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Sample records for fit young cyclists

  1. Endurance training of respiratory muscles improves cycling performance in fit young cyclists

    OpenAIRE

    Holm Paige; Sattler Angela; Fregosi Ralph F

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Background Whether or not isolated endurance training of the respiratory muscles improves whole-body endurance exercise performance is controversial, with some studies reporting enhancements of 50 % or more, and others reporting no change. Twenty fit (VO2 max 56.0 ml/kg/min), experienced cyclists were randomly assigned to three groups. The experimental group (n = 10) trained their respiratory muscles via 20, 45 min sessions of hyperpnea. The placebo group (n = 4) underwent "sham" tra...

  2. Endurance training of respiratory muscles improves cycling performance in fit young cyclists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holm Paige

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whether or not isolated endurance training of the respiratory muscles improves whole-body endurance exercise performance is controversial, with some studies reporting enhancements of 50 % or more, and others reporting no change. Twenty fit (VO2 max 56.0 ml/kg/min, experienced cyclists were randomly assigned to three groups. The experimental group (n = 10 trained their respiratory muscles via 20, 45 min sessions of hyperpnea. The placebo group (n = 4 underwent "sham" training (20, 5 min sessions, and the control group (n = 6 did no training. Results After training, the experimental group increased their respiratory muscle endurance capacity by 12 %. Performance on a bicycle time trial test designed to last about 40 min improved by 4.7 % (9 of 10 subjects showed improvement. There were no test-re-test improvements in either respiratory muscle or bicycle exercise endurance performance in the placebo group, nor in the control group. After training, the experimental group had significantly higher ventilatory output and VO2, and lower PCO2, during constant work-rate exercise; the placebo and control groups did not show these changes. The perceived respiratory effort was unchanged in spite of the higher ventilation rate after training. Conclusions The results suggest that respiratory muscle endurance training improves cycling performance in fit, experienced cyclists. The relative hyperventilation with no change in respiratory effort sensations suggest that respiratory muscle training allows subjects to tolerate the higher exercise ventilatory response without more dyspnea. Whether or not this can explain the enhanced performance is unknown.

  3. Cyclists.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2007-01-01

    In 2016, there were 189 road deaths among cyclists in the Netherlands. This is approximately 30% of the total number of road deaths. The number of seriously injured cyclists is not exactly known. Their number in 2015 was estimated to be more than 60% of the total number of serious road injuries,

  4. Cyclists.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2007-01-01

    Cyclists are vulnerable in traffic. The number of fatalities amongst cyclists is decreasing more slowly than for other modes of transport and the number of serious injuries is increasing. In the Netherlands, many cycling casualties occur in the age groups 12 -17 year olds and the over 60’s. When the

  5. TRAINING YOUNG CYCLISTS TO COPE WITH DYNAMIC TRAFFIC SITUATIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANSCHAGEN, INLG; BROOKHUIS, KA

    1994-01-01

    Two training methods were developed to teach young cyclists (8/9 years) how to behave in priority situations. One method was developed along the lines of the modelling principle. In earlier studies it was shown that this method is effective in teaching crossing strategies to young pedestrians. The o

  6. The excesive intake of macronutrients: does it influence the sportive performances of young cyclists?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Sánchez-Benito

    Full Text Available The purpose was to determine whether 34 young Spanish males belonging to a cyclist team, follows the optimal macronutrients intake based on the ecommended dietary guidelines. The deficits in nutrition jeopardise the sportive performances, but what about the diets with excessive intake of macronutrients? Furthermore, is there an association between their sportive achievements and the psychological profile? Surely, but the problem is to determine which psychological variables are involved. Method: Nutritional evaluation based on Nutrients intake questionnaire of 7 consecutive days. Results: Cyclists consume an excessive quantity of proteins and lipids in their diets. The average consumption of proteins is 16,36% of their caloric intake (the recommended quantity is less than 10%. The average consumption of fats is 38,71% (the recommended is less than 30%. The same tendency is found in the homologous Spanish young people of the enKID study, where the percentage of energy from fat and saturated fat is much higher than the recommended one. The cyclists consume insufficient quantities of carbohydrates (average is 44, 94% of their caloric intake, the recommended is more than 60%, therefore the reload of their glycogen stores may not be complete on each competition stage. No association has been found between the excessive intake of referred macronutrients and the achieved sport performances. Conclusion: This work contributes to the knowledge of the diets of very active young cyclists. Excessive intake of proteins and fats do not jeopardise their sportive performances. The commonly studied psychological variables in sport, are not determinant of sportive achievements of young cyclists; additional work is needed to determine the psychological profile playing a determinant role in success of young cyclists.

  7. Autonomic cardiovascular modulation in masters and young cyclists following high-intensity interval training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Nattai R; Reaburn, Peter R; Doering, Thomas M; Argus, Christos K; Driller, Matthew W

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed at examining the autonomic cardiovascular modulation in well-trained masters and young cyclists following high-intensity interval training (HIT). Nine masters (age 55.6 ± 5.0 years) and eight young cyclists (age 25.9 ± 3.0 years) completed a HIT protocol of 6 x 30 sec at 175% of peak power output, with 4.5-min' rest between efforts. Immediately following HIT, heart rate and R-R intervals were monitored for 30-min during passive supine recovery. Autonomic modulation was examined by i) heart rate recovery in the first 60-sec of recovery (HRR60); ii) the time constant of the 30-min heart rate recovery curve (HRRτ); iii) the time course of the root mean square for successive 30-sec R-R interval (RMSSD30); and iv) time and frequency domain analyses of subsequent 5-min R-R interval segments. No significant between-group differences were observed for HRR60 (P = 0.096) or HRRτ (P = 0.617). However, a significant interaction effect was found for RMSSD30 (P = 0.021), with the master cyclists showing higher RMSSD30 values following HIT. Similar results were observed in the time and frequency domain analyses with significant interaction effects found for the natural logarithm of the RMSSD (P = 0.008), normalised low-frequency power (P = 0.016) and natural logarithm of high-frequency power (P = 0.012). Following high-intensity interval training, master cyclists demonstrated greater post-exercise parasympathetic reactivation compared to young cyclists, indicating that physical training at older ages has significant effects on autonomic function.

  8. The co-contraction index of the upper limb for young and old adult cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiewiet, H; Bulsink, V E; Beugels, F; Koopman, H F J M

    2017-08-01

    Bicycling is a popular and convenient means of transportation amongst the elderly in the Netherlands. However, the uptake of the electric bicycle resulted in an increase of single-sided bicycle accidents amongst the elderly (Veiligheid, 2010). Since elderly are prone to severe injuries, bicycle stability is currently a popular research topic. Three main balance strategies have been proposed in former studies: steering as the primary balance strategy and trunk -and lateral knee movement as secondary balance strategies (Moore et al., 2011; Cain, 2013). Since steering is the primary strategy for bicycle stability, the stiffness of the arms plays an important role in active stability during cycling. It has been shown that the arm stiffness of a passive rider is an important factor on the stability of a bicycle (Doria and Tognazzo, 2014). In the study presented here, the co-contraction index (CCI) of the upper limb for young and old adult cyclist is studied. Data is collected during experiments based on the setup described in (Kiewiet et al., 2014), wherein contact forces, muscle activities and motions of the rider and bicycle are measured for 15 young adult (mean±sd: 25.3±2.8 yrs) and 15 old adult (mean±sd: 58.1±2.1 yrs) subjects during unperturbed and perturbed cycling. The arm stiffness is defined as a co-contraction ratio between muscle activity of the m. Biceps Brachii and m. Triceps Lateralis. Results suggest that older adult cyclists use more co-contraction of their arm muscles during cycling, compared to young cyclists. The inter-subject variability of the found CCI was higher for the old adult subject group, compared to the young group. The results support the initial hypothesis that the increase in co-contraction of the upper limb for older cyclists is higher during perturbed cycling compared to unperturbed cycling than for younger cyclists. The findings might give direction towards solutions for increasing the safety and stability for elderly cyclists

  9. Perfectionism and risk for disordered eating among young French male cyclists of high performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrand, Claude; Brunet, Emmanuel

    2004-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the associations between dimensions of perfectionism and eating disorder symptoms among 42 young male amateur cyclists (M=21.8 yr., SD=3.7) over the three performance categories (Elite, National, Regional). They completed the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale and the Eating Attitudes Test, and the Body Mass Index was computed. Analysis showed athletes in the performance categories did not differ on dimensions of perfectionism. Only the National category differed from the Regional and the Elite categories in log-transformed Oral Control. Regression analyses showed that Other Oriented Perfectionism significantly contributed 15%, 12%, and 14% of the variance, respectively, in the prediction of log-transformed Global EAT, Dieting, and Bulimia scores. Socially Prescribed Perfectionism was the significant predictor of log-transformed Oral Control scores, accounting for 16% of the variance. This study highlights the relevance of interpersonal facets of the perfectionism construct to eating disorder symptoms.

  10. Cyclists' Injuries in Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduard Missoni

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Among numerous participants in road traffic there are alsothe cyclists. Cycling has become during the recent years one ofthe major components of the modem living, even in Croatia. Inalmost all the developed countries of the world, cycling isemphasised as an activity which improves health and contributesto the improvement of overall physical fitness and environmentalprotection. During the period between 1 January 1996and 31 December 1999, an analysis of the number of cyclist accidentsin road traffic was carried out. Special attention waspaid to the number of injured cyclists. In 1996, in road traffic,there were 1,218 cyclist accidents in which 912 (74.9% cyclistswere injured. In 1997, there were 1,146 incidents and accidents,with 854 (74.5% injured persons. In 1998, there were 1,167accidents, 887 (76.0% injured. In the last study in 1999, thetotal number of cyclist accidents amounted to 1,230, and thenumber of the injured cyclists was 924 (75.1% .Every event resulting in a more or less severe disability is agreat distress and great damage to every injured person as individualas well as for the family and eventually for the society asa whole. This paper recommends certain measures and proceduresthat should substantially reduce the traffic accidents andincidents which involve cyclists.

  11. Effects of resistance training on endurance capacity and muscle fiber composition in young top-level cyclists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, P; Andersen, J L; Bennekou, M

    2011-01-01

    Equivocal findings exist on the effect of concurrent strength (S) and endurance (E) training on endurance performance and muscle morphology. Further, the influence of concurrent SE training on muscle fiber-type composition, vascularization and endurance capacity remains unknown in top......-level endurance athletes. The present study examined the effect of 16 weeks of concurrent SE training on maximal muscle strength (MVC), contractile rate of force development (RFD), muscle fiber morphology and composition, capillarization, aerobic power (VO2max), cycling economy (CE) and long/short-term endurance...... capacity in young elite competitive cyclists (n=14). MVC and RFD increased 12-20% with SE (P...

  12. Effects of resistance training on endurance capacity and muscle fiber composition in young top-level cyclists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, P; Andersen, J L; Bennekou, M

    2011-01-01

    Equivocal findings exist on the effect of concurrent strength (S) and endurance (E) training on endurance performance and muscle morphology. Further, the influence of concurrent SE training on muscle fiber-type composition, vascularization and endurance capacity remains unknown in top......-level endurance athletes. The present study examined the effect of 16 weeks of concurrent SE training on maximal muscle strength (MVC), contractile rate of force development (RFD), muscle fiber morphology and composition, capillarization, aerobic power (VO(2max) ), cycling economy (CE) and long....../short-term endurance capacity in young elite competitive cyclists (n=14). MVC and RFD increased 12-20% with SE (P...

  13. The excesive intake of macronutrients: does it influence the sportive performances of young cyclists? La excesiva ingesta de macronutrientes: ¿influye en el rendimiento deportivo de jóvenes ciclistas?

    OpenAIRE

    J. L. Sánchez-Benito; E. Sánchez Soriano

    2007-01-01

    The purpose was to determine whether 34 young Spanish males belonging to a cyclist team, follows the optimal macronutrients intake based on the ecommended dietary guidelines. The deficits in nutrition jeopardise the sportive performances, but what about the diets with excessive intake of macronutrients? Furthermore, is there an association between their sportive achievements and the psychological profile? Surely, but the problem is to determine which psychological variables are involved. Meth...

  14. Development of Aerobic Fitness in Young Team Sport Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Craig B; Gill, Nicholas D; Kinugasa, Taisuke; Kilding, Andrew E

    2015-07-01

    The importance of a high level of aerobic fitness for team sport players is well known. Previous research suggests that aerobic fitness can be effectively increased in adults using traditional aerobic conditioning methods, including high-intensity interval and moderate-intensity continuous training, or more recent game-based conditioning that involves movement and skill-specific tasks, e.g. small-sided games. However, aerobic fitness training for youth team sport players has received limited attention and is likely to differ from that for adults due to changes in maturation. Given young athletes experience different rates of maturation and technical skill development, the most appropriate aerobic fitness training modes and loading parameters are likely to be specific to the developmental stage of a player. Therefore, we analysed studies that investigated exercise protocols to enhance aerobic fitness in young athletes, relative to growth and maturation, to determine current best practice and limitations. Findings were subsequently used to guide an evidence-based model for aerobic fitness development. During the sampling stage (exploration of multiple sports), regular participation in moderate-intensity aerobic fitness training, integrated into sport-specific drills, activities and skill-based games, is recommended. During the specialisation stage (increased commitment to a chosen sport), high-intensity small-sided games should be prioritised to provide the simultaneous development of aerobic fitness and technical skills. Once players enter the investment stage (pursuit of proficiency in a chosen sport), a combination of small-sided games and high-intensity interval training is recommended.

  15. Five road safety education programmes for young adolescent pedestrians and cyclists : a multi-programme evaluation in a field setting.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Twisk, D.A.M. Vlakveld, W.P. Commandeur, J.J.F. Shope, J.T. & Kok, G.

    2014-01-01

    A practical approach was developed to assess and compare the effects of five short road safety education (RSE) programmes for young adolescents that does not rely on injury or crash data but uses self reported behaviour. Questionnaires were administered just before and about one month after particip

  16. Five road safety education programmes for young adolescent pedestrians and cyclists : a multi-programme evaluation in a field setting.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Twisk, D.A.M. Vlakveld, W.P. Commandeur, J.J.F. Shope, J.T. & Kok, G.

    2014-01-01

    A practical approach was developed to assess and compare the effects of five short road safety education (RSE) programmes for young adolescents that does not rely on injury or crash data but uses self reported behaviour. Questionnaires were administered just before and about one month after

  17. READINESS PROFILE OF JUNIOR CYCLISTS DETERMINED BY LEIPZIG TEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovan Zlatković

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to define the readiness profile of junior cyclists determined by the Leipzig test. The second aim was to find out if there were differences in functional performance among cyclists in different disciplines, such as: road cyclists, mountain bikers and sprinters. All cyclists (n=18 were tested with Leipzig test protocol on a bicycle ergometer by increasing the load by 40W per minute, pedalling cadence 90- 100rev/min. The hearth rate was measured at the beginning and at the end of the test, together with the maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max. The results have shown that the maximal oxygen uptake among national junior cyclists in all disciplines was VO2max 56.42±5.82 ml•min-1kg-1, among mountain biking cyclist VO2max was 61.43±4.94, sprinters VO2max 56.78±3.33 and for cross-country cyclists VO2max 53.37±7.82. The statistical analysis of the functional performance results has snown that between subsamples of cyclists there were no significant differences on general level. However, the partial analysis has snown that there is a statistically significant difference between the groups in the hart rate values on an anaerobic threshold (F value 4.547, p=0.032. In conclusion, the tested cyclists were prepared using general training methods even if they had competitions in different disciplines. Therefore, the level of readiness shows that the training process for young cyclists which is used in Serbia is not specific for the competition level and discipline.

  18. Relationships amongst psychological determinants, risk behaviour, and road crashes of young adolescent pedestrians and cyclists : implications for road safety education programmes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Twisk, D.A.M. Commandeur, J.J.F. Vlakveld, W.P. Shope, J.T. & Kok, G.

    2015-01-01

    Road safety education (RSE) assumes that psychological determinants predict risk behaviour, and subsequently that risky road behaviour predicts crash involvement. This study examined the validity of this assumption, by analysing these relationships in two age groups of teen cyclists and pedestrians:

  19. Five road safety education programmes for young adolescent pedestrians and cyclists: a multi-programme evaluation in a field setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twisk, Divera A M; Vlakveld, Willem P; Commandeur, Jacques J F; Shope, Jean T; Kok, Gerjo

    2014-05-01

    A practical approach was developed to assess and compare the effects of five short road safety education (RSE) programmes for young adolescents that does not rely on injury or crash data but uses self reported behaviour. Questionnaires were administered just before and about one month after participation in the RSE programmes, both to youngsters who had participated in a RSE programme, the intervention group, and to a comparable reference group of youngsters who had not, the reference group. For each RSE programme, the answers to the questionnaires in the pre- and post-test were checked for internal consistency and then condensed into a single safety score using categorical principal components analysis. Next, an analysis of covariance was performed on the obtained safety scores in order to compare the post-test scores of the intervention and reference groups, corrected for their corresponding pre-test scores. It was found that three out of five RSE programmes resulted in significantly improved self-reported safety behaviour. However, the proportions of participants that changed their behaviour relative to the reference group were small, ranging from 3% to 20%. Comparisons among programme types showed cognitive approaches not to differ in effect from programmes that used fear-appeal approaches. The method used provides a useful tool to assess and compare the effects of different education programmes on self-reported behaviour.

  20. Information for cyclists

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    Please note that the temporary gate for cyclists on the Prévessin Site will be closed during the winter period starting on 3 December 2012. From this date, until further notice, access to the Prévessin Site will be through the main gate only. GS Department

  1. Cyclist's nodule: no smooth ride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoneham, Adam; Thway, Khin; Messiou, Christina; Smith, Myles

    2016-03-10

    A fit and active amateur cyclist was referred by his general practitioner to a surgical oncology outpatient clinic with a slowly-growing perineal mass. Following clinical examination, the patient underwent imaging and biopsy at a tertiary soft tissue tumour centre, which diagnosed perineal nodular induration: a rare, benign tumour caused by repetitive trauma associated with 'saddle sports' such as cycling or horse riding. It is important to consider soft tissue tumours in patients who present with 'lumps and bumps'; they can occur anywhere in the body including the groin or perineum, where it is sometimes referred to as a 'third' or 'accessory' testicle in men. Although unusual, the case emphasises the importance of rapid specialist referral from primary care, and consideration of a patient's occupation and hobbies when formulating diagnoses.

  2. Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Coronary Artery Calcification in Young Adults: The CARDIA Study

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Chong-Do; Jacobs, David R; Hankinson, Arlene; Iribarren, Carlos; SIDNEY, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    Whether cardiorespiratory fitness relates to early subclinical atherosclerotic vascular disease remains unknown. We investigated the relation of cardiorespiratory fitness to coronary artery calcification (CAC) in 2373 African-American and White young adults from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study. We measured cardiorespiratory fitness in 1985-1986 (baseline) using a symptom-limited exercise test on a treadmill. Coronary calcium scores were measured in 2001-200...

  3. Body composition in postpubertal boy cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico, H; Revilla, M; Villa, L F; Gómez-Castresana, F; Alvarez del Buergo, M

    1993-09-01

    Twenty-two young male cyclists aged 15 to 19 years (mean 16.2 +/- 0.4 years) were studied in order to assess the effect of physical training on the body composition of adolescents. The subjects had been training on the road 10 hours per week for over 2 years, and were compared to 22 sedentary normal subjects of similar age range (mean 16.9 +/- 0.3 years). Food and calcium intake was similar in both groups. The total body bone mineral content and total body bone mineral density were lower in the group of cyclist adolescents (p cycling in male adolescents may be associated with a lower bone mass gain. In our opinion, the recommendable nature, quantity and quality of exercise at these ages must be better defined, through additional experimentally-designed studies, in order to prevent negative effects over bone mass gain.

  4. The excesive intake of macronutrients: does it influence the sportive performances of young cyclists? La excesiva ingesta de macronutrientes: ¿influye en el rendimiento deportivo de jóvenes ciclistas?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Sánchez-Benito

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose was to determine whether 34 young Spanish males belonging to a cyclist team, follows the optimal macronutrients intake based on the ecommended dietary guidelines. The deficits in nutrition jeopardise the sportive performances, but what about the diets with excessive intake of macronutrients? Furthermore, is there an association between their sportive achievements and the psychological profile? Surely, but the problem is to determine which psychological variables are involved. Method: Nutritional evaluation based on Nutrients intake questionnaire of 7 consecutive days. Results: Cyclists consume an excessive quantity of proteins and lipids in their diets. The average consumption of proteins is 16,36% of their caloric intake (the recommended quantity is less than 10%. The average consumption of fats is 38,71% (the recommended is less than 30%. The same tendency is found in the homologous Spanish young people of the enKID study, where the percentage of energy from fat and saturated fat is much higher than the recommended one. The cyclists consume insufficient quantities of carbohydrates (average is 44, 94% of their caloric intake, the recommended is more than 60%, therefore the reload of their glycogen stores may not be complete on each competition stage. No association has been found between the excessive intake of referred macronutrients and the achieved sport performances. Conclusion: This work contributes to the knowledge of the diets of very active young cyclists. Excessive intake of proteins and fats do not jeopardise their sportive performances. The commonly studied psychological variables in sport, are not determinant of sportive achievements of young cyclists; additional work is needed to determine the psychological profile playing a determinant role in success of young cyclists.El propósito ha sido determinar si un equipo de 34 ciclistas españoles jóvenes sigue las pautas recomendadas en la ingesta de macronutrientes. El d

  5. Physical Fitness Performance of Young Adults with and without Cognitive Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiabei; Piwowar, Nathan; Reilly, Coleen Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to analyze the physical fitness performance of young adults with and without cognitive impairments. Participants were 75 young adults, including 41 without disabilities (23 females, 18 males; M of age = 21.88) and 34 with mild cognitive impairments (14 females, 20 males; M of age = 21.79). They received…

  6. Self-Control Is Associated with Physical Activity and Fitness among Young Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnunen, Marja Ilona; Suihko, Johanna; Hankonen, Nelli; Absetz, Pilvikki; Jallinoja, Piia

    2012-01-01

    The personality trait self-control has been associated with various adaptive outcomes. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to explore whether self-control is associated with self-reported leisure time physical activity (LTPA), Body Mass Index (BMI), muscle-fitness and aerobic fitness among young men. Participants (482 male conscripts;…

  7. Exploring the Relationship between Adiposity and Fitness in Young Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egebæk, Heidi Klakk; Fairchild, Timothy J; Heidemann, Malene;

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: High levels of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) may attenuate the association between excessive adiposity and the risks of cardiovascular and metabolic disease. The purpose of this study was to stratify children according to their BMI and adiposity (body fat percentage, BF%) and compare...

  8. Electrodiagnostic Studies of Median and Ulnar Nerves in Cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, D L

    1989-09-01

    In brief: Twenty long-distance cyclists (13 men, 7 women) completed a questionnaire and underwent a neurologic examination and electrodiagnostic studies of the median and ulnar nerves. The purpose was to determine the frequency, severity, and clinical significance of numbness or pain in the hand or wrist and to assess the correlation of electrodiagnostic findings with these complaints. Results of the studies were normal for all 20 cyclists, nine of whom reported symptoms. These cyclists attributed their discomfort to prolonged riding without changing hand position, especially on rough road surfaces. They also reported that their symptoms diminished after they modified their cycling technique and adjusted their bicycle to better fit their body dimensions.

  9. Excess VO2 during ramp exercise is positively correlated to intercostal muscles deoxyhemoglobin levels above the gas exchange threshold in young trained cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oueslati, Ferid; Girard, Olivier; Tabka, Zouhair; Ahmaidi, Said

    2016-07-01

    We assessed respiratory muscles oxygenation responses during a ramp exercise to exhaustion and further explored their relationship with the non-linear increase of VO2 (VO2 excess) observed above the gas-exchange threshold. Ten male cyclists completed a ramp exercise to exhaustion on an electromagnetically braked cycle-ergometer with a rate of increment of 30Wmin(-1) with continuous monitoring of expired gases (breath-by-breath) and oxygenation status of intercostal muscles. Maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressure measurements were taken at rest and at exhaustion. The VO2 excess represents the difference between VO2max observed and VO2max expected using linear equation between the VO2 and the intensity before gas-exchange threshold. The deoxyhemoglobin remained unchanged until 60% of maximal aerobic power (MAP) and thereafter increased significantly by 37±18% and 40±22% at 80% and 100% of MAP, respectively. Additionally, the amplitude of deoxyhemoglobin increase between 60 and 100% of MAP positively correlated with the VO2 excess (r=0.69, p<0.05). Compared to exercise start, the oxygen tissue saturation index decreased from 80% of MAP (-4.8±3.2%, p<0.05) onwards. At exhaustion, maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressures declined by 7.8±16% and 12.6±10% (both p<0.05), respectively. In summary, our results suggest a significant contribution of respiratory muscles to the VO2 excess phenomenon.

  10. Association of physical fitness with health-related quality of life in Finnish young men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santtila Matti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Currently, there is insufficient evidence available regarding the relationship between level of physical fitness and health-related quality of life (HRQoL in younger adults. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of measured cardiovascular and musculoskeletal physical fitness level on HRQoL in Finnish young men. Methods In a cross-sectional study, we collected data regarding the physical fitness index, including aerobic endurance and muscle fitness, leisure-time physical activity (LTPA, body composition, health, and HRQoL (RAND 36 for 727 men [mean (SD age 25 (5 years]. Associations between HRQoL and the explanatory parameters were analyzed using the logistic regression analysis model. Results Of the 727 participants who took part in the study, 45% were in the poor category of the physical fitness, while 37% and 18% were in the satisfactory and good fitness categories, respectively. A higher frequency of LTPA was associated with higher fitness (p Conclusions Our study of Finnish young men indicates that higher physical fitness and leisure-time physical activity level promotes certain dimensions of HRQoL, while morbidities impair them all. The results highlight the importance of health related physical fitness while promoting HRQoL.

  11. Exploring the Relationship between Adiposity and Fitness in Young Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fairchild, Timothy John; Klakk, Heidi; Heidemann, Malene Søborg

    2016-01-01

    % confidence interval]: -63.1 m [-100.2 to -25.9]) than children with normal BMI and normal BF%, and the effect of BF% on CRF was significantly worse in boys than girls. Overweight children with high BF% had significantly lower prospective (2 yr) CRF levels (-34.4 m [-58.0 to -10.7]) than children with normal......PURPOSE: High levels of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) may attenuate the association between the excessive adiposity and the risks of cardiovascular and metabolic disease. The purpose of this study was to stratify children according to their body mass index (BMI) and adiposity (body fat percentage...... [BF%]) and to compare levels of CRF across subgroups. METHODS: This prospective cohort study comprises a cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses of data collected at baseline (n = 641) and 2 yr later (n = 579) on children (7.4-11.6 yr) attending public school in Denmark. Levels of CRF were measured...

  12. [Muscular fitness and cardiometabolic risk factors among Colombian young adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; Meneses-Echavez, José F; González-Ruíz, Katherine; Correa, Jorge Enrique

    2014-10-01

    Objetivo: Determinar la relación entre el fitness muscular (FM) con marcadores de riesgo cardio-metabólico en adultos jóvenes de Colombia. Métodos: Un total de 172 hombres (edad 19,7±2,4 años; peso 65,5±10,7 kg; IMC 22,6±2,8 kg•m-1) sin enfermedad cardiovascular previa fueron invitados a participar en el estudio. El FM se determinó mediante el test de dinamometría prensil y los resultados fueron divididos en cuartiles según los valores de FM y FM/peso corporal. Se calculó el índice lipídico-metabólico según las concentraciones de triglicéridos, c-LDL, c-HDL y glucosa. La circunferencia de cintura (CC), porcentaje de grasa, índice de adiposidad corporal (IAC) e índice de masa corporal (IMC) fueron usados como indicadores de adiposidad. Resultados: Después de ajustar por edad, IMC y CC, se observaron relaciones inversas entre el porcentaje de grasa, la CC, los niveles colesterol, HDL-c y LDL-c, con los valores de FM y FM/peso corporal (p.

  13. Association of physical fitness with health-related quality of life in Finnish young men

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Currently, there is insufficient evidence available regarding the relationship between level of physical fitness and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in younger adults. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of measured cardiovascular and musculoskeletal physical fitness level on HRQoL in Finnish young men. Methods In a cross-sectional study, we collected data regarding the physical fitness index, including aerobic endurance and muscle fitness, leisure-time physical activity (LTPA), body composition, health, and HRQoL (RAND 36) for 727 men [mean (SD) age 25 (5) years]. Associations between HRQoL and the explanatory parameters were analyzed using the logistic regression analysis model. Results Of the 727 participants who took part in the study, 45% were in the poor category of the physical fitness, while 37% and 18% were in the satisfactory and good fitness categories, respectively. A higher frequency of LTPA was associated with higher fitness (p physical functioning, mental health, and vitality were associated with better physical fitness. When the HRQoL of the study participants were compared with that of the age- and gender-weighted Finnish general population, both the good and satisfactory fitness groups had higher HRQoL in all areas other than bodily pain. In a regression analysis, higher LTPA was associated with three dimensions of HRQoL, higher physical fitness with two, and lower number of morbidities with all dimensions, while the effect of age was contradictory. Conclusions Our study of Finnish young men indicates that higher physical fitness and leisure-time physical activity level promotes certain dimensions of HRQoL, while morbidities impair them all. The results highlight the importance of health related physical fitness while promoting HRQoL. PMID:20109241

  14. Child cyclist injuries: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armson, C J; Pollard, C W

    1986-02-01

    A prospective study of pedalcycle accident morbidity and mortality was carried out from February to mid-November 1983 because of the high frequency of child cyclist injuries that were occurring on the relatively flat Redcliffe Peninsula. These injuries were apparently associated with the large number of young children who use a bicycle as their main mode of transport to and from school. The schools were surveyed for the extent of bicycle use and cyclists were surveyed for the amount of protective clothing that was worn while involved in cycling. It was found that a disturbingly large number of young children made regular bicycle trips on public roads with the minimal use of safety helmets or any other form of protective clothing. Nearly 40% of on-road accidents involved children of less than 12 years of age, and over 10% of these involved children of six years of age or less. No child in our series of on-road accidents was, at the time of injury, wearing a safety helmet or any other form of protective clothing. No bicycle accidents occurred on the exclusive cycle track of approximately 1 km in length on the Peninsula.

  15. Cyclists' helmet usage and characteristics in central and southern Malawi: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, John D; Honermann, Brian J; Roffenbender, Jason S

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of, and factors associated with, bicycle helmet usage in southern and central Malawi. This study was across-sectional observation of public behaviour. The urban and rural roadways in southern and central Malawi were studied during the dry season. In total, 1900 bicyclists were observed along the roadways of southern and central Malawi over a four-day period. Observer ascertainment of cyclists' helmet status, approximate age, sex and bicycle operator or passenger status were measured. Of the 1900 cyclists observed, no cyclist was identified as wearing a helmet (exact 95% CI: 0.0-0.2%). There was no variation by age, sex or operator/passenger status. Nearly, 91.5% of observed cyclists were males and 87.7% were operating the bicycle. The sizeable majority of male cyclists were classified as young adults from adolescence to 25 years old (47.2%) or adults over age 25 (44.9%); 7.9% of male cyclists were pre-adolescent. Passengers were more likely to be female than operators (39.1% versus 4.2%), though, even for passengers, a higher proportion were males than females (p Malawi, helmet usage is so rare as to be non-existent. This suggests an opportunity for significant improvement. Based on the observed cyclists' characteristics, interventions should be targeted to adult and young adult males.

  16. The Association between Motor Skill Competence and Physical Fitness in Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stodden, David; Langendorfer, Stephen; Roberton, Mary Ann

    2009-01-01

    We examined the relationship between competence in three fundamental motor skills (throwing, kicking, and jumping) and six measures of health-related physical fitness in young adults (ages 18-25). We assessed motor skill competence using product scores of maximum kicking and throwing speed and maximum jumping distance. A factor analysis indicated…

  17. Health-related physical fitness of ambulatory adolescents and young adults with spastic cerebral palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.F.J. Nooijen (Carla); J. Slaman (Jorrit); W.M.A. van der Slot (Wilma); H.J. Stam (Henk); M.E. Roebroeck (Marij); R.J.G. van den Berg-Emons (Rita)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstractOBJECTIVE: To describe in detail the health-related physical fitness of adolescents and young adults with cerebral palsy, compared with able-bodied references, and to assess differences related to Gross Motor Functioning Classification System (GMFCS) level and distribution of

  18. The Association between Motor Skill Competence and Physical Fitness in Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stodden, David; Langendorfer, Stephen; Roberton, Mary Ann

    2009-01-01

    We examined the relationship between competence in three fundamental motor skills (throwing, kicking, and jumping) and six measures of health-related physical fitness in young adults (ages 18-25). We assessed motor skill competence using product scores of maximum kicking and throwing speed and maximum jumping distance. A factor analysis indicated…

  19. Young Students' Knowledge and Perception of Health and Fitness: A Study in Shanghai, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shu Mei; Zou, Jin Liang; Gifford, Mervyn; Dalal, Koustuv

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated how young urban students conceptualize health and fitness and tried to identify their sources of information about health-related issues. The findings are intended to help make suggestions for policy makers to design and develop effective health-education strategies. Methods: Focus group discussions (FGDs) of 20…

  20. Health-related physical fitness of ambulatory adolescents and young adults with spastic cerebral palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.F.J. Nooijen (Carla); J. Slaman (Jorrit); W.M.A. van der Slot (Wilma); H.J. Stam (Henk); M.E. Roebroeck (Marij); R.J.G. van den Berg-Emons (Rita)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstractOBJECTIVE: To describe in detail the health-related physical fitness of adolescents and young adults with cerebral palsy, compared with able-bodied references, and to assess differences related to Gross Motor Functioning Classification System (GMFCS) level and distribution of cerebra

  1. Aerobic fitness predicts relational memory but not item memory performance in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baym, Carol L; Khan, Naiman A; Pence, Ari; Raine, Lauren B; Hillman, Charles H; Cohen, Neal J

    2014-11-01

    Health factors such as an active lifestyle and aerobic fitness have long been linked to decreased risk of cardiovascular disease, stroke, and other adverse health outcomes. Only more recently have researchers begun to investigate the relationship between aerobic fitness and memory function. Based on recent findings in behavioral and cognitive neuroscience showing that the hippocampus might be especially sensitive to the effects of exercise and fitness, the current study assessed hippocampal-dependent relational memory and non-hippocampal-dependent item memory in young adults across a range of aerobic fitness levels. Aerobic fitness was assessed using a graded exercise test to measure oxygen consumption during maximal exercise (VO2max), and relational and item memory were assessed using behavioral and eye movement measures. Behavioral results indicated that aerobic fitness was positively correlated with relational memory performance but not item memory performance, suggesting that the beneficial effects of aerobic fitness selectively affect hippocampal function and not that of the surrounding medial temporal lobe cortex. Eye movement results further supported the specificity of this fitness effect to hippocampal function, in that aerobic fitness predicted disproportionate preferential viewing of previously studied relational associations but not of previously viewed items. Potential mechanisms underlying this pattern of results, including neurogenesis, are discussed.

  2. Flow field interactions between two tandem cyclists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Nathan; Burton, David; Sheridan, John; Thompson, Mark; Brown, Nicholas A. T.

    2016-12-01

    Aerodynamic drag is the primary resistive force acting on cyclists at racing speeds. Many events involve cyclists travelling in very close proximity. Previous studies have shown that interactions result in significant drag reductions for inline cyclists. However, the interaction between cyclist leg position (pedalling) and the vortical flow structures that contribute significantly to the drag on an isolated cyclist has not previously been quantified or described for tandem cyclists of varying separation. To this end, scale model cyclists were constructed for testing in a water channel for inline tandem configurations. Particle image velocimetry was used to capture time-averaged velocity fields around two tandem cyclists. Perhaps surprisingly, the wake of a trailing cyclist maintains strong similarity to the characteristic wake of a single cyclist despite a significant disturbance to the upstream flow. Together with streamwise velocity measurements through the wake and upstream of the trailing cyclist, this work supports previous findings, which showed that the trailing cyclist drag reduction is primarily due to upstream sheltering effects reducing the stagnation pressure on forward-facing surfaces.

  3. Relationship between physical fitness and lifestyle behaviour in healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortlepp, Jan R; Metrikat, Jens; Albrecht, Marlies; Maya-Pelzer, Peter

    2004-06-01

    There is substantial knowledge about the inverse association of physical fitness and CVD risk factors and CVD mortality. However, physical fitness per se might be influenced by lifestyle conditions such as physical training, smoking and drinking habits. We evaluated the relationship between physical fitness, physical activity, endurance training, smoking and drinking habits and blood pressure, lipids and leukocytes as surrogate cardiovascular risk markers in a large-scale cross-sectional study of healthy young men. A total of 6748 healthy young men were selected during their primary flight medical examination for military flying duties. Physical fitness was assessed by achieved physical working capacity at a heart rate of 170 beats per min (PWC170) during cycle ergometry. Parameters such as physical activity, endurance sports, smoking of cigarettes and drinking of alcoholic beverages were assessed by means of standardized questionnaires. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were measured manually. Fasting cholesterol and triglycerides as well as white blood counts were obtained. Physical activity itself was not related to significant differences in the tested variables, whereas good physical fitness showed a significant association with improved blood pressure and blood lipids (Pfitness is associated with improved blood pressure and blood lipids. This effect is independent of participating mainly in endurance or nonendurance sports, of physical activity per se, and it does not depend on smoking and drinking habits. Smoking itself revealed relevant higher inflammation independent of fitness.

  4. Tracking of physical activity, fitness, body composition and diet from adolescence to young adulthood: The Young Hearts Project, Northern Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savage J Maurice

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The assumption that lifestyles formed early in life track into adulthood has been used to justify the targeting of health promotion programmes towards children and adolescents. The aim of the current study was to use data from the Northern Ireland Young Hearts Project to ascertain the extent of tracking, between adolescence and young adulthood, of physical activity, aerobic fitness, selected anthropometric variables, and diet. Methods Males (n 245 and females (n 231 were assessed at age 15 y, and again in young adulthood [mean (SD age 22 (1.6 y]. At both timepoints, height, weight and skinfold thicknesses were measured, and physical activity and diet were assessed by questionnaire and diet history method respectively. At 15y, fitness was assessed using the 20 metre shuttle run, while at young adulthood, the PWC170 cycle ergometer test was used. For each measurement made at 15y, subjects were ranked into 'low' (L1; lowest 25%, 'medium' (M1; middle 50% or 'high' (H1; highest 25% categories. At young adulthood, similar categories (L2, M2, H2 were created. The extent of tracking of each variable over time was calculated using 3 × 3 matrices constructed using these two sets of categories, and summarised using kappa (κ statistics. Results Tracking of diet and fitness was poor (κ ≤ 0.20 in both sexes, indicating substantial drift of subjects between the low, medium and high categories over time. The tracking of physical activity in males was fair (κ 0.202, but was poor in females (κ 0.021. In contrast, anthropometric variables such as weight, body mass index and sum of skinfolds tracked more strongly in females (κ 0.540, κ 0.307, κ 0.357 respectively than in males (κ 0.337, κ 0.199, κ 0.216 respectively. Conclusions The poor tracking of fitness and diet in both sexes, and physical activity in females, suggests that these aspects of adolescent lifestyle are unlikely to be predictive of behaviours in young adulthood. In

  5. NEW APPROACHES: The freewheeling cyclist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennekam, Wim; Govers, Michel

    1996-09-01

    This article is concerned with the so-called `freewheeling method' for direct and accurate determination of rolling friction and the air drag factor of rolling vehicles (e.g. a bicycle). The method is of practical importance in the sport of cycling, and can be used to determine the power output of an individual cyclist.

  6. Characteristics, cycling patterns, and crash and injury experiences at baseline of a cohort of transport and recreational cyclists in New South Wales, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulos, R G; Hatfield, J; Rissel, C; Flack, L K; Murphy, S; Grzebieta, R; McIntosh, A S

    2015-05-01

    This paper examines self-reported retrospective data for a 12 month period from 2038 adult cyclists from New South Wales (Australia), and compares cyclists according to whether they self-identify as riding mainly for transport or mainly for recreation. Statistically significant differences were found in the demographic characteristics, cycling patterns, and crash experiences between these two groups of cyclists. Transport cyclists tended to be younger, travel more days per week, and within morning and evening peak hours than recreational cyclists; recreational cyclists were more likely to identify fitness as a purpose for cycling. The proportion of cyclists experiencing a crash or crash-related injury in the previous 12 months was similar for transport and recreational cyclists, but there were differences in crash types and location which likely reflect different cycling environments. Heterogeneity within transport and recreational cyclists was also found, based on self-reported riding intensity. An understanding of the different cycling patterns and experiences of various types of cyclists is useful to inform road safety, transport and health promotion policy.

  7. Structure of Physical Fitness Among Young Female Basketball Players (Trends of Changes in 2006-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpowicz, Krzysztof; Karpowicz, Małgorzata; Strzelczyk, Ryszard

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to identify trends of changes in the structure and levels of motor effects among young women basketball players in 2006-2013. These changes were examined in the context of comprehensive development of functional, fitness-related, and technical fundamentals with respect to requirements of specific training adopted as typical for targeted sports training stage. The research material was collected in 2006-2013 among young basketball players from the Greater Poland region. The study evaluated 169 girls (mean ± SD: age = 15.5 ± 0.5 years; height = 173.5 ± 5.8 cm; weight = 60.2 ± 7.9 kg). The measurements focused on the structure of motor effects in the athletes studied. For this purpose, the study used the International Physical Fitness Test. The study found that overall physical fitness of young women basketball players has been declining year by year. On the one hand, this might have been caused by the tendency for regression in motor modifications across generations that have been observed among populations. On the other hand, changes in weight-height ratio toward increasing obesity have also been observed. The results may serve as a kind of expertise about the structure of motor development of successive age groups of sports talented young women in light of training objectives at the targeted sports training stage as compared with trends typical for the general population. By describing the results of long-term research, this article offers a way of detecting possible positive or negative tendencies at a relatively early stage.

  8. ‘Nothing fit me’: nationwide consultations with young women with breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Judy; Grassau, Pamela; Manthorne, Jackie; Gray, Ross E.; Fitch, Margaret I.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Objective  There exists little research about the experience of breast cancer for young women in Canada. To address this gap, the Canadian Breast Cancer Network (CBCN) and the Ontario Breast Cancer Community Research Initiative undertook a research project to explore the information and support experiences, needs and recommendations of geographically diverse Canadian young women with breast cancer. Setting and participants  We consulted with 65 young women in 10 focus groups held across Canada. All women had been diagnosed with breast cancer at, or before, 45 years of age. During the consultations the women were asked to discuss their information and support experiences and needs, as well as resource recommendations related to their diagnosis, treatment and survivorship. Main results  The overarching theme, ‘Nothing Fit Me’, revealed that accessed information, support and programmes/services did not ‘fit’ or match the women's age or life stage. When we asked for their recommendations the young women suggested that information and support match their age and life stage and that health‐care providers create and implement several topical workshops concerning, for example, sexuality, lymphedema and reconstruction. Conclusion  The findings will be used by the CBCN as a general platform from which to conduct further research and/or action strategies. The CBCN will also implement the recommendations from this groundbreaking work as this network formulates a national strategy for young women with breast cancer. PMID:16677195

  9. The nutritional status in adolescent Spanish cyclists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Julián-Almárcegui

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Adolescence is an important period of nutritional vulnerability due to the increased dietary requirements. Objective: To describe the nutritional status of adolescent cyclist and a group of normoactive controls. Methods: The HELENA Dietary Assessment Tool was used to evaluate the nutritional intake of 20 adolescent cyclists and 17 controls. Total energy intake, resting energy expenditure (REE, total energy expenditure (TEE, macronutrients and several micronutrients were registered and compared with dietary guidelines. Results: REE was lower and TEE higher in cyclists than in controls (both P < 0.01. Significant differences were observed in phosphorus and vitamin B1 being higher in cyclists (P < 0.05. Most participants, both cyclist and controls, did not reach the diet requirements for macronutrients, vitamins and minerals. Conclusion: Nutritional status of adolescent cyclists and controls seems not to fulfil the requirements in quantity and quality. Possible implications for actual and future health especially in athlete adolescents need further research.

  10. Cyclists as part of the city's organism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freudendal-Pedersen, Malene

    2015-01-01

    as their praxis. This paper reveals how Copenhagen cyclists contest the role of the car but simultaneously support the automobile system that privileges cars over bikes through their narrations and praxis. This article employs the concept “structural stories” (Freudendal-Pedersen 2009) to reveal how particular......This article examines Copenhagen cyclists' emotional and “rational” stories about cycling in the city. Copenhagen is branded as a city of cyclists; nevertheless, the car still plays a dominant role in both policy and planning and thus everyday life. This shapes cyclists' stories as well...

  11. CARPAL TUNNEL SYNDROME IN CYCLISTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Daniel; Sassul, Nicolás

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: About a group of cyclists, professionals / amateurs, Mountain bike, road and triathlon; achieve a good diagnosis of the disease, with a good clinical examination and sectorized according EGM injury evoked potentials. Methods: Clinical examination and accurate test with different signs of pathology. EGM with evocative potential and conduction velocity. Results: After 25 track cyclists, 18 professionals, 22 male and 3 female; for 24 months. Through good clinical examination and EMG. We got that 70% had direct compression injuries Carpal tunnel for poor support on the handlebars. The rest were cervical praxis, by poor body position on the bike, taking cervico very steep angles / dorsal, during competitions or training for more than 2 hrs. Conclusion: A good prevention work with our teacher / cyclist in the position of deposrtista in ciclo simulador. Work in the gym, on tone and elongation of the upper limb. A good EGM, made with a specialist physiatrist. It leads to the correct diagnosis, leads to a good final treatment; which agreed that:* Cervical praxis, had good results with treatment Conservative / FST / vit.B12.* The Carpal tunnel own injuries, treatment was quirúrg. (Open surgery) with subsequent FST / vit..B12 with satisfactory return in time to sporting activity.

  12. Interaction between serum BDNF and aerobic fitness predicts recognition memory in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteman, Andrew S; Young, Daniel E; He, Xuemei; Chen, Tai C; Wagenaar, Robert C; Stern, Chantal E; Schon, Karin

    2014-02-01

    Convergent evidence from human and non-human animal studies suggests aerobic exercise and increased aerobic capacity may be beneficial for brain health and cognition. It is thought growth factors may mediate this putative relationship, particularly by augmenting plasticity mechanisms in the hippocampus, a brain region critical for learning and memory. Among these factors, glucocorticoids, brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), hormones that have considerable and diverse physiological importance, are thought to effect normal and exercise-induced hippocampal plasticity. Despite these predictions, relatively few published human studies have tested hypotheses that relate exercise and fitness to the hippocampus, and none have considered the potential links to all of these hormonal components. Here we present cross-sectional data from a study of recognition memory; serum BDNF, cortisol, IGF-1, and VEGF levels; and aerobic capacity in healthy young adults. We measured circulating levels of these hormones together with performance on a recognition memory task, and a standard graded treadmill test of aerobic fitness. Regression analyses demonstrated BDNF and aerobic fitness predict recognition memory in an interactive manner. In addition, IGF-1 was positively associated with aerobic fitness, but not with recognition memory. Our results may suggest an exercise adaptation-related change in the BDNF dose-response curve that relates to hippocampal memory.

  13. Reference Values for Aerobic Fitness in Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults Who Have Cerebral Palsy and Are Ambulatory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschuren, Olaf; Bloemen, Manon; Kruitwagen, Cas; Takken, Tim

    2010-01-01

    Background. Very few objective data exist regarding aerobic performance in young people with cerebral palsy (CP). The characterization of aerobic fitness could provide baseline and outcome measures for the rehabilitation of young people with CP. Objective. The objective of this study was to provide

  14. Field-based fitness assessment in young people: the ALPHA health-related fitness test battery for children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Jonatan R; Castro-Piñero, José; España-Romero, Vanesa; Artero, Enrique G; Ortega, Francisco B; Cuenca, Magdalena M; Jimenez-Pavón, David; Chillón, Palma; Girela-Rejón, María J; Mora, Jesús; Gutiérrez, Angel; Suni, Jaana; Sjöström, Michael; Castillo, Manuel J

    2011-05-01

    The present study summarises the work developed by the ALPHA (Assessing Levels of Physical Activity) study and describes the procedures followed to select the tests included in the ALPHA health-related fitness test battery for children and adolescents. The authors reviewed physical fitness and health in youth findings from cross-sectional studies. The authors also performed three systematic reviews dealing with (1) the predictive validity of health-related fitness, (2) the criterion validity of field-based fitness tests and (3) the reliability of field-based fitness tests in youth. The authors also carried out 11-methodological studies to determine the criterion validity and the reliability of several field-based fitness tests for youth. Finally, the authors performed a study in the school setting to examine the reliability, feasibility and safety of the selected tests. The selected fitness tests were (1) the 20 m shuttle run test to assess cardiorespiratory fitness; (2) the handgrip strength and (3) standing broad jump to assess musculoskeletal fitness, and (4) body mass index, (5) skinfold thickness and (5) waist circumference to assess body composition. When there are time limits, the authors propose the high-priority ALPHA health-related fitness test battery, which comprises all the evidence-based fitness tests except the measurement of the skinfold thickness. The time required to administer this battery to a group of 20 youth by one physical education teacher is less than 2 h. In conclusion, the ALPHA fitness tests battery is valid, reliable, feasible and safe for the assessment of health-related physical fitness in children and adolescents to be used for health monitoring purposes at population level.

  15. High-Intensity Interval Training in Normobaric Hypoxia Improves Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Overweight Chinese Young Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Zhaowei; Shi, Qingde; Nie, Jinlei; Tong, Tomas K; Song, Lili; Yi, Longyan; Hu, Yang

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have investigated the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on cardiorespiratory fitness and body composition in overweight populations. However, the additive effect of HIIT and hypoxia on health parameters is not clear. This study compared the effects of HIIT under hypoxic conditions on cardiometabolic function with that under normoxia in overweight Chinese young women. Methods: A double-blind randomized controlled experimental design was applied. Twenty-four sedentary overweight Chinese young women (weight: 68.8 ± 7.0 kg, BMI: 25.8 ± 2.3 kg·m(-2)) participated in the HIIT under either normoxia (NORM, n = 13, PIO2: 150 mmHg, FIO2: 0.21) or normobaric hypoxia (HYP, n = 11, PIO2: 117 mmHg, FIO2: 0.15) for 5 weeks. HIIT was composed of 60 repetitions of 8 s maximal cycling effort interspersed with 12-s recovery per day, for 4 days per week. Cardiorespiratory fitness [peak oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]O2peak), and peak oxygen pulse (peak O2 pulse)], serum lipid profile [triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C)], and body composition (regional and whole-body), were assessed at pre- and post-intervention during the days beyond the self-reported menstrual phase of the participants. Habitual physical activity and diary behavior were maintained during the intervention period. Results: With similar daily energy intake and physical activity, the increases in [Formula: see text]O2peak [NORM: 0.26 ± 0.37 L·min(-1) (+11.8%) vs. HYP: 0.54 ± 0.34 L·min(-1) (+26.1%)] and peak O2 pulse (NORM: +13.4% vs. HYP: +25.9%) for HYP were twice-larger than for NORM (p < 0.05). Although the 5-wk HIIT led to significant improvements in the ratios of TC/HDL-C (p = 0.035) and TG/HDL-C (p = 0.027), no significant group effects were found on the serum variables. Further, no significant changes in body composition or serum fasting leptin were observed in either

  16. Pedal cyclists, crash helmets and risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, M

    1991-07-01

    As a rate per million kilometres travelled, the 'risk' of cycling appears to be high in relation to other forms of transport. Yet, in absolute numbers, there are far fewer cyclist deaths than pedestrian or motor vehicle occupant deaths, and most deaths and serious injuries to pedal cyclists are caused by other road users--principally motor vehicles. The large majority of pedal cyclist deaths are due to head injuries after collision with a motor vehicle. It is therefore commonly proposed that cyclists should wear crash helmets for their own 'safety'. Helmets may protect against fall injuries, but current models are not designed to withstand the impact of collisions with motor vehicles. Evidence for the benefit of pedal cyclists wearing helmets is limited: the existing studies cannot exclude the possibility of different risk-taking behaviour, either by cyclists or by motor vehicle drivers, for helmet wearers compared with non-wearers. A public health policy towards reducing pedal cyclist deaths should seek prevention of accidents, rather than protection from their consequences. Cycling in greater safety would reduce the 'risk' per kilometre travelled, but more cycling might not reduce total cyclist deaths or injuries--because of greater exposure. The 'risk' of cycling--the risk of injury or death--is a complex mix of exposure, 'danger' of the environment, and the perceived risk affecting our precautionary preventive behaviour.

  17. The sense of life satisfaction versus dietary choices of young women doing fitness for recreational purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gacek, Maria

    : The health potential of a person can be improved thanks to recreational physical activity and rational diet. The sense of life satisfaction is also one of significant health resources. The aim of the study was to analyze the relations between the level of life satisfaction and the frequency of consuming selected products in the group of young women who engage in fitness for recreational purposes. The study involved 200 young women (20-30 years old) who regularly do recreational physical activity in fitness clubs in Małopolska. An original questionnaire was used to measure the frequency of consumption of food products, with the following scale: several times a day, once a day, several times a week, once a week, several times a month, and more rarely / never. The Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS) by Diener et al., adapted into Polish by Juczyński, was used to measure life satisfaction. The results were analyzed with the use of U Mann-Whitney test and Spearman’s rank correlation coefficients in a statistical package PQStat ver. 1.6. Statistical analysis showed that along with higher life satisfaction, women significantly less often consumed: white bread (plife satisfaction (low vs. high according to the SWLS) showed that women who displayed high life satisfaction significantly more often consumed wholemeal bread (plife satisfaction. The study proved the predictive role of life satisfaction in the development of eating habits of young, physically active women, indicating more rational dietary choices of women with higher levels of this individual quality.

  18. PHYSICAL FITNESS AND BIRTH WEIGHT IN YOUNG MEN FROM MAPUTO CITY, MOZAMBIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Eugénio Tchamo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Birth weight has been considered an important marker of the nutritional transition in developing countries. Objective: To evaluate the influence of birth weight on body composition and physical fitness of young men born in Maputo, Mozambique. Methods: One hundred and seventy-nine students (aged 19 to 22 years were divided into four groups (low birth weight 3.999 g, HBW, n = 31. Anthropometry and body composition were measured. Physical fitness was assessed by handgrip strength, muscle endurance, flexibility, agility, and running speed. Results: IBW showed lower values of body mass and fat free mass while LBW and HBW had high values of hip circumference, suprailiac, subscapular and abdominal skinfold when compared to NBW. LBW and HBW showed a high percentage of individuals with low performance in flexibility, right handgrip, agility, abdominal resistance, arms strength, and horizontal long jump. Around 70% of HBW showed low performance in the running speed test. Conclusion: Both low and high birth weight can influence adult adiposity and the performance in physical fitness tests.

  19. Pedestrians and cyclists interaction in urban settings of Pardubice city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Bulíček

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Presented paper is focused on questions of cyclist transport in urban settings, specifically in the city of Pardubice. Emphasis is put on analysis of potentially conflict places, especially in interaction with pedestrians. Direct terrain observation and consequent evaluation of conflict potential are used as method for data collecting. When cycling routes are designed, the requirements of the cyclists should be taken into account in order to ensure that the routes are accepted. In order to make planning user oriented one has to know which criteria are important for cyclists` route choice. Until now not many studies were conducted on this topic in Czech Republic. Theoretical background used states 5 basic requirements for cycle routes. These are: 1. Coherence (the cycling infrastructure forms a coherent unit and links with all departure points and destinations of cyclist, 2. Directness (the cycling infrastructure continually offers the cyclists as direct a route as possible, so detours are kept to a minimum, 3. attractiveness (the cycling infrastructure is designed and fitted to the surroundings in such a way that cycling is attractive, 4. safety (the cycling infrastructure guarantees the road safety of cyclists and other road users, 5. comfort (the cycling infrastructure enables a quick and comfortable flow of bicycle traffic.. Planners need a clear understanding of what influences bicycling behavior to develop effective strategies to increase use of those modes. Transportation practitioners have largely focused on infrastructure and the built environment, although researchers have found that attitudes are also very important. Theory of planned behavior (Ajzen, 1985 - intentions to perform behaviors of different kinds can be predicted with high accuracy from attitudes toward the behavior, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control; and these intentions, together with perceptions of behavioral control, account for considerable variance in

  20. Effects of downhill walking training on aerobic and neuromuscular fitness of young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Coelho Rabello de Lima

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Eccentric exercise training using low intensity-high volume approach has been performed to improve maximal muscle strength and power. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of short-term downhill walking and level walking training on lower limb strength and maximal oxygen uptake of active individuals. Eighteen young adults were divided into level walking group (n = 9 or downhill walking training group (n = 9. Both groups performed a four-week training program. The level walking group performed seven level walking sessions per week, while the downhill walking group walked downhill (-16% in the same weekly frequency. One week before and one week after the training protocol, maximal oxygen uptake, muscle-bone cross-sectional area and isometric peak torque of knee extensors and plantar flexors were assessed for both groups. A significant group vs. time interaction was found only for cross sectional area of plantar flexors (PF, showing increases for the downhill walking group (112.6 ± 28.9 cm2 vs. 115.9 ± 29 cm2 but not for the level walking group (94.9 ± 23.3 cm2vs. 94.6 ± 228 cm2. Maximal oxygen uptake remained unaltered after training for both groups and IPT was increased after training for both groups. It was concluded that short-term downhill walking training does not seem to be efficient in promoting improvements in cardiorrespiratory fitness of young adults. However, it seems to promote gains in some variables related to neuromuscular fitness.

  1. Bilateral Common Iliac Artery Endofibrosis in a Recreational Cyclist: Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Arie; Rigberg, David A; Ruehm, Stefan G

    2016-08-01

    External iliac artery endofibrosis is a rare medical condition typically encountered in young endurance athletes, mainly cyclists. Iliac endofibrosis usually develops in the external iliac artery and is rarely seen in the common iliac or in common femoral arteries. We describe a unique case of a patient who was not a professional or high-endurance cyclist. The lesions in our case appeared to be bilateral in the common iliac arteries and were not limited to the external iliac artery as most commonly described. We present an overview of the literature regarding this medical condition.

  2. External iliac artery dissection secondary to endofibrosis in a cyclist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willson, Thomas D; Revesz, Elizabeth; Podbielski, Francis J; Blecha, Matthew J

    2010-07-01

    Endofibrosis of the external iliac artery is an uncommon disease affecting primarily young, otherwise healthy, endurance athletes. Thigh pain during maximal exercise with quick resolution postexercise is characteristic of the so-called cyclist's iliac syndrome. We report an unusual case in which the typical endofibrotic plaque was accompanied by dissection of the external iliac artery. The patient was treated surgically with excision of the affected artery segment and placement of an interposition graft. This case highlights an unusual finding in association with external iliac artery endofibrosis and provides an opportunity to briefly review the literature on the subject.

  3. Assessment of the Mediterranean Diet Adequacy Index of a collective of young cyclists Evaluación del índice de adecuación a la dieta mediterránea de un colectivo de ciclistas jóvenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Sánchez-Benito

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess, the degree of adequacy to Mediterranean Diet (MD, by young cyclists team, and its comparison with the one of young Spanish males of the "enKID study". Background: Now days it has been observed that, the abandoning of the MD, together with sedentary lifestyle, provokes a rapid increase of obesity among the Spanish youth. The progressive abandoning of the MD was firstly evident, in longitudinal studies of the "seven counties", involving active rural populations in Italy. Methods: The Mediterranean Adequacy Index (MAI, is computed by dividing the sum of the percentage of total energy from typical Mediterranean food Groups (Cereals, Legumes, Fruits, Fish, by the sum of the percentage of total energy from non-typical Mediterranean food groups (Meats, Eggs, Cookies, industrial dishes. The collective under the study was 45 young cyclists in the area of Madrid, and homologous young Spanish males of the "enKID study". Results: The average value of MAI of the collective of male cyclists was 2,31(modest value; and the MAI of homologous young males of the "enKID study" is 1.51 (low value. The MAI in Italy several decades ago was 7.2 (very good, when the adequacy to the MD was high; Those results demonstrate that unfortunately the Spanish young people are abandoning the adherence to the Mediterranean Diet. Around 20% of the cyclists have almost null adequacy to the MD, as their MAI was 1.08 (very low value. The quality of the diet Index(DQI of the cyclists team was 67 over 100, which means that their diet was "good, but it needs to be improved". The lipid profile (measured by the cocient of intake of MUFA and PUFA divided by SFA of the cyclists team was 1,71 (lower than the recommended value which should be > 2, quite similar to the cocient of homologous young males of the enKID study Diet which was 1,69. This illustrates the poor lipid profile of young people diets. Discussion and conclusions: Spanish youth are abandoning the

  4. Aerobic Fitness for Young Athletes: Combining Game-based and High-intensity Interval Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, C B; Kinugasa, T; Gill, N; Kilding, A E

    2015-11-01

    This study compared the effect of game-based training (GT) vs. a mix of game-based training and high-intensity interval training (MT) on physical performance characteristics. 26 young athletes (13.9±0.3 years) were assigned to either GT (n=13) or MT (n=13) for 6 weeks. Game-based training consisted of 2×8-11 min 3 vs. 3 'bucketball' SSGs separated by 3 min of passive rest twice per week, while MT consisted of one SSGs session and one high-intensity session of 15 s runs at 90-95% of the speed reached at the end of the 30-15 intermittent fitness test (VIFT) interspersed with 15 s passive recovery. Peak oxygen uptake (V˙ O2peak), VIFT, jump height, and speed were assessed pre- and post-training. Following training, V˙ O2peak (5.5±3.3%; ES=large) improved after MT, whereas VIFT improved after MT (6.6±3.2%; ES, large) and GT (4.2±5.5%, ES=small). 5-m sprint improved after GT (ES=small), while 20 m sprint and jump height were unchanged. In conclusion, while MT and GT were both effective at increasing performance parameters, greater effects were seen following MT. Therefore, MT should be considered as the preferred training method for improving aerobic power in young athletes.

  5. Modeling of physical fitness of young karatyst on the pre basic training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galimskyi V.A.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : to develop a program of physical fitness for the correction of the pre basic training on the basis of model performance. Material: 57 young karate sportsmen of 9-11 years old took part in the research. Results : the level of general and special physical preparedness of young karate 9-11 years old was determined. Classes in the control group occurred in the existing program for yous sports school Muay Thai (Thailand boxing. For the experimental group has developed a program of selective development of general and special physical qualities of model-based training sessions. Special program contains 6 direction: 1. Development of static and dynamic balance; 2. Development of vestibular stability (precision movements after rotation; 3. Development rate movements; 4. The development of the capacity for rapid restructuring movements; 5. Development capabilities to differentiate power and spatial parameters of movement; 6. Development of the ability to perform jumping movements of rotation. Development of special physical qualities continued to work to improve engineering complex shock motions on the place and with movement. Conclusions : the use of selective development of special physical qualities based models of training sessions has a significant performance advantage over the control group.

  6. Aerobic fitness in children and young adults with primary ciliary dyskinesia.

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    Astrid Madsen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although aerobic fitness is regarded as an overall prognostic measure of morbidity and mortality, its evaluation in the chronic progressive sinopulmonary disease primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD has been infrequently and inconsistently reported. Here we assessed peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak in a large well-characterized cohort of PCD patients, and explored whether VO2peak was associated with parameters of pulmonary function, self-reported physical limitations, and physical activity level. METHODS: VO2peak, spirometry, diffusing capacity, whole-body plethysmography, and nitrogen multiple breath inert gas washout (N2 MBW were assessed in a cross-sectional, single-occasion study of clinically stable children and young adults with PCD. We used a questionnaire including self-reported physical limitations in everyday life or in vigorous activities, and estimation of weekly hours of strenuous physical activity. VO2peak in PCD patients was compared with that in matched, healthy control subjects and a national reference. RESULTS: Forty-four PCD patients aged 6-29 years exhibited reduced VO2peak compared to healthy controls (P<0.001 and the national reference. VO2peak was abnormal (z-score <-1.96 in 34% of PCD patients. Spirometric values, RV/TLC, and indices of N2 MBW were significantly abnormal, but VO2peak only correlated with FEV1 and DLCO/VA. VO2peak correlated with complaints of moderate or significant limitations in vigorous activities (P = 0.0001, exhibited by 39% of PCD patients. CONCLUSION: One-third of PCD patients exhibited substantially lower aerobic fitness than healthy subjects. Aerobic fitness correlated with FEV1, DLCO/VA and self-reported complaints of limitations in vigorous physical activity. These findings are most likely explained by PCD pulmonary disease and its impact on pulmonary function and physical ability. Considering fitness as an important outcome and including regular strenuous physical activity in PCD

  7. Cyclist drag in team pursuit: influence of cyclist sequence, stature, and arm spacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defraeye, Thijs; Blocken, Bert; Koninckx, Erwin; Hespel, Peter; Verboven, Pieter; Nicolai, Bart; Carmeliet, Jan

    2014-01-01

    In team pursuit, the drag of a group of cyclists riding in a pace line is dependent on several factors, such as anthropometric characteristics (stature) and position of each cyclist as well as the sequence in which they ride. To increase insight in drag reduction mechanisms, the aerodynamic drag of four cyclists riding in a pace line was investigated, using four different cyclists, and for four different sequences. In addition, each sequence was evaluated for two arm spacings. Instead of conventional field or wind tunnel experiments, a validated numerical approach (computational fluid dynamics) was used to evaluate cyclist drag, where the bicycles were not included in the model. The cyclist drag was clearly dependent on his position in the pace line, where second and subsequent positions experienced a drag reduction up to 40%, compared to an individual cyclist. Individual differences in stature and position on the bicycle led to an intercyclist variation of this drag reduction at a specific position in the sequence, but also to a variation of the total drag of the group for different sequences. A larger drag area for the group was found when riding with wider arm spacing. Such numerical studies on cyclists in a pace line are useful for determining the optimal cyclist sequence for team pursuit.

  8. Effects of chest physiotherapy and aerobic exercise training on physical fitness in young children with cystic fibrosis

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Cystic fibrosis is a multisystem disease where the main problems are existing in the respiratory system. Aerobic exercise programs are effective in increasing physical fitness and muscle endurance in addition to chest physiotherapy. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of chest physiotherapy and aerobic exercise training on physical fitness in young children with cystic fibrosis. Methods Sixteen patients with cystic fibrosis, between the ages 5-13 ye...

  9. EFFECTIVENESS OF SUPERVISED FITNESS AND MOBILITY EXERCISE PROGRAM ON FITNESS, MOBILITY AND MUSCLE STRENGTH IN YOUNG ADULTS WITH STROKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sandhya kiran

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stroke is a major disabling health problem in developing countries like India & causes long term disability. Long term disability furthers leads to global burden and other psychological problems.The FAME i.e., fitness and mobility exercise program has been designed to improve mobility, fitness and muscle strength. This protocol is community based protocol and helps in patients independent lifestyle.Objective is to examine the effect of supervised FAME protocol on fitness with 6minutes walk test, on mobility with timed up go test & on hamstrings muscle strength measured as hamstrings peak torque with isokinetic analyzer. Methods: Stroke participants were recruited into the study as per the inclusion and exclusion criteria and randomized into intervention group (n = 15 and control group (n = 15.The intervention group underwent supervised fitness and mobility exercise program & the control group underwent home exercises with printed FAME material (telugu & English version.This program was designed for 8 weeks (3 sessions / week. 6MWT- used to evaluate cardio respiratory fitness, TUG test- used to evaluate mobility, Isokinetic analyzer- used to evaluate hamstrings peak torque. Base line measurements are taken prior to the intervention and post intervention values taken after the 8 weeks of intervention. Results: Variables within the groups were compared by using paired t test and between the groups by using independent t test. According to obtained values, the pre & posttest values of 6MWT, TUG test & hamstrings peak toque had a significant effect on p-values <0.05 in experimental group. Conclusion: After 8 weeks of intervention program, the present study concludes that the supervised FAME protocol had showed statistically significant improvement in fitness, mobility & leg muscle strength in intervention group.

  10. Comparison of body composition and aerobic and anaerobic performance between competitive cyclists and triathletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanderson Luis Moro

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare anthropometric characteristics and aerobic and anaerobic fitness between competitive cyclists and triathletes. The sample consisted of 11cyclists and 12 triathletes with experience in competitions. The tests were performed on two different days, with an interval of 48 h between sessions. On the first day,the athletes were submitted to anthropometric assessment (body mass, height,and skinfold thickness and a maximal incremental test to determine maximal oxygen uptake, maximum power, maximum heart rate, maximum lactate, and the first (LL1 and second lactate threshold (LL2. The Wingate test was conducted on the second day to determine peak power, average power, and fatigue index. There were significant difference (p < 0.05, with medium effect size (0.80- 1.5, in mid-thigh skinfold thickness (15.2 ± 6.3 and 10.5 ± 4.8 mm, power at LL1 (195.0 ± 30.9 and 162.7 ± 28.3 W, power at LL2 (247.6 ± 25.0 and 219.7± 37.9 W, and fatigue index (47.2 ± 13.0 and 60.1 ± 16.4% between cyclists and triathletes, respectively. The other variables did not differ between groups. Anthropometric characteristics are similar in triathletes and cyclists. However, cyclists present higher power outputs at the lactate thresholds (LL1 and LL2 and lower fatigue indexes.

  11. Cyclists' perception of risk in roundabouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, Mette; Hels, Tove

    2008-05-01

    Converting an intersection into a roundabout improves motor vehicle safety, but a similar safety effect is not found for car-bicycle collisions. Very little is known about the reasons behind these collisions. In this study a first step towards an understanding of the reasons behind these collisions is taken. The study focuses on cyclists' perceived risk in specific situations, factors influencing the perception of risk and cyclists' knowledge about traffic rules regulating the interaction between road users in roundabouts. One thousand and nineteen cyclists aged 18-85 participated in the study. Data were collected using structured interviews conducted in five Danish roundabouts. Underestimation of risk and lack of knowledge about relevant traffic rules may contribute to car-bicycle collisions in roundabouts. Cyclists prefer road designs with a clear regulation of road user behaviour. A need to increase knowledge about traffic rules regulating road user behaviour in roundabouts is identified.

  12. Done Wrong or Said Wrong? Young Children Understand the Normative Directions of Fit of Different Speech Acts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakoczy, Hannes; Tomasello, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Young children use and comprehend different kinds of speech acts from the beginning of their communicative development. But it is not clear how they understand the conventional and normative structure of such speech acts. In particular, imperative speech acts have a world-to-word direction of fit, such that their fulfillment means that the world…

  13. Sports participation in adolescents and young adults with myelomeningocele and its role in total physical activity behaviour and fitness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.M. Buffart (Laurien); H.P. Ploeg (Hidde); A.E. Bauman (Adrian); F.W. van Asbeck (Floris); M.E. Roebroeck (Marij); R.J.G. van den Berg-Emons (Rita); H.J. Stam (Henk)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractObjective: To assess sports participation in young adults with myelomeningocele and its association with personal, disease-related and psychosocial factors, physical activity and fitness. Design: Cross-sectional study. Subjects: Fifty-one persons (26 males) with myelomeningocele, mean ag

  14. Specification of a cyclist target and test setup for the evaluation of Cyclist-AEB systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montfort, S. van; Camp, O.M.G.C. op den; Fritz, M.; Wimmer, T.

    2015-01-01

    From 2018, AEB systems dedicated to avoid or mitigate car-to-cyclist collisions will be included in the safety assessment by Euro NCAP [1] & [2]. To test such systems, appropriate equipment and a test procedure are being developed in the project CATS (Cyclist-AES Testing System). Accidentology was

  15. Specification of a cyclist target and test setup for the evaluation of Cyclist-AEB systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montfort, S. van; Camp, O.M.G.C. op den; Fritz, M.; Wimmer, T.

    2015-01-01

    From 2018, AEB systems dedicated to avoid or mitigate car-to-cyclist collisions will be included in the safety assessment by Euro NCAP [1] & [2]. To test such systems, appropriate equipment and a test procedure are being developed in the project CATS (Cyclist-AES Testing System). Accidentology was u

  16. Specification of a cyclist target and test setup for the evaluation of Cyclist-AEB systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montfort, S. van; Camp, O.M.G.C. op den; Fritz, M.; Wimmer, T.

    2015-01-01

    From 2018, AEB systems dedicated to avoid or mitigate car-to-cyclist collisions will be included in the safety assessment by Euro NCAP [1] & [2]. To test such systems, appropriate equipment and a test procedure are being developed in the project CATS (Cyclist-AES Testing System). Accidentology was u

  17. Entorhinal volume, aerobic fitness, and recognition memory in healthy young adults: A voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteman, Andrew S; Young, Daniel E; Budson, Andrew E; Stern, Chantal E; Schon, Karin

    2016-02-01

    Converging evidence supports the hypothesis effects of aerobic exercise and environmental enrichment are beneficial for cognition, in particular for hippocampus-supported learning and memory. Recent work in humans suggests that exercise training induces changes in hippocampal volume, but it is not known if aerobic exercise and fitness also impact the entorhinal cortex. In animal models, aerobic exercise increases expression of growth factors, including brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). This exercise-enhanced expression of growth hormones may boost synaptic plasticity, and neuronal survival and differentiation, potentially supporting function and structure in brain areas including but not limited to the hippocampus. Here, using voxel based morphometry and a standard graded treadmill test to determine cardio-respiratory fitness (Bruce protocol; ·VO2 max), we examined if entorhinal and hippocampal volumes were associated with cardio-respiratory fitness in healthy young adults (N=33). In addition, we examined if volumes were modulated by recognition memory performance and by serum BDNF, a putative marker of synaptic plasticity. Our results show a positive association between volume in right entorhinal cortex and cardio-respiratory fitness. In addition, average gray matter volume in the entorhinal cortex, bilaterally, was positively associated with memory performance. These data extend prior work on the cerebral effects of aerobic exercise and fitness to the entorhinal cortex in healthy young adults thus providing compelling evidence for a relationship between aerobic fitness and structure of the medial temporal lobe memory system.

  18. SOFIE, a bicycle that supports older cyclists?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubbeldam, R; Baten, C; Buurke, J H; Rietman, J S

    2016-10-13

    Older cyclists remain at high risk of sustaining an injury after a fall with their bicycle. A growing awareness for the need and possibilities to support safety of older cyclists has been leading to bicycle design ideas. However, the effectiveness and acceptance of such designs has not been studied yet. This study aims to analyse the effect of 3 support systems: an automatic adjustable saddle height, optimised frame and wheel geometry and drive-off assistance. The support systems are integrated on the SOFIE bicycle, a prototype bicycle designed to support older cyclists during (dis-)mounting and at lower cycling speeds. Nine older cyclists (65-80 years) were asked to cycle on a 'normal' and on the 'SOFIE' bicycle. They cycled on a parking lot to avoid interaction with traffic. The following tasks were analysed: cycling at comfortable and low speed avoiding an obstacle and (dis-)mounting the bicycle. Bicycle and cyclist motions were recorded with 10 Inertial Measurement Units and by 2 video cameras. FUSION software (LABVIEW) was used to assess kinematic parameters. First, a subjective analysis of the different cycling tasks was made, supported by video analysis. Second, differences in cyclist and bicycle kinematic parameters between the normal and SOFIE bicycle were studied for the various cycling tasks. The SOFIE bicycle was experienced as a 'supportive' and comfortable bicycle and objectively performed 'safer' on various cycling tasks. For example: The optimised frame geometry with low step-in enabled a faster (dis-)mounting time and less sternum roll angle and angular acceleration. The adjustable saddle height enabled the participants to keep both feet on the ground till they started cycling with the 'drive-off' support. The latter reduces steering activity: maximum steer angle and angular acceleration. During sudden obstacle avoidance, less upper body and thigh accelerations are recorded. In conclusion, the SOFIE bicycle was able to support older cyclists during

  19. Changes of indicators of special physical fitness of young female tennis-players at the stage of basic training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Shevchenko

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to improve performance of special physical qualities of young tennis players at the stage of initial training. Material and Methods: analysis of scientific and methodical literature, test of physical fitness, pedagogical experiment, methods of mathematical statistics. The study involved 11 women aged 7–8 years in the group of initial training. In the training sessions of physical training of young tennis players the game has been used teaching method. Results: to investigate the changes in the indices of physical fitness of young tennis players 7–8 years. Analyzed the impact of the development on the physical qualities of assimilation techniques. Pointed out that for the qualitative development of physical qualities necessary to use outdoor games and relay races. Revealed that the results of the physical fitness of young tennis players after the pedagogical experiment and had risen significantly different to those in the beginning of the study (P<0,05, except for indicators exercises "run on 18 meters". Conclusions: it was found that the use of training sessions on physical preparation of mobile games and relays increase the interest and motivation for tennis lessons for children in the group of initial training.

  20. Anthropometric comparison of cyclists from different events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, J P; Bird, S R; White, J A

    1989-03-01

    An anthropometric analysis was conducted upon 36 competitive male cyclists (mean age 23.4 years) who had been competing on average for 8.2 years. Cyclists were allocated to one of four groups; sprint, pursuit, road and time trial according to their competitive strengths. The sample included cyclists who were classified as category 1, 2, 3 or professional (British Cycling Federation and Professional Cycling Association). The sprint cyclists were significantly shorter and more mesomorphic than the other three groups (p less than 0.05). The time trialists were the tallest, most ectomorphic group, having the longest legs (p less than 0.01), the highest leg length/height ratio (p less than 0.05) and the greatest bitrochanteric width (p less than 0.05). The pursuit and road cyclists were found to have similar physiques, which were located between those of the sprinters and time trialists. The biomechanical implications of these differences in physique may be related to the high rate of pedal revolutions required by sprinters and the higher gear ratios used by time trialists.

  1. PERCENT FAT MASS AND BODY MASS INDEX AS CARDIORESPIRATORY FITNESS PREDICTORS IN YOUNG ADULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira Dewi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe present study aimed to analyze the association between body fatness measures, i.e. body mass index (BMI and percent fat mass (% FM with cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF in young adults. Seventy five undergraduate students aged 19-21 years were included in this cross sectional study. Body composition was assessed by tetra polar Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis method, and CRF was determined as VO2 max level by conducting Balke test and flexibility by sit-and-reach test. Regression tests were performed to assess the associations between the body fatness measures and CRF. The mean (SD % FM and BMI were 25.6 (8.3 % and 22.4 (4.2 kg/m2, respectively. Both BMI and % FM were inversely associated with VO2 max and flexibility. The associations of % FM with each CRF measure were stronger (% FM-VO2 max: R2=0.45, p<0.0001; % FM-flexibility: R2=0.16, p<0.0001 than those of BMI (BMI-VO2 max: R2= 0.12, p=0.002; BMI-flexibility: R2=0.07, p<0.0001. Including gender as a variable predictor greatly improved almost all associations. We suggest that %FM is a better predictor for VO2max than BMI. Further studies are needed to elucidate the relationships of body fatness measures adjusted for potential confounding factors with CRF measures other than VO2 max.Keywords: body mass index, cardiorespiratory fitness, percent fat massABSTRAKPenelitian ini bertujuan untuk menentukan hubungan antara persentase lemak tubuh (PLT dan indeks massa tubuh (IMT dengan kebugaran kardiorespiratorik (KKR pada dewasa muda. Penelitian menggunakan desain potong lintang dengan melibatkan 75 orang mahasiswa usia 19-21 tahun. PLT ditentukan dengan metode tetra polar Bioelectrical Impedance dan KKR ditentukan dengan VO2max berdasarkan uji Balke dan fleksibilitas dengan uji sit-and-reach. Hubungan antara PLT dan IMT dengan KKR dianalisis dengan uji regresi. Rata-rata (standar deviasi dari PLT dan IMT berturut-turut adalah 25,6 (8,3% dan 22,4 (4,2 kg/m2. Baik PLT maupun IMT berbanding

  2. Exercise addiction risk and health in male and female amateur endurance cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayolas-Pi, Carmen; Simón-Grima, Javier; Peñarrubia-Lozano, Carlos; Munguía-Izquierdo, Diego; Moliner-Urdiales, Diego; Legaz-Arrese, Alejandro

    2017-03-01

    Background and aims To determine the relationship between the risk of exercise addiction (REA) and health status in amateur endurance cyclists. Methods In 859 (751 men and 108 women) cyclists and 718 inactive subjects (307 men and 411 women), we examined the REA (Exercise Addiction Inventory), training status (volume, frequency, experience, and performance), socioeconomic status, quality of life (QoL) (SF-12), quality of sleep (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index), anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), and cardiometabolic risk: body mass index, physical activity (International Physical Activity Questionnaire), physical condition (International Fitness Scale), adherence to the Mediterranean diet (Mediterranean Diet Adherence Screener), alcohol and tobacco consumption. Results In total, 17% of the cyclists showed evidence of REA and 83% showed low REA. REA occurred independent of age, sex, training, and socioeconomic status (all ps > .05). Regardless of REA, the cyclists displayed a better physical QoL and a lower cardiometabolic risk than the inactive subjects (all ps Addiction × Sex interaction in the other analyzed variables. Conclusion Our results suggest that an increased prevalence of REA limits the benefits that amateur endurance cycling has on mental health and quality of sleep.

  3. Low physical fitness in childhood is associated with the development of asthma in young adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, F; Lambrechtsen, J; Siersted, H C

    2000-01-01

    Intense physical activity in children may either improve fitness and protect against asthma, or may trigger symptoms. The aim of this study was to determine whether physical fitness in childhood has an impact on the development of asthma. In this prospective, community-based study, 757 (84...... correlation was found between physical fitness in childhood and airway responsiveness to methacholine at follow-up when adjusted for body mass index, age and sex (r=0.11; p...

  4. Exploring switch tendency between cyclists and non-cyclists using market segmentation approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶茂; 于淼; 杨晨; 胡启洲; 李志斌

    2015-01-01

    This work aimed to explore the switch tendency of bicycle use between cyclists and non-cyclists. The attitude based market segmentation approach was proposed to achieve the research objective. The filed investigations were conducted in Nanjing, China, to obtain travelers’ actions and attitudes towards bicycle uses. The structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to identify the attitudinal factors indicating variables and to explore the interrelationships among them. The SEMs were developed separately for the cyclist group and the non-cyclist group. All respondents were clustered into eight distinct segments by six selected attitudinal factors. The mode switch tendency and attitude in each segment is different from others, indicating that different segments have particular policies or strategies to encourage cycling. Policy implications that best serve the potential bicycle users were discussed to reduce the number of cyclists who have high tendency to use other modes, and increase the possibility of using bicycle in the non-cyclists group with the moderate and high switch tendency.

  5. Aerobic fitness in children and young adults with primary ciliary dyskinesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Astrid Hellerup; Green, Kent; Buchvald, Frederik

    2013-01-01

    patients. CONCLUSION: One-third of PCD patients exhibited substantially lower aerobic fitness than healthy subjects. Aerobic fitness correlated with FEV1, DLCO/VA and self-reported complaints of limitations in vigorous physical activity. These findings are most likely explained by PCD pulmonary disease...... and its impact on pulmonary function and physical ability. Considering fitness as an important outcome and including regular strenuous physical activity in PCD treatment would probably altogether increase pulmonary clearance, lung function, aerobic fitness, and quality of life, and prevent lifestyle......BACKGROUND: Although aerobic fitness is regarded as an overall prognostic measure of morbidity and mortality, its evaluation in the chronic progressive sinopulmonary disease primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) has been infrequently and inconsistently reported. Here we assessed peak oxygen uptake (VO2...

  6. Cyclists and road safety in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welleman, A.G. & Dijkstra, A.

    1987-01-01

    The bicycle contributes substantially to the mobility of the Dutch people, presumably more so than in any other European country. Nearly every group of the population makes us of the bicycle on a larger scale, both in urban and rural areas. The cyclists have their specific road safety problems. Aft

  7. Course holding by cyclists and moped riders.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Godthelp, J. & Wouters, P.I.J.

    1980-01-01

    Course holding by cyclists and moped riders includes both steering alongside a course and stabilising the vehicle. Inability to hold course may lead to conflicts with other road users. To design safe bicycle and moped facilities and to consider the safety of those existing, knowledge about performan

  8. CYCLISTS TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT ON ROUNDABOUT (in Russian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena BELIKOVA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Growth of motorization level leads to the necessity of crossroads modernization and this is reflected in the other movement participants. This article discusses and compares the methods of cyclists traffic management on roundabout in terms of security, efficiency of implementation, simplicity of organization and cost.

  9. Kinetics of VO(2) in professional cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucía, Alejandro; Hoyos, Jesús; Santalla, Alfredo; Pérez, Margarita; Chicharro, José L

    2002-02-01

    To analyze the kinetics of oxygen uptake (VO(2)) in professional road cyclists during a ramp cycle ergometer test and to compare the results with those derived from well-trained amateur cyclists. Twelve professional cyclists (P group; 25 +/- 1 yr; maximal power output (W(max)), 508.3 +/- 9.3 watts) and 10 amateur cyclists (A group; 22 +/- 1 y; W(max), 429.9 +/- 8.6 watts) performed a ramp test until exhaustion (power output increases of 25 watts x min(-1)). The regression lines of the VO(2):power output (W) relationship were calculated for the following three phases: phase I (below the lactate threshold (LT)), phase II (between LT and the respiratory compensation point (RCP)), and phase III (above RCP). In group P, the mean slope (Delta VO(2):Delta W) of the VO(2):W relationship decreased significantly (P 0.05) were found between phases I and II (P > 0.05) in group A, whereas Delta VO(2):Delta W significantly increased in phase III (P < 0.01), compared with phase II (10.2 +/- 0.3, 9.2 +/- 0.4, and 10.1 +/- 1.1 mL O(2) x watts(-1) x min(-1) in phases I, II, and III, respectively). The mean value of Delta VO(2):Delta W for phase III was significantly lower in group P than in group A (P < 0.01). Contrary to the case in amateur riders, the rise in VO(2) in professional cyclists is attenuated at moderate to high workloads. This is possibly an adaptation to the higher demands of their training/competition schedule.

  10. In Healthy Young Men, a Short Exhaustive Exercise Alters the Oxidative Stress Only Slightly, Independent of the Actual Fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkler, Maya; Hochman, Ayala; Pinchuk, Ilya; Lichtenberg, Dov

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the apparent disagreement regarding the effect of a typical cycling progressive exercise, commonly used to assess VO2max, on the kinetics of ex vivo copper induced peroxidation of serum lipids. Thirty-two (32) healthy young men, aged 24-30 years, who do not smoke and do not take any food supplements, participated in the study. Blood was withdrawn from each participant at three time points (before the exercise and 5 minutes and one hour after exercise). Copper induced peroxidation of sera made of the blood samples was monitored by spectrophotometry. For comparison, we also assayed TBARS concentration and the activity of oxidation-related enzymes. The physical exercise resulted in a slight and reversible increase of TBARS and slight changes in the activities of the studied antioxidant enzymes and the lag preceding peroxidation did not change substantially. Most altered parameters returned to baseline level one hour after exercise. Notably, the exercise-induced changes in OS did not correlate with the physical fitness of the subjects, as evaluated in this study (VO2max = 30-60 mL/min/kg). We conclude that in healthy young fit men a short exhaustive exercise alters only slightly the OS, independent of the actual physical fitness.

  11. The influence of ACE genotype on cardiovascular fitness of moderately active young men

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Almeida, Jeeser Alves; Boullosa, Daniel Alexandre; Pardono, Emerson; Lima, Ricardo Moreno; Morais, Pâmella Karoline; Denadai, Benedito Sérgio; Souza, Vinícius Carolino; Nóbrega, Otávio Toledo; Campbell, Carmem Sílvia Grubert; Simões, Herbert Gustavo

    2012-01-01

    The angiotensin I-converting enzyme gene (ACE gene) has been broadly studied as for cardiorespiratory fitness phenotypes, but the association of the ACE genotype to middle-distance running has been poorly investigated...

  12. Instrumentation and Motivations for Organised Cycling: The Development of the Cyclist Motivation Instrument (CMI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Trent D; O'Connor, Justen P; Barkatsas, Anastasios N

    2009-01-01

    'Serious leisure' cycling has developed as a reinterpretation of the traditional form of the sport. This short term, informal, unstructured and unconventional conceptualisation represents a challenge to participant numbers in the mainstream sport. The purpose of this study was twofold: (i) to ascertain the cultural, subcultural and ecological factors of participation in this new conceptualised form enabling clubs, associations and governments to a deeper understanding about participants practices and (ii) as an ongoing validation to previous qualitative work (see O'Connor and Brown, 2005). This study reports on the development and psychometric properties (principal components analysis, confirmatory factor analysis) of the Cyclists' Motivation Instrument. Four hundred and twenty two cyclists (371 males, 51 females) who were registered members of the state competitive cycling body completed a fifty-one item instrument. Five factors were identified: social, embodiment, self-presentation, exploring environments and physical health outcomes and these accounted for 47.2% of the variance. Factor alpha coefficients ranged from .63 to .88, overall scale reliability was .92, suggesting moderate to high reliability for each of the factors and the overall scale. Key pointsSerious leisure' cyclists' are fitness seeking enthusiasts that attach different meanings to the act of cycling and participate in different physical, social and natural environments in comparison to other cyclists.This study develops and validates a new tool, the Cyclists Motivation Instrument (CMI), and presents the initial psychometric properties (principal components analysis, confirmatory factor analysis).FIVE FACTORS WERE IDENTIFIED: social, embodiment, self-presentation, exploring environments and physical health outcomes.The scale demonstrates adequate reliability (total scale, α = 0.92) and validity.

  13. Technical player profiles related to the physical fitness of young female volleyball players predict team performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dávila-Romero, C; Hernández-Mocholí, M A; García-Hermoso, A

    2015-03-01

    This study is divided into three sequential stages: identification of fitness and game performance profiles (individual player performance), an assessment of the relationship between these profiles, and an assessment of the relationship between individual player profiles and team performance during play (in championship performance). The overall study sample comprised 525 (19 teams) female volleyball players aged 12-16 years and a subsample (N.=43) used to examine study aims one and two was selected from overall sample. Anthropometric, fitness and individual player performance (actual game) data were collected in the subsample. These data were analyzed through clustering methods, ANOVA and independence chi-square test. Then, we investigated whether the proportion of players with the highest individual player performance profile might predict a team's results in the championship. Cluster analysis identified three volleyball fitness profiles (high, medium, and low) and two individual player performance profiles (high and low). The results showed a relationship between both types of profile (fitness and individual player performance). Then, linear regression revealed a moderate relationship between the number of players with a high volleyball fitness profile and a team's results in the championship (R2=0.23). The current study findings may enable coaches and trainers to manage training programs more efficiently in order to obtain tailor-made training, identify volleyball-specific physical fitness training requirements and reach better results during competitions.

  14. Participation of steroid hormones in providing physical activity in young people with varying degrees of physical fitness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriy Levchenko

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to investigate the dynamics of cortisol and testosterone in saliva of young people with varying degrees of physical fitness at an altitude stress test. Material and Methods: in a study involved 44 students – 29 girls and 15 boys, 17–20 years old. There was used immunosorbent assay to determine the level of cortisol and testosterone during tredmil-test, estimated on maximal aerobic power. Results: the relationship between the imbalance between cortisol and testosterone at an altitude under stress test in young people with low tolerance to physical activity in favor of cortisol. Conclusions: reduced tolerance to exercise, accompanied by high cortisol and testosterone index, decreased maximal aerobic power and tolerance.

  15. Four weeks of running sprint interval training improves cardiorespiratory fitness in young and middle-aged adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willoughby, Taura N; Thomas, Matthew P L; Schmale, Matthew S; Copeland, Jennifer L; Hazell, Tom J

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a 4-week running sprint interval training protocol to improve both aerobic and anaerobic fitness in middle-aged adults (40-50 years) as well as compare the adaptations to younger adults (20-30 years). Twenty-eight inactive participants - 14 young 20-30-year-olds (n = 7 males) and 14 middle-aged 40-50-year-olds (n = 5 males) - completed 4 weeks of running sprint interval training (4 to 6, 30-s "all-out" sprints on a curved, self-propelled treadmill separated by 4 min active recovery performed 3 times per week). Before and after training, all participants were assessed for maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), 2000 m time trial performance, and anaerobic performance on a single 30-s sprint. There were no interactions between group and time for any tested variable, although training improved relative VO2max (young = 3.9, middle-aged = 5.2%; P sprint speed (young = 9.3, middle-aged = 2.2%; P sprint speed (young = 6.8, middle-aged = 11.6%; P sprint test. The current study demonstrates that a 4-week running sprint interval training programme is equally effective at improving aerobic and anaerobic fitness in younger and middle-aged adults.

  16. Cyclist kinematics in car impacts reconstructed in simulations and full scale testing with Polar dummy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schijndel-de Nooij, M. van; Hair-Buijssen, S.H.H.M. de; Rodarius, C.; Fredriksson, R.

    2012-01-01

    For the development of effective vehicle-related safety solutions to improve cyclist and pedestrian protection, essential information on impact locations, impact situations and cyclist and pedestrian kinematics in impacts with passenger cars is fundamental. Accidentology research showed that cyclist

  17. Physical activity,physical fitness,diet and the health in young people

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Neil; Armstrong; Sulin; Cheng; J.Larry; Durstine

    2012-01-01

    <正>The beneficial effects of appropriate physical activity(PA), physical fitness,and diet during adult life are well-documented but the potential of appropriate PA,physical fitness,and diet to confer benefits on health and well-being during childhood and adolescence has not been explored fully.Recognizing the value of critical reviews of the extant literature in providing a foundation for future research,the Journal of Sport and Health Science(JSHS) has commissioned two Special Issues devoted

  18. The effect of roundabout design features on cyclist accident rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hels, Tove; Orozova-Bekkevold, Ivanka

    2007-01-01

    yearly rate of cyclist accidents on one hand and roundabout geometry, age and traffic volume (vehicles and cyclists) on the other. We related all roundabout cyclist accidents recorded by the hospital emergency department of the town of Odense, Denmark, through the years 1999-2003 (N = 171) to various...... geometric features, age and traffic volume of all roundabouts on the Danish island of Funen (N = 88). Cyclist and vehicle volumes turned out to be significant predictors in most of our models-the higher the volumes, the more accidents. Moreover, potential vehicle speed was a significant predictor, and so...... was age of the roundabout-older roundabouts related to more accidents and higher accident probability. Excluding 48 single cyclist accidents strengthened the relationship between accidents on one hand and vehicle and cyclist volume and potential vehicle speed on the other. This stresses the significance...

  19. Impact of physical fitness and daily energy expenditure on sleep efficiency in young and older humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudegeest-Sander, M.H.; Eijsvogels, T.M.H.; Verheggen, R.J.; Poelkens, F.; Hopman, M.T.E.; Jones, H.; Thijssen, D.H.J.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Physical activity is known to influence sleep efficiency. Relatively little is known about the relationship between physical activity and sleep efficiency in young and older humans and the impact of exercise training on sleep efficiency in healthy older individuals. OBJECTIVES: To determ

  20. Impact of physical fitness and daily energy expenditure on sleep efficiency in young and older humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudegeest-Sander, M.H.; Eijsvogels, T.M.H.; Verheggen, R.J.; Poelkens, F.; Hopman, M.T.E.; Jones, H.; Thijssen, D.H.J.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Physical activity is known to influence sleep efficiency. Relatively little is known about the relationship between physical activity and sleep efficiency in young and older humans and the impact of exercise training on sleep efficiency in healthy older individuals. OBJECTIVES: To

  1. One Size Fits All? Promoting Condom Use for Sexually Transmitted Infection Prevention among Heterosexual Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Visser, Richard

    2005-01-01

    The aims of this exploratory qualitative study were to increase our understanding of heterosexual young adults knowledge and beliefs about sexually transmitted infections (STIs) other than HIV, to explore their beliefs about the factors that influence condom use for STI prevention, and to explore their ideas about how best to promote condom use…

  2. Young Adult Literature and the Common Core: A Surprisingly Good Fit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostenson, Jonathan; Wadham, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    Advocates have long argued that an increased role for young adult literature in the classroom would help students' reading development. At first glance, the widely adopted Common Core State Standards might seem in opposition to an increased role for such literature. A closer examination of the common core documents suggests, however, that young…

  3. Health promotion through fitness for adolescents and young adults following spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, P A

    1996-09-01

    A study by Warms (1987) sought to determine both the health care actually received by individuals following a spinal cord injury and the services they desired but did not obtain. The findings suggest that the general health promotion needs of these individuals are the same as for the general population and, though disability related topics are discussed with health care providers, information on health promotion is not received. The leading two services desired by the respondents but not obtained were planning an exercise program (43%) and referral to a fitness center (26%). A plan for health promotion through fitness was designed for individuals with physical disabilities to assist in meeting the identified needs. The program provides several benefits which include: improved function, a positive impact on lifestyle, and a decrease in the risk of complications. The plan includes a general health appraisal and fitness assessment as well as an exercise and fitness prescription with adapted physical activity and sports participation as integral parts. Evaluation methodology is incorporated to demonstrate that health promotion activities positively effect function and lifestyle and decrease severity of complications.

  4. Adaptive Memory: Young Children Show Enhanced Retention of Fitness-Related Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Alp; Bauml, Karl-Heinz T.

    2012-01-01

    Evolutionary psychologists propose that human cognition evolved through natural selection to solve adaptive problems related to survival and reproduction, with its ultimate function being the enhancement of reproductive fitness. Following this proposal and the evolutionary-developmental view that ancestral selection pressures operated not only on…

  5. Low physical fitness in childhood is associated with the development of asthma in young adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, F; Lambrechtsen, J; Siersted, H C

    2000-01-01

    Intense physical activity in children may either improve fitness and protect against asthma, or may trigger symptoms. The aim of this study was to determine whether physical fitness in childhood has an impact on the development of asthma. In this prospective, community-based study, 757 (84......%) asymptomatic children with an average age at inclusion of 9.7 yrs were followed for 10.5 yrs. In both surveys a maximal progressive exercise test on a bicycle ergometer was used to measure physical fitness (maximal workload) and to induce airway narrowing. A methacholine provocation test was performed...... in the subjects at follow-up. During the 10-yr study period, 51 (6.7%) of the previously asymptomatic children developed asthma. These subjects had a lower mean physical fitness in 1985 than their peers: (3.63 versus 3.89 W x kg(-1); p=0.02) in boys and (3.17 versus 3.33 W x kg(-1); p=0.02) in girls. A weak...

  6. Pulse oximeter for cyclists in smartphone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, L.; Gaidos, O.; dos Santos, I.

    2015-01-01

    The monitoring of cyclists during physical activity is an important factor to improve their performance. We discuss a new approaches based on smartphone for monitoring physiological signal wirelessly for cyclists, using a pulse oximeter sensor attached to the rider's forehead. This paper presents a wireless pulse Oximeter that was developed with a Nellcor's module, which uses the Standard Host Interface Protocol (SHIP) for communication with the Bluetooth module and sends data for a Smartphone with Android O.S. Then these data are shown in the screen: the heartbeat and saturation percentage. The application was created with App Inventor and the data are sent to Google Maps via Twitter. The results demonstrate the possibility of developing a successful prototype.

  7. Resurrecting free play in young children: looking beyond fitness and fatness to attention, affiliation, and affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdette, Hillary L; Whitaker, Robert C

    2005-01-01

    We have observed that the nature and amount of free play in young children has changed. Our purpose in this article is to demonstrate why play, and particularly active, unstructured, outdoor play, needs to be restored in children's lives. We propose that efforts to increase physical activity in young children might be more successful if physical activity is promoted using different language-encouraging play-and if a different set of outcomes are emphasized-aspects of child well-being other than physical health. Because most physical activity in preschoolers is equivalent to gross motor play, we suggest that the term "play" be used to encourage movement in preschoolers. The benefits of play on children's social, emotional, and cognitive development are explored.

  8. Recurrent exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis due to low intensity fitness exercise in a healthy young patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karre, Premnath Reddy; Gujral, Jeetinder

    2011-04-01

    Rhabdomyolysis is an uncommon but life threatening condition that develops due to breakdown of muscle and release of intracellular components into the circulation. A 24-year-old man otherwise healthy was admitted to our hospital because of muscle aches and weakness as well as cola coloured urine developed 3 days after carrying out the low intensity exercise. Diagnosis of rhabdomyolysis was made with creatine kinase (CK) levels of 214 356 U/l. He was treated for a similar condition at age 21. A muscle biopsy was done and the findings were normal. Rhabdomyolysis can develop with low intensity exercise; thus, it be considered in healthy young people. Young people with recurrent rhabdomyolysis due to low intensity exercise, in the absence of obvious medical and physical causes, should be evaluated further to rule out uncommon metabolic diseases. Our case demonstrates that complications especially renal failure in patients with rhabdomyolysis do not correspond to CK levels.

  9. The structure of physical fitness and its correlation analysis at young players aged 16-17 years at the stage of basic training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POPOV A.N.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : The questions about the importance of physical fitness of young players to improve the management and correction of the training process. Material : In the research participated 40 players aged 16-17 years of specialized youth football school of FC "Obolon-Brewery". Data for the study of physical fitness were teacher observations and teacher testing carried out under the direct training of young players. Results : It is shown that the structure of physical fitness among all the studied parameters there is a close correlation relationship, except for a parameter that characterizes the start speed. It was found that the above regularities indicate the advisability of excluding the studied parameters in the structure of physical fitness of young players to improve the efficiency of the training process at the base of specialized training. Conclusions : It is recommended to improve the starting speed to use non-gaming and technical and tactical exercises.

  10. Recent trends in cyclist fatalities in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boufous, Soufiane; Olivier, Jake

    2016-08-01

    The study examines trends in bicycling fatalities reported to the Australian police between 1991 and 2013. Trends were estimated using Poisson regression modelling. Overall, cycling fatalities decreased by 1.9% annually between 1991 and 2013. However, while deaths following multivehicle crashes decreased at a rate of 2.9% per annum (95% CI -4.0% to -1.8%), deaths from single vehicle crashes increased by 5.8% per annum (95% CI 4.1% to 7.5%). Over the study period, the average age of cyclists who died in single vehicle crashes (45.3 years, 95% CI 41.5 to 49.1) was significantly higher than cyclists who died in multivehicle crashes (36.2 years, 95% CI 34.7 to 37.7). The average age of deceased cyclists increased significantly for both types of crashes. The observed increase in single vehicle crashes need to be closely monitored in Australia and internationally. In-depth studies are needed to investigate the circumstances of fatal single bicycle crashes in order to develop appropriate countermeasures.

  11. Differences in Anthropometry, Biological Age and Physical Fitness Between Young Elite Kayakers and Canoeists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López-Plaza Daniel

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the anthropometric and physical characteristics of youth elite paddlers and to identify the differences between kayakers and canoeists. A total of 171 male paddlers (eighty-nine kayakers and eighty-two canoeists, aged 13.69 ± 0.57 years (mean ± SD volunteered to participate in this study. The participants completed basic anthropometric assessments (body mass, stretch stature, sitting height, body mass index, maturity level, sum of 6 skinfolds and fat mass percentage as well as a battery of physical fitness tests (overhead medicine ball throw, counter movement jump, sit-and-reach and 20 m multi-stage shuttle run tests. The anthropometric results revealed a significantly larger body size (stretch stature and sitting height and body mass in the kayakers (p < 0.01 as well as a more mature biological status (p = 0.003. The physical fitness level exhibited by the kayakers was likewise significantly greater than that of the canoeists, both in the counter movement jump and estimated VO2max (p < 0.05, as well as in the overhead medicine ball throw and sit-and-reach test (p < 0.01. These findings confirm the more robust and mature profile of youth kayakers that might be associated with the superior fitness level observed and the specific requirements of this sport discipline.

  12. Effects of Small-Sided Games vs. Interval Training in Aerobic Fitness and Physical Enjoyment in Young Elite Soccer Players.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asier Los Arcos

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of Small-Sided Games (SSG vs. Interval Training (IT in soccer training on aerobic fitness and physical enjoyment in youth elite soccer players during the last 8 weeks of the season. Seventeen U-16 male soccer players (age = 15.5 ± 0.6 years, and 8.5 years of experience of a Spanish First Division club academy were randomized to 2 different groups for 6 weeks: SSG group (n = 9 and IT group (n = 8. In addition to the usual technical and tactical sessions and competitive games, the SSG group performed 11 sessions with different SSGs, whereas the IT group performed the same number of sessions of IT. Players were tested before and after the 6-week training intervention with a continuous maximal multistage running field test and the counter movement jump test (CMJ. At the end of the study, players answered the physical activity enjoyment scale (PACES. During the study, heart rate (HR and session perceived effort (sRPE were assessed. SSGs were as effective as IT in maintaining the aerobic fitness in elite young soccer players during the last weeks of the season. Players in the SSG group declared a greater physical enjoyment than IT (P = 0.006; ES = 1.86 ± 1.07. Coaches could use SSG training during the last weeks of the season as an option without fear of losing aerobic fitness while promoting high physical enjoyment.

  13. Arterial stiffness is associated to cardiorespiratory fitness and body mass index in young Swedish adults: The Lifestyle, Biomarkers, and Atherosclerosis study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernberg, Ulrika; Fernström, Maria; Hurtig-Wennlöf, Anita

    2017-01-01

    Background Early changes in the large muscular arteries are already associated with risk factors as hypertension and obesity in adolescence and young adulthood. The present study examines the association between arterial stiffness measurements, pulse wave velocity and augmentation index and lifestyle-related factors, body composition and cardiorespiratory fitness, in young, healthy, Swedish adults. Design This study used a population-based cross-sectional sample. Methods The 834 participants in the study were self-reported healthy, non-smoking, age 18-25 years. Augmentation index and pulse wave velocity were measured with applanation tonometry. Cardiorespiratory fitness was measured by ergometer bike test to estimate maximal oxygen uptake. Body mass index (kg/m(2)) was calculated and categorised according to classification by the World Health Organisation. Results Young Swedish adults with obesity and low cardiorespiratory fitness have significantly higher pulse wave velocity and augmentation index than non-obese young adults with medium or high cardiorespiratory fitness. The observed U-shaped association between pulse wave velocity and body mass index categories in women indicates that it might be more beneficial to be normal weight than underweight when assessing the arterial stiffness with pulse wave velocity. The highest mean pulse wave velocity was found in overweight/obese individuals with low cardiorespiratory fitness. The lowest mean pulse wave velocity was found in normal weight individuals with high cardiorespiratory fitness. Cardiorespiratory fitness had a stronger effect than body mass index on arterial stiffness in multiple regression analyses. Conclusions The inverse association between cardiorespiratory fitness and arterial stiffness is observed already in young adults. The study result highlights the importance of high cardiorespiratory fitness, but also that underweight individuals may be a possible risk group that needs to be further studied.

  14. NASA Child Fitness Promotion Program in Young Children in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Jungwon; Kim, Gilsook; Lim, Hyunjung; Carvajal, Nubia A.; Lloyd, Charles W.; Wang, Youfa

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a serious global public health concern (WHO, 2015; Wang Y & Lobstein T, 2006). Low self-esteem and related mental health problems are common in obese children (Strauss RS, 2000) as well as poor academic performance and career development (Gurley-Calvez T, 2010).Westernized dietary habits and sedentary lifestyles are identified as the major risk factors of current alarming rate of obesity along with genetic susceptibility (Popkin BM, 1999). Children in many countries, including South Korea, have become increasingly sedentary due to urbanization changes in their respective societies (Ng SW, et al. 2009, Salmon J et al. 2011). In particular, South Korea had abundant dissemination of mobile technology, such as tablet and smart phone devices. Children have become reliant on mobile devices and are less likely to perform physical activities (Do, et al, 2013). Effective and sustainable intervention programs are needed to fight the global obesity epidemic (IOM, 2012; Wang Y et al, 2013; Wang Y et al, 2015). Previous studies suggested focus on prevention strategies that begin in early childhood, a period when children establish their life habits. (Salmon J et al. 2011). Recent systematic reviews and meta-analysis including ours found that obesity prevention programs for young children have a greater intervention effect (Waters E, et al, 2011; Wang Y et al, 2013; Wang Y et al, 2015). The NASA Mission X: Train Like an Astronaut (MX) program was developed to promote children's exercise and healthy eating with excitement for training like an astronaut (Lloyd C, 2012).At present, the NASA MX Program covered 28 countries, enrolled children through their teachers in school setting (MX report 2014, 2015). This pilot study adapted the NASA MX intervention program for young children in South Korea. We assessed its feasibility and effectiveness in promoting physical activity (PA) in children and in improving parents' perspectives. We also examined the status of PA

  15. The ACTN3 R577X Polymorphism Is Associated with Cardiometabolic Fitness in Healthy Young Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelsea L Deschamps

    Full Text Available Homozygosity for a premature stop codon (X in the ACTN3 "sprinter" gene is common in humans despite the fact that it reduces muscle size, strength and power. Because of the close relationship between skeletal muscle function and cardiometabolic health we examined the influence of ACTN3 R577X polymorphism over cardiovascular and metabolic characteristics of young adults (n = 98 males, n = 102 females; 23 ± 4.2 years from our Assessing Inherent Markers for Metabolic syndrome in the Young (AIMMY study. Both males and females with the RR vs XX genotype achieved higher mean VO2 peak scores (47.8 ± 1.5 vs 43.2 ±1.8 ml/O2/min, p = 0.002 and exhibited higher resting systolic (115 ± 2 vs 105 ± mmHg, p = 0.027 and diastolic (69 ± 3 vs 59 ± 3 mmHg, p = 0.005 blood pressure suggesting a role for ACTN3 in the maintenance of vascular tone. We subsequently identified the expression of alpha-actinin 3 protein in pulmonary artery smooth muscle, which may explain the genotype-specific differences in cardiovascular adaptation to acute exercise. In addition, we utilized targeted serum metabolomics to distinguish between RR and XX genotypes, suggesting an additional role for the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism in human metabolism. Taken together, these results identify significant cardiometabolic effects associated with possessing one or more functional copies of the ACTN3 gene.

  16. The ACTN3 R577X Polymorphism Is Associated with Cardiometabolic Fitness in Healthy Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschamps, Chelsea L; Connors, Kimberly E; Klein, Matthias S; Johnsen, Virginia L; Shearer, Jane; Vogel, Hans J; Devaney, Joseph M; Gordish-Dressman, Heather; Many, Gina M; Barfield, Whitney; Hoffman, Eric P; Kraus, William E; Hittel, Dustin S

    2015-01-01

    Homozygosity for a premature stop codon (X) in the ACTN3 "sprinter" gene is common in humans despite the fact that it reduces muscle size, strength and power. Because of the close relationship between skeletal muscle function and cardiometabolic health we examined the influence of ACTN3 R577X polymorphism over cardiovascular and metabolic characteristics of young adults (n = 98 males, n = 102 females; 23 ± 4.2 years) from our Assessing Inherent Markers for Metabolic syndrome in the Young (AIMMY) study. Both males and females with the RR vs XX genotype achieved higher mean VO2 peak scores (47.8 ± 1.5 vs 43.2 ±1.8 ml/O2/min, p = 0.002) and exhibited higher resting systolic (115 ± 2 vs 105 ± mmHg, p = 0.027) and diastolic (69 ± 3 vs 59 ± 3 mmHg, p = 0.005) blood pressure suggesting a role for ACTN3 in the maintenance of vascular tone. We subsequently identified the expression of alpha-actinin 3 protein in pulmonary artery smooth muscle, which may explain the genotype-specific differences in cardiovascular adaptation to acute exercise. In addition, we utilized targeted serum metabolomics to distinguish between RR and XX genotypes, suggesting an additional role for the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism in human metabolism. Taken together, these results identify significant cardiometabolic effects associated with possessing one or more functional copies of the ACTN3 gene.

  17. Exercise Induced Cardiac Fatigue Following Prolonged Exercise in Road Cyclists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Frank; Pawar, Ganesh; Kilgore, Lon

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine cardiac function following a 100-mile ride in high ambient temperatures by healthy, competitive cyclists. Methods: Subjects were six (n=6) competitive cyclists racing in a 100-mile road race. Measures (pre/post) included: body mass (kg); E:A ratio (ventricular compliance); stroke volume (ml); ejection…

  18. The effect of roundabout design features on cyclist accident rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hels, Tove; Orozova-Bekkevold, Ivanka

    2007-03-01

    Roundabouts are known to result in fewer traffic accidents than traditional intersections. However, this is to a lesser degree true for bicycles than for vehicles. In this paper, we aimed at establishing statistical relationships through Poisson regression and logistic regression analyses between yearly rate of cyclist accidents on one hand and roundabout geometry, age and traffic volume (vehicles and cyclists) on the other. We related all roundabout cyclist accidents recorded by the hospital emergency department of the town of Odense, Denmark, through the years 1999-2003 (N=171) to various geometric features, age and traffic volume of all roundabouts on the Danish island of Funen (N=88). Cyclist and vehicle volumes turned out to be significant predictors in most of our models-the higher the volumes, the more accidents. Moreover, potential vehicle speed was a significant predictor, and so was age of the roundabout-older roundabouts related to more accidents and higher accident probability. Excluding 48 single cyclist accidents strengthened the relationship between accidents on one hand and vehicle and cyclist volume and potential vehicle speed on the other. This stresses the significance of speed and traffic volume for traffic accidents with more than one partner involved. The 48 single cyclist accidents were significantly related to the traffic volume of cyclists only. Due to our limited number of observations, the models should be regarded as indicative.

  19. Cyclists and traffic sounds : the results of an internet survey.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stelling-Konczak, A. Hagenzieker, M.P. & Wee, G.P. van

    2014-01-01

    Many cyclists, especially youngsters, listen to music and talk on their mobile phones while cycling. As a result, auditory traffic information that can be used by cyclists to make safe decisions is less available. Also the growing number of quiet (electric) vehicles on the road makes use of auditory

  20. Cyclists and traffic sounds : the results of an internet survey.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stelling-Konczak, A. Hagenzieker, M.P. & Wee, G.P. van

    2014-01-01

    Many cyclists, especially youngsters, listen to music and talk on their mobile phones while cycling. As a result, auditory traffic information that can be used by cyclists to make safe decisions is less available. Also the growing number of quiet (electric) vehicles on the road makes use of auditory

  1. Welfare policies and very young children: experimental data on stage-environment fit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Heather D; Morris, Pamela

    2008-11-01

    The authors examined the effects of welfare programs that increased maternal employment and family income on the development of very young children using data from 5 random-assignment experiments. The children were 6 months to 3 years old when their mothers entered the programs; cognitive and behavioral outcomes were measured 2-5 years later. While there were no overall program impacts, positive or negative, on the development of children in this age group, there was a pair of domain- and age-specific effects: The programs decreased positive social behavior among 1-year-olds and increased school achievement among 2-year-olds. After exploring several explanations for these results, the authors suggest that the contextual changes engendered by the programs, including children's exposure to center-based child care, interacted differentially with specific developmental transitions.

  2. Three-year changes in fitness and adiposity are independently associated with cardiovascular risk factors among young danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jago, Russell; Froberg, Karsten; Cooper, Ashley R

    2010-01-01

    , sum of skinfolds (SSF), and blood pressure were assessed. Fasting blood samples were used to calculate total cholesterol (TC), high and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C & LDL-C), triglycerides, insulin, glucose, and HOMA-IR. Regression models examined whether CRF change or SSF change were...... independently or interactively associated with risk variables. RESULTS: Change in SSF was independently associated with change in TC (z = 4.83, P blood pressure. CRF change was independently associated...... with change in TC (z = -3.86, P blood pressure (z = 2.06, P = .040). CONCLUSIONS: Change in fitness and adiposity were independently associated with the development of cardiovascular risk factors among young children suggesting a need to increase CRF...

  3. Exploring characteristics and motives of long distance commuter cyclists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Karsten Bruun; Sick Nielsen, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    , commuter cyclists (45 km from home to work) have more mobility options, higher incomes, and a longer education than other commuter cyclists. The main motive for longer distance cycling is physical exercise, followed by reduced costs and time used for traveling. The long distance commuter cyclists surveyed......Longer distance cycling is a commuting mode that contributes to sustainability and public health objectives, but little is known about current long distance cyclist's motives. The paper explores longer distance commuter cyclists, their characteristics, practice and motives. Longer distance...... are very positive about their commute - pointing to positive experiences, better mood, and stress relief as experiences related to their cycle trip to work. Policy support should devote attention to unlocking the potential that may be embedded in individuals combining their exercise and travel time...

  4. Arginine and antioxidant supplement on performance in elderly male cyclists: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carpenter Catherine L

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human exercise capacity declines with advancing age. These changes often result in loss of physical fitness and more rapid senescence. Nitric oxide (NO has been implicated in improvement of exercise capacity through vascular smooth muscle relaxation in both coronary and skeletal muscle arteries, as well as via independent mechanisms. Antioxidants may prevent nitric oxide inactivation by oxygen free radicals. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of an L-arginine and antioxidant supplement on exercise performance in elderly male cyclists. Methods This was a two-arm prospectively randomized double-blinded and placebo-controlled trial. Sixteen male cyclists were randomized to receive either a proprietary supplement (Niteworks®, Herbalife International Inc., Century City, CA or a placebo powder. Exercise parameters were assessed by maximal incremental exercise testing performed on a stationary cycle ergometer using breath-by-breath analysis at baseline, week one and week three. Results There was no difference between baseline exercise parameters. In the supplemented group, anaerobic threshold increased by 16.7% (2.38 ± 0.18 L/min, p 2 max between control and intervention groups at either week 1 or week 3 by comparison to baseline. Conclusion An arginine and antioxidant-containing supplement increased the anaerobic threshold at both week one and week three in elderly cyclists. No effect on VO2 max was observed. This study indicated a potential role of L-arginine and antioxidant supplementation in improving exercise performance in elderly.

  5. Entrainment of breathing in cyclists and non-cyclists during arm and leg exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sporer, Ben C; Foster, Glen E; Sheel, A William; McKenzie, Donald C

    2007-01-15

    The purpose of this study was to compare the incidence of entrainment of breathing (ENT) between cyclists (C; n=8) and non-cyclists (NC; n=8) during leg cycling (LC) and arm cycling (AC). No subjects were training regularly in upper body endurance exercise. Day 1 consisted of spirometry and a VO2max test on both an arm and leg ergometer in random order separated by at least 60 min. On Day 2, subjects performed both AC and LC exercise with each session consisting of 5 min of warm-up at 20% and three consecutive 6 min loads at 40%, 60%, and 80% of task specific peak power output (WL1, WL2, WL3, respectively). Sessions were separated by at least 45 min. The final 3 min of each load were analyzed for entrainment of pedal and breathing frequencies using integer and half-integer ratios. A total of six subjects were unable to complete at least one exercise session at WL3 and therefore this load was excluded from analysis. Mean % VO2max during exercise was not different between cyclists and controls with respect to intensity and mode (AC= approximately 50% and 70%; LC= approximately 55% and 75% at WL1 and WL2, respectively). A repeated measures ANOVA revealed no effect on incidence of entrainment (%ENT) by group, mode of exercise, or exercise intensity (p=0.12, 0.24, and 0.88, respectively). %ENT was highest in cyclists during leg exercise (cyclists: LC=32%; AC=19%; controls: LC=18%; AC=21%) however this difference was not significant (p=0.07). In all situations that would be considered unfamiliar for both groups %ENT was similar. These results suggest that during cycling exercise at intensities of 75% VO2max or less, regular training may result in higher %ENT and that ENT is not transferable to an unfamiliar mode of exercise using different muscle groups.

  6. Effects of chest physiotherapy and aerobic exercise training on physical fitness in young children with cystic fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elbasan Bulent

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cystic fibrosis is a multisystem disease where the main problems are existing in the respiratory system. Aerobic exercise programs are effective in increasing physical fitness and muscle endurance in addition to chest physiotherapy. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of chest physiotherapy and aerobic exercise training on physical fitness in young children with cystic fibrosis. Methods Sixteen patients with cystic fibrosis, between the ages 5-13 years, were included in this study. All children were assessed at the beginning and at the end of 6 week of the training. Modified Bruce protocol was used for assessing the cardiovascular endurance. The sit-up test was used to evaluate the dynamic endurance of abdominal muscles, standing long jump was used to test power, sit and reach, trunk lateral flexion, trunk hyperextension, trunk rotation and forward bending tests were used to assess flexibility, 20 m shuttle run test and 10-step stair climbing tests were used to assess power and agility. All patients received chest physiotherapy and aerobic training, three days a week for six weeks. Active cycle of breathing technique and aerobic exercise training program on a treadmill were applied. Results By evaluating the results of the training, positive progressions in all parameters except 20 m shuttle run and 10 stairs climbing tests were observed (p 0.05. Conclusion It is thought that in addition to medical approaches to the systems affected, the active cycle of breathing techniques along with aerobic training helps to enhance the aerobic performance, thoracic mobility and improves physical fitness in children with cystic fibrosis.

  7. Fitness, body composition and vascular health in adolescent and young adult survivors of paediatric brain cancer and cranial radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Treya M; Rath, Shoshana R; Maroni, Tessa D; Wallman, Karen E; Atkinson, Helen C; Gottardo, Nicholas G; Cole, Catherine H; Choong, Catherine S; Naylor, Louise H

    2017-09-20

    Background Survivors of paediatric brain cancer and/or cranial radiotherapy (CRT) are at an increased risk of developing serious comorbidities. Established risk factors for chronic disease include central obesity, endothelial abnormalities and diminished fitness. Objectives Here we characterised anthropometry, body composition, bone mineral density (BMD), heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP), endothelial function, muscular strength and endurance and aerobic fitness in adolescent and young adult (AYA) survivors. Methods Twenty survivors (10 male, 10 female; 20 ± 2 years) were compared with 19 matched controls. Muscular strength was assessed using three repetition maximum tests, while muscular endurance was determined as number of repetitions performed per minute. Peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak) was assessed on a treadmill using a modified chronotropic protocol. Anthropometric measurements, HR and BP were taken using standard clinical protocols, while body composition and BMD were determined using dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Endothelial function was measured using the flow mediated dilation technique. Results Survivors demonstrated deficits in muscular strength (latissimus dorsi pull-down, p = 0.020; bicep curl, p = 0.009), muscular endurance (squats, p = 0.012; sit-ups, p = 0.030; push-ups, p = 0.013), minute ventilation at peak exericse (p = 0.002) and VO2peak (L/min, p = 0.002; mL/kg/min, p = 0.008; mL/kg LBM/min, p = 0.010). Additionally, survivors had greater waist-to-hip ratios (p = 0.032), resting HR (p = 0.048) and higher percentage of total body (p = 0.017), central (p = 0.009) and peripheral (p = 0.032) fat. Lean body mass (p = 0.004) and BMD (p = 0.005) were lower in the survivor group. Conclusion AYA survivors of paediatric brain cancer and/or CRT exhibit altered body composition, increased resting HR and reduced BMD, muscular strength, muscular endurance and cardiorespiratory fitness compared to controls.

  8. Manual action, fitting, and spatial planning: relating objects by young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Wendy P; Kahrs, Björn A; Lockman, Jeffrey J

    2015-01-01

    This study uses motion tracking technology to provide a new way of addressing the development of the ability to prospectively orient objects with respect to one another. A group of toddlers between 16 and 33 months of age (N=30) were studied in an object fitting task while they wore reflective markers on their hands to track spatial adjustments in three dimensions. Manual displacements of the handheld object were separated into translations and rotations. Results revealed that younger children largely used a two-step approach in which they initially translate an object to a target and subsequently attempt to rotate the object to match the target. In contrast, older children evidence more advanced spatial planning and integrate translational and rotational components throughout the entire period when they are transporting the object to the target. Additionally, at the oldest ages, children show even further improvements in coordinating translations and rotations by using relatively shorter translations (i.e., covering less distance) and by avoiding unnecessary rotations of the object. More broadly, the results offer insights into how manual problem solving becomes more efficient and planful during the toddler years.

  9. Contribution of exposure, risk of crash and fatality to explain age- and sex-related differences in traffic-related cyclist mortality rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Ruiz, Virginia; Jiménez-Mejías, Eladio; Amezcua-Prieto, Carmen; Olmedo-Requena, Rocío; Luna-del-Castillo, Juan de Dios; Lardelli-Claret, Pablo

    2015-03-01

    This study was designed to quantify the percent contribution of exposure, risk of collision and fatality rate to the association of age and sex with the mortality rates among cyclists in Spain, and to track the changes in these contributions with time. Data were analyzed for 50,042 cyclists involved in road crashes in Spain from 1993 to 2011, and also for a subset of 13,119 non-infractor cyclists involved in collisions with a vehicle whose driver committed an infraction (used as a proxy sample of all cyclists on the road). We used decomposition and quasi-induced exposure methods to obtain the percent contributions of these three components to the mortality rate ratios for each age and sex group compared to males aged 25-34 years. Death rates increased with age, and the main component of this increase was fatality (around 70%). Among younger cyclists, however, the main component of increased death rates was risk of a collision. Males had higher death rates than females in every age group: this rate increased from 6.4 in the 5-14 year old group to 18.8 in the 65-79 year old group. Exposure, the main component of this increase, ranged between 70% and 90% in all age categories, although the fatality component also contributed to this increase. The contributions of exposure, risk of crash and fatality to cyclist death rates were strongly associated with age and sex. Young male cyclists were a high-risk group because all three components tended to increase their mortality rate.

  10. Critical factors in fatal collisions of adult cyclists with automobiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bíl, Michal; Bílová, Martina; Müller, Ivo

    2010-11-01

    This article evaluates, by means of multivariate regression, critical factors influencing the collisions of motor vehicles with adult (over 17 years) cyclists that result in fatal injury of cyclists. The analysis is based on the database of the Traffic Police of Czech Republic from the time period 1995-2007. The results suggest that the most consequential categories of factors under study are: inappropriate driving speed of automobile; the head-on crash; and night-time traffic in places without streetlights. The cyclists' faults are of most serious consequence on crossroads when cyclists deny the right of way. Males are more likely to suffer a fatal injury due to a collision with a car than females. The most vulnerable age group are cyclists above 65 years. A fatal injury of a cyclist is more often driver's fault than cyclist's (598 vs. 370). In order to reduce the fatal risk, it is recommended to separate the road traffic of motor vehicles from bicyclists in critical road-sections; or, at least, to reduce speed limits there.

  11. The 30-15 intermittent fitness test: accuracy for individualizing interval training of young intermittent sport players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchheit, Martin

    2008-03-01

    The objective of this study was to gather evidence supporting the accuracy of the 30-15 Intermittent Fitness Test (30-15IFT) for individualizing interval training of young intermittent sport players. In 59 young intermittent sport players (age, 16.2 +/- 2.3 years), we observed the relationships between the maximal running speed (MRS) reached at the end of the 30-15IFT (MRS30-15IFT) and physiological variables elicited by shuttle intermittent runs, including maximal oxygen uptake, explosive power of lower limbs, and the ability to repeat intense exercise bouts through cardiorespiratory recovery kinetics during exercise. To observe the capacity of the 30-15IFT to prescribe suitable running intensities for interval training sessions, we compared heart rates (HRs) reached during 3 series of intermittent runs, where distances were set according to the MRS30-15IFT and to MRS reached with 2 popular continuous field tests: the University of Montreal track test and the 20-m shuttle run test. The results show that the MRS30-15IFT is significantly correlated with all physiological variables elicited by shuttle intermittent runs (P intermittent runs, HR recorded during the runs based on MRS30-15IFT presented significantly less interindividual variation than when the continuously determined MRS were used as reference speeds. In conclusion, we can say that the 30-15IFT leads to an MRS that simultaneously takes into account various physiological qualities elicited when performing shuttle intermittent runs. For scheduling interval training sessions, the MRS30-15IFT appears to be an accurate reference speed for getting players with different physiological profiles to a similar level of cardiorespiratory demand and thus for standardizing training content.

  12. [A 26-year-old cyclist with intermittent claudication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheerder, M J; Schütte, P R; Schnater, J M

    2006-07-08

    A 26-year-old male amateur cyclist, with no risk factors for vascular disease or previous trauma, presented with left-calf claudication. Physical and additional examination revealed an occlusion of the external iliac artery. During the operation, the cause was found to be an endofibrotic lesion of the external iliac artery, probably due to mechanical trauma as a result of the non-physiological aerodynamic position held on the bicycle during many hours of training. An endarterectomy was performed and the tendon of the psoas-minor muscle was cut because of its strong impression on the psoas-major muscle, which resulted in kinking of the external iliac artery. There followed two episodes of re-occlusion which were treated with a venous interposition graft and a dacron interposition graft, respectively. Thereafter the patient was able to train without pain. Intermittent claudication of the legs in young athletes should not be underestimated; occlusive vascular disease caused by arterial endofibrosis should be considered.

  13. Aggravating andmitigating factors associated with cyclist injury severity in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaplan, Sigal; Vavatsoulas,, Konstantinos; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2014-01-01

    Denmark is one of the leading cycling nations, where cycling trips constitute a large share of the total trips, and cycling safety assumes a top priority position in the agenda of policy makers. The current study sheds light on the aggravating and mitigating factors associated with cyclist injury...... severity on Danish roads by examining a comprehensive set of accidents involving a cyclist and a collision partner between 2007 and 2011. Method: This study estimates a generalized ordered logit model of the severity of cyclist injuries because of its ability to accommodate the ordered-response nature......–80 km/h, slippery road surface, and location of the crash on road sections are aggravating infrastructure factors, while the availability of cycling paths and dense urban development are mitigating factors. Heavy vehicle involvement and conflicts between cyclists going straight or turning left and other...

  14. Perniosis in a long-distance cyclist crossing Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Andrew J; Jarman, Alison M; Bennett, Timothy G

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of severe perniosis in a long-distance cyclist. This case demonstrates the importance of identifying those at risk of cold-related injuries who are about to embark on extensive travel in cold environments.

  15. Impact of e-safety applications on cyclists' safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripodi, Antonino; Persia, Luca

    2015-01-01

    In years to come, urban areas face the challenge of making transport sustainable in terms of environment and competitiveness. Cycling is a perfect transport means in urban areas. Cyclists have a high casualty rate and should be given special attention in road safety policy. Actions to promote cycling in cities should go together with improving road safety. ICT can be used to develop intelligent applications assisting cyclists to avoid, prevent or mitigate accidents. This paper presents the results of activities focused on the assessment of impacts of ICT on the safety of cyclists, realised in the framework of the EU project SAFECYCLE ( www.safecycle.eu ). E-safety applications were identified that can enhance the safety of cyclists in Europe. Eleven applications were analysed in term of benefits and costs. The results highlighted important differences between European countries in term of awareness about cycling, knowledge about ICT applications and also impacts of these applications.

  16. Sexual and reproductive health needs of young people : a study examining the fit between needs and current programming responses in India

    OpenAIRE

    Kolencherry, Shuby

    2004-01-01

    The study intended to explore the magnitude and characteristics of sexual and reproductive health risks of young people in Gujarat, India. In particular, the study examined the fit between sexual and reproductive health needs and the existing programming responses in terms of policies, programs and access to health care services. The study is based on empirical research and Social Cognitive Theory framework. The investigation was conceived in the context following the International Conference...

  17. Evaluation of body position of competitive and recreational cyclists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Pivetta Carpes

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate and to compare the body position when cycling of cyclists of different levels. The subjects were classifi ed as athletes (competitive or non-athletes (recreational. A total of 36 recreational (n=17 competitive (n=19 cyclists were evaluated in their own bicycles. The body position assessment was carried out using a protocol that is well-recognized in the literature. The results demonstrated misalignment in the body positioning of 82% of the recreational cyclists evaluated, and 74% of the competitive cyclists evaluated. Saddle maladjustments were found to be the most common misalignments, related to both horizontal and vertical positioning of the saddle (observed in 82% of recreational cyclists and 79% of the competitive cyclists. Handlebar height was the second most common misaligned bicycle adjustment observed (observed in 12% of the recreational cyclists and 5% of the competitive cyclists. Based on the results obtained from the assessment of cyclists’ positioning, it was observed that the recreational cyclists are more susceptible to misalignments in body position during cycling; a situation that could indicate injuries in the future. These results can be explained by the different amount of time spent in the addle by the two groups due to their different objectives. RESUMO O objetivo desse estudo foi avaliar e comparar o posicionamento na bicicleta adotado por ciclistas de diferentes níveis. Os ciclistas avaliados foram classifi cados como competitivos (atletas e recreacionais (não-atletas. Um total de 36 ciclistas entre recreacionais (n=17 e competitivos (n=19 foram avaliados, cada qual na sua própria bicicleta. Para as avaliações foi utilizado um protocolo proposto pela literatura. Os dados foram submetidos à estatística descritiva, indicando ocorrência de desajustes no posicionamento em 82% dos ciclistas recreacionais e em 74% dos ciclistas competitivos avaliados. Para os ajustes no selim

  18. How does a cyclist avoid obstacles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyadait, Masayuki; Uetake, Teruo; Shimoda, Masahiro

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine the ways bicycles swerve off sidewalks onto roads under various conditions. Seven students, five males and two females participated in an experiment on a road with a 100-cm wide sidewalk. Footage of each participant on a bicycle evading obstacles such as a utility pole and pedestrian were taken with a video camera, while a front-wheel view of the path taken by the bicycle was recorded simultaneously with a digital camera. Twelve experimental conditions were used for each participant, consisting of all the combinations of (1) three obstacle types, (2) the side (left or right) to which the bicycle went to avoid the obstacle, and (3) two weather conditions. Based on the two recorded scenes, the path was then analyzed from the viewpoint of how the bicycle swerved to avoid hitting the obstacle. We found that the conditions of riding a bicycle with an umbrella caused a larger swerve to avoid the obstacle than those conditions when the rider did not have an umbrella. In particular, the condition in which the obstacle was a pedestrian who also had an umbrella caused the largest swerve. Furthermore, the distance required to become aligned with the sidewalk when the obstacle was a pedestrian walking toward the cyclist was longer than that for other obstacles. The swerve width data showed interesting results, including a tendency for swerve width to be wider when the obstacle was a utility pole compared with other obstacles.

  19. Changes in blood values in elite cyclist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørkeberg, J S; Belhage, B; Damsgaard, R

    2009-01-01

    samples were obtained from 28 elite, male cyclists. Blood was analyzed for hematocrit (Hct), hemoglobin concentration ([Hb]) and % reticulocytes. Seventy-six percent of all samples were collected out-of-competition (OOC). From December 2006 to September 2007, the average Hct and [Hb] decreased by 4.......3 percent point and 1.3 g/dL, respectively. After the end of the competitive season, the values increased back to baseline levels. During the Tour de France, the [Hb] decreased by 11.5 %, with individual decreases ranging from 7.0 to 20.6 %. Hct and [Hb] values were lower in-competition (40.9 % and 14.1 g....../dL) compared to OOC (43.2 % and 15.0 g/dL) and pre-competition (43.5 % and 14.9 g/dL). Our results suggest that when interpreting blood sample results in an anti-doping context, the sample timing (OOC, pre- or in-competition) and time of year should be kept in mind....

  20. Classification for Safety-Critical Car-Cyclist Scenarios Using Machine Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cara, I.; Gelder, E.D.

    2015-01-01

    The number of fatal car-cyclist accidents is increasing. Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) can improve the safety of cyclists, but they need to be tested with realistic safety-critical car-cyclist scenarios. In order to store only relevant scenarios, an online classification algorithm is nee

  1. Effects of acute aerobic exercise on a task-switching protocol and brain-derived neurotrophic factor concentrations in young adults with different levels of cardiorespiratory fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chia-Liang; Pan, Chien-Yu; Chen, Fu-Chen; Wang, Chun-Hao; Chou, Feng-Ying

    2016-07-01

    What is the central question of this study? Neurocognitive functions can be enhanced by acute aerobic exercise, which could be associated with changes in serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) concentrations. We aimed to explore acute exercise-induced changes in BDNF concentrations, neuropsychological and neurophysiological performances when individuals with different levels of cardiorespiratory fitness performed a cognitive task. What is the main finding and its importance? Only young adults with higher cardiorespiratory fitness could attain switching cost and neurophysiological benefits via acute aerobic exercise. The mechanisms might be fitness dependent. Although acute aerobic exercise could enhance serum BDNF concentrations, changes in peripheral BDNF concentrations could not be the potential factor involved in the beneficial effects on neurocognitive performance. This study investigated the effects of acute aerobic exercise on neuropsychological and neurophysiological performances in young adults with different cardiorespiratory fitness levels when performing a task-switching protocol and explored the potential associations between acute aerobic exercise-induced changes in serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) concentrations and various neurocognitive outcomes. Sixty young adults were categorized into one control group (i.e. non-exercise-intervention; n = 20) and two exercise-intervention (EI) groups [i.e. higher (EIH , n = 20) and lower (EIL , n = 20) cardiorespiratory fitness] according to their maximal oxygen consumption. At baseline and after either an acute bout of 30 min of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise or a control period, the neuropsychological and neurophysiological performances and serum BDNF concentrations were measured when the participants performed a task-switching protocol involving executive control and greater demands on working memory. The results revealed that although acute aerobic exercise decreased reaction

  2. [The module "Motorik" in the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS). Motor fitness and physical activity of children and young people].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opper, E; Worth, A; Wagner, M; Bös, K

    2007-01-01

    Motor fitness and physical activity are important aspects of a healthy development in childhood and adolescence. However, the assessment of motor fitness and physical activity is not subject to standardized criteria; furthermore, the samples investigated do not provide a representative image of the whole population. Therefore, the existing data only allow very limited statements on the state and development of motor fitness and physical activity. The "Motorik" module, as part of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS), offers nationwide representative data on the motor fitness and physical activity of children and adolescents for the first time. Besides the baseline-analysis, another aim is to analyse the complex relationship between motor fitness, physical activity and health. Motor fitness, based on the systematisation of motor abilities, was assessed using a test profile. The test profile consists of 11 items measuring cardiorespiratory fitness, strength, coordination and mobility. Physical activity was assessed using a questionnaire containing 51 items on the duration, intensity and frequency of physical activity in everyday life, during leisure time, at school and in sports clubs. The above-mentioned questionnaire subtopics were supplemented by questions on the weekly prevalence of at least 60 minutes of daily physical activity, on material and local conditions, as well as on cognition and motivation for physical activity. In the years 2004 to 2006, the motor fitness and physical activity of 4,529 children and young people between the ages of 4 and 17 years was investigated on 168 sample points in the context of the "Motorik" module. Half of the children and adolescents investigated belong to the middle class, approximately 15% have a background of migration. The majority of the subjects come from small towns, about a quarter live in the city, less than 20% are settled in rural areas.

  3. Isometric cervical extension strength of recreational and experienced cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, K; Nichols, J; Holmes, B; Buono, M

    1995-06-01

    The effect for cyclists of the typical forward sitting position on neck strength and its possible relationship to neck pain have not been examined. The purpose of this study was to measure the peak isometric cervical extension strength (PICES) of both recreational and experienced road cyclists and to compare these values to those of noncyclists. Subjects, 45 men between the ages of 18 and 40, were tested for voluntary PICES through a 126 degrees range of motion on a MedX cervical extension machine. No significant differences were found between the three groups in PICES at any angle. When expressed relative to body weight, significant differences in PICES were found at 126 degrees between the control group and the recreational cyclist group (p cycling, rather than from muscle weakness.

  4. Exploring characteristics and motives of long distance commuter cyclists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Karsten Bruun; Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick

    2014-01-01

    , commuter cyclists (>5 km from home to work) have more mobility options, higher incomes, and a longer education than other commuter cyclists. The main motive for longer distance cycling is physical exercise, followed by reduced costs and time used for traveling. The long distance commuter cyclists surveyed...... are very positive about their commute - pointing to positive experiences, better mood, and stress relief as experiences related to their cycle trip to work. Policy support should devote attention to unlocking the potential that may be embedded in individuals combining their exercise and travel time......, budgets to promote active travel to work as well as the role of psychological benefits as a factor in promoting and sustaining cycling practices....

  5. Exploring characteristics and motives of long distance commuter cyclists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Karsten Bruun; Sick Nielsen, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    , commuter cyclists (45 km from home to work) have more mobility options, higher incomes, and a longer education than other commuter cyclists. The main motive for longer distance cycling is physical exercise, followed by reduced costs and time used for traveling. The long distance commuter cyclists surveyed...... are very positive about their commute - pointing to positive experiences, better mood, and stress relief as experiences related to their cycle trip to work. Policy support should devote attention to unlocking the potential that may be embedded in individuals combining their exercise and travel time......, budgets to promote active travel to work as well as the role of psychological benefits as a factor in promoting and sustaining cycling practices....

  6. Even One Is Too Much: Sole Presence of One of the Risk Factors Overweight, Lack of Exercise, and Smoking Reduces Physical Fitness of Young Soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyk, Dieter; Witzki, Alexander; Willi, Gorges; Rohde, Ulrich; Rüther, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    Health and physical fitness are key factors for soldiers. Increased sedentary military work, significant sitting periods during commuting and leisure time, and unhealthy dietary habits have caused a considerable increase in the number of physically unfit soldiers. Even worse, the adoption of harmful lifestyle habits occurs increasingly earlier in life. The aim of this cross-sectional study was (a) to determine the physical fitness of young male soldiers and (b) to investigate the association between physical fitness and both the presence and frequency of the health risk factors overweight, smoking, and lack of exercise. A total of 4,553 volunteers aged 18-25 years performed the Basis Fitness Test consisting of the 3 disciplines agility (11 × 10 m shuttle sprint), strength (flexed-arm hang), and endurance (1,000-m run). The presence and frequency of risk factors were determined by means of anthropometric measures (body mass index, waist circumference) and questionnaire data. The portion of soldiers without risk factors decreased from 49.4% (18-year-olds) to 16.4% for 25-year-olds. Persons without risk factors completed the agility test in 41.1 ± 3.7 seconds, flexed-arm hang in 60.1 ± 19.7 seconds, and 1,000-m run in 235 ± 32 seconds. Physical performance in all dimensions tested (agility, strength, endurance) notably deteriorated with the sole presence of one of the risk factors overweight, smoking, and lack of exercise. Any further risk factor led to further fitness decreases (p young male soldiers. Armed Forces must intensify their efforts to maintain health and performance of their soldiers.

  7. CYCLING EFFICIENCY IN TRAINED MALE AND FEMALE COMPETITIVE CYCLISTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Hopker

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine differences in cycling efficiency between competitive male and female cyclists. Thirteen trained male (mean ± SD: 34 ± 8 yr, 74.1 ± 6.0 kg, Maximum Aerobic Power (MAP 414 ± 40 W, VO2max 61.3 ± 5.4 ml·kg-1·min-1 and 13 trained female (34 ± 9 yr, 60.1 ± 5.2 kg, MAP 293 ± 22 W, VO2max 48.9 ± 6.1 ml·kg-1·min-1 competitive cyclists completed a cycling test to ascertain their gross efficiency (GE. Leg and lean leg volume of all cyclists was also measured. Calculated GE was significantly higher in female cyclists at 150W (22.5 ± 2.1 vs 19.9 ± 1. 8%; p < 0.01 and 180W (22.3 ± 1.8 vs 20.4 ± 1.5%; p = 0.01. Cadence was not significantly different between the groups (88 ± 6 vs 91 ± 5 rev·min-1. Lean leg volume was significantly lower for female cyclists (4.04 ± 0.5 vs 5.51 ± 0.8 dm3; p < 0.01 and was inversely related to GE in both groups at 150 and 180W (r = -0.59 and -0.58; p < 0.05. Lean leg volume was shown to account for the differences in GE between the males and females. During an "unloaded" pedalling condition, male cyclists had a significantly higher O2 cost than female cyclists (1.0 ± 0.1 vs 0.7 ± 0.1 L·min-1; p < 0.01, indicative of a greater non-propulsive cost of cycling. These results suggest that differences in efficiency between trained male and female cyclists can be partly accounted for by sex-specific variation in lean leg volume

  8. The effect of a yellow bicycle jacket on cyclist accidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lahrmann, Harry; Madsen, Tanja Kidholm Osmann; Olesen, Anne Vingaard

    2017-01-01

    Highlights •A randomised controlled trial with 6793 cyclists shows a reduced accident risk due to a yellow bicycle jacket. •The test group had 47% fewer multiparty accidents with personal injury. •The test group had 55% fewer multiparty accidents against motorised vehicles.......Highlights •A randomised controlled trial with 6793 cyclists shows a reduced accident risk due to a yellow bicycle jacket. •The test group had 47% fewer multiparty accidents with personal injury. •The test group had 55% fewer multiparty accidents against motorised vehicles....

  9. Blood lead levels of British competitive cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, G; Maclaren, D; Taylor, C

    1994-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which the potentially toxic lead particulates emitted from motor vehicles are absorbed by competitive cyclists. A time trial (n = 5), a road race (n = 5), and a sedentary control group (n = 5) were examined with respect to blood lead (PbB) levels. In the two cycling groups, the PbB levels were measured before and after (1) a time trial (80 km) held on a dual carriageway; and (2) a road race (120 km) which took place in a rural area. Mean (+/- SE) resting PbB levels for the sedentary subjects, time trialists, and road racers were 0.442 +/- 0.041, 0.490 +/- 0.111 and 0.384 +/- 0.061 mumol l-1 respectively (p > 0.05). Mean post-race PbB levels of the time trialists (0.528 +/- 0.046 mumol l-1) and road racers (0.346 +/- 0.024 mumol l-1) did not differ significantly from the pre-race levels (p > 0.05). However, after their respective races, the mean PbB level of the time trialists was higher than that of the road racers (p cycling (70% VO2 max) in a laboratory containing approximately 1 microgram m3 of airborne lead did not affect blood lead levels. All PbB levels compiled with EC regulations regarding lead exposure. Despite a positive relationship between the amount of training and the PbB levels (r = 0.64, p road racing.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Overweight and obesity in young adult women: A matter of health or appearance? The Tromsø study: Fit futures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sand, Anne-Sofie; Emaus, Nina; Lian, Olaug

    2015-01-01

    With the increasing number of overweight and obese people, there is a growing public health concern and focus on body size and lifestyle issues, especially in the media. Young adult women comprise a vulnerable group regarding issues of weight balance and appearance. The aim of the study was to examine the experiences of young women on how this focus influences their attitudes concerning weight changes, appearance, and health. We conducted 12 interviews with young women from two different weight groups about the attention on overweight issues. The results from the in-depth interviews were scrutinized through content analyses. The main findings indicate that young women experience a considerable focus on overweight issues with a trend towards appearance rather than health. Overweight and obesity are sensitive topics, and participants expressed strong views on the cultural definitions of normal body size and appearance. The squeeze between cultural norms and young women's perceptions of their own body and health was described as a possible negative factor influencing well-being as well as motivation for lifestyle changes. A more relaxed focus on overweight issues and especially on appearance is necessary when addressing weight-balance issues and lifestyle changes in young adult women.

  11. Independent and Combined Association of Muscle Strength and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Youth With Insulin Resistance and β-Cell Function in Young Adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøntved, Anders; Ried-Larsen, Mathias; Ekelund, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVETo examine the independent and combined association of isometric muscle strength of the abdomen and back and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) in youth with indices of glucose metabolism in young adulthood among boys and girls from the European Youth Heart Study.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODSWe.......RESULTSFor each 1-SD difference in isometric muscle strength (0.16 N/kg) in youth, fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, and HOMA-B in young adulthood changed with -11.3% (95% CI, -17.0 to -5.2), -12.2% (-18.2 to -5.7), and -8.9% (-14.4 to -3.0), respectively, in young adulthood after adjustment for CRF and personal...... ergometer test. Insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance [HOMA-IR]) and β-cell function (homeostasis model assessment of β-cell function [HOMA-B]) were estimated from fasting serum insulin and glucose that were obtained in youth and at follow-up in young adulthood...

  12. A prospective study of physical fitness, obesity, and the subsequent risk of mental disorders among healthy young adults in army training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubata, Marlene E; Urban, Nadia; Cowan, David N; Niebuhr, David W

    2013-07-01

    Mental health disorders contribute substantially to medical and occupational morbidity. The role of fitness and physical activity in the prevention of mental health disorders is not well established, but epidemiologic data suggest that physical activity can protect against anxiety and depression. The analyses presented in this report, from a prospective cohort study, evaluate the association between fitness (as measured by a 5-minute step test), and being overweight (defined as exceeding weight and body fat allowances) at military entrance, with subsequent onset of mental disorder diagnosis in the first year of service. The association between risk factors and mental disorder diagnosis was analyzed using multivariate Poisson regression with the adjusted incidence rate ratio (aIRR) as the measure of association. Among weight-qualified participants, factors associated with increased incidence of mental disorder included failing the physical fitness test (aIRR: 1.36, pfit participants, being overweight was not significantly associated with mental disorder (aIRR: 1.11, p=0.1540). This test has potential military utility as an adjunct part of the medical examination process. Additional research is needed among civilians to determine if similar associations exist. If so, intervention studies should be conducted to determine if improving physical fitness reduces subsequent psychiatric disorder risk, particularly among young adults entering into stressful situations. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Sex Differences in Risk Taking Behavior among Dutch Cyclists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cobey, Kelly D.; Stulp, Gert; Laan, Freek; Buunk, Abraham P.; Pollet, Thomas V.

    2013-01-01

    The majority of research examining sex differences in risk-taking behavior focuses on overt physical risk measures in which failed risk attempts may result in serious injury or death. The present research describes sex differences in patterns of risk taking in day-to-day behavior among Dutch cyclist

  14. Use of media devices by cyclists and pedestrians.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2010-01-01

    Many people in the Netherlands use media players and/or mobile phones while cycling or walking. Research has shown that the use of devices while walking or cycling involves less safe road user behaviour. Pedestrians and cyclists apparently do not compensate sufficiently for the distraction resultin

  15. Course holding by cyclists and moped riders. (Revised version).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Godhelp, J. & Wouters, P.I.J.

    1980-01-01

    Course holding by cyclists and moped riders includes both steering alongside a course and stabilising the vehicle. Inability to hold course may lead to conflicts with other road users. To design safe bicycle and moped facilities and to consider the safety of those existing, knowledge about performan

  16. Comparison of anthropometric characteristics between professional triathletes and cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunkhorst, L; Kielstein, H

    2013-12-01

    Anthropometric characteristics of athletes are considered to be an important determinant of success in sport. The aim of the present study was to compare several anthropometric parameters and subjective characteristics of professional elite triathletes with anthropometric profiles of professional cyclists and sportive students. In total 93 volunteers (21 male and female triathletes, 26 male cyclists and as a control group 46 male and female students) participated in this study. Eight different anthropometric parameters were measured and a five-page questionnaire containing 35 general questions had to be completed. Interestingly, there were no significant differences between the arm span, the lengths of the lower limb and the circumference of waist and hip between male triathletes and cyclists. As expected, the athletes had significantly lower heart rates and lower weights as compared to the controls. Further results showed that male cyclists had a higher BMI, larger thighs and were taller as compared to the male triathletes. The present study could not evaluate specific anthropometric characteristics as predictive factors of performance in elite athletes. Thus, individual successful performance is linked to discipline and talent rather than to a specific anthropometric profile.

  17. Systematic review of physical activity and exercise interventions to improve health, fitness and well-being of children and young people who use wheelchairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Thomas D; Noyes, Jane; Spencer, Llinos Haf; Kubis, Hans-Peter; Hastings, Richard P; Whitaker, Rhiannon

    2016-01-01

    Aim To perform a systematic review establishing the current evidence base for physical activity and exercise interventions that promote health, fitness and well-being, rather than specific functional improvements, for children who use wheelchairs. Design A systematic review using a mixed methods design. Data sources A wide range of databases, including Web of Science, PubMed, BMJ Best Practice, NHS EED, CINAHL, AMED, NICAN, PsychINFO, were searched for quantitative, qualitative and health economics evidence. Eligibility participants: children/young people aged >25 years who use a wheelchair, or parents and therapists/carers. Intervention: home-based or community-based physical activity to improve health, fitness and well-being. Results Thirty quantitative studies that measured indicators of health, fitness and well-being and one qualitative study were included. Studies were very heterogeneous preventing a meta-analysis, and the risk of bias was generally high. Most studies focused on children with cerebral palsy and used an outcome measure of walking or standing, indicating that they were generally designed for children with already good motor function and mobility. Improvements in health, fitness and well-being were found across the range of outcome types. There were no reports of negative changes. No economics evidence was found. Conclusions It was found that children who use wheelchairs can participate in physical activity interventions safely. The paucity of robust studies evaluating interventions to improve health and fitness is concerning. This hinders adequate policymaking and guidance for practitioners, and requires urgent attention. However, the evidence that does exist suggests that children who use wheelchairs are able to experience the positive benefits associated with appropriately designed exercise. Trial registration number CRD42013003939. PMID:27900176

  18. Effect of the Adapted NASA Mission X International Child Fitness Program on Young Children and their Parents in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Jungwon; Kim, Gilsook; Lim, Hyunjung; Carvajal, Nubia A.; Lloyd, Charles W.; Wang, Youfa; Reeves, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    Obesity has become a global epidemic. Childhood obesity is global public health concern including in South Korea where 16.2% of boys and 9.9% of girls are overweight or obese in 2011. Effective and sustainable intervention programs are needed for prevention of childhood obesity. Obesity prevention programs for young children may have a greater intervention effect than in older children. The NASA Mission X: Train Like an Astronaut (MX) program was developed to promote children's exercise and healthy eating by tapping into their excitement for training like an astronaut. This study aimed to examine the feasibility and effectiveness of the adapted NASA MX intervention in promoting PA in young children and in improving parents' related perspectives.

  19. Improved general physical fitness of young swimmers by applying in the training process of endogenous hypoxic breathing techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furman Y.M.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : to examine the effect of general physical preparedness of young swimmers in the body artificially created state hypercapnic normobaric hypoxia. Material : the study involved 21 swimmer aged 13-14 years with sports qualifications at third and second sports categories. Results : the original method of working with young swimmers. Studies were conducted for 16 weeks a year preparatory period macrocycle. The average value of the index on the results of general endurance races 800m improved by 2.80 %. 8.24 % increased speed- strength endurance and 18.77 % increased dynamic strength endurance. During the period of formative experiment performance speed, agility, static endurance, flexibility and explosive strength athletes first experimental group was not significantly changed. Conclusions : it was found that the use of the proposed technique provides statistically significant increase in overall endurance, speed strength endurance and dynamic strength endurance.

  20. Sprint kayaking and canoeing performance prediction based on the relationship between maturity status, anthropometry and physical fitness in young elite paddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Plaza, Daniel; Alacid, Fernando; Muyor, José María; López-Miñarro, Pedro Ángel

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to identify the maturity-related differences and its influence on the physical fitness, morphological and performance characteristics of young elite paddlers. In total, 89 kayakers and 82 canoeists, aged 13.69 ± 0.57 years (mean ± s), were allocated in three groups depending on their age relative to the age at peak height velocity (pre-APHV, circum-APHV and post-APHV) and discipline (kayak and canoe). Nine anthropometric variables, a battery of four physical fitness tests (overhead medicine ball throw, countermovement jump, sit-and-reach test and 20 m multistage shuttle run test) and three specific performance tests (1000, 500 and 200 m) were assessed. Both disciplines presented significant maturity-based differences in all anthropometric parameters (except for fat and muscle mass percentage), overhead medicine ball throw and all performance times (pre > circum > post; P kayaking and canoeing since the more mature paddlers were also those who revealed largest body size, physical fitness level and best paddling performance. Additionally, the most important variables predicting performance times in kayaking and canoeing were maturity status and chronological age, respectively.

  1. Getting CSR communication fit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmeltz, Line

    2017-01-01

    Companies experience increasing legal and societal pressure to communicate about their corporate social responsibility (CSR) engagements from a number of different publics. One very important group is that of young consumers who are predicted to be the most important and influential consumer group...... in the near future. From a value- theoretical base, this article empirically explores the role and applicability of ‘fit’ in strategic CSR communication targeted at young consumers. Point of departure is taken in the well-known strategic fit (a logical link between a company’s CSR commitment and its core...... values) and is further developed by introducing two additional fits, the CSR- Consumer fit and the CSR-Consumer-Company fit (Triple Fit). Through a sequential design, the three fits are empirically tested and their potential for meeting young consumers’ expectations for corporate CSR messaging...

  2. Low physical fitness is a strong predictor of health problems among young men: a follow-up study of 1411 male conscripts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taanila Henri

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Military service in Finland is compulsory for male citizens and annually about 90% of 19-year-old men enter into the service. Approximately 15% of them are discharged due to medical reasons constituting a group of young men who are at risk of being marginalised in society. The purpose of the study was to evaluate predictive associations between medical discharge from the compulsory military service and various intrinsic risk factors, including socio-economic, health, health behavior, and physical fitness outcomes. Methods We followed four successive cohorts of conscripts who formed a representative sample of Finnish young men (18-28 years old, median age 19 yrs for 6 months. To exclude injuries and illnesses originating before the onset of service, conscripts discharged from the service at the medical screenings during the 2-week run-in period were excluded from the analyses. Data regarding medical discharge were charted from computerised patient records. Predictive associations between medical discharge and intrinsic risk factors were examined using multivariate Cox's proportional hazard models. Results Of 1411 participants, 9.4% (n = 133 were discharged prematurely for medical reasons, mainly musculoskeletal (44%, n = 59 and mental and behavioral (29%, n = 39 disorders. Low levels of physical fitness assessed with a 12-min running test (hazard ratio [HR] 3.3; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.7-6.4, poor school success (HR 4.6; 95% CI: 2.0-11.0, poor self-assessed health (HR 2.8; 95% CI: 1.6-5.2, and not belonging to a sports club (HR 4.9; 95% CI: 1.2-11.6 were most strongly associated with medical discharge in a graded manner. The present results highlight the need for an improved pre-enlistment examination and provide a new means of identifying young persons with a high risk for discharge. Conclusions The majority of the observed risk factors are modifiable. Thus preventive measures and programs could be implemented. The

  3. Low physical fitness is a strong predictor of health problems among young men: a follow-up study of 1411 male conscripts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taanila, Henri; Hemminki, Antti J M; Suni, Jaana H; Pihlajamäki, Harri; Parkkari, Jari

    2011-07-25

    Military service in Finland is compulsory for male citizens and annually about 90% of 19-year-old men enter into the service. Approximately 15% of them are discharged due to medical reasons constituting a group of young men who are at risk of being marginalised in society. The purpose of the study was to evaluate predictive associations between medical discharge from the compulsory military service and various intrinsic risk factors, including socio-economic, health, health behavior, and physical fitness outcomes. We followed four successive cohorts of conscripts who formed a representative sample of Finnish young men (18-28 years old, median age 19 yrs) for 6 months. To exclude injuries and illnesses originating before the onset of service, conscripts discharged from the service at the medical screenings during the 2-week run-in period were excluded from the analyses. Data regarding medical discharge were charted from computerised patient records. Predictive associations between medical discharge and intrinsic risk factors were examined using multivariate Cox's proportional hazard models. Of 1411 participants, 9.4% (n = 133) were discharged prematurely for medical reasons, mainly musculoskeletal (44%, n = 59) and mental and behavioral (29%, n = 39) disorders. Low levels of physical fitness assessed with a 12-min running test (hazard ratio [HR] 3.3; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.7-6.4), poor school success (HR 4.6; 95% CI: 2.0-11.0), poor self-assessed health (HR 2.8; 95% CI: 1.6-5.2), and not belonging to a sports club (HR 4.9; 95% CI: 1.2-11.6) were most strongly associated with medical discharge in a graded manner. The present results highlight the need for an improved pre-enlistment examination and provide a new means of identifying young persons with a high risk for discharge. The majority of the observed risk factors are modifiable. Thus preventive measures and programs could be implemented. The findings suggest that increasing both aerobic and muscular

  4. The Effects Of Two Fitness Programs With Different Metabolic Demands On Oxidative Stress In The Blood Of Young Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djordjevic Dusica

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of two metabolically different exercise programs on the redox state of women who were physically inactive before the beginning of the study. For this purpose, participants (women 25±5 years old chose one of two popular fitness programs, Pilates or Tae Bo, and attended it 3 times a week for 12 weeks. At the beginning and end of the study, body composition analysis and venous blood sampling were performed. The levels of superoxide anion radical, hydrogen peroxide, nitric oxide and lipid peroxidation were measured in plasma, and the levels of reduced glutathione and the activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase were measured in erythrocytes. Only the Tae Bo program induced changes (positive in body composition, whereas both exercise programs induced slight oxidative stress in exercisers. In the Tae Bo group, the levels of hydrogen peroxide were significantly increased, whereas the levels of reduced glutathione were decreased after three months of training. In the Pilates group, hydrogen peroxide and catalase activity were increased, and nitrites decreased. However, at the end of the study, those two groups had no significantly different values for any pro/antioxidant compared with the subjects who served as controls. This finding suggests that moderate physical activity, such as recreational fitness programs, may induce the increased production of reactive oxygen species but do not lead to a serious disturbance of the redox homeostasis of exercisers.

  5. Reduced fitness and abnormal cardiopulmonary responses to maximal exercise testing in children and young adults with sickle cell anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liem, Robert I; Reddy, Madhuri; Pelligra, Stephanie A; Savant, Adrienne P; Fernhall, Bo; Rodeghier, Mark; Thompson, Alexis A

    2015-04-01

    Physiologic contributors to reduced exercise capacity in individuals with sickle cell anemia (SCA) are not well understood. The objective of this study was to characterize the cardiopulmonary response to maximal cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) and determine factors associated with reduced exercise capacity among children and young adults with SCA. A cross-sectional cohort of 60 children and young adults (mean 15.1 ± 3.4 years) with hemoglobin SS or S/β(0) thalassemia and 30 matched controls (mean 14.6 ± 3.5 years) without SCA or sickle cell trait underwent maximal CPET by a graded, symptom-limited cycle ergometry protocol with breath-by-breath, gas exchange analysis. Compared to controls without SCA, subjects with SCA demonstrated significantly lower peak VO2 (26.9 ± 6.9 vs. 37.0 ± 9.2 mL/kg/min, P < 0.001). Subjects demonstrated slower oxygen uptake (ΔVO2/ΔWR, 9 ± 2 vs. 12 ± 2 mL/min/watt, P < 0.001) and lower oxygen pulse (ΔVO2/ΔHR, 12 ± 4 vs. 20 ± 7 mL/beat, P < 0.001) as well as reduced oxygen uptake efficiency (ΔVE/ΔVO2, 42 ± 8 vs. 32 ± 5, P < 0.001) and ventilation efficiency (ΔVE/ΔVCO2, 30.3 ± 3.7 vs. 27.3 ± 2.5, P < 0.001) during CPET. Peak VO2 remained significantly lower in subjects with SCA after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index (BMI), and hemoglobin, which were independent predictors of peak VO2 for subjects with SCA. In the largest study to date using maximal CPET in SCA, we demonstrate that children and young adults with SCA have reduced exercise capacity attributable to factors independent of anemia. Complex derangements in gas exchange and oxygen uptake during maximal exercise are common in this population.

  6. Modeling of cyclists acceleration behavior using naturalistic data

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Ding

    2014-01-01

    Over the past few years, many cities have witnessed the increasing popularity of cycling, especially among ordinary commuters. Accordingly, there has also been a fast growing demand for the knowledge of cycling performance as well as cyclist behavior, which can be valuable for both traffic planners and policy makers when it comes to the bicycle-related issues. The aim of this study, hence, is to investigate the cycling performance in detail and to further develop proper models which can be im...

  7. Maximal strength training improves cycling economy in competitive cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunde, Arnstein; Støren, Oyvind; Bjerkaas, Marius; Larsen, Morten H; Hoff, Jan; Helgerud, Jan

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of maximal strength training on cycling economy (CE) at 70% of maximal oxygen consumption (Vo2max), work efficiency in cycling at 70% Vo2max, and time to exhaustion at maximal aerobic power. Responses in 1 repetition maximum (1RM) and rate of force development (RFD) in half-squats, Vo2max, CE, work efficiency, and time to exhaustion at maximal aerobic power were examined. Sixteen competitive road cyclists (12 men and 4 women) were randomly assigned into either an intervention or a control group. Thirteen (10 men and 3 women) cyclists completed the study. The intervention group (7 men and 1 woman) performed half-squats, 4 sets of 4 repetitions maximum, 3 times per week for 8 weeks, as a supplement to their normal endurance training. The control group continued their normal endurance training during the same period. The intervention manifested significant (p < 0.05) improvements in 1RM (14.2%), RFD (16.7%), CE (4.8%), work efficiency (4.7%), and time to exhaustion at pre-intervention maximal aerobic power (17.2%). No changes were found in Vo2max or body weight. The control group exhibited an improvement in work efficiency (1.4%), but this improvement was significantly (p < 0.05) smaller than that in the intervention group. No changes from pre- to postvalues in any of the other parameters were apparent in the control group. In conclusion, maximal strength training for 8 weeks improved CE and efficiency and increased time to exhaustion at maximal aerobic power among competitive road cyclists, without change in maximal oxygen uptake, cadence, or body weight. Based on the results from the present study, we advise cyclists to include maximal strength training in their training programs.

  8. Deaths of cyclists in london: trends from 1992 to 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee William E

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cycling is an increasingly important mode of transport for environmental and health reasons. Cycling fatalities in London were previously investigated in 1994 using routinely collected data. Since then, there have been shifts in the modes of transport used, and in transport policies. We sought to replicate the previous work using data on cyclist deaths in London between 1992 and 2006, specifically investigating whether heavy goods vehicles continued to pose a threat. Methods Observational study based on analysis of time series of police road casualties data, 1992 to 2006, in London, UK. The main outcome measures were cyclists killed in road traffic collisions. Poisson regression and chi-squared test for homogeneity were used to assess time effects. Travel flow data was then used to estimate annual fatality rates per 100,000 cyclists per kilometre. Results From 1992 to 2006 there was a mean of 16 cycling fatalities per year (range 8-21. 146 deaths (60% were in inner London and 96 in outer London. There was no evidence for a decline over time (p = 0.7 other than a pronounced dip in 2004 when there were 8 fatalities. Freight vehicles were involved in 103 of 242 (43% of all incidents and the vehicle was making a left turn in over half of these (53%. The fatality rate ranged from 20.5 deaths in 1992 to 11.1 deaths in 2006 per 100,000 estimated cyclists per kilometre (rate ratio 0.54, 95% confidence interval 0.28 to 1.03. Conclusions There is little evidence fatality rates have fallen. Freight vehicles over 3.5 tonnes continue to present a disproportionate threat; they should be removed from urban roads and more appropriate means of delivery of essential goods found.

  9. A Review of Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Adolescent and Young Adult Survivors of Childhood Cancer: Factors that Affect its Decline and Opportunities for Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkman, Amy M; Lakoski, Susan G

    2016-03-01

    Childhood cancer incidence and survivorship rates are increasing, leading to a growing population of survivors that are at risk for competing causes of death, most notably cardiovascular disease (CVD). Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), a key modifiable CVD risk factor, is lower than expected among childhood survivors 5-20 years post-diagnosis. This review discusses the studies that demonstrate lower CRF in survivors of childhood cancer and the potential mechanisms and factors contributing to lower CRF in this population. Both exercise interventions and strategies to improve CRF are considered. The review advocates for more robust clinical research and exercise interventions to improve CRF with the goal of reducing comorbidities and competing CVD risk among childhood cancer survivors into adolescence and young adulthood.

  10. Probing the anomalous extinction of four young star clusters: the use of colour-excess, main sequence fitting and fractal analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandes, B; Hetem, A

    2012-01-01

    Four young star clusters were studied in order to characterize their anomalous extinction or variable reddening that could be due to a possible contamination by dense clouds or circumstellar effects. The extinction law (Rv) was evaluated by adopting two methods: (i) the use of theoretical expressions based on the colour-excess of stars with known spectral type, and (ii) the analysis of two-colour diagrams, where the slope of observed colours distribution is compared to the normal distribution. An algorithm to reproduce the zero age main sequence (ZAMS) reddened colours was developed in order to derive the average visual extinction (Av) that provides the best fitting of the observational data. The structure of the clouds was evaluated by means of statistical fractal analysis, aiming to compare their geometric structure with the spatial distribution of the cluster members. The cluster NGC 6530 is the only object of our sample showing anomalous extinction. In average, the other clusters are suffering normal exti...

  11. Sodium Phosphate Supplementation and Time Trial Performance in Female Cyclists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher L. Buck

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of three doses of sodium phosphate (SP supplementation on cycling 500 kJ (119.5 Kcal time trial (TT performance in female cyclists. Thirteen cyclists participated in a randomised, Latin-square design study where they completed four separate trials after ingesting either a placebo, or one of three different doses (25, 50 or 75 mg·kg-1 fat free mass: FFM of trisodium phosphate dodecahydrate which was split into four equal doses a day for six days. On the day after the loading phase, the TT was performed on a cycle ergometer. Serum phosphate blood samples were taken at rest both before and after each loading protocol, while a ~21 day washout period separated each loading phase. No significant differences in TT performance were observed between any of the supplementation protocols (p = 0.73 with average completion times for the 25, 50 or 75 mg·kg-1 FFM being, 42:21 ± 07:53, 40:55 ± 07:33 and 40:38 ± 07:20 min respectively, and 40:39 ± 07:51 min for the placebo. Likewise, average and peak power output did not significantly differ between trials (p = 0.06 and p = 0.46, respectively. Consequently, 500 kJ cycling TT performance was not different in any of the supplementation protocols in female cyclists.

  12. Cardiorespiratory Fitness of University Volleyball Players and Sedentary Young People in Marathwada Region of Maharashtra Province in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kausar, Afshan; Mudassir, Syed; Badaam, Khaled Mohsin; Shete, A N; Khan, Shoeb

    2015-07-01

    Volleyball is considered a physically demanding athletic sport; characterized by rapid acceleration, deceleration, and sudden changes of direction. It has been highlighted that aerobic capacity (VO2 max) which indicates cardiorespiratory fitness has a significant effect on the performance of athletes and is an important element of success in sports. The objective of this study was to compare aerobic capacity of university volleyball players from the region with that of matched sedentary controls. The secondary objective was to compare the findings with the aerobic capacity data reported in literature for the volleyball players and sedentary population. Sample size was calculated for detecting a large effect size (Cohen's d = 0.8) with α as 0.05 and power of study as 80% for two tailed hypothesis testing. By using Queen's college step test, VO2 max was measured in 30 male volleyball players in the age group of 20 to25 years and was compared with 30 age and socio-economic status matched controls with sedentary lifestyle. The mean predicted VO2 max was 52.99 ± 5.13 ml/kg/min in volleyball players and 37.01 ± 3.94 ml/kg/min in controls. The difference in mean values of VO2 max (ml/kg/min) in volleyball players and controls was statistically highly significant with p-value less than 0.001. The volleyball players showed a superior aerobic capacity compared with age and socio-economic status matched controls with sedentary lifestyle.

  13. Sprint interval and sprint continuous training increases circulating CD34+ cells and cardio-respiratory fitness in young healthy women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Harris

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The improvement of vascular health in the exercising limb can be attained by sprint interval training (SIT. However, the effects on systemic vascular function and on circulating angiogenic cells (CACs which may contribute to endothelial repair have not been investigated. Additionally, a comparison between SIT and sprint continuous training (SCT which is less time committing has not been made. METHODS: 12 women (22±2 yrs completed 12 sessions of either SIT (n = 6 or work-matched SCT (n = 6 on 3 days/week. Pre and post-training assessments included brachial artery endothelial function and peripheral blood analysis for CAC number (CD34+/CD34+CD45dim. CAC function was measured by migration and adhesion assays. Cardio-respiratory fitness, carotid arterial stiffness and carotid-radial and brachial-foot pulse wave velocity (PWV were also evaluated. RESULTS: CD34+ CACs increased following training in both groups but CD34+CD45dim did not (Pre CD34+: 40±21/105 leukocytes, Post CD34+: 56±24/105 leukocytes, main time effect p0.05. DISCUSSION: SCT involving little time commitment is comparable to SIT in increasing CD34+ cell number and [Formula: see text]. An increased mobilisation of CD34+ CACs suggests that sprint training may be an effective method to enhance vascular repair.

  14. Naturalistic cycling study: identifying risk factors for on-road commuter cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Marilyn; Charlton, Judith; Oxley, Jennifer; Newstead, Stuart

    2010-01-01

    The study aim was to identify risk factors for collisions/near-collisions involving on-road commuter cyclists and drivers. A naturalistic cycling study was conducted in Melbourne, Australia, with cyclists wearing helmet-mounted video cameras. Video recordings captured cyclists' perspective of the road and traffic behaviours including head checks, reactions and manoeuvres. The 100-car naturalistic driving study analysis technique was adapted for data analysis and events were classified by severity: collision, near-collision and incident. Participants were adult cyclists and each filmed 12 hours of commuter cycling trips over a 4-week period. In total, 127 hours and 38 minutes were analysed for 13 participants, 54 events were identified: 2 collisions, 6 near-collisions and 46 incidents. Prior to events, 88.9% of cyclists travelled in a safe/legal manner. Sideswipe was the most frequent event type (40.7%). Most events occurred at an intersection/intersection-related location (70.3%). The vehicle driver was judged at fault in the majority of events (87.0%) and no post-event driver reaction was observed (83.3%). Cross tabulations revealed significant associations between event severity and: cyclist reaction, cyclist post-event manoeuvre, pre-event driver behaviour, other vehicle involved, driver reaction, visual obstruction, cyclist head check (left), event type and vehicle location (proad cyclists and to indicate early before turning/changing lanes when sharing the roadway with cyclists are discussed. Findings will contribute to the development of effective countermeasures to reduce cyclist trauma.

  15. Superior Inhibitory Control and Resistance to Mental Fatigue in Professional Road Cyclists.

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    Kristy Martin

    Full Text Available Given the important role of the brain in regulating endurance performance, this comparative study sought to determine whether professional road cyclists have superior inhibitory control and resistance to mental fatigue compared to recreational road cyclists.After preliminary testing and familiarization, eleven professional and nine recreational road cyclists visited the lab on two occasions to complete a modified incongruent colour-word Stroop task (a cognitive task requiring inhibitory control for 30 min (mental exertion condition, or an easy cognitive task for 10 min (control condition in a randomized, counterbalanced cross-over order. After each cognitive task, participants completed a 20-min time trial on a cycle ergometer. During the time trial, heart rate, blood lactate concentration, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE were recorded.The professional cyclists completed more correct responses during the Stroop task than the recreational cyclists (705±68 vs 576±74, p = 0.001. During the time trial, the recreational cyclists produced a lower mean power output in the mental exertion condition compared to the control condition (216±33 vs 226±25 W, p = 0.014. There was no difference between conditions for the professional cyclists (323±42 vs 326±35 W, p = 0.502. Heart rate, blood lactate concentration, and RPE were not significantly different between the mental exertion and control conditions in both groups.The professional cyclists exhibited superior performance during the Stroop task which is indicative of stronger inhibitory control than the recreational cyclists. The professional cyclists also displayed a greater resistance to the negative effects of mental fatigue as demonstrated by no significant differences in perception of effort and time trial performance between the mental exertion and control conditions. These findings suggest that inhibitory control and resistance to mental fatigue may contribute to successful road cycling

  16. Level ground and uphill cycling ability in elite female mountain bikers and road cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impellizzeri, F M; Ebert, T; Sassi, A; Menaspà, P; Rampinini, E; Martin, D T

    2008-02-01

    This study compared the morphological and physiological characteristics of elite female mountain bikers with road cyclists of different specialties and competitive level. Twenty-seven professional road cyclists and 12 mountain bikers (MTB) were involved. Road cyclists were classified as flat specialists (n = 10, FL), time trialists (n = 5, TT) and climbers (n = 12, C). From these cyclists two subgroups were obtained and compared: world class road cyclists (n = 5) and MTB (n = 5). Maximum oxygen uptake, peak power output, oxygen uptake at respiratory compensation point and power output at respiratory compensation point were determined in the laboratory. Body surface area and frontal area were also estimated. TT and FL showed higher body mass, body surface and frontal area compared with C and MTB. Absolute physiological parameters were generally higher in TT than the other groups. The same parameters normalized by body mass were similar between TT, C and MTB but higher compared to FL. No differences were found between world class road cyclists compared with top level MTB. These results confirm that a cyclist's morphological characteristics are important determinants of female cycling performance. Female MTB have anthropometric characteristics similar to road climbers, whilst the physiological profile was not different between time trialists and climbers. This suggests that, as for male professional cyclists, top level time trialists have an overall performance advantage over all types of terrain.

  17. Reading cyclist intentions: Can a lead cyclist’s behaviour be predicted?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhuis, Frank; De Waard, Dick

    2016-01-01

    As a cyclist, it is essential to make inferences about the intentions of other road users in order to anticipate their behaviour. There are official ways for cyclists to communicate their intentions to other road users, such as using their arms to point in the intended direction of travel. However,

  18. Effects of endurance training on the isocapnic buffering and hypocapnic hyperventilation phases in professional cyclists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicharro, J.; Hoyos, J.; Lucia, A.

    2000-01-01

    Objectives—To evaluate the changes produced in both the isocapnic buffering and hypocapnic hyperventilation (HHV) phases of professional cyclists (n = 11) in response to endurance training, and to compare the results with those of amateur cyclists (n = 11). Methods—Each professional cyclist performed three laboratory exercise tests to exhaustion during the active rest (autumn: November), precompetition (winter: January), and competition (spring: May) periods of the sports season. Amateur cyclists only performed one exercise test during the competition period. The isocapnic buffering and HHV ranges were calculated during each test and defined as VO2 and power output (W). Results—No significant differences were found in the isocapnic buffering range in each of the periods of the sports season in professional cyclists. In contrast, there was a significant reduction in the HHV range (expressed in W) during both the competition (p<0.01) and precompetition(p<0.05) periods compared with the rest period. On the other hand, a longer HHV range (p<0.01) was observed in amateur cyclists than in professional cyclists (whether this was expressed in terms of VO2 or W). Conclusions—No change is observed in the isocapnic buffering range of professional cyclists throughout a sports season despite a considerable increase in training loads and a significant reduction in HHV range expressed in terms of power output. Key Words: training; cycling; isocapnic buffering; hypocapnic hyperventilation PMID:11131234

  19. Dietary Recommendations for Cyclists during Altitude Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalczyk, Małgorzata; Czuba, Miłosz; Zydek, Grzegorz; Zając, Adam; Langfort, Józef

    2016-06-18

    The concept of altitude or hypoxic training is a common practice in cycling. However, several strategies for training regimens have been proposed, like "live high, train high" (LH-TH), "live high, train low" (LH-TL) or "intermittent hypoxic training" (IHT). Each of them combines the effect of acclimatization and different training protocols that require specific nutrition. An appropriate nutrition strategy and adequate hydration can help athletes achieve their fitness and performance goals in this unfriendly environment. In this review, the physiological stress of altitude exposure and training will be discussed, with specific nutrition recommendations for athletes training under such conditions. However, there is little research about the nutrition demands of athletes who train at moderate altitude. Our review considers energetic demands and body mass or body composition changes due to altitude training, including respiratory and urinary water loss under these conditions. Carbohydrate intake recommendations and hydration status are discussed in detail, while iron storage and metabolism is also considered. Last, but not least the risk of increased oxidative stress under hypoxic conditions and antioxidant supplementation suggestions are presented.

  20. Dietary Recommendations for Cyclists during Altitude Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Michalczyk

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The concept of altitude or hypoxic training is a common practice in cycling. However, several strategies for training regimens have been proposed, like “live high, train high” (LH-TH, “live high, train low” (LH-TL or “intermittent hypoxic training” (IHT. Each of them combines the effect of acclimatization and different training protocols that require specific nutrition. An appropriate nutrition strategy and adequate hydration can help athletes achieve their fitness and performance goals in this unfriendly environment. In this review, the physiological stress of altitude exposure and training will be discussed, with specific nutrition recommendations for athletes training under such conditions. However, there is little research about the nutrition demands of athletes who train at moderate altitude. Our review considers energetic demands and body mass or body composition changes due to altitude training, including respiratory and urinary water loss under these conditions. Carbohydrate intake recommendations and hydration status are discussed in detail, while iron storage and metabolism is also considered. Last, but not least the risk of increased oxidative stress under hypoxic conditions and antioxidant supplementation suggestions are presented.

  1. Validity of a velodrome test for competitive road cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, S; Mujika, I; Cuesta, G; Polo, J M; Chatard, J C

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the validity of a velodrome field test consisting of repeated rides of 2,280 m, with an initial speed of 28 km.h-1 and increments of 1.5 km.h-1 interspersed with 1-min recovery periods until exhaustion. A group of 12 male competitive road cyclists performed maximal cycling tests under velodrome and laboratory conditions. Velodrome oxygen uptake (VO2) and power output were estimated using equations previously published. Physiological responses to the two tests were compared. Relationships between performance in the velodrome and physiological parameters measured in the laboratory were studied. Maximal power output, heart rate and VO2 were similar in the velodrome and the laboratory [372 (SD 50) vs 365 (SD 36) W, 195 (SD 8) vs 196 (SD 9) beats.min-1 and 4.49 (SD 0.56) vs 4.49 (SD 0.46) l.min-1, respectively], while maximal velodrome blood lactate concentration was significantly higher [13.5 (SD 2.1) vs 11.8 (SD 3.1) mmol.l-1]. Velodrome heart rate was higher at submaximal exercise intensities representing 40%, 50% and 60% of maximal aerobic power, and velodrome blood lactate concentration was also higher at 60%, 70% and 80% of maximal aerobic power. The laboratory parameter that showed the highest correlation with the maximal cycling speed in the velodrome was maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) expressed per unit of body mass (r = 0.93). In addition, the accuracy of different methods of estimation of the metabolic cost of cycling, rolling resistance, air resistance coefficients and VO2max were compared. Significant differences were found. In conclusion, the present results indicated the validity of a velodrome test used to estimate maximal aerobic parameters of competitive road cyclists, as long as the estimation is made using established equations. When road cyclists are tested in the laboratory, physiological values should be expressed per unit of body surface area or body mass, to predict more accurately the cyclist's performance

  2. Effect of training mode on post-exercise heart rate recovery of trained cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Kelia G; Grote, Silvie; Shoepe, Todd C

    2014-06-28

    The sympathetic nervous system dominates the regulation of body functions during exercise. Therefore after exercise, the sympathetic nervous system withdraws and the parasympathetic nervous system helps the body return to a resting state. In the examination of this relationship, the purpose of this study was to compare recovery heart rates (HR) of anaerobically versus aerobically trained cyclists. With all values given as means ± SD, anaerobically trained track cyclists (n=10, age=25.9 ± 6.0 yrs, body mass=82.7 ± 7.1 kg, body fat=10.0 ± 6.3%) and aerobically trained road cyclists (n=15, age=39.9 ± 8.5 yrs, body mass=75.3 ± 9.9 kg, body fat=13.1 ± 4.5%) underwent a maximal oxygen uptake test. Heart rate recovery was examined on a relative basis using heart rate reserve as well as the absolute difference between maximum HR and each of two recovery HRs. The post-exercise change in HR at minute one for the track cyclists and road cyclists respectively were 22 ± 8 bpm and 25 ± 12 bpm. At minute two, the mean drop for track cyclists was significantly (pheart rate recovery in trained cyclists. Greater variability in recovery heart rate at minute two versus minute one suggests that the heart rate should be monitored longer than one minute of recovery for a better analysis of post-exercise autonomic shift.

  3. SPINAL POSTURE OF THORACIC AND LUMBAR SPINE AND PELVIC TILT IN HIGHLY TRAINED CYCLISTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. Muyor

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate sagittal thoracic and lumbar spinal curvatures and pelvic tilt in elite and master cyclists when standing on the floor, and sitting on a bicycle at three different handlebar-hand positions. A total of 60 elite male cyclists (mean age: 22.95 ± 3.38 years and 60 master male cyclists (mean age: 34.27 ± 3.05 years were evaluated. The Spinal Mouse system was used to measure sagittal thoracic and lumbar curvature in standing on the floor and sitting positions on the bicycle at three different handlebar-hand positions (high, medium, and low. The mean values for thoracic and lumbar curvatures and pelvic tilt in the standing position on the floor were 48.17 ± 8.05º, -27.32 ± 7.23º, and 13.65 ± 5.54º, respectively, for elite cyclists and 47.02 ± 9.24º, -25.30 ± 6.29º, and 11.25 ± 5.17º for master cyclists. A high frequency of thoracic hyperkyphosis in the standing position was observed (58.3% in elite cyclists and 53.3% in master cyclists, whereas predominately neutral values were found in the lumbar spine (88.3% and 76.7% in elite and master cyclists, respectively. When sitting on the bicycle, the thoracic curve was at a lower angle in the three handlebar-hand positions with respect to the standing position on the floor in both groups (p < 0.01. The lumbar curve adopted a kyphotic posture. In conclusion, cyclists present a high percentage of thoracic hyperkyphotic postures in standing positions on the floor. However, thoracic hyperkyphosis is not directly related to positions adopted on the bicycle

  4. Aerobic and anaerobic power characteristics of competitive cyclists in the United States Cycling Federation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, H; Bassett, D R; Swensen, T C; Sampedro, R M

    1993-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the aerobic and anaerobic capabilities of United States Cycling Federation cyclists in different categories. To determine aerobic and anaerobic power, 38 competitive road cyclists (32 males, 6 females) performed a VO2max test and a Wingate anaerobic test, respectively. Male cyclists in category II had the highest VO2max, both in absolute and relative terms. Their VO2max was 6% and 10% higher than category III and IV cyclists, respectively (4.98 +/- 0.14 vs 4.72 +/- 0.15 vs 4.54 +/- 0.12 l/min). A significant difference existed between category II and IV male cyclists (p < 0.05). VO2max for female cyclists (3.37 +/- 0.13 l/min) was significantly (p < 0.05) lower than those for males. The Wingate anaerobic test revealed that male cyclists in category II also had the highest anaerobic power output. The peak power output in category II, III and IV was 13.86 +/- 0.23, 13.55 +/- 0.25, and 12.80 +/- 0.41 W/kg, respectively. The mean power output in category II, III, and IV was 11.22 +/- 0.18, 11.06 +/- 0.15, and 10.40 +/- 0.30 W/kg, respectively. The difference in the mean power output between category II and IV was significant (p < 0.05). Female cyclists recorded significantly less peak and mean power output than their male counterparts (p < 0.05). However, when expressed relative to lean body mass, anaerobic power was similar for both sexes. No inter-correlation was found in any measurement between the aerobic and anaerobic power values. On the whole, category II male cyclists were characterized by higher aerobic and anaerobic power outputs.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Cyclist safety on bicycle boulevards and parallel arterial routes in Berkeley, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minikel, Eric

    2012-03-01

    This study compares the safety of bicyclists riding on bicycle boulevards to those riding on parallel arterial routes in Berkeley, California. Literature on the impact of motor vehicle traffic characteristics on cyclist safety shows that high motor vehicle speeds and volumes and the presence of heavy vehicles are all detrimental to cyclist safety. This suggests that cyclists may be safer on side streets than on busy arterials. Bicycle boulevards-traffic-calmed side streets signed and improved for cyclist use-purport to offer cyclists a safer alternative to riding on arterials. Police-reported bicycle collision data and manually collected cyclist count data from bicycle boulevards and parallel arterial routes in Berkeley, California from 2003 to 2010 are used to test the hypothesis that Berkeley's bicycle boulevards have lower cyclist collision rates and a lower proportion of bicycle collisions resulting in severe injury. While no significant difference is found in the proportion of collisions that are severe, results show that collision rates on Berkeley's bicycle boulevards are two to eight times lower than those on parallel, adjacent arterial routes. The difference in collision rate is highly statistically significant, unlikely to be caused by any bias in the collision and count data, and cannot be easily explained away by self-selection or safety in numbers. Though the used dataset is limited and the study design is correlational, this study provides some evidence that Berkeley's bicycle boulevards are safer for cyclists than its parallel arterial routes. The results may be suggestive that, more generally, properly implemented bicycle boulevards can provide cyclists with a safer alternative to riding on arterials.

  6. Low back pain associated with internal snapping hip syndrome in a competitive cyclist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, T L; Mansoor, J

    2008-04-01

    Low back pain is a common complaint among cyclists. Here we present the case of a competitive master cyclist with low back pain and whose symptoms ultimately resolved when he was treated for internal snapping hip syndrome. Internal snapping hip syndrome is a painful lesion of the iliopsoas caused by snapping of the tendon over the iliopectineal eminence or anterior femoral head when the femur is extended from a flexed position. This is the first published report that we are aware of that describes this syndrome as a potential cause of low back pain in a competitive cyclist.

  7. EXERCISE LIMITATIONS IN A COMPETITIVE CYCLIST TWELVE MONTHS POST HEART TRANSPLANTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas G. Walton

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available It has been well documented that for heart transplant recipients (HTrecipient post transplantation exercise capacity does not exceed 60% of healthy age-matched controls. Few studies have been undertaken to determine the cause of exercise limitations following heart transplantation (HT for an elite athlete. Participant was a 39 year old elite male cyclist who suffered an acute myocardial infarction after a cycling race and received a heart transplant (HT four months later. Six weeks prior to his AMI fitness testing was completed and a predicted VO2max of 58 mL·kg-1·min-1 and HRmax of 171 bpm was achieved. The participant underwent maximal exercise testing 6 and 12 months post transplant to determine exercise limitations. His results 6 and 12 months post transplant were a VO2max of 33.8 and 44.2 mL·kg-1·min-1 respectively, and a HR max that was 97% and 96% of HRmax measured. The participant showed an increase in both HRmax and VO2max 12 months post HT compared to previous testing. Results suggest that the limiting factors to exercise following HT are likely due to peripheral function, which became diminished as a result accumulated from 4 months of congestive heart failure, the strain of HT, and immunosuppressive therapy leading up to the exercise testing. Lifestyle before HT and a more aggressive approach to HT recovery should be considered necessary in the improvement of peripheral functioning following HT

  8. Risks of Serious Injuries and Fatalities of Cyclists Associated with Impact Velocities of Cars in Car-Cyclist Accidents in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Yasuhiro; Oikawa, Shoko

    2015-11-01

    The main purpose of this study is to define the relationship between the car impact velocity and serious injury risk or fatality risk of cyclists. The authors investigated the risks of serious injuries and fatalities of cyclists using vehicle-cyclist accident data from the database of the Institute for Traffic Accident Research and Data Analysis (ITARDA) in Japan. The vehicle types considered are sedans, mini vans, box vans, light passenger cars and light cargo vans. The results revealed that a 10-km/h decrease in the impact velocity could reduce the severe injury risk and fatality risk for impact velocities of 40 km/h or higher. Specifically, when the impact velocity was less than or equal to 30 km/h, the serious injury risks were less than 21% and the fatality risks were less than or equal to 1% for the above listed vehicle types. Therefore, if the Collision Damage Mitigation Braking System (CDMBS) equipped vehicles can perform its functions effectively so as to reduce the impact velocities, then cyclist injuries will likely be significantly reduced. Another purpose of this study is to assess the effect of wearing a helmet for protection of the cyclist's head. Impact experiment results showed that the measured head injury criterion (HIC) with helmets are lower than that of head-form impactor without a helmet, reducing the HIC by 57%.

  9. Traffic Accidents Involving Cyclists Identifying Causal Factors Using Questionnaire Survey, Traffic Accident Data, and Real-World Observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikawa, Shoko; Hirose, Toshiya; Aomura, Shigeru; Matsui, Yasuhiro

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to clarify the mechanism of traffic accidents involving cyclists. The focus is on the characteristics of cyclist accidents and scenarios, because the number of traffic accidents involving cyclists in Tokyo is the highest in Japan. First, dangerous situations in traffic incidents were investigated by collecting data from 304 cyclists in one city in Tokyo using a questionnaire survey. The survey indicated that cyclists used their bicycles generally while commuting to work or school in the morning. Second, the study investigated the characteristics of 250 accident situations involving cyclists that happened in the city using real-world bicycle accident data. The results revealed that the traffic accidents occurred at intersections of local streets, where cyclists collided most often with vehicles during commute time in the morning. Third, cyclists' behavior was observed at a local street intersection in the morning in the city using video pictures. In one hour during the morning commute period, 250 bicycles passed through the intersection. The results indicated that one of the reasons for traffic accidents involving cyclists might be the combined effect of low visibility, caused by the presence of box-like building structures close to the intersections, and the cyclists' behavior in terms of their velocity and no confirming safety. It was observed that, on average, bicycle velocity was 3.1 m/s at the initial line of an intersection. The findings from this study could be useful in developing new technologies to improve cyclist safety, such as alert devices for cyclists and vehicle drivers, wireless communication systems between cyclists and vehicle drivers, or advanced vehicles with bicycle detection and collision mitigation systems.

  10. Knee problems and its associated factors among active cyclists in Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullatif K Althunyan

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: Knee injuries are common with cyclists. Factors such as the type of the bicycle, the goal of bicycling, club type, body mass index, and participation in other sports play a significant role in the rate of knee pain.

  11. Regional variations in pedal cyclist injuries in New Zealand: safety in numbers or risk in scarcity?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tin, Sandar Tin; Woodward, Alistair; Thornley, Simon; Ameratunga, Shanthi

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess regional variations in rates of traffic injuries to pedal cyclists resulting in death or hospital inpatient treatment, in relation to time spent cycling and time spent travelling in a car. Methods...

  12. [Detraining and retraining after injury in a high-level cyclist].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauty, M; Louvet, S; Potiron-Josse, M; Dubois, C

    2005-03-01

    To define retraining after injury in a high-level cyclist by taking into account the consequences of detraining. From three clinical cases and from the analysis of the consequences of detraining, three principles of retraining were determined. 1. The high-level cyclist is not protected and loses cycling capacity after four weeks of inactivity. The delay in recovery is longer the higher the adaptations. 2. Recovery of cycling capacity is based on bicycle exercises that are greater in intensity than quantity, taking into account delays in injury consolidation. 3. Retraining requires appreciating the individual physiological level by evaluating force and endurance before envisaging the resumption of training and competition. The injury of a high-level cyclist is at the origin of detraining, which has been evaluated so that sports rehabilitation may enable the cyclist to find a previous state without relapse, complication or overtraining.

  13. A Comparison of Static and Dynamic Measures of Lower Limb Joint Angles in Cycling: Application to Bicycle Fitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bini Rodrigo Rico

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Configuration of bicycle components to the cyclist (bicycle fitting commonly uses static poses of the cyclist on the bicycle at the 6 o’clock crank position to represent dynamic cycling positions. However, the validity of this approach and the potential use of the different crank position (e.g. 3 o’clock have not been fully explored. Therefore, this study compared lower limb joint angles of cyclists in static poses (3 and 6 o’clock compared to dynamic cycling. Methods. Using a digital camera, right sagittal plane images were taken of thirty cyclists seated on their own bicycles mounted on a stationary trainer with the crank at 3 o’clock and 6 o’clock positions. Video was then recorded during pedalling at a self-selected gear ratio and pedalling cadence. Sagittal plane hip, knee and ankle angles were digitised. Results. Differences between static and dynamic angles were large at the 6 o’clock crank position with greater mean hip angle (4.9 ± 3°, smaller knee angle (8.2 ± 5° and smaller ankle angle (8.2 ± 5.3° for static angles. Differences between static and dynamic angles (< 1.4° were trivial to small for the 3 o’clock crank position. Conclusions. To perform bicycle fitting, joint angles should be measured dynamically or with the cyclist in a static pose at the 3 o’clock crank position.

  14. Psychological, nutritional and physical status of olympic road cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, A; Collins, P; Higgins, I; Harrington, D; Connolly, J; Dolphin, C; McCreery, M; Brady, L; O'Brien, M

    1985-03-01

    Six members of the Irish Olympic Road Cycling Squad underwent a comprehensive medical, nutritional, psychological and biochemical assessment in January 1983. They were given specific medical and dietary recommendations and were reassessed in January 1984 after a period spanning the competitive racing season. The cyclists' diets at both sessions were comparable and generally conformed with recommended daily intakes. Supplementary ingestion was unnecessary to attain recommended daily intakes of vitamins. Serum levels of HDL-cholesterol increased and triglyceride decreased during the period of the study. The squad had characteristics indicating traits of self-sufficiency, toughness and practical mindedness. At the second assessment there was evidence of heightened ambition and competitiveness and an improvement in mood states with reduced ratings for confusion and tension.

  15. Surface EMG based muscle activity analysis for aerobic cyclist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, Venkatesh; Jayaraman, Srinivasan

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we determined the muscle activity of aerobic cyclist on biceps brachii medial, trapezius medial, latissimus dorsi medial, and erector spinae muscles bilaterally during 30 min of cycling. Thirteen male volunteers were chosen and placed in two groups (with and without low back pain (LBP)). Surface electromyography (sEMG) was recorded bilaterally from selected muscle groups for 30 min of cycling for each subject. Statistical tests were performed to determine the difference in fatigue, using mean power frequency difference. LBP group showed a significantly higher fatigue (p<0.05) in left biceps brachii medial when compared to the control group. High fatigue in the back muscles in the LBP group was not found; however, when linear regression was performed for these individuals, the data showed a possibility of worsening in their condition due to 30 min of cycling.

  16. A relationship between attractiveness and performance in professional cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postma, Erik

    2014-02-01

    Females often prefer to mate with high quality males, and one aspect of quality is physical performance. Although a preference for physically fitter males is therefore predicted, the relationship between attractiveness and performance has rarely been quantified. Here, I test for such a relationship in humans and ask whether variation in (endurance) performance is associated with variation in facial attractiveness within elite professional cyclists that finished the 2012 Tour de France. I show that riders that performed better were more attractive, and that this preference was strongest in women not using a hormonal contraceptive. Thereby, I show that, within this preselected but relatively homogeneous sample of the male population, facial attractiveness signals endurance performance. Provided that there is a relationship between performance-mediated attractiveness and reproductive success, this suggests that human endurance capacity has been subject to sexual selection in our evolutionary past.

  17. Social Influence and Different Types of Red-Light Behaviors among Cyclists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Fraboni

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Accident analysis and studies on traffic revealed that cyclists’ violation of red-light regulation is one typical infringement committed by cyclists. Furthermore, an association between cyclists’ crash involvement and red-light violations has been found across different countries. The literature on cyclists’ psychosocial determinants of red-light violation is still scarce. The present study, based on the classification of cyclists’ red-light behavior in risk-taking (ignoring the red-light and traveling through the junction without stopping, opportunistic (waiting at red-lights but being too impatient to wait for green signal and subsequently crossing the junction and law-obeying (stopping to obey the red-light, adopted an eye-observational methodology to investigate differences in cyclists' crossing behavior at intersections, in relation to traffic light violations and the presence of other cyclists. Based on the social influence explanatory framework, which states that people tend to behave differently in a given situation taking into consideration similar people’s behaviors, and that the effect of social influence is related to the group size, we hypothesized that the number of cyclists at the intersection will have an influence on the cyclists’ behavior. Furthermore, cyclists will be more likely to violate in an opportunistic way when other cyclists are already committing a violation. Two researchers at a time registered unobtrusively at four different intersections during morning and late afternoon peak hour traffic, 1381 cyclists approaching the traffic light during the red phase. The 62.9% violated the traffic control. Results showed that a higher number of cyclists waiting at the intersection is associated with fewer risk-taking violations. Nevertheless, the percentage of opportunistic violation remained high. For the condition of no cyclist present, risk-taking behaviors were significantly higher, whereas, they were

  18. Cardiac anatomy and diastolic filling in professional road cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missault, L; Duprez, D; Jordaens, L; de Buyzere, M; Bonny, K; Adang, L; Clement, D

    1993-01-01

    In the literature two divergent types of exercise-induced cardiac hypertrophy have been described: isotonic exercise induced eccentric hypertrophy with proportional increase in end-diastolic left ventricular dimension and wall thickness and isometric exercise induced concentric hypertrophy with normal end-diastolic left ventricular dimension but increased wall thickness. Using echocardiography, cardiac anatomy and diastolic filling were studied in 26 professional road cyclists. Compared to 21 control subjects, matched according to age, sex and morphometry the athletes had significantly larger left atrial dimension [41.3 (SD 4.8) vs 36.6 (SD 4.5) mm], left ventricular dimension [56.0 (SD 3.8) vs 53.2 (SD 4.7) mm], end-diastolic septum thickness [11.1 (SD 2.5) vs 8.4 (SD 1.9) mm], end-diastolic posterior wall thickness [11.6 (SD 2.2) vs 8.4 (SD 1.5) mm] and left ventricular mass index [170.4 (SD 40.6) vs 107.0 (SD 27.7) g.m-2]. We concluded that the hypertrophy in the road cyclists was of the mixed type (concentric-eccentric) with an increase in the internal dimension of the left ventricle and an even larger increase in the thickness of the ventricular walls. Diastolic filling however was similar in the athletes and control subjects. No correlations were found between the left ventricular mass index and diastolic filling parameters. We concluded therefore that professional road cycling causes mixed cardiac hypertrophy without diastolic filling abnormalities and can therefore be considered benign.

  19. Modeling cyclist acceleration process for bicycle traffic simulation using naturalistic data

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Xiaoliang; Luo, Ding

    2016-01-01

    Cycling is a healthy and sustainable form of transportation. The recent increase of daily cyclists in Sweden has triggered broad interest in finding how policies and measures may facilitate the planning of bicycle traffic in the urban area. However, in comparison to car traffic, bicycle traffic is still far from well understood. This study is part of the research effort to investigate microscopic cyclist behavior, model bicycle traffic and finally build a simulation tool for applications in t...

  20. Effect of Training Mode on Post-Exercise Heart Rate Recovery of Trained Cyclists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McDonald Kelia G.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The sympathetic nervous system dominates the regulation of body functions during exercise. Therefore after exercise, the sympathetic nervous system withdraws and the parasympathetic nervous system helps the body return to a resting state. In the examination of this relationship, the purpose of this study was to compare recovery heart rates (HR of anaerobically versus aerobically trained cyclists. With all values given as means ± SD, anaerobically trained track cyclists (n=10, age=25.9 ± 6.0 yrs, body mass=82.7 ± 7.1 kg, body fat=10.0 ± 6.3% and aerobically trained road cyclists (n=15, age=39.9 ± 8.5 yrs, body mass=75.3 ± 9.9 kg, body fat=13.1 ± 4.5% underwent a maximal oxygen uptake test. Heart rate recovery was examined on a relative basis using heart rate reserve as well as the absolute difference between maximum HR and each of two recovery HRs. The post-exercise change in HR at minute one for the track cyclists and road cyclists respectively were 22 ± 8 bpm and 25 ± 12 bpm. At minute two, the mean drop for track cyclists was significantly (p<0.05 greater than the road cyclists (52 ± 15 bpm and 64 ± 11 bpm. Training mode showed statistically significant effects on the speed of heart rate recovery in trained cyclists. Greater variability in recovery heart rate at minute two versus minute one suggests that the heart rate should be monitored longer than one minute of recovery for a better analysis of post-exercise autonomic shift.

  1. Knee problems and its associated factors among active cyclists in Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althunyan, Abdullatif K.; Darwish, Magdy A.; Abdel Wahab, Moataza M.

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Bicycling is one of the most enjoyable aerobic exercises recommended for the promotion of an individual's health. The Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia has seen a huge increase in the number of people who cycle. People have different goals for bicycling, but the injuries they sustain are common. Most of them relate to overuse, particularly of lower body joints. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of knee problems and factors associated with knee pain in cyclists. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in October 2015, using an online self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire was based on pertinent literature, was piloted, and validated. A web link was sent to 513 cyclists (professional and amateur) using E-mail, WhatsApp application, or SMS. Three hundred and eleven responses were received, 283 of which were included in the analysis. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of knee pain was 25.8%; 27.6% for amateur cyclists and 15.9% for professional cyclists. Only 17.2% knee pain was attributed to cycling, whereas in 32.8% it happened spontaneously and in 25% of cases it occurred while running. Majority of the cyclists reported pain as mild (61.6%) or moderate (28.7%); anterior knee pain accounted for 58.1% knee pain. Different goals of cycling and different bicycle types had statistically significant difference on the rate of knee pain. Of underweight cyclists, 62.2% reported knee pain. Cyclists who run more or participated in football had a higher rate of pain. CONCLUSION: Knee injuries are common with cyclists. Factors such as the type of the bicycle, the goal of bicycling, club type, body mass index, and participation in other sports play a significant role in the rate of knee pain. PMID:28163572

  2. Built environment effects on cyclist injury severity in automobile-involved bicycle crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peng; Shen, Qing

    2016-01-01

    This analysis uses a generalized ordered logit model and a generalized additive model to estimate the effects of built environment factors on cyclist injury severity in automobile-involved bicycle crashes, as well as to accommodate possible spatial dependence among crash locations. The sample is drawn from the Seattle Department of Transportation bicycle collision profiles. This study classifies the cyclist injury types as property damage only, possible injury, evident injury, and severe injury or fatality. Our modeling outcomes show that: (1) injury severity is negatively associated with employment density; (2) severe injury or fatality is negatively associated with land use mixture; (3) lower likelihood of injuries is observed for bicyclists wearing reflective clothing; (4) improving street lighting can decrease the likelihood of cyclist injuries; (5) posted speed limit is positively associated with the probability of evident injury and severe injury or fatality; (6) older cyclists appear to be more vulnerable to severe injury or fatality; and (7) cyclists are more likely to be severely injured when large vehicles are involved in crashes. One implication drawn from this study is that cities should increase land use mixture and development density, optimally lower posted speed limits on streets with both bikes and motor vehicles, and improve street lighting to promote bicycle safety. In addition, cyclists should be encouraged to wear reflective clothing.

  3. Can power and anaerobic capacity reduce according to disordered eating behaviors in cyclists?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo de Sousa Fortes

    Full Text Available Abstract The present study aimed to compare the power, anaerobic capacity (AC and performance in a road bicycle race among cyclists with and without risk of disordered eating behaviors (DEB. The sample was selected in a non-probabilistic way, totaling 69 male road cyclists aged between 19 and 30 years. The Wingate test was used to evaluate peak power (PP and mean power. Time in minutes was adopted to determine performance in a 120-km road cycling race (competitive event. The Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26 was completed to assess DEBs. The results did not indicate a difference in PP among cyclists with and without risk of DEBs (F (2, 67=3.92; p=0.13. Findings showed a difference in mean power among cyclists with and without risk of DEBs (F (2, 67=36.43; p=0.01. The results revealed a difference in performance in 120-km cycling races among cyclists with and without risk of DEBs (F (2, 67=46.03; p=0.01. It could be concluded that DEBs were associated with a lower mean power and performance in a competitive event among male road cyclists, although the same was not true for PP.

  4. Learn 2 Move 16-24: effectiveness of an intervention to stimulate physical activity and improve physical fitness of adolescents and young adults with spastic cerebral palsy; a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinders- Messelink Heleen A

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Persons with cerebral palsy (CP are at risk for developing an inactive lifestyle and often have poor fitness levels, which may lead to secondary health complications and diminished participation and quality of life. However, persons with CP also tend not to receive structural treatment to improve physical activity and fitness in adolescence, which is precisely the period when adult physical activity patterns are established. Methods We aim to include 60 adolescents and young adults (16-24 years with spastic CP. Participants will be randomly assigned to an intervention group or a control group (no treatment; current policy. The intervention will last 6 months and consist of three parts; 1 counselling on daily physical activity; 2 physical fitness training; and 3 sports advice. To evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention, all participants will be measured before, during, directly after, and at 6 months following the intervention period. Primary outcome measures will be: 1 physical activity level, which will be measured objectively with an accelerometry-based activity monitor during 72 h and subjectively with the Physical Activity Scale for Individuals with Physical Disabilities; 2 aerobic fitness, which will be measured with a maximal ramp test on a bicycle or armcrank ergometer and a 6-minute walking or wheelchair test; 3 neuromuscular fitness, which will be measured with handheld dynamometry; and 4 body composition, which will be determined by measuring body mass, height, waist circumference, fat mass and lipid profile. Conclusions This paper outlines the design, methodology and intervention of a multicenter randomized controlled trial (LEARN 2 MOVE 16-24 aimed at examining the effectiveness of an intervention that is intended to permanently increase physical activity levels and improve fitness levels of adolescents and young adults with CP by achieving a behavioral change toward a more active lifestyle. Trial

  5. Learn 2 Move 16-24: effectiveness of an intervention to stimulate physical activity and improve physical fitness of adolescents and young adults with spastic cerebral palsy; a randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Persons with cerebral palsy (CP) are at risk for developing an inactive lifestyle and often have poor fitness levels, which may lead to secondary health complications and diminished participation and quality of life. However, persons with CP also tend not to receive structural treatment to improve physical activity and fitness in adolescence, which is precisely the period when adult physical activity patterns are established. Methods We aim to include 60 adolescents and young adults (16-24 years) with spastic CP. Participants will be randomly assigned to an intervention group or a control group (no treatment; current policy). The intervention will last 6 months and consist of three parts; 1) counselling on daily physical activity; 2) physical fitness training; and 3) sports advice. To evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention, all participants will be measured before, during, directly after, and at 6 months following the intervention period. Primary outcome measures will be: 1) physical activity level, which will be measured objectively with an accelerometry-based activity monitor during 72 h and subjectively with the Physical Activity Scale for Individuals with Physical Disabilities; 2) aerobic fitness, which will be measured with a maximal ramp test on a bicycle or armcrank ergometer and a 6-minute walking or wheelchair test; 3) neuromuscular fitness, which will be measured with handheld dynamometry; and 4 body composition, which will be determined by measuring body mass, height, waist circumference, fat mass and lipid profile. Conclusions This paper outlines the design, methodology and intervention of a multicenter randomized controlled trial (LEARN 2 MOVE 16-24) aimed at examining the effectiveness of an intervention that is intended to permanently increase physical activity levels and improve fitness levels of adolescents and young adults with CP by achieving a behavioral change toward a more active lifestyle. Trial registration Dutch Trial

  6. Social Influence and Different Types of Red-Light Behaviors among Cyclists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraboni, Federico; Marín Puchades, Víctor; De Angelis, Marco; Prati, Gabriele; Pietrantoni, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Accident analysis and studies on traffic revealed that cyclists’ violation of red-light regulation is one typical infringement committed by cyclists. Furthermore, an association between cyclists’ crash involvement and red-light violations has been found across different countries. The literature on cyclists’ psychosocial determinants of red-light violation is still scarce. The present study, based on the classification of cyclists’ red-light behavior in risk-taking (ignoring the red-light and traveling through the junction without stopping), opportunistic (waiting at red-lights but being too impatient to wait for green signal and subsequently crossing the junction), and law-obeying (stopping to obey the red-light), adopted an eye-observational methodology to investigate differences in cyclists’ crossing behavior at intersections, in relation to traffic light violations and the presence of other cyclists. Based on the social influence explanatory framework, which states that people tend to behave differently in a given situation taking into consideration similar people’s behaviors, and that the effect of social influence is related to the group size, we hypothesized that the number of cyclists at the intersection will have an influence on the cyclists’ behavior. Furthermore, cyclists will be more likely to violate in an opportunistic way when other cyclists are already committing a violation. Two researchers at a time registered unobtrusively at four different intersections during morning and late afternoon peak hour traffic, 1381 cyclists approaching the traffic light during the red phase. The 62.9% violated the traffic control. Results showed that a higher number of cyclists waiting at the intersection is associated with fewer risk-taking violations. Nevertheless, the percentage of opportunistic violation remained high. For the condition of no cyclist present, risk-taking behaviors were significantly higher, whereas, they were significantly lower for

  7. Kids Weigh to Fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maione, Mary Jane

    A description is given of a program that provides preventive measures to check obesity in children and young people. The 24-week program is divided into two parts--a nutrition component and an exercise component. At the start and end of the program, tests are given to assess the participants' height, weight, body composition, fitness level, and…

  8. Body mass scaling of projected frontal area in competitive cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heil, D P

    2001-08-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the scaling relationship between body mass (mb) and projected frontal area (AP) of competitive male cyclists whilst allowing statistically for the influence of bicycle geometry. A group of 21 cyclists [mean mb 74.4 (SD 7.2) kg, mean height 1.82 (SD 0.06) m, mean age 23.6 (SD 5.1) years] volunteered to have AP determined from photographs at three trunk angles (TA: 5 degrees, 15 degrees, 25 degrees) for each of three seat-tube angles (STA: 70 degrees, 75 degrees, 80 degrees) using a modified cycle ergometer. Using multiple log-linear regression analysis procedures, the following equation was developed: Body AP (meters squared) = 0.00433 x (STA0.172) x (TA0.0965) x (mb0.762) (r2 = 0.73, SEE = 0.017 m2) (n = 183 images total). This equation indicates that after allowing for the independent influence of STA and TA on AP, AP was proportional to mb raised to the +0.762 power (i.e. Ap is directly proportional to 0.762). The 95% confidence interval for this exponent (0.670-0.854) barely included the theoretical two-thirds value but not the +0.55 value for AP or the +0.32 value for submaximal metabolic power (Ws) of outdoor cycling reported in the literature. Further analysis of wind tunnel data reported in the literature suggests that the coefficient of drag (CD) is proportional to mb raised to the -0.45 power. When combined with the present study findings, it is suggested that the drag area (CD x AP), which should be proportional to Ws at submaximal cycling velocities, is proportional to mb to the +0.312 power (i.e. CD x AP is directly proportional to mb-0.45) x (mb+0.762) = mb+0.312), which is consistent with the +0.32 exponent for Ws in the literature.

  9. Effects of a 10-Day Intensive Health Promotion Program Combining Diet and Physical Activity on Body Composition, Physical Fitness, and Blood Factors of Young Adults: A Randomized Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyoung Soon; Lee, Jae Koo; Yeun, Young Ran

    2017-04-11

    BACKGROUND A lifestyle characterized by poor eating habits and physical inactivity is a risk factor for multiple lifestyle diseases in young adults. This study assessed the effects of implementing an intensive 10-day health promotion program combining diet and physical activities on body composition, physical fitness, and biochemical parameters of young adults. MATERIAL AND METHODS In this randomized pilot study, 30 female undergraduate students were randomly allocated to an intervention and a control group. The health promotion program consisted of unlimited amounts of vegetarian food; aerobic, flexibility, and strength exercises (3 hours/day); lectures on health (3 hours/day); massage practice (2 hours/day); and healthy cooking practice (1 hour/day). The effects of the intervention were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U test and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. RESULTS The intensive 10-day health promotion program significantly reduced body weight, body mass index, triglyceride, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, blood glucose, and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance. At the same time, participants demonstrated increased back muscle, leg muscle, and grip strength; waist and shoulder flexibility; balance; and cardiorespiratory endurance. CONCLUSIONS The intensive 10-day health promotion program is a viable intervention for improving body composition, physical fitness, glycemic control, and blood lipid levels in young adults.

  10. Cyclist activity and injury risk analysis at signalized intersections: a Bayesian modelling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Jillian; Miranda-Moreno, Luis F; Morency, Patrick

    2013-10-01

    This study proposes a two-equation Bayesian modelling approach to simultaneously study cyclist injury occurrence and bicycle activity at signalized intersections as joint outcomes. This approach deals with the potential presence of endogeneity and unobserved heterogeneities and is used to identify factors associated with both cyclist injuries and volumes. Its application to identify high-risk corridors is also illustrated. Montreal, Quebec, Canada is the application environment, using an extensive inventory of a large sample of signalized intersections containing disaggregate motor-vehicle traffic volumes and bicycle flows, geometric design, traffic control and built environment characteristics in the vicinity of the intersections. Cyclist injury data for the period of 2003-2008 is used in this study. Also, manual bicycle counts were standardized using temporal and weather adjustment factors to obtain average annual daily volumes. Results confirm and quantify the effects of both bicycle and motor-vehicle flows on cyclist injury occurrence. Accordingly, more cyclists at an intersection translate into more cyclist injuries but lower injury rates due to the non-linear association between bicycle volume and injury occurrence. Furthermore, the results emphasize the importance of turning motor-vehicle movements. The presence of bus stops and total crosswalk length increase cyclist injury occurrence whereas the presence of a raised median has the opposite effect. Bicycle activity through intersections was found to increase as employment, number of metro stations, land use mix, area of commercial land use type, length of bicycle facilities and the presence of schools within 50-800 m of the intersection increase. Intersections with three approaches are expected to have fewer cyclists than those with four. Using Bayesian analysis, expected injury frequency and injury rates were estimated for each intersection and used to rank corridors. Corridors with high bicycle volumes

  11. “Psychosocial Interventions for Cancer Survivors, Caregivers and Family Members—One Size Does Not Fit All: My Perspective as a Young Adult Survivor, Advocate and Oncology Social Worker” a personal reflection by Mary Grace Bontempo - Office of Cancer Survivorship

    Science.gov (United States)

    “Psychosocial Interventions for Cancer Survivors, Caregivers and Family Members—One Size Does Not Fit All: My Perspective as a Young Adult Survivor, Advocate and Oncology Social Worker” a personal reflection by Mary Grace Bontempo page

  12. Improving Training Condition Assessment in Endurance Cyclists: Effects of Ganoderma lucidum and Ophiocordyceps sinensis Dietary Supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Rossi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main reasons for taking daily dietary supplements are to maintain good health, to improve homeostasis, and to create conditions for reducing the risk of disease. Due to growing market demand, the search for effective, nontoxic, natural compounds with antioxidant and ergogenic properties has increasingly become a matter of interest. This paper describes how a specific combination of fungal supplements can help improve the performance of endurance athletes. We report the effects of a brief 3-month trial of two fungal supplements, Ganoderma lucidum and Cordyceps sinensis (3 capsules of O. sinensis and 2 capsules of G. lucidum per day, in 7 healthy male volunteers, aged between 30 and 40 years, who are all amateur cyclists that participate in “Gran Fondo” cycling races. This trial investigated the effects of fungal supplements on the level of physical fitness of the athletes by monitoring and comparing the following biomarkers just before and after physical exertion: the testosterone/cortisol ratio in the saliva and oxidative stress (DPPH free radical scavenging activity. A decrease of more than 30% in the testosterone/cortisol ratio after race compared to before race was considered as a risk factor for nonfunctional overreaching (NFO or the overtraining syndrome (OTS. The results show that, after 3 months of supplementation, the testosterone/cortisol ratio changed in a statistically significant manner, thereby protecting the athletes from NFO and OTS. Antioxidant activity was measured by quantifying the scavenging ability of the human serum on the synthetic free radical DPPH. After 3 months of fungal supplementation, the data demonstrate an increased scavenger capacity of free radicals in the athletes’ serum after the race, thereby protecting the athletes from oxidative stress.

  13. Exercise limitations in a competitive cyclist twelve months post heart transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Jeremy A; Walton, Nicolas G

    2009-01-01

    It has been well documented that for heart transplant recipients (HTrecipient) post transplantation exercise capacity does not exceed 60% of healthy age-matched controls. Few studies have been undertaken to determine the cause of exercise limitations following heart transplantation (HT) for an elite athlete. Participant was a 39 year old elite male cyclist who suffered an acute myocardial infarction after a cycling race and received a heart transplant (HT) four months later. Six weeks prior to his AMI fitness testing was completed and a predicted VO2max of 58 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1) and HRmax of 171 bpm was achieved. The participant underwent maximal exercise testing 6 and 12 months post transplant to determine exercise limitations. His results 6 and 12 months post transplant were a VO2max of 33.8 and 44.2 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1) respectively, and a HR max that was 97% and 96% of HRmax measured. The participant showed an increase in both HRmax and VO2max 12 months post HT compared to previous testing. Results suggest that the limiting factors to exercise following HT are likely due to peripheral function, which became diminished as a result accumulated from 4 months of congestive heart failure, the strain of HT, and immunosuppressive therapy leading up to the exercise testing. Lifestyle before HT and a more aggressive approach to HT recovery should be considered necessary in the improvement of peripheral functioning following HT. Key pointsPhysical work capacity following heart transplantation is not limited by cardiac denervation.Heart transplant rehabilitation should focus efforts on endothelial and muscular limitations.

  14. Effect of gear ratio on peak power and time to peak power in BMX cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rylands, Lee P; Roberts, Simon J; Hurst, Howard T

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to ascertain if gear ratio selection would have an effect on peak power and time to peak power production in elite Bicycle Motocross (BMX) cyclists. Eight male elite BMX riders volunteered for the study. Each rider performed three, 10-s maximal sprints on an Olympic standard indoor BMX track. The riders' bicycles were fitted with a portable SRM power meter. Each rider performed the three sprints using gear ratios of 41/16, 43/16 and 45/16 tooth. The results from the 41/16 and 45/16 gear ratios were compared to the current standard 43/16 gear ratio. Statistically, significant differences were found between the gear ratios for peak power (F(2,14) = 6.448; p = .010) and peak torque (F(2,14) = 4.777; p = .026), but no significant difference was found for time to peak power (F(2,14) = 0.200; p = .821). When comparing gear ratios, the results showed a 45/16 gear ratio elicited the highest peak power,1658 ± 221 W, compared to 1436 ± 129 W and 1380 ± 56 W, for the 43/16 and 41/16 ratios, respectively. The time to peak power showed a 41/16 tooth gear ratio attained peak power in -0.01 s and a 45/16 in 0.22 s compared to the 43/16. The findings of this study suggest that gear ratio choice has a significant effect on peak power production, though time to peak power output is not significantly affected. Therefore, selecting a higher gear ratio results in riders attaining higher power outputs without reducing their start time.

  15. Improving Training Condition Assessment in Endurance Cyclists: Effects of Ganoderma lucidum and Ophiocordyceps sinensis Dietary Supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Paola; Buonocore, Daniela; Altobelli, Elisa; Brandalise, Federico; Cesaroni, Valentina; Iozzi, Davide; Savino, Elena; Marzatico, Fulvio

    2014-01-01

    The main reasons for taking daily dietary supplements are to maintain good health, to improve homeostasis, and to create conditions for reducing the risk of disease. Due to growing market demand, the search for effective, nontoxic, natural compounds with antioxidant and ergogenic properties has increasingly become a matter of interest. This paper describes how a specific combination of fungal supplements can help improve the performance of endurance athletes. We report the effects of a brief 3-month trial of two fungal supplements, Ganoderma lucidum and Cordyceps sinensis (3 capsules of O. sinensis and 2 capsules of G. lucidum per day), in 7 healthy male volunteers, aged between 30 and 40 years, who are all amateur cyclists that participate in "Gran Fondo" cycling races. This trial investigated the effects of fungal supplements on the level of physical fitness of the athletes by monitoring and comparing the following biomarkers just before and after physical exertion: the testosterone/cortisol ratio in the saliva and oxidative stress (DPPH free radical scavenging activity). A decrease of more than 30% in the testosterone/cortisol ratio after race compared to before race was considered as a risk factor for nonfunctional overreaching (NFO) or the overtraining syndrome (OTS). The results show that, after 3 months of supplementation, the testosterone/cortisol ratio changed in a statistically significant manner, thereby protecting the athletes from NFO and OTS. Antioxidant activity was measured by quantifying the scavenging ability of the human serum on the synthetic free radical DPPH. After 3 months of fungal supplementation, the data demonstrate an increased scavenger capacity of free radicals in the athletes' serum after the race, thereby protecting the athletes from oxidative stress.

  16. Promoting a Healthy Lifestyle : Effectiveness of an intervention on physical behaviour and physical fitness among adolescents and young adults with spastic cerebral palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Slaman (Jorrit)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ In this thesis, the effectiveness of the Active Lifestyle and Sports participation intervention was evaluated among youth with Cerebral Palsy (CP). This intervention consisted of ADL counselling, fitness training and sports counselling. It was hypothesised that this

  17. Vascular disorder in a competitive cyclist: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifft, Judy K; Coleman, F Ann; Malone, Casey B

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this case report was to alert the physical therapist (PT) to the possibility of vascular disorders in endurance athletes with apparent musculoskeletal symptoms. A 33-year-old female injured her knee in a fall and described a history of progressive unilateral lower extremity (LE) pain and weakness, especially with running and cycling. She received LE stretching and strengthening but her symptoms persisted, so she stopped all activity. When she became symptomatic with minimal exertion, she went to a neurologist, but electromyographic (EMG)/nerve conduction velocity (NCV) studies were normal. Eventually, she was referred for vascular studies, which confirmed a diagnosis of external iliac artery endofibrosis. The patient underwent a right common iliac to common femoral artery bypass graft approximately 3 years after onset of initial symptoms. She ran a 5K race 3 weeks after surgery and returned to cycling after 4 weeks. Endofibrosis of the external iliac artery is an uncommon disorder but is most frequently diagnosed in high-performance athletes, especially cyclists. Physical therapists who practice in orthopedic settings should be aware of vascular conditions that mimic musculoskeletal disorders in endurance athletes. Vascular consult or referral may be necessary if PT interventions are ineffective in treating athletes with exercise-induced LE pain and weakness.

  18. Exposure assessment of a cyclist to particles and chemical elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, C A; Silva, J R; Faria, T; Wolterbeek, T H; Almeida, S M

    2017-05-01

    Cycle paths can be used as a route for active transportation or simply to cycle for physical activity and leisure. However, exposure to air pollutants can be boosted while cycling, in urban environments, due to the proximity to vehicular emissions and elevated breathing rates. The objective of this work was to assess the exposure of a cyclist to particles and to chemical elements by combining real-time aerosol mass concentration reading equipment and biomonitoring techniques. PM10 and PM2.5 were measured on three cycle paths located in Lisbon, during weekdays and weekends and during rush hours and off-peak hours resulting in a total of 60 campaigns. Lichens were exposed along cycle paths for 3 months, and their element contents were measured by instrumental neutron activation analysis using the k 0 methodology (k 0-INAA). Using a bicycle commute route of lower traffic intensity and avoiding rush hours or other times with elevated vehicular congestion facilitate a reduction in exposure to pollutants. The implementation of cycle paths in cities is important to stimulate physical activity and active transportation; however, it is essential to consider ambient air and pollutant sources to create safer infrastructures.

  19. Fitness club

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness club

    2011-01-01

    General fitness Classes Enrolments are open for general fitness classes at CERN taking place on Monday, Wednesday, and Friday lunchtimes in the Pump Hall (building 216). There are shower facilities for both men and women. It is possible to pay for 1, 2 or 3 classes per week for a minimum of 1 month and up to 6 months. Check out our rates and enrol at: http://cern.ch/club-fitness Hope to see you among us! CERN Fitness Club fitness.club@cern.ch  

  20. Three-dimensional kinematics of competitive and recreational cyclists across different workloads during cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bini, Rodrigo R; Dagnese, Frederico; Rocha, Emmanuel; Silveira, Mateus C; Carpes, Felipe P; Mota, Carlos B

    2016-08-01

    Although the link between sagittal plane motion and exercise intensity has been highlighted, no study assessed if different workloads lead to changes in three-dimensional cycling kinematics. This study compared three-dimensional joint and segment kinematics between competitive and recreational road cyclists across different workloads. Twenty-four road male cyclists (12 competitive and 12 recreational) underwent an incremental workload test to determine aerobic peak power output. In a following session, cyclists performed four trials at sub-maximal workloads (65, 75, 85 and 95% of their aerobic peak power output) at 90 rpm of pedalling cadence. Mean hip adduction, thigh rotation, shank rotation, pelvis inclination (latero-lateral and anterior-posterior), spine inclination and rotation were computed at the power section of the crank cycle (12 o'clock to 6 o'clock crank positions) using three-dimensional kinematics. Greater lateral spine inclination (p road to recreational cyclists. When conducting assessment of joint and segment motions, workload between 65 and 95% of individual cyclists' peak power output could be used.

  1. Crossing at a Red Light: Behavior of Cyclists at Urban Intersections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobao Yang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the relationship between cyclist violation and waiting duration, the red-light running behavior of nonmotorized vehicles is examined at signalized intersections. Violation waiting duration is collected by video cameras and it is assigned as censored and uncensored data to distinguish between normal crossing and red-light running. A proportional hazard-based duration model is introduced, and variables revealing personal characteristics and traffic conditions are used to describe the effects of internal and external factors. Empirical results show that the red-light running behavior of cyclist is time dependent. Cyclist’s violating behavior represents positive duration dependence, that the longer the waiting time elapsed, the more likely cyclists would end the wait soon. About 32% of cyclists are at high risk of violation and low waiting time to cross the intersections. About 15% of all the cyclists are generally nonrisk takers who can obey the traffic rules after waiting for 95 seconds. The human factors and external environment play an important role in cyclists’ violation behavior. Minimizing the effects of unfavorable condition in traffic planning and designing may be an effective measure to enhance traffic safety.

  2. The effects of resistance training on road cycling performance among highly trained cyclists: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Linda M; Klau, Jennifer F; Casa, Douglas J; Kraemer, William J; Armstrong, Lawrence E; Maresh, Carl M

    2010-02-01

    Highly trained cyclists may be hesitant to incorporate resistance training (RT) with their endurance training (ET) because of the mixed data regarding concurrent RT and ET (CT). The purpose of this review was to search the scientific body of literature for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of CT on road cycling performance for highly trained cyclists. Key words (including cycling and strength training) were used to search relevant databases through September 2009 for literature related to CT. Randomized controlled trials were included if they scored > or =5 on the Physiotherapy Evidence Database scale. Five studies met the inclusion criteria: highly trained road cyclists (>7 h.wk or > 150 km.wk, with at least 6 months of training), outcome measure was cycling performance (time trial or time to exhaustion), and RT performed off-bike. Two of the 5 studies found no improvement in performance with CT, but these studies added RT on top of the athletes' existing ET. The 3 studies with improved cycling performance replaced a portion of the athletes' ET with RT, and 2 of the 3 studies included high-intensity explosive-type resistance exercises. Despite the limited research on CT for highly trained cyclists, it is likely that replacing a portion of a cyclist's ET with RT will result in improved time trial performance and maximal power.

  3. Bone loss over one year of training and competition in female cyclists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherk, Vanessa D; Barry, Daniel W; Villalon, Karen L; Hansen, Kent C; Wolfe, Pamela; Kohrt, Wendy M

    2014-01-01

    Objective To observe changes in hip, spine, and tibia bone characteristics in female cyclists over the course of 1 year of training. Design Prospective observational study Setting Laboratory Participants Female cyclists (n=14) aged 26-41 years with at least 1 year of competition history and intent to compete in 10 or more races in the coming year. Assessment of Risk Factors Women who train and compete in road cycling as their primary sport. Main Outcome Measures Total body fat-free and fat mass, and lumbar spine and proximal femur areal bone mineral density (aBMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) assessments by DXA. Volumetric BMD (vBMD) and BMC of the tibia were measured by pQCT at sites corresponding to 4%, 38%, 66%, and 96% of tibia length. Time points were baseline and after 12 months of training and competition. Results Weight and body composition did not change significantly over 12 months. Total hip aBMD and BMC decreased by −1.4±1.9% and −2.1±2.3% (p0.11). Conclusions Bone loss in female cyclists was site-specific and similar in magnitude to losses previously reported in male cyclists. Research is needed to understand the mechanisms for bone loss in cyclists. PMID:24326929

  4. Reliability and Seasonal Changes of Submaximal Variables to Evaluate Professional Cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Marroyo, Jose A; Pernía, Raúl; Villa, José G; Foster, Carl

    2017-03-24

    The aim of this study was to determine the reliability and validity of several submaximal variables that can be easily obtained by monitoring cyclists' performance. Eighteen professional cyclists participated in this study. In a first part (n=15) the test-retest reliability of HR and RPE during a progressive maximal test was measured. Derived submaximal variables based on HR, RPE and power output (PO) responses were analyzed. In a second part (n=7) the pattern of the submaximal variables according to cyclists' training status was analyzed. Cyclists were assessed 3 times during the season: at the beginning of the season, before the Vuelta a España and the day after this Grand Tour. Part 1: no significant differences in maximal and submaximal variables between test-retest were found. Excellent ICCs (0.81-0.98) were obtained in all variables. Part 2: the HR and RPE showed a rightward shift from early to peak season. In addition, RPE showed a left shift after the Vuelta a España. Submaximal variables based on RPE had the best relationship with both performance and changes in performance. The present study showed the reliability of different maximal and submaximal variables used to assess cyclists' performance. Submaximal variables based on RPE seem to be the best to monitor changes in training status over a season.

  5. Preliminary results from a field experiment on e-bike safety: speed choice and mental workload for middle-aged and elderly cyclists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Twisk, D.A.M.; Boele, M.J.; Vlakveld, W.P.; Christoph, M.; Sikkema, R.; Remij, R.; Schwab, A.L.

    2013-01-01

    To study the safety of e-bikes for the elderly, an experimental field study was conducted, using instrumented bicycles and comparing two age groups: older cyclists, n= 29, mean age = 70, SD = 4.2 and middle-aged cyclists, n = 29, mean age = 38, SD = 4.3. All were regular cyclists. They rode a fixed

  6. Preliminary results from a field experiment on e-bike safety: speed choice and mental workload for middle-aged and elderly cyclists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Twisk, D.A.M.; Boele, M.J.; Vlakveld, W.P.; Christoph, M.; Sikkema, R.; Remij, R.; Schwab, A.L.

    2013-01-01

    To study the safety of e-bikes for the elderly, an experimental field study was conducted, using instrumented bicycles and comparing two age groups: older cyclists, n= 29, mean age = 70, SD = 4.2 and middle-aged cyclists, n = 29, mean age = 38, SD = 4.3. All were regular cyclists. They rode a fixed

  7. Effect of physical effort on mental workload of cyclists in real traffic in relation to age and use of pedelecs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boele-Vos, M.J. Commandeur, J.J.F. & Twisk, D.A.M.

    2016-01-01

    To improve cycling safety, insight is required into the factors that contribute to road safety of older cyclists. From the wide range of possible factors, this paper addresses the role of physical effort on mental workload of cyclists with the aim to investigate whether physical effort affects menta

  8. Radfahrersicherheit: was Europa von den Niederlanden lernen kann = Cyclist safety: what Europe can learn from the Dutch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schijndel-de Nooij, M. van; Versmissen, A.C.M.; Corbeij, R.M.; Broek, T.H.A. van den

    2009-01-01

    In many EU countries, and especially in major cities like Berlin, Paris, London and Barcelona, the number of cyclists in daily traffic is strongly increasing. The related strong increase in the number of serious injuries and fatalities amongst cyclists is only now starting to gain the attention it d

  9. Aerobic fitness is associated with low cardiovascular disease risk: the impact of lifestyle on early risk factors for atherosclerosis in young healthy Swedish individuals – the Lifestyle, Biomarker, and Atherosclerosis study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernström M

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Maria Fernström,1,* Ulrika Fernberg,2,* Gabriella Eliason,1 Anita Hurtig-Wennlöf1 1Department of Medical Diagnostics, Medical Faculty, School of Health Sciences, 2Medical Faculty, School of Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: The progression of cardiovascular disease (CVD and atherosclerosis is slow and develops over decades. In the cross-sectional Swedish Lifestyle, Biomarker, and Atherosclerosis study, 834 young, self-reported healthy adults aged 18.0–25.9 years have been studied to identify early risk factors for atherosclerosis.Purpose: The aims of this study were to 1 assess selected cardiometabolic biomarkers, carotid intima–media thickness (cIMT as a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis, and lifestyle-related indicators (food habits, handgrip strength, and oxygen uptake, VO2 max; 2 analyze the assofciations between cIMT and lifestyle factors; and 3 identify subjects at risk of CVD using a risk score and to compare the characteristics of subjects with and without risk of CVD.Method: Blood samples were taken in a fasting state, and food habits were reported through a questionnaire. cIMT was measured by ultrasound, and VO2 max was measured by ergometer bike test. The risk score was calculated according to Wildman.Result: cIMT (mean ± standard deviation was 0.50±0.06 mm, and VO2 max values were 37.8±8.5 and 42.9±9.9 mL/kg/min, in women and men, respectively. No correlation was found between aerobic fitness expressed as VO2 max (mL/kg/min and cIMT. Using Wildman’s definition, 12% of the subjects were classified as being at risk of CVD, and 15% had homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance. A total of 35% of women and 25% of men had lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol than recommended. Food habits did not differ between those at risk and those not at risk. However, aerobic fitness measured as VO2 max (mL/kg/min differed; 47% of the

  10. The impact of compulsory cycle helmet legislation on cyclist head injuries in New South Wales, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Scott R; Olivier, Jake; Churches, Tim; Grzebieta, Raphael

    2011-11-01

    The study aimed to assess the effect of compulsory cycle helmet legislation on cyclist head injuries given the ongoing debate in Australia as to the efficacy of this measure at a population level. We used hospital admissions data from New South Wales, Australia, from a 36 month period centred at the time legislation came into effect. Negative binomial regression of hospital admission counts of head and limb injuries to cyclists were performed to identify differential changes in head and limb injury rates at the time of legislation. Interaction terms were included to allow different trends between injury types and pre- and post-law time periods. To avoid the issue of lack of cyclist exposure data, we assumed equal exposures between head and limb injuries which allowed an arbitrary proxy exposure to be used in the model. As a comparison, analyses were also performed for pedestrian data to identify which of the observed effects were specific to cyclists. In general, the models identified a decreasing trend in injury rates prior to legislation, an increasing trend thereafter and a drop in rates at the time legislation was enacted, all of which were thought to represent background effects in transport safety. Head injury rates decreased significantly more than limb injury rates at the time of legislation among cyclists but not among pedestrians. This additional benefit was attributed to compulsory helmet legislation. Despite numerous data limitations, we identified evidence of a positive effect of compulsory cycle helmet legislation on cyclist head injuries at a population level such that repealing the law cannot be justified.

  11. Injuries to pedal cyclists on New Zealand roads, 1988-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background The risk of injury is one of the major barriers to engaging in cycling. We investigated exposure-based rates and profiles of traffic injuries sustained by pedal cyclists that resulted in death or hospital inpatient treatment in New Zealand, one of the most car dependent countries. Methods Pedal cyclist traffic injuries were identified from the Mortality Collection and the National Minimum Dataset. Total time spent cycling was used as the measure of exposure and computed from National Household Travel Surveys. Analyses were undertaken for the periods 1988-91, 1996-99 and 2003-07 in relation to other major road users and by age, gender and body region affected. A modified Barell matrix was used to characterise the profiles of pedal cyclist injuries by body region affected and nature of injury. Results Cyclists had the second highest rate of traffic injuries compared to other major road user categories and the rate increased from 1996-99 to 2003-07. During 2003-07, 31 injuries occurred per million hours spent cycling. Non-collision crashes (40%) and collisions with a car, pick-up truck or van (26%) accounted for two thirds of the cycling injuries. Children and adolescents aged under 15 years were at the highest risk, particularly of non-collision crashes. The rate of traumatic brain injuries fell from 1988-91 to 1996-99; however, injuries to other body parts increased steadily. Traumatic brain injuries were most common in collision cases whereas upper extremity fractures were most common in other crashes. Conclusions The burden of fatal and hospitalised injuries among pedal cyclists is considerable and has been increasing over the last decade. This underscores the development of road safety and injury prevention programmes for cyclists alongside the cycling promotion strategies. PMID:21034490

  12. Injuries to pedal cyclists on New Zealand roads, 1988-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameratunga Shanthi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The risk of injury is one of the major barriers to engaging in cycling. We investigated exposure-based rates and profiles of traffic injuries sustained by pedal cyclists that resulted in death or hospital inpatient treatment in New Zealand, one of the most car dependent countries. Methods Pedal cyclist traffic injuries were identified from the Mortality Collection and the National Minimum Dataset. Total time spent cycling was used as the measure of exposure and computed from National Household Travel Surveys. Analyses were undertaken for the periods 1988-91, 1996-99 and 2003-07 in relation to other major road users and by age, gender and body region affected. A modified Barell matrix was used to characterise the profiles of pedal cyclist injuries by body region affected and nature of injury. Results Cyclists had the second highest rate of traffic injuries compared to other major road user categories and the rate increased from 1996-99 to 2003-07. During 2003-07, 31 injuries occurred per million hours spent cycling. Non-collision crashes (40% and collisions with a car, pick-up truck or van (26% accounted for two thirds of the cycling injuries. Children and adolescents aged under 15 years were at the highest risk, particularly of non-collision crashes. The rate of traumatic brain injuries fell from 1988-91 to 1996-99; however, injuries to other body parts increased steadily. Traumatic brain injuries were most common in collision cases whereas upper extremity fractures were most common in other crashes. Conclusions The burden of fatal and hospitalised injuries among pedal cyclists is considerable and has been increasing over the last decade. This underscores the development of road safety and injury prevention programmes for cyclists alongside the cycling promotion strategies.

  13. Fitness Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness Club

    2011-01-01

    The CERN Fitness Club is organising Zumba Classes on the first Wednesday of each month, starting 7 September (19.00 – 20.00). What is Zumba®? It’s an exhilarating, effective, easy-to-follow, Latin-inspired, calorie-burning dance fitness-party™ that’s moving millions of people toward joy and health. Above all it’s great fun and an excellent work out. Price: 22 CHF/person Sign-up via the following form: https://espace.cern.ch/club-fitness/Lists/Zumba%20Subscription/NewForm.aspx For more info: fitness.club@cern.ch

  14. Arousability and Dispositional optimism in cyclists with a disability in the context of substance abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena Nosková

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is focuses at aspects of resistance to psychical stress in cyclists with a disability in the context of substance abuse stimulant effect. The first part includes knowledge about cycling of handicapped and the effect of stimulants at the sports achievement. The article also describes selected constructs of resistance to the psychical stress, like dispositional optimism. The empirical part includes descriptive data from respondents from sports environment. The data on the level of arousability and dispositional optimism are interpreted in the context of substance use by respondents to effect sports achievement. The data are compared with the data of cyclists without handicap.

  15. Bicycle Use and Cyclist Safety Following Boston’s Bicycle Infrastructure Expansion, 2009–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angriman, Federico; Bellows, Alexandra L.; Taylor, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To evaluate changes in bicycle use and cyclist safety in Boston, Massachusetts, following the rapid expansion of its bicycle infrastructure between 2007 and 2014. Methods. We measured bicycle lane mileage, a surrogate for bicycle infrastructure expansion, and quantified total estimated number of commuters. In addition, we calculated the number of reported bicycle accidents from 2009 to 2012. Bicycle accident and injury trends over time were assessed via generalized linear models. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine factors associated with bicycle injuries. Results. Boston increased its total bicycle lane mileage from 0.034 miles in 2007 to 92.2 miles in 2014 (P cyclist safety. PMID:27736203

  16. Dynamics of the indicators of physical development, physical and technical fitness of young 12 - 15 year old weightlifters of the different groups of weight categories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutovinov Iu.A.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Here is the dynamics of indicators of physical development, physical and technical preparedness of young 12 - 15 year old weightlifters who are training for the Championship of Ukraine. 50 sportsman's has taken part in investigation. Age of sportsman - 12 - 15 years old. The indicators of physical development and preparedness of sportsmen were researched. The indicators of physical preparedness in control snatch, clean and jerk exercises were analyzed. The interconnection among the indicators of physical development as well as general and special physical preparedness of young weightlifters was shown. It was analyzed that the body length indicators of sportsmen are tend to grow by 15.2 % with an increase of weight category groups. It was estimated that the index of active mass of sportsman body grows by 14.2% with an increase of weight category groups. It was analyzed that the length indicators of upper and low extremities of young weightlifters grow on average by 14.6% and 15.1% with an increase of weight category groups. It was estimated that the indicators of general and special physical preparedness of young weightlifters grow on average by 18.2% and 40.8%.

  17. Does exercise training improve cardiopulmonary fitness and daily physical activity in children and young adults with corrected tetralogy of Fallot or Fontan circulation? A randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duppen, Nienke; Etnel, Jonathan R.; Spaans, Laura; Takken, Tim; Van Den Berg-Emons, Rita J.; Boersma, Eric; Schokking, Michiel; Dulfer, Karolijn; Utens, Elisabeth M.; Helbing, Willem; Hopman, Maria T.

    2015-01-01

    Background Many patients with congenital heart disease do not meet current public health guidelines to participate in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity for ≥60 minutes per day. They are less fit than their healthy peers. We hypothesized that exercise training would increase cardiopulmonary fitn

  18. Does exercise training improve cardiopulmonary fitness and daily physical activity in children and young adults with corrected tetralogy of Fallot or Fontan circulation? A randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duppen, N.; Etnel, J.R.; Spaans, L.; Takken, T.; Berg-Emons, R.J. van den; Boersma, E.; Schokking, M.; Dulfer, K.; Utens, E.M.; Helbing, W.; Hopman, M.T.E.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many patients with congenital heart disease do not meet current public health guidelines to participate in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity for >/=60 minutes per day. They are less fit than their healthy peers. We hypothesized that exercise training would increase cardiopulmonar

  19. Promoting a Healthy Lifestyle : Effectiveness of an intervention on physical behaviour and physical fitness among adolescents and young adults with spastic cerebral palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Slaman (Jorrit)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ In this thesis, the effectiveness of the Active Lifestyle and Sports participation intervention was evaluated among youth with Cerebral Palsy (CP). This intervention consisted of ADL counselling, fitness training and sports counselling. It was hypothesised that this lif

  20. Relationship of cardiac structure and function to cardiorespiratory fitness and lean body mass in adolescents and young adults with Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    To investigate the relationships of cardiac structure and function with body composition and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) among adolescents with type 2 diabetes in the Treatment Options for Type 2 Diabetes in Adolescents and Youth (TODAY) Study Group. Cross-sectional evaluation of 233 participant...

  1. Comparing Study on Physical Fitness Characteristics of Health Promotion Club's Young Members in Urban%都市健身俱乐部年青会员体质特征的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚向珍

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the physical characteristic of health promotion club young members,by comparing and analyzing the physical index of health promotion club young members,for a better understanding of their own physical condition,which has targeted to achieve formulate science of exercise program provide important reference.This paper has use questionnaire survey,measurement and mathematical statistics other research tools.Select the age of 20~34 years old in Ningbo health promotion club members,as the younger subjects.Based on 《REPORT ON THE SECOND NATIONAL PHYSICAL FITNESS SURVEILLANCE》,test and analyze from the aspects of physical fitness,rules and regulations.The results show: the height and body weight index of male young members of Shenyang city health promotion club has entered the body mass index range of grade Ⅰ obesity in the factor of age,habit,drink and etc,while there are no obvious differences between physical fitness and functional index.The balance ability of male young members under 24 groups and the flexible quality of female are superior the young members above 25 groups.In a total,as the different purposes of fitness,the physical fitness situation of female members is better than the male's;the health level has shown a downward trend as the increasing of age.%通过对健身俱乐部年青会员体质测试数据的分析与比较,以期探讨健身俱乐部年青会员的体质特征,为更好了解自身体质状况,有针对性地制定科学健身计划提供参考。运用文献资料法、测量法及数理统计法等研究手段,以20~34周岁的宁波市健身俱乐部年青会员为研究对象,依据《第二次国民体质监测报告》的测试细则,从身体形态、机能和素质三方面的指标进行测试并加以分析。结果显示,受年龄、生活习惯、饮食习惯等因素的影响,男会员的体重指数已进入Ⅰ级肥胖范围,而身体形态和机能指标的组间无显著差异;24

  2. Waist circumference and BMI are independently associated with the variation of cardio-respiratory and neuromuscular fitness in young adult men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogelholm, M; Malmberg, J; Suni, J; Santtila, M; Kyröläinen, H; Mäntysaari, M

    2006-06-01

    To test two hypotheses: (1) cardiorespiratory (CRF) and neuromuscular (NMF) fitness is associated with body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC), independent of each other and of leisure-time physical activity; (2) individuals with high CRF and NMF have lower WC for a given BMI, compared with those with low CRF and NMF. Cross-sectional study. Men participating in refresher training organized by the Finnish Defence Forces. A total of 951 men (mean age 29.1, s.d. 4.2 years; BMI 25.3 kg/m(2), s.d. 3.8; WC 91, s.d. 11 cm). Body mass index, WC, maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2)max), height of vertical jump, number of push-ups and sit-ups during a 1-min test, static back extension endurance, isometric grip strength, self-reported leisure-time vigorous physical activity. Multiple linear regressions were used to explain the variation in fitness. Waist circumference had significant (Pmuscle fitness of the upper body, trunk and lower extremities is impaired in individuals with abdominal obesity. Although the known loss of CRF is a serious consequence of obesity, the deterioration of NMF deserves increased attention.

  3. Cardiometabolic Biomarkers in Young Black Girls: Relations to Body Fatness and Aerobic Fitness, and Effects of a Randomized Physical Activity Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Gutin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There is little evidence from randomized trials showing that physical activity alone influences biomarker profiles in youths. This study tested two hypotheses: (i that elevated body fatness and poor fitness would be associated with unfavorable levels of cardiometabolic biomarkers in 8–12-y-old black girls (n=242 and (ii that a 10-mo PA intervention would have favorable effects on the fatness-related cardiometabolic biomarkers. At baseline, all fatness indices (i.e., percent body fat, visceral adipose tissue, BMI, and waist circumference were significantly (P<0.05 associated with unfavorable levels of insulin, glucose, systolic BP, diastolic BP, triglycerides, C-reactive protein (CRP, and fibrinogen. Aerobic fitness was significantly (P<0.05 associated with favorable levels of insulin, CRP, fibrinogen, and HDL2. The PA intervention had significant and favorable effects on fitness, fatness, and two biomarkers—resting heart rate and LDL cholesterol. More research is needed to clarify what types of interventions can enhance the cardiometabolic health of youths.

  4. The outcomes of a 12-week Internet intervention aimed at improving fitness and health-related quality of life in overweight adolescents: the Young & Active controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsti Riiser

    Full Text Available Overweight and obesity among adolescents may have consequences, with potentially lasting effects on health and health-related quality of life (HRQoL. Excess weight is also associated with decreases in physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness. The aim of the current study was to investigate the short-term effects of a 12-week Internet intervention in a primary care setting intended to increase cardiorespiratory fitness and HRQoL among overweight and obese adolescents.In this controlled trial, participants (13-15 years were non-randomly allocated to an intervention- or a control group. The intervention group received 12-weeks access to an online program providing tailored physical activity counseling based on principles from Self-determination Theory and Motivational Interviewing. The control group received standard follow-up by the school nurses. The primary outcome measure of cardiorespiratory fitness was determined using a shuttle run test. The secondary outcomes: HRQoL, leisure time exercise, body image and self-determined motivation for physical activity and exercise, were assessed by self-report measures. Age- and gender-adjusted body mass index (BMI was calculated based on measurements of height and weight. To compare pre-to post intervention differences within groups, a paired samples t-test was used while crude differences between groups were analyzed with an independent samples t-test.Of the 120 participants, 108 completed the study, 75 in the intervention group and 33 in the control group. Exposure to the intervention had a small effect on cardiorespiratory fitness (0.14; 95% CI [0.01;0.28]; P = 0.04, and a moderate effect on HRQoL (5.22; 95% CI [0.90; 9.53]; P = 0.02. Moreover, the control group increased significantly in BMI, yielding a moderate preventive effect on BMI (-0.39; 95% CI [-0.74;-0.03]; P = 0.03 for the intervention group.The results suggest that the Internet intervention with tailored physical activity counseling

  5. A safer road environment for cyclists. Proefschrift Technische Universiteit Delft TUD.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, P.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the question of how the road environment (road design and network characteristics) affects road safety for cyclists through effects on risk and exposure to risk. In this thesis, the term ‘road design’ is used to denote the location level (e.g. intersection design) while the te

  6. Incidence, severity and correlates of bicycling injuries in a sample of cyclists in Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heesch, Kristiann C; Garrard, Jan; Sahlqvist, Shannon

    2011-11-01

    Bicycle injuries, particularly those resulting from single bicycle crashes, are underreported in both police and hospital records. Data on cyclist characteristics and crash circumstances are also often lacking. As a result, the ability to develop comprehensive injury prevention policies is hampered. The aim of this study was to examine the incidence, severity, cyclist characteristics, and crash circumstances associated with cycling injuries in a sample of cyclists in Queensland, Australia. A cross-sectional study of Queensland cyclists was conducted in 2009. Respondents (n=2056) completed an online survey about their cycling experiences, including cycling injuries. Logistic regression modelling was used to examine the associations between demographic and cycling behaviour variables with experiencing cycling injuries in the past year, and, separately, with serious cycling injuries requiring a trip to a hospital. Twenty-seven percent of respondents (n=545) reported injuries, and 6% (n=114) reported serious injuries. In multivariable modelling, reporting an injury was more likely for respondents who had cycled injuries. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Reliability of a Digital Method to Determine Frontal Area of a Cyclist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Randall L.; Balasubramani, Saravanan; Burley, Keith C.; Kaukola, Daniel R.; LaChapelle, James A.

    2010-01-01

    Eight cyclists were photographed with a digital camera for three trials while positioned on their own bicycle wearing their helmet. The positions were different from each other and described as hands on the brake hoods, hands below the curve of the brake hoods on the handlebars, and using aerobars. Twenty-four trials were digitized by two…

  8. Aerodynamics of cyclist posture, bicycle and helmet characteristics in time trial stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabroux, Vincent; Barelle, Caroline; Favier, Daniel

    2012-07-01

    The present work is focused on the aerodynamic study of different parameters, including both the posture of a cyclist's upper limbs and the saddle position, in time trial (TT) stages. The aerodynamic influence of a TT helmet large visor is also quantified as a function of the helmet inclination. Experiments conducted in a wind tunnel on nine professional cyclists provided drag force and frontal area measurements to determine the drag force coefficient. Data statistical analysis clearly shows that the hands positioning on shifters and the elbows joined together are significantly reducing the cyclist drag force. Concerning the saddle position, the drag force is shown to be significantly increased (about 3%) when the saddle is raised. The usual helmet inclination appears to be the inclination value minimizing the drag force. Moreover, the addition of a large visor on the helmet is shown to provide a drag coefficient reduction as a function of the helmet inclination. Present results indicate that variations in the TT cyclist posture, the saddle position and the helmet visor can produce a significant gain in time (up to 2.2%) during stages.

  9. It is a long way to become an expert and a smart cyclist.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wittink, R.D.

    1993-01-01

    This paper is about the role that education might play to promote both safe cycling and bicycle use in the Netherlands. The conclusions are as follows: (1) An intensive training programme of cycling skills is needed; (2) Training of defensive behaviour must enable the cyclist to keep control of traf

  10. Preferences and behaviour of pedestrians and cyclists by age and gender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernhoft, Inger Marie; Carstensen, Gitte

    2008-01-01

    Preferences and behaviour of older pedestrians and cyclists (women and men, 70 years and above) in cities were studied by means of a questionnaire, and was compared to a group of people aged 40–49. The older respondents appreciate pedestrian crossings, signalized intersections and cycle paths...

  11. Fitness Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness Club

    2012-01-01

    Open to All: http://cern.ch/club-fitness  fitness.club@cern.ch Boxing Your supervisor makes your life too tough ! You really need to release the pressure you've been building up ! Come and join the fit-boxers. We train three times a week in Bd 216, classes for beginners and advanced available. Visit our website cern.ch/Boxing General Fitness Escape from your desk with our general fitness classes, to strengthen your heart, muscles and bones, improve you stamina, balance and flexibility, achieve new goals, be more productive and experience a sense of well-being, every Monday, Wednesday and Friday lunchtime, Tuesday mornings before work and Thursday evenings after work – join us for one of our monthly fitness workshops. Nordic Walking Enjoy the great outdoors; Nordic Walking is a great way to get your whole body moving and to significantly improve the condition of your muscles, heart and lungs. It will boost your energy levels no end. Pilates A body-conditioning technique de...

  12. No case of exercise-associated hyponatraemia in top male ultra-endurance cyclists: the 'Swiss Cycling Marathon'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rosemann, Thomas

    2012-02-01

    The prevalence of exercise-associated hyponatraemia (EAH) has been investigated in endurance athletes such as runners and Ironman triathletes, but not in ultra-endurance road cyclists. We assessed fluid intake and changes in body mass, urine specific gravity and plasma sodium concentration ([Na(+)]) in 65 ultra-endurance road cyclists in a 720-km ultra-cycling marathon, the 'Swiss Cycling Marathon'. The cyclists lost 1.5 (1.7)% body mass (P road cycling race showed no case of EAH. Future studies regarding drinking behaviour in different ultra-endurance disciplines might give insights into why the prevalence of EAH is different in the different disciplines.

  13. "Them or Us": Perceptions, cognitions, emotions, and overt behavior associated with cyclists and motorists sharing the road

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaplan, Sigal; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2014-01-01

    In emerging cycling regions, cyclists and motorists share the road due to cycling infrastructure scarcity. This study investigates the chain of stimuli, cognition, emotion, and behavior associated with the road-sharing experience through the thematic analysis of talk-backs posted in response...... to news items related to cyclist-motorist crashes. Results show: (a) cycling infrastructure scarcity and perceived road use rights trigger emotional stress; (b) motorists and cyclists perceive the road-sharing experience as life-threatening and experience anxiety, anger, and fear; (c) drivers' coping...

  14. Motivation and obstacles for weight management among young women - a qualitative study with a public health focus - the Tromsø study: Fit Futures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sand, Anne-Sofie; Emaus, Nina; Lian, Olaug S

    2017-05-08

    Due to a worldwide increase in overweight and obesity, weight-management through lifestyle changes has become an important public health issue. Adolescents and young adults comprise a vulnerable group. The transition into adulthood represents a stage in life when establishing good lifestyle habits for the future is important. The aim of this study was to explore motivation and obstacles for weight reduction, weight maintenance and healthy lifestyle choices in young women. We conducted semi-structured in depth interviews with 12 young women, both overweight and normal weight, recruited from a school-based population survey. By the use of thematic analysis we searched the interview text for relevant meaning units that emerged as topics that illuminated our research questions. A strong motivation for obtaining or keeping normal weight was clearly present among the participants. Independent of weight-group, the participants described increased levels of physical activity, better eating habits and regularity in daily life as desirable changes. Parents were described as important influencers regarding lifestyle habits. Several participants expressed a need for more information about healthy nutrition and eating. Their motivation for physical activity depended on a positive social setting and elements of joy. The participants described the transition into adulthood including moving out of their parents' home and other structural changes in everyday life, as challenging. It affected their food choices and eating habits and other lifestyle issues. High costs of healthy food and sports activities were frequently mentioned among the obstacles they encountered. The results revealed an obvious motivation for lifestyle changes in individuals and environmental challenges for young women in the relevant stage of their life-course. There seems to be a need for health strategies that strengthens individuals' capacity to overcome the environmental challenges in the transition to

  15. The injury epidemiology of cyclists based on a road trauma registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiron Mireille

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bicycle use has increased in some of France's major cities, mainly as a means of transport. Bicycle crashes need to be studied, preferably by type of cycling. Here we conduct a descriptive analysis. Method A road trauma registry has been in use in France since 1996, in a large county around Lyon (the Rhône, population 1.6 million. It covers outpatients, inpatients and fatalities. All injuries are coded using the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS. Proxies were used to identify three types of cycling: learning = children (0-10 years old; sports cycling = teenagers and adults injured outside towns; cycling as means of transport = teenagers and adults injured in towns. The study is based on 13,684 cyclist casualties (1996-2008. Results The percentage of cyclists injured in a collision with a motor vehicle was 8% among children, 17% among teenagers and adults injured outside towns, and 31% among those injured in towns. The percentage of serious casualties (MAIS 3+ was 4.5% among children, 10.9% among adults injured outside towns and 7.2% among those injured in towns. Collisions with motor-vehicles lead to more internal injuries than bicycle-only crashes. Conclusion The description indicates that cyclist type is associated with different crash and injury patterns. In particular, cyclists injured in towns (where cycling is increasing are generally less severely injured than those injured outside towns for both types of crash (bicycle-only crashes and collisions with a motor vehicle. This is probably due to lower speeds in towns, for both cyclists and motor vehicles.

  16. Aerodynamic study of different cyclist positions: CFD analysis and full-scale wind-tunnel tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defraeye, Thijs; Blocken, Bert; Koninckx, Erwin; Hespel, Peter; Carmeliet, Jan

    2010-05-07

    Three different cyclist positions were evaluated with Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and wind-tunnel experiments were used to provide reliable data to evaluate the accuracy of the CFD simulations. Specific features of this study are: (1) both steady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) and unsteady flow modelling, with more advanced turbulence modelling techniques (Large-Eddy Simulation - LES), were evaluated; (2) the boundary layer on the cyclist's surface was resolved entirely with low-Reynolds number modelling, instead of modelling it with wall functions; (3) apart from drag measurements, also surface pressure measurements on the cyclist's body were performed in the wind-tunnel experiment, which provided the basis for a more detailed evaluation of the predicted flow field by CFD. The results show that the simulated and measured drag areas differed about 11% (RANS) and 7% (LES), which is considered to be a close agreement in CFD studies. A fair agreement with wind-tunnel data was obtained for the predicted surface pressures, especially with LES. Despite the higher accuracy of LES, its much higher computational cost could make RANS more attractive for practical use in some situations. CFD is found to be a valuable tool to evaluate the drag of different cyclist positions and to investigate the influence of small adjustments in the cyclist's position. A strong advantage of CFD is that detailed flow field information is obtained, which cannot easily be obtained from wind-tunnel tests. This detailed information allows more insight in the causes of the drag force and provides better guidance for position improvements.

  17. Effects of Training Load on Some Hormonal, Hematological and Biochemical Profile of Male Cyclists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pralay Majumdar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Hematological profiles of cyclists fluctuates are based on the volume/frequency/intensity of training. The present study examined the effects of training load on the cyclist’s biochemical profile which may be associated with over training. Twelve male cyclists volunteered to participate in this study. The participants completed a systematic training program which was divided into four phases i.e. phase I (560 km, continuous aerobic training, II (680 km, continuous aerobic training, III (720 km, aerobic and anaerobic interval training and IV (560 km, continuous aerobic training. Blood samples were collected at the end of each phase. The hemoglobin level of the cyclists increased throughout the training cycle whereas iron level increased till the third phase and decreased in the fourth phase due to alteration in training. Hemoglobin level was high during the IV phase and this was due to the lowest volume/frequency of training given to the cyclists in final phase. Total Iron Binding Capacity (TIBC level was elevated during the competitive phase, due to the high volume / intensity during III phase. The depletion of ferritin was high during phase II which was associated with a 21% increase in training volume after the first phase. The highest intensity, volume and frequency of E2S training (phase III were associated with a large increase in Creatine Phosphokinase (CPK, Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH and cortisol levels, demonstrating a significant decrease in testosterone that showed the over-trained state. Hence, these biochemical markers are important in monitoring athlete’s training load as these parameters are altered with the training intensity, frequency and volume of training given to the cyclist.

  18. The injury epidemiology of cyclists based on a road trauma registry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Bicycle use has increased in some of France's major cities, mainly as a means of transport. Bicycle crashes need to be studied, preferably by type of cycling. Here we conduct a descriptive analysis. Method A road trauma registry has been in use in France since 1996, in a large county around Lyon (the Rhône, population 1.6 million). It covers outpatients, inpatients and fatalities. All injuries are coded using the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS). Proxies were used to identify three types of cycling: learning = children (0-10 years old); sports cycling = teenagers and adults injured outside towns; cycling as means of transport = teenagers and adults injured in towns. The study is based on 13,684 cyclist casualties (1996-2008). Results The percentage of cyclists injured in a collision with a motor vehicle was 8% among children, 17% among teenagers and adults injured outside towns, and 31% among those injured in towns. The percentage of serious casualties (MAIS 3+) was 4.5% among children, 10.9% among adults injured outside towns and 7.2% among those injured in towns. Collisions with motor-vehicles lead to more internal injuries than bicycle-only crashes. Conclusion The description indicates that cyclist type is associated with different crash and injury patterns. In particular, cyclists injured in towns (where cycling is increasing) are generally less severely injured than those injured outside towns for both types of crash (bicycle-only crashes and collisions with a motor vehicle). This is probably due to lower speeds in towns, for both cyclists and motor vehicles. PMID:21849071

  19. Differences in Physiological Responses to Interval Training in Cyclists With and Without Interval Training Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebisz, Rafal; Hebisz, Paulina; Borkowski, Jacek; Zatoń, Marek

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine differences in glycolytic metabolite concentrations and work output in response to an all-out interval training session in 23 cyclists with at least 2 years of interval training experience (E) and those inexperienced (IE) in this form of training. The intervention involved subsequent sets of maximal intensity exercise on a cycle ergometer. Each set comprised four 30 s repetitions interspersed with 90 s recovery periods; sets were repeated when blood pH returned to 7.3. Measurements of post-exercise hydrogen (H+) and lactate ion (LA-) concentrations and work output were taken. The experienced cyclists performed significantly more sets of maximal efforts than the inexperienced athletes (5.8 ± 1.2 vs. 4.3 ± 0.9 sets, respectively). Work output decreased in each subsequent set in the IE group and only in the last set in the E group. Distribution of power output changed only in the E group; power decreased in the initial repetitions of set only to increase in the final repetitions. H+ concentration decreased in the third, penultimate, and last sets in the E group and in each subsequent set in the IE group. LA- decreased in the last set in both groups. In conclusion, the experienced cyclists were able to repeatedly induce elevated levels of lactic acidosis. Power output distribution changed with decreased acid-base imbalance. In this way, this group could compensate for a decreased anaerobic metabolism. The above factors allowed cyclists experienced in interval training to perform more sets of maximal exercise without a decrease in power output compared with inexperienced cyclists.

  20. Differences in Physiological Responses to Interval Training in Cyclists With and Without Interval Training Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hebisz Rafal

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine differences in glycolytic metabolite concentrations and work output in response to an all-out interval training session in 23 cyclists with at least 2 years of interval training experience (E and those inexperienced (IE in this form of training. The intervention involved subsequent sets of maximal intensity exercise on a cycle ergometer. Each set comprised four 30 s repetitions interspersed with 90 s recovery periods; sets were repeated when blood pH returned to 7.3. Measurements of post-exercise hydrogen (H+ and lactate ion (LA- concentrations and work output were taken. The experienced cyclists performed significantly more sets of maximal efforts than the inexperienced athletes (5.8 ± 1.2 vs. 4.3 ± 0.9 sets, respectively. Work output decreased in each subsequent set in the IE group and only in the last set in the E group. Distribution of power output changed only in the E group; power decreased in the initial repetitions of set only to increase in the final repetitions. H+ concentration decreased in the third, penultimate, and last sets in the E group and in each subsequent set in the IE group. LA- decreased in the last set in both groups. In conclusion, the experienced cyclists were able to repeatedly induce elevated levels of lactic acidosis. Power output distribution changed with decreased acid–base imbalance. In this way, this group could compensate for a decreased anaerobic metabolism. The above factors allowed cyclists experienced in interval training to perform more sets of maximal exercise without a decrease in power output compared with inexperienced cyclists.

  1. A naturalistic study of commuter cyclists in the greater Stockholm area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, Louise; Archer, Jeffery

    2013-09-01

    Few naturalistic studies have been carried out with commuter cyclists to discover the types of problems they encounter on a daily basis. The study presented here has been commissioned by the City of Stockholm municipality and focuses specifically on commuter cyclists in the Greater Stockholm area. The aim of the study was to describe and pinpoint accessibility and safety problems, but also to generate an accessible geographical interface that could serve as a traffic planning tool for cycle network improvement. Statistical surveys in the Stockholm area have shown a rapid growth in the number of cyclists as well as an increase in problems associated with an overburdened cycle infrastructure. Given the heightened emphasis on transport system sustainability, the City of Stockholm is faced with the challenging task of trying to maintain and encourage the upward trend in commuter cycling through a process that involves problem identification, classification, prioritisation and resolution. An innovative methodology involving the use of GPS logging devices and small video cameras was developed and supported with analysis software designed specifically for the purposes of this study. Experienced commuter cyclists were recruited to cycle 17 different major cycle routes to and from the suburbs and inner city area during morning and afternoon peak traffic hours during the main cycle season. Over 500 safety and accessibility/mobility problems were identified and recorded from the data collected from 16 commuter cyclists. The method and representation of data proved successful for strategic traffic planning work at City of Stockholm and has since provided invaluable input for and the development of a new cycle plan for Greater Stockholm. Indirectly, the results of this work have also contributed to longer term safety and environmental targets.

  2. The effect of treadmill-based and track-based walking training on physical fitness in ankle-sprain experienced young people

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Eunsook

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of 12-week treadmill-based (MT) and track-based (TT) walking program on maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), muscular endurance, muscle strength, and ankle range of motion (ROM) in ankle sprain experienced young people. Twenty subjects (12 males, 8 females) volunteered to participate in this study and divided into two groups (MT and TT). All subjects completed MT and TT 4 times per week with each session of 60 min with 65% from maximum heart rate. Incremental test on treadmill and 20-m shuttle run test for endurance capacity (VO2max), 2-km walking test for muscular endurance, vertical jump for strength, and ankle ROM for flexibility were analyzed before and after the training intervention. We found significant increase in incremental, 2-km walking and 20-m shuttle run after both MT and TT. Just after TT were significant increased vertical jump and ankle ROM. In conclusion, TT seems to induce a more positive effect on muscle strength in lower extremity and ankle ROM than treadmill-based walking training in ankle sprain experienced young people.

  3. Aerobic fitness is associated with low cardiovascular disease risk: the impact of lifestyle on early risk factors for atherosclerosis in young healthy Swedish individuals - the Lifestyle, Biomarker, and Atherosclerosis study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernström, Maria; Fernberg, Ulrika; Eliason, Gabriella; Hurtig-Wennlöf, Anita

    2017-01-01

    The progression of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and atherosclerosis is slow and develops over decades. In the cross-sectional Swedish Lifestyle, Biomarker, and Atherosclerosis study, 834 young, self-reported healthy adults aged 18.0-25.9 years have been studied to identify early risk factors for atherosclerosis. The aims of this study were to 1) assess selected cardiometabolic biomarkers, carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) as a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis, and lifestyle-related indicators (food habits, handgrip strength, and oxygen uptake, VO2 max); 2) analyze the associations between cIMT and lifestyle factors; and 3) identify subjects at risk of CVD using a risk score and to compare the characteristics of subjects with and without risk of CVD. Blood samples were taken in a fasting state, and food habits were reported through a questionnaire. cIMT was measured by ultrasound, and VO2 max was measured by ergometer bike test. The risk score was calculated according to Wildman. cIMT (mean ± standard deviation) was 0.50±0.06 mm, and VO2 max values were 37.8±8.5 and 42.9±9.9 mL/kg/min, in women and men, respectively. No correlation was found between aerobic fitness expressed as VO2 max (mL/kg/min) and cIMT. Using Wildman's definition, 12% of the subjects were classified as being at risk of CVD, and 15% had homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance. A total of 35% of women and 25% of men had lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol than recommended. Food habits did not differ between those at risk and those not at risk. However, aerobic fitness measured as VO2 max (mL/kg/min) differed; 47% of the subjects at risk had low aerobic fitness compared to 23% of the nonrisk subjects (Pfitness is associated with low CVD risk in Swedish young adults. The high prevalence of young adults observed with unfavorable levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance raises concerns about future CVD risk.

  4. A New Crank Arm-Based Load Cell for the 3D Analysis of the Force Applied by a Cyclist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Balbinot

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This report describes a new crank arm-based force platform designed to evaluate the three-dimensional force applied to the pedals by cyclists in real conditions. The force platform was designed to be fitted on a conventional competition bicycle crankset while data is transmitted wirelessly through a BluetoothTM module and also stored on a SD card. A 3D solid model is created in the SolidWorks (Dassault Systèmes SOLIDWORKS Corp. to analyze the static and dynamic characteristics of the crank arm by using the finite elements technique. Each crankset arm is used as a load cell based on strain gauges configured as three Wheatstone bridges. The signals are conditioned on a printed circuit board attached directly to the structure. The load cell showed a maximum nonlinearity error between 0.36% and 0.61% and a maximum uncertainty of 2.3% referred to the sensitivity of each channel. A roller trainer equipped with an optical encoder was also developed, allowing the measurement of the wheel’s instantaneous velocity.

  5. A new crank arm-based load cell for the 3D analysis of the force applied by a cyclist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbinot, Alexandre; Milani, Cleiton; Nascimento, Jussan da Silva Bahia

    2014-12-03

    This report describes a new crank arm-based force platform designed to evaluate the three-dimensional force applied to the pedals by cyclists in real conditions. The force platform was designed to be fitted on a conventional competition bicycle crankset while data is transmitted wirelessly through a Bluetooth™ module and also stored on a SD card. A 3D solid model is created in the SolidWorks (Dassault Systèmes SOLIDWORKS Corp.) to analyze the static and dynamic characteristics of the crank arm by using the finite elements technique. Each crankset arm is used as a load cell based on strain gauges configured as three Wheatstone bridges. The signals are conditioned on a printed circuit board attached directly to the structure. The load cell showed a maximum nonlinearity error between 0.36% and 0.61% and a maximum uncertainty of 2.3% referred to the sensitivity of each channel. A roller trainer equipped with an optical encoder was also developed, allowing the measurement of the wheel's instantaneous velocity.

  6. Fitness cost

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Karen L.; Pedersen, Thomas M.; Udekwu, Klas I.

    2012-01-01

    of each isolate was determined in a growth competition assay with a reference isolate. Significant fitness costs of 215 were determined for the MRSA isolates studied. There was a significant negative correlation between number of antibiotic resistances and relative fitness. Multiple regression analysis...... to that seen in Denmark. We propose a significant fitness cost of resistance as the main bacteriological explanation for the disappearance of the multiresistant complex 83A MRSA in Denmark following a reduction in antibiotic usage.......Denmark and several other countries experienced the first epidemic of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) during the period 196575, which was caused by multiresistant isolates of phage complex 83A. In Denmark these MRSA isolates disappeared almost completely, being replaced by other...

  7. Positive pacing strategies are utilised by elite male and female para-cyclists in short time trials in the velodrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Lindsey Wright

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In para-cycling, competitors are classed based on functional impairment resulting in cyclists with neurological and locomotor impairments competing against each other. In Paralympic competition, classes are combined by using a factoring adjustment to race times to produce the overall medallists. Pacing in short-duration track cycling events is proposed to utilise an all-out strategy in able-bodied competition. However, pacing in para-cycling may vary depending on the level of impairment. Analysis of the pacing strategies employed by different classification groups may offer scope for optimal performance; therefore, this study investigated the pacing strategy adopted during the 1-km time trial (TT and 500-m TT in elite C1 to C3 para-cyclists and able-bodied cyclists. Total times and intermediate split times (125-m intervals; measured to 0.001s were obtained from the C1-C3 men’s 1-km TT (n=28 and women’s 500-m TT (n=9 from the 2012 Paralympic Games and the men’s 1-km TT (n=19 and women’s 500-m TT (n=12 from the 2013 UCI World Track Championships from publically available video. Split times were expressed as actual time, factored time (for the para-cyclists and as a percentage of total time. A two-way analysis of variance was used to investigate differences in split times between the different classifications and the able-bodied cyclists in the men’s 1-km TT and between the para-cyclists and able-bodied cyclists in the women’s 500-m TT. The importance of position at the first split was investigated with Kendall’s Tau-b correlation. The first 125-m split time was the slowest for all cyclists, representing the acceleration phase from a standing start. C2 cyclists were slowest at this 125-m split, probably due to a combination of remaining seated in this acceleration phase and a high proportion of cyclists in this group being trans-femoral amputees. Not all cyclists used aero-bars, preferring to use drop, flat or bullhorn handlebars

  8. Positive Pacing Strategies Are Utilized by Elite Male and Female Para-cyclists in Short Time Trials in the Velodrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Rachel L.

    2016-01-01

    In para-cycling, competitors are classed based on functional impairment resulting in cyclists with neurological and locomotor impairments competing against each other. In Paralympic competition, classes are combined by using a factoring adjustment to race times to produce the overall medallists. Pacing in short-duration track cycling events is proposed to utilize an “all-out” strategy in able-bodied competition. However, pacing in para-cycling may vary depending on the level of impairment. Analysis of the pacing strategies employed by different classification groups may offer scope for optimal performance; therefore, this study investigated the pacing strategy adopted during the 1-km time trial (TT) and 500-m TT in elite C1 to C3 para-cyclists and able-bodied cyclists. Total times and intermediate split times (125-m intervals; measured to 0.001 s) were obtained from the C1-C3 men's 1-km TT (n = 28) and women's 500-m TT (n = 9) from the 2012 Paralympic Games and the men's 1-km TT (n = 19) and women's 500-m TT (n = 12) from the 2013 UCI World Track Championships from publically available video. Split times were expressed as actual time, factored time (for the para-cyclists) and as a percentage of total time. A two-way analysis of variance was used to investigate differences in split times between the different classifications and the able-bodied cyclists in the men's 1-km TT and between the para-cyclists and able-bodied cyclists in the women's 500-m TT. The importance of position at the first split was investigated with Kendall's Tau-b correlation. The first 125-m split time was the slowest for all cyclists, representing the acceleration phase from a standing start. C2 cyclists were slowest at this 125-m split, probably due to a combination of remaining seated in this acceleration phase and a high proportion of cyclists in this group being trans-femoral amputees. Not all cyclists used aero-bars, preferring to use drop, flat or bullhorn handlebars. Split times

  9. Fitness Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness Club

    2012-01-01

    Get in Shape for Summer with the CERN Fitness Club Saturday 23 June 2012 from 14:30 to 16.30 (doors open at 14.00) Germana’s Fitness Workshop. Build strength and stamina, sculpt and tone your body and get your heart pumping with Germana’s workout mixture of Cardio Attack, Power Pump, Power Step, Cardio Combat and Cross-Training. Where: 216 (Pump room – equipped with changing rooms and showers). What to wear: comfortable clothes and indoor sports shoes + bring a drink! How much: 15 chf Sign up here: https://espace.cern.ch/club-fitness/Lists/Test_Subscription/NewForm.aspx? Join the Party and dance yourself into shape at Marco + Marials Zumba Masterclass. Saturday 30 June 2012 from 15:00 to 16:30 Marco + Mariel’s Zumba Masterclass Where: 216 (Pump room – equipped with changing rooms and showers). What to wear: comfortable clothes and indoor sports shoes + bring a drink! How much: 25 chf Sign up here: https://espace.cern.ch/club-fitness/Lists/Zumba%20...

  10. Fitness Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness Club

    2012-01-01

      The CERN Fitness Club is pleased to announce its new early morning class which will be taking place on: Tuesdays from 24th April 07:30 to 08:15 216 (Pump Hall, close to entrance C) – Facilities include changing rooms and showers. The Classes: The early morning classes will focus on workouts which will help you build not only strength and stamina, but will also improve your balance, and coordination. Our qualified instructor Germana will accompany you throughout the workout  to ensure you stay motivated so you achieve the best results. Sign up and discover the best way to start your working day full of energy! How to subscribe? We invite you along to a FREE trial session, if you enjoy the activity, please sign up via our website: https://espace.cern.ch/club-fitness/Activities/SUBSCRIBE.aspx. * * * * * * * * Saturday 28th April Get in shape for the summer at our fitness workshop and zumba dance party: Fitness workshop with Germana 13:00 to 14:30 - 216 (Pump Hall) Price...

  11. Fitness club

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness club

    2013-01-01

      Nordic Walking Classes Come join the Nordic walking classes and outings offered by the CERN Fitness Club starting September 2013. Our licensed instructor Christine offers classes for people who’ve never tried Nordic Walking and who would like to learn the technique, and outings for people who have completed the classes and enjoy going out as a group. Course 1: Tuesdays 12:30 - 13:30 24 September, 1 October, 8 October, 15 October Course 2: Tuesdays 12:30 - 13:30 5 November, 12 November, 19 November, 26 November Outings will take place on Thursdays (12:30 to 13:30) from 12 September 2013. We meet at the CERN Club Barracks car park (close to Entrance A) 10 minutes before departure. Prices: 50 CHF for 4 classes, including the 10 CHF Club membership. Payments made directly to instructor. Renting Poles: Poles can be rented from Christine at 5 CHF / hour. Subscription: Please subscribe at: http://cern.ch/club-fitness Looking forward to seeing you among us! Fitness Club FitnessClub@c...

  12. Leg muscle recruitment during cycling is less developed in triathletes than cyclists despite matched cycling training loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Andrew R; Vicenzino, Bill; Blanch, Peter; Hodges, Paul W

    2007-08-01

    Studies of arm movements suggest that interference with motor learning occurs when multiple tasks are practiced in sequence or with short interim periods. However, interference with learning has only been studied during training periods of 1-7 days and it is not known if interference with learning continues during long-term multitask training. This study investigated muscle recruitment in highly trained triathletes, who swim, cycle and run sequentially during training and competition. Comparisons were made to highly trained and novice cyclists, i.e. between trained multidiscipline, trained single-discipline and novice single-discipline athletes, to investigate adaptations of muscle recruitment that occur in response to ongoing multitask, or multidiscipline, training. Electromyographic (EMG) activity of five leg muscles, tibialis anterior, tibialis posterior, peroneus longus, gastrocnemius lateralis and soleus muscles, was recorded during cycling using intramuscular fine-wire electrodes. Differences were found between trained triathletes and trained cyclists in recruitment of all muscles, and patterns of muscle recruitment in trained triathletes were similar to those recorded in novice cyclists. More specifically, triathletes and novice cyclists were characterised by greater sample variance (i.e. greater variation between athletes), greater variation in muscle recruitment patterns between pedal strokes for individual cyclists, more extensive and more variable muscle coactivation, and less modulation of muscle activity (i.e. greater EMG amplitude between primary EMG bursts). In addition, modulation of muscle activity decreased with increasing cadence (i.e. the amplitude and duration of muscle activity was greater at higher movement speeds) in both triathletes and novice cyclists but modulation of muscle activity was not influenced by cadence in trained cyclists. Our findings imply that control of muscle recruitment is less developed in triathletes than in cyclists

  13. The red-light running behavior of electric bike riders and cyclists at urban intersections in China: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Changxu; Yao, Lin; Zhang, Kan

    2012-11-01

    Electric bikes and regular bicycles play an important role in the urban transportation system of China. Red-light running is a type of highly dangerous behavior of two-wheeled riders. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the rate, associated factors, and behavior characteristics of two-wheelers' red-light running in China. A field observational study was conducted using two synchronized video cameras at three signalized intersections in Beijing. A total of 451 two-wheelers facing a red light (222 e-bike riders and 229 cyclists) were observed and analyzed. The results showed that 56% of the two-wheelers crossed the intersection against a red light. Age was found to be a significant variable for predicting red-light runners, with the young and middle-aged riders being more likely than the old ones to run against a red light. The logistic regression analysis also indicated that the probability of a rider running a red light was higher when she or he was alone, when there were fewer riders waiting, and when there were riders already crossing on red. Further analysis of crossing behavior revealed that the majority of red-light running occurred in the early and late stages of a red-light cycle. Two-wheelers' crossing behavior was categorized into three distinct types: law-obeying (44%), risk-taking (31%) and opportunistic (25%). Males were more likely to act in a risk-taking manner than females, and so were the young and middle-aged riders than the old ones. These findings provide valuable insights in understanding two-wheelers' red-light running behaviors, and their implications in improving road safety were discussed.

  14. Cognitive fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilkey, Roderick; Kilts, Clint

    2007-11-01

    Recent neuroscientific research shows that the health of your brain isn't, as experts once thought, just the product of childhood experiences and genetics; it reflects your adult choices and experiences as well. Professors Gilkey and Kilts of Emory University's medical and business schools explain how you can strengthen your brain's anatomy, neural networks, and cognitive abilities, and prevent functions such as memory from deteriorating as you age. The brain's alertness is the result of what the authors call cognitive fitness -a state of optimized ability to reason, remember, learn, plan, and adapt. Certain attitudes, lifestyle choices, and exercises enhance cognitive fitness. Mental workouts are the key. Brain-imaging studies indicate that acquiring expertise in areas as diverse as playing a cello, juggling, speaking a foreign language, and driving a taxicab expands your neural systems and makes them more communicative. In other words, you can alter the physical makeup of your brain by learning new skills. The more cognitively fit you are, the better equipped you are to make decisions, solve problems, and deal with stress and change. Cognitive fitness will help you be more open to new ideas and alternative perspectives. It will give you the capacity to change your behavior and realize your goals. You can delay senescence for years and even enjoy a second career. Drawing from the rapidly expanding body of neuroscience research as well as from well-established research in psychology and other mental health fields, the authors have identified four steps you can take to become cognitively fit: understand how experience makes the brain grow, work hard at play, search for patterns, and seek novelty and innovation. Together these steps capture some of the key opportunities for maintaining an engaged, creative brain.

  15. Frequency of the VO2max plateau phenomenon in world-class cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucía, A; Rabadán, M; Hoyos, J; Hernández-Capilla, M; Pérez, M; San Juan, A F; Earnest, C P; Chicharro, J L

    2006-12-01

    We aimed to determine the frequency of the VO2max plateau phenomenon in top-level male professional road cyclists (n = 38; VO2max [mean +/- SD]: 73.5 +/- 5.5 ml.kg(-1).min(-1)) and in healthy, sedentary male controls (n = 37; VO2max: 42.7 +/- 5.6 ml.kg(-1).min(-1)). All subjects performed a continuous incremental cycle-ergometer test of 1-min workloads until exhaustion. Power output was increased from a starting value of 25 W (cyclists) or 20 W (controls) at the rate of 25 W.min(-1) (cyclists) or 20 W.min(-1) (controls) until volitional exhaustion. We measured gas-exchange and heart rate (HR) throughout the test. Blood concentrations of lactate (BLa) were measured at end-exercise in both groups. We defined maximal exercise exertion as the attainment of a respiratory exchange rate (RER) >or= 1.1; HR > 95 % age-predicted maximum; and BLa > 8 mmo.l(-1). The VO2max plateau phenomenon was defined as an increase in two or more consecutive 1-min mean VO2 values of less than 1.5 ml.kg(-1).min(-1). Most cyclists met our criteria for maximal exercise effort (RER > 1.1, 100 %; 95 % predicted maximal HR [HRmax], 82 %; BLa > 8 mmol.l(-1), 84 %). However, the proportion of cyclists attaining a V.O (2max) plateau was considerably lower, i.e., 47 %. The majority of controls met the criteria for maximal exercise effort (RER > 1.1, 100 %; predicted HRmax, 68 %; BLa > 8 mmol. l(-1), 73 %), but the proportion of these subjects with a VO2max plateau was only 24 % (significantly lower proportion than in cyclists [p < 0.05]). Scientists should consider 1) if typical criteria of attainment of maximal effort are sufficiently stringent, especially in elite endurance athletes; and 2) whether those humans exhibiting the VO2max plateau phenomenon are those who perform an absolute maximum effort or there are additional distinctive features associated with this phenomenon.

  16. Variability of cardio-respiratory, electromyographic, and perceived exertion responses at the walk-run transition in a sample of young men controlled for anthropometric and fitness characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Walace D; Farinatti, Paulo T V; de Oliveira, Carlos G; Araújo, Claudio Gil S

    2011-06-01

    The cardio-respiratory (heart rate, HR; oxygen uptake, VO(2;) expired carbon dioxide, VCO(2); ventilation, VE), electromyographic (EMG; medial gastrocnemius, vastus lateralis, rectus femoralis, and anterior tibialis), and perceived exertion (PE) responses during a protocol for the determination of the walk-run transition speed (WRTS) were investigated. From an initial sample of 453 volunteers, 12 subjects matched for age, anthropometric characteristics [height, weight, lower limb length (LLL)], cardio-respiratory fitness (peak oxygen consumption, VO(2peak); ventilatory threshold, VT; maximal HR), and habitual physical activity levels were selected (age = 18.6 ± 0.5 years; height = 174.5 ± 1.4 cm; weight = 66.4 ± 1.1 kg; LLL = 83.3 ± 1.2 cm, VO(2peak) = 52.2 ± 2.2 ml kg(-1) min(-1); VT = 39.8 ± 2.6 ml kg(-1) min(-1)). The highly reproducible WRTS determination protocol (ICC = 0.92; p running velocities (from 80 to 120% of WRTS) was compared to WRTS variation. The coefficient of variation for WRTS was 7.8%, which was within the range of variability for age, anthropometric variables, VO(2peak), and maximal HR (from 5 to 12%). Cardio-respiratory responses at WRTS had a greater variation (VO(2) about 50%; VE/VCO(2) about 35%; VE/VO(2) about 45%; HR about 30%). The highest variation was found for PE (from 70 to 90%) whereas EMG variables showed the lowest variation (from 25 to 30%). Linear regression between EMG series and VO(2) data showed that VO(2) reflected the increase in muscle activity only before the WRTS. These results support the hypothesis that the walk-run transition phenomenon is determined by mechanical variables such as limb length and its relationship to biomechanical model rather than by metabolic factors.

  17. Fitness Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness Club

    2012-01-01

    Nordic Walking Classes Sessions of four classes of one hour each are held on Tuesdays. RDV barracks parking at Entrance A, 10 minutes before class time. Session 1 =  11.09 / 18.09 / 25.09 / 02.10, 18:15 - 19:15 Session 2 = 25.09 / 02.10 / 09.10 / 16.10, 12:30 - 13:30 Session 3 = 23.10 / 30.10 / 06.11 / 13.11, 12:30 - 13:30 Session 4 = 20.11 / 27.11 / 04.12 / 11.12, 12:30 - 13:30 Prices 40 CHF per session + 10 CHF club membership 5 CHF/hour pole rental Check out our schedule and enroll at http://cern.ch/club-fitness   Hope to see you among us!  fitness.club@cern.ch In spring 2012 there was a long-awaited progress in CERN Fitness club. We have officially opened a Powerlifting @ CERN, and the number of members of the new section has been increasing since then reaching 70+ people in less than 4 months. Powerlifting is a strength sport, which is simple as 1-2-3 and efficient. The "1-2-3" are the three basic lifts (bench press...

  18. Fitness Testing: The Pleasure and Pain of It

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Robyne; Wrench, Alison

    2008-01-01

    The obesity crisis is a discourse that has established common-sense understandings that all young people are less active and fit than previous generations. Unquestioning acceptance of the links between fitness and obesity in turn leads to unproblematic fitness testing of young people. This research investigated the personal and embodied…

  19. Fitness Testing: The Pleasure and Pain of It

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Robyne; Wrench, Alison

    2008-01-01

    The obesity crisis is a discourse that has established common-sense understandings that all young people are less active and fit than previous generations. Unquestioning acceptance of the links between fitness and obesity in turn leads to unproblematic fitness testing of young people. This research investigated the personal and embodied…

  20. Changes in substrate utilisation and protein catabolism during multiday cycling in well-trained cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosthuyse, Tanja; Avidon, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    There is a paucity of studies that have evaluated substrate utilisation and protein catabolism during multiday strenuous exercise in athletes. Eleven well-trained male cyclists completed 3 h of race-simulated cycling on 4 consecutive days. Cyclist exercised 2 h postprandially and with carbohydrate supplementation (~50 g · h(-1)) during exercise. Whole body substrate utilisation was measured by indirect calorimetry, protein catabolism from sweat and urine urea excretion, and blood metabolite concentration was evaluated. Protein catabolism during exercise was significantly greater on days 2-4 (29.9 ± 8.8; 34.0 ± 11.2; 32.0 ± 7.3 g for days 2, 3, and 4, respectively) compared to day 1 (23.3 ± 7.6 g), P catabolism on all successive days.

  1. Do Male And Female Cyclists' Cortical Activity Differ Before and During Cycling Exercise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludyga, Sebastian; Gronwald, Thomas; Hottenrott, Kuno

    2015-12-01

    Although men and women are suggested to vary in resistance to fatigue, possible sex difference in its central component have rarely been investigated via electroencephalography (EEG). Therefore, we examined differences in cortical activity between male and female cyclists (n = 26) during cycling exercise. Participants performed an incremental test to derive the anaerobic threshold from the lactate power curve. In addition, cyclists' cortical activity was recorded with EEG before and during cycling exercise. Whereas women showed higher frontal alpha and beta activity at rest, no sex-specific differences of relative EEG spectral power occurred during cycling at higher intensity. Women and men's brains respond similarly during submaximal cycling, as both sexes show an inverted U-shaped curve of alpha power. Therefore, sex differences observable at rest vanish after the onset of exercise.

  2. Yellow and social perceptions of racing cyclists' sportspersonship: Proposing an inter-contextual analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantal, Yves; Bernache-Assollant, Iouri

    2017-03-01

    Through inter-contextual designs, the present set of experiments sought to explore whether the colour yellow would impact on social perceptions of sportspersonship exclusively in relation to competitive cycling. In Experiment 1 (N = 149), a silhouette image of a cyclist on a yellow background yielded lower perceptions of sportspersonship in comparison to grey or to the context of motocross, regardless of the colour. That interaction was conceptually replicated in Experiment 2 (N = 146) while changing measures (i.e., adaptation of the World Anti-Doping Code) and the context of comparison to sprinting. Furthermore, female and male observers' scores did not differ significantly thereby suggesting that yellow impacted on perceived sportspersonship similarly across gender. On the whole, those findings suggest that yellow can generate negative impressions of racing cyclists because, with years, this colour took on a meaning of opportunism from frequent pairings with doping. We close with discussing a number of limitations and future research avenues.

  3. Cyclist route choice, traffic-related air pollution, and lung function: a scripted exposure study

    OpenAIRE

    Jarjour, Sarah; Jerrett, Michael; Westerdahl, Dane; de Nazelle, Audrey; Hanning, Cooper; Daly, Laura; Lipsitt, Jonah; Balmes,John

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background A travel mode shift to active transportation such as bicycling would help reduce traffic volume and related air pollution emissions as well as promote increased physical activity level. Cyclists, however, are at risk for exposure to vehicle-related air pollutants due to their proximity to vehicle traffic and elevated respiratory rates. To promote safe bicycle commuting, the City of Berkeley, California, has designated a network of ...

  4. Influence of nitrate supplementation on VO(2) kinetics and endurance of elite cyclists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Peter Møller; Nyberg, Michael Permin; Bangsbo, Jens

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined if an elevated nitrate intake would improve VO(2) kinetics, endurance, and repeated sprint capacity in elite endurance athletes. Ten highly trained cyclists (72¿±¿4¿mL O(2) /kg/min, mean¿±¿standard deviation) underwent testing for VO(2) kinetics (3¿×¿6¿min at 298¿±¿28¿W...

  5. A Monetary Reward Alters Pacing but Not Performance in Competitive Cyclists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Skorski

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Money has frequently been used as an extrinsic motivator since it is assumed that humans are willing to invest more effort for financial reward. However, the influence of a monetary reward on pacing and performance in trained athletes is not well-understood. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyse the influence of a monetary reward in well-trained cyclists on their pacing and performance during short and long cycling time trials (TT. Twentythree cyclists (6 ♀, 17 ♂ completed 4 self-paced time trials (TTs, 2 short: 4 km and 6 min; 2 long: 20 km and 30 min; in a randomized order. Participants were separated into parallel, non-randomized “rewarded” and “non-rewarded” groups. Cyclists in the rewarded group received a monetary reward based on highest mean power output across all TTs. Cyclists in the non-rewarded group did not receive a monetary reward. Overall performance was not significantly different between groups in short or long TTs (p > 0.48. Power output showed moderatly lower effect sizes at comencement of the short TTs (Pmeandiff = 36.6 W; d > 0.44 and the 20 km TT (Pmeandiff = 22.6 W; d = 0.44 in the rewarded group. No difference was observed in pacing during the 30 min TT (p = 0.95. An external reward seems to have influenced pacing at the commencement of time trials. Participants in the non-rewarded group adopted a typical parabolic shaped pattern, whereas participants in the rewarded group started trials more conservatively. Results raise the possibility that using money as an extrinsic reward may interfere with regulatory processes required for effective pacing.

  6. The slow component of {V}O2 in professional cyclists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucia, A.; Hoyos, J.; Chicharro, J.

    2000-01-01

    Objectives—To analyse the slow component of oxygen uptake (O2) in professional cyclists and to determine whether this phenomenon is due to altered neuromuscular activity, as assessed by surface electromyography (EMG). Methods—The following variables were measured during 20 minute cycle ergometer tests performed at about 80% of O2MAX in nine professional road cyclists (mean (SD) age 26 (2) years; O2max 72.6 (2.2) ml/kg/min): heart rate (HR), gas exchange variables (O2, ventilation (E), tidal volume (VT), breathing frequency (fb), ventilatory equivalents for oxygen and carbon dioxide (E/O2 and E/CO2 respectively), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), and end tidal PO2 and PCO2 (PETO2 and PETCO2 respectively)), blood variables (lactate, pH, and [HCO3-]) and EMG data (root mean from square voltage (rms-EMG) and mean power frequency (MPF)) from the vastus lateralis muscle. Results—The mean magnitude of the slow component (from the end of the third minute to the end of exercise) was 130 (0.04) ml in 17 minutes or 7.6 ml/min. Significant increases from three minute to end of exercise values were found for the following variables: O2 (p0.05) throughout the exercise tests. Conclusions—A significant but small O2 slow component was shown in professional cyclists during constant load heavy exercise. The results suggest that the primary origin of the slow component is not neuromuscular factors in these subjects, at least for exercise intensities up to 80% of O2MAX. Key Words: pulmonary; gas exchange; electromyography; neuromuscular; fatigue; cyclists PMID:11049147

  7. Attitudes and Motivations of Competitive Cyclists Regarding Use of Banned and Legal Performance Enhancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nkaku R. Kisaalita

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Drug ‘doping’ and the use of banned performance enhancing products (PEPs remains an issue in virtually all competitive sports despite penal consequences and known health risks. The lines distinguishing “fair” and “unfair” performance enhancement have become increasingly blurred. Few studies have explored how attitudes towards legal performance enhancers (drugs/substances, diet, and equipment modifications may influence motivations to use banned PEPs. In the present study, 68 competitive cyclists completed a survey examining the importance of choosing banned and non-banned PEPs using World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA and Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI criteria. Results showed that over 60 percent of cyclists used non-banned PEPs while 8 percent used banned PEPs. Health was overall the most important factor in choosing a PEP while apprehension by a doping agency was least important. Mixed- model ANOVA analyses revealed that motivations to use banned PEPs were complex, as the importance of health, violating the sprit of the sport, performance improvement, and getting caught were differentially influenced by PEP legality (p 0.05. Our findings illustrate the multifactorial nature of PEP use/doping attitudes and highlight the unique role that “legal” performance enhancement may plays in influencing banned and/or unethical sports behaviors.

  8. Block periodization of high-intensity aerobic intervals provides superior training effects in trained cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rønnestad, B R; Hansen, J; Ellefsen, S

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of two different methods of organizing endurance training in trained cyclists. One group of cyclists performed block periodization, wherein the first week constituted five sessions of high-intensity aerobic training (HIT), followed by 3 weeks of one weekly HIT session and focus on low-intensity training (LIT) (BP; n = 10, VO2max  = 62 ± 2 mL/kg/min). Another group of cyclists performed a more traditional organization, with 4 weeks of two weekly HIT sessions interspersed with LIT (TRAD; n = 9, VO2max  = 63 ± 2 mL/kg/min). Similar volumes of both HIT and LIT was performed in the two groups. While BP increased VO2max , peak power output (Wmax) and power output at 2 mmol/L [la(-)] by 4.6 ± 3.7%, 2.1 ± 2.8%, and 10 ± 12%, respectively (P training compared with TRAD training (ES = 1.34, ES = 0.85, and ES = 0.71, respectively). The present study suggests that block periodization of training provides superior adaptations to traditional organization during a 4-week endurance training period, despite similar training volume and intensity. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. The Relationship between Cortisol and Bone Mineral Density in Competitive Male Cyclists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon L. Mathis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of this study was to determine whether race day cortisol was related to bone mineral density (BMD in competitive male cyclists. A secondary purpose was to determine additional factors associated with BMD in competitive male cyclists. Methods. Measurements of lumbar spine and hip BMD were performed in 35 male competitors in a state championship cycling time trial event. Salivary cortisol was measured 10 minutes prior to the start of the race and 5 minutes after race finished. Participants reported daily calcium intake, age, years of bike training, races per season, and average weekly minutes spent riding a bike, weight training, and running on a survey. Results. Cortisol level increased significantly from pre- to postcompetition but was not significantly associated with BMD. Increased weekly minutes of weight training was associated with higher BMD of the lumbar spine and the hip. The increased number of years of cycling experience was associated with lower BMD of the femoral neck. Increased daily calcium intake was associated with higher BMD of the lumbar spine and femoral neck. Conclusions. Findings indicate that cyclists should participate in weight training and increase calcium intake in order to increase or maintain BMD of the lumbar spine and hip.

  10. Inverse relationship between VO2max and economy/efficiency in world-class cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucía, Alejandro; Hoyos, Jesus; Pérez, Margarita; Santalla, Alfredo; Chicharro, José L

    2002-12-01

    To determine the relationship that exists between VO2max and cycling economy/efficiency during intense, submaximal exercise in world-class road professional cyclists. METHODS Each of 11 male cyclists (26+/-1 yr (mean +/- SEM); VO2max: 72.0 +/- 1.8 mL x kg(-1) x min(-1)) performed: 1) a ramp test for O2max determination and 2) a constant-load test of 20-min duration at the power output eliciting 80% of subjects' VO2max during the previous ramp test (mean power output of 385 +/- 7 W). Cycling economy (CE) and gross mechanical efficiency (GE) were calculated during the constant-load tests. CE and GE averaged 85.2 +/- 2.3 W x L(-1) x min(-1) and 24.5 +/- 0.7%, respectively. An inverse, significant correlation was found between 1) VO2max (mL x kg(-0.32) x min(-1)) and both CE (r = -0.71; P = 0.01) and GE (-0.72; P = 0.01), and 2) VO2max (mL x kg(-1) x min(-1)) and both CE (r = -0.65; P = 0.03) and GE (-0.64; P = 0.03). A high CE/GE seems to compensate for a relatively low VO2max in professional cyclists.

  11. Fitness club

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness club

    2013-01-01

    Nordic Walking Classes New session of 4 classes of 1 hour each will be held on Tuesdays in May 2013. Meet at the CERN barracks parking at Entrance A, 10 minutes before class time. Dates and time: 07.05, 14.05, 21.05 and 28.05, fom  12 h 30 to 13 h 30 Prices: 40 CHF per session + 10 CHF club membership – 5 CHF / hour pole rental Check out our schedule and enroll at http://cern.ch/club-fitness Hope to see you among us! 

  12. A influência do genótipo da ECA sobre a aptidão cardiovascular de jovens do sexo masculino moderadamente ativos The influence of ACE genotype on cardiovascular fitness of moderately active young men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeeser Alves Almeida

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: O gene da enzima conversora de angiotensina (gene ECA tem sido amplamente estudado em relação a fenótipos de aptidão cardiorrespiratória, contudo a associação do genótipo da ECA com corridas de meia-distância tem sido pouco investigada. OBJETIVO: O presente estudo investigou a possível influência da enzima conversora de angiotensina (ECA (I/D sobre a aptidão cardiovascular e o desempenho em corridas de meia-distância por parte de brasileiros jovens do sexo masculino. A validade da previsão de VO2max em relação ao genótipo da ECA também foi analisada. MÉTODOS: Um grupo homogêneo de homens jovens moderadamente ativos foi avaliado em um teste de corrida (V1600 m; m.min-1 e em um teste adicional em esteira ergométrica para a determinação de VO2max. Posteriormente, o [(0,177*V1600m + 8.101] VO2max real e previsto foi comparado com os genótipos da ECA. RESULTADOS: O VO2max e V1600m registrados para os genótipos DD, ID e II foram 45,6 (1,8; 51,9 (0,8 e 54,4 (1,0 mL.kg-1.min-1 e 211,2 (8,3; 249,1 (4,3 e 258,6 (5,4 m.min-1, respectivamente e foram significativamente mais baixos para os genótipos DD (p BACKGROUND: The angiotensin I-converting enzyme gene (ACE gene has been broadly studied as for cardiorespiratory fitness phenotypes, but the association of the ACE genotype to middle-distance running has been poorly investigated. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the possible influence of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme (ACE genotype (I/D on cardiovascular fitness and middle-distance running performance of Brazilian young males. The validity of VO2max to predict the ACE genotype was also analyzed. METHODS: A homogeneous group of moderately active young males were evaluated in a 1,600 m running track test (V1600m; m.min-1 and in an incremental treadmill test for VO2max determination. Subsequently, the actual and the predicted [(0.177*V1600m + 8.101] VO2max were compared to ACE genotypes. RESULTS: The VO2max and V1600m

  13. INTERVENTION AT THE FOOT-SHOE-PEDAL INTERFACE IN COMPETITIVE CYCLISTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicenzino, Bill; Sisto, Sue Ann

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background Competitive cyclists are susceptible to injury from the highly repetitive nature of pedaling during training and racing. Deviation from an optimal movement pattern is often cited as a factor contributing to tissue stress with specific concern for excessive frontal plane knee motion. Wedges and orthoses are increasingly used at the foot-shoe-pedal-interface (FSPI) in cycling shoes to alter the kinematics of the lower limb while cycling. Determination of the effect of FSPI alteration on cycling kinematics may offer a simple, inexpensive tool to reduce anterior knee pain in recreational and competitive cyclists. There have been a limited number of experimental studies examining the effect of this intervention in cyclists, and there is little agreement upon which FSPI interventions can prevent or treat knee injury. The purpose of this review is to provide a broader review of the literature than has been performed to date, and to critically examine the literature examining the evidence for FSPI intervention in competitive cyclists. Methods Current literature examining the kinematic response to intervention at the FSPI while cycling was reviewed. A multi-database search was performed in PubMed, EBSCO, Scopus, CINAHL and SPORTdiscus. Eleven articles were reviewed, and a risk of bias assessment performed according to guidelines developed by the Cochrane Bias Methods Group. Papers with a low risk of bias were selected for review, but two papers with higher risk of bias were included as there were few high quality studies available on this topic. Results Seven of the eleven papers had low bias in sequence generation i.e. random allocation to the test condition, only one paper had blinding to group allocation, all papers had detailed but non-standardized methodology, and incomplete data reporting, but were generally free of other bias sources. Conclusions Wedges and orthoses at the FSPI alter kinematics of the lower limb while cycling, although conclusions

  14. Prediction of Cardiorespiratory Fitness by the Six-Minute Step Test and Its Association with Muscle Strength and Power in Sedentary Obese and Lean Young Women: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Pinheiro Carvalho

    Full Text Available Impaired cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF is a hallmark characteristic in obese and lean sedentary young women. Peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak prediction from the six-minute step test (6MST has not been established for sedentary females. It is recognized that lower-limb muscle strength and power play a key role during functional activities. The aim of this study was to investigate cardiorespiratory responses during the 6MST and CPX and to develop a predictive equation to estimate VO2peak in both lean and obese subjects. Additionally we aim to investigate how muscle function impacts functional performance. Lean (LN = 13 and obese (OB = 18 women, aged 20-45, underwent a CPX, two 6MSTs, and isokinetic and isometric knee extensor strength and power evaluations. Regression analysis assessed the ability to predict VO2peak from the 6MST, age and body mass index (BMI. CPX and 6MST main outcomes were compared between LN and OB and correlated with strength and power variables. CRF, functional capacity, and muscle strength and power were lower in the OB compared to LN (<0.05. During the 6MST, LN and OB reached ~90% of predicted maximal heart rate and ~80% of the VO2peak obtained during CPX. BMI, age and number of step cycles (NSC explained 83% of the total variance in VO2peak. Moderate to strong correlations between VO2peak at CPX and VO2peak at 6MST (r = 0.86, VO2peak at CPX and NSC (r = 0.80, as well as between VO2peak, NSC and muscle strength and power variables were found (p<0.05. These findings indicate the 6MST, BMI and age accurately predict VO2peak in both lean and obese young sedentary women. Muscle strength and power were related to measures of aerobic and functional performance.

  15. Relationships between overweight, obesity and physical fitness of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Variance of analysis indicated significant relationships between BMI, cardiovascular endurance and ... Conclusions: Health-enhancing physical fitness of young children is ... Keywords: overweight; obesity; children; gender; physical fitness ...

  16. Preliminary results from a field experiment on e-bike safety : speed choice and mental workload for middle-aged and elderly cyclists. Paper presented at the International Cycling Safety Conference 2013, Helmond, The Netherland, 20-21 November 2013.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Twisk, D.A.M. Boele, M.J. Vlakveld, W.P. Christoph, M. Sikkema, R. Remij, R. & Schwab, A.L.

    2014-01-01

    To study the safety of e-bikes for the elderly, an experimental field study was conducted, using instrumented bicycles and comparing two age groups: older cyclists, n= 29, mean age = 70, SD = 4.2 and middle-aged cyclists, n = 29, mean age = 38, SD = 4.3. All were regular cyclists. They rode a fixed

  17. Preliminary results from a field experiment on e-bike safety : speed choice and mental workload for middle-aged and elderly cyclists. Paper presented at the International Cycling Safety Conference 2013, Helmond, The Netherland, 20-21 November 2013.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Twisk, D.A.M. Boele, M.J. Vlakveld, W.P. Christoph, M. Sikkema, R. Remij, R. & Schwab, A.L.

    2014-01-01

    To study the safety of e-bikes for the elderly, an experimental field study was conducted, using instrumented bicycles and comparing two age groups: older cyclists, n= 29, mean age = 70, SD = 4.2 and middle-aged cyclists, n = 29, mean age = 38, SD = 4.3. All were regular cyclists. They rode a fixed

  18. The prevalence and reliability of visibility aid and other risk factor data for uninjured cyclists and pedestrians in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagel, Brent E; Lamy, Andrea; Rizkallah, Jacques W; Belton, Kathy L; Jhangri, Gian S; Cherry, Nicola; Rowe, Brian H

    2007-03-01

    This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and reliability of risk factors collected on uninjured cyclists-pedestrians in Edmonton, Alberta, and what characteristics predict cyclist-pedestrian visibility. At randomly selected locations from July 2004 to August 2004, two independent observers recorded cyclist-pedestrian characteristics such as age, sex, clothing color, use of reflectors, flags, helmets, and a subjective impression of visibility. Data were collected on 836 individuals; most were either walking/jogging (approximately 63%) or cycling (approximately 33%). For non-cyclists, the prevalence of bright colored clothing on the trunk ranged from 12.7 to 14.7%. Few people used any kind of reflective strips. Inter-observer agreement (Kappa) ranged from 0.37 (visibility assessment) to 0.99 (sex). For cyclists, 17-19% of headgear was brightly colored, and 13-14% was white. Approximately one-fourth had a front light; half had a rear reflector. Few cyclists used a flag and just over half used spoke reflectors. Kappa ranged from 0.35 (observer assessed speed) to 0.95 (head gear and sex). A major trunk color of orange, red, yellow or white resulted in a higher visibility rating for both cyclists and pedestrians. The results indicate a low prevalence of visibility aid use among cyclists and pedestrians, but there appears to be acceptable inter-observer reliability for most data collected. Further work is required before an overall visibility rating can be used in place of component scores.

  19. Influence of saddle height on lower limb kinematics in well-trained cyclists: static vs. dynamic evaluation in bike fitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer-Roca, Ventura; Roig, Andreu; Galilea, Piero; García-López, Juan

    2012-11-01

    In cycling, proper saddle height is important because it contributes to the mechanical work of the lower limb joints, thus altering pedaling efficiency. The appropriate method to select optimal saddle height is still unknown. This study was conducted to compare a static (anthropometric measurements) vs. a dynamic method (2D analysis) to adjust saddle height. Therefore, an examination of the relationship between saddle height, anthropometrics, pedaling angles, and hamstring flexibility was carried out. Saddle height outside of the recommended range (106-109% of inseam length) was observed in 56.5% of the subjects. Inappropriate knee flexion angles using the dynamic method were observed in 26% of subjects. The results of this study support the concept that adjusting saddle height to 106-109% of inseam length may not ensure an optimal knee flexion (30-40°). To solve these discrepancies, we applied a multiple linear regression to study the relationship between anthropometrics, pedaling angles, and saddle height. The results support the contention that saddle height, inseam length, and knee angle are highly related (R = 0.963, p < 0.001). We propose a novel equation that relates these factors to recommend an optimal saddle height (108.6-110.4% of inseam length).

  20. Speed choice and mental workload of elderly cyclists on e-bikes in simple and complex traffic situations: a field experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlakveld, Willem P; Twisk, Divera; Christoph, Michiel; Boele, Marjolein; Sikkema, Rommert; Remy, Roos; Schwab, Arend L

    2015-01-01

    To study the speed choice and mental workload of elderly cyclists on electrical assisted bicycles (e-bikes) in simple and complex traffic situations compared to these on conventional bicycles, a field experiment was conducted using two instrumented bicycles. These bicycles were identical except for the electric pedal support system. Two groups were compared: elderly cyclists (65 years of age and older) and a reference group of cyclists in middle adulthood (between 30 and 45 years of age). Participants rode a fixed route with a length of approximately 3.5 km on both bicycles in counterbalanced order. The route consisted of secluded bicycle paths and roads in a residential area where cyclist have to share the road with motorized traffic. The straight sections on secluded bicycle paths were classified as simple traffic situations and the intersections in the residential area where participants had to turn left, as complex traffic situations. Speed and mental workload were measured. For the assessment of mental workload the peripheral detection task (PDT) was applied. In simple traffic situations the elderly cyclists rode an average 3.6 km/h faster on the e-bike than on the conventional bicycle. However, in complex traffic situations they rode an average only 1.7 km/h faster on the e-bike than on the conventional bicycle. Except for the fact that the cyclists in middle adulthood rode an average approximately 2.6 km/h faster on both bicycle types and in both traffic conditions, their speed patterns were very similar. The speed of the elderly cyclists on an e-bike was approximately the speed of the cyclists in middle adulthood on a conventional bicycle. For the elderly cyclist and the cyclists in middle adulthood, mental workload did not differ between bicycle type. For both groups, the mental workload was higher in complex traffic situations than in simple traffic situations. Mental workload of the elderly cyclists was somewhat higher than the mental workload of the

  1. Carbohydrate dependence during hard-intensity exercise in trained cyclists in the competitive season: importance of training status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manetta, J; Brun, J F; Maimoun, L; Galy, O; Coste, O; Maso, F; Raibaut, J L; Benezis, C; Lac, G; Mercier, J

    2002-10-01

    To test the hypothesis that intensive endurance training increases CHO utilisation during hard-intensity exercise, seven competitive road cyclists (Cy) performed three 50-min steady-state exercise tests on a cycle ergometer above their ventilatory threshold (+ 15 %) over the course of a cycling season (January [ET1], May [ET2] and September [ET3]). We compared the data with the baseline values of seven sedentary controls (Sed). CHO oxidation in Cy was higher in ET2 and ET3 than in ET1 (p competitive cyclists increase CHO oxidation during hard-intensity exercise over the course of a season, but show a decline by the end of the season in association with the appearance of an overtraining state. Thus, well-trained cyclists develop a CHO dependence, which is modified with training status.

  2. Health and Young Children. Focus on Fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, David

    2006-01-01

    How much "junk food" is too much? This question is difficult to answer, because it depends on the health and weight status of the child. If the child already has a weight problem, then this type of snack should be more restricted than for a child without weight issues. In this article, Dr. Ludwig states that, as a general rule, parents should not…

  3. Computational fluid dynamics analysis of drag and convective heat transfer of individual body segments for different cyclist positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defraeye, Thijs; Blocken, Bert; Koninckx, Erwin; Hespel, Peter; Carmeliet, Jan

    2011-06-03

    This study aims at investigating drag and convective heat transfer for cyclists at a high spatial resolution. Such an increased spatial resolution, when combined with flow-field data, can increase insight in drag reduction mechanisms and in the thermo-physiological response of cyclists related to heat stress and hygrothermal performance of clothing. Computational fluid dynamics (steady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes) is used to evaluate the drag and convective heat transfer of 19 body segments of a cyclist for three different cyclist positions. The influence of wind speed on the drag is analysed, indicating a pronounced Reynolds number dependency on the drag, where more streamlined positions show a dependency up to higher Reynolds numbers. The drag and convective heat transfer coefficient (CHTC) of the body segments and the entire cyclist are compared for all positions at racing speeds, showing high drag values for the head, legs and arms and high CHTCs for the legs, arms, hands and feet. The drag areas of individual body segments differ markedly for different cyclist positions whereas the convective heat losses of the body segments are found to be less sensitive to the position. CHTC-wind speed correlations are derived, in which the power-law exponent does not differ significantly for the individual body segments for all positions, where an average value of 0.84 is found. Similar CFD studies can be performed to assess drag and CHTCs at a higher spatial resolution for applications in other sport disciplines, bicycle equipment design or to assess convective moisture transfer.

  4. Maximal Sprint Power in Road Cyclists After Variable and Nonvariable High-Intensity Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menaspà, Paolo; Martin, David T; Victor, James; Abbiss, Chris R

    2015-11-01

    This study compared the sprint performance of professional cyclists after 10 minutes of variable (VAR) or nonvariable (N-VAR) high-intensity cycling with sprint performance in a rested state. Ten internationally competitive male cyclists (mean ± SD: age, 20.1 ± 1.3 years; stature, 1.81 ± 0.07 m; body weight, 69.5 ± 4.9 kg; and V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak, 72.5 ± 4.4 ml·kg·min) performed a 12-second maximal sprint in 3 conditions: (a) a rested state, (b) after 10 minutes of N-VAR cycling, and (c) after 10 minutes of VAR cycling. The intensity during the 10-minute efforts gradually increased to replicate power output observed in the final section of cycling road races. During the VAR cycling, participants performed short (2 seconds) accelerations at 80% of their sprint peak power, every 30 seconds. Average power output, cadence, and maximal heart rate (HR) during the 10-minute efforts were similar between conditions (5.3 ± 0.2 W·kg, 102 ± 1 rpm, and 93 ± 3% HRmax). Postexercise blood lactate concentration and sessional perceived exertion were also similar (8.3 ± 1.6 mmol·L, 15.4 ± 1.3 [6-20 scale]). Peak and average power output and cadence during the subsequent maximal sprint were not different between the 3 experimental conditions (p > 0.05). In conclusion, this study showed that neither the VAR nor the N-VAR 10-minute efforts ridden in this study impaired sprint performance in elite competitive cyclists.

  5. What influences the association between previous and future crashes among cyclists? A propensity score analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandar Tin Tin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is known that experience of a previous crash is related to incidence of future crashes in a cohort of New Zealand cyclists. This paper investigated if the strength of such association differed by crash involvement propensity and by the need for medical care in the previous crash. METHODS: The Taupo Bicycle Study involved 2590 adult cyclists recruited in 2006 and followed over a median period of 4.6 years through linkage to four national databases. The crash involvement propensity was estimated using propensity scores based on the participants' demographic, cycling and residential characteristics. Cox regression modelling for repeated events was performed with multivariate and propensity score adjustments. Analyses were then stratified by quintiles of the propensity score. RESULTS: A total of 801 (31.0% participants reported having experienced at least one bicycle crash in the twelve months prior to the baseline survey. They had a higher risk of experiencing crash events during follow-up (hazard ratio (HR: 1.43; 95% CI: 1.28, 1.60 but in the stratified analysis, this association was significant only in the highest two quintiles of the propensity score where the likelihood of having experienced a crash was more than 33%. The association was stronger for previous crashes that had received medical care (HR 1.63; 95% CI: 1.41, 1.88 compared to those that had not (HR 1.30; 95% CI: 1.14, 1.49. CONCLUSIONS: Previous crash experience increased the risk of future crash involvement in high-risk cyclists and the association was stronger for previous crashes attended medically. What distinguishes the high risk group warrants closer investigation, and the findings indicate also that health service providers could play an important role in prevention of bicycle crash injuries.

  6. Effect of Imagery Practice Program on Imagery Ability in Thailand Adolescent Cyclists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raweewat Rattanakoses

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to examine the imagery program in Thai Sport School Cyclist-Students. The experiment was designed in duration of 10 weeks at Lampang Sport School, Thailand. Samples consisted of 66 cyclist-students through random purposive sampling, of male (46 and female (20. They were separated into two groups of experiment (33 and control (33. The questionnaire MIQ-R (Moment Imagery Questionnaire consists of 8 items of kinesthetic (KI and visual (VI to evaluate the imagery ability. Program imagery was adapted from Hogg (2002, Hall (2008. Before starting the study, researcher administered a test to see the reliability of the questionnaire: Reliability for imagery ability=.57. The finding showed that the experiment group consisted of male, (Mean=15.5622, SD=15.5530, female (Mean=15.1000, SD=1.10050. Control Group male (Mean=15.4783, SD=1.64785, female (15.3000, SD=1.15900. There was an increase in visual imagery (VI scores across the three different periods where Multivariate results indicated statistically significant F (2, 63 =4.212, p-value=.019 (p<.05, eta square=.118 (11.8% large effect at pre-test, post-test 1 and post-test 2 (Experiment and Control group. Kinesthetic imagery (KI scores increased across the three different periods where Multivariate results indicated statistically significant F (2, 63 =.879, p-value=.017 (p<.05, eta square=.121 (12.1% large effect at pre-test, post-test 1 and post-test 2 (Experiment and Control group. This research suggested that the imagery program does improve mental skills of Thailand adolescent cyclists in visual and kinesthetic imagery ability.

  7. Is interindividual variability of EMG patterns in trained cyclists related to different muscle synergies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hug, François; Turpin, Nicolas A; Guével, Arnaud; Dorel, Sylvain

    2010-06-01

    Our aim was to determine whether muscle synergies are similar across trained cyclists (and thus whether the same locomotor strategies for pedaling are used), despite interindividual variability of individual EMG patterns. Nine trained cyclists were tested during a constant-load pedaling exercise performed at 80% of maximal power. Surface EMG signals were measured in 10 lower limb muscles. A decomposition algorithm (nonnegative matrix factorization) was applied to a set of 40 consecutive pedaling cycles to differentiate muscle synergies. We selected the least number of synergies that provided 90% of the variance accounted for VAF. Using this criterion, three synergies were identified for all of the subjects, accounting for 93.5+/-2.0% of total VAF, with VAF for individual muscles ranging from 89.9+/-8.2% to 96.6+/-1.3%. Each of these synergies was quite similar across all subjects, with a high mean correlation coefficient for synergy activation coefficients (0.927+/-0.070, 0.930+/-0.052, and 0.877+/-0.110 for synergies 1-3, respectively) and muscle synergy vectors (0.873+/-0.120, 0.948+/-0.274, and 0.885+/-0.129 for synergies 1-3, respectively). Despite a large consistency across subjects in the weighting of several monoarticular muscles into muscle synergy vectors, we found larger interindividual variability for another monoarticular muscle (soleus) and for biarticular muscles (rectus femoris, gastrocnemius lateralis, biceps femoris, and semimembranosus). This study demonstrated that pedaling is accomplished by the combination of the similar three muscle synergies among trained cyclists. The interindividual variability of EMG patterns observed during pedaling does not represent differences in the locomotor strategy for pedaling.

  8. Effects of eight-week supplementation of Ashwagandha on cardiorespiratory endurance in elite Indian cyclists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenoy, Shweta; Chaskar, Udesh; Sandhu, Jaspal S.; Paadhi, Madan Mohan

    2012-01-01

    Background: Cycling is an endurance sport relying mainly on aerobic capacity to provide fuel during long-duration cycling events. Athletes are constantly searching for new methods to improve this capacity through various nutritional and ergogenic aids.s Purpose: The aim of the study was to find out the effect of Ashwagandha on the cardiorespiratory endurance capacity, that is, aerobic capacity of elite Indian cyclists. Materials and Methods: Forty elite (elite here refers to the participation of the athlete in at least state-level events) Indian cyclists were chosen randomly and were equally divided into experimental and placebo groups. The experimental group received 500 mg capsules of aqueous roots of Ashwagandha twice daily for eight weeks, whereas the placebo group received starch capsules. Outcome Measures: The baseline treadmill test for the cyclists were performed to measure their aerobic capacity in terms of maximal aerobic capacity (VO2 max), metabolic equivalent, respiratory exchange ratio (RER), and total time for the athlete to reach his exhaustion stage. After eight weeks of supplementation, the treadmill test was again performed and results were obtained. Results: There was significant improvement in the experimental group in all parameters, whereas the placebo group did not show any change with respect to their baseline parameters. There was significant improvement in the experimental group in all parameters, namely, VO2 max (t = 5.356; P < 0.001), METS (t = 4.483; P < 0.001), and time for exhaustion on treadmill (t = 4.813; P < 0.001) in comparison to the placebo group which did not show any change with respect to their baseline parameters. Conclusion: Ashwagandha improved the cardiorespiratory endurance of the elite athletes. PMID:23326093

  9. EFFECT OF HIP ABDUCTOR STRENGTHENING AMONG NON-PROFESSIONAL CYCLISTS WITH ILIOTIBIAL BAND FRICTION SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayanta Nath

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The study was carried out to find out the effect of hip abductor strengthening among non-professional cyclists with iliotibial band friction syndrome. Subjects: 40 non-professional cyclists with ipsilateral ITBFS subject including male and female age between 18 to 50 with positive ober’s and nobble test were included in this study. Methods: 40 subject were selected according to the inclusion criteria and they were assessed pre and post for ROM (hip adduction, IR, hip abductor strength and pain using goniometer,sphygmomanometer and VAS. Subject were assign experimental group(group A 20 subject who received IT band stretching,US,and hip abductor strengthening exercise and control group (group B 20 subject who received same treatment except hip abductor strengthening. Data Analysis and Results: Based on statistical analysis using Wilcoxon test to compare the pre and post test pain in both group,Mann- whitney U- test to compare the post test pain scores of between groups ,Paired t - test to compare the pre and post ROM and strength in both groups, Unpaired t – test to compare post test ROM in between groups showed that pre post difference within group A there was significant difference for adduction ROM (p value <.0001,IR (p value <.0001,VAS(p value <.0001,and strength improve pre mean 40.80 to post mean 66.30 (p value <.0001.However in group B adduction ROM and VAS were found to be significant. In comparision in difference between groups it was found that adduction ROM,IR ROM,VAS and strength all were significant. Baseline data for outcome variable were not statistically significant. Conclusion: Based on outcome variable there was significant difference of hip abductor strengthening among non-professional cyclist with iliotibial band friction syndrome.

  10. Effects of eight-week supplementation of Ashwagandha on cardiorespiratory endurance in elite Indian cyclists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shweta Shenoy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cycling is an endurance sport relying mainly on aerobic capacity to provide fuel during long-duration cycling events. Athletes are constantly searching for new methods to improve this capacity through various nutritional and ergogenic aids. Purpose: The aim of the study was to find out the effect of Ashwagandha on the cardiorespiratory endurance capacity, that is, aerobic capacity of elite Indian cyclists. Materials and Methods: Forty elite (elite here refers to the participation of the athlete in at least state-level events Indian cyclists were chosen randomly and were equally divided into experimental and placebo groups. The experimental group received 500 mg capsules of aqueous roots of Ashwagandha twice daily for eight weeks, whereas the placebo group received starch capsules. Outcome Measures: The baseline treadmill test for the cyclists were performed to measure their aerobic capacity in terms of maximal aerobic capacity (VO 2 max, metabolic equivalent, respiratory exchange ratio (RER, and total time for the athlete to reach his exhaustion stage. After eight weeks of supplementation, the treadmill test was again performed and results were obtained. Results: There was significant improvement in the experimental group in all parameters, whereas the placebo group did not show any change with respect to their baseline parameters. There was significant improvement in the experimental group in all parameters, namely, VO 2 max (t = 5.356; P < 0.001, METS (t = 4.483; P < 0.001, and time for exhaustion on treadmill (t = 4.813; P < 0.001 in comparison to the placebo group which did not show any change with respect to their baseline parameters. Conclusion: Ashwagandha improved the cardiorespiratory endurance of the elite athletes.

  11. Impact of Ramadan intermittent fasting on cognitive function in trained cyclists: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Chamari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed selected measures of cognitive function in trained cyclists who observed daylight fasting during Ramadan. Eleven cyclists volunteered to participate (age: 21.6±4.8 years, VO 2 max: 57.7±5.6 ml • kg-1 • min-1 and were followed for 2 months. Cognitive function (Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB, Reaction Time index (RTI and Rapid Visual Information Processing (RVP tests and sleep architecture (ambulatory EEG were assessed: before Ramadan (BR, in the 1st week (RA1 and 4th week of Ramadan (RA4, and 2 weeks post-Ramadan (PR. Both cognitive tests were performed twice per day: before and after Ramadan at 8-10 a.m. and 4-6 p.m., and during Ramadan at 4-6 p.m. and 0-2 a.m., respectively. Training load (TL by the rating of perceived exertion (RPE method and wellness (Hooper index were measured daily. If the TL increased over the study period, this variable was stable during Ramadan. The perceived fatigue and delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS increased at RA4. Sleep patterns and architecture showed clear disturbances, with significant increases in the number of awakenings and light sleep durations during Ramadan (RA1 and RA4, together with decreased durations of deep and REM sleep stages at PR. RTI (simple and multiple reaction index reaction and movement times did not vary over the study period. The RVP test showed reduced false alarms during Ramadan, suggesting reduced impulsivity. Overall accuracy significantly increased at RA1, RA4 and PR compared to baseline. At RA4, the accuracy was higher at 0-2 a.m. compared to 4-6 p.m. Despite the observed disturbances in sleep architecture, Ramadan fasting did not negatively impact the cognitive performance of trained cyclists from the Middle East.

  12. Reliability of the calculated maximal lactate steady state in amateur cyclists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Adam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Complex performance diagnostics in sports medicine should contain maximal aerobic and maximal anaerobic performance. The requirements on appropriate stress protocols are high. To validate a test protocol quality criteria like objectivity and reliability are necessary. Therefore, the present study was performed in intention to analyze the reliability of maximal lactate production rate ( VLamax by using a sprint test, maximum oxygen consumption ( VO 2max by using a ramp test and, based on these data, resulting power in calculated maximum lactate-steady-state (PMLSS especially for amateur cyclists. All subjects (n=23, age 26 ± 4 years were leisure cyclists. At three different days they completed first a sprint test to approximate VLamax. After 60 min of recreation time a ramp test to assess VO 2max was performed. The results of VLamax-test and VO 2max -test and the body weight were used to calculate PMLSS for all subjects. The intra class correlation (ICC for VLamax and VO 2max was 0.904 and 0.987, respectively, coefficient of variation (CV was 6.3 % and 2.1 %, respectively. Between the measurements the reliable change index of 0.11 mmol∙l-1∙s-1 for VLamax and 3.3 ml∙kg-1∙min-1 for VO 2max achieved significance. The mean of the calculated PMLSS was 237 ± 72 W with an RCI of 9 W and reached with ICC = 0.985 a very high reliability. Both metabolic performance tests and the calculated PMLSS are reliable for leisure cyclists.

  13. The effects of sunshields on red light running behavior of cyclists and electric bike riders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yiqi; Wu, Changxu

    2013-03-01

    Bicycles held an important position in transportation of China and other developing countries. As accidents rate involving electronic and regular bicycles is increasing, the severity of the bicycle safety problem should be paid more attention to. The current research explored the effect of sunshields (a kind of affordable traffic facility built on stop line of non-motor vehicle lanes (According to National Standard in China, e-bikes share the non-motor vehicle lane with regular bikes.) which was undertaken to avoid riders suffering from sunlight and high temperature) on diminishing red light running behavior of cyclists and e-bike riders. An observational study of 2477 riders was conducted to record and analyze their crossing behaviors at two sites across the city of Hangzhou, China. Results from logistic regression and analysis of variance indicated a significant effect of sunshield on reducing red light infringement rate both on sunny and cloudy days, while this effect of sunshield was larger on sunny days than on cloudy days based on further analysis. The effect of intersection type in logistic regression showed that riders were 1.376 times more likely to run through a red light upon approaching the intersection without sunshields compared to with sunshields in general. The results of MANCOVA further confirmed that rates of running behaviors against red lights were significantly lower at the intersections with a sunshield than at intersections without sunshields when other factors including traffic flow were statistically controlled. To sum up, it is concluded that sunshields installed at intersections can reduce the likelihood of red light infringement of cyclists and e-bike riders on both sunny and cloudy days. For those areas or countries with a torrid climate, sunshield might be a recommended facility which offers an affordable way to improve the safety of cyclists and e-bike riders at intersections. Limitations of the current sunshield design and current

  14. The influence of handlebar-hands position on spinal posture in professional cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muyor, José M

    2015-01-01

    Systematic repetition or prolonged posture in specific postures adopted during training could generate modifications on the sagittal spinal curvatures. Spinal alteration in its physiologic curvatures in the sagittal plane has been associated with predisposition to spinal disorders. The objective was to evaluate and compare the changes produced on the sagittal thoracic and lumbar spinal curvatures, and pelvic tilt from standing posture on the floor to upper, middle, lower and aerodynamic handlebars postures adopted on their own road bicycles. A total of twenty-eight male professional cyclists (179.92 ± 5.78 cm; 67.18 ± 5.74 kg) participated in the study. Cyclists had an experience of 17.22 ± 6.16 years in cycling, and spent 6.52 ± 0.51 days per week and 3.78 ± 0.61 hours per day training on their bicycles. Sagittal spinal curvatures (thoracic and lumbar) and pelvic tilt were measured in the standing position on the floor and while sitting on a bicycle with different handlebar-hand positions (high, middle, low and aerodynamic) using a Spinal Mouse system. The thoracic spine showed significantly greater angular values while in a standing posture than on the bicycle in all handlebar-hands postures evaluated. The lumbar curvature changed from lordosis (negative values – anterior convexity) in standing posture to kyphosis (positive values – posterior convexity) in all handlebar-hands positions on the bicycle. The aerodynamic handlebar positions showed the greatest lumbar flexion (lumbar kyphosis) and anterior pelvic tilt. Professional cyclists passively maintain their thoracic spine straighter on the bicycle due to handlebar-hands support than in standing posture. However, the lumbar spine is flexed on the bicycle in all handlebar-hands evaluated. The pelvis is modified to greater anterior pelvic tilt when the handlebar-hands position is farther and lower regarding the saddle of the bicycle.

  15. The effect of exercise training on left ventricular function in young elite athletes

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    De Luca Alessio

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Regular training, in particular endurance exercise, induces structural myocardial adaptation, so-called "athlete's heart". In addition to the 2D standard echo parameters, assessment of myocardial function is currently possible by deformation parameters (strain, rotation and twist. Aim of study is to assess the role of rotation and twist parameters for better characterize the heart performance in trained elite young athletes from different kind of sports. Eventually, verify early on any possible impact due to the regular sport activity not revealed by the standard parameters. Methods 50 young athletes (16 cyclists, 17 soccer players, 17 basket players regularly trained at least three times a week for at least 9 months a year and 10 young controls (mean age 18.5 ± 0.5 years were evaluated either by to 2D echocardiography or by a Speckle Tracking (ST multi-layer approach to calculate Left Ventricle (LV endocardial and epicardial rotation, twist, circumferential strain (CS and longitudinal strain (LS. Data were compared by ANOVA test. Results All the found values were within the normal range. Left Ventricle Diastolic Diameter (LVDD 51.7 ± 2.6 mm, Cardiac Mass index (CMi 114.5 ± 18.5 g/m2, epi-CS, epi-LS, epicardial apex rotation and the Endo/Epi twist were significantly higher only in cyclists. In all the groups, a physiological difference of the Endo/Epi basal circumferential strain and twist values have been found. A weak but not significant relationship between the Endo and twist values and LVDD (r2 = 0.44, p = .005 and CMi was also reported in cyclists. Conclusions Progressive increase of apical LV twist may represent an important component of myocardial remodelling. This aspect is particularly evident in the young cyclists group where the CMi and the LVDD are higher. ST multilayer approach completes the LV performance evaluation in young trained athletes showing values similar to adults.

  16. Pedestrians´and cyclists´effect on the capacity of the right turn movement at signalised intersections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Pierre; Rysgaard, Rikke; Sørensen, Henning;

    1998-01-01

    Observations at 4 intersection in Copenhagen are used to formulate a model for the delays which right turning cars experience due to straight ahead going pedestrians and cyclists. A simulation model is formulated in order to give results for cases not covered by the empirical data......Observations at 4 intersection in Copenhagen are used to formulate a model for the delays which right turning cars experience due to straight ahead going pedestrians and cyclists. A simulation model is formulated in order to give results for cases not covered by the empirical data...

  17. INSTRUMENTATION AND MOTIVATIONS FOR ORGANISED CYCLING: THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE CYCLIST MOTIVATION INSTRUMENT (CMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trent D. Brown

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available 'Serious leisure' cycling has developed as a reinterpretation of the traditional form of the sport. This short term, informal, unstructured and unconventional conceptualisation represents a challenge to participant numbers in the mainstream sport. The purpose of this study was twofold: (i to ascertain the cultural, subcultural and ecological factors of participation in this new conceptualised form enabling clubs, associations and governments to a deeper understanding about participants practices and (ii as an ongoing validation to previous qualitative work (see O'Connor and Brown, 2005. This study reports on the development and psychometric properties (principal components analysis, confirmatory factor analysis of the Cyclists' Motivation Instrument. Four hundred and twenty two cyclists (371 males, 51 females who were registered members of the state competitive cycling body completed a fifty-one item instrument. Five factors were identified: social, embodiment, self-presentation, exploring environments and physical health outcomes and these accounted for 47.2% of the variance. Factor alpha coefficients ranged from .63 to .88, overall scale reliability was .92, suggesting moderate to high reliability for each of the factors and the overall scale.

  18. Effect of pedaling rate on submaximal exercise responses of competitive cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagberg, J M; Mullin, J P; Giese, M D; Spitznagel, E

    1981-08-01

    This investigation was undertaken to determine the effect of pedal frequency on submaximal exercise responses. Seven well-trained competitive cyclists were studied riding their road-racing bicycles on a motor-driven treadmill at 80% of maximum O2 consumption (VO2 max) using different gear ratios. Cyclists were also studied during a series of unloaded trials to assess the effects of varying rates of limb movements independent of external work load. Heart rate (HR) increased, whereas net HR (after subtracting the HR during unloaded cycling) decreased with increasing pedal frequency during loaded cycling. Expiratory flow (VE), O2 consumption (VO2), blood lactate, net VO2 (after subtracting the VO2 of unloaded cycling), and net VE (after subtracting the VE during unloaded cycling) were quadratically related to pedal frequency. The quadratic relationships evident after corrections were made for the additional work needed to move the legs more frequently may be explained at the lower pedaling rates by a less uniform pattern of blood flow caused by increasing the force requirement per pedal stroke and, at the higher pedal frequencies, by the recruitment of additional musculature to stabilize the trunk. The average of preferred frequency for the group, which was also the most economical pedaling rate judged by most of the variables was 91 rpm, although the preferred pedaling rate for each subject ranged from 72 to 102 rpm.

  19. Game-based situation awareness training for child and adult cyclists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airaksinen, Jasmiina; Kanerva, Kaisa; Rissanen, Anna; Ränninranta, Riikka; Åberg, Veera

    2017-01-01

    Safe cycling requires situation awareness (SA), which is the basis for recognizing and anticipating hazards. Children have poorer SA than adults, which may put them at risk. This study investigates whether cyclists' SA can be trained with a video-based learning game. The effect of executive working memory on SA was also studied. Thirty-six children (9–10 years) and 22 adults (21–48 years) played the game. The game had 30 video clips filmed from a cyclist's perspective. Each clip was suddenly masked and two or three locations were presented. The player's task was to choose locations with a potential hazard and feedback was given for their answers. Working memory capacity (WMC) was tested with a counting span task. Children's and adults' performance improved while playing the game, which suggests that playing the game trains SA. Adults performed better than children, and they also glanced at hazards more while the video was playing. Children expectedly had a lower WMC than adults, but WMC did not predict performance within the groups. This indicates that SA does not depend on WMC when passively viewing videos.

  20. The midpoint between ventilatory thresholds approaches maximal lactate steady state intensity in amateur cyclists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filho, DM Pessôa; Díaz, V; Benito, PJ; Álvarez-Sánchez, M; Zapico, AG; Calderón, FJ

    2016-01-01

    The aim was to determine whether the midpoint between ventilatory thresholds (MPVT) corresponds to maximal lactate steady state (MLSS). Twelve amateur cyclists (21.0 ± 2.6 years old; 72.2 ± 9.0 kg; 179.8 ± 7.5 cm) performed an incremental test (25 W·min-1) until exhaustion and several constant load tests of 30 minutes to determine MLSS, on different occasions. Using MLSS determination as the reference method, the agreement with five other parameters (MPVT; first and second ventilatory thresholds: VT1 and VT2; respiratory exchange ratio equal to 1: RER = 1.00; and Maximum) was analysed by the Bland-Altman method. The difference between workload at MLSS and VT1, VT2, RER=1.00 and Maximum was 31.1 ± 20.0, -86.0 ± 18.3, -63.6 ± 26.3 and -192.3 ± 48.6 W, respectively. MLSS was underestimated from VT1 and overestimated from VT2, RER = 1.00 and Maximum. The smallest difference (-27.5 ± 15.1 W) between workload at MLSS and MPVT was in better agreement than other analysed parameters of intensity in cycling. The main finding is that MPVT approached the workload at MLSS in amateur cyclists, and can be used to estimate maximal steady state. PMID:28090142

  1. Exposure assessment of a cyclist to PM10 and ultrafine particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berghmans, P; Bleux, N; Int Panis, L; Mishra, V K; Torfs, R; Van Poppel, M

    2009-02-01

    Estimating personal exposure to air pollution is a crucial component in identifying high-risk populations and situations. It will enable policy makers to determine efficient control strategies. Cycling is again becoming a favorite mode of transport both in developing and in developed countries due to increasing traffic congestion and environmental concerns. In Europe, it is also seen as a healthy sports activity. However, due to high levels of hazardous pollutants in the present day road microenvironment the cyclist might be at a higher health risk due to higher breathing rate and proximity to the vehicular exhaust. In this paper we present estimates of the exposure of a cyclist to particles of various size fractions including ultrafine particles (UFP) in the town of Mol (Flanders, Belgium). The results indicate relatively higher UFP concentration exposure during morning office hours and moderate UFP levels during afternoon. The major sources of UFP and PM(10) were identified, which are vehicular emission and construction activities, respectively. We also present a dust mapping technique which can be a useful tool for town planners and local policy makers.

  2. Determining optimal cadence for an individual road cyclist from field data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Robert; Scarf, Philip; Jobson, Simon Adrian; Passfield, Louis

    2016-11-01

    The cadence that maximises power output developed at the crank by an individual cyclist is conventionally determined using a laboratory test. The purpose of this study was two-fold: (i) to show that such a cadence, which we call the optimal cadence, can be determined using power output, heart-rate, and cadence measured in the field and (ii) to describe methodology to do so. For an individual cyclist's sessions, power output is related to cadence and the elicited heart-rate using a non-linear regression model. Optimal cadences are found for two riders (83 and 70 revolutions per minute, respectively); these cadences are similar to the riders' preferred cadences (82-92 rpm and 65-75 rpm). Power output reduces by approximately 6% for cadences 20 rpm above or below optimum. Our methodology can be used by a rider to determine an optimal cadence without laboratory testing intervention: the rider will need to collect power output, heart-rate, and cadence measurements from training and racing sessions over an extended period (>6 months); ride at a range of cadences within those sessions; and calculate his/her optimal cadence using the methodology described or a software tool that implements it.

  3. Warm-up strategy and high-intensity endurance performance in trained cyclists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Peter Møller; Bangsbo, Jens

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the influence of warm-up exercise intensity and subsequent recovery on intense endurance performance, selected blood variables and the VO2 response. METHODS: Twelve highly trained male cyclists (VO2-max: 72.4±8.0·mL/min/kg, incremental-test peak power output (iPPO): 432±31 W......; means±SD) performed three warm-up strategies lasting 20 min before a 4-min maximal performance test (PT). Strategies consisted of moderate intensity exercise (50%iPPO) followed by 6 min of recovery (MOD6) or progressive-high intensity exercise (10-100%iPPO and 2x20-s sprints) followed by recovery for 6...... to HI20 (7.85±0.82 L; P=0.008) and MOD6 (7.90±0.74 L; P=0.012). CONCLUSIONS: Warm-up exercise including race-pace and sprint intervals combined with short recovery can reduce subsequent performance in a 4-min maximal test in highly trained cyclists. Thus, a reduced time at high exercise intensity...

  4. EFFECTS OF SODIUM PHOSPHATE LOADING ON AEROBIC POWER AND CAPACITY IN OFF ROAD CYCLISTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Woska

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this paper was to evaluate the effects of short- term (6 days phosphate loading, as well as prolonged (21 days intake of sodium phosphate on aerobic capacity in off-road cyclists. Nineteen well-trained cyclists were randomly divided into a supplemental (S and control group (C. Group S was supplemented for 6 days with tri-sodium phosphate, in a dose of 50 mg·kg-1 of FFM/d, while a placebo was provided for the C group. Additionally, group S was further subjected to a 3-week supplementation of 25 mg·kg-1 FFM/d, while group C received 2g of glucose. The results indicate a significant (p < 0.05 increase in VO2max, VEmax, and O2/HR, due to sodium phosphate intake over 6 days. Also a significant (p < 0.05 decrease in HRrest and HRmax occurred. The supplementation procedure caused a significant increase (p < 0.05 in Pmax and a shift of VAT towards higher loads. There were no significant changes in the concentration of 2,3-DPG, acid-base balance and lactate concentration, due to phosphate salt intake

  5. Maximal lactate steady state and the upper boundary of heavy intensity domain in trained cyclists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Coelho Greco

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the validity of maximum lactate steady state (MLSS for the identification of the upper limit of the heavy-intensity domain in well-trained cyclists. Fourteen male cyclists (25.5 ± 4.4 years, 69.5 ± 7.8 kg, 175.8 ± 7.5 cm underwent the following tests on different days: incremental exercise test until exhaustion to determine peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak, and 2 to 4 constant submaximal load tests to determine MLSS. VO2 obtained in the 30th min was significantly higher than that obtained in the 3rd min of exercise performed at 100% MLSS (3379.3 ± 250.1 vs. 3496.7 ± 280.2 ml/min, p0.05. These results suggest that during heavy exercise (MLSS VO2 does not present stability when values obtained around the 3rd minute of exercise are used as reference. MLSS does not seem to be the upper limit of the heavy-intensity domain in trained subjects since VO2peak is not reached by the end of 30 min of exercise when exercise is performed above this intensity (~ 5%.

  6. Kinematic analysis and bilateral differences in pedaling technique of professional cyclists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Yanci Irigoyen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to describe the maximal angulations of knee and ankle in the flexions and extensions in pedaling performed by professional cyclists and to compare the differences in these angulations between the right and left leg. Thirteen cyclists, who all belonged to a professional team which regularly competed in the “Vuelta Ciclista a España”, took part in this study. Measurements were taken of the length of the crank arms, height and saddle height of the cyclists’ bicycles. A 2D kinematic analysis was also performed of their pedaling to study the angulations of knee and ankle. No significant differences were found between the right and the left leg with regard to the angulations of flexion or extension of the knees or the flexion of the ankles. However, contrary to other studies, differences were found in the ankle angulation of extension (p < 0.05, difference between means = 14.53%, d = 0.37, moderate between the two legs. In future research it would be interesting to complement the kinematic analysis with a kinetic study to observe if the differences in the angulations are accompanied by differences in the force applied by each leg.

  7. Cyclists' attitudes toward policies encouraging bicycle travel: findings from the Taupo Bicycle Study in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tin Tin, Sandar; Woodward, Alistair; Thornley, Simon; Langley, John; Rodgers, Anthony; Ameratunga, Shanthi

    2010-03-01

    Utility cycling provides substantial health, environmental and economic benefits. Despite a favourable trend in leisure-time cycling, cycling is infrequently used for everyday travel needs in New Zealand. This study investigated cyclists' attitudes toward environmental and policy measures that would encourage them to cycle more, particularly for a trip to work. A cross-sectional analysis was undertaken using baseline data obtained from the Taupo Bicycle Study, a web-based longitudinal study. The study population comprised 2469 cyclists, aged 16 years or over, who had enrolled in the 2006 Wattyl Lake Taupo Cycle Challenge. The majority (88%) reported the provision of bicycle lanes as an important factor that would encourage them to cycle more often, followed by bicycle paths (76%), better bicycle security (64%), reduced motor vehicle speed (55%) and bike friendly public transport (38%). Of those who reported travelling to work at least once a week (N = 2223), varying proportions reported shower facilities at work (61%), fewer difficult intersections (43%), rising fuel costs (41%), fewer car parks (27%), bike designed to commute (26%) and rising cost of car parking (25%) as important factors that would encourage them to cycle to work more often. There were important differences in these perceived influences defined by the participants' socio-demographic characteristics and current cycling habits.

  8. Lactic acidosis, potassium, and the heart rate deflection point in professional road cyclists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucia, A; Hoyos, J; Santalla, A; Perez, M; Carvajal, A; Chicharro, J

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To determine the influence of lactic acidosis, the Bohr effect, and exercise induced hyperkalaemia on the occurrence of the heart rate deflection point (HRDP) in elite (professional) cyclists. Methods: Sixteen professional male road cyclists (mean (SD) age 26 (1) years) performed a ramp test on a cycle ergometer (workload increases of 5 W/12 s, averaging 25 W/min). Heart rate (HR), gas exchange parameters, and blood variables (lactate, pH, P50 of the oxyhaemoglobin dissociation curve, and K+) were measured during the tests. Results: A HRDP was shown in 56% of subjects at about 88% of their maximal HR (HRDP group; n = 9) but was linear in the rest (No-HRDP group; n = 7). In the HRDP group, the slope of the HR-workload regression line above the HRDP correlated inversely with levels of K+ at the maximal power output (r = -0.67; p<0.05). Conclusions: The HRDP phenomenon is associated, at least partly, with exercise induced hyperkalaemia. PMID:11916893

  9. Heart dimensions may influence the occurrence of the heart rate deflection point in highly trained cyclists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucia, A.; Carvajal, A.; Boraita, A.; Serratosa, L.; Hoyos, J.; Chicharro, J. L.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine whether the heart rate (HR) response to exercise in 21 highly trained cyclists (mean (SD) age 25 (3) years) was related to their heart dimensions. METHODS: Before performing an incremental exercise test involving a ramp protocol with workload increases of 25 W/min, each subject underwent echocardiographic evaluation of the following variables: left ventricular end diastolic internal diameter (LVIDd), left ventricular posterior wall thickness at end diastole (LVPWTd), interventricular septal wall thickness at end diastole (IVSTd), left ventricular mass index (LVMI), left atrial dimension (LAD), longitudinal left atrial (LLAD) and right atrial (LRAD) dimensions, and the ratio of early to late (E/A) diastolic flow velocity. RESULTS: The HR response showed a deflection point (HRd) at about 85% VO2MAX in 66.7% of subjects (D group; n = 14) and was linear in 33.3% (NoD group; n = 7). Several echocardiographic variables (LVMI, LAD, LLAD, LRAD) indicative of heart dimensions were similar in each group. However, mean LPWTd (p<0.01) and IVSTd (p<0.05) values were significantly higher in the D group. Finally, no significant difference between groups was found with respect to the E/A. CONCLUSIONS: The HR response is curvilinear during incremental exercise in a considerable number of highly trained endurance athletes-that is, top level cyclists. The departure of HR increase from linearity may predominantly occur in athletes with thicker heart walls. 


 PMID:10597846

  10. Effect of intensified training on muscle ion kinetics, fatigue development and repeated short term performance in endurance trained cyclists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsson, Thomas Gunnar Petursson; Christensen, Peter Møller; Thomassen, Martin;

    2013-01-01

    The effects of intensified training in combination with a reduced training volume on muscle ion kinetics, transporters and work capacity were examined. Eight well-trained cyclists replaced their regular training with speed-endurance training (12x30-s sprints) 2-3 times per wk and aerobic high...

  11. The role of bicycle sharing systems in normalising the image of cycling: An observational study of London cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Anna; Green, Judith; Woodcock, James

    2014-03-01

    Bicycle sharing systems are increasingly popular around the world and have the potential to increase the visibility of people cycling in everyday clothing. This may in turn help normalise the image of cycling, and reduce perceptions that cycling is 'risky' or 'only for sporty people'. This paper sought to compare the use of specialist cycling clothing between users of the London bicycle sharing system (LBSS) and cyclists using personal bicycles. To do this, we observed 3594 people on bicycles at 35 randomly-selected locations across central and inner London. The 592 LBSS users were much less likely to wear helmets (16% vs. 64% among personal-bicycle cyclists), high-visibility clothes (11% vs. 35%) and sports clothes (2% vs. 25%). In total, 79% of LBSS users wore none of these types of specialist cycling clothing, as compared to only 30% of personal-bicycle cyclists. This was true of male and female LBSS cyclists alike (all p>0.25 for interaction). We conclude that bicycle sharing systems may not only encourage cycling directly, by providing bicycles to rent, but also indirectly, by increasing the number and diversity of cycling 'role models' visible.

  12. Pedestrians´and cyclists´effect on capacity of right turn movement at signalized intersections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Pierre E.; Rysgaard, Rikke; Jørgensen, N O

    1998-01-01

    Observations from 4 intersections in Copenhagen are used to formulate a model for the delays which right turning car traffic experience due to straight ahead going pedestrians and cyclists. The empirical data are used to formulate a simulation model which allows estimation of delays in cases...

  13. Preliminary results from a field experiment on e-bike safety: speed choice and mental workload for middle-aged and elderly cyclists

    OpenAIRE

    Twisk, D.A.M.; Boele, M.J.; Vlakveld, W.P.; Christoph, M; Sikkema, R.; Remij, R.; Schwab, A. L

    2013-01-01

    To study the safety of e-bikes for the elderly, an experimental field study was conducted, using instrumented bicycles and comparing two age groups: older cyclists, n= 29, mean age = 70, SD = 4.2 and middle-aged cyclists, n = 29, mean age = 38, SD = 4.3. All were regular cyclists. They rode a fixed route with a length of about 3.5 km: once on an instrumented e-bike and once on an instrumented conventional bike, in counterbalanced order. Measures were taken on heart rate, mental workload, and ...

  14. THE EFFECT OF TAPERING PERIOD ON PLASMA PRO-INFLAMMATORY CYTOKINE LEVELS AND PERFORMANCE IN ELITE MALE CYCLISTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter M. Tiidus

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of two different tapering period lengths on the concentration of plasma interleukin- 6 (IL-6, interleukin (IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-α and performance in elite male cyclists. To this end, after completing 8 weeks progressive endurance exercise, twenty four high-level endurance cyclists were randomly assigned to one of two groups: a control group of cyclists (n = 12 continued performing progressive weekly training volume for 3 weeks while a taper group of cyclists (n = 12 proceeded with a 50% reduction in weekly training volume relative to the control group. A simulated 40 min time trial (40TT performance ride was used as the criterion index of performance before and after the tapering period to evaluate the physiological and performance effects of each protocol. Blood samples were collected immediately post-40TT from all participants at the beginning of week 1, and the end of weeks 4, 8, 9 and 11. IL-1β, IL-6 and TNFα were assayed using a standard commercial ELISA kits (Quantikine; R & D Systems, Minneapolis, MN. The mean time to complete the 40TT in the taper group decreased significantly (p < 0.01 after both 1 and 3 weeks with reduced training volume relative to the control group. There were significant reductions in (p < 0.001 IL-1β, IL-6 and TNFα concentrations in the taper group relative to the control group at the end of the 3 week tapering period, but not at the end of the 1 week tapering period. These results demonstrate that both a 1 and a 3 week taper period will result in improved physical performance in trained cyclists but only a 3 week taper period will result in attenuation of post-exercise pro- inflammatory cytokines when compared to those continuing a more intense training regimen

  15. Effect of yoga on short-term heart rate variability measure as a stress index in subjunior cyclists: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Satish G; Mullur, Lata M; Khodnapur, Jyoti P; Dhanakshirur, Gopal B; Aithala, Manjunatha R

    2013-01-01

    Subjunior athletes experience mental stress due to pressure from the coach, teachers and parents for better performance. Stress, if remains for longer period and not managed appropriately can leads to negative physical, mental and cognitive impact on children. The present study was aimed to evaluate the effect of integrated yoga module on heart rate variability (HRV) measure as a stress index in subjunior cyclists. Fast furrier transform technique of frequency domain method was used for the analysis of HRV. We have found a significant increase in high frequency (HF) component by 14.64% (P yoga group. In the control group, there was decrease in the HF component and, no significant difference in the LF component of HRV spectrum and LF/HF ratio. The results show that yoga practice decreases sympathetic activity and causes a shift in the autonomic balance towards parasympathetic dominance indicating a reduction in stress. In conclusion, yoga practice helps to reduce stress by optimizing the autonomic functions. So, it is suggested to incorporate yoga module as a regular feature to keep subjunior athletes both mentally and physically fit.

  16. EFFECTS OF HIGH INTENSITY TRAINING BY HEART RATE OR POWER IN RECREATIONAL CYCLISTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E. Robinson

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Technological advances in interval training for cyclists have led to the development of both heart rate (HR monitors and powermeters (PM. Despite the growing popularity of PM use, the superiority of PM-based training has not been established. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relative effectiveness of HR-based versus PM-based interval training on 20 km time trial (20km TT, lactate threshold (LT power, and peak aerobic capacity (VO2max in recreational cyclists. Participants (n =20; M age=33.9, SD =13 completed a baseline 20km TT to establish their VO2max and LT and were then randomly assigned to either HR-determined or PM-determined training sessions. Over a period of up to 5 weeks participants completed 7.2 (± 1.1 interval training sessions at their specific LT for their respective interval training method. Repeated measures analyses of variances (ANOVAs showed that both HR-based and PM-based training groups significantly improved their LT power (F(1,16 = 28., p < 0.01, eta2 = 0.63 and 20km TT time (F(1,16 = 4.92, p = 0.04, eta2 = 0.24 at posttest, showing a 17 watt increase (9.8% and a near 3-and-a-half minute improvement (7.8% in 20km TT completion time. There were no significant group (HR vs. PM x time (baseline vs. posttest interactions for 20km TT completion time, LT power, or VO2max ratings. Our results coincide with the literature supporting the effectiveness of interval training for endurance athletes. Furthermore, our findings indicate that there is no empirical evidence for the superiority of any single type of device in the implementation of interval training. This study indicates that there are no noticeable advantages to using PM to increase performance in the average recreational cyclist, suggesting that low cost HR monitor are equally capable as training devices

  17. Fit for purpose: Australia's National Fitness Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Julie A; Lekkas, Peter

    2011-12-19

    During a time of war, the federal government passed the National Fitness Act 1941 to improve the fitness of the youth of Australia and better prepare them for roles in the armed services and industry. Implementation of the National Fitness Act made federal funds available at a local level through state-based national fitness councils, which coordinated promotional campaigns, programs, education and infrastructure for physical fitness, with volunteers undertaking most of the work. Specifically focused on children and youth, national fitness councils supported the provision of children's playgrounds, youth clubs and school camping programs, as well as the development of physical education in schools and its teaching and research in universities. By the time the Act was repealed in 1994, fitness had become associated with leisure and recreation rather than being seen as equipping people for everyday life and work. The emergence of the Australian National Preventive Health Agency Act 2010 offers the opportunity to reflect on synergies with its historic precedent.

  18. Randomized Trials and Self-Reported Accident as a Method to Study Safety-Enhancing Measures for Cyclists - two case studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lahrmann, Harry Spaabæk; Madsen, Tanja Kidholm Osmann; Olesen, Anne Vingaard

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we describe the safety impact of increased visibility of cyclists through two randomised controlled trials: permanent running lights on bicycles and a yellow bike jacket, respectively....

  19. Aerodynamics of a cycling team in a time trial: does the cyclist at the front benefit?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iniguez-de-la Torre, A; Iniguez, J [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad de Salamanca, E37071 (Spain)], E-mail: nacho@usal.es

    2009-11-15

    When seasonal journeys take place in nature, birds and fishes migrate in groups. This provides them not only with security but also a considerable saving of energy. The power they need to travel requires overcoming aerodynamic or hydrodynamic drag forces, which can be substantially reduced when the group travels in an optimal arrangement. Also in this area, humans imitate nature, which is especially evident in the practice of outdoor sports and motor competitions. Cycle races, in which speeds of up to 15 m s{sup -1} are frequent, offer great opportunities to appreciate the advantage of travelling in a group. Here we present a brief analysis of the aerodynamics of a cycling team in a time-trial challenge, showing how each rider is favoured according to his position in the group. We conclude that the artificial tail wind created by the team also benefits the cyclist at the front by about 5%.

  20. Contribution of respiratory muscle blood flow to exercise-induced diaphragmatic fatigue in trained cyclists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogiatzis, Ioannis; Athanasopoulos, Dimitris; Boushel, Robert Christopher

    2008-01-01

    We investigated whether the greater degree of exercise-induced diaphragmatic fatigue previously reported in highly trained athletes in hypoxia (compared with normoxia) could have a contribution from limited respiratory muscle blood flow. Seven trained cyclists completed three constant load 5 min...... exercise tests at inspired O(2) fractions (FIO2) of 0.13, 0.21 and 1.00 in balanced order. Work rates were selected to produce the same tidal volume, breathing frequency and respiratory muscle load at each FIO2 (63 +/- 1, 78 +/- 1 and 87 +/- 1% of normoxic maximal work rate, respectively). Intercostals......(-1) and 95.1 +/- 7.8 ml (100 ml)(-1) min(-1), respectively). Neither IMBF was different across hypoxia, normoxia and hyperoxia (53.6 +/- 8.5, 49.9 +/- 5.9 and 52.9 +/- 5.9 ml (100 ml)(-1) min(-1), respectively). We conclude that when respiratory muscle energy requirement is not different between...

  1. Bicarbonate ingestion has no ergogenic effect on consecutive all out sprint tests in BMX elite cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabala, Mikel; Peinado, Ana B; Calderón, Francisco J; Sampedro, Javier; Castillo, Manuel J; Benito, Pedro J

    2011-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of sodium bicarbonate ingestion on consecutive "all out" sprint tests, analyzing the acid-base status and its influence on performance and perceived effort. Ten elite bicycle motocross (BMX) riders (20.7 ± 1.4 years, training experience 8-12 years) participated in this study which consisted of two trials. Each trial consisted of three consecutive Wingate tests (WTs) separated by 15 min recovery. Ninety minutes prior to exercise subjects ingested either NaHCO(3) (-) (0.3 g kg(-1) body weight) or placebo. Blood samples were collected for the assessment of blood acid-base status: bicarbonate concentration ([HCO(3) (-)]), pH, base excess (BE) and blood lactate concentration ([La(-)]). Performance variables of peak power (PP), mean power (MP), time to peak power and fatigue index were calculated for each sprint. Significant differences (p BMX cyclists.

  2. Senior cyclists.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2015-01-01

    The use of the bicycle has increased these last few years, especially among seniors. The number of seniors annually sustaining serious injuries as a result of a cycling crash is substantial (4,280) and has been increasing these last few years. Moreover, circa 120 seniors (55+) die in a cycling crash

  3. Senior cyclists.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2015-01-01

    The use of the bicycle has increased these last few years, especially among seniors. The number of seniors annually sustaining serious injuries as a result of a cycling crash is substantial (4,280) and has been increasing these last few years. Moreover, circa 120 seniors (55+) die in a cycling crash

  4. Carbon cyclist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    A satellite launched in early August as part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth could dramatically increase understanding of how carbon cycles through the Earth's biosphere and living organisms and how this process influences global climate. The Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS) will measure the color of the oceans with a radiometer to determine the concentration of chlorophyll found in oceanic phytoplankton. The single-celled plants, at the base of food chains around the world, remove carbon dioxide from seawater through photosynthesis, which allows oceans to absorb more carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.

  5. Angular position of the cleat according to torsional parameters of the cyclist's lower limb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Ortega, Javier; Domínguez, Gabriel; Castillo, José Manuel; Fernández-Seguín, Lourdes; Munuera, Pedro V

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this work was to study the relationship of torsional and rotational parameters of the lower limb with a specific angular position of the cleat to establish whether these variables affect the adjustment of the cleat. Correlational study. Motion analysis laboratory. Thirty-seven male cyclists of high performance. The variables studied of the cyclist's lower limb were hip rotation (internal and external), tibial torsion angle, Q angle, and forefoot adductus angle. The cleat angle was measured through a photograph of the sole and with an Rx of this using the software AutoCAD 2008. The variables were photograph angle (photograph), the variable denominated cleat-tarsus minor angle, and a variable denominated cleat-second metatarsal angle (Rx). Analysis included the intraclass correlation coefficient for the reliability of the measurements, Student's t test performed on the dependent variables to compare side, and the multiple linear regression models were calculated using the software SPSS 15.0 for Windows. The Student's t test performed on the dependent variables to compare side showed no significant differences (P = 0.209 for the photograph angle, P = 0.735 for the cleat-tarsus minor angle, and P = 0.801 for the cleat-second metatarsal angle). Values of R and R2 for the photograph angle model were 0.303 and 0.092 (P = 0.08), the cleat/tarsus minor angle model were 0.683 and 0.466 (P rotation of the hips) + (0.220 × Q angle).

  6. An immersive virtual peer for studying social influences on child cyclists' road-crossing behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, Sabarish V; Grechkin, Timofey Y; Chihak, Benjamin; Ziemer, Christine; Kearney, Joseph K; Cremer, James F; Plumert, Jodie M

    2011-01-01

    The goal of our work is to develop a programmatically controlled peer to bicycle with a human subject for the purpose of studying how social interactions influence road-crossing behavior. The peer is controlled through a combination of reactive controllers that determine the gross motion of the virtual bicycle, action-based controllers that animate the virtual bicyclist and generate verbal behaviors, and a keyboard interface that allows an experimenter to initiate the virtual bicyclist's actions during the course of an experiment. The virtual bicyclist's repertoire of behaviors includes road following, riding alongside the human rider, stopping at intersections, and crossing intersections through specified gaps in traffic. The virtual cyclist engages the human subject through gaze, gesture, and verbal interactions. We describe the structure of the behavior code and report the results of a study examining how 10- and 12-year-old children interact with a peer cyclist that makes either risky or safe choices in selecting gaps in traffic. Results of our study revealed that children who rode with a risky peer were more likely to cross intermediate-sized gaps than children who rode with a safe peer. In addition, children were significantly less likely to stop at the last six intersections after the experience of riding with the risky than the safe peer during the first six intersections. The results of the study and children's reactions to the virtual peer indicate that our virtual peer framework is a promising platform for future behavioral studies of peer influences on children's bicycle riding behavior.

  7. The effects of EGCG on fat oxidation and endurance performance in male cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Sara; Braakhuis, Andrea; Paton, Carl

    2009-12-01

    Researchers have long been investigating strategies that can increase athletes' ability to oxidize fatty acids and spare carbohydrate, thus potentially improving endurance capacity. Green-tea extract (epigallocatechin-3-gallate; EGCG) has been shown to improve endurance capacity in mice. If a green-tea extract can stimulate fat oxidation and as a result spare glycogen stores, then athletes may benefit through improved endurance performance. Eight male cyclists completed a study incorporating a 3-way crossover, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded, diet-controlled research design. All participants received 3 different treatments (placebo 270 mg, EGCG 270 mg, and placebo 270 mg + caffeine 3 mg/kg) over a 6-day period and 1 hr before exercise testing. Each participant completed 3 exercise trials consisting of 60 min of cycling at 60% maximum oxygen uptake (VO2(max)) immediately followed by a self-paced 40-km cycling time trial. The study found little benefit in consuming green-tea extract on fat oxidation or cycling performance, unlike caffeine, which did benefit cycling performance. The physiological responses observed during submaximal cycling after caffeine ingestion were similar to those reported previously, including an increase in heart rate (EGCG 147 +/- 17, caffeine 146 +/- 19, and placebo 144 +/- 15 beats/min), glucose at the 40-min exercise time point (placebo 5.0 +/- 0.8, EGCG 5.4 +/- 1.0, and caffeine 5.8 +/- 1.0 mmol/L), and resting plasma free fatty acids and no change in the amount of carbohydrate and fat being oxidized. Therefore, it was concluded that green-tea extract offers no additional benefit to cyclists over and above those achieved by using caffeine.

  8. Relationship between physiological indices and aerobic performance tests in short and medium term of elite cyclists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Bernardo Sangali

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Few studies allow usto verify which physiological responses are associated with performance in anational elite cycling group. Therefore, this study aimed to determine and correlate various physiological and aerobic indices with performance in 4 and 20 km time trials in high-level cyclists. The sample consisted of 14 male professional cyclists of the national elite group (28.5 ± 4.7 years old, 73.47 ± 8.29 kg, 176 ± 6.76cm, who performed a progressive test in laboratory to determine maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max: 62.23 ± 8.28 ml•kg-1•min-1, intensity relative to VO2max(iVO2max: 500.83 ± 58.65w, movement economy (EM: 0.1166 ± 0.0362 ml•kg•min•w-1, and the first and second ventilatory threshold (LV1: 348.21 ±43.26 w; LV2: 417.86 ± 60.79 w, respectively. They also performed two time trial performance tests of 4 and 20km. For the correlation between physiological indices and trial performance, Pearson correlation coefficient(p< 0.05 was used. No correlation was found between the physiological indices (VO2max absolute and relative, iVO2max, EM, LV1 and LV2 andperformance in 4 km (r= 0.38; 0.16; -0.33; 0.20; -0.50; -0.20, respectivelyand 20 km (r= 0.24; 0.01; -0.13; -0.12; -0.48; -0.19, respectively time trialin high level athletes. These results suggest that these variables are not able to explain the performance in time trials in the respective lengths, probably due to the subjects’ homogeneity.

  9. FLUID INGESTION STRATEGIES OF COMPETITIVE CYCLISTS DURING 40 KM TIME TRIAL COMPETITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karianne Backx

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Dear Editor-in- ChiefLoss of fluid during prolonged exercise has been purported to be a cause of fatigue (Below et al., 1995; Walsh et al., 1994, for example. A plethora of information regarding 'optimal' fluid replacement strategies exists; perhaps the most prominent of these in the public domain is the position stand on exercise and fluid replacement published by the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM. It recommends that one should ingest fluid early and continually at regular intervals in an attempt to replace the volume of fluid lost through sweating or consume as much as can be tolerated (Covertino et al., 1996. Drinking practices associated with different types of endurance activity are not well documented and it may be possible that the guidelines based on empirical data derived from laboratory conditions lack the necessary ecological validity for performance in the field. To our knowledge, there are no data on fluid intake or body mass losses during high-intensity cycling time trials (TT outside of laboratory conditions; although a pilot study questionnaire used by El-Sayed et al., 1997 revealed that the volume ingested in pre-race preparation over a similar TT race distance (46 km ranged between 0.125-0.5 L. Therefore the aim of this investigation was to elucidate the fluid ingestion strategies of competitive cyclists during pre-race preparation and 40 km TT competition and the resultant body mass loss.Seventy-two competitive male cyclists ranging from Elite Category to Category 4 cyclists (according to British Cycling classification volunteered to participated in this investigation from two separate 40 km TT (n = 21 and n = 51, respectively. Mean (±SD body mass, height and age for all participants were 73.4 ± 7.5 kg, 1.77 ± 0.06 m, and 47 ± 13 years. All procedures were approved by the University's Research Ethics Committee and subjects completed informed consent prior to the start of the investigation.Both events were held

  10. ProFit: Bayesian galaxy fitting tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robotham, A. S. G.; Taranu, D.; Tobar, R.

    2016-12-01

    ProFit is a Bayesian galaxy fitting tool that uses the fast C++ image generation library libprofit (ascl:1612.003) and a flexible R interface to a large number of likelihood samplers. It offers a fully featured Bayesian interface to galaxy model fitting (also called profiling), using mostly the same standard inputs as other popular codes (e.g. GALFIT ascl:1104.010), but it is also able to use complex priors and a number of likelihoods.

  11. A Pretty Good Fit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Tim

    2008-01-01

    We often look for a best-fit function to a set of data. This article describes how a "pretty good" fit might be better than a "best" fit when it comes to promoting conceptual understanding of functions. In a pretty good fit, students design the function themselves rather than choosing it from a menu; they use appropriate variable names; and they…

  12. Unge, sundhed og fitness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens-Ole

    2003-01-01

    Artiklen redegør for udbredelsen af fitness blandt unge og diskuterer, hvor det er blevet så populært at dyrke fitness.......Artiklen redegør for udbredelsen af fitness blandt unge og diskuterer, hvor det er blevet så populært at dyrke fitness....

  13. Fitness World - Fremtidig overlevelse

    OpenAIRE

    Rice, Kasper; Klink, Nikolaj; Nielsen, Mie; Carlson, Andre; Boy, Mikkel; Hansen, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Our project is a case study with Fitness World as a baseline. Our project will enhance Fitness Worlds penetration on their current position on the market. Our empiricism includes both qualitative and quantitative methodical approaches by the use of an expert interview and a questionnaire survey. These methods contribute and generate general knowledge about the fitness culture in Denmark and the customers in the fitness industry. We have stated a possible strategic opportunity for Fitness Worl...

  14. Energy Availability and Dietary Patterns of Adult Male and Female Competitive Cyclists With Lower Than Expected Bone Mineral Density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viner, Rebecca T; Harris, Margaret; Berning, Jackie R; Meyer, Nanna L

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess energy availability (EA) and dietary patterns of 10 adult (29-49 years) male (n = 6) and female (n = 4) competitive (USA Cycling Category: Pro, n = 2; 1-4, n = 8) endurance cyclists (5 road, 5 off-road), with lower than expected bone mineral density (BMD; Z score competition (C), and off-season (OS) were estimated from 3-day dietary records, completed once per month, across a cycling season. BMD was measured by DXA at 0 months/5 months/10 months. The Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) was used to assess cognitive dietary restraint. Seventy percent of participants had low EA [(LEA); competitive road and off-road cyclists in the United States may be at risk for long-term LEA. Further studies are needed to explore strategies to prevent and monitor long-term LEA in these athletes.

  15. External iliac vein thrombosis in an athletic cyclist with a history of external iliac artery endofibrosis and thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Kelly M; Skeik, Nedaa; Shepherd, Roger F; Wennberg, Paul W

    2011-11-01

    External iliac artery endofibrosis describes an intimal subendothelial fibrosis leading to wall thickening and stenosis that has been described in high-performance athletes. There are anatomical, mechanical, and probably metabolic factors that may contribute to this pathology. Ankle-brachial index (ABI) measurement with exercise testing, duplex ultrasound, computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance (MR) angiogram, and ultimately arteriography help to make the diagnosis. Management can be conservative, but most cases require surgical intervention. External iliac vein stenosis and thrombosis in cyclists has rarely been described in the literature. We report a case of extensive left lower limb deep venous thrombosis (DVT) including the external iliac vein diagnosed in a 57-year-old athletic cyclist with a history of external iliac artery thrombosis.

  16. An unusual case of leg pain in a competitive cyclist: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, Dror; Agar, Gabriel; Domb, Benjamin Gilbert; Beer, Yiftah; Shub, Idit; Mann, Gideon

    2014-11-01

    Cycling has become a popular recreational and competitive sport. The number of people participating in the sport is gradually increasing. Despite being a noncontact, low-impact sport, as many as 85% of athletes engaged in the sport will suffer from an overuse injury, with the lower limbs comprising the majority of these injuries. Up to 20% of all lower extremity overuse injuries in competitive cyclists are of a vascular source. A 39-year-old competitive cyclist had a 5-year history of thigh pain during cycling, preventing him from competing. The patient was eventually diagnosed with external iliac artery endofibrosis. After conservative treatment failed, the patient underwent corrective vascular surgery with complete resolution of his symptoms and return to competitive cycling by 1 year. Since its first description in 1985, there have been more than 60 articles addressing external iliac artery endofibrosis pathology.

  17. Protein intake during training sessions has no effect on performance and recovery during a strenuous training camp for elite cyclists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette; Bangsbo, Jens; Jensen, Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    ). Diet and training were standardized and supervised. The diet was energy balanced and contained 1.7 g protein/kg/day. A 10-s peak power test and a 5-min all-out performance test were conducted before and after the first training session and repeated at day 6 of the camp. Blood and saliva samples were...... during cycling at a training camp for top cyclists did not result in marked performance benefits compared to intake of carbohydrates when a recovery drink containing adequate protein and carbohydrate was ingested immediately after each training session in both groups. These findings suggest...... sessions is generally accepted as being beneficial to aid performance and recovery, whereas the effect of protein supplementation and timing is less well understood. We studied the effects of protein ingestion during training sessions on performance and recovery of elite cyclists during a strenuous...

  18. Safety aspects of the bicycle traffic and the needs of cyclists in the City of Zagreb and its surrounding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sindik Joško

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The goals of this study were: to determine the possibility of forecasting for the preferences of cycling on the basis of all relevant factors Zagreb cycling (1 and to determine the differences between the participants in all the relevant factors in Zagreb cycling, by gender, in relation to membership in the Association "Trad Union of bicyclists", type of cycling and part of the city where cyclists live (2. Over 3000 members of the Association and cyclists who are not members of the Association ("average" cyclist are tested, using conveniently assembled questionnaire. It turned out that latent dimensions of the sub-questionnaires well represented themes: barriers to cycling, the role of the City in bicycle traffic, the purpose of using bicycle accident during bicycle traffic. People who are more inclined to participate in city traffic riding, often believe that the City should significantly improve conditions for cycling, tend to safer driving and more negative estimate lack of road cycling conditions in Zagreb. Women and members of the Union of cyclists often feel that the City should improve conditions for cycling and negatively evaluate the existing conditions of cycling, more often use the bike for different purposes and had frequent accidents bicycle. In the northern part of the city, Samobor, Zaprešić and Sesvete, Dugo Selo and Ivanja Reka participants were assessed to have the most adverse road conditions for cycling, while the wider center of Zagreb currently has the most favorable conditions for cycling. The results provide the guidance for improving the safety of the cycling in Zagreb and its surrounding, for taking constructive social actions at the state level and on the local-community level, as well as in the broader context of sustainable development.

  19. The effect of beta-alanine supplementation on isokinetic force and cycling performance in highly trained cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Samuel T; Bellinger, Phillip M; Driller, Matthew W; Shing, Cecilia M; Fell, James W

    2013-12-01

    Beta-alanine may benefit short-duration, high-intensity exercise performance. The aim of this randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study was to examine the effects of beta-alanine supplementation on aspects of muscular performance in highly trained cyclists. Sixteen highly trained cyclists (mean ± SD; age = 24 ± 7 yr; mass = 70 ± 7 kg; VO2max = 67 ± 4 ml · kg(-1) · min(-1)) supplemented with either beta-alanine (n = 8, 65 mg · kg - 1BM) or a placebo (n = 8; dextrose monohydrate) over 4 weeks. Pre- and postsupplementation cyclists performed a 4-minute maximal cycling test to measure average power and 30 reciprocal maximal isokinetic knee contractions at a fixed angular velocity of 180° · sec(-1) to measure average power/repetition, total work done (TWD), and fatigue index (%). Blood pH, lactate (La-) and bicarbonate (HCO3-) concentrations were measured pre- and postisokinetic testing at baseline and following the supplementation period. Beta-alanine supplementation was 44% likely to increase average power output during the 4-minute cycling time trial when compared with the placebo, although this was not statistically significant (p = .25). Isokinetic average power/repetition was significantly increased post beta-alanine supplementation compared with placebo (beta-alanine: 6.8 ± 9.9 W, placebo: -4.3 ± 9.5 W, p = .04, 85% likely benefit), while fatigue index was significantly reduced (p = .03, 95% likely benefit). TWD was 89% likely to be improved following beta-alanine supplementation; however, this was not statistically significant (p = .09). There were no significant differences in blood pH, lactate, and HCO3- between groups (p > .05). Four weeks of beta-alanine supplementation resulted in worthwhile changes in time-trial performance and short-duration muscular force production in highly trained cyclists.

  20. Effects of a seven day overload-period of high-intensity training on performance and physiology of competitive cyclists.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley Clark

    Full Text Available Competitive endurance athletes commonly undertake periods of overload training in the weeks prior to major competitions. This investigation examined the effects of two seven-day high-intensity overload training regimes (HIT on performance and physiological characteristics of competitive cyclists.The study was a matched groups, controlled trial.Twenty-eight male cyclists (mean ± SD, Age: 33±10 years, Mass 74±7 kg, VO2 peak 4.7±0.5 L·min-1 were assigned to a control group or one of two training groups for seven consecutive days of HIT. Before and after training cyclists completed an ergometer based incremental exercise test and a 20-km time-trial. The HIT sessions were ∼120 minutes in duration and consisted of matched volumes of 5, 10 and 20 second (short or 15, 30 and 45 second (long maximal intensity efforts.Both the short and long HIT regimes led to significant (p0.05 increases (mean ± SD in VO2 peak (2.3%±4.7% vs 3.5%±6.2%, lactate threshold power (3.6%±3.5% vs 2.9%±5.3% and gross efficiency (3.2%±2.4% vs 5.1%±3.9% with only small differences between HIT regimes.Seven days of overload HIT induces substantial enhancements in time-trial performance despite non-significant increases in physiological measures with competitive cyclists.

  1. A hazard-based duration model for analyzing crossing behavior of cyclists and electric bike riders at signalized intersections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaobao; Huan, Mei; Abdel-Aty, Mohamed; Peng, Yichuan; Gao, Ziyou

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a hazard-based duration approach to investigate riders' waiting times, violation hazards, associated risk factors, and their differences between cyclists and electric bike riders at signalized intersections. A total of 2322 two-wheeled riders approaching the intersections during red light periods were observed in Beijing, China. The data were classified into censored and uncensored data to distinguish between safe crossing and red-light running behavior. The results indicated that the red-light crossing behavior of most riders was dependent on waiting time. They were inclined to terminate waiting behavior and run against the traffic light with the increase of waiting duration. Over half of the observed riders cannot endure 49s or longer. 25% of the riders can endure 97s or longer. Rider type, gender, waiting position, conformity tendency and crossing traffic volume were identified to have significant effects on riders' waiting times and violation hazards. Electric bike riders were found to be more sensitive to the external risk factors such as other riders' crossing behavior and crossing traffic volume than cyclists. Moreover, unobserved heterogeneity was examined in the proposed models. The finding of this paper can explain when and why cyclists and electric bike riders run against the red light at intersections. The results of this paper are useful for traffic design and management agencies to implement strategies to enhance the safety of riders.

  2. MUNI-FITS-Utils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrastina, M.; Zejda, M.; Mikulášek, Z.

    2010-12-01

    The FITS standard allows arbitrary use of name-space for keywords, except some reserved keywords. Result of this freedom is that several keywords have the same meaning. Similar problem is that values of keywords have different physical units. These facts complicate automated data processing and also creation of FITS file archives with simple structure. MUNI-FITS-Utils is a package of Python scripts which have been developed in PyFITS, a Python FITS Module. Scripts are user-friendly and allow manipulating FITS headers to get uniform shape. Further functions will be added soon.

  3. FIT3D: Fitting optical spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, S. F.; Pérez, E.; Sánchez-Blázquez, P.; González, J. J.; Rosales-Ortega, F. F.; Cano-Díaz, M.; López-Cobá, C.; Marino, R. A.; Gil de Paz, A.; Mollá, M.; López-Sánchez, A. R.; Ascasibar, Y.; Barrera-Ballesteros, J.

    2016-09-01

    FIT3D fits optical spectra to deblend the underlying stellar population and the ionized gas, and extract physical information from each component. FIT3D is focused on the analysis of Integral Field Spectroscopy data, but is not restricted to it, and is the basis of Pipe3D, a pipeline used in the analysis of datasets like CALIFA, MaNGA, and SAMI. It can run iteratively or in an automatic way to derive the parameters of a large set of spectra.

  4. Mapping cyclist activity and injury risk in a network combining smartphone GPS data and bicycle counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Jillian; Miranda-Moreno, Luis F; Morency, Patrick

    2015-10-01

    In recent years, the modal share of cycling has been growing in North American cities. With the increase of cycling, the need of bicycle infrastructure and road safety concerns have also raised. Bicycle flows are an essential component in safety analysis. The main objective of this work is to propose a methodology to estimate and map bicycle volumes and cyclist injury risk throughout the entire network of road segments and intersections on the island of Montreal, achieved by combining smartphone GPS traces and count data. In recent years, methods have been proposed to estimate average annual daily bicycle (AADB) volume and injury risk estimates at both the intersection and segment levels using bicycle counts. However, these works have been limited to small samples of locations for which count data is available. In this work, a methodology is proposed to combine short- and long-term bicycle counts with GPS data to estimate AADB volumes along segments and intersections in the entire network. As part of the validation process, correlation is observed between AADB values obtained from GPS data and AADB values from count data, with R-squared values of 0.7 for signalized intersections, 0.58 for non-signalized intersections and between 0.48 and 0.76 for segments with and without bicycle infrastructure. The methodology is also validated through the calibration of safety performance functions using both sources of AADB estimates, from counts and from GPS data. Using the validated AADB estimates, the factors associated with injury risk were identified using data from the entire population of intersections and segments throughout Montreal. Bayesian injury risk maps are then generated and the concentrations of expected injuries and risk at signalized intersections are identified. Signalized intersections, which are often located at the intersection of major arterials, witness 4 times more injuries and 2.5 times greater risk than non-signalized intersections. A similar

  5. Endurance Cyclist Fluid Intake, Hydration Status, Thirst, and Thermal Sensations: Gender Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Lawrence E; Johnson, Evan C; McKenzie, Amy L; Ellis, Lindsay A; Williamson, Keith H

    2016-04-01

    This field investigation assessed differences (e.g., drinking behavior, hydration status, perceptual ratings) between female and male endurance cyclists who completed a 164-km event in a hot environment (35 °C mean dry bulb) to inform rehydration recommendations for athletes. Three years of data were pooled to create 2 groups of cyclists: women (n = 15) and men (n = 88). Women were significantly smaller (p < .001) than men in height (166 ± 5 vs. 179 ± 7 cm), body mass (64.6 ± 7.3 vs. 86.4 ± 12.3 kg), and body mass index (BMI; 23.3 ± 1.8 vs. 26.9 ± 3.4) and had lower preevent urinary indices of hydration status, but were similar to men in age (43 ± 7 years vs. 44 ± 9 years) and exercise time (7.77 ± 1.24 hr vs. 7.23 ± 1.75 hr). During the 164-km ride, women lost less body mass (-0.7 ± 1.0 vs. -1.7 ± 1.5 kg; -1.1 ± 1.6% vs. -1.9 ± 1.8% of body weight; p < .005) and consumed less fluid than men (4.80 ± 1.28 L vs. 5.59 ± 2.13 L; p < .005). Women consumed a similar volume of fluid as men, relative to body mass (milliliters/kilogram). To control for performance and anthropomorphic characteristics, 15 women were pair-matched with 15 men on the basis of exercise time on the course and BMI; urine-specific gravity, urine color, and body mass change (kilograms and percentage) were different (p < .05) in 4 of 6 comparisons. No gender differences were observed for ratings of thirst, thermal sensation, or perceived exertion. In conclusion, differences in relative fluid volume consumed and hydration indices suggest that professional sports medicine organizations should consider gender and individualized drinking plans when formulating pronouncements regarding rehydration during exercise.

  6. Nutritional behavior of cyclists during a 24-hour team relay race: a field study report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bescós Raúl

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Information about behavior of energy intake in ultra-endurance cyclists during a 24-hour team relay race is scarce. The nutritional strategy during such an event is an important factor which athletes should plan carefully before the race. The purpose of this study was to examine and compare the nutritional intake of ultra-endurance cyclists during a 24-hour team relay race with the current nutritional guidelines for endurance events. Additionally, we analyzed the relationship among the nutritional and performance variables. Methods Using a observational design, nutritional intake of eight males (mean ± SD: 36.7 ± 4.7 years; 71.6 ± 4.9 kg; 174.6 ± 7.3 cm; BMI 23.5 ± 0.5 kg/m2 participating in a 24-hour team relay cycling race was assessed. All food and fluid intake by athletes were weighed and recorded. Additionally, distance and speed performed by each rider were also recorded. Furthermore, before to the race, all subjects carried out an incremental exercise test to determine two heart rate-VO2 regression equations which were used to estimate the energy expenditure. Results The mean ingestion of macronutrients during the event was 943 ± 245 g (13.1 ± 4.0 g/kg of carbohydrates, 174 ± 146 g (2.4 ± 1.9 g/kg of proteins and 107 ± 56 g (1.5 ± 0.7 g/kg of lipids, respectively. This amount of nutrients reported an average nutrient intake of 22.8 ± 8.9 MJ which were significantly lower compared with energy expenditure 42.9 ± 6.8 MJ (P = 0.012. Average fluid consumption corresponded to 10497 ± 2654 mL. Mean caffeine ingestion was 142 ± 76 mg. Additionally, there was no relationship between the main nutritional variables (i.e. energy intake, carbohydrates, proteins, fluids and caffeine ingestion and the main performance variables (i.e. distance and speed. Conclusions A 24-hour hours cycling competition in a team relay format elicited high energy demands which were not compensated by energy intake of the athletes despite

  7. Visual Impairment does not Limit Training Effects in Development of Aerobic and Anaerobic Capacity in Tandem Cyclists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malwina Kamelska Anna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to investigate the differences in the effects of 7-month training on aerobic and anaerobic capacity in tandem cycling athletes with and without visual impairment. In this study, Polish elite (n=13 and sub-elite (n=13 visually impaired (VI (n=13; 40.8 ±12.8 years and properly sighted (PS (n=13; 36.7 ±12.2 years tandem-cycling athletes participated voluntarily in 7-month routine training. The following pre-/post-training measurements were conducted on separate days: maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max was estimated with age correction using the Physical Working Capacity test on a bicycle ergometer according to the Astrand-Ryhming method. Maximal power output (Pmax was evaluated using the Quebec test on a bicycle ergometer. At baseline, VO2max (47.8 ±14.1 vs 42.0 ±8.3 ml/kg/min, respectively and Pmax (11.5 ±1.5 vs 11.5 ±1.0 W/kg did not differ significantly between PS and VI cyclists. However, differences in aerobic capacity were considered as clinically significant. Two-way ANOVA revealed that after 7 month training, there were statistically significant increases in VO2max (p=0.003 and Pmax (p=0.009 among VI (VO2max, +9.1%; Pmax, +6.3% and PS (VO2max, +9.1%; Pmax, +11.7% cyclists, however, no time x visual impairment interaction effect was found (VO2max, p=0.467; Pmax, p=0.364. After training, VO2max (p=0.03, but not Pmax (p=0.13, was significantly greater in elite compared to sub-elite tandem cyclists. VI and PS tandem cyclists showed similar rates of improvement in VO2max and Pmax after 7-month training. VO2max was a significant determinant of success in tandem cycling. This is one of the first studies providing reference values for aerobic and anaerobic capacity in visually impaired cyclists.

  8. Visual Impairment does not Limit Training Effects in Development of Aerobic and Anaerobic Capacity in Tandem Cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malwina, Kamelska Anna; Krzysztof, Mazurek; Piotr, Zmijewski

    2015-11-22

    The study aimed to investigate the differences in the effects of 7-month training on aerobic and anaerobic capacity in tandem cycling athletes with and without visual impairment. In this study, Polish elite (n=13) and sub-elite (n=13) visually impaired (VI) (n=13; 40.8 ±12.8 years) and properly sighted (PS) (n=13; 36.7 ±12.2 years) tandem-cycling athletes participated voluntarily in 7-month routine training. The following pre-/post-training measurements were conducted on separate days: maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) was estimated with age correction using the Physical Working Capacity test on a bicycle ergometer according to the Astrand-Ryhming method. Maximal power output (Pmax) was evaluated using the Quebec test on a bicycle ergometer. At baseline, VO2max (47.8 ±14.1 vs 42.0 ±8.3 ml/kg/min, respectively) and Pmax (11.5 ±1.5 vs 11.5 ±1.0 W/kg) did not differ significantly between PS and VI cyclists. However, differences in aerobic capacity were considered as clinically significant. Two-way ANOVA revealed that after 7 month training, there were statistically significant increases in VO2max (p=0.003) and Pmax (p=0.009) among VI (VO2max, +9.1%; Pmax, +6.3%) and PS (VO2max, +9.1%; Pmax, +11.7%) cyclists, however, no time × visual impairment interaction effect was found (VO2max, p=0.467; Pmax, p=0.364). After training, VO2max (p=0.03), but not Pmax (p=0.13), was significantly greater in elite compared to sub-elite tandem cyclists. VI and PS tandem cyclists showed similar rates of improvement in VO2max and Pmax after 7-month training. VO2max was a significant determinant of success in tandem cycling. This is one of the first studies providing reference values for aerobic and anaerobic capacity in visually impaired cyclists.

  9. 青少年女子自行车运动员营养膳食调查研究%Research on Nutritional Diet for Junior Women Cyclists

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林华; 夏雪; 张明; 王本杰

    2011-01-01

    Objective: In order to get an understanding of the junior cyclists' nutritional diet condition, we conducted a research on the nutritional diet of 20 girls ( 14 - 17 years old) cyclist of land - based training school in Dalian to analyze the nutrition condition of athletes. This research aims to lay a foundation of the nutrition regulation for young female athletes. Methods: Review of 24 - hour dietary survey of athletes a week eating the daily meal time, food type, weight survey, with "athletes and the general public Nutritional Analysis and Management System" software on the nutritional content of meals for the week analysis. The results of our research showed that: energy, minerals, vitamins and dietary fiber intake of young woman cyclist were lower than recommended intake of software; while the proportion of carbohydrates intake, fat intake and protein intake is normal; average daily calcium and iron zinc plant Food intake mere than animal food; in the food structure perspective, the distribution of foed sources of the three major energy are not balanced; the average daily intake of more food grains.%目的:为了解青少年自行车运动员的营养膳食现状,对大连市陆上运动学校的20名女子青少年(14—17岁)自行车运动员进行膳食调查,分析运动员的营养状况,为青少年女运动员营养干预打好基础。方法:采用2dh膳食回顾调查法,对运动员一周的每日每餐进食的时间、食物种类、重量进行调查,用“运动员及大众膳食营养分析与管理系统”软件对一周膳食的营养成分进行分析。结果显示:女子青少年自行车运动员能量、矿物质、维生素及膳食纤维的摄人量均低于软件推荐摄入量;碳水化合物、脂肪、蛋白质摄入比例适当;平均每日钙、铁、锌的植物性食物摄人多于动物性食物;从食物结构看,三大营养素能量分布食物来源不均衡,平均每日摄人的谷类食物较多。

  10. Young Market: Young Consumers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shang Lin'aiyi

    2009-01-01

    @@ This young generation enjoys a staggering amount of purchasing power in China.That's because the population of young consumers in China is massive. They were born after China instituted its one-child policy in the late 1970s and grew up in the context of China launching its economic reforms and opening up to the world outside.

  11. Family Activities for Fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, Susan J.

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses how families can increase family togetherness and improve physical fitness. The author provides easy ways to implement family friendly activities for improving and maintaining physical health. These activities include: walking, backyard games, and fitness challenges.

  12. Learn 2 Move 16-24 : effectiveness of an intervention to stimulate physical activity and improve physical fitness of adolescents and young adults with spastic cerebral palsy; a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slaman, Jorrit; Roebroeck, Marij E.; van Meeteren, Jetty; van der Slot, Wilma M.; Reinders-Messelink, Heleen A.; Lindeman, Eline; Stam, Henk J.; van den Berg-Emons, Rita J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Persons with cerebral palsy (CP) are at risk for developing an inactive lifestyle and often have poor fitness levels, which may lead to secondary health complications and diminished participation and quality of life. However, persons with CP also tend not to receive structural treatment

  13. Learn 2 Move 16-24: Effectiveness of an intervention to stimulate physical activity and improve physical fitness of adolescents and young adults with spastic cerebral palsy; a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Slaman (Jorrit); M.E. Roebroeck (Marij); J. van Meeteren (Jetty); W.M.A. van der Slot (Wilma); H.A. Reinders-Messelink (Heleen); E. Lindeman (Eline); H.J. Stam (Henk); R.J.G. van den Berg-Emons (Rita)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Persons with cerebral palsy (CP) are at risk for developing an inactive lifestyle and often have poor fitness levels, which may lead to secondary health complications and diminished participation and quality of life. However, persons with CP also tend not to receive structura

  14. Learn 2 Move 16-24: Effectiveness of an intervention to stimulate physical activity and improve physical fitness of adolescents and young adults with spastic cerebral palsy; a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Slaman (Jorrit); M.E. Roebroeck (Marij); J. van Meeteren (Jetty); W.M.A. van der Slot (Wilma); H.A. Reinders-Messelink (Heleen); E. Lindeman (Eline); H.J. Stam (Henk); R.J.G. van den Berg-Emons (Rita)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Persons with cerebral palsy (CP) are at risk for developing an inactive lifestyle and often have poor fitness levels, which may lead to secondary health complications and diminished participation and quality of life. However, persons with CP also tend not to receive structura

  15. Characteristics of cyclist crashes in Italy using latent class analysis and association rule mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Angelis, Marco; Marín Puchades, Víctor; Fraboni, Federico; Pietrantoni, Luca

    2017-01-01

    The factors associated with severity of the bicycle crashes may differ across different bicycle crash patterns. Therefore, it is important to identify distinct bicycle crash patterns with homogeneous attributes. The current study aimed at identifying subgroups of bicycle crashes in Italy and analyzing separately the different bicycle crash types. The present study focused on bicycle crashes that occurred in Italy during the period between 2011 and 2013. We analyzed categorical indicators corresponding to the characteristics of infrastructure (road type, road signage, and location type), road user (i.e., opponent vehicle and cyclist’s maneuver, type of collision, age and gender of the cyclist), vehicle (type of opponent vehicle), and the environmental and time period variables (time of the day, day of the week, season, pavement condition, and weather). To identify homogenous subgroups of bicycle crashes, we used latent class analysis. Using latent class analysis, the bicycle crash data set was segmented into 19 classes, which represents 19 different bicycle crash types. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify the association between class membership and severity of the bicycle crashes. Finally, association rules were conducted for each of the latent classes to uncover the factors associated with an increased likelihood of severity. Association rules highlighted different crash characteristics associated with an increased likelihood of severity for each of the 19 bicycle crash types. PMID:28158296

  16. Eating Attitudes, Perfectionism and Body-esteem of Elite Male Judoists and Cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filaire, Edith; Rouveix, Matthieu; Pannafieux, Christelle; Ferrand, Claude

    2007-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that male athletes who feel pressured to maintain a specific body weight present an elevated risk of subclinical eating disorders. Twelve judoists (19.5 ± 0.5 yr), fifteen cyclists (21.2 ± 2.8 yr) and seventeen non- competitive students matched for BMI and used as controls (21.8 ± 1.8 yr) were studied using the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26). The Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale, the Body Esteem Scale and the Profile of Mood States were also used to evaluate the relationships between eating disorders and psychological characteristics. Athletes completed the tests during their competitive period and controls completed the same scales at the same time. Scores obtained on EAT-26 differed significantly from the control group on EAT (p EAT scores in athletes. Body-esteem Appearance and depression accounted for a significant proportion of the variance in Dieting scores. There was no difference in perfectionism and mood between athletes and controls. This study highlights that these athletes may tread a fine line between optimal competitive attitudes and detrimental health behaviors. Key pointsPrevalence of eating disorders has become a growing concern among athletic populations, but very little information is available concerning male athletes.This study highlights that these athletes may tread a fine line between optimal competitive attitudes and detrimental health behaviors.

  17. "Vicious, Aggressive Bird Stalks Cyclist": The Australian Magpie (Cracticus tibicen) in the News.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vuuren, Kitty; O'Keeffe, Scott; Jones, Darryl N

    2016-04-26

    The Australian Magpie ( Cracticus tibicen ) is a common bird found in urban Australian environments where its nest defense behavior during spring brings it into conflict with humans. This article explores the role of print media in covering this conflict. Leximancer software was used to analyze newspaper reports about the Australian Magpie from a sample of 634 news stories, letters-to-the editor and opinion pieces, published in newspapers from around Australia between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2014. The results confirm that stories about these birds are primarily published in the daily regional and weekly suburban press, and that the dominant story frame concerns the risk of "swooping" behavior to cyclists and pedestrians from birds protecting their nests during the spring breeding season. The most prominent sources used by journalists are local and state government representatives, as well as members of the public. The results show that the "swooping season" has become a normal part of the annual news cycle for these publications, with the implication that discourse surrounding the Australian Magpie predominantly concerns the risk these birds pose to humans, and ignores their decline in non-urban environments.

  18. Seated versus standing cycling in competitive road cyclists: uphill climbing and maximal oxygen uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, H; Bassett, D R; Best, S K; Baker, K R

    1996-04-01

    Seven competitive road cyclists (M +/- SE = 23.7 +/- 1.5 yr, 70.5 +/- 1.7 kg) participated to determine the effects of cycling body position on physiological responses during uphill cycling and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max). There was no significant difference in VO2max between seated and standing positions on a cycle ergometer (66.4 +/- 1.6 vs. 66.4 +/- 1.7 ml . kg-1 . min-1). When the subjects rode their own bicycle on a treadmill, oxygen uptake and heart rate were significantly (p < 0.05) higher during standing when subjects bicycled at 20.0 km . h-1 (4% grade), but no difference was observed when riding at 12.3 km . h-1 (10% grade). Leg RPE was significantly (p < 0.05) lower for standing position up a 10% grade. The results suggest that the standing position is less economical during moderate hill climbing, but during steep hill climbing, it results in a decreased sensation of effort in the legs.

  19. Heart rate variability and surface electromyography of trained cyclists at different cadences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Saraiva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The heart rate variability (HRV and surface electromyography (sEMG are important tools in the evaluation of cardiac autonomic system and neuromuscular parameters, respectively. The aim of the study was to evaluate the behavior of HRV and sEMG of the vastus lateralis in two exercise protocols on a cycle ergometer at 60 and 80 rpm. Eight healthy men cyclists who have trained for at least two years were evaluated. Reduction was observed followed by stabilization of RMSSD and SDNN indices of HRV (p<0.05 along with increases in the amplitude of the sEMG signal (p<0.05 in both protocols. Significant correlations were observed between the responses of HRV and sEMG in the cadence of 60 rpm (RMSSD and sEMG: r = -0.42, p=0.03; SDNN and sEMG: r = -0.45, p=0.01 and 80 rpm (RMSSD and sEMG: r = -0.47, p=0.02; SDNN and sEMG: r = -0.49, p=0.01, yet no difference was observed for these variables between the two protocols. We concluded that the parasympathetic cardiac responses and sEMG are independent of cadences applied at the same power output.

  20. Changes in Skinfold Thicknesses and Body Fat in Ultra-endurance Cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischof, Martin; Knechtle, Beat; A Rüst, Christoph; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rosemann, Thomas

    2013-03-01

    The present study investigated the changes in single skinfold thicknesses and body fat during an ultra-endurance cycling race. One hundred and nineteen ultra-endurance cyclists in the 'Swiss Cycling Marathon' covering a distance of 600 km were included. Changes in skinfold thickness, fat mass, skeletal muscle mass and total body water were estimated using anthropometric methods. The subjects were riding at a mean speed of 23.5±4.0 km/h and finished the race within 1,580±296 min. During the race, body mass decreased by 1.5±1.2 kg (P0.05). The decrease in body mass correlated to the decrease in fat mass (r = 0.20, P=0.03). The skinfold thicknesses at pectoral (-14.7%), abdominal (-14.9%), and thigh (-10.2%) site showed the largest decrease. The decrease in abdominal skinfold was significantly and negatively related to cycling speed during the race (r = -0.31, Pskinfold thicknesses. The largest decrease in skinfold thickness was recorded for pectoral, abdominal, and thigh site. The decrease in abdominal skinfold thickness was negatively related to cycling speed. The body seems to reduce adipose subcutaneous fat during an ultra-endurance performance at the site of the thickest skinfold.

  1. Segmental bioimpedance analysis in professional cyclists during a three week stage race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, Maurizio; Da Prat, Barbara; Montagnese, Concetta; Caldara, Annarita; Sammarco, Rosa; Pasanisi, Fabrizio; Corsetti, Roberto

    2016-07-01

    Bioelectrical impedance analysis has been widely used in the clinical and sport areas because it is a safe, non-invasive, rapid and inexpensive technique that evaluates some electrical properties of the body, such as resistance (R), reactance (X c ) and phase angle (PhA). The aim of this study is to evaluate body composition changes in professional cyclists, participating at the Giro D'Italia 2012, a three week stage race, and in particular PhA modifications as an expression of fat free mass nutritional status. Data were collected at the beginning, in the middle and at the end of the competition. Body weight, circumferences, skinfold thickness and BIA variables (total and segmental body) were measured. Body composition, measured by skinfold thickness, changed during the competition: fat free mass increased, but not significantly, in the middle and at the end of the competition, whereas fat mass significantly decreased versus the baseline in the middle and at the end of the competition. The total PhA did not significantly change in the middle of the competition but was significantly reduced at the end. The arm PhA did not change significantly at both times of the competition, whereas a significant reduction was reported for leg PhA in the middle and at the end of the competition. These results suggest the use of bioimpedance analysis, in particular PhA measurement, to monitor athletes' fat free mass characteristics during medium- and long-term competitions.

  2. Cyclist exposure to UFP and BC on urban routes in Antwerp, Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Jan; Van den Bossche, Joris; Reggente, Matteo; Van Poppel, Martine; De Baets, Bernard; Theunis, Jan

    2014-08-01

    Ultrafine particles (UFP) and black carbon (BC) concentrations show a highly dynamic micro-variability in urban area. Mobile monitoring using a bicycle platform (354 runs in 1 month) was adopted in this study to characterize the micro-variability in relation to traffic intensity, street topology and meteorological conditions. For UFP and BC a positive relationship was demonstrated between pollutant concentration and traffic intensity. In addition, the distance to the traffic and the street topology were the dominant factors influencing the UFP and BC concentrations. A high variability between streets and even within streets was observed, and also between days and hour of the day. The exposure of cyclists in urban environments is strongly linked to the spatio-temporal variability of the pollutant concentrations. Fixed-track comparisons through time revealed significant differences in exposure between days and hour of the day, but even more importantly due to the occurrence of peak concentrations along the cycling track. Peaks were mainly found near busy cross-roads and in tunnels.

  3. Hip and groin pain in a cyclist resolved after performing a pelvic floor fascial mobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navot, Sivan; Kalichman, Leonid

    2016-07-01

    Pelvic floor muscle assessment in situations of hip/groin pain in both male and female patients can be a key element in treatment success. We present herein, a 32 year old male professional cyclist, exhibiting right hip and groin pain during cycling and prolonged sitting. The pain commenced after the patient suffered a right hip severe contusion in 2013 causing a tear in the tensor fascia lata and gluteus medius muscle. The patient did not complain of pelvic floor dysfunctions. After receiving several series of conventional physical therapy for the hip/groin pain, the patient experienced partial pain relief and slight improvement of hip range of motion. His pelvic floor muscles and fascial involvement were subsequently assessed. Two sessions of Pelvic Floor Fascial Mobilization (PFFM) were performed and the patient fully recovered. The authors suggest that PFFM, a novel fascial-oriented manual therapy of the pelvic floor approach, can be used for both hip/groin and pelvic floor pain or dysfunction.

  4. Design and development of a new right arm prosthetic kit for a racing cyclist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riel, Louis-Philippe; Adam-Côté, Jérôme; Daviault, Stéphane; Salois, Christophe; Laplante-Laberge, Julien; Plante, Jean-Sébastien

    2009-09-01

    This case report describes a newly developed prosthetic arm for a world class trans-humeral amputee cyclist. The proposed solution consists of a new prosthetic kit that was designed to meet requirements of weight, freedom of movement and precise positioning for the disciplines of time-trial, pursuit, road and team sprint. The kit is made of different attachments that can be changed depending on the event the athlete is competing in. The prosthesis is composed of an extended socket made of composite materials, an arm made of aluminum tubes, a universal joint for the junction with the handlebars and different attachments for each bicycle. The system's weight is kept to a minimum using finite element analysis and careful material selection. The universal joint provides the angular degrees of freedom required to allow the athlete to stand up while pedaling, a freedom of movement lost since amputation. In this case report, the athlete's needs are presented and followed by the design of the product using Finite Element modeling. Results are then presented and discussed. This prosthetic kit was used by the athlete for the 2008 Paralympics games in Beijing.

  5. Interindividual variability of electromyographic patterns and pedal force profiles in trained cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hug, François; Drouet, Jean Marc; Champoux, Yvan; Couturier, Antoine; Dorel, Sylvain

    2008-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether high inter-individual variability of the electromyographic (EMG) patterns during pedaling is accompanied by variability in the pedal force application patterns. Eleven male experienced cyclists were tested at two submaximal power outputs (150 and 250 W). Pedal force components (effective and total forces) and index of mechanical effectiveness were measured continuously using instrumented pedals and were synchronized with surface electromyography signals measured in ten lower limb muscles. The intersubject variability of EMG and mechanical patterns was assessed using standard deviation, mean deviation, variance ratio and coefficient of cross-correlation (_R(0), with lag time = 0). The results demonstrated a high intersubject variability of EMG patterns at both exercise intensities for biarticular muscles as a whole (and especially for Gastrocnemius lateralis and Rectus femoris) and for one monoarticular muscle (Tibialis anterior). However, this heterogeneity of EMG patterns is not accompanied by a so high intersubject variability in pedal force application patterns. A very low variability in the three mechanical profiles (effective force, total force and index of mechanical effectiveness) was obtained in the propulsive downstroke phase, although a greater variability in these mechanical patterns was found during upstroke and around the top dead center, and at 250 W when compared to 150 W. Overall, these results provide additional evidence for redundancy in the neuromuscular system.

  6. AN APPROACH FOR INDOOR WAYFINDING REPLICATING MAIN PRINCIPLES OF AN OUTDOOR NAVIGATION SYSTEM FOR CYCLISTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Makri

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This work presents an approach to enhance navigation in indoor environments based on a landmark concept. It has already been proved by empirical research that by using landmarks the wayfinding task can be significantly simplified. Navigation based on landmarks relies on the presence of landmarks at each point along a route where wayfinders might need assistance. The approach presented here is based on the Dutch system for navigation of cyclists. The landmarks that are used in the proposed approach are special signposts containing the necessary directional information in order to guide the wayfinder in the space. The system is quite simple, efficient and satisfactory in providing navigational assistance in indoor space. An important contribution of this research is the generation of an approach to automatically determine the decision points in indoor environments, which makes it possible to apply it to navigational assistance systems in any building. The proposed system is verified by placing numbered landmark-signs in a specific building. Several tests are performed and the results are analysed. The findings of the experiment are very promising, showing that participants reach the destinations without detours.

  7. Flat and uphill climb time trial performance prediction in elite amateur cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antón, M M; Izquierdo, M; Ibáñez, J; Asiain, X; Mendiguchía, J; Gorostiaga, E M

    2007-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine physiological, anthropometric, biomechanical and hormonal variables related to road flat and uphill climb performance. Eighteen elite level amateur road cyclists (21.1 +/- 3.8 yrs), homogeneous with regard to time trial performance (coefficient of variation: 2.9-5.2 %), were measured for frontal area (FA), maximal strength, power, cross-sectional area of the quadriceps femoris muscle and basal serum concentrations of total testosterone (TT), free testosterone (FT) and cortisol (C). Maximal (W (max)) and submaximal workload were measured during a progressive discontinuous maximal cycling laboratory test, and two all-out time trial performance tests (duration range: 1049-1251 s) were also conducted outdoors on two separate days: a 14-km flat road (average gradient of 0.2 %) and a 6.7-km uphill climb (average gradient of 6 %). Significant negative correlations (p climb trial performance time correlated significantly (p climb time trial performance is associated with maximal workload normalized to body mass, as well as with an increased anabolic-androgenic activity.

  8. An Approach for Indoor Wayfinding Replicating Main Principles of AN Outdoor Navigation System for Cyclists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makri, A.; Zlatanova, S.; Verbree, E.

    2015-05-01

    This work presents an approach to enhance navigation in indoor environments based on a landmark concept. It has already been proved by empirical research that by using landmarks the wayfinding task can be significantly simplified. Navigation based on landmarks relies on the presence of landmarks at each point along a route where wayfinders might need assistance. The approach presented here is based on the Dutch system for navigation of cyclists. The landmarks that are used in the proposed approach are special signposts containing the necessary directional information in order to guide the wayfinder in the space. The system is quite simple, efficient and satisfactory in providing navigational assistance in indoor space. An important contribution of this research is the generation of an approach to automatically determine the decision points in indoor environments, which makes it possible to apply it to navigational assistance systems in any building. The proposed system is verified by placing numbered landmark-signs in a specific building. Several tests are performed and the results are analysed. The findings of the experiment are very promising, showing that participants reach the destinations without detours.

  9. Comparing lower lumbar kinematics in cyclists with low back pain (flexion pattern) versus asymptomatic controls--field study using a wireless posture monitoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hoof, Wannes; Volkaerts, Koen; O'Sullivan, Kieran; Verschueren, Sabine; Dankaerts, Wim

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to examine lower lumbar kinematics in cyclists with and without non-specific chronic low back pain (NS-CLBP) during a cross-sectional cycling field study. Although LBP is a common problem among cyclists, studies investigating the causes of LBP during cycling are scarce and are mainly focussed on geometric bike-related variables. Until now no cycling field studies have investigated the relationship between maladaptive lumbar kinematics and LBP during cycling. Eight cyclists with NS-CLBP classified as having a 'Flexion Pattern' (FP) disorder and nine age- and gender-matched asymptomatic cyclists were tested. Subjects performed a 2 h outdoor cycling task on their personal race bike. Lower lumbar kinematics was measured with the BodyGuard™ monitoring system. Pain intensity during and after cycling was measured using a numerical pain rating scale. The NS-CLBP (FP) subjects were significantly more flexed at the lower lumbar spine during cycling compared to healthy controls (p = 0.018), and reported a significant increase in pain over the 2 h of cycling (p posture between groups did not change over time. These findings suggest that a subgroup of cyclists with NS-CLBP (FP) demonstrate an underlying maladaptive motor control pattern resulting in greater lower lumbar flexion during cycling which is related to a significant increase in pain. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Quasispecies on Fitness Landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Selection-mutation dynamics is studied as adaptation and neutral drift on abstract fitness landscapes. Various models of fitness landscapes are introduced and analyzed with respect to the stationary mutant distributions adopted by populations upon them. The concept of quasispecies is introduced, and the error threshold phenomenon is analyzed. Complex fitness landscapes with large scatter of fitness values are shown to sustain error thresholds. The phenomenological theory of the quasispecies introduced in 1971 by Eigen is compared to approximation-free numerical computations. The concept of strong quasispecies understood as mutant distributions, which are especially stable against changes in mutations rates, is presented. The role of fitness neutral genotypes in quasispecies is discussed.

  11. Improving NEC Fit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Fill cannot. NEC Fit NEC Fit measures more than the crew’s total skill sets. It also accounts for how these sailors are used by crediting an NEC...Abstract Navy enlisted classifications (NECs) denote special skills beyond those associated with a rating. They are used in defining manpower...requirements and in managing personnel by tracking sailors who have acquired these skills . NEC Fit is one of two primary metrics that Navy leadership

  12. Heat acclimatization does not improve VO2max or cycling performance in a cool climate in trained cyclists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, Anders; Racinais, S; Jensen, M V;

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated if well-trained cyclists improve V ˙ O 2 m a x and performance in cool conditions following heat acclimatization through natural outdoor training in hot conditions. Eighteen trained male cyclists were tested for physiological adaptations, V ˙ O 2 m a x , peak aerobic power...... was associated with marked improvements in TT performance in the heat. However, for the well-trained endurance athletes, this did not transfer to an improved aerobic exercise capacity or outdoor TT performance in cool conditions....

  13. The relationship between physical fitness and clustered risk, and tracking of clustered risk from adolescence to young adulthood: eight years follow-up in the Danish Youth and Sport Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Bo; Hasselstrøm, Henriette; Hansen, Stig Eiberg

    2004-01-01

    of age. Eight years later, 98 males and 137 females participated. They were each time ranked into quartiles by sex in four CVD risk factors all related to the metabolic syndrome. Risk factors were the ratio between total cholesterol and HDL, triglyceride, systolic BP and body fat. The upper quartile....... The probability for "a case" at the first examination to be "a case" at the second was 6.0. CONCLUSIONS: The relationship between an exposure like physical fitness and CVD risk factors is much stronger when clustering of risk factors are analysed compared to the relationship to single risk factors. The stability...

  14. The Role of Sport/Fitness and Eating Disorders: Cosmetic Fitness from Starvation to Steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriarty, Dick; And Others

    The incidence of eating disorders is much higher among children and young adults involved in sport and fitness activities. When weight loss is followed by excessive exercise, certain biological and social reinforcers become evident. This is also followed by a diminished appetite, increased narcissistic investment in the body, and an elevated…

  15. Effects of training at simulated altitude on performance and muscle metabolic capacity in competitive road cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrados, N; Melichna, J; Sylvén, C; Jansson, E; Kaijser, L

    1988-01-01

    Differences between the effects of training at sea level and at simulated altitude on performance and muscle structural and biochemical properties were investigated in 8 competitive cyclists who trained for 3-4 weeks, 4-5 sessions/week, each session consisting of cycling for 60-90 min continuously and 45-60 min intermittently. Four subjects, the altitude group (AG), trained in a hypobaric chamber (574 torr = 2300 m above sea level), and the other four at sea level (SLG). Before and after training work capacity was tested both at simulated altitude (574 torr) and at sea level, by an incremental cycle ergometer test until exhaustion. Work capacity was expressed as total amount of work performed. Venous blood samples were taken during the tests. Leg muscle biopsies were taken at rest before and after the training period. AG exhibited an increase of 33% in both sea level and altitude performance, while SLG increased 22% at sea level and 14% at altitude. Blood lactate concentration at a given submaximal load at altitude was significantly more reduced by training in AG than SLG. Muscle phosphofructokinase (PFK) activity decreased with training in AG but increased in SLG. All AG subjects showed increases in capillary density. In conclusion, work capacity at altitude was increased more by training at altitude than at sea level. Work capacity at sea level was at least as much improved by altitude as by sea level training. The improved work capacity by training at altitude was paralleled by decreased exercise blood lactate concentration, increased capillarization and decreased glycolytic capacity in leg muscle.

  16. New Zealand blackcurrant extract improves cycling performance and fat oxidation in cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Matthew David; Myers, Stephen David; Blacker, Sam David; Willems, Mark Elisabeth Theodorus

    2015-11-01

    Blackcurrant intake increases peripheral blood flow in humans, potentially by anthocyanin-induced vasodilation which may affect substrate delivery and exercise performance. We examined the effects of New Zealand blackcurrant (NZBC) extract on substrate oxidation, cycling time-trial performance and plasma lactate responses following the time-trial in trained cyclists. Using a randomized, double-blind, crossover design, 14 healthy men (age: 38 ± 13 years, height: 178 ± 4 cm, body mass: 77 ± 9 kg, VO2max: 53 ± 6 mL kg(-1) min(-1), mean ± SD) ingested NZBC extract (300 mg day(-1) CurraNZ™ containing 105 mg anthocyanin) or placebo (PL, 300 mg microcrystalline cellulose M102) for 7 days (washout 14 days). On day 7, participants performed 30 min of cycling (3 × 10 min at 45, 55 and 65 % VO2max), followed by a 16.1 km time-trial with lactate sampling during a 20-min passive recovery. NZBC extract increased fat oxidation at 65 % VO2max by 27 % (P < 0.05) and improved 16.1 km time-trial performance by 2.4 % (NZBC: 1678 ± 108 s, PL: 1722 ± 131 s, P < 0.05). Plasma lactate was higher with NZBC extract immediately following the time-trial (NZBC: 7.06 ± 1.73 mmol L(-1), PL: 5.92 ± 1.58 mmol L(-1), P < 0.01). Seven-day intake of New Zealand blackcurrant extract improves 16.1 km cycling time-trial performance and increases fat oxidation during moderate intensity cycling.

  17. The effects of cold-water immersion on power output and heart rate in elite cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schniepp, Jason; Campbell, Teri S; Powell, Kasey L; Pincivero, Danny M

    2002-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of cold-water immersion on power output, heart rate, and time to peak power in 10 well-trained cyclists. The Compu-trainer Professional Model 8001 computerized stationary trainer was used to evaluate maximum power, average power, and time to peak power during a simulated cycling sprint. The heart rate was measured using a Polar heart rate monitor. Subjects performed 2 maximum-effort sprints (for approximately 30 seconds) separated by either an experimental condition (15 minutes of cold-water immersion at 12 degrees C up to the level of the iliac crest) or a control condition (15 minutes of quiet sitting). All subjects participated under both control and experimental conditions in a counterbalanced design in which 5 subjects performed the experimental condition first and the other 5 subjects performed the control condition first. Each condition was separated by at least 2 days. The time to peak power was not different between the 2 conditions. Maximum and average powers declined by 13.7 and 9.5% for the experimental condition but only by 4.7 and 2.3% for the control condition, respectively. The results also demonstrated a significantly greater decline in maximum heart rate after cold-water immersion (8.1%) than under the control condition (2.4%). Average heart rate showed a decrease of 4.2% under the experimental condition, as compared with an increase of 1.5% under the control condition. The major findings of this study suggest that a relatively brief period of cold-water immersion can manifest significant physiological effects that can impair cycling performance.

  18. EATING ATTITUDES, PERFECTIONISM AND BODY-ESTEEM OF ELITE MALE JUDOISTS AND CYCLISTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith Filaire

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This study tested the hypothesis that male athletes who feel pressured to maintain a specific body weight present an elevated risk of subclinical eating disorders. Twelve judoists (19.5 ± 0.5 yr, fifteen cyclists (21.2 ± 2.8 yr and seventeen non- competitive students matched for BMI and used as controls (21.8 ± 1.8 yr were studied using the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26. The Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale, the Body Esteem Scale and the Profile of Mood States were also used to evaluate the relationships between eating disorders and psychological characteristics. Athletes completed the tests during their competitive period and controls completed the same scales at the same time. Scores obtained on EAT-26 differed significantly from the control group on EAT (p < 0.01, Dieting (p < 0.01, and Bulimia scores (p < 0.05. Sixty percent of the athletes used weight loss methods. Self-induced vomiting, use of laxatives and diet pills were reported by 4%, 10%, and 8.5% of them, respectively. Increasing exercise was the primary method used by controls to lose body weight. Athletes reported greater negative feelings about their physical appearance and their Body Weight Satisfaction than controls (p < 0.01, p < 0.05, respectively. Our results also showed that depression mood accounted for 73% of the variance in Bulimia scores and for 64% of the variance in Global EAT scores in athletes. Body-esteem Appearance and depression accounted for a significant proportion of the variance in Dieting scores. There was no difference in perfectionism and mood between athletes and controls. This study highlights that these athletes may tread a fine line between optimal competitive attitudes and detrimental health behaviors

  19. Hormone levels of world class cyclists during the Tour of Spain stage race

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucia, A; Diaz, B; Hoyos, J; Fernandez, C; Villa, G; Bandres, F; Chicharro, J

    2001-01-01

    Objectives—To evaluate the hormonal response to strenuous endurance exercise performed by elite athletes. Methods—Nine professional cyclists (mean (SD) age 28 (1) years; mean (SD) VO2MAX 75.3 (2.3) ml/kg/min) who participated in a three week tour race (Vuelta a España 1999) were selected as subjects. Morning urinary levels of 6-sulphatoxymelatonin (aMT6s) and morning serum levels of testosterone, follicle stimulating (FSH), luteinising hormone (LH), and cortisol were measured in each subject at t0 (before the competition), t1 (end of first week), t2 (end of second week), and t3 (end of third week). Urine samples of aMT6s were also evaluated in the evening at t0, t1, t2, and t3. Results—Mean urinary aMT6s levels had increased significantly (p<0.01) during the day after each stage (1091 (33) v 683 (68) ng/ml at t1; 955 (19) v 473 (53) ng/ml at t2; 647 (61) v 337 (47) ng/ml at t3). Both morning and evening aMT6s levels decreased significantly during the study. A similar pattern was observed for morning serum levels of cortisol and testosterone. Conclusions—The results suggest that the basal activity of the pineal gland, adrenal glands, and testis may be decreased after consecutive days of intense, long term exercise. Key Words: melatonin; gonadotrophins; testosterone; cortisol; endurance exercise PMID:11726480

  20. The universal Higgs fit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giardino, P. P.; Kannike, K.; Masina, I.

    2014-01-01

    Higgs models, models with extra Higgs doublets, supersymmetry, extra particles in the loops, anomalous top couplings, and invisible Higgs decays into Dark Matter. Best fit regions lie around the Standard Model predictions and are well approximated by our 'universal' fit. Latest data exclude the dilaton...

  1. Fit 2-B FATHERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiorano, Joseph J.

    2001-01-01

    Fit 2-B FATHERS is a parenting-skills education program for incarcerated adult males. The goals of this program are for participants to have reduced recidivism rates and a reduced risk of their children acquiring criminal records. These goals are accomplished by helping participants become physically, practically, and socially fit for the demands…

  2. Best Fit for 'Bounce'

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The mineralogy of 'Bounce' rock was determined by fitting spectra from a library of laboratory minerals to the spectrum of Bounce taken by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's miniature thermal emission spectrometer. The minerals that give the best fit include pyroxene, plagioclase and olivine -- minerals commonly found in basaltic volcanic rocks -- and typical martian dust produced by the rover's rock abrasion tool.

  3. Fitness Test and Tips

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Karen; Clark

    2005-01-01

    Summer is a time to exercise and keep fit.Ask yourself these quick questions and check your score below.How fit are you? 1.What is your pulse[脉搏]?Find your pulse in your wrist[手腕], count the number of beats[跳动] in one minute,Now

  4. The Quality Fit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vertiz, Virginia C.; Downey, Carolyn J.

    This paper proposes a two-pronged approach for examining an educational program's "quality of fit." The American Association of School Administrators' (AASA's) Curriculum Management Audit for quality indicators is reviewed, using the Downey Quality Fit Framework and Deming's 4 areas of profound knowledge and 14 points. The purpose is to…

  5. The relationship between physical fitness and clustered risk, and tracking of clustered risk from adolescence to young adulthood: eight years follow-up in the Danish Youth and Sport Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grønfeldt Vivian

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Cardiovascular disease (CVD is usually caused by high levels of many risk factors simultaneously over many years. Therefore, it is of great interest to study if subjects stay within rank order over time in both the biological risk factors and the behaviour that influences these risk factors. Many studies have described stability (tracking in single risk factors, especially in children where hard endpoints are lacking, but few have analysed tracking in clustered risk. Methods Two examinations were conducted 8 years apart. The first time, 133 males and 172 females were 16–19 years of age. Eight years later, 98 males and 137 females participated. They were each time ranked into quartiles by sex in four CVD risk factors all related to the metabolic syndrome. Risk factors were the ratio between total cholesterol and HDL, triglyceride, systolic BP and body fat. The upper quartile was defined as being at risk, and if a subject had two or more risk factors, he/she was defined as a case (15–20 % of the subjects. Odds ratios (OR for being a case was calculated between quartiles of fitness in both cross-sectional studies. The stability of combined risk was calculated as the OR between cases and non-cases at the first examination to be a case at the second examination. Results ORs for having two or more risk factors between quartiles of fitness were 3.1, 3.8 and 4.9 for quartiles two to four, respectively. At the second examination, OR were 0.7, 3.5 and 4.9, respectively. The probability for "a case" at the first examination to be "a case" at the second was 6.0. Conclusions The relationship between an exposure like physical fitness and CVD risk factors is much stronger when clustering of risk factors are analysed compared to the relationship to single risk factors. The stability over time in multiple risk factors analysed together is strong. This relationship should be seen in the light of moderate or weak tracking of single risk

  6. Situation on Fitness and Health of Deaf Young Students in Zhejiang Province%浙江省听障青年学生体质健康状况的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海群

    2011-01-01

    Access to extensive literature material,using the mathematical statistics,logic analysis and investigation research,the physical quality and health of deaf young students of Zhejiang province were investigated and analyzed.Theoretical support of sports ed%通过查阅大量的文献资料,运用数理统计法、逻辑分析法和调查研究法,对浙江省听障青年学生的身体素质和身体健康状况进行了调查与分析,为听障青年学生体育教育提供理论支持。

  7. Effects of music tempo on performance, psychological, and physiological variables during 20 km cycling in well-trained cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Few studies have investigated the effects of music on trained athletes during high intensity endurance tasks. Therefore, this study investigated the effects of different music tempi on performance, psychological, and physiological responses of well-trained cyclists to time trial cycling. 10 male road cyclists (M age = 35 yr., SD = 7), with a minimum of three years racing experience, performed four 20-km time trials on a Computrainer Pro 3D indoor cycle trainer over a period of four weeks. The time-trials were spaced one week apart. The music conditions for each trial were randomised between fast-tempo (140 bpm), medium-tempo (120 bpm), slow-tempo (100 bpm), and no music. Performance (completion time, power output, average speed and cadence), physiological (heart rate, oxygen consumption, breathing frequency and respiratory exchange ratio), psychophysical (RPE), and psychological (mood states) data were collected for each trial. Results indicated no significant changes in performance, physiological, or psychophysical variables. Total mood disturbance and tension increased significantly in the fast-tempo trial when compared with medium and no-music conditions.

  8. Short intervals induce superior training adaptations compared with long intervals in cyclists - an effort-matched approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rønnestad, B R; Hansen, J; Vegge, G; Tønnessen, E; Slettaløkken, G

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of 10 weeks of effort-matched short intervals (SI; n = 9) or long intervals (LI; n = 7) in cyclists. The high-intensity interval sessions (HIT) were performed twice a week interspersed with low-intensity training. There were no differences between groups at pretest. There were no differences between groups in total volume of both HIT and low-intensity training. The SI group achieved a larger relative improvement in VO(2max) than the LI group (8.7% ± 5.0% vs 2.6% ± 5.2%), respectively, P ≤ 0.05). Mean effect size (ES) of the relative improvement in all measured parameters, including performance measured as mean power output during 30-s all-out, 5-min all-out, and 40-min all-out tests revealed a moderate-to-large effect of SI training vs LI training (ES range was 0.86-1.54). These results suggest that the present SI protocol induces superior training adaptations on both the high-power region and lower power region of cyclists' power profile compared with the present LI protocol. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Effect of zinc and selenium supplementation on serum testosterone and plasma lactate in cyclist after an exhaustive exercise bout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiei Neek, Leila; Gaeini, Abas Ali; Choobineh, Siroos

    2011-12-01

    Zinc and selenium are essential minerals and have roles for more than 300 metabolic reactions in the body. The purpose of this study was to investigate how exhaustive exercise affects testosterone levels and plasma lactate in cyclists who were supplemented with oral zinc and selenium for 4 weeks. For this reason, 32 male road cyclists were selected equally to four groups: PL group, placebo; Zn group, zinc supplement (30 mg/day); Se group, selenium supplement (200 μg/day); and Zn-Se group, zinc-selenium supplement. After treatment, free, total testosterone, and lactate levels of subjects were determined before and after exhaustive exercise. Resting total, free testosterone, and lactate levels did not differ significantly between groups, and were increased by exercise (P > 0.05). Serum total testosterone levels in Zn group were higher than in Se group after exercise (P  0.05). The results showed that 4-week simultaneous and separately zinc and selenium supplementation had no significant effect on resting testosterone and lactate levels of subjects who consume a zinc and selenium sufficient diet. It might be possible that the effect of zinc supplementation on free testosterone depends on exercise.

  10. Computational fluid dynamics analysis of cyclist aerodynamics: performance of different turbulence-modelling and boundary-layer modelling approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defraeye, Thijs; Blocken, Bert; Koninckx, Erwin; Hespel, Peter; Carmeliet, Jan

    2010-08-26

    This study aims at assessing the accuracy of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) for applications in sports aerodynamics, for example for drag predictions of swimmers, cyclists or skiers, by evaluating the applied numerical modelling techniques by means of detailed validation experiments. In this study, a wind-tunnel experiment on a scale model of a cyclist (scale 1:2) is presented. Apart from three-component forces and moments, also high-resolution surface pressure measurements on the scale model's surface, i.e. at 115 locations, are performed to provide detailed information on the flow field. These data are used to compare the performance of different turbulence-modelling techniques, such as steady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS), with several k-epsilon and k-omega turbulence models, and unsteady large-eddy simulation (LES), and also boundary-layer modelling techniques, namely wall functions and low-Reynolds number modelling (LRNM). The commercial CFD code Fluent 6.3 is used for the simulations. The RANS shear-stress transport (SST) k-omega model shows the best overall performance, followed by the more computationally expensive LES. Furthermore, LRNM is clearly preferred over wall functions to model the boundary layer. This study showed that there are more accurate alternatives for evaluating flow around bluff bodies with CFD than the standard k-epsilon model combined with wall functions, which is often used in CFD studies in sports.

  11. Strength training improves cycling performance, fractional utilization of VO2max and cycling economy in female cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikmoen, O; Ellefsen, S; Trøen, Ø; Hollan, I; Hanestadhaugen, M; Raastad, T; Rønnestad, B R

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of adding heavy strength training to well-trained female cyclists' normal endurance training on cycling performance. Nineteen female cyclists were randomly assigned to 11 weeks of either normal endurance training combined with heavy strength training (E+S, n = 11) or to normal endurance training only (E, n = 8). E+S increased one repetition maximum in one-legged leg press and quadriceps muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) more than E (P < 0.05), and improved mean power output in a 40-min all-out trial, fractional utilization of VO2 max and cycling economy (P < 0.05). The proportion of type IIAX-IIX muscle fibers in m. vastus lateralis was reduced in E+S with a concomitant increase in type IIA fibers (P < 0.05). No changes occurred in E. The individual changes in performance during the 40-min all-out trial was correlated with both change in IIAX-IIX fiber proportion (r = -0.63) and change in muscle CSA (r = 0.73). In conclusion, adding heavy strength training improved cycling performance, increased fractional utilization of VO2 max , and improved cycling economy. The main mechanisms behind these improvements seemed to be increased quadriceps muscle CSA and fiber type shifts from type IIAX-IIX toward type IIA.

  12. Curvilinear VO(2):power output relationship in a ramp test in professional cyclists: possible association with blood hemoglobin concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucía, Alejandro; Hoyos, Jesús; Santalla, Alfredo; Pérez, Margarita; Chicharro, José L

    2002-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine (1) if there exists an additional, nonlinear increase (DeltaVO(2)) in the oxygen uptake observed (VO2 (obs)) at the maximal power output reached during a ramp cycle ergometer test and that expected (VO2 (exp)) from the linear relationship between VO(2) and power output below the lactate threshold (LT) in professional riders, and (2) the relationship between DeltaVO(2) and possible explanatory mechanisms. Each of 12 professional cyclists (25 +/- 1 years; VO(2 max): 71.3 +/- 1.2 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1)) performed a ramp test until exhaustion (power output increases of 25 W x min(-1)) during which several gas-exchange and blood variables were measured (including lactate, HCO(3)(-) and K(+)). VO(2) was linearly related to power output until the LT in all subjects. Afterward, a nonlinear deflection was observed in the VO(2):power output relationship (DeltaVO(2) = 2492 +/- 55 ml x min(-1) and p < 0.05 for VO2 (obs) vs. VO2 (exp)). A significant negative correlation was encountered between DeltaVO(2) and resting hemoglobin levels before the tests (r = 20.61; p < 0.05). In conclusion, professional cyclists exhibit an attenuation of the VO(2) rise above the LT.

  13. Limitations of inclusive fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Benjamin; Nowak, Martin A; Wilson, Edward O

    2013-12-10

    Until recently, inclusive fitness has been widely accepted as a general method to explain the evolution of social behavior. Affirming and expanding earlier criticism, we demonstrate that inclusive fitness is instead a limited concept, which exists only for a small subset of evolutionary processes. Inclusive fitness assumes that personal fitness is the sum of additive components caused by individual actions. This assumption does not hold for the majority of evolutionary processes or scenarios. To sidestep this limitation, inclusive fitness theorists have proposed a method using linear regression. On the basis of this method, it is claimed that inclusive fitness theory (i) predicts the direction of allele frequency changes, (ii) reveals the reasons for these changes, (iii) is as general as natural selection, and (iv) provides a universal design principle for evolution. In this paper we evaluate these claims, and show that all of them are unfounded. If the objective is to analyze whether mutations that modify social behavior are favored or opposed by natural selection, then no aspect of inclusive fitness theory is needed.

  14. Speed choice and mental workload of elderly cyclists on e-bikes in simple and complex traffic situations : a field experiment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlakveld, W.P. Twisk, D.A.M. Christoph, M.W.T. Boele, M.J. Sikkema, R. Remy, R. & Schwab, A.L.

    2014-01-01

    To study the speed choice and mental workload of elderly cyclists on electrical assisted bicycles (e-bikes) in simple and complex traffic situations compared to these on conventional bicycles, a field experiment was conducted using two instrumented bicycles. These bicycles were identical except for

  15. A Spatial Analysis of Land Use and Network Effects on Frequency and Severity of Cyclist-Motorist Crashes in the Copenhagen Region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaplan, Sigal; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2015-01-01

    in cycling market shares. The current study proposes the first joint model of frequency and severity of cyclist-motorist collisions with the aim of unraveling the factors contributing to both the probability of being involved in a crash and, conditional on the crash occurrence, experiencing a severe injury...

  16. Improved VO2max and time trial performance with more high aerobic intensity interval training and reduced training volume: a case study on an elite national cyclist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Støren, Øyvind; Bratland-Sanda, Solfrid; Haave, Marius; Helgerud, Jan

    2012-10-01

    The present study investigated to what extent more high aerobic intensity interval training (HAIT) and reduced training volume would influence maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and time trial (TT) performance in an elite national cyclist in the preseason period. The cyclist was tested for VO2max, cycling economy (C(c)), and TT performance on an ergometer cycle during 1 year. Training was continuously logged using heart rate monitor during the entire period. Total monthly training volume was reduced in the 2011 preseason compared with the 2010 preseason, and 2 HAIT blocks (14 sessions in 9 days and 15 sessions in 10 days) were performed as running. Between the HAIT blocks, 3 HAIT sessions per week were performed as cycling. From November 2010 to February 2011, the cyclist reduced total average monthly training volume by 18% and cycling training volume by 60%. The amount of training at 90-95% HRpeak increased by 41%. VO2max increased by 10.3% on ergometer cycle. TT performance improved by 14.9%. C(c) did not change. In conclusion, preseason reduced total training volume but increased amount of HAIT improved VO2max and TT performance without any changes in C(c). These improvements on cycling appeared despite that the HAIT blocks were performed as running. Reduced training time, and training transfer from running into improved cycling form, may be beneficial for cyclists living in cold climate areas.

  17. Pedestrians, two-wheelers and road safety : a statistical comparison of pedestrian, cyclist and moped-rider road-traffic fatalities in The Netherlands from 1968 to 1972.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraay, J.H.

    1976-01-01

    Data were collected on pedestrian, cyclist and moped-rider traffic fatalities from 1968 to 1972. Use is made only of statistics available. The variables that were considered were related to demographic factors (sex and age), locality characteristics, vicinity factors, other circumstances and the se

  18. Attenuated gastric distress but no benefit to performance with adaptation to octanoate-rich esterified oils in well-trained male cyclists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorburn, M.S.; Vistisen, Bodil; Thorp, R.M.

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the effects of modifying a normal dietary fatty acid composition and ingestion of high-fat exercise supplements on gastrointestinal distress, substrate oxidation. and endurance cycling performance. Nine well-trained male cyclists completed a randomized triple-crossover comprising...

  19. High dietary protein restores overreaching induced impairments in leukocyte trafficking and reduces the incidence of upper respiratory tract infection in elite cyclists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witard, O.C.; Turner, J.E.; Jackmann, S.R.; Kies, A.K.; Jeukendrup, A.E.; Bosch, J.A.; Tipton, K.D.

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined whether a high protein diet prevents the impaired leukocyte redistribution in response to acute exercise caused by a large volume of high-intensity exercise training. Eight cyclists (VO2max: 64.2 ± 6.5 mL kg−1 min−1) undertook two separate weeks of high-intensity training

  20. Speed choice and mental workload of elderly cyclists on e-bikes in simple and complex traffic situations : a field experiment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlakveld, W.P. Twisk, D.A.M. Christoph, M.W.T. Boele, M.J. Sikkema, R. Remy, R. & Schwab, A.L.

    2014-01-01

    To study the speed choice and mental workload of elderly cyclists on electrical assisted bicycles (e-bikes) in simple and complex traffic situations compared to these on conventional bicycles, a field experiment was conducted using two instrumented bicycles. These bicycles were identical except for

  1. Assessment methodologies for forward looking integrated pedestrian systems and further extension to cyclist safety: experimental and virtual testing for pedestrian protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferrer, A.; Hair-Buijssen, S.H.H.M. de; Zander, O.; Fredriksson, R.; Schaub, S.; Nuss, F.; Caspar, M.

    2015-01-01

    Pedestrians and cyclists are the most unprotected road users and their injury risk in case of accidents is significantly higher than for other road users. The understanding of the influence and sensitivity between important variables describing a pedestrian crash is key for the development of more

  2. Validity and Reliability of Ventilatory and Blood Lactate Thresholds in Well-Trained Cyclists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallarés, Jesús G.; Morán-Navarro, Ricardo; Ortega, Juan Fernando; Fernández-Elías, Valentín Emilio; Mora-Rodriguez, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine, i) the reliability of blood lactate and ventilatory-based thresholds, ii) the lactate threshold that corresponds with each ventilatory threshold (VT1 and VT2) and with maximal lactate steady state test (MLSS) as a proxy of cycling performance. Methods Fourteen aerobically-trained male cyclists (V˙O2max 62.1±4.6 ml·kg-1·min-1) performed two graded exercise tests (50 W warm-up followed by 25 W·min-1) to exhaustion. Blood lactate, V˙O2 and V˙CO2 data were collected at every stage. Workloads at VT1 (rise in V˙E/V˙O2;) and VT2 (rise in V˙E/V˙CO2) were compared with workloads at lactate thresholds. Several continuous tests were needed to detect the MLSS workload. Agreement and differences among tests were assessed with ANOVA, ICC and Bland-Altman. Reliability of each test was evaluated using ICC, CV and Bland-Altman plots. Results Workloads at lactate threshold (LT) and LT+2.0 mMol·L-1 matched the ones for VT1 and VT2, respectively (p = 0.147 and 0.539; r = 0.72 and 0.80; Bias = -13.6 and 2.8, respectively). Furthermore, workload at LT+0.5 mMol·L-1 coincided with MLSS workload (p = 0.449; r = 0.78; Bias = -4.5). Lactate threshold tests had high reliability (CV = 3.4–3.7%; r = 0.85–0.89; Bias = -2.1–3.0) except for DMAX method (CV = 10.3%; r = 0.57; Bias = 15.4). Ventilatory thresholds show high reliability (CV = 1.6%–3.5%; r = 0.90–0.96; Bias = -1.8–2.9) except for RER = 1 and V-Slope (CV = 5.0–6.4%; r = 0.79; Bias = -5.6–12.4). Conclusions Lactate threshold tests can be a valid and reliable alternative to ventilatory thresholds to identify the workloads at the transition from aerobic to anaerobic metabolism. PMID:27657502

  3. ACSM Fit Society Page

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2011 -- Exercise for Special Populations 2011 -- Behavior Change & Exercise Adherence 2011 -- Nutrition 2011 -- Winter Health 2010 -- Healthy Aging 2010 -- Weight Loss & Weight Management 2010 -- Fitness Assessment & Injury Prevention 2009 -- Strength Training 2009 -- Menopause ...

  4. Getting Fit Before Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Global Map Premature birth report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal ... virus and pregnancy Folic acid Medicine safety and pregnancy Birth defects prevention Learn how to help reduce ...

  5. Preliminary results from a field experiment on e-bike safety : speed choice and mental workload for middle-aged and elderly cyclists. Paper presented at the International Cycling Safety Conference 2013, Helmond, The Netherland, 20-21 November 2013.

    OpenAIRE

    Twisk, D.A.M. Boele, M.J. Vlakveld, W.P. Christoph, M. Sikkema, R. Remij, R. & Schwab, A.L.

    2014-01-01

    To study the safety of e-bikes for the elderly, an experimental field study was conducted, using instrumented bicycles and comparing two age groups: older cyclists, n= 29, mean age = 70, SD = 4.2 and middle-aged cyclists, n = 29, mean age = 38, SD = 4.3. All were regular cyclists. They rode a fixed route with a length of about 3.5 km: once on an instrumented e-bike and once on an instrumented conventional bike, in counterbalanced order. Measures were taken on heart rate, mental workload, and ...

  6. Fitting Galaxies on GPUs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsdell, B. R.; Barnes, D. G.; Fluke, C. J.

    2011-07-01

    Structural parameters are normally extracted from observed galaxies by fitting analytic light profiles to the observations. Obtaining accurate fits to high-resolution images is a computationally expensive task, requiring many model evaluations and convolutions with the imaging point spread function. While these algorithms contain high degrees of parallelism, current implementations do not exploit this property. With ever-growing volumes of observational data, an inability to make use of advances in computing power can act as a constraint on scientific outcomes. This is the motivation behind our work, which aims to implement the model-fitting procedure on a graphics processing unit (GPU). We begin by analysing the algorithms involved in model evaluation with respect to their suitability for modern many-core computing architectures like GPUs, finding them to be well-placed to take advantage of the high memory bandwidth offered by this hardware. Following our analysis, we briefly describe a preliminary implementation of the model fitting procedure using freely-available GPU libraries. Early results suggest a speed-up of around 10× over a CPU implementation. We discuss the opportunities such a speed-up could provide, including the ability to use more computationally expensive but better-performing fitting routines to increase the quality and robustness of fits.

  7. Optimism about safety and group-serving interpretations of safety among pedestrians and cyclists in relation to road use in general and under low light conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, M J; Wood, J M; Lacherez, P F; Marszalek, R P

    2012-01-01

    Drivers are known to be optimistic about their risk of crash involvement, believing that they are less likely to be involved in a crash than other drivers. However, little comparative research has been conducted among other road users. In addition, optimism about crash risk is conceptualised as applying only to an individual's assessment of his or her personal risk of crash involvement. The possibility that the self-serving nature of optimism about safety might be generalised to the group-level as a cyclist or a pedestrian, i.e., becoming group-serving rather than self-serving, has been overlooked in relation to road safety. This study analysed a subset of data collected as part of a larger research project on the visibility of pedestrians, cyclists and road workers, focusing on a set of questionnaire items administered to 406 pedestrians, 838 cyclists and 622 drivers. The items related to safety in various scenarios involving drivers, pedestrians and cyclists, allowing predictions to be derived about group differences in agreement with items based on the assumption that the results would exhibit group-serving bias. Analysis of the responses indicated that specific hypotheses about group-serving interpretations of safety and responsibility were supported in 22 of the 26 comparisons. When the nine comparisons relevant to low lighting conditions were considered separately, seven were found to be supported. The findings of the research have implications for public education and for the likely acceptance of messages which are inconsistent with current assumptions and expectations of pedestrians and cyclists. They also suggest that research into group-serving interpretations of safety, even for temporary roles rather than enduring groups, could be fruitful. Further, there is an implication that gains in safety can be made by better educating road users about the limitations of their visibility and the ramifications of this for their own road safety, particularly in low

  8. The use of conspicuity aids by cyclists and risk of crashes involving other road users: a protocol for a population based case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coupland Carol

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Regular cycling has been shown to improve health and has a role in tackling the threats posed by obesity and inactivity. Cycle collisions, particularly those involving motorised vehicles, can lead to significant mortality and morbidity and are currently a barrier to wider uptake of cycling. There is evidence that the conspicuity of cyclists is a factor in many injury collisions. Low-cost, easy to use retro-reflective and fluorescent clothing and accessories ('conspicuity aids' are available. Their effectiveness in reducing cycling collisions is unknown. The study is designed to investigate the relationship between the use of conspicuity aids and risk of collision or evasion crashes for utility and commuter cyclists in the UK. Methods/Design A matched case-control study is proposed. Cases are adult commuter and utility cyclists involved in a crash resulting from a collision or attempted evasion of a collision with another road user recruited at a UK emergency department. Controls are commuter and utility cyclists matched by journey purpose, time and day of travel and geographical area recruited at public and private cycle parking sites. Data on the use of conspicuity aids, crash circumstances, demographics, cycling experience, safety equipment use, journey characteristics and route will be collected using self-completed questionnaires and maps. Conditional logistic regression will be used to calculate adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals of the risk of a crash when using any item of fluorescent or reflective clothing or equipment. Discussion This study will provide information on the effectiveness of conspicuity aids in reducing the risk of injury to cyclists resulting from crashes involving other road users.

  9. Maximum Oxygen Uptake and Post-Exercise Recovery in Professional Road Cyclists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rutkowski Łukasz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim was to investigate the relationship between aerobic fitness as ascribed by maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max and post-exercise recovery after incremental exercise to volitional exhaustion.

  10. Low cadence interval training at moderate intensity does not improve cycling performance in highly trained veteran cyclists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten eKristoffersen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the present study was to investigate effects of low cadence training at moderate intensity on aerobic capacity, cycling performance, gross efficiency, freely chosen cadence and leg strength in veteran cyclists. Method: Twenty-two well trained veteran cyclists (age: 47 ±6 years, maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max: 57.9 ±3.7 ml. kg-1. min-1 were randomized into two groups, a low cadence training group and a freely chose cadence training group. Respiratory variables, power output, cadence and leg strength were tested before and after a 12 weeks training intervention period. The low cadence training group performed 12 weeks of moderate (73-82 % of maximal heart rate (HRmax interval training (5 x 6 min with a cadence of 40 revolutions per minute (rpm two times a week, in addition to their usual training. The freely chosen cadence group added 90 minutes of training at freely chosen cadence at moderate intensity. Results: No significant effects of the low cadence training on aerobic capacity, cycling performance, power output, cadence, gross efficiency or leg strength was found. The freely chosen cadence group significantly improved both VO2max (58.9±2.4 vs. 62.2±3.2 ml. kg-1. min-1, VO2 consumption at lactate threshold (49.4 ±3.8 vs. 51.8±3.5 ml. kg-1. min-1 and during the 30 min performance test (52.8±3.0 vs. 54.7±3.5 ml. kg-1. min-1, and power output at lactate threshold (284 ±47 vs. 294 ±48 W and during the 30 min performance test (284±42 vs. 297±50 W. Conclusion: Twelve weeks of low cadence (40 rpm interval training at moderate intensity (73-82 % of HRmax twice a week does not improve aerobic capacity, cycling performance or leg strength in highly trained veteran cyclists. However, adding training at same intensity (% of HRmax and duration (90 minutes weekly at freely chosen cadence seems beneficial for performance and physiological adaptations.

  11. A comparison of time to exhaustion at VO2 max in élite cyclists, kayak paddlers, swimmers and runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billat, V; Faina, M; Sardella, F; Marini, C; Fanton, F; Lupo, S; Faccini, P; de Angelis, M; Koralsztein, J P; Dalmonte, A

    1996-02-01

    A recent study has shown the reproducibility of time to exhaustion (time limit: tlim) at the lowest velocity that elicits the maximal oxygen consumption (vVO2 max). The same study found an inverse relationship between this time to exhaustion at vVO2 max and vVO2 max among 38 élite long-distance runners (Billat et al. 1994b). The purpose of the present study was to compare the time to exhaustion at the power output (or velocity) at VO2 max for different values of VO2 max, depending on the type of exercise and not only on the aerobic capacity. The time of exhaustion at vVO2 max (tlim) has been measured among 41 élite (national level) sportsmen: 9 cyclists, 9 kayak paddlers, 9 swimmers and 14 runners using specific ergometers. Velocity or power at VO2 max (vVO2 max) was determined by continuous incremental testing. This protocol had steps of 2 min and increments of 50 W, 30 W, 0.05 m s-1 and 2 km-1 for cyclists, kayak paddlers, swimmers and runners, respectively. One week later, tlim was determined under the same conditions. After a warm-up of 10 min at 60% of their vVO2 max, subjects were concluded (in less than 45 s) to their vVO2 max and then had to sustain it as long as possible until exhaustion. Mean values of vVO2 max and tlim were respectively equal to 419 +/- 49 W (tlim = 222 +/- 91 s), 239 +/- 56 W (tlim = 376 +/- 134 s), 1.46 +/- 0.09 m s-1 (tlim = 287 +/- 160 s) and 22.4 +/- 0.8 km h-1 (tlim = 321 +/- 84 s), for cyclists, kayak paddlers, swimmers and runners. Time to exhaustion at vVO2 max was only significantly different between cycling and kayaking (ANOVA test, p < 0.05). Otherwise, VO2 max (expressed in ml min-1 kg-1) was significantly different between all sports except between cycling and running (p < 0.05). In this study, time to exhaustion at vVO2 max was also inversely related to VO2 max for the entire group of élite sportsmen (r = -0.320, p < 0.05, n = 41). The inverse relationship between VO2 max and tlim at vVO2 max has to be explained, it

  12. Fiber Type-Specific Satellite Cell Content in Cyclists Following Heavy Training with Carbohydrate and Carbohydrate-Protein Supplementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Alec I.; D'Lugos, Andrew C.; Saunders, Michael J.; Gworek, Keith D.; Luden, Nicholas D.

    2016-01-01

    The central purpose of this study was to evaluate the fiber type-specific satellite cell and myonuclear responses of endurance-trained cyclists to a block of intensified training, when supplementing with carbohydrate (CHO) vs. carbohydrate-protein (PRO). In a crossover design, endurance-trained cyclists (n = 8) performed two consecutive training periods, once supplementing with CHO (de facto “control” condition) and the other with PRO. Each training period consisted of 10 days of intensified cycle training (ICT–120% increase in average training duration) followed by 10 days of recovery (RVT–reduced volume training; 33% volume reduction vs. normal training). Skeletal muscle biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis before and after ICT and again following RVT. Immunofluorescent microscopy was used to quantify SCs (Pax7+), myonuclei (DAPI+), and myosin heavy chain I (MyHC I). Data are expressed as percent change ± 90% confidence limits. The 10-day block of ICTCHO increased MyHC I SC content (35 ± 28%) and myonuclear density (16 ± 6%), which remained elevated following RVTCHO (SC = 69 ± 50% vs. PRE; Nuclei = 17 ± 15% vs. PRE). MyHC II SC and myonuclei were not different following ICTCHO, but were higher following RVTCHO (SC = +33 ± 31% vs. PRE; Nuclei = 15 ± 14% vs. PRE), indicating a delayed response compared to MyHC I fibers. The MyHC I SC pool increased following ICTPRO (37 ± 37%), but without a concomitant increase in myonuclei. There were no changes in MyHC II SC or myonuclei following ICTPRO. Collectively, these trained endurance cyclists possessed a relatively large pool of SCs that facilitated rapid (MyHC I) and delayed (MyHC II) satellite cell proliferation and myonuclear accretion under carbohydrate conditions. The current findings strengthen the growing body of evidence demonstrating alterations in satellite cell number in the absence of hypertrophy. Satellite cell pool expansion is typically viewed as an advantageous response to

  13. Cross-comparison of three surrogate safety methods to diagnose cyclist safety problems at intersections in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laureshyn, Aliaksei; Goede, Maartje de; Saunier, Nicolas; Fyhri, Aslak

    2016-06-08

    Relying on accident records as the main data source for studying cyclists' safety has many drawbacks, such as high degree of under-reporting, the lack of accident details and particularly of information about the interaction processes that led to the accident. It is also an ethical problem as one has to wait for accidents to happen in order to make a statement about cyclists' (un-)safety. In this perspective, the use of surrogate safety measures based on actual observations in traffic is very promising. In this study we used video data from three intersections in Norway that were all independently analysed using three methods: the Swedish traffic conflict technique (Swedish TCT), the Dutch conflict technique (DOCTOR) and the probabilistic surrogate measures of safety (PSMS) technique developed in Canada. The first two methods are based on manual detection and counting of critical events in traffic (traffic conflicts), while the third considers probabilities of multiple trajectories for each interaction and delivers a density map of potential collision points per site. Due to extensive use of microscopic data, PSMS technique relies heavily on automated tracking of the road users in video. Across the three sites, the methods show similarities or are at least "compatible" with the accident records. The two conflict techniques agree quite well for the number, type and location of conflicts, but some differences with no obvious explanation are also found. PSMS reports many more safety-relevant interactions including less severe events. The location of the potential collision points is compatible with what the conflict techniques suggest, but the possibly significant share of false alarms due to inaccurate trajectories extracted from video complicates the comparison. The tested techniques still require enhancement, with respect to better adjustment to analysis of the situations involving cyclists (and vulnerable road users in general) and further validation. However, we

  14. Analysis of the aerobic-anaerobic transition in elite cyclists during incremental exercise with the use of electromyography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucia, A.; Sanchez, O.; Carvajal, A.; Chicharro, J. L.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the validity and reliability of surface electromyography (EMG) as a new non-invasive determinant of the metabolic response to incremental exercise in elite cyclists. The relation between EMG activity and other more conventional methods for analysing the aerobic-anaerobic transition such as blood lactate measurements (lactate threshold (LT) and onset of blood lactate accumulation (OBLA)) and ventilatory parameters (ventilatory thresholds 1 and 2 (VT1 and VT2)) was studied. METHODS: Twenty eight elite road cyclists (age 24 (4) years; VO2MAX 69.9 (6.4) ml/kg/min; values mean (SD)) were selected as subjects. Each of them performed a ramp protocol (starting at 0 W, with increases of 5 W every 12 seconds) on a cycle ergometer (validity study). In addition, 15 of them performed the same test twice (reliability study). During the tests, data on gas exchange and blood lactate levels were collected to determine VT1, VT2, LT, and OBLA. The root mean squares of EMG signals (rms-EMG) were recorded from both the vastus lateralis and the rectus femoris at each intensity using surface electrodes. RESULTS: A two threshold response was detected in the rms-EMG recordings from both muscles in 90% of subjects, with two breakpoints, EMGT1 and EMGT2, at around 60-70% and 80-90% of VO2MAX respectively. The results of the reliability study showed no significant differences (p > 0.05) between mean values of EMGT1 and EMGT2 obtained in both tests. Furthermore, no significant differences (p > 0.05) existed between mean values of EMGT1, in the vastus lateralis and rectus femoris, and VT1 and LT (62.8 (14.5) and 69.0 (6.2) and 64.6 (6.4) and 68.7 (8.2)% of VO2MAX respectively), or between mean values of EMGT2, in the vastus lateralis and rectus femoris, and VT2 and OBLA (86.9 (9.0) and 88.0 (6.2) and 84.6 (6.5) and 87.7 (6.4)% of VO2MAX respectively). CONCLUSION: rms-EMG may be a useful complementary non-invasive method for analysing the aerobic- anaerobic transition

  15. Influence of a custom-made maxillary mouthguard on gas exchange parameters during incremental exercise in amateur road cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piero, Malpezzi; Simone, Uliari; Jonathan, Myers; Maria, Spiridonova; Giulio, Grossi; Francesco, Terranova; Gabriella, Collini; Laura, Amabile; Eva, Bernardi; Gianni, Mazzoni; Francesco, Conconi; Giovanni, Grazzi

    2015-03-01

    Mouthguards are frequently used for protection purposes, particularly by athletes competing in contact sports. However, there is increasing evidence supporting their use for improving performance. Studies have focused their use in athletes who do not traditionally use mouthguards and who may be looking for a performance edge. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the influence of a custom-made mouthguard (Parabite Malpezzi, PM) on maximal and submaximal physiological parameters related to performance in road cycling. Ten well-trained amateur road cyclists (34 ± 6 years) performed an incremental cardiopulmonary exercise test to exhaustion on a frictional braked cycle ergometer. Work rate (WR), heart rate, oxygen consumption ((Equation is included in full-text article.)), carbon dioxide production, and ventilation at the lactate threshold, at the respiratory compensation point (RCP), and at maximal exercise (MAX) were determined in normal conditions (C) and wearing PM. Cycling economy was also evaluated by analyzing the slope of the (Equation is included in full-text article.)/WR (Δ(Equation is included in full-text article.)/ΔWR, in milliliters per watt per minute) relationship during the test. Wearing the PM compared with C resulted in significant increases in WR at RCP (281 ± 32 vs. 266 ± 19 W, p = 0.04) and at MAX (353 ± 44 vs. 339 ± 38 W, p = 0.004). The PM also resulted in an average 8% lower Δ(Equation is included in full-text article.)/ΔWR (9.5 ± 1.1 vs. 10.3 ± 1.1 ml·W·min, p = 0.06) but did not significantly modify any of the other measured parameters at LT, RCP and MAX. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to evaluate the effects of a dentistry-designed mouthguard on physical performance of road cyclists. These results provide support for cyclists to correct jaw posture that may improve their exercise performance.

  16. Alternative Astronomical FITS imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Varsaki, Eleni E; Fotopoulos, Vassilis; Skodras, Athanassios N

    2012-01-01

    Astronomical radio maps are presented mainly in FITS format. Astronomical Image Processing Software (AIPS) uses a set of tables attached to the output map to include all sorts of information concerning the production of the image. However this information together with information on the flux and noise of the map is lost as soon as the image of the radio source in fits or other format is extracted from AIPS. This information would have been valuable to another astronomer who just uses NED, for example, to download the map. In the current work, we show a method of data hiding inside the radio map, which can be preserved under transformations, even for example while the format of the map is changed from fits to other lossless available image formats.

  17. Fitting Galaxies on GPUs

    CERN Document Server

    Barsdell, Benjamin R; Fluke, Christopher J

    2011-01-01

    Structural parameters are normally extracted from observed galaxies by fitting analytic light profiles to the observations. Obtaining accurate fits to high-resolution images is a computationally expensive task, requiring many model evaluations and convolutions with the imaging point spread function. While these algorithms contain high degrees of parallelism, current implementations do not exploit this property. With evergrowing volumes of observational data, an inability to make use of advances in computing power can act as a constraint on scientific outcomes. This is the motivation behind our work, which aims to implement the model-fitting procedure on a graphics processing unit (GPU). We begin by analysing the algorithms involved in model evaluation with respect to their suitability for modern many-core computing architectures like GPUs, finding them to be well-placed to take advantage of the high memory bandwidth offered by this hardware. Following our analysis, we briefly describe a preliminary implementa...

  18. Fitting the Phenomenological MSSM

    CERN Document Server

    AbdusSalam, S S; Quevedo, F; Feroz, F; Hobson, M

    2010-01-01

    We perform a global Bayesian fit of the phenomenological minimal supersymmetric standard model (pMSSM) to current indirect collider and dark matter data. The pMSSM contains the most relevant 25 weak-scale MSSM parameters, which are simultaneously fit using `nested sampling' Monte Carlo techniques in more than 15 years of CPU time. We calculate the Bayesian evidence for the pMSSM and constrain its parameters and observables in the context of two widely different, but reasonable, priors to determine which inferences are robust. We make inferences about sparticle masses, the sign of the $\\mu$ parameter, the amount of fine tuning, dark matter properties and the prospects for direct dark matter detection without assuming a restrictive high-scale supersymmetry breaking model. We find the inferred lightest CP-even Higgs boson mass as an example of an approximately prior independent observable. This analysis constitutes the first statistically convergent pMSSM global fit to all current data.

  19. The universal Higgs fit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giardino, P. P.; Kannike, K.; Masina, I.;

    2014-01-01

    We perform a state-of-the-art global fit to all Higgs data. We synthesise them into a 'universal' form, which allows to easily test any desired model. We apply the proposed methodology to extract from data the Higgs branching ratios, production cross sections, couplings and to analyse composite H...... as an alternative to the Higgs, and disfavour fits with negative Yukawa couplings. We derive for the first time the SM Higgs boson mass from the measured rates, rather than from the peak positions, obtaining M-h = 124.4 +/- 1.6 GeV....

  20. Linking the Fits, Fitting the Links: Connecting Different Types of PO Fit to Attitudinal Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Aegean; Chaturvedi, Sankalp

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we explore the linkages among various types of person-organization (PO) fit and their effects on employee attitudinal outcomes. We propose and test a conceptual model which links various types of fits--objective fit, perceived fit and subjective fit--in a hierarchical order of cognitive information processing and relate them to…

  1. The impact of compulsory helmet legislation on cyclist head injuries in New South Wales, Australia: a response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Scott R; Olivier, Jake; Churches, Tim; Grzebieta, Raphael

    2013-03-01

    This article responds to criticisms made in a rejoinder (Accident Analysis and Prevention 2012, 45: 107-109) questioning the validity of a study on the impact of mandatory helmet legislation (MHL) for cyclists in New South Wales, Australia. We systematically address the criticisms through clarification of our methods, extension of the original analysis and discussion of new evidence on the population-level effects of MHL. Extensions of our analysis confirm the original conclusions that MHL had a beneficial effect on head injury rates over and above background trends and changes in cycling participation. The ongoing debate around MHL draws attention away from important ways in which both safety and participation can be improved through investment in well-connected cycling infrastructure, fostering consideration between road users, and adequate legal protection for vulnerable road users. These are the essential elements for providing a cycling environment that encourages participation, with all its health, economic and environmental benefits, while maximising safety.

  2. The impact of compulsory cycle helmet legislation on cyclist head injuries in New South Wales, Australia: a rejoinder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rissel, Chris

    2012-03-01

    This paper challenges the conclusion of a recent paper by Walter et al. (Accident Analysis and Prevention 2011, doi:10.1016/j.aap.2011.05.029) reporting that despite numerous data limitations repealing the helmet legislation in Australia could not be justified. This conclusion is not warranted because of the limited time period used in their analysis and the lack of data beyond a few years before the introduction of legislation, the failure to adequately account for the effect of the phasing in of the legislation, the effect of the marked reduction in child cyclists, and the non-comparability of the pedestrian and cycling injuries and related lack of consideration of the severity of head injuries. The extent to which helmet legislation deters people from cycling is discussed.

  3. Maximal oxygen uptake is proportional to muscle fiber oxidative capacity, from chronic heart failure patients to professional cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Zwaard, Stephan; de Ruiter, C Jo; Noordhof, Dionne A; Sterrenburg, Renske; Bloemers, Frank W; de Koning, Jos J; Jaspers, Richard T; van der Laarse, Willem J

    2016-09-01

    V̇o2 max during whole body exercise is presumably constrained by oxygen delivery to mitochondria rather than by mitochondria's ability to consume oxygen. Humans and animals have been reported to exploit only 60-80% of their mitochondrial oxidative capacity at maximal oxygen uptake (V̇o2 max). However, ex vivo quantification of mitochondrial overcapacity is complicated by isolation or permeabilization procedures. An alternative method for estimating mitochondrial oxidative capacity is via enzyme histochemical quantification of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity. We determined to what extent V̇o2 max attained during cycling exercise differs from mitochondrial oxidative capacity predicted from SDH activity of vastus lateralis muscle in chronic heart failure patients, healthy controls, and cyclists. V̇o2 max was assessed in 20 healthy subjects and 28 cyclists, and SDH activity was determined from biopsy cryosections of vastus lateralis using quantitative histochemistry. Similar data from our laboratory of 14 chronic heart failure patients and 6 controls were included. Mitochondrial oxidative capacity was predicted from SDH activity using estimated skeletal muscle mass and the relationship between ex vivo fiber V̇o2 max and SDH activity of isolated single muscle fibers and myocardial trabecula under hyperoxic conditions. Mitochondrial oxidative capacity predicted from SDH activity was related (r(2) = 0.89, P < 0.001) to V̇o2 max measured during cycling in subjects with V̇o2 max ranging from 9.8 to 79.0 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1) V̇o2 max measured during cycling was on average 90 ± 14% of mitochondrial oxidative capacity. We conclude that human V̇o2 max is related to mitochondrial oxidative capacity predicted from skeletal muscle SDH activity. Mitochondrial oxidative capacity is likely marginally limited by oxygen supply to mitochondria.

  4. The impact of traffic volume, composition, and road geometry on personal air pollution exposures among cyclists in Montreal, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzopoulou, Marianne; Weichenthal, Scott; Dugum, Hussam; Pickett, Graeme; Miranda-Moreno, Luis; Kulka, Ryan; Andersen, Ross; Goldberg, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Cyclists may experience increased exposure to traffic-related air pollution owing to increased minute ventilation and close proximity to vehicle emissions. The aims of this study were to characterize personal exposures to air pollution among urban cyclists and to identify potential determinants of exposure including the type of cycling lane (separated vs on-road), traffic counts, and meteorological factors. In total, personal air pollution exposure data were collected over 64 cycling routes during morning and evening commutes in Montreal, Canada, over 32 days during the summer of 2011. Measured pollutants included ultrafine particles (UFPs), fine particles (PM(2.5)), black carbon (BC), and carbon monoxide (CO). Counts of diesel vehicles were important predictors of personal exposures to BC, with each 10 vehicle/h increase associated with a 15.0% (95% confidence interval (CI): 5.7%, 24.0%) increase in exposure. Use of separated cycling lanes had less impact on personal exposures with a 12% (95% CI: -43%, 14%) decrease observed for BC and smaller decreases observed for UFPs (mean: -1.3%, 95% CI: -20%, 17%) and CO (mean: -5.6%, 95% CI: -17%, 4%) after adjusting for meteorological factors and traffic counts. On average, PM(2.5) exposure increased 7.8% (95% CI: -17%, 35%) with separate cycling lane use, but this estimate was imprecise and not statistically significant. In general, our findings suggest that diesel vehicle traffic is an important contributor to personal BC exposures and that separate cycling lanes may have a modest impact on personal exposure to some air pollutants. Further evaluation is required, however, as the impact of separate cycling lanes and/or traffic counts on personal exposures may vary between regions.

  5. Exercise electrocardiogram testing in two brothers with different outcome – a case study exercise testing in master cyclists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rüst CA

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Christoph Alexander Rüst,1 Beat Knechtle,1,2 Thomas Rosemann11Institute of General Practice and Health Services Research, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland; 2Gesundheitszentrum St Gallen, St Gallen, SwitzerlandAbstract: The cases of two brothers training and competing as master cyclists and both preparing for a cycling tour are presented. The older brother aged 66 years went first to the primary care physician and presented with an asymptomatic depression in the exercise stress test of the ST segment in V5 and V6 during recovery after complete exhaustion. Coronary angiography revealed a multi vessel coronary artery disease and he underwent bypass surgery. One year later, he successfully completed his planned cycling tour of ~600 km in seven stages and covering ~12,000 m of total ascent. The younger brother aged 59 years went a few months later to the primary care physician and also performed asymptomatic exercise stress testing without changes in the ST segments. Unfortunately, 2 months later he suffered a cardiac arrest during his cycling tour and survived following immediate successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation on the road by his cycling colleagues. Immediate invasive coronary arteriography showed a complete stenosis of the trunk of arteria coronaria sinistra (left coronary artery, a 40%–50% stenosis of ramus circumflexus, and a 20% stenosis of arteria coronaria dextra (right coronary artery. The left coronary artery was dilated and he continued cycling 2 months later. In both brothers, familial hypercholesterolemia was the main cardiovascular risk factor for the multi vessel coronary artery disease. A negative exercise electrocardiogram in siblings with an increased risk for coronary artery disease seemed not to exclude an advanced multi vessel coronary artery disease. In master athletes with asymptomatic exercise electrocardiogram but a positive family history, further examinations should be performed in order to detect

  6. Study of the respirable immission levels for a cyclist in Brussels' traffic using PIXE as analytical technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maenhaut, W.; Thiessen, L.; Verduyn, G.

    1990-04-01

    The respirable immission levels of 11 paniculate elements (i.e. Si, S, K., Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br, and Pb) for a cyclist in Brussels' traffic were assessed. To this end, a personal aerosol sampler (in which the respirable size fraction was collected on a Nuclepore filter) was carried on about 180 bicycle trips between a private home in a Brussels' suburb and an institute in the city center. All filter samples were analyzed by PIXE. The respirable immission levels of S, Pb and Zn were related to the results from stationary total aerosol collectors which are operated on a routine basis at various locations in the greater Brussels area. It was found that the cyclist's respirable immission levels can quite well be predicted from the stationary data for S, only to some extent for Pb, and not really for Zn. The 3- to 5-element data sets from the stationary samplers (with levels for S, Zn, and Pb, and occasionally also for Mn and Cu) were examined for interstation and interelement correlations. It appeared that the interelement correlations at each station were weaker than the interstation correlations for each element. The data set with concentrations of 11 elements in the bicycle trip samples was subjected to absolute principal components analysis in order to assess the dominant sources of the elements and to apportion the elemental concentrations to the sources. Four source types (components) were identified, i.e. a traffic component, a mixed road dust/soil dust/coal fly ash source, a sulfate component, and a component which was tentatively assigned to a mixture of industrial and incinerator emissions. The traffic source was responsible for most of the Pb and Br, but it was also the major source for Cu and Fe; Si, Ca and Ti originated predominantly from the mixed dust source; the sulfate component was responsible for most of the S; and the contributions from the industrial/incinerator emissions were least pronounced.

  7. Talking Sport and Fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon-Watmough, Rebecca; Keogh, Brenda; Naylor, Stuart

    2012-01-01

    For some time the Association for Science Education (ASE) has been aware that it would be useful to have some resources available to get children talking and thinking about issues related to health, sport and fitness. Some of the questions about pulse, breathing rate and so on are pretty obvious to everyone, and there is a risk of these being…

  8. Water Fit to Drink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Edward P.

    The major objective of this module is to help students understand how water from a source such as a lake is treated to make it fit to drink. The module, consisting of five major activities and a test, is patterned after Individualized Science Instructional System (ISIS) modules. The first activity (Planning) consists of a brief introduction and a…

  9. Fit for Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vail, Kathleen

    1999-01-01

    Children who hate gym grow into adults who associate physical activity with ridicule and humiliation. Physical education is reinventing itself, stressing enjoyable activities that continue into adulthood: aerobic dance, weight training, fitness walking, mountain biking, hiking, inline skating, karate, rock-climbing, and canoeing. Cooperative,…

  10. Finding What Fits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Stephanie A.

    2016-01-01

    Statistical association between two variables is one of the fundamental statistical ideas in school curricula. Reasoning about statistical association has been deemed one of the most important cognitive activities that humans perform. Students are typically introduced to statistical association through the study of the line of best fit because it…

  11. Fitting a Gompertz curve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper, a simple Gompertz curve-fitting procedure is proposed. Its advantages include the facts that the stability of the saturation level over the sample period can be checked, and that no knowledge of its value is necessary for forecasting. An application to forecasting the stoc

  12. Manual for physical fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, A. E.

    1981-01-01

    Training manual used for preflight conditioning of NASA astronauts is written for audience with diverse backgrounds and interests. It suggests programs for various levels of fitness, including sample starter programs, safe progression schedules, and stretching exercises. Related information on equipment needs, environmental coonsiderations, and precautions can help readers design safe and effective running programs.

  13. Extensive fitness and human cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hateren, J H

    2015-12-01

    Evolution depends on the fitness of organisms, the expected rate of reproducing. Directly getting offspring is the most basic form of fitness, but fitness can also be increased indirectly by helping genetically related individuals (such as kin) to increase their fitness. The combined effect is known as inclusive fitness. Here it is argued that a further elaboration of fitness has evolved, particularly in humans. It is called extensive fitness and it incorporates producing organisms that are merely similar in phenotype. The evolvability of this mechanism is illustrated by computations on a simple model combining heredity and behaviour. Phenotypes are driven into the direction of high fitness through a mechanism that involves an internal estimate of fitness, implicitly made within the organism itself. This mechanism has recently been conjectured to be responsible for producing agency and goals. In the model, inclusive and extensive fitness are both implemented by letting fitness increase nonlinearly with the size of subpopulations of similar heredity (for the indirect part of inclusive fitness) and of similar phenotype (for the phenotypic part of extensive fitness). Populations implementing extensive fitness outcompete populations implementing mere inclusive fitness. This occurs because groups with similar phenotype tend to be larger than groups with similar heredity, and fitness increases more when groups are larger. Extensive fitness has two components, a direct component where individuals compete in inducing others to become like them and an indirect component where individuals cooperate and help others who are already similar to them.

  14. Extensive fitness and human cooperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hateren, J. H.

    2015-01-01

    Evolution depends on the fitness of organisms, the expected rate of reproducing. Directly getting offspring is the most basic form of fitness, but fitness can also be increased indirectly by helping genetically related individuals (such as kin) to increase their fitness. The combined effect is known

  15. Urban planning, traffic planning and traffic safety of pedestrians and cyclists : report presented to the 1979 Road Research Symposium on Safety of Pedestrians and Cyclists, OECD Headquarters, Paris, 14-16 May 1979. Session III: Physical Countermeasures; Subsession III.1: Urban planning and traffic planning.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegman, F.C.M.

    1979-01-01

    The traffic safety of pedestrians and cyclists can be improved by means of urban planning and traffic planning, as one of the possibilities. This paper discusses the framework of these measures and activities and also the effects on the field of traffic planning. Chapter I show that it is not

  16. Strength Development for Young Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Larry W.; Jackson, Allen; Gaudet, Laura

    2009-01-01

    Participation in strength training is important for older children or young adolescences who wish to improve fitness or participate in sports. When designing strength training programs for our youth this age group is immature anatomically, physiologically, and psychologically. For the younger or inexperienced group the strength training activities…

  17. MixFit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haller, Toomas; Leitsalu, Liis; Fischer, Krista

    2017-01-01

    Ancestry information at the individual level can be a valuable resource for personalized medicine, medical, demographical and history research, as well as for tracing back personal history. We report a new method for quantitatively determining personal genetic ancestry based on genome-wide data....... Numerical ancestry component scores are assigned to individuals based on comparisons with reference populations. These comparisons are conducted with an existing analytical pipeline making use of genotype phasing, similarity matrix computation and our addition-multidimensional best fitting by Mix......Fit. The method is demonstrated by studying Estonian and Finnish populations in geographical context. We show the main differences in the genetic composition of these otherwise close European populations and how they have influenced each other. The components of our analytical pipeline are freely available...

  18. Return to fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinubile, Nicholas A

    2008-12-01

    The cornerstone of personal health is prevention. The concept of exercise as medicine is a lesson I have preached throughout my career, both with my patients in my private practice as well as through my years working with athletes at all levels including the Philadelphia 76ers basketball team and the Pennsylvania Ballet. It is also a message I relayed as a Special Advisor to the President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports (PCPFS) during the first Bush administration, working closely with my old friend-and fitness advocate and visionary himself-Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger, who served as Chairman to the PCPFS. Arnold's impact on our nation's health was an extremely positive one that was felt in communities from coast-to-coast. Exercise, activity, and prevention were key components of his prescription for change and improved health for our country. He has also always personally inspired me to see my role as a physician and "healer" in a much broader context.

  19. Virtual Fitting Rooms

    OpenAIRE

    Becerra Rodríguez, Carlos Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    In the last decade a considerable number of efforts have been devoted into developing Virtual Fitting Rooms (VFR) due to the great popularity of Virtual Reality (VR) and Augmented Reality (AR) in the fashion design industry. The existence of new technologies such as Kinect, powerful web cameras and smartphones permit us to examine new ways to try on clothes without doing it physically in a store center. This research is primarily dedicated to review some important aspects about...

  20. BESⅢ track fitting algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ji-Ke; MAO Ze-Pu; BIAN Jian-Ming; CAO Guo-Fu; CAO Xue-Xiang; CHEN Shen-Jian; DENG Zi-Yan; FU Cheng-Dong; GAO Yuan-Ning; HE Kang-Lin; HE Miao; HUA Chun-Fei; HUANG Bin; HUANG Xing-Tao; JI Xiao-Sin; LI Fei; LI Hai-Bo; LI Wei-Dong; LIANG Yu-Tie; LIU Chun-Xiu; LIU Huai-Min; LIU Suo; LIU Ying-Jie; MA Qiu-Mei; MA Xiang; MAO Ya-Jun; MO Xiao-Hu; PAN Ming-Hua; PANG Cai-Ying; PING Rong-Gang; QIN Ya-Hong; QIU Jin-Fa; SUN Sheng-Sen; SUN Yong-Zhao; WANG Liang-Liang; WEN Shuo-Pin; WU Ling-Hui; XIE Yu-Guang; XU Min; YAN Liang; YOU Zheng-Yun; YUAN Chang-Zheng; YUAN Ye; ZHANG Bing-Yun; ZHANG Chang-Chun; ZHANG Jian-Yong; ZHANG Xue-Yao; ZHANG Yao; ZHENG Yang-Heng; ZHU Ke-Jun; ZHU Yong-Sheng; ZHU Zhi-Li; ZOU Jia-Heng

    2009-01-01

    A track fitting algorithm based on the Kalman filter method has been developed for BESⅢ of BEPCⅡ.The effects of multiple scattering and energy loss when the charged particles go through the detector,non-uniformity of magnetic field (NUMF) and wire sag, etc., have been carefully handled.This algorithm works well and the performance satisfies the physical requirements tested by the simulation data.

  1. Made to fit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerck, Mari; Klepp, Ingun Grimstad; Skoland, Eli

    Denne rapporten formidler funn fra en litteraturstudie, brukerundersøkelse og markedsundersøkelse gjort i prosjektet Made to Fit. Rapporten svarer på prosjektets hovedmål og delmål som retter seg mot å formidle kunnskap om tilpasning og fremstilling av funksjonelle og gode produkter for handikapp......Denne rapporten formidler funn fra en litteraturstudie, brukerundersøkelse og markedsundersøkelse gjort i prosjektet Made to Fit. Rapporten svarer på prosjektets hovedmål og delmål som retter seg mot å formidle kunnskap om tilpasning og fremstilling av funksjonelle og gode produkter...... for handikappede. Herunder potensialet for å utvikle spesialtilpassede klær i konseptet «Made to Fit», utprøving av metoder og identifisering av kunnskapsstatus på feltet. Rapporten er således delt inn i tre hoveddeler. Første delen bygger videre på prosjektnotatet til Vestvik, Hebrok og Klepp (2013) fra...

  2. Unbalanced intake of fats and minerals associated with risk hypertension by young ciclists Consumo de dietas desequilibradas en grasa y minerales, asociados con riesgo de hipertensión, por ciclistas jóvenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Sánchez-Benito

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present work was to determine whether the young cyclists follows the optimal fats and minerals intake, based on the recommended dietary guidelines. The appropriate intake of Fats, Fibre, and minerals (Sodium, Calcium, Magnesium, Potassium in their diets; may reduce the risk to develop hypertension and cardiovascular diseases, in the long term. The correct rehydration is essential in cycling during summer. Methods: Nutrients intake questionnaire of 7 consecutive days, applied to 34 young cyclists. The evaluation results are compared with the enKid study of Spanish young people. The diet has been evaluated at the beginning of the cyclist season. The cyclists belong to the cyclist club Enypesa Lambea (http://www.echozas.com Results: A percentage of cyclists in the present study, consum excessive quantities of cholesterol (94% of cyclists, saturated fats (74%, and Sodium (47%; while they do not consume the recommended quantities of unsaturated fats (100%; fibre (67%, Calcium (29%, Magnesium (10% and potassium (44%. Similar pattern is found in the homologous Spanish young people of the enKID study. Conclusion: This work contributes to the knowledge of the diets followed by very active young people. Their diets show nutritional unbalances; therefore the need to educate the cyclists, their parents and coaches, to follow diets based on the Mediterranean diet; rich in vegetable, fruits, fish, nuts, and olive oil, in order to increase the intake of MUFA, PUFA and minerals, that will protect them against possible risk of Cardiovascular diseases.El objetivo de este trabajo ha sido determinar si los jóvenes ciclistas no profesionales siguen una dieta óptima en consumo de grasas y de minerales, acorde con las pautas recomendadas. El consumo equilibrado de Grasas, Fibra y Minerales (Sodio, Calcio, Magnesio y Potasio reduce el riesgo de desarrollar hipertensión arterial y a la larga previene las enfermedades crónicas. Además en el

  3. Characteristics of a population of commuter cyclists in the Netherlands: perceived barriers and facilitators in the personal, social and physical environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendriksen Ingrid JM

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Daily cycling to work has been shown to improve physical performance and health in men and women. It is very common in the Netherlands: the most recent data show that one quarter of commuting journeys are by bicycle. However, despite the effort going into campaigns to promote commuter cycling, about 30% of commuter journeys up to 5 kilometers are still by car. The question is how to stimulate commuter cycling more effectively. This article aims to contribute to a better understanding of the perceived barriers and facilitators of cyclists/non-cyclists and personal factors associated with commuter cycling. Methods A random sample of 799 Dutch employees (response rate 39.6% completed an internet survey, which comprised two parts. One part of the questionnaire focused on the determinants of cycling behavior including equal numbers of personal, social factors and environmental factors. The other component focused on assessing data on physical activity (PA behavior. Descriptive and logistic regression analyses were used to analyze factors associated with commuter cycling. Results Meeting the physical activity guideline was positively associated with commuter cycling. Television viewing and working full-time were negatively associated. Twenty-six percent of the participants met the PA guideline simply by cycling to work, with health as the main reason. The main barriers for non-cyclists (60% were perspiration when arriving at work, weather and travelling time. Shorter travelling times compared with other transportation modes were an important facilitator. Environmental factors were positively related to more frequent and more convenient commuter cycling, but they were hardly mentioned by non-cyclists. Conclusions This study shows that a relatively large group fulfils the PA recommendations merely by cycling to work. Personal factors (i.e., perceived time and distance are major barriers to commuter cycling and should be targeted in

  4. Validation of the virtual elevation field test method when assessing the aerodynamics of para-cyclists with a uni-lateral trans-tibial amputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, Bryce; Disley, B Xavier

    2017-03-12

    Lower-limb amputees typically require some form of prosthetic limb to ride a bicycle for recreation or when competing. At elite-level racing speeds, aerodynamic drag can represent the majority of the resistance acting against a cyclists' forward motion. As a result, the reduction of such resistance is beneficial to an amputee whereby the form and function of the prosthetic limb can be optimized through engineering. To measure the performance of such limbs, field testing provides a cost-effective and context-specific method of aerodynamic drag measurement. However, few methods have been formally validated and none have been applied to amputees with lower-limb amputations. In this paper, an elite level para-cyclist wore two different prosthetic limb designs and had their total aerodynamic drag of a wind tunnel reference method statistically correlated against a velodrome-based virtual elevation field test method. The calculated coefficient of variation was in the range of 0.7-0.9% for the wind tunnel method and 2-3% for the virtual elevation method. A 0.03 m(2) difference was identified in the absolute values recorded between the two methods. Ultimately, both methods exhibited high levels of precision, yet relative results to each other. The virtual elevation method is proposed as a suitable technique to assess the aerodynamic drag of amputee para-cyclists. Implications for rehabilitation This assessment method will provide practitioners a reliable means of assessing the impact of changes made to prosthetics design for cyclists with limb absence. The proposed method offers a low cost and geographically accessible solution compared to others proposed in the past. This assessment method has significant potential for impact among prosthetic limb users looking to improve their cycling performance whereas previous attention in this field has been extremely limited.

  5. Cross sectional analysis of the association between mode of school transportation and physical fitness in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostergaard, Lars; Kolle, Elin; Steene-Johannessen, Jostein; Anderssen, Sigmund A; Andersen, Lars Bo

    2013-07-17

    To investigate the associations between body composition, cardiorespiratory and muscular fitness in relation to travel mode to school in children and adolescents. Children and adolescents from 40 elementary schools and 23 high schools representing all regions in Norway were invited to participate in the study. Anthropometry, cardiorespiratory and muscular fitness were tested at the school location. Questionnaires were used in order to register mode of transport to school, age, gender and levels of leisure time physical activity. A total of 1694 (i.e. 60% of all invited participants) children and adolescents at a mean age of 9.6 and 15.6 respectively (SD = 0.4 for both groups) were analyzed for associations with physical fitness variables. Males cycling to school had lower sum of skin folds than adolescents walking to school. Higher cardiorespiratory fitness in adolescents and male cyclists compared to walkers and passive commuters were observed. Among children, cycling and walking to school, higher isometric muscle endurance in the back extensors compared to passive commuters was observed. Based on this national representative cross-sectional examination of randomly selected children and adolescents there is evidence that active commuting, especially cycling, is associated with a favourable body composition and better cardiorespiratory and muscular fitness as compared to passive commuting.

  6. Invasion fitness, inclusive fitness, and reproductive numbers in heterogeneous populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Laurent; Mullon, Charles; Akçay, Erol; Van Cleve, Jeremy

    2016-08-01

    How should fitness be measured to determine which phenotype or "strategy" is uninvadable when evolution occurs in a group-structured population subject to local demographic and environmental heterogeneity? Several fitness measures, such as basic reproductive number, lifetime dispersal success of a local lineage, or inclusive fitness have been proposed to address this question, but the relationships between them and their generality remains unclear. Here, we ascertain uninvadability (all mutant strategies always go extinct) in terms of the asymptotic per capita number of mutant copies produced by a mutant lineage arising as a single copy in a resident population ("invasion fitness"). We show that from invasion fitness uninvadability is equivalently characterized by at least three conceptually distinct fitness measures: (i) lineage fitness, giving the average individual fitness of a randomly sampled mutant lineage member; (ii) inclusive fitness, giving a reproductive value weighted average of the direct fitness costs and relatedness weighted indirect fitness benefits accruing to a randomly sampled mutant lineage member; and (iii) basic reproductive number (and variations thereof) giving lifetime success of a lineage in a single group, and which is an invasion fitness proxy. Our analysis connects approaches that have been deemed different, generalizes the exact version of inclusive fitness to class-structured populations, and provides a biological interpretation of natural selection on a mutant allele under arbitrary strength of selection.

  7. PlayFit: Designing playful activity interventions for teenagers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. M. Deen; Rob Tieben; Dr. Tilde Bekker; Dr. Janienke Sturm; B.A.M. Ben Schouten

    2011-01-01

    Young people spend a large part of their day sedentary, both at school and at home. The aim of the PlayFit project is to persuade teenagers to lead a more active lifestyle by using digital as well as non-digital games and play. In this position paper, we describe in detail the three key principles o

  8. Fit for work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorholt, Grete

    "Fit for work - Attraktiv sundhed og sikkerhed på en hospitalsafdeling i Region Hovedstaden" undersøger hvorledes sundhedsvæsenets forandringer påvirker medarbejdere, ledere og organisation. Udgangspunktet for afhandlingen er en interesse for psykisk arbejdsmiljø, og hvordan reformerne i kølvandet...... også belastende arbejdsmiljø. Afhandlingen er baseret på 8 måneders deltagerobservation og interviews på en anæstesiologisk afdeling kombineret med omfattende dokumentlæsning....

  9. Adaptive Vertex Fitting

    CERN Document Server

    Frühwirth, R; Vanlaer, Pascal

    2007-01-01

    Vertex fitting frequently has to deal with both mis-associated tracks and mis-measured track errors. A robust, adaptive method is presented that is able to cope with contaminated data. The method is formulated as an iterative re-weighted Kalman filter. Annealing is introduced to avoid local minima in the optimization. For the initialization of the adaptive filter a robust algorithm is presented that turns out to perform well in a wide range of applications. The tuning of the annealing schedule and of the cut-off parameter is described, using simulated data from the CMS experiment. Finally, the adaptive property of the method is illustrated in two examples.

  10. Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Cognitive Function in Midlife: Neuroprotection or Neuroselection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belsky, Daniel W.; Caspi, Avshalom; Israel, Salomon; Blumenthal, James A.; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine if better cognitive functioning at midlife among more physically fit individuals reflects “neuroprotection,” in which fitness protects against age-related cognitive decline, or “neuroselection,” in which children with higher cognitive functioning select into more active lifestyles. Methods Children in the Dunedin Longitudinal Study (N=1,037) completed the Wechsler Intelligence Scales and the Trail-Making, Rey-Delayed-Recall, and Grooved-Pegboard tasks as children and again at midlife (age-38). Adult cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed using a submaximal exercise test to estimate maximum-oxygen-consumption-adjusted-for-body-weight in milliliters/minute/kilogram (VO2max). We tested if more-fit individuals had better cognitive functioning than their less-fit counterparts (which could be consistent with neuroprotection), and if better childhood cognitive functioning predisposed to better adult cardiorespiratory fitness (neuroselection). Finally, we examined possible mechanisms of neuroselection. Results Participants with better cardiorespiratory fitness had higher cognitive test scores at midlife. However, fitness-associated advantages in cognitive functioning were present already in childhood. After accounting for childhood-baseline performance on the same cognitive tests, there was no association between cardiorespiratory fitness and midlife cognitive functioning. Socioeconomic and health advantages in childhood, and healthier lifestyles during young adulthood explained most of the association between childhood cognitive functioning and adult cardiorespiratory fitness. Interpretation We found no evidence for a neuroprotective effect of cardiorespiratory fitness as of midlife. Instead, children with better cognitive functioning are selecting into healthier lives. Fitness interventions may enhance cognitive functioning. But, observational and experimental studies testing neuroprotective effects of physical fitness should consider

  11. Exploring the Relationship between Adiposity and Fitness in Young Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fairchild, Timothy John; Klakk, Heidi; Heidemann, Malene Søborg

    2016-01-01

    and BF%, although BF% appears to play a greater role. This association between BF% and CRF is sex dependent, with CRF levels in boys being affected to a greater extent by BF%. Children identified as "normal weight" by BMI but presenting with excessive BF% had significantly lower CRF than "normal weight...

  12. Aerobic fitness related to cardiovascular risk factors in young children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Magnus; Thorsson, Ola; Karlsson, Magnus K

    2012-01-01

    ) was assessed by indirect calorimetry during a maximal exercise test and scaled by body mass (milliliters per minute per kilogram). Total body fat mass (TBF) and abdominal fat mass (AFM) were measured by Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Total body fat was expressed as a percentage of total body mass (BF...... ventricular mass (LVM) and relative wall thickness (RWT) were calculated. Z scores (value for the individual - mean value for group)/SD were calculated by sex. The sum of z scores for DBP, SDP, PP, MAP, RHR, LVM, LA, RWT, BF%, AFM and AFM/TBF were calculated in boys and girls, separately, and used...

  13. Young and Fit (A Minute of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-08-15

    Children who have weight problems are more likely to be obese as adults, which can lead to heart disease, diabetes, asthma, and mental health problems. This podcast discusses the problem of obesity among children in the U.S.  Created: 8/15/2013 by MMWR.   Date Released: 8/15/2013.

  14. Young and Fit (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-08-15

    In the U.S., too many children are overweight. Although rates are improving, still, one in six kids between the ages of two and 19 is obese. In this podcast, Dr. Ashleigh May discusses how important it is for children to maintain a healthy weight.  Created: 8/15/2013 by MMWR.   Date Released: 8/15/2013.

  15. Young Money

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roelsgaard Obling, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Book review of: Kevin Roose: "Young Money: Inside the Hidden World of Wall Street's Post-Crash Recruits". New York: Grand Central Publishing, 2014. 320 pp.......Book review of: Kevin Roose: "Young Money: Inside the Hidden World of Wall Street's Post-Crash Recruits". New York: Grand Central Publishing, 2014. 320 pp....

  16. The effects of a ketogenic diet on exercise metabolism and physical performance in off-road cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajac, Adam; Poprzecki, Stanisław; Maszczyk, Adam; Czuba, Miłosz; Michalczyk, Małgorzata; Zydek, Grzegorz

    2014-06-27

    The main objective of this research was to determine the effects of a long-term ketogenic diet, rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, on aerobic performance and exercise metabolism in off-road cyclists. Additionally, the effects of this diet on body mass and body composition were evaluated, as well as those that occurred in the lipid and lipoprotein profiles due to the dietary intervention. The research material included eight male subjects, aged 28.3 ± 3.9 years, with at least five years of training experience that competed in off-road cycling. Each cyclist performed a continuous exercise protocol on a cycloergometer with varied intensity, after a mixed and ketogenic diet in a crossover design. The ketogenic diet stimulated favorable changes in body mass and body composition, as well as in the lipid and lipoprotein profiles. Important findings of the present study include a significant increase in the relative values of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and oxygen uptake at lactate threshold (VO2 LT) after the ketogenic diet, which can be explained by reductions in body mass and fat mass and/or the greater oxygen uptake necessary to obtain the same energy yield as on a mixed diet, due to increased fat oxidation or by enhanced sympathetic activation. The max work load and the work load at lactate threshold were significantly higher after the mixed diet. The values of the respiratory exchange ratio (RER) were significantly lower at rest and during particular stages of the exercise protocol following the ketogenic diet. The heart rate (HR) and oxygen uptake were significantly higher at rest and during the first three stages of exercise after the ketogenic diet, while the reverse was true during the last stage of the exercise protocol conducted with maximal intensity. Creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity were significantly lower at rest and during particular stages of the 105-min exercise protocol following the low carbohydrate ketogenic diet

  17. The Effects of a Ketogenic Diet on Exercise Metabolism and Physical Performance in Off-Road Cyclists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Zajac

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this research was to determine the effects of a long-term ketogenic diet, rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, on aerobic performance and exercise metabolism in off-road cyclists. Additionally, the effects of this diet on body mass and body composition were evaluated, as well as those that occurred in the lipid and lipoprotein profiles due to the dietary intervention. The research material included eight male subjects, aged 28.3 ± 3.9 years, with at least five years of training experience that competed in off-road cycling. Each cyclist performed a continuous exercise protocol on a cycloergometer with varied intensity, after a mixed and ketogenic diet in a crossover design. The ketogenic diet stimulated favorable changes in body mass and body composition, as well as in the lipid and lipoprotein profiles. Important findings of the present study include a significant increase in the relative values of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max and oxygen uptake at lactate threshold (VO2 LT after the ketogenic diet, which can be explained by reductions in body mass and fat mass and/or the greater oxygen uptake necessary to obtain the same energy yield as on a mixed diet, due to increased fat oxidation or by enhanced sympathetic activation. The max work load and the work load at lactate threshold were significantly higher after the mixed diet. The values of the respiratory exchange ratio (RER were significantly lower at rest and during particular stages of the exercise protocol following the ketogenic diet. The heart rate (HR and oxygen uptake were significantly higher at rest and during the first three stages of exercise after the ketogenic diet, while the reverse was true during the last stage of the exercise protocol conducted with maximal intensity. Creatine kinase (CK and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH activity were significantly lower at rest and during particular stages of the 105-min exercise protocol following the low carbohydrate

  18. Torque and power-velocity relationships in cycling: relevance to track sprint performance in world-class cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorel, S; Hautier, C A; Rambaud, O; Rouffet, D; Van Praagh, E; Lacour, J-R; Bourdin, M

    2005-11-01

    The aims of the present study were both to describe anthropometrics and cycling power-velocity characteristics in top-level track sprinters, and to test the hypothesis that these variables would represent interesting predictors of the 200 m track sprint cycling performance. Twelve elite cyclists volunteered to perform a torque-velocity test on a calibrated cycle ergometer, after the measurement of their lean leg volume (LLV) and frontal surface area (A(p)), in order to draw torque- and power-velocity relationships, and to evaluate the maximal power (P(max)), and both the optimal pedalling rate (f(opt)) and torque (T(opt)) at which P (max) is reached. The 200 m performances--i.e. velocity (V200) and pedalling rate (f 200)--were measured during international events (REC) and in the 2002 French Track Cycling Championships (NAT). P(max), f(opt), and T(opt) were respectively 1600 +/- 116 W, 129.8 +/- 4.7 rpm and 118.5 +/- 9.8 N . m. P(max) was strongly correlated with T(opt) (p < 0.001), which was correlated with LLV (p < 0.01). V200 was related to P(max) normalized by A(p) (p < or = 0.05) and also to f(opt) (p < 0.01) for REC and NAT. f 200 (155.2 +/- 3, REC; 149 +/- 4.3, NAT) were significantly higher than f(opt) (p < 0.001). These findings demonstrated that, in this population of world-class track cyclists, the optimization of the ratio between P(max) and A(p) represents a key factor of 200 m performance. Concerning the major role also played by f(opt), it is assumed that, considering high values of f 200, sprinters with a high value of optimal pedalling rate (i.e. lower f200-f(opt) difference) could be theoretically in better conditions to maximize their power output during the race and hence performance.

  19. Effects of the rotor pedalling system on the performance of trained cyclists during incremental and constant-load cycle-ergometer tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucía, A; Balmer, J; Davison, R C R; Pérez, M; Santalla, A; Smith, P M

    2004-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of Rotor, a new cycle crank configuration that effectively allows the pedals to move independently throughout the duty cycle, on indices of endurance cycling performance in trained cyclists. Ten cyclists (5 Rotor users and 5 non-users; age (mean +/- SD): 22 +/- 5 y; VO(2)max: 69.5 +/- 5.1 mL. kg(-1).min(-1)) volunteered to participate in the study. On four separate days, the subjects performed four cycle-ergometer tests, i.e. two incremental tests and two 20-min tests. An imposed crank rate of 75 rev.min(-1) was used during all tests. The incremental protocol started at 112.5 W, and the power output was increased by 37.5 W every 3 min until volitional exhaustion. The 20-min tests were performed at a fixed power output equivalent to 80 % of the highest power output that the cyclists maintained for a complete 3-min period during incremental tests. Both types of tests were performed with the conventional crank system and the Rotor following a counter-balanced, cross-over design. Gas exchange parameters were measured in all the tests and blood lactate was determined at the end of each 3-min period (incremental tests) and at the end of the 20-min tests. A three factor (pedalling system used during the tests x habitual pedalling system x power output [incremental tests] or time [20-min tests]) ANOVA with repeated measures on power output (incremental tests) or time (20-min tests) was used to analyse several indices of performance, e.g. peak power output, VO(2)max, lactate threshold, onset of blood lactate accumulation, economy, delta, and gross efficiency. No differences (p > 0.05) were found between the Rotor and conventional systems for any of the aforementioned variables. It seems that the theoretical advantage brought about by the Rotor system, i.e. improved contra-lateral cooperation of both legs, would be minimized in trained cyclists. Although field studies are needed to assess the possible implications, in terms

  20. Trends in local newspaper reporting of London cyclist fatalities 1992-2012: the role of the media in shaping the systems dynamics of cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macmillan, Alex; Roberts, Alex; Woodcock, James; Aldred, Rachel; Goodman, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Background Successfully increasing cycling across a broad range of the population would confer important health benefits, but many potential cyclists are deterred by fears about traffic danger. Media coverage of road traffic crashes may reinforce this perception. As part of a wider effort to model the system dynamics of urban cycling, in this paper we examined how media coverage of cyclist fatalities in London changed across a period when the prevalence of cycling doubled. We compared this with changes in the coverage of motorcyclist fatalities as a control group. Methods Police records of traffic crashes (STATS19) were used to identify all cyclist and motorcyclist fatalities in London between 1992 and 2012. We searched electronic archives of London's largest local newspaper to identify relevant articles (January 1992–April 2014), and sought to identify which police-reported fatalities received any media coverage. We repeated this in three smaller English cities. Results Across the period when cycling trips doubled in London, the proportion of fatalities covered in the local media increased from 6% in 1992–1994 to 75% in 2010–2012. By contrast, the coverage of motorcyclist fatalities remained low (4% in 1992–1994 versus 5% in 2010–2012; p = 0.007 for interaction between mode and time period). Comparisons with other English cities suggested that the changes observed in London might not occur in smaller cities with lower absolute numbers of crashes, as in these settings fatalities are almost always covered regardless of mode share (79–100% coverage for both cyclist and motorcyclist fatalities). Conclusion In large cities, an increase in the popularity (and therefore ‘newsworthiness’) of cycling may increase the propensity of the media to cover cyclist fatalities. This has the potential to give the public the impression that cycling has become more dangerous, and thereby initiate a negative feedback loop that dampens down further increases in cycling

  1. Methodology review: evaluating person fit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, R.R.; Sijtsma, Klaas

    2001-01-01

    Person-fit methods based on classical test theory-and item response theory (IRT), and methods investigating particular types of response behavior on tests, are examined. Similarities and differences among person-fit methods and their advantages and disadvantages are discussed. Sound person-fit

  2. SE-FIT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yongkang; Weislogel, Mark; Schaeffer, Ben; Semerjian, Ben; Yang, Lihong; Zimmerli, Gregory

    2012-01-01

    The mathematical theory of capillary surfaces has developed steadily over the centuries, but it was not until the last few decades that new technologies have put a more urgent demand on a substantially more qualitative and quantitative understanding of phenomena relating to capillarity in general. So far, the new theory development successfully predicts the behavior of capillary surfaces for special cases. However, an efficient quantitative mathematical prediction of capillary phenomena related to the shape and stability of geometrically complex equilibrium capillary surfaces remains a significant challenge. As one of many numerical tools, the open-source Surface Evolver (SE) algorithm has played an important role over the last two decades. The current effort was undertaken to provide a front-end to enhance the accessibility of SE for the purposes of design and analysis. Like SE, the new code is open-source and will remain under development for the foreseeable future. The ultimate goal of the current Surface Evolver Fluid Interface Tool (SEFIT) development is to build a fully integrated front-end with a set of graphical user interface (GUI) elements. Such a front-end enables the access to functionalities that are developed along with the GUIs to deal with pre-processing, convergence computation operation, and post-processing. In other words, SE-FIT is not just a GUI front-end, but an integrated environment that can perform sophisticated computational tasks, e.g. importing industry standard file formats and employing parameter sweep functions, which are both lacking in SE, and require minimal interaction by the user. These functions are created using a mixture of Visual Basic and the SE script language. These form the foundation for a high-performance front-end that substantially simplifies use without sacrificing the proven capabilities of SE. The real power of SE-FIT lies in its automated pre-processing, pre-defined geometries, convergence computation operation

  3. Conservative care of De Quervain’s tenosynovitis/ tendinopathy in a warehouse worker and recreational cyclist: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Emily R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective This case study was conducted to evaluate the conservative management of a patient presenting with right sided wrist and thumb pain diagnosed as De Quervain’s tenosynovitis/tendinopathy. Clinical features A 49-year-old female warehouse worker and recreational cyclist with right-sided De Quervain’s tenosynovitis/tendinopathy that began after a long-distance cycling trip. Intervention and outcome Treatment included ultrasound, soft tissue and myofascial release therapy, tool assisted fascial stripping or “guasha”, acupuncture, mobilizations and kinesiology taping. Home advice included icing, rest, wrist bracing, elevation and eccentric rehabilitation exercises. The positive outcome was a complete resolution of the patient’s complaint. Summary This case demonstrates how De Quervain’s disease is a challenging condition to treat with conservative methods and can be aggravated with new exacerbating factors as treatment continues. In this case, the addition of the active care (including eccentric exercises and self-care) helped to reinforce the passive care given in the office and accelerate the recovery. PMID:22675225

  4. Energy and macronutrient intake of a female vegan cyclist during an 8-day mountain bike stage race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirnitzer, Katharina C; Kornexl, Elmar

    2014-01-01

    This report describes the dietary intake of a vegan mountain biker (height, 161 cm; weight, 49.6 kg; body mass index, 19.1 kg/m(2); relative peak power output, 4.6 W/kg) during the Transalp Challenge 2004 (altitude climbed, 22,500 m; total distance, 662 km), illustrating an aggressive dietary strategy that allowed the cyclist to be competitive. She finished the 8-stage event in 42 hours (mixed category, rank 16; 514 minutes behind the winners of this category), cycling with an average heart rate of 79.5% of laboratory-determined maximum, spending 892 minutes and 1627 minutes at intensities below and above 80%, respectively. During racing, the consumption of energy was 69.3 MJ (1.65 MJ/h), 65.76 MJ from carbohydrates (92 g/h), which was 35% of calories and 40% of carbohydrate total intake, and the fluid ingested was 3 L/day (570 mL/h), 55% of the total fluid consumed.

  5. Increased lean mass with reduced fat mass in an elite female cyclist returning to competition: case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haakonssen, Eric C; Martin, David T; Burke, Louise M; Jenkins, David G

    2013-11-01

    Body composition in a female road cyclist was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (5 occasions) and anthropometry (10 occasions) at the start of the season (Dec to Mar), during a period of chronic fatigue associated with poor weight management (Jun to Aug), and in the following months of recovery and retraining (Aug to Nov). Dietary manipulation involved a modest reduction in energy availability to 30-40 kcal · kg fat-free mass(-1) · d(-1) and an increased intake of high-quality protein, particularly after training (20 g). Through the retraining period, total body mass decreased (-2.82 kg), lean mass increased (+0.88 kg), and fat mass decreased (-3.47 kg). Hemoglobin mass increased by 58.7 g (8.4%). Maximal aerobic- and anaerobic-power outputs were returned to within 2% of preseason values. The presented case shows that through a subtle energy restriction associated with increased protein intake and sufficient energy intake during training, fat mass can be reduced with simultaneous increases in lean mass, performance gains, and improved health.

  6. Prediction of aerobic and anaerobic capacities of elite cyclists from changes in lactate during isocapnic buffering phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanli, Mohsen; Nikooie, Rohollah; Aveseh, Malihe; Mohammad, Fashi

    2015-02-01

    This study predicted aerobic and anaerobic capacities using relative changes of arterial blood lactate during the isocapnic buffering phase (relative [La]ISBP). Fourteen male professional cyclists (sprint-trained [n = 6] and endurance [n = 8]) performed 2 exercise sessions to exhaustion on a cycle ergometer; 1 incremental standard test to determine the isocapnic buffering phase, buffering capacities, and relative [La]ISBP and 1 supramaximal exercise test to determine maximal accumulated oxygen deficit (MAOD). The time between Lactate threshold (LT) and respiratory compensatory threshold (RCT) was considered to be the isocapnic buffering phase. Total buffering capacity was calculated as Δ[La]·ΔpH. Bicarbonate buffering was calculated as Δ[HCO3]·ΔpH, and the difference between -Δ[La]·ΔpH and Δ[HCO3]·ΔpH was considered as nonbicarbonate buffering. The lactate concentration for LT (p ≤ 0.05) and RCT (p ≤ 0.05), and relative [La]ISBP (p Equation is included in full-text article.)(r = -0.71, p ≤ 0.05) and MAOD (r = 0.73, p Equation is included in full-text article.)and LT is recommended for better evaluation of performance of athletes who show nearly equal contributions from the aerobic and anaerobic energy systems during exercise.

  7. Young Love

    OpenAIRE

    Regmi, Pramod; Simkhada, Padam; van Teijlingen, Edwin

    2010-01-01

    Your article on love and relationship deals with a very important issue (“Love makes the world go round,” Feb. 15, Page 1).It is now widely accepted that romantic relationships and dating are normative among adolescents and young people in Nepal. In our qualitative study of urban and rural young males and females using same sex researchers — in perhaps the first study of dating practice among Nepali youth — almost all of our respondents reported that young people in Nepal form partnerships wi...

  8. Fitness Testing in Physical Education--A Misdirected Effort in Promoting Healthy Lifestyles and Physical Activity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cale, Lorraine; Harris, Jo

    2009-01-01

    Background: Physical fitness testing is commonplace within schools and the physical education (PE) curriculum, with advocates claiming one of the key purposes of testing to be the promotion of healthy lifestyles and physical activity. Despite this, much controversy has surrounded the fitness testing of young people. Purpose: This paper draws on…

  9. Fitness Testing in Physical Education--A Misdirected Effort in Promoting Healthy Lifestyles and Physical Activity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cale, Lorraine; Harris, Jo

    2009-01-01

    Background: Physical fitness testing is commonplace within schools and the physical education (PE) curriculum, with advocates claiming one of the key purposes of testing to be the promotion of healthy lifestyles and physical activity. Despite this, much controversy has surrounded the fitness testing of young people. Purpose: This paper draws on…

  10. How challenging is a riding horse’s life? Field studies on fitness, workload and welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Munsters, C.C.B.M.

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this thesis were to evaluate in practice workload, fitness and welfare of riding horses under work and training conditions. Chapter II presents an overview of the parameters used in earlier studies on training, behaviour and equine welfare, and describes the evaluation of the physiological and behavioural responses of horses in field work. Chapter III describes a study on the fitness and responses to training of young Friesian horses. The fitness of horses appeared to improv...

  11. Impairment of 40-km time-trial performance but not peak power output with external iliac kinking: a case study in a world-class cyclist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamberts, Robert P; Mann, T N; Rietjens, Gerard J; Tijdink, Hendrik H

    2014-07-01

    Iliac blood-flow restrictions causing painful and "powerless" legs are often attributed to overtraining and may develop for some time before being correctly diagnosed. In the current study, differences between actual performance parameters and performance parameters predicted from the Lamberts and Lambert Submaximal Cycle Test (LSCT) were studied in a world-class cyclist with bilateral kinking of the external iliac artery before and after surgery. Two performance-testing sessions, including a peak-power-output (PPO) test and a 40-km time trial (TT) were conducted before surgery, while 1 testing session was conducted after the surgery. Actual vs LSCT-predicted performance parameters in the world-class cyclists were compared with 82 symptom-free trained to elite male cyclists. No differences were found between actual and LSCT-predicted PPO before and after surgical intervention. However, there were differences between actual and LSCT-predicted 40-km TT time in the tests performed before the surgery (2:51and 2:55 min:s, respectively). These differences were no longer apparent in the postsurgery 40-km TT (2 s). This finding suggests that iliac blood-flow restrictions seem to mainly impair endurance performance rather than peak cycling performance. A standard PPO test without brachial ankle blood-pressure measurements might not be able to reflect iliac blood-flow restrictions. Differences between actual and LSCT-predicted 40-km TT time may assist in earlier referral to a cardiovascular specialist and result in earlier detection of iliac blood-flow restrictions.

  12. Relation between physical exertion and heart rate variability characteristics in professional cyclists during the Tour of Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earnest, C; Jurca, R; Church, T; Chicharro, J; Hoyos, J; Lucia, A

    2004-01-01

    Background: Continued exposure to prolonged periods of intense exercise may unfavourably alter neuroendocrine, neuromuscular, and cardiovascular function. Objective: To examine the relation between quantifiable levels of exertion (TRIMPS) and resting heart rate (HR) and resting supine heart rate variability (HRV) in professional cyclists during a three week stage race. Method: Eight professional male cyclists (mean (SEM) age 27 (1) years, body mass 65.5 (2.3) kg, and maximum rate of oxygen consumption (V·O2MAX) 75.6 (2.2) ml/kg/min) riding in the 2001 Vuelta a España were examined for resting HR and HRV on the mornings of day 0 (baseline), day 10 (first rest day), and day 17 (second rest day). The rest days followed stages 1–9 and 10–15 respectively. HR was recorded during each race stage, and total HR time was categorised into a modified, three phase TRIMPS schema. These phases were based on standardised physiological laboratory values obtained during previous V·O2MAX testing, where HR time in each phase (phase I = light intensity and less than ventilatory threshold (VT; ∼70% V·O2MAX); phase II = moderate intensity between VT and respiratory compensation point (RCP; ∼90% V·O2MAX); phase III = high intensity (>RCP)) was multiplied by exertional factors of 1, 2, and 3 respectively. Results: Multivariate analysis of variance showed that total TRIMPS for race stages 1–9 (2466 (90)) were greater than for stages 10–15 (2055 (65)) (p<0.0002). However, TRIMPS/day were less for stages 1–9 (274 (10)) than for stages 10–15 (343 (11)) (p<0.01). Despite a trend to decline, no difference in supine resting HR was found between day 0 (53.2 (1.8) beats/min), day 10 (49.0 (2.8) beats/min), and day 17 (48.0 (2.6) beats/min) (p = 0.21). Whereas no significant group mean changes in HR or HRV indices were noted during the course of the race, significant inverse Pearson product-moment correlations were observed between all HRV indices relative to total TRIMPS and

  13. When 'fit' leads to fit, and when 'fit' leads to fat: how message framing and intrinsic vs. extrinsic exercise outcomes interact in promoting physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Kristel M; Updegraff, John A

    2011-07-01

    A unique aspect of exercise is that people may choose to engage in it to achieve a variety of outcomes, ranging from extrinsic (appearance, health) to intrinsic (satisfaction, enjoyment). We examined how the impact of gain- vs. loss-framed messages depends on the type of outcome emphasised. Drawing from regulatory focus theory (Higgins, E.T. (1997). Beyond pleasure and pain. American Psychologist, 52, 1280-1300; Higgins, E.T. (2000). Making a good decision: Value from fit. American Psychologist, 55, 1217-1230), we predicted that gain-framed messages would 'fit' with intrinsic outcomes and loss-framed messages would 'fit' with extrinsic outcomes, but the effect of such fit on physical activity would depend on the participants' need for cognition (NC). We tested these hypotheses with a sample of 176 sedentary young adults who read an exercise message with randomly assigned frame (gain/loss) and outcome (intrinsic/extrinsic). Participants provided daily reports of exercise over the following week. The predicted interaction between frame, outcome and NC was found (p=0.001) such that a 'fit' message promoted somewhat, but not significantly, greater exercise for those with high NC, but a 'non-fit' message promoted significantly greater exercise for those with low NC. Furthermore, differences in physical activity were partially mediated by attitudes towards exercise. Findings shed light on how the outcomes and motivations associated with physical activity shape people's behavioural responses to framed health communications. © 2011 Taylor & Francis

  14. Predicting Critical Power in Elite Cyclists: Questioning the Validity of the 3-Minute All-Out Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartram, Jason C; Thewlis, Dominic; Martin, David T; Norton, Kevin I

    2017-07-01

    New applications of the critical-power concept, such as the modeling of intermittent-work capabilities, are exciting prospects for elite cycling. However, accurate calculation of the required parameters is traditionally time invasive and somewhat impractical. An alternative single-test protocol (3-min all-out) has recently been proposed, but validation in an elite population is lacking. The traditional approach for parameter establishment, but with fewer tests, could also prove an acceptable compromise. Six senior Australian endurance track-cycling representatives completed 6 efforts to exhaustion on 2 separate days over a 3-wk period. These included 1-, 4-, 6-, 8-, and 10-min self-paced efforts, plus the 3-min all-out protocol. Traditional work-vs-time calculations of CP and anaerobic energy contribution (W') using the 5 self-paced efforts were compared with calculations from the 3-min all-out protocol. The impact of using just 2 or 3 self-paced efforts for traditional CP and W' estimation was also explored using thresholds of agreement (8 W, 2.0 kJ, respectively). CP estimated from the 3-min all-out approach was significantly higher than from the traditional approach (402 ± 33, 351 ± 27 W, P < .001), while W' was lower (15.5 ± 3.0, 24.3 ± 4.0 kJ, P = .02). Five different combinations of 2 or 3 self-paced efforts led to CP estimates within the threshold of agreement, with only 1 combination deemed accurate for W'. In elite cyclists the 3-min all-out approach is not suitable to estimate CP when compared with the traditional method. However, reducing the number of tests used in the traditional method lessens testing burden while maintaining appropriate parameter accuracy.

  15. Getting CSR communication fit: A study of strategically fitting cause, consumers and company in corporate CSR communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmeltz, Line

    2017-01-01

    Companies experience increasing legal and societal pressure to communicate about their corporate social responsibility (CSR) engagements from a number of different publics. One very important group is that of young consumers who are predicted to be the most important and influential consumer group...... in the near future. From a value- theoretical base, this article empirically explores the role and applicability of ‘fit’ in strategic CSR communication targeted at young consumers. Point of departure is taken in the well-known strategic fit (a logical link between a company’s CSR commitment and its core...

  16. Focal fits during chlorambucil therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naysmith, A.; Robson, R. H.

    1979-01-01

    An elderly man receiving chlorambucil for chronic lymphatic leukaemia developed focal fits. The onset and frequency were dose related. There was no evidence of metabolic disturbance or of meningeal leukaemia. Although reported in children and well recognized in animals, chlorambucil-induced fits in an adult have not been previously recorded. PMID:118440

  17. Optimization of military garment fit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daanen, H.A.M.

    2014-01-01

    In the Dutch armed forces clothing sizes are determined using 3D body scans. To evaluate if the predicted size based on the scan analysis matches the best fit, 35 male soldiers fitted a combat jacket and combat pants. It was shown that the predicted jacket size was slightly too large. Therefore, an

  18. Reeling of tight fit pipe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Focke, E.S.

    2007-01-01

    If it would be possible to install Tight Fit Pipe by means of reeling, it would be an attractive new option for the exploitation of offshore oil and gas fields containing corrosive hydrocarbons. Tight Fit Pipe is a mechanically bonded double walled pipe where a corrosion resistant alloy liner pipe

  19. Definitions of Health Terms: Fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/definitions/fitnessdefinitions.html Definitions of Health Terms: Fitness To use the sharing features on ... the most of your exercise routine. Find more definitions on Fitness | General Health | Minerals | Nutrition | Vitamins Activity Count Physical activity is ...

  20. ProFit: Bayesian Profile Fitting of Galaxy Images

    CERN Document Server

    Robotham, A S G; Tobar, R; A,; Moffett,; Driver, S P

    2016-01-01

    We present ProFit, a new code for Bayesian two-dimensional photometric galaxy profile modelling. ProFit consists of a low-level C++ library (libprofit), accessible via a command-line interface and documented API, along with high-level R (ProFit) and Python (PyProFit) interfaces (available at github.com/ICRAR/ libprofit, github.com/ICRAR/ProFit, and github.com/ICRAR/pyprofit respectively). R ProFit is also available pre-built from CRAN, however this version will be slightly behind the latest GitHub version. libprofit offers fast and accurate two- dimensional integration for a useful number of profiles, including Sersic, Core-Sersic, broken-exponential, Ferrer, Moffat, empirical King, point-source and sky, with a simple mechanism for adding new profiles. We show detailed comparisons between libprofit and GALFIT. libprofit is both faster and more accurate than GALFIT at integrating the ubiquitous Serrsic profile for the most common values of the Serrsic index n (0.5 < n < 8). The high-level fitting code Pr...