. After self-reducing the first time, as well as in subsequent repeated dislocations over the following 2-day period, the patient reported his injury to the medical staff, who sent him to the physical therapist for evaluation. Anterior-posterior, scapular outlet, and axillary radiographic views demonstrated a bony glenoid lesion consistent with a bony Bankart lesion, which was best seen on the scapular outlet view. A 3-dimensional computed tomography scan was performed to assess the size and displacement of the bony Bankart lesion. Six days following injury, the patient underwent operative fixation of the bony Bankart lesion. Following surgery, the patient completed 5 months of physical therapy and subsequently returned to high-demand upper body activities. At 3 years following surgery, the patient reported full functional ability without shoulder instability or pain.

  15. A Meta-Analysis for Postoperative Complications in Tibial Plafond Fracture: Open Reduction and Internal Fixation Versus Limited Internal Fixation Combined With External Fixator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong; Xiang, Jian-Ping; Chen, Xiao-Hu; Zhu, Qing-Tang

    2015-01-01

    The treatment of tibial plafond fractures is challenging to foot and ankle surgeons. Open reduction and internal fixation and limited internal fixation combined with an external fixator are 2 of the most commonly used methods of tibial plafond fracture repair. However, conclusions regarding the superior choice remain controversial. The present meta-analysis aimed to quantitatively compare the postoperative complications between open reduction and internal fixation and limited internal fixation combined with an external fixator for tibial plafond fractures. Nine studies with 498 fractures in 494 patients were included in the present study. The meta-analysis found no significant differences in bone healing complications (risk ratio [RR] 1.17, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.68 to 2.01, p = .58], nonunion (RR 1.09, 95% CI 0.51 to 2.36, p = .82), malunion or delayed union (RR 1.24, 95% CI 0.57 to 2.69, p = .59), superficial (RR 1.56, 95% CI 0.43 to 5.61, p = .50) and deep (RR 1.89, 95% CI 0.62 to 5.80) infections, arthritis symptoms (RR 1.20, 95% CI 0.92 to 1.58, p = .18), or chronic osteomyelitis (RR 0.31, 95% CI 0.05 to 1.84, p = .20) between the 2 groups. Copyright © 2015 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The Stability of Double Jaw Surgery: A Comparison of Rigid Fixation versus Skeletal Wire Fixation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-08-01

    Further studies regarding the effect of rigid versus wire fixation on the temporomandibular joint would be valuable to correlate morphological changes and...13 7 22 mandibular procedures such as a body osteotomy could have been performed. 4. No temperomandibular joint surgery could have been performed...Cephalometric Points Recorded ----- .... 27 164 24 - -~~2 - -% 3w.~ 1 28 TABLE 3.-- Cephalometric Measurements DESCRIPTION PTS. USED 1. SNA Angle 1-2-3 deg 2

  17. Internal fixation for coronal shear fracture of the capitellum with polylactide resorbable fixation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraan, Gerald A; Krijnen, Matthijs R; Eerenberg, Jan Peter

    2013-01-01

    A 24-year-old woman with pain in the right elbow after a fall demonstrated a coronal shear fracture on radiographic studies. Perioperative a coronal shear fracture was seen and treated successfully with a polylactide Rigid fix resorbable pin. The operative correction resulted in normal function at 6 months follow-up. We state that a capitellum shear fracture can be fixated with a single resorbable pin, leading to successful fusion. PMID:23378544

  18. A new concept for implant fixation: bone-to-bone biologic fixation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D-Y Kim

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Many attempts have been made to reduce complications of bone implant, such as pedicle screw loosening. To address this problem, the authors suggest a new concept of bone-to-bone biologic fixation using recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2-loaded cannulated pedicle screws. Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 is an osteoinductive cytokine. Four types of titanium pedicle screws were tested (uncannulated, cannulated with no loading, beta-tricalcium phosphate (TCP-loaded, and TCP/BMP2 loaded using 16 miniature pigs. Radiological evaluation was conducted to assess the fusion and loosening of pedicle screws. Twelve weeks after implantation, peak torsional extraction torque was measured, and the pedicle screw and bone interface was evaluated by micro-computed tomography (µCT and histologic examination. The mean value of the radiological score was significantly greater in the TCP/BMP2 loaded group at 12 weeks post-operation compared to those in the other groups. CT images showed distinct bone formation surrounding TCP/BMP2 loaded cannulated pedicle screws compared to the other groups. Mean extraction torsional peak torque at 12 weeks postoperative was more than 10-fold higher in the TCP/BMP2 loaded pedicle screw group than in the other groups. Bone surface and bone volume, as quantitated through µCT, were higher in the TCP/BMP2 loaded group. Histologic examination revealed bone-to-bone fixation at the interface of pedicle screws and pre-existing bone. Bone-to-bone biologic fixation through the holes of TCP/BMP2 loaded pedicle screws significantly increased fixation strength and represents a novel method that can be applied to osteoporotic or tumour spine surgeries.

  19. Visual Fixation for 3D Video Stabilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Peter Seidel

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Visual fixation is employed by humans and some animals to keep a specific 3D location at the center of the visual gaze. Inspired by this phenomenon in nature, this paper explores the idea to transfer this mechanism to the context of video stabilization for a hand-held video camera. A novel approach is presented that stabilizes a video by fixating on automatically extracted 3D target points. This approach is different from existing automatic solutions that stabilize the video by smoothing. To determine the 3D target points, the recorded scene is analyzed with a state-of-the-art structure-from-motion algorithm, which estimates camera motion and reconstructs a 3D point cloud of the static scene objects. Special algorithms are presented that search either virtual or real 3D target points, which back-project close to the center of the image for as long a period of time as possible. The stabilization algorithm then transforms the original images of the sequence so that these 3D target points are kept exactly in the center of the image, which, in case of real 3D target points, produces a perfectly stable result at the image center. Furthermore, different methods of additional user interaction are investigated. It is shown that the stabilization process can easily be controlled and that it can be combined with state-of-the-art tracking techniques in order to obtain a powerful image stabilization tool. The approach is evaluated on a variety of videos taken with a hand-held camera in natural scenes.

  20. "Cold" Fixation: Reconciliation of Nitrogen Fixation Rates and Diazotroph Assemblages in the Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, A. A.; Waite, A.; Rost, B.; Richter, K. U.

    2016-02-01

    Measurements of biological nitrogen fixation are typically conducted in oligotrophic subtropical and tropical marine environments where concentrations of fixed inorganic nitrogen are low. To date, only a handful of nitrogen fixation studies have been conducted in high latitude marine environments, but further investigation is needed to resolve the distribution of cold ocean diazotrophic assemblages. Nitrogen fixation rates and nifH gene distributions were measured at seven stations from 5°E to 20°E, north of 81°N in the Arctic Ocean at the onset of summer 2015. Discrete water samples in ice-covered regions were collected from the sea surface to 200 m for 15N2-tracer additions and targeted nifH gene and transcript analyses. Previous work suggests that heterotrophic bacteria dominate diazotrophic communities in the Arctic Ocean. Therefore, additional nifH gene surveys of sinking particles were conducted to test for enrichment on organic matter-rich microenvironments. Together, these measurements aim to reconcile diazotrophic activity with microbial community composition, further elucidating how nitrogen fixers could impact current concepts in polar carbon and nutrient cycling.

  1. Stability of extraoral vertical ramus osteotomy: plate fixation versus maxillomandibular/skeletal suspension wire fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobarak, K A; Krogstad, O; Espeland, L; Lyberg, T

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this cephalometric study was to evaluate skeletal stability and time course of postoperative changes in 2 groups of mandibular prognathism patients following extraoral oblique vertical ramus osteotomy (VRO). One group (n = 22) received maxillomandibular fixation and skeletal suspension wires (MMF group) for a period of 8 weeks. In the other group (n = 22), the segments were rigidly fixed with plates and the patients were allowed to function immediately after surgery. Lateral cephalograms were taken on 5 occasions: immediately presurgical, immediately postsurgical, 8 weeks postsurgical, 6 months postsurgical, and 1 year postsurgical. During the first 8 weeks after surgery, the MMF group demonstrated posterior movement of the mandible, with an increase in mandibular plane angle, shortening of the rami, and dental compensations. Upon release of MMF and skeletal suspension wiring, a small anterior relapse tendency was observed, but the net setback 1 year after surgery was still greater than the actual surgical setback. In the plate fixation group, postoperative changes were mainly in the form of a small anterior relapse tendency in the range of 10% of the surgical setback. The results indicate that the use of plate fixation with VRO, while eliminating the inconvenience for the patient of several weeks of MMF and preventing the early side effects observed in the MMF group, also resulted in a more predictable surgical procedure, with excellent stability 1 year after surgery.

  2. Surgical treatment of zygomatic bone fracture using two points fixation versus three point fixation-a randomised prospective clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana Majeed

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The zygoma plays an important role in the facial contour for both cosmetic and functional reasons; therefore zygomatic bone injuries should be properly diagnosed and adequately treated. Comparison of various surgical approaches and their complications can only be done objectively using outcome measurements which in turn require protocol management and long-term follow up. The preference for open reduction and internal fixation of zygomatic fractures at three points has continued to grow in response to observations of inadequate results from two point and one point fixation techniques. The objectives of this study were to compare the efficacy of zygomatic bone after treatment with ORIF using 2 point fixation and ORIF using 3 point fixation and compare the outcome of two procedures. Methods 100 patients were randomly divided equally into two groups. In group A, 50 patients were treated by ORIF using two point fixation by miniplates and in group B, 50 patients were treated by ORIF using three point fixation by miniplates. They were evaluated for their complications during and after surgery with their advantages and disadvantages and the difference between the two groups was observed. Results A total of 100 fractures were sustained. We found that postoperative complication like decreased malar height and vertical dystopia was more common in those patients who were treated by two point fixation than those who were treated with three point fixation. Conclusions Based on this study open reduction and internal fixation using three point fixation by miniplates is the best available method for the treatment zygomatic bone fractures.

  3. Is an alcoholic fixative fluid used for manual liquid-based cytology accurate to perform HPV tests?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garbar C

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Christian Garbar1, Corinne Mascaux1, Philippe De Graeve2, Philippe Delvenne31Department of Biopathology, Institute Jean Godinot, Reims Cedex, France; 2Centre de Pathologie des Coteaux, Toulouse, France; 3Department of Pathology, University of Liege, Tour de Pathologie, Domaine Universitaire du Sart Tilman, Liège, BelgiumAbstract: In Europe, the alternative centrifuge method of liquid-based cytology is widely used in cervical screening. Turbitec® (Labonord SAS, Templemars, France is a centrifuge method of liquid-based cytology using an alcoholic fixative fluid, Easyfix® (Labonord. It is now well accepted that the association of liquid-based cytology and human papillomavirus test is indissociable of cervical screening. The aim of this work was to demonstrate that Easyfix alcoholic fluid is reliable to perform Hybrid Capture® 2 (QIAGEN SAS, Courtaboeuf, France. In this study, 75 patients with colposcopy for cervical lesions served as gold standard. A sample was collected, at random, for Easyfix fixative cytological fluid and for Digene Cervical Sampler (QIAGEN. The results of Hybrid Capture 2 (with relative light unit >1 showed no statistical difference, a positive Spearman’s correlation (r = 0.82, P < 0.0001, and a kappa value of 0.87 (excellent agreement between the two fluids. It was concluded that Easyfix is accurate to use in human papillomavirus tests with Hybrid Capture 2.Keywords: human papillomavirus, hybrid capture 2, Turbitec®, cervix cytology, liquid-based cytology

  4. An effective fixative for glucocorticoid receptors in fetal tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koga, T.; Kurisu, K.

    1982-01-01

    As a preliminary study in an autoradiographic study of glucocorticoid (GC) receptor localization in orofacial tissues of mouse fetuses, a search was made to determine the most effective fixative for preservation of the GC-receptor complex. Twelve-day-old mouse fetuses were administered tritiated triamcinolone acetonide (/sup 3/H-TAC) intraamniotically and subsequently processed by one of the following three procedures: freeze-drying, prefixation with Karnovsky's fixative, or the catechin fixative (Karnovsky's fixative containing 1% D-catechin) and postfixation with osmium tetroxide. Light microscopic autoradiography and liquid scintillation counting of the specimens revealed that the catechin fixative gave the best results for fixation of the steroid-receptor complex and preservation of tissue structure. Light and electron microscopic autoradiographic studies of the time course of the localization of /sup 3/H-TAC in palatal shelves supported the catechin fixative as being the most effective in preservation of GC-receptor or ligand complexes.

  5. Présentation du volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Zwitter Vitez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Dans de nombreuses disciplines scientifiques, le discours parlé représente depuis quelques décennies un objet de recherche proéminent. Ce fait s’explique probablement par deux caractéristiques principales du discours parlé: la structure complexe de sa matérialité et les fonctions variées de différentes pratiques langagières. C’est pourquoi le présent numéro réunit les articles basés sur les approches actuelles du discours parlé et sur les pratiques langagières spécifiques. Le volume est introduit par deux articles interdisciplinaires: Peter Garrard et Ahmed Samrah présentent le domaine de la pathologie du langage en donnant une revue fouillée sur les approches actuelles de l’analyse linguistique lors de la détection de la maladie d’Alzheimer, tandis que Harry Hollien donne un aperçu structuré sur le domaine de la phonétique judiciaire destiné à dévoiler l’identité des locuteurs et de détecter la déception dans le discours parlé. Les analyses explorant l’acquisition du langage commencent par l’article de Katharina Zipser qui examine la progression de structures grammaticales en les mettant en comparaison avec la compétence des apprenants et continuent par l’étude de Meta Lah proposant une évaluation des documents audiovisuels proposés aux apprenants de langue étrangère. Vesna Požgaj Hadži, Damir Horga et Tatjana Balažic Bulc remettent en question la corrélation entre la compétence linguistique et la fluence linguistique auprès de locuteurs non-maternels et l'analyse de Gemma Santiago Alonso aborde l'acquisition de l'article défini dans le langage enfantin. Les articles suivants se réunissent autour du domaine de l'interprétation: Jana Zidar Forte présente une approche actuelle dans l'entrainement d'interprètes, Lea Burjan analyse les phénomènes issus de la pratique de l'interprétation juridique et Simona  Šumrada traite de la reformulation dans le discours de la traduction et de

  6. Fixation Release and the Bone Bandaid: A New Bone Fixation Device Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narges Shayesteh Moghaddam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The current gold standard of care for mandibular segmental defeat reconstruction is the use of Ti-6Al-4V immobilization hardware and fibular double barrel graft. This method is often successful immediately at restoring mandible function, however the highly stiff fixation hardware causes stress shielding of the grafted bone and stress concentration in the fixation device over time which can lead to fixation device failure and revision surgery. The purpose of reconstructive surgery could be to create normal stress trajectories in the mandible following engraftment. We investigate the use of a two stage mechanism which separates the immobilization/healing and regenerative phases of mandibular segmental defect treatment. The device includes the use of a very stiff, Ti-6Al-4V, releasable mechanism which assures bone healing. Therefore it could be released once the reconstructed boney tissue and any of its ligamentous attachments have completely healed. Underneath the released Ti-6Al-4V plate would be a pre-loaded nitinol (NiTi wire-frame apparatus that facilitates the normal stress-strain trajectory through the engrafted bone after the graft is healed in place and the Ti-6Al-4V fixation device has been released. Due to the use of NiTi wires forming a netting that connects vascularized bone and possibly bone chips, bone grafts are also more likely to be incorporate rather than to resorb. We first evaluated a healthy adult mandible during normal mastication to obtain the normal stress-strain distribution. Then, we developed the finite element (FE model of the mandibular reconstruction (in the M1-3 region with the proposed fixation device during the healing (locked state and post-healing (released state periods. To recreate normal stress trajectory in the reconstructed mandible, we applied the Response Surface Methodology (RMS to optimize the Bone Bandaid geometry (i.e., wire diameters and location. The results demonstrate that the proposed mechanism

  7. Design and Optimization of Resorbable Silk Internal Fixation Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Dylan S.

    Limitations of current material options for internal fracture fixation devices have resulted in a large gap between user needs and hardware function. Metal systems offer robust mechanical strength and ease of implantation but require secondary surgery for removal and/or result in long-term complications (infection, palpability, sensitivity, etc.). Current resorbable devices eliminate the need for second surgery and long-term complications but are still associated with negative host response as well as limited functionality and more difficult implantation. There is a definitive need for orthopedic hardware that is mechanically capable of immediate fracture stabilization and fracture fixation during healing, can safely biodegrade while allowing complete bone remodeling, can be resterilized for reuse, and is easily implantable (self-tapping). Previous work investigated the use of silk protein to produce resorbable orthopedic hardware for non- load bearing fracture fixation. In this study, silk orthopedic hardware was further investigated and optimized in order to better understand the ability of silk as a fracture fixation system and more closely meet the unfulfilled market needs. Solvent-based and aqueous-based silk processing formulations were cross-linked with methanol to induce beta sheet structure, dried, autoclaved and then machined to the desired device/geometry. Silk hardware was evaluated for dry, hydrated and fatigued (cyclic) mechanical properties, in vitro degradation, resterilization, functionalization with osteoinductive molecules and implantation technique for fracture fixation. Mechanical strength showed minor improvements from previous results, but remains comparable to current resorbable fixation systems with the advantages of self-tapping ability for ease of implantation, full degradation in 10 months, ability to be resterilized and reused, and ability to release molecules for osteoinudction. In vivo assessment confirmed biocompatibility, showed

  8. Biological Nitrogen Fixation In Tropical Dry Forests Of Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gei, M. G.; Powers, J. S.

    2012-12-01

    Evidence suggests that tropical dry forests (TDF) are not nitrogen (N) deficient. This evidence includes: high losses of gaseous nitrogen during the rainy season, high ecosystem soil N stocks and high N concentrations in leaves and litterfall. Its been commonly hypothesized that biological nitrogen fixation is responsible for the high availability of N in tropical soils. However, the magnitude of this flux has rarely if ever been measured in tropical dry forests. Because of the high cost of fixing N and the ubiquity of N fixing legume trees in the TDF, at the individual tree level symbiotic fixation should be a strategy down-regulated by the plant. Our main goal was to determine the rates of and controls over symbiotic N fixation. We hypothesized that legume tree species employ a facultative strategy of nitrogen fixation and that this process responds to changes in light availability, soil moisture and nutrient supply. We tested this hypothesis both on naturally established trees in a forest and under controlled conditions in a shade house by estimating the quantities of N fixed annually using the 15N natural abundance method, counting nodules, and quantifying (field) or manipulating (shade house) the variation in important environmental variables (soil nutrients, soil moisture, and light). We found that in both in our shade house experiment and in the forest, nodulation varied among different legume species. For both settings, the 15N natural abundance approach successfully detected differences in nitrogen fixation among species. The legume species that we studied were able to regulate fixation depending on the environmental conditions. They showed to have different strategies of nitrogen fixation that follow a gradient of facultative to obligate fixation. Our data suggest that there exists a continuum of nitrogen fixation strategies among species. Any efforts to define tropical legume trees as a functional group need to incorporate this variation.

  9. L’écologie du coupable.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Ourednik

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available « Denn dass der Mensch erlöst werde von der Rache  : das ist mir die Brücke zur höchsten Hoffnung und ein Regenbogen nach langen Unwettern. » 1 Nous l’aurions presque oublié, en fouillant parmi les fondations du rapport moral au monde de nos sociétés, nous trouverons encore bien en place deux piliers érigés au cours du processus de la chrétienté : celui de l’ empathie et celui de la culpabilité . Le premier semble offrir le seul appui plausible à notre vivre ...

  10. Les Nymphes dans les rites du mariage

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Le champ du mariage (où l’on rencontre à la fois les Nymphes puissances surnaturelles et les numphai humaines) peut se révéler intéressant pour croiser des données littéraires, archéologiques et épigraphiques sur le culte des Nymphes. Lors des préliminaires, ces puissances peuvent être l’objet des protéléia (sacrifices prénuptiaux) ou être associées avec la loutrophorie et le bain prénuptial. Les Nymphes n’interviennent guère pendant la journée de célébration du mariage, sauf dans des textes ...

  11. Nitrogen fixation during an unusual summer Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voss, Maren; Dalsgaard, Tage; Fabian, Jenny

    Nitrogen fixation is a major nitrogen source for the open ocean. Also the land-locked, partly anoxic Baltic Sea receives almost as much nitrogen from nitrogen fixation as it receives from eutrophied rivers. Growth conditions for cyanobacteria are usually very favorable with low N/P ratios after...... variety in nitrogen fixing species than usual was observed. Under these conditions nitrogen fixation rates were studied over a three weeks period throughout the upper water column. Moreover, a methods comparison was performed to test the dissolved dinitrogen gas additions against the bubble addition...

  12. Sustainable growth, the DuPont way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holliday, C

    2001-09-01

    Like many manufacturers, DuPont traditionally has grown by making more and more "stuff." And its business growth has been proportional to the amount of raw materials and energy used--as well as the resulting waste and emissions from operations. Over the years, though, DuPont became aware that cheap supplies of nonrenewable resources wouldn't be endlessly available and that the earth's ecosystems couldn't indefinitely absorb the waste and emissions of production and consumption. Chad Holliday, chairman and CEO of DuPont, believes strongly in the challenge of sustainable growth and makes the business case for it: By using creativity and scientific knowledge effectively, he says, companies can provide strong returns for shareholders and grow their businesses--while also meeting the human needs of societies around the world and reducing the environmental footprint of their operations and products. In fact, a focus on sustainability can help identify new products, markets, partnerships, and intellectual property and lead to substantial business growth. Holliday describes how DuPont developed a three-pronged strategy to translate the concept of sustainability into nuts-and-bolts business practices. Focusing on integrated science, knowledge intensity, and productivity improvement, the strategy was accompanied by a new way to measure progress quantitatively. Sustainable growth should be viewed not as a program for stepped-up environmental performance but as a comprehensive way of doing business, one that delivers tremendous economic value and opens up new opportunities. Ultimately, companies will find that they can generate substantial business value through sustainability while both enhancing the quality of life around the world and protecting the environment.

  13. Sådan forebygger du faldulykker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evron, Lotte

    2015-01-01

    Bidrag til serien 'Eksperten skriver'. Her gennemgås en kort vejledning til, hvordan man arbejder systematisk med faldforebyggelse. Ved at arbejde systematisk med dine hverdagsobservationer kan du få øje på og reagere på ændringer hos svækkede ældre borgere og på den måde forebygge faldet, før de...

  14. Technostress et autres revers du travail nomade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popma, J.

    2013-01-01

    L'Internet et l'utilisation des ordinateurs portables, des téléphones mobiles et des tablettes ont accru l'importance du « travail nomade». Ce type de travail, sans contrainte de lieu ni de temps, peut entraîner, d’après ce working paper, une plus grande autonomie et une plus grande flexibilité pour

  15. Autour du paradigme d’écotourisme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Laure Transler

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available L’écotourisme ouvre un cadre conceptuel original qui permet d’envisager des démarches renouvelées de développement à partir des revenus issus de consommations touristiques mieux réfléchies et organisées, susceptibles de soutenir des initiatives de développement local s’inscrivant dans un projet global de développement durable. Variante douce du tourisme, loin du tourisme de masse, le champ de l’écotourisme s’étend aux confins du tourisme de nature, du tourisme culturel et des pratiques scientifiques et sportives de plein air. Une définition de l’écotourisme peut être proposée à partir des six points suivants : 1/ nature et culture, 2/ le bien-être des sociétés hôtes, 3/ des touristes responsables, 4/ la participation des sociétés hôtes, 5/ la durabilité, 6/ l’art de la rencontre.Ecotourism provides an original conceptual framework that enables approaches to development that are better able to provide a more equitable distribution of income, as well as better organized and thought through initiatives which are more likely to promote a holistic sustainable local development. With somewhat less negative impact than normal tourism, considerably less that mass tourism, ecotourism can encompass nature tourism, cultural tourism, scientific exploration, and even outdoor sports... A definition of ecotourism should take into account the following six points: 1/ nature and culture, 2/ the welfare of the host community, tourists acting responsibly, 3/ participation by the local community, 5 / sustainability , 6/ promotion of cultural exchanges

  16. Pertinence du dépistage du cancer du col de l'utérus au sein d'un établissement de santé

    OpenAIRE

    Chignier, Pauline

    2014-01-01

    Le dépistage du cancer du col de l'utérus est un enjeu de Santé Publique. Le plan cancer 2014-2019 souligne l'importance de réduire les inégalités face au dépistage et de couvrir 80% de la population cible. L'objectif principal de l'étude était d'évaluer la conformité des pratiques cliniques des professionnels de santé aux recommandations de la HAS. L'objectif secondaire était d'évaluer la qualité du dépistage du cancer du col selon le type de suivi : gynécologique versus obstétrical. Il s'ag...

  17. Rigid internal fixation of zygoma fractures: A comparison of two-point and three-point fixation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parashar Atul

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Displaced fractures of the zygomatic bone can result in significant functional and aesthetic sequelae. Therefore the treatment must achieve adequate and stable reduction at fracture sites so as to restore the complex multidimensional relationship of the zygoma to the surrounding craniofacial skeleton. Many experimental biophysical studies have compared stability of zygoma after one, two and three-point fixation with mini plates. We conducted a prospective clinical study comparing functional and aesthetic results of two-point and three-point fixation with mini plates in patients with fractures of zygoma. Materials and Methods: Twenty-two patients with isolated zygomatic fractures over a period of one year were randomly assigned into two-point and three-point fixation groups. Results of fixation were analyzed after completion of three months. This included clinical, radiological and photographic evaluation. Results: The three-point fixation group maintained better stability at fracture sites resulting in decreased incidence of dystopia and enophthalmos. This group also had better malar projection and malar height as measured radiologically, when compared with the two-point fixation group. Conclusion: We recommend three-point rigid fixation of fractured zygoma after accurate reduction so as to maintain adequate stabilization against masticatory forces during fracture healing phase.

  18. Enfants du soleil histoire de nos origines

    CERN Document Server

    Brahic, André

    1999-01-01

    D'où venons-nous ? Comment le Soleil et la Terre sont-ils apparus ? Nous avons enfin atteint le moment où la science peut apporter des réponses de plus en plus précises, de plus en plus étonnantes. La Nature a décidément plus d'imagination que les hommes ! Depuis l'exploration spatiale, nous en avons plus appris sur notre système solaire et son origine en une génération qu'en quarante siècles. Là où l'on attendait l'uniformité, on a trouvé la plus grande diversité. André Brahic, qui a découvert les anneaux de Neptune, nous présente les multiples facettes du système solaire et nous raconte quatre milliards et demi d'années de son histoire. Les planètes sont les soeurs du Soleil. Nous sommes les enfants du temps et des étoiles. Sommes-nous seuls dans l'Univers ? Les astronomes commencent à apercevoir d'autres planètes autour de quelques soleils proches, Ils espèrent bientôt trouver d'autres Terres...

  19. Tribunal administratif de l'Organisation internationale du Travail (TAOIT)

    CERN Document Server

    International Labour Organization. Geneva

    Le Tribunal administratif de l'Organisation internationale du Travail connaît des requêtes formées par les fonctionnaires ou les anciens fonctionnaires du Bureau international du Travail et des quelque trente organisations qui ont reconnu sa compétence. The ILO Administrative Tribunal (ILOAT) hears complaints from serving and former officials of the International Labour Office or one of the thirty-odd intergovernmental organizations that recognise its jurisdiction.

  20. Rapport d'Activite du Service Medical - 2001/2002

    CERN Document Server

    Fassnacht, V

    2003-01-01

    Le rapport annuel de l’année 2002 fait état de l’activité du service médical et de ses conclusions en matière de santé au travail ou de conditions de travail pour les membres du personnel du CERN, c’est à dire!: les titulaires, boursiers, étudiants, utilisateurs, attachés, etc…

  1. Quelques observations sur les Bryopsis du Golfe de Naples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, Joséphine Th.

    1941-01-01

    Evidemment la flore algologique du Golfe de Naples a été étudiée, d’assez près, tant du point de vue floristique que du point de vue écologique. Surtout FALKENBERG (1879), BERTHOLD (1882) et FUNK (1927) se sont occupés des investigations de cette nature. Il reste cependant un certain nombre de genre

  2. Le corps du saint dans l'hagiographie du Maghreb médiéval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelly Amri

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Ce travail tente de réfléchir sur la place accordée par l’hagiographie du Maghreb médiéval au corps dans l'expérience de sainteté et dans le processus de “sanctification” d’un homme ou d’une femme, ainsi que dans la reconnaissance ou la “consécration” de cette sainteté. Il vise à repérer les infléchissements perceptibles dans les critères de sainteté et la valeur accordée par l'hagiographie à telle ou telle voie de sanctification. Il se propose également d’examiner la représentation par les contemporains du corps du saint vivant et les bénéfices qu’ils en attendent.

  3. Christophe Brissonneau, Olivier Aubel, Fabien Ohl, L'épreuve du dopage. Sociologie du cyclisme professionnel

    OpenAIRE

    Martinache, Igor

    2011-01-01

    L'épreuve du dopage se lit comme un roman policier. A la manière d'une intrigue, la trame du livre invite à chaque fin de page à tourner la suivante pour découvrir si le cycliste va basculer dans la pratique du dopage. De fait, il ne bascule jamais. Et c'est bien là l'intérêt de l'ouvrage qui, à l'encontre de la plupart des discours sur le sujet, montre que le dopage est une pratique processuelle qui rend rigoureusement impossible toute distinction binaire entre deux états : dopé ou non. Une ...

  4. ETUDE DU COMPORTEMENT MECANIQUE DU BETON CELLULAIRE AUTOCLAVE PRODUIT EN ALGERIE

    OpenAIRE

    R BELOUETTAR; Klepaczko, J.R.; Abadlia, M.T.

    2002-01-01

    Ce travail présente une étude expérimentale du comportement mécanique du béton cellulaire autoclavé. L’étude est portée essentiellement sur une série d’essais mécaniques en compression quasistatique à différentes vitesses de déformation variables entre 10-4 s-1 et 10 s-1 et à deux états différents (état sec et état saturé d’eau). En général, l’augmentation de la vitesse de déformation donne une augmentation de la contrainte critique du béton cellulaire autoclavé. Le béton cellulaire autoclavé...

  5. Consequences economiques du transfert de marché de cotation : cas du NYSE-Euronext Paris

    OpenAIRE

    Cisse, A.K

    2010-01-01

    Cahier de recherche n° 2010-06 E2; Cette étude empirique a pour objet d'analyser les effets d'un changement de marché de cotation sur la rentabilité, la liquidité et le risque systématique. Elle porte sur des sociétés qui ont transféré le marché de cotation de leurs titres d'un compartiment non (ou peu) réglementé à un compartiment plus réglementé du marché français (Euronext Paris) entre 1995 et 2007. Globalement, les résultats montrent une réaction positive du marché à l'annonce du transfer...

  6. PENERAPAN ANALISIS DU PONT PADA INDUSTRI PROPERTY DAN REAL ESTATE

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Novita Ratna Satiti

    2016-01-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui bagaimana analisis Du Pont System menilai kinerja keuangan industry property dan real estate, apakah analisis tersebut dapat mengetahui perusahaan mana yang...

  7. La diffusion du football de haut niveau en France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loïc RAVENEL

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available La pratique du football de haut niveau s'est diffusée sur le territoire français selon deux modèles complémentaires: une diffusion hiérarchique privilégiant les plus grandes villes du pays; une diffusion de proximité soucieuse d'imitation et indispensable à la création des compétitions. Les dirigeants du football ont valorisé le processus par l'intégration de nouvelles aires géographiques, évitant ainsi la saturation du système.

  8. The Role of Personality and Team-Based Product Dissection on Fixation Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toh, Christine; Miller, Scarlett; Kremer, Gül E. Okudan

    2013-01-01

    Design fixation has been found to be complex in its definition and expression, but it plays an important role in design idea generation. Identifying the factors that influence fixation is crucial in understanding how to enhance the design process and reduce the negative effects of fixation. One way to potentially mitigate fixation is through…

  9. Construire les défis du génie civil du LHC

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2007-01-01

    Dans les années 80, le CERN a vécu la formidable aventure de la construction du tunnel de 27 kilomètres de circonférence. Ces dernières années, les équipes du génie civil se sont lancées dans l’excavation d’immenses cavernes souterraines et de kilomètres de galeries pour le LHC. Ces travaux ont exigé de véritables prouesses techniques.

  10. Influence du traitement thermique sur l'usinabilite du laiton monophase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholley, Airy

    La connaissance des proprietes et du comportement d'un materiau en usinage est primordiale pour optimiser son utilisation et obtenir une usinabilite maximale. Dans ce but, l'etude de la modification de la ductilite par traitement thermiques sur plusieurs criteres d'usinabilite tels que les efforts de coupe, la rugosite, les bavures et la formation du copeau a ete menee sur le laiton monophase. A cette fin, l'influence du traitement thermique sur la microstructure du laiton a d'abord ete etudiee. La taille des grains et la durete ont permis de determiner les proprietes mecaniques des etats metallurgiques. Des essais de percage ont ensuite ete effectues sur les etats metallurgiques H01 (99HV), OS100 (88HV) et OS250 (47HV) pour regarder l'influence du traitement thermique sur l'usinabilite. Cette etude experimentale a permis de comprendre l'influence du taux de laminage et de la temperature de recuit sur les proprietes mecaniques. Les essais d'usinabilite ont ensuite permis de prouver que les efforts de coupe sont dependants des conditions de coupe mais pas de la ductilite dans les etats metallurgiques testes. La taille des bavures augmente avec la ductilite et la vitesse de coupe, et diminue avec l'avance. La rugosite de la surface des trous apres l'usinage a egalement ete etudiee. Il a aussi ete prouve par une etude sur les copeaux que la temperature croit avec la vitesse de coupe. L'analyse de la segmentation des copeaux n'a en revanche pas permis de trouver une correlation significative avec les traitements thermiques testes. Enfin, le revetement de l'outil a montre une grande importance sur l'usinabilite du materiau. Il a ete conclu que l'usinabilite du laiton C26000 (CuZn30) est meilleure lorsqu'on travaille dans un etat metallurgique dur. Ces conclusions sont valables pour le laiton monophase etudie, il serait interessant d'examiner aussi le cas des laitons biphases.

  11. Optimisation du renforcement parasismique du viaduc de Caronte par une analyse dynamique temporelle

    OpenAIRE

    VIVIER, Aurélie; Charles, Pascal; DAVI, Denis

    2013-01-01

    Cet article présente un exemple d'application de l'analyse temporelle dynamique à un cas concret : l'optimisation du renforcement parasismique du viaduc de Caronte. Le diagnostic a permis de converger vers une solution de renforcement avec amortisseurs. Cette étude a été l'occasion de mettre en oeuvre des méthodes d'analyse temporelle, seules rigoureusement compatibles avec l'emploi d'amortisseurs et la complexité de l'ouvrage. Des outils de prédimensionnement des caractéristiques des disposi...

  12. Analyse du développement du tourisme pour tous dans le Val d’Anniviers

    OpenAIRE

    Rossier, Sandrine; Margot-Cattin, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Cette étude vise à offrir une image actuelle du développement du tourisme pour tous dans le Val d’Anniviers. Cette activité touristique permet aux destinations de proposer leur offre à un public très large. S’adressant tout d’abord à une clientèle en situation de handicap, le tourisme pour tous peut également bénéficier à toute personne ayant des besoins particuliers en termes d’accessibilité. Son implantation dans une région touristique exige de franchir un certain nombre de barrières. Quell...

  13. Minimally invasive plate internal fixation for calcaneal fractures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAN Shu-lan; XU Jun-ling; YAO Shu-zhang; YU Guo-sheng; LIU Yu-qin

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess the clinical efficacy of minimally invasive plate internal fixation for the treatment of calcaneal fractures.Methods: Manual reduction, rectification of deformity,and cold compress with traditional Chinese medicine were used preoperatively to relieve swelling and pain. A small incision was made to expose the articular facet and to perform anatomic reduction and plate fixation. Self-made traditional Chinese pharmaceutics were applied postoperatively on the surface of the wound to accelerate bony union.Results: All the 40 patients were followed up for at least 1 year postoperatively. According to the Maryland scoring system, the excellent and good rate was 87.5%.Conclusion: Minimally invasive plate internal fixation has the advantages of relatively mild injury, reliable fixation,good recovery, and rare complications in the treatment of intraarticular fractures.

  14. Potential for nitrogen fixation in fungus-growing termite symbioses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis Sapountzis

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Termites host a gut microbiota of diverse and essential symbionts that enable specialization on dead plant material; an abundant, but nutritionally imbalanced food source. To supplement the severe shortage of dietary nitrogen (N, some termite species make use of diazotrophic bacteria to fix atmospheric nitrogen (N2. Fungus-growing termites (subfamily Macrotermitinae host a fungal exosymbiont (genus Termitomyces that provides digestive services and the main food source for the termites. This has been thought to obviate the need for N2-fixation by bacterial symbionts. Here we challenge this notion by performing acetylene reduction assays of live colony material to show that N2 fixation is present in two major genera (Macrotermes and Odontotermes of fungus-growing termites. We compare and discuss fixation rates in relation to those obtained from other termites, and suggest avenues of research that may lead to a better understanding of N2 fixation in fungus-growing and other termites.

  15. Efficacy of three methods of internal fixation on femoralneck fracture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫洪印; 陈扬; 肖建德; 李振宇; 龚敏; 马若凡; 刘尚礼

    2002-01-01

    @@ From 1990 to 2000, we used Hansson pin, AOhollow-pulling screw, and bendable screw to treat150 cases of fresh femoral neck fracture and theresult was analysed to compare the efficacy of the threemethods of internal fixation.

  16. Compression capability of cerclage fixation systems. A biomechanical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, J A; Daubert, H B

    1988-08-01

    Cerclage wire or tension band techniques are frequently complicated by broken wires or inadequate bony stabilization. The fixation capabilities of various cerclage systems were defined in this study by measuring the maximum compression forces generated by the different methods as well as their ultimate strengths. Parham bands and swage-lock titanium cables were found to exhibit the greatest fixation potential and highest ultimate strengths. Cerclage fixation using stainless steel wire was found to be enhanced by using a modified square knot. Mersilene tape was found to have fixation capabilities of similar magnitude to 20 guage stainless wire secured with a twist knot. The polypropylene and nylon cable ties tested showed no advantage when compared to the other systems.

  17. Biomechanical analysis of titanium fixation plates and screws in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key words: Bone plates, bone screws, finite element analysis, jaw fixation techniques, mandible, mandibular .... model is built up, in similar way to building block construction, .... shows advantages, such as granting intraoral route, minimal.

  18. Application of Op-amp Fixators in Analog Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rohith Krishnan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Nullor elements have applications not only in analog behaviour modeling but also in analog circuit design and analysis. Fixator- orator pair, the emerging tool in analog design is a combination of a nullor and sources. A method for the realization of fixator- orator pair is discussed in this paper. Application of fixator-norator pair into a circuit makes it possible to perform the AC and DC designs in a linear like way. Fixator fixes a critical biasing spec at the design, whereas the pairing norator finds the value of power conducting components or DC sources that meets the design. A scaling amplifier design, an active load design and a CMOS differential amplifier design are provided as examples to demonstrate the procedure and the methodology.

  19. Outcome of complex tibial plateau fractures treated with external fixator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushil H Mankar

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: We believe that minimally invasive treatment by percutaneous techniques and external fixation is a fairly reasonable treatment alternative, if near anatomical reduction of joint surface can be confirmed on fluoroscopy.

  20. Condylar resorption in orthognathic surgery. The role of intermaxillary fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwman, J P; Kerstens, H C; Tuinzing, D B

    1994-08-01

    Condylar resorption that occurs after orthognathic surgery was investigated in a large sample of patients treated in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery of the Free University in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. The findings correspond with previous publications on this subject. In a 1-year follow-up study the role of intermaxillary fixation was investigated radiologically. In a group of 158 patients prone to show occurrence of condylar resorption, 24 (26.4%) of the 91 patients treated with intermaxillary fixation showed signs of condylar resorption. In the group of 67 patients treated without intermaxillary fixation only eight (11.9%) of the patients showed signs of reduced volume of the condyle. Avoidance of intermaxillary fixation seems to reduce the incidence of condylar resorption after orthognathic surgery in patients with a mandibular deficiency with high mandibular plane angle.

  1. Effects of size, fixation location, and inversion on face identification

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sekuler, Allison; Pachai, Matthew; Hashemi, Ali; Bennett, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    One possible explanation for the face inversion effect (FIE) is that inversion swaps the eye and mouth locations relative to fixation, and attention typically is directed to the top of a stimulus for faces...

  2. Percutaneous K-wire fixation in paediatric Supracondylar fractures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Percutaneous K-wire fixation in paediatric Supracondylar fractures of humerus: A retrospective study. ... Nigerian Medical Journal ... conducted in the Department of Orthopaedic surgery in M. M. Medical College from July 2005 to July 2010.

  3. Effect of Phosphorus Fertilizer on Nitrogen Fixation by Some Grain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acer

    ABSTRACT: Nitrogen fixation by grain legumes contributes N to tropical soils. But in Sudano –. Sahelian .... at 650C, weighed and analyzed for the N concentrations (Marr ... The increase of whole plant growth and plant nitrogen concentration ...

  4. Lateral atlantoaxial joint arthrography in atlantoaxial rotatory fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosono, Noboru; Yonenobu, Kazuo; Tada, Koichi; Yoshikawa, Hideki

    2003-04-01

    There has been much debate about the pathogenesis of atlantoaxial rotatory fixation. Intraarticular abnormality has not been well documented thus far. This is the first case of chronic atlantoaxial rotatory fixation in which atlantoaxial joints were examined by consecutive arthrography. A 7-year-old girl was diagnosed with atlantoaxial rotatory fixation on a three-dimensional CT scan. Arthrography of the lateral atlantoaxial joints indicated a rupture of the joint capsule on the dislocated side at first, followed by a successful repair after 5 weeks' immobilization with a halo apparatus. Because torticollis recurred after taking off the halo vest, we performed surgery in which severe adhesion of the cartilage surface of facet joint was noted on the undislocated side and release of the adhesion was needed to mobilize the atlas. Atlantoaxial arthrodesis by screw fixation facilitated a solid fusion of the segment.

  5. VAC® for external fixation of flail chest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rikke Winge

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A large anterior chest wall defect following tumor resection was reconstructed with a Gore- Tex® membrane and a combined musculocutaneous rectus femoris and tensor fasciae latae free flap. Subsequent paradoxical respiration impeded weaning from the ventilator. Appliance of Vacuum Assisted Closure® (VAC® resulted in immediate chest wall stability and a decrease in the patient’s need for respiratory support. Shortly thereafter, the VAC® was discontinued and the patient was discharged from the intensive care unit (ICU. This case report is the first to describe the successful use of VAC® as an adjuvant to a one-stage procedure for large thoracic wall reconstruction, allowing sufficient temporary external fixation to eliminate paradoxical respiration and plausibly shorten the stay in the ICU. No adverse effects on flap healing or haemodynamics were recorded. It is likely that external VAC® can improve thoracic stability and pulmonary function in a patient with flail chest and decrease the need for mechanical ventilation.

  6. Experimental fixation of femoral osteotomies by cerclage with nylon straps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhinelander, F W; Stewart, C L

    1983-10-01

    Following the successful experience of Partridge in the fixation of human femoral fractures by nylon-strap cerclage, this research in 23 mature dogs was performed to compare nylon-strap with wire-loop cerclage for healing periods of up to 12 weeks. Supplemented by intramedullary fixation with Steinmann pins, long oblique femoral osteotomies were fixed in one femur of each dog by nylon straps and in the other femur by wire loops, at separate operations. The nylon straps were all secured at the same tension by a special "gun." The wire loops were all secured at the same tension by the Rhinelander tightener-twister. Half of the nylon straps had "bumps" along the inner surface, which were added by Partridge in an effort to circumvent the microvascular disturbance reported with Parham bands. On examination by microangiography and correlated histology, all of the osteotomies, regardless of the type of fixation, showed good progress toward osseous union. After fixation by wire cerclage no loss of position or disturbance of blood supply was noted. After fixation by nylon straps slight (clinically insignificant) longitudinal displacement, attributed to slight lengthening of the straps, with consequent loosening was noted in all cases. This loosening was considered advantageous because it appeared to be responsible for the unexpected lack of impairment of the vascularization of the underlying cortical bone by any of the straps. The bumps on the undersurface of some of the straps were, thus, of no vascular advantage, and their presence made accurate fixation of the ostectomy fragments more difficult on the small bones. These studies support the value of fixation by plain nylon straps and show their advantage over straps with bumps for fixation of long oblique single osteotomies of bones the size of the canine femur.

  7. Biomechanical Study of Acetabular Tridimensional Memoryalloy Fixation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin-Wei; Xu, Shuo-Gui; Zhang, Yun-Tong; Zhang, Chun-Cai

    2011-07-01

    We developed the acetabular tridimensional memoryalloy fixation system (ATMFS), which is made of NiTi shape memory alloy, according to the specific mechanical properties of biological memory material, NiTi shape memory alloy and measured distribution of contact area and pressure between the acetabulum and the femoral head of cadaveric pelvis. Seven formalin-preserved cadaveric pelves were used for this investigation. Pressure-sensitive film was used to measure contact area and pressure within the anterior, superior, and posterior regions of the acetabulum. The pelves were loaded under the following four conditions: (1) intact; (2) following a creation posterior wall fracture defect; (3) following reduction and standard internal fixation with reconstruction plate; and (4) following reduction and internal fixation with a new shape memory alloy device named ATMFS. A posterior wall fracture was created along an arc of 40° to 90° about the acetabulur rim. Creation of a posterior wall defect resulted in increased load in the superior acetabulum (1485 N) as compared to the intact condition (748 N, P = 0.009). Following reduction and internal fixation, the load distributed to the superior acetabulum (1545 N) was not statistically different from the defect condition. Following the fixation with ATMFS, the load seen at the superior region of the actabulum (964 N) was familiar with fixation with reconstruction plate and was not different from intact state ( P = 0.45). These data indicate that the use of ATMFS as a fracture internal fixation device resulted a partial restoration of joint loading parameters toward the intact state. ATMFS fixation may result in a clinical benefit.

  8. Outcomes of Internal Fixation in a Combat Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    postoperative infection, had missed injuries. One was a closed bimalleolar ankle fracture that had the fibula fracture and syndesmosis inter- nally fixed...is to describe the outcomes of fractures that were internally fixed in the combat environment. The records of patients who had internal fixation...analyzed. Forty-seven patients had internal fixation performed on 50 fractures in a combat theater hospital. Hip, forearm, and ankle fractures made up the

  9. Postinflammatory ossicular fixation: CT analysis with surgical correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swartz, J.D.; Wolfson, R.J.; Marlowe, F.I.; Popky, G.L.

    1985-03-01

    Postinflammatory ossicular fixation is a common problem encountered by the otologic surgeon upon exploration because of conductive hearing loss in patients with chronic otitis media. These nonotosclerotic noncongenital lesions take three pathologic forms: fibrous tissue fixation (chronic adhesive otitis media), hyalinization of collagen (tympanosclerosis), and new bone formation (fibro-osseous sclerosis). More than 300 patients with the clinical diagnosis of chronic otitis media have been examined. This study encompasses 23 proved cases.

  10. Outcome Analysis of Locking Plate Fixation in Proximal Humerus Fracture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Abhishek; Gaur, Sanjiv

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Proximal humerus fractures account for approximately 5% of all fractures. Stable minimally displaced fractures can be treated nonoperatively but the management of displaced fractures remain controversial with various modalities of treatment available. Locking plates provide stable fixation and enable early postoperative mobilization specially in osteoporotic proximal humerus fracture. Aim To evaluate the functional outcome of locking plate fixation and to compare the results of two approaches used for fixation. Materials and Methods This prospective study was conducted at a tertiary level hospital between September 2011 to December 2013. PHILOS plates were used for internal fixation of displaced proximal humerus fractures Neer’s type 2 part, 3 part and 4 part fractures on 26 patients (M/F ratio 1.36:1; mean age 46 years). According to Neer classification, 5,12 and 9 patients had displaced 2, 3 and 4 part fractures respectively. Deltopectoral and deltoid splitting approaches were used for fixation on 13 patients each. Functional outcome was assessed using Constant-Murley shoulder score. Graphpad software version 6.0 was used with Chi-square test and Fisher-exact test are used to compare data. The p-value .05) and all fractures were united. Conclusion Our study demonstrates that locking plate fixation gives good functional outcomes in treatment of proximal humerus fractures. There was no significant difference in the two approaches used for exposure. Our results are comparable to various studies conducted by other authors which states that locking plates provide better functional and radiological outcomes as compared to other fixation methods like Tension band wiring, percutaneous K-wire fixation, non-locking plates, intramedullary nails. PMID:27656515

  11. Minimal Invasive Percutaneous Fixation of Thoracic and Lumbar Spine Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico De Iure

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied 122 patients with 163 fractures of the thoracic and lumbar spine undergoing the surgical treatment by percutaneous transpedicular fixation and stabilization with minimally invasive technique. Patient followup ranged from 6 to 72 months (mean 38 months, and the patients were assessed by clinical and radiographic evaluation. The results show that percutaneous transpedicular fixation and stabilization with minimally invasive technique is an adequate and satisfactory procedure to be used in specific type of the thoracolumbar and lumbar spine fractures.

  12. Biomechanical evaluation of maxillary Lefort Ι fracture with bioabsorbable osteosynthesis internal fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Zhou, Jiang; Xu, Chong-Tao; Zhang, Jie; Jin, Yan-Jiao; Sun, Geng-Lin

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to apply biomechanical analysis model to evaluate the effects of bioabsorbable internal fixation devices on maxillary Lefort Ι fracture. CT scan technology and the finite element software (ansys) were used to establish three-dimensional finite element models of five resorbable internal fixation devices in maxillary Lefort Ι fractures. We used the model to calculate the stress of the upper jaw and internal fixation. We further analyzed the stability of fixation under four occlusions. The fixation using two bioabsorbable plates was not stable. The zygomaticomaxillary pillars fixation is more stable than other fixations. The stability of fracture fixation was influenced with the molar occlusion. The current study developed a functional three-dimensional finite element model of bioabsorbable internal fixation and compared the stability of five fixation methods for maxillary Lefort Ι fractures. The results would facilitate the application of bioabsorbable materials in dental clinic.

  13. Automatisation partielle du traitement de la littérature grise dans le service d'information scientifique du CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Deroche, C

    1998-01-01

    L'automatisation partielle du traitement de la litterature grise est un projet ineluctable dans un service d'information scientifique aussi important que celui du CERN. Ce rapport presente l'automatis ation du rapport annuel par la detection et l'importation automatique d'informations de publication pour les articles ecrits par les physiciens travaillant au CERN et par d'autres utilisant les outils du CERN. La recherche de ces articles est effectuee dans la base de donnees scientifiques INSPEC.

  14. Learning to Predict Sequences of Human Visual Fixations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ming; Boix, Xavier; Roig, Gemma; Xu, Juan; Van Gool, Luc; Zhao, Qi

    2016-06-01

    Most state-of-the-art visual attention models estimate the probability distribution of fixating the eyes in a location of the image, the so-called saliency maps. Yet, these models do not predict the temporal sequence of eye fixations, which may be valuable for better predicting the human eye fixations, as well as for understanding the role of the different cues during visual exploration. In this paper, we present a method for predicting the sequence of human eye fixations, which is learned from the recorded human eye-tracking data. We use least-squares policy iteration (LSPI) to learn a visual exploration policy that mimics the recorded eye-fixation examples. The model uses a different set of parameters for the different stages of visual exploration that capture the importance of the cues during the scanpath. In a series of experiments, we demonstrate the effectiveness of using LSPI for combining multiple cues at different stages of the scanpath. The learned parameters suggest that the low-level and high-level cues (semantics) are similarly important at the first eye fixation of the scanpath, and the contribution of high-level cues keeps increasing during the visual exploration. Results show that our approach obtains the state-of-the-art performances on two challenging data sets: 1) OSIE data set and 2) MIT data set.

  15. Internal fixation at ECWA Hospital, Egbe, Kogi State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agaja, S B

    2002-01-01

    Forty two (42) cases of fractures treated by internal fixation at Egbe Hospital ECWA, Kogi State, Nigeria were analysed retrospectively. Most of the patients requiring internal fixation were young male patients in their reproductive years 26 patients were under 50 years of age out of which 22 patients were males (84.6%) whilst only 4 patients (15.4%) were females. Internal fixation was found to be commoner in males: 31 patients (73.8%) than in females: 11 patients (26.2%). Fractures requiring internal fixation are commoner in the lower limbs than in the upper limbs (Ratio 6:1). The femur is the commonest site of internal fixation, 22 cases (54.2%) followed by the tibia, 6 cases (14.3%). Majority of the patients, 28 cases (67%) left the hospital under 50 days whereas when treated conservatively most will be in the hospital for up to 100 days. Only about 60% of the cases require blood transfusion and even a more cautious approach could reduce this percentage. 13 (31%) of the cases had fever post-operatively which was not necessarily due to infection. Based on its advantages, internal fixation is therefore encouraged and should only be performed by a surgeon who has adequate experience, equipment, instruments and a good operating theatre setting.

  16. Operative Cost Comparison: Plating Versus Intramedullary Fixation for Clavicle Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanselman, Andrew E; Murphy, Timothy R; Bal, George K; McDonough, E Barry

    2016-09-01

    Although clavicle fractures often heal well with nonoperative management, current literature has shown improved outcomes with operative intervention for specific fracture patterns in specific patient types. The 2 most common methods of midshaft clavicle fracture fixation are intramedullary and plate devices. Through retrospective analysis, this study performed a direct cost comparison of these 2 types of fixation at a single institution over a 5-year period. Outcome measures included operative costs for initial surgery and any hardware removal surgeries. This study reviewed 154 patients (157 fractures), and of these, 99 had intramedullary fixation and 58 had plate fixation. A total of 80% (79 of 99) of intramedullary devices and 3% (2 of 58) of plates were removed. Average cost for initial intramedullary placement was $2955 (US dollars) less than that for initial plate placement (Pcost for removal was $1874 less than that for plate removal surgery (P=.2). Average total cost for all intramedullary surgeries was $1392 less than the average cost for all plating surgeries (Pcost for all intramedullary surgeries requiring plate placement and removal was $653 less than the average cost for all plating surgeries that involved only placement (P=.04). Intramedullary fixation of clavicle fractures resulted in a statistically significant cost reduction compared with plate fixation, despite the incidence of more frequent removal surgeries. [Orthopedics.2016; 39(5):e877-e882.].

  17. Molybdenum limitation of asymbiotic nitrogen fixation in tropical forest soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, Alexander R.; Wurzburger, Nina; Bellenger, Jean Phillipe; Wright, S. Joseph; Kraepiel, Anne M. L.; Hedin, Lars O.

    2009-01-01

    Nitrogen fixation, the biological conversion of di-nitrogen to plant-available ammonium, is the primary natural input of nitrogen to ecosystems, and influences plant growth and carbon exchange at local to global scales. The role of this process in tropical forests is of particular concern, as these ecosystems harbour abundant nitrogen-fixing organisms and represent one third of terrestrial primary production. Here we show that the micronutrient molybdenum, a cofactor in the nitrogen-fixing enzyme nitrogenase, limits nitrogen fixation by free-living heterotrophic bacteria in soils of lowland Panamanian forests. We measured the fixation response to long-term nutrient manipulations in intact forests, and to short-term manipulations in soil microcosms. Nitrogen fixation increased sharply in treatments of molybdenum alone, in micronutrient treatments that included molybdenum by design and in treatments with commercial phosphorus fertilizer, in which molybdenum was a `hidden' contaminant. Fixation did not respond to additions of phosphorus that were not contaminated by molybdenum. Our findings show that molybdenum alone can limit asymbiotic nitrogen fixation in tropical forests and raise new questions about the role of molybdenum and phosphorus in the tropical nitrogen cycle. We suggest that molybdenum limitation may be common in highly weathered acidic soils, and may constrain the ability of some forests to acquire new nitrogen in response to CO2 fertilization.

  18. Analyse quantitative du réseau hydrographique du bassin versant du Slănic (Roumanie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florina Grecu

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available L'étude porte sur le bassin versant du Slănic, un affluent du Buzău. Ce bassin de taille relativement réduite (433 km2 est situé dans la région des Carpates et des Subcarpates de la Courbure, région très active sur le plan sismique. Du point de vue lithologique, le bassin du Slănic correspond à des flyschs paléogènes et à des molasses mio-pliocènes. Ces roches peu résistantes ont facilité une forte érosion du relief. Actuellement, les précipitations présentent souvent une forte intensité, et elles se produisent fréquemment après des périodes de sécheresse. Elles sont ainsi très agressives et déclenchent une érosion intense. L'analyse de quelques paramètres morphométriques [grand nombre de segments de cours d'eau d'ordres 1 (5230 et 2 (944 ; densité élevée des segments par rapport à la superficie du bassin (environ 15 segments / km2 ; longueur moyenne réduite des segments d'ordre 1 (260 m par rapport à ceux d'ordre 2 (530 m] s'accorde avec des temps de concentration des eaux courts et une forte énergie des écoulements. La vitesse de réaction aux précipitations des segments d'ordres inférieurs est en outre favorisée par la répartition spatiale des pluies et par les conditions lithologiques.The study is focused on the Slănic basin which has a small size (433 km2. The hydrographical basin of Slănic, situated in the Carpathian and Subcarpathian Curvature, a very active from neotectonical viewpoint area, is a part of the Buzău basin. From a petrographic point of view, the Slănic hydrographic basin belongs to the paleogen flysch deposits (within the Carpathian sector and to the mio-pliocen molasse (within the Subcarpathian area latter formed by predominantely friable rocks which have encouraged deep fragmentation of the relief. Actual rainfalls are often very intensive, and they frequently occur after dry seasons. The analysis of morphometric parameters shows many elementary segments of first

  19. Comparisons of external fixator combined with limited internal fixation and open reduction and internal fixation for Sanders type 2 calcaneal fractures: Finite element analysis and clinical outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, M; Chai, L; Xue, F; Ding, L; Tang, G; Lv, B

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the biomechanical stability and clinical outcome of external fixator combined with limited internal fixation (EFLIF) and open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) in treating Sanders type 2 calcaneal fractures. Two types of fixation systems were selected for finite element analysis and a dual cohort study. Two fixation systems were simulated to fix the fracture in a finite element model. The relative displacement and stress distribution were analysed and compared. A total of 71 consecutive patients with closed Sanders type 2 calcaneal fractures were enrolled and divided into two groups according to the treatment to which they chose: the EFLIF group and the ORIF group. The radiological and clinical outcomes were evaluated and compared. The relative displacement of the EFLIF was less than that of the plate (0.1363 mm to 0.1808 mm). The highest von Mises stress value on the plate was 33% higher than that on the EFLIF. A normal restoration of the Böhler angle was achieved in both groups. No significant difference was found in the clinical outcome on the American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society Ankle Hindfoot Scale, or on the Visual Analogue Scale between the two groups (p > 0.05). Wound complications were more common in those who were treated with ORIF (p = 0.028). Both EFLIF and ORIF systems were tested to 160 N without failure, showing the new construct to be mechanically safe to use. Both EFLIF and ORIF could be effective in treating Sanders type 2 calcaneal fractures. The EFLIF may be superior to ORIF in achieving biomechanical stability and less blood loss, shorter surgical time and hospital stay, and fewer wound complications.Cite this article: M. Pan, L. Chai, F. Xue, L. Ding, G. Tang, B. Lv. Comparisons of external fixator combined with limited internal fixation and open reduction and internal fixation for Sanders type 2 calcaneal fractures: Finite element analysis and clinical outcome. Bone Joint Res 2017

  20. Progrès de la connaissance du Congo, du Rwanda et du Burundi de 1993 à 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henri Nicolaï

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Cette chronique, la vingt et unième d’une série qui a commencé avec l’année 1949, couvre la période 1993-2008 et a pour objectif de faire le point sur les progrès réalisés sur la connaissance du Congo (République démocratique du Congo, du Rwanda et du Burundi, dans le domaine de la géographie mais aussi dans les domaines des sciences naturelles et des sciences humaines qui peuvent fournir des données utiles ou indispensables aux géographes. Chaque référence bibliographique, livre ou article, est accompagnée d’un bref commentaire qui en retient les éléments principaux et surtout les faits ou les idées qui intéressent particulièrement les géographes. L’article comporte onze chapitres dont les plus importants concernent le milieu naturel, la géographie de la santé, la démographie, l’histoire (y compris l’histoire récente, la vie sociale et économique des campagnes traditionnelles et modernes, le secteur informel, les aspects de la vie urbaine. Les événements dramatiques qui se sont produits dans ces territoires africains au cours des quinze dernières années ont rendu la recherche sur le terrain particulièrement difficile tant pour les chercheurs nationaux que pour les chercheurs étrangers, ce qui se traduit notamment par une part de plus en plus importante des recherches menées en milieu urbain.This paper, the 21st issue of an edition of books and paper reviews on the knowledge of three countries of former Belgian Africa (DR Congo, Rwanda, and Burundi, covers the period 1993-2008. A short text for each reference points out the facts or ideas that are useful for geographers. The paper is composed of eleven sections. The most important are coping with the natural environment, health geography, population geography, history (including recent events, social and economic life in traditional and modern rural areas, informal economy, and urban geography. During the last sixteen years, conditions for field

  1. Fixating on metals: New insights into the role of metals in nodulation and symbiotic nitrogen fixation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel eGonzález-Guerrero

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Symbiotic nitrogen fixation is one of the most promising and immediate alternatives to the overuse of polluting nitrogen fertilizers for improving plant nutrition. At the core of this process are a number of metalloproteins that catalyze and provide energy for the conversion of atmospheric nitrogen to ammonia, eliminate free radicals produced by this process, and create the microaerobic conditions required by these reactions. In legumes, metal cofactors are provided to endosymbiotic rhizobia within root nodule cortical cells. However, low metal bioavailability is prevalent in most soils types, resulting in widespread plant metal deficiency and decreased nitrogen fixation capabilities. As a result, renewed efforts have been undertaken to identify the mechanisms governing metal delivery from soil to the rhizobia, and to determine how metals are used in the nodule and how they are recycled once the nodule is no longer functional. This effort is being aided by improved legume molecular biology tools (genome projects, mutant collections, and transformation methods, in addition to state-of-the-art metal visualization systems.

  2. Évaluation de l'effet du stress hydrique et du porte- greffe sur la ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    30 nov. 2013 ... orchards are often in water shortage situations in the most of the ..... significative de la hauteur finale et du diamètre au point ..... quantifying resistance to drought, salt and freezing, abiotic stresses that affect plant water status.

  3. Perception locale de l'évolution du milieu à Oula au Nord du Burkina ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Laboratoire Dynamiques des Espaces et Sociétés (LDES)/Université Ouaga I ... variabilités climatiques ainsi que la perception des impacts sur la production agricole. ... The purpose of this study in the Northern Region of Burkina Faso is to ... (2008), l'impact du changement climatique ... Partant de la position géographique.

  4. LE MARCHE MONDIAL DU VIN ET LES NOUVELLES ORIENTATIONS DU MARKETING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Epuran Gheorghe

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Le marché mondial du vin est caractérisé par un développement sans précédent en ce qui concerne la production, mais aussi l’aire géographique qu’il comprend. La surproduction qui a tendance ŕ dégénérer en une crise est due premičrement ŕ l’apparition de nouveaux acteurs sur ce marché, c’est-ŕ-dire les pays du nouveau monde du vin: les Etats-Unis, le Chili, l’Afrique de Sud, l’Australie. Dans ce contexte, les grands producteurs traditionnels de l’Europe sont soumis ŕ une forte pression concurrentielle aussi bien sur leurs marchés qu’ŕ l’extérieur. Męme si en matičre d’image et de notoriété les vins de ces pays sont restés encore trčs connus, les pays du nouveau monde des vins ont réussi, par un marketing «ŕ l’américain», ŕ pénétrer en force sur plusieurs marchés, inclusivement sur les pays qui étaient pas traditionnellement consommateurs de vins (la Russie, la Chine, etc..

  5. Un Genevois coopte a la tete du Front islamique du salut

    CERN Document Server

    Merckling, N

    2002-01-01

    "Le Front islamique du salut (FIS), a nomme a la tete de ce parti fondamentaliste un resident genevois, Mourad Dhani, chois parmi trois candidats. Ce physicien algerien est arrive a Geneve il y a 14 ans pour travailler au CERN (1 page).

  6. La reconstruction du sourcil par greffon composite du cuir chevelu: une astuce pour faciliter la technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Omari, Mounia; El Mazouz, Samir; Gharib, Noureddine; EL Abbassi, Abdallah

    2015-01-01

    Les sourcils jouent un rôle important dans l’équilibre esthétique du visage. Leur reconstruction ou ophriopoïése, après séquelle de brûlure fait partie intégrante du programme de réhabilitation de la face brûlée. Plusieurs techniques ont été décrites. Nous insistons ici sur l'intérêt d'une technique simple, à la portée de tous les chirurgiens, et dont la méthode et les résultats peuvent être améliorés par un dessin bien planifié des zones donneuse et receveuse: la greffe composite prélevée au niveau du cuir chevelu dessinée à l'aide d'un calque du sourcil controlatéral. PMID:26401195

  7. ETUDE DU COMPORTEMENT MECANIQUE DU BETON CELLULAIRE AUTOCLAVE PRODUIT EN ALGERIE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R BELOUETTAR

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Ce travail présente une étude expérimentale du comportement mécanique du béton cellulaire autoclavé. L’étude est portée essentiellement sur une série d’essais mécaniques en compression quasistatique à différentes vitesses de déformation variables entre 10-4 s-1 et 10 s-1 et à deux états différents (état sec et état saturé d’eau. En général, l’augmentation de la vitesse de déformation donne une augmentation de la contrainte critique du béton cellulaire autoclavé. Le béton cellulaire autoclavé présente une sensibilité à la vitesse de déformation positive. La valeur du module d’élasticité est proche de la valeur standard (1.5 GPa pour un béton cellulaire autoclavé de masse volumique égale à 500-550 kg/m3.

  8. The importance of regulation of nitrogen fixation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menge, D. N.

    2012-12-01

    I am not a proponent of including more detail in models simply because it makes them more realistic. More complexity increases the difficulty of model interpretation, so it only makes sense to include complexity if its benefit exceeds its costs. Biological nitrogen (N) fixation (BNF) is one process for which I feel the benefits of including greater complexity far outweigh the costs. I don't think that just because I work on BNF; I work on BNF because I think that. BNF, a microbial process carried out by free-living and symbiotic microbes, is the dominant N input to many ecosystems, the primary mechanism by which N deficiency can feed back to N inputs, and a main mechanism by which N surplus can develop. The dynamics of BNF, therefore, have huge implications for the rate of carbon uptake and the extent of CO2 fertilization, as well as N export to waterways and N2O emissions to the atmosphere. Unfortunately, there are serious deficiencies in our understanding of BNF. One main deficiency in our understanding is the extent to which various symbiotic N fixing organisms respond to imbalanced nutrition. Theory suggests that these responses, which I will call "strategies," have fundamental consequences for N fixer niches and ecosystem-level N and C cycling. Organisms that fix N regardless of whether they need it, a strategy that I will call "obligate," occupy post-disturbance niches and rapidly lead to N surplus. On the contrary, organisms that only fix as much N as they need, a "facultative" strategy, can occupy a wider range of successional niches, do not produce surplus N, and respond more rapidly to increased atmospheric CO2. In this talk I will show new results showing that consideration of these strategies could on its own explain the latitudinal distribution of symbiotic N fixing trees in North America. Specifically, the transition in N-fixing tree abundance from ~10% of basal area south of 35° latitude to ~1% of basal area north of 35° latitude that we observe

  9. Nitrogen fixation on early Mars and other terrestrial planets: experimental demonstration of abiotic fixation reactions to nitrite and nitrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, David P; Khare, Bishun

    2007-04-01

    Understanding the abiotic fixation of nitrogen is critical to understanding planetary evolution and the potential origin of life on terrestrial planets. Nitrogen, an essential biochemical element, is certainly necessary for life as we know it to arise. The loss of atmospheric nitrogen can result in an incapacity to sustain liquid water and impact planetary habitability and hydrological processes that shape the surface. However, our current understanding of how such fixation may occur is almost entirely theoretical. This work experimentally examines the chemistry, in both gas and aqueous phases, that would occur from the formation of NO and CO by the shock heating of a model carbon dioxide/nitrogen atmosphere such as is currently thought to exist on early terrestrial planets. The results show that two pathways exist for the abiotic fixation of nitrogen from the atmosphere into the crust: one via HNO and another via NO(2). Fixation via HNO, which requires liquid water, could represent fixation on a planet with liquid water (and hence would also be a source of nitrogen for the origin of life). The pathway via NO(2) does not require liquid water and shows that fixation could occur even when liquid water has been lost from a planet's surface (for example, continuing to remove nitrogen through NO(2) reaction with ice, adsorbed water, etc.).

  10. External fixation in early treatment of unstable pelvic fractures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU San-bao; XU Hong; GUO Heng-bing; SUN Tong; WANG Chang-jun

    2012-01-01

    Background Patients with pelvic fractures are often treated in hospitals without the capacity to implement an open reduction internal fixation (ORIF).This often leads to pelvic malunion in patients with unstable pelvic fracture,shock or even death due to uncontrollable pelvic hemorrhage and unstable hemodynamics.This study explored the role of early external fixation (within 7 days) for patients with unstable pelvic fractures.Methods A retrospective analysis was conducted on 32 patients with unstable pelvic fractures treated with early external fixation from January 2005 to January 2010 (file type B:18 cases; C:14 cases).The study comprised 28 males and 4 females,with a mean age of (32±8) years (range,21-56 years).Of these patients,22 were treated with emergency pelvic external fixation and 10 were treated with external fixation within 1-7 days.Fifteen cases suffered traumatic hemorrhagic shock.A statistical analysis was conducted to compare fluid infusion and blood transfusion volumes within the first 24 hours of these shock patients with another cohort of patients treated without early external fixation from January 1993 to January 1998.Results The average follow-up was (34.7±14.6) months (range,6-66 months).Six to eight weeks after external fixation,patients could walk with crutches; by 12 weeks,external fixation was removed and all fractures had healed.Seven patients presented with sequelae,including 3 patients with long-term lumbosacral pain,3 patients with erectile dysfunction and 1 patient with Morel-Lavallee lesion and other complications.The 15 shock patients in this study (2005-2010 group) required significantly lower volumes of fluid infusion and blood transfusion (Pfluid=0.000;Ptransfusion=0.000) as compared to the 1993-1998 cohort.Conclusions The early application of external fixation in unstable pelvic fracture patients positively affects hemodynamic stability,with outstanding efficacy as a final fixation option for unstable pelvic fractures.

  11. Hydroxyapatite-enhanced tibial prosthetic fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toksvig-Larsen, S; Jorn, L P; Ryd, L; Lindstrand, A

    2000-01-01

    Sixty-two knees (60 patients) were randomized to four noncemented groups. In Groups 1, 3, and 4, the bone cuts were made with a cooled saw blade. In Group 1, 15 patients were operated on with the porous coated Osteonic 7000 tibial component. In Group 2, 15 patients were operated on with the same tibial component as in Group 1 but with the use of a standard saw blade. In Group 3, 16 patients were operated on with the hydroxyapatite-coated Osteonic tibial component, and in Group 4, 16 patients were operated on with the hydroxyapatite Duracon tibial component. All patients were followed up clinically and with roentgenstereometric analysis. There were no differences among the groups regarding clinical outcome. One knee was revised (Group 2) after 1 year because of loosening of the tibial component. The maximum migration at 1 year was 1.7 mm in Group 1, 1.9 mm in Group 2, 1.3 mm in Group 3, and 1 mm in Group 4. At the 2-year followup, the migrations were 1.8 mm, 1.5 mm, 1.4 mm, and 1 mm in Groups 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. The inducible displacement that occurred at 1 year was 0.6 mm in Group 1, 0.5 mm in Group 2, 0.4 mm in Group 3, and 0.4 mm in Group 4. The hydroxyapatite coating had a strong positive effect on the tibial component fixation. No prosthesis in the hydroxyapatite groups showed continuous migration.

  12. [A special instrument: the halo fixator].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmolke, Stephan; Gossé, Frank

    2008-03-01

    Installation of an external fixator in combination with a body cast for temporary or definitive immobilization and retention of unstable fractures of the craniocervical junction and upper part of the cervical spine. Further established applications include presurgical extension treatment of paralytic scoliosis and temporary retention within complex spine deformity operations after ventral release or mobilized osteotomies. Closed reposition and temporary retention of unstable injuries of the cervical spine up to operation. Extension treatment for careful reposition of fresh or dated malpositions of the cervical spine. Conservative treatment of injuries of the craniocervical junction and the upper part of the cervical spine. Presurgical extension of paralytic scoliosis. Temporary extension after ventral release. Cranial fractures and intracranial injuries. Soft-tissue infections of the skull. Children traction is applied in two stages; first, the head ring is attached to the skull, then, the body cast and suspension assembly are added. Local anesthesia, depending on circumstances. Sizing of the components; the optimal size of the ring is about 1.5" larger than the circumference of the patient's head. Patient in sitting or supine position. The halo ring is held in proper position by stabilizer plates; the lower margin of the ring should be just above the ears and about 0.4" above the eyebrows. The anterior pins are placed in shallow groove on the forehead between supraorbital ridges and frontal protuberances. Threaded skull pins are screwed with defined torque (4-8"/pounds) in the lamina externa of the cranial calotte without perforating the lamina interna. To avoid side-to-side drifting, the diagonally opposite pins should be tightened simultaneously. Finally, connection of the halo ring with a body cast or putting on an extension device. Secure external stabilization of unstable injuries of upper cervical spine. Improvement of correction results of patients with

  13. La préparation et le passage du recensement du Soudan 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Denis

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Les opérations de comptage du 5e recensement de la population du Soudan viennent de s'achever. Elles se devaient d'aller à la rencontre des quelques 38 millions d'habitants du plus étendu des pays d'Afrique avec un questionnaire unique. Elles étaient conduites par deux institutions statistiques, l'une au Nord et l'autre au Sud. Le principe du recensement  a été scellé dans les accords de paix qui ont mis fin à la guerre civile entre le Sud et le Nord Soudan en 2005. Les résultats sont extrêmement attendus puisqu'ils doivent servir de base pour déterminer le partage des revenus pétroliers, préparer les élections législatives de 2009 et le référendum d'auto-détermination du Sud en 2011. Autant d'enjeux, les multiples conflits identitaires et pour l'accès, le contrôle et la redistribution des ressources à toutes les échelles et sur toutes les marges du Soudan font du recensement un catalyseur et finalement un révélateur des limites tragiques de la gouvernance ethnocratique.The Fith population census enumeration operations have just been achieved. They have to meet the 38 millions inhabitants of the largest countries of Africa with a unique questionnaire shared by two statistical institutions, one in the North and a second for the South. The census is a milestone of the peace agreement of 2005 that put an end to the civil war between the Nord and the South. The census results are extremely waited as they will determine the petrol dividend sharing, the parlement election of 2009 and the independence referendum of 2011. So much stakes, identity and ressources access, control and redistribution conflicts at all scales and in every sudanese margin are pushing the census to catalyse and finally reveal the tragical limits of an ethnocratic governance.

  14. Developpement du systeme de gestion des ressources humaines ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dans l'optique du pilotage de la performance, une évaluation régulière du système ... Lacs Health District faced different issues in human resources management ... management, the policy and practice for the welfare of the human resources, ...

  15. Cyber Dhaba: un kiosque internet en Inde du Nord

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Il y a deux ans, l'association Orient Yourself installait un PC connecté sous un banyan sacré, dans un village agricole du Rajasthan (Inde du Nord). Claire Dixsaut dirige ELSE, elle est membre fondateur de l'association Orient Yourself.

  16. Role of Du Channel in Treating Senile Dementia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Fan

    2006-01-01

    @@ The author believes that senile dementia is very closely related to not only deficiency of the liver and kidney, but also Eight Extra Channels, Du Channel in particular. Nourishing the liver and kidney and clearing Du Channel in the treatment can greatly enhance the therapeutic effect.

  17. Du Yuzhou Art Exhibition Will Open in the United Nations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    From June 5th to 15th 2007,the headquarters of the United Nations will enjoy a show time of Du Yuzhou works,where works of photograph and painting will be exhibited. Mr.Yuzhou Du,President of the China National

  18. Fixation and transport of uranium by humic substances (1962); Fixation et transport de l'uranium par les substances humiques (1962)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1962-03-15

    One enter upon the study of the part taken by organic substances in ores that contain uranium in a disseminated form, without mineralization, being considered the reaction between uranium and humus. 'Humic acids' are extracted from the peat by ammonia. By the fact of their ability to cationic exchange, these are forming humates with metal cations; monovalent humates, normally soluble in water, can become insoluble after treatment of humic acids with methanal. The polyvalent humates are insoluble in water, especially humates of U (IV) and uranyl U (VI). Action of Li, Na, K, Mg, Ca uranyl carbonates solutions on the humic acids results in the formation of humates containing uranyl and the other cation. 100 g of humic acids give a fixation of no more than 38 g of uranium as uranyl. In contact with uraniferous weakly concentrated solutions, they fix 4 to 8 g according to pH, with a yield in the extraction greater than 95 per cent. The action of a sodium humate solution on a humate of uranyl give a solution containing a soluble sodium and uranyl humate. The solution is precipitated at various degrees by the polyvalent cations and insoluble humic substances. In all cases, the fixation of uranium with such prepared humic acids corresponds to a chemisorption of uranyl cations. (author) [French] L'etude du role des matieres organiques dans les minerais contenant de l'uranium sous une forme disseminee, sans mineralisation, est abordee en envisageant les reactions de l'uranium et de l'humus. Des 'acides humiques' sont extraits de la tourbe par l'ammoniaque. Par leur capacite d'echange cationique, ils forment des humates avec les cations metalliques; les humates de metaux monovalents, normalement solubles dans l'eau, peuvent etre rendus insolubles apres traitement des acides humiques par le methanal. Les humates de metaux plurivalents sont insolubles dans l'eau, en particulier ceux de U (IV) et d'uranyle U (VI

  19. Le devenir actif du corps affectif

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Séverac

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Le but de cet article est de saisir ce que signifie, pour le corps, être actif. À partir de la proposition 49 de la partie IV de l’Éthique, on propose de distinguer deux manières d’appréhender le corps – soit comme corps organique, soit comme corps affectif -, et l’on montre que la question éthique du devenir actif s’adresse à la dimension affective du corps. Il faut penser le devenir actif du corps affectif comme augmentation de son aptitude non seulement à affecter, mais aussi à être affecté. En effet, être affecté pour le corps n’est pas identique à pâtir : au contraire, plus est grande l’ouverture sensible d’un corps aux autres corps, plus est grande son activité éthique.The aim of this paper is to understand how the body can be active. With the proposition 49 of the fourth part of Ethics, two ways of conceiving of the body are distinguished : like an organic body or like an affective body. The ethics question of becoming active is about the affective body. This becoming active must be understood as increasing of the ability to affect, as well as to be affected. To be affected is different from to be passive. On the contrary, the more the body is able to be affected, the more he becomes active.

  20. Le pari du numérique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Françoise Durand

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En lançant ce premier numéro du Ceriscope, le Centre de recherches et d’études internationales (CERI et l’Atelier de cartographie de Sciences Po ont conscience de relever un défi. Engagés dans l’analyse scientifique des sociétés du monde, le CERI, en tant que centre de recherche, et l’Atelier de cartographie, en sa qualité de concepteurs de cartes, entendent faire accéder un grand nombre de lecteurs à leurs productions en utilisant la gratuité d’Internet. L’avantage d’une publication en ligne par rapport au livre papier ne se résume évidemment pas à la gratuité. Elle permet en effet un usage plus souple de la lecture en autorisant, grâce à l’indexation par mots clés, une recherche à l’intérieur des textes. Elle offre ensuite une rapidité de mise à jour des connaissances qui, compte tenu de l’évolution de l’économie et des sociétés, sont vite touchées par l’obsolescence. Les contributions mises en ligne seront ainsi actualisées et de nouvelles publications pourront les développer et les enrichir au fil du temps. La publication en ligne permet enfin les réactions des lecteurs qui deviennent ainsi des « acteurs » de la publication.

  1. Oncoplastie avec conservation mammaire dans le traitement du cancer du sein: à propos de 16 cas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzoubaa, Wail; Laadioui, Meryam; Jayi, Sofia; Alaoui, Fatime Zahra Fdili; Bouguern, Hakima; Chaara, Hikmat; Melhouf, Moulay Abdelilah

    2015-01-01

    Le cancer du sein est actuellement le cancer le plus fréquent chez la femme, et pose un véritable problème diagnostique et thérapeutique. Le dépistage des lésions à un stade de plus en plus précoce, a permis une extension des indications du traitement conservateur radiochirurgical, qui était initialement limitées aux tumeurs de moins de 3 cm, unifocales, non inflammatoires. Par ailleurs, l'utilisation de traitements préopératoires permet d’étendre les indications du traitement conservateur à des tumeurs plus volumineuses. Parallèlement à cette extension des indications de conservation mammaire, on a observé le développement de nouvelles approches thérapeutiques notamment la chirurgie oncoplastique, technique du ganglion sentinelle et chirurgie stéréotaxique, dont les résultats initiaux sont très encouragent. A travers cette étude réalisée dans le service de gynécologie et obstétrique II du CHU HASSAN II de FES au MAROC, après l'analyse rétrospective de 16 patientes traitées par traitement conservateur et oncoplastie, nous avons voulus montrer notre aptitude a réalisé ses techniques chirurgicales et a bien prendre en charge ces patientes, mais aussi évaluer ces techniques en termes de résultat carcinologique et de résultat esthétique, aussi en terme de survie globale, survie sans métastase et en termes de récidive locale entre les plasties mammaires et les traitements usuels: mastectomie et traitement conservateur classique. PMID:26430477

  2. Perception de la gestion du paysage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Coy

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Complex landscape management instruments based on a dynamic, innovative land-conservation paradigm and spatial zoning to provide for graded intensity of protection and human use are being implemented in the newer generation of biosphere reserves and biosphere parks. The multifunctionality of these exemplary landscapes with sustainable development is a great challenge; it also offers considerable potential for conflict. This paper intends to demonstrate the extent to which multifunctionality has been realised in the alpine Großes Walsertal Biosphere Park, and how the local population perceive the quality of their park five years after it was created. Landscape management efforts in the Großes Walsertal were monitored by accompanying regional-economic and perceptional studies, resulting in a discussion of required future actions.Des instruments complexes de gestion du paysage, fondés sur un paradigme dynamique et innovant de conservation ainsi que sur un zonage de l’espace visant à réguler la protection du territoire et son utilisation par l’homme, ont été mis en œuvre dans la dernière génération de réserves de biosphère et de parcs. La multifonctionnalité de ces paysages exemplaires du développement durable constitue un défi majeur, mais représente également une importante source de conflits. L’objectif de cet article est de démontrer dans quelle mesure la notion de multifonctionnalité a été appliquée à la réserve de biosphère alpine de Grosse Walsertal et d’évaluer comment la population locale perçoit la qualité de son parc, cinq ans après sa création. Les efforts de gestion du paysage dans la réserve de Grosse Walsertal ont été évalués par des études économiques régionales et par des enquêtes de perception, à l’origine d’un débat sur les actions futures à mettre en place.

  3. Modos de ver. Du Bois y Fanon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Mezzadra

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The sovereignty of glance and the primacy of sight represent the Western modern culture far beyond its artistic expression, organizing its philosophical and political conceptuality. They deeply influence the way in which subjects are conceived and constructed in Western modernity. This is the point of departure of the long-distance dialogue between W. E. B. Du Bois and Frantz Fanon staged in the article. Their political thought and militancy developed against the background of experiences – such as slavery and colonialism – characterized by process of construction of subjectivities which appear as “anomalous” with regard to the “standards” set by Modernity.

  4. QUELQUES RESULTATS SUR LA COMMANDE DU CHEMOSTAT

    OpenAIRE

    ROBLEDO VELOSO, GONZALO

    2006-01-01

    L'Introduction est essentiellement consacrée á dresser un aperçu de la modélisation de quelques processus biologiques dans le chemostat, á introduire les notions de base de la théorie de la comniande (commandabilité, stabilisation asymptotique, ensemble atteignable) et á montrer á quoi elles correspondent dans le cas spécifique du chemostat. Pour cela nous avons partagé l'introduction en deux parties: la premiére partie décrit le modéle de compétition dans le chemostat (section 1.1) ...

  5. Generic 'du' in time and context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Torben Juel

    2017-01-01

    speakers, and that variation also prevails within a micro-diachronic perspective (between conversations recorded within a few months, and even within the same conversation). The results emphasise that great caution should be exercised when taking the difference between two pieces of attested language use......This article considers the way individual speakers respond to a macro-level process of language change: an increased use of the second-person pronoun du for generic reference. Real time panel studies show that life span change is much more common than is often assumed, particularly among adult...

  6. Environmental behaviour and bioavailability of Depleted Uranium (DU) material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oeh, U.; Gerstmann, U.; Schimmack, W.; Szymczak, W.; Li, W.B.; Hoellriegl, V.; Roth, P.; Paretzke, H.G. [GSF - National Research Center for Environment and Health, Inst. of Radiation Protection, Neuherberg (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    This work was performed to assess a possible health risk of depleted uranium (DU) for residents and KFOR personnel serving on the Balkans. Therefore, the environmental behaviour and bioavailability of DU material have been explored. In order to investigate the environmental impact of DU ammunition, leaching experiments were carried out. DU penetrators were buried in soil filled in columns. The soil was irrigated (16 mm/week) and the uranium isotopes {sup 238}U and {sup 235}U which were washed out and transported into the eluate were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). After one year, an average of 1.7% of the original DU material corroded. About 40% of the corrosion products were located on the surface of the penetrator, 60% were recovered in the soil. On the other hand, only very small amounts of the DU material could be found in the eluate (about 1 ppm per year) suggesting a low solubility of DU and the corrosion products and/or a strong sorption to the soil. In another part of the study, the solubility of DU material in human body fluids was investigated to assess the bioavailability after oral intake and inhalation of DU particles. Therefore, DU corrosion products were powdered and incubated in artificial gastric juice and simulated lung fluid. About three-fourths of the DU material was dissolved in artificial gastric juice after 30 minutes. This fraction could not be increased, even when the incubation time was extended to 120 minutes. The dissolution of DU material in artificial lung fluid showed a distinct bi-phasic course with a readily soluble fraction and a fraction of very low solubility. These findings suggest that the DU corrosion products consist mainly of two types of uranium oxides, hexavalent and fast soluble compounds and tetravalent compounds with low solubility. Additional measurements with time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) of DU corrosion material support this conclusion. The resulting

  7. Use of tightrope fixation in ankle syndesmotic injuries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Julian Maempel; Anthony Ward; Tim Chesser; Michael Kelly

    2014-01-01

    Objective:Conventional fixation of syndesmotic injuries with screws remains problematic.A novel fibrewire device (Tightrope(R)) has suggested advantages.However,small case series have reported high soft tissue complication rates.The purpose of our study was to quantify complication rates and further procedures in patients treated with Tightropes.A secondary objective was to determine incidence of complications and further procedures in those treated with syndesmotic screws over the same period.Methods:All patients undergoing syndesmotic fixation for ankle fracture between May 2008 and October 2009 were retrospectively reviewed.Incidence of complications,secondary procedures,maintenance of syndesmotic reduction and time spent on non-weight bearing were recorded.Family doctors were contacted for those treated with Tightropes to check for any complications managed elsewhere.Results:Thirty-five patients required syndesmotic fixation,in which 12 were treated with Tightropes.They were followed up in clinic for a mean of 12.4 weeks.Family doctors were contacted at mean 14.6 months after treatment to determine any complications suffered.There were no complications attributable to method of fixation.In this series,12 patients underwent 13 procedures and no patient had recurrent diastasis at discharge; 23 patients treated with screw fixation underwent 45 procedures (19 were screw removals).There was 1 case ofsyndesmotic diastasis.Screw removal resulted in 2 minor complications.Conclusion:Tightrope fixation provideds effective syndesmotic fixation that is maintained at discharge.We do not experience soft tissue complications reported elsewhere.

  8. Denitrification and N2 fixation in the Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Curtis; Gruber, Nicolas; Key, Robert M.; Sarmiento, Jorge L.; Ganachaud, Alexandre

    2001-06-01

    We establish the fixed nitrogen budget of the Pacific Ocean based on nutrient fields from the recently completed World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE). The budget includes denitrification in the water column and sediments, nitrogen fixation, atmospheric and riverine inputs, and nitrogen divergence due to the large-scale circulation. A water column denitrification rate of 48±5 Tg N yr -1 is calculated for the Eastern Tropical Pacific using N* [Gruber and Sarmiento, 1997] and water mass age tracers. On the basis of rates in the literature, we estimate sedimentary denitrification to remove an additional 15±3 Tg N yr-1. We then calculate the total nitrogen divergence due to the large scale circulation through the basin, composed of flows through a zonal transect at 32°S, and through the Indonesian and Bering straits. Adding atmospheric deposition and riverine fluxes results in a net divergence of nitrogen from the basin of -4±12 Tg N yr-1. Pacific nitrogen fixation can be extracted as a residual component of the total budget, assuming steady state. We find that nitrogen fixation would have to contribute 59±14 Tg N yr-1 in order to balance the Pacific nitrogen budget. This result is consistent with the tentative global extrapolations of Gruber and Sarmiento [1997], based on nitrogen fixation rates estimated for the North Atlantic. Our estimated mean areal fixation rate is within the range of direct and geochemical rate estimates from a single location near Hawaii [Karl et al., 1997]. Pacific nitrogen fixation occurs primarily in the western part of the subtropical gyres where elevated N* signals are found. These regions are also supplied with significant amounts of iron via atmospheric dust deposition, lending qualitative support to the hypothesis that nitrogen fixation is regulated in part by iron suppy.

  9. Malate Synthesis by Dark Carbon Dioxide Fixation in Leaves 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, Carolyn; Perchorowicz, John T.; Gibbs, Martin

    1978-01-01

    The rates of dark CO2 fixation and the label distribution in malate following dark 14CO2 fixation in a C-4 plant (maize), a C-3 plant (sunflower), and two Crassulacean acid metabolism plants (Bryophyllum calycinum and Kalanchoë diagremontianum leaves and plantlets) are compared. Within the first 30 minutes of dark 14CO2 fixation, leaves of maize, B. calycinum, and sunflower, and K. diagremontianum plantlets fix CO2 at rates of 1.4, 3.4, 0.23, and 1.0 μmoles of CO2/mg of chlorophyll· hour, respectively. Net CO2 fixation stops within 3 hours in maize and sunflower, but Crassulaceans continue fixing CO2 for the duration of the 23-hour experiment. A bacterial procedure using Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC No. 8014 and one using malic enzyme to remove the β-carboxyl (C4) from malate are compared. It is reported that highly purified malic enzyme and the bacterial method provide equivalent results. Less purified malic enzyme may overestimate the label in C4 as much as 15 to 20%. The contribution of carbon atom 1 of malate is between 18 and 21% of the total carboxyl label after 1 minute of dark CO2 fixation. Isotopic labeling in the two carboxyls approached unity with time. The rate of increase is greatest in sunflower leaves and Kalanchoë plantlets. In addition, Kalanchoë leaves fix 14CO2 more rapidly than Kalanchoë plantlets and the equilibration of the malate carboxyls occurs more slowly. The rates of fixation and the randomization are tissue-specific. The rate of fixation does not correlate with the rate of randomization of isotope in the malate carboxyls. PMID:16660319

  10. Malate synthesis by dark carbon dioxide fixation in leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, C; Perchorowicz, J T; Gibbs, M

    1978-04-01

    The rates of dark CO(2) fixation and the label distribution in malate following dark (14)CO(2) fixation in a C-4 plant (maize), a C-3 plant (sunflower), and two Crassulacean acid metabolism plants (Bryophyllum calycinum and Kalanchoë diagremontianum leaves and plantlets) are compared. Within the first 30 minutes of dark (14)CO(2) fixation, leaves of maize, B. calycinum, and sunflower, and K. diagremontianum plantlets fix CO(2) at rates of 1.4, 3.4, 0.23, and 1.0 mumoles of CO(2)/mg of chlorophyll. hour, respectively. Net CO(2) fixation stops within 3 hours in maize and sunflower, but Crassulaceans continue fixing CO(2) for the duration of the 23-hour experiment.A bacterial procedure using Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC No. 8014 and one using malic enzyme to remove the beta-carboxyl (C(4)) from malate are compared. It is reported that highly purified malic enzyme and the bacterial method provide equivalent results. Less purified malic enzyme may overestimate the label in C(4) as much as 15 to 20%.The contribution of carbon atom 1 of malate is between 18 and 21% of the total carboxyl label after 1 minute of dark CO(2) fixation. Isotopic labeling in the two carboxyls approached unity with time. The rate of increase is greatest in sunflower leaves and Kalanchoë plantlets. In addition, Kalanchoë leaves fix (14)CO(2) more rapidly than Kalanchoë plantlets and the equilibration of the malate carboxyls occurs more slowly. The rates of fixation and the randomization are tissue-specific. The rate of fixation does not correlate with the rate of randomization of isotope in the malate carboxyls.

  11. The emergence and early evolution of biological carbon-fixation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogier Braakman

    Full Text Available The fixation of CO₂ into living matter sustains all life on Earth, and embeds the biosphere within geochemistry. The six known chemical pathways used by extant organisms for this function are recognized to have overlaps, but their evolution is incompletely understood. Here we reconstruct the complete early evolutionary history of biological carbon-fixation, relating all modern pathways to a single ancestral form. We find that innovations in carbon-fixation were the foundation for most major early divergences in the tree of life. These findings are based on a novel method that fully integrates metabolic and phylogenetic constraints. Comparing gene-profiles across the metabolic cores of deep-branching organisms and requiring that they are capable of synthesizing all their biomass components leads to the surprising conclusion that the most common form for deep-branching autotrophic carbon-fixation combines two disconnected sub-networks, each supplying carbon to distinct biomass components. One of these is a linear folate-based pathway of CO₂ reduction previously only recognized as a fixation route in the complete Wood-Ljungdahl pathway, but which more generally may exclude the final step of synthesizing acetyl-CoA. Using metabolic constraints we then reconstruct a "phylometabolic" tree with a high degree of parsimony that traces the evolution of complete carbon-fixation pathways, and has a clear structure down to the root. This tree requires few instances of lateral gene transfer or convergence, and instead suggests a simple evolutionary dynamic in which all divergences have primary environmental causes. Energy optimization and oxygen toxicity are the two strongest forces of selection. The root of this tree combines the reductive citric acid cycle and the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway into a single connected network. This linked network lacks the selective optimization of modern fixation pathways but its redundancy leads to a more robust topology

  12. Le kyste hydatique du cordon spermatique : une localisation exceptionnelle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Moncef Hamdane

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available L� hydatidose est une anthropozoonose due au developpement chez l�homme de la forme larvaire du taenia Echinococcus granulosis. La plupart des kystes hydatiques se localisent dans le foie et les poumons. Le kyste hydatique du cordon spermatique est extremement rare avec seulement 4 cas rapportes dans la litterature. Les auteurs rapportent dans cet article un nouveau cas d�hydatidose du cordon spermatique. Il s�agissait d�un homme de 40 ans qui consultait pour des douleurs scrotales evoluant depuis huit mois. L�examen clinique a mis en evidence une tumefaction mobile, inguino-scrotale, droite. L�echographie testiculaire a objective une hernie inguinale droite associee a deux kystes epididymaires bilateraux. Le patient a ete opere pour cure de son hernie avec decouverte en per-operatoire d�un kyste du cordon spermatique qui a ete reseque. L�examen anatomopathologique a conclu a une hydatidose du cordon spermatique.

  13. Luminescence de transfert de charge dans les composés oxyfluorés du molybdène, du tungstène, du niobum et du tantale

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Hong Jie

    1993-01-01

    Non disponible; Les caractéristique de la luminescence de transfert de charge de composés oxifluorés du niobium, du tantale, du molybdène et du tungstène ont été déterminées. L'influence de la coordinence de l'élément de transition et du mode d'assemblage des polyèdres de coordination a été examinée. Contrairement aux oxydes homologués, les phases comportant des ions alcalins peuvent présenter un rendement de luminescence élevé à 300 K lorsque les groupements oxifluorés sont isolés (ex. K3NbO...

  14. Festival du rire de Genève

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2015-01-01

    Connaissez-vous le Festival du rire de Genève ? La deuxième édition aura lieu du 25 au 28 mars 2015 au Casino-Théâtre à Carouge. Côté programmation, Marc Donnet-Monay ouvre les festivités avant trois autres soirées de folie et d’humour que nous vous laissons le soin de découvrir dans le programme : http://www.rire-geneve.ch/#programme. Réduction de 30% sur l’achat de places pour les membres du personnel du CERN. Pour cela, il suffit de se rendre sur la billetterie en ligne de notre site : www.rire-geneve.ch et d’utiliser le code promotionnel. Contacter le secrétariat de l’Association du personnel (Staff.Association@cern.ch) pour connaitre ce code promotionnel.

  15. Evaluation épidémiologique du programme genevois de dépistage du cancer du sein : 2007-2011

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    A l'instar de nombreux pays industrialisés, le cancer du sein est à Genève le cancer le plus fréquent (environ 460 cas par an) et la première cause de décès chez les femmes entre 45 et 55 ans. Depuis mars 1999, le Programme genevois de dépistage du cancer du sein a pour missions de promouvoir, d'organiser et de mener une action de prévention auprès de la population féminine du canton âgée de 50 à 69 ans. Ce rapport décrit l'évolution de 15 ans d'activité de dépistage (chapitre 2) et analys...

  16. Management of intra-articular fracture of the fingers via mini external fixator combined with limited internal fixation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Wen-jun; TIAN Wen; TIAN Guang-lei; CHEN Shan-lin; ZHANG Chang-qing; XUE Yun-hao; LI Zhong-zhe; ZHU Yin

    2009-01-01

    Background Intra-articular fractures of the fingers are common problems to emergency physicians and hand surgeons.Inappropriate management of these injuries may result in chronic pain,stiffness,deformity,or post traumatic arthritis.Ideal treatment necessitates the restoration of a stable and congruent joint that will allow early mobilization.The purpose of this study was to investigate the results of intra-articular fracture of the fingers by mini external fixator combined with limited internal fixation.Methods From May 2005 to May 2007,a total of 26 patients with intra-articular fracture of the fingers were treated by mini external fixator combined with limited internal fixation.Of the 26 cases,11 involved in metacarpophalangeal joint,and 15 interphalangeal joint in proximal interphalangeal.Kirschner wire,mini wire and absorbable suture were used for limited internal fixation.All patients were followed up and patients were accomplished with total active motion(TAM)of fingers.Results All patients were reviewed by an independent observer.The mean follow up was 13 months(range 9 to 24 months).Subjective,objective and radiographic results were evaluated.X-ray films revealed fracture union and the average radiographic union time was 7 weeks with a range of 5-12 weeks and the phalange shortening or rotation in 2 cases,joint incongruity(less than 1 mm)and joint space narrowing in 3 cases respectively.Phalangeal shortening or rotation was observed in 2 cases and joint incongruity or joint space narrowing was observed in 3 cases.An artificial implant was performed on one case for traumatic arthritis 1.5 years after surgery.Based on TAM the overall good-excellent rate of joint motion function was 80.8%.Conclusion Mini external fixator combined with limited internal fixation is a reliable and effective method for treatment of intra-articular fracture of the fingers.

  17. A Comparison of Screw Fixation and Suture-Button Fixation in a Syndesmosis Injury in an Ankle Fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung-Han; Gwak, Heui-Chul; Lee, Chang-Rack; Choo, Hye-Jeung; Kim, Jeon-Gyo; Kim, Dae-Yoo

    2016-01-01

    The present study compared the quality of reduction and the clinical assessment between screw fixation and suture-button fixation with an ankle fracture accompanied by syndesmosis injury. We studied the clinical and radiologic findings 1 year postoperatively through retrospective examination of 24 patients who had undergone screw fixation from January 2011 to December 2012 and prospective examination of 20 patients who had undergone suture button fixation from January 2013 to May 2014. Regarding the tibiofibular clear space, tibiofibular overlap, and medial clear space, the screw fixation group had improvement from a preoperative mean of 6.97 (range 2.79 to 15.81) mm, 4.43 (range 0 to 7.87) mm, 7.90 (range 4.24 to 19.50) mm to a postoperative mean of 4.95 (range 2.72 to 9.08) mm, 6.29 (range 0 to 10.37) mm, and 4.32 (range 1.98 to 6.57) mm, respectively. The corresponding improvement for the suture-button fixation group was from a preoperative mean of 6.65 (range 3.94 to 13.73) mm, 5.39 (range 0 to 9.44) mm, 7.27 (range 4.04 to 16.00) mm to a postoperative mean of 5.15 (range 2.93 to 7.30) mm, 7.21 (range 2.15 to 10.30) mm, and 4.25 (range 2.97 to 5.71) mm. No statistically significant difference was found between the 2 techniques. Both suture-button and metal screw fixation are effective treatment methods for an ankle fracture accompanied by syndesmosis injury. However, a long-term and prospective analysis is needed. Copyright © 2016 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Invertebrate grazers affect metal/metalloid fixation during litter decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaller, Jörg; Brackhage, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    Plant litter and organic sediments are main sinks for metals and metalloids in aquatic ecosystems. The effect of invertebrates as key species in aquatic litter decomposition on metal/metalloid fixation by organic matter is described only for shredders, but for grazers as another important animal group less is known. Consequently, a laboratory batch experiment was conducted to examine the effect of invertebrate grazers (Lymnaea stagnalis L.) on metal/metalloid fixation/remobilization during aquatic litter decomposition. It could be shown that invertebrate grazers facilitate significantly the formation of smaller sizes of particulate organic matter (POM), as shown previously for invertebrate shredders. The metal/metalloid binding capacity of these smaller particles of POM is higher compared to leaf litter residuals. But element enrichment is not as high as shown previously for the effect by invertebrate shredders. Invertebrate grazers enhance also the mobilization of selected elements to the water, in the range also proven for invertebrate shredders but different for the different elements. Nonetheless invertebrate grazers activity during aquatic litter decomposition leads to a metal/metalloid fixation into leaf litter as part of sediment organic matter. Hence, the effect of invertebrate grazers on metal/metalloid fixation/remobilization contrasts partly with former assessments revealing the possibility of an enhanced metal/metalloid fixation.

  19. Can Fixation be Guaranteed in the Generalized Moran Process?

    CERN Document Server

    Diaz, Josep; Mertzios, George B; Richerby, David; Serna, Maria; Spirakis, Paul G

    2012-01-01

    The Moran process models the spread of genetic mutations through a population. A mutant with relative fitness r is introduced into a population and the system evolves, either reaching fixation (in which every individual is a mutant) or extinction (in which none is). In a widely cited paper (Nature, 2005), Lieberman, Hauert and Nowak generalize the model to populations on the vertices of graphs. They claim to have discovered a class of graphs (called "superstars"), with a parameter k, within which the probability of fixation tends to 1-r^{-k} as graphs get larger. Thus, they say that these graphs "guarantee the fixation of any advantageous mutant". They give a non-rigorous proof of the claimed limiting fixation probability, which we show to be incorrect. Specifically, for k=5, we show that the true fixation probability is at most 1-1/j(r) where j(r)=Theta(r^4), contrary to the claimed result. Since the claimed proof is flawed, and no others are known, we investigate the claim via simulation. Lieberman et al. v...

  20. Fixation Probability in a Haploid-Diploid Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessho, Kazuhiro; Otto, Sarah P

    2017-01-01

    Classical population genetic theory generally assumes either a fully haploid or fully diploid life cycle. However, many organisms exhibit more complex life cycles, with both free-living haploid and diploid stages. Here we ask what the probability of fixation is for selected alleles in organisms with haploid-diploid life cycles. We develop a genetic model that considers the population dynamics using both the Moran model and Wright-Fisher model. Applying a branching process approximation, we obtain an accurate fixation probability assuming that the population is large and the net effect of the mutation is beneficial. We also find the diffusion approximation for the fixation probability, which is accurate even in small populations and for deleterious alleles, as long as selection is weak. These fixation probabilities from branching process and diffusion approximations are similar when selection is weak for beneficial mutations that are not fully recessive. In many cases, particularly when one phase predominates, the fixation probability differs substantially for haploid-diploid organisms compared to either fully haploid or diploid species. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  1. EXTERNAL FIXATOR IN THE MANAGEMENT OF UNSTABLE PELVIC FRACTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devi prasad

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Universally, high- energy trauma is the major cause of mortality and morbidity in the younger age group. Usually pelvic fractures are caused by high energy trauma. Hence it affects not only the musculoskeletal system, but also the soft tissues and viscera contained in the pelvis leading to increased mortality and morbidity. Management of such patients remains a challenge to the trauma surgeon, even in the most sophisticated trauma centers. The aim of our study is to evaluate the role of external fixation in the management of pelvic fractures, both as a resuscitative measure and definitive treatment of unstable pelvic fractures (Type B & Type C. In our study, all patients underwent stabilization with external fixator and the mortality rate was zero with additional internal fixation with reconstruction plating being done in three patients. The primary advantage of external fixation in pelvic injury is to maintain the reduction by which it produces a tamponade effect and results in reduction in haemorrhage, and helps transportation of the patient. External stabilization for unstable pelvic fractures with external fixator is an established treatment procedure and we in our study confirm the usefulness of the procedure in an emergency situation and can be continued effectively as a definitive management for type B & C Pelvic injuries

  2. Ultrasound-facilitated formalin fixation of biological specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, N; Liang, Q; He, H; Liu, J; Ji, A; Nelson, A M; Chu, W S

    2011-12-01

    In a previous study, we showed that ultrasound can dramatically reduce the time required for tissue fixation in formalin. It generally is believed that ultrasound increases the speed of tissue fixation in two possible ways: 1) increasing the speed of penetration of fixative molecules into tissue samples and 2) increasing the speed of cross-linking reactions. We addressed here the second possible way by using protein solutions and cultured cells, which minimized the effects of the penetration factor. Proteins or cultured cells in solution were fixed with formalin with or without ultrasound irradiation. Fixed proteins and cell lysates then were separated by SDS-poly acrylamide gel electrophoresis and subjected to Western blotting to examine cross-linking formation in certain proteins. Unexpectedly, irradiation with ultrasound did not produce an observable difference in the rate of cross-linking in protein solutions. In similar experiments using cultured cells, however, we observed a significant reduction in recovery of certain proteins from cells fixed by formalin under the influence of ultrasound, which indicated that the ultrasound fixation procedure accelerated cross-linking formation within cells. Studies on protein and cell fixation without ultrasound showed that cross-linking formation was closely related to incubation temperature, which indicates that the heating function, which is inherently associated with ultrasound is another major factor in the ability of ultrasound to accelerate cross-linking.

  3. Fixation of Selenium by Clay Minerals and Iron Oxides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamdy, A. A.; Nielsen, Gunnar Gissel

    1977-01-01

    In studying Se fixation, soil components capable of retaining Se were investigated. The importance of Fe hydrous oxides in the fixation of Se was established. The clay minerals common to soils, such as kaolinite, montmorillonite and vermiculite, all exhibited Se fixation, but greater fixation...... occurred with the 1:1 than the 2:1 clay type. Experiments with finely ground minerals showed that the pH of the systems greatly influenced the rate of fixation, reaching a maximum between pH 3 and 5 and decreasing rapidly as the pH increased. With the Fe2O3 system fixed Se was slightly reduced as the p......H was increased to over 8. The extractability of Se from the clay minerals indicated that 1:1 clay type minerals fix selenite more indissolubly than 2:1 clays and that selenite was adsorbed on the clays mainly by a surface exchange reaction. The major part of the selenite added to the Fe2O3 system was found...

  4. Hydroponic Growth and the Nondestructive Assay for Dinitrogen Fixation 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imsande, John; Ralston, Edward J.

    1981-01-01

    Hydroponic growth medium must be well buffered if it is to support sustained plant growth. Although 1.0 millimolar phosphate is commonly used as a buffer for hydroponic growth media, at that concentration it is generally toxic to a soybean plant that derives its nitrogen solely from dinitrogen fixation. On the other hand, we show that 1.0 to 2.0 millimolar 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid, pKa 6.1, has excellent buffering capacity, and it neither interferes with nor contributes nutritionally to soybean plant growth. Furthermore, it neither impedes nodulation nor the assay of dinitrogen fixation. Hence, soybean plants grown hydroponically on a medium supplemented with 1.0 to 2.0 millimolar 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid and 0.1 millimolar phosphate achieve an excellent rate of growth and, in the absence of added fixed nitrogen, attain a very high rate of dinitrogen fixation. Combining the concept of hydroponic growth and the sensitive acetylene reduction technique, we have devised a simple, rapid, reproducible assay procedure whereby the rate of dinitrogen fixation by individual plants can be measured throughout the lifetime of those plants. The rate of dinitrogen fixation as measured by the nondestructive acetylene reduction procedure is shown to be approximately equal to the rate of total plant nitrogen accumulation as measured by Kjeldahl analysis. Because of the simplicity of the procedure, one investigator can readily assay 50 plants individually per day. PMID:16662112

  5. Biomechanical stability of four fixation constructs for distal radius fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capo, John T; Kinchelow, Tosca; Brooks, Kenneth; Tan, Virak; Manigrasso, Michaele; Francisco, Kristin

    2009-09-01

    Implants available for distal radius fracture fixation include dorsal nonlocked plating (DNLP), volar locked plating (VLP), radial-ulnar dual-column locked plating (DCPs), and locked intramedullary fixation (IMN). This study examines the biomechanical properties of these four different fixation constructs. In 28 fresh-frozen radii, a wedge osteotomy was performed, creating an unstable fracture model and the four fixation constructs employed (DNLP, VLP, DCPs, and IMN). Dorsal bending loads were applied and bending stiffness, load to yield 5 mm displacement, and ultimate failure were measured. Bending stiffness for VLP (16.7 N/mm) was significantly higher than for DNLP (6.8 N/mm), while IMN (12.6 N/mm) and DCPs (11.8 N/mm) were similar. Ultimate load to failure occurred at 278.2 N for the VLP, 245.7 N for the IMN, and 52.0 N for the DNLP. The VLP was significantly stronger than the DNLP and DCPs, and the IMN and DCPs were stronger than the DNLP. The VLP has higher average bending stiffness, ultimate bending strength, and resistance to 5 mm displacement than the other constructs and significantly higher ultimate bending strength than the DCPs and DNLP. There was no statistically significant difference between the VLP and IMN. VLP and IMN fixation of distal radius fractures can achieve comparable stability.

  6. Immunohistochemistry of colorectal cancer biomarker phosphorylation requires controlled tissue fixation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbey P Theiss

    Full Text Available Phosphorylated signaling molecules are biomarkers of cancer pathophysiology and resistance to therapy, but because phosphoprotein analytes are often labile, poorly controlled clinical laboratory practices could prevent translation of research findings in this area from the bench to the bedside. We therefore compared multiple biomarker and phosphoprotein immunohistochemistry (IHC results in 23 clinical colorectal carcinoma samples after either a novel, rapid tissue fixation protocol or a standard tissue fixation protocol employed by clinical laboratories, and we also investigated the effect of a defined post-operative "cold" ischemia period on these IHC results. We found that a one-hour cold ischemia interval, allowed by ASCO/CAP guidelines for certain cancer biomarker assays, is highly deleterious to certain phosphoprotein analytes, specifically the phosphorylated epidermal growth factor receptor (pEGFR, but shorter ischemic intervals (less than 17 minutes facilitate preservation of phosphoproteins. Second, we found that a rapid 4-hour, two temperature, formalin fixation yielded superior staining in several cases with select markers (pEGFR, pBAD, pAKT compared to a standard overnight room temperature fixation protocol, despite taking less time. These findings indicate that the future research and clinical utilities of phosphoprotein IHC for assessing colorectal carcinoma pathophysiology absolutely depend upon attention to preanalytical factors and rigorously controlled tissue fixation protocols.

  7. The Use of Topical Lidocaine Gel During Intermaxillary Fixation Procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Yeon Jin; Kim, Ho Jun; Kwon, Ho; Shim, Hyung-Sup; Seo, Bommie Florence; Jung, Sung-No

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to validate the usefulness of lidocaine gel during intermaxillary fixation using arch bars in patients with mandible fracture by comparing 2 patient groups: one group using lidocaine gel in intermaxillary fixation and the other group undergoing traditional local infiltration.Subjects were patients with mandible fracture undergoing intermaxillary fixation using arch bars from March 2003 to February 2007. Twenty-three patients were anesthetized in the upper and lower gingiva by 2% local lidocaine solution injection; another 23 underwent topical anesthesia with 2% lidocaine hydrochloride gel applied to the upper and lower gingiva. The convenience of fixation was measured in terms of operation time and degree of pain according to the visual analog scale; arch bar loosening rate was assessed postoperatively.The mean operation times were 63 and 47 minutes in the groups undergoing local infiltration and using topical lidocaine gel, respectively. For pain degree according to the visual analog scale, the mean scores were 6.4 and 3.2 in the groups using local infiltration and topical lidocaine gel, respectively. When the arch bar loosening rate was measured postoperatively, the 2 groups differed significantly, with a rate of 26% in the group using local infiltration and 13% in the group using topical lidocaine gel.Application of topical lidocaine gel during intermaxillary fixation using arch bars in patients with mandible fracture relieves pain and offers convenience in performing the procedure. It can be a useful alternative method for patients who are sensitive to pain or have needle phobia.

  8. La mathématique du physicien

    CERN Document Server

    Diu, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    " Le livre de la nature est écrit dans la langue mathématique, et ses caractères sont des triangles, des cercles et autres figures géométriques, sans lesquels il est humainement impossible d'en comprendre le moindre mot ". Ce célèbre aphorisme de Galilée a scellé l'alliance des mathématiques et de la physique. Et pourtant, trois siècles plus tard, Einstein se montrait plus sceptique. Dans ce livre, Bernard Diu montre que, en effet, si les mathématiques sont un instrument indispensable de la physique, elles n'en constituent pas le fondement. En multipliant les exemples, il marque la différence entre la mathématique du mathématicien et celle du physicien. Un livre de nature à remettre en question l'enseignement de la physique dans nos écoles et des sciences en général, soumis à l'hégémonie des mathématiques.

  9. Du Bois的对话句法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高彦梅

    2015-01-01

    日常口语交流过程中,人们会自觉不自觉地复用即时语境中前面说话人或历史上前人的词语、短语、句法结构等成分。这样便在自己和前面说话人的话语之间唤起了共鸣。Du Bois在Bakhtin的对话理论、Jakobson的平行理论和Harris的话语分析程序的启发之下,依据自然口语语料、从社会认知角度发展了对话句法理论,目的在于揭示人类交流过程中符号与符号之间并通过符号表达的介入结构。本文综合Du Bois以及相关学者过去三十年间对对话句法的研究,呈现对话句法理论的主体脉络。

  10. Rejets et environnement du CERN - 2005

    CERN Document Server

    Vojtyla, P

    2006-01-01

    La radioactivité de l’environnement autour de l’Organisation Européenne pour la Recherche Nucléaire (CERN) et les doses de rayonnements qui en résultent pour la population avoisinante sont contrôlées par la Commission de Sécurité du CERN et de manière indépendante par les autorités compétentes des deux États Hôtes, l’Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN) côté France et l’Office Fédéral de la Santé Publique (OFSP) côté Suisse. Dans ce rapport, les résultats de mesures concernent en particulier le territoire suisse. L’ensemble des mesures effectuées en 2005 prouve que le fonctionnement des installations du CERN était sans conséquence radiologique sur l’environnement et la population. Le contrôle des émissions montre que les rejets effectifs se situent également en 2005 nettement en dessous des limites réglementaires. Ce constat est confirmé par le contrôle des immissions dans l’environnement. Le CERN a bien respecté en 2005 comme dans les ann�...

  11. The effect of suture-button fixation on simulated syndesmotic malreduction: a cadaveric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westermann, Robert W; Rungprai, Chamnanni; Goetz, Jessica E; Femino, John; Amendola, Annunziato; Phisitkul, Phinit

    2014-10-15

    The accuracy of reduction of distal tibiofibular syndesmosis disruptions has been associated with the clinical outcome. Suture-button fixation of the syndesmosis is a dynamic alternative mode of fixation. We hypothesized that with deliberate clamp-induced malreduction, suture-button fixation of the syndesmosis would allow a more anatomic post-fixation position compared with screw fixation. Forty-eight syndesmotic fixations were performed on twelve through-knee cadaveric specimens. The syndesmosis was destabilized and off-axis clamping was used to produce both anterior and posterior malreduction patterns. In twelve scenarios (six anterior and six posterior malreductions), syndesmotic screw fixation was used, followed by computed tomography. With tenacula holding the malreduction, the syndesmosis screws were exchanged for a suture-button construct and the specimens underwent a subsequent computed tomography scan. In the other twelve scenarios, the suture-button fixation was achieved first, followed by screw fixation. Standardized measurements of anterior-posterior and medial-lateral fibular displacement were performed by two observers blinded to the method of fixation. With anterior off-axis clamping, the mean sagittal malreduction was 2.7 ± 2.0 mm with screw fixation and 1.0 ± 1.0 mm with suture-button fixation (p = 0.02). With posterior off-axis clamping, the sagittal malreduction was 7.2 ± 2.3 mm with screw fixation and 0.5 ± 1.4 mm with suture-button fixation (p button fixation of the syndesmosis results in less post-fixation displacement compared with screw fixation. The suture button's ability to allow for natural correction of deliberate malreduction was greatest with posterior off-axis clamping. Although the clinical relevance is unknown, dynamic syndesmotic fixation may mitigate clamp-induced malreduction. Copyright © 2014 by The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Incorporated.

  12. How Life History Can Sway the Fixation Probability of Mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang-Yi; Kurokawa, Shun; Giaimo, Stefano; Traulsen, Arne

    2016-07-01

    In this work, we study the effects of demographic structure on evolutionary dynamics when selection acts on reproduction, survival, or both. In contrast to the previously discovered pattern that the fixation probability of a neutral mutant decreases while the population becomes younger, we show that a mutant with a constant selective advantage may have a maximum or a minimum of the fixation probability in populations with an intermediate fraction of young individuals. This highlights the importance of life history and demographic structure in studying evolutionary dynamics. We also illustrate the fundamental differences between selection on reproduction and selection on survival when age structure is present. In addition, we evaluate the relative importance of size and structure of the population in determining the fixation probability of the mutant. Our work lays the foundation for also studying density- and frequency-dependent effects in populations when demographic structures cannot be neglected.

  13. Operative Fixation of Rib Fractures Indications, Techniques, and Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galos, David; Taylor, Benjamin; McLaurin, Toni

    2017-01-01

    Rib fractures are extremely common injuries and vary in there severity from single nondisplaced fractures to multiple segmental fractures resulting in flail chest and respiratory compromise. Historically, rib fractures have been treated conservatively with pain control and respiratory therapy. However this method may not be the best treatment modality in all situations. Operative fixation of select rib fractures has been increasing in popularity especially in patients with flail chest and respiratory compromise. Newer techniques use muscle sparing approaches and precontoured locking plate technology to obtain stable fixation and allow improved respiration. Current reports shows that rib fracture fixation offers the benefits of improved respiratory mechanics and improved pain control in the severe chest wall injury with resultant improvement in patient outcomes by decreasing time on the ventilator, time in the intensive care unit, and overall hospital length of stay.

  14. Aniseikonia and fixation performance: effect of retinal stimulus location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remole, A

    1989-03-01

    It has been shown previously that induced aniseikonia amplifies any latent fixation eccentricity associated with binocular fusion stress. This study determines if the retinal location of the stimulus plays a part in this effect. The stimulus consisted of a vertical border formed by the juxtaposition of two fields of unequal luminances and a line segment parallel to the border whose distance from the border can be varied. At the same time, the border allowed the application of a previously tested method of measuring fixation eccentricity, based on the border-enhancement response. It was found that the fixation eccentricity produced by aniseikonia is maximal for the smallest distance of the variable target from the border but unaffected by the larger distances tested. It was concluded that the retinal location of the stimulus has an important influence on the response to aniseikonia.

  15. Bone graft materials in fixation of orthopaedic implants in sheep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babiker, Hassan

    2013-01-01

    Bone graft is widely used within orthopaedic surgery especially in revision joint arthroplasty and spine fusion. The early implant fixation in the revision situation of loose joint prostheses is important for the long-term survival. Bone autograft has been considered as gold standard in many...... the risk of bacterial contamination and disease transmission as well as non-union and poor bone quality. Other bone graft and substitutes have been considered as alternative in order to improve implant fixation. Hydroxyapatite and collagen type I composite (HA/Collagen) have the potential in mimicking...... bone and includes bone collagen, morphogenetic proteins and growth factors. The combination of DBM with CB and with allograft might improve the healing potential of these grafts around non-cemented orthopaedic implants and thereby the implant fixation. Study I investigates the effect of HA...

  16. Potential for nitrogen fixation in fungus-growing termite symbiosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sapountzis, Panagiotis; de Verges, Jane; Rousk, Kathrin

    2016-01-01

    Termites host a gut microbiota of diverse and essential symbionts that enable specialization on dead plant material; an abundant, but nutritionally imbalanced food source. To supplement the severe shortage of dietary nitrogen (N), some termite species make use of diazotrophic bacteria to fix...... atmospheric nitrogen (N2). Fungus-growing termites (subfamily Macrotermitinae) host a fungal exosymbiont (genus Termitomyces) that provides digestive services and the main food source for the termites. This has been thought to obviate the need for N2-fixation by bacterial symbionts. Here, we challenge...... this notion by performing acetylene reduction assays of live colony material to show that N2 fixation is present in two major genera (Macrotermes and Odontotermes) of fungus-growing termites. We compare and discuss fixation rates in relation to those obtained from other termites, and suggest avenues...

  17. Beyond the Calvin Cycle: Autotrophic Carbon Fixation in the Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hügler, Michael; Sievert, Stefan M.

    2011-01-01

    Organisms capable of autotrophic metabolism assimilate inorganic carbon into organic carbon. They form an integral part of ecosystems by making an otherwise unavailable form of carbon available to other organisms, a central component of the global carbon cycle. For many years, the doctrine prevailed that the Calvin-Benson-Bassham (CBB) cycle is the only biochemical autotrophic CO2 fixation pathway of significance in the ocean. However, ecological, biochemical, and genomic studies carried out over the last decade have not only elucidated new pathways but also shown that autotrophic carbon fixation via pathways other than the CBB cycle can be significant. This has ramifications for our understanding of the carbon cycle and energy flow in the ocean. Here, we review the recent discoveries in the field of autotrophic carbon fixation, including the biochemistry and evolution of the different pathways, as well as their ecological relevance in various oceanic ecosystems.

  18. Fixation properties of subdivided populations with balancing selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, Pierangelo; Gambassi, Andrea; Dall'Asta, Luca

    2015-03-01

    In subdivided populations, migration acts together with selection and genetic drift and determines their evolution. Building upon a recently proposed method, which hinges on the emergence of a time scale separation between local and global dynamics, we study the fixation properties of subdivided populations in the presence of balancing selection. The approximation implied by the method is accurate when the effective selection strength is small and the number of subpopulations is large. In particular, it predicts a phase transition between species coexistence and biodiversity loss in the infinite-size limit and, in finite populations, a nonmonotonic dependence of the mean fixation time on the migration rate. In order to investigate the fixation properties of the subdivided population for stronger selection, we introduce an effective coarser description of the dynamics in terms of a voter model with intermediate states, which highlights the basic mechanisms driving the evolutionary process.

  19. Odontoid screw fixation for fresh and remote fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao Ganesh

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Fractures of the odontoid process are common, accounting for 10% to 20% of all cervical spine fractures. Odontoid process fractures are classified into three types depending on the location of the fracture line. Various treatment options are available for each of these fracture types and include application of a cervical orthosis, direct anterior screw fixation, and posterior cervical fusion. If a patient requires surgical treatment of an odontoid process fracture, the timing of treatment may affect fusion rates, particularly if direct anterior odontoid screw fixation is selected as the treatment method. For example, type II odontoid fractures treated within the first 6 months of injury with direct anterior odontoid screw fixation have an 88% fusion rate, whereas fractures treated after 18 months have only a 25% fusion rate. In this review, we discuss the etiology, biomechanics, diagnosis, and treatment (including factors affecting fusion such as timing and fracture orientation options available for odontoid process fractures.

  20. Assessing N2 fixation in estuarine mangrove soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiau, Yo-Jin; Lin, Ming-Fen; Tan, Chen-Chung; Tian, Guanglong; Chiu, Chih-Yu

    2017-04-01

    Nitrogen (N) limited mangrove forest may have a high potential for microbial N2 fixation. Previous research has focused on soil nitrogenase activity in pristine mangrove forests with little anthropogenic impact. This research was designed to evaluate the magnitude of nitrogenase activity of mangrove soils in a high anthropogenic N-loading environment and the way in which soil N2 fixation in mangrove forest may be related to organic carbon and salinity. The test involved an acetylene reduction method under controlled laboratory conditions. The mangrove forests with high anthropogenic N loading may have high nitrogenase activity in the soils. The diazotrophs in these mangrove soils were mostly heterotrophs and the sulfate-reducing bacteria were the major N2-fixing bacteria. The nitrogenase activity was little affected by the soil salinity, which suggests that these groups of N2 fixation bacteria adapted well to saline conditions in the estuary.

  1. Novel anterior cruciate ligament graft fixation device reduces slippage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Mandi J; Borne, Allen; Monroe, W Todd; Bommala, Prakash; Kelly, Laura; Zhang, Nan

    2013-01-01

    Clinically significant laxity occurs in 10%-30% of knees after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Graft slippage and tension loss at the hamstring graft tibial fixation site during and after reconstruction surgery contribute to postoperative joint laxity and are detrimental to long-term knee stability and graft properties. Limiting graft slippage will reduce associated complications. We sought to compare the in vitro mechanical properties and in vivo joint stabilization, postoperative limb use, and graft incorporation of the novel GraftGrab™ (GG) device designed to reduce hamstring graft tibial fixation slippage with the commercially available bioabsorbable Bio-Post™ and spiked washer (BP). Mechanical testing was performed on canine tibia-hamstring graft constructs to quantify initial fixation properties. In vivo joint stabilization, postoperative limb use and graft incorporation of hamstring graft reconstructions were determined in a canine model. Outcomes included tibial translation and ground reaction forces preoperatively and 4 and 8 weeks postoperatively, three-dimensional graft and bone tunnel dimensions at the latter two time points, and graft-bone microstructure, as well as mechanical properties 8 weeks after implantation. Immediately after fixation, all grafts slipped from the BP constructs versus about 30% of GG constructs. In vivo limb use remained low, and tibial translation increased with time in the BP cohort. These results together confirm that initial graft slippage is lower with GG versus BP extracortical hamstring graft tibial fixation. In addition, postoperative recovery and joint stability are more consistent with the GG. This information supports the GG as an alternative to extracortical tibial hamstring graft fixation that has procedural advantages over current implants and reduces graft failure from slippage.

  2. Internal fixation of mandibular angle fractures: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regev, Eran; Shiff, Jacob S; Kiss, Alex; Fialkov, Jeffrey A

    2010-06-01

    The degree of rigidity of internal fixation required for the treatment of mandibular angle fractures has long been at the center of debate in the literature. A statistical comparison between rigid fixation and monocortical fixation has been difficult because of multiple terms, definitions, and technical variations. The purpose of this study was to use the meta-analysis tool to combine information from multiple studies and to compare complication rates for different fixation methods. An English language literature search was conducted for articles on mandibular angle fractures. Information was collected on four variables of interest: compression/noncompression technique, monocortical/bicortical screws, number of plates, and location of plates. Five outcome rates were analyzed: infection, reoperation, hardware removal, malunion, and nonunion. Meta-analyses were run using Comprehensive Meta Analysis, version 2.2.03. Twenty-four studies with relevant data on the variables and outcomes of interest met the inclusion criteria. Significantly higher rates of infection, reoperation, and hardware removal were found for compression compared with noncompression, two plates compared with one plate, and for plates located on both the inferior and superior borders as compared with superior or inferior only. There were also significantly higher infection rates for bicortical screws compared with monocortical screws and higher malunion rates for compression compared with noncompression plating techniques. The results of this meta-analysis found lower complication rates with the use of noncompression, monocortical, and single-plate fixation, supporting the trend toward a single, superiorly placed, monocortical miniplate for fixation of mandibular angle fractures.

  3. Fixations on objects in natural scenes: dissociating importance from salience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Marius e’t Hart

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The relation of selective attention to understanding of natural scenes has been subject to intense behavioral research and computational modeling, and gaze is often used as a proxy for such attention. The probability of an image region to be fixated typically correlates with its contrast. However, this relation does not imply a causal role of contrast. Rather, contrast may relate to an object’s importance for a scene, which in turn drives attention. Here we operationalize importance by the probability that an observer names the object as characteristic for a scene. We modify luminance contrast of either a frequently named (common/important or a rarely named (rare/unimportant object, track the observers’ eye movements during scene viewing and ask them to provide keywords describing the scene immediately after.When no object is modified relative to the background, important objects draw more fixations than unimportant ones. Increases of contrast make an object more likely to be fixated, irrespective of whether it was important for the original scene, while decreases in contrast have little effect on fixations. Any contrast modification makes originally unimportant objects more important for the scene. Finally, important objects are fixated more centrally than unimportant objects, irrespective of contrast.Our data suggest a dissociation between object importance (relevance for the scene and salience (relevance for attention. If an object obeys natural scene statistics, important objects are also salient. However, when natural scene statistics are violated, importance and salience are differentially affected. Object salience is modulated by the expectation about object properties (e.g., formed by context or gist, and importance by the violation of such expectations. In addition, the dependence of fixated locations within an object on the object’s importance suggests an analogy to the effects of word frequency on landing positions in reading.

  4. Effect of fixation tasks on multifocal visual evoked potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Alessandra; Klistorner, Alexander; Graham, Stuart; Billson, Frank

    2005-10-01

    This study investigated the effects of cognitive influence on the multifocal visual evoked potential (mVEP) at different levels of eccentricity. Three different foveal fixation conditions were utilized involving varying levels of task complexity. A more complex visual fixation task has been known to suppress peripheral signals in subjective testing. Twenty normal subjects had monocular mVEPs recorded using the AccuMap objective perimeter. This allowed simultaneous stimulation of 58 segments of the visual field to an eccentricity of 24 degrees. The mVEP was recorded using three different fixation conditions in random order. During task 1 the subject passively viewed the central fixation area. For task 2 alternating numbers were displayed within the fixation area; the subject on viewing the number '3' in the central fixation area indicated recognition by pressing a button. Throughout task 3, numbers were displayed as in task 2. The subject had the cognitive task of summating all the numbers. Analysis revealed that the increased attention and concentration demanded by tasks 2 and 3 in comparison with task 1 resulted in significantly enhanced central amplitudes of 9.41% (Mann-Whitney P = 0.0002) and 13.45% (P = 0.0002), respectively. These amplitudes became reduced in the periphery and approached those of task 1, resulting in no significant difference between the three tasks. Latencies demonstrated no significant difference between each task nor at any eccentricity (P > 0.05). As the complexity of each task increased the amount of alpha rhythm was significantly reduced. Our findings indicate that task 1 required a minimal demand of cognition and was associated with the greatest amount of alpha rhythm. It was also the most difficult to perform because of loss of interest. The other two tasks required a greater demand of higher order cognitive skills resulting in significantly enhanced amplitudes centrally and the attenuation of alpha rhythm. Therefore, amplitudes are

  5. Preliminary experience with biodegradable implants for fracture fixation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhillon Mandeep

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Biodegradable implants were designed to overcome the disadvantages of metal-based internal fixation devices. Although they have been in use for four decades internationally, many surgeons in India continue to be skeptical about the mechanical strength of biodegradable implants, hence this study. Materials and Methods: A prospective study was done to assess the feasibility and surgeon confidence level with biodegradable implants over a 12-month period in an Indian hospital. Fifteen fractures (intra-articular, metaphyseal or small bone fractures were fixed with biodegradable implants. The surgeries were randomly scheduled so that different surgeons with different levels of experience could use the implants for fixation. Results: Three fractures (one humeral condyle, two capitulum, were supplemented by additional K-wires fixation. Trans-articular fixator was applied in two distal radius and two pilon fractures where bio-pins alone were used. All fractures united, but in two cases the fracture displaced partially during the healing phase; one fibula due to early walking, and one radius was deemed unstable even after bio-pin and external fixator. Conclusions: Biodegradable -implants are excellent for carefully selected cases of intra-articular fractures and some small bone fractures. However, limitations for use in long bone fractures persist and no great advantage is gained if a "hybrid" composite is employed. The mechanical properties of biopins and screws in isolation are perceived to be inferior to those of conventional metal implants, leading to low confidence levels regarding the stability of reduced fractures; these implants should be used predominantly in fracture patterns in which internal fixation is subjected to minimal stress.

  6. Optimal fixation of oblique scaphoid fractures: a cadaver model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luria, Shai; Lenart, Lado; Lenart, Borut; Peleg, Eran; Kastelec, Matej

    2012-07-01

    Acute scaphoid fractures are commonly fixed with headless cannulated screws positioned in the center of the proximal fragment. Central placement of the screw may be difficult and may violate the scaphotrapezial joint. We hypothesize that placement of the screw through the scaphoid tuberosity will achieve perpendicular fixation of an oblique waist fracture and result in more stable fixation than a screw in the center of the proximal fragment. We designed oblique osteotomies for 8 matched pairs of cadaver scaphoids and fixed each specimen with a headless cannulated screw. In 1 specimen, we positioned the screw at the center of the proximal fragment; we placed its matched pair perpendicular to the fracture. The perpendicular screw was directed through the scaphoid tuberosity. We placed the specimen under the increasing load of a pneumatically driven plunger. We compared stiffness, load, distance at failure, and mechanism of failure between the central and perpendicular screw groups. We found no difference between groups. Stiffness was identical in both groups (131 N/mm) and load to failure was similar (central screw, 137 N vs perpendicular screw, 148 N). In this biomechanical model of an unstable scaphoid fracture, we found that similar stability of fixation had been achieved with a screw perpendicular to the fracture plane with entry through the tuberosity, compared with a screw in a central position in the proximal fragment. This study suggests that placing the screw through the tuberosity, perpendicular to a short oblique fracture, will not impair fixation stability. Percutaneous fixation of scaphoid fractures has become popular although it is technically challenging. An easier distal approach through the tuberosity, without violating the scaphotrapezial joint, may not impair the fixation stability of an oblique fracture. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Prevention of Thumb Web Space Contracture With Multiplanar External Fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Carl M; Iorio, Matthew L

    2016-09-01

    Thumb web space contracture following hand trauma can be disabling with numerous reconstructive procedures existing to correct the resultant deformity. Following marked soft tissue injury to the hand we utilized the Stryker Hoffmann II Micro External Fixator System to link the first and second metacarpals by a multiplanar system using 1.6 or 2.0 mm self-drilling half-pins and 3 mm carbon fiber connecting rods. This facilitated placement of the thumb in maximal palmar abduction as well as allowed adjustment of thumb position throughout the postoperative period. This technique was performed on 5 patients. Two patients were treated with a first web space external fixator for table saw injuries to the radial aspect of the hand. An additional 2 patients were treated with a first web space external fixator following metacarpophalangeal joint capsular release in the setting of thermal burns. A fifth patient underwent second ray amputation, trapeziectomy and trapezoidectomy for squamous cell carcinoma with subsequent stabilization with the external fixator. The external fixator was left in place until soft tissues were healed (average 5.5 wk). The patients were allowed to mobilize their hand in as much as the external fixator allowed, and no device-associated complications were noted. Thumb web space was preserved with passive and supple thumb circumduction and web space abduction/adduction in all patients at an average follow-up of 5 months. The average Quick Dash Score was 35±5 and the average Modern Activity Subjective Survey of 2007 was 30±8.

  8. Probability and time to fixation of an evolving sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Enrique

    2015-09-01

    The propagation of a sequence in a population is traced using a branching process model of Poisson distributions. The sequence, initially inserted in a location of the genome of a single individual, is under selective pressure and can undergo detrimental, beneficial or even neutral mutations that allow for adaptive possibilities in the future. The exact solution for the ultimate probability of fixation (u) of the sequence in this model is a Lambert W function of mutation rates and selective values: [Formula: see text] where γ = 1 + s-μd-μb, β = 2αμb, s is the intrinsic coefficient of selection of the sequence (selective advantage is set by s > 0), μd and μb are the deleterious and beneficial rates of mutations that occur in the sequence and α is the effect of beneficial mutations. Predictions are adaptable to a wide range of situations, e.g., fixation of favourable mutations, local mutators or gene duplicates. The equation for the probability of fixation can be recursively nested, which leads to a non-obvious conclusion: the ultimate probability of fixation of the favourable combination of a number of rare events occurring in the sequence is not the product of the individual probabilities of the events but tends to be approximately proportional to the product of their square roots, which results in a remarkably high chance of fixation. This conclusion has implications in several topics of evolutionary genetics. The analysis also gives the distribution of the times of occurrence of the beneficial mutations that will lead to sequence fixation.

  9. Principes de base du fonctionnement du réseau GSM

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    Si la téléphonie mobile se banalise aujourd'hui, on le doit à la conjonction de l'avènement du numérique, à l'accroissement des performances des semi-conducteurs et à différentes avancées technologiques. Mais le facteur déterminant fut sans doute la cristallisation autour de la norme GSM issue d'un effort soutenu de standardisation mené à l'ETSI (Organe européen de normalisation en télécommunications, créé à l'initiative du Conseil des ministres). Dans cet article, nous passerons en revue...

  10. Classification moléculaire du cancer du sein au Maroc

    OpenAIRE

    Fouad, Abbass; Yousra, Akasbi; Kaoutar, Znati; Omar, El Mesbahi; Afaf, Amarti; Sanae, Bennis

    2012-01-01

    Introduction La classification moléculaire des cancers du sein basée sur l'expression génique puis sur le profil protéique a permis de distinguer cinq groupes moléculaires: luminal A, luminal B, Her2/neu, basal-like et non-classées. L'objectif de cette étude réalisée au CHU Hassan II de Fès est de classer 335 cancers du sein infiltrant en groupes moléculaires, puis de les corréler avec les caractéristiques clinicopathologiques. Méthodes Etude rétrospective étalée sur 45 mois, comportant 335 p...

  11. Impact du stress hydrique sur le fonctionnement hydraulique foliaire du peuplier Populus tremula x alba

    OpenAIRE

    Daaboul, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Afin d’aborder l’impact du stress hydrique sur le fonctionnement hydraulique foliaire, des plants de Populus tremula x alba ont été soumis à un stress hydrique modéré ou sévère pendant une semaine par ajout de PEG dans la solution nutritive. La mesure de paramètres écophysiologiques et moléculaires tissus spécifiques a permis de dégager plusieurs tendances sur la caractérisation de l’influence du stress. Les deux types de stress n’ont que peu d’impact sur la croissance et la capacité de synth...

  12. Caractérisation du canal de propagation dans le contexte d'usine du futur

    OpenAIRE

    Traoré, Albekaye; Boeglen, Hervé; Boria, Sébastien; Vauzelle, Rodolphe

    2016-01-01

    National audience; Nos travaux de recherche s'inscrivent dans le contexte de l'usine du futur des lignes d'assemblages finaux du groupe Airbus. Ce projet vise à numériser et à automatiser le processus d'assemblage d'un avion à travers des robots collaboratifs, des robots autonomes, de la réalité augmentée, des outils connectés et des opérateurs humains. L'ensemble de ces agents doit échanger des commandes de gestion, de contrôle et de surveillance au sein d'un Réseau de Capteurs Sans Fil (RCS...

  13. Effets du chlorure de cadmium et du chromate de plomb sur deux mollusques bivalves

    OpenAIRE

    Ballan-dufrancais, C.; Jeantet, A.y.; Martoja, R; Truchet, M

    1985-01-01

    La contamination expérimentale d'huîtres par le chlorure de cadmium (500 µg/1 pendant 7 et 26 jours) ne cause aucune lésion histologique ou cytologique, mais elle accélère la déplétion testiculaire et, dans quelques cas, s'oppose au stockage du glycogène. L'excellente résistance des huîtres est due à l'efficacité de deux types de mécanismes de détoxication. Le premier consiste en une immobilisation du cadmium, dans les organes absorbants, dans un état chimique stable et inerte sur le plan mét...

  14. Étude comparée du Liber Judiciorum et du Fuero Juzgo

    OpenAIRE

    Estelle MAINTIER-VERMOREL

    2009-01-01

    Étant donné sa situation géographique, entre l’Europe et le monde arable, la Castille a joué un rôle particulièrement important, au Moyen Âge, dans le cadre des activités de traduction - notamment avec la célèbre École de Tolède ou les ateliers d’Alphonse X. Cette étude est centrée sur l’une de ces traductions, réalisée sous le règne de Ferdinand III, qui a représenté un point de départ dans le passage des textes officiels du latin au romance. Il s’agit du Fuero Juzgo, un ensemble de lois oct...

  15. Roman contre roman dans l’organisation du manuscrit du Vatican, Regina Latina 1725

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Gingras

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Alors que les développements structuralistes et post-structuralistes ont favorisé la “textualisation” de la littérature médiévale, l’auteur suggère que la recontextualisation de la réception du roman médiéval passe par un retour aux manuscrits. Appliquée au manuscrit du Vatican, Regina Latina 1725, cette hypothèse de recherche révèle une technique de contrepoint que permet la juxtaposition de différents romans et dont, en dernier recours, le lecteur est toujours un peu juge.

  16. Maintaining trust while fixated to a rehabilitative robot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Laura U.; Winther, Trine Straarup; Jørgensen, Rasmus

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the trust relationship between humans and a rehabilitation robot, the RoboTrainer. We present a study in which participants let the robot guide their arms through a series of preset coordinates in a 3D space. Each participant interact with the robot twice, one time where...... participants hold on to the robotic arm, and a second time where participants are fixated to the robotic arm. Our findings show that in general participants did not feel more insecure when fixated to the robot. However, when the robot arm moves close to participants and enter their intimate space, or when...

  17. Ecosystem feedbacks and nitrogen fixation in boreal forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLuca, Thomas H; Zackrisson, Olle; Gundale, Michael J; Nilsson, Marie-Charlotte

    2008-05-30

    Biological feedback mechanisms regulate fundamental ecosystem processes and potentially regulate ecosystem productivity. To date, no studies have documented the down-regulation of terrestrial nitrogen (N) fixation via an ecosystem-level feedback mechanism. Herein, we demonstrate such a feedback in boreal forests. Rapid cycling of N in early secondary succession forests yielded greater throughfall N deposition, which in turn decreased N fixation by cyanobacterial associates in feather moss carpets that reside on the forest floor. The forest canopy exerts a tight control on biotic N input at a period of high productivity.

  18. Nitrogen fixation during an unusual summer Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voss, Maren; Dalsgaard, Tage; Fabian, Jenny

    Nitrogen fixation is a major nitrogen source for the open ocean. Also the land-locked, partly anoxic Baltic Sea receives almost as much nitrogen from nitrogen fixation as it receives from eutrophied rivers. Growth conditions for cyanobacteria are usually very favorable with low N/P ratios after...... winter mixing and a strong stratification and high surface temperatures in summer. However, the summer 2012 was quite different with strong winds and cold surface waters. Blooms of cyanobacteria therefore only developed in sheltered regions but not in the central Baltic Proper. Moreover, a greater...

  19. Micro-Trottoir à Genève à propos du CERN et du LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Video Productions

    2009-01-01

    Questions : Qu'est-ce-que le LHC? Quelle est la fonction du LHC? Qu'est-ce-que le CERN? D'après vous, les recherches engendrées pour le LHC peuvent-elles ?tre bénéfiques, utiles pour la société? Où a été inventé le Web? Lieux : Forum Meyrin Université de Genève Genève Centre

  20. Sur la biologie du Castor du Rhône (Castor fiber L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urbain, Achille

    1949-01-01

    Le Castor du Rhône ( Castor fiber L.) a été particulièrement bien étudié par de nombreux auteurs. VICTOR PIRAUD ¹) a donné d’intéressants renseignements sur ses moeurs; M. P. CORDIER ²) et A. HUGUES ³) ont fait aussi une étude appronfondie de cet animal et L. GERMAND 4) a fourni une description déta

  1. Sur la biologie du Castor du Rhône (Castor fiber L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urbain, Achille

    1949-01-01

    Le Castor du Rhône ( Castor fiber L.) a été particulièrement bien étudié par de nombreux auteurs. VICTOR PIRAUD ¹) a donné d’intéressants renseignements sur ses moeurs; M. P. CORDIER ²) et A. HUGUES ³) ont fait aussi une étude appronfondie de cet animal et L. GERMAND 4) a fourni une description

  2. Annuaire du Bureau des longitudes - 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imcce; Bureau Des Longitudes

    2005-07-01

    This annual publication provides ephemerides and data to the use of professionnal and amateur astronomers. Divided in 11 chapters it covers concordance of various calendars, explanation of fondamental astronomy and various time scales, explanation for the use of ephemerides; tables provide ephemerides (positions, rise/set/passage) of the Sun and the Moon, planets, planetary satellites, asteroids, comets, bright stars; data and explanation for the physical observation of the surface of the Sun, the Moon, and planets; chart of the sky and a list of constellations and galaxies; prediction and ephemerides for astronomical phenomenon: occultation by the moon, stellar occultations by asteroids and appulses, solar eclipses and lunar eclipses; and an additional review about a hot scientific topic, this year: "Legendre et le méridien terrestre, 200 ans après". Cette publication annuelle fournit des éphémérides et des données à l'usage des astronomes professionnels et des astronomes amateurs. Composée de 11 chapitres elle comprend les rubriques sur les différents calendriers et leurs concordance, les fêtes légales en France, les dates et décrets sur les heures légales en France métropolitaine ; une introduction à l'astronomie fondamentale et aux différentes échelles de temps, des explications sur l'utilisation des éphémérides ; des tables fournissent les éphémérides (positions, heures de lever/coucher/passage) du Soleil et de la Lune, de planètes, de satellites naturels, d'astéroïdes, de comètes, d'étoiles brillantes ; des données pour l'observation de la surface du Soleil, de la Lune, et des planètes ; des cartes du ciel ainsi qu'une liste de constellations et de galaxies ; des prédictions des phénomènes astronomiques : occultation par la Lune, occultation stellaires par des astéroïdes et appulses, éclipses de Soleil et de la Lune; la liste et les coordonnées des observatoires astronomiques les plus connus ; et enfin un cahier th

  3. Centre-of-Gravity Fixations in Visual Search: When Looking at Nothing Helps to Find Something

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dustin Venini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In visual search, some fixations are made between stimuli on empty regions, commonly referred to as “centre-of-gravity” fixations (henceforth: COG fixations. Previous studies have shown that observers with task expertise show more COG fixations than novices. This led to the view that COG fixations reflect simultaneous encoding of multiple stimuli, allowing more efficient processing of task-related items. The present study tested whether COG fixations also aid performance in visual search tasks with unfamiliar and abstract stimuli. Moreover, to provide evidence for the multiple-item processing view, we analysed the effects of COG fixations on the number and dwell times of stimulus fixations. The results showed that (1 search efficiency increased with increasing COG fixations even in search for unfamiliar stimuli and in the absence of special higher-order skills, (2 COG fixations reliably reduced the number of stimulus fixations and their dwell times, indicating processing of multiple distractors, and (3 the proportion of COG fixations was dynamically adapted to potential information gain of COG locations. A second experiment showed that COG fixations are diminished when stimulus positions unpredictably vary across trials. Together, the results support the multiple-item processing view, which has important implications for current theories of visual search.

  4. Peuplements profonds du Golfe de Gascogne. Campagnes BIOGAS

    OpenAIRE

    Laubier, Lucien; Monniot, Claude

    1985-01-01

    Ce volume contient les résultats recueillis sur les peuplements benthiques profonds du golfe de Gascogne pendant les campagnes du programme BIOGAS effectuées au cours de deux périodes successives: 1972-1974 et 1977-1981. Les caractéristiques hydrologiques, courantologiques, morphologiques et sédimentologiques, indispensables à l'étude écologique des peuplements, sont présentées dans la première partie consacrée à l'étude du milieu, avec des informations sur la production pélagique et le flux ...

  5. Accidents du travail et mesures de prevention - Annee 2005

    CERN Document Server

    Fassnacht, V

    2006-01-01

    Ce rapport présente les statistiques relatives aux accidents du travail pour l’année 2005 pour les membres du personnel CERN et du personnel entreprise. Il fournit les taux de fréquence et de gravité, la répartition des accidents par cause et par lésion. Ce rapport présente également une synthèse de l’analyse des accidents les plus graves et des recommandations associées.

  6. L'impact du "narcotrafic" à Medellín

    OpenAIRE

    1992-01-01

    Texte intégral déposé avec l'aimable autorisation de l'éditeur; International audience; L'article étudie l'impact du narcotrafic dans une ville qui était le siège du cartel le plus puissant de la drogue en Colombie au début des années 1990. Les effets du trafic de drogue sont étudiés dans leur diversité et complexité: situation politique et trouble à l'ordre public, violence et homicides, conséquences sociales et économiques.

  7. Brain stem hypoplasia associated with Cri-du-Chat syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jin Ho; Lee, Ha Young; Lim, Myung Kwan; Kim, Mi Young; Kang, Young Hye; Lee, Kyung Hee; Cho, Soon Gu

    2013-01-01

    Cri-du-Chat syndrome, also called the 5p-syndrome, is a rare genetic abnormality, and only few cases have been reported on its brain MRI findings. We describe the magnetic resonance imaging findings of a 1-year-old girl with Cri-du-Chat syndrome who showed brain stem hypoplasia, particularly in the pons, with normal cerebellum and diffuse hypoplasia of the cerebral hemispheres. We suggest that Cri-du-Chat syndrome chould be suspected in children with brain stem hypoplasia, particularly for those with high-pitched cries.

  8. Brain stem hypoplasia associated with Cri-du-Chat syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Jin Ho; Lee, Ha Young; Lim, Myung Kwan; Kim, Mi Young; Kang, Young Hye; Lee, Kyung Hee; Cho, Soon Gu [Dept. of Radiology, Inha University Hospital, Inha University School of Medicine, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    Cri-du-Chat syndrome, also called the 5p-syndrome, is a rare genetic abnormality, and only few cases have been reported on its brain MRI findings. We describe the magnetic resonance imaging findings of a 1-year-old girl with Cri-du-Chat syndrome who showed brain stem hypoplasia, particularly in the pons, with normal cerebellum and diffuse hypoplasia of the cerebral hemispheres. We suggest that Cri-du-Chat syndrome chould be suspected in children with brain stem hypoplasia, particularly for those with high-pitched cries.

  9. Lettre ouverte au Président du Conseil du CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Association du personnel

    2010-01-01

    Genève, le 1er février 2010 Monsieur le Président, Les membres de la Caisse de pensions, actifs et pensionnés, sont à la fois très inquiets et indignés par la manière avec laquelle le Conseil traite la question, devenue alarmante, de l’équilibre de la Caisse. Dès 2004 en effet, l’étude actuarielle avait alerté le Conseil au sujet du déficit technique du régime et de l’insuffisance du financement de son plan de prestations. Le Conseil s’est alors contenté de mettre en place un mécanisme de sous indexation des pensions – arbitraire et discriminatoire dans la mesure où il ne fait appel qu’à la solidarité des pensionnés – et de décider une augmentation minime des contributions à la Caisse, une mesurette ...

  10. L’INFLUENCE DU FLUX SOLAIRE SUR L’EFFICACITE DU CONVERTISSEUR SOLAIRE PLAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadir BELLEL

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Le solaire thermique est une énergie gratuite, nous présentons dans cette travail une application de cette énergie. Notre étude consiste à maître en présence l’influence du flux solaire Sur la température de sortie du fluide caloporteur et le la température de la plaque d'absorbeur d’un capteur solaire plan incliné. On découper le capteur en tranches fictives dans le sens de l’écoulement du fluide caloporteur et à établir les bilans des échanges qui interviennent aux niveaux des noeuds considérés : l’extérieure de la vitre, l’intérieur de la vitre, l’absorbeur, dans le fluide colporteur ainsi que l’intérieure et l’extérieur de l’isolant. Il est commode pour cela d’utiliser l’analogie qui existe entre les transferts de chaleur et les lois électrique, les profils des températures au niveau des noeuds principaux résultats commentés. Le programme élaboré a été validé par l’étude comparative des résultats théoriques et expérimentaux pris dans les mêmes conditions.

  11. L'odyssée du zeptoespace un voyage au coeur de la physique du LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Giudice, Gian Francesco

    2013-01-01

    La découverte du boson de Higgs va bouleverser le monde de la physique des particules. Mais quelle est la nature exacte de cette particule ? Pourquoi est-elle si importante pour la compréhension de notre univers ? Celui-ci recèle-t-il une supersymétrie cachée ? Ou s’étend-il dans des dimensions supplémentaires ? C’est à ces questions, parmi beaucoup d’autres, que répond Gian Giudice, physicien au CERN, dans cet ouvrage exceptionnel et déjà traduit dans plusieurs langues à travers le monde. Le lecteur explore au fil des pages le coeur même de la physique des particules, perçoit la nature des composants intimes de la matière, prend conscience des innovations technologiques inouïes qui ont été nécessaires à l’élaboration du plus grand accélérateur de physique des particules, le Grand collisionneur de particules (LHC) du CERN, et découvre les théories spéculatives qui tentent de décrire les lois fondamentales de l’Univers. Ce guide simple et accessible à tous ne se contente p...

  12. Fixing of metallic acetates on an anion-exchange resin; Fixation d'acetates metalliques dans une resine echangeuse d'anions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brigaudeau-Vaissiere, M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etude Nucleaires

    1966-06-01

    After giving a brief review of the theoretical principles governing the fixation of anionic complexes of metallic elements on an anion exchange resin, we consider the particular case of uranyl acetate. By plotting the partition curves we have been able to calculate the exchange constants in the resin. By studying the changes in the logarithm of the limiting partition coefficient as a function of the logarithm of the free acetate ion concentration, it has been possible to calculate the dissociation constants for the complexes in solution. The fixation of a large number of metallic acetates has been studied. All the tests have been negative except in the case of mercury. For this reason we have been able to consider the possibility of separating uranium from a certain number of elements. Some of these separations are possible even in the presence of interfering anions such as chlorides which have a greater affinity for the resin than have the acetate ions. In the case of water-ethanol and water-isopropanol mixtures, we have improved the conditions under which copper acetate and mercury acetate may be fixed. This study has enabled us to calculate the dissociation constant for the CuAc{sub 3}{sup -} complex in the mixtures water +40% (by weight) isopropanol and water +50% (by weight) isopropanol. It should also make it possible to use separation conditions which could not hitherto be applied in aqueous media. (author) [French] Apres avoir rappele les principes theoriques de la fixation des complexes anioniques des elements metalliques dans une resine echangeuse d'anions, nous avons etudie tout particulierement le cas de l'acetate d'uranyle. Le trace des courbes de partage nous a permis de calculer les constantes d'echange dans la resine. L'etude des variations du logarithme du coefficient limite de partage avec le logarithme de la concentration des ions acetate libres nous a conduits aux calculs des constantes de dissociation des complexes en

  13. Cysteic acid and taurine synthesis from sulphate in the chick embryo; Synthese de l'acide cysteique et de la taurine a partir du sulfate dans l'oeuf embryonne de poule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapeville, F. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    The formation of taurine from sulphate was studied in the chick embryo using the radioisotopes of: sulphur, carbon and hydrogen. The following reactions occur: 1) reduction of sulphate to sulphite; 2) fixation of the sulphite on a carbon chain with an amino group, resulting from desulphydration of L-cysteine, which leads to the formation of L-cysteic acid; 3) decarboxylation of L-cysteic acid. Reaction (1) takes place only in the endo-dermal cells of the yolk sac; reaction (2) in these same cells and in the yolk; reaction (3) is general, localized in the yolk sac, in the yolk as well as in the tissues of the embryo itself. The enzyme which catalyses reaction (2) has been purified; the coenzyme is pyridoxal phosphate. The desulphydration of cysteine by this enzyme is a reversible reaction. In non-physiological conditions of concentration and temperature, pyridoxal phosphate catalyses in the presence of metallic ions, the desulphydration of cysteine and the formation of cysteic acid from sulphite. (author) [French] On a montre que la formation de taurine a partir de sulfate dans I'oeuf embryonne de poule, etudiee a l'aide des radioisotopes, du soufre, du carbone et de l'hydrogene, correspond aux reactions suivantes: 1) reduction du sulfate en sulfite; 2) fixation du sulfite sur une chaine tricarbonee et aminee provenant de la desulfhydration de la L-cysteine, fixation conduisant a la formation d'acide L-cysteique; 3) decarboxylation de l'acide L-cysteique. La reaction (1) a lieu uniquement dans les cellules de l'endoderme du sac vitellin; la reaction (2) dans les memes cellules et dans le vitellus; la reaction (3) est plus generale, elle est localisee dans le sac vitellin, dans le vitellus et dans les tissus de l'embryon. L'enzyme qui catalyse la reaction (2) a ete purifie; il possede le phosphate de pyridoxal comme coenzyme. La desulfhydration de la cysteine par cet enzyme est une reaction reversible. Dans les conditions non

  14. A cell shrinkage artefact in growth plate chondrocytes with common fixative solutions: importance of fixative osmolarity for maintaining morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MY Loqman

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The remarkable increase in chondrocyte volume is a major determinant in the longitudinal growth of mammalian bones. To permit a detailed morphological study of hypertrophic chondrocytes using standard histological techniques, the preservation of normal chondrocyte morphology is essential. We noticed that during fixation of growth plates with conventional fixative solutions, there was a marked morphological (shrinkage artifact, and we postulated that this arose from the hyper-osmotic nature of these solutions. To test this, we fixed proximal tibia growth plates of 7-day-old rat bones in either (a paraformaldehyde (PFA; 4%, (b glutaraldehyde (GA; 2% with PFA (2% with ruthenium hexamine trichloride (RHT; 0.7%, (c GA (2% with RHT (0.7%, or (d GA (1.3% with RHT (0.5% and osmolarity adjusted to a ‘physiological’ level of ~280mOsm. Using conventional histological methods, confocal microscopy, and image analysis on fluorescently-labelled fixed and living chondrocytes, we then quantified the extent of cell shrinkage and volume change. Our data showed that the high osmolarity of conventional fixatives caused a shrinkage artefact to chondrocytes. This was particularly evident when whole bones were fixed, but could be markedly reduced if bones were sagittally bisected prior to fixation. The shrinkage artefact could be avoided by adjusting the osmolarity of the fixatives to the osmotic pressure of normal extracellular fluids (~280mOsm. These results emphasize the importance of fixative osmolarity, in order to accurately preserve the normal volume/morphology of cells within tissues.

  15. Biomechanical performance of subpectoral biceps tenodesis: a comparison of interference screw fixation, cortical button fixation, and interference screw diameter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, Paul M; Rajaram, Arun; Beitzel, Knut; Hackett, Thomas R; Chowaniec, David M; Mazzocca, Augustus D

    2013-04-01

    Subpectoral biceps tenodesis with interference screw fixation allows reproducible positioning of the tendon to help maintain the length-tension relationship. The aim of our study was to evaluate the role of cortical button fixation in isolation or as an augment to interference screw fixation and to determine if the diameter of the interference screw affected fixation strength. Thirty-two cadaveric shoulders were dissected and randomized to 1 of 4 groups: (1) 7-mm interference screw and cortical button, (2) cortical button alone, (3) 7-mm interference screw, or (4) 8-mm interference screw. Testing was performed on a materials testing system with a 100-N load cycled at 1 Hz for 5000 cycles, followed by an axial load to failure test. Cyclic displacement, ultimate load to failure, and site of failure were recorded for each specimen. The mean ultimate failure loads were 7-mm interference screw with cortical button augmentation, 237.8 ± 120.4 N; cortical button alone, 99.4 ± 16.9 N; 7-mm interference screw, 275.5 ± 56 N; 8-mm interference screw, 277.1 ± 42.1 N. All specimens failed through tendon failure at the screw-tendon-bone interface. The biomechanical performance of subpectoral biceps tenodesis with interference screw fixation was not improved with cortical button augmentation. In addition, cortical button fixation alone yielded a significantly lower ultimate load to failure compared with interference screws. Finally, the biomechanical performance of smaller-diameter interference screws with matching bone tunnels was not affected by interference screw diameter. Copyright © 2013 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Panorama du roman policier au Mexique

    OpenAIRE

    Lara-Alengrin, Alba

    2013-01-01

    Malgré sa diffusion depuis les années quarante par des collections de poche autochtones, le roman policier fut longtemps, au Mexique, un genre méprisé par la critique et les écrivains. Paco Ignacio Taibo II est le premier écrivain mexicain a légitimer et valoriser le genre policier, en particulier le roman noir, qui connaît simultanément un regain d’intérêt critique et commercial. Ce changement de perception vis-à-vis du roman noir s’accompagne de la création d’un nouveau terme pour le qualif...

  17. Extension du domaine de la lutte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Jeanne

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Avant d’être un événement mexicain, Batalla en el cielo fut un événement cannois, et cela pour une raison qui se banalise (The Brown Bunny l’année précédente : le métrage est jalonné de scènes de sexe explicite. Et si on a beaucoup parlé de la fellation initiale reprise en clôture du film, on pouvait également faire mention des corps nus de métis en surcharge pondérale qui se font l’amour comme on se frappe dans la moiteur d’une nuit chilanga. L’objectif de ce texte n’est pas de réduire l’œ...

  18. Le Musalac : farine de sevrage du Burundi

    OpenAIRE

    Nsavyimana, J.B.

    1995-01-01

    La diffusion de la farine Musalac est basée sur une politique commerciale qui vise à ce que toute la population y ait accès. Pour ce faire, il a été décidé de mettre l'accent sur les différents paramètres qui conditionnent son accessibilité : l'accessibilité géographique par la mise en place d'un système de distribution (grossistes, boutiquiers) et la multiplication des unités de production dans les différentes régions du pays ; l'accessibilité financière par une politique sociale qui vise à ...

  19. Panorama du roman policier au Mexique

    OpenAIRE

    Lara-Alengrin, Alba

    2013-01-01

    Malgré sa diffusion depuis les années quarante par des collections de poche autochtones, le roman policier fut longtemps, au Mexique, un genre méprisé par la critique et les écrivains. Paco Ignacio Taibo II est le premier écrivain mexicain a légitimer et valoriser le genre policier, en particulier le roman noir, qui connaît simultanément un regain d’intérêt critique et commercial. Ce changement de perception vis-à-vis du roman noir s’accompagne de la création d’un nouveau terme pour le qualif...

  20. Rapport sur le risque pays du Maroc

    OpenAIRE

    Sgard, Jérôme

    2006-01-01

    L'économie marocaine s'est comportée de manière satisfaisante au cours des dernières années et ne présente pas de risque d'investissement majeur à échéance de 3 à 5 ans. Les comptes extérieurs, le taux de change et la dette publique totale (66 % du PIB) ne montrent pas de tension sérieuse. Ce constat reflète aussi l'absence de dette extérieure nette et l'absorption réussie, en 2005, de chocs exogènes non-négligeables (pétrole, textile, sécheresse). En outre, cette économie volatile, à l'inser...

  1. Jouir du bonheur ou le penser ?

    OpenAIRE

    Guibet-Lafaye, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    « Malheureusement, le concept du bonheur est un concept si indéterminé, que, malgré le désir qu’a tout homme d’arriver à être heureux, personne ne peut jamais dire en termes précis et cohérents ce que véritablement il désire et veut ». L’agir de la plupart des hommes rend manifeste le fait que le bonheur est pour chacun la chose la plus désirable de toutes, la fin de toutes les actions, ce que traduit la philosophie grecque de l’action en soulignant que le bonheur est la seule chose pour laq...

  2. Chronologie du Yémen 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabîl SUBAY‘

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Sources employées - Agences de presse : Associated Press (AP, Ajwâ’ yaman lilkhadamât al-i‘lâmiyya et Saba - Hebdomadaires d’opposition : al-Tajamu‘, al-Sahwa et al-Thawrî - Hebdomadaire Anglophone : Yemen Times - Hebdomadaire indépendant : al-Nida’ - Quotidiens : al-Ayyâm, al-Thawra Janvier 4 janvier : Signature de l’accord de renouvellement pour cinq ans pour l’exploitation pétrolière de la zone 18 Ma‘rib-Jawf entre le ministère yéménite du Pétrole et la société Hunt Oil yéméno-américaine....

  3. Chronologie politique du Yémen. 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Levaux

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available photo © François Burgat Politique Intérieure Janvier-février 06 janvier : Dix chefs tribaux des provinces de Ma'rib, de Shabwa et du Jawf, provinces dont l'importance politique va croissant en raison des tensions sécuritaires, affirment leur soutien au Président `Alî `Abd Allâh /Sâli/h dans sa campagne antiterroriste. 14 janvier : L'ambassade américaine reçoit des menaces et ferme son service consulaire. 15 janvier : Amnistie et retour d'exil de Sâlim /Sâli/h Mu/hammad, ancien dirig...

  4. Evaluation du projet SPAS-PMU REVIAC

    OpenAIRE

    Koutaïssoff, D.; Stadelmann, S; Simon-Vermot, P.; Gervasoni, J-P.

    2015-01-01

    Le projet REVIAC: Le projet REVIAC (Réinsertion vie active) est un projet de collaboration entre le Service de prévoyance et d'aides sociales (SPAS) et la Policlinique médicale universitaire (PMU) pour améliorer les possibilités de démarches de réinsertion chez les bénéficiaires du revenu d'insertion (RI) avec certificat d'incapacité de travail. En effet, certains bénéficiaires ont des certificats médicaux d'incapacité récurrents et les assistants sociaux (AS) ne peuvent entreprendre les déma...

  5. Eddie Breuil, Du Nouveau chez Rimbaud

    OpenAIRE

    Richter, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Ce livre, avec son titre-calembour, ne manquera sans doute pas de soulever des réactions. L’auteur propose tout bonnement d’attribuer les Illuminations non plus à Rimbaud mais à Germain Nouveau: «Rimbaud n’est pas l’auteur – affirme-t-il – mais le scribe, scribe de l’autre écrivain présent durant ces copies [des Illuminations]: Nouveau». Si nous voulions accepter cette thèse surprenante, voire déconcertante, nous serions du même coup débarrassés d’un problème qui intrigue depuis toujours les ...

  6. Bernard Bortolussi: bescherelle grammaire du Latin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Capuder

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Bescherellova Slovnica latinskega jezika (La grammaire du latin je po besedah samega avtorja (Bernard Bortolussi napisana tako za začetnike kot za že izurjene latiniste. Prvim so namenjeni predvsem pogla\\je o naglasu in izgovarjavi, shematičen prikaz oblikoslovja in skladnje ter slovnične preglednice z oblikami. Pri poglavju o izgovarjavi je avtor razlagi k posameznim glasovom dodal kratek, a zanimiv prikaz razvoja latinske pisave. Iz razlage in zgledov je razvidno, da gre za pravila ponovno uveljavljene izgovarjave klasičnega obdobja (pronuntiatio restituta, čeprav maajkajo ravno zgledi za glasove, pri katerih se klasična izgovarjava razlikuje od tradicionalne (pred svetlima samoglasnikoma, s med samoglasnikoma ipd..

  7. Entretiens sur la multitude du monde

    CERN Document Server

    Damour, Thibault

    2014-01-01

    L'un est un écrivain et un scénariste célèbre. L'autre est un physicien et un chercheur mondialement connu. Une même interrogation les porte. Comment penser le monde après un siècle de bouleversements scientifiques ? Jean- Claude Carrière et Thibault Damour nous entraînent ici dans un dialogue lumineux, qui met l'esprit au défi de lui- même et où la clarté rivalise avec le gai savoir. La matière éternelle, l'espace et le temps absolus, l 'unique réalité : en ce début de troisième millénaire, toutes ces grandes notions du passé n'ont plus qu'une valeur d'illu- sions. Il n'y a plus d'histoire prédéterminée, inexorable, li- vrée à des forces mécaniques. L'univers se révèle léger, instable, multiple dans la superposition d'une infinité d'his- toires possibles dont nous ne percevons qu'un mince fais- ceau. C'est à la découverte de cette multitude du monde, laissant loin derrière les récits de science-fiction, que nous invitent Jean-Claude Carrière et Thibault Damour. Un voyage p...

  8. Review - Le bergers du Fort Noir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Buffetrille

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Review of: Pascale Dollfus. 2012. Les bergers du Fort Noir. Nomades du Ladakh (Himalaya occidental Société d'ethnologie (collection "Haute Asie". This is a detailed ethnography by Pascale Dollfus of the Kharnakpa (Mkhar nag pa, a small community of Ladakhi nomads living at more than 4,200 meters in the Indian state of Jammu-Kashmir. The total population was only 150 in 2004, down from 375 in 1992, and 261 in 1996. The author started her fieldwork in the 1990s, and was thus able to observe the slow disappearance of the way of life of the shepherds of the Black Fort over the last twenty years. The book features thirteen chapters. The first deals with the problem of the definition of the terms 'nomads' and 'nomadism' and the relations between nomads and sedentary people. The author provides accounts related to the nomads of Ladakh that were written by missionaries, adventurers, scientists, and civil servants. In the second chapter, Dollfus questions the origins of the Ladakhi people, and more specifically of the Kharnakpa population, making use of written chronicles and oral traditions. In the third chapter, the community's religious life is introduced. All members belong to the Drugpa Kagyü ('Brug pa bka' brgyud sect of Tibetan Buddhism and consider Dat Monastery their ideal religious center, where all gather for the spring gyetsa (dge rtsa festival, which is described in detail. The fourth chapter deals with the social organization of these nomadic pastoralists who, in spite of the 1941 law prohibiting polyandry, still practice this type of marriage in order "to have a joint ..

  9. Contes animaliers du Yémen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houda Ayoub

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Patrimoine riche mais fragile, les contes yéménites sont l’objet d’un intérêt croissant de la part des chercheurs et des traducteurs, au Yémen comme en Europe. Fâtima al-Baydânî, qui a fondé en 2006 le centre « Mîl Al-Dhahab » (le « Bâton de Kohl » pour la préservation du patrimoine oral de la mère et de l’enfant, a mené pendant une dizaine d’années un travail exceptionnel de collecte de contes, dans plusieurs gouvernorats du pays. L’atelier de traduction de l’École normale supérieure a rassemblé cinq contes brefs, issus de diverses régions, ayant tous pour personnages principaux des animaux.Animal Tales from YemenThe oral tales of Yemen are a very rich, but fragile heritage. They raise an increasing interest among the researchers and translators, in Yemen and abroad. Fâtima al-Baydânî, who created in 2006 the Mîl al-Dhahab (« the Kohl stick » for the preservation of the oral litterature of the children and mothers, gathered an outstanding amount of tales in many governorates. The Ecole Normal Supérieure tranlation workshop (Paris gathered five tales from various regions, which feature animals as main characters.

  10. La cause des femmes au ministère du Travail : le Comité du travail féminin (1965-1984)

    OpenAIRE

    Revillard, Anne

    2007-01-01

    Rapport de recherche sur le Comité du travail féminin (1965-1984), réalisé dans le cadre d'un contrat DARES/CNRS à l'occasion du centenaire du ministère du Travail (2006); Présentation de l'objetCréé en 1965 sous la tutelle du Ministère du travail, le Comité d'étude et de liaison des problèmes du travail féminin (qui devient Comité du travail féminin en 1971), présidé par Marcelle Devaud, est un organisme consultatif situé à l'interface entre Etat et société civile, composé de représentants d...

  11. Short Segment Fixation Versus Short Segment Fixation With Pedicle Screws at the Fracture Level for Thoracolumbar Burst Fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anghel S

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The most prevailing surgical procedure in the treatment of thoracolumbar burst fractures, Short Segment Fixation (SSF, is often followed by loss of correction or hardware failure which may be significant enough to require another surgical intervention. In order to take advantage of its benefits but to avoid or diminish the risk and impact of associated drawbacks, some other alternatives have been lately developed among which we refer to short segment fixation with intermediate screws (SSF+IS. This article provides a comparative picture over the effectiveness of the two above-mentioned surgical treatments, focusing on their potential to prevent the loss of correction.

  12. [Comparison of vacuum bag fixation and Orfit rack with thermoplastic membrane fixation for image-guided cervical cancer radiotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y B; Wang, Y L; Zhuo, Y H

    2017-06-23

    Objective: To compare the difference of displacement between the vacuum bag fixation and the Orfit rack with thermoplastic membrane fixation of the cervical cancer patients, and to explore the individual fixation of the patients. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of 66 patients diagnosed as cervical cancer in Zhangzhou Municipal Hospital of Fujian Province from December 2014 to April 2016. Among them, 33 patients were fixed with vacuum bag, 33 patients were fixed with the Orfit rack with thermoplastic membrane. The cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images were acquired daily for the first three times of the radiotherapy, followed by once every other day for a total of 15 times. The CBCT scan images were matched with the CT scan images, and the matching results were recorded and analyzed. Results: The absolute value of the displacement in the left and right directions of the vacuum bag group was (0.28±0.30) cm, significantly lower than (0.38±0.46) cm in the Orfit rack with thermoplastic membrane group(Pvacuum bag group was (0.28±0.32) cm, with no significant difference of (0.27±0.23) cm in the Orfit rack with thermoplastic membrane group (P=0.580). The absolute value of the displacement in the up and down directions was (0.33±0.60) cm, with no statistically significant difference of (0.27±0.48) cm in the Orfit rack with thermoplastic membrane group (P=0.150). During the three times of CBCT scans, the differences of displacement in the left and right directions of the vacuum bag group were negligible, while apparently varied in the anteroposterior and up and down directions, however, the differences were not statistically significant (P>0.05). The change of the displacement in the three-dimensional direction in the Orfit rack with thermoplastic membrane group was marginal, and all of the differences were not significant(all P>0.05). Conclusions: Both the vacuum bag fixation and the Orfit rack with thermoplastic membrane fixation are

  13. Simplified technique of mesh fixation during laparoscopic repair of abdominal ventral hernia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piskun, G; Shaftan, G; Fogler, R

    1999-04-01

    The current techniques for intraperitoneal mesh fixation are complex and time-consuming. We present here a simple technique for the fixation of the mesh during laparoscopic intraperitoneal ventral hernia repair.

  14. Classification moléculaire du cancer du sein au Maroc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouad, Abbass; Yousra, Akasbi; Kaoutar, Znati; Omar, El Mesbahi; Afaf, Amarti; Sanae, Bennis

    2012-01-01

    Introduction La classification moléculaire des cancers du sein basée sur l'expression génique puis sur le profil protéique a permis de distinguer cinq groupes moléculaires: luminal A, luminal B, Her2/neu, basal-like et non-classées. L'objectif de cette étude réalisée au CHU Hassan II de Fès est de classer 335 cancers du sein infiltrant en groupes moléculaires, puis de les corréler avec les caractéristiques clinicopathologiques. Méthodes Etude rétrospective étalée sur 45 mois, comportant 335 patientes colligées au CHU pour le diagnostic et le suivi. Les tumeurs sont analysées histologiquement et classées après une étude immunohistochimique en groupes: luminal A, luminal B, Her2+, basal-like et non-classées. Résultats 54.3% des tumeurs sont du groupe luminal A, 16% luminal B, 11.3% Her2+, 11.3% basal-like et 7% non-classées. Le groupe luminal A renferme le plus faible taux de grade III, d'emboles vasculaires ainsi que de métastases; alors que le groupe des non-classées et basal-like représentent un taux élevé de grade III, une faible proportion d'emboles vasculaires et d'envahissement ganglionnaire. Ces facteurs sont significativement élevés dans les groupes luminal B et Her2+ avec un taux de survie globale de 78% et 76% respectivement. Dans le groupe luminal A, la survie globale des patientes est élevée (87%) alors qu'elle n'est que de 49% dans le groupe des triples négatifs (basal-like et non-classés). Conclusion Le groupe luminal B est différent du luminal A et il est de pronostic péjoratif vis à vis du groupe Her2+. Les caractéristiques clinicopathologiques concordent avec le profil moléculaire donc devraient être pris en considération comme facteurs pronostiques. PMID:23396646

  15. Polysignifiance du toponyme, historicité du sens et interprétation en corpus. Le cas de Outreau

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Cet article s’attache à l’interprétation du toponyme (ici, le nom de lieu habité), en prenant pour exemple le cas du nom propre de ville Outreau. Ce toponyme peut avoir, en contexte, des sens différents (polysignifiance). Mais surtout, il a vu, dans une période restreinte (2001-2006), son sens évoluer totalement jusqu’à se stabiliser, à partir de 2005-2006, comme renvoyant principalement à « l’erreur judiciaire par excellence ». La polysignifiance du nom de lieu habité et l’évolution de son s...

  16. Compte rendu du livre de Philippe Robert, La sociologie du crime, La Découverte, Paris, 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-François Cauchie

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Figure incontournable de la sociologie pénale depuis près de 40 ans, Philippe Robert nous offre ici un livre riche et remarquable de clarté sur les enjeux d’une définition de la sociologie du crime. Partant du postulat que le crime est un comportement que le droit peut saisir en menaçant son auteur d’une peine (p. 10, la sociologie du crime doit nécessairement aborder trois volets si elle veut rester crédible : une sociologie de l’incrimination (primaire, une sociologie de la transgression ...

  17. Stabilization of unstable pelvic fractures with a novel internal-external fixator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Zan-li; Gary Chen

    2011-01-01

    An internal-external fixator for stabilization in three cases with unstable pelvic fractures were reported.Compared with external fixation,the internal-external fixator,which is placed in the subcutaneous layer,decreased the risk of pin-track infection,pin site pain,and bowel obstruction; meanwhile,it had the advantage of external fixation:it was easy to apply,controlled damage,and resulted in minimal injury.

  18. Pseudoaneurysm of profunda femoris artery following dynamic hip screw fixation for intertrochanteric femoral fracture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shailendra Singh; Sumit Arora; Ankit Thora; Ram Mohan; Sumit Sural; Anil Dhal

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic hip screw fixation is a commonly performed procedure for internal fixation of intertrochanteric femoral fractures.Arterial injury following the operative fixation is a rare but serious event.We present a patient who developed pseudoaneurysm of profunda femoris artery after internal fixation of intertrochanteric fracture with a dynamic hip screw.The diagnosis was confirmed by angiographic study and it was successfully treated by coil embolization.

  19. Duši alla sauna / Margit Aedla

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Aedla, Margit, 1970-

    2007-01-01

    Duraviti multifunktsionaalne värviline duširuum. Electroluxi Design Lab'07 konkursi finalisti Joao Diego Schimansky Fog Shower (ududuš). Väiksematesse kodudesse sobiv Muoto mobiilne aurusaunatool Muoto-Steam Deluxe

  20. The Astrographic Catalogue and the Carte du Ciel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaschek, C.

    1985-11-01

    Answers to a circular letter concerning the Astrographic Catalogue and the Carte du Ciel from Alger (A. Ghezloun), Catania (C. Blanco), Cordoba (G. Carranza), Greenwich (P. J. Andrews), Paris (J. Delhaye), Sydney (A. E. Vaughan), Toulouse (R. Nadal).

  1. Auteur et image d’auteur en analyse du discours

    OpenAIRE

    Maingueneau, Dominique

    2009-01-01

    Le développement récent, dans le champ de l’analyse du discours, d’une réflexion sur « l’auteur » et « l’image d’auteur » met en cause les distinctions traditionnelles : l’auteur n’est ni l’énonciateur du texte, ni une personne en chair et en os, qui relève du contexte. Quant à « l’image d’auteur », elle n’appartient ni au producteur du texte ni au public ; elle est le produit d’une interaction entre des intervenants hétérogènes. Tout d’abord, on s’efforce de clarifier le terme « auteur », qu...

  2. Evaluation des performances du véhicule Toyota Prius

    OpenAIRE

    Jeanneret, Bruno; Harel, Fabien; Badin, François; Trigui, Rochdi; DAMEMME, F; LAVY, J.

    1999-01-01

    CVELEC, GRENOBLE, FRANCE, 03-/11/1999 - 04/11/1999; Une action de recherche portant sur l'évaluation des véhicules hybrides a été menée au sein du laboratoire Transport et Environnement de l'INRETS en collaboration avec l'IFP. Le premier véhicule hybride commercialisé depuis le mois de décembre 1997 au Japon, la Toyota Prius, a tout naturellement été le point de départ du projet. La comparaison des émissions et de la consommation du Îhicule Prius par rapport à des Îhicules du parc actuel perm...

  3. Stravinsky, Igor: Le Sacre du Printemps / Pierre-E. Barbier

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Barbier, Pierre-E.

    1996-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Stravinsky, Igor: Le Sacre du Printemps. Requiem Canticles. Canticum sacrum. Variations sur un choral de Bach. Orchestre de la Suisse Romande, Neeme Järvi" Chandos CHAN 9 408, distribution Media 7 (SD:160F)

  4. Duši alla sauna / Margit Aedla

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Aedla, Margit, 1970-

    2007-01-01

    Duraviti multifunktsionaalne värviline duširuum. Electroluxi Design Lab'07 konkursi finalisti Joao Diego Schimansky Fog Shower (ududuš). Väiksematesse kodudesse sobiv Muoto mobiilne aurusaunatool Muoto-Steam Deluxe

  5. Emilie du Châtelet between Leibniz and Newton

    CERN Document Server

    Hagengruber, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    This book describes Emilie du Chatelet known as "Emilia Newtonmania", and her innovative and outstanding position within the controversy between Newton and Leibniz, one of the fundamental scientific discourses of her time.

  6. Jeunes du Mékong et intégration

    CERN Multimedia

    Jeunes du Mékong et intégration

    2010-01-01

    Marché d’artisanat du Vietnam de l’Association Jeunes du Mékong et Intégration. Le mardi 4 mai, nous serons dans le hall devant la cafeteria. Ce sera avec grand plaisir que nous vous proposerons nos différents produits du Vietnam en faveur des enfants défavorisés du Vietnam. Profitez de cette occasion pour faire vos petits, ou plus grands cadeaux pour la Fête des mères ! Nous vous présenterons les différents nouveaux projets soutenus par l’association dans des dossiers illustrés et vous aurez l’occasion de rencontrer notre chef de projet pour en discuter.  

  7. Adieu Cayenne ou l’imaginaire du bagne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Pierre

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Famille Franchitto pour le poème « Bagnard...Air des bateliers de la Volga » (fonds privé M. FitoussiJacques Strouck, collectionneur, pour l’extrait de « La Belle », interprétée par Andrée TurcyVéronique Fau-Vincenti, du Musée de l’Histoire vivante (Montreuil, pour Le Petit Journal du 10 septembre 1894Franck Sénateur (couverture de Chéri-BibiMarc Renneville (Détective du 8 juin 1933 et Police magazine du 3 mai 1931Dans un imaginaire qui s’est construit sur plusieurs siècles (si l’on prend...

  8. Oblique Du-Fort Frankel Beam Propagation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Chan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The oblique BPM based on the Du-Fort Frankel method is presented. The paper demonstrates the accuracy and the computational improvements of the scheme compared to the oblique BPM based on Crank-Nicholson (CN scheme.

  9. THE DISTRACTION REDUCTION FIXATION SYSTEM AND ITS APPLICATION IN SPONDYLOLISTHESIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective. An internal fixation apparatus— — distraction reduction fixation system(DRFS) was designed to satisfy the clinical needs for spondylolisthesis. Methods. Since 1996, 53 patients were treated with DRFS. Among them, 35 had spondylolisthesis, 12 had lumbar canal stenosis accompanied with instability, 2 had vertebral tumors and 4 suffered from spinal fracture. The average age was 53.6 years old (ranged 24~ 72yrs). The mean time for follow-up was 30.6 months (16 ~ 44 months). Results. The slip rate was 0.15± 0.10 before operation, and decreased to 0.09± 0.07 after operation. Entire slip reposition was achieved in 19 cases (54.3% ). The change in height of the intervertebral space within the fixation segments was 0.7± 0.17. Conclusion. DRFS achieved better results for spondylolisthesis less II degree and no other adverse effects were found. Compared with other foreign and domestic techniques, it had advantages in less implants, less operation gears required and ease to utilize in operation. It was proved to be an ideal internal fixation apparatus.

  10. Rigidity of unilateral external fixators - A biomechanical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.T.P.W. Burgers (Paul); M.P.J.M. Riel (Marcel); L.M.M. Vogels (Lucas); R.W. Stam (Ronald); P. Patka (Peter); E.M.M. van Lieshout (Esther)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: External fixation is the primary choice of temporary fracture stabilisation for specific polytrauma patients. Adequate initial fracture healing requires sufficient stability at the fracture site. The purpose of this study was to compare the rigidity of the Dynafix DFS®Stand

  11. Fixation-related potentials : Foveal versus parafoveal target identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, A.M.; Brinkhuis, M.A.B.; Reuderink, B.; Hogervorst, M.A.; Erp, J.B.F. van

    2014-01-01

    The P300 event-related potential (ERP) can be used to infer whether an observer is looking at a target or not. Common practice in P300 BCIs and experiments is that observers are asked to fixate their eyes while stimuli are presented. First studies have shown that it is also possible to distinguish

  12. [The recovery of visual performance in strabismus with eccentric fixation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusu, V

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to realise a general view about the diagnosis, therapeutic methods and the results obtained in eccentric fixation strabismus. We realised a six years retrospective study on 144 eccentric strabismus, watching dynamic the evolution by testing: the orthophoric status, visual acuity, binocular vision and the type of fixation. Medium follow un time was of 19.6 months. In the end of the treatment we notice: visual acuity between 0.1-0.5 in 14% cases; central fixation in 52 children (36%); first degree of binocular vision in 15 children (10.4%) and second degree in 5 cases (3.47%). This study showed that the early installation of eccentric fixation strabismus was in 53% cases before reaching one year old and in 90% before two years old. The functional results was negative influenced by the delay in presentation (42% come after 2 years) and the difficulties in family cooperation (46.5% were followed up lesenban 6 months).

  13. Injectable calcium phosphate cement for bone repair and implant fixation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, J.; Ooms, E.M.; Verdonschot, N.J.J.; Wolke, J.G.C.

    2005-01-01

    The studies as described are aimed at determining the efficacy of newly developed calcium phosphate cement when this material is used as a bone defect filler or gap filler around metal implants. An overview is provided about bone graft substitutes and methods of metal implant fixation.

  14. Nature's process for nitrogen fixation caught in action

    OpenAIRE

    Trulove, Susan

    2006-01-01

    Nitrogen gas is converted to ammonia fertilizer by a chemical process that involves high temperature and high pressure. Nature does the same thing at ambient temperature and pressure. The process, called nitrogen fixation, is essential to life as it provides nutrients to plant life.

  15. Sulcus Fixation of Foldable Intraocular Lenses Guided by Ultrasound Biomicroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shasha; Qin, Tingyu; Wang, Shengnan; Lu, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Background. To evaluate the clinical efficacy of suture fixation of foldable intraocular lens (IOL) in ciliary sulcus guided by ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM). Methods. Thirty-five eyes of 32 cases needing suture fixation of foldable IOL in ciliary sulcus in our hospital were collected and divided into two groups: group A and group B. In group A, UBM was performed on 19 eyes of 17 cases before surgery to locate the projection position of ciliary sulcus in iris surface. In group B, the traditional sulcus fixation of IOL was performed on 16 eyes of 15 cases. The inserting position of needles, the haptics position of IOL and the IOL tilt, and decentration were observed by UBM examination 3 months after the surgery. Meanwhile, the vision and contrast sensitivity were analysed. Results. The differences in inserting position of the needle, the IOL tilt and decentration, the ratio of IOL haptics in sulcus, and uncorrected visual acuity were statistically significant (P 0.05). Conclusions. Sulcus fixation of foldable IOL aided by UBM can increase the accuracy of IOL haptics implanted into ciliary sulcus and reduce the IOL tilt and decentration.

  16. 21 CFR 888.3020 - Intramedullary fixation rod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Intramedullary fixation rod. 888.3020 Section 888.3020 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... of alloys such as cobalt-chromium-molybdenum and stainless steel. It is inserted into the medullary...

  17. Macular pigment and fixation after macular translocation surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinhard, Jens; Kanis, Martijn J.; Berendschot, Tos T. J. M.; Schoen, Christiane; Gelisken, Faik; Trauzettel-Klosinski, Susanne; Bartz-Schmidt, Karl U.; Zrenner, Eberhart

    2010-01-01

    Background After full macular translocation (MT) surgery with 3608 retinotomy, the fovea is rarely identifiable. Our aim was to verify the position of the fovea, to determine how patients fixate after MT and to examine distribution and optical density of macular pigment ( MP). Methods 9 patients aft

  18. N-2 fixation by non-heterocystous cyanobacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergman, B.; Gallon, J.R.; Rai, A.N.; Stal, L.J.

    1997-01-01

    Many, though not all, non-heterocystous cyanobacteria can fix N-2. However, very few strains can fix N-2 aerobically. Nevertheless, these organisms may make a substantial contribution to the global nitrogen cycle. In this general review, N-2 fixation by laboratory cultures and natural populations of

  19. Tracheostoma valves and their fixation : towards an artificial larynx

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geertsema, Albert Anne

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is the development of a new generation tracheostoma valves and their fixation; the tissue connector. The tracheostoma valve and tissue connector can be combined resulting in an external artificia larynx. This is a first stage towards an implantable artificial larynx.

  20. Estimates of biological nitrogen fixation by Pterocarpus lucens in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TonukariJ

    2002-11-15

    Nov 15, 2002 ... spectrometer (EA-IRMS, PDZ Europe LTD, CW1 6ZA,. UK). Results ... Plant leaf biomass (P) was assessed from diameter at breast height ..... nitrogen fixation using the natural abundance method in a plantation of Casuarina ...

  1. Local versus basin-scale limitation of marine nitrogen fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Thomas; Deutsch, Curtis

    2014-06-17

    Nitrogen (N) fixation by diazotrophic plankton is the primary source of this crucial nutrient to the ocean, but the factors limiting its rate and distribution are controversial. According to one view, the ecological niche of diazotrophs is primarily controlled by the ocean through internally generated N deficits that suppress the growth of their competitors. A second view posits an overriding limit from the atmosphere, which restricts diazotrophs to regions where dust deposition satisfies their high iron (Fe) requirement, thus separating N sources from sinks at a global scale. Here we use multiple geochemical signatures of N2 fixation to show that the Fe limitation of diazotrophs is strong enough to modulate the regional distribution of N2 fixation within ocean basins--particularly the Fe-poor Pacific--but not strong enough to influence its partition between basins, which is instead governed by rates of N loss. This scale-dependent limitation of N2 fixation reconciles local observations of Fe stress in diazotroph communities with an inferred spatial coupling of N sources and sinks. Within this regime of intermediate Fe control, the oceanic N reservoir would respond only weakly to enhanced dust fluxes during glacial climates, but strongly to the reduced fluxes hypothesized under anthropogenic climate warming.

  2. Intraocular lens iris fixation. Clinical and macular OCT outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia-Rojas Leonardo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To assess the efficacy, clinical outcomes, visual acuity (VA, incidence of adverse effects, and complications of peripheral iris fixation of 3-piece acrylic IOLs in eyes lacking capsular support. Thirteen patients who underwent implantation and peripheral iris fixation of a 3-piece foldable acrylic PC IOL for aphakia in the absence of capsular support were followed after surgery. Clinical outcomes and macular SD-OCT (Cirrus OCT; Carl Zeiss Meditec, Germany were analyzed. Findings The final CDVA was 20/40 or better in 8 eyes (62%, 20/60 or better in 12 eyes (92%, and one case of 20/80 due to corneal astigmatism and mild persistent edema. No intraoperative complications were reported. There were seven cases of medically controlled ocular hypertension after surgery due to the presence of viscoelastic in the AC. There were no cases of cystoid macular edema, chronic iridocyclitis, IOL subluxation, pigment dispersion, or glaucoma. Macular edema did not develop in any case by means of SD-OCT. Conclusions We think that this technique for iris suture fixation provides safe and effective results. Patients had substantial improvements in UDVA and CDVA. This surgical strategy may be individualized however; age, cornea status, angle structures, iris anatomy, and glaucoma are important considerations in selecting candidates for an appropriate IOL fixation method.

  3. Sulcus Fixation of Foldable Intraocular Lenses Guided by Ultrasound Biomicroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shasha Gao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. To evaluate the clinical efficacy of suture fixation of foldable intraocular lens (IOL in ciliary sulcus guided by ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM. Methods. Thirty-five eyes of 32 cases needing suture fixation of foldable IOL in ciliary sulcus in our hospital were collected and divided into two groups: group A and group B. In group A, UBM was performed on 19 eyes of 17 cases before surgery to locate the projection position of ciliary sulcus in iris surface. In group B, the traditional sulcus fixation of IOL was performed on 16 eyes of 15 cases. The inserting position of needles, the haptics position of IOL and the IOL tilt, and decentration were observed by UBM examination 3 months after the surgery. Meanwhile, the vision and contrast sensitivity were analysed. Results. The differences in inserting position of the needle, the IOL tilt and decentration, the ratio of IOL haptics in sulcus, and uncorrected visual acuity were statistically significant (P0.05. Conclusions. Sulcus fixation of foldable IOL aided by UBM can increase the accuracy of IOL haptics implanted into ciliary sulcus and reduce the IOL tilt and decentration.

  4. Variability for Biological Nitrogen Fixation Capacity in Beans

    Science.gov (United States)

    As legumes, common beans have the capacity to form a symbiotic relationship with soil bacteria called rhizobia and fix nitrogen from the atmosphere. Common beans however are considered to be poor nitrogen fixers as compared to other legumes. Identification of genetic variability for N fixation capac...

  5. Percutaneous reduction and fixation of intraarticular calcaneal fractures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Schepers (Tim); L.M.M. Vogels (Lucas); I.B. Schipper (Inger); P. Patka (Peter)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractObjective: Percutaneous reduction by distraction and subsequent percutaneous screw fixation to restore calcaneal and posterior talocalcaneal facet anatomy. The aim of this technique is to improve functional outcome and to diminish the rate of secondary posttraumatic arthrosis compared to

  6. Robot-assisted Anterior Odontoid Screw Fixation: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Wei; Wang, Han; Liu, Ya-Jun

    2016-08-01

    Anterior odontoid screw fixation has been proved to be effective but technically challenging because the difficult approach is associated with high risks of screw malposition and damage to surrounding vital structures. Navigation techniques are therefore increasingly being used to improve safety and accuracy. However, no robot-assisted odontoid screw fixation has yet been reported. We here report a 61-year-old woman with a type II dens fracture on whom anterior odontoid screw fixation was performed under the guidance of a newly developed robotic system (TiRobot, co-designed by Beijing Jishuitan Hospital and TINAVI Medical Technologies). One odontoid screw was safely and accurately placed, the calculated deviation between the planned and actual positions being 0.9 mm. No intraoperative complications were identified and the patient was discharged on Day 5. Follow-up studies after 2 weeks showed good clinical and radiological results. We believe this is the first reported case of robot-assisted anterior odontoid screw fixation. We consider that complicated procedures can become feasible, safe and accurate using TiRobot systems.

  7. Reconstruction plate fixation of subtrochanteric femoral fractures in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sayed, Moustafa; Abulsaad, Mazen; El-Hadidi, Mahmoud; El-Adl, Wael; El-Batouty, Magdy

    2007-08-01

    Pediatric subtrochanteric femoral fractures are rare and have received limited attention in the literature Treatment is controversial. Different treatment options are used: skin traction, 90/90 skeletal traction, spica casting, cast bracing, internal fixation and external fixation. The aim of this study is to present our results with internal fixation of subtrochanteric femoral fractures in children using a reconstruction plate. Between 2000 and 2004, eighteen patients with closed subtrochanteric femoral fractures were treated in the Mansoura Emergency Hospital. The average age at the time of injury was 8.2 years (range 5.3 years to 11.5 years). Pathological fractures and fractures associated with neuromuscular diseases were excluded from this study. Eight patients had head injuries and/or multiple injuries. In all cases a single 4.5 mm contoured reconstruction plate was used and a 6.5 mm cancellous screw was inserted through the plate into the femoral neck. Average follow-up was 38 months (range, 12 to 47 months). All fractures united with anatomical alignment within an average of 8 weeks (range 6 to 12 weeks). There were no deep infections and no significant limb length discrepancies. At the latest follow-up, no patient had any restriction of activities. Internal fixation with a reconstruction plate appears as a good treatment option for children with subtrochanteric femoral fractures.

  8. Nitrogen fixation and nitrogenase activity of Azotobacter chroococcum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brotonegoro, S.

    1974-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to study the effect of some chemical, physical and biological factors on growth, efficiency of nitrogen fixation and nitrogenase activity of Azotobacter chroococcum.From biochemical studies with cell-free preparations of various nitrogenfixing microorgani

  9. Biomechanical Comparison of Fixation Devices for First Metatarsocuneiform Joint Arthrodesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutsen, Ashleen R; Fleming, John F; Ebramzadeh, Edward; Ho, Nathan C; Warganich, Tibor; Harris, Thomas G; Sangiorgio, Sophia N

    2017-08-01

    Common surgical treatment of first tarsal-metatarsal arthritis is by first metatarsocuneiform joint arthrodesis. While crossed-screw and locking plate fixation are the most widely used methods, a novel construct was designed to alleviate soft tissue irritation while still providing stable fixation. Using anatomic first metatarsal and medial cuneiform composites, we compared 3 arthrodesis implants (crossed-screw, dorsal locking plate, and IO Fix) under 2 cyclic bending loading scenarios (cantilever and 4-point bending). Additionally, the optimal orientation (plantar-dorsal or dorsal-plantar) of the IO Fix construct was determined. Failure load, diastasis, joint space angle, and axial and angular stiffness were determined. Both crossed-screw fixation and the IO Fix constructs experienced significantly higher failure loads than the dorsal locking plate during both loading scenarios. Additionally, they had lower plantar diastasis and joint space angle at failure than the plate. Moreover, the plantar-dorsal IO Fix construct was significantly stiffer than the crossed-screw during cantilever bending. Finally, the plantar-dorsal orientation of the IO Fix device had higher failure load and lower diastasis and angle at failure than in the dorsal-plantar orientation. The results suggest that the IO Fix system can reduce motion at the interfragmentary site and ensure compression for healing comparable to that of the crossed-screw fixation. Level V: Bench testing.

  10. Displaced anterior cruciate ligament avulsion fractures: Arthroscopic staple fixation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S R Sundararajan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL avulsion fracture is commonly associated with knee injuries and its management is controversial ranging from conservative treatment to arthroscopic fixation. The aim of our study was to assess the clinical and radiological results of arthroscopic staple fixation in the management of ACL avulsion fractures. Materials and Methods: Twenty-two patients (17 males and 5 females who underwent arthroscopic staple fixation for displaced ACL avulsion fractures were analysed. The mean age was 32.2 years (15-55 years with a mean followup of 21 months (6-36 months. All patients were assessed clinically by calculating their Lysholm and International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC scores and the radiological union was assessed in the followup radiographs. Results: The mean Lysholm score was 95.4(83-100 and the mean IKDC score was 91.1(77-100 at the final followup. In 20 patients anterior drawer′s test was negative at the end of final followup while two patients had grade I laxity. Associated knee injuries were found in seven cases. The final outcome was not greatly influenced by the presence of associated injuries when treated simultaneously. At final followup all the patients were able to return to their pre-injury occupation Conclusion: Arthroscopic staple fixation is a safe and reliable method for producing clinical and radiological outcome in displaced ACL avulsion fractures.

  11. N-2 fixation by non-heterocystous cyanobacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergman, B.; Gallon, J.R.; Rai, A.N.; Stal, L.J.

    1997-01-01

    Many, though not all, non-heterocystous cyanobacteria can fix N-2. However, very few strains can fix N-2 aerobically. Nevertheless, these organisms may make a substantial contribution to the global nitrogen cycle. In this general review, N-2 fixation by laboratory cultures and natural populations of

  12. Deep Infections After Syndesmotic Fixation With a Suture Button Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantry, Amanda J; O'Donnell, Seth W; Born, Chris T; Hayda, Roman A

    2017-05-01

    Suture button devices such as the TightRope (Arthrex, Naples, Florida) have been increasingly used for syndesmotic fixation of ankle fractures. Despite proposed advantages, prior studies have shown equivalent outcomes, with a theoretical decreased need for removal of hardware. Complications of suture button fixation of syndesmotic instability may be underreported and include lateral suture knot inflammation with or without granuloma formation, infection, aseptic osteolysis with widening of the tibial drill tunnels, heterotopic ossification, and osteomyelitis. In this case series, the authors review the current literature and describe 3 patients with TightRope fixation for syndesmotic instability who developed deep infection. The authors believe that braided suture within suture button devices may provide an environment conducive to the propagation of infection across the syndesmotic fixation tract. Evidence of suture button migration or osteolysis of the TightRope tract should prompt an infectious workup and removal of hardware. If there is concern for infection associated with the TightRope, the authors recommend removing both metallic buttons and the entirety of the suture to prevent harboring a nidus for further infection. [Orthopedics. 2017; 40(3):e541-e545.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  13. Functional Outcome of Internal Fixation of Radial and Ulna Fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mehrdad Mansouri

    2006-02-01

    Conclusion: Anatomic reduction and internal fixation is the standard method for treatment of fractures by displacing radios and ulna in adults. According to results, it seems more intension to motions specially pronation and muscle strengthening foream after surgery will have affect on improving patients’ function specially pronation and Grip strength.

  14. Differences in fixations between grasping and viewing objects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, A.M.; Franz, V.H.; Gegenfurtner, K.R.

    2009-01-01

    Where exactly do people look when they grasp an object? An object is usually contacted at two locations, whereas the gaze can only be at one location at the time. We investigated participants' fixation locations when they grasp objects with the contact positions of both index finger and thumb being

  15. Incubation Provides Relief from Artificial Fixation in Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penaloza, Alan A.; Calvillo, Dustin P.

    2012-01-01

    An incubation effect occurs when taking a break from a problem helps solvers arrive at the correct solution more often than working on it continuously. The forgetting-fixation account, a popular explanation of how incubation works, posits that a break from a problem allows the solver to forget the incorrect path to the solution and finally access…

  16. Communication du Service juridique et du Département HR à l'attention des membres du personnel domiciliés en France

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    Déclaration de revenus 2006 Les membres du personnel trouveront ci-après les informations nécessaires sur la manière de remplir la déclaration de revenus 2006, qui doit être retournée au plus tard le 31 mai 2007. Qui doit remplir la déclaration? Comment l'obtenir? Tous les membres du personnel1) domiciliés en France2), qu'ils soient ou non de nationalité française, doivent remplir la déclaration de revenus 2006 sur la base des présentes instructions et la renvoyer signée, au plus tard le 31 mai 2007, au centre des impôts de leur domicile. Les membres du personnel devraient recevoir la déclaration de revenus 2006 fin avril - début mai. Ceux qui ne la recevraient pas directement devront la retirer au centre des impôts, à la trésorerie ou à la mairie de leur domicile ou bien encore la télécharger sur le site internet du Ministère des Finances (www.finances.gouv.fr). Comment remplir la déclaration Les membres du personnel doivent remplir la DECLARATION PAPIER uniquement. Dé...

  17. Bone graft materials in fixation of orthopaedic implants in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babiker, Hassan

    2013-07-01

    Bone graft is widely used within orthopaedic surgery especially in revision joint arthroplasty and spine fusion. The early implant fixation in the revision situation of loose joint prostheses is important for the long-term survival. Bone autograft has been considered as gold standard in many orthopaedic procedures, whereas allograft is the gold standard by replacement of extensive bone loss. However, the use of autograft is associated with donor site morbidity, especially chronic pain. In addition, the limited supply is a significant clinical challenge. Limitations in the use of allograft include the risk of bacterial contamination and disease transmission as well as non-union and poor bone quality. Other bone graft and substitutes have been considered as alternative in order to improve implant fixation. Hydroxyapatite and collagen type I composite (HA/Collagen) have the potential in mimicking skeletal bones. The osteoconductive properties of the composite might be improved by adding bone marrow aspirate (BMA), which can be harvested during surgery. Other alternatives to bone graft are demineralised bone matrix (DBM) and human cancellous bone (CB). DBM is prepared by acid extraction of human bone and includes bone collagen, morphogenetic proteins and growth factors. The combination of DBM with CB and with allograft might improve the healing potential of these grafts around non-cemented orthopaedic implants and thereby the implant fixation. Study I investigates the effect of HA/Collagen composite alone and in combination with BMA on the early fixation of porous coated titanium implants. In addition, the study compares also the effect of autograft with the gold standard allograft. By using a sheep model, the implants were inserted in the trabecular bone of femoral condyles. The test biomaterials were placed in a well defined peri-implant gap. After the observation period, the bone-implant specimens were harvested and evaluated mechanically by a destructive push

  18. Credit commercial et limitation du credit des entreprises canadiennes

    OpenAIRE

    Cunningham, Rose

    2005-01-01

    Burkart et Ellingsen (2004) ont elabore un modele de credit commercial et de limitation du credit bancaire selon lequel les entreprises a faible ou moyenne rentabilite auraient recours au credit commercial pour attenuer les effets de limitation du credit bancaire. Nous testons cette prediction et plusieurs autres produites par ce modele a partir d'un vaste echantillon compose de plus de 28 000 entreprises canadiennes. Au lieu de choisir arbitrairement les entreprises susceptibles de voir leur...

  19. Peters anomaly in cri-du-chat syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, William C; Cordovez, Jose A; Capasso, Jenina E; Hammersmith, Kristin M; Eagle, Ralph C; Lall-Trail, Joel; Levin, Alex V

    2015-06-01

    The cri-du-chat syndrome is a rare genetic disorder caused by deletions in the short arm of chromosome 5. It presents with a distinctive catlike high-pitched cry, psychomotor delays, microcephaly, craniofacial abnormalities, and, in many cases, ocular findings. We report the first child with cri-du-chat and the findings of unilateral corneal staphyloma due to Peters anomaly and retinal dysplasia. Copyright © 2015 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. LA GEOPOLITIQUE DU PETROLE, LA SUPREMATIE ET LE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrateur

    plus souvent un problème du système de livraison qu'un problème de réserve. 2 Les États-Unis ont ... des réserves mon- diales, venant en tête de liste. .... fourniture du pétrole mondial est appelée à accroître inexorablement. (45% en 2030) ...

  1. The role of minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis in rib fixation : A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bemelman, Michael; Van Baal, Mark; Yuan, Jian Zhang; Leenen, Luke|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/071390596

    2016-01-01

    More than a century ago, the first scientific report was published about fracture fixation with plates. During the 1950's, open reduction and plate fixation for fractures were standardized by the founders of Arbeitsgemeinschaft für osteosynthesefragen/Association for the Study of Internal Fixation.

  2. Ethanol-Glycerin Fixation with Thymol Conservation: A Potential Alternative to Formaldehyde and Phenol Embalming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Niels; Loffler, Sabine; Feja, Christine; Sandrock, Mara; Schmidt, Wolfgang; Bechmann, Ingo; Steinke, Hanno

    2012-01-01

    Anatomical fixation and conservation are required to prevent specimens from undergoing autolysis and decomposition. While fixation is the primary arrest of the structures responsible for autolysis and decomposition, conservation preserves the state of fixation. Although commonly used, formaldehyde has been classified as carcinogenic to humans. For…

  3. Four quadrant parallel peripheral screw fixation for displaced femoral neck fractures in elderly patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhava RJ Satish

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: Closed reduction and cannulated cancellous screw fixation gives satisfactory functional results in large group of elderly patients. The four quadrant parallel peripheral (FQPP screw fixation technique gives good stability, allows controlled collapse, avoids fixation failure and achieves predictable bone healing in displaced femoral neck fracture in patients ≥50 years of age.

  4. Ethanol-Glycerin Fixation with Thymol Conservation: A Potential Alternative to Formaldehyde and Phenol Embalming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Niels; Loffler, Sabine; Feja, Christine; Sandrock, Mara; Schmidt, Wolfgang; Bechmann, Ingo; Steinke, Hanno

    2012-01-01

    Anatomical fixation and conservation are required to prevent specimens from undergoing autolysis and decomposition. While fixation is the primary arrest of the structures responsible for autolysis and decomposition, conservation preserves the state of fixation. Although commonly used, formaldehyde has been classified as carcinogenic to humans. For…

  5. La diffusion du fran(c)ais en Chine du milieu du 19e siècle à nos jours (1)%La diffusion du fran(c)ais en Chine du milieu du19e siècle à nos jours (1)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴冬梅

    2011-01-01

    @@ Ce travail tente le pari d'esquisser I'évolution historique de la diffusion du francais en Chine du milieu du 19e siècle jusqu'à nos jours.La Chine désigne ici essentiellement le continent chinois.Hongkong, Taiwan et Macao ne sont pas pour autant totalement exclus.La question posée est toute simple : qui parle le francais en Chine ? Pour retrouver ces personnes, les établissements d'enseignement nous servent de fil rouge.

  6. Carbon fixation by basalt-hosted microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orcutt, Beth N; Sylvan, Jason B; Rogers, Daniel R; Delaney, Jennifer; Lee, Raymond W; Girguis, Peter R

    2015-01-01

    Oceanic crust is a massive potential habitat for microbial life on Earth, yet our understanding of this ecosystem is limited due to difficulty in access. In particular, measurements of rates of microbial activity are sparse. We used stable carbon isotope incubations of crustal samples, coupled with functional gene analyses, to examine the potential for carbon fixation on oceanic crust. Both seafloor-exposed and subseafloor basalts were recovered from different mid-ocean ridge and hot spot environments (i.e., the Juan de Fuca Ridge, the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, and the Loihi Seamount) and incubated with (13)C-labeled bicarbonate. Seafloor-exposed basalts revealed incorporation of (13)C-label into organic matter over time, though the degree of incorporation was heterogeneous. The incorporation of (13)C into biomass was inconclusive in subseafloor basalts. Translating these measurements into potential rates of carbon fixation indicated that 0.1-10 nmol C g(-1) rock d(-1) could be fixed by seafloor-exposed rocks. When scaled to the global production of oceanic crust, this suggests carbon fixation rates of 10(9)-10(12) g C year(-1), which matches earlier predictions based on thermodynamic calculations. Functional gene analyses indicate that the Calvin cycle is likely the dominant biochemical mechanism for carbon fixation in basalt-hosted biofilms, although the reductive acetyl-CoA pathway and reverse TCA cycle likely play some role in net carbon fixation. These results provide empirical evidence for autotrophy in oceanic crust, suggesting that basalt-hosted autotrophy could be a significant contributor of organic matter in this remote and vast environment.

  7. Changes in North Atlantic nitrogen fixation controlled by ocean circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Marietta; Sigman, Daniel M; Ren, Haojia; Martínez-García, Alfredo; Meckler, A Nele; Hain, Mathis P; Haug, Gerald H

    2013-09-12

    In the ocean, the chemical forms of nitrogen that are readily available for biological use (known collectively as 'fixed' nitrogen) fuel the global phytoplankton productivity that exports carbon to the deep ocean. Accordingly, variation in the oceanic fixed nitrogen reservoir has been proposed as a cause of glacial-interglacial changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration. Marine nitrogen fixation, which produces most of the ocean's fixed nitrogen, is thought to be affected by multiple factors, including ocean temperature and the availability of iron and phosphorus. Here we reconstruct changes in North Atlantic nitrogen fixation over the past 160,000 years from the shell-bound nitrogen isotope ratio ((15)N/(14)N) of planktonic foraminifera in Caribbean Sea sediments. The observed changes cannot be explained by reconstructed changes in temperature, the supply of (iron-bearing) dust or water column denitrification. We identify a strong, roughly 23,000-year cycle in nitrogen fixation and suggest that it is a response to orbitally driven changes in equatorial Atlantic upwelling, which imports 'excess' phosphorus (phosphorus in stoichiometric excess of fixed nitrogen) into the tropical North Atlantic surface. In addition, we find that nitrogen fixation was reduced during glacial stages 6 and 4, when North Atlantic Deep Water had shoaled to become glacial North Atlantic intermediate water, which isolated the Atlantic thermocline from excess phosphorus-rich mid-depth waters that today enter from the Southern Ocean. Although modern studies have yielded diverse views of the controls on nitrogen fixation, our palaeobiogeochemical data suggest that excess phosphorus is the master variable in the North Atlantic Ocean and indicate that the variations in its supply over the most recent glacial cycle were dominated by the response of regional ocean circulation to the orbital cycles.

  8. Adaptation and fixation in entrepreneurial approaches of a dental laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia M. Ferreira

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: This study described the adaptation and fixation processes implemented by a small business entrepreneur in order to cope with changing market circumstances.Research purpose: The study described how the dental laboratory adapted its entrepreneurial approaches over time in response to critical changes that occurred and how aspects in the managerial approach became fixated and proved to be essential to success.Motivation for the study: The study provided insight into how the dental laboratory transformed into a stable and prosperous laboratory by the integration of strategic, economic, cultural and social capital through a process of business decision making.Research design, approach and method: A cohort survey research design, based upon the compilation of longitudinal data over three selected time periods, was employed. The design of the measuring instruments and the interpretation of research results were derived from an adapted entrepreneurial-in-network theoretical framework. A triangulation data compilation approach was followed.Main findings: The results revealed that cultural capital in the dental laboratory became fixated on three value principles, whilst the other critical capitals prescribed exist in sufficient volumes and improve to adapt to changing circumstances in the dental market.Practical/managerial implications: Fixated cultural values acted as a ‘parent’-actor in order to guide the righteousness of behaviour, whereas adaptation required sufficient critical capitals and the proper integration thereof.Contribution/value-added: By adopting the entrepreneurship-in-network approach, the researchers incorporated the dynamic and interactive processes of entrepreneurship. Future studies may employ the same design and use multi-varied analyses to show how a business adapt or fixate its approaches in response to crises or changes in the business environment.

  9. Fixation of Soil Using PEC and Separation of Fixed Soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yong Suk; Yang, Hee-Man; Lee, Kune Woo; Seo, Bum-Kyoung; Moon, Jei Kwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Radioactive cesium (Cs-137) is the most apprehensive element due to its long half-lives, high solubility in water, and strong radiation emission in the form of gamma rays. Because the radioactivity is localized within topsoil, soil surface on topsoil should be fixed to prevent the spreading of the contaminated soils by wind and water erosion. Many methods have been developing for soil fixation to remove radioactive contaminants in soil and prevent to diffuse radioactive materials. Various materials have been used as fixatives such as clays, molecular sieves, polymer, and petroleum based products. One of the methods is a soil fixation or solidification using polyelectrolyte. Polyelectrolytes have many ionic groups and form the polyelectrolyte complex (PEC) due to electrostatic interaction of anion and cation in an aqueous solution. polyelectrolyte complex can fix soil particles by flocculation and formation of crust between soil. The method can prevent a spread of radioactive material by floating on a soil surface. The decontamination efficiency of the surface soils reached about 90%, and dust release was effectively suppressed during the removal of surface soils. However it has a problem that the removed soil must separate soil and polymer to treat as the waste. In this study, the fixation of soil by polyelectrolyte complex to suppress the spread of contaminant and the separation method of soil and polymer was investigated. The properties of polyelectrolyte complex solution and the stability of fixed soil by polyelectrolyte complex were investigated. The concentration of salt in the polyelectrolyte complex solution is a very important parameter for the soil fixation.

  10. Surgical treatment of neglected clubfoot using external fixator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Mota Pacheco Fernandes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The definition of neglected clubfoot (NC includes a variable range of complex deformities of the foot that are refractory to conventional treatments or are treated inappropriately. Several etiologies may be related to this. The Ilizarov method has become established as a tool for treating these deformities. It minimizes soft-tissue damage through gradual correction of the deformity, with a high success rate in relation to achieving a plantigrade foot, with low incidence of recurrence. The indications for treatment include severe rigid deformities (Dimeglio III and IV, or adverse skin conditions. Careful clinical and radiological examination is fundamental for proper planning and installation of the external fixator. The techniques used include selection of external fixation assemblies, which can be closed when there is a connection between the leg, hindfoot and forefoot. This closed assembly may or may not be constricted, according to whether hinges are provided or whether use of the natural anatomical hinges during correction of the deformity is envisaged. An open assembly makes it possible to add flexibility to the foot through histogenesis, while allowing closed corrections of greater precision later on. Hexapod fixators are an innovation with high potential for accuracy in correcting deformities. Procedures associated with external fixation include soft-tissue release and bone procedures. These procedures enable corrections that are more anatomical, for different degrees of severity and stiffness of deformity. It can be concluded from analyzing this case series that treatment of neglected clubfoot using an external fixator has a high rate of good and excellent results, with low frequency of complications.

  11. Functional Nanoscale Imaging of Synaptic Vesicle Cycling with Superfast Fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schikorski, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Functional imaging is the measurement of structural changes during an ongoing physiological process over time. In many cases, functional imaging has been implemented by tracking a fluorescent signal in live imaging sessions. Electron microscopy, however, excludes live imaging which has hampered functional imaging approaches on the ultrastructural level. This barrier was broken with the introduction of superfast fixation. Superfast fixation is capable of stopping and fixing membrane traffic at sufficient speed to capture a physiological process at a distinct functional state. Applying superfast fixation at sequential time points allows tracking of membrane traffic in a step-by-step fashion.This technique has been applied to track labeled endocytic vesicles at central synapses as they pass through the synaptic vesicle cycle. At synapses, neurotransmitter is released from synaptic vesicles (SVs) via fast activity-dependent exocytosis. Exocytosis is coupled to fast endocytosis that retrieves SVs components from the plasma membrane shortly after release. Fluorescent FM dyes that bind to the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane enter the endocytic vesicle during membrane retrieval and remain trapped in endocytic vesicles have been widely used to study SV exo-endocytic cycling in live imaging sessions. FM dyes can also be photoconverted into an electron-dense diaminobenzidine polymer which allows the investigation of SV cycling in the electron microscope. The combination of FM labeling with superfast fixation made it possible to track the fine structure of endocytic vesicles at 1 s intervals. Because this combination is not specialized to SV cycling, many other cellular processes can be studied. Furthermore, the technique is easy to set up and cost effective.This chapter describes activity-dependent FM dye labeling of SVs in cultured hippocampal neurons, superfast microwave-assisted fixation, photoconversion of the fluorescent endocytic vesicles, and the analysis of

  12. Ubiquitous Gammaproteobacteria dominate dark carbon fixation in coastal sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyksma, Stefan; Bischof, Kerstin; Fuchs, Bernhard M; Hoffmann, Katy; Meier, Dimitri; Meyerdierks, Anke; Pjevac, Petra; Probandt, David; Richter, Michael; Stepanauskas, Ramunas; Mußmann, Marc

    2016-08-01

    Marine sediments are the largest carbon sink on earth. Nearly half of dark carbon fixation in the oceans occurs in coastal sediments, but the microorganisms responsible are largely unknown. By integrating the 16S rRNA approach, single-cell genomics, metagenomics and transcriptomics with (14)C-carbon assimilation experiments, we show that uncultured Gammaproteobacteria account for 70-86% of dark carbon fixation in coastal sediments. First, we surveyed the bacterial 16S rRNA gene diversity of 13 tidal and sublittoral sediments across Europe and Australia to identify ubiquitous core groups of Gammaproteobacteria mainly affiliating with sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. These also accounted for a substantial fraction of the microbial community in anoxic, 490-cm-deep subsurface sediments. We then quantified dark carbon fixation by scintillography of specific microbial populations extracted and flow-sorted from sediments that were short-term incubated with (14)C-bicarbonate. We identified three distinct gammaproteobacterial clades covering diversity ranges on family to order level (the Acidiferrobacter, JTB255 and SSr clades) that made up >50% of dark carbon fixation in a tidal sediment. Consistent with these activity measurements, environmental transcripts of sulfur oxidation and carbon fixation genes mainly affiliated with those of sulfur-oxidizing Gammaproteobacteria. The co-localization of key genes of sulfur and hydrogen oxidation pathways and their expression in genomes of uncultured Gammaproteobacteria illustrates an unknown metabolic plasticity for sulfur oxidizers in marine sediments. Given their global distribution and high abundance, we propose that a stable assemblage of metabolically flexible Gammaproteobacteria drives important parts of marine carbon and sulfur cycles.

  13. Open segmental fractures of the tibia treated by external fixation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golubović Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Open segmental fractures of the tibia are rare but severe injuries. In these fractures the wide zone of injury (damage of all structures of the lower leg creates very unsuitable biological conditions for healing of the fracture. Objective. The aim of our work was to present the results of treatment of patients with segmental open fractures of the tibia treated by external fixation. Methods. We analyzed treatment results of 21 patients with open segmental tibial fractures who were treated using the method of external fixation at the Clinical Center Niš from January 1, 1995 to July 31, 2010. The average age of the patients was 53 years; the youngest patient was 27 years and the oldest one 80 years. According to the Gustilo open fracture classification, there were 3 (14.3% type I, 6 (28.6% type II, 8 (38.1% type IIIA, and 4 (19.0% type IIIB. All the patients were treated by a unilateral type Mitković external fixator by Traffix Company. Results. Union was attained in 16 (76.2% fractures without severe complications (pseudoarthrosis, chronic osteitis and angular deformities of over 10 degrees. Among severe complications associated with open segmental tibial fractures, in two cases we registered septic pseudoarthrosis, in one aseptic pseudoarthrosis and in two large angular deformities of the tibia after union, with a valgus of over 10 degrees and extremity shortening of over 2 cm which required additional surgery. Conclusion. External fixation by the use of Mitković external fixator is one of the methods of choice in the treatment of open segmental tibial fractures, which incorporated with antibiotic therapy provides good biomehanical conditions for segmental fracture healing that enables good stability of the segmental tibial fracture and decreases the risk of deep infections. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 41017: Virtuelni koštano­zglobni sistem čoveka i njegova primena u pretkliničkoj i kliničkoj praksi

  14. Carbon fixation by basalt-hosted microbial communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth N Orcutt

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Oceanic crust is a massive potential habitat for microbial life on Earth, yet our understanding of this ecosystem is limited due to difficulty in access. In particular, measurements of rates of microbial activity are sparse. We used stable carbon isotope incubations of crustal samples, coupled with functional gene analyses, to examine the potential for carbon fixation on oceanic crust. Both seafloor-exposed and subseafloor basalts were recovered from different mid-ocean ridge and hot spot environments (i.e., the Juan de Fuca Ridge, the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, and the Loihi Seamount and incubated with 13C-labeled bicarbonate. Seafloor-exposed basalts revealed incorporation of 13C-label into organic matter over time, though the degree of incorporation was heterogeneous. The incorporation of 13C into biomass was inconclusive in subseafloor basalts. Translating these measurements into potential rates of carbon fixation indicated that 0.1 – 10 nmol C g-1rock d-1 could be fixed by seafloor-exposed rocks. When scaled to the global production of oceanic crust, this suggests carbon fixation rates of 10^9 – 10^12 g C yr-1, which matches earlier predictions based on thermodynamic calculations. Functional gene analyses indicate that the Calvin cycle is likely the dominant biochemical mechanism for carbon fixation in basalt-hosted biofilms, although the reductive acetyl-CoA pathway and reverse TCA cycle likely play some role in net carbon fixation. These results provide empirical evidence for autotrophy in oceanic crust, suggesting that basalt-hosted autotrophy could be a significant contributor of organic matter in this remote and vast environment.

  15. Contribution à la syntaxe du verbe en catalan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitja Skubic

    1975-11-01

    Full Text Available En suivant le sort des formes du prétérit dans les langues romanes, on ne peut pas ne pas préter une attention particulière au catalan, ne serait-ce qu'à cause de sa position intermédiaire entre deux aires du monde roman. On ne veut, ici, qu'examiner l'emploi des temps du prétérit dans deux phases: tout d'abord dans une période très brève de l'histoire du catalan et dans un secteur bien délimité, à savoir celui du catalan, langue d'administration, comme elle ressort des documents de la chancellerie royale à Palerme et des documents envoyés en Sicile par la chancellerie de la couronne d'Aragon. Deuxièmement, la situation actuelle comme elle résulte de l'emploi des formes du prétérit dans la revue catalane Serra d'or.

  16. L’Asie mystérieuse : premier numéro du Bulletin du Club Verne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Chiron

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Depuis 2007 l’Association des Amis du Roman populaire a son siège et son centre de documentation à Vignacourt près d’Amiens. Si la revue Le Rocambole qu’elle produit perdure, cette association a souhaité replacer dans des objectifs de vulgarisation l’œuvre de Jules Verne dans le contexte de production de romans populaires pour la période allant des débuts du XIXe siècle à la Grande Guerre. D’où la création du nouveau périodique le Bulletin du Club Verne. Il est nécessaire de distinguer ce der...

  17. Calcul multi-caractéristique du coût du non-qualité via la fonction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    La conformité aux spécifications vise uniquement la satisfaction du client. ... poor quality, every product with at least one quality characteristic exceeding the tolerance limits. ... Compliance with specifications is only customer satisfaction.

  18. Impact touristique de l’ouverture du tunnel de base du Lötschberg pour le Haut-Valais

    OpenAIRE

    Bétrisey, Jean; Imboden, Serge

    2011-01-01

    Le tunnel du Lötschberg relie les cantons de Berne et du Valais, respectivement de Kandersteg à Goppenstein. Les travaux débutèrent en 1906 et s’achevèrent en 1911. Deux ans plus tard, en 1913, le tunnel fut ouvert à la circulation ferroviaire. Le 6 décembre 1987, le peuple approuva le projet Rail 2000. Le but de Rail 2000 était d’assurer un développement du réseau ferroviaire suisse, visant à proposer des services plus rapides et plus fréquents, adaptés aux besoins des voyageurs du XXIème si...

  19. Effets du titane et du niobium sur l'oxydation à 950circC d'aciers ferritiques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issartel, C.; Buscail, H.; Caudron, E.; Cueff, R.; Riffard, F.; El Messki, S.; Karimi, N.; Antoni, L.

    2004-11-01

    Nous avons étudié l'effet du titane et du niobium sur l'oxydation à 950circC d'un acier Fe-Cr chrominoformeur. La DRX in situ montre que le titane semble s'oxyder en formant Cr{2}TiO{5} et TiO{2} qui contribuent à une augmentation de la prise de masse des échantillons. Une partie du titane issu de ces oxydes semble doper la couche de chromine. Sa présence augmente la concentration en lacunes cationiques dans la chromine et augmente donc la diffusion du chrome dans la couche. Nous avons aussi montré que le niobium n'a pas d'influence sur l'oxydation de ce type d'acier à 950circC.

  20. A cadaveric analysis of cervical fixation: the effect of intermediate fixation points and dynamization in multilevel cervical fusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubelski, Daniel; McCormick, William E; Ferrara, Lisa; Benzel, Edward C; Kayanja, Mark

    2014-11-01

    The authors conducted a study to compare biomechanical effects on the cervical spine of bridging fixation and intermediate fixation techniques, in both fixed and dynamic modes. A biaxial, servohydraulic machine biomechanically tested 23 human cervical spines for stiffness and strain in compression, extension, flexion, and lateral bending through 3 specimen states: 1) intact, 2) defect (corpectomy and discectomy), and 3) grafting with plate application in 1 of 4 constructs: C3-7 dynamized long strut (DLS), C3-7 fixed long strut (FLS), C3-5-7 dynamized multisegment (DMS), and C3-5-7 fixed multisegment (FMS). Compared with FMS, FLS had significantly greater strain in extension (at C-3 and at the rostral and caudal parts of the graft) and in lateral bending (at C-3 and at the caudal part of the graft). Fixed (FLS and FMS) constructs had greater flexion stiffness than did dynamized (DLS and DMS) constructs and showed a trend toward greater lateral bending stiffness. Instrumentation revealed greater extension strain with the long fixed (FLS and DLS) constructs than with the multifixed (FMS and FMS) constructs at the rostral and caudal parts of the graft but no significant differences between the dynamized (DLS and DMS) and fixed (FLS and FMS) constructs. Multisegmental fixation provided greater stabilizing forces than did bridging constructs for both dynamized and fixed plates. Use of multisegmental fixation can potentially decrease strain at the screw-plate interface and reduce the rate of hardware failure.