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Sample records for five-year alendronate treatment

  1. Alendronate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have undergone menopause (''change of life,'' end of menstrual periods) and to treat osteoporosis in men. Alendronate ... alendronate.Ask your pharmacist or doctor for a copy of the manufacturer's information for the patient.

  2. Treatment of osteoporosis after alendronate or risedronate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eiken, P; Vestergaard, P

    2016-01-01

    Alendronate (ALN) and risedronate (RIS) are ideal as first-choice therapy options in the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. What to do for patients who do not respond adequately to bisphosphonates has not been conclusively determined, but transitioning to other therapies should be considered....... The aim of this article is to describe potential alternatives for patients switching from ALN or RIS to other therapies for osteoporosis. A systematic search of PubMed was conducted to find papers that evaluate the effects of switching therapies on fractures, bone mineral density (BMD), or bone turnover...... markers. Results from 11 studies that prospectively assessed treatment after ALN or RIS in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis were reviewed. All studies are of short duration (all 24 months or less) and assess the topic of transitioning therapy from ALN or RIS. None of the studies had the statistical...

  3. Five years retrospective cohort analysis of treatment outcomes of TB ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) associated tuberculosis (TB) remains a major global public health challenge, with an estimated 1.4 million patients worldwide. Co-infection with HIV leads to challenges in the diagnosis and treatment of patients. Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess treatment ...

  4. Five years retrospective cohort analysis of treatment outcomes of TB ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) associated tuberculosis (TB) remains a major global public health chal- lenge, with an estimated 1.4 .... completed treatment and who is smear negative at the end of 6th or 7th month of treat- ..... the course of management of the dual disease entity. Conclusion. This study ...

  5. The Ahmed Versus Baerveldt Study: Five-Year Treatment Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christakis, Panos G; Kalenak, Jeffrey W; Tsai, James C; Zurakowski, David; Kammer, Jeffrey A; Harasymowycz, Paul J; Mura, Juan J; Cantor, Louis B; Ahmed, Iqbal I K

    2016-10-01

    To compare 2 frequently used aqueous shunts for the treatment of glaucoma. International, multicenter, randomized trial. Patients aged 18 years or older with uncontrolled glaucoma despite maximum tolerated medical therapy, many of whom had failed or were at high risk of failing trabeculectomy. Eligible patients were randomized to receive an Ahmed-FP7 valve implant (New World Medical, Inc, Rancho Cucamonga, CA) or a Baerveldt-350 implant (Abbott Medical Optics, Inc, Santa Ana, CA) using a standardized surgical technique. The primary outcome was failure, defined as intraocular pressure (IOP) outside the target range (5-18 mmHg) or reduced glaucoma surgery. Secondary outcomes measures included IOP, medication use, visual acuity, complications, and interventions. A total of 238 patients were randomized; 124 received the Ahmed-FP7 implant, and 114 received the Baerveldt-350 implant. Baseline characteristics were similar between groups. Mean preoperative IOP was 31.4±10.8 mmHg on 3.1±1.0 glaucoma medications. At 5 years, the cumulative failure rate was 53% in the Ahmed group and 40% in the Baerveldt group (P = 0.04). The main reason for failure in both groups was high IOP, and the cumulative de novo glaucoma reoperation rate was 18% in the Ahmed group and 11% in the Baerveldt group (P = 0.22). Hypotony resulted in failure in 5 patients (4%) in the Baerveldt group compared with none in the Ahmed group (P = 0.02). Mean IOP was 16.6±5.9 mmHg in the Ahmed group (47% reduction) and 13.6±5.0 mmHg in the Baerveldt group (57% reduction, P = 0.001). Mean medication use was 1.8±1.5 mmHg in the Ahmed group (44% reduction) and 1.2±1.3 mmHg in the Baerveldt group (61% reduction, P = 0.03). The 2 groups had similar complication rates (Ahmed 63%, Baerveldt 69%) and intervention rates (Ahmed 41%, Baerveldt 41%). Most complications were transient, and most interventions were slit-lamp procedures. Both implants were effective in reducing IOP and the need for glaucoma

  6. Systemic alendronate treatment improves fixation of press-fit implants: a canine study using nonloaded implants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas B; Bechtold, Joan E; Chen, Xinqian

    2007-01-01

    of alendronate treatment. Bone ongrowth (bone in contact with implant surface) was estimated using the linear intercept technique and shear strength was calculated as the slope on a load-displacement curve. For the press fit implants, alendronate treatment significantly increased bone ongrowth from 24% to 29...... early implant stability is an important predictor of longevity, systemic alendronate treatment could be an important clinical tool to positively influence the early stages of implant incorporation. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Jun...

  7. Impact of generic alendronate cost on the cost-effectiveness of osteoporosis screening and treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smita Nayak

    Full Text Available Since alendronate became available in generic form in the Unites States in 2008, its price has been decreasing. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of alendronate cost on the cost-effectiveness of osteoporosis screening and treatment in postmenopausal women.Microsimulation cost-effectiveness model of osteoporosis screening and treatment for U.S. women age 65 and older. We assumed screening initiation at age 65 with central dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA, and alendronate treatment for individuals with osteoporosis; with a comparator of "no screening" and treatment only after fracture occurrence. We evaluated annual alendronate costs of $20 through $800; outcome measures included fractures; nursing home admission; medication adverse events; death; costs; quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs; and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs in 2010 U.S. dollars per QALY gained. A lifetime time horizon was used, and direct costs were included. Base-case and sensitivity analyses were performed.Base-case analysis results showed that at annual alendronate costs of $200 or less, osteoporosis screening followed by treatment was cost-saving, resulting in lower total costs than no screening as well as more QALYs (10.6 additional quality-adjusted life-days. When assuming alendronate costs of $400 through $800, screening and treatment resulted in greater lifetime costs than no screening but was highly cost-effective, with ICERs ranging from $714 per QALY gained through $13,902 per QALY gained. Probabilistic sensitivity analyses revealed that the cost-effectiveness of osteoporosis screening followed by alendronate treatment was robust to joint input parameter estimate variation at a willingness-to-pay threshold of $50,000/QALY at all alendronate costs evaluated.Osteoporosis screening followed by alendronate treatment is effective and highly cost-effective for postmenopausal women across a range of alendronate costs, and may be cost

  8. Dose escalation with 3D conformal treatment: five year outcomes, treatment optimization, and future directions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanks, Gerald E.; Hanlon, Alexandra L. M.S.; Schultheiss, Timothy E.; Pinover, Wayne H.; Movsas, Benjamin; Epstein, Barry E.; Hunt, Margie

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To report the 5-year outcomes of dose escalation with 3D conformal treatment (3DCRT) of prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Two hundred thirty-two consecutive patients were treated with 3DCRT alone between 6/89 and 10/92 with ICRU reporting point dose that increased from 63 to 79 Gy. The median follow-up was 60 months, and any patient free of clinical or biochemical evidence of disease was termed bNED. Biochemical failure was defined as prostate-specific antigen (PSA) rising on two consecutive recordings and exceeding 1.5 ng/ml. Morbidity was reported by the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) scale, the Late Effects Normal Tissue (LENT) scale, and a Fox Chase modification of the latter (FC-LENT). All patients were treated with a four-field technique with a 1 cm clinical target volume (CTV) to planning target volume (PTV) margin to the prostate or prostate boost; the CTV and gross tumor volume (GTV) were the same. Actuarial rates of outcome were calculated by Kaplan-Meier and cumulative incidence methods and compared using the log rank and Gray's test statistic, respectively. Cox regression models were used to establish prognostic factors predictive of the various measures of outcome. Five-year Kaplan-Meier bNED rates were utilized by dose group to estimate logit response models for bNED and late morbidity. Results: PSA 10 ng/ml based on 5-year bNED results. No dose response was observed for patients with pretreatment PSA 10 ng/ml strongly suggests that clinical trials employing radiation should investigate the use of 3DCRT and prostate doses of 76-80 Gy

  9. Personality disorder features as predictors of symptoms five years post-treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, Irene; Hesse, Morten; Fridell, Mats

    2008-01-01

    Personality disorders are associated with dysfunction in a variety of areas. Recent longitudinal research has shown that personality disorders are also predictive of problems later in life, as well as of poor response to treatment of depression and anxiety. This study assessed whether personality disorder features were associated with psychiatric symptoms in a cohort of women treated for substance abuse in Sweden. Patients were diagnosed with personality disorders using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID-II) personality questionnaire and SCID-II interview, and were then administered a self-report questionnaire designed to measure symptoms of psychiatric illness, the Symptoms Checklist-90 (SCL-90), during and five years after treatment. Concurrently, features of all personality disorders, except histrionic, were associated with SCL-90 score. At five-year follow-up, most personality disorders remained associated with SCL-90 score, with the exception of paranoid and schizoid personality disorder. After controlling for baseline score on the SCL-90, conduct disorder, borderline personality disorder, and narcissistic personality disorder remained significantly associated with symptoms at follow-up. After controlling for abstinence and baseline score, only borderline personality disorder features remained associated with SCL-90 score at follow-up. Patients with personality disorders should be monitored after treatment for psychiatric symptoms.

  10. [Five years of ROM in substance abuse treatment centres in the Netherlands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudejans, S C C; Schippers, G M; Spits, M E; Stollenga, M; van den Brink, W

    2012-01-01

    Three substance abuse treatment centres set up a benchmarking project for routine outcome management (ROM) of structured cognitive behavioral treatments for outpatients with a substance use disorder. To present the results of five years benchmarking. All patients were included at intake and the follow-up assessment was performed by a call-center nine months later. Twice a year aggregated data were fed back to management and treatment teams. Since 2005, clinical outcome data, including substance abuse data, have been collected for more than half of all 15.786 treated patients. At follow-up, nine months after intake, 23% was abstinent, 28% reported moderate substance use and 49% reported excessive substance use. The Dutch centres for the treatment of substance abuse were successful in setting up ROM projects to monitor and compare the development and the effects of outpatient addiction treatments. The clinical results are acceptable and correspond to the results of the American project called match. It is not yet clear whether the biannual feedback of aggregated outcomes to management and treatment teams has contributed to the creation of learning organisations, but it has provided transparency and has made it possible for teams to learn from the outcomes.

  11. Treatment choices for fevers in children under-five years in a rural Ghanaian district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyapong Margaret

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health care demand studies help to examine the behaviour of individuals and households during illnesses. Few of existing health care demand studies examine the choice of treatment services for childhood illnesses. Besides, in their analyses, many of the existing studies compare alternative treatment options to a single option, usually self-medication. This study aims at examining the factors that influence the choices that caregivers of children under-five years make regarding treatment of fevers due to malaria and pneumonia in a rural setting. The study also examines how the choice of alternative treatment options compare with each other. Methods The study uses data from a 2006 household socio-economic survey and health and demographic surveillance covering caregivers of 529 children under-five years of age in the Dangme West District and applies a multinomial probit technique to model the choice of treatment services for fevers in under-fives in rural Ghana. Four health care options are considered: self-medication, over-the-counter providers, public providers and private providers. Results The findings indicate that longer travel, waiting and treatment times encourage people to use self-medication and over-the-counter providers compared to public and private providers. Caregivers with health insurance coverage also use care from public providers compared to over-the-counter or private providers. Caregivers with higher incomes use public and private providers over self-medication while higher treatment charges and longer times at public facilities encourage caregivers to resort to private providers. Besides, caregivers of female under-fives use self-care while caregivers of male under-fives use public providers instead of self-care, implying gender disparity in the choice of treatment. Conclusions The results of this study imply that efforts at curbing under-five mortality due to malaria and pneumonia need to take into

  12. Efficacy and safety of alendronic acid in the treatment of osteoporosis in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Martín Siguero

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: to describe the efficacy and safety of the off-label use of alendronate in the treatment of osteoporosis in children and adolescents. Method: a retrospective study (2008-2014 of all patients under 18 years who were dispensed alendronate for this indication. The criteria for initiating treatment were: bone mineral density with a Z-score ≤ -2.5 SD, a past history of bone fractures without a previous traumatism, and persistent pain. The variables collected were: demographic, treatment-related, clinical. and safety data. The treatment was considered to be effective when there was an increase in bone mineral density up to a Z-score > -2.5 SD. Results: a total of 12 patients, 8 of them male, with a mean age of 11 years (} 3 SD, were treated with alendronate. After a mean time of treatment of 2.15 years (} 1.2 SD, there was an increase in bone mineral density in all patients, 9 of which achieved a Z-score > -2.5 SD, so the drug was considered effective in 75% of cases. No patient had bone fractures or expressed adverse effects during treatment. Conclusions: alendronate increased bone mineral density and was well tolerated in all patients, therefore it could be considered as a therapeutic option in the treatment of osteoporosis in children.

  13. Treatment-resistant, five-year long, postpartum-onset Capgras episode resolving after electroconvulsive therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapinesi, Chiara; Kotzalidis, Georgios D; Del Casale, Antonio; Ferri, Vittoria Rachele; Di Pietro, Simone; Scatena, Paola; Serata, Daniele; Danese, Emanuela; Sani, Gabriele; Koukopoulos, Alexia E; Angeletti, Gloria; Girardi, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Postpartum psychosis, which rarely presents with Capgras syndrome (delusional misidentification), requires rapid symptom resolution. First-line drugs have important drawbacks, such as delayed onset of clinical response and secretion in breast milk. In this report, we report successful treatment of a treatment-resistant woman presenting with treatment-resistant Capgras syndrome, with onset during postpartum. A 36-year-old woman had presented with Capgras syndrome during postpartum. For more than five years, she believed her son and other family members were substituted by impostors. All adequately administrated treatments were unsuccessful. We suggested electroconvulsive therapy to overcome treatment resistance. After six electroconvulsive therapy sessions, delusions of doubles subsided and other symptoms improved. She was discharged two weeks later with a mood stabilizer and low-dose atypical antipychotic combination and is well at the one-and-a-half-year follow-up. Electroconvulsive therapy followed by a mood stabilizer-antipsychotic drug combination showed rapid, permanent, and effective control of long-standing Capgras syndrome in a young woman. © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  14. Treatment of winery wastewater in a conventional municipal activated sludge process: five years of experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolzonella, D; Zanette, M; Battistoni, P; Cecchi, F

    2007-01-01

    A full-scale wastewater treatment plant where municipal and winery wastewaters were co-treated was studied for five years. The experimental results showed that suspended solids, COD, nitrogen and phosphorous were effectively removed both during the treatment of municipal wastewater and the cotreatment of municipal and winery wastewater. The sludge production increase from 4 tons to 5.5 tons per day during the harvesting and wine making period. In any case the specific sludge production was 0.2 kgMLVSS per kgCOD(removed) despite the organic loading increasing. About 70% of the COD was removed through respiration. Also the energy demand increased from 6,000 to 7,000 kWh per day. The estimated costs for the treatment of the winery wastewater was 0.2-0.3 Euros per m3 of treated wastewater. With reference to the process efficiency, the nitrogen removal was just 20%. The co-treatment of municipal and winery wastewater in conventional activated sludge processes can be a feasible solution for the treatment of these streams at relatively low costs.

  15. [Chest Injury and its Surgical Treatment in Polytrauma Patients. Five-Year Experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vodička, J; Doležal, J; Vejvodová, Š; Šafránek, J; Špidlen, V; Třeška, V

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE OF THE STUDY Thoracic trauma, one of the most frequent injuries in patients with multiple traumata, is found in 50 to 80% of these patients and it is crucial for the patient's prognosis. It accounts for 25% of all death from polytraumatic injuries. The aim of this retrospective study was an analysis of the occurrence of chest injuries in polytrauma patients and their surgical treatment in the Trauma Centre or Department of Surgery of the University Hospital Pilsen in a five-year period. MATERIAL AND METHODS Patients with injuries meeting the definition of polytrauma and an Injury Severity Score (ISS) ≥16 were included. The demographic characteristics, mechanism of multiple trauma, ISS value and chest injury were recorded in each patient. The number of injured patients in each year of the study was noted. In the patients with chest injury, the type of injury and method of treatment were assessed. The therapy was further analysed including its timing. The number of deaths due to polytrauma involving chest injury, the cause of death and its time in relation to the patient's admission to the Trauma Centre were evaluated. RESULTS In the period 2010-14, 513 polytrauma patients were treated; of them 371 (72.3%) were men with an average age of 40.5 years. The most frequent cause of injury was a traffic accident (74%). The average ISS of the whole group was 35 points. Chest injury was diagnosed in 469 patients (91.4%) of whom only five (1.1%) had penetrating injury. Pulmonary contusion was most frequent (314 patients; 67%). A total of 212 patients with chest injury underwent surgery (45.2%); urgent surgery was performed in 143 (67.5%), acute surgery in 49 (23.1%) and delayed surgery in 63 (29.7%) patients. Chest drainage was the major surgical procedure used in the whole group. Of 61 patients who died, 52 had chest injury. In this subgroup the most frequent cause of death was decompensated traumatic shock (26 patients; 50%). In the whole group, 32 polytrauma

  16. Five-year Treatment Outcomes in the Ahmed Baerveldt Comparison Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budenz, Donald L.; Barton, Keith; Gedde, Steven J.; Feuer, William J.; Schiffman, Joyce; Costa, Vital P.; Godfrey, David G.; Buys, Yvonne M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To compare the five year outcomes of the Ahmed FP7 Glaucoma Valve (AGV) and the Baerveldt 101-350 Glaucoma Implant (BGI) for the treatment of refractory glaucoma. Design Multicenter randomized controlled clinical trial. Participants 276 patients, including 143 in the AGV group and 133 in the BGI group. Methods Patients 18 to 85 years of age with previous intraocular surgery or refractory glaucoma and intraocular pressure (IOP) of ≥ 18 mmHg in whom glaucoma drainage implant surgery was planned were randomized to implantation of either an AGV or BGI. Main Outcome Measures IOP, visual acuity, use of glaucoma medications, complications, and failure (IOP > 21 mmHg or not reduced by 20% from baseline, IOP ≤ 5 mmHg, reoperation for glaucoma, removal of implant, or loss of light perception). Results At 5 years, IOP (mean ± SD) was 14.7 ± 4.4 mmHg in the AGV group and 12.7 ± 4.5 mmHg in the BGI group (p = 0.012). The number of glaucoma medications in use at 5 years (mean ± SD) was 2.2 ± 1.4 in the AGV group and 1.8 ± 1.5 in the BGI group (p = 0.28). The cumulative probability of failure during 5 years of follow-up was 44.7% in the AGV group and 39.4% in the BGI group (p = 0.65). The number of subjects failing due to inadequately controlled IOP or reoperation for glaucoma was 46 in the AGV group (80% of AGV failures) and 25 in the BGI group (53% of BGI failures, p=0.003). Eleven AGV eyes (20% of AGV failures) experienced persistent hypotony, explantation of implant, or loss of light perception compared to 22 (47% of failures) in the BGI group. The 5-year cumulative reoperation rate for glaucoma was 20.8% in the AGV group compared to 8.6% in the BGI group (p=0.010). Change in logMAR Snellen visual acuity (mean ± SD) at 5 years was 0.42 ± 0.99 in the AGV group and 0.43 ± 0.84 in the BGI group (p=0.97). Conclusions Similar rates of surgical success were observed with both implants at 5 years. BGI implantation produced greater IOP reduction and a lower rate

  17. Tuberculosis treatment outcome and predictors in northern Ethiopian prisons: a five-year retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adane, Kelemework; Spigt, Mark; Dinant, Geert-Jan

    2018-02-20

    The prison situations are notorious for causing interruptions of tuberculosis (TB) treatment and occurrence of unfavorable outcomes. In Ethiopian prisons, though TB treatment programs exist, treatment outcome results and factors contributing to unsuccessful outcome are not well documented. In this study, we assessed the treatment outcome of TB cases and identified risk factors for unsuccessful outcome in northern Ethiopian prisons. A retrospective record review was conducted for all prisoners diagnosed with TB between September 2011 and August 2015. Outcome variables were defined following WHO guidelines. Out of the 496 patients, 11.5% were cured, 68% completed treatment, 2.5% were lost to follow-up, 1.6% were with a treatment failure, 1.4% died, and 15% were transferred out. All transferred out or released prisoners were not appropriately linked to health facilities and might be lost to treatment follow-up. The overall treatment success rate (TSR) of the 5 years was 94% among the patients who were not transferred out. The odds of unsuccessful outcome were 4.68 times greater among re-treatment cases compared to the newly treated cases. The year of treatment was also associated with variations in TSR; those treated during the earlier year were more likely to have unsuccessful outcome. Sputum non-conversion at the second-month check-up was strongly associated with unsuccessful outcome among the smear-positive cases. The mean TSR of the prisoners in the study prisons was quite satisfactory when gauged against the target level set by the End TB Strategy. However, the lack of appropriate linkage and tracking systems for those prisoners transferred or released before their treatment completion would have a negative implication for the national TB control program as such patients might interrupt their treatment and develop drug-resistant TB. Being in a re-treatment regimen and sputum non-conversion at the second-month check-up were significantly associated with

  18. Treatment outcomes of childhood tuberculosis in Addis Ababa: a five-year retrospective analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genene Tilahun

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tuberculosis (TB kills one child every 5 min. Childhood TB is given low priority in most national health programmes particularly in TB-endemic areas. TB among children is an indicator of a recent transmission of the disease in the community. Treatment outcome results serve as a proxy of the quality of treatment provided by a health care system. In Ethiopia, data on treatment outcomes of childhood TB are limited. The aim of the study was to determine the treatment outcomes of childhood TB in a hospital setting in Addis Ababa. Methods The study was conducted during June to August 2014. The data of 491 children treated for TB in Zewditu Memorial Hospital during a 5 year (2009–2013 was analysed. TB was diagnosed using standard methods. Demographic and clinical data including type of TB, TB-HIV co-infection and treatment outcomes were collected from registry of the TB clinic. Treatment outcome definitions are used according to the World Health Organization. Results Of the 491 children, 272(55.4 % were females, 107(21.8 % were under 5 year old, 454(92.5 % of them were new cases. The types of TB were extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB 243(49.5 % and 248(50.5 % pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB. Of the PTB cases, 42(16.9 % were sputum smear positive. Of the 291 children tested for HIV, 82(28.2 % were positive. The overall treatment success rate was 420(85.5 % and the poor treatment outcome was 71(14.5 %. Of the children with poor treatment outcome, 9(1.8 % died, 3(0.6 % defaulted from treatment, 2(0.4 % were treatment failure and 55(11.2 % were transferred out. Males and females had similar treatment success rates of 85.8 % and 85.3 %, respectively. Infants under one year had significantly lower treatment success rate of 72.7 % compared to those above 1 years of age of 86.5 % (P < 0.001. Treatment success rate ranged from 78.0 to 92.6 % during the study period. Associated factors for treatment outcome were age above

  19. Alendronate in early postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Pernille; Weiss, S R; Rodriguez-Portales, J A

    2000-01-01

    We studied the effect on bone mass of alendronate treatment for 5 yr and its withdrawal. Four hundred and forty-seven postmenopausal women with normal bone mass entered a 3-yr randomized trial followed by a 2-yr open label extension. Three hundred and eleven women completed the first 3 yr, and 263...... consented to continue and completed the extension. We are reporting data from groups using the dose of alendronate currently approved for osteoporosis prevention (5 mg) or from the group in which alendronate treatment was withdrawn: 52 women received alendronate (5 mg) for 5 yr (group I), 56 received 3 yr...

  20. Effect of combined treatment with alendronate and calcitriol on femoral neck strength in osteopenic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fotovati Abbas

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hip fracture is associated with pronounced morbidity and excess mortality in elderly women with postmenopausal osteoporosis. Many drugs have been developed to treat osteoporosis and to reduce the risk of osteoporotic fractures. We investigated the effects of combined alendronate and vitamin D3 treatment on bone mass and fracture load at the femoral neck in ovariectomized (OVX rats, and evaluated the relationship between bone mass parameters and femoral neck strength. Methods Thirty 12-week-old female rats underwent either a sham-operation (n = 6 or OVX (n = 24. Twenty weeks later, OVX rats were further divided into four groups and received daily doses of either saline alone, 0.1 mg/kg alendronate, 0.1 μg/kg calcitriol, or a combination of both two drugs by continuous infusion via Alzet mini-osmotic pumps. The sham-control group received saline alone. After 12 weeks of treatment, femoral necks were examined using peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT densitometry and mechanical testing. Results Saline-treated OVX rats showed significant decreases in total bone mineral content (BMC (by 28.1%, total bone mineral density (BMD (by 9.5%, cortical BMC (by 26.3%, cancellous BMC (by 66.3%, cancellous BMD (by 29.0% and total cross-sectional bone area (by 30.4% compared with the sham-control group. The combined alendronate and calcitriol treatments improved bone loss owing to estrogen deficiency. On mechanical testing, although OVX significantly reduced bone strength of the femoral neck (by 29.3% compared with the sham-control group, only the combined treatment significantly improved the fracture load at the femoral neck in OVX rats to the level of the sham-controls. The correlation of total BMC to fracture load was significant, but that of total BMD was not. Conclusion Our results showed that the combined treatment with alendronate and calcitriol significantly improved bone fragility of the femoral neck in OVX osteopenic

  1. Twenty-five-year atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) approach: a comprehensive overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frencken, J.E.; Leal, S.C.; Navarro, M.F.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) approach was born 25 years ago in Tanzania. It has evolved into an essential caries management concept for improving quality and access to oral care globally. RESULTS: Meta-analyses and systematic reviews have indicated that the high

  2. Surgically treated osteonecrosis and osteomyelitis of the jaw and oral cavity in patients highly adherent to alendronate treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eiken, P. A.; Prieto-Alhambra, D.; Eastell, R.

    2017-01-01

    register-based cohort study containing one nested case-control study. Patients were treatment-naïve incident users of alendronate 1996–2007 in Denmark, both genders, aged 50–94 at the time of beginning treatment (N = 61,990). Participants were followed to 31 December 2013. Results: Over a mean of 6.8 years...... pump inhibitors were independently associated with surgically treated ONJ. Conclusions: Our data suggest that recent, long-term, and compliant uses of alendronate are associated with an increased risk of surgically treated ONJ. Nevertheless, the rates remain low, even in long-term adherent users. ONJ...

  3. Wound Healing Society (WHS) venous ulcer treatment guidelines: what's new in five years?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jennifer C; Marston, William A; Kirsner, Robert S

    2012-01-01

    Since the establishment of the guidelines for the treatment of venous ulcers by the Wound Healing Society in 2006, there has been an abundance of new literature, both in accord and discord with the guidelines. The goal of this update is to highlight new findings since the publication of these guidelines to assist practitioner and patient in appropriate health care decisions, as well as to drive future research endeavors. © 2012 by the Wound Healing Society.

  4. Epidemiology and treatment outcome of surgically treated mandibular condyle fractures. A five years retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zrounba, Hugues; Lutz, Jean-Christophe; Zink, Simone; Wilk, Astrid

    2014-09-01

    Surgical management of mandibular condyle fractures is still controversial. Although it provides better outcome than closed treatment questions still remain about the surgical approach and the osteosynthesis devices to be used. Between 2005 and 2010, we managed 168 mandibular condyle fractures with open treatment. Two surgical approaches were used in this study, a pre-auricular and a high submandibular approach (one or the other or as a combined approach). Internal fixation was performed using TCP(®) plates (Medartis, Basel, Switzerland) or with two lag screws (15 and 17 mm). Delta plates were used in 15 cases (8.9%). We report the epidemiology of these fractures and the outcomes of the surgical treatment. We assessed the complications related to the surgical procedure and those related to the osteosynthesis material. The facial nerve related complication rate was very low and the osteosynthesis materials used proved to be strong enough to realize a stable fixation. The two approaches used in this study appeared to be safe with good aesthetic results. Most of the surgical procedure failures occurred in high subcondylar fractures especially when bilateral. Copyright © 2014 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of long-term alendronate treatment on bone mineralisation, resorption parameters and biomechanics of single human vertebral trabeculae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Krause

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to their well-established fracture risk reduction, bisphosphonates are the most frequently used therapeutic agent to treat osteoporosis. Bisphosphonates reduce fracture risk by suppressing bone resorption, but the lower bone turnover could have a negative impact on bone quality at the tissue level. Here, we directly assess the structural and mechanical characteristics of cancellous bone from the lumbar vertebrae (L5 in non-treated osteoporotic controls (n = 21, mid-term alendronate-treated osteoporotic patients (n = 6, and long-term alendronate-treated osteoporotic patients (n = 7. The strength and toughness of single trabeculae were evaluated, while the structure was characterised through measurements of microdamage accumulation, mineralisation distribution, and histological indices. The alendronate-treated cases had a reduced eroded surface (ES/BS, p < 0.001 and a higher bone mineralisation in comparison to non-treated controls (p = 0.037, which is indicative of low turnover associated with treatment. However, the amount of microdamage and the mechanical properties were similar among the control and treatment groups. As the tissue mineral density (TMD increased significantly with alendronate treatment compared to non-treated osteoporotic controls, the reduction in resorption cavities could counterbalance the higher TMD allowing the alendronate-treated bone to maintain its mechanical properties and resist microdamage accumulation. A multivariate analysis of the possible predictors supports the theory that multiple factors (e.g., body mass index, TMD, and ES/BS can impact the mechanical properties. Our results suggest that long-term alendronate treatment shows no adverse impact on mechanical cancellous bone characteristics.

  6. Upper extremity lymphedema: presence and effect on functioning five years after breast cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigaki, Cheryl L; Madsen, Richard; Wanchai, Ausanee; Stewart, Bob R; Armer, Jane M

    2013-11-01

    Our goal was to explore the effects of lymphedema on long-term adjustment among breast cancer survivors, in terms of functioning in important life environments. Limb volume measurements and psychosocial survey data were collected from women shortly after undergoing surgical intervention for breast cancer and annually thereafter. A subset of these women were selected for the current study because they had preoperative limb volume measurement data, which is best suited to determine presence and severity of lymphedema. Our final sample of 61 women had both the arm measurements (preoperative and 5-year) and survey data (baseline and 5-year) needed for this study, which comprises a secondary cross-sectional analysis of longitudinal data. A correlational approach was used to explore associations among lymphedema (presence, severity, and whether the participant met the criteria for lymphedema at any assessment point since their treatment for breast cancer) and outcome variables (physical functioning, vocational functioning, social functioning, domestic functioning, and sexual functioning). Each of the three measures of lymphedema was significantly correlated with domestic functioning, but not with functioning in other common environments. Long-term breast cancer survivors are at risk for developing secondary conditions, such as lymphedema, to which they must learn to adjust and adapt. Lymphedema may increase risk for compromised functioning in everyday environments, a problem which lies at the heart of rehabilitation. Breast cancer survivorship, therefore, fits well within the scope of a rehabilitation framework. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. Dose escalation with 3-D CRT in prostate cancer: five year dose responses and optimal treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanks, Gerald; Hanlon, Alexandra; Pinover, Wayne; Hunt, Margie; Movsas, Benjamin; Schultheiss, Timothy

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To report 5 yr dose responses in prostate cancer patients treated with 3D-CRT and describe optimal treatment based on dose response. Methods: Dose escalation was studied in 233 consecutive patients treated with 3D-CRT between 3/89 and 10/92. All surviving patients have >32 mo follow-up, the median follow-up is 55 mo. Estimated logistic cumulative distribution functions (logit response models) fit to 5 yr actuarial bNED outcome are reported for 3 dose groups in each of 3 pretreatment PSA groupings (10-19.9 ng/ml and 20+ ng/ml); no dose response is observed for patients with pretreatment PSA <10 ng/ml. Logit response models fit to 5 yr actuarial late morbidity rates (grade 2 GI, grade 2 GU, grade 3,4 GI) are also reported for 4 dose groups. Patients are treated with CT planned 4-field conformal technique where the PTV encompasses the CTV by 1.0 cm in all directions including the anterior rectal wall margin. Patients are followed at 6 mo intervals with PSA and DRE, and bNED failure is defined as PSA ≥1.5 ng/ml and rising on two consecutive measures. The Fox Chase modification of the LENT morbidity scale is used for GI morbidity including any blood transfusion and/or more than 2 coagulations as a grade 3 event. GU morbidity follows the RTOG scale. Results: The logit response models based on 5 yr bNED results have slopes of 27% and 18% for pretreatment PSA grouping 10-19.9 ng/ml and 20+ ng/ml, respectively. The 50% bNED response is observed at 71 Gy and 80 Gy respectively, while the 80% bNED response is observed at 76 Gy for the 10-19.9 ng/ml group and estimated at 88 Gy for the 20+ ng/ml group. Logit dose response models for grade 2 GI and grade 2 GU morbidity show markedly different slopes, 23% versus 4%, respectively. The slope for grade 3,4 GI is 12%. The dose response model indicates grade 3,4 GI complication rates at 5 yrs are 8% at 76 Gy and 12% at 80 Gy. Conclusion: Based on 5 yr results, we can draw some conclusions about appropriate dose from these

  8. Glaucoma-related adverse events in the first five years after unilateral cataract removal in the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Sharon F.; Lynn, Michael J.; Beck, Allen D.; Bothun, Erick D.; Orge, Faruk H.; Lambert, Scott R.

    2015-01-01

    Importance Glaucoma-related adverse events constitute major sight-threatening complications of cataract removal in infancy, yet their relationship to aphakia versus primary intraocular lens (IOL) implantation remains unsettled. Objective To identify and characterize cases of glaucoma and glaucoma-related adverse events (glaucoma+glaucoma suspect) among children in the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study (IATS) by the age of five years. Design, Setting, and Participants A multicenter randomized controlled trial of 114 infants with unilateral congenital cataract who were between age 1–6 months at surgery. Interventions Participants were randomized at cataract surgery to either primary IOL, or no IOL implantation (contact lens [CL]). Standardized definitions of glaucoma and glaucoma suspect were created for IATS and applied for surveillance and diagnosis. Main Outcome Measures Development of glaucoma and glaucoma+glaucoma suspect in operated eyes up to age five years, plus intraocular pressure, visual acuity, and axial length at age five years. Results Product limit estimates of the risk of glaucoma and glaucoma+glaucoma suspect at 4.8 years after surgery were 17% (95%CI=11%–25%) and 31% (95%CI=24%–41%), respectively. The CL and IOL groups were not significantly different for either outcome: glaucoma (hazard ratio(HR)=0.8[95%CI=0.3–2.0],p=0.62); glaucoma+glaucoma suspect: (HR=1.3[95%CI=0.6–2.5],p=0.58). Younger (versus older) age at surgery conferred increased risk of glaucoma (26% versus 9%, respectively at 4.8 years after surgery (HR=3.2[95%CI=1.2–8.3]), and smaller (versus larger) corneal diameter showed increased risk for glaucoma+glaucoma suspect (HR=2.5[95%CI=1.3–5.0]). Age and corneal diameter were significantly positively correlated. Glaucoma was predominantly open angle (19/20 cases, 95%), most eyes received medication (19/20, 95%), and 8/20 (40%) eyes had surgery. Conclusions and Relevance These results suggest that glaucoma-related adverse events

  9. Assessing the benefits of five years of different approaches to treatment of urogenital schistosomiasis: A SCORE project in Northern Mozambique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna E Phillips

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In Mozambique, schistosomiasis is highly endemic across the whole country. The Schistosomiasis Consortium for Operational Research and Evaluation (SCORE coordinates a five-year study that has been implemented in various African countries, including Mozambique. The overall goal of SCORE was to better understand how to best apply preventive chemotherapy with praziquantel (PZQ for schistosomiasis control by evaluating the impact of alternative treatment approaches.This was a cluster-randomised trial that compared the impact of different treatment strategies in study areas with prevalence among school children of ≥21% S. haematobium infection by urine dipstick. Each village was randomly allocated to one of six possible combinations of community-wide treatment (CWT, school-based treatment (SBT, and/or drug holidays over a period of four years, followed by final data collection in the fifth year. The most intense intervention arm involved four years of CWT, while the least intensive arm involved two years of SBT followed by two consecutive years of PZQ holiday. Each study arm included 25 villages randomly assigned to one of the six treatment arms. The primary outcome of interest was change in prevalence and intensity of S. haematobium among 100 children aged 9-to-12-years that were sampled each year in every village. In addition to children aged 9-to-12 years, 100 children aged 5-8 years in their first-year of school and 50 adults (aged 20-55 years were tested in the first and final fifth year of the study. Prevalence and intensity of S. haematobium infection was evaluated by two filtrations, each of 10mL, from a single urine specimen.In total, data was collected from 81,167 individuals across 149 villages in ten districts of Cabo Delgado province, Northern Mozambique. Overall PZQ treatment resulted in a significant reduction in the prevalence of S. haematobium infection from Year 1 to Year 5, where the average prevalence went from 60.5% to 38

  10. Alendronate treatment in the revision setting, with and without controlled implant motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søballe, Kjeld; Chen, Xinqian; Jensen, Thomas B

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Bisphosphonates have been proposed to delay or prevent loosening of joint replacement implants by reducing bone resorption. It is known, however, that implant motion prevents the bone anchorage necessary to maintain secure implant fixation. Methods We used our experimental implant...... conditions, even with alendronate. With alendronate and stabilized implants, increased bone was observed near the sclerotic shell of the revision cavity, but it was reduced with alendronate when the implant was unstable. Interpretation Our findings suggest that it may be difficult for alendronate...... administration alone to rescue implants that are already loose. In implants that have not progressed to loosening, alendronate may increase bone density at the border with the sclerotic shell, but the effect of this bone in delaying eventual loosening is not known. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Dec...

  11. Radiotherapy and chemotherapy in the treatment of head and neck cancer: results after five years of a randomized study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santarelli, M.; Raffetto, N.; Torcia, P.; Vitturini, A.; Tombolini, V.; Maurizi Enrici, R. [Istituto di radiologia Universita Roma ' ' La Sapienza' ' , Rome (Italy)

    1999-11-01

    Purpose: this study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of two regimens of chemoradiotherapy in the treatment of locally advanced head and neck cancer. Methods: from 1992 to 1997, 127 patients with locally advanced head and neck cancer (stage III-IV) were randomized. Sixty-six patients (group a), 42 male and 24 female, with a median age of 48 years (range 40-72) received during radiotherapy two courses (1.-6. week) of chemotherapy with carbo-platin (300 mg/m{sup 2} day 1) and etoposide (60 mg/m{sup 2} days 1 to 3). Sixty-one patients (group b), 40 male and 21 female, with a median age of 51 years (range 42-69) received two cycles of chemotherapy with 5 FU (750 mg/m{sup 2} days 1 to 5) and MIT C ( 10 mg/m{sup 2} day 1). The median dose of radiotherapy was 60 Gy (range 55-66 Gy) 180 cGy /d 5w. Results: the actuarial five-year survival rate(Kaplan-Meier) was 38 % for group a (CBDCA+etoposide+RT) and 25 % for group b (5FU+MIT C+RT). The difference was statistically significant (p = 0.036). Toxicity group a: mucositis G III in 41 patients and G IV in 16; dysphagia G III in 46 patients and IV in 5; leukopenia in 24 patients; 28 patients required nutritional therapy. Toxicity group b: mucositis G III in 38 patients and G IV in 17; dysphagia G III in 48 patients and G IV in 3; leukopenia in 23 patients; 25 patients needed nutritional therapy. Conclusions: the data of the actuarial survival five-year rate suggest that concomitant chemotherapy in group a (CBDCA+etoposide+RT) is better than the concomitant chemotherapy in group b (5FU+MIT C+RT). (author)

  12. Radiotherapy and chemotherapy in the treatment of head and neck cancer: results after five years of a randomized study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santarelli, M.; Raffetto, N.; Torcia, P.; Vitturini, A.; Tombolini, V.; Maurizi Enrici, R.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: this study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of two regimens of chemoradiotherapy in the treatment of locally advanced head and neck cancer. Methods: from 1992 to 1997, 127 patients with locally advanced head and neck cancer (stage III-IV) were randomized. Sixty-six patients (group a), 42 male and 24 female, with a median age of 48 years (range 40-72) received during radiotherapy two courses (1.-6. week) of chemotherapy with carbo-platin (300 mg/m 2 day 1) and etoposide (60 mg/m 2 days 1 to 3). Sixty-one patients (group b), 40 male and 21 female, with a median age of 51 years (range 42-69) received two cycles of chemotherapy with 5 FU (750 mg/m 2 days 1 to 5) and MIT C ( 10 mg/m 2 day 1). The median dose of radiotherapy was 60 Gy (range 55-66 Gy) 180 cGy /d 5w. Results: the actuarial five-year survival rate (Kaplan-Meier) was 38 % for group a (CBDCA+etoposide+RT) and 25 % for group b (5FU+MIT C+RT). The difference was statistically significant (p = 0.036). Toxicity group a: mucositis G III in 41 patients and G IV in 16; dysphagia G III in 46 patients and IV in 5; leukopenia in 24 patients; 28 patients required nutritional therapy. Toxicity group b: mucositis G III in 38 patients and G IV in 17; dysphagia G III in 48 patients and G IV in 3; leukopenia in 23 patients; 25 patients needed nutritional therapy. Conclusions: the data of the actuarial survival five-year rate suggest that concomitant chemotherapy in group a (CBDCA+etoposide+RT) is better than the concomitant chemotherapy in group b (5FU+MIT C+RT). (author)

  13. EFFECTS OF LONG-TERM ALENDRONATE TREATMENT ON A LARGE SAMPLE OF PEDIATRIC PATIENTS WITH OSTEOGENESIS IMPERFECTA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Fang; Liu, Yi; Xu, Xiaojie; Wang, Jianyi; Ma, Doudou; Jiang, Yan; Wang, Ou; Xia, Weibo; Xing, Xiaoping; Yu, Wei; Li, Mei

    2016-12-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a group of inherited diseases characterized by reduced bone mass, recurrent bone fractures, and progressive bone deformities. Here, we evaluate the efficacy and safety of long-term treatment with alendronate in a large sample of Chinese children and adolescents with OI. In this prospective study, a total of 91 children and adolescents with OI were included. The patients received 3 years' treatment with 70 mg alendronate weekly and 500 mg calcium daily. During the treatment, fracture incidence, bone mineral density (BMD), and serum levels of the bone turnover biomarkers (alkaline phosphatase [ALP] and cross-linked C-telopeptide of type I collagen [β-CTX]) were evaluated. Linear growth speed and parameters of safety were also measured. After 3 years of treatment, the mean annual fracture incidence decreased from 1.2 ± 0.8 to 0.2 ± 0.3 (Posteogenesis imperfecta PTH = parathyroid hormone.

  14. Alendronate sodium hydrate (oral jelly for the treatment of osteoporosis: review of a novel, easy to swallow formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imai K

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Kazuhiro Imai Department of Life Sciences, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan Abstract: Osteoporosis is a skeletal disorder characterized by loss of bone mass, decreased bone strength, and an increased risk of bone fracture. The disease progresses with age, especially in postmenopausal women. Japan is one of the most rapidly aging societies worldwide. Japanese individuals over 65 years of age constituted 23.0% of the population in 2010 and 25.1% to 25.2% as of 2013. The estimated number of people with osteoporosis in Japan is currently 13 million. Bisphosphonates increase bone mineral density by inhibiting osteoclast-mediated bone resorption, thereby reducing the risk of fractures. Alendronate sodium hydrate (alendronate is a bisphosphonate that potently inhibits bone resorption and is used to treat osteoporosis. Sufficient water is required to take an alendronate oral tablet; insufficient water could result in digestive system diseases, such as esophageal ulceration. Elderly patients with swallowing difficulty may choke on the tablet. Taking a tablet with oral jelly is a method to prevent digestive system disease and reduce the choking hazard. Once-weekly alendronate oral jelly was approved in 2012 by the Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare of Japan as the world's first drug for osteoporosis in a jelly formulation. It consists of a jelly portion and an air portion. The jelly formulation is smoothly discharged by pushing the air portion. Therefore, elderly patients with physical disabilities are able to easily take all of the jelly formulation from the package. In this review, this new formulation of alendronate sodium hydrate (oral jelly is introduced and discussed in terms of osteoporosis treatment. This new formulation provides an alternative so that patients may select a method of dosing tailored to their preferences. Management of osteoporosis involves assessing fracture risk and preventing

  15. Characteristics of patients who suffer major osteoporotic fractures despite adhering to alendronate treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, B; Rubin, K H; Eiken, Pia Agnete

    2013-01-01

    .03-1.06, for each drug). Dementia (HR 1.81, 95 % CI 1.18-2.78), prior fracture (one: HR 1.17, 95 % CI 1.02-1.34; multiple: HR 1.34, 95 % CI 1.08-1.67), and ulcer disease (HR 1.45, 95 % CI 1.04-2.03) also increased the risk. Diabetes did not influence fracture risk, nor did rheumatic disorders. The risk was lower...... and associations may not be causal, it may be prudent to include dementia, ulcer disease, and Parkinson's disease to capture the risk of fractures on treatment. Lower risk in patients treated with glucocorticoids and in men probably reflects a lower treatment threshold related to guidelines.......Antiresorptive treatment reduces the risk of fractures, but most patients remain at elevated risk. We used health registers to identify predictors of new major osteoporotic fractures in patients adhering to alendronate. Risk factors showed a different pattern than in the general population...

  16. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients report increased pain at five years compared with two years after surgical treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upasani, Vidyadhar V; Caltoum, Christine; Petcharaporn, Maty; Bastrom, Tracey P; Pawelek, Jeff B; Betz, Randal R; Clements, David H; Lenke, Lawrence G; Lowe, Thomas G; Newton, Peter O

    2008-05-01

    A multicenter study of changes in Scoliosis Research Society (SRS) outcome measures after surgical treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). To evaluate changes in patient determined outcome measures between 2 and 5 years after AIS surgery. Current surgical procedures have been shown to improve subjective measures in patients with AIS. At 2-year follow-up, AIS patients reported significant improvement in all 4 preoperative domains of the SRS questionnaire. In addition, the major Cobb angle was shown to be negatively correlated with preoperative scores in the pain, general self-image, and general function domains. Five-year SRS scores have not been evaluated previously. A multicenter, prospectively generated database was used to obtain perioperative, radiographic, and SRS-24 outcomes data. The inclusion criteria were: a diagnosis of AIS, surgical treatment (anterior, posterior, or combined), a comprehensive set of radiographic measures, and completed preoperative, 2-year, and 5-year SRS questionnaires. Repeated measures analysis of variance was used to compare changes in patient responses for each of the 7 outcome domains. Univariate analysis of variance was used to compare the change in pain score at 5 years to the level of the lowest instrumented vertebrae and surgical approach. A correlation analysis was used to determine the association between changes in any of the radiographic variables and changes in SRS scores. The data were checked for normality and equal variances, and the level of significance was set at P < 0.01. Forty-nine patients (42 women, 7 men; 14.2 +/- 2.1 year old; 5.4 +/- 0.6 years follow-up) met the inclusion criteria for this study. Thirty-seven of 49 (76%) of these patients underwent an open or thoracoscopic anterior procedure. SRS-24 scores improved significantly in 3 of the 4 preoperative domains at the 2-year visit. At 5 years postop, a statistically significant decrease in the pain score (4.2 +/- 0.6 to 3.9 +/- 0.9, P = 0

  17. The Effect of Alendronate and Calcitonin Treatments on Bone Mineral Density and Quality of Life in Women With Postmenopausal Osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Taşçıoğlu

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the effect of alendronate and calcitonin treatments on bone mineral density (BMD and quality of life of women with postmenopausal osteoporosis. One hundred ninety-three patients were randomly assigned to two groups: 93 patients received daily doses of 10 mg alendronate and calcium 1000 mg, and 98 patients used intranasal salmon calcitonin (sCt at a dosage of 200 IU/day and they also received daily doses of 1000 mg calcium supplements. DXA was used for the measurement of BMD of the lumbar spine and proximal femur before and after the study period. SF-36 was used as a measure of health-related quality of life. At the end of the treatment, ALN produced significant increases in BMD at the lumbar spine (p< 0.001, femur neck (p<0.05, trochanteric region (p<0.001 and at the Ward triangle (p<0.05. In contrast, intranasal sCt treatment resulted in a significant bone loss in the femur neck (p<0.01 and Ward triangle (p<0.05, and only a significant increase in BMD of the lumbar spine was observed with calcitonin treatment(p< 0.05. Quality of life as assessed by SF-36 improved significantly in both groups(p<0.05. In conclusion, alendronate seemed to be more effective than calcitonin, increasing both spinal and femoral BMD, for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Both treatments were found to be effective for the improvement of quality of life.

  18. Alendronate treatment alters bone tissues at multiple structural levels in healthy canine cortical bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, Claire; Bale, Hrishikesh; Gludovatz, Bernd; Wat, Amy; Tang, Simon Y; Wang, Mingyue; Busse, Björn; Zimmermann, Elizabeth A; Schaible, Eric; Allen, Matthew R; Burr, David B; Ritchie, Robert O

    2015-12-01

    Bisphosphonates are widely used to treat osteoporosis, but have been associated with atypical femoral fractures (AFFs) in the long term, which raises a critical health problem for the aging population. Several clinical studies have suggested that the occurrence of AFFs may be related to the bisphosphonate-induced changes of bone turnover, but large discrepancies in the results of these studies indicate that the salient mechanisms responsible for any loss in fracture resistance are still unclear. Here the role of bisphosphonates is examined in terms of the potential deterioration in fracture resistance resulting from both intrinsic (plasticity) and extrinsic (shielding) toughening mechanisms, which operate over a wide range of length-scales. Specifically, we compare the mechanical properties of two groups of humeri from healthy beagles, one control group comprising eight females (oral doses of saline vehicle, 1 mL/kg/day, 3 years) and one treated group comprising nine females (oral doses of alendronate used to treat osteoporosis, 0.2mg/kg/day, 3 years). Our data demonstrate treatment-specific reorganization of bone tissue identified at multiple length-scales mainly through advanced synchrotron x-ray experiments. We confirm that bisphosphonate treatments can increase non-enzymatic collagen cross-linking at molecular scales, which critically restricts plasticity associated with fibrillar sliding, and hence intrinsic toughening, at nanoscales. We also observe changes in the intracortical architecture of treated bone at microscales, with partial filling of the Haversian canals and reduction of osteon number. We hypothesize that the reduced plasticity associated with BP treatments may induce an increase in microcrack accumulation and growth under cyclic daily loadings, and potentially increase the susceptibility of cortical bone to atypical (fatigue-like) fractures. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Inhibited osteoclastic bone resorption through alendronate treatment in rats reduces severe osteoarthritis progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebelt, M; Waarsing, J H; Groen, H C; Müller, C; Koelewijn, S J; de Blois, E; Verhaar, J A N; de Jong, M; Weinans, H

    2014-09-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a non-rheumatoid joint disease characterized by progressive degeneration of extra-cellular cartilage matrix (ECM), enhanced subchondral bone remodeling, osteophyte formation and synovial thickening. Alendronate (ALN) is a potent inhibitor of osteoclastic bone resorption and results in reduced bone remodeling. This study investigated the effects of pre-emptive use of ALN on OA related osteoclastic subchondral bone resorption in an in vivo rat model for severe OA. Using multi-modality imaging we measured effects of ALN treatment within cartilage and synovium. Severe osteoarthritis was induced in left rat knees using papain injections in combination with a moderate running protocol. Twenty rats were treated with subcutaneous ALN injections and compared to twenty untreated controls. Animals were longitudinally monitored for 12weeks with in vivo μCT to measure subchondral bone changes and SPECT/CT to determine synovial macrophage activation using a folate-based radiotracer. Articular cartilage was analyzed at 6 and 12weeks with ex vivo contrast enhanced μCT and histology to measure sulfated-glycosaminoglycan (sGAG) content and cartilage thickness. ALN treatment successfully inhibited subchondral bone remodeling. As a result we found less subchondral plate porosity and reduced osteophytosis. ALN treatment did not reduce subchondral sclerosis. However, after the OA induction phase, ALN treatment protected cartilage ECM from degradation and reduced synovial macrophage activation. Surprisingly, ALN treatment also improved sGAG content of tibia cartilage in healthy joints. Our data was consistent with the hypothesis that osteoclastic bone resorption might play an important role in OA and may be a driving force for progression of the disease. However, our study suggest that this effect might not solely be effects on osteoclastic activity, since ALN treatment also influenced macrophage functioning. Additionally, ALN treatment and physical activity

  20. A Randomised Controlled Treatment Trial of Two Forms of Family Therapy in Adolescent Anorexia Nervosa: A Five-Year Follow-Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisler, Ivan; Simic, Mima; Russell, Gerald F. M.; Dare, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    Background: There is growing evidence that family therapy is an effective treatment for adolescent anorexia nervosa. This study aimed to ascertain the long-term impact of two forms of outpatient family intervention previously evaluated in a randomised controlled trial (RCT). Method: A five-year follow-up was conducted on a cohort of 40 patients…

  1. Effects of short-term alendronate treatment on the three-dimensional microstructural, physical and mechanical properties of dog trabecular bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, J; Ding, Ming; Søballe, K

    2002-01-01

    The bisphosphonate, alendronate, is well known for its potent inhibition of osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. It has been used clinically for the treatment of osteoporosis and has also recently been used to reduce osteolysis around prostheses in a canine revision model of implant loosening...... proximal humeri. These specimens were scanned using a high-resolution microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) system. From accurate data sets, three-dimensional microstructural properties were calculated and physical and mechanical properties were determined. Treatment with alendronate increased bone volume...

  2. Possible alendronate-induced polyarticular synovitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Gökkus

    2016-01-01

    The patient had no evidence of rheumatoid arthritis, pyrophosphate arthropathy, or seronegative/seropositive arthritis. Our main aim in this study is to highlight the potential adverse effects of alendronate and to warn orthopedic surgeons about the possibility of such a side effect that might lead orthopedic surgeons to administer wrong and unnecessary treatments like arthrocentesis. The withdrawal of alendronate is found to be the treatment of choice. Alendronate should be considered as a possible cause of synovitis or polyarthritis in patients treated with this agent in the absence of any other pathology. An association between alendronate and synovitis has rarely been described in the literature. We present a patient who developed polyarticular synovitis after treatment with alendronate and responded to its withdrawal.

  3. Efficacy of alendronate, a bisphosphonate, in the treatment of AVN of the hip. A prospective open-label study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwala, S; Jain, D; Joshi, V R; Sule, A

    2005-03-01

    To study the efficacy of alendronate, in the treatment of avascular necrosis (AVN) of the hip. Sixty patients with AVN of the hip (100 hips with AVN) were studied. The follow-up period ranged from 3 months to 5 yr. The most common cause of AVN was steroids. Parameters studied were walking time, standing time, pain and disability on a visual analogue scale (VAS), range of motion of the hip, X-ray and MRI of the hip. All patients were treated with alendronate 10 mg/day (or 70 mg/week) along with 500-1000 mg of daily calcium and vitamin D supplements, and were advised to avoid weight-bearing. NSAIDs and analgesics were permitted as needed and were recorded. Forty-one patients (71 AVN hips) with AVN have been followed up for a minimum of 1 yr, 24 patients (42 AVN hips) for 2 yr and 21 patients (37 AVN hips) for more than 2 yr (average 37 month). Fourteen patients have been followed up for less than 1 yr (3-9 months). Significant reduction in pain and disability scores (P 0.001). Radiologically, the hips either stabilized in the same grade or progressed by one grade. MRI showed a decrease in marrow oedema in most cases at the 1-yr follow-up. Six patients (10 hips) required surgery and there were two (three hips) dropouts. The drug was well tolerated and there was a reduction in NSAID requirement. Alendronate reduces pain, improves function and retards AVN progression. Early surgical intervention can be avoided in most patients.

  4. Treatment Outcome of Tuberculosis Patients under Directly Observed Treatment Short Course and Factors Affecting Outcome in Southern Ethiopia: A Five-Year Retrospective Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gebremedhin Gebrezgabiher

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB is one of the major public health and socio-economic issues in the 21st century globally. Assessment of TB treatment outcomes, and monitoring and evaluation of its risk factors in Directly Observed Treatment Short Course (DOTS are among the major indicators of the performance of a national TB control program. Hence, this institution-based retrospective study was conducted to determine the treatment outcome of TB patients and investigate factors associated with unsuccessful outcome at Dilla University Referral Hospital, southern Ethiopia. Five years (2008 to 2013 TB record of TB clinic of the hospital was reviewed. A total 1537 registered TB patients with complete information were included. Of these, 942 (61.3% were male, 1015 (66% were from rural areas, 544 (35.4% were smear positive pulmonary TB (PTB+, 816 (53.1% were smear negative pulmonary TB (PTB- and 177(11.5% were extra pulmonary TB (EPTB patients. Records of the 1537 TB patients showed that 181 (11.8% were cured, 1129(73.5% completed treatment, 171 (11.1% defaulted, 52 (3.4% died and 4 (0.3% had treatment failure. The overall mean treatment success rate of the TB patients was 85.2%. The treatment success rate of the TB patients increased from 80.5% in September 2008-August 2009 to 84.8% in September 2012-May 2013. Tuberculosis type, age, residence and year of treatment were significantly associated with unsuccessful treatment outcome. The risk of unsuccessful outcome was significantly higher among TB patients from rural areas (AOR = 1.63, 95% CI: 1.21-2.20 compared to their urban counterparts. Unsuccessful treatment outcome was also observed in PTB- patients (AOR = 1.77, 95% CI: 1.26-2.50 and EPTB (AOR = 2.07, 95% CI: 1.28-3.37 compared to the PTB+ patients. In conclusion, it appears that DOTS have improved treatment success in the hospital during five years. Regular follow-up of patients with poor treatment outcome and provision of health information on TB treatment to

  5. Effect of different frequencies of preventive maintenance treatment on dental caries: five-year observations in general dentistry patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosén, Birgitta; Olavi, Göran; Birkhed, Dowen; Edvardsson, Stig; Egelberg, Jan

    2004-10-01

    A long-term study in adults at a public dental clinic in Sweden was initiated to evaluate the relative effectiveness of prophylactic treatments on the progression of dental caries and periodontal discase. With treatments scheduled every 3rd, 6th, 12th or 18th month, this report presents results on caries for the 3-month, 6-month and 18-month groups, and evaluates the impact of various caries-related risk factors. Caries increment over approximately 5 years was determined by adding clinical and radiographic findings of manifest primary and secondary caries during the study. Overall caries activity among all 105 participating individuals was low to moderate. No significant differences for caries on any of the various tooth surfaces or for total caries were observed among the three groups. Multiple regression analysis with 5-year caries increment as dependent variable showed that the following factors had a statistically significant association with caries increment: percentage filled surfaces at baseline examination, dietary score, plaque score, and number of mutans streptococci and lactobacilli in saliva. Non-significant factors included number of preventive treatments provided during the 5-year interval. The results of this long-term trial suggest that preventive treatments as often as every 3 6 months may not be justified in the case of patients with low to moderate caries activity.

  6. Five-year analysis from the ESPRIT 10-year postmarketing surveillance registry of adalimumab treatment for moderate to severe psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menter, Alan; Thaçi, Diamant; Papp, Kim A; Wu, Jashin J; Bereswill, Mareike; Teixeira, Henrique D; Rubant, Simone; Williams, David A

    2015-09-01

    ESPRIT is an ongoing, 10-year, observational registry, evaluating long-term safety and effectiveness of adalimumab treatment in routine clinical practice for patients with moderate to severe, chronic plaque psoriasis. Initial 5-year results are reported. Two populations were analyzed: the "all-treated" population received 1 or more adalimumab doses in registry, continuing adalimumab treatment from a current prescription or previous study participation, and included the "new-prescription" population initiating adalimumab 4 weeks or earlier preregistry entry. Data were collected from September 26, 2008, through November 30, 2013, for all-treated (n = 6059), which included new-prescription (n = 2580, 42.6%); median registry exposure was 765 and 677 days, respectively. In all-treated, rate (events per 100 patient-years of total adalimumab exposure [E/100PY]) of serious treatment-emergent adverse events (inside or outside of the registry) was 4.3 E/100PY, serious infection 1.0 E/100PY, malignancies 0.9 E/100PY (nonmelanoma skin cancers 0.6 E/100PY; melanomas <0.1 E/100PY). Standardized mortality ratio was 0.30 (95% confidence interval 0.19-0.44). Physician Global Assessment clear or minimal (effectiveness parameter) was achieved by 57.0% at 12 months and 64.7% at 60 months of treatment. Observational data are subject to outcome-reporting bias. No new safety signals were observed with adalimumab treatment during this initial 5-year registry review. Observed number of deaths was below expected. As-observed effectiveness remained stable through 60 months. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Pneumonia in rural Malawians under five years old: Treatment outcomes and clinical predictors of death on admission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prosper M. Lutala

    2009-09-01

    Method: The medical records of 466 consecutive patients admitted to the Mchinji District Hospital from January 2004 to January 2006 whose disease met the World Health Organization criteria for pneumonia were reviewed. Data were collected from forms that had been filled out and different treatment outcomes and determinants of death were analysed using logistic regression. Results: Of the 466 patients, 62.7% completed treatment, 15.9% had unknown outcomes, 12.9% died, 8.4% were lost to follow-up, 0.8% failed to improve with treatment, and 0.4% were transferred to other facilities. Independent predictors of death were: age less than 2 years, female sex, history of pneumonia, chest retractions, type of pneumonia, and central cyanosis. Conclusion: A high proportion of deaths and unknown outcomes occurred among participants. Young age, female sex, history of pneumonia, chest retractions and central cyanosis were associated with death. Mortality from pneumonia may be reduced by close monitoring of these risk factors and by improving health education programmes and communicating these findings to parents and health workers. Further investigations of local reasons for high rates of unknown/unreported outcomes are welcomed.

  8. Performance of a passive treatment system for net-acidic coal mine drainage over five years of operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthies, Romy; Aplin, Andrew C; Jarvis, Adam P

    2010-09-15

    A full-scale passive treatment system (PTS) was commissioned in 2003 to treat two net-acidic coal mine water discharges in the Durham coalfield, UK. The principal aim of the PTS was to decrease concentrations of iron (3.2) and alkalinity (> or =0 mg L(-1) CaCO(3) eq). Secondary objectives were to decrease zinc (treatment, water qualities were improved by 84% in the case of Fe, 87% Al, 83% acidity, 51% Zn, 23% Mn and 29% SO(4)(2)(-). Alkalinity (74%) and pH (95% as H(+)) were increased. Area adjusted removal rates (Fe=1.49+/-0.66 g d(-1) m(-2); acidity=6.7+/-4.9 g d(-1) m(-2)) were low compared to design criteria, mainly due to load limitation. Disregarding seasonality effects, acidity removal and effluent pH were stable over time. A substantial temporal decrease in calcium and alkalinity generation suggests that limestone is increasingly armoured. Once pH is no longer buffered by the carbonate system, metals could be remobilized, putting treatment efficiency at risk. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Three-year experience with combined treatment with alendronate and alfacalcidol in Japanese patients with severe bone loss and osteoporotic fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwamoto J

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Jun Iwamoto1, Yoshihiro Sato2, Mitsuyoshi Uzawa3, Tsuyoshi Takeda1, Hideo Matsumoto11Institute for Integrated Sports Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan; 2Department of Neurology, Mitate Hospital, Fukuoka, Japan; 3Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Keiyu Orthopaedic Hospital, Gunma, JapanPurpose: Combined treatment with alendronate and alfacalcidol is more useful to increase bone mineral density (BMD than alendronate or alfacalcidol alone. A retrospective study was conducted to investigate the 3-year outcome of combined treatment with alendronate and alfacalcidol in patients with severe bone loss (BMD ≤ 50% of the young adult mean and osteoporotic fracture.Methods: Thirty-four patients (six men and 28 postmenopausal women with primary or secondary osteoporosis who had been treated with alendronate and alfacalcidol for more than 3 years were analyzed. The lumbar spine or total hip BMD and bone turnover markers were monitored, and the incidence of osteoporotic fractures was assessed.Results: The urinary level of cross-linked N-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen and serum level of alkaline phosphatase significantly decreased (-42.5% at 3 months and -18.9% at 3 years, and the lumbar spine BMD, but not the total hip BMD, significantly increased (14.8% at 3 years, compared with the baseline values. However, the incidence of vertebral and nonvertebral fractures was 26.5% and 2.9%, respectively, suggesting a high incidence of vertebral fractures.Conclusion: The results of the present study suggest that combined treatment with alendronate and alfacalcidol may be useful to reduce bone turnover and increase the lumbar spine BMD in patients with severe bone loss and osteoporotic fracture. However, its efficacy against vertebral fractures appears not to be sufficient. Thus, anabolic agents such as teriparatide should be taken into consideration as first-line drugs in patients with severe osteoporosis.Keywords: osteoporosis

  10. Five years of specialised early intervention versus two years of specialised early intervention followed by three years of standard treatment for patients with a first episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albert, Nikolai; Melau, Marianne; Jensen, Heidi

    2017-01-01

    assessment. Randomisation was centralised and computerised with concealed randomisation sequence carried out at an external site. SETTING: Participants were recruited from six OPUS teams in Denmark between 2009 and 2012. OPUS teams provide SEI treatment to all patients diagnosed with a schizophrenia spectrum...... of three core elements-modified assertive community treatment, family involvement, and social skill training-with a patient-case manager ratio of no more than 12:1. For participants randomised to five years of OPUS treatment, the treatment was largely unchanged. Participants randomised to the control group......, alogia, and affective blunting). Secondary outcomes were remission of both negative and psychotic symptoms, psychotic symptoms, suicidal ideation, substance abuse, compliance with medical treatment, adherence with treatment, client satisfaction, days in hospital care, and labour market affiliation...

  11. Effect of maternal Schistosoma mansoni infection and praziquantel treatment during pregnancy on Schistosoma mansoni infection and immune responsiveness among offspring at age five years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Tweyongyere

    Full Text Available Offspring of Schistosoma mansoni-infected women in schistosomiasis-endemic areas may be sensitised in-utero. This may influence their immune responsiveness to schistosome infection and schistosomiasis-associated morbidity. Effects of praziquantel treatment of S. mansoni during pregnancy on risk of S. mansoni infection among offspring, and on their immune responsiveness when they become exposed to S. mansoni, are unknown. Here we examined effects of praziquantel treatment of S. mansoni during pregnancy on prevalence of S. mansoni and immune responsiveness among offspring at age five years.In a trial in Uganda (ISRCTN32849447, http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN32849447/elliott, offspring of women treated with praziquantel or placebo during pregnancy were examined for S. mansoni infection and for cytokine and antibody responses to SWA and SEA, as well as for T cell expression of FoxP3, at age five years.Of the 1343 children examined, 32 (2.4% had S. mansoni infection at age five years based on a single stool sample. Infection prevalence did not differ between children of treated or untreated mothers. Cytokine (IFNγ, IL-5, IL-10 and IL-13 and antibody (IgG1, Ig4 and IgE responses to SWA and SEA, and FoxP3 expression, were higher among infected than uninfected children. Praziquantel treatment of S. mansoni during pregnancy had no effect on immune responses, with the exception of IL-10 responses to SWA, which was higher in offspring of women that received praziquantel during pregnancy than those who did not.We found no evidence that maternal S. mansoni infection and its treatment during pregnancy influence prevalence and intensity of S. mansoni infection or effector immune response to S. mansoni infection among offspring at age five years, but the observed effects on IL-10 responses to SWA suggest that maternal S. mansoni and its treatment during pregnancy may affect immunoregulatory responsiveness in childhood schistosomiasis. This might have

  12. Multidisciplinary therapy for the treatment of malocclusion in a patient with chronic periodontitis with a five-year follow-up: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongmei; Lin, Li; Tang, Xiaoling; Li, Chen; Liu, Jingbo; Wang, Hongyang; Pan, Yaping

    2017-10-01

    Multidisciplinary therapy is essential in dental practice to achieve optimized outcomes. The present case report describes the application of periodontal surgery with a five-year follow-up in a patient with malocclusion and chronic periodontitis. In the presence of periodontal inflammation, orthodontic therapy may result in further periodontal breakdown due to plaque accumulation. In order to prevent this progression, scaling and root planning with a periodontal endoscope was applied, and continuous clinical monitoring and risk assessment was performed every 3 months using a Florida Probe. This combined treatment supports the long-term maintenance of periodontal conditions, functional occlusion and harmony of the facial profile.

  13. Prognostic factors and outcome of treatment in Perthes' disease: a prospective study of 368 patients with five-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiig, O; Terjesen, T; Svenningsen, S

    2008-10-01

    This nationwide prospective study was designed to determine prognostic factors and evaluate the outcome of different treatments of Perthes' disease. A total of 28 hospitals in Norway were instructed to report all new cases of Perthes' disease over a period of five years and 425 patients were reported and followed for five years. Of these, 368 with unilateral disease were included in the present study. The hips were classified radiologically according to a modified two-group Catterall classification and the lateral pillar classification. A total of 358 patients (97%) attended the five-year follow-up, when a modified three-group Stulberg classification was used as a radiological outcome measure. For patients over six years of age at diagnosis and with more than 50% necrosis of the femoral head (152 patients), the surgeons at the different hospitals had chosen one of three methods of treatment: physiotherapy (55 patients), the Scottish Rite abduction orthosis (26), and proximal femoral varus osteotomy (71). Of these hips, 146 (96%) were available for the five-year follow-up. The strongest predictor of outcome was femoral head involvement of more or less than 50% (odds ratio (OR) = 7.76, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.82 to 21.37), followed by age at diagnosis (OR = 0.98, 95% CI 0.92 to 0.99) and the lateral pillar classification (OR = 0.62, 95% CI 0.40 to 0.98). In children over six years at diagnosis with more than 50% of femoral head necrosis, proximal femoral varus osteotomy gave a significantly better outcome than orthosis (p = 0.001) or physiotherapy (p = 0.001). There was no significant difference between the physiotherapy and orthosis groups (p = 0.36), and we found no difference in outcome after any of the treatments in children under six years (p = 0.73). We recommend proximal femoral varus osteotomy in children aged six years and over at the time of diagnosis with hips having more than 50% femoral head necrosis. The abduction orthosis should be abandoned in

  14. Alendronate has a residual effect on bone mass in postmenopausal Danish women up to 7 years after treatment withdrawal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Yu Z; Tankó, László B; Alexandersen, Peter

    2003-01-01

    for 7, 5, or 3 yr, respectively. Bone mineral density of the lumbar spine, hip, and forearm was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Biochemical markers of bone turnover were induced serum C-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen (CTX) and osteocalcin. Women who received alendronate (2...... was found in women treated with alendronate 20 mg per day for 2 yr (9.7%, P=0.01 vs. placebo). The rate of bone loss after alendronate withdrawal was comparable to the bone loss observed in the placebo group. Bone markers tended to reverse back to normal levels, but were still affected even several years...

  15. Glucocorticoid Steroid and Alendronate Treatment Alleviates Dystrophic Phenotype with Enhanced Functional Glycosylation of α-Dystroglycan in Mouse Model of Limb-Girdle Muscular Dystrophy with FKRPP448L Mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bo; Shah, Sapana N; Lu, Peijuan; Richardson, Stephanie M; Bollinger, Lauren E; Blaeser, Anthony; Madden, Kyle L; Sun, Yubo; Luckie, Taylor M; Cox, Michael D; Sparks, Susan; Harper, Amy D; Lu, Qi Long

    2016-06-01

    Fukutin-related protein-muscular dystrophy is characterized by defects in glycosylation of α-dystroglycan with variable clinical phenotypes, most commonly as limb-girdle muscular dystrophy 2I. There is no effective therapy available. Glucocorticoid steroids have become the standard treatment for Duchenne and other muscular dystrophies with serious adverse effects, including excessive weight gain, immune suppression, and bone loss. Bisphosphonates have been used to treat Duchenne muscular dystrophy for prevention of osteoporosis. Herein, we evaluated prednisolone and alendronate for their therapeutic potential in the FKRPP448L-mutant mouse representing moderate limb-girdle muscular dystrophy 2I. Mice were treated with prednisolone, alendronate, and both in combination for up to 6 months. Prednisolone improved muscle pathology with significant reduction in muscle degeneration, but had no effect on serum creatine kinase levels and muscle strength. Alendronate treatment did not ameliorate muscle degeneration, but demonstrated a limited enhancement on muscle function test. Combined treatment of prednisolone and alendronate provided best improvement in muscle pathology with normalized fiber size distribution and significantly reduced serum creatine kinase levels, but had limited effect on muscle force generation. The use of alendronate significantly mitigated the bone loss. Prednisolone alone and in combination with alendronate enhance functionally glycosylated α-dystroglycan. These results, for the first time, demonstrate the efficacy and feasibility of this alliance treatment of the two drugs for fukutin-related protein-muscular dystrophy. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Five-year results of a randomized clinical trial comparing total mastectomy and segmental mastectomy with or without radiation in the treatment of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, B.; Bauer, M.; Margolese, R.

    1985-01-01

    In 1976 the authors began a randomized trial to evaluate breast conservation by a segmental mastectomy in the treatment of State I and II breast tumors less than or equal to 4 cm in size. The operation removes only sufficient tissue to ensure that margins of resected specimens are free of tumor. Women were randomly assigned to total mastectomy, segmental mastectomy alone, or segmental mastectomy followed by breast irradiation. All patients had auxillary dissections, and patients with positive nodes received chemotherapy. Life-tables estimates based on data from 1843 women indicated that treatment by segmental mastectomy, with or without breast irradiation, resulted in disease-free, distant-disease-free, and overall survival at five years that was no worse than that after total breast removal. In fact, disease-free survival after segmental mastectomy plus radiation was better than disease-free survival after total mastectomy, and overall survival after segmental mastectomy, with or without radiation, was better than overall survival after total mastectomy. A total of 92.3% of women treated with radiation remained free of breast tumor at five years, as compared with 72.1% of those receiving no radiation. Among patients with positive nodes 97.9% of women treated with radiation and 63.8% of those receiving no radiation remained tumor-free, although both groups received chemotherapy. They conclude that segmental mastectomy, followed by breast irradiation in all patients and adjuvant chemotherapy in women with positive nodes, is appropriate therapy for Stage I and II breast tumors less than or equal to 4 cm, provided that margins of resected specimens are free of tumor. 23 references, 4 figures, 6 tables

  17. Parents of children diagnosed with cancer: work situation and sick leave, a five-year post end-of-treatment or a child's death follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikman, Anna; Hovén, Emma; Cernvall, Martin; Ljungman, Gustaf; Ljungman, Lisa; von Essen, Louise

    Cancer in a child is associated with a significant impact on parental employment. We assessed the proportions of parents of survivors and bereaved parents working and reporting sick leave five years after end of successful treatment (ST)/child's death (T7) compared with one year after end of ST/child's death (T6) and the association between partial post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and work situation and sick leave at T7. Participants and procedure: The sample included 152 parents of survivors (77 mothers, 75 fathers) and 42 bereaved parents (22 mothers, 20 fathers) of children diagnosed with cancer in Sweden. The proportions of parents working or reporting sick leave did not differ among mothers and fathers of survivors (92% vs. 96% working, 20% vs. 18% on sick leave) or among bereaved mothers and fathers (91% vs. 90% working, 14% vs. 20% on sick leave) at T7. There was no change from T6 to T7 in the proportion of fathers working (fathers of survivors 91% vs. 96%, bereaved fathers 95% vs. 90%). Although more mothers of survivors (92% vs. 82%) and bereaved mothers (91% vs. 77%) worked at T7 than at T6, this increase was not significant. Fewer bereaved mothers reported sick leave at T7 than at T6 (14% vs. 59%, p leave at T7 than at T6 (fathers of survivors 18% vs. 8%, bereaved fathers 20% vs. 15%), this was not significant. Partial PTSD was not associated with parents' work situation or sick leave at T7. Results suggest little adverse effect on work situation and sick leave among parents of survivors and bereaved parents five years after end of ST/child's death from cancer. However, the pattern of change observed differed between parents, which could potentially indicate possible delayed consequences for fathers not captured in the present paper.

  18. Role of 1% alendronate gel as adjunct to mechanical therapy in the treatment of chronic periodontitis among smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Anuj; Raman, Achala; Pradeep, Avani Raju

    2017-01-01

    Alendronate (ALN) inhibits osteoclastic bone resorption and triggers osteostimulative properties both in vivo and in vitro, as shown by increase in matrix formation. This study aimed to explore the efficacy of 1% ALN gel as local drug delivery (LDD) in adjunct to scaling and root planing (SRP) for the treatment of chronic periodontitis among smokers. 75 intrabony defects were treated in 46 male smokers either with 1% ALN gel or placebo gel. ALN gel was prepared by adding ALN into carbopol-distilled water mixture. Clinical parameters [modified sulcus bleeding index, plaque index, probing depth (PD), and periodontal attachment level (PAL)] were recorded at baseline, at 2 months, and at 6 months, while radiographic parameters were recorded at baseline and at 6 months. Defect fill at baseline and at 6 months was calculated on standardized radiographs by using the image analysis software. Mean PD reduction and mean PAL gain were found to be greater in the ALN group than in the placebo group, both at 2 and 6 months. Furthermore, a significantly greater mean percentage of bone fill was found in the ALN group (41.05±11.40%) compared to the placebo group (2.5±0.93%). The results of this study showed 1% ALN stimulated a significant increase in PD reduction, PAL gain, and an improved bone fill compared to placebo gel in chronic periodontitis among smokers. Thus, 1% ALN, along with SRP, is effective in the treatment of chronic periodontitis in smokers.

  19. Impressions That Last: Particularly Negative and Positive Experiences Reported by Parents Five Years after the End of a Child's Successful Cancer Treatment or Death.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Ljungman

    Full Text Available To describe the experience of parenting a child diagnosed with cancer by examining particularly negative and positive experiences reported by parents of childhood cancer survivors and parents of children lost to cancer.168 parents (88 mothers, 80 fathers participated. Data were collected five years after the end of successful treatment or the child's death. The parents' experiences were identified by open-ended semi-structured questions about particularly negative and positive experiences of the child's cancer. An inductive approach was used in which the manifest verbal content of the answers was analysed using content analysis.The analysis revealed eight categories of negative experience (child late effects; distressing events; healthcare; impaired relationships; long-term psychological consequences; own reactions; surrounding institutions; the fact that the child got cancer and seven categories of positive experience (healthcare; improved relationships; long-term consequences for the child; personal development; support systems; treatment outcome; unexpected joy. The categories were related to past events or to the present situation. The findings indicate variations in experiences between parents of survivors and bereaved parents, and between fathers and mothers, as some experiences were only reported by parents of survivors and some experiences were only reported by mothers.The results highlight the importance of past and present events to parents, and accordingly the long-lasting impact of paediatric cancer on parents. The results also point to the wide range of negative as well as positive experiences involved in parenting a child diagnosed with cancer, and provide a comprehensive understanding of the overall experience for parents of children with cancer. Specifically, the findings give guidance to healthcare providers by illustrating the need to provide healthcare personnel with continuous training in communication skills, offering

  20. Columbine High: Five Years Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Marianne D.

    2004-01-01

    A few weeks before the fifth anniversary of the Columbine High School shootings on April 20, 1999, Principal Frank DeAngelis reflects on how his school has changed over the past five years. Much like the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks against the United States, "Columbine" carries a chilling meaning that resonates across the…

  1. Five-year-old historian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Wynne

    2017-12-01

    In this poem, the author describes a doctor talking with a five-year-old child who has been brought to the hospital after being in a car accident with his/her mother and brother. The child is not able to remember the mother's name, but the doctor continues to talk with the child. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Adherence to alendronic or risedronic acid treatment, combined or not to calcium and vitamin D, and related determinants in Italian patients with osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calabria S

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available S Calabria,1 E Cinconze,2 M Rossini,3 E Rossi,2 AP Maggioni,1,4 A Pedrini,1 M De Rosa2 1CORE, Collaborative Outcome Research, Bologna, Italy; 2Health Care Systems Department, CINECA, Interuniversity Consortium, Bologna, Italy; 3Rheumatology Unit, University of Verona, Verona, Italy; 4ANMCO Research Center, Firenze, ItalyPurpose: Osteoporosis is a chronic disease and an important health and social burden due to its worldwide prevalence. Literature and clinical experience report incomplete adherence to the therapy. This retrospective observational study aimed at assessing the adherence to first-line antiosteoporosis drugs (AODs; reimbursed by the National Health System, according to the Italian Medicine Agency recommendation number 79, alendronate or risedronate, with or without calcium and/or vitamin D supplements, in a real, Italian clinical setting.Patients and methods: Analyses were carried out on data present in the ARNO Observatory, a population-based patient-centric Italian database. From a population of 5,808,832 inhabitants with available data, a cohort of 3.3 million of patients aged ≥40 years was selected. New users of first-line AODs as monotherapy (accrual period, 2007–2009 were followed up over 3 years to assess adherence at 6, 12, and 36 months to AODs and to supplements and related determinants.Results: Approximately 40,000 new users were identified: mostly women, aged on average (standard deviation 71±10 years. Alendronate was the most prescribed (38.2% of patients, followed by risedronate (34.9% and alendronate with colecalciferol as a fixed-dose combination (25.8%. Adherence at the 6-month follow-up was 54%, and this constantly and significantly decreased after 1 year to 46%, and after 3 years to 33% (P<0.01. Adherence to the fixed-dose combination was higher than to plain alendronate throughout the follow-up period. Similarly, adherence to supplements constantly decreased with the duration of treatment. Women and patients

  3. Civil partnerships five years on.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Helen; Gask, Karen; Berrington, Ann

    2011-01-01

    The Civil Partnership Act 2004, which came into force in December 2005 allowing same-sex couples in the UK to register their relationship for the first time, celebrated its fifth anniversary in December 2010. This article examines civil partnership in England and Wales, five years on from its introduction. The characteristics of those forming civil partnerships between 2005 and 2010 including age, sex and previous marital/civil partnership status are examined. These are then compared with the characteristics of those marrying over the same period. Further comparisons are also made between civil partnership dissolutions and divorce. The article presents estimates of the number of people currently in civil partnerships and children of civil partners. Finally the article examines attitudes towards same-sex and civil partner couples both in the UK and in other countries across Europe.

  4. TRIUMF: Five-year plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    The Canadian government recently announced approval of a five-year-plan for TRIUMF, giving the Vancouver Laboratory assured funding until the year 2000. Besides continuation of the multidisciplinary cyclotron, this will allow construction of ISAC-1, a new on-line isotope separator. At the same time, TRIUMF will also be responsible for Canadian ''in-kind'' contributions to international science at CERN's LHC proton-proton collider (see page 1). The federal plan strengthens TRIUMF's role as a national facility, run by a consortium of universities across Canada. In addition, TRIUMF will have even stronger international links. The federal government has allocated a total of $166.6 million to TRIUMF over the next five years. In addition, the provincial British Columbia government, a long-time supporter of TRIUMF, has already agreed to provide approximately $10 million for conventional construction. The nature of the accelerator contributions to the LHC has not been finally decided, although two areas are under discussion - the upgrade of the accelerator chain, and construction of the two 'beam cleaning' insertions. The former would involve provision of various new systems (radiofrequency, magnets, power supplies, kickers, etc) for the Booster, PS and SPS synchrotrons; indeed activity is already underway in some areas, such as model studies for a new 40 MHz system for the PS. The acronym of the new facility, ISAC-1, is short for Isotope Separator & Accelerator. A prototype first stage already exists in TRIUMF. ISAC-1 will use the intense proton beam from the TRIUMF cyclotron to create powerful beams of exotic, short-lived, radioactive nuclei which will be accelerated in a new structure

  5. Systematic review and meta-analysis of the efficacy and safety of alendronate and zoledronate for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Ana Julissa; Begoña, Leire; Anitua, Eduardo; Cobos, Raquel; Orive, Gorka

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of two bisphosphonates (alendronate and zoledronate) in the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. The incidence of fractures was considered as primary endpoint. Only randomized trials with a follow-up period of 1 year or more were included in this systematic review and meta-analysis. We excluded studies that included patients with secondary osteoporosis especially in relation to therapy with corticosteroids or other drugs or diseases known to affect bone mineral density. Studies published as subgroup analysis, extension studies, economic evaluations, and comparisons with active control were excluded. The methodological quality of controlled clinical trials that met these inclusion criteria was evaluated. No studies were excluded from analysis due to lack of quality. The risk ratio of hip, vertebral and wrist fractures for alendronate were 0.61 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.40-0.93], 0.54 (95% CI 0.44-0.66) and 0.65 (95% CI 0.33-1.25), respectively. Zoledronate risk ratio was 0.62 (95% CI 0.46-0.82) and 0.38 (95% CI 0.22-0.67) for hip and vertebral fractures, respectively.

  6. [Efficacy of racecadotril vs. smectite, probiotics or zinc as an integral part of treatment of acute diarrhea in children under five years: A meta-analysis of multiple treatments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Castrellón, Pedro; Ortíz-Hernández, Anna Alejandra; Llamosas-Gallardo, Beatriz; Acosta-Bastidas, Mario A; Jiménez-Gutiérrez, Carlos; Diaz-García, Luisa; Anzo-Osorio, Anahí; Estevez-Jiménez, Juliana; Jiménez-Escobar, Irma; Vidal-Vázquez, Rosa Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Despite major advances in treatment, acute diarrhea continues to be a public health problem in children under five years. There is no systematic approach to treatment and most evidence is assembled comparing active treatment vs. placebo. Systematic review of evidence on efficacy of adjuvants for treatment of acute diarrhea through a network meta-analysis. A systematic search of multiple databases searching clinical trials related to the use of racecadotril, smectite, Lactobacillus GG, Lactobacillus reuteri, Saccharomyces boulardii and zinc as adjuvants in acute diarrhea was done. The primary endpoint was duration of diarrhea. Information is displayed through network meta-analysis.The superiority of each coadjutant was analyzed by Sucra approach. Network meta-analysis showed race cadotril was better when compared with placebo and other adjuvants. Sucra analysis showed racecadotril as the first option followed by smectite and Lactobacillus reuteri. Considering a strategic decision making approach, network meta-analysis allows us to establish the therapeutic superiority of racecadotril as an adjunct for the comprehensive management of acute diarrhea in children aged less than five years.

  7. Acute bilateral uveitis and right macular edema induced by a single infusion of zoledronic acid for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis as a substitution for oral alendronate: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yiming; Wang, Rui; Liu, Lianyuan; Ma, Chunming; Lu, Qiang; Yin, Fuzai

    2016-02-11

    Zoledronic acid-induced uveitis (ZAIU) is rare but severe, and has been recently considered part of an acute phase reaction. Only 15 cases have been reported since 2005. Here we describe a case with macular edema, which is the first reported case observed after long-term alendronate tolerance. A 63-year-old Asian woman received her first intravenous zoledronic acid treatment for the management of postmenopausal osteoporosis as a more convenient substitute for oral alendronate. Twenty-four hours later, bilateral eye irritations, periorbital swelling, blurred vision, and diplopia presented. The complete blood count and transaminase levels were normal, but the erythrocytic sedimentation, C-reactive protein, and serum C4 levels were elevated. On detailed ophthalmological examination, a diagnosis of bilateral acute uveitis and macular edema in the right eye was made. The ocular symptoms were not improved until administration of topical and oral steroids. Complete resolution was achieved. There was no rechallenge of bisphosphonates, and no recurrence at 6 months follow-up. Based on an extensive review, abnormal fundus is rarely reported, especially in cases of macular edema. Rechallenge with zoledronic acid in five cases induced no additional uveitis, and changing the medication to pamidronate in another patient was also tolerated. Interestingly, our patient suffered from uveitis soon after intravenous zoledronate exposure after a two-year tolerance to oral alendronate. This is the first report of zoledronic acid induced uveitis with macular edema after long-term alendronate tolerance. Prior oral alendronate may not entirely prevent ZAIU. Steroids are usually necessary in the treatment of ZAIU. Bisphosphonate rechallenge is not fully contraindicated, and prior steroid administration may be a more reasonable treatment choice according to the available evidence.

  8. Nodular scleritis following alendronate therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabbara, Khalid F

    2008-01-01

    To report a case of nodular scleritis following alendronate sodium. A 54 year-old male was treated with alendronate sodium 70 mg orally once per week. Eight weeks later, he experienced pain and redness of the right eye. Biomicroscopy was performed. Patient was found to have inferonasal nodular scleritis. Laboratory work-up was unrevealing. Patient was given 4 mg of subtenon's triamcinolone acetate in the area of the nodular scleritis and had complete resolution. Two weeks following rechallenge with alendronate sodium resulted in recurrence of his scleritis. Alendronate led to nodular scleritis and rechallenge caused recurrence of scleritis.

  9. Do retreatment tuberculosis patients need special treatment response follow-up beyond the standard regimen? Finding of five-year retrospective study in pastoralist setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getnet, Fentabil; Sileshi, Henok; Seifu, Wubareg; Yirga, Selam; Alemu, Abere Shiferaw

    2017-12-12

    Treatment outcomes serve as proxy measures of the quality of tuberculosis treatment provided by the health care system, and it is essential to evaluate the effectiveness of Directly Observed Therapy-Short course program in controlling the disease, and reducing treatment failure, default and death. Hence, we evaluated tuberculosis treatment success rate, its trends and predictors of unsuccessful treatment outcome in Ethiopian Somali region where 85% of its population is pastoralist. A retrospective review of 5 years data (September 2009 to August 2014) was conducted to evaluate the treatment outcome of 1378 randomly selected tuberculosis patients treated in Kharamara, Dege-habour and Gode hospitals. We extracted data on socio-demographics, HIV Sero-status, tuberculosis type, treatment outcome and year using clinical chart abstraction sheet. Tuberculosis treatment outcomes were categorized into successful (cured and/or completed) and unsuccessful (died/failed/default) according to the national tuberculosis guideline. Data was entered using EpiData 3.1 and analyzed using SPSS 20. Chi-square (χ 2 ) test and logistic regression model were used to reveal the predictors of unsuccessful treatment outcome at P ≤ 0.05 significance level. The majority of participants was male (59.1%), pulmonary smear negative (49.2%) and new cases (90.6%). The median age was 26 years [IQR: 18-40] and HIV co-infection rate was 4.6%. The overall treatment success rate was 86.8% [95%CI: 84.9% - 88.5%]; however, 4.8%, 7.6% and 0.7% of patients died, defaulted and failed to cure respectively. It fluctuated across the years and ranged from 76.9% to 94% [p tuberculosis types and HIV status (P > 0.05). This study revealed that the overall tuberculosis treatment success rate has realized the global target for 2011-2015. However, it does not guarantee its continuity as adverse treatment outcomes might unpredictably occur anytime and anywhere. Therefore, continual effort to effectively

  10. Five years of specialised early intervention versus two years of specialised early intervention followed by three years of standard treatment for patients with a first episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albert, Nikolai; Melau, Marianne; Jensen, Heidi

    2017-01-01

    , alogia, and affective blunting). Secondary outcomes were remission of both negative and psychotic symptoms, psychotic symptoms, suicidal ideation, substance abuse, compliance with medical treatment, adherence with treatment, client satisfaction, days in hospital care, and labour market affiliation...... with specialised mental health services (90.4% v 55.6%, Psatisfaction (estimated mean difference 2.57 points (95% confidence interval 1.36 to 3.79), P

  11. Abandoning presumptive antimalarial treatment for febrile children aged less than five years--a case of running before we can walk?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike English

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Current guidelines recommend that all fever episodes in African children be treated presumptively with antimalarial drugs. But declining malarial transmission in parts of sub-Saharan Africa, declining proportions of fevers due to malaria, and the availability of rapid diagnostic tests mean it may be time for this policy to change. This debate examines whether enough evidence exists to support abandoning presumptive treatment and whether African health systems have the capacity to support a shift toward laboratory-confirmed rather than presumptive diagnosis and treatment of malaria in children under five.

  12. A five-year follow-up of two different 131I treatment methods for Graves' disease and the factors affecting the outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimoto, Midori; Iino, Shiro; Yoshimura, Hiroshi; Ishikawa, Naofumi; Momotani, Naoko; Hamada, Noboru; Ito, Kunihiko.

    1994-01-01

    We employed two different methods of 131 I treatment for Graves' disease in 285 patients and compared the results between the two. (We also analyzed the factors affecting the treatment outcome.) A single dose of 131 I adjusted to the patients' thyroid weight was administered to 180 patients in group 1, while a relatively lower dose of 131 I (approximately 30 Gy) was given repeatedly to 105 patients in group 2. A 5-year follow-up showed that in group 1, 34% of the patients were euthyroid, 11% hypothyroid, 11% subclinical hypothyroid and 44% still remained hyperthyroid. In group 2, 43% of the patients were euthyroid, 5% hypothyroid, 35% subclinical hypothyroid and 17% hyperthyroid. The factors affecting the outcome of the treatment in group 1 patients were their thyroid weight, the duration of the disease and TRAb levels. No significant correlation was observed between the efficacy of 131 I treatment and the patients' sex, age, 24 hr 131 I-uptake, effective half life of administered 131 I or titers of antithyorid antibodies. We conclude that the repeated low dose administration of 131 I provides the best outcome in a 5-year follow-up. However, we suggest that an adjusted dose of 131 I in relation to the patients' thyroid weight should be employed to obtain a faster therapeutic response. (author)

  13. Long term (five-year survival following radical surgical treatment plus adjuvant chemotherapy (FAM in advanced gastric cancer: a controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bresciani Cláudio

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Several drugs and their associations are being used for adjuvant or complementary chemotherapy with the aim of improving results of gastric cancer treatment. The objective of this study was to verify the impact of these drugs on nutrition and on survival rate after radical treatment of 53 patients with gastric cancer in stage III of the TNM classification. A control group including 28 patients who had only undergone radical resection was compared to a group of 25 patients who underwent the same operative technique followed by adjuvant polychemotherapy with FAM (5-fluorouracil, Adriamycin, and mitomycin C. In this latter group, chemotherapy toxicity in relation to hepatic, renal, cardiologic, neurological, hematologic, gastrointestinal, and dermatological functions was also studied. There was no significant difference on admission between both groups in relation to gender, race, macroscopic tumoral type of tumor according to the Borrmann classification, location of the tumor in the stomach, length of the gastric resection, or response to cutaneous tests on delayed sensitivity. Chemotherapy was started on average, 2.3 months following surgical treatment. Clinical and laboratory follow-up of all patients continued for 5 years. The following conclusions were reached: 1 The nutritional status and incidence of gastrointestinal manifestation were similar in both groups; 2 There was no occurrence of cardiac, renal, neurological, or hepatic toxicity or death due to the chemotherapeutic method per se; 3 Dermatological alterations and hematological toxicity occurred exclusively in patients who underwent polychemotherapy; 4 There was no significant difference between the rate and site of tumoral recurrence, the disease-free interval, or the survival rate of both study groups; 5 Therefore, we concluded, after a 5-year follow-up, chemotherapy with the FAM regimen did not increase the survival rate.

  14. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Test-Based versus Presumptive Treatment of Uncomplicated Malaria in Children under Five Years in an Area of High Transmission in Central Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tawiah, Theresa; Hansen, Kristian Schultz; Baiden, Frank

    2016-01-01

    about household cost incurred on transport, drugs, fees, and special food during a period of one week after the health centre visit as well as days unable to work. A decision model approach was used to calculate the incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs). Univariate and multivariate sensitivity...... (ACT) in all suspected malaria patients. The use of malaria rapid diagnostic tests (mRDTs) would make it possible for prescribers to diagnose malaria at point-of-care and better target the use of antimalarials. Therefore, a cost-effectiveness analysis was performed on the introduction of m......) or clinical judgement (control) was used to measure the effect of mRDTs on appropriate treatment: ‘a child with a positive reference diagnosis prescribed a course of ACT or a child with a negative reference diagnosis not given an ACT’. Cost data was collected from five purposively selected health centres...

  15. Aesthetic Surgical Approach for Bone Dehiscence Treatment by Means of Single Implant and Interdental Tissue Regeneration: A Case Report with Five Years of Follow-Up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Lombardo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The replacement of single anterior teeth by means of endosseous implants implies the achievement of success in restoring both aesthetic and function. However, the presence of wide endoperiodontal lesions can lead to horizontal hard and soft tissues defects after tooth extraction, making it impossible to correctly place an implant in the compromised alveolar socket. Vertical augmentation procedures have been proposed to solve these clinical situations, but the amount of new regenerated bone is still not predictable. Furthermore, bone augmentation can be complicated by the presence of adjacent teeth, especially if they bring with them periodontal defects. Therefore, it is used to restore periodontal health of adjacent teeth before making any augmentation procedures and to wait a certain healing period before placing an implant in vertically augmented sites, otherwise risking to obtain a nonsatisfactory aesthetic result. All of these procedures, however, lead to an expansion of treatment time which should affect patient compliance. For this reason, this case report suggests a surgical technique to perform vertical bone augmentation at a single gap left by a central upper incisor while placing an implant and simultaneously to regenerate the periodontal attachment of an adjacent lateral incisor, without compromising the aesthetic result.

  16. Twenty-five years after Chernobyl: outcome of radioiodine treatment in children and adolescents with very high-risk radiation-induced differentiated thyroid carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiners, Christoph; Biko, Johannes; Haenscheid, Heribert; Hebestreit, Helge; Kirinjuk, Stalina; Baranowski, Oleg; Marlowe, Robert J; Demidchik, Ewgeni; Drozd, Valentina; Demidchik, Yuri

    2013-07-01

    After severe reactor emergencies with release of radioactive iodine, elevated thyroid cancer risk in children and adolescents is considered the main health consequence for the population exposed. We studied thyroid cancer outcome after 11.3 years' median follow-up in a selected, very high-risk cohort, 234 Chernobyl-exposed Belarusian children and adolescents undergoing postsurgical radioiodine therapy (RIT) in Germany. Cumulatively 100 children with or (without; n = 134) distant metastasis received a median 4 (2) RITs and 16.9 (6.6) GBq, corresponding to 368 (141) MBq/kg iodine-131. Outcomes were response to therapy and disease status, mortality, and treatment toxicity. Of 229 patients evaluable for outcome, 147 (64.2%) attained complete remission [negative iodine-131 whole-body scan and TSH-stimulated serum thyroglobulin (Tg) 10 μg/L, decrease from baseline in radioiodine uptake intensity in ≥ 1 focus, in tumor volume or in Tg). Except for 2 recurrences (0.9%) after partial remission, no recurrences, progression, or disease-specific mortality were noted. One patient died of lung fibrosis 17.5 years after therapy, 2 of apparently thyroid cancer-unrelated causes. The only RIT side effect observed was pulmonary fibrosis in 5 of 69 patients (7.2%) with disseminated lung metastases undergoing intensive pulmonary surveillance. Experience of a large, very high-risk pediatric cohort with radiation-induced differentiated thyroid carcinoma suggests that even when such disease is advanced and initially suboptimally treated, response to subsequent RIT and final outcomes are mostly favorable.

  17. A urine midmolecule osteocalcin assay shows higher discriminatory power than a serum midmolecule osteocalcin assay during short-term alendronate treatment of osteoporotic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, A K; Mohan, S; Singer, F R; Baylink, D J

    2002-07-01

    We isolated and characterized a peptide fragment corresponding to amino acid sequence 14-28 of human osteocalcin in urine from Paget's disease, and developed a polyclonal antibody reactive to this peptide in urine. We used this antibody to measure urinary fragments of osteocalcin and compared to efficacy of the urinary osteocalcin assay with a serum osteocalcin (sOC) assay (ELISA-Osteo, Cis-Bio International) to monitor the short-term changes in bone turnover in response to alendronate treatment. The synthetic peptide-based urinary osteocalcin (uOC) radioimmunoassay (RIA) showed an analytical sensitivity of 6.25 ng/mL, standard curve range of 3.12-400 ng/mL, and mean intra- (n = 20) and interassay (n = 30) coefficient of variation (CV) of sALP) (Alkphose-B, Metra Biosystems) in serum samples. The percent change data obtained between baseline and 30 days (n = 18) posttreatment suggested a rapid decline in uOC concentration (-27%, p sALP (-3.4%, p = 0.689), two specific markers of bone formation. As expected, due to the coupling of bone formation and bone resorption, the concentration of all markers showed a 30%-45% decline compared with baseline values after 90 days (n = 16) of treatment. Correlation of markers after a 30 day treatment with alendronate revealed a higher correlation (r = 0.61, p sALP (r = -0.14, p = 0.295) with uNTx. Similarly, correlation coefficients with r values between 0.48 and 0.55 (p < 0.05) were observed between uOC, sNTx, and sCTx, whereas no significant correlation was observed between sOC and sNTx or sCTx. These results provide indirect evidence that fragments measured by the urine assay probably originated from bone resorption, and suggest that the uOC assay could be used to assess short-term changes in bone metabolism with regard to osteocalcin.

  18. Weight Loss Five Years After Behavioral Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitz, Leonard S.; And Others

    The behaviorally-based weight control program conducted by Levitz and Jordan at the University of Pennsylvania and the Institute for Behavioral Education is tailored to patient needs and includes stimulus control, cognitive restructuring, and nutrition education. The success of patients in maintaining the clinically meaningful weight losses…

  19. Combined Treatment of Alendronate and Low-Intensity Pulsed Ultrasound (LIPUS Increases Bone Mineral Density at the Cancellous Bone Osteotomy Site in Aged Rats: A Preliminary Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Aonuma

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: During fracture healing, alendronate encourages callus volume by inhibiting bone resorption, whereas low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS enhances bone regeneration by promoting an anabolic response. Methods: In the present study, 9-month-old Sprague-Dawley rats, with a unilateral proximal tibial osteotomy, were treated with alendronate (daily, 1 g/kg plus sham-LIPUS (n = 14, saline plus LIPUS (20 min/day (n = 18, alendronate plus LIPUS (n = 16, or saline plus sham- LIPUS as a control (n = 13 for 4 weeks. The rats were then examined for changes in bone mineral density (BMD during metaphyseal bone repair. Results: The combined therapy signi cantly increased BMD at the osteotomy site at 4 weeks (p < 0.001 compared with the control, without affecting the contralateral, non-osteotomized tibia. Both alendronate and LIPUS alone also exerted a positive, albeit less, effect on BMD in the affected limb (p < 0.001 and p = 0.006, respectively. Conclusions: Alendronate and LIPUS cooperate to enhance BMD during metaphyseal bone healing. Keywords: LIPUS, bisphosphonate, bone mineral density.

  20. Efficient Transdermal Delivery of Alendronate, a Nitrogen-Containing Bisphosphonate, Using Tip-Loaded Self-Dissolving Microneedle Arrays for the Treatment of Osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsumi, Hidemasa; Tanaka, Yutaro; Hitomi, Kaori; Liu, Shu; Quan, Ying-Shu; Kamiyama, Fumio; Sakane, Toshiyasu; Yamamoto, Akira

    2017-08-17

    To improve the transdermal bioavailability and safety of alendronate (ALN), a nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate, we developed self-dissolving microneedle arrays (MNs), in which ALN is loaded only at the tip portion of micron-scale needles by a dip-coating method (ALN(TIP)-MN). We observed micron-scale pores in rat skin just after application of ALN(TIP)-MN, indicating that transdermal pathways for ALN were created by MN. ALN was rapidly released from the tip of MNs as observed in an in vitro release study. The tip portions of MNs completely dissolved in the rat skin within 5 min after application in vivo. After application of ALN(TIP)-MN in mice, the plasma concentration of ALN rapidly increased, and the bioavailability of ALN was approximately 96%. In addition, the decrease in growth plate was effectively suppressed by this efficient delivery of ALN in a rat model of osteoporosis. Furthermore, no skin irritation was observed after application of ALN(TIP)-MN and subcutaneous injection of ALN, while mild skin irritation was induced by whole-ALN-loaded MN (ALN-MN)-in which ALN is contained in the whole of the micron-scale needles fabricated from hyaluronic acid-and intradermal injection of ALN. These findings indicate that ALN(TIP)-MN is a promising transdermal formulation for the treatment of osteoporosis without skin irritation.

  1. Key Royale bridge five year evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    This report describes the design, construction, instrumentation, and five-year evaluation of the Key Royale Bridge substructure. The primary focus was the evaluation of the implementation of highly reactive supplementary cementitious materials (SCM) ...

  2. Launching PPARC's five year strategy programme

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    "Over one hundred delegates from Parliament, Whitehall and Industry attended a reception on Tuesday night (25 November) to mark the launch the Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council's (PPARC) Five Year Plan" (1 page).

  3. The 2015 five-yearly review

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2014-01-01

      This year CERN celebrates its 60th anniversary. On this occasion, throughout Europe — most recently on July 1st at the UNESCO headquarters in Paris — festivities are being organized to celebrate the Organization’s success as a flagship laboratory of high-energy physics. To ensure that CERN can remain a centre of excellence in the field of fundamental research, the Organization verifies every five years with the help of a five-yearly review procedure whether the financial and social conditions which it proposes to Staff Members allow it to recruit and retain Staff Members of the highest competence and integrity required for the execution of its mission from all its Member States. For Fellows these conditions should remain attractive compared with those in comparable research institutions, while for Associated members of personnel these conditions should allow it to host them in its research facilities taking into account the highest cost-of-living level in the local ...

  4. EFFICACY AND SAFETY OF ALENDRONIC ACID IN PATIENTS WITH JUVENILE RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS AND OSTEOPOROSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.O. Lisitsin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Search for and practical application of new medications to treat of osteoporosis is one of the critical issues in pediatric rheumatology. The article reviews the efficacy and safety of alendronic acid in 64 subjects with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis and systemic osteoporosis. It is demonstrated that alendronate-based therapy in weekly 1 mg/kg doses over 12 months facilitated reliably increased bonedensity, decreased intensity of pain syndrome, and lowered C-terminal telopeptide serum concentration, which indicates improved bone metabolism processes.Key words: juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, osteoporosis, children, treatment, bisphosphonates, alendronic acid. (Pediatric Pharmacology. – 2010; 7(1:48-54

  5. FIVE-YEAR RESULTS OF ADJUVANT RADIOTHER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osa, Etin-Osa O.; DeWyngaert, Keith; Roses, Daniel; Speyer, James; Guth, Amber; Axelrod, Deborah; Kerimian, Maria Fenton; Goldberg, Judith D.; Formenti, Silvia C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose/Objective A technique of prone breast radiotherapy delivered by a regimen of accelerated intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with a concurrent boost to the tumor bed, was developed at our institution. We report the five year results of this approach. Methods and Materials Between 2003–2006, 404 patients with Stage I–II breast cancer were prospectively enrolled into two consecutive protocols, institutional trials 03–30 and 05–181, that used the same regimen of 40.5Gy/15 fractions delivered to the index breast over 3 weeks, with a concomitant daily boost to the tumor bed of 0.5Gy (total dose=48Gy). All patients were treated after segmental mastectomy, had negative margins, and nodal assessment. Patients were set up prone: only if lung or heart volumes were in the field was a supine set-up attempted, and chosen if found to better spare these organs. Results 92% of patients were treated prone, 8% supine. 72% had stage I, 28% stage II invasive breast cancer. In-field lung volume ranged from 0 –228.27cc, mean: 19.65cc. In-field heart volume for left breast cancer patients ranged from 0–21.24cc, mean: 1.59cc. There was no heart in the field for right breast cancer patients. At a median follow-up of five years, the five-year cumulative incidence of isolated ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence was 0.82% (95% CI: 0.65–1.04). The five-year cumulative incidence of regional recurrence was 0.53% (95% CI:0.41–0.69) and the five-year overall cumulative death rate was 1.28% (95% CI: 0.48–3.38). 82% (95% CI: 77–85) of patients judged their final cosmetic result as excellent/good. Conclusions Prone accelerated IMRT with a concomitant boost results in excellent local control, optimal sparing of heart and lung, with good cosmesis. RTOG 10–05, a phase III, multi-institutional, randomized trial is ongoing and is evaluating the equivalence of a similar dose and fractionation approach to standard six weeks radiotherapy with a sequential boost. PMID

  6. Twenty-five years of simulator training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2002-01-01

    The first training simulator for nuclear power plant personnel in Germany was commissioned twenty-five years ago. The strategy of training by simulators was developed and pursued consistently and continuously in order to ensure sound training of nuclear power plant personnel. The present thirteen simulators cover a broad range of plants. A systematic training concept also helps to ensure a high level of competence and permanent qualification of plant personnel. The anniversary was marked by a festive event at which Erich K. Steiner read a paper on 'The Importance of Simulator Training', and Professor Dr. Adolf Birkhofer spoke about 'Nuclear Technology Education and Training'. (orig.)

  7. Radiation curing - twenty five years on

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garnett, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    Progress in UV/EB curing during the past twenty five years is briefly reviewed. During this time developments in unique polymer chemistry, novel equipment design and the introduction of relevant educational programmes has enabled radiation curing to become an established technology with specific strengths in certain industries. Possible reasons for the emergence of the technology in these niche markets are discussed. Despite the worldwide recession, radiation curing is shown to be expanding at 5% per annum with the prospect of higher growth with improving economic conditions. (Author)

  8. Electricity supply alternatives : the next five years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliver, W.J.

    1998-01-01

    Characteristics of the energy market for New England and the state of New York were summarized. It was predicted that in the next five years, virtually all proposals for electricity generation for New England and New York will be gas-fired combined cycle projects which are designed to meet new generation requirements and displace older steam units. The status of nuclear plants will influence project economics. It has been estimated that New England will need about 6,000-7,000 MW by 2004. This need is driven by the current deficiencies and increased shortfalls due to load growth and economic retirements of 2,000-4,000 MW. Market assumptions for new entrants, merchant plant economics, gas requirements in New England, pipeline capacity and power generation, and the challenges facing the natural gas industry were reviewed. A list of proposed combined cycle natural gas merchant power plants and their generating capacity was also provided. 1 tab., 5 figs

  9. Five years of operating experience with Phenix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conte, F.

    1980-01-01

    The construction of Phenix began at the end of 1968; the unit first went critical on August 31 st, 1973, and it was first connected to the grid of Electricite de France on 31st December 1973. It started operating industrially on July 14th, 1974. The balance sheet after five years of operations is as follows: Gross thermal capacity: 590 MW; Grosss electric capacity: 264 MW; Gross capacity factor of the power station: 45%; Gross electrical power produced by 30th september 1979: more than six billion kWh. In 1976 and 1977 the operation of the plant was affected by modifications made to the intermediate heat exchangers following leaks discovered in October 1976. Since 1976 the plants has been working at full capacity and the availability rate during the period July 1978 - July 1979 was more than 80% [fr

  10. Diffraction dissociation: thirty five years after

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zotov, N.P.; Tsarev, V.A.

    1988-01-01

    Review of the basic results and stages of studying one of the most interesting phenomena in high energy physics-diffraction dissociation (DD) of hadrons is presented. The review contains complete information concerning the basic experimental results and the most ''set'' DD theoretical models. Though the discussion focuses primarily on considering a single nucleon DD, this still allows one to fully describe the basic features of the phenomenon under investigation. The last part of the review is devoted to the most notable results obtained during DD experimental investigation in the last five years, which have not been reflected in the earlier published reviews. Signs of excited system parton structure and pomeron are clearly found in the new experimental data. It is underlined that DD mechanism understanding is closely connected with the solution of the confinement problem in the strong interaction theory and requires further experimental and theoretical investigations

  11. Bon courage! (Five-Yearly Review)

    CERN Multimedia

    Association du personnel

    2006-01-01

    With these words of encouragement the Director General ended his long presentation to the staff on 12 January. And he is not wrong there…we certainly will need courage, not only to complete the LHC and other CERN projects, but also, unfortunately, to defend our employment conditions. Indeed, Mr. Aymar very (too) quickly presented us with his conclusions on the Five-Yearly Review, in a resolutely positive manner. In short, we can say that, beneath a deceptive exterior, a serious attack on our employment conditions is in preparation! Salary levels, careers, family…we are talking about your future! Last June, a huge majority of you approved the Staff Association's demands for this Review.

  12. The Chernobyl accident - five years later

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueck, K.

    1991-06-01

    At the fifth anniversary of the Chernobyl accident the initial situation at that time, the control of the consequences to Austria in the present light, as well as the knowledge gained from the accident and its consequences are described. A final estimate and appraisal of the total population dose by the accident alloted according to the individual exposure pathways and the dose reductions due to countermeasures by the authorities are given. The dose reduction in the following years is described. Five years later the external exposure was reduced to about 6 % of the values of the first year, the ingestion dose to about 5 % of the first-year-values. Finally, the current radiation situation is described and the dose contribution by foodstuff with elevated activity concentration is estimated. Also the consequences from the experience and knowledge obtained by the accident are described. (author)

  13. Twenty five years of fundamental theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, J.S.

    1980-01-01

    In reviewing the last twenty five years in fundamental physics theory it is stated that there has been no revolution in this field. In the absence of gravitation, Lorentz invariance remains a requirement on fundamental laws. Einstein's theory of gravitation inspires increasing conviction on the astronomical scale. Quantum theory remains the framework for all serious effort in microphysics, and quantum electrodynamics remains the model of a fully articulated microphysical theory, completely successful in its domain. However,a number of ideas have appeared, of great theoretical interest and some phenomenological success, which may well contribute to the next decisive step. Recent work on the following topics is mentioned; gravitational radiation, singularites, black body radiation from black holes, gauge and hidden symmetry in quantum electrodynamics, the renormalization of electromagnetic and weak interaction theory, non-Abelian gauge theories, magnetic monopoles as the most striking example of solitons, and supersymmetry. (UK)

  14. Sociohydrology: Where are we five years later?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guneralp, I.; Weyand, S.; Guneralp, B.

    2017-12-01

    Studies exploring the nature of human-water systems and methodologies aiming to integrate social and biophysical cycles have existed long before the term `sociohydrology' was officially introduced in a 2012 article. Despite criticisms since this first publication, the term has promoted research towards a wholistic understanding of the dynamics of coupled human-water systems. The declaration of the 2013-2022 Scientific Decade as Panta Rhei - Everything Flows recognized the importance of interactions and feedbacks between hydrological and social systems: a call to broaden the horizons of sociohydrology. Five years have passed since the field began, and there is a need to analyze the growing body of literature and determine which steps to take next. This study will perform a meta-analysis of the literature pertaining to the field of sociohydrology from its coinage in 2012 until the present year. Our goal is to identify developing trends in the application of the sociohydrologic framework, study foci, criticisms, and the authors behind them. We have obtained 65 publications relating to `sociohydrology' or `socio-hydrology' and 34 additional publications identified solely by the "KeyWords PLUS" function on Web of Science. In addition to independent analyses, we will compare the two datasets for similarities and significant differences. Our interests include the areas of application - both geographically and in subject matter - and authorship diversity among others. These results will supplement the conversation on sociohydrology by discerning how the field has evolved over the past five years. The results will identify shortcomings in the scope of the current literature, potential prevailing biases, and criticisms of the field, in addition to unifying thought and novel application. It will finish by offering a direction for the research community to continue developing.

  15. Gender identity disorder in a five-year-old boy.

    OpenAIRE

    Herman, S. P.

    1983-01-01

    Markedly effeminate behavior in a young boy is a source of concern and confusion for parents, teachers, and the child. It also represents a therapeutic dilemma for the child psychiatrist. The case of a five-year-old boy with gender identity disorder of childhood is presented and the literature on hypotheses of etiology, treatment, and long-term follow-up is reviewed. The ethical and philosophical questions posed by such a case are discussed.

  16. The Scope of Numeracy after Five Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.L. Vacher

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this editorial is to provide an efficient way for readers and potential authors to see (a what type of papers are published in this journal and (b what subjects are appropriate. The editorial consists mainly of about a dozen pages of tables including live links to the papers’ access/abstract pages to facilitate easy browsing. In the first table, the 85 papers that have been published in the journal’s first five years are classified into: review papers; research papers; case studies; essays; book reviews; columns; and editorials about the journal. In the second table, the papers are inventoried into overlapping sets on: assessment; QL and writing; the construct of QL; focused QL courses and curricula; QL across the curriculum; QL centers; algebra and calculus education; statistics education; intersections with science and engineering; intersections with social sciences; financial numeracy; health numeracy; math anxiety; and cognition. Browsing these links confirms what we said in the first editorial: the scope of Numeracy is huge.

  17. Radiodensitometric and DXA analyses for the measurement of bone mineral density after systemic alendronate therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucisano, Marilia Pacifico; Nelson-Filho, Paulo; Silva, Raquel Assed Bezerra da; Silva, Lea Assed Bezerra da; Battaglino, Ricardo; Watanabe, Plauto Christopher Aranha

    2013-01-01

    Precise techniques for the measurement of maxillary bone mineral density (BMD) are useful for the early diagnosis of systemic diseases. The aim of this study was to compare in vivo the efficacy of dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and radiographic densitometry for the measurement of BMD after systemic administration of sodium alendronate. Wistar rats were randomly allocated to a control group (n = 5), which received distilled water, and a sodium alendronate group (n = 8), which received two doses of chemically pure sodium alendronate (1 mg/kg) per week. After 8 weeks, the animals were euthanized, the tibias were removed, and the BMD of the proximal tibial metaphysis was analyzed radiographically and by DXA. The data were subjected to statistical analysis by the Kruskal-Wallis test at a significance level of 5%. Both of the techniques revealed that the alendronate-treated group had a significantly higher BMD (p < 0.05) than the control group after 8 weeks of treatment. Comparing the groups with and without alendronate therapy revealed increases of 14.9% and 29.6% in BMD, as detected radiographically and by DXA, respectively. In conclusion, both of the methods were able to detect an increase in BMD of the proximal tibial metaphysis after alendronate therapy. (author)

  18. Radiodensitometric and DXA analyses for the measurement of bone mineral density after systemic alendronate therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucisano, Marilia Pacifico; Nelson-Filho, Paulo; Silva, Raquel Assed Bezerra da; Silva, Lea Assed Bezerra da, E-mail: nelson@forp.usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Odontologia. Dept. de Clinica Pediatrica, Preventiva e Odontologia Comunitaria; Morse, Leslie [Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, School of Medicine, Harvard Univ., Boston, MA (United States); Battaglino, Ricardo [Department of Skeletal Biology, Forsyth Institute, Cambridge, MA (United States); Watanabe, Plauto Christopher Aranha [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Odontologia. Dept. de Morfologia, Estomacologia e Fisiologia

    2013-05-15

    Precise techniques for the measurement of maxillary bone mineral density (BMD) are useful for the early diagnosis of systemic diseases. The aim of this study was to compare in vivo the efficacy of dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and radiographic densitometry for the measurement of BMD after systemic administration of sodium alendronate. Wistar rats were randomly allocated to a control group (n = 5), which received distilled water, and a sodium alendronate group (n = 8), which received two doses of chemically pure sodium alendronate (1 mg/kg) per week. After 8 weeks, the animals were euthanized, the tibias were removed, and the BMD of the proximal tibial metaphysis was analyzed radiographically and by DXA. The data were subjected to statistical analysis by the Kruskal-Wallis test at a significance level of 5%. Both of the techniques revealed that the alendronate-treated group had a significantly higher BMD (p < 0.05) than the control group after 8 weeks of treatment. Comparing the groups with and without alendronate therapy revealed increases of 14.9% and 29.6% in BMD, as detected radiographically and by DXA, respectively. In conclusion, both of the methods were able to detect an increase in BMD of the proximal tibial metaphysis after alendronate therapy. (author)

  19. Virtual Knowledge Center Five Year Vision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KENNY, N.E.

    2003-01-01

    The vision for Virtual Knowledge Center (VKC) is to make information accessible from one verifiable source, provide an environment for knowledge capture and sharing, and provide for automated business process management. VKC will be the foundation for management and integration of information activities at the Hanford Site for the next 5 years. It provides a distinctive solution that can increase return on investment, increase a facility's efficiency, and reduce a project's cost and schedule. This Five-Year Vision presents a clear path forward to support the U.S. Department of Energy and its contractors in their goals of achieving the Site's missions of preparing for the future, restoring the river corridor, and transitioning the central plateau. Diminishing funds and reduced availability of resources has created a direct obligation for the Hanford Site to be more innovative and resourceful in the use of its current information assets. The difficulty and, in some instances, the inability of current systems to effectively and efficiently meet evolving standards and directions, coupled with Hanford's geographical size, pose challenges to information acquisition, sharing, and use. An imbalance exists in the lifecycle process of information between locating information and executing work. The need to capture and retain workers' knowledge for future use was evaluated to identify cost effective alternatives. The VKC is comprised of a suite of technologies that enables seamless access to the information available through integration of databases and systems. The VKC uses web technology to provide the environment for gathering information from disparate data sources. The VKC makes information available to users; allowing them to search, access documents, retain enterprise knowledge, or interact with other users. The VKC provides a single path to electronic information; allows capture of knowledge at its source and makes data and information available for informed decision

  20. Geospatial Health: the first five years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürg Utzinger

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Geospatial Health is an international, peer-reviewed scientific journal produced by the Global Network for Geospatial Health (GnosisGIS. This network was founded in 2000 and the inaugural issue of its official journal was published in November 2006 with the aim to cover all aspects of geographical information system (GIS applications, remote sensing and other spatial analytic tools focusing on human and veterinary health. The University of Naples Federico II is the publisher, producing two issues per year, both as hard copy and an open-access online version. The journal is referenced in major databases, including CABI, ISI Web of Knowledge and PubMed. In 2008, it was assigned its first impact factor (1.47, which has now reached 1.71. Geospatial Health is managed by an editor-in-chief and two associate editors, supported by five regional editors and a 23-member strong editorial board. This overview takes stock of the first five years of publishing: 133 contributions have been published so far, primarily original research (79.7%, followed by reviews (7.5%, announcements (6.0%, editorials and meeting reports (3.0% each and a preface in the first issue. A content analysis of all the original research articles and reviews reveals that three quarters of the publications focus on human health with the remainder dealing with veterinary health. Two thirds of the papers come from Africa, Asia and Europe with similar numbers of contributions from each continent. Studies of more than 35 different diseases, injuries and risk factors have been presented. Malaria and schistosomiasis were identified as the two most important diseases (11.2% each. Almost half the contributions were based on GIS, one third on spatial analysis, often using advanced Bayesian geostatistics (13.8%, and one quarter on remote sensing. The 120 original research articles, reviews and editorials were produced by 505 authors based at institutions and universities in 52 countries

  1. Evidence for Using Alendronate to Treat Adult Avascular Necrosis of the Femoral Head: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ru-Bin; Lin, Tiao; Zhong, Hui-Ming; Yan, Shi-Gui; Wang, Jian-An

    2014-01-01

    Osteonecrosis or avascular osteonecrosis (AVN) of the femoral head is a devastating multifactorial disease that affects 20 000 persons each year in the United States. The purpose of this systematic review was to determine the efficacy and safety of alendronate for adult AVN during short- and long-term follow-up. Electronic databases were searched for randomized or nonrandomized clinical trials, cohort, case-control studies, and series of cases in which alendronate was used for treatment of adult AVN of the femoral head. Relevant articles with adequate data on reduction of pain, improvement of articular function, slowing of bone collapse progression, or need for total hip arthroplasty (THA) were included after applying inclusion and exclusion criteria. Eight articles involving 788 hips with evidence level 1b to 3b were included in this systematic review. Most studies suggested a positive short-term efficacy of alendronate treatment in reducing pain, improving articular function, slowing of bone collapse progression, and delaying the need for THA for adult AVN patients. The favorable long-term results were also presented in those treated patients after 10-year follow-up. In addition, there were no severe adverse effects associated with alendronate treatment observed during short- and long-term follow-up, and most of the included studies suggested use of alendronate in early AVN with small necrotic lesion to achieve better outcomes. The findings support consideration of alendronate use for adult AVN, particularly with early stage and small necrotic size. The lack of large-scale, randomized, and double-blind studies justifies new studies to demonstrate the detailed indication and the optimized strategy of alendronate treatment. Level of evidence: Level 3a. PMID:25424061

  2. Parapneumonic effusions in children: five years’ experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atilla Cifci

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Most severe complication of respiratory tract infections that causing morbidity and mortality in children is parapneumonic effusion(PPE. PPE is a pleural exudate that is related with primary pneumonia. The early and appropriate antibiotic treatment is very important in follow-up of patients who are diagnosed as parapneumonic effusion and also the timing of interventional and surgical treatment is important to decrease morbidity and mortalitiy in whom clinical and laboratory findings are not cured enough. Materials and Methods: In this study, the clinical and laboratory findings of parapneumonic effusion one hundred patients applied to one center in five years time are discussed. Results: The mean age of patients were 52 months(1.5-156, 52 were male(52%.The 71% of patients were smaller than five years old. The mean duration of hospitalization of patients were 19.6 days(1-45 days. Most frequent spymptom in application was fever, most frequent sign were tachycardia and retractions, most frequent laboratory anormality was high white blood count. The most frequent microorganism in pleural fluid culture was S.aureus. Conclusion: The determination of pathogens causing parapneumonic effusions in our country is very important for starting most suitable treatment early and to decrease morbidity and mortality. [J Contemp Med 2017; 7(4.000: 340-347

  3. 40 CFR 68.42 - Five-year accident history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Five-year accident history. 68.42... (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Hazard Assessment § 68.42 Five-year accident history. (a) The owner or operator shall include in the five-year accident history all accidental releases from...

  4. Time trends for alendronate prescription practices in women with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and women exposed to systemic glucocorticoids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brask-Lindemann, Dorthe; Eiken, P; Eskildsen, P

    2013-01-01

    Summary Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and systemic glucocorticoid exposure are well-known risk factors of osteoporosis. We evaluated alendronate prescription practices related to COPD and exposure to systemic corticosteroids from 1996 to 2008 and showed an increasing targeting...... of alendronate treatment in patients with COPD and patients with systemic corticosteroid exposure. Introduction COPD and systemic glucocorticoid exposure are well-known risk factors of osteoporosis and fragility fracture, but osteoporosis is often underdiagnosed and undertreated in these patients. This study...... aims to evaluate alendronate prescription practices related to COPD and/or to exposure to systemic glucocorticoids among Danish women. Methods A total of 388,314 female subjects >50 years old, 64,719 of whom initiated treatment with alendronate, and 323,595 age- and gender-matched controls were...

  5. Changes in bone density and turnover after alendronate or estrogen withdrawal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wasnich, Richard D; Bagger, Yu Z; Hosking, David J

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover changes after therapy withdrawal in postmenopausal women treated with alendronate or estrogen-progestin. DESIGN: In this randomized, blinded, multinational, placebo-controlled trial, 1,609 healthy postmenopausal women ages 45 to 59...... years were assigned to receive alendronate, placebo, or open-label estrogen-progestin (conjugated equine estrogens plus medroxyprogesterone acetate or a cyclic regimen of 17 beta-estradiol, norethisterone acetate and estradiol). Of the original women, one third after year 2 and one third after year 4...... were switched from alendronate to placebo, while remaining blinded to treatment assignment. The women taking estrogen-progestin in years 1 to 4 were followed off therapy in years 5 and 6. BMD at the lumbar spine and hip and biochemical markers of bone turnover were measured. RESULTS: The treatment...

  6. Breast sarcoma surgical management: a five-year multicentric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Răzvan V. Scăunașu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background. Breast sarcomas are a heterogeneous group of breast neoplasms with a low incidence and a reserved prognosis. No treatment protocol has been yet established, a guideline similar to soft tissue sarcomas is used. Materials and Methods. Our study analyzed all the patients admitted with the diagnosis of malignant breast disease in two specialized centers on a five-year time frame. We compared long term results for the patients who underwent conservative treatment and mastectomy. Results. A total of 76 cases received surgical treatment with curative intent, 24 conservative procedures and 52 mastectomies. Incidence of local recurrence does not appear to be closely related to the type of surgical procedure. There were a number of five local recurrences for patients who received conservative treatment and 7 local recurrences where we used mastectomy. Kaplan-Meier analysis conducted shows no differences statistically significant (sig = 0.459 between the results of conservative treatment and mastectomy. Basically conservative surgery seems to get similar results, provided that R0 resection objective can be met. Conclusions. Treatment options are more limited for breast sarcomas than carcinomas, the role of surgery being more important to therapeutic success. The biological characteristic of the tumor including histological type and sub-type, play an important role in determining the results and the treatment should be tailored and adapted for each case.

  7. Alendronate Sodium as Enteric Coated Solid Lipid Nanoparticles; Preparation, Optimization, and In Vivo Evaluation to Enhance Its Oral Bioavailability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Mohamed Hosny

    Full Text Available Treatment of osteoporosis with alendronate sodium has several challenges. The first challenge is the low bioavailability. The second main challenge is side effects, which include oesophageal ulceration. The aim of this research was to reformulate alendronate sodium as enteric coated solid lipid nanoparticles in order to enhance its bioavailability, and preventing the free alendronate sodium from coming into direct contact with the gastrointestinal mucosa, and thereby reducing the possibility of side effects. Enteric coated solid lipid nanoparticles were prepared according to the Box-Behnken design employing Design expert® software, and characterized for size, morphology, and entrapment efficiency. The optimized formula was coated with an Eudragit S100 and evaluated for drug release in acidic and basic media, stability studies and pharmacokinetic evaluations on rabbits. The results indicated that, using Derringer's desirability functional tool for optimization, the highest entrapment efficiency value of 74.3% and the smallest size value of 98 nm were predicted under optimum conditions with a desirability value of 0.917. The optimized nanoparticles released alendronate sodium only at an alkaline pH. The pharmacokinetic evaluation revealed that alendronate sodium bioavailability was enhanced by more than 7.4-fold in rabbits. In conclusion, enteric coated solid lipid nanoparticles is a promising formula for the delivery of alendronate sodium, eliminating its oesophageal side effects and enhancing its bioavailability.

  8. What happens to patients when we do not repair their cuff tears? Five-year rotator cuff quality-of-life index outcomes following nonoperative treatment of patients with full-thickness rotator cuff tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boorman, Richard S; More, Kristie D; Hollinshead, Robert M; Wiley, James P; Mohtadi, Nicholas G; Lo, Ian K Y; Brett, Kelly R

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine 5-year outcomes in a prospective cohort of patients previously enrolled in a nonoperative rotator cuff tear treatment program. Patients with chronic (>3 months), full-thickness rotator cuff tears (demonstrated on imaging) who were referred to 1 of 2 senior shoulder surgeons were enrolled in the study between October 2008 and September 2010. They participated in a comprehensive, nonoperative, home-based treatment program. After 3 months, the outcome in these patients was defined as "successful" or "failed." Patients in the successful group were essentially asymptomatic and did not require surgery. Patients in the failed group were symptomatic and consented to undergo surgical repair. All patients were followed up at 1 year, 2 years, and 5 or more years. At 5 or more years, all patients were contacted for follow-up; the response rate was 84%. Approximately 75% of patients remained successfully treated with nonoperative treatment at 5 years and reported a mean rotator cuff quality-of-life index score of 83 of 100 (SD, 16). Furthermore, between 2 and 5 years, only 3 patients who had previously been defined as having a successful outcome became more symptomatic and underwent surgical rotator cuff repair. Those in whom nonoperative treatment had failed and who underwent surgical repair had a mean rotator cuff quality-of-life index score of 89 (SD, 11) at 5-year follow-up. The operative and nonoperative groups at 5-year follow-up were not significantly different (P = .11). Nonoperative treatment is an effective and lasting option for many patients with a chronic, full-thickness rotator cuff tear. While some clinicians may argue that nonoperative treatment delays inevitable surgical repair, our study shows that patients can do very well over time. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Influence of treatment with alendronate on the speed of sound, an ultrasound parameter, of the calcaneus in postmenopausal Japanese women with osteoporosis: a clinical practice-based observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwamoto J

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Jun Iwamoto,1 Tetsuya Takada,2 Yoshihiro Sato,3 Hideo Matsumoto11Institute for Integrated Sports Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, 2Department of Internal Medicine, Hiyoshi Medical Clinic, Kanagawa, 3Department of Neurology, Mitate Hospital, Fukuoka, JapanPurpose: The influence of alendronate (ALN treatment on the quantitative ultrasound parameters of the calcaneus remains to be established in Japanese patients. The aim of the present clinical practice-based observational study was to examine the influence of ALN treatment for 1 year on the speed of sound (SOS of the calcaneus and bone turnover markers in postmenopausal Japanese women with osteoporosis.Patients and methods: Forty-five postmenopausal Japanese women with osteoporosis who had received treatment with ALN for more than 1 year were enrolled in the study. The SOS and bone turnover markers were monitored over 1 year of ALN treatment.Results: The urinary levels of cross-linked N-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen and serum levels of alkaline phosphatase decreased significantly from the baseline values (–44.9% at 3 months and –22.2% at 12 months, respectively. The SOS increased modestly, but significantly, from the baseline value (0.6% at both 6 and 12 months. The percentage decrease in the urinary levels of cross-linked N-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen at 3 months was significantly correlated with the percentage increase in the SOS only at 6 months (correlation coefficient, 0.299.Conclusion: The present study confirmed that ALN treatment suppressed bone turnover, producing a clinically significant increase in the SOS of the calcaneus in postmenopausal Japanese women with osteoporosis.Keywords: postmenopausal osteoporosis, quantitative ultrasound (QUS, SOS, bone turnover, biochemical markers

  10. 40 CFR 68.168 - Five-year accident history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Five-year accident history. 68.168 Section 68.168 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Risk Management Plan § 68.168 Five-year accident history...

  11. The 2010 five-yearly review has started

    CERN Multimedia

    Association du personnel

    2009-01-01

    Every five years, the financial and social conditions of members of the personnel are examined according to the procedures defined in Annex A1 of the Staff Rules and Regulations (SR&R). This exercise is called the “five-yearly review” (5YR).

  12. Five-Year Analysis of Treatment Efficacy and Cosmesis by the American Society of Breast Surgeons MammoSite Breast Brachytherapy Registry Trial in Patients Treated With Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vicini, Frank; Beitsch, Peter; Quiet, Coral; Gittleman, Mark; Zannis, Vic; Fine, Ricky; Whitworth, Pat; Kuerer, Henry; Haffty, Bruce; Keisch, Martin; Lyden, Maureen

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To present 5-year data on treatment efficacy, cosmetic results, and toxicities for patients enrolled on the American Society of Breast Surgeons MammoSite breast brachytherapy registry trial. Methods and Materials: A total of 1440 patients (1449 cases) with early-stage breast cancer receiving breast-conserving therapy were treated with the MammoSite device to deliver accelerated partial-breast irradiation (APBI) (34 Gy in 3.4-Gy fractions). Of 1449 cases, 1255 (87%) had invasive breast cancer (IBC) (median size, 10 mm) and 194 (13%) had ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) (median size, 8 mm). Median follow-up was 54 months. Results: Thirty-seven cases (2.6%) developed an ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR), for a 5-year actuarial rate of 3.80% (3.86% for IBC and 3.39% for DCIS). Negative estrogen receptor status (p = 0.0011) was the only clinical, pathologic, or treatment-related variable associated with IBTR for patients with IBC and young age (<50 years; p = 0.0096) and positive margin status (p = 0.0126) in those with DCIS. The percentage of breasts with good/excellent cosmetic results at 60 months (n = 371) was 90.6%. Symptomatic breast seromas were reported in 13.0% of cases, and 2.3% developed fat necrosis. A subset analysis of the first 400 consecutive cases enrolled was performed (352 with IBC, 48 DCIS). With a median follow-up of 60.5 months, the 5-year actuarial rate of IBTR was 3.04%. Conclusion: Treatment efficacy, cosmesis, and toxicity 5 years after treatment with APBI using the MammoSite device are good and similar to those reported with other forms of APBI with similar follow-up.

  13. Curative and organ-preserving treatment with intra-arterial carboplatin induction followed by surgery and/or radiotherapy for advanced head and neck cancer: single-center five-year results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tinelli Carmine

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study evaluated the feasibility, toxicity, response rate and survival of neoadjuvant superselective intra-arterial infusion of high dose carboplatin in advanced head and neck cancer. Methods Forty-six patients with primary head and neck squamous cell carcinoma received 3 cycles of intra-arterial carboplatin (300 to 350 mg/m2 per cycle every 2 weeks, followed by radiotherapy or surgery plus radiotherapy. Results No complications or severe toxicity occurred. Sixteen patients (35% were complete responders, 20 (43% partial responders while 10 (22% did not respond to treatment. After completion of the multimodality treatment, 38/46 patients (83% were complete responders. After a 5-year follow-up period, 18/46 patients (39% are alive and disease-free, 3 (6,5% have died of a second primary tumor and 25 (54,5% have died of the disease. Conclusion Intra-arterial carboplatin induction chemotherapy is a safe, well-tolerated technique that discriminates between responders and non-responders and so may have prognostic significance in planning further integrated treatments aimed to organ preservation for advanced head and neck carcinomas.

  14. Louisiana Airport System Plan Five-Year Capital Improvement Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-07-01

    The Louisiana Airport System Plan (LASP) Five-Year-Capital Improvement Program (CIP) is a development plan for all commercial service, reliever, and general aviation airports in Louisiana. It is a detailed listing of potential projects based on the a...

  15. General RMP Guidance - Chapter 3: Five-Year Accident History

    Science.gov (United States)

    This involves the reporting of significant accidental releases of one or more of the regulated toxic or flammable substances from a covered process in the five years prior to the submission of an initial or updated Risk Management Plan.

  16. Five-year workplace wellness intervention in the NHS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Holly; Zhou, Dingyuan; Batt, Mark E

    2013-09-01

    Poor health and well-being has been observed among NHS staff and has become a key focus in current public health policy. The objective of this study was to deliver and evaluate a five-year employee wellness programme aimed at improving the health and well-being of employees in a large NHS workplace. A theory-driven multi-level ecological workplace wellness intervention was delivered including health campaigns, provision of facilities and health-promotion activities to encourage employees to make healthy lifestyle choices and sustained behaviour changes. An employee questionnaire survey was distributed at baseline (n = 1,452) and at five years (n = 1,134), including measures of physical activity, BMI, diet, self-efficacy, social support, perceived general health and mood, smoking behaviours, self-reported sickness absence, perceived work performance and job satisfaction. Samples were comparable at baseline and follow-up. At five years, significantly more respondents actively travelled (by walking or cycling both to work and for non-work trips) and more were active while at work. Significantly more respondents met current recommendations for physical activity at five years than at baseline. Fewer employers reported 'lack of time' as a barrier to being physically active following the intervention. Significantly lower sickness absence, greater job satisfaction and greater organisational commitment was reported at five years than at baseline. Improvements in health behaviours, reductions in sickness absence and improvements in job satisfaction and organisational commitment were observed following five years of a workplace wellness intervention for NHS employees. These findings suggest that health-promoting programmes should be embedded within NHS infrastructure.

  17. Parotid tumor statistics for the past five years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Soichi; Sueno, Kohei; Yamaguchi, Takeshi; Asano, Yukimi; Shiba, Kazutaka; Sekiguchi, Nao; Masuda, Takeshi

    2004-01-01

    We reviewed the case of 40 patients with parotid tumor who underwent an operation in the past five years. The patients included 23 (57.5%) males and 17 (42.5%) females. The average age was 53.4 years old with a range of 19 to 71 years. Thirty eight (95.0%) had benign tumor, and 2 (5.0%) had malignant tumor. Tc scintigraphy was performed in 37 out of the 40 patients, and 9 patients showed positive results. Six patients had warthin's tumor, and 3 had pleomorphic adenoma. In other words, 66.7% were positive for warthin's tumor. Ga scintigraphy was performed in 31 out of the 40 patients. Nine were positive out of the 10 benign tumor that showed a positive result. None of the cases had permanent facial palsy as a postoperative complication. Transient facial palsy was exhibited by 13 patients (32.5%), but they all improved 2 weeks to 6 months. In addition, we experienced 1 case of salivary fistula. Pleomorphic adenoma was noted in 63.2%, and warthin's tumor in 23.7%. There was no gender difference for pleomorphic adenoma, but 8 out of the 9 patients with warthin's tumor were men. The average age was 47.0 for pleomorphic adenoma and 58.7 for warthin's tumor which was in accordance with conventional reports. The Tc scintigraphy positive rate of warthin's tumor was low, 66.7%, in comparison with that in conventional reports. In addition, 90% of the tumors that showed positive results in Ga scintigraphy were preoperatively positive tumors, indicating the diagnostic usefulness of this. Transient facial palsy was a complication in 32.5% of the patients, which was similar to the rate in the conventional report. We experienced 1 case salivary fistula, which did not improve with conservative treatment. We opened the wounded area, and drained it by pressing. (author)

  18. Power generation in the 12-th five-year plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troitskij, A.A.

    1986-01-01

    The state of electric power generation in the 11-th five-year plan is summed up. Perspectives of development of heat and electric power generation in the 12-th five-year plan are considered. Thermal power generation of NPPs in 1990 will increase by a factor of 8.4 as compared with 1975. The NPP development will be mainly realized on the basis of the WWER-1000 type reactors. It is planned to commission fast reactors of up to 800 MW

  19. Collaboration on DIII-D Five Year Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, S

    2003-01-01

    with a single channel, the system has grown to 40 channels with three separate systems. We have continually developed new calibration techniques, with a goal of accuracy in the magnetic field pitch angle measurements of ∼0.1 degree. Measurements of the radial electric field E r have also been achieved. In the next five year period, GA plans on rotating one of the neutral beams so that it injects opposite to the sense of the plasma current (counter-injection). This enables two orthogonal MSE views of the neutral beam so that J(r) and E r can be obtained directly. In addition, the new views can be optimized so that increased spatial resolution will be obtained. Our plan is to install these new systems when the neutral beam is reoriented, and continue to provide high-resolution, ''state of the art'' current profile measurements for the DIII-D AT program. In the divertor physics area, our goal is the development of a model of the scrapeoff layer (SOL) and divertor plasmas which is benchmarked with data. We have identified the need for measurements of SOL flow and ion temperature. Working with GA, we are proposing a new edge Charge Exchange Recombination (CER) diagnostic. The understanding of SOL flow is important for understanding the tritium inventory problem in ITER. In addition, using plasma flow to ''entrain'' impurities in the divertor region (enabling a low density radiative divertor) is the current AT divertor heat flux control scenario. We are also augmenting our edge modeling capabilities with a coupled UEDGE (fluid code) with the BOUT (edge turbulence) code. Further work, funded through LLNL theory, is planned to develop a kinetic treatment of the edge. All of these efforts contribute to the understanding of the edge pedestal in the tokamak, an important AT and ITER topic. A secondary goal is the understanding of Edge Localized Modes (ELMs), which are also important in the ITER design, as the repetitive bursts of heat flux can cause increased erosion and damage

  20. Prevention of aromatase inhibitor-induced bone loss with alendronate in postmenopausal women: The BATMAN Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomax, Anna J; Yee Yap, Saw; White, Karen; Beith, Jane; Abdi, Ehtesham; Broad, Adam; Sewak, Sanjeev; Lee, Chooi; Sambrook, Philip; Pocock, Nicholas; Henry, Margaret J; Yeow, Elaine G; Bell, Richard

    2013-12-01

    Postmenopausal women on aromatase inhibitors (AI) are at risk of aromatase inhibitor-associated bone loss (AIBL) and fractures. In 2005 Osteoporosis Australia proposed an algorithm for bisphosphonate intervention. Three hundred and three postmenopausal women with early breast cancer (EBC) were enrolled (osteoporotic, n=25; osteopaenic, n=146; normal bone mineral density (BMD), n=126). Weekly alendronate (70 mg) treatment efficacy as triggered by the algorithm in preventing bone loss was evaluated. All patients received anastrozole (1 mg daily), calcium and vitamin D. All osteoporotic patients received alendronate at baseline. Eleven out of the 146 (7.5%) osteopaenic patients commenced alendronate within 18 months of participation and eleven commenced after. One hundred and twenty four out of the 146 (84.9%) osteopaenic patients and all 126 with normal baseline BMD did not trigger the algorithm. At three years, lumbar spine mean BMD increased (15.6%, p<0.01) in the osteoporotic group. BMD in the osteopaenic group with early intervention significantly increased at three years (6.3%, p=0.02). No significant change was seen in the late intervention group. No change was observed in those with osteopaenia without alendronate. There was a significant drop in lumbar spine (-5.4%) and hip (-4.5%) mean BMD, in the normal BMD group, none of whom received alendronate. Fracture data will be presented. In postmenopausal women with endocrine-responsive EBC, BMD improved over time when a bisphosphonate is administered with anastrozole in osteoporotic patients using an osteoporosis schedule. Subjects with normal baseline BMD experienced the greatest BMD loss, although none became osteoporotic.

  1. Goiania radiological accident: five years talking with the population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozental, J.J.

    1993-01-01

    This article presents an overview five years after the Goiania radiological accident. It reviews from a number of important aspects the psychological impact and conflicting opinions, the public hearings and debates and, particularly describes the victims that still have difficulties to understand the accident and its consequences. (B.C.A.). 05 refs

  2. Five-Yearly Review: TREF avoids the worst!

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2006-01-01

    In our last edition, we informed you about the Staff Council decision to reject the entire set of proposals for the five-yearly review, on the basis of the Director-General's revised proposals 2 and 10. We also indicated that a total failure could still be avoided at TREF on 4 and 5 October. To our relief, TREF avoided the worst!

  3. State of logistics - a five-year review

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ittmann, HW

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The state of logistics survey makes it possible to analyse and show trends over the past five years. This relates to quantitative and qualitative logistics issues that were not possible when this survey started in 2004. The paper will show...

  4. Outcome of the 2015 five-yearly review: decision time

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2015-01-01

    To ensure that CERN remains a centre of excellence in the field of fundamental research, the Organization verifies every five years with the help of a Five-yearly review procedure whether the financial and social conditions which it proposes to its staff allow it to recruit and retain Staff Members of the highest competence and integrity required for the execution of its mission and coming from all Member States. For Fellows these conditions should remain attractive compared with those in comparable research institutions, while for Associated members of personnel the conditions should allow it to host them in its research facilities taking into account the highest cost-of-living level in the local region of the Organization. Annex A1 of the CERN Staff Rules prescribes the principles of how to manage this Five-Yearly process. Getting ready In order to prepare the 2015 Five-yearly review and to help define the topics which had to be decided by the CERN Council in June 2014, the Staff Association has organized ...

  5. Annex A1: cornerstone of the five-yearly review

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    As a reminder; the purpose of the five-yearly review is to review the financial and social conditions of all CERN personnel whether employed (MPE) or associated (MPA)! In December 2015, the CERN Council approved the package proposed by the Management. Early this year, and as final act of the 2015 five-yearly review, the CERN Council may decide, if necessary and appropriate, to review the procedures defined in Annex A1 and applicable to future five-yearly reviews. At the meeting of TREF (TRipartite Employment Forum)  in early March 2016 discussions will take place between all stakeholders (representatives of Member States, Management and the Staff Association) and Council will take a decision in June 2016, on the basis of the Management's recommendations. What does Annex A1 say and where can I find it? Annex A1 (Article S V 1.02) is a part of the Staff Rules and Regulations. This annex defines: The five-yearly review of the financial and social conditions of the staff, fellows and MPA; The a...

  6. Five-yearly Review: What now? Is this the end?

    CERN Multimedia

    Association du personnel

    2006-01-01

    The CERN Staff Association has made every effort over the past months to devise and propose numerous solutions in the framework of the current five-yearly review. The Staff Association has done this in close collaboration with the staff members, through several polls which have all resulted in a massive rejection of the Management's position.

  7. The Five-Year Resume: A Career Planning Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laker, Dennis R.; Laker, Ruth

    2007-01-01

    For most college students, lack of career planning wastes time and resources and may result in years of "career drift." Lack of planning can also lead to deception once students begin seeking career-related employment. Faced with a competitive job market, some students inflate and exaggerate their resumes. The five-year resume exercise helps…

  8. Does geographical variability influence five-year MACCE rates in the multicentre SYNTAX revascularisation trial?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Andrew K; Chevalier, Bernard; Lefèvre, Thierry; Louvard, Yves; Segurado, Ricardo; Sawaya, Fadi; Spaziano, Marco; Neylon, Antoinette; Serruys, Patrick A; Dawkins, Keith D; Kappetein, Arie Pieter; Mohr, Friedrich-Wilhelm; Colombo, Antonio; Feldman, Ted; Morice, Marie-Claude

    2017-09-20

    The use of multiple geographical sites for randomised cardiovascular trials may lead to important heterogeneity in treatment effects. This study aimed to determine whether treatment effects from different geographical recruitment regions impacted significantly on five-year MACCE rates in the SYNTAX trial. Five-year SYNTAX results (n=1,800) were analysed for geographical variability by site and country for the effect of treatment (CABG vs. PCI) on MACCE rates. Fixed, random, and linear mixed models were used to test clinical covariate effects, such as diabetes, lesion characteristics, and procedural factors. Comparing five-year MACCE rates, the pooled odds ratio (OR) between study sites was 0.58 (95% CI: 0.47-0.71), and countries 0.59 (95% CI: 0.45-0.73). By homogeneity testing, no individual site (X2=93.8, p=0.051) or country differences (X2=25.7, p=0.080) were observed. For random effects models, the intraclass correlation was minimal (ICC site=5.1%, ICC country=1.5%, p<0.001), indicating minimal geographical heterogeneity, with a hazard ratio of 0.70 (95% CI: 0.59-0.83). Baseline risk (smoking, diabetes, PAD) did not influence regional five-year MACCE outcomes (ICC 1.3%-5.2%), nor did revascularisation of the left main vs. three-vessel disease (p=0.241), across site or country subgroups. For CABG patients, the number of arterial (p=0.49) or venous (p=0.38) conduits used also made no difference. Geographic variability has no significant treatment effect on MACCE rates at five years. These findings highlight the generalisability of the five-year outcomes of the SYNTAX study.

  9. Elderly victims of abuse: a five year document analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Garbin,Cléa Adas Saliba; Joaquim,Renata Colturato; Rovida,Tânia Adas Saliba; Garbin,Artênio José Isper

    2016-01-01

    Objective To verify the occurrence of maltreatment of the elderly and its characteristics (location, type, reason, involvement of alcohol/drugs, profile and family relationship of victims and perpetrators) from the police records of a specialized police station over a five year period. Method A cross-sectional, descriptive and documentary analytical study was performed. The police reports of a medium-sized municipality in the northwest of São Paulo were analyzed from 2008 to 2012. The sociod...

  10. Twenty five years of clusters -- from Bochum to Strasbourg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betts, R.R.; Chicago Univ., IL

    1994-01-01

    Developments in the area of clustering aspects of nuclear structure and reactions over the past twenty-five years are reviewed. The viewpoint is that the nucleus is an assembly of clusters. The question is whether clusters actually exist in the nucleus. Although there is abundant evidence for this in light nuclei, the situation for more complex clusters in heavier nuclei is much worse. Differential cross sections for scattering of alpha particles and heavy ions are shown

  11. Computing for magnetic fusion energy research: The next five years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, L.; Glasser, A.; Sauthoff, N.

    1991-01-01

    This report considers computing needs in magnetic fusion for the next five years. It is the result of two and a half years of effort by representatives of all aspects of the magnetic fusion community. The report also factors in the results of a survey that was distributed to the laboratories and universities that support fusion. There are four areas of computing support discussed: theory, experiment, engineering, and systems

  12. [Clinical application of alendronate for osteoporosis/osteopenia secondary to hyperthyroidism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li-Juan; Shen, Fei-Xia; Zheng, Jing-Chen; Zhang, Hai-Ling

    2012-02-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of alendronate for the treatment of osteoporosis/osteopenia secondary to hyperthyroidism. From April 2008 to November 2009, 27 patients with hyperthyroidism with osteoporosis/ osteopenia measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) were included in this study, and then they were randomly divided into two groups (group A and group B) by simple random sampling. Group A consisted of 14 patients treated with antithyroid drug and caltrate D, the antithyroid drug change with thyroid function, and caltrate D 600 mg per day. Group B consisted of 13 patients treated with antithyroid drug, caltrate D and alendronate, antithyroid drug and caltrate D the same as group A, and alendronate 70 mg weekly. Meanwhile, 21 healthy voluntary adults were chosen as control group. And compared with the control group which was treated with nothing. Followed-up for one year, the bone mineral density (including T-score, Z-score, BMD) in lumbar spine (LS), femoral neck (FN) and distal radius (DR) and general information, were compared before and after treatment. BMD at FN and DR were significantly higher at 12 months after treatment than at the baseline in group A (P = 0.000); T-score, Z-score, and BMD at the LS, FN and DR were all significantly higher at 12 months after treatment than at the baseline in group B (P hyperthyroidism and osteoporosis/osteopenia. Compared with anti-thyroid drugs alone, treatment with alendronate can obtain more clinical effect and also very safety.

  13. Theoretical analysis of alendronate and risedronate effects on canine vertebral remodeling and microdamage

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xiang; Erickson, Antonia M.; Allen, Matthew R.; Burr, David B.; Martin, R. Bruce; Hazelwood, Scott J.

    2009-01-01

    Bisphosphonates suppress bone remodeling activity, increase bone volume, and significantly reduce fracture risk in individuals with osteoporosis and other metabolic bone diseases. The objectives of the current study were to develop a mathematical model that simulates control and 1 year experimental results following bisphosphonate treatment (alendronate or risedronate) in the canine fourth lumbar vertebral body, validate the model by comparing simulation predictions to 3 year experimental res...

  14. Idaho supplementation studies : five year report : 1992-1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walters, Jody P.; Idaho. Dept. of Fish and Game; United States. Bonneville Power Administration. Division of Fish and Wildlife.

    1999-01-01

    In 1991, the Idaho Supplementation Studies (ISS) project was implemented to address critical uncertainties associated with hatchery supplementation of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha populations in Idaho. The project was designed to address questions identified in the Supplementation Technical Work Group (STWG) Five-Year-Workplan (STWG 1988). Two goals of the project were identified: (1) assess the use of hatchery chinook salmon to increase natural populations in the Salmon and Clearwater river drainages, and (2) evaluate the genetic and ecological impacts of hatchery chinook salmon on naturally reproducing chinook salmon populations. Four objectives to achieve these goals were developed: (1) monitor and evaluate the effects of supplementation on presmolt and smolt numbers and spawning escapements of naturally produced fish; (2) monitor and evaluate changes in natural productivity and genetic composition of target and adjacent populations following supplementation; (3) determine which supplementation strategies (broodstock and release stage) provide the quickest and highest response in natural production without adverse effects on productivity; and (4) develop supplementation recommendations. This document reports on the first five years of the long-term portion of the ISS project. Small-scale studies addressing specific hypotheses of the mechanisms of supplementation effects (e.g., competition, dispersal, and behavior) have been completed. Baseline genetic data have also been collected. Because supplementation broodstock development was to occur during the first five years, little evaluation of supplementation is currently possible. Most supplementation adults did not start to return to study streams until 1997. The objectives of this report are to: (1) present baseline data on production and productivity indicators such as adult escapement, redd counts, parr densities, juvenile emigrant estimates, and juvenile survival to Lower Granite Dam (lower Snake

  15. Five-year workplace wellness intervention in the NHS

    OpenAIRE

    Blake, Holly; Zhou, Dingyuan; Batt, Mark E.

    2013-01-01

    aims:\\ud Poor health and well-being has been observed among NHS staff and has become a key focus in current public health policy. The objective of this study was to deliver and evaluate a five-year employee wellness programme aimed at improving the health and well-being of employees in a large NHS workplace.\\ud method:\\ud A theory-driven multi-level ecological workplace wellness intervention was delivered including health campaigns, provision of facilities and health-promotion activities to e...

  16. The 2015 Five-yearly review: diversity in the spotlight

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2014-01-01

    Introduction As mentioned in Echo 201, with the Council Decision of last June the CERN 2015 five-yearly review has formally begun. Following the procedure defined in Annex A1 of the Staff Rules and Regulations CERN will thus review its financial and social conditions that should enable it to recruit from all its Member States, and retain, staff of the highest competence and integrity necessary to perform its mission. In addition, these conditions should increase the attractiveness of CERN in all Member States and motivate staff of all ages and all occupations throughout their careers. Annex A1 stipulates that a five-yearly review must include basic salaries (stipends for Fellows and subsistence allowances for associated members of the personnel) and, optionally, may include any other financial or social conditions. For this optional part of the 2015 exercise, the CERN career structure and measures to improve diversity were chosen. Towards a better diversity policy The analysis of the 2013 Staff Associat...

  17. THE FIVE YEAR FERMI/GBM MAGNETAR BURST CATALOG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collazzi, A. C. [SciTec, Inc., 100 Wall Street, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Kouveliotou, C.; Horst, A. J. van der; Younes, G. A. [Department of Physics, The George Washington University, 725 21st Street NW, Washington, DC 20052 (United States); Kaneko, Y.; Göğüş, E. [Sabancı University, Orhanlı-Tuzla, İstanbul 34956 (Turkey); Lin, L. [François Arago Centre, APC, 10 rue Alice Domon et Léonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris (France); Granot, J. [Department of Natural Sciences, The Open University of Israel, 1 University Road, P.O. Box 808, Raanana 43537 (Israel); Finger, M. H. [Universities Space Research Association, NSSTC, 320 Sparkman Drive, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States); Chaplin, V. L. [School of Medicine, Vanderbilt University, 1161 21st Avenue S, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Huppenkothen, D. [Center for Data Science, New York University, 726 Broadway, 7th Floor, New York, NY 10003 (United States); Watts, A. L. [Anton Pannekoek Institute, University of Amsterdam, Postbus 94249, 1090 GE Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kienlin, A. von [Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Baring, M. G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rice University, MS-108, P.O. Box 1892, Houston, TX 77251 (United States); Gruber, D. [Planetarium Südtirol, Gummer 5, I-39053 Karneid (Italy); Bhat, P. N. [CSPAR, University of Alabama in Huntsville, 320 Sparkman Drive, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States); Gibby, M. H., E-mail: acollazzi@scitec.com [Jacobs Technology, Inc., Huntsville, AL (United States); and others

    2015-05-15

    Since launch in 2008, the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) has detected many hundreds of bursts from magnetar sources. While the vast majority of these bursts have been attributed to several known magnetars, there is also a small sample of magnetar-like bursts of unknown origin. Here, we present the Fermi/GBM magnetar catalog, providing the results of the temporal and spectral analyses of 440 magnetar bursts with high temporal and spectral resolution. This catalog covers the first five years of GBM magnetar observations, from 2008 July to 2013 June. We provide durations, spectral parameters for various models, fluences, and peak fluxes for all the bursts, as well as a detailed temporal analysis for SGR J1550–5418 bursts. Finally, we suggest that some of the bursts of unknown origin are associated with the newly discovered magnetar 3XMM J185246.6+0033.7.

  18. Five years of operating the TRIGA Mainz reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benedict, Georg

    1970-01-01

    Considerable obstacles had to be surmounted before TRIGA MAINZ, first TRIGA reactor built in Germany, reached initial criticality in 1965. Subsequent five years' operation did not raise any major problems. The facility has proven quite reliable and particularly well suited for the purposes of the nuclear chemistry research program pursued at Mainz University. Extensive use is made of the pulse mode of operation. As a result, fuel elements are obviously somewhat overstressed, even though most pulses performed are of the 1.50 dollar size. Maximum licensed steady state power of 100 kW till now has met the requirements of most experiments. However, efforts are in progress to improve irradiation conditions by increasing the reactor power to 300 kW. (author)

  19. AMBULATORY CARE - SENSITIVE CONDITIONS IN CHILDREN UNDER FIVE YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aparecida Araújo Figueiredo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective:analyzethe extent to which the incidence rate of primary care sensitivehospitalizations in children under five years is influenced by the percentage of coverage of theprimary care.Methods:This was a cross-sectional ecological study that combines coverage ofprimary careand theambulatorycare-sensitiveconditionsin 2000 and 2010. We used data from theHospital Information System (HIS and the Information System of Primary Care (SIAB.Results:The data revealed that the increased coverage providedprimary carereductionrateofhospitalization diseases studied. In 2000 the reduction was greater for gastroenteritis (51% inchildren under 01 years and 30% in children 01-04 years in 2010 for respiratory diseases (51% inchildren under 01years and 33% in children aged 01-04 years.Conclusion:we found an association between the coverage ofprimary careand admission rates, however seem to affect othervariables, suggesting the need for further studies.

  20. Hyperfunctioning thyroid cancer: a five-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Monalisa Ferreira; Casulari, Luiz Augusto

    2010-02-01

    Differentiated thyroid cancer rarely occurs in association with hyperfunctioning nodules. We describe a case of a 47-year-old woman who developed symptoms of hyperthyroidism associated with a palpable thyroid nodule. Thyroid scintigraphy showed an autonomous nodule, and fine-needle aspiration biopsy was suggestive of papillary carcinoma. Laboratorial findings were consistent with the diagnosis of hyperthyroidism. The patient underwent thyroidectomy and a papillary carcinoma of 3.0 x 3.0 x 2.0 cm, follicular variant, was described by histological examination. The surrounding thyroid tissue was normal. Postoperatively, the patient received 100 mCi of (131)I, and whole body scans detected only residual uptake. No evidence of metastasis was detected during five years of follow-up. Hot thyroid nodules rarely harbor malignancies, and this case illustrated that, when a carcinoma occurs the prognosis seems to be very good with no evidence of metastatic dissemination during a long-term follow-up.

  1. e+e- physics at PETRA - the first five years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sau Lan Wu

    1984-03-01

    PETRA (Positron-Electron Tandem Ring Accelerator) is located at DESY in Hamburg, Germany, and is the highest energy electron-positron storage ring in the world. This report gives a global review of the experimental investigations carried out at PETRA for the first five years of its operation beginning in 1978 by the five Collaborations CELLO, JADE, MARK J, PLUTO and TASSO. The physics objectives in the original proposals have largely been fullfilled. The emphasis of this review, based mainly on journal publications before July 15, 1983 (the fifth anniversary of the first successful storage on an electron beam at PETRA), is on the physics results, ranging over strong, electromagnetic and weak interactions. The topics covered include quark and gluon physics, inclusive particle production, electroweak interference, two-photon physics, and search for new particles. Although cited for comparison, no attempt has been made for any systematic coverage of the corresponding results from PEP of SLAC. (orig.)

  2. Alendronate inhalation ameliorates elastase-induced pulmonary emphysema in mice by induction of apoptosis of alveolar macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Manabu; Maeno, Toshitaka; Nishimura, Satoshi; Ogata, Fusa; Masubuchi, Hiroaki; Hara, Kenichiro; Yamaguchi, Kouichi; Aoki, Fumiaki; Suga, Tatsuo; Nagai, Ryozo; Kurabayashi, Masahiko

    2015-03-10

    Alveolar macrophages play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of emphysema, for which there is currently no effective treatment. Bisphosphonates are widely used to treat osteoclast-mediated bone diseases. Here we show that delivery of the nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate alendronate via aerosol inhalation ameliorates elastase-induced emphysema in mice. Inhaled, but not orally ingested, alendronate inhibits airspace enlargement after elastase instillation, and induces apoptosis of macrophages in bronchoalveolar fluid via caspase-3- and mevalonate-dependent pathways. Cytometric analysis indicates that the F4/80(+)CD11b(high)CD11c(mild) population characterizing inflammatory macrophages, and the F4/80(+)CD11b(mild)CD11c(high) population defining resident alveolar macrophages take up substantial amounts of the bisphosphonate imaging agent OsteoSense680 after aerosol inhalation. We further show that alendronate inhibits macrophage migratory and phagocytotic activities and blunts the inflammatory response of alveolar macrophages by inhibiting nuclear factor-κB signalling. Given that the alendronate inhalation effectively induces apoptosis in both recruited and resident alveolar macrophages, we suggest this strategy may have therapeutic potential for the treatment of emphysema.

  3. Alendronate augments interleukin-1β release from macrophages infected with periodontal pathogenic bacteria through activation of caspase-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Xue; Tamai, Riyoko; Endo, Yasuo; Kiyoura, Yusuke

    2009-01-01

    Nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates (NBPs) are anti-bone-resorptive drugs with inflammatory side effects that include osteomyelitis and osteonecrosis of the jaw. Oral bacteria have been considered to be a trigger for these NBP-associated jaw bone diseases. The present study examined the effects of alendronate (a typical NBP) and clodronate (a non-NBP) on the production of proinflammatory cytokines by macrophages infected with Porphyromonas gingivalis and Tannerella forsythia, which are important pathogens of periodontal diseases. Pretreatment with alendronate augmented IL-1β, but not TNFα, production by macrophages infected with P. gingivalis or T. forsythia. This augmentation of IL-1β production was inhibited by clodronate. Furthermore, caspase-1, a promoter of IL-1β production, was activated by treatment with alendronate, and caspase-1 inhibitor reduced the production of IL-1β induced by alendronate and P. gingivalis. These results suggest that NBPs augment periodontal pathogenic bacteria-induced IL-1β release via caspase-1 activation, and this phenomenon may contribute to the development of NBP-associated inflammatory side effects including jaw osteomyelitis. Co-treatment with clodronate may prevent and/or reduce these inflammatory effects induced by NBPs

  4. Alendronate augments interleukin-1{beta} release from macrophages infected with periodontal pathogenic bacteria through activation of caspase-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, Deng; Tamai, Riyoko [Division of Oral Bacteriology, Department of Oral Medical Science, Ohu University School of Dentistry, 31-1 Misumido, Tomitamachi, Koriyama, Fukushima 963-8611 (Japan); Endo, Yasuo [Department of Molecular Regulation, Graduate School of Dentistry, Tohoku University, 4-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Kiyoura, Yusuke [Division of Oral Bacteriology, Department of Oral Medical Science, Ohu University School of Dentistry, 31-1 Misumido, Tomitamachi, Koriyama, Fukushima 963-8611 (Japan)

    2009-02-15

    Nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates (NBPs) are anti-bone-resorptive drugs with inflammatory side effects that include osteomyelitis and osteonecrosis of the jaw. Oral bacteria have been considered to be a trigger for these NBP-associated jaw bone diseases. The present study examined the effects of alendronate (a typical NBP) and clodronate (a non-NBP) on the production of proinflammatory cytokines by macrophages infected with Porphyromonas gingivalis and Tannerella forsythia, which are important pathogens of periodontal diseases. Pretreatment with alendronate augmented IL-1{beta}, but not TNF{alpha}, production by macrophages infected with P. gingivalis or T. forsythia. This augmentation of IL-1{beta} production was inhibited by clodronate. Furthermore, caspase-1, a promoter of IL-1{beta} production, was activated by treatment with alendronate, and caspase-1 inhibitor reduced the production of IL-1{beta} induced by alendronate and P. gingivalis. These results suggest that NBPs augment periodontal pathogenic bacteria-induced IL-1{beta} release via caspase-1 activation, and this phenomenon may contribute to the development of NBP-associated inflammatory side effects including jaw osteomyelitis. Co-treatment with clodronate may prevent and/or reduce these inflammatory effects induced by NBPs.

  5. Hydroxyapatite nanocrystals functionalized with alendronate as bioactive components for bone implant coatings to decrease osteoclastic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosco, Ruggero; Iafisco, Michele; Tampieri, Anna; Jansen, John A.; Leeuwenburgh, Sander C. G.; van den Beucken, Jeroen J. J. P.

    2015-02-01

    The integration of bone implants within native bone tissue depends on periprosthetic bone quality, which is severely decreased in osteoporotic patients. In this work, we have synthesized bone-like hydroxyapatite nanocrystals (nHA) using an acid-base neutralization reaction and analysed their physicochemical properties. Subsequently, we have functionalized the nHA with alendronate (nHAALE), a well-known bisphosphonate drug used for the treatment of osteoporosis. An in vitro osteoclastogenesis test was carried out to evaluate the effect of nHAALE on the formation of osteoclast-like cells from monocytic precursor cells (i.e. RAW264.7 cell line) showing that nHAALE significantly promoted apoptosis of osteoclast-like cells. Subsequently, nHA and nHAALE were deposited on titanium disks using electrospray deposition (ESD), for which characterisation of the deposited coatings confirmed the presence of alendronate in nHAALE coatings with nanoscale thickness of about 700 nm. These results indicate that alendronate linked to hydroxyapatite nanocrystals has therapeutic potential and nHAALE can be considered as an appealing coating constituent material for orthopaedic and oral implants for application in osteoporotic patients.

  6. Five-Year Risk of Interval-Invasive Second Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buist, Diana S. M.; Houssami, Nehmat; Dowling, Emily C.; Halpern, Elkan F.; Gazelle, G. Scott; Lehman, Constance D.; Henderson, Louise M.; Hubbard, Rebecca A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Earlier detection of second breast cancers after primary breast cancer (PBC) treatment improves survival, yet mammography is less accurate in women with prior breast cancer. The purpose of this study was to examine women presenting clinically with second breast cancers after negative surveillance mammography (interval cancers), and to estimate the five-year risk of interval-invasive second cancers for women with varying risk profiles. Methods: We evaluated a prospective cohort of 15 114 women with 47 717 surveillance mammograms diagnosed with stage 0-II unilateral PBC from 1996 through 2008 at facilities in the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium. We used discrete time survival models to estimate the association between odds of an interval-invasive second breast cancer and candidate predictors, including demographic, PBC, and imaging characteristics. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results: The cumulative incidence of second breast cancers after five years was 54.4 per 1000 women, with 325 surveillance-detected and 138 interval-invasive second breast cancers. The five-year risk of interval-invasive second cancer for women with referent category characteristics was 0.60%. For women with the most and least favorable profiles, the five-year risk ranged from 0.07% to 6.11%. Multivariable modeling identified grade II PBC (odds ratio [OR] = 1.95, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.15 to 3.31), treatment with lumpectomy without radiation (OR = 3.27, 95% CI = 1.91 to 5.62), interval PBC presentation (OR = 2.01, 95% CI 1.28 to 3.16), and heterogeneously dense breasts on mammography (OR = 1.54, 95% CI = 1.01 to 2.36) as independent predictors of interval-invasive second breast cancers. Conclusions: PBC diagnosis and treatment characteristics contribute to variation in subsequent-interval second breast cancer risk. Consideration of these factors may be useful in developing tailored post-treatment imaging surveillance plans. PMID:25904721

  7. Infectious Diseases of Poverty, the first five years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Chen, Jin; Sheng, Hui-Feng; Wang, Na-Na; Yang, Pin; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Bergquist, Robert

    2017-05-04

    Although the focus in the area of health research may be shifting from infectious to non-communicable diseases, the infectious diseases of poverty remain a major burden of disease of global health concern. A global platform to communicate and share the research on these diseases is needed to facilitate the translation of knowledge into effective approaches and tools for their elimination. Based on the "One health, One world" mission, a new, open-access journal, Infectious Diseases of Poverty (IDP), was launched by BioMed Central in partnership with the National Institute of Parasitic Diseases (NIPD), Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (China CDC) on October 25, 2012. Its aim is to identify and assess research and information gaps that hinder progress towards new interventions for a particular public health problem in the developing world. From the inaugural IDP issue of October 25, 2012, a total of 256 manuscripts have been published over the following five years. Apart from a small number of editorials, opinions, commentaries and letters to the editor, the predominant types of publications are research articles (69.5%) and scoping reviews (21.5%). A total of 1 081 contributing authors divided between 323 affiliations across 68 countries, territories and regions produced these 256 publications. The journal is indexed in major international biomedical databases, including Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus and Embase. In 2015, it was assigned its first impact factor (4.11), which is now 2.13. During the past five years, IDP has received manuscripts from 90 countries, territories and regions across six continents with an annual acceptance rate of all contributions maintained at less than 40%. Content analysis shows that neglected tropical diseases (NTDs), followed by the "Big Three" (HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis) and infectious diseases in general comprise 88% of all publications. In addition, a series of 10 thematic issues, covering 118 publications

  8. AEC sets five year nuclear safety research program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    The research by the government for the establishment of means of judging the adequacy of safety measures incorporated in nuclear facilities, including setting safety standards and collecting documents of general criteria, and the research by the industry on safety measures and the promotion of safety-related technique are stated in the five year program for 1976-80 reported by subcommittees, Atomic Energy Commission (AEC). Four considerations on the research items incorporated in the program are 1) technical programs relating to the safety of nuclear facilities and the necessary criteria, 2) priority of the relevant items decided according to their impact on circumstances, urgency, the defence-indepth concept and so on, 3) consideration of all relevant data and documents collected, and research subjects necessary to quantify safety measurement, and 4) consideration of technological actualization, the capability of each research body, the budget and the time schedule. In addition, seven major themes decided on the basis of these points are 1) reactivity-initiated accident, 2) LOCA, 3) fuel behavior, 4) structural safety, 5) radioactive release, 6) statistical method of safety evaluation, and 7) seismic characteristics. The committee has deliberated the appropriate division of researches between the government and the industry. A set of tables showing the nuclear safety research plan for 1976-80 are attached. (Iwakiri, K.)

  9. FORMakademisk – Fem års jubileum - Five years anniversary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janne Beate Reitan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available When we first published FORMakademisk five years ago, we stated in the very first editorial on page 1 in Volume 1, Issue 1 that:The aim of the journal is to provide a venue for research in design and design education, and thereby develop an interest and working community of scholars in the field. The editorial team perceives design as a generic term that includes creative and performing activities in the great span of the artefacts ‘from the spoon to the city’. The editorial team relates to design education as a field that includes the dissemination of design in society and the teaching of design at all levels general education, vocational preparation, professional education and research education—from kindergarten to doctorate.Since then we have published two issues every year, nine all together, with more than 50 articles. The editorial team saw that future contributors to FORMakademisk would mainly be recruited from researchers within the design disciplines, and their research interests would have their roots in creative and artistic design practice. At the same time, FORMakademisk has invited scientists from established academic disciplines, when their interest has been directed towards design issues.

  10. Five-yearly review: where do we stand now?

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    A reminder The first issue of Echo in 2016 announced a year of changes with many challenges for the Staff Association and the staff it represents. Indeed, following the decision of the Council in December 2015 to approve all components of the five-yearly review, many changes were to be implemented in 2016. This is the case of the new career structure, the definition of benchmark jobs (BMJ), the redesign of the advancement and promotions process, etc. Looking back at 2015 and the various statements In December 2015, the CERN Council emphasized: the substantial effort made by the Staff Association and the Management, taking into account the difficult economic situation faced by some Member States, led to the creation of a package of measures as balanced as possible. It is clear however: that there was no alignment of CERN basic salaries with the comparison salaries; that in the new career system, staff will have their advancement prospects, and consequently the level of their pension, reduced with respect to ...

  11. Five years of successful CANDU-6 fuel manufacturing in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galeriu, A.C.; Pascu, A.; Andrei, G.; Bailescu, A.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the evolution of CANDU-6 nuclear fuel manufacturing in Romania at FCN Pitesti, after the completion of the qualification in 1994. Commercial production was resumed early 1995 and fuel bundles produced were entirely delivered to Cernavoda Plant and charged in the reactor. More than 12,000 fuel bundles have been produced in the last five years and the fuel behaved very well. Defective bundles represents less than 0.06% from the total irradiated fuel, and the most defects are associated to the highest power positions. After qualification, FCN focused the effort to improve braze quality and also to maintain a low residual hydrogen content in graphite coated sheaths. The production capacity was increased especially for component manufacturing, appendages tack welding and brazing. A new graphite baking furnace with increased capacity, is under design. In the pelleting area, a rotating press will replace the older hydraulic presses used for pelleting. Plant development taken inter consideration the future demands for Cernavoda Unit 2. (author)

  12. Fuel quality control: Five years of activity in laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bettinelli, M.; Cimini, G.; Durello, G.; Lucchesi, P.L.

    1991-01-01

    A description of how ENEL (Italian National Electricity Board) carries out the activity of fuel quality control is given, and the results of the Round Robin circuit which has been operating for five years in laboratories regulary performing the control analyses of these products are reported. The laboratories taking part in the Round Robin circuit are 41 (out of which 35 are ENEL laboratories and 6 are owned by external companies) and they are situated throughout Italy; the controlled parameters are the following: heat of combustion (PCS), sulphur (S), vanadium (V) and asphaltenes (ASF); the adopted methods are the official ASTM or IP ones. The statistical analysis of the results has permitted, for every parameter, the calculation of the repeatability and the reproducibility which, in most cases, have turned out to be in keeping with the values provided for in the regulations. Among the collateral initiatives promoted in the framework of this Round Robin, the following are reported: preparation of standards of fuel oil with a known content of a sulphur and vanadium; expediting visits to all the ENEL laboratories participating in the RRT; publication of a handbook of the adopted analysis methods (in Italian); definition of guide-lines on the right selection of new automatic equipment

  13. Vertigo/dizziness in pediatric emergency department: Five years' experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raucci, Umberto; Vanacore, Nicola; Paolino, Maria Chiara; Silenzi, Romina; Mariani, Rosanna; Urbano, Antonella; Reale, Antonino; Villa, Maria Pia; Parisi, Pasquale

    2016-05-01

    Vertigo/Dizziness in childhood is not a rare cause of visits to the emergency department (ED). We analyzed a selected group with vertigo/dizziness to identify signs and symptoms that may help to guide the diagnostic approach and management. A total of 616 children admitted for vertigo to the ED over a five-year period were retrospectively reviewed. Their medical history, clinical characteristics, laboratory and neuroimaging tests, final diagnoses and management were analyzed. Migraine and syncope were the most frequent causes. Two patients were affected by life-threatening cardiac syncope, while structural life-threatening central nervous system diseases were found in 15 patients, none of whom presented with vertigo as an isolated clinical finding. Most cases of vertigo/dizziness in childhood that consist mainly of migraine and syncope are of benign origin. The prompt identification of neurological or cardiological signs or symptoms associated with vertigo in children is mandatory to rule out life-threatening conditions. © International Headache Society 2015.

  14. Five years of solar UV-radiation monitoring in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Josefsson, Weine

    1996-10-01

    A network of five stations measuring the solar UV-radiation has been operated for about five years. Data are presented as plotted time-series of monthly and yearly values for the sites. A general climatology can be deduced from these data. Daily and hourly maximum values are shown for each month as indicators of the potential extreme exposure levels. The large annual variation at high latitudes is easily seen in the data set. This illustrates the importance of the solar elevation on the level of the UV-irradiance. Influence of cloud variation and of larger changes in ozone is also detectable. A few examples of the daily variation also show the strong solar elevation dependence of the UV-irradiance. The quantity and unit of the UV-radiation in this presentation is CIE-weighted irradiance expressed as MED (minimum erythermal dose), where one MED equals 210 Jm{sup -2}. The values have been recomputed to refer to the international intercomparison of broad-band meters in Helsinki in 1995. In the following named WMO-STUK 1995 scale. As will be seen there are many sources of error and detailed studies are prevented by the large uncertainty connected with these data. Due to the short period of the record and the low accuracy no attempt to study trends is done. 6 refs, 27 figs, 4 tabs

  15. Fukushima five years after, a return to the abnormal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boilley, David

    2016-02-01

    After a synthetic presentation of the study which discusses how different issues have been and are still addressed in Fukushima (evacuated populations, protection against radiations, food contamination, future of evacuated lands, reluctance of inhabitants to come back), this report outlines that radioactive releases are still going on (discussion of source terms, continuing leakages, impact on sea, practices resulting in significant releases of radioactive dusts, a still threatening Fukushima plant). The author then addresses issues related to radioactive contamination and evacuation (evacuation sequence, number of displaced persons, situation after 5 years), discusses the reviewing of levels of protection after a nuclear accident (principles of radiation protection, evacuation policy, protection values and operational values, limits for food contamination). He proposes an assessment of food contamination five years after the accident (initial mistakes in food control, extended food controls, internal exposure of consumers, threats on some activities due to production restrictions), and comments the restoration of contaminated territories (restoring policy, limited effects of decontamination, production of a large quantity of wastes which are not well maintained nor secure). He finally comments the issue of population come-back (government decisions, reluctance of inhabitants, depopulation and ageing of contaminated areas, case of human right violation, suffering of elderly people)

  16. Five years of LRO laser altimetry at the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.

    After five years of near-continuous operation at the Moon, the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) on LRO continues to collect altimetry, surface roughness, slope and normal reflectance data. LOLA has acquired over 6 billion altimeter measurements, all geodetically controlled to the center-of-mass of the Moon with a radial precision of around 10 cm and an accuracy of about 1 meter. The position of the measurements on the lunar surface is primarily limited by the knowledge of the position of the spacecraft in orbit and in the last few years the LRO orbit accuracy has improved significantly as a result of the accurate gravity model of the Moon developed by the GRAIL Discovery mission. Our present estimate of positional accuracy is less than 10 m rms but is only achievable with a GRAIL gravity model to at least degree and order 600 because of the perturbing gravitational effect of the Moon’s surface features. Significant improvements in the global shape and topography have assisted the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) stereo mapping program, and the identification of potential lunar landing sites for ESA and Russia, particularly in the high-latitude polar regions where 5- and 10-meter average horizontal resolution has been obtained. LOLA’s detailed mapping of these regions has improved the delineation of permanently-shadowed areas and assisted in the understanding of the LEND neutron data, and its relationship to surface slopes. Recently a global, calibrated LOLA normal albedo dataset at 1064 nm has been developed.

  17. Variações climáticas e uso de serviços de saúde em crianças asmáticas menores de cinco anos de idade: um estudo ecológico Climate variations and health services use for the treatment of asthmatic children under five years of age: an ecological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Taques Saldanha

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a variação dos períodos climáticos (seco ou chuvoso e o uso de serviços de saúde para a asma em crianças menores de cinco anos de idade. MÉTODOS: Estudo ecológico, com coleta de dados secundários, através de análise dos prontuários das crianças com até cinco anos de idade e diagnóstico de asma, atendidas no Pronto-Socorro Municipal de Cuiabá. Obedecendo às características geográficas de Cuiabá (MT, foram considerados dois períodos climáticos: o período seco (maio a outubro e o chuvoso (novembro a abril. RESULTADOS: O percentual de atendimentos das crianças consideradas com diagnóstico de asma foi de 12,2% (3.140/25.802, sem diferença entre os sexos. A faixa etária mais acometida foi a de três a cinco anos de idade. A taxa de hospitalização por asma foi de 1,3% (336/25.802, sendo de 10,7% (336/3.140 entre as crianças asmáticas atendidas no pronto-socorro. No período chuvoso o percentual de atendimento ambulatorial por asma foi maior que no período seco: 39,1% (1.228/3.140 versus 60,9% (1.912/3.140. Entretanto, no período seco houve maior percentual de hospitalização: 52,3% (176/336 versus 47,7% (160/336. As diferenças foram significativas (p OBJECTIVE: To study variations in climate (dry or rainy periods and health services use for the treatment of asthma in children under five years of age. METHODS: An ecological study was conducted and involved analysis of the medical charts of all children under the age of five that were diagnosed with asthma and treated in the Municipal Emergency Room of the city of Cuiabá, located in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. In accordance with the geographic location of Cuiabá, two climatic periods were identified: a dry season (from May to October and a rainy season (from November to April. RESULTS: The percentage of children treated that were diagnosed with asthma was 12.2% (3140/25,802, with no gender-based difference. Children from 3 to 5 years of age

  18. Five years of an educational programme - Results and experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufkova, Marie

    1998-01-01

    Full text: School teachers and pupils constitute an important group having the ability to listen, Understand and help to create positive ties between the public and a utility. Therefore, CEZ spends a part of its revenue arising from the sales of electricity on education. CEZ's information and education programme named 'Energy for everybody' has been used by Czech schools for five years now. The main part of this educational programme is devoted to nuclear energy. CEZ materials for schools include: printed information, supplements to textbooks, videotapes, computer programmes, CD ROMs, an educational set for experiments with ionizing radiation, posters and other assorted materials. Schools are invited to visit Czech power plants and other facilities of the power sector (for example the experimental reactor at the Prague Technical University). Seminars and workshops are organised for teachers. CEZ offers objective information on all activities associated with energy generation and uses and the relationships between man and nature. The prices of our informational materials are rather symbolic, they come to one-tenth to one-third of the actual cost. CEZ is the only industrial company offering such a large-scale educational programme for schools in the Czech Republic. Materials are distributed to nearly 7 000 primary and secondary schools and 30 university departments. We have agreements with several schools which have committed themselves to testing our materials. Several dissertations and studies have demonstrated the usefulness of our materials for education and the contribution this information has made to the better understanding of nuclear energy. We have organised polls in order to ascertain how the schools liked the materials, what additional things they wished and what their view of nuclear power plants and CEZ was. The outcome has been unexpectedly favourable. In my contribution I will present the results of these polls and examples of successful activities

  19. Long-term outcomes five years after selective dorsal rhizotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lagergren Jan

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Selective dorsal rhizotomy (SDR is a well accepted neurosurgical procedure performed for the relief of spasticity interfering with motor function in children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP. The goal is to improve function, but long-term outcome studies are rare. The aims of this study were to evaluate long-term functional outcomes, safety and side effects during five postoperative years in all children with diplegia undergoing SDR combined with physiotherapy. Methods This study group consisted of 35 children, consecutively operated, with spastic diplegia, of which 26 were Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS levels III–V. Mean age was 4.5 years (range 2.5–6.6. They were all assessed by the same multidisciplinary team at pre- and at 6, 12, 18 months, 3 and 5 years postoperatively. Clinical and demographic data, complications and number of rootlets cut were prospectively registered. Deep tendon reflexes and muscle tone were examined, the latter graded with the modified Ashworth scale. Passive range of motion (PROM was measured with a goniometer. Motor function was classified according to the GMFCS and measured with the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM-88 and derived into GMFM-66. Parent's opinions about the children's performance of skills and activities and the amount of caregiver assistance were measured with Pediatric Evaluation Disability Inventory (PEDI. Results The mean proportion of rootlets cut in S2-L2 was 40%. Muscle tone was immediately reduced in adductors, hamstrings and dorsiflexors (p Conclusion SDR is a safe and effective method for reducing spasticity permanently without major negative side effects. In combination with physiotherapy, in a group of carefully selected and systematically followed young children with spastic diplegia, it provides lasting functional benefits over a period of at least five years postoperatively.

  20. A Five-Year Review of Tag Rugby Hand Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, C W; Woods, J F C; Murphy, S; Bollard, S; Kelly, J L; Carroll, S M; O'Shaughnessy, M

    2016-10-01

    Tag rugby is one of the fastest growing sports in Ireland. It is a soft-contact team game that is loosely based on the rugby league format except players try to remove Velcro tags from their opponents' shorts rather than engage in a typical rugby tackle. The purpose of this study was to examine all tag rugby associated hand injuries over a five-year period in three large tertiary referral hospitals in Ireland. Using the patient corresponding system, 228 patients with hand injury related tag rugby injuries were observed from 2010 to 2015. There were 138 males and 90 females in the study and over 40% of patients required surgery. Most of the patients were young professionals with an average age of 30. Twenty-five patients worked in the financial services whilst there were 23 teachers. Fractures accounted for 124 of the 228 injuries and mallet injuries accounted for 53. Eighty percent of all injuries occurred during the tackle. The mean number of days missed from work was 9.1±13.8 days. These injuries resulted in an average of seven hospital appointments per patient. Considering it is a soft-contact sport, it is surprising the number of hand injuries that we have observed. Although safety measures have been introduced to decrease the number of hand injuries in recent years, there is a need for further improvements. Better player education about seeking prompt medical attention once an injury occurs, coupled with longer shorts worn by players may improve measures for the sport. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. The deep, hot biosphere: Twenty-five years of retrospection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colman, Daniel R; Poudel, Saroj; Stamps, Blake W; Boyd, Eric S; Spear, John R

    2017-07-03

    Twenty-five years ago this month, Thomas Gold published a seminal manuscript suggesting the presence of a "deep, hot biosphere" in the Earth's crust. Since this publication, a considerable amount of attention has been given to the study of deep biospheres, their role in geochemical cycles, and their potential to inform on the origin of life and its potential outside of Earth. Overwhelming evidence now supports the presence of a deep biosphere ubiquitously distributed on Earth in both terrestrial and marine settings. Furthermore, it has become apparent that much of this life is dependent on lithogenically sourced high-energy compounds to sustain productivity. A vast diversity of uncultivated microorganisms has been detected in subsurface environments, and we show that H 2 , CH 4 , and CO feature prominently in many of their predicted metabolisms. Despite 25 years of intense study, key questions remain on life in the deep subsurface, including whether it is endemic and the extent of its involvement in the anaerobic formation and degradation of hydrocarbons. Emergent data from cultivation and next-generation sequencing approaches continue to provide promising new hints to answer these questions. As Gold suggested, and as has become increasingly evident, to better understand the subsurface is critical to further understanding the Earth, life, the evolution of life, and the potential for life elsewhere. To this end, we suggest the need to develop a robust network of interdisciplinary scientists and accessible field sites for long-term monitoring of the Earth's subsurface in the form of a deep subsurface microbiome initiative.

  2. Twenty-Five Year Site Plan FY2013 - FY2037

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, William H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-12

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (the Laboratory) is the nation's premier national security science laboratory. Its mission is to develop and apply science and technology to ensure the safety, security, and reliability of the United States (U.S.) nuclear stockpile; reduce the threat of weapons of mass destruction, proliferation, and terrorism; and solve national problems in defense, energy, and the environment. The fiscal year (FY) 2013-2037 Twenty-Five Year Site Plan (TYSP) is a vital component for planning to meet the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) commitment to ensure the U.S. has a safe, secure, and reliable nuclear deterrent. The Laboratory also uses the TYSP as an integrated planning tool to guide development of an efficient and responsive infrastructure that effectively supports the Laboratory's missions and workforce. Emphasizing the Laboratory's core capabilities, this TYSP reflects the Laboratory's role as a prominent contributor to NNSA missions through its programs and campaigns. The Laboratory is aligned with Nuclear Security Enterprise (NSE) modernization activities outlined in the NNSA Strategic Plan (May 2011) which include: (1) ensuring laboratory plutonium space effectively supports pit manufacturing and enterprise-wide special nuclear materials consolidation; (2) constructing the Chemistry and Metallurgy Research Replacement Nuclear Facility (CMRR-NF); (3) establishing shared user facilities to more cost effectively manage high-value, experimental, computational and production capabilities; and (4) modernizing enduring facilities while reducing the excess facility footprint. Th is TYSP is viewed by the Laboratory as a vital planning tool to develop an effi cient and responsive infrastructure. Long range facility and infrastructure development planning are critical to assure sustainment and modernization. Out-year re-investment is essential for sustaining existing facilities, and will be re-evaluated on an annual

  3. Adherence to vaccination guidelines post splenectomy: A five year follow up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boam, Tristan; Sellars, Peter; Isherwood, John; Hollobone, Chloe; Pollard, Cristina; Lloyd, David M; Dennison, Ashley R; Garcea, Giuseppe

    Following a splenectomy patients are at increased risk of significant infections. In its most severe form, overwhelming post-splenectomy infection (OPSI) has a mortality rate of up to 80%. In this study we aim to establish the adherence to vaccination and antibiotic national guidelines in splenectomised patients. A retrospective study of 100 patients who underwent splenectomy (21 emergency, 79 elective), in two teaching hospitals was undertaken over a five-year period. Patients were followed up for five years. Hospital and GP records were reviewed for adherence to pre, intra and postoperative vaccination, thromboprophylaxis and antibiotic guidance. Eighty-six eligible patients (91.5%) received their Haemophilus influenzae B, meningococcal C and pneumococcus vaccinations peri-operatively. Eighty-one (86%) received post-operative antibiotics. Ninety-nine percent of patients received thromboprophylaxis treatment. Eighty-nine (95%) were treated with long-term antibiotic prophylaxis. Only 20 patients (23%) had an emergency supply of antibiotics. Ninety-five percent of patients were administered an annual influenza vaccination and 84% of eligible patients received a five-year pneumococcal booster vaccination. Improvement in the management of this patient cohort can be achieved by a multidisciplinary approach involving adherence to national guidelines, standardised trust protocols, patient information leaflets and advice detailing risk of infection, standardised GP letters and a splenectomy register to monitor and manage this vulnerable group of patients. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Alendronate for fracture prevention in postmenopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holder, Kathryn K; Kerley, Sara Shelton

    2008-09-01

    Osteoporosis is an abnormal reduction in bone mass and bone deterioration leading to increased fracture risk. Alendronate (Fosamax) belongs to the bisphosphonate class of drugs, which act to inhibit bone resorption by interfering with the activity of osteoclasts. To assess the effectiveness of alendronate in the primary and secondary prevention of osteoporotic fractures in postmenopausal women. The authors searched Central, Medline, and EMBASE for relevant randomized controlled trials published from 1966 to 2007. The authors undertook study selection and data abstraction in duplicate. The authors performed meta-analysis of fracture outcomes using relative risks, and a relative change greater than 15 percent was considered clinically important. The authors assessed study quality through reporting of allocation concealment, blinding, and withdrawals. Eleven trials representing 12,068 women were included in the review. Relative and absolute risk reductions for the 10-mg dose were as follows. For vertebral fractures, a 45 percent relative risk reduction was found (relative risk [RR] = 0.55; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.45 to 0.67). This was significant for primary prevention, with a 45 percent relative risk reduction (RR = 0.55; 95% CI, 0.38 to 0.80) and 2 percent absolute risk reduction; and for secondary prevention, with 45 percent relative risk reduction (RR = 0.55; 95% CI, 0.43 to 0.69) and 6 percent absolute risk reduction. For nonvertebral fractures, a 16 percent relative risk reduction was found (RR = 0.84; 95% CI, 0.74 to 0.94). This was significant for secondary prevention, with a 23 percent relative risk reduction (RR = 0.77; 95% CI, 0.64 to 0.92) and a 2 percent absolute risk reduction, but not for primary prevention (RR = 0.89; 95% CI, 0.76 to 1.04). There was a 40 percent relative risk reduction in hip fractures (RR = 0.60; 95% CI, 0.40 to 0.92), but only secondary prevention was significant, with a 53 percent relative risk reduction (RR = 0.47; 95% CI

  5. Radiofrequency ablation of osteoid osteomas: five years experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papathanassiou, Zafiria G; Petsas, Theodore; Papachristou, Dionysios; Megas, Panagiotis

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to retrospectively evaluate the efficacy of radiofrequency ablation as a curative treatment method for benign bone tumours. Twenty-nine osteoid osteomas were treated with radiofrequency ablation. Primary success rate was 89.6% and total secondary success rate was 93.1%. Mean clinical follow-up period was 26.7 months (range: 6-63 months). Statistical analysis of 25 cases of osteoid osteomas with CT follow-up revealed that post-treatment re-ossification does not correlate with clinical outcome (p = 0.14) but is strongly correlated with long-term (> or = 12 months) CT follow-up (p = 0.014). Percutaneous radiofrequency ablation was found to be an effective and safe treatment for osteoid osteomas. CT findings cannot solely differentiate between treatment successes and failures.

  6. Thirty-five years of geochronology in Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossi, J.; Campal, N; Hartmann, L.A; Schipilov, A.; Pineyro, D

    2001-01-01

    The radiometric ages obtained abroad have been systematically integrated with the field geology over the last thirty five years. The difference between the radiometric ages and their geochronology interpretation was realized rather early in the investigations. The few opportunities for radiometric determinations of rocks and minerals required careful regional geological mapping, based on models which were predominant at the time. Untial 1965, the pre-Devonian rocks in Uruguay were divided into Archean and Algonkian. The Archean units included medium metamorphic grade rocks and all the plutonic rocks. The Algonkian units were the low metamorphic grade supracrustal belts. The tectono-stratigraphic proposal presented at the International Geological Congress in India (1960) induced the division into two orogenic cycles and the radiometric dating with the techniques available at the time: K-Ar already in use and Rb-Sr isochrons, which were considered accurate and precise. The work of Hart (1966) resulted in ten ages, grouped in two geographically separated age sets: 600-500 Ma in the southeast and ca. 2000 Ma in the south and southwest. Bossi et al. (1967) identified two orogenic cycles based on geological mapping at the 1:250,000 scale, no intermediate ages. These cycles were recognized until 1991, although some improvements occurred in limits of units and cartography and some changes in nomenclature and integration of the Rb-Sr isotopic data by Umpierre and Halpern (1971), Soliani Jr. (1986), Renne (1991, pers. comm.). The proposal of a Trans-Amazonian craton in the west (Ciclo Orogenico Antiguo) and a mobile belt in the east (Ciclo Orogenico Moderno) was accepted for 25 years. Many Brazilian (e.g., Fragoso Cesar, 1980) and some Uruguayan authors included the 'Ciclo Orogenico Moderno in the Brasiliano Cycle of Almeida (1976). The consistency of this proposal has been accepted up to today, because 800-550 Ma granitic rocks are intruded in low metamorphic grade

  7. Five-year risk of interval-invasive second breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Janie M; Buist, Diana S M; Houssami, Nehmat; Dowling, Emily C; Halpern, Elkan F; Gazelle, G Scott; Lehman, Constance D; Henderson, Louise M; Hubbard, Rebecca A

    2015-07-01

    Earlier detection of second breast cancers after primary breast cancer (PBC) treatment improves survival, yet mammography is less accurate in women with prior breast cancer. The purpose of this study was to examine women presenting clinically with second breast cancers after negative surveillance mammography (interval cancers), and to estimate the five-year risk of interval-invasive second cancers for women with varying risk profiles. We evaluated a prospective cohort of 15 114 women with 47 717 surveillance mammograms diagnosed with stage 0-II unilateral PBC from 1996 through 2008 at facilities in the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium. We used discrete time survival models to estimate the association between odds of an interval-invasive second breast cancer and candidate predictors, including demographic, PBC, and imaging characteristics. All statistical tests were two-sided. The cumulative incidence of second breast cancers after five years was 54.4 per 1000 women, with 325 surveillance-detected and 138 interval-invasive second breast cancers. The five-year risk of interval-invasive second cancer for women with referent category characteristics was 0.60%. For women with the most and least favorable profiles, the five-year risk ranged from 0.07% to 6.11%. Multivariable modeling identified grade II PBC (odds ratio [OR] = 1.95, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.15 to 3.31), treatment with lumpectomy without radiation (OR = 3.27, 95% CI = 1.91 to 5.62), interval PBC presentation (OR = 2.01, 95% CI 1.28 to 3.16), and heterogeneously dense breasts on mammography (OR = 1.54, 95% CI = 1.01 to 2.36) as independent predictors of interval-invasive second breast cancers. PBC diagnosis and treatment characteristics contribute to variation in subsequent-interval second breast cancer risk. Consideration of these factors may be useful in developing tailored post-treatment imaging surveillance plans. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved

  8. Patients' knowledge of Diabetes five years after the end of an educational program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabel Alves das Chagas

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We present a cross-sectional study that aims to describe the sociodemographic and clinical conditions of individuals with diabetes mellitus and to analyze their knowledge of treatment five years after the end of an educational program in which they took part. In 2010, 40 individuals who had participated in a diabetes educational program for 12 months in 2005 at a primary care service were interviewed. A form was used for data collection that included their knowledge of the notion, physiopathology, and treatment of the disease; exercise; nutrition; foot care; self-monitoring of capillary blood glucose at home; hypoglycemia; chronic complications; special situations; and family support. The results showed that the volunteers incorporated the information about the notion, physiopathology, and treatment of the disease; exercise; foot care; self-monitoring; care associated with hypoglycemia; chronic complications; and special situations. In contrast, nutrition and family support require further reinforcement. It is concluded that five years after the end of the educational program, the participants kept most of the information provided.

  9. Edgewood Area - Aberdeen Proving Ground Five-Year Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    CLUSTER 3L IP 1995 2007 EACC3M-A WASTEWATER TREATMENT AREA-CLUSTER 3M IP 2007 EACC3M-B B-FIELD DECON- DETOX INCINERATOR-CL 3M RCRA ES-23 EXHIBIT 2...Surface debris removed and placed in plastic-lined wooden boxes, shipped to decon/ detox facility, and thermally treated for final disposal. 7.3.5

  10. Chernobyl five years after. WHO to spearhead international programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    In April 1990, an agreement was signed between the WHO and the USSR Ministry of Health to set up a long-term international programme to assist the populations affected by the Chernobyl accident, as well as to increase the body of scientific knowledge about radiation effects. The programme will deal with monitoring and treatment of the affected populations and will carefully examine emergency prevention issues. Funding will come primarily from voluntary contributions from WHO Member States

  11. Estimating the Time to Benefit for Preventive Drugs with the Statistical Process Control Method: An Example with Alendronate

    OpenAIRE

    van de Glind, Esther M. M.; Willems, Hanna C.; Eslami, Saeid; Abu-Hanna, Ameen; Lems, Willem F.; Hooft, Lotty; de Rooij, Sophia E.; Black, Dennis M.; van Munster, Barbara C.

    2016-01-01

    Background For physicians dealing with patients with a limited life expectancy, knowing the time to benefit (TTB) of preventive medication is essential to support treatment decisions. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the usefulness of statistical process control (SPC) for determining the TTB in relation to fracture risk with alendronate versus placebo in postmenopausal women. Methods We performed a post?hoc analysis of the Fracture Intervention Trial (FIT), a randomized, con...

  12. Effects of local alendronate sodium gel as an adjunct to scaling and root planing on smokers with chronic periodontitis: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farin Kiany

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chemical treatments for the modulation of host response are applied along with mechanical modalities as adjunctive to periodontal treatment. The objective of this pilot study was to investigate the effects of locally-delivered alendronate sodium gel in adjunction to scaling and root planning on periodontal indices and bone formation within vertical defects of smokers with chronic periodontitis. Methods and Materials: In this study vertical defects (n=8 with depth>5 mm have been investigated. After performing the phase I of periodontal treatment, alendronate sodium gel (1% was applied into the periodontal pockets. The whole procedure was repeated after 4 weeks. Periodontal indices (plaque and bleeding, probing depth, gingival recession, and radiographic parameter (depth of bony defect were measured at the beginning and following 6 months. Results: Compared to pre-treatment, the probing depth, radiographic depth of bony defect and bleeding and plaque indices were significantly reduced by local application of alendronate sodium gel (P=0.026; P=0.012 and P=0.007 respectively. Gingival recession showed significant increase (P=0.011. Conclusion: Local alendronate sodium gel (1% plays an important role in the improvement process of periodontal indices and bone formation within vertical bony defects of smoker patients with chronic periodontitis.

  13. 78 FR 26616 - Draft NOAA Five Year Research and Development Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Draft NOAA Five Year Research and Development Plan AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Department of Commerce (DOC). ACTION: Draft NOAA Five Year Research and Development Plan for Public Review. SUMMARY: NOAA's draft Five Year Research and Development...

  14. 75 FR 34959 - Five-Year Review of Oil Pipeline Pricing Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-21

    ...] Five-Year Review of Oil Pipeline Pricing Index June 15, 2010. AGENCY: Federal Energy Regulatory... comments on its five-year review of the oil pipeline pricing index established in Revisions to Oil Pipeline...-year review of the oil pricing index, the Commission adopted an index of PPI+1.3 for the five-year...

  15. 75 FR 80300 - Five-Year Review of Oil Pipeline Pricing Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ...] Five-Year Review of Oil Pipeline Pricing Index Issued December 16, 2010. AGENCY: Federal Energy... five-year review of the oil pricing index, established in Order No. 561. After consideration of the... period commencing July 1, 2011. \\1\\ Five-Year Review of Oil Pipeline Pricing Index, 75 FR 34959 (June 21...

  16. 75 FR 75453 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Five-Year Records Retention Requirement for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-03

    ... Request; Five-Year Records Retention Requirement for Export Transactions and Boycott Actions AGENCY... parties involved in export transactions and the U.S. party involved in a boycott action are required to... boycott documents and reports. The five-year record retention period corresponds with the five-year...

  17. The Oklo reactors: five years of exploration of the site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naudet, R.

    1978-01-01

    The main phases of the exploration of the Oklo site since the discovery of the ''reactor'' phenomenon are outlined briefly. Over 180 sampling holes were drilled during the interruption of the mining activities in the sector concerned. Several new zones have been found. Mining was resumed in the second half of 1975, providing an opportunity for highly fruitful geological follow-up work: more precise knowledge was gained of the morphology of the reactors, and very many additional samples were taken. Plant treatment of the ore and the systematic analysis of batches have made it possible to establish a balance of missing uranium-235. A small portion containing sites of intense reaction has been preserved by being anchored to the quarry wall. Mining in this sector has now finished, but new indications of fission have been found, especially in the Okelobondo sector. (author)

  18. Zoledronic acid and alendronate sodium and the implications in orthodontic movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzoni, J S; Soares, F M P; Zaniboni, E; Vedovello Filho, M; Santamaria, M P; Dos Santos, G M T; Esquisatto, M A M; Felonato, M; Mendonca, F A S; Franzini, C M; Santamaria, M

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate orthodontic tooth movement (OTM) in rats treated with two types of bisphosphonates (BPs), alendronate sodium (A) and zoledronic acid (Z). In all, 15 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups. Group OTM+A: orthodontic tooth movement and subcutaneous administration of alendronate sodium (2.5 mg/kg); Group OTM+Z: orthodontic tooth movement and subcutaneous administration of zoledronic acid (0.02 mg/kg), and Group OTM: orthodontic tooth movement and subcutaneous injection of saline. The BPs were administered once a day during 25 days before OTM started and during 10 days of OTM. The left upper first molar was moved with a stainless-steel closed coil spring which delivered an initial force of 0.4N. OTM was measured with a digital caliper comparing the moved and the contralateral side. The histomorphometric analysis counted the number of osteoclasts, inflammatory cells, blood vessels and fibroblasts (n/10 4  m 2 ) in periodontal ligament (PDL) of the distobuccal root. A reduction of 58.3% of OTM was found in Group OTM+A and 99.6% in Group OTM+Z, when compared with Group OTM. There was a significant decrease of osteoclasts and inflammatory cells in BP-treated groups. Blood vessels and fibroblastic cells decreased mainly in Group OTM+Z. Alendronate sodium and zoledronic acid have similar effects on the periodontal tissue during orthodontic treatment in rats. Especially, zoledronic acid can affect orthodontic tooth movement. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Outpatient radiographic exposure in the first five years of life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fosarelli, P.D.; DeAngelis, C.

    1987-01-01

    Young children receive a variety of diagnostic radiographs over time. In some cases the exposure to radiation may be unwarranted because the films may yield confusing results, or may also need to be repeated because of poor technical quality. Even when the results are clearly negative, the subsequent treatment may proceed as if the film had been positive because of the child's clinical condition. The cumulative effect of such low-dose radiation on infants and children over time is unknown. The number and types of outpatient radiographs received by a cohort of poor children from a hospital-based continuity clinic during their first 5 years of life were reviewed. Also noted were the reason for obtaining the film, whether it was positive for that reason or another, whether the child had a chronic condition that prompted the use of radiograph, and the child's sex, race, and age when the film was obtained. Of the 218 children, 132 (60.6%) received 349 sets of films in their first 5 years. There was no difference in the number of films by race or sex. Chest and posttrauma bone or joint films accounted for 315 sets of films or 90.3% of the total. Overall, 25.8% of the 267 chest films were positive; this varied by age. Only 15% of the chest films were positive in the first year compared with 29 to 49% in the second through fifth years (p less than 0.001). Cough was the respiratory symptom most reliably associated with a positive chest film, both for the cohort (p less than 0.0001) and for children in the first year of life (p less than 0.01)

  20. Development of docetaxel and alendronate-loaded chitosan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Development of docetaxel and alendronate-loaded chitosan-conjugated polylactide-co-glycolide nanoparticles: In vitro characterization in osteosarcoma cells. ... typical time-dependent cellular uptake and also displayed superior cytotoxicity in MG-63 cells compared with blank NPs, which were safe and biocompatible.

  1. Wood mouse and box turtle populations in an area treated annually with DDT for five years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, L.F.

    1951-01-01

    A 117-acre area of dense woodland on the Patuxent Research Refuge received an aerial application of DDT in oil at the rate of 2 pounds per acre gnnually for five years. DDT reached ground level in a much smaller amount (thousandths to hundredths of a pound per acre). Treatment was made during the first week of June of each year from 1945 through 1949. Field studies of the wood mouse population in DDT and check areas showed no significant differences in the two areas before and after the 1949 DDT treatment. There was no significant difference between trapping samples taken in DDT and check areas in 1945 and those taken in 1949. Field studies of the box turtles in DDT and check areas in 1945 and 1949 showed no significant difference in population size. Growth of the four young turtles taken in the DDT area in both 1945 and 1949 appeared to be normal in comparison with growth of check area turtles.

  2. Ecological Responses to Five Years of Experimental Nitrogen Application in an Upland Jack-pine Stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melaschenko, N.; Berryman, S.; Straker, J.; Berg, K.; McDonough, A.; Watmough, S. A.

    2016-12-01

    A five-year experimental study was conducted to evaluate the response of an upland jack-pine (Pinus banksiana) forest to elevated levels of nitrogen (N) deposition in Northern Alberta. N deposition in the region is expected to increase with industrial expansion of oil sands activity, and there is regional interest to set N critical loads for sensitive ecosystems. In this study, N was applied as NH4NO3 above a jack-pine canopy via helicopter, annually for five years (2010-2015) at dosages equivalent to 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 kg N ha-1 yr-1. Approximately 35% of the applied N was retained in the canopy while 65% reached understory vegetation dominated by lichens and mosses. We measured a significant increase in tissue N concentrations of common ground lichens (Cladonia mitis and C. stellaris) and ground moss (Pleurozium schreberi) as well as epiphytic lichens (Hypogymnia physodes and Evernia mesomorpha). On an annual basis, the applied N was primarily captured in the lichen and moss understory, dominated by C. mitis. In the highest treatments, N concentrations in C. mitis were 1.5-2.5 times greater than pre-treatment values. Peak N concentrations in the ground moss Pleurozium schreberi (1.4%) indicate that a threshold of N saturation was reached by year 3. We observed no changes in community composition of vascular and non-vascular plants, or changes in vascular plant tissue N. Chlorophyll levels in C. mitis increased with N treatment, but there was no indication of toxicity or changes to decomposition and growth. After five years of N application, only Peltigera polydactylon, a ground cyanolichen, appeared to be negatively impacted where the thalli showed necrosis at deposition loads >10kg N ha-1 yr-1. No changes to biomass or N ecosystem processes were observed. Based on these observations, we provide evidence that the first adverse ecological effects of N deposition in jack-pine stands occurred at deposition rates of 10 kg N ha-1 yr-1.

  3. Estimating the Time to Benefit for Preventive Drugs with the Statistical Process Control Method: An Example with Alendronate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Glind, Esther M M; Willems, Hanna C; Eslami, Saeid; Abu-Hanna, Ameen; Lems, Willem F; Hooft, Lotty; de Rooij, Sophia E; Black, Dennis M; van Munster, Barbara C

    2016-05-01

    For physicians dealing with patients with a limited life expectancy, knowing the time to benefit (TTB) of preventive medication is essential to support treatment decisions. The aim of this study was to investigate the usefulness of statistical process control (SPC) for determining the TTB in relation to fracture risk with alendronate versus placebo in postmenopausal women. We performed a post hoc analysis of the Fracture Intervention Trial (FIT), a randomized, controlled trial that investigated the effect of alendronate versus placebo on fracture risk in postmenopausal women. We used SPC, a statistical method used for monitoring processes for quality control, to determine if and when the intervention group benefited significantly more than the control group. SPC discriminated between the normal variations over time in the numbers of fractures in both groups and the variations that were attributable to alendronate. The TTB was defined as the time point from which the cumulative difference in the number of clinical fractures remained greater than the upper control limit on the SPC chart. For the total group, the TTB was defined as 11 months. For patients aged ≥70 years, the TTB was 8 months [absolute risk reduction (ARR) = 1.4%]; for patients aged <70 years, it was 19 months (ARR = 0.7%). SPC is a clear and understandable graphical method to determine the TTB. Its main advantage is that there is no need to define a prespecified time point, as is the case in traditional survival analyses. Prescribing alendronate to patients who are aged ≥70 years is useful because the TTB shows that they will benefit after 8 months. Investigators should report the TTB to simplify clinical decision making.

  4. A comparative study of zoledronic acid and once weekly Alendronate in the management of acute Charcot arthropathy of foot in patients with diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Bharath

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to assess and compare the response to two forms of treatment-immobilization with zoledronic acid injection and immobilization with oral weekly Alendronate, in patients with diabetes mellitus and acute Charcot arthropathy (CA of foot in terms of clinical and radiological parameters. Material and Methods: Patients attending the endocrinology and podiatry clinic with history of diabetes mellitus and Acute CA were taken for study. The patients were randomized into two treatment groups. Group Z-zoledronic acid injection along with total contact cast (TCC. Group A-Tab. Alendronate 70 mg. once a week till the complete clinical resolution of acute CA along with TCC. Forty-five patients were randomized and 40 of them completed the study. The primary end point was complete clinical resolution of acute CA-defined as temperature difference between normal and affected foot <1oF. Results: Among the 40 patients, 30 (75% had complete clinical resolution. The mean number of days taken for complete clinical resolution since the initiation of treatment (either Zoledronic acid or Alendronate was approximately 122 days. There was no significant difference in a number of days required for complete clinical resolution, between the two forms of therapy. There was more than 50% reduction in the visual score between the baseline and the final scan. The target to non-target ratio in the skeletal phase also showed an average of 40% reduction from the baseline to the final skeletal scintigraphy. Conclusion: Both Intravenous Zoledronic acid and oral alendronate had comparable efficacy with respect to the time taken for attaining complete clinical resolution of acute CA of foot. However, Alendronate therapy was cost effective among the two. 99m Tc MDP bone scan can be used as an adjuvant to the clinical parameters in assessing the response to therapy.

  5. Guttate Psoriasis Following Streptococcal Vulvovaginitis in a Five-year-old Girl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Melia; Simms-Cendan, Judith; Zendell, Kathleen

    2015-10-01

    Guttate psoriasis is frequently associated with a preceding pharyngeal or perianal streptococcal infection in children. Despite Group A beta-hemolytic streptococci (GABHS) being the most common cause of specific bacterial vulvovaginitis in prepubertal girls, there are no reports of streptococcal vulvovaginitis triggering guttate psoriasis. A five-year-old girl presented with guttate psoriasis following an episode of Streptococcal pyogenes vulvovaginitis. Following antibiotic treatment and bacterial eradication she developed vulvar psoriasis that resolved with high potency topical steroids. Identification of an antecedent streptoccocal infection can help predict the long term prognosis in children with guttate psoriasis. The vulvovaginal area should be considered as a source of GABHS infection in young girls with guttate psoriasis, and cultures should be considered if symptoms are present. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Avaliação do diagnóstico e tratamento em parada cardiorrespiratória entre os médicos com mais de cinco anos de graduação Assessment of the diagnostic and treatment in cardiac arrest between doctors with five years after graduation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Timbó Barbosa

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: As novas diretrizes contêm importantes modificações para melhorar à prática de reanimação e a sobrevida de pacientes com parada cardíaca (PC. O objetivo desse estudo foi avaliar o conhecimento teórico a cerca da PC e reanimação cardiopulmonar (RCP entre os médicos com mais de cinco anos graduação. MÉTODO: Trata-se de uma pesquisa descritiva com abordagem quantitativa em Hospital de Emergência no Estado de Alagoas. A população foi composta por médicos com mais de cinco anos de graduação. Para a coleta de dados utilizou-se questionário com perguntas sobre o tema. Os resultados foram analisados de conformidade com a literatura sobre parada cardíaca e reanimação cardiopulmonar. RESULTADOS: Responderam ao questionário 39 profissionais. O diagnóstico da PC foi corretamente respondido por 76,9%; e, em um caso clínico houve aumento para 87,2%. As indicações do bicarbonato de sódio foram corretamente respondidas por 30,8% e a indicação adequada do uso de vasopressina era conhecida por 15,4% dos participantes. CONCLUSÕES: Esse estudo revelou alguma deficiência no conhecimento dos médicos quando questionados sobre a terapêutica usada na PCR. Mostrou pouco conhecimento acerca da vasopressina como alternativa à adrenalina e o uso freqüente do bicarbonato de sódio é utilizado de maneira inadequada. O estudo apresentou dados que justificam o treinamento contínuo para médicos com mais de cinco anos de formado.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: New resuscitation guidelines contain significant changes intended to improve resuscitation practice and survival from cardiac arrest. The objective of this study was to evaluate the theoretical knowledge about cardiac arrest (CA and cardiac and pulmonary resuscitation (CPR among doctors after five years of the graduation. METHODS: The questionnaire survey was conducted in an Emergency Hospital in the State of Alagoas. The population was composed of doctors with

  7. Depression and anxiety in women with early breast cancer: five year observational cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Caroline; Cornelius, Victoria; Love, Sharon; Graham, Jill; Richards, Michael; Ramirez, Amanda

    2005-01-01

    Objective To examine the prevalence of, and risk factors for, depression and anxiety in women with early breast cancer in the five years after diagnosis. Design Observational cohort study. Setting NHS breast clinic, London. Participants 222 women with early breast cancer: 170 (77%) provided complete interview data up to either five years after diagnosis or recurrence. Main outcome measures Prevalence of clinically important depression and anxiety (structured psychiatric interview with standardised diagnostic criteria) and clinical and patient risk factors, including stressful life experiences (Bedford College life events and difficulties schedule). Results Nearly 50% of the women with early breast cancer had depression, anxiety, or both in the year after diagnosis, 25% in the second, third, and fourth years, and 15% in the fifth year. Point prevalence was 33% at diagnosis, falling to 15% after one year. 45% of those with recurrence experienced depression, anxiety, or both within three months of the diagnosis. Previous psychological treatment predicted depression, anxiety, or both in the period around diagnosis (one month before diagnosis to four months after diagnosis). Longer term depression and anxiety, were associated with previous psychological treatment, lack of an intimate confiding relationship, younger age, and severely stressful non-cancer life experiences. Clinical factors were not associated with depression and anxiety, at any time. Lack of intimate confiding support also predicted more protracted episodes of depression and anxiety. Conclusion Increased levels of depression, anxiety, or both in the first year after a diagnosis of early breast cancer highlight the need for dedicated service provision during this time. Psychological interventions for women with breast cancer who remain disease free should take account of the broader social context in which the cancer occurs, with a focus on improving social support. PMID:15695497

  8. Significant achievements in '10th five-year plan' period and primary guidance in '11th five-year plan' period on uranium exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jindai; Li Youliang; Jian Xiaofei; Peng Xinjian; Jiang Deying

    2007-01-01

    During the '10th five-year-plane' period, uranium resource had attracted high attention and concentration from related organization of the CCPC and the central government because of the state's manifestation on the development goal for nuclear power, efforts on uranium research and exploration were intensified accordingly. In that five years, both uranium exploration, regional assessment and prognostication for the Mesozoic-Cenozoic basin in North China and research on uranium metallogeny theory and prospecting method had made fairly great progress and reached important fruits. Due to the improvement of prospecting theory and technology for ISL amenable sandstone hosted U-deposits, uranium exploration efficiency was great enhanced and had prompted the sustainable development for China's uranium exploration. This paper have briefly expounded the general deploy for the uranium geology research and exploration in the '11th five-year plan' period. (authors)

  9. Risk Factors for Malnutrition Among Under-Five-Year olds in an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To identify risk factors associated with the development of malnutrition in the under-five-year olds in a homogeneous inner city community. Design: A community-based, case-control study. Materials and Methods: One hundred and thirty eight children (subjects and controls) aged less than five years living in the ...

  10. Esophageal and gastric cancer incidence and mortality in alendronate users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Bo; Pazianas, Michael; Eiken, Pia Agnete

    2011-01-01

    their esophageal or gastric location could be accurately distinguished. We conducted a register-based, open cohort study using national healthcare data for Denmark. Upper endoscopy frequency, cancer incidence and mortality was examined in 30,606 alendronate users (female, age 50 + ) and 122,424 matched controls......Recent studies have reached conflicting conclusions regarding the risk of esophageal cancer with oral bisphosphonates. Prior studies did not record the number of cancer deaths or endoscopy rates, which could be higher in bisphosphonate users and lead to more cancers being diagnosed at a stage when....... Primary outcomes were esophageal cancer incidence and death due to esophageal cancer. The analysis showed that alendronate users were more likely to have undergone recent upper endoscopy (4.1 vs 1.7%, p ...

  11. Stereotactic body radiotherapy for low-risk prostate cancer: five-year outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    King Christopher R

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose Hypofractionated, stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT is an emerging treatment approach for prostate cancer. We present the outcomes for low-risk prostate cancer patients with a median follow-up of 5 years after SBRT. Method and Materials Between Dec. 2003 and Dec. 2005, a pooled cohort of 41 consecutive patients from Stanford, CA and Naples, FL received SBRT with CyberKnife for clinically localized, low-risk prostate cancer. Prescribed dose was 35-36.25 Gy in five fractions. No patient received hormone therapy. Kaplan-Meier biochemical progression-free survival (defined using the Phoenix method and RTOG toxicity outcomes were assessed. Results At a median follow-up of 5 years, the biochemical progression-free survival was 93% (95% CI = 84.7% to 100%. Acute side effects resolved within 1-3 months of treatment completion. There were no grade 4 toxicities. No late grade 3 rectal toxicity occurred, and only one late grade 3 genitourinary toxicity occurred following repeated urologic instrumentation. Conclusion Five-year results of SBRT for localized prostate cancer demonstrate the efficacy and safety of shorter courses of high dose per fraction radiation delivered with SBRT technique. Ongoing clinical trials are underway to further explore this treatment approach.

  12. A remarkable hematological and molecular response pattern in a patient with polycythemia vera during combination therapy with simvastatin and alendronate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Lindholm Sørensen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a 57-year old man with polycythemia vera, who had a remarkable hematological and molecular response during treatment with simvastatin and alendronate. The patient was treated with this combination for 56 months, and during this period the patient has been in complete hematological remission. The JAK2-V617F allele burden has dropped from 64% to sustained values below 20%, and follow-up bone marrow biopsies have revealed no change in PV features, without any regular cytoreductive treatment.

  13. Effects of local alendronate sodium gel as an adjunct to scaling and root planing on smokers with chronic periodontitis: a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Farin Kiany; Hashem Montaseri; Sadaf Adibi; Masoud Golshah; Saba Golshah

    2017-01-01

    Background: Chemical treatments for the modulation of host response are applied along with mechanical modalities as adjunctive to periodontal treatment. The objective of this pilot study was to investigate the effects of locally-delivered alendronate sodium gel in adjunction to scaling and root planning on periodontal indices and bone formation within vertical defects of smokers with chronic periodontitis. Methods and Materials: In this study vertical defects (n=8) with depth>5 mm have be...

  14. Treated Hypertension has No Influence on the Efficacy of Alendronate in the Therapy of Postmenopausal Osteoporosis: A Non-Randomized, Non-Blind, Controlled Prospective Study

    OpenAIRE

    Matziolis, Doerte; Drewke, Monika; Matziolis, Georg; Perka, Carsten

    2011-01-01

    Changes in hormone metabolism during menopause are involved in the development of osteoporosis and arterial hypertension. A mutual influence of these two clinical pictures is evident on the basis of pathophysiological factors. In this study, we investigated whether a drug therapy of hypertension influences the efficacy of a bisphosphonate (alendronate) in the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. For this purpose, 60 female patients were enrolled in the study, 30 of them on drug treatment...

  15. Effects of odanacatib on bone matrix mineralization in rhesus monkeys are similar to those of alendronate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara M. Misof

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Odanacatib (ODN is a selective and reversible inhibitor of cathepsin K which is an important enzyme for the degradation of collagen I. Aim of the present work was the head-to-head comparison between the effects of ODN and alendronate (ALN on bone mineralization density distribution (BMDD, based on quantitative backscattered electron imaging in relation to changes in histomorphometric mineralizing surface per bone surface (MS/BS in 12–22 years old ovariectomized rhesus monkeys. Trabecular and cortical BMDD derived parameters from vertebrae and proximal tibiae were compared among vehicle (VEH, n = 8, odanacatib low dose (ODN-L, n = 8, odanacatib high dose (ODN-H, n = 8, and alendronate (ALN, n = 6 treated animals. Additionally, data from an intact, non-treated group of animals are shown (INT, n = 8. In trabecular bone from the vertebra and metaphyseal tibia, the BMDD of the ODN and ALN treatment groups was shifted toward higher mineralization densities (p < 0.001 consistent with the significant reduction of MS/BS (p < 0.05 in ODN-H and ALN compared to VEH. Vertebral trabecular CaMean (average degree of mineralization was significantly higher in ODN-L (+6.5%, ODN-H (+6.1%, and ALN (+6.7%, all p < 0.001. Tibial osteonal cortical bone revealed also significantly increased CaMean for ODN-L (+1.4%, p < 0.05, ODN-H (+2.2%, p < 0.05, and ALN (+3.4%, p < 0.001 versus VEH, while primary cortical bone (devoid of secondary osteons did not show any significant differences between the study groups. The percentage of primary bone area in the tibial cross-sections (on average 45 ± 12% was also not significantly different between the study groups (p = 0.232. No significant differences in any BMDD parameters of all studied skeletal sites between ODN and ALN treatment were found. Correlation analysis revealed that MS/BS was highly predictive for trabecular BMDD in vertebral bone. The higher MS/BS, the lower was CaMean. Our findings are

  16. Effect of alendronate on bone mineral density in adult patients with Laron syndrome (primary growth hormone insensitivity).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshed, Varda; Benbassat, Carlos A; Laron, Zvi

    2006-04-01

    Severe short stature resulting from a deficiency in insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) is a prominent feature of Laron syndrome (LS). Whether patients with LS are osteopenic or not, and whether they need treatment with bisphosphonates, remains uncertain. The aim of this study was to investigate the action of alendronate on the IGF-I-deficient bones of adult patients with LS and osteoporosis, as determined by dual X-ray absorptiometry . Seven patients (5 women and 2 men) of mean age 40.8+/-7.6 years and mean bone mass density (BMD) 0.843+/-0.06 g/cm2 (T score -2.9+/-0.5) at the lumbar spine and 0.734+/-0.11 g/cm2 (T score -2.2+/-0.9) at the femoral neck were treated with alendronate 70 mg once/weekly over a 12-month period. Treatment led to an increase of 5.3% in BMD (p=0.038) at the femoral neck. There was a similar trend at the lumbar spine, but the difference was not statistically significant (2.3%, p=0.34). Mean total alkaline phosphatase decreased by 14% from normal range at baseline (p=0.007). Urinary deoxypyridinoline levels, which were elevated at baseline (10+/-2.3 nM/mMcre), showed a nonsignificant change during treatment. Our study suggests that treatment with alendronate may have positive effects in patients with LS and low BMD on dual X-ray absorptiometry.

  17. RMP Guidance for Chemical Distributors - Chapter 3: Five-Year Accident History

    Science.gov (United States)

    A five year accident history must be completed for each covered process, and all accidental release events meeting specified criteria must be reported in the Risk Management Plan (RMP) for that process.

  18. The First Five Years of the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer on the International Space Station

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    In the five years since its installation on the International Space Station, it has collected more than 90 billion cosmic rays. Some of the unexpected results and their possible interpretations will be presented.

  19. Preventing Dental Caries in Children from Birth Through Age Five Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding Task Force Recommendations Preventing Dental Caries in Children from Birth Through Age Five Years The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force) has issued a final recommendation statement ...

  20. Five-Yearly Review 2010 : Confirmation that our salaries are going downhill

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2010-01-01

    A general review of our financial and social conditions takes place every five years: “the five-yearly review”, whose principles and procedures are described in Annex A1 of the Staff Rules and Regulations. The purpose of the five-yearly review is to ensure that the financial and social conditions offered by the Organization allow it to recruit and retain from all its Member States staff members of the highest competence and integrity required for the execution of its mission. The five-yearly review must include basic remuneration (the basic salaries of staff members, the stipends of fellows, and the subsistence allowances of associated members of the personnel) and may include any other financial or social conditions. Start of the 2010 five-yearly review and data collection As we wrote in Echo no. 80, CERN Council approved the document CERN/2862 for the 2010 five-yearly review (hereinafter 2010 5YR) at its meeting on 19th June 2009. This was the Management’s proposal which...

  1. Family accommodation in obsessive-compulsive and anxiety disorders: a five-year update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebowitz, Eli R; Panza, Kaitlyn E; Bloch, Michael H

    2016-01-01

    Family accommodation describes changes that individuals make to their behavior, to help their relative who is dealing with a psychiatric and/or psychological disorder(s), avoid or alleviate distress related to the disorder. Research on family accommodation has advanced rapidly. In this update we aim to provide a synthesis of findings from the past five years. A search of available, peer-reviewed, English language papers was conducted through PubMed and PsycINFO, cross referencing psychiatric disorders with accommodation and other family-related terms. The resulting 121 papers were individually reviewed and evaluated and the main findings were discussed. Family accommodation is common in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and in anxiety disorders, and manifests similarly across these disorders. Family accommodation is associated with more severe psychopathology and poorer clinical outcomes. Treatments have begun to focus on the reduction of family accommodation as a primary therapeutic goal and finally, neurobiological underpinnings of family accommodation are beginning to be investigated.

  2. Five years post whiplash injury: Symptoms and psychological factors in recovered versus non-recovered

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stålnacke Britt-Marie

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have focused on the differences between persons who are recovered after whiplash injury and those who suffer from persistent disability. The primary aim of this study was therefore to examine differences in symptoms, psychological factors and life satisfaction between subjects classified as recovered and those with persistent disability five years after whiplash injury based on the Neck Disability Index (NDI. Methods A set of questionnaires was answered by 158 persons (75 men, 83 women to assess disability (NDI, pain intensity (VAS, whiplash-related symptoms (Rivermead Post-Concussion Symptoms Questionnaire, RPQ, post-traumatic stress (Impact of Event Scale, IES, depression (Beck's depression inventory, BDI and life satisfaction (LiSat-11. The participants were divided into three groups based on the results of the NDI: recovered (34.8%, mild disability (37.3% and moderate/severe disability (27.3%. Results The moderate/severe group reported significantly higher VAS, BDI and IES scores and lower level of physical health and psychological health compared to the mild and the recovered groups. Less significant differences were reported between the mild and the recovered groups. Conclusions The group with the highest disability score reported most health problems with pain, symptoms, depression, post-traumatic stress and decreased life satisfaction. These findings indicate that classifying these subjects into subgroups based on disability levels makes it possible to optimize the management and treatment after whiplash injury.

  3. Hemivertebrectomy and fixation with titanium cable for congenital scoliosis in children younger than five years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arango, Luis Alberto; Meneses, David; Montero, Carlos; Naquira, Luis Felipe

    2004-01-01

    A retrospective study was performed. The general objective was to describe the results and behavior of patients with congenital scoliosis secondary to hemivertebrae, treated with hemivertebral resection and fixation with titanium cable. There are different types of treatment: anterior fusion, posterior fusion, hemiepiphyseodesis and hemivertebral resection with or without instrumentation. Instrumentation in young children less than five years is difficult because of the pediatric spine devices are still big for this patient group. Between January 1999 and December 2003, 11 hemivertebrae resection in ten children were evaluated clinically and radiologically at admission, after surgery and at mean follow up of 12 months. The mean deformity angle before surgery was 40.8 degrades, 20.4 degrades alter surgery and 12.4 degrades at final follow up. There was one superficial infection and one of two cables rupture. The mean surgical time for double approach was 7.1 hours and for posterior approach was 3.6 hours. The bleeding for double approach was 656cc and for posterior approach was 186cc. The hemivertebral resection with titanium cable fixation is safe and success alternative for treating congenital scoliosis secondary hemivertebrae in young children

  4. Therapeutic apheresis in the Republic of Macedonia - our five years experience (2000-2004).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milovanceva-Popovska, M; Stojkovski, Lj; Grcevska, L; Dzikova, S; Ristovska, V; Gogovska, L; Polenakovic, M

    2006-07-01

    Membrane plasma exchange (PE) is a mode of extracorporeal blood purification. Since 1985 membrane PE has been in regular use at the Department of Nephrology, Medical Faculty of Skopje, R.Macedonia. In this paper we report on five years (2000-2004) of single centre plasma exchange activity. We performed 540 PE treatments (108 PE/per year) on 99 patients. The M/F ratio was 40/48. The patients underwent a median of 5.45 procedures (range, 1-16). The treated patients were from different Departments. Protocols for PE depend on the disease and its severity. PE were performed 2-4 times weekly using Gambro PF 2000 N filters with an adaptation of the Gambro AK10 dialysis machine or with the Gambro Prizma machine (2 cases). Blood access was achieved through femoral vein. Substitution was made with fresh frozen plasma and/or with 20% human albumin combined with Ringer's solution. An average amount of 2150 ml plasmafiltrate per treatment (respectively 30 to 40 ml plasmafiltrate/kg body weight) was eliminated. Most therapeutic procedures were performed on patients from the Department of Neurology. 63.6% of all patients were referred for Myasthenia gravis and the Guillian Barre syndrome. The total number of procedures per year has remained fairly stable, corresponding to a median of 5.4 treatments/100 000 inhabitants. We observed hypocalcaemia in 8% of the patients, urticarial reactions in 7.3%, pruritic reactions in 12%, and hypotension/headache in 6.8%. No major procedural complications were seen.

  5. Branch Development of Five-Year-Old Betula alnoides Plantations in Response to Planting Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Sheng Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Branch development in the lower part of stem is critical to both early stem growth and wood quality of the most valuable section of tree, and its regulation through planting density has always been greatly concerned. Here the effect of planting density on branch development was examined in a five-year-old plantation of Betula alnoides with six planting densities (625, 833, 1111, 1250, 1667, and 2500 stems per hectare (sph in Guangdong Province, South China. Branch quantity (number, proportion, and density, morphology (diameter, length, and angle, position (height and orientation, and branch status (dead or alive were investigated for 54 dominant or co-dominant trees under six treatments of planting density after the growth of each tree was measured. Factors influencing branch development were also explored by mixed modelling. The results showed that the mean tree heights of 1250 and 1667 sph treatments were higher than those of other planting density treatments. The quantity of live branches decreased with increasing planting density. However, planting density had no significant effect on the number of all branches, and there existed no remarkable difference in branch number and proportion among four orientations. As for branch morphology, only the largest branch diameter had a significantly negative correlation with planting density. In addition, high planting density significantly increased the height of the largest branch within the crown. Mixed effects models indicated that branch diameter, length, and angle were closely correlated with each other, and they were all in positively significant correlation to the branch height at the stem section below six meters. It was concluded that properly increasing planting density will promote natural pruning, improve early branch control, and be beneficial for wood production from the most valuable section of the stem.

  6. Prevalence of Bilirubin Encephalopathy in Calabar, South-South Nigeria: A Five-year Review Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunny Oteikwu Ochigbo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bilirubin encephalopathy is a clinical syndrome, associated with bilirubin toxicity in the central nervous system, resulting in chronic and permanent sequelae. It has been estimated that approximately 60% and 80% of term and preterm newborns develop jaundice in the first week of life, respectively. In the present study, we aimed to determine the prevalence, morbidity, and mortality of bilirubin encephalopathy in the neonatal unit of the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar, Nigeria. Methods: In this retrospective, descriptive review, medical records of all newborns, diagnosed with bilirubin encephalopathy over the past five years (from January 2010 to December 2014, were studied. Information retrieved from the medical records included age, sex, presence of fever, duration of disease, place of delivery, causes of the disease, and selected treatments. Variables such as hospital discharge, discharge against medical advice, and mortality were also evaluated. Results: Out of 2,820 newborns, 21 (0.74% cases were admitted on account of bilirubin encephalopathy. Among these affected cases, 17 (81% were male and 4 (19% were female (male-to-female ratio of 5:1. Based on the findings, 18 newborns (85.7% had pyrexia, while 8 (38.1% and 6 (28.6% cases were hypertonic and hypotonic, respectively upon admission. Only 33.3% of deliveries took place in healthcare facilities. The established factors responsible for jaundice included infection, i.e., septicemia (n=15, 71.4%, ABO incompatibility (n=4, 19.1%, and glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase (G6PD deficiency (n=2, 9.5%. The mean maximum total bilirubin level in subjects was 321.3 μmol/L (range: 242.5–440.3 μmol/L. Also, mortality was reported in 4 (19% out of 21 cases. Conclusion: Based on the findings, neonatal septicemia is associated with bilirubin encephalopathy. Therefore, identification and prompt treatment are of utmost importance in preventing the associated morbidity and

  7. Validated spectrophotometric methods for determination of Alendronate sodium in tablets through nucleophilic aromatic substitution reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walash Mohamed I

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alendronate (ALD is a member of the bisphosphonate family which is used for the treatment of osteoporosis, bone metastasis, Paget's disease, hypocalcaemia associated with malignancy and other conditions that feature bone fragility. ALD is a non-chromophoric compound so its determination by conventional spectrophotometric methods is not possible. So two derivatization reactions were proposed for determination of ALD through the reaction with 4-chloro-7-nitrobenzo-2-oxa-1,3-diazole (NBD-Cl and 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB as chromogenic derivatizing reagents. Results Three simple and sensitive spectrophotometric methods are described for the determination of ALD. Method I is based on the reaction of ALD with NBD-Cl. Method II involved heat-catalyzed derivatization of ALD with DNFB, while, Method III is based on micellar-catalyzed reaction of the studied drug with DNFB at room temperature. The reactions products were measured at 472, 378 and 374 nm, for methods I, II and III, respectively. Beer's law was obeyed over the concentration ranges of 1.0-20.0, 4.0-40.0 and 1.5-30.0 μg/mL with lower limits of detection of 0.09, 1.06 and 0.06 μg/mL for Methods I, II and III, respectively. The proposed methods were applied for quantitation of the studied drug in its pure form with mean percentage recoveries of 100.47 ± 1.12, 100.17 ± 1.21 and 99.23 ± 1.26 for Methods I, II and III, respectively. Moreover the proposed methods were successfully applied for determination of ALD in different tablets. Proposals of the reactions pathways have been postulated. Conclusion The proposed spectrophotometric methods provided sensitive, specific and inexpensive analytical procedures for determination of the non-chromophoric drug alendronate either per se or in its tablet dosage forms without interference from common excipients. Graphical abstract

  8. Environmental restoration and waste management five-year plan, Fiscal years 1994--1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    In March 1989, Secretary of Energy James D. Watkins outlined his vision for a changed Department of Energy (DOE) culture. This culture is one of environmental responsibility, increased knowledge and involvement in environmental management, a new openness to public input, and overall accountability to the Nation for its actions. Over the past three years, the Five Year Plan has evolved into the primary planning tool for the DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program, looking beyond the current three-year Federal budget horizon. The FY 1994--1998 Five-Year Plan demonstrates DOE's commitment to a culture based on the principles of openness, responsiveness, and accountability; reports on the progress made in carrying out DOE's environmental mission; identifies what must be accomplished during a five-year planning period; and describes strategies for achieving critical program objectives. The Five-Year Plan is not exclusively focused on near-term activities. It also expresses the DOE commitment to a 30-year goal for the cleanup of the 1989 inventory of inactive sites. This goal was established in response to recommendations from the State and Tribal Government Working Group (STGWG) that DOE define a specific end point for completing necessary remediation and restoration activities. The FY 1994--1998 Five-Year Plan reiterates the DOE commitment to meeting this and other important environmental goals

  9. Latest developments in biofilm technologies for wastewater treatment: Twenty five years of research of the environmental engineering group (University of Cantabria, Spain); Tecnologias de biopelicula innovadoras para la depuracion de aguas residuales: veinticinco anos de investigacion del Grupo de Ingenieria Ambiental de la Universidad de Camtabria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tejero Monzon, J. I.; Esteban-Garcia, A. L.; Florio, L. del; Diez Montero, R.; Lobo Garcia de Cortazar, A.; Rodriguez-Hernandez, L.

    2012-07-01

    Biological wastewater treatments are based on the use of active biomass, or set of organisms, in charge of carrying out the removal of contaminants. the biomass can be dispersed in suspension within the bulk liquid (activated sludge processes) or attached to a support media (biofilm processes). Biofilm technology was historically the first to be spread and applied. Nevertheless, since the 1950s, activated sludge technology gained more and more popularity given the supposed operation simplicity and higher quality of the effluent. Recently, new developments pushed forward the biofilm technology again. In this context, the Environmental Engineering Group of the University of Cantabria, since its foundation more than 2 decades ago, has been working on research and development of innovative wastewater treatment technologies based on biofilm. In this article, the know-how of the Group is illustrated, including the development of innovative submerged fixed bed reactors with and without (micro) filtration membranes, processes of biofilm supported by and aerated through membranes, as well as integrated systems (hybrid or combined) aimed at nutrient removal. submerged aerated fixed technologies, especially in hybrid configuration, as much as sludge blanket reactors (combined with biofilm processes) allow for increasing biomass concentration and may provide an attractive solution to upgrade existing WWTP. In combination with membrane filtration, they produce an effluent suitable for reuse o discharge in sensitive areas. On the other, hand, the possibility of aerating (diffusing the gas) directly through the membrane lumen into the biomass thereby grown, without need of oxygenating the whole wastewater flow to be treated, may be a real energetic paradigm shift. The developed technologies are here described alongside their experimental and modeling assessment, ranging from laboratory and bench scale up to pilot scale systems treating real municipal wastewater. (Author)

  10. [Association between the use of blood components and the five-year mortality after liver transplant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Morais, Bruno Salomé; Sanches, Marcelo Dias; Ribeiro, Daniel Dias; Lima, Agnaldo Soares; de Abreu Ferrari, Teresa Cristina; Duarte, Malvina Maria de Freitas; Cançado, Guilherme Henrique Gomes Moreira

    2011-01-01

    Liver transplant (LT) surgery is associated with significant bleeding in 20% of cases, and several authors have demonstrated the risks related to blood components. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the impact of using blood components during hospitalization in five-year survival of patients undergoing LT. One hundred and thirteen patients were evaluated retrospectively. Several variables, including the use of blood components intraoperatively and throughout hospitalization, were categorized and evaluated by univariate analysis using Fisher's test. A level of significance of 5% was adopted. Results with p renal dysfunction, and longer stay in hospital and ICU are associated with greater five-year mortality after LT (p transplantation (p < 0.01). This study emphasizes the relationship between the use of blood components during hospitalization and increased mortality in five years after LT. 2011 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  11. Environmental restoration and waste management five year plan, fiscal years 1994--1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    In March 1989, Secretary of Energy James D. Watkins outlined his vision for a changed Department of Energy (DOE) culture. This culture is one of envirorunental responsibility, increased knowledge and involvement in environmental management, a new openness to public input, and overall accountability to the Nation for its actions. Secretary Watkins also requested all the near-term activities necessary to bring DOEactivities into compliance with all applicable environmental requirements to be detailed in one plan. The Five-Year Plan was to be based on a ''bottom up'' approach to planning by using Activity Data Sheets to collect financial and technical information at the installation level. Over the past three years, the Five-Year Plan has evolved into the primary planning tool for the DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program, looking beyond the current three-year Federal budget horizon. The FY 1994--1998 Five-Year Plan demonstrates DOE's commitment to a culture based on the principles of openness, responsiveness, and accountability; reports on the progress made in carrying out DOE's environmental mission; identifies what must be accomplished during a five-year planning period; and describes strategies for achieving critical program objectives. This plan represents another step towards the implementation of the culture change Secretary Watkins envisioned. The Five-Year Plan is not exclusively focused on near-term activities. Italso expresses the DOE commitment to a 30-year goal for the cleanup of the 1989 inventory of inactive sites. The FY 1994--1998 Five-Year Plan reiterates the DOE commitment to meeting this and other important environmental goals

  12. Progress in 11th Five Year and the geneal idea for 12th Five Year of uranium exploration and geological science and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jindai; Jian Xiaofei; Li Youliang; Du Jiannong; Guo Qinggen; Zhang Qiuying

    2011-01-01

    Since the 11th-Five Year, uranium exploration in China has retrieved obviously and some new resources have been identified. More detailed uranium exploration has been carried out in about 1 000 000 km 2 , exploration in large uranium resource bases, old orefields and focusing prospect areas has achieved important progress, several middle-large and extral-large deposits have been discovered, and one super-large deposit was submitted for the first time in China. In the science and technology of uranium exploration, the capability and platform of research has been reinforced, a number of key projects have been carried out such as national uranium potential evaluation, study of 'four types of uranium deposit', research for the enlargement of uranium resource bases, research of application foundation of uranium geology, research on exploratin techniques and method and technological standard. All these projects have obtained fruitful result and significantly raised the creative level in uranium science and technology. In the coming 12th Five Year, uranium exploration will follow the strategy of 'foundation research first with focus on resource base,systematical exploration and integral evaluation second' under the guideline of 'domestic foothold and oversea development' and set up large uranium resource bases, four major geological preosecting programs will be commence in the exploration for large uranium resource base, national uranium survey, regional evaluation of potential uranium resource and science and technology innovation of uranium geology, Ideas of 'Great uranium exploration system' should be set up to widely unite the localized prospecting teams and cooperate with the geologic research organization such as domestic and foreign university and college so as to make corespondent contribution to raise the supporting capability of uranium resources in China. (authors)

  13. Last Five Years Pakistan Economic Growth Rate GDP And Its Comparison With China India And Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Rehman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper formulates and reviews Pakistans last five years economic growth rate and its comparison with the growth rate of China India and Bangladesh. As growth rate the amount of increment of a specific variable has gained within a specific period of time and context. In fact economic growth rate provides general direction and magnitude of growth for overall economy.

  14. Prevalence of rotavirus among children under five years of age with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-08-16

    Aug 16, 2016 ... acute diarrhea in children under five years in Kaduna State, Nige- ria. Hence the need to introduce the vaccines into the childhood immunization program in the country. Keywords: Prevalence, Rotavirus,. Children, Kaduna State, Nigeria. Introduction. Diarrheal disease kills 1.8 million children under five.

  15. Five years program execution outcome; Bilan d'execution du plan quinquenal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1983-07-01

    This document presents realized activities during five years program in mine field and petroleum (1979-1983). It involves mining and petroleum researches and mining productions. [French] Le document presente les activites realisees dans le domaine des mines et du petrole pendant les 5 annees du plan quinquenal (1979-1983). Il s'agit des recherches minieres et petrolieres et des productions minieres.

  16. Transition to low carbon energy policies in China-from the Five-Year Plan perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Xueliang; Zuo Jian

    2011-01-01

    Energy policy plays a critical role not only in the energy development, but also in the social and environmental aspects of a nation. Five-Year Plan for National Economic and Social Development is one of the most important government plans, which documents the national strategy during that period. This study presents a critical review of 12 Five-Year Plans that have been released by the Chinese central government in last 58 years. In particular, the recently released Twelfth Five-Year Plan is reviewed. The results clearly show a pattern of increasingly level of attention of Chinese government to energy efficiency improvement, air pollutant emission reduction, new and renewable energy development, carbon dioxide emission and climate change. - Highlights: → Critical review of the energy related contents in the 12 Five-Year Plans. → Energy policy of China is focusing on energy efficiency, new and renewable energy. → China is improving the capability of dealing with CO 2 emission and climate change. → China is on transition to low carbon energy policies for a sustainable development.

  17. Search for relativistic magnetic monopoles with five years of the ANTARES detector data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albert, A.; André, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Ardid, M.; Aubert, J.-J.; Avgitas, T.; Baret, B.; Barrios-Martí, J.; Basa, S.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bormuth, R.; Bourret, S.; Bouwhuis, M.C.; Bruijn, R.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Capone, A.; Caramete, L.; Carr, J.; Celli, S.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Coelho, J.A.; Coleiro, A.; Coniglione, R.; Costantini, H.; Coyle, P.; Creusot, A.; Deschamps, A.; De Bonis, G.; Distefano, C.; Di Palma, I.; Domi, A.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Drouhin, D.; Eberl, T.; El Bojaddaini, I.; Elsässer, D.; Enzenhöfer, A.; Felis, I.; Fusco, L.A.; Galatà, S.; Gay, P.; Giordano, V.; Glotin, H.; Grégoire, T.; Gracia-Ruiz, R.; Graf, K.; Hallmann, S.; van Haren, H.; Heijboer, A.J.; Hello, Y.; Hernandez-Rey, J.J.; Hößl, J.; Hofestädt, J.; Hugon, C.; Illuminati, G.; James, C.W.; de Jong, M.; Jongen, M.; Kadler, M.; Kalekin, O.; Katz, U.; Kießling, D.; Kouchner, A.; Kreter, M.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lachaud, C.; Lahmann, R.; Lefevre, D.; Leonora, E.; Lotze, M.; Loucatos, S.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Marinelli, A.; Martinez-Mora, J.A.; Mele, R.; Melis, K.; Michael, T.; Migliozzi, P.; Moussa, A.; Navas, S.; Nezri, E.; Organokov, M.; Pavalas, G.E.; Pellegrino, C.; Perrina, C.; Piattelli, P.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Quinn, L.; Racca, C.; Riccobene, G.; Sánchez-Losa, A.; Saldaña, M.; Salvadori, I.; Samtleben, D.F.E.; Sanguineti, M.; Sapienza, P.; Schüssler, F.; Sieger, C.; Spurio, M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Taiuti, M.; Tayalati, Y.; Trovato, A.; Turpin, D.; Tönnis, C.; Vallage, B.; Van Elewyck, V.; Versari, F.; Vivolo, D.; Vizzoca, A.; Wilms, J.; Zornoza, J.D.; Zúñiga, J.

    2017-01-01

    A search for magnetic monopoles using five years of data recorded with the ANTARES neutrino telescope from January 2008 to December 2012 with a total live time of 1121 days is presented. The analysis is carried out in the range β > 0.6 of magnetic monopole velocities using a strategy based on

  18. North Dakota University System Five-Year Plan. Daring to Be Great: The NDUS Edge

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Dakota University System, 2017

    2017-01-01

    This report presents the 2017-19 edition of the State Board of Higher Education's strategic narrative. Contents include: (1) North Dakota University System (NDUS) colleges and locations; (2) Board Chair Neset's report; (3) Five-year goals; (4) Deliver degrees that are the best value in the nation; (5) Provide programs people want; (6) Equip…

  19. Esophageal adenocarcinoma five years after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy. A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Gabriel Wright

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: We present a case of an esophageal adenocarcinoma five years after a laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy for morbid obesity. There is need to better determine the relationship between sleeve gastrectomy and gastroesophageal reflux disease in order to prevent its related complications, such as esophageal adenocarcinoma.

  20. Patient demands, lack of reciprocity, and burnout: a five-year longitudinal study about general practitioners.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, A.B.; Schaufeli, W.B.; Sixma, H.J.; Bosveld, W.; Dierendonck, D. van

    2000-01-01

    This study among a sample of 207 general practitioners (GPs) uses a five-year longitudinal design to test a process model of burnout. On the basis of social exchange and equity theory, it is hypothesized and found that demanding patient contacts produce a lack of reciprocity in the GP-patient

  1. Assessment of Peer-Led Team Learning in Calculus I: A Five-Year Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkel, John Conrad; Brania, Abdelkrim

    2015-01-01

    This five-year study of the peer-led team learning (PLTL) paradigm examined its implementation in a Calculus I course at an all-male HBCU institution. For this study we set up a strong control group and measured the effect of PLTL in the teaching and learning of Calculus I through two points of measure: retention and success rates and learning…

  2. An Explanation on the Tenth-Five-Year Plan of China’s Auto Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    <正> The Tenth-Five-Year-Plan of the auto industry recently issued has made an analysis on the market demand, development environment and situation that the auto industry will face and advanced the idea for solving contractions and problems, taking the restructuring as motif. Compared with the previous medium-and-long-term programs, the plan is more macroscopic, strategical,

  3. Key projects to be enforced during the 11th Five-year Plan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Addressing major S&T issues of strategic importance to China's socioeconomic growth, national security and development sustainability, the key projects of CAS during the period of the 11th Five-year Plan (2006-2010) are large-scale research initiatives with an expectation to give rise to S&T breakthroughs.

  4. Development trends of remote sensing technology for uranium exploration in 12th Five Year

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jielin

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduced the research status,application requirements, technique questions and development trends of remote sensing technology for uranium exploration in the 12th five year, and discussed the applicant prospects and potential of applied basic research innovation, thermal infrared hyperspectral and microwave remote sensing, 4D geological mapping and stereo exploration model in the uranium exploration. (authors)

  5. Southern Stalemate: Five Years without Public Education in Prince Edward County, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonastia, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    In 1959, Virginia's Prince Edward County closed its public schools rather than obey a court order to desegregate. For five years, black children were left to fend for themselves while the courts decided if the county could continue to deny its citizens public education. Investigating this remarkable and nearly forgotten story of local, state, and…

  6. A five year study on the susceptibility of isolates from various parts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tests. The various isolates for the five-year period were Staphylococcus aureus 1000, Klebsiella pneumoniae 340, Proteus mirabilis 38 Escherichia coli 295, Pseudomonas aeroginosa 240, Alcaligenes faecalis 200, Enterobacter aerogenes 175, Acinetobacter baumannii 150, Proteus vulgaris 110, Providencia stuartii 101, ...

  7. An appraisal of retained placentae in Ibadan: a five year review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During the study period, 4980 deliveries took place at the University College Hospital, Ibadan and 106 cases of retained placenta were managed making the incidence 2.13 per cent of all births. Results: During the five year period, there were 106 patients with retained placenta; of these, 90 (84.9%) case notes were ...

  8. Career Decision Status as a Predictor of Resignation Behavior Five Years Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earl, Joanne K.; Minbashian, Amirali; Sukijjakhamin, Aun; Bright, Jim E. H.

    2011-01-01

    This paper extends earlier research exploring the relationship between career decision status and work outcomes by examining resignation behavior in a group of new graduates five years after initial appointment. On appointment various measures were collected including career decision status variables. Earlier research identified a significant…

  9. A Five-Year School Building and Future Sites Program 1966-1970.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965

    Five-year school building and site needs and related financial requirements are summarized for Milwaukee's schools. Educational policies concerning the school building program are stated, and consideration is given to factors affecting school board needs such as birth rate, public housing projects, urban renewal, highways, and expressways. School…

  10. Still the One: Reflections on Sixty-Five Years of Resilience and Relevance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adcock, Donald; Ballard, Susan

    2015-01-01

    2016 marks an important milestone for the American Association of School Librarians (AASL). Despite the ever-changing and always-challenging economic, political, and societal landscape, for nearly sixty-five years the association has grown and prospered within the structure of the American Library Association (ALA) and remains "the only…

  11. ANALYSIS ON THE EVOLUTION OF INSURANCE SYSTEMS IN ROMANIA - THE PAST FIVE YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AURELIA PĂTRAȘCU

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze the evolution of insurance systems in Romania in the past five years. Unlike other European countries, it can be seen that Romania does not have a well-established insurance tradition. Insurance companies are constantly adapting to the realities of the financial situation and the market structure in Romania.

  12. Nutrition and public hygiene among children under five years of age ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the relationship between sanitation and malnutrition among children below five years. Design: A random sampling followed by an experimental design on microbiological analysis of food and water samples. Setting: Mukuru slums of Makadara division in Nairobi City. Subjects: Eighty food and thirty ...

  13. Use of insecticide-treated mosquito nets for children under five years ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-06-13

    Jun 13, 2011 ... Background: Insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) have proven to be one of the most effective means of reducing malaria morbidity and mortality in children and pregnant women. This study is carried out to determine the practice and determinants of ITN use for children under five years among care givers in an ...

  14. 47 CFR 22.947 - Five year build-out period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... authorized in the Gulf of Mexico Exclusive Zone, the licensee of the first cellular system authorized on each channel block in each cellular market is afforded a five year period, beginning on the date the initial authorization for the system is granted, during which it may expand the system within that market. (a) Exclusive...

  15. Double cervix in a five-year-old white Fulami cow | Ajala | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A case report of true double cervix in a five-year-old white Fulani cow is presented. The condition is known to cause infertility which might be the reason why the cow was brought to the slaughterhouse at this critical age. Keywords: Double cervix, cow ...

  16. Five-year activity (1981-1985) on the project ionizing and nonionizing radiation protection investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaricj, M.

    1987-01-01

    The brief review of the work conducted during five year's period on the project is given. Some organization and financial questions are touched. In spite of the permanent difficulties, it may be concluded that past period was successful. (author) 3 refs

  17. Socio-economic factors predisposing under five-year-old children to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Malnutrition is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in children aged five years and below. Risk factors for severe protein energy malnutrition (PEM) have been identified as ignorance, family size, mothers and fathers education, poverty, residence, chronic infections, and congenital defects or ...

  18. Letter to the Editor: Re: A Five-year Survey of Cesarean Delivery at a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Letter to the Editor: Re: A Five-year Survey of Cesarean Delivery at a Nigerian Tertiary Hospital. VO Ajuzieogu, AO Amucheazi. Abstract. Letter to the editor - no abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Article Metrics. Metrics Loading .

  19. Lenin nuclear reactor research institute in the tenth five-year plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsykanov, V.A.; Kulov, E.V.

    1980-01-01

    Main tasks and research results of Lenin Nuclear Reactor Reseach Institute in the 10-th Five-Year Plan are considered. Main research achievements are noted in nuclear power, radiation material testing, accumulation of transuranium elements and investigation of their physicochemical properties at VK-50, BOR-60, SM-2, RBT-6 and MIR reactor plants and in material testing laboratories

  20. Five Years of Cyclotron Radioisotope Production Experiences at the First PET-CT in Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colmenter, L.; Coelho, D.; Esteves, L. M.; Ruiz, N.; Morales, L.; Lugo, I.; Sajo-Bohus, L.; Liendo, J. A.; Greaves, E. D.; Barros, H.; Castillo, J.

    2007-01-01

    Five years operation of a compact cyclotron installed at PET-CT facility in Caracas, Venezuela is given. Production rate of 18 F labeled FDG, operation and radiation monitoring experience are included. We conclude that 18 FDG CT-PET is the most effective technique for patient diagnosis

  1. 78 FR 13380 - Silicomanganese From India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela; Scheduling of Full Five-Year Reviews...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ... From India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela; Scheduling of Full Five-Year Reviews Concerning the Antidumping Duty Orders on Silicomanganese From India, Kazakhstan, and Venezuela AGENCY: United States..., Kazakhstan, and Venezuela would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury within a...

  2. The use of alendronate is associated with a decreased incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus--a population-based cohort study in Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding-Cheng Chan

    Full Text Available Bone remodeling has been linked to glucose metabolism in animal studies, but the results of human trials were inconclusive. Bisphosphonates may play a role in glucose metabolism through their impacts on bone remodeling enzymes. In this study, we aimed to examine the influence of alendronate usage on the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM among osteoporotic patients.A retrospective cohort study was designed to include osteoporotic patients without DM from a population-based cohort containing 1,000,000 subjects. Patients treated with alendronate (exposed group, N=1,011 were compared with those who received no treatment (age and gender matched non-exposed group, N=3,033. Newly diagnosed DM was identified from medical records by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9CM code. The incidence of DM in both groups was calculated for comparison.The non-exposed group had a significantly higher incidence of DM (Odds ratio 1.21, 95% confidence interval 1.03~1.41 when compared with the exposed group. In subgroup analysis, the DM risk reduction in exposed group was only significant among those younger than 65 years and those without hypertension or dyslipidemia. Patients who were prescribed alendronate more than or equal to 3 times had demonstrated a significant reduction in DM risk.Our study showed alendronate might yield a protective effect for incident DM. This effect became insignificant in patients with older age, dyslipidemia or hypertension. The underlying mechanism needs further exploration with prospective data for confirmation of the observed findings.

  3. BAYESIAN ANALYSIS OF WHITE NOISE LEVELS IN THE FIVE-YEAR WMAP DATA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groeneboom, N. E.; Eriksen, H. K.; Gorski, K.; Huey, G.; Jewell, J.; Wandelt, B.

    2009-01-01

    We develop a new Bayesian method for estimating white noise levels in CMB sky maps, and apply this algorithm to the five-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) data. We assume that the amplitude of the noise rms is scaled by a constant value, α, relative to a pre-specified noise level. We then derive the corresponding conditional density, P(α | s, C l , d), which is subsequently integrated into a general CMB Gibbs sampler. We first verify our code by analyzing simulated data sets, and then apply the framework to the WMAP data. For the foreground-reduced five-year WMAP sky maps and the nominal noise levels initially provided in the five-year data release, we find that the posterior means typically range between α = 1.005 ± 0.001 and α = 1.010 ± 0.001 depending on differencing assembly, indicating that the noise level of these maps are biased low by 0.5%-1.0%. The same problem is not observed for the uncorrected WMAP sky maps. After the preprint version of this letter appeared on astro-ph., the WMAP team has corrected the values presented on their web page, noting that the initially provided values were in fact estimates from the three-year data release, not from the five-year estimates. However, internally in their five-year analysis the correct noise values were used, and no cosmological results are therefore compromised by this error. Thus, our method has already been demonstrated in practice to be both useful and accurate.

  4. [Email in a dedicated headache clinic: experience gained over a five-year period].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedraza, M Isabel; Herrero-Velázquez, Sonia; López-Mesonero, Luis; Ruiz-Piñero, Marina; Posadas, Javier; Guerrero-Peral, Ángel L

    2015-06-16

    The use of email can facilitate communication between the different levels of an organisation. Our primary care physicians have had an email service in the dedicated headache clinic (DHC) since November 2009, and our aim is therefore to analyse the use of email over that five-year period. Data concerning the emails sent up until October 2014 were collected prospectively. The questions were classified as need for referral to the DHC (group 1), progress made by the cases seen in the DHC (group 2), training in headaches (group 3) or the treatment of the headaches suffered by primary care physicians themselves as patients (group 4). A total of 274 email messages were analysed. Monthly consultations have increased (from 1.5 per month during the first year to 7.5 per month during the fifth). Findings showed that 10.2% of the email messages came from rural health centres and 89.8% were sent from urban health centres. Replies were sent within 2 ± 2.8 days (range: 0-24 days). Altogether 130 consultations were classified as belonging to group 1 (47.4%), in which referral through the normal channel was recommended in 60 cases (46.2%), via the preferential channel in 47 (36.2%) and non-referral was suggested in 23 cases (17.6%). Group 2 included 125 emails (45.7%) and in 80 cases there was no need to make a new appointment or to bring forward the existing one (64%). Thirteen visits (4.7%) were classified into group 3 and six (2.2%) in group 4. Our primary care physicians are using the email of the DHC on an increasingly more frequent basis. Its use makes it possible to detect patients whose appointment -whether the first or a follow-up- needs to be brought forward, as well as allowing issues to be solved without the need for referral. It is effective for the treatment of physicians who themselves have headaches and as a tool for continuing education.

  5. Effects of thinning intensity and crown class on cherrybark oak epicormic branching five years after treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luben D. Dimov; Erika Stelzer; Kristi Wharton; James S. Meadows; Jim L. Chambers; Kenny Ribbeck; E. Barry Moser

    2006-01-01

    Thinning in oak-dominated stands may have many desirable consequences, including increases in tree growth and mast production. One of the potential disadvantages, however, is the proliferation of epicormic branches, which leads to reduction in lumber quality and value. We assessed the effects of thinning intensity and initial crown class on cherrybark oak (...

  6. Effect of an estrogen-deficient state and alendronate therapy on bone loss resulting from experimental periapical lesions in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Haofei; Peng, Bin; Wei, Lili; Zhang, Xiaolei; Wang, Li

    2007-11-01

    The aim of the research was to evaluate the impact of an estrogen-deficient state and alendronate (ALD) therapy on bone loss resulting from experimental periapical lesions in rats. Periapical lesions were induced on ovariectomized (OVX) and sham-ovariectomized (Sham) rats. After sample preparation, histologic and radiographic examination for periapical bone loss area and an enzyme histochemical test for tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) were performed. The results showed that OVX significantly increased bone loss resulting from periradicular lesions. After daily subcutaneous injection of ALD, the bone loss area and the number of TRAP-positive cells (osteoclasts) were reduced. These findings suggested that alendronate may protect against increased bone loss from experimental periapical lesions in estrogen-deficient rats. Given recent recognition of adverse effects of bisphosphonates, including an increased risk for osteonecrosis, the findings from this study should not be interpreted as a new indication for ALD treatment. However, they may offer insight into understanding and predicting outcomes in female postmenopausal patients already on ALD therapy for medical indications.

  7. Pharmacokinetic characteristics of formulated alendronate transdermal delivery systems in rats and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ahyoung; Gang, Hyesil; Whang, Jiae; Gwak, Hyesun

    2010-05-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the absorption of alendronate from formulated transdermal delivery systems in rats and humans. When alendronate was applied to rats by transdermal delivery systems (7.2 mg) and oral administration (30 mg/kg), a statistically significant difference was found in the amount remaining to be excreted at time t (Ae(t)) and the amount remaining to be excreted at time 0 (Ae(infinity)) (p transdermal delivery systems. There was a linear relationship (r(2) = 0.9854) between the drug loading dose and Ae(infinity). The Ae(infinity) values from the transdermal delivery system containing 6% caprylic acid (53.8 mg as alendronate) and an oral product (Fosamax), 70 mg as alendronate) in humans were 127.0 +/- 34.2 microg and 237.2 +/- 56.3 microg, respectively. The dose-adjusted relative Ae(infinity) ratio of the transdermal delivery system to oral product was calculated to be 69.7%. The long half-life of alendronate in the transdermal delivery system (50.6 +/- 6.4 h), compared to that of the oral product (3.5 +/- 1.1 h) could allow less-frequent dosing. In conclusion, this study showed that a transdermal delivery system containing 6% caprylic acid in PG could be a favorable alternative for alendronate administration.

  8. Diagnostic PET Imaging of Mammary Microcalcifications Using 64Cu-DOTA-Alendronate in a Rat Model of Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Bradley J; Li, Lin; Ciminera, Alexandra K; Chea, Junie; Poku, Erasmus; Bading, James R; Weist, Michael R; Miller, Marcia M; Colcher, David M; Shively, John E

    2017-09-01

    The development of improved breast cancer screening methods is hindered by a lack of cancer-specific imaging agents and effective small-animal models to test them. The purpose of this study was to evaluate 64 Cu-DOTA-alendronate as a mammary microcalcification-targeting PET imaging agent, using an ideal rat model. Our long-term goal is to develop 64 Cu-DOTA-alendronate for the detection and noninvasive differentiation of malignant versus benign breast tumors with PET. Methods: DOTA-alendronate was synthesized, radiolabeled with 64 Cu, and administered to normal or tumor-bearing aged, female, retired breeder Sprague-Dawley rats for PET imaging. Mammary tissues were subsequently labeled and imaged with light, confocal, and electron microscopy to verify microcalcification targeting specificity of DOTA-alendronate and elucidate the histologic and ultrastructural characteristics of the microcalcifications in different mammary tumor types. Tumor uptake, biodistribution, and dosimetry studies were performed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of 64 Cu-DOTA-alendronate. Results: 64 Cu-DOTA-alendronate was radiolabeled with a 98% yield. PET imaging using aged, female, retired breeder rats showed specific binding of 64 Cu-DOTA-alendronate in mammary glands and mammary tumors. The highest uptake of 64 Cu-DOTA-alendronate was in malignant tumors and the lowest uptake in benign tumors and normal mammary tissue. Confocal analysis with carboxyfluorescein-alendronate confirmed the microcalcification binding specificity of alendronate derivatives. Biodistribution studies revealed tissue alendronate concentrations peaking within the first hour, then decreasing over the next 48 h. Our dosimetric analysis demonstrated a 64 Cu effective dose within the acceptable range for clinical PET imaging agents and the potential for translation into human patients. Conclusion: 64 Cu-DOTA-alendronate is a promising PET imaging agent for the sensitive and specific detection of mammary tumors as

  9. Twenty-five year outcome of sequential abdominopelvic radiotherapy and alkylating agent chemotherapy for ovarian carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellairs, Ellen E.; Twiggs, Leo B.; Potish, Roger A.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: A prospective study of sequential surgery, abdominopelvic radiotherapy and single agent alkylating chemotherapy was conducted to evaluate survival and toxicity in the management of ovarian carcinoma. Methods: From 1970-1976, 95 women with stage I-III epithelial ovarian carcinoma were scheduled to receive postoperative radiotherapy consisting of 20.0 Gy to the whole abdomen (1.0 Gy/day), a 29.75 Gy pelvic boost (1.75 Gy/day) and 10 subsequent courses of Melphalan (1 mg/kg/course). Endpoints were overall survival, disease-free survival(DFS), and acute and chronic toxicity. Results: The evaluable 94 patients included 19 stage I, 25 stage II, and 50 stage III. Of the latter, 21 had no palpable disease postoperatively (IIIN) and 29 had postoperative palpable disease (IIIP). Overall survival at 5, 10, 15 and 20 years was 42%, 30%, 23% and 22%. DFS for the entire group was 54% at 5 years and remained 50% from 10 to 25 years. All but two recurrences were noted within the first 27 months. No recurrence or treatment-related deaths occurred after 8 years. After 10 years, the survival of the study group became parallel to the general population. Prognostic factors were only related to stage (p<.001) and the presence of postoperative palpable disease(p<.001). DFS at 25 years was 95 % for stage I, 71% at 5 years and 66% from 10 to 25 years for stage II, and 17% at 5 years and 11% thereafter for stage III patients(p<.001). Although no stage IIIP patients were cured, 25% lived beyond 2 years. Five year DFS was significantly better in IIIN (45%) vs. IIIP (0%) patients (p<.001). The 65 patients without postoperative palpable disease, (stage I-IIIN) achieved DFS at 5 and 25 years of 69%, and 61%, respectively. Of 31 patients undergoing a second-look surgery, 84% were found to be free of tumor. Two recurred at 3.5 and 7 years after surgery. Acute tolerance was acceptable. Chronic toxicity included an 11.7% rate of small bowel obstruction requiring surgery and a 3% rate of

  10. Firework injuries at a major trauma and burn center: A five-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng; Zhao, Ran; Du, Wei-Li; Ning, Fang-Gang; Zhang, Guo-An

    2014-03-01

    In China, fireworks are an integral part of the celebration of the annual Spring Festival, but the number of injuries associated with their private use seen in emergency rooms increases dramatically. To raise awareness and help guide future prevention practices in this city, we investigated the epidemiology of firework-related injuries presented at our trauma and burn center in Beijing during the Spring Festivals of 2007-2011. Patients were interviewed using a pre-coded questionnaire to elicit information regarding age, gender, causes, injured body part, type of injury, diagnosis, and disposition. From 2007 to 2011, during the Spring Festivals 734 patients with fire-work related injuries were seen at our trauma and burn center in Beijing, the median patients of the five year were 140(136-150). The mean age of the patients was 26±15.3 years (range, 1-95 years). Of the 734 patients, the highest proportion of injuries were the 5-14 year-old age group The majority of the patients were male (87.9%), the overall male:female ratio was 7.41:1, and males were predominant in all age groups. For all 5 years, the incidence of firework-related injuries during the Spring Festival Holidays peaked specifically on the first, fifth, and last days, respectively. Injuries were mainly due to improper handling (415/610, 68.0%) or setting off illegal fireworks (195/610, 32.0%). The most frequently injured body parts were the hands and fingers (32.0%), head or face except eyes (28.3%), and trunk (22.4%). Burns were the most common type of injury (65.7%), most of the burned patients (437/453) were between 1% and 10%, and the most common region burned were hands and fingers (218/754). Contusions or lacerations were the second common type of injury (34.3%). Most of the patients (642, 87.5%) were treated and released, while 37 (5%) were treated and transferred, and 55 (7.5%) were admitted for advanced treatment. The private use of fireworks during the Spring Festival Holidays is associated

  11. Vitamin E diffused highly cross-linked polyethylene in total hip arthroplasty at five years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nebergall, Audrey K; Greene, M. E.; Laursen, M B

    2017-01-01

    Aims: The objective of this five-year prospective, blinded, randomised controlled trial (RCT) was to compare femoral head penetration into a Vitamin E diffused highly cross-linked polyethylene (HXLPE) liner with penetration into a medium cross-linked polyethylene control liner using......, ArComXL. This is the longest-term RCT comparing the wear performance and clinical outcome of Vitamin E diffused HXLPE with a previous generation of medium cross-linked polyethylene....... radiostereometric analysis. Patients and Methods: Patients scheduled for total hip arthroplasty (THA) were randomised to receive either the study E1 (32 patients) or the control ArComXL polyethylene (35 patients). The median age (range) of the overall cohort was 66 years (40 to 76). Results: The five-year median...

  12. Decommissioning of AECL Whiteshell Laboratories: progress from first five years of legacy funding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swartz, R.S.; Bilinsky, D.M.; Harding, J.W.; Ridgway, W.R.

    2011-01-01

    In 2006, the Government of Canada adopted a new long-term strategy to deal with the nuclear legacy liabilities and initiated a five-year start-up phase. The objective is to safely and cost-effectively reduce these liabilities, and associated risks, based on sound waste management and environmental principles in the best interests of Canadians. AECL's Whiteshell Laboratories is part of the long-term strategy and decommissioning activities are underway. Several redundant non-nuclear buildings have been removed/decommissioned, and redundant nuclear facilities (hot cell facilities, radiochemical laboratories) are being decontaminated and prepared for demolition. This paper describes the progress in the first five-year funding period (2006 April to 2011 March). (author)

  13. Im. A. F. Zasyad'ko coal mine during the eleventh five year plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zvyagil' skii, E.L.

    1985-08-01

    The achievements of this mine are chronicled, which began production in December 1958, throughout the eleventh five year plan, showing how the annual targets for coal output, roadway drivage, savings in energy and materials, output per manshift and cost price of coal were met and improved upon in each of the five years. The factors which made possible these achievements in productivity and efficiency are described and include: use of modern equipment and systems, increased mechanization, on-site education and training, improved discipline, reduced absenteeism, incentive schemes and, above all, the full involvement of the coal mine in the program of socialist competition. The social infrastructure supporting the coal mine and its workforce is also described.

  14. Mathematical descriptions of a one- and five-year old child for use in dosimetry calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, J.M.L.; Shoup, R.L.; Warner, G.G.; Poston, J.W.

    1976-03-01

    Mathematical representations for estimating the absorbed radiation dose from external and internal radiation sources of a one-year old and a five-year old human have been designed. The phantoms used consist of head, trunk and leg regions with a skeletal system and twenty-two internal organs, each. The mathematical descriptions of these phantoms have been coded into Fortran computer language for use with a Monte-Carlo photon transport code. This computer code was used to calculate absorbed fractions of energy deposited in different targets organs from a radionuclide deposited uniformly in a source organ. Absorbed dose calculations were performed for two /sup 99m/Tc-labeled pharmaceuticals. Photon absorbed fraction estimates for the pediatric phantoms from Monte-Carlo calculations were combined with biological data to estimate dose distributions in one-year old and five-year old children. (CH)

  15. Rural Transformation and Planning Tactics in the 13th Five-Year Plan Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luo; Xiaolong; Xu; Xiao; Li; Min

    2016-01-01

    Rural development has long been the focus of China’s central and local governments. Since the late 2000 s, rural areas have presented new transformation features and development trends. To stimulate rural transformation and development in the 13 th Five-Year Plan period, this paper reviews major ideas on rural development in related disciplines. This study also summarizes main rural transformation features, including the aging population, hollow villages, changes in the allocation of land resource, semi-urbanization, and regional differences in rural development. Finally, it also provides suggestions for planning tactics in the 13 th Five-Year Plan period, such as making differentiated rural development strategies, exploring new methods to stimulate rural stock land planning and use, and enforcing relevant policy and management reforms.

  16. Rural Transformation and Planning Tactics in the 13th Five-Year Plan Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luo Xiaolong; Xu Xiao; Li Min

    2016-01-01

    Rural development has long been the focus of China's central and local governments.Since the late 2000s,rural areas have presented new transformation features and development trends.To stimulate rural transformation and development in the 13th Five-Year Plan period,this paPer reviews major ideas on rural development in related disciplines.This study also summarizes main rural transformation features,including the aging population,hollow villages,changes in the allocation of land resource,semi-urbanization,and regional differences in rural development.Finally,it also provides suggestions for planning tactics in the 13th Five-Year Plan period,such as making differentiated rural development strategies,exploring new methods to stimulate rural stock land planning and use,and enforcing relevant policy and management reforms.

  17. Chief Financial Officer FY 1997 status report and five-year plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    The Chief Financial Officers Act of 1990 (CFO Act) establishes the legal framework for improved Federal financial management. The Act requires the agency CFO to prepare, and annually revise, a plan to implement the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Federal Financial Management Status Report and Five-Year Plan. This is the sixth Status Report and Five-Year Plan submission to OMB by the Department of Energy (DOE). Financial management at the Department operates in an environment of Government-wide efforts to improve financial management and implements legislation and administrative provisions which stress the need for change. This report sets forth the Department`s plans for financial management improvements in the coming years. It also highlights several new initiatives completed or currently underway that will significantly improve the overall effectiveness of financial management at the Department of Energy.

  18. Mathematical descriptions of a one- and five-year old child for use in dosimetry calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, J.M.L.; Shoup, R.L.; Warner, G.G.; Poston, J.W.

    1976-03-01

    Mathematical representations for estimating the absorbed radiation dose from external and internal radiation sources of a one-year old and a five-year old human have been designed. The phantoms used consist of head, trunk and leg regions with a skeletal system and twenty-two internal organs, each. The mathematical descriptions of these phantoms have been coded into Fortran computer language for use with a Monte-Carlo photon transport code. This computer code was used to calculate absorbed fractions of energy deposited in different targets organs from a radionuclide deposited uniformly in a source organ. Absorbed dose calculations were performed for two /sup 99m/Tc-labeled pharmaceuticals. Photon absorbed fraction estimates for the pediatric phantoms from Monte-Carlo calculations were combined with biological data to estimate dose distributions in one-year old and five-year old children

  19. Five-Year NRHP Re-Evaluation of Historic Buildings Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullrich, R A; Heidecker, K R

    2011-09-12

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) 'Draft Programmatic Agreement among the Department of Energy and the California State Historic Preservation Officer Regarding Operation of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory' requires a review and re-evaluation of the eligibility of laboratory properties for the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP) every five years. The original evaluation was published in 2005; this report serves as the first five-year re-evaluation. This re-evaluation includes consideration of changes within LLNL to management, to mission, and to the built environment. it also determines the status of those buildings, objects, and districts that were recommended as NRHP-eligible in the 2005 report. Buildings that were omitted from the earlier building list, those that have reached 50 years of age since the original assessment, and new buildings are also addressed in the re-evaluation.

  20. A Study Of Universal Immunization Coverage During Last Five Years In Resettlement Colonies Of Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salhotra V S

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Research Question: Is there any difference in immunization coverage in resettlement colonies of Delhi during past five years? Objectives: 1. To study the immunization coverage levels of children over a period of five years. 2. To observe changes in the coverage levels of different years, if any. Study design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Khichripur, Kalyanpuri, Kalyanpuri, Trilokpuri and Himmatpuri- four resettlement colonies of trans-Yamuna area of Delhi. Participants: 1500 children belonging to five age-groups i.e. birth-1 yr., 1-2 yrs., 2-3 yrs, and 4-5 yrs. Methods: Verification of child’s immunization from immunization card and interview of mother if immunization car was not available. Study period: May1997 to March1998 Results: Immunization with individual vaccines and immunization status of the children peaked in 1995-96 but started falling thereafter due to fall in ICE activities.

  1. Alendronate functionalized mesoporous hydroxyapatite nanoparticles for drug delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Dongdong; Zhu, Yuntao; Liang, Zhiqiang

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The synthesized mesoporous hydroxyapatite has nanostructure and bioactivity. ► The materials have high surface area and amino group. ► The materials show higher drug loading and slower release rate than pure HAP. - Abstract: Mesoporous nanosized hydroxyapatite (HAP) functionalized by alendronate (ALN) was synthesized using cationic surfactant CTAB as template. The structural, morphological and textural properties were fully characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and N 2 adsorption/desorption. Then the obtained materials were performed as drug delivery carriers using ibuprofen (IBU) as a model drug to investigate their drug storage/release properties in simulated body fluid (SBF). The materials showed relatively slower release rate compared with HAP due to the ionic interaction between -NH 3 + on the matrix and -COO − belongs to IBU. The system provides a new concept for improving the drug loading or slowing down the release rate

  2. System of optimization computations of five year plans in the coal industry. [USSR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goyzman, E I; Korenev, V G

    1980-01-01

    A system of optimization computations of five year plans is set forth which was developed over a number of years at the Central Scientific Research Institute of Economics and Scientific-Technical Information of the Coal Industry. Basic principles of design and methodological approaches are given which were used in development of the systemas well as levels of administration and information links between them. The report analyzes the characteristics of problems of planning which arise at different stages of formation of the five year plans and discusses possibilities of taking into account these characteristics in optimized models. Economic formulations of problems of optimization of five year plans are given as applied to two levels of administration: at the branch level and at the level of production associations. Economic-mathematical models of optimization of five year plans are developed for each of the levels and their characteristic features described. The primary methodological principles, on the basis of which optimization models were developed are examined. An economic-mathematical model with continuous variables was developed for the branch level of planning. Volumes of recovery according to a group of shafts in the stage of normal operation (stable group) of each production enterprise are adopted as model variables. A system of limitations which includes limitations on volumes and distinguishable resources is formulated. The minimum of operating expenses, minimum of capital investments and maximum of recovery volumes for the planned period can be used as the optimization criteria. An economic-mathematical model which uses integral variable was developed for the production association level.

  3. Does television viewing predict dietary intake five years later in high school students and young adults?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neumark-Sztainer Dianne

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prior research has found that television viewing is associated with poor diet quality, though little is known about its long-term impact on diet, particularly during adolescence. This study examined the associations between television viewing behavior with dietary intake five years later. Methods Survey data, which included television viewing time and food frequency questionnaires, were analyzed for 564 middle school students (younger cohort and 1366 high school students (older cohort who had complete data available at Time 1 (1998–1999 and five years later at Time 2 (mean age at Time 2, 17.2 ± 0.6 and 20.5 ± 0.8 years, respectively. Regression models examined longitudinal associations between Time 1 television viewing behavior and Time 2 dietary intake adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, Time 1 dietary intake, and Time 2 total daily energy intake. Results Respondents were categorized as limited television users (2 hours/daily, moderately high television viewers (2–5 hours/daily, and heavy television viewers (≥5 hours/daily. Among the younger cohort, Time 1 heavy television viewers reported lower fruit intake and higher sugar-sweetened beverage consumption than the other two groups. Among the older cohort, watching five or more hours of television per day at Time 1, predicted lower intakes of fruits, vegetables, whole grain and calcium-rich foods, and higher intakes of trans fat, fried foods, fast food menu items, snack products, and sugar-sweetened beverages (products commonly advertised on television five years later. Conclusion Television viewing in middle and high school predicted poorer dietary intake five years later. Adolescents are primary targets of advertising for fast food restaurants, snack foods, and sugar-sweetened beverages, which may influence their food choices. Television viewing, especially during high school, may have long-term effects on eating choices and contribute to poor eating

  4. The U.S.-Singapore Free Trade Agreement: Effects After Five Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-26

    U.S. service providers in Singapore under the FTA , Citibank has been able to expand its operations there (it has 50% of the credit card market...failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE 26 MAR 2010 2. REPORT...U.S.-Singapore Free Trade Agreement: Effects After Five Years Congressional Research Service Summary The U.S.-Singapore Free Trade Agreement ( FTA

  5. The covered distance for twenty five years of the Manche waste storage 1969 - 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gourden, J.M.

    2001-01-01

    The twenty five years of the Manche plant,are narrated with the difficulties of the beginning, the problems coming from leaks or runoff that have led to improvement in the knowledge of radioactive waste behaviour and the solutions that have been brought. It is from the building of the plant until the radioactive waste management that is related in this book. (N.C.)

  6. Risk Factors of Diarrhea in Children Under Five Years in Urban Slums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balakrishna Kalakheti

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Diarrhea is a leading cause of mortality in children in developing countries and the condition is worse in slums. In order to provide effective preventive and management strategies, it is important to identify factors associated with the disease. This study was carried out to investigate the risk factors of diarrhea in  children under five years of age in urban slums. Methods: Parents of all children under five years from the urban slums of Tansen municipality, Palpa, Nepal were interviewed using a standardized pretested questionnaire and proforma. Parental variables, environmental factors, and presence of diarrhea in those children in past three months were collected by trained enumerators and the data were analyzed with statistical software SPSS-10. Results: A total of 450 under five years children were enrolled in the study. There were 216 (48% male and 234 (52% female children with F:M ratio of 1.08:1. Occurrence of diarrhea was lower if the children were breast-fed for more than six months, well-nourished, used fountain water for drinking, or used boiled or treated water. Similarly, diarrhea prevalence was lower if father had a regular job, daily income in the family was more than one US dollar, there was a toilet in the house, practice of hand washing was followed before feeding or preparing food, or there was no child suffering from diarrhea in the neighborhood. Conclusion: There are a few variables that are significantly related to diarrhea in children under five years of age. In order to decrease the diarrheal episodes in children in the slums of the developing countries, priority could be given in the improvement of those variables.

  7. Review of the Main Activities Carried out by the CSN in the Last Five Years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Nearing the time to finalise a new phase for the Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear, it is time to make a brief account of the main activities carried out over the past five years. During this period, one in which the CSN celebrated its 25th Anniversary, the organisation has served a social demand in a modernisation and adjustment process, followed by the continuous improvement process which throughout its history the former management, teams have carried out with great stamina and dedication. (Author)

  8. Five years' experience of the new SAPs: overview and way forward

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pape, R.P.

    1998-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the five years' experience gained in applying the new safety assessment principles (SAPs). Beginning with a brief history of SAPs, it goes on to discuss their structure and their relevance to safety matters. It develops some of the more basic issues which users have to bear in mind and also considers how SAPs are used by NII. Finally, there is a look forward to future developments in SAPs usage and application. (author)

  9. Five years after Fukushima, it's time to seize new nuclear opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shephers, John [nuclear24, Redditch (United Kingdom)

    2016-05-15

    In March of this year, we marked a painful chapter in the history of the world's civil nuclear energy industry as we reflected on the earthquake and tsunami that struck Japan five years ago - leading to the nuclear accident at Fukushima-Daiichi. In moving on, the nuclear industry needs to absorb the lessons learned from Fukushima and there are now clear signals for going on with nuclear.

  10. A National Study of the Prevalence of Autism among Five-Year-Old Children in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samadi, Sayyed Ali; Mahmoodizadeh, Ameneh; McConkey, Roy

    2012-01-01

    In Iran, more than 1.3 million five-year olds have been screened for autism over three academic years, with the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ). The Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) is used to confirm a diagnosis of typical autism. The resulting prevalence of 6.26 per 10,000 for typical autism is in line with rates for certain…

  11. Retrospective Evaluation of the Five-Year and Ten-Year CSEP-Italy Earthquake Forecasts

    OpenAIRE

    Werner, M. J.; Zechar, J. D.; Marzocchi, W.; Wiemer, S.

    2010-01-01

    On 1 August 2009, the global Collaboratory for the Study of Earthquake Predictability (CSEP) launched a prospective and comparative earthquake predictability experiment in Italy. The goal of the CSEP-Italy experiment is to test earthquake occurrence hypotheses that have been formalized as probabilistic earthquake forecasts over temporal scales that range from days to years. In the first round of forecast submissions, members of the CSEP-Italy Working Group presented eighteen five-year and ten...

  12. Assessment of China's renewable energy contribution during the 12th Five Year Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Lixuan; Zhou, Nan; Fridley, David; Raczkowski, Chris

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, China has been ambitious in investing and developing renewable energy technologies, aiming to enhance its energy security, mitigate its energy-related CO 2 emissions and develop renewable energy industry. The 12th Five Year Plan (2011–2015) has set clear targets on installed capacities of different renewable energy technologies. This study aimed to assess the possible contribution of 12th Five Year Plan for China's future energy system and identify factors that might influence its impacts. First, current status of renewable energy development in China has been reviewed. Then several energy scenarios have been developed in an hourly simulation using an energy system analysis tool EnergyPLAN. It was identified that existing grid bottleneck would greatly reduce the potential contribution of renewable installations in terms of share of renewable electricity generation, share of non-fossil fuels in primary energy and system CO 2 emissions. In contrast, improving technical performance of renewable energy technologies and sectoral energy efficiency plays an important role in increasing the share of renewables and promoting China’s energy system transition. Finally, some policy suggestions were drawn to facilitate a better implementation of the renewable energy plan. - Highlights: • China's renewable energy contribution during the 12th Five Year Plan was assessed. • Non-fossil fuel targets in primary energy for 2015 and 2020 could be easily achieved. • Grid bottlenecks severely decrease the share of RES-E in electricity generation through the 12th Five Year Period. • Improved technical performance of renewable technologies and sectoral energy efficiency are extremely important for achieving higher RES-E share. • Several policy suggestions were drawn

  13. Policy recommendations for improvement and strengthening of future provincial environmental five years plans in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-11-15

    Since the Eleventh Five-Year Plan (2006-2010) started, the environmental protection plan has been playing a more and more important role in the implementation of Chinas national environmental protection strategy as well as promoting and carrying out the 'three historical transitions' in environmental protection, and enhancing the functions of environmental protection for macroscopic adjustment and control and optimizing economic growth.(auth)

  14. Five-Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe Observations: Beam Maps and Window Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, R. S.; Weiland, J. L.; Odegard, N.; Wollack, E.; Hinshaw, G.; Larson, D.; Bennett, C. L.; Halpern, M.; Page, L.; Dunkley, J.; Gold, B.; Jarosik, N.; Kogut, A.; Limon, M.; Nolta, M. R.; Spergel, D. N.; Tucker, G. S.; Wright, E. L.

    2009-02-01

    Cosmology and other scientific results from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) mission require an accurate knowledge of the beam patterns in flight. While the degree of beam knowledge for the WMAP one-year and three-year results was unprecedented for a CMB experiment, we have significantly improved the beam determination as part of the five-year data release. Physical optics fits are done on both the A and the B sides for the first time. The cutoff scale of the fitted distortions on the primary mirror is reduced by a factor of ~2 from previous analyses. These changes enable an improvement in the hybridization of Jupiter data with beam models, which is optimized with respect to error in the main beam solid angle. An increase in main-beam solid angle of ~1% is found for the V2 and W1-W4 differencing assemblies. Although the five-year results are statistically consistent with previous ones, the errors in the five-year beam transfer functions are reduced by a factor of ~2 as compared to the three-year analysis. We present radiometry of the planet Jupiter as a test of the beam consistency and as a calibration standard; for an individual differencing assembly, errors in the measured disk temperature are ~0.5%. WMAP is the result of a partnership between Princeton University and NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. Scientific guidance is provided by the WMAP Science Team.

  15. Does life satisfaction predict five-year mortality in community-living older adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    St John, Philip D; Mackenzie, Corey; Menec, Verena

    2015-01-01

    Depression and depressive symptoms predict death, but it is less clear if more general measures of life satisfaction (LS) predict death. Our objectives were to determine: (1) if LS predicts mortality over a five-year period in community-living older adults; and (2) which aspects of LS predict death. 1751 adults over the age of 65 who were living in the community were sampled from a representative population sampling frame in 1991/1992 and followed five years later. Age, gender, and education were self-reported. An index of multimorbidity and the Older American Resource Survey measured health and functional status, and the Terrible-Delightful Scale assessed overall LS as well as satisfaction with: health, finances, family, friends, housing, recreation, self-esteem, religion, and transportation. Cox proportional hazards models examined the influence of LS on time to death. 417 participants died during the five-year study period. Overall LS and all aspects of LS except finances, religion, and self-esteem predicted death in unadjusted analyses. In fully adjusted analyses, LS with health, housing, and recreation predicted death. Other aspects of LS did not predict death after accounting for functional status and multimorbidity. LS predicted death, but certain aspects of LS are more strongly associated with death. The effect of LS is complex and may be mediated or confounded by health and functional status. It is important to consider different domains of LS when considering the impact of this important emotional indicator on mortality among older adults.

  16. Five year survival analysis of an oxidised zirconium total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Philip; Santini, Alasdair J A; Davidson, John S; Pope, Jill A

    2013-12-01

    Zirconium total knee arthroplasties theoretically have a low incidence of failure as they are low friction, hard wearing and hypoallergenic. We report the five year survival of 213 Profix zirconium total knee arthroplasties with a conforming all polyethylene tibial component. Data was collected prospectively and multiple strict end points were used. SF12 and WOMAC scores were recorded pre-operatively, at three months, at twelve months, at 3 years and at 5 years. Eight patients died and six were "lost to follow-up". The remaining 199 knees were followed up for five years. The mean WOMAC score improved from 56 to 35 and the mean SF12 physical component score improved from 28 to 34. The five year survival for failure due to implant related reasons was 99.5% (95% CI 97.4-100). This was due to one tibial component becoming loose aseptically in year zero. Our results demonstrate that the Profix zirconium total knee arthroplasty has a low medium term failure rate comparable to the best implants. Further research is needed to establish if the beneficial properties of zirconium improve long term implant survival. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Five-year change in morale is associated with negative life events in very old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Näsman, Marina; Niklasson, Johan; Saarela, Jan; Nygård, Mikael; Olofsson, Birgitta; Conradsson, Mia; Lövheim, Hugo; Gustafson, Yngve; Nyqvist, Fredrica

    2017-10-27

    The objectives were to study changes in morale in individuals 85 years and older, and to assess the effect of negative life events on morale over a five-year follow-up period. The present study is based on longitudinal data from the Umeå85+/GERDA-study, including individuals 85 years and older at baseline (n = 204). Morale was measured with the Philadelphia Geriatric Center Morale Scale (PGCMS). Negative life events were assessed using an index including 13 negative life events occurring during the follow-up period. Linear regression was used for the multivariate analyses. The majority of the sample (69.1%) had no significant changes in morale during the five-year follow-up. However, the accumulation of negative life events was significantly associated with a greater decrease in PGCMS. A higher baseline PGCMS score did not attenuate the adverse effect negative life events had on morale. Morale seemed to be mainly stable in a five-year follow-up of very old people. It seems, nonetheless, that individuals are affected by negative life events, regardless of level of morale. Preventing negative life events and supporting individuals who experience multiple negative life events could have important implications for the care of very old people.

  18. Public comments and responses to the 1993 Hanford cleanup five-year plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-08-01

    In March 1993, the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) published its annual Site-Specific Five-Year Plan. The Site-Specific Plan is published to inform the public about the background, status, and plans for Environmental Restoration (ER) and Waste Management (WM) activities at the Hanford site. It is the only document that seeks to bring all ER and WM elements together in one document. The Site-Specific Plan is a companion document to the National Five-Year Plan that deals with all the sites within the DOE complex on a summary level. This Response to Comments document does not try to address every question or concern raised during the public comment period. Some questions were outside the scope of the Five-Year Plan, some we could not decipher, others were variations of the same question. The initial round of public meetings was held in Portland, Oregon, and Seattle, Pasco, and Olympia, Washington. At the request of the Oregon Department of Energy (ODOE) and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology), a second round of meetings was held in Portland and Olympia. Both agencies felt that the first two meetings were held with too little advance notice, and before the Plan could be distributed. Once the public meetings were over and the comment period closed, we then compiled the public comments, largely from audio tapes of the meetings. Individual functions within Hanford were asked to consider and respond to the comments

  19. Suicide rates in five-year age-bands after the age of 60 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shah, Ajit; Bhat, Ravi; Zarate-Escudero, Sofia

    2016-01-01

    -79 years) and the oldest old (80+ years) age groups. METHODS: Data on the number of suicides (International Classification of Diseases - ICD-10 codes, X60-84) in each of the eight five-year age-bands between the age-bands 60-64 years and 95-99 years in both gender for as many years as possible from 2000...... were ascertained from three sources: colleagues with access to national data, national statisics office websites and email contact with the national statistics offices. The population size for the corresponding years and age-bands was estimated for each country using data provided by the United Nations......BACKGROUND: There is paucity of studies examining suicide rates in narrow five-year age-bands after the age of 60 years. This study examined suicide rates in eight five-year age-bands between the age of 60 and 99 years because this will allow more precise comparison between the young old (60...

  20. The effect of five years versus two years of specialised assertive intervention for first episode psychosis - OPUS II: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melau, Marianne; Jeppesen, Pia; Thorup, Anne

    2011-01-01

    . Based on our sample size estimation, 400 patients treated in OPUS for two years will be randomized to further three years of OPUS treatment versus standard treatment. The specialized assertive OPUS treatment consists of three core elements: assertive community treatment, psycho-educational family...... treatment, and social skills training. Discussion It has been hypothesized that there is a critical period from onset up to five years, which represents a window of opportunity where a long-term course can be influenced. Extending the specialized assertive OPUS treatment up to five years may allow...... the beneficial effects to continue beyond the high-risk period, through consolidation of improved social and functional outcome. Trial registration Clinical Trial.gov NCT00914238...

  1. Radiation therapy: A major factor in the five-year survival analysis of women with breast cancer in Lagos, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makanjuola, Samira B.L.; Popoola, Abiodun O.; Oludara, Mobolaji A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This retrospective study was carried out to examine five-year survival from breast cancer cases diagnosed between 2005 and May 2008 in Nigerian women. Material and methods: Two hundred and twenty-four patients were entered into the study. Five-year survival was evaluated using proportional hazard model proposed by Cox to assess variables such as age of diagnosis, menopausal status, and stage of the disease in the two treatment groups: surgery/chemotherapy or surgery/chemotherapy/radiotherapy. Results: Findings revealed that the different staging of disease and treatment are independent predictors of disease outcome whereas age of diagnosis and menopausal status although associated with low hazards, are not significant. TNM Stage I (Hazard Ratio = 0.153, 95% CI 0.45–0.51, P = 0.003), II (Hazard Ratio = 0.245, 95% CI 0.12–0.46, P = 0.0001), and III (Hazard Ratio = 0.449, 95% CI 0.31–0.46, P = 0.0001) showed significantly greater survival rates compared to TNM Stage IV for patients receiving surgery/chemotherapy. Similarly, for patients receiving surgery/chemotherapy/radiotherapy TNM Stage II (Hazard Ratio = 0.110, 95% CI 0.02–0.46, P = 0.003) and III (Hazard Ratio = 0.238, 95% CI 0.07–0.73, P = 0.012) also showed significantly greater survival rates compared to TNM Stage IV. Treatment had a significant impact on survival independent of stage, age, and menopausal status. Patients receiving surgery/chemotherapy/radiotherapy had a significant increase in survival outcome for TNM Stage (II, P = 0.045; III, P = 0.0001); age groups (40–49, P = 0.021; 50–59, P = 0.016; 60–69, P = 0.017; >70, P = 0.025); and menopausal status (premenopausal, P = 0.049; postmenopausal, P = 0.0001) compared to those receiving surgery/chemotherapy. Conclusion: The five-year breast cancer survival rate in Lagos, Nigeria 24.1% (54/224) is relatively poor compared to most countries in the world and needs to be improved. Poor survival rates are mainly attributed to late

  2. Effect of insulin combined alendronate sodium on bone mineral density and levels of serum BAP, TRAP-5b and BGP in aged patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Wang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the effect of insulin combined alendronate sodium on bone mineral density and levels of serum BAP, TRAP-5b and BGP in aged patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with osteoporosis. Methods: A total of 136 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with osteoporosis in January 2014 to January 2016 in our hospital for the treatment were selected, and randomly divided into 4 groups, each of 40 cases. Caltrate D was given as a basic treatment to all the patients, and the control group was given the treatment of insulin, and the metformin group was given the treatment of metformin, and the combination group was given the treatment of metformin combined alendronate, and the experiment group was given the treatment of insulin combined alendronate. BMD of the femoral neck and the serum levels of BAP, TRAP-5b and BGP were detected and recorded before the treatment and after one year’s treatment. Results: On index of bone mineral density, the control group and the metformin group showed no significant differences; the combination group was slightly improved, but showed no statistical significance; After the treatment, the bone mineral density of the experiment was significantly improved. On index of bone turnover, the levels of serum BAP and BGP all had been improved and the level of TRAP-5b all was reduced then before the treatment in the control group, the combination group and the experiment group, but only the experiment group showed significant differences; On index of bone turnover, the experiment group were better than other groups, the differences were statistical significant. Conclusions: It has greater clinical curative effect that insulin combined alendronate sodium in the treatment of aged patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with osteoporosis, it can effectively balance the metabolism of bone, safe and reliable, and it is worthy of application.

  3. Five-year mortality after acute poisoning treated in ambulances, an emergency outpatient clinic and hospitals in Oslo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Cathrine; Bjornaas, Mari A; Sandvik, Leiv; Ekeberg, Oivind; Jacobsen, Dag; Hovda, Knut E

    2013-08-21

    The long-term mortality after prehospital treatment for acute poisoning has not been studied previously. Thus, we aimed to estimate the five-year mortality and examine the causes of death and predictors of death for all acutely poisoned patients treated in ambulances, the emergency outpatient clinic, and hospitals in Oslo during 2003-2004. A prospective cohort study included all adults (≥16 years; n=2045, median age=35 years, male=58%) who were discharged after treatment for acute poisoning in ambulances, the emergency outpatient clinic, and the four hospitals in Oslo during one year. The patients were observed until the end of 2008. Standardized mortality rates (SMRs) were calculated and multivariate Cox regression analysis was applied. The study comprised 2045 patients; 686 treated in ambulances, 646 treated in the outpatient clinic, and 713 treated in hospitals. After five years, 285 (14%) patients had died (four within one week). The SMRs after ambulance, outpatient, and hospital treatment were 12 (CI 9-14), 10 (CI 8-12), and 6 (CI 5-7), respectively. The overall SMR was 9 (CI 8-10), while the SMR after opioid poisoning was 27 (CI 21-32). The most frequent cause of death was accidents (38%). In the regression analysis, opioids as the main toxic agents (HR 2.3, CI 1.6-3.0), older age (HR 1.6, CI 1.5-1.7), and male sex (HR 1.4, CI 1.1-1.9) predicted death, whereas the treatment level did not predict death. The patients had high mortality compared with the general population. Those treated in hospital had the lowest mortality. Opioids were the major predictor of death.

  4. The 1989 patterns of care study for prostate cancer: five-year outcomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuba, Paul J.; Moughan, Jennifer; Forman, Jeffrey D.; Owen, Jean; Hanks, Gerald

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: Five-year results from the 1989 patterns of care study (PCS) for prostate cancer are now ready for analysis. The PCS was initiated to determine national averages for treatments and examine outcomes prospectively; the 1989 prostate study is the first to have collected pre- and post-treatment serum PSA data. Methods and Materials: Six hundred patients treated with radiotherapy with curative intent for prostate cancer at 71 separate institutions in the year 1989 made up the study population. Three hundred ninety-one cases were fully analyzable. Pretreatment patient and tumor characteristics were as follows: of the 391 analyzable, 255 had pretreatment PSA values obtained, and 245 had a Gleason's sum (GS) reported. Three hundred fifty-eight were Caucasian, 24 African-American, and 3 Hispanic (also 6 unknown). One hundred three patients had PSA 20. Ninety-seven patients were from Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG), Community Cancer Centers (CCC), or teaching institutions; 141 patients were from other hospital-based, nonteaching institutions; and 153 were from freestanding radiation oncology facilities. Seventy-one patients were T1, 203 T2, and 100 T3/4. Twenty-four out of 391 patients also received neoadjuvant hormone therapy. Survival curves were constructed using Kaplan-Meier methods, and differences between groups were tested for significance using the log-rank test. For cumulative incidence curves, Gray's test was used to investigate failure distributions between groups. The variables entering Cox model for multivariate analysis included age, race, T stage, pretreatment PSA, and GS. A patient was considered a PSA failure if the treating radiation oncologist reported it as such. Results: With a median follow-up of 5.7 years, the 5-year biochemical no evidence of disease (bNED) and overall survival were 56% and 79% respectively for Stage T1, 52% and 81% for T2, and 36% and 63% for Stages T3 and T4 combined. As expected, higher pretreatment PSA, GS, and T

  5. Exercise prevented the lansoprazole-induced reduction of anti-osteoporotic efficacy of alendronate in androgen deficiency rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cegieła, Urszula; Pytlik, Maria; Folwarczna, Joanna; Miozga, Rafał; Piskorz, Szymon; Nowak, Dorota

    2014-01-01

    Clinical studies indicate that proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), used long-term in elderly patients, increase the risk of osteoporotic fractures, and decrease the anti-fracture efficacy of alendronate. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of physical exercise on the anti-osteoporotic efficacy of alendronate administered concurrently with lansoprazole, a PPI, in male rats with androgen deficiency induced by orchidectomy. Male Wistar rats at 3 months of age were divided into: sham-operated control rats, orchidectomized (ORX) control rats, ORX rats receiving alendronate, ORX rats receiving alendronate and lansoprazole, ORX rats receiving alendronate and subjected to exercise, and ORX rats receiving alendronate and lansoprazole and subjected to exercise. The orchidectomy or sham-operation was performed 7-8 days before the start of drug administration. The rats were subjected to the exercise on the treadmill 1 hour/day for 7 weeks (6 days a week). Alendronate sodium (3 mg/kg p.o.) and lansoprazole (4 mg/kg p.o.) were administered once daily for 7 weeks (6 days a week). Mechanical properties of the tibial metaphysis and femoral neck were assessed. Bone turnover markers, histomorphometric parameters, bone mass and mass of bone mineral were also studied. Lansoprazole weakened the anti-osteoporotic efficacy of alendronate. The exercise increased the alendronate effect. Similar changes were observed in the rats treated with lansoprazole and alendronate, subjected to exercise; no deleterious effects of lansoprazole were observed. In conclusion, the exercise prevented the lansoprazole-induced reduction the anti-osteoporotic efficacy of alendronate in orchidectomized rats.

  6. Differences in otosclerotic and normal human stapedial osteoblast properties are normalized by alendronate in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronowicz, Gloria; Richardson, Yvonne L; Flynn, John; Kveton, John; Eisen, Marc; Leonard, Gerald; Aronow, Michael; Rodner, Craig; Parham, Kourosh

    2014-10-01

    Identify and compare phenotypic properties of osteoblasts from patients with otosclerosis (OSO), normal bones (HOB), and normal stapes (NSO) to determine a possible cause for OSO hypermineralization and assess any effects of the bisphosphonate, alendronate. OSO (n = 11), NSO (n = 4), and HOB (n = 13) cultures were assayed for proliferation, adhesion, mineralization, and gene expression with and without 10(-10)M-10(-8)M alendronate. Academic hospital. Cultures were matched for age, sex, and passage number. Cell attachment and proliferation + alendronate were determined by Coulter counting cells and assaying tritiated thymidine uptake, respectively. At 7, 14, and 21 days of culture + alendronate, calcium content and gene expression by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) were determined. OSO had significantly more cells adhere but less proliferation than NSO or HOB. Calcification was significantly increased in OSO compared to HOB and NSO. NSO and HOB had similar cell adhesion and proliferation rates. A dose-dependent effect of alendronate on OSO adhesion, proliferation, and mineralization was found, resulting in levels equal to NSO and HOB. All cultures expressed osteoblast-specific genes such as RUNX2, alkaline phosphatase, type I collagen, and osteocalcin. However, osteopontin was dramatically reduced, 9.4-fold at 14 days, in OSO compared to NSO. Receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand/osteoprotegerin (RANKL/OPG), important in bone resorption, was elevated in OSO with decreased levels of OPG levels. Alendronate had little effect on gene expression in HOB but in OSO increased osteopontin levels and decreased RANKL/OPG. OSO cultures displayed properties of hypermineralization due to decreased osteopontin (OPN) and also had increased RANKL/OPG, which were normalized by alendronate. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2014.

  7. The resistance of cortical bone tissue to failure under cyclic loading is reduced with alendronate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajaj, Devendra; Geissler, Joseph R; Allen, Matthew R; Burr, David B; Fritton, J C

    2014-07-01

    Bisphosphonates are the most prescribed preventative treatment for osteoporosis. However, their long-term use has recently been associated with atypical fractures of cortical bone in patients who present with low-energy induced breaks of unclear pathophysiology. The effects of bisphosphonates on the mechanical properties of cortical bone have been exclusively studied under simple, monotonic, quasi-static loading. This study examined the cyclic fatigue properties of bisphosphonate-treated cortical bone at a level in which tissue damage initiates and is accumulated prior to frank fracture in low-energy situations. Physiologically relevant, dynamic, 4-point bending applied to beams (1.5 mm × 0.5 mm × 10 mm) machined from dog rib (n=12/group) demonstrated mechanical failure and micro-architectural features that were dependent on drug dose (3 groups: 0, 0.2, 1.0mg/kg/day; alendronate [ALN] for 3 years) with cortical bone tissue elastic modulus (initial cycles of loading) reduced by 21% (pbone remodeling, such as the size of osteons (-14%; ALN1.0: 10.5±1.8, VEH: 12.2±1.6, ×10(3) μm2; pbone tissue are altered by high-dose ALN treatment and contribute to reduced mechanical properties under cyclic loading conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Five year prognosis in patients with angina identified in primary care: incident cohort study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Buckley, Brian S

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To ascertain the risk of acute myocardial infarction, invasive cardiac procedures, and mortality among patients with newly diagnosed angina over five years. DESIGN: Incident cohort study of patients with primary care data linked to secondary care and mortality data. SETTING: 40 primary care practices in Scotland. PARTICIPANTS: 1785 patients with a diagnosis of angina as their first manifestation of ischaemic heart disease, 1 January 1998 to 31 December 2001. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Adjusted hazard ratios for acute myocardial infarction, coronary artery bypass grafting, percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty, death from ischaemic heart disease, and all cause mortality, adjusted for demographics, lifestyle risk factors, and comorbidity at cohort entry. RESULTS: Mean age was 62.3 (SD 11.3). Male sex was associated with an increased risk of acute myocardial infarction (hazard ratio 2.01, 95% confidence interval 1.35 to 2.97), death from ischaemic heart disease (2.80, 1.73 to 4.53), and all cause mortality (1.82, 1.33 to 2.49). Increasing age was associated with acute myocardial infarction (1.04, 1.02 to 1.06, per year of age increase), death from ischaemic heart disease (1.09, 1.06 to 1.11, per year of age increase), and all cause mortality (1.09, 1.07 to 1.11, per year of age increase). Smoking was associated with subsequent acute myocardial infarction (1.94, 1.31 to 2.89), death from ischaemic heart disease (2.12, 1.32 to 3.39), and all cause mortality (2.11, 1.52 to 2.95). Obesity was associated with death from ischaemic heart disease (2.01, 1.17 to 3.45) and all cause mortality (2.20, 1.52 to 3.19). Previous stroke was associated with all cause mortality (1.78, 1.13 to 2.80) and chronic kidney disease with death from ischaemic heart disease (5.72, 1.74 to 18.79). Men were more likely than women to have coronary artery bypass grafting or percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty after a diagnosis of angina; older people were less likely to

  9. CO2 emissions and economic development: China's 12th five-year plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng Ming; Niu Dongxiao; Shang Wei

    2012-01-01

    For the period of the 12th Five-Year Plan (2011–2015), the Chinese government has decided to reconsider and adjust its policies on economic development because of the pressures of CO 2 emissions and fossil energy consumption. The current paper adopts the logarithmic Stochastic Impacts by Regression on Population, Affluence, and Technology (STIRPAT) model to simulate the relationship between CO 2 emissions and other economic development factors in China. Three groups of outliers are found using samples from 1989 to 2008 and the Partial Least Square (PLS) regularity test method. The outlier analysis reveals three important areas for CO 2 reduction: (a) decreasing the share of coal to the total energy consumption and replacing it with non-fossil energies; (b) controlling vehicles used in the cities as well as (c) adjusting industrial structure. Furthermore, based on the social and economic realities of China, the current paper designs six feasible development scenarios for the period covered by the 12th Five-Year Plan and predicts the values of each factor in each scenario. The values can test the implementation of China's CO 2 control development concept. The experiences obtained by outlier analysis can be of significant reference value for realizing the predicted scenarios. - Highlights: ► Using STIRPAT to analyze China's CO 2 emissions and economic development factors. ► Using the PLS outlier test method, three groups of outliers are found. ► Outlier analysis reveals three important areas on reducing CO 2 emissions. ► We design six feasible scenarios for the period covered by the 12th Five-Year Plan. ► We predict the values of each factor in each scenario.

  10. Chagas disease: national survey of seroprevalence in children under five years of age conducted in 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russomando, Graciela; Cousiño, Blanca; Sanchez, Zunilda; Franco, Laura X; Nara, Eva M; Chena, Lilian; Martínez, Magaly; Galeano, María E; Benitez, Lucio

    2017-05-01

    Since the early 1990s, programs to control Chagas disease in South America have focused on eradicating domiciliary Triatoma infestans, the main vector. Seroprevalence studies of the chagasic infection are included as part of the vector control programs; they are essential to assess the impact of vector control measures and to monitor the prevention of vector transmission. To assess the interruption of domiciliary vector transmission of Chagas disease by T. infestans in Paraguay by evaluating the current state of transmission in rural areas. A survey of seroprevalence of Chagas disease was carried out in a representative sample group of Paraguayans aged one to five years living in rural areas of Paraguay in 2008. Blood samples collected on filter paper from 12,776 children were tested using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Children whose serology was positive or undetermined (n = 41) were recalled to donate a whole blood sample for retesting. Their homes were inspected for current triatomine infestation. Blood samples from their respective mothers were also collected and tested to check possible transmission of the disease by a congenital route. A seroprevalence rate of 0.24% for Trypanosoma cruzi infection was detected in children under five years of age among the country's rural population. Our findings indicate that T. cruzi was transmitted to these children vertically. The total number of infected children, aged one to five years living in these departments, was estimated at 1,691 cases with an annual incidence of congenital transmission of 338 cases per year. We determined the impact of vector control in the transmission of T. cruzi, following uninterrupted vector control measures employed since 1999 in contiguous T. infestans-endemic areas of Paraguay, and this allowed us to estimate the degree of risk of congenital transmission in the country.

  11. New developments in Indian space policies and programmes—The next five years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhara Murthi, K. R.; Bhaskaranarayana, A.; Madhusudana, H. N.

    2010-02-01

    Over past four decades Indian space programme has systematically acquired capabilities in space technologies and implemented its programmes with a high level of focus on societal applications. It is developed into a multi-dimensional programme where its strategy is directed towards diverse stake holders and actors such as government, users and beneficiaries including general public, industrial suppliers as well as customers, academia and other space agencies/international organisations. Over the next five years, the Indian space programme has charted an ambitious set of policies and programmes that aim to enhance impacts on society. The major task is to enlarge and diversify the services delivered to a large section of population affected by income, connectivity and digital divides. While efficacy of application of space based systems have been proven in several fields such as tele-education, water resources management, improving productivity of land and out reaching quality health services and others, the crux of the problem is to evolve sustainable and scalable delivery mechanisms on a very large scale and extending over large geographical areas. Essentially the problem shifts from being predominately a technology problem to one of a composite of economic, cultural and social problems. Tackling such problems would need renewal of policies relating to commercial as well as public service systems. Major programmatic initiatives are planned in the next five years involving new and upgraded technologies to expand services from space to fill the gaps and to improve economic efficiency. Thrust is also given to science and exploration mission beyond Chandrayaan-1 and some initial steps for the participation in human space flight. This paper discusses the policy and strategy perspectives of the programmes planned by Indian Space Research Organisation over next five years.

  12. Chagas disease: national survey of seroprevalence in children under five years of age conducted in 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela Russomando

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Since the early 1990s, programs to control Chagas disease in South America have focused on eradicating domiciliary Triatoma infestans, the main vector. Seroprevalence studies of the chagasic infection are included as part of the vector control programs; they are essential to assess the impact of vector control measures and to monitor the prevention of vector transmission. OBJECTIVE To assess the interruption of domiciliary vector transmission of Chagas disease by T. infestans in Paraguay by evaluating the current state of transmission in rural areas. METHODS A survey of seroprevalence of Chagas disease was carried out in a representative sample group of Paraguayans aged one to five years living in rural areas of Paraguay in 2008. Blood samples collected on filter paper from 12,776 children were tested using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Children whose serology was positive or undetermined (n = 41 were recalled to donate a whole blood sample for retesting. Their homes were inspected for current triatomine infestation. Blood samples from their respective mothers were also collected and tested to check possible transmission of the disease by a congenital route. FINDINGS A seroprevalence rate of 0.24% for Trypanosoma cruzi infection was detected in children under five years of age among the country’s rural population. Our findings indicate that T. cruzi was transmitted to these children vertically. The total number of infected children, aged one to five years living in these departments, was estimated at 1,691 cases with an annual incidence of congenital transmission of 338 cases per year. MAIN CONCLUSION We determined the impact of vector control in the transmission of T. cruzi, following uninterrupted vector control measures employed since 1999 in contiguous T. infestans-endemic areas of Paraguay, and this allowed us to estimate the degree of risk of congenital transmission in the country.

  13. SNL Five-Year Facilities & Infrastructure Plan FY2015-2019

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cipriani, Ralph J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Sandia’s development vision is to provide an agile, flexible, safer, more secure, and efficient enterprise that leverages the scientific and technical capabilities of the workforce and supports national security requirements in multiple areas. Sandia’s Five-Year Facilities & Infrastructure Planning program represents a tool to budget and prioritize immediate and short-term actions from indirect funding sources in light of the bigger picture of proposed investments from direct-funded, Work for Others and other funding sources. As a complementary F&I investment program, Sandia’s indirect investment program supports incremental achievement of the development vision within a constrained resource environment.

  14. Academic substance and location: The national technical university of Athens' five-year program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spyrou, Kostas J.; Psaraftis, Harilaos N.

    2014-01-01

    The National Technical University of Athens (NTUA) established a small Department of Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering in 1969, within the School of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering. Today, it is organized in four divisions, ship design and maritime transport, ship and marine...... hydrodynamics, marine structures, and marine engineering. To be awarded an engineering diploma in Greece, one has to spend a minimum of five years. The program at NTUA has also 10 semesters, out of which nine are dedicated to course study while the tenth is spend on the writing of a thesis. There is no tuition...

  15. Caries in five-year-old children and associations with family-related factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattila, M L; Rautava, P; Sillanpää, M; Paunio, P

    2000-03-01

    It is generally understood that the teeth of pre-school-aged children are healthy, but the improvement in the dmft index has halted in the industrialized countries. Those few children who have caries have more of it than before. Little is known of the family-related factors which are associated with this polarization of caries. A representative population-based sample consisted of 1443 mothers expecting their first child. The children were followed at well-baby clinics and public dental health clinics for over five years. The objective was to study the prevalence of dental caries and its predictors in five-year-old children and to assess children's own dental health habits and the meaning of family-related factors in dental health. The findings were based on questionnaire data from parents and on clinical dental examinations of the five-year-old children as completed by 101 public health dentists. In firstborn five-year-old children, dental health was found to be good in 72%, fair in 20%, and poor in 8% of the cases. The final multivariate analysis illustrated that the dmft index > 0 was independently associated with the mother's irregular toothbrushing (OR 2.2; 95% CI 1.4-3.5), annual occurrence of several carious teeth in the father (OR 2.6; 95% CI 1.9-3.6), daily sugar consumption at the age of 18 months (OR 2.4; 95% CI 1.4-4.1), occurrence of child's headaches (OR 3.7; 95% CI 1.5-8.8), parents' cohabitation (OR 3.3; 95% CI 1.5-7.6), rural domicile (OR 2.4; 95% CI 1.2-4.5), and mother's young age (OR 5.0; 95% CI 1.3-19.8). The findings indicated that attention should be paid not only to the child's dental health care but also to that of the whole family. Parents should be supported in their upbringing efforts and encouraged to improve their children's dental health habits. In everyday life, parents function as role models for their children, and therefore, parents' own dental hygiene habits are very meaningful.

  16. Sustainable development: five structural milestones for the next five-year term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demailly, Damien; Treyer, Sebastien; Levai, David; Laurans, Yann; Rochette, Julien

    2017-05-01

    The energy transition, climate change, biodiversity, agriculture... the French President, the government and the new majority appointed by the 2017 elections will need to make some important decisions about sustainable development over the next five-year term. Their agenda will be marked in particular by five key events, not only in France, but also at the European and international levels. These five events will be opportunities to adapt the French economy to the major challenges of the 21. century, those of a regulated globalization, combining prosperity, social protection and environmental protection

  17. Environmental restoration and waste management five-year plan, Fiscal years 1994--1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) understands that cleaning up the Nation's nuclear-related sites and facilities affects many different segments of the public, ranging from communities near DOE facilities to engineers concerned with developing new technologies to clean up the environment. In an effort to make the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Five-Year Plan for Fiscal Years (FY) 1994--1998 more responsive to your concerns, DOE invites your comments on the plan. Volume II contains 37 Installation Summaries that provide a synopsis of past, present and future activities of each major installation, and Progress Charts

  18. Five years of opening the electricity market in Germany: an assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feder, A.

    2004-01-01

    In 1998, the German federal government decided to transpose in national law the principle of competition in the sector of electricity. To set up an electricity market, the new law has more or less dismantled the former system of the juxtaposed monopolies of approximately nine hundred local energy firms. The author tries to answer the following questions: How were the new market's legal and institutional modalities determined? What political choices underlie them? What benefits will consumers draw from this liberalization? What assessment has Germany made about these past five years ? What are the hopes and fears for coming years? (author)

  19. [A five-year-old girl with epilepsy showing forced normalization due to zonisamide].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Mieko; Yokoyama, Hiroyuki; Haginoya, Kazuhiro; Iinuma, Kazuie

    2003-05-01

    A case of forced normalization in childhood is presented. When zonisamide was administered to a five-year-old girl with intractable epilepsy, disappearance of seizures was accompanied by severe psychotic episodes such as communication disturbance, personal relationship failure, and stereotyped behavior, which continued after the withdrawal of zonisamide. These symptoms gradually improved by administration of fluvoxamine, however epileptic attacks reappeared. Although most patients with forced normalization are adult and teenager, attention should be paid to this phenomenon as adverse psychotic effects of zonisamide even in young children. Fluvoxamine may be effective for the symptoms.

  20. Twenty-five years of post-Bretton Woods experience: some lessons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. ASKARI

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available In 1971 many academic economists were predicting that the Bretton Woods system of fixed parities would collapse. Some, most notably Milton Friedman, became excited about the possibility of a floating system because the benefits of international capital mobility can only be achieved through the flexibility in the exchange rate. These economists argued that a floating exchange rate system can ensure positive results more than the fixed parities system. Twenty-five years later, however, there is still no consensus on the matter. The author reviews the post-Bretton Woods experience to highlight some policies and approaches that might be helpful for the future.

  1. The NEA co-operative programme on decommissioning. Twenty-five years of progress; the last five years - 2006 through 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The Co-operative Programme for the Exchange of Scientific and Technical Information Concerning Nuclear Installation Decommissioning (CPD) is a joint undertaking according to Article 5 of the Statute of the NEA. Concluded in 1985, the Agreement constituting the CPD has been continuously extended, although modified in 2003, with the current programme period lasting until the end of 2013. This report provides information about the participants, structure and achievements of the Co-operative Programme and the projects involved. The projects in the Programme have a broad range of characteristics and cover various types of reactors and fuel facilities. The number of projects in the programme has grown from 42 to 59 over the past five years. The Programme now covers 35 reactor related projects and 24 fuel related projects representing a wide selection of facility types in each category. Also, all phases of decommissioning - from active dismantling to safe store and to completed decommissioning back to 'green field conditions' - are represented. Over the 25 years of experience of the Co-operative Programme on Decommissioning, and in particular through the information exchange and review within the TAG, it has become evident that: - decommissioning can and has been done in a safe, cost-effective and environmentally friendly manner; - the evolution of technologies have demonstrated their effectiveness in performance improvements in all aspects of conducting decommissioning projects; - the upkeep and maintenance of design, construction and operational records can significantly enhance performance through all stages of a decommissioning project; - in the absence of waste disposal facilities, interim waste storage facilities with integrated waste processing facilities can effectively be used to keep all levels of waste streams moving and avoid delays to project schedules; - cleanup of material for recycle and reuse or disposal as conventional waste is cost

  2. Error identification in a high-volume clinical chemistry laboratory: Five-year experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafri, Lena; Khan, Aysha Habib; Ghani, Farooq; Shakeel, Shahid; Raheem, Ahmed; Siddiqui, Imran

    2015-07-01

    Quality indicators for assessing the performance of a laboratory require a systematic and continuous approach in collecting and analyzing data. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of errors utilizing the quality indicators in a clinical chemistry laboratory and to convert errors to the Sigma scale. Five-year quality indicator data of a clinical chemistry laboratory was evaluated to describe the frequency of errors. An 'error' was defined as a defect during the entire testing process from the time requisition was raised and phlebotomy was done until the result dispatch. An indicator with a Sigma value of 4 was considered good but a process for which the Sigma value was 5 (i.e. 99.977% error-free) was considered well controlled. In the five-year period, a total of 6,792,020 specimens were received in the laboratory. Among a total of 17,631,834 analyses, 15.5% were from within hospital. Total error rate was 0.45% and of all the quality indicators used in this study the average Sigma level was 5.2. Three indicators - visible hemolysis, failure of proficiency testing and delay in stat tests - were below 5 on the Sigma scale and highlight the need to rigorously monitor these processes. Using Six Sigma metrics quality in a clinical laboratory can be monitored more effectively and it can set benchmarks for improving efficiency.

  3. Acceptance of family planning methods by induced abortion seekers: An observational study over five years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathpalia, S K

    2016-01-01

    Prior to legalization of abortion, induced abortions were performed in an illegal manner and that resulted in many complications hence abortion was legalized in India in 1971 and the number of induced abortions has been gradually increasing since then. One way of preventing abortions is to provide family planning services to these abortion seekers so that same is not repeated. The study was performed to find out the acceptance of contraception after abortion. A prospective study was performed over a period of five years from 2010 to 2014. The study group included all the cases reporting for abortion. A proforma was filled in detail to find out the type of contraception being used before pregnancy and acceptance of contraception after abortion. The existing facilities were also evaluated. 1228 abortions were performed over a period of five years. 94.5% of abortions were during the first trimester. 39.9% had not used any contraceptive before, contraceptives used were natural and barrier which had high failure. The main indication for seeking abortion was failure of contraception and completion of family. 39.6% of patients accepted sterilization as a method of contraception. The existing post abortion family planning services are inadequate. Post abortion period is one which is important to prevent subsequent abortions and family planning services after abortion need to be strengthened.

  4. Five-year trajectories of social networks and social support in older adults with major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voils, Corrine I; Allaire, Jason C; Olsen, Maren K; Steffens, David C; Hoyle, Rick H; Bosworth, Hayden B

    2007-12-01

    Research with nondepressed adults suggests that social networks and social support are stable over the life course until very late age. This may not hold true for older adults with depression. We examined baseline status and trajectories of social networks and social support at the group and individual levels over five years. The sample consisted of 339 initially depressed adults aged 59 or older (M = 69 years) enrolled in a naturalistic study of depression. Measures of social ties, including social network size, frequency of interaction, instrumental support, and subjective support, were administered at baseline and yearly for five years. Latent growth curve models were estimated for each aspect of social ties. On average, social network size and frequency of interaction were low at baseline and remained stable over time, whereas subjective and instrumental support were high at baseline yet increased over time. There was significant variation in the direction and rate of change over time, which was not predicted by demographic or clinical factors. Because increasing social networks may be ineffective and may not be possible for a portion of people who already receive maximal support, interventions to increase social support may only work for a portion of older depressed adults.

  5. [Epidemiologic behavior of malignant digestive tract tumors over a five year period in Veracruz, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesch-Dietlen, F; Jiménez-García, V A; Remes-Troche, J M; Rubio-Arce, J F; López-Salinas, A; Ruiz-Juárez, I; Grube-Pagola, P; Silva-Cañetas, C F

    2012-01-01

    Tumors of the digestive system are considered to be a public health problem because of their elevated mortality rate. In Mexico, gastric cancer and colon cancer rank fourth and fifth, respectively, following tracheal, bronchial, and lung cancer, and there has been an increase in their frequency in the last few years. However, there are no specific studies that have evaluated their epidemiologic behavior in Veracruz. To determine the frequency of digestive system cancer in five health institutions in the city of Veracruz and to describe its epidemiologic behavior over a five-year period. Annual statistics from the following hospitals were reviewed: the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, the Secretaría de Salud, the Instituto de Seguridad y Servicios Sociales de los Trabajadores del Estado, Petróleos Mexicanos, and the Secretaría de la Defensa Nacional within the time frame of January 2005 to December 2009. Diagnoses based on histopathology were recorded, along with patient age and sex. A total of 1803 cases of digestive tract cancers were detected: 52% were men and 48% were women. A yearly increase in the number of cases was observed with colon cancer being in first place, followed by stomach cancer and rectal cancer. The increase in digestive system cancer cases over the last five years in Veracruz underlines the need to evaluate the implementation of screening programs for the at-risk population and to study the different etiologic factors involved in its manifestation.

  6. Five-year trends of selected halogenated flame retardants in the atmosphere of Northeast China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Wen-Long; Liu, Li-Yan; Song, Wei-Wei; Zhang, Zi-Feng; Qiao, Li-Na [International Joint Research Center for Persistent Toxic Substances (IJRC-PTS), State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China); Ma, Wan-Li, E-mail: mawanli002@163.com [International Joint Research Center for Persistent Toxic Substances (IJRC-PTS), State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China); Li, Yi-Fan, E-mail: ijrc_pts_paper@yahoo.com [International Joint Research Center for Persistent Toxic Substances (IJRC-PTS), State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China); IJRC-PTS-NA, Toronto M2N 6X9 (Canada)

    2016-01-01

    This study collected 227 pairs of gas phase and particle phase air samples in a typical urban city of Northeast China from 2008 to 2013. Four alternative halogenated flame retardants for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were analyzed, namely 2-ethylhexyl 2,3,4,5-tetrabromobenzoate (EHTBB), bis (2-ethylhexyl) tetrabromophthalate (BEHTBP), syn-dechlorane plus (syn-DP) and anti-dechlorane plus (anti-DP). The average concentrations for EHTBB and BEHTBP were 5.2 ± 20 and 30 ± 200 pg/m{sup 3}, respectively, while for syn-DP and anti-DP were 1.9 ± 5.1 and 5.8 ± 18 pg/m{sup 3}, respectively. Generally, they were frequently detected in the particle phase, and the gas/particle partitioning suggested they were the maximum partition chemicals. The fractional abundance of EHTBB (f{sub EHTBB}) and syn-DP (f{sub syn}) were comparable with those in other studies. Strong local sources were identified based on the air parcel backward trajectories and the potential source contribution function. The concentrations of these chemicals were significantly increased during this sampling campaign, possibly suggesting their increasing usages from 2008 to 2013 in China. - Highlights: • Five-year air samples were analyzed for four alternative HFRs. • BEHTBP and DP were frequently detected in the particle phase. • Local and nearby city sources of these HFRs were suggested. • Concentrations of these HFRs were significantly increased in the five-year period.

  7. Anisotropies in the cosmic neutrino background after Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe five-year data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Bernardis, Francesco; Pagano, Luca; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Serra, Paolo; Cooray, Asantha

    2008-01-01

    We search for the presence of cosmological neutrino background (CNB) anisotropies in recent Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) five-year data using their signature imprinted on modifications to the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy power spectrum. By parameterizing the neutrino background anisotropies with the speed viscosity parameter c vis , we find that the WMAP five-year data alone provide only a weak indication for CNB anisotropies with c vis 2 >0.06 at the 95% confidence level. When we combine CMB anisotropy data with measurements of galaxy clustering, the SN-Ia Hubble diagram, and other cosmological information, the detection increases to c vis 2 >0.16 at the same 95% confidence level. Future data from Planck, combined with a weak lensing survey such as the one expected with DUNE from space, will be able to measure the CNB anisotropy parameter at about 10% accuracy. We discuss the degeneracy between neutrino background anisotropies and other cosmological parameters such as the number of effective neutrinos species and the dark energy equation of state

  8. Five years of monitoring bird strike potential at a mountain-top wind turbine, Yukon Territory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mossop, D.H. [Yukon College, Whitehorse, YT (Canada)

    1997-12-31

    A five-year study was conducted to determine if birds were at risk of collision with an experimental wind turbine on a 1,500 metre mountain near the major Shakwak migration corridor used by many thousands of birds. More than 100 ground searches at the turbine site and about 80 hours of migration watch were conducted. In five years, six birds hit the control tower, none hit the turbine tower. All strikes were in winter and none of the birds killed were in migration. Waterfowl were found to navigate in the valley centre about 1,000 feet below the turbine. Small birds were rarely found at the altitude where the turbine was located. Raptors were the most common birds found near the site, but they were able to avoid the tower. It was concluded that birds using the migration corridor near Whitehorse were not at great risk of collision with towers above 1,200 metre altitude. 7 refs., 3 tabs., 6 figs.

  9. Five years' experience of classical swine fever polymerase chain reaction ring trials in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Po, F; Le Dimna, M; Le Potier, M F

    2011-12-01

    Since 2004, the French National Reference Laboratory for classical swine fever (CSF) has conducted an annual proficiency test (PT) to evaluate the ability of local veterinary laboratories to perform real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for CSF virus. The results of five years of testing (2004-2008) are described here. The PT was conducted under blind conditions on 20 samples. The same batch of samples was used for all five years. The number of laboratories that analysed the samples increased from four in 2004 to 13 in 2008. The results of the PT showed the following: cross-contamination between samples and deficiencies in RNA preparation can occur even in experienced laboratories; sample homogeneity should be checked carefully before selection; samples stored at-80 degrees C for several years remain stable; and poor shipment conditions do not damage the samples with regard to detection of CSF virus genome. These results will enable redesign of the panel to improve the overall quality of the PT, which will encourage laboratories to check and improve their PCR procedures and expertise. This is an excellent way to determine laboratory performance.

  10. In vitro disintegration studies of weekly generic alendronate sodium tablets (70 mg) available in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dansereau, Richard J; Crail, Debbie J; Perkins, Alan C

    2009-02-01

    Bisphosphonates as a class have the potential to cause upper gastrointestinal irritation. Although the generic alendronate sodium tablets are bioequivalent to the branded product, a potential concern is that the pharmaceutical attributes of the various generic formulations my affect the potential for local irritation and tolerability. The in vitro disintegration times were determined using the method described in the US Pharmacopeia 30 (USP 30). The disintegration of three generic alendronate sodium tablets 70 mg available in the United States was compared to that of the branded product. The mean disintegration times of the generic alendronate sodium tablets ranged from 9 to 10 s for the Barr lots to 108 s for the Watson lot. The disintegration time of the branded product (Fosamax) was 53 s. The three Barr lots and one Teva lot had rapid disintegration times which were similar to the disintegration standards (disintegrating tablets. Since there is no established disintegration time for alendronate sodium tablets there can be no assurance that the generic tablets are equivalent to the branded product in terms of esophageal exposure. However, the in vitro disintegration times have not been correlated with in vivo disintegration performance. Copies of generic alendronate sodium tablets are approved based on the results of single-dose bioavailability studies in healthy subjects and this is not considered adequate to establish similar disintegration characteristics.

  11. Cytotoxicity evaluation of sodium alendronate on cultured human periodontal ligament fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Vera de Fátima Padrão; Caldeira, Celso L; Marques, Márcia Martins

    2006-12-01

    External root resorption processes are usually associated with dental trauma, mainly avulsion and intrusion. In such cases endodontic therapy aims to prevent this process by using medications that can inhibit osteoclastic activity, such as bisphosphonates. However, these drugs must be biocompatible to the periapical tissues. The aim of this study was to analyze the cytotoxicity of a bisphosphonate (sodium alendronate) on human periodontal ligament fibroblasts (PDL cells). Cells were plated in a density of 1 x 10(3) cells per dish. The experimental groups were GI (control) no sodium alendronate, and GII, GIII, and GIV with sodium alendronate at the concentrations of 10(-5), 10(-6), and 10(-7) M, respectively. The experimental times were 1, 6, 12, and 24 h (short-term) for viability and 2, 4, 6, and 8 days (long-term) for cell survival. Data in triplicate were statistically analyzed. Cultures treated with the highest alendronate concentration (GII) showed cell viability percentages significantly lower (P < 0.01) than those of the other groups (GI, GIII, and GIV), at 12 and 24 h. Cell growth on GII and GIII groups was similar. GII presented smaller growth than the other groups (P < 0.05). We concluded that sodium alendronate, on direct contact with human periodontal ligament fibroblasts, is cytotoxic in concentrations higher than of 10(-6) M.

  12. Effect of heparin and alendronate coating on titanium surfaces on inhibition of osteoclast and enhancement of osteoblast function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Ho-Jin; Yun, Young-Pil [Department of Maxillofacial Biomedical Engineering, School of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of); Han, Choong-Wan; Kim, Min Sung [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Oral Biology, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung Eun; Bae, Min Soo [Department of Maxillofacial Biomedical Engineering, School of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Gyu-Tae; Choi, Yong-Suk; Hwang, Eui-Hwan [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Oral Biology, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Joon Woo [Department of Technology Commercialization Information, Korea Institute of Science and Technology Information (KISTI), 66, Hoegi-ro, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 130-741 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jin-Moo; Lee, Chang-Hoon [Department of Oriental Gynecology, College of Oriental Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Duck-Su [Department of Conservative Dentistry, School of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Il Keun, E-mail: kwoni@khu.ac.kr [Department of Maxillofacial Biomedical Engineering, School of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Oral Biology, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-09-23

    Highlights: {yields} We examine bone metabolism of engineered alendronate attached to Ti surfaces. {yields} Alendronate-immobilized Ti enhances activation of osteoblast differentiation. {yields} Alendronate-immobilized Ti inhibits osteoclast differentiation. {yields} Alendronate-immobilized Ti may be a bioactive implant with dual functions. -- Abstract: The failure of orthopedic and dental implants has been attributed mainly to loosening of the implant from host bone, which may be due to weak bonding of the implant material to bone tissue. Titanium (Ti) is used in the field of orthopedic and dental implants because of its excellent biocompatibility and outstanding mechanical properties. Therefore, in the field of materials science and tissue engineering, there has been extensive research to immobilize bioactive molecules on the surface of implant materials in order to provide the implants with improved adhesion to the host bone tissue. In this study, chemically active functional groups were introduced on the surface of Ti by a grafting reaction with heparin and then the Ti was functionalized by immobilizing alendronate onto the heparin-grafted surface. In the MC3T3-E1 cell osteogenic differentiation study, the alendronate-immobilized Ti substrates significantly enhanced alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP) and calcium content. Additionally, nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast differentiation of RAW264.7 cells was inhibited with the alendronate-immobilized Ti as confirmed by TRAP analysis. Real time PCR analysis showed that mRNA expressions of osteocalcin and osteopontin, which are markers for osteogenesis, were upregulated in MC3T3-E1 cells cultured on alendronate-immobilized Ti. The mRNA expressions of TRAP and Cathepsin K, markers for osteoclastogenesis, in RAW264.7 cells cultured on alendronate-immobilized Ti were down-regulated. Our study suggests that alendronate-immobilized Ti may be a bioactive implant with dual functions to enhance

  13. The economic burden of pneumonia and meningitis among children less than five years old in Hanoi, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Phuc; Griffiths, Ulla K; Anh, Dang D; Franzini, Luisa; Chan, Wenyaw; Pham, Ha; Swint, John M

    2014-11-01

    To estimate the average treatment costs of pneumonia and meningitis among children under five years of age in a tertiary hospital in Hanoi, Vietnam from societal, health sector and household perspectives. We used a cost-of-illness approach to identify cost categories to be included for different perspectives. A prospective survey was conducted among eligible patients to get detailed personal costing items. From the perspective of the health sector, the mean costs for treating a case of pneumonia and meningitis were USD 180 and USD 300, respectively. From the household's perspective, the average treatment costs were USD 272 for pneumonia and USD 534 for meningitis. When also including indirect costs, the average total treatment costs from the societal perspective were USD 318 for pneumonia and USD 727 for meningitis. The study contributed to limited evidence on the high treatment costs of pneumonia and meningitis to the Vietnamese society, which is useful for a cost-effectiveness analysis of Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine or other relevant disease preventions. It also indicated a need to re-evaluate the health insurance policy for children under 6 years old, so that the unnecessarily high out-of-pocket costs of these diseases are reduced. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Preparation and biological studies of 68Ga-DOTA-alendronate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Fakhari

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: In line with previous research on the development of conjugated bisphosphonate ligands as new bone-avid agents, in this study, DOTA conjugated alendronate (DOTA-ALN was synthesized and evaluated after labeling with gallium-68 (68Ga.Methods: DOTA-ALN was synthesized and characterized, followed by 68Ga-DOTA-ALN preparation, using DOTA-ALN and 68GaCl3 (pH: 4-5 at 92-95°C for 10 min. Stability tests, hydroxyapatite assay, partition coefficient calculation,biodistribution studies, and imaging were performed on the developed agent in normal rats.Results: The complex was prepared with high radiochemical purity (>99% as depicted by radio thin-layer chromatography; specific activity: 310-320GBq/mmol after solid phase purification and was stabilized for up to 90 min with a logP value of -2.91. Maximum ligand binding (65% was observed in the presence of 50 mg of hydroxyapatite; a major portion of the activity was excreted through the kidneys. With the exception of excretory organs, gastrointestinal tract organs, including the liver, intestine, and colon, showed significant uptake; however, the bone uptake was low (

  15. Alendronate functionalized mesoporous hydroxyapatite nanoparticles for drug delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Dongdong, E-mail: lidongchem@sina.cn [State Key Laboratory of Inorganic Synthesis and Preparative Chemistry, College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Zhu, Yuntao; Liang, Zhiqiang [State Key Laboratory of Inorganic Synthesis and Preparative Chemistry, College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China)

    2013-06-01

    Highlights: ► The synthesized mesoporous hydroxyapatite has nanostructure and bioactivity. ► The materials have high surface area and amino group. ► The materials show higher drug loading and slower release rate than pure HAP. - Abstract: Mesoporous nanosized hydroxyapatite (HAP) functionalized by alendronate (ALN) was synthesized using cationic surfactant CTAB as template. The structural, morphological and textural properties were fully characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and N{sub 2} adsorption/desorption. Then the obtained materials were performed as drug delivery carriers using ibuprofen (IBU) as a model drug to investigate their drug storage/release properties in simulated body fluid (SBF). The materials showed relatively slower release rate compared with HAP due to the ionic interaction between -NH{sub 3}{sup +} on the matrix and -COO{sup −}belongs to IBU. The system provides a new concept for improving the drug loading or slowing down the release rate.

  16. Preparation and Biological Study of (68)Ga-DOTA-alendronate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhari, Ashraf; Jalilian, Amir R; Johari-Daha, Fariba; Shafiee-Ardestani, Mehdi; Khalaj, Ali

    2016-01-01

    In line with previous research on the development of conjugated bisphosphonate ligands as new bone-avid agents, in this study, DOTA-conjugated alendronate (DOTA-ALN) was synthesized and evaluated after labeling with gallium-68 ((68)Ga). DOTA-ALN was synthesized and characterized, followed by (68)Ga-DOTA-ALN preparation, using DOTA-ALN and (68)GaCl3 (pH: 4-5) at 92-95° C for 10 min. Stability tests, hydroxyapatite assay, partition coefficient calculation, biodistribution studies, and imaging were performed on the developed agent in normal rats. The complex was prepared with high radiochemical purity (>99% as depicted by radio thin-layer chromatography; specific activity: 310-320 GBq/mmol) after solid phase purification and was stabilized for up to 90 min with a log P value of -2.91. Maximum ligand binding (65%) was observed in the presence of 50 mg of hydroxyapatite; a major portion of the activity was excreted through the kidneys. With the exception of excretory organs, gastrointestinal tract organs, including the liver, intestine, and colon, showed significant uptake; however, the bone uptake was low (<1%) at 30 min after the injection. The data were also confirmed by sequential imaging at 30-90 min following the intravenous injection. The high solubility and anionic properties of the complex led to major renal excretion and low hydroxyapatite uptake; therefore, the complex failed to demonstrate bone imaging behaviors.

  17. Risk Factors for Suicide Ideation Among Adolescents: Five-Year National Data Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Yeojin; Oh, Won-Oak; Suk, Minhyun

    2017-06-01

    This study identified risk factors for suicide ideation among adolescents through a secondary analysis using data collected over five years from the 5th-9th Korea Youth Risk Behavior Survey. We analyzed 370,568 students' responses to questions about suicidality. The risk factors for suicide ideation included demographic characteristics, such as gender (girls), low grades, low economic status, and not living with one or both parents. Behavioral and mental health risk factors affecting suicide ideation were depression, low sleep satisfaction, high stress, alcohol consumption, smoking, and sexual activity. Health care providers should particularly target adolescents manifesting the above risk factors when developing suicide prevention programs for them. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Twenty-five years of the common market in coal, 1953--1978. [genesis and growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    Twenty-five years have passed since the European Coal and Steel commmunity was established. An attempt is made to show what economic integration is, what problems have arisen, and how the community has tried to overcome them. Three phases can be distinguished during the period under review--a first phase of growth in the coal industry between 1953 and 1957; a second phase marked by a plentiful supply of cheap hydrocarbons and a rapid reduction in coal output despite exceptional growth, linked with a parallel increase in overall energy requirements; and a third phase from 1973, marked by sharp price increases by the oil producing countries with repercussions on the world market in coal.

  19. Five years on the bumpy road delivering well chemicals for zero harmful discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selle, Olav M.; Paltiel, Sten; Saeten, Jens O.; Nasvik, Haavard

    2006-03-15

    This is a summary of five years development work to qualify environmentally acceptable well chemicals for Heidrun. We will describe the situation as we started the work, what strategy we followed and the ups and downs we experienced as we went along. The focus is on scale inhibitors, scale dissolvers, acid formulations, viscosified fluids and chemicals for zonal isolation/shut-off purposes. The challenge has been to develop biodegradable and low toxic chemicals with equal or better effectiveness and with a reasonable prize compare to {sup b}est in class{sup -}products. The impact this has provided for zero harmful discharge to sea at Haltenbanken will be presented, to show the status as we are entering into year 2005. (Author)

  20. A Chinese-style energy transition: the new five-year plan for energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornot-Gandolphe, Sylvie

    2013-01-01

    After having recalled the six major problems identified by Chinese leaders as they assessed the past evolution of the energy market (constraints on resources, environmental and ecologic degradations due to intensive consumption, an energy efficiency to be improved, an inadequate energy infrastructure, a weak capacity of the energy industry for technological innovation, and required deeper and quicker reforms of the energy market), the author presents and comments the content of the last five-year plan for energy (some data are provided in appendix). The addressed issues are: energy consumption revised downwards and controlled, definition of ambitious objectives for the transformation of the electric system (for the coal sector, the gas sector, the oil sector, electricity production, production location and international cooperation)

  1. Behind the shine: An appraisal of five years of Danish CCTV trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrich, Clara; Dalskov, Jørgen; Egekvist, Josefine

    2014-01-01

    Denmark has been the first nation in Europe to promote the use of Fully Documented Fisheries (FDF) through Remote Electronic Monitoring (REM) and CCTV camera systems, and some pilot schemes for monitoring cod catches have been in place since 2008. In theory, such a scheme could supplement and even...... potentially replace expensive control and monitoring programs; and, when associated to a Catch Quota management system, incentivize positive changes in fishing patterns in a results-based management approach. However, in practice, the technical and institutional challenges remain important hurdles to overcome...... for the system to be beneficial and reliable. In this paper we investigate the added value on catch information gained over the last five years, and discuss the future of REM as a monitoring program in the context of the future discards ban...

  2. The Geothermal Data Repository: Five Years of Open Geothermal Data, Benefits to the Community: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weers, Jonathan D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Taverna, Nicole [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Anderson, Arlene [U.S. Department of Energy

    2018-04-02

    In the five years since its inception, the Department of Energy's (DOE) Geothermal Data Repository (GDR) has grown from the simple idea of storing public data in a centralized location to a valuable tool at the center of the DOE open data movement where it is providing a tangible benefit to the geothermal scientific community. Throughout this time, the GDR project team has been working closely with the community to refine the data submission process, improve the quality of submitted data, and embrace modern proper data management strategies to maximize the value and utility of submitted data. This paper explores some of the motivations behind various improvements to the GDR over the last 5 years, changes in data submission trends, and the ways in which these improvements have helped to drive research, fuel innovation, and accelerate the adoption of geothermal technologies.

  3. 2015 Five-Yearly Review : one last formal step, with the implementation to follow

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2015-01-01

    Taking into account the arbitration by the Director General the Staff Council decided that it did not oppose the Management proposals for the 2015 Five-Yearly Review (see Echo 234). Consequently, at the TREF meeting of Thursday 26 November, Management presented its consolidated proposals taking into account the outcome of the arbitration. The Staff Association was invited to express its point of view (the text of our declaration follows). After the Member States’ delegates got satisfactory answers to their questions for clarification, none of the 14 delegations represented opposed the proposals nor were there any abstentions. The Chair of TREF, B. Dormy, will thus report to Finance Committee and Council on 16 and 17 December that TREF recommends that these committees approve the Management proposals. A huge amount of work by many CERN colleagues, representatives of the Management, the Sectors, and the Staff Association has come to a successful conclusion. Now we move into the important implementati...

  4. Characterization of automotive shredder residues before and five years after landfill disposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian Ionel Cioca

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper illustrates the results of an extensive analytical characterization study of automotive shredder residues (ASR, also known as "fluff”. The analyses concerned material fractions and their content, with special reference to heavy metals (e.g. Cd, Cr, Hg, Pb, Cu and arsenic. Elution tests on the original materials were also conducted. Moreover, chemical concentrations of ASR samples after about five years' landfill residence was assessed, in order to verify possible changes resulting from both in-situ leaching and organic matter degradation phenomena. Results show that lead seems to be the most critical element in view of possible ASR acceptance in non-hazardous waste landfills because of its high concentration in raw waste and, especially, of its proven leachability characteristics.

  5. Sentinel node biopsy in breast cancer: five years experience from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Peter; Balslev, E.; Jensen, D.

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Danish experience from the first five years with sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) as a routine staging procedure in early breast cancer is reported. METHODS: During the period January 1, 2002 to December 31, 2006, 14 923 patients were diagnosed at Danish breast surgical centers...... certified for the sentinel node method. SLNB was performed in 8 338 patients (55.9%). The fraction increased steadily from 43% in 2002 to 67% in 2006. The median follow-up was 1.7 year (range 0-5.2 years). RESULTS: Patients staged with SLNB were younger, had more often BCS, had smaller tumor size, were more...... often hormone receptor positive, and had lower grade, than patients staged with lymph node dissection (ALND). Blue dye and radio colloid were used in combination in 82%. Lymphoscintigraphy was performed in 61%, and frozen section was performed in 87%. Originally, peritumoral injection of tracer was most...

  6. Five years of beach drainage survey on a macrotidal beach (Quend-Plage, northern France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, Olivier; Toulec, Renaud; Combaud, Anne; Villemagne, Guillaume; Barrier, Pascal

    2016-07-01

    A drainage system was installed in 2008 on the macrotidal beach of Quend-Plage, close to Abbeville (Somme, northern France), following a period of significant erosion of recreational areas. The "Direction départementale des territoires et de la mer" (French Coastal Department Authority) has requested a biannual survey in order to validate the beach drainage setup and its efficiency. This paper presents the methodology used for this survey, and the response of the coastal system to this soft engineering method for preventing erosion. These five years of drainage operation have strongly modified the morphology of the beach. Three main modifications occurred: (i) accretion of the upper beach and foredune, (ii) erosion of the lower and middle beach and (iii) a slight shift in directions of the beach bars and troughs. These morphological changes finally led to the stabilization of the beach.

  7. Improvement in QA protocol for TLD based personnel monitoring laboratory in last five year

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakesh, R.B.

    2018-01-01

    The Quality Assurance (QA) in Personnel monitoring (PM) is a tool to assess the performance of PM laboratories and reliability of dose estimation with respect to standards laid down by international agencies such as IAEA (ISO trumpet curve), IEC, ANSI etc. Reliable personal dose estimation is a basic requirement for radiation protection planning as well as decision making continuous improvement in radiation protection is inherent in radiation protection practices which is highly dependent on accuracy and reliability of the monitoring data. Experience based evolution of Quality control (QC) measures as well as Quality assurance (QA) protocol are two important aspects towards continuous improvement in accuracy and reliability of personnel monitoring results. The paper describes improvement in QC measures and QA protocols initiated during the last five years which led to improvement in the quality of PM services

  8. Original signs and symptoms in patients surviving five years after atomic bomb exposure under 1000 meters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, J J; Patterson, H A

    1959-01-01

    Atomic bomb victims in Hiroshima who were exposed under 1000 meters and survived over five years were reinvestigated. There were 619 patients who comprised a total sample. Mechanical, blast, burn and radiation injuries were evaluated as to onset, duration, severity, body area affected and type of healing. The modal patient experienced severe radiation and mild trauma. Results were compared with similar earlier studies. The question emerges as to the possibility that patients exposed within 1000 meters with radiation and/or thermal injuries have been dying at a faster rate than those with mechanical or no injuries. A short history of the development of the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission is included. 17 references, 11 tables.

  9. Five-Year Review of CERCLA Response Actions at the Idaho National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. L. Jolley

    2007-02-01

    This report summarizes the documentation submitted in support of the five-year review or remedial actions implemented under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act Sitewide at the Idaho National Laboratory. The report also summarizes documentation and inspections conducted at the no-further-action sites. This review covered actions conducted at 9 of the 10 waste area groups at the Idaho National Laboratory, i.e. Waste Area Groups 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, and 10. Waste Area Group 8 was not subject to this review, because it does not fall under the jurisdiction of the U.S. Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office. The review included past site inspections and monitoring data collected in support of the remedial actions. The remedial actions have been completed at Waste Area Groups 2, 4, 5, 6, and 9. Remedial action reports have been completed for Waste Area Groups 2 and 4, and remedial action reports are expected to be completed during 2005 for Waste Area Groups 1, 5, and 9. Remediation is ongoing at Waste Area Groups 3, 7, and 10. Remedial investigations are yet to be completed for Operable Units 3-14, 7-13/14, and 10-08. The review showed that the remedies have been constructed in accordance with the requirements of the Records of Decision and are functioning as designed. Immediate threats have been addressed, and the remedies continue to be protective. Potential short-term threats are being addressed though institutional controls. Soil cover and cap remedies are being maintained properly and inspected in accordance with the appropriate requirements. Soil removal actions and equipment or system removals have successfully achieved remedial action objectives identified in the Records of Decision. The next Sitewide five-year review is scheduled for completion by 2011.

  10. Five-year follow-up of cognitive impairment in older adults with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schouws, Sigfried N T M; Comijs, Hannie C; Dols, Annemieke; Beekman, Aartjan T F; Stek, Max L

    2016-03-01

    To date, cognitive impairment has been thought to be an integral part of bipolar disorder. In clinical staging models, cognitive impairment is one of the hallmarks to define the clinical stage and it plays an important role in identifying the risk factors for progression to later stages of the illness. It is important to examine neurocognitive performance over longer periods to test the hypothesis of neuroprogression of bipolar disorder. A comprehensive neuropsychological test battery was applied at baseline and five years later to 56 euthymic older outpatients with bipolar disorder (mean age = 68.35 years, range: 60-90 years) and to a demographically matched sample of 44 healthy subjects. A group-by-time repeated measures multivariate analysis of variance was performed to measure changes over time for the two groups. The impact of baseline illness characteristics on the intra-individual change in neurocognitive performance within the bipolar disorder group was studied by using logistic regression analysis. At baseline and at follow-up, patients with bipolar disorder performed worse on all neurocognitive measures compared to the matched healthy subjects. However, there was no significant group-by-time interaction between the patients with bipolar disorder and the comparison group. Although older patients with bipolar disorder had worse cognitive function than healthy subjects, they did not have greater cognitive decline over a five-year period. The change in acquired cognitive impairment of patients with bipolar disorder might parallel the cognitive development as seen in normal aging. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Energy and climate policy in China's twelfth five-year plan: A paradigm shift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jun; Wang Xin

    2012-01-01

    The twelfth five-year plan (FYP) endorsed by the People's National Congress in March 2011 plays a crucial role in shaping China's development trajectory over the next decades , and especially for the fulfillment of the 40–45 carbon intensity reduction target by 2020. The plan will condition both the medium and long term perspectives of economic restructuring, rebalance between the inclusive economic growth and environmental objectives, which are compounded by multiple constraints faced by China such as aging population, natural resources depletion, energy supply security and environmental deterioration. This article investigates the major energy and climate targets and actions specified in the 12th FYP to gain insights into the nature and magnitude of challenges and difficulties with regard to the medium and long run economic and environmental policies. It points out that China should articulate sectoral policies with the global climate mitigation targets to avoid long term carbon lock-in. Based on an in-depth analysis of the objectives in the plan, it is argued that the implementation should include mainstreaming developments of appropriate instruments to support cost-effective energy efficiency improvements and carbon intensity reduction in the next five years. - Highlights: ► We investigate the major energy and climate targets and actions specified in the Chinese 12th FYP. ► It points out FYP's implications for energy policy and global climate stabilisation. ► Challenges and difficulties with regard to the medium and long run climate strategies. ► Shift from investment and export-led to consumption led sustainable and inclusive growth model.

  12. The external quality assessment scheme: Five years experience as a participating laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaudhary Rajendra

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim : Quality assurance in blood banking includes active participation in the external quality program. Such a program offers valuable benefits to patient care, their safety, and an overall quality of laboratory practices. In the year 2002, we participated in the External Quality Assessment Scheme (EQAS under the World Health Organization (WHO, Bureau of Laboratory Quality Standards, Thailand. Materials and Methods: In the current study we evaluated our EQAS test result of the past five years, from 2003 to 2007. Test results of all blood samples such as ABO grouping, D typing, antibody screening, antibody identification, and transfusion transmitted infection (TTI testing were analyzed and documented. Results: Discordant results in one or more instances were observed with antibody identification, weak D testing, and tests for anti-HIV1/2 and HBsAg. Twice we failed to detect the ′anti-Mia′ antibody in the issued sample and that could be attributed to the absence of the corresponding antigen in the used cell panel. HBsAg was missed due to its critically low titer in the serum and the comparatively low sensitivity of our Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA test kit. Conclusion: All these failures in the last five years have helped us to significantly improve our transfusion service in terms of performance evaluation, patient care and safety issues, and the overall quality of laboratory practices. We therefore recommend all laboratories and hospitals to participate in the EQAS program, which will definitely help them to improve from what they learn.

  13. Five years database of landslides and floods affecting Swiss transportation networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voumard, Jérémie; Derron, Marc-Henri; Jaboyedoff, Michel

    2017-04-01

    Switzerland is a country threatened by a lot of natural hazards. Many events occur in built environment, affecting infrastructures, buildings or transportation networks and producing occasionally expensive damages. This is the reason why large landslides are generally well studied and monitored in Switzerland to reduce the financial and human risks. However, we have noticed a lack of data on small events which have impacted roads and railways these last years. This is why we have collect all the reported natural hazard events which have affected the Swiss transportation networks since 2012 in a database. More than 800 roads and railways closures have been recorded in five years from 2012 to 2016. These event are classified into six classes: earth flow, debris flow, rockfall, flood, avalanche and others. Data come from Swiss online press articles sorted by Google Alerts. The search is based on more than thirty keywords, in three languages (Italian, French, German). After verifying that the article relates indeed an event which has affected a road or a railways track, it is studied in details. We get finally information on about sixty attributes by event about event date, event type, event localisation, meteorological conditions as well as impacts and damages on the track and human damages. From this database, many trends over the five years of data collection can be outlined: in particular, the spatial and temporal distributions of the events, as well as their consequences in term of traffic (closure duration, deviation, etc.). Even if the database is imperfect (by the way it was built and because of the short time period considered), it highlights the not negligible impact of small natural hazard events on roads and railways in Switzerland at a national level. This database helps to better understand and quantify this events, to better integrate them in risk assessment.

  14. Nutritional profile in children under five years of Afro-descendant communities in Paraguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Sánchez-Bernal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Paraguay, little is known about the Afro-descendant population. It is important to know about their nutritional status, mainly in childhood, to guide appropriate action. Objective: To determine the nutritional profile of children under five years from the African descendants’ communities in Paraguay and its associated factors. Material and methods: A cross-sectional and observational design with analytical component was developed. It involved healthy male and female children under five years old, with at least one African descendant as immediate family. Dietary habits and nutritional status (WHO criteria were assessed. WHO Anthro and SPSS 16.0 software were used. Results: 150 children were included. The median of age was 26.9 months (1.2-59.9 m, and 50.7% were males. The median maternal age was 28.3 years (16-49 years. Children with Exclusive Breast Feeding (EBF, n=119 had a mean duration of 3.5±1.8 months (1-7m. 26.9% were exclusively breastfed during six months. The starting of complementary feeding was on average 5.2 months. The underweight prevalence (UW, zP/E 0.05. Children with UW had a lower average of age of onset of complementary feeding (1.7 vs 4.9 months, p˂0.0001 compare with their pairs without malnutrition. Conclusion: Chronic malnutrition was the most prevalent chronic disease affecting over 1 in 10 children. Early initiation of complementary feeding could be a risk factor for malnutrition.

  15. FAMILY’S ECONOMIC LEVEL AND CULTURE CORRELATE WITH NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF CHILDREN UNDER FIVE YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Muhith

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nutrition is an important thing for human life. Variety in family’s economic level and culture have effect on family’s eating habit. Family with higher economic status have big opportunity to met under fi ve year’s nutrition. Cultural diversity on each family has an impact on the difference of raw food selection, processing methods, and presentation of food. The purpose of this study was to determine the correlation between family’s economic level and culture with nutritional status of children under fi ve year. Method: Research design was observational analytic with cross sectional approach. The population were mother and their children under fi ve years at Desa Jatigono Kunir, Kabupaten Lumajang. Sampel were 184 respondents, taken by using cluster sampling. Independent variables were family’s economic level and culture. Dependent variable was nutritional status of children under fi ve years. Data were collected by using questionnaire and observational sheet. Then, data were analyzed by using Spearman Rho Test with α<0.05. Result: The results showed that 140 (76.1% respondents have low economic level, 105 (57.1% respondents have negative culture in children’s nutrition, and 89 (48% respondents have good nutritional status. The result of Spearman-rho test showed that family’s economic level (p=0.000 and culture (0.019 have correlated with nutritional status of children under five years. Discussion: It can be concluded that family’s economic level and culture have correlated with nutritional status of children under fi ve years. Nurses should develop health education and counseling to improve family’s knowledge about nutrition, so children will have good nutritional status. Keywords: economic level, family’s culture, nutritional status, children under five years

  16. Revisiting restored river reaches - Assessing change of aquatic and riparian communities after five years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Armin W; Haase, Peter; Januschke, Kathrin; Sundermann, Andrea; Hering, Daniel

    2018-02-01

    Hydromorphological restructuring of river sections, i.e. river restoration measures, often has little effects on aquatic biota, even in case of strong habitat alterations. It is often supposed that the biotic response is simply delayed as species require additional time to recolonize the newly generated habitats and to establish populations. To identify and specify the supposed lag time between restoration and biotic response, we investigated 19 restored river reaches twice in a five-year interval. The sites were restored one to ten years prior to the first sampling. We sampled three aquatic (fish, benthic invertebrates, macrophytes) and two riparian organism groups (ground beetles and riparian vegetation) and analyzed changes in assemblage composition and biotic metrics. With the exception of ground beetle assemblages, we observed no significant changes in richness and abundance metrics or metrics used for biological assessment. However, indicator taxa for near-natural habitat conditions in the riparian zone (indicators for regular inundation in plants and river bank specialists in beetles) improved significantly in the five-year interval. Contrary to general expectations in river restoration planning, we neither observed a distinct succession of aquatic communities nor a general trend towards "good ecological status" over time. Furthermore, multiple linear regression models revealed that neither the time since restoration nor the morphological status had a significant effect on the biological metrics and the assessment results. Thus, the stability of aquatic assemblages is strong, slowing down restoration effects in the aquatic zone, while riparian assemblages improve more rapidly. When defining restoration targets, the different timelines for ecological recovery after restoration should be taken into account. Furthermore, restoration measures should not solely focus on local habitat conditions but also target stressors acting on larger spatial scales and take

  17. 阿仑膦酸钠对绝经后骨质疏松性骨痛的疗效分析%Effect analysis of alendronate on postmenopausal osteoporosis with bone ache

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ Background: Osteoporosis is a metabolic bone disease characterized by low bone component and regeneration of the microstructure of bone tissues, osteoporosis occurs in postmenopausal women for decreased estrogen level. Those women with osteoporosis often suffer from bone ache, such as pain at low back, back, knees and heels. In severe cases, there may be crookback or non- violent fracture. Objective: To discuss treatment effect of the Alendronate on 56 postmenopausal women with bone ache caused by osteoporosis. Unit: 210 Hospital of PLA.

  18. Effect of Low-Magnitude Whole-Body Vibration Combined with Alendronate in Ovariectomized Rats: A Random Controlled Osteoporosis Prevention Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Zhao-Ming; Wu, Xiu-Hua; Huang, Zhi-Ping; Li, Wei; Ding, Ruo-Ting; Yu, Hui; Chen, Jian-Ting

    2014-01-01

    Background Alendronate (ALE) is a conventional drug used to treat osteoporosis. Low-magnitude whole-body vibration (WBV) exercise has been developed as a potential treatment for osteoporosis. The aim of this study was to investigate whether low-magnitude WBV could enhance the protective effect of ALE on bone properties in ovariectomized rats. Methods A total of 128 Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups (SHAM, OVX+VEH, OVX+WBV, OVX + ALE, OVX+WBV+ALE). The level of WBV applied was 0.3 g at 45–55 Hz for 20 min/day, 5 day/week and for 3 months. ALE was administered in dose of 1 mg/Kg once a week. Every four weeks eight rats from each group were sacrificed and their blood and both tibiae were harvested. The expression of osteocalcin and CTX in serum was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and the tibiae were subjected to metaphyseal three-point bending and μCT analysis. Results Osteocalcin rose after ovariectomy and was not appreciably changed by either alendronate or WBV alone or in combination. Alendronate treatment significantly prevented an increase in CTX. WBV alone treatment did not alter this effect. Compared with the OVX+WBV group, nearly all tested indices such as the BV/TV, TV apparent, Tb.N, Tb.Th, and Conn.D were higher in the OVX+ALE group at week 12.Compared with the OVX+WBV group, certain tested indices such as BV/TV, TV apparent, Tb.N, and Con.D, were higher in the OVX+WBV+ALE group at week 12. At week 12, tibiae treated with WBV+ALE exhibited a significantly higher Fmax compared to the OVX+VEH group, and a significant difference was also found in energy absorption between the OVX+WBV+ALE and OVX+VEH groups. Conclusions Compared with the WBV, ALE was more effective at preventing bone loss and improved the trabecular architecture. However, WBV enhanced the effect of alendronate in ovariectomized rats by inducing further improvements in trabecular architecture. PMID:24796785

  19. U.S. Department of Energy clean cities five-year strategic plan.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cambridge Concord Associates

    2011-02-15

    Clean Cities is a government-industry partnership sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Vehicle Technologies Program, which is part of the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. Working with its network of about 100 local coalitions and more than 6,500 stakeholders across the country, Clean Cities delivers on its mission to reduce petroleum consumption in on-road transportation. In its work to reduce petroleum use, Clean Cities focuses on a portfolio of technologies that includes electric drive, propane, natural gas, renewable natural gas/biomethane, ethanol/E85, biodiesel/B20 and higher-level blends, fuel economy, and idle reduction. Over the past 17 years, Clean Cities coalitions have displaced more than 2.4 billion gallons of petroleum; they are on track to displace 2.5 billion gallons of gasoline per year by 2020. This Clean Cities Strategic Plan lays out an aggressive five-year agenda to help DOE Clean Cities and its network of coalitions and stakeholders accelerate the deployment of alternative fuel and advanced technology vehicles, while also expanding the supporting infrastructure to reduce petroleum use. Today, Clean Cities has a far larger opportunity to make an impact than at any time in its history because of its unprecedented $300 million allocation for community-based deployment projects from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) (see box below). Moreover, the Clean Cities annual budget has risen to $25 million for FY2010 and $35 million has been requested for FY2011. Designed as a living document, this strategic plan is grounded in the understanding that priorities will change annually as evolving technical, political, economic, business, and social considerations are woven into project decisions and funding allocations. The plan does not intend to lock Clean Cities into pathways that cannot change. Instead, with technology deployment at its core, the plan serves as a guide for decision-making at both the

  20. Quality of life and salivary output in patients with head-and-neck cancer five years after radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braam, Pètra M; Roesink, Judith M; Raaijmakers, Cornelis PJ; Busschers, Wim B; Terhaard, Chris HJ

    2007-01-01

    To describe long-term changes in time of quality of life (QOL) and the relation with parotid salivary output in patients with head-and-neck cancer treated with radiotherapy. Forty-four patients completed the EORTC-QLQ-C30(+3) and the EORTC-QLQ-H&N35 questionnaires before treatment, 6 weeks, 6 months, 12 months, and at least 3.5 years after treatment. At the same time points, stimulated bilateral parotid flow rates were measured. There was a deterioration of most QOL items after radiotherapy compared with baseline, with gradual improvement during 5 years follow-up. The specific xerostomia-related items showed improvement in time, but did not return to baseline. Global QOL did not alter significantly in time, although 41% of patients complained of moderate or severe xerostomia at 5 years follow-up. Five years after radiotherapy the mean cumulated parotid flow ratio returned to baseline but 20% of patients had a flow ratio <25%. The change in time of xerostomia was significantly related with the change in flow ratio (p = 0.01). Most of the xerostomia-related QOL scores improved in time after radiotherapy without altering the global QOL, which remained high. The recovery of the dry mouth feeling was significantly correlated with the recovery in parotid flow ratio

  1. Application of an incident taxonomy for radiation therapy: Analysis of five years of data from three integrated cancer centres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenham, Stuart; Manley, Stephen; Turnbull, Kirsty; Hoffmann, Matthew; Fonseca, Amara; Westhuyzen, Justin; Last, Andrew; Aherne, Noel J; Shakespeare, Thomas P

    2018-01-01

    To develop and apply a clinical incident taxonomy for radiation therapy. Capturing clinical incident information that focuses on near-miss events is critical for achieving higher levels of safety and reliability. A clinical incident taxonomy for radiation therapy was established; coding categories were prescription, consent, simulation, voluming, dosimetry, treatment, bolus, shielding, imaging, quality assurance and coordination of care. The taxonomy was applied to all clinical incidents occurring at three integrated cancer centres for the years 2011-2015. Incidents were managed locally, audited and feedback disseminated to all centres. Across the five years the total incident rate (per 100 courses) was 8.54; the radiotherapy-specific coded rate was 6.71. The rate of true adverse events (unintended treatment and potential patient harm) was 1.06. Adverse events, where no harm was identified, occurred at a rate of 2.76 per 100 courses. Despite workload increases, overall and actual rates both exhibited downward trends over the 5-year period. The taxonomy captured previously unidentified quality assurance failures; centre-specific issues that contributed to variations in incident trends were also identified. The application of a taxonomy developed for radiation therapy enhances incident investigation and facilitates strategic interventions. The practice appears to be effective in our institution and contributes to the safety culture. The ratio of near miss to actual incidents could serve as a possible measure of incident reporting culture and could be incorporated into large scale incident reporting systems.

  2. [Acute Dystonia due to Aripiprazole Use in Two Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder in the First Five Years of Life].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küçükköse, Mustafa; Kabukçu Başay, Bürge

    2017-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are neuropsychiatric disorders characterized by impairment in social interactions, in verbal and non-verbal communication, and restricted and stereotyped patterns of interest and behavior within the first 3 years of life. Pharmacologic interventions may be needed for the treatment of temper tantrums, aggression, hyperactivity, and stereotypes in children with ASD. The approval of aripiprazole by the United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) for the treatment of temper tantrums in children and adolescents with ASD has gained increased interest for the use in these patients. Aripiprazole is a partial agonist for the dopamine D2, serotonin 5-HT1A receptors, and an antagonist for 5HT2A receptors. Because aripiprazole is a partial agonist, it has been is speculated that aripiprazole has a protective effect for extrapyramidal side effects, movement disorders, and metabolic problems. But the increased use in children and adolescents is associated with an increase in the number of case reports related with such problems. Nevertheless, our review of the literature uncovered limited data regarding the association between acute dystonia and aripiprazole use in ASD children under five years of age is. In this paper, we present two cases of autistic spectrum disorder children with ages under 5 years that developed acute dystonia taking aripiprazole.

  3. [A case of transverse colon cancer without a recurrence lesion after five years from resection of hepatic metastasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ami, Katsunori; Nakamura, Masahiro; Takasaki, Jun; Watayou, Yoshihisa; Amagasa, Hidetoshi; Ganno, Hideaki; Kurokawa, Toshiaki; Fukuda, Akira; Nagahama, Takeshi; Ando, Masayuki; Tei, Shikofumi; Okada, Youichi; Arai, Kuniyoshi

    2011-11-01

    The treatment of hepatic metastasis of colon cancer was in progress by new biochemical agents. Generally, a resection was the first alternative treatment against hepatic metastasis of colon cancer, but new antitumor agents were more effective than conventional antitumor agents. Disappearance of metastasis for colon cancer treated with only antitumor agents was commenced to report. We were experienced a case of transverse colon cancer without a recurrence lesion after five years from the resection of hepatic metastasis. A case was a 77-year-old man. He was operated against transverse colon cancer in February 2003. Pathological stage was ss, n0, Stage II. In April 2004, serum CEA was increased. CT examination was not detected a hepatic metastasis but ultrasound examination and MRI detected the metastasis at S7 lesion in the liver. In July 2004, he was admitted to S-1 and PSK until October 2004. In December 2004, the lesion of hepatic metastasis was reduced and serum CEA was decreased. But in September 2005, the metastatic lesion was re-grown. A resection for hepatic metastasis was executed in November 2005. After the resection for hepatic metastasis, he was admitted to UFT/ UZEL from January 2006 to October 2006. Present time( June 2011), the lesion of recurrence was not detected by several examinations (CT, MRI, Ultrasound etc).

  4. Capitation of public mental health services in Colorado: a five-year follow-up of system-level effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Joan R; Wang, Huihui; Kang, Soo Hyang; Wallace, Neal T; Hyun, Jenny K; Hu, Teh-wei

    2011-02-01

    Capitated Medicaid mental health programs have reduced costs over the short term by lowering the utilization of high-cost inpatient services. This study examined the five-year effects of capitated financing in community mental health centers (CMHCs) by comparing not-for-profit with for-profit programs. Data were from the Medicaid billing system in Colorado for the precapitation year (1994) and a shadow billing system for the postcapitation years (1995-1999). In a panel design, a random-effect approach estimated the impact of two financing systems on service utilization and cost while adjusting for all the covariates. Consistent with predictions, in both the for-profit and the not-for-profit CMHCs, relative to the precapitation year, there were significant reductions in each postcapitation year in high-cost treatments (inpatient treatment) for all but one comparison (not-for-profit CMHCs in 1999). Also consistent with predictions, the for-profit programs realized significant reductions in cost per user for both outpatient services and total services. In the not-for-profit programs, there were no significant changes in cost per user for total services; a significant reduction in cost per user for outpatient services was found only in the first two years, 1995 and 1996). The evidence suggests that different strategies were used by the not-for-profit and for-profit programs to control expenditures and utilization and that the for-profit programs were more successful in reducing cost per user.

  5. Risk Factors Associated with High Blood Pressure in Two-to Five-Year-Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crispim, Paula Azevedo Aranha; Peixoto, Maria do Rosário Gondim; Jardim, Paulo César Brandão Veiga

    2014-01-01

    Background Over recent decades, the prevalence of high blood pressure (BP) has increased among children. Several risk factors are involved in the genesis of high BP during childhood, and their early identification can prevent the development of that disease. Objectives To assess the prevalence of high BP and associated factors in children. Methods Cross-sectional, population-based study, carried out at the household. This study included 276 two- to five-year-old children in the city of Goiânia, state of Goiás, and assessed their BP, sociodemographic characteristics, birth weight, high BP family history, passive smoking, maternal breastfeeding, dietary habits, sedentary lifestyle and nutritional status. Poisson regression was used to assess the association between risk factors and high BP. Results Their mean age was 3.1 ± 0.79 years, and high BP and overweight were observed in 19.9% and 11.2% of the children, respectively. Direct association of high BP was identified with age [prevalence ratio (PR) = 2.3; 95%CI: 1.2 - 4.8; p = 0.017] and overweight (PR = 2.0; 95%CI: 1.2 - 3.6; p = 0.014). No other variable associated with high BP. Conclusions The prevalence of high BP in children was high. Overweight and younger children had greater prevalence of high BP. PMID:24263779

  6. Revised Fifth Five Year Economic and Social Development Plan, 1984-1986.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    This document contains provisions of chapter 6 (Promoting Social Development) of the Revised Fifth Five-Year Economic and Social Development Plan (1984-86) of the Republic of Korea. The plan calls for the efficient control of population growth by targeting intensive efforts to women 20-30 years old, eradicating the traditional preference for male children, providing incentives to foster a small family norm, and discouraging couples from having too many children. Family planning (FP) programs will be expanded to increase the contraceptive prevalence rate and improve the quality of contraceptive services. Emphasis will be placed on women 34 years or younger residing in poor urban and remote rural areas. The emphasis of the evaluations of FP guidance and evaluation teams will be on the actual prevention of birth rather than on the contraceptive use ratio, and the FP program will be linked to other health and medical schemes. Families with 2 children or less will receive extended medical services and free kindergarten tuition. Families with 3 or more children may face discriminatory policy measures. The Family Law will be amended to allow daughters to inherit, the Medical Insurance Law will be changed to allow family members dependent upon female workers to be insured, and social institutions hindering female participation in the work force will be banned. The dissemination of FP information and population education will be expanded.

  7. The U.S. Department of Energy Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Five-Year Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimm, P.

    1990-01-01

    Within the first month after being confirmed as this country's sixth secretary of energy, Admiral James D. Watkins (US Navy, Retired) promised Congress that he would deliver a comprehensive plan that outlines specific actions to undertake over the next 5 yr to achieve compliance with US environmental laws and to begin to clean up and restore those sites that we have contaminated over the past 40 yr. The Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Five-Year Plan was published in August 1989. As the admiral committed, the plan established and documented an agenda for compliance and cleanup against which progress in the area of environmental restoration and waste management would be measured and specifically identified actions and commitments to achieve this progress. In November 1989, an additional chapter identifying the applied research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation (RDDT and E) activities that would support the implementation of the plan was published. Last June, the US Department of Energy (DOE) issued the first annual update of the 5-yr plan. This update covers the years 1992-1996, notes the progress achieved during the past year, and incorporates the scope of both the original plan and the RDDT and E plan. The plan is divided into five sections: corrective activities, environmental restoration, waste operations, technology development, and transportation. Each section explains DOE's overall policies and plans for achieving compliance and cleanup at DOE's nuclear-related facilities

  8. International radiation protection recommendations. Five years experience of ICRP Publication 26

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindell, B.; Beninson, D.; Sowby, F.D.

    1983-01-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection has issued radiation protection recommendations since 1928. The latest set of basic recommendations was adopted by the Commission on 17 January 1977, and subsequently published as ICRP Publication 26. This document has met with a wider interest than any of the previous ICRP recommendations. It has been considered to mark a radical change in the protection policy advocated by ICRP. It is not often appreciated that recommendations which are believed to be 'new' in ICRP Publication 26 had already been made in ICRP Publication 9 more than ten years earlier. In any event, ICRP Publication 26 has had a substantial impact on regulatory work in countries all over the world. It forms the basis for the Basic Safety Standards of the international organizations IAEA, ILO, OECD/NEA and WHO. The paper refers to the experience gained in using the new ICRP recommendations over the five years that have passed since ICRP Publication 26 was adopted and discusses some of the problems that have arisen in the practical application of the new recommendations in various countries. (author)

  9. Environmental impact analysis: the first five years of the National Environmental Policy Act in the USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorold, O

    1975-11-01

    The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 was the first comprehensive law to subject decisions to an assessment of total environmental consequence and instill environmental attitudes throughout government. All agencies must submit impact projections of proposed as well as alternative actions. Twenty-one states have passed similar legislation. A review of the Act's provisions for oversight, court action, timing, content, and commenting procedures is followed by a five-year evaluation. Because NEPA is generally felt to be a realistic approach to decision making and not a substitute for other kinds of environmental control, Mr. Thorold feels the American experience has been positive and is worth modifying for other countries. The Act lacked a ''grandfather clause,'' which caused a difficult transition period while agencies coped with both new and existing projects and developed standards for identifying and reviewing impacts. As agencies recognized that delays from lawsuits often resulted from inadequate impact statements, the quality improved to meet the strict guidelines of the Council on Environmental Quality. Joint efforts of agencies, universities, consulting firms, and private groups have cooperated to improve environmental forecasting and promote full communication. The costs of preparing statements and those of abandoned projects are felt to be conservative when compared to the costs of pursuing inappropriate projects. (21 references) (DCK)

  10. Five-year survival in 309 patients with colorectal liver metastases treated with radiofrequency ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillams, A.R.; Lees, W.R.

    2009-01-01

    There is little published long-term survival data for patients with colorectal liver metastases treated with radiofrequency ablation (RFA). We present a multivariate analysis of 5-year survival in 309 patients (198 male, aged 64 (24-92)) treated at 617 sessions. Our standard protocol used internally cooled electrodes introduced percutaneously under combined US and CT guidance/monitoring. The number and size of liver metastases, the presence and location of extrahepatic disease, primary resection, clinical, chemotherapy and follow-up data were recorded. Data analysis was performed using SPSS v.10. On multivariate analysis, significant survival factors were the presence of extrahepatic disease (p < 0.001) and liver tumour volume (p = 0.001). For 123 patients with five or less metastases of 5 cm or less maximum diameter and no extrahepatic disease median survival was 46 and 36 months from liver metastasis diagnosis and ablation, respectively; corresponding 3- and 5-year survival rates were 63%, 34% and 49%, 24%. Sixty-nine patients had three or less tumours of below 3.5 cm in diameter and their 5-year survival from ablation was 33%. There were 23/617(3.7%) local complications requiring intervention. Five-year survival of 24-33% post ablation in selected patients is superior to any published chemotherapy data and approaches the results of liver resection. (orig.)

  11. Five-year follow-up of Community Pediatrics Training Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkovitz, Cynthia S; Goldshore, Matt; Solomon, Barry S; Guyer, Bernard; Grason, Holly

    2014-07-01

    To compare community involvement of pediatricians exposed to enhanced residency training as part of the Dyson Community Pediatrics Training Initiative (CPTI) with involvement reported by a national sample of pediatricians. A cross-sectional analyses compared 2008-2010 mailed surveys of CPTI graduates 5 years after residency graduation with comparably aged respondents in a 2010 mailed national American Academy of Pediatrics survey of US pediatricians (CPTI: n = 234, response = 56.0%; national sample: n = 243; response = 59.9%). Respondents reported demographic characteristics, practice characteristics (setting, time spent in general pediatrics), involvement in community child health activities in past 12 months, use of ≥1 strategies to influence community child health (eg, educate legislators), and being moderately/very versus not at all/minimally skilled in 6 such activities (eg, identify community needs). χ(2) statistics assessed differences between groups; logistic regression modeled the independent association of CPTI with community involvement adjusting for personal and practice characteristics and perspectives regarding involvement. Compared with the national sample, more CPTI graduates reported involvement in community pediatrics (43.6% vs 31.1%, P .05). Differences in involvement remained in adjusted analyses with greater involvement by CPTI graduates (adjusted odds ratio 2.4, 95% confidence interval 1.5-3.7). Five years after residency, compared with their peers, more CPTI graduates report having skills and greater community pediatrics involvement. Enhanced residency training in community pediatrics may lead to a more engaged pediatrician workforce. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  12. Seroepizootology of Q fever in Bulgaria during the last five years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinov, S P; Pandarov, S; Popov, G V

    1989-12-01

    The work presents results of investigations on Q fever seroepizootology in Bulgaria during the last five years. These data are compared with the preceding period from 1950 to 1983. The basic method for investigation is Complement fixation test. Also used are immunofluorescence, agglutination reaction, cultivation and direct Electron microscopy. In general 15,814 samples were tested. Q fever positivity was foundin 10.08% of cattle, 20.44% of sheep, 10.17% of goats, 59.25% of dogs, 26.66% of magpies, 11.11% of wood-pigeons, 7.40% of mouflons, 7.14% of foxes and 5.82% of hens. These data confirm the results of our preceding investigations for the wide dissemination of C. burnetti among domestic animals. Positive data for the significant spread of C. burnetti among the wild animals and birds also exists. The disease manifests itself clinically in abortions in sheep and cattle and mastitis in sheep. The inapparent form, however, is much more frequent. The infected dogs represent a special interest. The control measures are based on the wide use of tetracyclines. The presented data testify to the continuing importance of the problem of Q fever in Bulgaria.

  13. Public comments and responses to the 1991 Hanford Cleanup Five-Year Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Richland Field Office (RL) updated its Site-Specific Plan (DOE-RL 1991a) dealing with cleanup and operation of the Hanford Site in September 1991. The plan provides direction as to how DOE will carry out the national strategy for managing and cleaning up the Hanford Site wastes resulting from production of nuclear weapons. The plan is updated annually. We asked the public to comment on the plan during its 60-day public comment period. This report presents the comments and provides responses. The introduction explains how the comments were gathered and how we responded. This report is in four main sections: (1) comments and responses addressed locally; (2) comments forwarded to DOE-Headquarters for their response (these responses will appear in the National Five-Year Plan [DOE 1991a]); (3) comments we did not respond to here because they were outside the scope, or about how we gathered the public's comments; and (4) the appendices, which include a glossary, a list of acronyms used in the document, and the letters and cards we received reproduced in their entirety

  14. Public comments and responses to the 1989 Hanford cleanup five-year plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-06-01

    In April 1990 the US Department of Energy (DOE) issued a site- specific Five-Year Plan (DOE-RL 1989a) on Hanford's cleanup for public review and comment. The plan guides Hanford in carrying out DOE's national plan for environmental restoration and waste management. During the 90-day public comment period, DOE held nine public meetings to answer questions and gather comments on the plan. This report is in three main sections. The first presents consolidated public comments and responses. These were compiled from both verbal comments from public meetings and written comments. The second section contains comments not responded to in this plan. Those comments were outside this plan's scope, related to how we gathered public comments, or intended for and directed to DOE-Headquarters. In the appendixes are the written comment letters we received and a short glossary and list of special terms we use. The source of comments is shown in parentheses after the comment. The individual who made the comment, the city of the public meeting, or the organization name is generally used. When several sources gave the same comment, a source was not listed. 26 refs

  15. [Prevalence of overwight and obesity among children under five years in Peru 2007-2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajuelo-Ramírez, Jaime; Miranda-Cuadros, Marianella; Campos-Sánchez, Miguel; Sánchez-Abanto, José

    2011-06-01

    To estimate the prevalence of overweight and obesity in children under five in Peru in the years 2007-2010 and to describe according to geographical areas, poverty levels, maternal education, breastfeeding, child age, sex and birth weight. continuous (repeated cross-sectional) multistage, random sampling survey from the universe of children under five-years and pregnant women living in Peru, divided into five geographical areas. Out of 3,669 children, 50.3% were males (Lima N=680, Remaining Coast N=763, Urban Sierra N=719, Rural Sierra N=699, Jungle N=808) having their weight and height measured according to international standards. The national prevalence of overweight and obesity was 6.9%, with Metropolitan Lima (10.1%) as the highest and in the Jungle (2.6%) as the lowest. Age, sex, geographical area and birth weight were identified as risk factors through multiple logistic regression. overweight and obesity are higher in Lima, during the first year of age and when birth weight is more than 2.5 Kg.

  16. Associated factors of malnutrition among African children under five years old, Bom Jesus, Angola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ema Cândida Branco FERNANDES

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To identify the determinants of wasting and stunting in children under five years old in the commune of Bom Jesus, Angola Methods: A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted with 742 children in 2010, and nutritional deficits were defined by World Health Organization criteria. Prevalence ratios and associated factors of wasting and stunting were estimated using Poisson regression with robust variance, using a conceptual hierarchical model Results: For both deficits, there were significant differences in the prevalence ratios according to the children's neighborhood and age. Boys and those children living in households whose water supply came from the river or lake, as well those with recent expulsion of parasites and infections were more likely to present stunting. Children of fathers with higher number of children or that which the fathers were not living at home and whose mothers were 25-34 years old were less likely to have wasting Conclusion: It was identified independent variables from different levels of determination of malnutrition, standing out the basic sanitation conditions and family structure as important predictors of the nutritional deficits. The knowledge of the associated factors of malnutrition may contribute for subside public policies in planning interventions to improve the childhood nutrition status in Bom Jesus and communes with similar characteristics in Angola.

  17. Results of five years to open exposure of the Zn22Al2Cu alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, L.S.; Miranda, J.M.; Narvaez, L.

    1998-01-01

    It was studied the behavior of the Zn 2 2Al 2 Cu alloy within urban environment (ISO C3) and it is compared with that of galvanized steel (zinc) and aluminium at the same environment. The exposure included three annual exposures and other until for five years. The corrosion damage was evaluated by weight losses. The results confirm a greater corrosion for the ternary alloy compared with the galvanized steel. However, the obtained results through the Polarization resistance technique (Rp), utilizing a 0.1 M Na 2 SO 4 solution, indicated greater values for the corrosion products layer over the alloy with respect to galvanized. The formed corrosion products over the exposed samples by different periods were characterized by different techniques to estimate the protective properties out in the open. By means of X-ray diffraction were identified zinc and aluminium sulfates also alumina in the ternary alloy. The presence of alumina was confirmed by Raman spectroscopy. Through polarization curves and punctual analysis by X-ray dispersive energies (EDX) it was confirmed the enrichment of the aluminium surface by the preferential dissolution of zinc. (Author)

  18. Retrospective evaluation of the five-year and ten-year CSEP-Italy earthquake forecasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Wiemer

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available On August 1, 2009, the global Collaboratory for the Study of Earthquake Predictability (CSEP launched a prospective and comparative earthquake predictability experiment in Italy. The goal of this CSEP-Italy experiment is to test earthquake occurrence hypotheses that have been formalized as probabilistic earthquake forecasts over temporal scales that range from days to years. In the first round of forecast submissions, members of the CSEP-Italy Working Group presented 18 five-year and ten-year earthquake forecasts to the European CSEP Testing Center at ETH Zurich. We have considered here the twelve time-independent earthquake forecasts among this set, and evaluated them with respect to past seismicity data from two Italian earthquake catalogs. We present the results of the tests that measure the consistencies of the forecasts according to past observations. As well as being an evaluation of the time-independent forecasts submitted, this exercise provides insight into a number of important issues in predictability experiments with regard to the specification of the forecasts, the performance of the tests, and the trade-off between robustness of results and experiment duration. We conclude with suggestions for the design of future earthquake predictability experiments.

  19. Five Year Retrospective Study of the Financial Situation of Northern Foods Plc., United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louie DACOSTA

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted as a retrospective analysis of Northern Foods Plc., once a major player in FTSE 350 Food Sector, to evaluate its financial situation over a five year period. The ex post factor research design was used for this study. Annual reports and databases on Northern Foods Plc., and Associated British Foods Plc., were used to perform a series of ratio analyses. The results revealed that Northern Foods Plc.’s performance has been declining as evidenced in the profitability ratios calculated. Also, financial strength was weak and working capital has not been effectively managed, hence affecting its cash and profit generation potentials. The company was limited in its ability to grow and expand as it needed to regularly fund its pension deficit, and finance its high levels of debt. The study concludes that Northern Foods was not in a very strong financial position, yet it was not making the required investments to improve, hence its takeover though this paper will not rule out non-financial issues. Furthermore, the study prescribed five generic points to improve the financial health of any organisation.

  20. Corrosion study of steels exposed over five years to the humid tropical atmosphere of Panama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaén, Juan A., E-mail: juan.jaen@up.ac.pa [Departamento de Química Física, Edificio de Laboratorios Científicos-VIP (Panama); Iglesias, Josefina [Laboratorio de Análisis Industriales y Ciencias Ambientales (Panama)

    2017-11-15

    The results of assessing five-year corrosion of low-carbon and conventional weathering steels exposed to the Panamanian tropical atmosphere is presented. Two different test sites, one in Panama City: 5 km from the shoreline of the Pacific Ocean, and another in the marine environment of Fort Sherman, Caribbean coast of Panama; namely, Fort Sherman Coastal site: 100 m from coastline. The corrosion products, formed in the skyward and earthward faces in the studied tropical environment, were mainly identified using room temperature and low temperature (15 K) Mössbauer spectroscopy, and ATR-FTIR. In all samples, lepidocrocite (γ-FeOOH) and goethite (α-FeOOH) were the main constituents. Some maghemite (γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}), was also identified in Tocumen by Mössbauer spectroscopy and traces of feroxyhyte (δ-FeOOH) using ATR-FTIR. The corrosion rate values obtained are discussed in light of the atmospheric exposure conditions and atmospheric pollutants.

  1. CYTOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF MALE BREAST LESIONS IN GREATER GWALIOR : A FIVE YEAR RETROSPECTIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagannath

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUNDS: Fine needle aspiration cytology is an effective modality for diagnosis of breast lesions. Usually male breast lesions are benign and affect the young male. Most common lesion is gynaecomastia. Male breast cancer accounts for a small proportion of breast cancers. Male breast cancer usually presents at an advanced age. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the nature of male breast lesions and to determine the cytomorphologic patterns of these lesions. MET HODS: five year retrospective study was conducted in our institution and in that 112 patients underwent fine needle aspiration cytology of the palpable breast lump after thorough physical examination. The cytological diagnosis was classified as benign, inf lammatory, malignant and others. RESULTS: In 112 male patients diagnosed with breast lesions, the most common lesion was gynecomastia (103/112, 91.9%, followed by breast cancer (6/112, 5.4%, inflammatory (2/112, 1.8% and apocrine metaplasia (01/112, 0.9 %. Gynecomastia was commonly found in male patients less than 40 years of age, while breast cancer is seen in male patients over 40 years of age

  2. Five-year forward view: lessons from emergency care at the extremes of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minhas, J S; Minhas, D; Coats, T; Banerjee, J; Roland, D

    2018-03-01

    Objective The progressive rise in demand on NHS emergency care resources is partly attributable to increases in attendances of children and older people. A quality gap exists in the care provision for the old and the young. The Five Year Forward View suggested new models of care but that the "answer is not one-size-fits-all". This article discusses the urgent need for person-centred outcome measures to bridge the gap that exists between demand and provision. Design This review is based on evidence gathered from literature searching across several platforms using a variety of search terms to account for the obvious heterogeneity, drawing on key 'think-tank' evidence. Settings Qualitative and quantitative studies examining approaches to caring for individuals at the extremes of age. Participants Individuals at the extremes of age (infants and older people). Main Outcome Measures Understanding similarities and disparities in the care of individuals at the extremes of age in an emergency and non-emergency context. Results There exists several similarities and disparities in the care of individuals at the extremes of age. The increasing burden of health disease on the economy must acknowledge the challenges that exist in managing patients in emergency settings at the extremes of age and build systems to acknowledge the traits these individuals exhibit. Conclusion Commissioners of services must optimise the models of care delivery by appreciating the similarities and differences between care requirements in these two large groups seeking emergency care.

  3. Kratom abuse in Ramathibodi Poison Center, Thailand: a five-year experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trakulsrichai, Satariya; Tongpo, Achara; Sriapha, Charuwan; Wongvisawakorn, Sunun; Rittilert, Panee; Kaojarern, Sming; Wananukul, Winai

    2013-01-01

    Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa Korth), a native tree in Southeast Asia, is misused as an abuse drug and becomes legally widespread to several countries. Currently, it is available through the online market or by some shops. The clinical manifestations of Kratom's effects are not well-defined and the clinical studies are limited. This study was designed to identify the characteristics of Kratom poisoning and withdrawal cases from Kratom exposure cases in Ramathibodi Poison Center (RPC), Thailand, during a five-year period. We used a retrospective review of Kratom exposure cases from the RPC toxic surveillance system. A total of 52 Kratom exposure cases were identified. The trend of case consultations has been increasing. There were Kratom poisoning cases (76.9%) and withdrawal cases (23.1%). Common presenting symptoms in the poisoning group were palpitation (22.5%), followed by seizure (17.5%). For the withdrawal group, the common presenting symptoms were myalgia (33.3%), insomnia (16.67%), fatigue (16.67%), and chest discomfort (16.67%). There was a baby with withdrawal symptoms who was delivered from a chronic Kratom-abusing mother, suggesting possible exposure via the transplacental route. There were no deaths in either group. Kratom abuse can cause either poisoning or withdrawal. Most cases in both groups had good prognostic outcome.

  4. Interventions for increasing fruit and vegetable consumption in children aged five years and under.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodder, Rebecca K; O'Brien, Kate M; Stacey, Fiona G; Wyse, Rebecca J; Clinton-McHarg, Tara; Tzelepis, Flora; James, Erica L; Bartlem, Kate M; Nathan, Nicole K; Sutherland, Rachel; Robson, Emma; Yoong, Sze Lin; Wolfenden, Luke

    2018-05-17

    Insufficient consumption of fruits and vegetables in childhood increases the risk of future non-communicable diseases, including cardiovascular disease. Interventions to increase consumption of fruit and vegetables, such as those focused on specific child-feeding strategies and parent nutrition education interventions in early childhood may therefore be an effective strategy in reducing this disease burden. To assess the effectiveness, cost effectiveness and associated adverse events of interventions designed to increase the consumption of fruit, vegetables or both amongst children aged five years and under. We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase and two clinical trials registries to identify eligible trials on 25 January 2018. We searched Proquest Dissertations and Theses in November 2017. We reviewed reference lists of included trials and handsearched three international nutrition journals. We contacted authors of included studies to identify further potentially relevant trials. We included randomised controlled trials, including cluster-randomised controlled trials and cross-over trials, of any intervention primarily targeting consumption of fruit, vegetables or both among children aged five years and under, and incorporating a dietary or biochemical assessment of fruit or vegetable consumption. Two review authors independently screened titles and abstracts of identified papers; a third review author resolved disagreements. Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed the risks of bias of included studies; a third review author resolved disagreements. Due to unexplained heterogeneity, we used random-effects models in meta-analyses for the primary review outcomes where we identified sufficient trials. We calculated standardised mean differences (SMDs) to account for the heterogeneity of fruit and vegetable consumption measures. We conducted assessments of risks of bias and evaluated the quality of evidence (GRADE approach) using Cochrane procedures

  5. Five Years of Experimental Warming Increases the Biodiversity and Productivity of Phytoplankton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yvon-Durocher, Gabriel; Allen, Andrew P.; Cellamare, Maria; Dossena, Matteo; Gaston, Kevin J.; Leitao, Maria; Montoya, José M.; Reuman, Daniel C.; Woodward, Guy; Trimmer, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Phytoplankton are key components of aquatic ecosystems, fixing CO2 from the atmosphere through photosynthesis and supporting secondary production, yet relatively little is known about how future global warming might alter their biodiversity and associated ecosystem functioning. Here, we explore how the structure, function, and biodiversity of a planktonic metacommunity was altered after five years of experimental warming. Our outdoor mesocosm experiment was open to natural dispersal from the regional species pool, allowing us to explore the effects of experimental warming in the context of metacommunity dynamics. Warming of 4°C led to a 67% increase in the species richness of the phytoplankton, more evenly-distributed abundance, and higher rates of gross primary productivity. Warming elevated productivity indirectly, by increasing the biodiversity and biomass of the local phytoplankton communities. Warming also systematically shifted the taxonomic and functional trait composition of the phytoplankton, favoring large, colonial, inedible phytoplankton taxa, suggesting stronger top-down control, mediated by zooplankton grazing played an important role. Overall, our findings suggest that temperature can modulate species coexistence, and through such mechanisms, global warming could, in some cases, increase the species richness and productivity of phytoplankton communities. PMID:26680314

  6. Burlington Bottoms wildlife mitigation site : five-year habitat management plan, 2001-2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beilke, Susan G.

    2001-01-01

    Historically the lower Columbia and Willamette River Basins were ecologically rich in both the habitat types and the species diversity they supported. This was due in part to the pattern of floods and periodic inundation of bottomlands that occurred, which was an important factor in creating and maintaining a complex system of wetland, meadow, and riparian habitats. This landscape has been greatly altered in the past 150 years, primarily due to human development and agricultural activities including cattle grazing, logging and the building of hydroelectric facilities for hydropower, navigation, flood control and irrigation in the Columbia and Willamette River Basins. The Burlington Bottoms (BB) wetlands contains some of the last remaining bottomlands in the area, supporting a diverse array of native plant and wildlife species. Located approximately twelve miles northwest of Portland and situated between the Tualatin Mountains to the west and Multnomah Channel and Sauvie Island to the east, the current habitats are remnant of what was once common throughout the region. In order to preserve and enhance this important site, a five-year habitat management plan has been written that proposes a set of actions that will carry out the goals and objectives developed for the site, which includes protecting, maintaining and enhancing wildlife habitat for perpetuity

  7. Clinical anatomy e-cases: a five-year follow-up of learning analytics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perumal, Vivek; Butson, Russell; Blyth, Phil; Daniel, Ben

    2017-01-27

    This article explores the development and user experiences of a supplementary e-learning resource (clinical anatomy e-cases) for medical students, across a five-year teaching period. A series of online supplementary e-learning resources (the clinical anatomy e-cases) were developed and introduced to the regional and clinical anatomy module of the medicine course. Usage analytics were collected online from a cohort of third-year medical students and analysed to gain a better understanding of how students utilised these resources. Key results showed that the students used the supplementary learning resource during and outside regular teaching hours that includes a significant access during holidays. Analysis also suggested that the resources were frequently accessed during examination periods and during subsequent clinical study years (fourth or fifth years of medicine course). Increasing interest and positive feedback from students has led to the development of a further series of e-cases. Tailor-made e-learning resources promote clinical anatomy learning outside classroom hours and make supplementary learning a 24/7 task.

  8. Longitudinal Impact of the Project PATHS on Adolescent Risk Behavior: What Happened after Five Years?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel T. L. Shek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the longitudinal impact of the Project PATHS, a large-scale curriculum-based positive youth development program in Hong Kong, on the development of adolescents’ risk behavior over a period of five years. Using a longitudinal randomized controlled design, eight waves of data were collected from 19 experimental schools in which students participated in the Project PATHS (=2,850 at Wave 8 and 24 control schools without joining the Project PATHS (=3,640 at Wave 8. At each wave, students responded to measures assessing their current risk behaviors, including delinquency, use of different types of drug, and their intentions of participating in risk behaviors in the future. Results demonstrated that adolescents receiving the program exhibited significantly slower increases in delinquent behaviors and substance use as compared to the control participants. During two years after the completion of the program, differences in youth risk behaviors in the two groups still existed. These results suggest that the Project PATHS has long-term effect in preventing adolescent problem behavior through promoting positive youth development.

  9. Etorphine-halothane anaesthesia in two five-year-old African elephants (Loxodonta africana : clinical communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.F. Stegmann

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Anaesthesia of 2 five-year-old femaleAfrican elephants (Loxodonta africana was required for dental surgery. The animals were each premedicated with 120 mg of azaperone 60 min before transportation to the hospital. Before offloading, 1 mg etorphine was administered intramuscularly (i.m. to each elephant to facilitate walking them to the equine induction / recovery room. For induction, 2 mg etorphine was administered i.m. to each animal. Induction was complete within 6 min. Surgical anaesthesia was induced with halothane-in-oxygen after intubation of the trunk. During surgery the mean heart rate was 61 and 45 beats / min respectively. Systolic blood pressures increased to 27.5 and 25.6 kPa respectively, and were treated with intravenous azaperone. Blood pressure decreased thereafter to a mean systolic pressure of 18.1 and 19.8 kPa, respectively. Rectal temperature was 35.6 and 33.9 oC at the onset of surgery, and decreased to 35.3 and 33.5 oC, respectively, at the end of anaesthesia. Etorphine anaesthesia was reversed with 5mg diprenorphine at the completion of 90 min of surgery.

  10. The safeguards on-site laboratory at Sellafield. Five years operational experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duinslaeger, L.; Belle, P. van; Mayer, K.; Casteleyn, K.; Abousahl, S.; Daures, P.; Eberle, H.; Enright, T.; Guiot, A.; Hild, M.; Horta Domenech, J.; Lajarge, P.; Laurent, P.; Le Terrier, A.; Lynch, B.; Marucci, M.; Millet, S.; Ottmar, H.; Richir, P.; Street, S.; Vallet, P.; Zuleger, E. [European Commission, Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. for Transuranium Elements

    2004-06-01

    The start of operation of the large reprocessing facilities led Euratom Safeguards to a new approach for verification analysis of samples taken at the facility: the installation of on-site laboratories. The availability of analytical capabilities for independent verification measurements at the site of these facilities offers obvious advantages in view of timeliness of results. The 'On-Site Laboratory' (OSL) at the BNFL Sellafield site was the first ever and entered into operation in 1999. For almost five years, the Institute for Transuranium Elements (ITU) has been operating the laboratory under routine conditions. During this period, more than one thousand safeguards samples were analysed. The experience gained in the management, logistics and operation of the OSL allow a critical review based on a significant period in time. This includes also aspects of training of staff, maintenance of equipment, flow of information, and improvements in the efficiency. The analytical issues are of key importance: based on the operational experience, the measurement methods were adapted (changing boundary conditions), the distribution of samples according to material type changed (start up of MOS fabrication plant), and the cutback in resources triggered a further streamlining of the analytical efforts. (orig.)

  11. Improving the Agronomy of Alyssum murale for Extensive Phytomining: A Five-Year Field Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bani, Aida; Echevarria, Guillaume; Sulçe, Sulejman; Morel, Jean Louis

    2015-01-01

    Large ultramafic areas exist in Albania, which could be suitable for phytomining with native Alyssum murale. We undertook a five-year field experiment on an ultramafic Vertisol, aimed at optimizing a low-cost Ni-phytoextraction crop of A. murale which is adapted to the Balkans. The following aspects were studied on 18-m2 plots in natural conditions: the effect of (i) plant phenology and element distribution, (ii) plant nutrition and fertilization, (iii) plant cover and weed control and (iv), planting technique (natural cover vs. sown crop). The optimal harvest time was set at the mid-flowering stage when Ni concentration and biomass yield were highest. The application of N, P, and K fertilizers, and especially a split 100-kg ha(-1) N application, increased the density of A. murale against all other species. It significantly increased shoot yield, without reducing Ni concentration. In natural stands, the control of graminaceous weeds required the use of an anti-monocots herbicide. However, after the optimization of fertilization and harvest time, weed control procured little benefit. Finally, cropping sown A. murale was more efficient than enhancing native stands and gave higher biomass and phytoextraction yields; biomass yields progressively improved from 0.3 to 9.0 t ha(-1) and phytoextracted Ni increased from 1.7 to 105 kg ha(-1).

  12. Interventions for increasing fruit and vegetable consumption in children aged five years and under.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodder, Rebecca K; Stacey, Fiona G; O'Brien, Kate M; Wyse, Rebecca J; Clinton-McHarg, Tara; Tzelepis, Flora; James, Erica L; Bartlem, Kate M; Nathan, Nicole K; Sutherland, Rachel; Robson, Emma; Yoong, Sze Lin; Wolfenden, Luke

    2018-01-25

    Insufficient consumption of fruits and vegetables in childhood increases the risk of future chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease. To assess the effectiveness, cost effectiveness and associated adverse events of interventions designed to increase the consumption of fruit, vegetables or both amongst children aged five years and under. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE and Embase to identify eligible trials on 25 September 2017. We searched Proquest Dissertations and Theses and two clinical trial registers in November 2017. We reviewed reference lists of included trials and handsearched three international nutrition journals. We contacted authors of included studies to identify further potentially relevant trials. We included randomised controlled trials, including cluster-randomised controlled trials and cross-over trials, of any intervention primarily targeting consumption of fruit, vegetables or both among children aged five years and under, and incorporating a dietary or biochemical assessment of fruit or vegetable consumption. Two review authors independently screened titles and abstracts of identified papers; a third review author resolved disagreements. Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed the risks of bias of included studies; a third review author resolved disagreements. Due to unexplained heterogeneity, we used random-effects models in meta-analyses for the primary review outcomes where we identified sufficient trials. We calculated standardised mean differences (SMDs) to account for the heterogeneity of fruit and vegetable consumption measures. We conducted assessments of risks of bias and evaluated the quality of evidence (GRADE approach) using Cochrane procedures. We included 55 trials with 154 trial arms and 11,108 participants. Thirty-three trials examined the impact of child-feeding practices (e.g. repeated food exposure) in increasing child

  13. Five years audit for presence of toxic agents/drug of abuse at autopsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, S.M.A.; Khalil, I.R.; Saeed, A.; Hussain, Z.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To know the frequency of fatal poisoning in Peshawar regarding the toxic agents mostly involved and year wise percentage. To know the age group and the gender that is most vulnerable to fatal poisoning. Results: Poisoning was the cause of death in 1.48% of the total autopsies conducted during the five years. Males were more involved than the females, 90.38%. Suicidal poisoning was present in 17.30% of the total cases and accidental poisoning was found in 80.72% cases, while homicidal cases were 1.29% only. Diacetylmorphine (heroin) was the most commonly involved agent, 65.38%, of the total cases. The incidence of poisoning was more during the third and fourth decades of life. Conclusion: Diacetylmorphine (heroin) was the main causative agent involved in young males due to accidental over-dosage. Accidental and suicidal deaths should not be considered as inevitable. More elaborative studies are required in this area of recent research to adopt appropriate and adequate measures to save precious lives.(author)

  14. Pacific Northwest and Alaska Regional Bioenergy Program : Five Year Report, 1985-1990.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacific Northwest and Alaska Bioenergy Program (U.S.)

    1991-02-01

    This five-year report describes activities of the Pacific Northwest and Alaska Regional Bioenergy Program between 1985 and 1990. Begun in 1979, this Regional Bioenergy Program became the model for the nation's four other regional bioenergy programs in 1983. Within the time span of this report, the Pacific Northwest and Alaska Regional Bioenergy Program has undertaken a number of applied research and technology projects, and supported and guided the work of its five participating state energy programs. During this period, the Regional Bioenergy Program has brought together public- and private-sector organizations to promote the use of local biomass and municipal-waste energy resources and technologies. This report claims information on the mission, goals and accomplishments of the Regional Bioenergy Program. It describes the biomass projects conducted by the individual states of the region, and summarizes the results of the programs technical studies. Publications from both the state and regional projects are listed. The report goes on to consider future efforts of the Regional Bioenergy Program under its challenging assignment. Research activities include: forest residue estimates; Landsat biomass mapping; woody biomass plantations; industrial wood-fuel market; residential space heating with wood; materials recovery of residues; co-firing wood chips with coal; biomass fuel characterization; wood-boosted geothermal power plants; wood gasification; municipal solid wastes to energy; woodstove study; slash burning; forest depletion; and technology transfer. 9 figs., 6 tabs.

  15. Consultant-based otolaryngology emergency service: a five-year experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, M L; Hussain, S S M

    2011-12-01

    To present our experience of running a consultant-based otolaryngology emergency care service for more than five years. In 2003, we developed a system of consultant-based emergency service: consultants spent a week on-call providing a dedicated emergency service, with routine commitments cancelled. Our new system had advantages over traditional working practices in terms of consultant involvement, trainee education, continuity and efficiency. It also reduced disruption to elective commitments for both consultants and registrars. This system was fundamental to the successful review of all urgent (and in future elective) cases within target periods. Only 31 per cent of new referrals to the consultant emergency clinics required a further appointment. Good teamwork and flexibility in working arrangements have been essential to the success of this service. Given that health service changes have reduced junior trainee working hours and numbers, and that patients increasingly expect to be treated by trained doctors, our new consultant-based emergency service has merit. Although implementation in other units may differ, we recommend this new service, for the above reasons.

  16. Age specific aetiological agents of diarrhoea in hospitalized children aged less than five years in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myrmel Helge

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to determine the age-specific aetiologic agents of diarrhoea in children aged less than five years. The study also assessed the efficacy of the empiric treatment of childhood diarrhoea using Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI guidelines. Methods This study included 280 children aged less than 5 years, admitted with diarrhoea to any of the four major hospitals in Dar es Salaam. Bacterial pathogens were identified using conventional methods. Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA and agglutination assay were used to detect viruses and intestinal protozoa, respectively. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined using Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. Results At least one of the searched pathogens was detected in 67.1% of the cases, and mixed infections were detected in 20.7% of cases. Overall, bacteria and viruses contributed equally accounting for 33.2% and 32.2% of all the cases, respectively, while parasites were detected in 19.2% patients. Diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli (DEC was the most common enteric pathogen, isolated in 22.9% of patients, followed by Cryptosporidium parvum (18.9%, rotavirus (18.1% and norovirus (13.7%. The main cause of diarrhoea in children aged 0 to 6 months were bacteria, predominantly DEC, while viruses predominated in the 7-12 months age group. Vibrio cholerae was isolated mostly in children above two years. Shigella spp, V. cholerae and DEC showed moderate to high rates of resistance to erythromycin, ampicillin, chloramphenicol and tetracycline (56.2-100%. V. cholerae showed full susceptibility to co-trimoxazole (100%, while DEC and Shigella showed high rate of resistance to co-trimoxazole; 90.6% and 93.3% respectively. None of the bacterial pathogens isolated showed resistance to ciprofloxacin which is not recommended for use in children. Cefotaxime resistance was found only in 4.7% of the DEC. Conclusion During the dry season, acute watery diarrhoea is the

  17. Centre-based day care for children younger than five years of age in high-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Urk, Felix C; Brown, Taylor W; Waller, Rebecca; Mayo-Wilson, Evan

    2014-09-23

    A large proportion of children younger than five years of age in high-income countries experience significant non-parental care. Centre-based day care services may influence the development of children and the economic situation of parents. To assess the effects of centre-based day care without additional interventions (e.g. psychological or medical services, parent training) on the development and well-being of children and families in high-income countries (as defined by the World Bank 2011). In April 2014, we searched CENTRAL, Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, the Education Resources Information Center (ERIC) and eight other databases. We also searched two trials registers and the reference lists of relevant studies. We included randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials of centre-based day care for children younger than five years of age. We excluded studies that involved co-interventions not directed toward children (e.g. parent programmes, home visits, teacher training). We included the following outcomes: child cognitive development (primary outcome), child psychosocial development, maternal and family outcomes and child long-term outcomes. Two review authors independently assessed the risk of bias and extracted data from the single included study. We contacted investigators to obtain missing information. We included in the review one trial, involving 120 families and 143 children. Risk of bias was high because of contamination between groups, as 63% of control group participants accessed day care services separate from those offered within the intervention. No evidence suggested that centre-based day care, rather than no treatment (care at home), improved or worsened children's cognitive ability (Griffiths Mental Development Scale, standardised mean difference (SMD) 0.34, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.01 to 0.69, 127 participants, 1 study, very low-quality evidence) or psychosocial development (parental report of abnormal development, risk ratio (RR

  18. Whole body vibration exercise improves body balance and walking velocity in postmenopausal osteoporotic women treated with alendronate: Galileo and Alendronate Intervention Trail (GAIT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, J; Sato, Y; Takeda, T; Matsumoto, H

    2012-09-01

    A randomized controlled trial was conducted to determine the effect of 6 months of whole body vibration (WBV) exercise on physical function in postmenopausal osteoporotic women treated with alendronate. Fifty-two ambulatory postmenopausal women with osteoporosis (mean age: 74.2 years, range: 51-91 years) were randomly divided into two groups: an exercise group and a control group. A four-minute WBV exercise was performed two days per week only in the exercise group. No exercise was performed in the control group. All the women were treated with alendronate. After 6 months of the WBV exercise, the indices for flexibility, body balance, and walking velocity were significantly improved in the exercise group compared with the control group. The exercise was safe and well tolerated. The reductions in serum alkaline phosphatase and urinary cross-linked N-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen during the 6-month period were comparable between the two groups. The present study showed the benefit and safety of WBV exercise for improving physical function in postmenopausal osteoporotic women treated with alendronate.

  19. Colorectal cancer patients in a tertiary referral centre in Malaysia: a five year follow-up review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Mohd Radzniwan A; Aziz, Aznida Firzah Abdul; Ahmad, Saharuddin; Shah, Shamsul Azhar; Sagap, Ismail

    2009-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the major malignancies in the world. In Malaysia, CRC is fast becoming the commonest cause of cancer death. Its etiology is complex, involving both environmental and genetic factors. This study looked at the profile and outcome of five-year follow-up of patients with CRC. Retrospective case review study done on CRC patients at University Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre (UKMMC), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Patientsandapos; socio-demographic characteristics, modalities of treatment, cancer characteristics and outcome at 5-year follow up were extracted from the case records. A total of 107 case records of patients were analyzed. Peak age of CRC presentation was 40-69 years (71.1%). Male to female ratio was 1.2:1 with Chinese predominance (52.3%). Anaemia and its related symptoms including per rectal bleeding was the commonest clinical presentation. The median duration of clinical presentation was 13 weeks (IQR 21.8). More than two-thirds presented as non-emergency cases (69.2%). Most patients presented with Dukes C stage (40.2%). The overall 5-year survival rate was 40% with local recurrence rate of 19.6%. Metastasis after curative-intend treatment (surgery with adjuvant therapy) developed in 26% of patients. Lower recurrence (p = 0.016, OR = 0.205) and metastatic disease (p = 0.02, OR = 0.24) found among the Chinese patients. Almost half of the patients defaulted follow up care (43%), most often within the first year of treatment (22.4%) and the Chinese were the least likely to default (p= 0.04, OR = 0.45). Socio-demographic profile of CRC patients in UKMMC is comparable to Asia pacific region. Apparent delay in seeking treatment gives rise to poor overall survival and local recurrence rates.

  20. Risk of hip, subtrochanteric, and femoral shaft fractures among mid and long term users of alendronate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Bo; Eiken, Pia; Prieto-Alhambra, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the skeletal safety and efficacy of long term (≥10 years) alendronate use in patients with osteoporosis. DESIGN: Open register based cohort study containing two nested case control studies. SETTING: Nationwide study of population of Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: 61 990 men...... ratio (MPR, a proxy for compliance) >80%) compared with poor adherence (MPR

  1. Injectable nanoparticle-loaded hydrogel system for local delivery of sodium alendronate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Posadowska, U.; Pařízek, Martin; Filová, Elena; Wlodarczyk-Biegun, M.; Kamperman, M.; Bačáková, Lucie; Pamula, E.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 485, 1-2 (2015), s. 31-40 ISSN 0378-5173 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NT13297 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : sodium alendronate * PLGA * nanoparticles Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 3.994, year: 2015

  2. Effect of alendronate on early bone loss of renal transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abediazar, S; Nakhjavani, M R

    2011-03-01

    Renal transplant recipients (RTRs) are at risk of developing osteoporosis and osteopenia due to underlying renal osteodystrophy, hypophosphatemia, and immunosuppression. This process occurs more frequently in the first year after renal transplantation (RTX), resulting in eventual bone loss and fractures. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of low-dose alendronate to prevent early bone loss after RTX. We prospectively studied 43 successful RTR including 22 men and 21-women with a mean overall age of 39.16±11.73 years, mean body mass index of 23.6±3.73, and mean dialysis duration of 25.73±17.67 months. We matched them based on age and sex: the alendronate-treated group received vitamin D (Vit D) during the study plus 30 mg alendronate weekly from 1 month after RTX. The control group only received Vit D. We measured serum calcium, phosphate, alkaline phosphatase, blood urea, creatinine, and intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) at the pretransplant baseline and monthly thereafter as well as BMD of the lumbar spine, femur, and radius pretransplant baseline versus 3 and 6 months after RTX. At 6 month after RTX, the lumbar BMD in the alendronate group increased significantly from 0.819±0.11 to 0.863±0.14 (Pbone loss and increase BMD immediately after RTX. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. The Effect of Alendronate on Various Graft Materials Used in Maxillary Sinus Augmentation: A Rabbit Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayranci, Ferhat; Gungormus, Metin; Omezli, Mehmet Melih; Gundogdu, Betul

    2015-12-01

    Increasing sinus pneumatization and the accompanying alveolar bone resorption complicate dental implant placement. This problem can be overcome today by raising the maxillary sinus floor with graft materials. Bisphosphonates are commonly used to accelerate the recovery of the graft materials and to prevent resorption. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether systemic administration of a bisphosphonate (alendronate) would improve new bone formation and reduce fibrous tissue formation over a 6-week follow-up in rabbits treated with two different grafting materials for maxillary sinus floor augmentation. This experimental animal study was conducted at the Experimental Medical Application and Research Center at Erzurum/ Turkey. Twelve New Zealand rabbits, each weighing between 2.7 and 3.3 kg, were used. Twenty-four maxillary sinus floor elevation operations were performed, two on each animal (n = 24). Each elevation was repaired with either deproteinized bovine bone (xenograft) or autogenous bone graft obtained from the iliac crest. Both groups were divided into 2 subgroups: saline-treated and alendronate-treated. All groups underwent the same surgical procedures and evaluation, and were sacrificed at the 6th postoperative week. Sinuses augmented with deproteinized bovine bone (xenograft) and autogenous bone graft were examined histopathologically and histomorphometrically. At 6 weeks, the bone area was significantly larger in the Xenograft-Alendronate group (33.0% ± 5.0%) than in the Xenograft-Saline group (20.8% ± 4.9%) and the bone area was significantly larger in the Autogenous-Alendronate group (43.3% ± 3.8%) than in the Autogenous-Saline group (37.5% ± 6.6%) (P = 0.001). The histomorphometric and histopathological results consistently showed that alendronate stimulated bone formation and reduced fibrous tissue formation in maxillary sinus augmentation grafts, especially in the deproteinized bovine bone group (xenograft). Alendronate may be

  4. Twenty-five years of transient counting experience in French PWR units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barthelet, B. [Electricite de France (EDF DPN), 93 - Saint-Denis (France); Savoldelli, D.; Fritz, R. [Electricite de France (EDF DPN), 93 - Noisy le Grand (France)

    2001-07-01

    For nearly twenty five years, EDF has been checking that the actual operating transients are neither more severe nor more numerous than the design basis transients. This activity of transient cycle counting and bookkeeping has enabled EDF to own a database of more than 800 reactor.years for the PWR units. The current method of transient cycle counting is presented. In the paper, we will point out the main results of transient cycle counting and lessons learned. In general, the frequencies of transients are lower than the design frequencies. In few cases, they are higher, such as the transient frequencies of the RCS lines connected to auxiliary systems often due to operating procedures or particular periodic testing. Few periodic tests were not taken into account in the design basis transient file ; they have been detected thanks to the transient cycle counting. In the last 1980's, we achieved the first updating of the design basis transient file for the PWR 900 MWe series. In the early 1990's, we updated the design basis transient file of the PWR 1300 MWe series. In fact, since design and start-up, the operating conditions have been modified (fuel cycle with stretch-out, modification of the hot leg and cold leg temperatures for the PWR 1300 MWe,...). This was the cause of many unclassified transients. In the new design basis transient file, we have created new transients and increased the frequencies of some of them. This has enabled to consider the updated design basis transient file more representative of actual operating transients. For some years, we have increasingly associated the operators with the transient cycle counting concern. We noticed progress (decreased frequencies of most transients). (authors)

  5. Nutrition profile of under-five year rural children and correlates of undernutrition in central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkaiah Kodavalla

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: High prevalence of undernutrition in Madhya Pradesh contributing to high mortality and morbidities among young children. Aims & objectives: to assess prevalence of undernutrition and its co-relates among under 5 year children in Madhya Pradesh. Materials & Methods: It was a community based cross- sectional study carried out in all the districts of Madhya Pradesh, India using systematic random sampling. Results: A total of 22,895 children (Boys:12379, Girls:10516, mean age 26.1 months, SD 15.9, were covered. The overall prevalence of underweight, stunting and wasting was about 52%, 49% and 26% respectively. The prevalence was significantly (p<0.01 higher among boys as compared to girls. The risk of underweight, stunting and wasting was significantly higher among children belonging to SC+ST communities (OR: 1.36, 1.21 & 1.23 as compared to others, among children of illiterate parents and landless labourers (OR: 1.27, 1.32 & 1.15. The risk of stunting was significantly higher among children living in HHs without electricity (OR: 1.41 and HHs not using sanitary latrine (OR: 1.29. Similarly, the risk of wasting was significantly higher among households not having access to safe drinking water, mothers not cleaning their hands before feeding and among children with history of morbidity during preceding fortnight. Prevalence of underweight (28%, stunting (17% and wasting (34% was significantly (p<0.01 lower among children who were exclusively breast fed up to 6 months. Conclusions: Multiple risk factors are associated with childhood undernutrition and needs multi-pronged and multi-sector approach to tackle the problem. The results will help planners to develop and implement appropriate intervention strategies, for effective control and prevention of undernutrition among under-five year children in Madhya Pradesh

  6. Perceived affordability of health insurance and medical financial burdens five years in to Massachusetts health reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zallman, Leah; Nardin, Rachel; Sayah, Assaad; McCormick, Danny

    2015-10-29

    Under the Massachusetts health reform, low income residents (those with incomes below 150 % of the Federal Poverty Level [FPL]) were eligible for Medicaid and health insurance exchange-based plans with minimal cost-sharing and no premiums. Those with slightly higher incomes (150 %-300 % FPL) were eligible for exchange-based plans that required cost-sharing and premium payments. We conducted face to face surveys in four languages with a convenience sample of 976 patients seeking care at three hospital emergency departments five years after Massachusetts reform. We compared perceived affordability of insurance, financial burden, and satisfaction among low cost sharing plan recipients (recipients of Medicaid and insurance exchange-based plans with minimal cost-sharing and no premiums), high cost sharing plan recipients (recipients of exchange-based plans that required cost-sharing and premium payments) and the commercially insured. We found that despite having higher incomes, higher cost-sharing plan recipients were less satisfied with their insurance plans and perceived more difficulty affording their insurance than those with low cost-sharing plans. Higher cost-sharing plan recipients also reported more difficulty affording medical and non-medical health care as well as insurance premiums than those with commercial insurance. In contrast, patients with low cost-sharing public plans reported higher plan satisfaction and less financial concern than the commercially insured. Policy makers with responsibility for the benefit design of public insurance available under health care reforms in the U.S. should calibrate cost-sharing to income level so as to minimize difficulty affording care and financial burdens.

  7. Further investigation of confirmed urinary tract infection (UTI in children under five years: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cooper Julie

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Further investigation of confirmed UTI in children aims to prevent renal scarring and future complications. Methods We conducted a systematic review to determine the most effective approach to the further investigation of confirmed urinary tract infection (UTI in children under five years of age. Results 73 studies were included. Many studies had methodological limitations or were poorly reported. Effectiveness of further investigations: One study found that routine imaging did not lead to a reduction in recurrent UTIs or renal scarring. Diagnostic accuracy: The studies do not support the use of less invasive tests such as ultrasound as an alternative to renal scintigraphy, either to rule out infection of the upper urinary tract (LR- = 0.57, 95%CI: 0.47, 0.68 and thus to exclude patients from further investigation or to detect renal scarring (LR+ = 3.5, 95% CI: 2.5, 4.8. None of the tests investigated can accurately predict the development of renal scarring. The available evidence supports the consideration of contrast-enhanced ultrasound techniques for detecting vesico-ureteric reflux (VUR, as an alternative to micturating cystourethrography (MCUG (LR+ = 14.1, 95% CI: 9.5, 20.8; LR- = 0.20, 95%CI: 0.13, 0.29; these techniques have the advantage of not requiring exposure to ionising radiation. Conclusion There is no evidence to support the clinical effectiveness of routine investigation of children with confirmed UTI. Primary research on the effectiveness, in terms of improved patient outcome, of testing at all stages in the investigation of confirmed urinary tract infection is urgently required.

  8. Health surveillance in milling, baking and other food manufacturing operations--five years' experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, T A; Patton, J

    1999-04-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the incidence of allergic respiratory disease and its outcome in terms of symptoms and jobs, across different flour-using industries. It uses the findings of a health surveillance programme in a large food organization over a five-year period. The population under surveillance consisted of 3,450 employees with exposure to ingredient dusts, of whom 400 were in flour milling, 1,650 in bread baking, 550 in cake baking and 850 in other flour-using operations. A total of 66 employees with either asthma or rhinitis symptoms attributable to sensitization to allergens in the workplace were identified. The majority of these (48/66) had become symptomatic prior to the commencement of the health surveillance programme in 1993. The incidence rates (per million employees per year) for those who developed symptoms between 1993 and 1997 were 550 for flour milling, 1,940 for bread baking, 0 for cake baking and 235 for other flour-using operations. The agent believed to be responsible for symptoms was most commonly grain dust in flour millers and fungal amylase in bread bakers. Wheat flour appeared to have a weaker sensitizing potential than these other two substances. In terms of outcome, at follow-up 18% of symptomatically sensitized employees had left the company. Two of the ex-employees retired through ill health due to occupational asthma. Of those still in employment, 63% described an improvement in symptoms, 32% were unchanged and 4% were worse than when first diagnosed. Over half the cases still in employment were continuing to work in the same job as at the time of diagnosis.

  9. Type distribution of lymphomas in Lebanon: five-year single institution experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sader-Ghorra, Claude; Rassy, Marc; Naderi, Samah; Kourie, Hampig Raphael; Kattan, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Lymphomas represent the fifth most frequent cancer in Lebanon. However, little is known concerning epidemiologic characteristics and distribution of lymphoid neoplasms according to the 2008 WHO classification. We conducted a retrospective study of lymphoma cases diagnosed from 2008 till 2012 at Hotel-Dieu de France University Hospital. A total of 502 new cases of lymphoma were diagnosed at our institution during a five year period: 119 cases (24%) were Hodgkin lymphomas (HL) and 383 cases (76%) were non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL). HLs were equally distributed in both sexes with a mean age at diagnosis of 30 years. Among NHL, 87% (332 cases) were B cell lymphomas, 9% (34 cases) were T cell lymphomas and 4%(17 cases) were classified as precursor lymphoid neoplasms. Among B cell lymphomas, 44% (147 cases) were diffuse large B cell lymphomas (DLBCL), 20% (65 cases) follicular lymphomas and 8% (27 cases) mantle cell lymphomas. DLBCL were equally distributed in both sexes with a mean age of 58 years. Follicular lymphomas were characterized by a male predominance (57%) and a mean age of 60 years. Mantle cell lymphomas showed a pronounced male predominance (85%) with a mean age of 60 years in men and 70 years in women. Some 72% of patients having T cell lymphomas were men, with a mean age of 57 years in men and 45 years in women, while 65% of patients having precursor lymphoid neoplasms were women with a mean age of 22 years in women and 30 years in men. The lymphoma subtype distribution in Lebanon is unique when compared to other countries from around the world. In fact, Hodgkin and follicular lymphomas are more frequent than in most Far Eastern, European and American countries, while T-cell lymphomas and DLBCL are less frequent.

  10. Temporal artery biopsies in south-east Scotland: a five year review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajree, S; Borooah, S; Dhillon, N; Goudie, C; Smith, C; Aspinall, P; Dhillon, B

    2017-06-01

    Temporal artery biopsy is the gold standard investigation for the diagnosis of giant cell arteritis. The aim of this retrospective study was to investigate the use of temporal artery biopsy in diagnosing giant cell arteritis in south-east Scotland over a five-year period. We aimed to quantify success rates, and predictive factors for a positive biopsy, as well as compare the different specialities performing the biopsies. The data should enable the development of better criteria for referral for investigation of giant cell arteritis. Methods Patients were identified using a database of temporal artery biopsies generated by the pathology department in NHS Lothian (south east Scotland), for all biopsies examined between January 2010 and December 2015. An electronic patient record was used to retrospectively examine the records of patients in the database. Results A total of 715 biopsies were included in the study, of which 250 (35.0%) showed features of giant cell arteritis. The main predictors for a positive biopsy were age at biopsy, specialty performing biopsy, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, jaw claudication/pain, and ophthalmic symptoms. The most important predictor of a positive biopsy was erythrocyte sedimentation rate. The length of biopsy was not found to be a predictor of positive biopsy; however, diameter of biopsy was predictive. Conclusions We have shown that many temporal artery biopsies are negative, and finding ways to reduce the number of patients unnecessarily undergoing biopsy will be essential in reducing workload and streamlining services. This study demonstrates some key predictive factors for patients with positive biopsies. The study also shows that a large proportion of biopsies taking place do not result in the recommended length of specimen, but this does not necessarily reduce the likelihood of a positive biopsy.

  11. Employment status and sick-leave following obesity surgery: a five-year prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, John Roger; Hernæs, Ulrikke J V; Hufthammer, Karl Ove; Våge, Villy

    2015-01-01

    Background. Severe obesity is a risk factor for lower participation in paid work, but whether employment increases and sick leave decreases after obesity surgery is not well documented. Methods. We assessed 224 Norwegian patients with severe obesity (mean age: 40; mean BMI: 49; 61% female) regarding employment status (working versus not working) and the number of days of sick leave during the preceding 12 months, before and five years after obesity surgery (75% follow-up rate). Logistic regression analysis was used to study preoperative predictors of employment status after surgery. Results. There were no change in the employment rate over time (54% versus 58%), but the number of days of sick leave per year was significantly reduced, from a mean of 63 to a mean of 26, and from a median of 36 to a median of 4. Most of this change was attributable to patients with zero days of sick leave, which increased from 25% to 41%. Being female, older, having low education level, receiving disability pension and not being employed before obesity surgery were important risk factors for not being employed after obesity surgery. The type of obesity surgery, BMI and marital status were not useful predictors. Conclusions. Our findings suggest that undergoing obesity surgery is not associated with a higher rate of employment, although it may reduce the number of days of sick leave. Additional interventions are likely needed to influence the employment status of these patients. The significant preoperative predictors of not being employed in this study provide suggestions for further research.

  12. Employment status and sick-leave following obesity surgery: a five-year prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Roger Andersen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Severe obesity is a risk factor for lower participation in paid work, but whether employment increases and sick leave decreases after obesity surgery is not well documented.Methods. We assessed 224 Norwegian patients with severe obesity (mean age: 40; mean BMI: 49; 61% female regarding employment status (working versus not working and the number of days of sick leave during the preceding 12 months, before and five years after obesity surgery (75% follow-up rate. Logistic regression analysis was used to study preoperative predictors of employment status after surgery.Results. There were no change in the employment rate over time (54% versus 58%, but the number of days of sick leave per year was significantly reduced, from a mean of 63 to a mean of 26, and from a median of 36 to a median of 4. Most of this change was attributable to patients with zero days of sick leave, which increased from 25% to 41%. Being female, older, having low education level, receiving disability pension and not being employed before obesity surgery were important risk factors for not being employed after obesity surgery. The type of obesity surgery, BMI and marital status were not useful predictors.Conclusions. Our findings suggest that undergoing obesity surgery is not associated with a higher rate of employment, although it may reduce the number of days of sick leave. Additional interventions are likely needed to influence the employment status of these patients. The significant preoperative predictors of not being employed in this study provide suggestions for further research.

  13. Five Years of Women in Nuclear at Texas A&M University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dromgoole, L.

    2015-01-01

    Texas A&M University Women in Nuclear (WiN–TAMU) seeks to provide professional development opportunities for its members while also reaching out to the public both on the university campus and the surrounding local community. The purpose of this poster is to share best practices and learning experiences promoting the career development and education of women in nuclear-related fields acquired over five years of existence as a chapter. Since its reestablishment in 2010, WiN–TAMU has hosted events for women in disciplines related to nuclear technology, including presentations from experts in the nuclear field, Q&A sessions with nuclear engineering faculty, workshops on communicating technical issues about nuclear to the public, public screenings of nuclear films, technical tours of nuclear power plants, medical facilities and regulatory bodies, and socials to build camaraderie among members. WiN–TAMU collaborates with the Nuclear Power Institute (NPI) by interacting with high school students in NPI’s POWER SET programmes. POWER SET (Powerful Opportunities forWomen Eager and Ready for Science, Engineering, and Technology) provides young women with the educational tools and support to pursue education and careers in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM). The POWER SET students also interact with members of WiN at Texas’s two nuclear power plants, Comanche Peak and South Texas Project. This tiered approach provides the students with the perspectives of WiN members at various stages in their education and careers. As of the end of the 2014 school year, 81% of the students self-identified that they will pursue STEM course of study (as opposed to the U.S. average of 15–17%). The POWER SET model has recently been implemented internationally in the Philippines with a new programme of 50 young women and is being considered for implementation at the Vienna International School as well. (author)

  14. The UK Government's global partnership programme - Its achievements over the past five years and challenges ahead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heyes, Alan

    2007-01-01

    Through the Global Partnership the UK continues to make a significant contribution to improve national and global security. Over the past year the UK has continued to implement a wide range of projects across the breadth of its Global Partnership Programme. As well as ensuring the Programme is robust and capable of dealing with new challenges, the UK has cooperated with other donor countries to help them progress projects associated with submarine dismantling, scientist redirection, enhancing nuclear security and Chemical Weapons Destruction. The Global Partnership, although only five years old, has already achieved a great deal. Some 23 states, plus the European Union, are now working closer together under the Global Partnership, and collectively have enhanced global regional and national security by reducing the availability of Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) materials and expertise to both states of concern and terrorists. Considerable progress has already been made in, for example: - Improving the security of fissile materials, dangerous biological agents and chemical weapons stocks; - Reducing the number of sites containing radioactive materials; - Working towards closure of reactors still producing weapon-grade plutonium; - Improving nuclear safety to reduce the risks of further, Chernobyl style accidents; - Constructing facilities for destroying Chemical Weapons stocks, and starting actual destruction; - Providing sustainable employment for former WMD scientists to reduce the risk that their expertise will be misused by states or terrorists. By contributing to many of these activities, the UK has helped to make the world safer. This paper reports on the UK's practical and sustainable contribution to the Global Partnership and identifies a number of challenges that remain if it is to have a wider impact on reducing the threats from WMD material. (authors)

  15. Five-year safety and performance results from the Argus II Retinal Prosthesis System clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cruz, Lyndon; Dorn, Jessy D.; Humayun, Mark S.; Dagnelie, Gislin; Handa, James; Barale, Pierre-Olivier; Sahel, José-Alain; Stanga, Paulo E.; Hafezi, Farhad; Safran, Avinoam B.; Salzmann, Joel; Santos, Arturo; Birch, David; Spencer, Rand; Cideciyan, Artur V.; de Juan, Eugene; Duncan, Jacque L.; Eliott, Dean; Fawzi, Amani; Olmos de Koo, Lisa C.; Ho, Allen C.; Brown, Gary; Haller, Julia; Regillo, Carl; Del Priore, Lucian V.; Arditi, Aries; Greenberg, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The Argus® II Retinal Prosthesis System (Second Sight Medical Products, Inc., Sylmar, CA) was developed to restore some vision to patients blind from retinitis pigmentosa (RP) or outer retinal degeneration. A clinical trial was initiated in 2006 to study the long-term safety and efficacy of the Argus II System in patients with bare or no light perception due to end-stage RP. Design The study is a prospective, multicenter, single-arm, clinical trial. Within-patient controls included the non-implanted fellow eye and patients' native residual vision compared to their vision when using the System. Subjects There were 30 subjects in 10 centers in the U.S. and Europe. Methods The worse-seeing eye of blind patients was implanted with the Argus II System. Patients wore glasses mounted with a small camera and a video processor that converted images into stimulation patterns sent to the electrode array on the retina. Main Outcome Measures The primary outcome measures were safety (the number, seriousness, and relatedness of adverse events) and visual function, as measured by three computer-based, objective tests. Secondary measures included functional vision performance on objectively-scored real-world tasks. Results Twenty-four out of 30 patients remained implanted with functioning Argus II Systems at 5 years post-implant. Only one additional serious adverse event was experienced since the 3-year time point. Patients performed significantly better with the System ON than OFF on all visual function tests and functional vision tasks. Conclusions The five-year results of the Argus II trial support the long-term safety profile and benefit of the Argus II System for patients blind from RP. The Argus II is the first and only retinal implant to have market approval in the European Economic Area, the United States, and Canada. PMID:27453256

  16. NASA SMD Science Education and Public Outreach Forums: A Five-Year Retrospective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Denise A.; Peticolas, Laura; Schwerin, Theresa; Shipp, Stephanie

    2014-06-01

    NASA’s Science Mission Directorate (SMD) created four competitively awarded Science Education and Public Outreach Forums (Astrophysics, Heliophysics, Planetary Science, Earth Science) in 2009. The objective is to enhance the overall coherence of SMD education and public outreach (E/PO), leading to more effective, efficient, and sustainable use of SMD science discoveries and learning experiences. We summarize progress and next steps towards achieving this goal with examples drawn from Astrophysics and cross-Forum efforts. Over the past five years, the Forums have enabled leaders of individual SMD mission and grant-funded E/PO programs to work together to place individual science discoveries and learning resources into context for audiences, conveying the big picture of scientific discovery based on audience needs. Forum-organized collaborations and partnerships extend the impact of individual programs to new audiences and provide resources and opportunities for educators to engage their audiences in NASA science. Similarly, Forum resources support scientists and faculty in utilizing SMD E/PO resources. Through Forum activities, mission E/PO teams and grantees have worked together to define common goals and provide unified professional development for educators (NASA’s Multiwavelength Universe); build partnerships with libraries to engage underserved/underrepresented audiences (NASA Science4Girls and Their Families); strengthen use of best practices; provide thematic, audience-based entry points to SMD learning experiences; support scientists in participating in E/PO; and, convey the impact of the SMD E/PO program. The Forums have created a single online digital library (NASA Wavelength, http://nasawavelength.org) that hosts all peer-reviewed SMD-funded education materials and worked with the SMD E/PO community to compile E/PO program metrics (http://nasamissionepometrics.org/). External evaluation shows the Forums are meeting their objectives. Specific examples

  17. Prenatal mercury exposure, maternal seafood consumption and associations with child language at five years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vejrup, Kristine; Brandlistuen, Ragnhild Eek; Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Knutsen, Helle Katrine; Caspersen, Ida Henriette; Alexander, Jan; Lundh, Thomas; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Magnus, Per; Haugen, Margaretha

    2018-01-01

    Methyl mercury (MeHg) is a well-known neurotoxin and evidence suggests that also low level exposure may affect prenatal neurodevelopment. Uncertainty exists as to whether the maternal MeHg burden in Norway might affect child neurodevelopment. To evaluate the association between prenatal mercury exposure, maternal seafood consumption and child language and communication skills at age five. The study sample comprised 38,581 mother-child pairs in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. Maternal mercury blood concentration in gestational week 17 was analysed in a sub-sample of 2239 women. Prenatal mercury exposure from maternal diet was calculated from a validated FFQ answered in mid-pregnancy. Mothers reported children's language and communications skills at age five by a questionnaire including questions from the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ), the Speech and Language Assessment Scale (SLAS) and the Twenty Statements about Language-Related Difficulties (language 20). We performed linear regression analyses adjusting for maternal characteristics, nutritional status and socioeconomic factors. Median maternal blood mercury concentration was 1.03μg/L, dietary mercury exposure was 0.15μg/kgbw/wk, and seafood intake was 217g/wk. Blood mercury concentrations were not associated with any language and communication scales. Increased dietary mercury exposure was significantly associated with improved SLAS scores when mothers had a seafood intake below 400g/wk in the adjusted analysis. Sibling matched analysis showed a small significant adverse association between those above the 90th percentile dietary mercury exposure and the SLAS scores. Maternal seafood intake during pregnancy was positively associated with the language and communication scales. Low levels of prenatal mercury exposure were positively associated with language and communication skills at five years. However, the matched sibling analyses suggested an adverse association between mercury and child

  18. Twenty-five years of transient counting experience in French PWR units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barthelet, B.; Savoldelli, D.; Fritz, R.

    2001-01-01

    For nearly twenty five years, EDF has been checking that the actual operating transients are neither more severe nor more numerous than the design basis transients. This activity of transient cycle counting and bookkeeping has enabled EDF to own a database of more than 800 reactor.years for the PWR units. The current method of transient cycle counting is presented. In the paper, we will point out the main results of transient cycle counting and lessons learned. In general, the frequencies of transients are lower than the design frequencies. In few cases, they are higher, such as the transient frequencies of the RCS lines connected to auxiliary systems often due to operating procedures or particular periodic testing. Few periodic tests were not taken into account in the design basis transient file ; they have been detected thanks to the transient cycle counting. In the last 1980's, we achieved the first updating of the design basis transient file for the PWR 900 MWe series. In the early 1990's, we updated the design basis transient file of the PWR 1300 MWe series. In fact, since design and start-up, the operating conditions have been modified (fuel cycle with stretch-out, modification of the hot leg and cold leg temperatures for the PWR 1300 MWe,...). This was the cause of many unclassified transients. In the new design basis transient file, we have created new transients and increased the frequencies of some of them. This has enabled to consider the updated design basis transient file more representative of actual operating transients. For some years, we have increasingly associated the operators with the transient cycle counting concern. We noticed progress (decreased frequencies of most transients). (authors)

  19. 'Twenty-five years after Chernobyl accident: Safety for the future'. 2011 National report of Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imanaka, Tetsuji; Shindo, Mahito

    2016-02-01

    This is the Japanese translation of the Ukrainian National Report 'Twenty-five Years after Chernobyl Accident: Safety for the Future', published by the Ministry of Ukraine of Emergencies in 2011 (in Ukrainian and English). This Japanese translation is published as an outcome of the KAKENHI research project on liquidations of Nuclear Disasters in the World (headed by Tetsuji Imanaka), in which Shindo participates, and as a KUR report of the Research Reactor Institute at Kyoto University. The objective of publishing this Japanese translation is to provide basic information on how to overcome the consequences of a large-scale Nuclear Disaster for the wide range of public, including decision-makers and administrative staff. By doing so, this publication aims at invigorating discussions over measures to be applied for overcoming the consequences of the TEPCO Nuclear Disaster (started in 11th March 2011 at Fukushima), and at forming proper schemes to minimise the consequences on current and future generations. The original text of this translation tightly summarised the whole picture of the Chernobyl Nuclear Disaster, which had been the only large-scale Nuclear Disaster until 11th March 2011. More importantly, it describes all sorts of measures and schemes taken in Ukraine from 1986 to 2011 in order to overcome the consequences of the Chernobyl Nuclear Disaster, in a quite well structured manner. In other words, from the contents of this text, Japanese readers are able to learn a lot about the very problems currently facing with. Therefore, I wish many Japanese readers will read this text, and utilise the knowledge written here effectively to overcome the consequences of the TEPCO Nuclear Disaster. (J.P.N.)

  20. THE CONCEPTION OF FISHERIES DEVELOPMENT IN DNIPROPETROVS’K REGION FOR THE NEXT FIVE YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Fedonenko

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To analyse the current state of fisheries in Dnipropetrovs’k region and elaborate a strategy of their development for the period of 2015–2019. Methodology. We used the summarized results of hydrobiological, ichthyological and toxicological studies carried out during 2010–2014. Data were collected in the Zaporizhzhia reservoir and small water bodies with standard sampling gears. A set of control gears (gill nets with mesh size of 30–120 mm was used to investigate the fish fauna. Juvenile fish were caught in the third decade of July – first decade of August with 10 m beach seine. Findings. The analysis of fisheries in Dnipropetrovs’k region for the past five years showed that the disorder and absence of scientifically-based approach to fisheries processes as well as the low level of professional training of aquatic resource users resulted in low fish productivity in the majority of reservoirs, which ranged within 25–30 kg/ha that was several times less than the real potential fish productivity. The proposed Conception of fisheries development provides a set of coordinated measures aimed at ensuring sustainable use, effective protection and restoration of aquatic biological resources, fisheries management based on natural, economic and environmental conditions of different types of water bodies. The developed practical measures allow increasing the amounts of fish product supply to the internal consumer market by at least 5 times without any environmental damage, expanding its assortment and reducing the costs by 25–30%. Originality. For the first time, the Conceptual approaches to the regional management of aquatic biological resources in the conditions of specific human impact were introduced. They are aimed at implementing the scientific rationale of the measures for their rational use, artificial restoration, reclamation, etc. Practical value. The proposed Conception is to provide the food requirements of the population

  1. UNAVCO's Education and Community Engagement Program: Evaluating Five years of Geoscience Education and Community Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlevoix, D. J.; Dutilly, E.

    2017-12-01

    In 2013, UNAVCO, a facility co-sponsored by the NSF and NASA, received a five-year award from the NSF: Geodesy Advancing Geosciences and EarthScope (GAGE). Under GAGE, UNAVCO's Education and Community Engagement (ECE) program conducts outreach and education activities, in essence broader impacts for the scientific community and public. One major challenge of this evaluation was the breadth and depth of the dozens of projects conducted by the ECE program under the GAGE award. To efficiently solve this problem of a large-scale program evaluation, we adopted a deliberative democratic (DD) approach that afforded UNAVCO ECE staff a prominent voice in the process. The evaluator directed staff members to chose the projects they wished to highlight as case studies of their finest broader impacts work. The DD approach prizes inclusion, dialogue, and deliberation. The evaluator invited ECE staff to articulate qualities of great programs and develop a case study of their most valuable broader impacts work. To anchor the staff's opinion in more objectivity than opinion, the evaluator asked each staff member to articulate exemplary qualities of their chosen project, discuss how these qualities fit their case study, and helped staff to develop data collection systems that lead to an evidence-based argument in support of their project's unique value. The results of this evaluation show that the individual ECE work areas specialized in certain kinds of projects. However, when viewed at the aggregate level, ECE projects spanned almost the entire gamut of NSF broader impacts categories. Longitudinal analyses show that since the beginning of the GAGE award, many projects grew in impact from year 1 to year 5. While roughly half of the ECE projects were prior work projects, by year five at least 33% of projects were newly developed under GAGE. All selected case studies exemplified how education and outreach work can be productively tied to UNAVCO's core mission of promoting geodesy.

  2. Epidemiology, Prognosis, and Evolution of Management of Septic Shock in a French Intensive Care Unit: A Five Years Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Boussekey

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate the epidemiology, prognosis, and management of septic shock patients hospitalized in our intensive care unit (ICU. Materiel and Methods. Five-year monocenter observational study including 320 patients. Results. ICU mortality was 54.4%. Independent mortality risk factors were mechanical ventilation (OR=4.97, Simplify Acute Physiology Score (SAPS II > 60 (OR=4.28, chronic alcoholism (OR=3.38, age >65 years (OR=2.65, prothrombin ratio <40% (OR=2.37, and PaO2/FiO2 ratio <150 (OR=1.91. These six mortality risk factors recovered allow screening immediately septic shock patients with a high mortality risk. Morbidity improved with time (diminution of septic shock complications, increase of the number of days alive free from mechanical ventilation and vasopressors on day 28, concomitant to an evolution of the management (earlier institution of all replacement and medical therapies and more initial volume expansion. There was no difference in mortality. Conclusion. Our study confirms a high mortality rate in septic shock patients despite a new approach of treatment.

  3. Effect of topical alendronate on root resorption of dried replanted dog teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, L; Bryson, E C; Caplan, D; Trope, M

    2001-06-01

    Alendronate (ALN) is a third generation bisphosphonate with demonstrated osteoclast inhibitory activity that may slow down the resorptive process after severe traumatic injuries. Eighty-two premolar roots of five mongrel dogs were endodontically treated and restored, extracted and treated as follows: 70 roots were bench dried for either 40 or 60 min. Thirty-eight of these roots were then soaked for 5 min in a 1 mM solution of ALN in Hanks' Balanced Salt Solution (HBSS) and replanted. Thirty-two roots were soaked for 5 min in HBSS and replanted. In the remaining 12 roots which were not exposed to the bench drying procedure, a 0.5 mM deep lingual mid-root cemental defect was made. Six of these roots were soaked in a 1 mM solution of ALN in HBSS for 5 min and replanted. The other six roots were soaked for 5 min in HBSS and replanted. Historical negative and positive controls were used from similarly treated teeth in our previous studies. After 4 months the dogs were killed and the roots prepared for histological evaluation. Five-microm-thick cross-sections of the root and surrounding tissue taken every 70 microm were evaluated for healing according to the criteria of Andreasen. In the 12 roots with cemental defects, healing with cementum of the damaged root surface was evaluated. In addition, residual root mass was also measured to determine the extent of root structure loss for each soaking method. Cemental healing took place in all 12 artificially damaged roots, indicating that these soaking media did not inhibit cementogenesis. The alendronate-soaked roots had statistically significantly more healing than the roots soaked in HBSS without alendronate. This improvement in healing was seen in all dogs except one and in all teeth except the first premolar. Soaking in alendronate also resulted in significantly less loss in root mass due to resorption compared to those teeth soaked in HBSS without alendronate.

  4. Twenty-Five Years of Gene Therapy for ADA-SCID: From Bubble Babies to an Approved Drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrua, Francesca; Aiuti, Alessandro

    2017-11-01

    Twenty-five years have passed since first attempts of gene therapy (GT) in children affected by severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) due to adenosine deaminase (ADA) defect, also known by the general public as bubble babies. ADA-SCID is fatal early in life if untreated. Unconditioned hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplant from matched sibling donor represents a curative treatment but is available for few patients. Enzyme replacement therapy can be life-saving, but its chronic use has many drawbacks. This review summarizes the history of ADA-SCID GT over the last 25 years, starting from first pioneering studies in the early 1990s using gamma-retroviral vectors, based on multiple infusions of genetically corrected autologous peripheral blood lymphocytes. HSC represented the ideal target for gene correction to guarantee production of engineered multi-lineage progeny, but it required a decade to achieve therapeutic benefit with this approach. Introduction of low-intensity conditioning represented a crucial step in achieving stable gene-corrected HSC engraftment and therapeutic levels of ADA-expressing cells. Recent clinical trials demonstrated that gamma-retroviral GT for ADA-SCID has a favorable safety profile and is effective in restoring normal purine metabolism and immune functions in patients >13 years after treatment. No abnormal clonal proliferation or leukemia development have been observed in >40 patients treated experimentally in five different centers worldwide. In 2016, the medicinal product Strimvelis™ received marketing approval in Europe for patients affected by ADA-SCID without a suitable human leukocyte antigen-matched related donor. Positive safety and efficacy results have been obtained in GT clinical trials using lentiviral vectors encoding ADA. The results obtained in last 25 years in ADA-SCID GT development fundamentally contributed to improve patients' prognosis, together with earlier diagnosis thanks to newborn screening. These advances

  5. Tc-99m Radiolabeled Alendronate Sodium Microemulsion: Characterization and Permeability Studies Across Caco-2 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elitez, Yetkin; Ekinci, Meliha; Ilem-Ozdemir, Derya; Gundogdu, Evren; Asikoglu, Makbule

    2018-01-01

    Alendronate sodium (ALD) is used orally but it is poorly absorbed from the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. For this reason, microemulsion system was chosen to evaluate ALD from the GI tract after oral delivery. This study was aimed to prepare water-in-oil (w/o) microemulsion formulation of ALD and evaluate the permeability of ALD microemulsion from Caco-2 cell lines with radioactive and nonradioactive studies. The ALD microemulsion was developed by using pseudo-ternary phase diagram and composed of Soybean oil, Colliphor EL, Tween 80, Transcutol and distilled water. The prepared ALD microemulsion was characterized by physical appearance, droplet size, viscosity, pH, electrical conductivity and refractive index. The stability of the formulation was investigated for 6 months at 25±2°C/60±5% of relative humidity (RH) as well as at 40±2°C/75±5% RH. After that 1 mg of ALD was radiolabeled with 99mTc and added to microemulsion. The permeability studies were performed with both 99mTc-ALD microemulsion and ALD microemulsion. The experimental results suggested that ALD microemulsion presented adequate stability with droplet size varying from 37.8±0.9 to 39.9±1.2 nm during incubation time. In addition, ALD microemulsion was radiolabeled with high labeling efficiency (>95%). In a non-radioactive study, ALD permeability was found to be 45 µg.mL-1 and microemulsion has high permeability percentage when compared to another study. The novel w/o microemulsion formulation has been developed for oral delivery of ALD. Based on the results, permeability of ALD could be significantly improved by the microemulsion formulation. In addition, 99mTc-ALD microemulsion in capsule can be used for bone disease treatment and diagnosis. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  6. Ten Years Back, Five Years Forward: The Data Seal of Approval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Dillo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available If we want to share data, the long-term storage of those data in a trustworthy digital archive is an essential condition. Trust is the basis of storing and sharing data. That trust must be present in the various stakeholders involved. Certification of digital archives can make an important contribution to the confidence of these stakeholders in the digital archives.Ten years ago DANS was assigned the task of developing a Seal of Approval for digital data to ensure that archived data can still be found, understood and used in the future. In 2009 this Data Seal of Approval (DSA was transferred to an international body, the DSA Board, which has managed and further developed the guidelines and the peer review process ever since.The objectives of the DSA are to safeguard data, ensure high quality and guide reliable management of data for the future without requiring implementation of new standards, regulations or heavy investments. The DSA contains 16 guidelines for applying and verifying quality aspects concerning the creation, storage, use and reuse of digital data.Based on feedback from data archives that applied for a DSA and different case studies we have gained some insight into the benefits of DSA. Still, the impact of having the Seal is not easy to measure. Seal holders usually refer to qualitative benefits in the form of increased awareness of the value of their repositories to their communities, funders and publishers.Ten years down the line we can safely state that the Data Seal of Approval has proven its added value. If we try to look five years into the future, what can we expect? There are different developments: a growing interest in DSA among European research infrastructures, the collaboration between DSA and the ISCU World Data System under the umbrella of the RDA (Research Data Alliance and the European Commission is showing a growing interest in certification services.The success of DSA also provides the challenge to further

  7. Twenty-five years of modeling multiphase flow and heat transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyczkowski, R.W.

    1999-01-01

    This presentation will cover some of the highlights of multiphase modeling in collaboration with Professor Dimitri Gidaspow (DG) over the last roughly twenty-five years. It all started in 1972 in Idaho Falls with Charles Solbrig, who planned and initiated a project for the former USAEC to develop a computer code to replace RELAP4 to analyze the loss of coolant accident (LOCA). DG spent his sabbatical on the project in 1973. One highlight was the discovery of complex characteristics, the implications of which are still pondered by some. Fluidization research began in 1978 when the author collaboratively developed a step-by-step building-block approach to understanding the hydrodynamics of fluidized beds, an approach closely coupled to validation experiments. A grant from the USDOE to study solids circulation around a jet in a fluidized bed was awarded to DG in 1978. Following that, grants from GRI, NSF, and a contract from Westinghouse Electric Corp. allowed the early work to continue. Progress was slow since computer costs were high. Subsequent continuing support from the USDOE, NSF, EPRI, and industry has allowed research to continue, as has his collaboration. A highlight of this collaboration was the development of the monolayer energy dissipation (MED) erosion model. Multiphase flow and fluidization theory took quantum leaps with the publication of DG's Multiphase Flow and Fluidization: Continuum and Kinetic Theory Descriptions (MFF), Academic Press, San Diego (1994), for which there is essentially no competition. Only the late Professor S.L. Soo's Particulates and Continuum: Multiphase Fluid Dynamics, Hemisphere Publishing Corp., New York (1989), a textbook version of the classic monograph Multiphase Fluid Dynamics, Science Press, Beijing, China (1990), comes close. In MFF, the kinetic theory of granular flow has evolved as a potentially viable adjunct to the continuum multiphase theory, of which fluidization is one important manifestation. It must be

  8. ROMANIA’S FIRST FIVE YEARS IN THE EUROPEAN UNION. A SHORT ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VADASAN Ioana

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available It’s been more than 5 years since our country has joined the European Union, on January the 1st 2007. It’s been a long road, as fulfilling the Copenhagen criteria had not been an easy task. But was it all worth it? Are we better off today, five years after? Did we know how to take advantage of European Union membership? Did we know what to do and how to do it, in order to benefit from (all the advantages of the Single Market? These are some questions we will try to answer in this paper. In this paper, we will present data regarding: the evolution of Romania’s foreign trade, overall, as well as with the rest of the European Union countries; the evolution of Romania’s economic growth, in comparison with European Union’s average economic growth; the evolution of foreign direct investments in Romania; the absorption degree of structural and cohesion funds, in comparison with other countries of the European Union. We will analyze these data, and we will make comparisons between Romania and the European Union, in order to see the similarity between Romania’s evolution and EU’s evolution. We will also analyze the structural and cohesion funds absorption degree, in comparison with other European Union countries. Finally, we will try to assess whether we knew how to take advantage of our European Union membership, as being member implies both advantages and disadvantages. Knowing how to fully benefit from the advantages and how to diminish the disadvantages is the winning strategy. Did Romania know how to maximize its advantages? As we will see in the conclusions of this paper, the answers to these questions are not always in our advantage. There are still some lessons to be learned, especially regarding the absorption of structural and cohesion funds, and attracting foreign direct investments.

  9. WMAP five-year constraints on lepton asymmetry and radiation energy density: implications for Planck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popa, L A; Vasile, A

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we set bounds on the radiation content of the Universe and neutrino properties by using the WMAP (Wilkinson microwave anisotropy probe) five-year CMB (cosmic microwave background) measurements complemented with most of the existing CMB and LSS (large scale structure) data (WMAP5+All), imposing also self-consistent BBN (big bang nucleosynthesis) constraints on the primordial helium abundance. We consider lepton asymmetric cosmological models parametrized by the neutrino degeneracy parameter ξ ν and the variation of the relativistic degrees of freedom, ΔN eff oth , due to possible other physical processes occurring between BBN and structure formation epochs. We get a mean value of the effective number of relativistic neutrino species of N eff = 2.98  2.27 3.60   1.65 4.37 , providing an important improvement over the similar result obtained from WMAP5+BAO+SN+HST (BAO: baryonic acoustic oscillations; SN: supernovae; HST: Hubble Space Telescope) data (Komatsu et al (WMAP Collaboration), 2008 Astrophys. J. Suppl. submitted [0803.0547]). We also find a strong correlation between Ω m h 2 and z eq , showing that we observe N eff mainly via the effect of z eq , rather than via neutrino anisotropic stress as claimed by the WMAP team (Komatsu et al (WMAP Collaboration), 2008 Astrophys. J. Suppl. submitted [0803.0547]). WMAP5+All data provide a strong bound on the helium mass fraction of Y p = 0.2486 ± 0.0085 (68% CL), that rivals the bound on Y p obtained from the conservative analysis of the present data on helium abundance. For the neutrino degeneracy parameter we find a bound of −0.216≤ξ ν ≤0.226 (68% CL), which represents an important improvement over the similar result obtained by using the WMAP three-year data. The inclusion in the analysis of LSS data reduces the upper limit of the neutrino mass to m ν ν and Y p down to σ(ξ ν )≅0.089 (68% CL) and σ(Y p ) = 0.013 (68% CL) respectively, values fully consistent with the BBN bounds on

  10. Evaluation of a five-year Bloomberg Global Road Safety Program in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, S; Hoe, C; Özkan, T; Lajunen, T J; Vursavas, F; Sener, S; Hyder, A A

    2017-03-01

    Turkey was included in the Bloomberg Philanthropies funded Global Road Safety Program (2010-14) with Ankara and Afyonkarahisar (Afyon) selected for interventions to manage speed and encourage seat-belt use. The objectives of this study are to present the monitoring and evaluation findings of seat-belt use and speed in Afyon and Ankara over the five years and to assess overall impact of the program on road traffic injury, and death rates in Turkey. Quasi-experimental before after without comparison. In collaboration with the Middle East Technical University, roadside observations and interviews were coupled with secondary data to monitor changes in risk factors and outcomes at the two intervention sites. The percentage of seat-belt use among drivers and front-seat passengers in Afyon and Ankara increased significantly between 2010 and 2014 with increased self-reported use and preceded by an increase in tickets (fines) for not using seat belts. There were uneven improvements in speed reduction. In Afyon, the average speed increased significantly from 46.3 km/h in 2012 to about 52.7 km/h in 2014 on roads where the speed limits were 50 km/h. In Ankara, the average speed remained less than 55 km/h during the program period (range: 50-54 km/h; P < 0.005) for roads where the speed limits were 50 km/h; however, the average speed on roads with speed limits of 70 km/h decreased significantly from 80.6 km/h in 2012 to 68.44 km/h in 2014 (P < 0.005). The program contributed to increase in seat-belt use in Afyon and Ankara and by drawing political attention to the issue can contribute to improvements in road safety. We are optimistic that the visible motivation within Turkey to substantially reduce road traffic injuries will lead to increased program implementation matched with a robust evaluation program, with suitable controls. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. An appraisal of retained placentae in ibadan: a five year review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obajimi, G O; Roberts, A O; Aimakhu, C O; Bello, F A; Olayemi, O

    2009-06-01

    To determine the frequency of retained placenta at the University College Hospital Ibadan (UCH). and to describe the socio-demographic characteristics of the patients and examine the risk factors predisposing to retained placenta. This is a descriptive study covering a period of 5 years from January 1(st) 2002 to December 31(st) 2006. During the study period, 4980 deliveries took place at the University College Hospital, Ibadan and 106 cases of retained placenta were managed making the incidence 2.13 per cent of all births. During the five year period, there were 106 patients with retained placenta; of these, 90 (84.9%) case notes were available for analysis. The mean age was 29.37 ± 4.99 years. First and second Para accounted for 52 per cent of the patients. Majority of the patient were unbooked for antenatal care in UCH with booked patients accounting for 27.8 per cent of the cases. The mean gestational age at delivery was 34.29 ± 6.02. Three patients presented to the hospital in shock of which 2 died on account of severe haemorrhagic shock. Fifty-eight patients (64.8%) presented with anaemia (packed cell volume less than 30 per cent) and 35 patients (38.8%) had blood transfusion ranging between 1-4 pints. 1 patient required hysterectomy on account of morbidly adherent placenta. Eleven patients (12.2%) had placenta retention in the past, 28 patients (31%) had a previous dilatation and curettage, 14 patients (15.5%) had previous caesarean sections and 47 patients (41.3%) had no known predisposing factors. Retained placenta still remains a potentially life threatening condition in the tropics due to the associated haemorrhage, and other complications related to its removal. The incidence and severity may be decreased by health education, women empowerment and the provision of facilities for essential obstetric services by high skilled health care providers in ensuring a properly conducted delivery with active management of the third stage of labour.

  12. Five Years of Analyses of Volatiles, Isotopes and Organics in Gale Crater Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdam, A.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Andrejkovicova, S. C.; Archer, P. D., Jr.; Atreya, S. K.; Buch, A.; Coll, P. J.; Conrad, P. G.; Eigenbrode, J. L.; Farley, K. A.; Flesch, G.; Franz, H. B.; Freissinet, C.; Glavin, D. P.; Hogancamp, J. V.; House, C. H.; Knudson, C. A.; Lewis, J. M.; Malespin, C.; Martin, P. M.; Millan, M.; Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.; Navarro-Gonzalez, R.; Steele, A.; Stern, J. C.; Summons, R. E.; Sutter, B.; Szopa, C.; Teinturier, S.; Trainer, M. G.; Webster, C. R.; Wong, G. M.

    2017-12-01

    Over the last five years, the Curiosity rover has explored a variety of fluvial, lacustrine and aeolian sedimentary rocks, and soils. The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument has analysed 3 soil and 12 rock samples, which exhibit significant chemical and mineralogical diversity in over 200 meters of vertical section. Here we will highlight several key insights enabled by recent measurements of the chemical and isotopic composition of inorganic volatiles and organic compounds detected in Gale Crater materials. Until recently samples have evolved O2 during SAM evolved gas analyses (EGA), attributed to the thermal decomposition of oxychlorine phases. A lack of O2 evolution from recent mudstone samples may indicate a difference in the composition of depositional or diagenetic fluids, and can also have implications for the detection of organic compounds since O2 can combust organics to CO2 in the SAM ovens. Recent mudstone samples have also shown little or no evolution of NO attributable to nitrate salts, possibly also as a result of changes in the chemical composition of fluids [1]. Measurements of the isotopic composition of sulfur, hydrogen, nitrogen, chlorine, and carbon in methane evolved during SAM pyrolysis are providing constraints on the conditions of possible paleoenvironments [e.g., 2, 3]. There is evidence of organic C from both EGA and GCMS measurements of Gale samples [e.g., 4, 5]. Organic sulfur volatiles have been detected in several samples, and the first opportunistic derivatization experiment produced a rich dataset indicating the presence of several organic compounds [6, 7]. A K-Ar age has been obtained from the Mojave mudstone, and the age of secondary materials formed by aqueous alteration is likely history and habitability. [1] Sutter et al. (2017) LPSC 3009. [2] Franz et al., this mtg. [3] Stern et al., this mtg. [4] Ming et al. (2014) Science 343. [5] Freissinet et al. (2015) JGR 120. [6] Eigenbrode et al. (2016) AGU P21D-08. [7] Freissinet

  13. Five-year longitudinal assessment of the prognosis of apical microsurgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Arx, Thomas; Jensen, Simon S; Hänni, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Apical surgery is an important treatment option for teeth with post-treatment apical periodontitis. Knowledge of the long-term prognosis is necessary when weighing apical surgery against alternative treatments. This study assessed the 5-year outcome of apical surgery and its predictors in a cohor...

  14. Suicide rates in five-year age-bands after the age of 60 years: the international landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ajit; Bhat, Ravi; Zarate-Escudero, Sofia; DeLeo, Diego; Erlangsen, Annette

    2016-01-01

    There is paucity of studies examining suicide rates in narrow five-year age-bands after the age of 60 years. This study examined suicide rates in eight five-year age-bands between the age of 60 and 99 years because this will allow more precise comparison between the young old (60-79 years) and the oldest old (80+ years) age groups. Data on the number of suicides (International Classification of Diseases - ICD-10 codes, X60-84) in each of the eight five-year age-bands between the age-bands 60-64 years and 95-99 years in both gender for as many years as possible from 2000 were ascertained from three sources: colleagues with access to national data, national statisics office websites and email contact with the national statistics offices. The population size for the corresponding years and age-bands was estimated for each country using data provided by the United Nations website. In men, suicide rates continued to increase for each of the seven five-year age-bands from 60-64 years to 90-94 years age-band, and then declined slightly for the 95-99 year age-band. In women, suicide rates continued to increase for each of the six five-year age-bands from 60-64 years to 85-89 years age-bands, and then declined slightly for the 90-94 years and 95-99 years age-bands. The overall global suicide rates for each of the eight five-year age-bands are sufficiently large for them to constitute a public health concern. This is especially important given the ongoing rise in the elderly population size and the paucity of data on risk and protective factors for suicide in the five-year age-bands after the age of 60 years.

  15. Relationship Between Mothers’ Role and Knowledge in Recurrence Prevention of Food Allergy for Children Under Five Years-Old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitria Rinawarti

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available There are 30-40% of people with allergies world wide in 2011, this is based on data from the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC more than tripled from 1993 to 2006. Parents play an important role in overcoming the recurrence of allergies in children in order of recurrence allergies and more severe recurrence. The goal of the study is to analyze association mothers’s role and knowledge in recurrence prevention of food allergy in children under five years-old. The study is an analytic observational research with cross sectional design. Method of sampling usedis simple random sampling. The samples were 39 mothers who have children under five years-old with food allergy in Rumah Sakit Islam Jemursari Surabaya. Analysis used chi-square test with α = 0.05 significance level.The results revealed the knowledge of mothers’ with allergy recurrance is 15 person (38,5% have a good knowledge in prevention of food allergy in children under five years-old, while mothers’s role in recurrence prevention of food allergy in children under five years-old is 26 person (66,7% have a role unfavorable. The statistical test by using chi-square revealed there were association between mothers’role (ρ=0,030 and mother’s of knowledge (ρ=0,00001in recurrence prevention of food allergy for children under five years-old.The conclusions of the results this study is mothers’s role with unfavorable to have children under five years-old with an allergy recurrence of severe allergy, while mothers with good knowledge to have children under five years-old with an allergy reccurrance of mild allergy. Keywords: recurrence allergies, mother’s role, mother’s knowledge

  16. Use of Calcium and Alendronic Acid Preparations in Correction of Structural and Functional Disorders of Bone Tissue in Thyrotoxicosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.B. Oliynyk

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Impact of calcium and alendronic acid preparations on disorders of structural and functional state of bone tissue in experimental animals at exogenic thyrotoxicosis was studied. It was defined that introduction of calcium preparations reduces bone mineral density loss in female rats with drug thyrotoxicosis, and combined use of calcium and alendronic acid prevents bone tissue loss regardless of thyrotoxicosis duration and presence of ovariectomy.

  17. Nutritional Status of Children under five years and it’s determinants in Vakarai, Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayathissa, Renuka; Peiris, Dilka

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Vakarai area was heavily affected during the conflicts. After cessation of the war it's decided to identify the nutritional problems to support with appropriate interventions. Study aimed to determine the nutrition status of children under five years of age and it’s determinants to make the recommendations. Cross sectional study done in 389 children identified using cluster sampling. Interviewer administered questionnaire to and anthropometric measurements were taken. WHO standards were used. Prevalence of wasting was 24.7% (CI;20.4-28.9%), of which 20.5% (CI;16.5-24.5%) moderate and 4.2% (CI;2.2-6.2%) severe wasting. Prevalence of stunting and underweight 16.2% (CI;12.5-19.8%) and 33.4% (CI;28.7-38.1%) respectively. National estimates of moderate and severe wasting was 11.7% and 1.9% respectively. Low birth weight in the sample was 28.8% higher than national estimates (28.8%;18.1%). Immediate causes indicated 63.1% and 4.4% of children had respiratory tract infections and diarrhoea. 10.9% of children in the age group up to 6 months were given any items other than breast milk within first 3 days of life. Among those in the age group 6 – 23 months, water was the commonest item given (97.3%) and 77.4 % was given rice, bread and rice flour preparations. As age increased more of the children were given a variety of food items. 32.4% children aged 6-23 months has received a minimum acceptable diet, which was lower among girls compared to boys. Among the breastfed children the percentage having minimum meal frequency was higher (30.1%) than the non-breastfed children (14.3%). 96% had a Child Health Development Record and 95.8% had age appropriate immunization. 35.5% children were given de worming tablets within the previous 6 months with the percentage received a vitamin A was 69.8%. Rice and other cereals and coconut have been consumed almost on all days during the preceding week. Meat and pulses consumption was less frequent and 51.2% of the households

  18. An Assessment of Student Learning in an Online Oceanography Course: Five Years After Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, D. L.

    2002-12-01

    The results of assessing student learning in an online oceanography class offered over the past five years are compiled to reveal several general trends. In order to understand the context of these trends, it is important to first note that SJSU has a two-tiered general education program consisting of a category of core courses for frosh and sophomores and an advanced category for juniors and seniors, most of whom are community college transfers. The course described in this study is in the latter category and therefore composed largely of seniors. Enrollments in the course have exploded from 6 students in a pilot section offered during the 1998 fall semester to over 170 students in the summer semester of 2002. The course is now offered in both semesters of the academic year with four sections offered during 2002 summer session as part of a system-wide conversion to year-round operation. No other course, be it classroom, hybrid or online, in the general education category has experienced the level of student demand as this online course. All sections of the online course reach enrollment limits in the first days of registration with an equal or greater number of students turned away each semester. More female, students of color, returning students and K-12 in-service teachers enroll in the online sections than in the equivalent classroom sections of the course. Students enroll in the online section for the convenience of self-paced learning since attending a classroom section is not a viable option. Enrollments in concurrent classroom sections have not been negatively impacted by the addition of online sections. Enrollment attrition is higher in the first few days of the online course, but similar to that experienced in the classroom sections, once the class is underway. However, student requests for incompletes tend to be somewhat higher in the online course, especially during the summer offerings. Learning outcomes are reviewed at the beginning of the course and

  19. Remotely Operated Vehicles under sea ice - Experiences and results from five years of polar operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katlein, Christian; Arndt, Stefanie; Lange, Benjamin; Belter, Hans Jakob; Schiller, Martin; Nicolaus, Marcel

    2016-04-01

    The availability of advanced robotic technologies to the Earth Science community has largely increased in the last decade. Remotely operated vehicles (ROV) enable spatially extensive scientific investigations underneath the sea ice of the polar oceans, covering a larger range and longer diving times than divers with significantly lower risks. Here we present our experiences and scientific results acquired from ROV operations during the last five years in the Arctic and Antarctic sea ice region. Working under the sea ice means to have all obstacles and investigated objects above the vehicle, and thus changes several paradigms of ROV operations as compared to blue water applications. Observations of downwelling spectral irradiance and radiance allow a characterization of the optical properties of sea ice and the spatial variability of the energy partitioning across the atmosphere-ice-ocean boundary. Our results show that the decreasing thickness and age of the sea ice have led to a significant increase in light transmission during summer over the last three decades. Spatially extensive measurements from ROV surveys generally provide more information on the light field variability than single spot measurements. The large number of sampled ice conditions during five cruises with the German research icebreaker RV Polarstern allows for the investigations of the seasonal evolution of light transmittance. Both, measurements of hyperspectral light transmittance through sea ice, as well as classification of upward-looking camera images were used to investigate the spatial distribution of ice-algal biomass. Buoyant ice-algal aggregates were found to be positioned in the stretches of level ice, rather than pressure ridges due to a physical interaction of aggregate-buoyancy and under-ice currents. Synchronous measurements of sea ice thickness by upward looking sonar provides crucial additional information to put light-transmittance and biological observations into context

  20. Effect of alendronate on post-traumatic osteoarthritis induced by anterior cruciate ligament rupture in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorasani, Mohammad S; Diko, Sindi; Hsia, Allison W; Anderson, Matthew J; Genetos, Damian C; Haudenschild, Dominik R; Christiansen, Blaine A

    2015-02-16

    Previous studies in animal models of osteoarthritis suggest that alendronate (ALN) has antiresorptive and chondroprotective effects, and can reduce osteophyte formation. However, these studies used non-physiologic injury methods, and did not investigate early time points during which bone is rapidly remodeled prior to cartilage degeneration. The current study utilized a non-invasive model of knee injury in mice to investigate the effect of ALN treatment on subchondral bone changes, articular cartilage degeneration, and osteophyte formation following injury. Non-invasive knee injury via tibial compression overload or sham injury was performed on a total of 90 mice. Mice were treated with twice weekly subcutaneous injections of low-dose ALN (40 μg/kg/dose), high-dose ALN (1,000 μg/kg/dose), or vehicle, starting immediately after injury until sacrifice at 7, 14 or 56 days. Trabecular bone of the femoral epiphysis, subchondral cortical bone, and osteophyte volume were quantified using micro-computed tomography (μCT). Whole-joint histology was performed at all time points to analyze articular cartilage and joint degeneration. Blood was collected at sacrifice, and serum was analyzed for biomarkers of bone formation and resorption. μCT analysis revealed significant loss of trabecular bone from the femoral epiphysis 7 and 14 days post-injury, which was effectively prevented by high-dose ALN treatment. High-dose ALN treatment was also able to reduce subchondral bone thickening 56 days post-injury, and was able to partially preserve articular cartilage 14 days post-injury. However, ALN treatment was not able to reduce osteophyte formation at 56 days post-injury, nor was it able to prevent articular cartilage and joint degeneration at this time point. Analysis of serum biomarkers revealed an increase in bone resorption at 7 and 14 days post-injury, with no change in bone formation at any time points. High-dose ALN treatment was able to prevent early trabecular

  1. Higher morale is associated with lower risk of depressive disorders five years later among very old people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niklasson, Johan; Näsman, Marina; Nyqvist, Fredrica; Conradsson, Mia; Olofsson, Birgitta; Lövheim, Hugo; Gustafson, Yngve

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether higher morale, i.e. future-oriented optimism, at baseline was associated with lower risk of depressive disorders five years later among very old people.Methods The Umeå85+/GErontological Regional Database, a population-based study with a longitudinal design, recruited participants in Sweden and Finland aged 85, 90 and ≥95 years. The sample in the present study included 647 individuals (89.1±4.4 years (Mean±SD), range 85-103). After five years, 216 were alive and agreed to a follow-up (92.6±3.4 years, range 90-104). The Philadelphia Geriatric Center Morale Scale (PGCMS) was used to assess morale. The depressive disorder diagnosis was determined according to DSM-IV based on medical records and interview data including assessment scales for depressive disorders. A number of sociodemographic, functional and health-related variables were analysed as possible confounders.Results For those with no depressive disorders at baseline, the only baseline variable significantly associated with depressive disorders five years later was the PGCMS score. A logistic regression model showed lower risk of depressive disorders five years later with higher baseline PGCMS scores (odds ratio 0.779 for one point increase in PGCMS, pfive years later).Conclusion Our results indicate that the higher the morale, the lower the risk of depressive disorders five years later among very old people. The PGCMS seems to identify those very old individuals at increased risk of depressive disorders five years later. Preventive measures could befocused on this group. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Five-year longitudinal assessment of the downstream impact on schistosomiasis transmission following closure of the Three Gorges Dam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren J Gray

    Full Text Available Schistosoma japonicum is a major public health concern in the Peoples' Republic of China (PRC, with about 800,000 people infected and another 50 million living in areas at risk of infection. Based on ecological, environmental, population genetic and molecular factors, schistosomiasis transmission in PRC can be categorised into four discrete ecosystems or transmission modes. It is predicted that, long-term, the Three Gorges Dam (TGD will impact upon the transmission of schistosomiasis in the PRC, with varying degree across the four transmission modes.We undertook longitudinal surveillance from 2002 to 2006 in sentinel villages of the three transmission modes below the TGD across four provinces (Hunan, Jiangxi, Hubei and Anhui to determine whether there was any immediate impact of the TGD on schistosomiasis transmission. Eight sentinel villages were selected to represent both province and transmission mode. The primary end point measured was human incidence. Here we present the results of this five-year longitudinal cohort study. Results showed that the incidence of human S. japonicum infection declined considerably within individual villages and overall mode over the course of the study. This is also reflected in the yearly odds ratios (adjusted for infection risk that showed significant (P<0.01 downward trends in all modes over the follow-up period.The decrease in human S. japonicum incidence observed across all transmission modes in this study can probably be attributed to the annual human and bovine PZQ chemotherapy. If an increase in schistosome transmission had occurred as a result of the TGD, it would be of negligible size compared to the treatment induced decline seen here. It appears therefore that there has been virtually no immediate impact of the TGD on schistosomiasis transmission downstream of the dam.

  3. The incidence of mobility restrictions among elderly people in two Nordic localities. A five-year follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakari-Rantala, Ritva; Avlund, Kirsten; Frändin, Kerstin

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of limitations in self-reported mobility as well as the decline in measured walking speed and stair-mounting ability over five years among men and women aged 75 at baseline in two Nordic localities. Another purpose was to analyze the relation......The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of limitations in self-reported mobility as well as the decline in measured walking speed and stair-mounting ability over five years among men and women aged 75 at baseline in two Nordic localities. Another purpose was to analyze...

  4. After Twenty-Five Years: A Twenty-Five Year Follow-up Study of Middlesex County Vocational and Technical High School Graduates of the Class of June 1953.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, William; Zanzalari, J. Henry

    A twenty-five-year follow-up study was conducted to determine the occupational, educational, marital and armed forces experiences of the graduating class of 1953 from the Middlesex County Vocational and Technical high schools located in New Brunswick, Perth, Amboy, and Woodbridge, New Jersey. Data, in the form of questionnaire responses, were…

  5. Multileaf collimator-based linear accelerator radiosurgery: five-year efficiency analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Joshua D; Fox, Tim; Waller, Anthony F; Davis, Lawrence; Crocker, Ian

    2009-03-01

    In 1989, Emory University initiated a linear accelerator (linac) radiosurgery program using circular collimators. In 2001, the program converted to a multileaf collimator. Since then, the treatment parameters of each patient have been stored in the record-and-verify system. Three major changes have occurred in the radiosurgery program in the past 6 years: in 2002, treatment was changed from static conformal beams to dynamic conformal arc (DCA) therapy, and all patients were imaged before treatment. Beginning in 2005, a linac was used, with the opportunity to treat at higher dose rates (600-1,000 monitor units/min). The aim of this study was to analyze the time required to deliver radiosurgery and the factors affecting treatment delivery. Benchmark data are provided for centers contemplating initiating linac radiosurgery programs. Custom software was developed to mine the record-and-verify system database and automatically perform a chart review on patients who underwent stereotactic radiosurgery from March 2001 to October 2006. The software extracted 510 patients who underwent stereotactic radiosurgery, and the following information was recorded for each patient: treatment technique, treatment time (from initiation of imaging, if done, to completion of therapy), number of isocenters, number of fields, total monitor units, and dose rate. Of the 510 patients, 395 were treated with DCA therapy and 115 with static conformal beams. The average number of isocenters treated was 1.06 (range, 1-4). The average times to deliver treatment were 24.1 minutes for patients who underwent DCA therapy and 19.3 minutes for those treated with static conformal beams, reflecting the lack of imaging in the latter patients. Eighty percent of patients were treated in question the need for a dedicated radiosurgery unit for even busy treatment centers.

  6. Five years of discoveries with SOHO have made the Sun transparent

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-04-01

    teams have streamlined their data gathering and analyses to the point where they can offer routine long-range forecasts of intense solar activity based on far-side foresight. The techniques are complementary, with MDI seeing the sunspot regions and SWAN reporting how active they are. "When we started work with SOHO five years ago, most experts thought it would be impossible to see right through the Sun," comments Philip Scherrer of Stanford University, principal investigator for the MDI instrument. "Now we do it regularly in real time. For practical purposes we’ve made the Sun transparent". Although conceived for scientific research, SOHO has proved invaluable as a watchdog for spotting sunstorms. Forecasters already rely heavily on SOHO’s round-the-clock observations of flares and mass ejections that can have harmful effects on satellites, power lines and other technological systems. The new long-range, far-side forecasts may be especially useful for scheduling manned space operations, during which astronauts might be exposed to dangerous particles from solar explosions. Watching the solar striptease SOHO examines the Sun from a vantage point 1.5 million kilometres out, on the sunward side of the Earth. Its instruments probe the Sun from its nuclear core, through its turbulent interior and stormy atmosphere, and all the way out to the Earth’s orbit and beyond, where a non-stop stream of atomic nuclei and electrons travels outwards as the solar wind. To the naked eye the Sun looks calm and unchanging, but for SOHO it has performed a dramatic striptease. Here are just ten of the revelations. The Sun’s surprising heart beat. Currents of gas far beneath the visible surface speed up and slacken again every 16 months -- a wholly unexpected pulse-rate. It was detected by combining data from SOHO and a US-led network of ground stations called GONG. Brighter sunbeams. Watching minute by minute and year by year, SOHO has seen the Sun brighten, as expected, by 0.1 per

  7. Five-year follow-up of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koev, K.; Avramov, L.; Borissova, E.

    2018-03-01

    The objective of this study was to examine long-term effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The research was implemented for a period of five years. For LLLT, a He-Ne Laser with continuous emission at 633 nm (0.1 mW/cm2) was used in patients with AMD of all stages (dry to wet exudative forms were included). In total, 33 patients (16 men and 17 women – 66 eyes) with AMD of various stages and a mean age of 68.7 ± 4.2 years were included in the study. Progressive, exudative AMD was diagnosed in 8 eyes. 58 eyes had drusen or were depigmented. Laser radiation was applied transpupillary to the macula for six times for three minutes once in two days; 22 patients with AMD (44 eyes) were randomly selected to receive mock treatment (control group 10 men and 12 women with a mean age of 69.3 ± 4.8 years). The visual acuity was followed for a five-year period. The perimetry and Amsler test were used to screen central scotomas. The fluorescein angiography of AMD and the control groups was examined. The visual acuity remained unchanged in all patients in the control group. There was a statistically significant increase in the visual acuity (p<0.001, end of study versus baseline) for AMD patients for the period of five years after the treatment. The edema and hemorrhage in the patients with progressive, exudative AMD significantly decreased. No side effects were observed during the therapy. The prevalence of metamorphopsia, scotoma in AMD group was reduced. In conclusion, this study shows that LLLT may be a novel long-lasting therapeutic option for both forms of AMD. It is a highly-effective treatment that results in a long-term improvement of the visual acuity.

  8. Five years experience with a new intraoral maxillary distraction device (RID).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard, Arnaud; Diner, Patrick A; Galliani, Eva; Tomat, Catherine; Vazquez, Ma rie Paule; Carls, Friedrich P

    2011-10-01

    Maxillary distraction osteogenesis is well established for the treatment of severe retromaxilla. We report our experience since 2004 of the treatment of 19 patients using a new intraoral maxillary distraction device. Maxillary advancement was successful in all patients with mean advancement of 9.6mm (range 4-17) measured at a point in lateral cephalograms. The new device limited surgical exposure and the amount of materials implanted, and improved control in every phase of the distraction. It was psychologically accepted by patients and was more comfortable than existing devices. Copyright © 2010 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Modulation of adhesion-dependent cAMP signaling by echistatin and alendronate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, J. H.; Ingber, D. E.

    1996-01-01

    We measured intracellular cAMP levels in cells during attachment and spreading on different extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. Increases in cAMP were observed within minutes when cells attached to fibronectin, vitronectin, and a synthetic RGD-containing fibronectin peptide (Petite 2000), but not when they adhered to another integrin alpha nu beta 3 ligand, echistatin. Because echistatin also inhibits bone resorption, we measured the effects of adding another osteoporosis inhibitor, alendronate, in this system. Alendronate inhibited the cAMP increase induced by ligands that primarily utilize integrin alpha nu beta 3 (vitronectin, Peptite 2000), but not by fibronectin which can also use integrin alpha 5 beta 1. These results show that cell adhesion to ECM can increase intracellular cAPM levels and raise the possibility that inhibitors of osteoporosis may act, in part, by preventing activation of this pathway by integrins.

  10. A five-year review of female genital tract malignancies in Sokoto ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is recommended that this process is accelerated through heightened awareness of the female genital cancers among members of the community and health care providers. In addition, innovative approaches to screening and treatment of precancerous cervical lesions and improved service delivery systems are required.

  11. The Current Situation of Field Experience in a Five-Year Science Teacher Education Program in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faikhamta, Chatree; Jantarakantee, Ekgapoom; Roadrangka, Vantipa

    2011-01-01

    This research explored the current situation in managing the field experience of a five-year science teacher education program in one university in Thailand. A number of methods were used to assess field experience situation: (1) a questionnaire on the perceptions of pre-service science teachers of field experience management; (2) participant…

  12. 77 FR 18861 - Stainless Steel Bar From Brazil, India, Japan, and Spain; Scheduling of Expedited Five-Year Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-28

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation Nos. 731-TA-678, 679, 681, and 682 (Third Review)] Stainless Steel Bar From Brazil, India, Japan, and Spain; Scheduling of Expedited Five-Year Reviews AGENCY... stainless steel bar from Brazil, India, Japan, and Spain would be likely to lead to continuation or...

  13. Five-year follow-up of knee joint cartilage thickness changes after acute anterior cruciate ligament rupture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eckstein, F; Wirth, W; Lohmander, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture involves increased risk of osteoarthritis. We explored cartilage thickness changes over five years after ACL rupture. Methods: 121 young active adults (26% women, age 18-35 years) with acute traumatic ACL rupture were studied (the KANON-trial). ...

  14. 76 FR 64107 - Uranium From Russia; Scheduling of an Expedited Five-Year Review Concerning the Suspended...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-17

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-539-C; Third Review] Uranium From Russia; Scheduling of an Expedited Five-Year Review Concerning the Suspended Investigation on Uranium From Russia... on uranium from Russia would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury...

  15. 76 FR 38694 - Uranium From Russia; Institution of a Five-Year Review Concerning the Suspended Investigation on...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-539-C (Third Review)] Uranium From Russia; Institution of a Five-Year Review Concerning the Suspended Investigation on Uranium From Russia AGENCY: United...)) (the Act) to determine whether termination of the suspended investigation on uranium from Russia would...

  16. Taking Stock: Five Years of Structural Change in Boston's Public Schools. A Boston Indicators Project Special Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEnroe, Ted

    2014-01-01

    While structural reform has certainly inspired change in Boston's public schools, its true value is best measured by examining the impact those changes have had on students. Seen through the lens of student performance over the past five years there is ample suggestion that these structural changes have been more than just window dressing--they…

  17. 76 FR 38688 - Certain Welded Stainless Steel Pipe From Korea and Taiwan; Institution of a Five-Year Review...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    ... major inputs into production); and factors related to the ability to shift supply among different... production of the product. In its original determinations and its full first five-year review determinations... comparable products which the Commission conducts under Title VII of the Act, or in internal audits and...

  18. 76 FR 23835 - Solid Urea From Russia and Ukraine; Scheduling of Full Five-Year Reviews Concerning the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-28

    ... Urea From Russia and Ukraine; Scheduling of Full Five-Year Reviews Concerning the Antidumping Duty Orders on Solid Urea From Russia and Ukraine AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION... of the antidumping duty orders on solid urea from Russia and Ukraine would be likely to lead to...

  19. 77 FR 65015 - Ammonium Nitrate From Ukraine; Notice of Commission Determination To Conduct a Full Five-year...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-24

    ... antidumping duty order on ammonium nitrate from Ukraine would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-894 (Second Review)] Ammonium Nitrate... Full Five-year Review Concerning the Antidumping Duty Order on Ammonium Nitrate From Ukraine AGENCY...

  20. Effectiveness of Strategy Training for Struggling English Language Students: Profiles and Results of a Five-year Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Josephine A.; Gomez, Julio Cesar; Quintero, Gloria; Nausa, Ricardo; Rey, Luz Libia

    2011-01-01

    This study examines a group of approximately 1,100 English as a foreign language students who attended a tutoring program dedicated to training learners in study skills and language learning strategies. The study covers a five-year period of time during which the tutoring program remained consistent in its focus and organization. Students…

  1. 77 FR 6582 - Ferrovanadium and Nitrided Vanadium From Russia; Scheduling of a Full Five-Year Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-08

    ... Nitrided Vanadium From Russia; Scheduling of a Full Five-Year Review AGENCY: United States International... Russia would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury within a reasonably foreseeable time. For further information concerning the conduct of this review and rules of general...

  2. 76 FR 79214 - Ferrovanadium and Nitrided Vanadium From Russia; Determination To Conduct a Full Five-Year Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-21

    ... Nitrided Vanadium From Russia; Determination To Conduct a Full Five-Year Review AGENCY: United States... Russia would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury within a reasonably foreseeable time. A schedule for the review will be established and announced at a later date. For further...

  3. Pop-Up Retailing: The Design, Implementation, and Five-Year Evolution of an Experiential Learning Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Brigitte

    2012-01-01

    Educators continually seek innovative methods by which to engage students. Kolb's experiential learning theory was a catalyst for designing and incorporating a pop-up retail consignment store into a junior level retail promotion course. After five years of use and refinement, the project has proven to be a powerful method to engage students in the…

  4. 77 FR 301 - Corrosion-Resistant Carbon Steel Flat Products From Germany and Korea: Institution of Five-Year...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-04

    ... information is required if a currently valid Office of Management and Budget (OMB) number is not displayed... production of the product. In its original investigations and its full first and second five-year review... revised Commission's Handbook on E-Filing, available on the Commission's Web site at http://edis.usitc.gov...

  5. 77 FR 53909 - Certain Pasta From Italy and Turkey; Institution of Five-year Reviews Concerning the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-04

    ...)] Certain Pasta From Italy and Turkey; Institution of Five-year Reviews Concerning the Countervailing and Antidumping Duty Orders on Certain Pasta From Italy and Turkey AGENCY: United States International Trade... revocation of the countervailing and antidumping duty orders on certain pasta from Italy and Turkey would be...

  6. 78 FR 959 - Certain Pasta From Italy and Turkey; Notice of Commission Determination To Conduct Full Five-Year...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-07

    ...)] Certain Pasta From Italy and Turkey; Notice of Commission Determination To Conduct Full Five-Year Reviews... revocation of the antidumping duty orders on certain pasta from Italy and Turkey would be likely to lead to... reviews of the countervailing duty order and antidumping duty order on imports of certain pasta from...

  7. 78 FR 9937 - Certain Pasta From Italy and Turkey Scheduling of Full Five-Year Reviews Concerning the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-12

    ...)] Certain Pasta From Italy and Turkey Scheduling of Full Five-Year Reviews Concerning the Countervailing and Antidumping Duty Orders on Certain Pasta From Italy and Turkey AGENCY: United States International Trade... whether revocation of the countervailing and antidumping duty orders on certain pasta from Italy and...

  8. 76 FR 50252 - Gray Portland Cement and Cement Clinker From Japan; Scheduling of an Expedited Five-Year Review...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-461 (Third Review)] Gray Portland Cement and Cement Clinker From Japan; Scheduling of an Expedited Five-Year Review Concerning the Antidumping Duty Order on Gray Portland Cement and Cement Clinker From Japan AGENCY: United States International...

  9. 76 FR 43344 - Certain Orange Juice From Brazil; Scheduling of a Full Five-Year Review Concerning the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-20

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-1089 (Review)] Certain Orange Juice From Brazil; Scheduling of a Full Five-Year Review Concerning the Antidumping Duty Order on Certain Orange... order on certain orange juice from Brazil would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of...

  10. Research in environmental impacts of peaceful uses of nuclear energy in the 7th five-year plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horacek, P.

    1982-01-01

    The most complete information so far is presented in tabular form on research programs of organizations in the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic which in the 7th five year plan deal with the environmental impact of peaceful uses of nuclear energy. (author)

  11. The Role of Parents' Distancing Strategies in the Development of Five-Year-Old Children's Theory of Mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galende, Nuria; de Miguel, Manuel Sanchez; Arranz, Enrique

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the relation between parents' distancing strategies and the performance of five-year-old children (N = 70) in Theory of Mind (ToM) tasks. The children's performances were assessed during individual sessions held at school. The distancing strategies practiced by the parents (cognitive and linguistic scaffolding,…

  12. Charles River Water Quality Improvements Earns an A- for the Second Time in the Past Five Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA has given the Charles River a grade of A- for bacterial water quality in the river during 2017. This is only the second time the river has earned a grade as high as an A-minus, and both have occurred within the past five years.

  13. Five-year change in physical activity is associated with changes in cardiovascular disease risk factors: the Inter99 study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aadahl, Mette; von Huth Smith, L; Pisinger, Charlotte

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether five-year changes in self-reported physical activity level were associated with changes in waist circumference, weight, serum lipids and blood pressure. METHODS: In the Inter99 study (1999-2006) in Copenhagen, Denmark, 4039 men and women (30-60 years) answered quest....... Change in physical activity level induced a significant change in HDL concentration in men only. Women's use of hormone replacement therapy may partly explain this gender difference.......OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether five-year changes in self-reported physical activity level were associated with changes in waist circumference, weight, serum lipids and blood pressure. METHODS: In the Inter99 study (1999-2006) in Copenhagen, Denmark, 4039 men and women (30-60 years) answered...... questions on lifestyle and provided blood samples and anthropometric measures at baseline and after five years. Multiple regression analyses were performed with five-year value of each cardiovascular biomarker as outcome and change in physical activity level as explanatory variable. RESULTS: Approximately...

  14. Five Years of Humanitarian Missions in São Tomé and Príncipe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Caroça

    2016-01-01

    We have witnessed a considerable improvement on the children to whom we have adapted prosthetics. Some of them return to school, have friends and became more social. As the result of this work, we conclude that all Humanitarian Missions must be adapted to each country’s needs as we have done over the past five years.

  15. 77 FR 42762 - Scheduling of an Expedited Five-Year Review Concerning the Antidumping Duty Order on Folding Gift...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-921 (Second Review)] Scheduling of an Expedited Five-Year Review Concerning the Antidumping Duty Order on Folding Gift Boxes From China AGENCY... folding gift boxes from China would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury...

  16. 77 FR 67668 - Folding Gift Boxes From China; Revised Scheduling of the Expedited Five-Year Review Concerning...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-13

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-921 (Second Review)] Folding Gift Boxes... on Folding Gift Boxes From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice... the second five-year review of the antidumping duty order on Folding Gift Boxes from China...

  17. 77 FR 35395 - Draft Five-Year Plan (2013-2017) for the National Toxicology Program Interagency Center for the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-13

    ... (ICCVAM) has developed a draft NICEATM-ICCVAM Five-Year Plan. The plan describes four core strategies to... innovations are driving transformative changes in toxicology and how safety testing is performed. The field of toxicology is evolving from a system based largely on animal testing toward one based on the integration of...

  18. 76 FR 31360 - Paper Clips From China; Scheduling of an Expedited Five-Year Review Concerning the Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-31

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-663 Third Review] Paper Clips From China; Scheduling of an Expedited Five-Year Review Concerning the Antidumping Duty Order on Paper Clips From China... paper clips from China would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury within a...

  19. 78 FR 76856 - Silicon Metal From Russia; Scheduling of a Full Five-Year Review Concerning the Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-19

    ... Russia; Scheduling of a Full Five-Year Review Concerning the Antidumping Duty Order on Silicon Metal From Russia AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission... silicon metal from Russia would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury within...

  20. Five Years After; the Impact of a Participatory Technology Development Programme as Perceived by Smallholder Farmers in Benin and Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterk, B.; Kobina, A.C.; Gogan, A.C.; Sakyi-Dawson, O.; Kossou, D.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The article reports effects on livelihoods of a participatory technology development effort in Benin and Ghana (2001–2006), five years after it ended. Design: The study uses data from all smallholders who participated in seven experimental groups, each facilitated by a PhD researcher.

  1. Perceived weight status may contribute to education inequalities in five-year weight change among mid-aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Jessica; Giskes, Katrina; Shaw, Jonathan; Turrell, Gavin

    2011-06-01

    To examine education differences in five-year weight change among mid-aged adults, and to ascertain if this may be due to socioeconomic differences in perceived weight status or weight control behaviours (WCBs). Data were used from the Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle Study. Mid-aged men and women with measured weights at both baseline (1999-2000) and follow-up (2004-2005) were included. Percent weight change over the five-year interval was calculated and perceived weight status, WCBs and highest attained education were collected at baseline. Low-educated men and women were more likely to be obese at baseline compared to their high-educated counterparts. Women with a certificate-level education had a greater five-year weight gain than those with a bachelor degree or higher. Perceived weight status or WCBs did not differ by education among men and women, however participants that perceived themselves as very overweight had less weight gain than those perceiving themselves as underweight or normal weight. WCBs were not associated with five-year weight change. The higher prevalence of overweight/obesity among low-educated women may be a consequence of greater weight gain in mid-adulthood. Education inequalities in overweight/obesity among men and women made be due (in part) to overweight or obese individuals in low-educated groups not perceiving themselves as having a weight problem. © 2011 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2011 Public Health Association of Australia.

  2. Five-year summary and evaluation of operations and performance of the Utica aquifer and North Lake Basin Wetlands restoration project in 2004-2009.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFreniere, L. M. (Environmental Science Division)

    2011-09-13

    This document reviews the performance of the groundwater (and wetlands) restoration program implemented by the Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA) at the former CCC/USDA grain storage facility in Utica, Nebraska, during the first five years (2004-2009) of this initiative. The report summarizes treatment system operational data and regulatory compliance monitoring results for the site during this period, together with the results of the targeted groundwater sampling and analysis for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) conducted in early 2010 (following completion of the fifth year of systems operation), to assess the initial five years of progress of the Utica remediation effort. On the basis of the 2003 groundwater sampling results, a remedial system employing 4 extraction wells (GWEX1-GWEX4), with groundwater treatment by spray irrigation and conventional air stripping, was implemented with the concurrence of the CCC/USDA and the agencies (Table 1.1). The principal components of the system are shown in Figure 1.3 and are briefly described in Section 1.2. Operation of well GWEX4 and the associated air stripper began on October 29, 2004, and routine operation of wells GWEX1-GWEX3 and the spray irrigation treatment units began on November 22, 2004.

  3. Development and characterization of a gastroretentive dosage form composed of chitosan and hydroxyethyl cellulose for alendronate

    OpenAIRE

    Chen YC; Ho HO; Chiu CC; Sheu MT

    2013-01-01

    Ying-Chen Chen,1,* Hsiu-O Ho,1,* Chiao-Chi Chiu,1 Ming-Thau Sheu1,2 1School of Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Taipei Medical University, 2Clinical Research Center and Traditional Herbal Medicine Research Center, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: In this study, alendronate, the most commonly used biphosphonate for treating osteoporosis, was formulated as gastroretentive dosage form (GRDF) tablets to enhance its oral bioav...

  4. Frontal recurrence of medulloblastoma five years after excision and craniospinal irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roka Y

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Medulloblastomas were originally classified under gliomas of the cerebellum until Bailey and Cushing in 1925 named these tumors as medulloblastoma. At present these tumors are classified under primitive neuroectodermal tumor. Surgical excision followed by craniospinal irradiation is the treatment of choice. A 13-year-old-girl operated for posterior fossa medulloblastoma 5 years ago presented with history of headache and vomiting on and off for 4 days in late August 2008. The MRI showed left frontal tumor which on excision was reported as medulloblastoma. Even after optimal treatment reports of recurrence abound in literature. The most common location is in the posterior fossa, followed by spinal, supratentorial, and uncommonly, systemic metastases. We conclude that medulloblastomas are highly aggressive tumor with high local recurrences if the initial excision is incomplete and that recurrence in the supratentorial area although uncommon is still a possibility. This mandates regular follow up of these children till adulthood to catch early recurrences and metastatic disease.

  5. Five-year longitudinal assessment of the prognosis of apical microsurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Arx, Thomas; Jensen, Simon S; Hänni, Stefan; Friedman, Shimon

    2012-05-01

    Apical surgery is an important treatment option for teeth with post-treatment apical periodontitis. Knowledge of the long-term prognosis is necessary when weighing apical surgery against alternative treatments. This study assessed the 5-year outcome of apical surgery and its predictors in a cohort for which the 1-year outcome was previously reported. Apical microsurgery procedures were uniformly performed using SuperEBA (Staident International, Staines, UK) or mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) (ProRoot MTA; Dentsply Tulsa Dental Specialties, Tulsa, OK) root-end fillings or alternatively Retroplast capping (Retroplast Trading, Rorvig, Denmark). Subjects examined at 1 year (n = 191) were invited for the 5-year clinical and radiographic examination. Based on blinded, independent assessment by 3 calibrated examiners, the dichotomous outcome (healed or nonhealed) was determined and associated with patient-, tooth-, and treatment-related variables using logistic regression. At the 5-year follow-up, 9 of 191 teeth were unavailable, 12 of 191 teeth were extracted, and 170 of 191 teeth were examined (87.6% recall rate). A total of 129 of 170 teeth were healed (75.9%) compared with 83.8% at 1 year, and 85.3% were asymptomatic. Two significant outcome predictors were identified: the mesial-distal bone level at ≤ 3 mm versus >3 mm from the cementoenamel junction (78.2% vs 52.9% healed, respectively; odds ratio = 5.10; confidence interval, 1.67-16.21; P apical microsurgery was 8% poorer than assessed at 1 year. It also suggested that the prognosis was significantly impacted by the interproximal bone levels at the treated tooth and by the type of root-end filling material used. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Endodontists. All rights reserved.

  6. Process analytical technology to understand the disintegration behavior of alendronate sodium tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaoming; Gupta, Abhay; Sayeed, Vilayat A; Khan, Mansoor A

    2013-05-01

    Various adverse events including esophagus irritations have been reported with the use of alendronate tablets, likely attributed to the rapid tablet disintegration in the mouth or esophagus. Accordingly, the disintegration of six alendronate tablet drug products was studied using a newly developed testing device equipped with in-line sensors, in addition to the official compendial procedure for measuring the disintegration time. The in-line sensors were used to monitor the particle count and solution pH change to assess the onset and duration of disintegration. A relatively large variation was observed in the disintegration time of the tested drug products using the compendial method. The data collected using the in-line sensors suggested that all tested drug products exhibited almost instantaneous onset of disintegration, under 2 s, and a sharp drop in solution pH. The drop in pH was slower for tablets with slower disintegration. The in-house prepared alendronate test tablets also showed similar trends suggesting rapid solubilization of the drug contributed to the fast tablet disintegration. This research highlights the usefulness of the newly developed in-line analytical method in combination with the compendial method in providing a better understanding of the disintegration and the accompanying drug solubilization processes for fast disintegrating tablet drug products. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Five-Year Outcomes of High-Dose Single-Fraction Spinal Stereotactic Radiosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moussazadeh, Nelson; Lis, Eric; Katsoulakis, Evangelia; Kahn, Sweena; Svoboda, Marek; DiStefano, Natalie M.; McLaughlin, Lily; Bilsky, Mark H.; Yamada, Yoshiya; Laufer, Ilya

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To characterize local tumor control and toxicity risk in very long-term survivors (>5 years) after high-dose spinal image guided, intensity modulated radiation therapy delivered as single-dose stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). Previously published spinal SRS outcome analyses have included a heterogeneous population of cancer patients, mostly with short survival. This is the first study reporting the long-term tumor control and toxicity profiles after high-dose single-fraction spinal SRS. Methods and Materials: The study population included all patients treated from June 2004 to July 2009 with single-fraction spinal SRS (dose 24 Gy) who had survived at least 5 years after treatment. The endpoints examined included disease progression, surgical or radiation retreatment, in-field fracture development, and radiation-associated toxicity, scored using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group radiation morbidity scoring criteria and the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 4.0. Local control and fracture development were assessed using Kaplan-Meier analysis. Results: Of 278 patients, 31 (11.1%), with 36 segments treated for spinal tumors, survived at least 5 years after treatment and were followed up radiographically and clinically for a median of 6.1 years (maximum 102 months). The histopathologic findings for the 5-year survivors included radiation-resistant metastases in 58%, radiation-sensitive metastases in 22%, and primary bone tumors in 19%. In this selected cohort, 3 treatment failures occurred at a median of 48.6 months, including 2 recurrences in the radiation field and 1 patient with demonstrated progression at the treatment margins. Ten lesions (27.8%) were associated with acute grade 1 cutaneous or gastrointestinal toxicity. Delayed toxicity ≥3 months after treatment included 8 cases (22.2%) of mild neuropathy, 2 (5.6%) of gastrointestinal discomfort, 8 (22.2%) of dermatitides, and 3 (8.3%) of myalgias/myositis. Thirteen

  8. Five-Year Outcomes of High-Dose Single-Fraction Spinal Stereotactic Radiosurgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moussazadeh, Nelson [Division of Neurological Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Department of Neurological Surgery, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York Presbyterian Hospital, New York, New York (United States); Lis, Eric [Department of Radiology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Katsoulakis, Evangelia [Department of Radiation Oncology, New York Methodist Hospital, Brooklyn, New York (United States); Kahn, Sweena; Svoboda, Marek; DiStefano, Natalie M.; McLaughlin, Lily [Division of Neurological Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Bilsky, Mark H. [Division of Neurological Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Department of Neurological Surgery, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York Presbyterian Hospital, New York, New York (United States); Yamada, Yoshiya [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Laufer, Ilya, E-mail: lauferi@mskcc.org [Division of Neurological Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Department of Neurological Surgery, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York Presbyterian Hospital, New York, New York (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Purpose: To characterize local tumor control and toxicity risk in very long-term survivors (>5 years) after high-dose spinal image guided, intensity modulated radiation therapy delivered as single-dose stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). Previously published spinal SRS outcome analyses have included a heterogeneous population of cancer patients, mostly with short survival. This is the first study reporting the long-term tumor control and toxicity profiles after high-dose single-fraction spinal SRS. Methods and Materials: The study population included all patients treated from June 2004 to July 2009 with single-fraction spinal SRS (dose 24 Gy) who had survived at least 5 years after treatment. The endpoints examined included disease progression, surgical or radiation retreatment, in-field fracture development, and radiation-associated toxicity, scored using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group radiation morbidity scoring criteria and the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 4.0. Local control and fracture development were assessed using Kaplan-Meier analysis. Results: Of 278 patients, 31 (11.1%), with 36 segments treated for spinal tumors, survived at least 5 years after treatment and were followed up radiographically and clinically for a median of 6.1 years (maximum 102 months). The histopathologic findings for the 5-year survivors included radiation-resistant metastases in 58%, radiation-sensitive metastases in 22%, and primary bone tumors in 19%. In this selected cohort, 3 treatment failures occurred at a median of 48.6 months, including 2 recurrences in the radiation field and 1 patient with demonstrated progression at the treatment margins. Ten lesions (27.8%) were associated with acute grade 1 cutaneous or gastrointestinal toxicity. Delayed toxicity ≥3 months after treatment included 8 cases (22.2%) of mild neuropathy, 2 (5.6%) of gastrointestinal discomfort, 8 (22.2%) of dermatitides, and 3 (8.3%) of myalgias/myositis. Thirteen

  9. The randomized shortened dental arch study: tooth loss over five years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, M H; Hannak, W; Kern, M; Mundt, T; Gernet, W; Weber, A; Wöstmann, B; Stark, H; Werner, D; Hartmann, S; Range, U; Jahn, F; Passia, N; Pospiech, P; Mitov, G; Brückner, J; Wolfart, S; Busche, E; Luthardt, R G; Heydecke, G; Marré, B

    2013-04-01

    The study was designed to provide clinical outcome data for two treatments of the shortened dental arch (SDA). In a multicenter randomized controlled clinical trial, patients with complete molar loss in one jaw were provided with either a partial removable dental prosthesis (PRDP) retained with precision attachments or treated according to the SDA concept preserving or restoring a premolar occlusion. No implants were placed. The primary outcome was tooth loss. Of 152 treated patients, 132 patients reached the 5-year examination. Over 5 years, 38 patients experienced tooth loss. For the primary outcome tooth loss, the Kaplan-Meier survival rates at 5 years were 0.74 (95% CI 0.64, 0.84) in the PRDP group and 0.74 (95% CI 0.63, 0.85) in the SDA group. For tooth loss in the study jaw, the survival rates at 5 years were 0.88 (95% CI 0.80, 0.95) in the PRDP group and 0.84 (95% CI 0.74, 0.93) in the SDA group. The differences were not significant. No Cox regression models of appropriate fit explaining tooth loss on the patient level could be found. The overall treatment goals of a sustainable oral rehabilitation and the avoidance of further tooth loss over longer periods were not reliably achievable. The influence of the type of prosthetic treatment on tooth loss might have been overestimated. Regarding our results, the patient's view will gain even more importance in the clinical decision between removable and fixed restorations in SDAs.

  10. Chemoembolization With Doxorubicin-Eluting Beads for Unresectable Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Five-Year Survival Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malagari, Katerina, E-mail: kmalag@otonet.gr [University of Athens, Second Department of Radiology (Greece); Pomoni, Mary [University of Athens, Imaging and Research Unit (Greece); Moschouris, Hippocrates, E-mail: hipmosch@gmail.com [Tzanion Hospital, Department of Radiology (Greece); Bouma, Evanthia [University of Athens, Imaging and Research Unit (Greece); Koskinas, John [Ippokration Hospital, University of Athens, Department of Internal Medicine and Hepatology (Greece); Stefaniotou, Aspasia [University of Athens, Imaging and Research Unit (Greece); Marinis, Athanasios [Tzanion Hospital, Department of Surgery (Greece); Kelekis, Alexios; Alexopoulou, Efthymia [University of Athens, Second Department of Radiology (Greece); Chatziioannou, Achilles [University of Athens, First Department of Radiology (Greece); Chatzimichael, Katerina [University of Athens, Second Department of Radiology (Greece); Dourakis, Spyridon [Ippokration Hospital, University of Athens, Department of Internal Medicine and Hepatology (Greece); Kelekis, Nikolaos [University of Athens, Second Department of Radiology (Greece); Rizos, Spyros [Tzanion Hospital, Department of Surgery (Greece); Kelekis, Dimitrios [University of Athens, Imaging and Research Unit (Greece)

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to report on the 5-year survival of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients treated with DC Bead loaded with doxorubicin (DEB-DOX) in a scheduled scheme in up to three treatments and thereafter on demand. Materials and Methods: 173 HCC patients not suitable for curable treatments were prospectively enrolled (mean age 70.4 {+-} 7.4 years). Child-Pugh (Child) class was A/B (102/71 [59/41 %]), Okuda stage was 0/1/2 (91/61/19 [53.2/35.7/11.1 %]), and mean lesion diameter was 7.6 {+-} 2.1 cm. Lesion morphology was one dominant {<=}5 cm (22 %), one dominant >5 cm (41.6 %), multifocal {<=}5 (26 %), and multifocal >5 (10.4 %). Results: Overall survival at 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 years was 93.6, 83.8, 62, 41.04, and 22.5 %, with higher rates achieved in Child class A compared with Child class B patients (95, 88.2, 61.7, 45, and 29.4 % vs. 91.5, 75, 50.7, 35.2, and 12.8 %). Mean overall survival was 43.8 months (range 1.2-64.8). Cumulative survival was better for Child class A compared with Child class B patients (p = 0.029). For patients with dominant lesions {<=}5 cm 1-, 2-, 3-, 4-, and 5-year survival rates were 100, 95.2, 71.4, 66.6, and 47.6 % for Child class A and 94.1, 88.2, 58.8, 41.2, 29.4, and 23.5 % for Child class B patients. Regarding DEB-DOX treatment, multivariate analysis identified number of lesions (p = 0.033), lesion vascularity (p < 0.0001), initially achieved complete response (p < 0.0001), and objective response (p = 0.046) as significant and independent determinants of 5-year survival. Conclusion: DEB-DOX results, with high rates of 5-year survival for patients, not amenable to curative treatments. Number of lesions, lesion vascularity, and local response were significant independent determinants of 5-year survival.

  11. Tuberculosis in Liver Transplant Recipients: A Report of Eight Cases During a Five Year Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Póvoas

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: Although the number of cases of tuberculosis is low, its post-transplant frequency is significant and the observed mortality rate is not to be neglected. The cases of hepatotoxicity and graft rejection seen in this case series demonstrate the challenges associated with tuberculosis diagnosis in liver transplant recipients and management of the interactions between immunosuppressors and rifampin. This study strengthens the recommendation of latent tuberculosis infection screening and treatment in liver transplant candidates or recipients.

  12. Chemoembolization With Doxorubicin-Eluting Beads for Unresectable Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Five-Year Survival Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malagari, Katerina; Pomoni, Mary; Moschouris, Hippocrates; Bouma, Evanthia; Koskinas, John; Stefaniotou, Aspasia; Marinis, Athanasios; Kelekis, Alexios; Alexopoulou, Efthymia; Chatziioannou, Achilles; Chatzimichael, Katerina; Dourakis, Spyridon; Kelekis, Nikolaos; Rizos, Spyros; Kelekis, Dimitrios

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to report on the 5-year survival of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients treated with DC Bead loaded with doxorubicin (DEB-DOX) in a scheduled scheme in up to three treatments and thereafter on demand. Materials and Methods: 173 HCC patients not suitable for curable treatments were prospectively enrolled (mean age 70.4 ± 7.4 years). Child-Pugh (Child) class was A/B (102/71 [59/41 %]), Okuda stage was 0/1/2 (91/61/19 [53.2/35.7/11.1 %]), and mean lesion diameter was 7.6 ± 2.1 cm. Lesion morphology was one dominant ≤5 cm (22 %), one dominant >5 cm (41.6 %), multifocal ≤5 (26 %), and multifocal >5 (10.4 %). Results: Overall survival at 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 years was 93.6, 83.8, 62, 41.04, and 22.5 %, with higher rates achieved in Child class A compared with Child class B patients (95, 88.2, 61.7, 45, and 29.4 % vs. 91.5, 75, 50.7, 35.2, and 12.8 %). Mean overall survival was 43.8 months (range 1.2–64.8). Cumulative survival was better for Child class A compared with Child class B patients (p = 0.029). For patients with dominant lesions ≤5 cm 1-, 2-, 3-, 4-, and 5-year survival rates were 100, 95.2, 71.4, 66.6, and 47.6 % for Child class A and 94.1, 88.2, 58.8, 41.2, 29.4, and 23.5 % for Child class B patients. Regarding DEB-DOX treatment, multivariate analysis identified number of lesions (p = 0.033), lesion vascularity (p < 0.0001), initially achieved complete response (p < 0.0001), and objective response (p = 0.046) as significant and independent determinants of 5-year survival. Conclusion: DEB-DOX results, with high rates of 5-year survival for patients, not amenable to curative treatments. Number of lesions, lesion vascularity, and local response were significant independent determinants of 5-year survival.

  13. Five Year Outcome of 145 Patients With Ductal Carcinoma In Situ (DCIS) After Accelerated Breast Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciervide, Raquel [Department of Radiation Oncology, New York University School of Medicine, NYU Langone Medical Center, New York, New York (United States); Dhage, Shubhada; Guth, Amber; Shapiro, Richard L.; Axelrod, Deborah M.; Roses, Daniel F. [Department of Surgery, New York University School of Medicine, NYU Langone Medical Center, New York, New York (United States); Formenti, Silvia C., E-mail: silvia.formenti@nyumc.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, New York University School of Medicine, NYU Langone Medical Center, New York, New York (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Background: Accelerated whole-breast radiotherapy (RT) with tumor bed boost in the treatment of early invasive breast cancer has demonstrated equivalent local control and cosmesis when compared with standard RT. Its efficacy in the treatment of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) remains unknown. Methods and Materials: Patients treated for DCIS with lumpectomy and negative margins were eligible for 2 consecutive hypofractionated whole-breast RT clinical trials. The first trial (New York University [NYU] 01-51) prescribed to the whole breast 42 Gy (2.8 Gy in 15 fractions) and the second trial (NYU 05-181) 40.5 Gy (2.7 Gy in 15 fractions) with an additional daily boost of 0.5 Gy to the surgical cavity. Results: Between 2002 and 2009, 145 DCIS patients accrued, 59 to the first protocol and 86 to the second trial. Median age was 56 years and 65% were postmenopausal at the time of treatment. Based on optimal sparing of normal tissue, 79% of the patients were planned and treated prone and 21% supine. At 5 years' median follow-up (60 months; range 2.6-105.5 months), 6 patients (4.1%) experienced an ipsilateral breast recurrence in all cases of DCIS histology. In 3/6 patients, recurrence occurred at the original site of DCIS and in the remaining 3 cases outside the original tumor bed. New contralateral breast cancers arose in 3 cases (1 DCIS and 2 invasive carcinomas). Cosmetic self-assessment at least 2 years after treatment is available in 125 patients: 91% reported good-to-excellent and 9% reported fair-to-poor outcomes. Conclusions: With a median follow-up of 5 years, the ipsilateral local recurrence rate is 4.1%, comparable to that reported from the NSABP (National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project) trials that employed 50 Gy in 25 fractions of radiotherapy for DCIS. There were no invasive recurrences. These results provide preliminary evidence that accelerated hypofractionated external beam radiotherapy is a viable option for DCIS.

  14. Circummandibular Wiring of Symphysis Fracture in a Five-Year-Old Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Priya Vellore

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of pediatric maxillofacial fractures is unique due to the psychological, physiological, developmental, and anatomical characteristics of children. Method. This case report describes the management of symphysis fracture of mandible in a 5-year-old boy. The fracture was treated by acrylic splint with circummandibular wiring. Results. The splint was removed after 3 weeks. The patient had no complaints, and radiograph revealed a healed fracture. Conclusion. The clinical outcome in the present case indicates the management of mandibular fractures in pediatric patients using acrylic splint with circummandibular wiring.

  15. The first permanent molar: spontaneous eruption after a five-year failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistry, Vinay N; Barker, Christopher S; James Spencer, R

    2017-09-01

    It is rare for a first permanent molar (FPM) to temporarily exhibit clinical features of failure of eruption, followed by regeneration of full eruptive capacity 5 years later. Indeterminate failure of eruption (IFE) is a diagnosis of exclusion where the distinction between primary failure of eruption (PFE) and mechanical failure of eruption (MFE) is unclear, including patients too young to specify. An 11-year-old girl attended the orthodontic clinic at Mid Yorkshire Hospitals NHS Trust regarding an unerupted lower right FPM. Her medical and dental trauma history was unremarkable. She presented with a Class II division 2 malocclusion in the mixed dentition, with all other FPMs fully erupted. This report documents that an unerupted FPM in an 11-year-old patient may still have the eruptive potential to become functional within the dentition. The period spent monitoring the FPM's outcome prior to surgical intervention has avoided an operation under general anaesthetic and potentially unnecessary orthodontic treatment, as the tooth subsequently erupted without treatment. © 2017 BSPD, IAPD and John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Forty-five years of schizophrenia trials in Italy: a survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purgato Marianna

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Well-designed and properly executed randomized controlled trials (RCTs provide the best evidence on the efficacy of healthcare interventions. Mental health has a strong tradition of using trial to evaluate treatments, but the translation of research to clinical practice is not always easy. Even well-conducted trials do not necessarily address the needs of every day care and trials can reflect local needs and the specific culture in which they are undertaken. Generalizing results to other contexts can become problematic but these trials may, nevertheless, be very helpful within their own context. Moreover, pathways for drug approval can be different depending on local regulatory agencies. Local trials are helpful for decision-making in the region from which they come, but should not be viewed in isolation. National quantity and quality of trials may vary across nations. The aim of this study is to quantify trialing activity in Italy from 1948 until 2009 and to describe characteristics of these trials. In addition, we evaluated change over time in three keys aspects: sample size, follow-up duration, and number of outcomes. Methods We used the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's register that contains 16,000 citations to 13,000 studies relating only to people with schizophrenia or schizophrenia-like illness. Randomized controlled trials and controlled clinical trials undertaken in Italy and involving pharmacological interventions were included. Results The original search identified 155 records of potentially eligible studies, 74 of which were excluded because do not meet inclusion criteria. A total of 81 studies were included in the analysis. The majority of trials were conducted in north Italy, and published in international journals between 1981 and 1995. The majority of studies (52 out of 81 used standardized diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia disorder. They were defined as randomized and used blind methods to administer

  17. Implementation of RNTCP in a private medical college: five years' experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Vijay; Jaiswal, Ashish K; Gupta, Sonisha; Gupta, Mohan B; Jain, Vidhushi; Ghanchi, Firoz

    2012-07-01

    Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP) recognizes the need for involvement of all sectors, public and private, to create an epidemiological impact on Tuberculosis control. The private health sector in the country is an important source of care, even with the availability of public health services and Directly Observed Treatment Strategy (DOTS). The data regarding Private-Private mix in our country is lacking. To evaluate the contribution of {private health sector (Private Medical Colleges and Private practioners (PP)} in TB case-detection, diagnosis and treatment outcomes in Delhi NCR, Ghaziabad, India. We analyzed the TB registers from May 2006-Dec 2010 from our institution and recruited the patients in our study, irrespective of the source. We strengthened the referral by promoting educational intra and inter departmental activities and awareness programme with more stress on retrieval action by contact tracing and counselling. We made a list of PP in our drainage area and regularly met them and tried to understand the barriers in referring cases to DOTS centre. During the study, we tried to maintain the flow of information working as a single window information system. We regularly passed on the information of follow up of patients to private practioners referred to us by them to generate confidence in them. During the study, no incentive was offered to any patient. Various indicators and data were collected annually and analyzed statistically. Retrospective, Descriptive Analysis. There was a substantial increase of 116.3% in the total patients referred from all sources to Santosh Hospital. The proportion of extra-pulmonary cases was 29.1% to 34.4% of all total cases from the year 2006 to 2010. During subsequent years, we found a significant increase in referral from Private Practioners that was the result of our activities performed in private set up. It was 12.5%, 21.2%, 30.8%, 27.3%, and 29% during 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009 and 2010 respectively

  18. Anterior six arms prolene mesh for high stage vaginal prolapse: five years follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Gustavo M. de Toledo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction In high stage vaginal prolapse, recurrence risk patients, anterior and apical defects need to be addressed in the same procedure. The pre-molded commercial mesh kits are expensive and not always available. Alternative effective and safe treatment ways, with lower costs are desirable. Objective To present long term follow-up of patients treated with a homemade mesh shape to correct high stage prolapses. Materials and Methods We describe prospectively 18 patients with anterior and apical vaginal prolapses, stages III and IV, repaired using this specific design of mesh. All patients were submitted to pre-operative clinical evaluation and urodynamics. Prolapse was classified using the pelvic organ prolapse quantification (POP-Q. Intervention Prolapse surgery, using a six arms prolene mesh, through a single anterior vaginal incision. Outcome Measurements: POP-Q, patients satisfaction, descriptive statistical analysis. Results Between February 2009 and Oct 2010, 18 consecutive women underwent the above-mentioned surgery. Mean age was 68 years. At a mean follow-up of .,4 years (5 to 5.8 years, 16 (89% patients were continent, mean Ba point came from +4.7cm to - 2.5cm, mean C point from +2.8cm to -6.6cm and mean Bp point from +1.3 to -1.7cm. There were two (11% objective failures, but all the patients were considered success subjectively. There were two cases of mesh vaginal extrusion. Conclusions The homemade six arms prolene mesh allows concomitant correction of anterior and apical prolapses, through a single anterior vaginal incision, being an effective, safe and affordable treatment option when mesh is needed.

  19. Sixty-five-year old final clarifier performance rivals that of modern designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, James L; Kunetz, Thomas E; Sobanski, Joseph P

    2008-01-01

    The Stickney plant of the Metropolitan Wastewater Reclamation District of Greater Chicago (MWRDGC), one of the largest wastewater treatment plants in the world, treats an average dry weather flow of 22 m3/s and a sustained wet weather flow of 52 m3/s that can peak to 63 m3/s. Most of the inner city of Chicago has combined sewers, and in order to reduce pollution through combined sewer overflows (CSO), the 175 km Tunnel and Reservoir Plan (TARP) tunnels, up to 9.1 m in diameter, were constructed to receive and convey CSO to a reservoir from where it will be pumped to the Stickney treatment plant. Pumping back storm flows will result in sustained wet weather flows over periods of weeks. Much of the success of the plant will depend on the ability of 96 circular final clarifiers to produce an effluent of acceptable quality. The nitrifying activated sludge plant is arranged in a plug-flow configuration, and some denitrification takes place as a result of the high oxygen demand in the first pass of the four-pass aeration basins that have a length to width ratio of 18:1. The SVI of the mixed liquor varies between 60 and 80 ml/g. The final clarifiers, which were designed by the District's design office in 1938, have functioned for more than 65 years without major changes and are still producing very high-quality effluent. This paper will discuss the design and operation of these final clarifiers and compare the design with more modern design practices. (c) IWA Publishing 2008.

  20. Five-year outcome of major depressive disorder in primary health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riihimäki, K A; Vuorilehto, M S; Melartin, T K; Isometsä, E T

    2014-05-01

    Primary health care provides treatment for most patients with depression. Despite their importance for organizing services, long-term course of depression and risk factors for poor outcome in primary care are not well known. In the Vantaa Primary Care Depression Study, a stratified random sample of 1119 patients representing primary care patients in a Finnish city was screened for depression with the Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders. SCID-I/P and SCID-II interviews were used to diagnose Axis I and II disorders. The 137 patients with DSM-IV depressive disorder were prospectively followed up at 3, 6, 18 and 60 months. Altogether, 82% of patients completed the 5-year follow-up, including 102 patients with a research diagnosis of major depressive disorder (MDD) at baseline. Duration of the index episode, recurrences, time spent in major depressive episodes (MDEs) and partial or full remission were examined with a life-chart. Of the MDD patients, 70% reached full remission, in a median time of 20 months. One-third had at least one recurrence. The patients spent 34% of the follow-up time in MDEs, 24% in partial remission and 42% in full remission. Baseline severity of depression and substance use co-morbidity predicted time spent in MDEs. This prospective, naturalistic, long-term study of a representative cohort of primary care patients with depression indicated slow or incomplete recovery and a commonly recurrent course, which need to be taken into account when developing primary care services. Severity of depressive symptoms and substance use co-morbidity should be systematically evaluated in planning treatment.

  1. Five-year experience with burns from glass fireplace doors in the pediatric population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baryza, Mary Jo; Hinson, Michelle; Conway, Jennifer; Ryan, Colleen M

    2013-01-01

    Burns from contact with glass doors of gas fireplaces have been previously reported. The purpose of this study is to examine the incidence and severity of this injury in our population. Patients were identified for inclusion in the retrospective chart review study using the National Trauma Registry of the American College of Surgeons (NTRACS) and our local outpatient database. Criteria for inclusion were burn injuries sustained from contact with fireplace glass doors treated at our pediatric burn center from 2007 through 2011. Fifty children met these criteria, including two children whose burns were caused by electric fireplace glass doors. BSA burned was 1.5 ± 1.5% (mean ± SD), range 0.5 to 10%. Age was 27.2 ± 27.3 months, range 8 months to 13 years. Forty-five children (90%) had hand burns; of these, 18 children had bilateral hand involvement. Facial burns were found in three children (6%), and eight children (16%) had other areas burned. One patient developed cellulitis. Two patients required surgery. Six children (12%) required hospitalization; mean length of stay was 5.8 ± 5 days, range 1 to 5 days. Although the number of inpatient admissions was relatively few, 329 outpatient visits and 309 rehabilitation visits were required for treatment of these children. Nineteen patients (38%) required splints and six patients (12%) required scar treatment with pressure garments. Burns from contact with fireplace glass doors are a recurring problem. Toddlers are most at risk. Directed preventive strategies including parent education, safety warnings, and design modifications such as temperature sensors and barrier screens could be potentially helpful in reducing the incidence of this injury.

  2. Minimal access surgery compared with medical management for gastro-oesophageal reflux disease: five year follow-up of a randomised controlled trial (REFLUX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, S C; Boachie, C; Ramsay, C R; Krukowski, Z H; Heading, R C; Campbell, M K

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To determine the long term clinical effectiveness of laparoscopic fundoplication as an alternative to drug treatment for chronic gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD). Design Five year follow-up of multicentre, pragmatic randomised trial (with parallel non-randomised preference groups). Setting Initial recruitment in 21 UK hospitals. Participants Responders to annual questionnaires among 810 original participants. At entry, all had had GORD for >12 months. Intervention The surgeon chose the type of fundoplication. Medical therapy was reviewed and optimised by a specialist. Subsequent management was at the discretion of the clinician responsible for care, usually in primary care. Main outcome measures Primary outcome measure was self reported quality of life score on disease-specific REFLUX questionnaire. Other measures were health status (with SF-36 and EuroQol EQ-5D questionnaires), use of antireflux medication, and complications. Results By five years, 63% (112/178) of patients randomised to surgery and 13% (24/179) of those randomised to medical management had received a fundoplication (plus 85% (222/261) and 3% (6/192) of those who expressed a preference for surgery and for medical management). Among responders at 5 years, 44% (56/127) of those randomised to surgery were taking antireflux medication versus 82% (98/119) of those randomised to medical management. Differences in the REFLUX score significantly favoured the randomised surgery group (mean difference 8.5 (95% CI 3.9 to 13.1), Preflux-related operations—most often revision of the wrap. Long term rates of dysphagia, flatulence, and inability to vomit were similar in the two randomised groups. Conclusions After five years, laparoscopic fundoplication continued to provide better relief of GORD symptoms than medical management. Adverse effects of surgery were uncommon and generally observed soon after surgery. A small proportion had re-operations. There was no evidence of long term adverse

  3. The five year report of the Tunnel Sealing Experiment: an international project of AECL, JNC, ANDRA and WIPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandler, N.A.; Cournut, A.; Dixon, D.

    2002-01-01

    The Tunnel Sealing Experiment (TSX) was conducted to address construction and performance issues of full-scale seals for potential application to deep geological repositories for radioactive waste. The TSX was performed by an international partnership representing Japan, France, the United States and Canada. The experiment was installed at the 420-m depth of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited's Underground Research Laboratory in the granite rock of the Precambrian Canadian Shield. The experiment involved the construction of two full-scale tunnel seals at either end of a single excavation. One seal was an assembly of pre-compacted sand-bentonite blocks and the second seal was a single cast of Low-Heat High-Performance concrete. The objective of the TSX was to assess the applicability of technologies for construction of practicable concrete and bentonite bulkheads; to evaluate the performance of each bulkhead; and to identify and document the parameters that affect that performance. This report documents the construction and operation of the experiment over its first five years. During this period, the experiment was designed, tunnels were excavated, and the seals were constructed. The sand-filled region between the two bulkhead seals was filled and pressurized with water to 800 and 2000 kPa. A tracer test was conducted at a tunnel pressure of 800 kPa to assess the solute transport characteristics of full-scale tunnel seals. The most important outcome from the TSX is that functional full-scale repository seals can be constructed using currently available technology. Factors identified as potentially affecting seal performance included: excavation method and minimizing the excavation damaged zone (EDZ); keying bulkheads into the rock to interrupt the EDZ; compacted sand-bentonite placement method; treatment of clay bulkhead-rock interface; rate of clay saturation compared with the rate of water pressurization; clay bulkhead volume expansion; the resealing properties of

  4. A Five-Year Experience of Carbapenem Resistance in Enterobacteriaceae Causing Neonatal Septicaemia: Predominance of NDM-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Saswati; Roy, Subhasree; Chatterjee, Somdatta; Saha, Anindya; Sen, Barsha; Pal, Titir; Som, Tapas; Basu, Sulagna

    2014-01-01

    Treatment of neonatal sepsis has become a challenge with the emergence of carbapenemase-producing bacteria. This study documents the trend of carbapenem susceptibility in Enterobacteriaceae that caused septicaemia in neonates over a five year period (2007–2011) and the molecular characterisation of Enterobacteriaceae resistant to carbapenems and cephalosporins. Hundred and five Enterobacteriaceae including Escherichia coli (n = 27), Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 68) and Enterobacter spp. (n = 10) were isolated from blood of septicaemic neonates followed by antibiotic susceptibility tests, determination of MIC values, phenotypic and genotypic detection of β-lactamases. Carbapenem was the most active antimicrobial tested after tigecycline. CTX-M type was the most prevalent ESBL throughout the period (82%). New Delhi Metallo-β-lactamase-1 (NDM-1), which is a recent addition to the carbapenemase list, was the only carbapenemase identified in our setting. Fourteen percent of the isolates possessed bla NDM-1. Carbapenem non-susceptibility was first observed in 2007 and it was due to loss of Omp F/Ompk36 in combination with the presence of ESBLs/AmpCs. NDM-1 first emerged in E. coli during 2008; later in 2010, the resistance was detected in K. pneumoniae and E. cloacae isolates. NDM-1-producing isolates were resistant to other broad-spectrum antibiotics and possessed ESBLs, AmpCs, 16S-rRNA methylases, AAC(6′)-Ib-cr, bleomycin resistant gene and class 1 integron. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis of the NDM-1-producing isolates indicated that the isolates were clonally diverse. The study also showed that there was a significantly higher incidence of sepsis caused by NDM-1-harbouring isolates in the male sex, in neonates with low birth weight and neonates born at an extramural centre. However, sepsis with NDM-1-harbouring isolates did not result in a higher mortality rate. The study is the first to review the carbapenem resistance patterns in neonatal sepsis

  5. The five year report of the Tunnel Sealing Experiment: an international project of AECL, JNC, ANDRA and WIPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, N.A.; Cournut, A.; Dixon, D. (and others)

    2002-07-01

    The Tunnel Sealing Experiment (TSX) was conducted to address construction and performance issues of full-scale seals for potential application to deep geological repositories for radioactive waste. The TSX was performed by an international partnership representing Japan, France, the United States and Canada. The experiment was installed at the 420-m depth of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited's Underground Research Laboratory in the granite rock of the Precambrian Canadian Shield. The experiment involved the construction of two full-scale tunnel seals at either end of a single excavation. One seal was an assembly of pre-compacted sand-bentonite blocks and the second seal was a single cast of Low-Heat High-Performance concrete. The objective of the TSX was to assess the applicability of technologies for construction of practicable concrete and bentonite bulkheads; to evaluate the performance of each bulkhead; and to identify and document the parameters that affect that performance. This report documents the construction and operation of the experiment over its first five years. During this period, the experiment was designed, tunnels were excavated, and the seals were constructed. The sand-filled region between the two bulkhead seals was filled and pressurized with water to 800 and 2000 kPa. A tracer test was conducted at a tunnel pressure of 800 kPa to assess the solute transport characteristics of full-scale tunnel seals. The most important outcome from the TSX is that functional full-scale repository seals can be constructed using currently available technology. Factors identified as potentially affecting seal performance included: excavation method and minimizing the excavation damaged zone (EDZ); keying bulkheads into the rock to interrupt the EDZ; compacted sand-bentonite placement method; treatment of clay bulkhead-rock interface; rate of clay saturation compared with the rate of water pressurization; clay bulkhead volume expansion; the resealing properties

  6. The five year report of the Tunnel Sealing Experiment: an international project of AECL, JNC, ANDRA and WIPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, N A; Cournut, A; Dixon, D [and others

    2002-07-01

    The Tunnel Sealing Experiment (TSX) was conducted to address construction and performance issues of full-scale seals for potential application to deep geological repositories for radioactive waste. The TSX was performed by an international partnership representing Japan, France, the United States and Canada. The experiment was installed at the 420-m depth of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited's Underground Research Laboratory in the granite rock of the Precambrian Canadian Shield. The experiment involved the construction of two full-scale tunnel seals at either end of a single excavation. One seal was an assembly of pre-compacted sand-bentonite blocks and the second seal was a single cast of Low-Heat High-Performance concrete. The objective of the TSX was to assess the applicability of technologies for construction of practicable concrete and bentonite bulkheads; to evaluate the performance of each bulkhead; and to identify and document the parameters that affect that performance. This report documents the construction and operation of the experiment over its first five years. During this period, the experiment was designed, tunnels were excavated, and the seals were constructed. The sand-filled region between the two bulkhead seals was filled and pressurized with water to 800 and 2000 kPa. A tracer test was conducted at a tunnel pressure of 800 kPa to assess the solute transport characteristics of full-scale tunnel seals. The most important outcome from the TSX is that functional full-scale repository seals can be constructed using currently available technology. Factors identified as potentially affecting seal performance included: excavation method and minimizing the excavation damaged zone (EDZ); keying bulkheads into the rock to interrupt the EDZ; compacted sand-bentonite placement method; treatment of clay bulkhead-rock interface; rate of clay saturation compared with the rate of water pressurization; clay bulkhead volume expansion; the resealing properties of

  7. Review of the international symposium, sister chromatid exchanges: twenty-five years of experimental research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tice, R.R.; Lambert, B.; Morimoto, Kanehisa; Hollaender, A.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of this symposium was to honor initial research at Brookhaven by bringing internationally recognized leaders in the fields of genetics, cytogenetics, carcinogenesis, mutagenesis, radiation biology, toxicology, and environmental health together into an open forum to present and discuss: (1) current knowledge of the induction and formation of SCEs and their relationship to other biological endpoints, including carcinogenesis, mutagenesis, transformation, clastogenesis, DNA damage and repair, and cellular toxicity; (2) the optimal strategies for the utilization of SCEs in genetic toxicology testing schemes involving in vitro and in vivo exposure situations; (3) the most valid statistical methods for analyzing SCE data obtained from cells in culture, from cells in intact organisms, and from cells in humans; (4) the relevance of SCEs as an indicator of human disease states, both inherited and acquired, and of progress in disease treatment; and (5) the use of SCEs as an indicator of human exposure to genotoxic agents and their relevance as a prognosticator of future adverse health outcomes. This report summarizes the presentations. 7 references

  8. Prosthetic above-knee femoropopliteal bypass grafting: five-year results of a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, R M; Abbott, W M; Matsumoto, T; Wheeler, J R; Miller, N; Veith, F J; Money, S; Garrett, H E

    2000-03-01

    This trial was designed to identify factors affecting patency rates of primary prosthetic above-knee femoropopliteal bypass grafts at 5 years. A multi-institutional, prospective trial randomized 240 patients to compare patency rates of Gore-tex and Hemashield above-knee femoropopliteal bypass grafts at 5 years. Univariate comparisons of patency between levels of each prognostic variable were made with the Kaplan-Meier method. Variables that had a univariate P value less than.25 or those known to be important were submitted to a Cox regression analysis. The patient survival rate at 5 years was 59.4%. There were no differences in primary or secondary patency rates at 5 years between the two graft materials (primary, 45% vs 43% and secondary, 68% vs 68%). The risk for graft occlusion was significantly increased for patients younger than 65 years (2.1; P =.001) and for grafts with a diameter less than 7 mm (1.65; P =.0219). Variables with no apparent independent effect on patency rates were smoking status, runoff, diabetes mellitus, sex, presenting symptoms, and postoperative treatment with aspirin or Coumadin. Noninvasive test results were not predictive of subsequent graft function. Although the type of prosthetic used for above-knee femoropopliteal bypass grafts does not affect 5-year patency rates, age and graft size do influence results. These factors should be considered before a prosthetic bypass grafting procedure. Furthermore, these data should serve as a contemporary standard, with which evolving and conventional procedures can be compared.

  9. Five years of proton therapy of tumours of the eye at Hahn-Meitner Institute, Berlin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heufelder, J.; Cordini, D.; Heese, J.; Homeyer, H.; Kluge, H.; Morgenstern, H.; Fuchs, H.; Hoecht, S.; Nausner, M.; Hinkelbein, W.; Bechrakis, N.E.; Foerster, M.H.

    2004-01-01

    Eye tumors (choroidal melanomas, iris melanomas, and choroidal hemangiomas) are being treated with 68 MeV protons since 1998 at the Ion Beam Laboratory of the Hahn-Meitner Institute of Berlin (Germany's first proton therapy center), in cooperation with the Charite University Hospital in Berlin, Campus Benjamin Franklin. The proton beam, generated via a combination of Van de Graaff accelerator and cyclotron, is prepared by passive shaping for conformal tumor irradiation. A digital X-ray verification of the tumor location with the patient in sitting position limits the position uncertainties to a maximum of 0,3 mm. The treatment planning is performed using the program EYEPLAN. OCTOPUS, a CT-based planning program developed in cooperation with the German Cancer Research Center of Heidelberg, is under pre-clinical testing. Thus far, more than 400 patients have been irradiated. The first results are comparable to those obtained in other proton therapy centers. At the end of 2002, the University Hospital of Essen has also become a cooperation partner of the Hahn-Meitner Institute. (orig.) [de

  10. Trajectories of life satisfaction five years after medical discharge for traumatically acquired disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Caitlin L; Elliott, Timothy R; Berry, Jack W; Underhill, Andrea T; Fine, Philip R; Lai, Mark H C

    2014-05-01

    We studied the predictive impact of family satisfaction, marital status, and functional impairment on the trajectories of life satisfaction over the first 5 years following medical treatment for traumatic spinal cord injury, burns, or interarticular fractures (total N = 662). It was anticipated that fewer functional impairments, being married, and greater family satisfaction would predict higher life satisfaction trajectories. The Functional Independence Measure, the Family Satisfaction Scale, and the Life Satisfaction Index were administered 12, 24, 48, and 60 months postdischarge. Trajectory modeling revealed that greater functional impairment significantly predicted lower life satisfaction, regardless of injury type. However, this association diminished when marital status and family satisfaction were entered into the models. Greater family satisfaction and being married predicted greater life satisfaction across time. Moreover, there was no evidence for increases in life satisfaction trajectories over time: Trajectories were stable across time for all injury groups. Results suggest that being married and greater family satisfaction promote life satisfaction among those who traumatically acquire disability, and these beneficial effects may be more salient than the degree of functional impairment imposed by the condition. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. Toxoplasma gondii in women with bad obstetric history and infertility: a five-year study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abida Malik

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the role of Toxoplasma gondii in women with bad obstetric (BOH history and in women with primary and secondary infertility. Methods: This study was conducted in the Department of Microbiology, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College and Hospital for a period of 5 years from January 2004 to December 2009. Quantitative determination of IgM antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii infection was done by IgM capture ELISA in patients with history of BOH or infertility. Results: Out of a total of 441 subjects included in the study, 417 (94.6% had a BOH and 24 (5.4% subjects had infertility. Toxoplasma was found to be more common in females with two or more abortions 52 (76.5%. Similarly in patients with infertility due to Toxoplasma, secondary infertility (66.7% was more common than primary infertility. About 40.3% patients with BOH and 20% patients with infertility had healthy live issues after treatment with spiramycin. Conclusions: Toxoplasmosis is thus, an easily treatable cause of abortions and infertility. All antenatal females and females with infertility should be screened for toxoplasmosis.

  12. Review of the international symposium, sister chromatid exchanges: twenty-five years of experimental research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tice, R.R.; Lambert, B.; Morimoto, Kanehisa; Hollaender, A.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of this symposium was to honor initial research at Brookhaven by bringing internationally recognized leaders in the fields of genetics, cytogenetics, carcinogenesis, mutagenesis, radiation biology, toxicology, and environmental health together into an open forum to present and discuss: (1) current knowledge of the induction and formation of SCEs and their relationship to other biological endpoints, including carcinogenesis, mutagenesis, transformation, clastogenesis, DNA damage and repair, and cellular toxicity; (2) the optimal strategies for the utilization of SCEs in genetic toxicology testing schemes involving in vitro and in vivo exposure situations; (3) the most valid statistical methods for analyzing SCE data obtained from cells in culture, from cells in intact organisms, and from cells in humans; (4) the relevance of SCEs as an indicator of human disease states, both inherited and acquired, and of progress in disease treatment; and (5) the use of SCEs as an indicator of human exposure to genotoxic agents and their relevance as a prognosticator of future adverse health outcomes. This report summarizes the presentations. 7 references. (ACR)

  13. Understanding the Educational Experiences of Science Teachers in a Five-Year Teacher Education Program: A Phenomenological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Nitin

    This qualitative study provides an overview of educational experiences of six in-service and three pre-service secondary science teachers in the Benedum Collaborative Five-Year Teacher Education Program at a land-grant university. The researcher interviewed secondary science teachers on the experiences they found meaningful in various program components that influenced their teacher identity, beliefs about science pedagogy, and their sense of preparedness for teaching. Document analysis of teachers' journals and lesson plans supplemented the qualitative data in addition to the researcher's role and knowledge as an outsider (non-Benedum graduate) and insider (facilitator and instructor in the technology integration based classes for one year) of the Benedum Collaborative Five-Year Teacher Education Program. Findings also supported the Holmes (1986) and Goodlad (1990) views for extended field experiences and "collaborative culture" in teacher education for well-prepared teachers.

  14. Evaluation of general practitioners' assessment of overweight among children attending the five-year preventive child health examination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Merethe Kousgaard; Christensen, Bo; Obel, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    . Subjects. Children attending the five-year PCHE in general practice, regardless of their weight status. Main outcome measures. Paediatric standard definitions for childhood overweight based on BMI were used as the gold standard for categorizing weight-for-stature. Identification of overweight was analysed......), i.e. the Danish national growth charts for BMI, as the gold standard yielded a sensitivity of 70.1% (95% CI 62.0-77.3) and a specificity of 92.4% (95% CI 90.6-93.9). The sensitivity was influenced by the GPs' use of BMI and the presence of previous notes regarding abnormal weight development......) according to paediatric standard definitions. Design. A cross-sectional survey. Data were obtained from a questionnaire survey of children's health in general and their growth in particular. Setting. The five-year preventive child health examination (PCHE) in general practice in the Central Denmark Region...

  15. Five-year healing results of radiotherapy in 4347 uterine cervix cancers treated within the period of 1928 to 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tschakert, H.

    1986-01-01

    The author presents the five-year healing results of 4347 uterine cervix cancers treated at our Radiotherapeutic Institute within the years of 1928 to 1977. The part of patients irradiated postoperatively increased by 30% during this period, and the average age of patients at the beginning of their disease increased by almost seven years. The overall five-year healing results increased from 47 to 60% during this half of a century, especially the prognosis of stage II and III was considerably improved. With almost the same rate of radiogenic side effects, the incidence of recurrences could be reduced by 50%. The healing results achieved by us in uterine cervix cancer during the last ten years under report correspond well with the healing results of other radiotherapeutic hospitals. Even when compared to the most recent reports on the success achieved by afterloading techniques, there is not much difference to our recent results obtained with radium brachytherapy. (orig.) [de

  16. A brief introduction of the constructing work of national radiation monitoring system during the twelfth five-year

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Hua; Zhao Yongkang; Pan Su; Zhang Jiali; Yang Bin

    2013-01-01

    Radiation monitoring is the technical groundwork of nuclear and radiation safety regulating. In order to overcome the challenges coming with the development of nuclear energy and technology in china, the program of constructing National Radiation Monitoring System (NRMS) was put forward in the twelfth five-year plan of nuclear safety and prevention of radiation pollution, and the view target in 2020. The implementation plan of the constructing of NRMS has been drew up by the Ministry of Environmental Protection in 2012, which including the construction of organization and human resource system, laws and standards system, quality assurance system, technical research and innovation system, and capability insurance system. A brief introduction of the implementation plan was given in the article, the achievements during the eleventh five-year were reviewed, the challenges and working points were analyzed. (authors)

  17. Nitrogen availability increases in a tundra ecosystem during five years of experimental permafrost thaw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Verity G; Soucy, Patrick; Mauritz, Marguerite; Celis, Gerardo; Natali, Susan M; Mack, Michelle C; Schuur, Edward A G

    2016-05-01

    Perennially frozen soil in high latitude ecosystems (permafrost) currently stores 1330-1580 Pg of carbon (C). As these ecosystems warm, the thaw and decomposition of permafrost is expected to release large amounts of C to the atmosphere. Fortunately, losses from the permafrost C pool will be partially offset by increased plant productivity. The degree to which plants are able to sequester C, however, will be determined by changing nitrogen (N) availability in these thawing soil profiles. N availability currently limits plant productivity in tundra ecosystems but plant access to N is expected improve as decomposition increases in speed and extends to deeper soil horizons. To evaluate the relationship between permafrost thaw and N availability, we monitored N cycling during 5 years of experimentally induced permafrost thaw at the Carbon in Permafrost Experimental Heating Research (CiPEHR) project. Inorganic N availability increased significantly in response to deeper thaw and greater soil moisture induced by Soil warming. This treatment also prompted a 23% increase in aboveground biomass and a 49% increase in foliar N pools. The sedge Eriophorum vaginatum responded most strongly to warming: this species explained 91% of the change in aboveground biomass during the 5 year period. Air warming had little impact when applied alone, but when applied in combination with Soil warming, growing season soil inorganic N availability was significantly reduced. These results demonstrate that there is a strong positive relationship between the depth of permafrost thaw and N availability in tundra ecosystems but that this relationship can be diminished by interactions between increased thaw, warmer air temperatures, and higher levels of soil moisture. Within 5 years of permafrost thaw, plants actively incorporate newly available N into biomass but C storage in live vascular plant biomass is unlikely to be greater than losses from deep soil C pools. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. A five-year follow-up study of Swedish adults with gender identity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Annika; Sundbom, Elisabet; Höjerback, Torvald; Bodlund, Owe

    2010-12-01

    This follow-up study evaluated the outcome of sex reassignment as viewed by both clinicians and patients, with an additional focus on the outcome based on sex and subgroups. Of a total of 60 patients approved for sex reassignment, 42 (25 male-to-female [MF] and 17 female-to-male [FM]) transsexuals completed a follow-up assessment after 5 or more years in the process or 2 or more years after completed sex reassignment surgery. Twenty-six (62%) patients had an early onset and 16 (38%) patients had a late onset; 29 (69%) patients had a homosexual sexual orientation and 13 (31%) patients had a non-homosexual sexual orientation (relative to biological sex). At index and follow-up, a semi-structured interview was conducted. At follow-up, 32 patients had completed sex reassignment surgery, five were still in process, and five-following their own decision-had abstained from genital surgery. No one regretted their reassignment. The clinicians rated the global outcome as favorable in 62% of the cases, compared to 95% according to the patients themselves, with no differences between the subgroups. Based on the follow-up interview, more than 90% were stable or improved as regards work situation, partner relations, and sex life, but 5-15% were dissatisfied with the hormonal treatment, results of surgery, total sex reassignment procedure, or their present general health. Most outcome measures were rated positive and substantially equal for MF and FM. Late-onset transsexuals differed from those with early onset in some respects: these were mainly MF (88 vs. 42%), older when applying for sex reassignment (42 vs. 28 years), and non-homosexually oriented (56 vs. 15%). In conclusion, almost all patients were satisfied with the sex reassignment; 86% were assessed by clinicians at follow-up as stable or improved in global functioning.

  19. Book review: Twenty-Five Years on the Cutting Edge of Obsidian Studies: Selected Readings from the IAOS Bulletin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Dolan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Edited by Carolyn D. Dillian (Coastal Carolina University, Twenty-Five Years on the Cutting Edge of Obsidian Studies: Selected Readings from the IAOS Bulletin consists of 19 previously published articles from the International Association for Obsidian Studies (IAOS Bulletin. Dillian selected these articles because they provide a range of methodological and theoretical approaches concerning archaeological obsidian studies from around the world like Eretria, California, and the Near East, for example.

  20. State of the quality of drinking water in households in children under five years in Peru, 2007-2010

    OpenAIRE

    Miranda, Marianella; Dirección Ejecutiva de Vigilancia Alimentaria y Nutricional, Centro Nacional de Alimentación y Nutrición, Instituto Nacional de Salud, Lima, Perú. Nutricionista.; Aramburú, Adolfo; Dirección Ejecutiva de Vigilancia Alimentaria y Nutricional, Centro Nacional de Alimentación y Nutrición, Instituto Nacional de Salud, Lima, Perú. Nutricionista.; Junco, Jorge; Asesoría en Nutrición y Salud - ASENSA SAC, Lima, Perú. Biólogo.; Campos, Miguel; Departamento de física, Informática y Matemáticas, facultad de Ciencias y filosofía, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. Médico, Doctor en Ciencias.

    2010-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the proportion of children under five with access to quality water and its behavior according to geographical location, water supply and poverty status. Material and methods. Continuous survey (repeated cross), with multistage random sampling, being the universe children under five years living in Peru. We evaluated the presence of free chlorine in drinking water samples in the dwellings of 3570 children (Metropolitan Lima 666, Rest of Coast 755, Urban Sierra 703, R...