Reflecting on the idea of “race” and the normative significance of race relations is an essential part of the enterprise of political philosophy. The principal goal is to think systematically about whether, and if so how, race should figure in our evaluation of institutional arrangements and power relations, in our treatment of each other within civil society, and in our self-conceptions and group affiliations. This article discusses the idea of race, racism, racial discrimination and social ...
Ronaldo de Albuquerque e Arraes
Full Text Available Analyzing the income differentials amongst the Brazilian workers’ occupations is the focus of this paper. Due to the wide diversity of occupations cataloged by the IBGE (around 800, a theoretical procedure is applied to reduce them to only seven in order to allow statistical treatment of the data. The methodological approach is based on Mincerian quantile equations to be estimated in various strata of the workers’ income distribution, on which a breakdown is made to check the gap among the individuals’ income with distinct inherent attributes and between those living in both more and less developed regions. The estimation results ensure the importance of breakdown analysis for occupational strata as well as for quantiles, since the effects of explanatory variables are distinct along the income distribution and vary among occupations. Regarding the gaps in this distribution, there is a glass ceiling effect in some occupations, that is, the gap is greater at the top of distribution, although in most cases the wider gap occurs at the bottom of the distribution – sticky floor effect, which makes this a distinguished result from other studies. Moreover, contrary to the gap in gender, which is due to the compensation characteristics of individuals only (discrimination, income differentials between regions and races also occur from the heterogeneous characteristics of workers.
Thornton T. Munger
Ponderosa pine occurs over a wide range--from the Great Plains to the Pacific and from British Columbia to Mexico. Within this range there is great variation in the form and life habits of this tree. It has been long recognized that "regional races" or strains are present. Some of these regional races have been recognized by some botanists as varieties, such...
Felson, Richard B.; Pare, Paul-Philippe
We use the National Violence against Women (and Men) Survey to examine the effects of region and race on the tendency to carry weapons for protection. We find that Southern and Western whites are much more likely than Northern whites to carry guns for self-protection, controlling for their risk of victimization. The difference between Southern and…
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Location and descriptions of marine debris observed by the Sailing Vessel (S/V) Family Affair yacht during the Victoria, British Columbia to Maui, Hawaii Yacht Race...
Walker, Garth Nyambi; McLone, Suzanne; Mason, Maryann; Sheehan, Karen
The United States reports the highest levels of firearm homicide incidences compared to other high income countries, and the focus and causes of these incidences within the US differ by demographic characteristics and location such as urban versus rural environment. Despite these findings, few studies have published on rates varied by region within a city. This study aims to provide descriptive analysis of the rates of firearm homicide by age, sex, and race/ethnicity in each of the seven City of Chicago regions, and to determine if the rates of firearm homicide differ by demographics among the seven City of Chicago regions. The Illinois Violent Death Reporting System conducts routine surveillance of violent deaths. Decedents were selected according to the following criteria: manner of death was homicide, weapon type was firearm, and location of injury that led to death was the City of Chicago. Location of injury was broken down by regions: North, Northwest, Center, West, South, Southwest, and Far South. Multiyear rates per 100,000 and corresponding 95% confidence intervals were calculated. There were 2,254 victims of homicide by firearm in the City of Chicago. The overall rate across Chicago for all demographics was 12.9 (12.1-13.5 per 100,000) with an average age of 27.4. The highest age group (20-24) for firearm homicide rates was 43.2 (39.7-46.7) per 100,000. For the youngest age group (10-14), only the Southwest (3.3-10.4) region reported any firearm incidence. The 20 to 24 age group reported the highest rates of all age groups within the South (107.9-151.7), West (80.3-108.2), and Far South (69.6-105.3) regions, whereas the North and Northwest reported the lowest rates for all regions by age. Black firearm homicide rates were 33.5 (31.9-35.1) per 100,000 versus Hispanic and non-Hispanic white firearm homicide rates of 8.5 (7.7-9.3) and 1.2 (1-1.5) per 100,000, respectively. Lastly, the West reported the highest firearm rates at 29.1 (657). In conclusion
Tichenor, Nicole; Conrad, Zach
(i) To estimate the independent and combined effects of race/ethnicity and region on the variety of fruits and vegetables consumed in the USA in 2011; and (ii) to assess whether and to what extent race/ethnicity and region may synergistically influence variety of fruit and vegetable consumption. Cross-sectional analysis. Multivariate logistic regression predicted the likelihood of meeting fruit and vegetable variety indicators independently and in combination for each race/ethnicity and region. Interaction effects models were used to test for interaction effects between race/ethnicity and region on fruit and vegetable variety. The 2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). The sample consisted of 275 864 adult respondents. Fewer than half of respondents consumed fruit and all vegetable subcategories at least once weekly. The adjusted likelihood of meeting fruit and vegetable variety indicators varied significantly by race/ethnicity and region (Prace/ethnicity and region were found for at least once weekly consumption of beans, orange vegetables, all vegetables, and fruit and all vegetables (P<0·05). Our results reinforce previous findings that the variety of vegetable consumption is lacking and is particularly evident among some population subgroups, such as non-Hispanic blacks in the Midwest USA, who may benefit from targeted dietary interventions.
Unnithan, V B; Rowland, T; George, K; Lindley, M R; Roche, D M
The effects of a short, high-intensity bout of exercise on cardiac systolic and diastolic function are not well understood in adolescent athletes. Consequently, the aims of the study were to evaluate global left ventricular (LV) systolic and diastolic function, as well as segmental wall motion responses (cardiac strain), prior to as well as 45 and 225 min following a simulated 5 km cross-country race. Twenty trained, adolescent males (age: 15.2 ± 0.7 years) volunteered for exercise testing. LV fractional shortening and the ratio of early (E) and late (A) peak flow velocities reflected global systolic and diastolic function, respectively. Peak longitudinal mitral annular septal tissue velocities were also determined during systole and diastole. Longitudinal strain (ε) and strain rates were determined across the LV. LV fractional shortening was significantly (P global or regional LV systolic and diastolic function in trained adolescents.
Morris, Theresa; Schulman, Mia
A known racial disparity in medical care is that white women receive epidurals more often in labor than do women from other racial and ethnic groups. Medical researchers have framed this disparity as due to some women's lack of access to anesthesia. Further, an unexamined racial disparity in medical care is that anesthesia failure in labor and birth may also have racial disparity. We explore the organizational processes that may lead to racial disparity an epidural use and regional anesthesia failure in labor and birth. We draw on semi-structured, in-depth interviews conducted with 83 women in June through December, 2010 the day after they gave birth at a New England tertiary care hospital. Among women who did not plan to have an epidural, women of color were more likely to face pressure to accept the epidural by hospital medical staff. Further, among women who received anesthesia (either during vaginal delivery or a C-section), women of color were more likely to experience failure in their pain medication and were less likely to have their pain and anxiety taken seriously by doctors. Overall we challenge the contention that access is the primary way women's epidural experiences are influenced by race and suggest an alternative lens through which to understand racial dynamics and epidural use and anesthesia failure in labor and birth. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Judd, Suzanne E.; Letter, Abraham J.; Shikany, James M.; Roth, David L.; Newby, P. K.
Background: Examining diet as a whole using dietary patterns as exposures is a complementary method to using single food or nutrients in studies of diet and disease, but the generalizability of intake patterns across race, region, and gender in the United States has not been established. Objective: To employ rigorous statistical analysis to empirically derive dietary patterns in a large bi-racial, geographically diverse population and examine whether results are stable across population subgroups. Design: The present analysis utilized data from 21,636 participants in the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study who completed the Block 98 food frequency questionnaire. We employed exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analyses on 56 different food groups iteratively and examined differences by race, region, and sex to determine the optimal factor solution in our sample. Results: Five dietary patterns emerged: the “Convenience” pattern was characterized by mixed dishes; the “Plant-based” pattern by fruits, vegetables, and fish; the “Sweets/Fats” pattern by sweet snacks, desserts, and fats and oils; the “Southern” pattern by fried foods, organ meat, and sweetened beverages; and the “Alcohol/Salads” pattern by beer, wine, liquor, and salads. Differences were most pronounced in the Southern pattern with black participants, those residing in the Southeast, and participants not completing high school having the highest scores. Conclusion: Five meaningful dietary patterns emerged in the REGARDS study and showed strong congruence across race, sex, and region. Future research will examine associations between these patterns and health outcomes to better understand racial disparities in disease and inform prevention efforts. PMID:25988129
The CERN relay race will take place around the Meyrin site on Thursday 19th May starting at 12:15. If possible, please avoid driving on the site during this 20-minute period. If you do meet runners while driving your car, please STOP until they have all passed. Thank you for your cooperation. Details on the course, and how to register your team for the relay race, can be found at: https://espace.cern.ch/Running-Club/CERN-Relay Some advice for all runners from the medical service can also be found here: https://espace.cern.ch/Running-Club/CERN-Relay/RelayPagePictures/MedicalServiceAnnoncement.pdf
The CERN relay race will take place around the Meyrin site on Thursday 19th May starting at 12·15. If possible, please avoid driving on the site during this 20-minute period. If you do meet runners while driving your car, please STOP until they have all passed. Thank you for your cooperation. Details on the course, and how to register your team for the relay race, can be found at: https://espace.cern.ch/Running-Club/CERN-Relay Some advice for all runners from the medical service can also be found here: https://espace.cern.ch/Running-Club/CERN-Relay/RelayPagePictures/MedicalServiceAnnoncement.pdf
Well done to all runners, the fans and the organizers of this great race which took place on Thursday 23rd May! You were many to participate in the run or by supporting your colleagues. The Staff Association contributed with its team of runners and also with its information stall where you could meet with your delegates.
Using accounts of militant schoolteachers from a province in the central sierra of Peru, this article attempts to show how and why concepts of race and political commitment among teachers changed at three critical moments in Peruvian history: agrarian reform, mass unionisation, and Maoist insurge...
Holmes, J M; Mirams, M; Mackie, E J; Whitton, R C
Bone is repaired by remodelling, a process influenced by its loading environment. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a change in loading environment on bone remodelling by quantifying bone resorption and formation activity in the metacarpal subchondral bone in Thoroughbred racehorses. Sections of the palmar metacarpal condyles of horses in race training (n = 24) or resting from training (n = 24) were examined with light microscopy and back scattered scanning electron microscopy (BSEM). Bone area fraction, osteoid perimeter and eroded bone surface were measured within two regions of interest: (1) the lateral parasagittal groove (PS); (2) the lateral condylar subchondral bone (LC). BSEM variables were analysed for the effect of group, region and interaction with time since change in work status. The means ± SE are reported. For both regions of interest in the training compared to the resting group, eroded bone surface was lower (PS: 0.39 ± 0.06 vs. 0.65 ± 0.07 per mm, P = 0.010; LC: 0.24 ± 0.04 vs. 0.85 ± 0.10 per mm, P Thoroughbred racehorses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The CERN Relay Race will take place around the Meyrin site on Thursday 24th May at 12:00. This annual event is for teams of six runners covering distances of 1000 m, 800 m, 800 m, 500 m, 500 m and 300 m respectively. Teams may be entered in the Seniors, Veterans, Ladies, Mixed or Open categories. There will also this year be a Nordic Walking event, as part of the Medical Service’s initiative “Move more, eat better!” The registration fee is 10 CHF per runner, and each runner will receive a souvenir prize. There will be a programme of entertainment from 12:00 on the arrival area (the lawn in front of Restaurant 1): 12:00 - 12:45 Music from the Old Bottom Street band 12:15 Start of the race 12:45 - 13h Demonstrations by the Fitness club and Dancing club 13:00 Results and prize giving (including a raffle to win an iPad2 3G offered by the Micro club) 13:20 à 14:00 Music from “What’s next” And many information st...
Ning, Lei; Song, Li-Jiang; Fan, Shun-Wu; Zhao, Xing; Chen, Yi-Lei; Li, Zhao-Zhi; Hu, Zi-Ang
This study established gender-specific reference values in mainland Chinese (MC) and is important for quantitative morphometry for diagnosis and epidemiological study of osteoporotic vertebral compressive fracture. Comparisons of reference values among different racial populations are then performed to demonstrate the MC-specific characteristic. Osteoporotic vertebral compressive fracture (OVCF) is a common complication of osteoporosis in the elder population. Clinical diagnosis and epidemiological study of OVCF often employ quantitative morphometry, which relies heavily on the comparison of patients' vertebral parameters to existing reference values derived from the normal population. Thus, reference values are crucial in clinical diagnosis. To our knowledge, this is the first study to establish reference values of the mainland Chinese (MC) for quantitative morphometry. Vertebral heights including anterior (Ha), middle (Hm), posterior (Hp) heights, and predicted posterior height (pp) from T4 to L5 were obtained; and ratios of Ha/Hp, Hm/Hp and Hp/pp. were calculated from 585 MC (both female and male) for establishing reference values and subsequent comparisons with other studies. Vertebral heights increased progressively from T4 to L3 but then decreased in L4 and L5. Both genders showed similar ratios of vertebral dimensions, but male vertebrae were statistically larger than those of female (P values for MC. Our results also indicated the necessity of establishing reference values that are not only race- and gender-specific, but also population- or region-specific for accurate quantitative morphometric assessment of OVCF.
Dating back nearly 2000 years, the ancient Chinese tradition of Dragon Boat Racing was originally a celebration that fell on the 5th day of the 5th lunar month as a gesture to please the Gods and bring forth necessary rains to cultivate the lands. Now the CERN Canoe and Kayak Club, too, participates in this tradition, though not so much to please the Gods on the ritualistic date, but to bring forth giant smiles on the faces of members. Dragon Boat Racing has been rising steadily in popularity in Europe since the mid nineties and with the great potential to host and promote Dragon Boat Racing in the Geneva area, the CERN Canoe and Kayak Club, has taken the initiative to bring the sport to the region. Some members of the Club traveled to Dole in June to participate in the Festival Dragon Boat 2009. Under perfect sunny conditions, the team triumphed in their first ever tournament, cruising to a convincing first place overall finish. T...
Templeton, Alan R.
Races may exist in humans in a cultural sense, but biological concepts of race are needed to access their reality in a non-species-specific manner and to see if cultural categories correspond to biological categories within humans. Modern biological concepts of race can be implemented objectively with molecular genetic data through hypothesis-testing. Genetic data sets are used to see if biological races exist in humans and in our closest evolutionary relative, the chimpanzee. Using the two m...
Vitus, Kathrine; Andreassen, Rikke
of the Nordic countries, Affectivity and Race draws on a variety of sources, including television programmes, news media, fictional literature, interviews, ethnographic observations, teaching curricula and policy documents, to explore the ways in which ideas about affectivity and emotion afford new insights...... into the experience of racial difference and the unfolding of political discourses on race in various social spheres. Organised around the themes of the politicisation of race through affect, the way that race produces affect and the affective experience of race, this interdisciplinary collection sheds light...
of the Nordic countries, Affectivity and Race draws on a variety of sources, including television programmes, news media, fictional literature, interviews, ethnographic observations, teaching curricula and policy documents, to explore the ways in which ideas about affectivity and emotion afford new insights...... into the experience of racial difference and the unfolding of political discourses on race in various social spheres. Organised around the themes of the politicisation of race through affect, the way that race produces affect and the affective experience of race, this interdisciplinary collection sheds light...... on the role of feelings in the formation of subjectivities, how race and whiteness are affectively circulated in public life and the ways in which emotions contribute to regimes of inclusion and exclusion. As such it will appeal to scholars across the social sciences, with interests in sociology, anthropology...
of the Nordic countries, Affectivity and Race draws on a variety of sources, including television programmes, news media, fictional literature, interviews, ethnographic observations, teaching curricula and policy documents, to explore the ways in which ideas about affectivity and emotion afford new insights...... into the experience of racial difference and the unfolding of political discourses on race in various social spheres. Organised around the themes of the politicisation of race through affect, the way that race produces affect and the affective experience of race, this interdisciplinary collection sheds light...... on the role of feelings in the formation of subjectivities, how race and whiteness are affectively circulated in public life and the ways in which emotions contribute to regimes of inclusion and exclusion. As such it will appeal to scholars across the social sciences, with interests in sociology, anthropology...
This book presents new empirical studies of social difference in the Nordic welfare states, in order to advance novel theoretical perspectives on the everyday practices and macro-politics of race and gender in multi-ethnic societies. With attention to the specific political and cultural landscapes...... of the Nordic countries, Affectivity and Race draws on a variety of sources, including television programmes, news media, fictional literature, interviews, ethnographic observations, teaching curricula and policy documents, to explore the ways in which ideas about affectivity and emotion afford new insights...... into the experience of racial difference and the unfolding of political discourses on race in various social spheres. Organised around the themes of the politicisation of race through affect, the way that race produces affect and the affective experience of race, this interdisciplinary collection sheds light...
This book presents new empirical studies of social difference in the Nordic welfare states, in order to advance novel theoretical perspectives on the everyday practices and macro-politics of race and gender in multi-ethnic societies. With attention to the specific political and cultural landscapes...... of the Nordic countries, Affectivity and Race draws on a variety of sources, including television programmes, news media, fictional literature, interviews, ethnographic observations, teaching curricula and policy documents, to explore the ways in which ideas about affectivity and emotion afford new insights...... into the experience of racial difference and the unfolding of political discourses on race in various social spheres. Organised around the themes of the politicisation of race through affect, the way that race produces affect and the affective experience of race, this interdisciplinary collection sheds light...
Ratner, Kyle G; Kaul, Christian; Van Bavel, Jay J
Several theories suggest that people do not represent race when it does not signify group boundaries. However, race is often associated with visually salient differences in skin tone and facial features. In this study, we investigated whether race could be decoded from distributed patterns of neural activity in the fusiform gyri and early visual cortex when visual features that often covary with race were orthogonal to group membership. To this end, we used multivariate pattern analysis to examine an fMRI dataset that was collected while participants assigned to mixed-race groups categorized own-race and other-race faces as belonging to their newly assigned group. Whereas conventional univariate analyses provided no evidence of race-based responses in the fusiform gyri or early visual cortex, multivariate pattern analysis suggested that race was represented within these regions. Moreover, race was represented in the fusiform gyri to a greater extent than early visual cortex, suggesting that the fusiform gyri results do not merely reflect low-level perceptual information (e.g. color, contrast) from early visual cortex. These findings indicate that patterns of activation within specific regions of the visual cortex may represent race even when overall activation in these regions is not driven by racial information.
Neven Sesardic has recently defended his arguments in favour of racial naturalism-the view that race is a valid biological category-in response to my criticism of his work. While Sesardic claims that a strong version of racial naturalism can survive critique, he has in fact weakened his position considerably. He concedes that conventional racial taxonomy is arbitrary and he no longer identifies 'races' as human subspecies. Sesardic now relies almost entirely on Theodosius Dobzhansky's notion of race-as-population. This weak approach to 'race'-according to which all genetic difference between populations is 'racial' and 'the races' are simply the populations we choose to call races-survived its early critiques. As it is being mobilised to support racial naturalism once more, we need to continue the debate about whether we should weaken the concept of race to mean 'population', or abandon it as a failed biological category. I argue that Sesardic's case for racial naturalism is only supported by his continued mischaracterisation of anti-realism about biological race and his appeal to Dobzhansky's authority. Rather than deflating the meaning of 'race', it should be eliminated from our biological ontology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
In this research article, Myosha McAfee presents findings from her grounded theory and microethnographical study of math instruction in a racially and socioeconomically diverse public school. Her analysis puts forth a new theory-the kinesiology of race-which conceptualizes race as a verb rather than a noun. It centrally considers how racial…
An investigation of the relationship between race and research output by examining the productivity of black and non-black holders of the Ph.D. in sociology, revealed that race had no predictive value in regard to the publication productivity of sociologists. (EH)
Gondan, Matthias; Heckel, A.
In speeded response tasks with redundant signals, parallel processing of the redundant signals is generally tested using the so-called race inequality. The race inequality states that the distribution of fast responses for a redundant stimulus never exceeds the summed distributions of fast...
Bachmann, C; Schlegel, Ch; Bachmann, S
The aim of this work was to examine the frequency and pattern of injuries of the upper extremity among Swiss Ski athletes and among regional team athletes. The injury pattern regarding shoulder and arm injuries in alpine skiers in Switzerland correlates with the previous literature. The shoulder joint is most frequently injured, followed by injuries of the fingers, particularly the thumb. Regarding injury frequency no difference between ladies and men was seen. On the other hand, an increased injury rate could be seen in regional team drivers. Most injuries happened for both genders and in all teams in the training. While in men all injury patterns (contusions, tendon injuries, luxations, fractures) occur, fractures are the dominating injury in ladies.
This book presents new empirical studies of social difference in the Nordic welfare states, in order to advance novel theoretical perspectives on the everyday practices and macro-politics of race and gender in multi-ethnic societies. With attention to the specific political and cultural landscapes...... of the Nordic countries, Affectivity and Race draws on a variety of sources, including television programmes, news media, fictional literature, interviews, ethnographic observations, teaching curricula and policy documents, to explore the ways in which ideas about affectivity and emotion afford new insights...
The CERN relay race will take place around the Meyrin site on Thursday 19 May starting at 12-15. If possible, please avoid driving on the site during this 20-minute period. If you do meet runners while driving your car, please STOP until they have all passed. Thank you for your cooperation. Details of the course and of how to register your team for the relay race can be found here. Some advice for all runners from the Medical Service can also be found here.
Datta, J; Lal, N
(foc) and Fusarium udum (Fud) collected from major pulse growing regions of India. Out of 247 bands produced by 24 Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) primers in Foc isolates, 210 (85%) were polymorphic. A maximum of 14 amplicons were generated by primer OPF 05 whereas minimum 7 amplicons were generated by primer K7. A total of 24 alleles were produced by twelve Simple Sequence Repeats (SSR) primers with an average of two alleles per marker in foc isolates. The maximum number of 4 alleles was obtained with primer SSR 12. SSR amplicon size ranged from 100 to 400 bp. The Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic average (UPGMA) cluster analysis based on RAPD and SSR profiles grouped the fourteen foc isolates into four major clusters. The universal Inter Transcribed Spacer (ITS) primer pair amplified 630 bp bands in all fourteen foc isolates while significant length polymorphism was obtained only when analysed by restriction digestion with EcoRI and MspI enzymes. The cluster analysis of ITS—RFLP grouped all 14 Foc isolates into three major clusters. Twenty four RAPD primers generated a total of 226 bands (ranging 0.3 to 3.0 kb) in Fusarium udum with an average of 9.4 bands per primer and a total of 27 alleles were produced by twelve SSR primers with an average of 2.25 alleles per marker. All isolates amplified a single band ranging from 100 to 450 bp. The universal ITS primer pair amplified 650 bp bands in all fourteen fud isolates while significant length polymorphism was obtained only when analysed by restriction digestion with EcoRI and Hind III enzymes. The cluster analysis of ITS—RFLP grouped all 14 Fud isolates into three major clusters. The cluster analysis using various markers show the grouping of Fusarium isolates strictly according to their cultural characteristics and degree of pathogenicity and not the geographical origin. This information will be helpful for pathologists and plant breeders to design effective resistance breeding programs in
Tørslev, Mette Kirstine; Nørredam, Marie; Vitus, Kathrine
This article addresses race and ethnicity as social practices among young students at a Danish public sports school and explores how these practices engage with emotional well-being in the institutional context. The study is based on ethnographic fieldwork carried out in two school classes in 2012...
Sonne, Tobias; Jensen, Mads Møller
In this paper, we explore the qualities of sharing biometric data in re- al-time between athletes, in order to increase two motivational factors for gym- goers: Enjoyment and social interaction. We present a novel smartphone appli- cation, called Race By Hearts, which enables competition based...
The 2013 annual CERN Road Race will be held on Wednesday 18 September at 6.15 p.m. The 5.5 km race takes place over 3 laps of a 1.8 km circuit in the West Area of the Meyrin site, and is open to everyone working at CERN and their families. There are runners of all speeds, with times ranging from under 17 to over 34 minutes, and the race is run on a handicap basis, by staggering the starting times so that (in theory) all runners finish together. Children (< 15 years) have their own race over 1 lap of 1.8 km. As usual, there will be a “best family” challenge (judged on best parent and best child). Trophies are awarded in the usual men’s, women’s and veterans’ categories, and there is a challenge for the best age/performance. Every adult will receive a souvenir prize, financed by a registration fee of 10 CHF. Children enter free (each child will receive a medal). More information, and the online entry form, can be found here.
The 2013 edition of the annual CERN Road Race will be held on Wednesday 18 September at 18.15. The 5.5 km race takes place over 3 laps of a 1.8 km circuit in the West Area of the Meyrin site, and is open to everyone working at CERN and their families. There are runners of all speeds, with times ranging from under 17 to over 34 minutes, and the race is run on a handicap basis, by staggering the starting times so that (in theory) all runners finish together. Children (< 15 years) have their own race over 1 lap of 1.8 km. As usual, there will be a “best family” challenge (judged on best parent + best child). Trophies are awarded in the usual men’s, women’s and veterans’ categories, and there is a challenge for the best age/performance. Every adult will receive a souvenir prize, financed by a registration fee of 10 CHF. Children enter free (each child will receive a medal). More information, and the online entry form, can be found at: htt...
Landes, Xavier; Andersen, Martin Marchman; Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul
: an increased pressure to produce articles (in peer-reviewed journals) has created an unbalanced emphasis on the research criterion at the expense of the latter two. More fatally, this pressure has turned academia into a rat race, leading to a deep change in the fundamental structure of academic behaviour...
The CERN relay race, now in its 39th year, is already a well-known tradition, but this year the organizers say the event will have even more of a festival feeling. Just off the starting line of the CERN relay race.For the past few years, spectators and runners at the CERN relay race have been able to enjoy a beer while listening to music from the CERN music and jazz clubs. But this year the organizers are aiming for "even more of a festival atmosphere". As David Nisbet, President of the CERN running club and organizer of the relay race, says: "Work is not just about getting your head down and doing the theory, it’s also about enjoying the company of your colleagues." This year, on top of music from the Santa Luis Band and the Canettes Blues Band, there will be demonstrations from the Aikido and softball clubs, a stretching session by the Fitness club, as well as various stalls and of course, the well-earned beer from AGLUP, the B...
The CERN Relay Race takes place each year in May and sees participants from all areas of the CERN staff. The winners in 2005 were The Shabbys with Los Latinos Volantes in second and Charmilles Technologies a close third. To add a touch of colour and levity, the CERN Jazz Club provided music at the finishing line.
Jeynes, William H.
This article examines the views of Darwinist evolution on issues regarding race and how this contributed to the spread of racism in the United States. The writings of Charles Darwin and a myriad of his followers are examined, including Herbert Spencer, Francis Galton, and others. The influence of Darwinism in contributing to the growth of…
Dowling, William C.
Discusses the problem of college sports corruption and the debate over "the plight of the black athlete," suggesting that this debate is actually not about race or athletics but a code for examining contradictions between education and mass democracy. Calls this the problem of "ressentiment." Examines how athletes have used the "plight of the…
On Thursday June 1st at 12.15, Fabiola Gianotti, our Director-General, will fire the starting shot for the 47th Relay Race. This Race is above all a festive CERN event, open for runners and walkers, as well as the people cheering them on throughout the race, and those who wish to participate in the various activities organised between 11.30 and 14.30 out on the lawn in front of Restaurant 1. In order to make this sports event accessible for everyone, our Director-General will allow for flexible lunch hours on the day, applicable for all the members of personnel. An alert for the closure of roads will be send out on the day of the event. The Staff Association and the CERN Running Club thank you in advance for your participation and your continued support throughout the years. This year the CERN Running Club has announced the participation of locally and internationally renowned runners, no less! A bit over a week from the Relay Race of 1st June, the number of teams is going up nicely (already almost 40). Am...
The use of racial and ethnic categories in biological and biomedical research is controversial-for example, in the comparison of disease risk in different groups or as a means of making use of or controlling for population structure in the mapping of genes to chromosomes. Biogeographical ancestry (BGA) has been recommended as a more accurate and appropriate category. BGA is a product of the collaboration between biological anthropologist Mark Shriver from Pennsylvania State University and molecular biologist Tony Frudakis from the now-defunct biotechnology start-up company DNAPrint genomics, Inc. Shriver and Frudakis portray BGA as a measure of the 'biological', 'genetic', 'natural', and 'objective' components of race and ethnicity, what philosophers of science would call a natural kind. This paper argues that BGA is not a natural kind that escapes social and political connotations of race and ethnicity, as Shriver and Frudakis and other proponents believe, but a construction that is built upon race-as race has been socially constructed in the European scientific and philosophical traditions. More specifically, BGA is not a global category of biological and anthropological classification but a local category shaped by the U.S. context of its production, especially the forensic aim of being able to predict the race or ethnicity of an unknown suspect based on DNA found at the crime scene. Therefore, caution needs to be exercised in the embrace of BGA as an alternative to the use of racial and ethnic categories in biological and biomedical research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Feng, Lu; Liu, Jiangang; Wang, Zhe; Li, Jun; Li, Ling; Ge, Liezhong; Tian, Jie; Lee, Kang
The present study was the first to use the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) methodology to investigate the neural correlates of race categorization of own- and other-race faces. We found that Chinese participants categorized the race of Caucasian faces more accurately and faster than that of Chinese faces, replicating the robust effect of the other-race categorization advantage. Regions of interest (ROI) analyses revealed greater neural activations when participants were categorizing own-race faces than other-race faces in the bilateral ventral occipito-temporal cortex (VOT) such as the fusiform face areas (FFA) and the occipital face areas (OFA). Within the left FFA, there was also a significant negative correlation between the behavioral difference of own- and other-race face categorization accuracy and the activation difference between categorizing own- and other-race faces. Whole brain analyses showed that categorizing own-race faces induced greater activations in the right medial frontal cortex (MFC) and right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) than categorizing other-race faces. Psychophysiological interaction (PPI) analyses revealed that the frontal cortical regions interacted more strongly with the posterior VOT during the categorization of own-race faces than that of other-race faces. Overall, our findings suggest that relative to the categorization of other-race faces, more cortical resources are engaged during the categorization of own-race faces with which we have a higher level of processing expertise. This increased involvement of cortical neural sources perhaps serves to provide more in-depth processing of own-race faces (such as individuation), which in turn paradoxically results in the behavioral other-race categorization advantage. PMID:21971308
What is biological race and how is it made relevant in specific practices? How to address the materiality of biological race without fixing it? And how to write about it without reifying race as a singular object? These are the central questions in this short essay. Instead of debunking or
Although racial discrimination poses a devastating instrument of oppression, social work texts lack a clear and consistent definition of "race". The solution lies in according race the status of an "actor version" concept, while exploring the origins and variations of race ideas using "scientific observer version" explanations. This distinction…
Parcel, Toby L.
A contextual analysis of individual labor earnings as a function of both background/investment variables and specific dimensions of areal labor market social and economic organization suggests specific factors which influence Black and White earning levels. (Author/EB)
Cattermole, H R
A 31-year-old man presented with a potentially serious neck injury following a racing hovercraft accident. Previous reports of hovercrafting injuries could not be found, and a review of the sport's own records was undertaken. This shows there to be a wide range of injuries sustained from the sport, although most of them are minor. However, there are some worrying trends, and further studies are being undertaking in order to improve the sport's safety record.
This year’s CERN Relay Race will take place around the Meyrin site on Thursday 20th May at 12h00. This annual event is for teams of 6 runners covering distances of 1000m, 800m, 800m, 500m, 500m and 300m respectively. Teams may be entered in the Seniors, Veterans, Ladies, Mixed or Open categories. The registration fee is 10 CHF per runner, and each runner receives a souvenir prize. As usual, there will be a programme of entertainments from 12h in the arrival area, in front of the Restaurant no. 1. Drinks, food, CERN club information and music will be available for the pleasure of both runners and spectators. The race starts at 12h15, with results and prize giving at 13:15. For details of the race, and of how to sign up a team, please visit: https://espace.cern.ch/Running-Club/CERN-Relay The event is organised by the CERN Running Club with the support of the CERN Staff Association.
CERN Running club
The CERN running club, in collaboration with the Staff Association, is happy to announce the 2018 relay race edition. It will take place on Thursday, May 24th and will consist as every year in a round trip of the CERN Meyrin site in teams of 6 members. It is a fun event, and you do not have to run fast to enjoy it. Registrations will be open from May 1st to May 22nd on the running club web site. All information concerning the race and the registration are available there too: http://runningclub.web.cern.ch/content/cern-relay-race. A video of the previous edition is also available here : http://cern.ch/go/Nk7C. As every year, there will be animations starting at noon on the lawn in front of restaurant 1, and information stands for many CERN associations and clubs will be available. The running club partners will also be participate in the event, namely Berthie Sport, Interfon and Uniqa.
Gomez-Ezeiza, Josu; Torres-Unda, Jon; Tam, Nicholas; Irazusta, Jon; Granados, Cristina; Santos-Concejero, Jordan
The aim of this study was to determine the relationships between biomechanical parameters of the gait cycle and race walking economy in world-class Olympic race walkers. Twenty-One world-class race walkers possessing the Olympic qualifying standard participated in this study. Participants completed an incremental race walking test starting at 10 km·h -1 , where race walking economy (ml·kg -1 ·km -1 ) and spatiotemporal gait variables were analysed at different speeds. 20-km race walking performance was related to race walking economy, being the fastest race walkers those displaying reduced oxygen cost at a given speed (R = 0.760, p economy (moderate effect, p economi cal than the lesser performers. Similarly, shorter flight times are associated with a more efficient race walking economy. Coaches and race walkers should avoid modifying their race walking style by increasing flight times, as it may not only impair economy, but also lead to disqualification.
In 1985, the U.S. Cycling Federation ruled that all racing bikers must wear helmets that meet American National Safety Institute Standards. Existing helmets were hot and heavy. Jim Gentes, president of Giro Sport Design, Inc. turned to Raymond Hicks an aerodynamicist at Ames Research Center for a design for a cool, lightweight helmet. Hicks created an aerodynamic helmet shape using technology from a NACA airfoil section. Air vents make the air flow laminar and reduce drag. Since 1986, Giro helmets have evolved and expanded. One was worn by the 1989 Tour de France winner.
Landes, Xavier; Andersen, Martin Marchman; Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul
: an increased pressure to produce articles (in peer-reviewed journals) has created an unbalanced emphasis on the research criterion at the expense of the latter two. More fatally, this pressure has turned academia into a rat race, leading to a deep change in the fundamental structure of academic behaviour......, and entailing a self-defeating and hence counter-productive pattern, where more publications is always better and where it becomes increasingly difficult for researchers to keep up with the new research in their field. The article identifies the pressure to publish as a problem of collective action. It ends up...
Bright, Liam Kofi
The logical empiricists expressed a consistent attitude to racial categorisation in both the ethical and scientific spheres. Their attitude may be captured in the following slogan: human racial taxonomy is an empirically meaningful mode of classifying persons that we should refrain from deploying. I offer an interpretation of their position that would render coherent their remarks on race with positions they adopted on the scientific status of taxonomy in general, together with their potential moral or political motivations for adopting that position. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Liebler, Carolyn A.; Porter, Sonya R.; Fernandez, Leticia E.; Noon, James M.; Ennis, Sharon R.
Race and ethnicity responses can change over time and across contexts – a component of population change not usually considered in studies that use race and ethnicity as variables. To facilitate incorporation of this aspect of population change, we show patterns and directions of individual-level race and Hispanic response change throughout the U.S. and among all federally recognized race/ethnic groups. We use internal Census Bureau data from the 2000 and 2010 censuses in which responses have been linked at the individual level (N = 162 million). About 9.8 million people (6.1 percent) in our data have a different race and/or Hispanic origin response in 2010 than they did in 2000. Race response change was especially common among those reported as American Indian, Alaska Native, Native Hawaiian, Other Pacific Islander, in a multiple-race response group, or Hispanic. People reported as non-Hispanic white, black, or Asian in 2000 usually had the same response in 2010 (3%, 6% and 9% of responses changed, respectively). Hispanic/non-Hispanic ethnicity responses were also usually consistent (13% and 1% changed). There were a variety of response change patterns, which we detail. In many race/Hispanic response groups, there is population churn in the form of large countervailing flows of response changes that are hidden in cross-sectional data. We find that response changes happen across ages, sexes, regions, and response modes, with interesting variation across race/ethnic categories. Researchers should think through and discuss the implications of race and Hispanic origin response change when designing analyses and interpreting results. PMID:28105578
Lindsay, Constance A.; Hart, Cassandra M. D.
Does having a teacher of the same race make it more or less likely that students are subject to exclusionary school discipline? In this study, the authors analyze a unique set of student and teacher demographic and discipline data from North Carolina elementary schools to examine whether being matched to a same-race teacher affects the rate at…
Perez, Angel B.
Colleges and universities have a significant role to play in shaping the future of race and class relations in America. As exhibited in this year's presidential election, race and class continue to divide. Black Lives Matter movements, campus protests, and police shootings are just a few examples of the proliferation of intolerance, and higher…
Focusing on long-term arms-race education, discusses what physicists can do to help provide students and the public with technical information needed to understand issues involved in the nuclear cold war. Suggestions provided focus on public programs, media, publications, education of physicists, arms-race courses, "enrichment in physics courses,"…
This conceptual article employs critical race theory (CRT) as a theoretical framework to explore the importance of intersectionality in critical race parenting. In particular, I focus on intersectionality to understand better how Whiteness and racial power play out in intimate relationships within the family, particularly between White parents and…
The CERN Relay Race will take place around the Meyrin site on Wednesday 18 May between 12.15 and 12.35. This year, weather permitting, there will be some new attractions in the start/finish area on the field behind the Main Building. You will be able to: listen to music played by the CERN Jazz Club; buy drinks at the bar organised by the CERN Running Club; buy lunch served directly on the terrace by the restaurant Novae. ATTENTION: concerning traffic, the recommendations are the same as always: If possible, please avoid driving on the site during this 20 minute period. If you do meet runners in your car, please STOP until they all have passed. Thank you for your understanding.
Dear runners, The 2008 annual CERN Road Race will be held on Wednesday 24 September at 6.00 p.m. This 5.4 km race consists of 3 laps of a 1.8 km circuit in the West Area of the Meyrin site and is open to everyone working at CERN and their families. Past races have attracted runners of all speeds, with times ranging from under 17 to over 34 minutes. The race is run on a handicap basis, with starting times staggered to ensure that (in theory) all runners finish together. However, if the popularity of the race continues to grow (95 runners took part last year), its format may be modified to a classic single start. For more information and to complete the online entry form, go to http://club-running.web.cern.ch
Czarnitzki, Dirk; Hussinger, Katrin; Leten, Bart
Patent races are models of strategic interactions between firms competing to develop an invention. The winning firm secures a patent, protecting the invention from imitation. This paper tests the assumption made about the reward structure in patent races, both in discrete and complex industries. We...... identify patent race winners using detailed information from the patent examination reports at the European Patent Office (EPO). Estimates of a market value equation featuring large, R&D-intensive U.S., European and Japanese firms, show that if firms win patent races, their market value increases...... significantly. We further show that the gain in market value is significantly larger for patent race winners in discrete industries than for firms in complex industries....
Ding, Xiao Pan; Fu, Genyue; Lee, Kang
The present study used the functional Near-infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) methodology to investigate the neural correlates of elementary school children's own- and other-race face processing. An old-new paradigm was used to assess children's recognition ability of own- and other-race faces. FNIRS data revealed that other-race faces elicited significantly greater [oxy-Hb] changes than own-race faces in the right middle frontal gyrus and inferior frontal gyrus regions (BA9) and the left cuneus (BA18). With increased age, the [oxy-Hb] activity differences between own- and other-race faces, or the neural other-race effect (NORE), underwent significant changes in these two cortical areas: at younger ages, the neural response to the other-race faces was modestly greater than that to the own-race faces, but with increased age, the neural response to the own-race faces became increasingly greater than that to the other-race faces. Moreover, these areas had strong regional functional connectivity with a swath of the cortical regions in terms of the neural other-race effect that also changed with increased age. We also found significant and positive correlations between the behavioral other-race effect (reaction time) and the neural other-race effect in the right middle frontal gyrus and inferior frontal gyrus regions (BA9). These results taken together suggest that children, like adults, devote different amounts of neural resources to processing own- and other-race faces, but the size and direction of the neural other-race effect and associated functional regional connectivity change with increased age. © 2013.
Dear Muriel, Being an animal, you are probably more familiar with rats than most of us. Yet it seems to me that our Community (not just ATLAS) is stuck in a huge "rat race". I am somewhat mystified as to how we have got ourselves into this and I wonder whether you or your readers could explain this - I give my own observations below. In HEP and ATLAS specifically, we are all working long hours and we are all becoming exhausted. There are people at Point 1 who are working day and night, every day of the week; there are people writing software who send emails round the clock, including weekends. It is one thing to have bursts of activity which require us to put in some longer hours, but in ATLAS, the bursts last months or years. I have been on ATLAS 14 years and it has felt like one endless rush. Why do we do this? We are all highly motivated, we love our work and want to succeed individually and collectively. We are parts of various teams, and we do not want to let the side down. We worked hard at school an...
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Durrheim, Kevin; Greener, Ross; Whitehead, Kevin A
This article advocates the concept of race trouble as a way of synthesizing variation in racial discourse, and as a way of studying how social interaction and institutional life continue to be organized by conceptions of 'race' and 'racism'. Our analysis of an online discussion at a South African University about the defensibility of a characterization of (black) student protesters as 'savages' revealed a number of familiar strategies: participants avoided explicit racism, denied racism, and denied racism on behalf of others. However, the aim of this analysis was not to identify the 'real' racism, but to show how race and racism were used in the interaction to develop perspectives on transformation in the institution, to produce social division in the University, and to create ambivalently racialized and racializing subject positions. We demonstrate how, especially through uses of deracialized discourse, participants' actions were observably shaped by the potential ways in which others could hear 'race' and 'racism'. Race trouble thus became manifest through racial suggestion, allusion, innuendo, and implication. We conclude with a call to social psychologists to study the ways in which meanings of 'race' and 'racism' are forged and contested in relation to each other. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.
Elisabeth Griffiths, principal lecturer at Northumbria Law School at Northumbria University, explores employment issues in the recent review by the Equality and Human Rights Commission (EHRC) of prejudice and unlawful behaviour because of race.
Cole, Mike; Ikeno, Norio; Komatsu, Mariko; Kawaguchi, Hiromi; Goto, Kenjiro
This paper recapitulates the lecture which Mike Cole, the Professor of Bishop Grosseteste University College Lincoln gave on the 15th September 2009 at the Graduate School of Education, Hiroshima University. The title of his lecture was "Critical Race Theory and Education". The purpose was to introduce the nature of Critical Race Theory (CRT) and examine the theory from the perspective of Marxist. First, Cole explained two major tenets of CRT: '"white supremacy" rather than racism' and '"...
Johnston, Marc Phillip
What's the use of race and does race matter? These two questions serve as the foundation for this dissertation comprised of three studies examining: (1) how scholars "use" race in their research and how their decisions matter for the way race is interpreted; (2) how students make meaning of race (as a social construct) during a time…
Full Text Available Thoroughbred jump racing sits in the spotlight of contemporary welfare and ethical debates about horse racing. In Australia, jump racing comprises hurdle and steeplechase races and has ceased in all but two states, Victoria and South Australia. This paper documents the size, geography, composition, and dynamics of Australian jump racing for the 2012, 2013, and 2014 seasons with a focus on debate about risks to horses. We found that the majority of Australian jump racing is regional, based in Victoria, and involves a small group of experienced trainers and jockeys. Australian jump horses are on average 6.4 years of age. The jump career of the majority of horses involves participating in three or less hurdle races and over one season. Almost one quarter of Australian jump horses race only once. There were ten horse fatalities in races over the study period, with an overall fatality rate of 5.1 fatalities per 1000 horses starting in a jump race (0.51%. There was significant disparity between the fatality rate for hurdles, 0.75 fatalities per 1000 starts (0.075% and steeplechases, 14 fatalities per 1000 starts (1.4%. Safety initiatives introduced by regulators in 2010 appear to have significantly decreased risks to horses in hurdles but have had little or no effect in steeplechases. Our discussion considers these Animals 2015, 5 1073 data in light of public controversy, political debate, and industry regulation related to jump horse safety.
Ruse, Karen; Davison, Aidan; Bridle, Kerry
Simple Summary This paper documents the dynamics of Australian thoroughbred jump racing in the 2012, 2013, and 2014 seasons with the aim of informing debate about risks to horses and the future of this activity. We conclude that the safety of Australian jump racing has improved in recent years but that steeplechases are considerably riskier for horses than hurdle races. Abstract Thoroughbred jump racing sits in the spotlight of contemporary welfare and ethical debates about horse racing. In Australia, jump racing comprises hurdle and steeplechase races and has ceased in all but two states, Victoria and South Australia. This paper documents the size, geography, composition, and dynamics of Australian jump racing for the 2012, 2013, and 2014 seasons with a focus on debate about risks to horses. We found that the majority of Australian jump racing is regional, based in Victoria, and involves a small group of experienced trainers and jockeys. Australian jump horses are on average 6.4 years of age. The jump career of the majority of horses involves participating in three or less hurdle races and over one season. Almost one quarter of Australian jump horses race only once. There were ten horse fatalities in races over the study period, with an overall fatality rate of 5.1 fatalities per 1000 horses starting in a jump race (0.51%). There was significant disparity between the fatality rate for hurdles, 0.75 fatalities per 1000 starts (0.075%) and steeplechases, 14 fatalities per 1000 starts (1.4%). Safety initiatives introduced by regulators in 2010 appear to have significantly decreased risks to horses in hurdles but have had little or no effect in steeplechases. Our discussion considers these data in light of public controversy, political debate, and industry regulation related to jump horse safety. PMID:26506396
Rogério Abdallah Curi
Full Text Available Although equines have participated in the forming and development of several civilizations around the world since their domestication 6,000 years ago in comparison to other species that have zootechnical interest, few researches have been done related to animal breeding area, especially in Brazil. Some reasons for that are difficulties associated with the species as well as operational aspects. However, developments in genetics in the last decades contributed to a better understanding of the traits related to reproduction, heath, behavior and performance of domestic animals, including equines. Recent technologies as next generation sequencing methods and the high density chips of SNPs for genotyping allowed some advances in the researches already done. These researches used basically the candidate gene strategy, and identified genomic regions related to diseases and syndromes and, more recently, the performance in sport competition and specific abilities. Using these genomic analysis tools, some regions related to race performance have been identified and based on this information; genetic tests to select superior animals for racing performance have started to be available in the market.
Perales, Hugo; Golicher, Duncan
Traditional landraces of maize are cultivated throughout more than one-half of Mexico's cropland. Efforts to organize in situ conservation of this important genetic resource have been limited by the lack of knowledge of regional diversity patterns. We used recent and historic collections of maize classified for race type to determine biogeographic regions and centers of landrace diversity. We also analyzed how diversity has changed over the last sixty years. Based on racial composition of maize we found that Mexico can be divided into 11 biogeographic regions. Six of these biogeographic regions are in the center and west of the country and contain more than 90% of the reported samples for 38 of the 47 races studied; these six regions are also the most diverse. We found no evidence of rapid overall decline in landrace diversity for this period. However, several races are now less frequently reported and two regions seem to support lower diversity than in previous collection periods. Our results are consistent with a previous hypothesis for diversification centers and for migration routes of original maize populations merging in western central Mexico. We provide maps of regional diversity patterns and landrace based biogeographic regions that may guide efforts to conserve maize genetic resources. PMID:25486121
Development of sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers linked to race-specific resistance to Striga gesnerioides in cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata ... a pair of sequence specific primers were designed and used to isolate identical and similar fragments from cowpea genomic DNA of different cowpea lines by ...
Garza, Christelle Fabiola; Gasquoine, Philip Gerard
Implicit race/ethnic prejudice was assessed using Spanish- and English-language versions of an Implicit Association Test that used Hispanic/Anglo first names and pleasant/unpleasant words as stimuli. This test was administered to a consecutive sample of Mexican American adults residing in the Rio Grande Valley region of Texas of whom about…
This scholarly essay interrogates the seemingly necessary engagement of normative and essentialist characterizations of identity in the historical study of race in U.S. higher education. The author's study of the experiences of Black collegians in private, liberal arts colleges in the Midwestern Great Lakes region between 1945 and 1965 grounds…
OLUSEGUN SAMUEL BALOGUN
Full Text Available The pathogenic response of two tomato cultivars to races of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp.. lycopersici (cv. Momotaro, insensitive to race 1 of the pathogen, and cv. Ponderosa sensitive to race 1, was studied in greenhouse and laboratory experiments by inoculating the cultivars singly with race 1 or race 2, and in mixed inoculation with the two races of the pathogen. A pre-symptom PCR assay two weeks after inoculation showed that a fragment of the intergenic spacer region (IGS of ribosomal DNA was amplifi ed by DNA templates from leaf samples of cv. Momotaro tomato plants inoculated with only race 2, or with race 1+2, but in the cv. Ponderosa the fragment was amplifi ed only in plants inoculated with race 1+2. Race-specifi c analysis using the sp13 and sp23 primers confi rmed that the amplifi ed fragment was from race 2 in cv. Momotaro and from races 1+2 in cv. Ponderosa. Later wilt symptoms mirrored the pre-symptom and post-symptom molecular analytical results: cv. Momotaro plants inoculated with only race 1 remained symptomless, while the ‘Momotaro’ plants inoculated with both races (1+2 did not manifest more severe wilt symptoms than plants inoculated with race 2 alone; cv. Ponderosa plants that were mixed-inoculated with race 1+2 manifested more severe symptoms, and at an earlier date than plants inoculated with only race 2. Growth parameters such as number of leaves and plant height showed the race 1+2 infected cv. Ponderosa were significantly retarded in growth, suggesting that significant synergism between the fungal races in tomato pathosystem can occur only when the host cultivar is sensitive to both races. An additional important finding is that pre-symptom leaf sampling of apparently healthy plants is useful in PCR diagnostic analysis to predict impending fusarial wilt outbreaks in tomato especially in infested soil.
167 Applications for the Second Artillery”], Journal of Projectiles and Guidance, January 2009; Tang Jiapeng, Guan Shixi, Ling Guilong, and Duan Na...orders-spacex-falcon-launch-for-for- mosat-5.html. 52. Lin Xiuhui, “Turning to Develop Remote Sensing Satel- lites, Taiwan Leaps to Asia’s Number...Aerospace Trends in the Asia-Pacific Region,” Washington, DC: Nonproliferation Policy Education Center, Unpublished Analy- sis. 47. Yun Zhou, “The
Celious, Aaron; Oyserman, Daphna
Recommends moving beyond simple racial dichotomies to unpack differences among African Americans in order to better understand the experience of being Black in America, arguing that African Americans do not experience race homogeneously but distinguish between and among themselves on such features as socioeconomic status, gender, and skin tone.…
Vasantha Muthu Muthuppalaniappan
Full Text Available Ethnicity and race are often used interchangeably in the literature. However, the traditional definition of race and ethnicity is related to biological (bone structure and skin, hair, or eye color and sociological factors (nationality, regional culture, ancestry, and language respectively. Diabetes mellitus (DM is a huge global public health problem. As the number of individuals with Type 2 DM grows, the prevalence of diabetic kidney disease (DKD, which is one of the most serious complications, is expected to rise sharply. Many ethnic and racial groups have a greater risk of developing DM and its associated macro and micro-vascular complications.
The 2014 edition of the annual CERN Road Race will be held on Wednesday 1 October at 18:15. The 5.5 km race takes place over 3 laps of a 1.8 km circuit in the West Area of the Meyrin site, and is open to everyone working at CERN and their families. There are runners of all speeds, with times ranging from under 17 to over 34 minutes, and the race is run on a handicap basis, by staggering the starting times so that (in theory) all runners finish together. Children (< 15 years) have their own race over 1 lap of 1.8 km. As usual, there will be a “best family” challenge (judged on best parent + best child). Trophies are awarded in the usual men’s, women’s and veterans’ categories, and there is a challenge for the best age/performance. Every adult will receive a souvenir prize, financed by a registration fee of 10 CHF. Children enter for free and each child will receive a medal. More information, and the online entry form, can be fo...
Klaus Hanke, CERN Running Club
The 2015 edition of the annual CERN Road Race will be held on Wednesday, 7 October at 6.15 p.m. The 5.5 km race takes place over three laps of a 1.8 km circuit in the West Area of the Meyrin site, and is open to everyone working at CERN and their families. There are runners of all speeds, with times ranging from under 17 minutes to over 34 minutes. The race is run on a handicap basis, by staggering the starting times so that (in theory) all the runners finish together. Children (< 15 years) have their own race over one lap of 1.8 km. As usual, there will be a “best family” challenge (judging best parent + best child). Trophies are awarded in the usual men’s, women’s and veterans’ categories, and there is a challenge for the best age/performance. Every adult will receive a souvenir prize, financed by the registration fee of 10 CHF. Children are free (each child will receive a medal). More information, and t...
Katz, Irwin, Ed.; Gurin, Patricia, Ed.
The focus of this collection of essays is on the formulation of research goals and strategies needed for practical solutions to improve race relations. Herbert H. Hyman writes on the effect of Negro social change on white attitudes about the Negro. Thomas F. Pettigrew defines research priorities for desegregation in the public schools. A broad…
This book seeks to develop sociological theory adequate to deal with the various uses to which racism has been put. How particular political orders apply "scientific" rationalizations, including race, to disguise their true origins in force, violence, and usurpation is demonstrated. Analysis of exploitative conditions starts with an objective…
Scafidi, Benjamin; Sjoquist, David L.; Stinebrickner, Todd R.
This paper provides information about the importance of non-pecuniary school characteristics, such as race and poverty, on teacher turnover in Georgia. Simple descriptive statistics indicate that new teachers are more likely to leave schools with lower test scores, lower income, or higher proportions of minorities. A linear probability and a…
Liu, Hui; Ma, Xiao; Yu, Haiqin; Fang, Dunhuang; Li, Yongping; Wang, Xiao; Wang, Wen; Dong, Yang; Xiao, Bingguang
Black shank is a severe plant disease caused by the soil-borne pathogen Phytophthora nicotianae. Two physiological races of P. nicotianae, races 0 and 1, are predominantly observed in cultivated tobacco fields around the world. Race 0 has been reported to be more aggressive, having a shorter incubation period, and causing worse root rot symptoms, while race 1 causes more severe necrosis. The molecular mechanisms underlying the difference in virulence between race 0 and 1 remain elusive. We assembled and annotated the genomes of P. nicotianae races 0 and 1, which were obtained by a combination of PacBio single-molecular real-time sequencing and second-generation sequencing (both HiSeq and MiSeq platforms). Gene family analysis revealed a highly expanded ATP-binding cassette transporter gene family in P. nicotianae. Specifically, more RxLR effector genes were found in the genome of race 0 than in that of race 1. In addition, RxLR effector genes were found to be mainly distributed in gene-sparse, repeat-rich regions of the P. nicotianae genome. These results provide not only high quality reference genomes of P. nicotianae, but also insights into the infection mechanisms of P. nicotianae and its co-evolution with the host plant. They also reveal insights into the difference in virulence between the two physiological races.
Roland G. Fryer, Jr; Lisa Kahn; Steven D. Levitt; Jörg L. Spenkuch
Over the past 40 years the fraction of mixed race black-white births has increased nearly nine-fold. There is little empirical evidence on how these children fare relative to their single-race counterparts. This paper describes basic facts about the plight of mixed race individuals during their adolescence and early adulthood. As one might expect, on a host of background and achievement characteristics, mixed race adolescents fall in between whites and blacks. When it comes to engaging in ris...
Velie, B D; Stewart, B D; Lam, K; Wade, C M; Hamilton, N A
Research in Thoroughbred racehorses is often specific to horses from a given racing population or region. In order to investigate trends in racehorse careers across populations accurately, population-specific benchmarks for performance outcomes must be established. To provide summary statistics for performance outcomes for Thoroughbreds racing in Hong Kong between 2000 and 2010 and to document and provide evidence on the current differences in racing careers across sexes and regions of origin for horses racing in Hong Kong. Performance data on the population of Thoroughbreds racing in Hong Kong between 3 September 2000 and 12 March 2011 (n = 4950) were acquired and used to describe and compare the careers of Thoroughbred racehorses in Hong Kong. Career length, number of career starts and number of spells from racing per year were evaluated. Kaplan-Meier survival curves, stratified by sex, age group, country of origin and region of origin were produced for career length. A Cox's proportional hazards model was fitted to assess factors influencing the risk of retirement from racing in Hong Kong. Log-rank tests for equality of career length survivor functions showed significant differences (Phorse originates, with specific effects on each performance outcome also varying between regions. Future research should take into account these potential differences when comparing results across populations. © 2013 EVJ Ltd.
This article traces the hidden race-religion constellation in Europe. The term “race-religion constellation” refers to the connection or co-constitution of the categories of race and “religion.” Specifically, the term “race-religion constellation” is used to refer to the practice of classifying
DeCuir-Gunby, Jessica T.; Schutz, Paul A.
In this article, we question why race as a sociohistorical construct has not traditionally been investigated in educational psychology research. To do so, we provide a historical discussion of the significance of race as well as present current dilemmas in the exploration of race, including an examination of the incidence and prevalence of…
Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Total number of residents in each Kane Regional Center facility by race and gender. The Kane Regional Centers are skilled nursing and rehabilitation centers run by...
Bouckaert, R. R.; Studený, Milan
Roč. 3571, - (2005), s. 221-232 ISSN 0302-9743. [ECSQARU 2005. European Conference /8./. Barcelona, 06.07.2005-08.07.2005] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/04/0393; GA MŠk 1M0572 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : conditional independence inference * imset * racing algorithms Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics
Hernandez, Ruben; Owyang, Michael; Ghent, Andra
In this paper we investigate whether race and ethnicity influenced subprime loan pricing during 2005, the peak of the subprime mortgage expansion. We combine loan-level data on the performance of non-prime securitized mortgages with individual- and neighborhood-level data on racial and ethnic characteristics for metropolitan areas in California and Florida. Using a model of rate determination that accounts for predicted loan performance, we evaluate the presence of disparate impact and dispar...
Juliane Nicolodi Camera
Full Text Available The leaf “frog-eye” spot is a disease that often occurs in Argentina and Brazil is becoming important in soy producing regions. The difficulty in achieving inoculum for studies with P. sojina led to the development of this work was to determine the sporulation of races P. sojina in different culture media and light regimes and check difference in sporulation of races of this fungus. The plates with the culture media BDA, STT , AI , V8 and FAA containing the three races of P. sojina were subjected to a photoperiod of 12/12 h (light and dark and continuous dark. The experimental design was a factorial 5x2x3 (culture medium, light regimes, races of P. sojina with four replications. The greatest number of conidia cm- 2 of the fungus was found for race 23 in the middle of STT culture and races 24 e 25 in the middle of V8 culture. The fungus race 25, with the largest number of conidia cm-2, regardless of the medium and the light regimen. With respect to light regime for all races of the fungus, the largest esporulation were checked at a photoperiod of 12/12 h. When the fungus was grown in culture medium AI, this had the largest area of the colony, regardless of breed fungus and light regime
Review of 100 facts: polar lands; 365 penguins; Amazing Arctic & Antarctic projects you can build yourself; Apun: the Arctic snow; Matthew Henson: the quest for the North Pole; Polar bears in danger; Polar regions; Race to the South Poleetc.
The polar regions have captured the world’s attention, and children’s book authors and publishers are no exception. These dozen titles are just a sample of the bucketload of polar-themed children’s books that have been published during the last couple of years.
Full Text Available In Australia, public debate about recognition of the nation’s First Australians through constitutional change has highlighted the complexity and sensitivities surrounding Indigenous/state relations at even the most basic level of legal rights. But the unevenness of race relations has meant Aboriginal perspectives on race relations are not well known. This is an obstacle for reconciliation which, by definition, must be a reciprocal process. It is especially problematic in regions with substantial Aboriginal populations, where Indigenous visibility make race relations a matter of everyday experience and discussion. There has been considerable research on how settler Australians view Aboriginal people but little is known about how Aboriginal people view settler Australians or mainstream institutions. This paper presents the findings from an Australian Research Council project undertaken in partnership with Larrakia Nation Aboriginal Corporation. Drawing on in-depth interviews with a cross-section of Darwin’s Aboriginal residents and visitors, it aims to reverse the racial gaze by investigating how respondents view settler Australian politics, values, priorities and lifestyles. Through interviews with Aboriginal people this research provides a basis for settler Australians to discover how they are viewed from an Aboriginal perspective. It repositions the normativity of settler Australian culture, a prerequisite for a truly multicultural society. Our analysis argues the narratives of the participants produce a story of Aboriginal rejection of the White Australian neo-liberal deal of individual advancement through economic pathways of employment and hyper-consumption. The findings support Honneth’s arguments about the importance of intersubjective recognition by pointing to the way misrecognition creates and reinforces social exclusion.
Hunt, Linda M.; Truesdell, Nicole D.; Kreiner, Meta J.
Race, although an unscientific concept, remains prominent in health research and clinical guidelines, and is routinely invoked in clinical practice. In interviews with 58 primary care clinicians we explored how they understand and apply concepts of racial difference. We found wide agreement that race is important to consider in clinical care. They explained the effect of race on health, drawing on common assumptions about the biological, class, and cultural characteristics of racial minorities. They identified specific race-based clinical strategies for only a handful of conditions and were inconsistent in the details of what they said should be done for minority patients. We conclude that using race in clinical medicine promotes and maintains the illusion of inherent racial differences and may result in minority patients receiving care aimed at presumed racial group characteristics, rather than care selected as specifically appropriate for them as individuals. [race and genetics, primary care, health disparities, racial profiling] PMID:23804331
The use of 'race' as a proxy for population structure in the genetic mapping of complex traits has provoked controversy about its legitimacy as a category for biomedical research, given its social and political connotations. The controversy has reignited debates among scientists and philosophers of science about whether there is a legitimate biological concept of race. This paper examines the genetic race concept as it developed historically in the work of Theodosius Dobzhansky from the 1930s to 1950s. Dobzhansky's definitions of race changed over this time from races as 'arrays of forms' or 'clusters' in 1933-1939, to races as genetically distinct geographical populations in 1940-1946, to races as genetically distinct 'Mendelian populations' in 1947-1955. Dobzhansky responded to nominalist challenges by appealing to the biological reality of race as a process. This response came into tension with the object ontology of race that was implied by Dobzhansky's increasingly holistic treatment of Mendelian populations, a tension, the paper argues, he failed to appreciate or resolve. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Yull, Denise G.
Within school settings race continues to be one of the most formidable obstacles for Black children in the United States (US) school system. This paper expands the discussions of race in education by exploring how the social links among race, space, and place provide a lens for understanding the persistence of racism in the educational experiences of Black children. This paper examines how differences in a rural versus urban geographical location influence a student’s experience with race, ra...
Full Text Available Focuses on how in Cuba race-marking was interrelated with surname-giving, also after the abolition of slavery. Through researching life histories on the local level in the Cienfuegos region, the author examines names of former slaves, finding that these were after abolition in notarial records often marked with the adjectives s.o.a., or "sin otro apellido" (without other surname, taking into account the Iberian double surname tradition. This, according to him, points to a stigmatization of these black citizens and related to their former status as possession, and is thus a racial marker, only more hidden than the open racial assignations during slavery. He relates these postemancipation surnames of former slaves to the dotation of surnames during slavery, whereby most surnames of slaves were those of the last owner of the slaves. He also discusses differences in name-giving between the notarial records and everyday life. He further indicates that a new racism developed in the Cuban society of the late 19th c. and early 20th c., which was voiced more openly in the realm of culture, and regarding events as incarceration and death, and more hidden within the civil and judicial spheres, where the fiction of a race-blind republic was maintained.
Brown, Keffrelyn D.
Little work in the social sciences or in the field of education has fully explored the methodological issues related to the study of race and racism, yet qualitative researchers acknowledge that race plays (and should play) a role in the research process. Indeed, race frames and informs the context, practices and perspectives of everyday lived…
Full Text Available A total of 47 racing greyhounds were enrolled in this study on two race days (in July and September, resp. at a racetrack. Twelve of the dogs participated in the study on both days. Thermographic images were taken before and after each race. From the images, superficial temperature points of selected sites (tendo calcaneus, musculus gastrocnemius, musculus gracilis, and musculus biceps femoris portio caudalis were taken and used to investigate the differences in superficial temperatures before and after the race. The thermographic images were compared between the right and left legs of a dog, between the raced distances, and between the two race days. The theoretical heat capacity of a racing greyhound was calculated. With regard to all distances raced, the superficial temperatures measured from the musculus gastrocnemius were significantly higher after the race than at baseline. No significant differences were found between the left and right legs of a dog after completing any of the distances. Significant difference was found between the two race days. The heat loss mechanisms of racing greyhounds during the race through forced conduction, radiation, evaporation, and panting can be considered adequate when observing the calculated heat capacity of the dogs.
Explores how race is exploited to serve political agendas in Britain, examining the Labour Government's orientation to race. Argues that the Labour Government manipulates issues to suggest concern while actually removing race from the policy agenda in education. Reflects on the Archbishop of Canterbury's "Jesus 2000" to support the…
Affectivity and Race: Studies from Nordic Contexts,, edited by Rikke Andreassen and Kathrine Vitus, Farnham, Ashgate, 2015, 212 pp., £60.00 (hardcover), ISBN 978-1-4724-5349-5......Affectivity and Race: Studies from Nordic Contexts,, edited by Rikke Andreassen and Kathrine Vitus, Farnham, Ashgate, 2015, 212 pp., £60.00 (hardcover), ISBN 978-1-4724-5349-5...
Having served as a college and university instructor at several institutions, the author has taught numerous history courses that have dealt with race relations in the United States. A class that he currently teaches, titled "Race in America," focuses specifically upon this topic. It is designed for non-history majors who are in their…
Smith, William L.
Suggests that students may be introduced to macro level institutional analysis by comparing and contrasting the micro and the macro perspectives of race relations. Discusses the role of race in U.S. society, the institutionalism of racism, and the concept of innocence. Describes the work of several authors and their use in the classroom. (DK)
Fritschner, Linda Marie
Uses a relational approach to teach about race showing how it effects whites as well as people of color. Reveals differences in attitudes and feelings on race and age. Uses answers from nine questions submitted by each student as a basis for lecture and guided classroom discussion. (DAJ)
Stewart C. Sanderson
Previous accounts of polyploidy in the North American salt desert shrub Atriplex confertifolia (shadscale) have dealt with the distribution of polyploidy and the morphological and secondary chemical differences between races. The present study amplifies these studies and reveals additional ploidy-flavonoid races, with ploidy levels known to extend from 2x to 12x, and...
Full Text Available The effect of an adventure sprint race (ASR on T-cell proliferation, leukocyte count and muscle damage was evaluated. Seven young male runners completed an ASR in the region of Serra do Espinhaço, Brazil. The race induced a strong leukocytosis (6.22±2.04×103 cells/mm3 before vs 14.81±3.53×103 cells/mm3 after the race, marked by a significant increase of neutrophils and monocytes (P<0.05, but not total lymphocytes, CD3+CD4+ or CD3+CD8+ cells. However, the T-cell proliferative response to mitogenic stimulation was increased (P=0.025 after the race, which contradicted our hypothesis that ASR, as a high-demand competition, would inhibit T-cell proliferation. A positive correlation (P=0.03, r=0.79 was observed between the proliferative response of lymphocytes after the race and the time to complete the race, suggesting that the proliferative response was dependent on exercise intensity. Muscle damage was evident after the race by increased serum levels of aspartate amino transferase (24.99±8.30 vs 50.61±15.76 U/L, P=0.003. The results suggest that humoral factors and substances released by damaged muscle may be responsible for lymphocyte activation, which may be involved in muscle recovery and repair.
Caroline Le Goff, Jean-François Kaux, Sébastien Goffaux, Etienne Cavalier
Full Text Available In cycling as in other types of strenuous exercise, there exists a risk of sudden death. It is important both to understand its causes and to see if the behavior of certain biomarkers might highlight athletes at risk. Many reports describe changes in biomarkers after strenuous exercise (Nie et al., 2011, but interpreting these changes, and notably distinguishing normal physiological responses from pathological changes, is not easy. Here we have focused on the kinetics of different cardiac biomarkers: creatin kinase (CK, creating kinase midbrain (CK-MB, myoglobin (MYO, highly sensitive troponin T (hs-TnT and N-terminal brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP. The population studied was a group of young trained cyclists participating in a 177-km cycling race. The group of individuals was selected for maximal homogeneity. Their annual training volume was between 10,000 and 16,000 kilometers. The rhythm of races is comparable and averages 35 km/h, depending on the race’s difficulty. The cardiac frequency was recorded via a heart rate monitor. Three blood tests were taken. The first blood test, T0, was taken approximately 2 hours before the start of the race and was intended to gather values which would act as references for the following tests. The second blood test, T1, was realized within 5 minutes of their arrival. The third and final blood test, T3, was taken 3 hours following their arrival. The CK, CK-MB, MYO, hs-TnT and NT-proBNP were measured on the Roche Diagnostic modular E (Manhein, Germany. For the statistical analysis, an ANOVA and post hoc test of Scheffé were calculated with the Statistica Software version 9.1. We noticed an important significant variation in the cardiac frequency between T0 and T1 (p < 0.0001, T0 and T3 (p < 0.0001, and T1 and T3 (p < 0.01. Table 1 shows the results obtained for the different biomarkers. CK and CK-MB showed significant variation between T0-T1 and T0-T3 (p < 0.0001. Myoglobin increased significantly
Provine, W B
Geneticists in England and the United States clearly reversed their published remarks on the effects of race crossing between 1930 and 1950. The reversal occurred in two steps. First came the change in the 1930's from a condemnation of wide race crosses to an agnostic view. The second change, from the agnostic view to the belief that wide race crosses were at worst biologically harmless, took place during and shortly after World War II. The entire reversal occurred in the light of little new compelling data from studies of actual human race crosses. The lack of new data is unsurprising. Few geneticists wished to initiate experiments that took three human generations to complete. And controlled race crosses are hard to arrange, even with government grants. What might be more surprising was the willingness of geneticists to make such positive statements about race crossing when they had so little reliable genetic evidence. I interviewed or wrote to ten prominent geneticists who worked on human genetics between 1930 and 1950. Not one believed that new evidence on race crossing was the primary reason why geneticists changed their minds about the effects of race crossing. One plausible explanation, that the rise of "population thinking" (44) caused geneticists to change their minds, does not fit the evidence. Castle was no more of a "population" thinker than East, yet they differed radically in their conclusions about race crossing. What, then, did cause geneticists to change their minds? Most important was the revulsion of educated people in the United States and England to Nazi race doctrines and their use in justifying extermination of Jews. Few geneticists wanted to argue, as had the Nazis, that biology showed race crossing was harmful. Instead, having witnessed the horrible toll, geneticists naturally wanted to argue that biology showed race crossing was at worst harmless. No racist nation could misuse that conclusion. And geneticists did revise their biology to
Schen, Cathy R; Greenlee, Alecia
Addressing race and racial trauma within psychotherapy supervision is increasingly important in psychiatry training. A therapist's ability to discuss race and racial trauma in psychotherapy supervision increases the likelihood that these topics will be explored as they arise in the therapeutic setting. The authors discuss the contextual and sociocultural dynamics that contributed to their own avoidance of race and racial trauma within the supervisory relationship. The authors examine the features that eventually led to a robust discussion of race and culture within the supervisory setting and identify salient themes that occurred during three phases of the conversation about race: pre-dialogue, the conversation, and after the conversation. These themes include building an alliance, supercompetence, avoidance, shared vulnerability, "if I speak on this, I own it," closeness versus distance, and speaking up. This article reviews the key literature in the field of psychiatry and psychology that has shaped how we understand race and racial trauma and concludes with guidelines for supervisors on how to facilitate talking about race in supervision.
Yi, Li; Quinn, Paul C; Fan, Yuebo; Huang, Dan; Feng, Cong; Joseph, Lisa; Li, Jiao; Lee, Kang
It has been well documented that people recognize and scan other-race faces differently from faces of their own race. The current study examined whether this cross-racial difference in face processing found in the typical population also exists in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Participants included 5- to 10-year-old children with ASD (n=29), typically developing (TD) children matched on chronological age (n=29), and TD children matched on nonverbal IQ (n=29). Children completed a face recognition task in which they were asked to memorize and recognize both own- and other-race faces while their eye movements were tracked. We found no recognition advantage for own-race faces relative to other-race faces in any of the three groups. However, eye-tracking results indicated that, similar to TD children, children with ASD exhibited a cross-racial face-scanning pattern: they looked at the eyes of other-race faces longer than at those of own-race faces, whereas they looked at the mouth of own-race faces longer than at that of other-race faces. The findings suggest that although children with ASD have difficulty with processing some aspects of faces, their ability to process face race information is relatively spared. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Concerns have been expressed concerning animal-welfare issues associated with whip use during Thoroughbred races. However, there have been no studies of relationships between performance and use of whips in Thoroughbred racing. Our aim was to describe whip use and the horses' performance during races, and to investigate associations between whip use and racing performance. Under the Australian Racing Board (ARB rules, only horses that are in contention can be whipped, so we expected that whippings would be associated with superior performance, and those superior performances would be explained by an effect of whipping on horse velocities in the final 400 m of the race. We were also interested to determine whether performance in the latter sections of a race was associated with performance in the earlier sections of a race. Measurements of whip strikes and sectional times during each of the final three 200 metre (m sections of five races were analysed. Jockeys in more advanced placings at the final 400 and 200 m positions in the races whipped their horses more frequently. Horses, on average, achieved highest speeds in the 600 to 400 m section when there was no whip use, and the increased whip use was most frequent in the final two 200 m sections when horses were fatigued. This increased whip use was not associated with significant variation in velocity as a predictor of superior placing at the finish.
Alasdair Brown; Fuyu Yang
Betting exchanges allow punters to bet on a horse to lose a race. This, many argue, has opened up the sport to a new form of corruption, where races will be deliberately lost in order to profit from betting. We examine whether anecdotal evidence of the fixing of horses to lose—of which there are many examples—is indicative of wider corruption. Following a “forensic economics” approach, we build an asymmetric information model of exchange betting and take it to betting data on 9,560 races run ...
This article traces the history of black British jazz across five moments from 1920 to the present. It also makes a theoretical argument about the nature of race and its connection both with music and belonging to the nation. Race is indeed a musical-discursive construction, as has been argued in the literature about culture and ethnicity over the last thirty years or so. But it is a social structure too, and the contradictions that result are key to understanding the race-music relationship.
Miller, Douglas L; Paxson, Christina
This paper examines the relationship between relative income and mortality. Our research is motivated by recent literature that posits that, holding individual income fixed, those whose income are low relative to the incomes of those in a reference group will have worse health. We develop an empirical model in which an individual's health is a function of his or her own income and the incomes of those who live in the same geographical area. We show how this individual-level model can be estimated using semi-aggregated data on the mortality rates of people categorized by age, race, gender, and place of residence. The model is estimated using mortality data from the 1980 and 1990 Compressed Mortality Files, merged with income data from the 1980 and 1990 5% Public Use samples of the US Census. We find no evidence that having relatively wealthy neighbors, holding own income fixed, is associated with higher mortality. Instead, we find evidence that among some demographic and age groups--in particular working-aged black males--having relatively wealthy neighbors is associated with lower mortality. For example, among younger (aged 25-64) black men, an increase in the income of others is estimated to have a beneficial effect on mortality that is 40% as large as an equivalent increase in own income.
Ren, Yi; Di Jiao; Gong, Guoyi; Zhang, Haiying; Guo, Shaogui; Zhang, Jie; Xu, Yong
Fusarium wilt (FW) caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp . niveum (FON) is the major soilborne disease of watermelon ( Citrullus lanatus L.). The development and deployment of resistant cultivars is generally considered to be an effective approach to control FW. In this study, an F8 population consisting of 103 recombinant inbred lines derived from a cross between the cultivar 97103 and a wild accession PI 296341-FR was used for FON race 1 and race 2 fungal inoculations. One major QTL on chromosome 1 for FON race 1 resistance was detected with a logarithm of odds of 13.2 and explained phenotypic variation R 2 = 48.1 %; two QTLs of FON race 2 resistance on chromosomes 9 and 10 were discovered based on the high-density integrated genetic map we constructed. The nearest molecular marker should be useful for marker-assisted selection of FON race 1 and race 2 resistance. One receptor kinase, one glucan endo-1,3-β-glucosidase precursors and three acidic chitinase located in the FON-1 QTL genomic region. In Qfon2.1 QTL region, one lipoxygenase gene, five receptor-like kinases and four glutathione S-transferase genes are discovered. One arginine biosynthesis bifunctional protein, two receptor kinase proteins and one lipid-transfer protein located in Qfon2.2 QTL region. Based on SNP analysis by using 20 re-sequenced accessions of watermelon and 231-plant F 2 population generated from Black Diamond × Calhoun Grey, we developed a SNP marker Chr1SNP_502124 for FON-1 detection.
Richeson, Jennifer A; Sommers, Samuel R
The United States, like many nations, continues to experience rapid growth in its racial minority population and is projected to attain so-called majority-minority status by 2050. Along with these demographic changes, staggering racial disparities persist in health, wealth, and overall well-being. In this article, we review the social psychological literature on race and race relations, beginning with the seemingly simple question: What is race? Drawing on research from different fields, we forward a model of race as dynamic, malleable, and socially constructed, shifting across time, place, perceiver, and target. We then use classic theoretical perspectives on intergroup relations to frame and then consider new questions regarding contemporary racial dynamics. We next consider research on racial diversity, focusing on its effects during interpersonal encounters and for groups. We close by highlighting emerging topics that should top the research agenda for the social psychology of race and race relations in the twenty-first century.
Gray, Simone C; Edwards, Sharon E; Miranda, Marie Lynn
Although studies suggest that exposure to pollutants is associated with race/ethnicity and socio-economic status (SES), many studies are limited to the geographic regions where monitoring stations are located. This study uses modeled predictive surfaces to examine the relationship between air pollution exposure, race/ethnicity, and measures of SES across the entire State of North Carolina. The daily predictions of particulate matter ozone (O3) were determined using a spatial model that fused data from two sources: point air monitoring data and gridded numerical output. These daily predicted pollution levels for 2002 were linked with Census data. We examine the relationship between the census-tract level predicted concentration measures, SES, and racial composition. SES and race/ethnicity were related to predicted concentrations of both PM2.5 and O3 for census tracts in North Carolina. Lower SES and higher proportion minority population were associated with higher levels of PM2.5. An interquartile range (IQR) increase of median household income reduced the predicted average PM2.5 level by 0.10 µg/m3. The opposite relationship was true for O3. An IQR increase of median household income increased the predicted average O3 measure by 0.11 ppb. The analyses demonstrate that SES and race/ethnicity are related to predicted estimates of PM2.5 and O3 for census tracts in North Carolina. These findings offer a baseline for future exposure modeling work involving SES and air pollution for the entire state and not just among the populations residing near monitoring networks. Published by Elsevier Inc.
The Formula Electric racing team will promote Missouri S&Ts engineering excellence by successfully competing against other top : engineering universities in the US and around the world. Students on the team will have the opportunity to reinforce t...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The core function of the Resource Assessment and Conservation Engineering (RACE) Division is to conduct quantitative fishery surveys and related ecological and...
Balzer, Mark A.; Mungas, Greg S.; Peters, Gregory H.
Non-lubricated ball bearings featuring rail races have been proposed for use in mechanisms that are required to function in the presence of mineral dust particles in very low-pressure, dry environments with extended life. Like a conventional ball bearing, the proposed bearing would include an inner and an outer ring separated by balls in rolling contact with the races. However, unlike a conventional ball bearing, the balls would not roll in semi-circular or gothic arch race grooves in the rings: instead, the races would be shaped to form two or more rails (see figure). During operation, the motion of the balls would push dust particles into the spaces between the rails where the particles could not generate rolling resistance for the balls
"Every major IT supplier is rushing to be involved in the global computing grid, eager to take advantage of the developments and experience they will gain. Why? Because the race is on to become an IT utility" (1 page).
Fischer, Peter; Greitemeyer, Tobias; Morton, Thomas; Kastenmüller, Andreas; Postmes, Tom; Frey, Dieter; Kubitzki, Jörg; Odenwälder, Jörg
The present studies investigated why video racing games increase players’ risk-taking inclinations. Four studies reveal that playing video racing games increases risk taking in a subsequent simulated road traffic situation, as well as risk-promoting cognitions and emotions, blood pressure,sensation seeking, and attitudes toward reckless driving. Study 1 ruled out the role of experimental demand in creating such effects. Studies 2 and 3 showed that the effect of playing video racing games on r...
Williams, Keelah E. G.; Sng, Oliver; Neuberg, Steven L.
Why do race stereotypes take the forms they do? Life history theory posits that features of the ecology shape individuals’ behavior. Harsh and unpredictable (“desperate”) ecologies induce fast strategy behaviors such as impulsivity, whereas resource-sufficient and predictable (“hopeful”) ecologies induce slow strategy behaviors such as future focus. We suggest that individuals possess a lay understanding of ecology’s influence on behavior, resulting in ecology-driven stereotypes. Importantly, because race is confounded with ecology in the United States, we propose that Americans’ stereotypes about racial groups actually reflect stereotypes about these groups’ presumed home ecologies. Study 1 demonstrates that individuals hold ecology stereotypes, stereotyping people from desperate ecologies as possessing faster life history strategies than people from hopeful ecologies. Studies 2–4 rule out alternative explanations for those findings. Study 5, which independently manipulates race and ecology information, demonstrates that when provided with information about a person’s race (but not ecology), individuals’ inferences about blacks track stereotypes of people from desperate ecologies, and individuals’ inferences about whites track stereotypes of people from hopeful ecologies. However, when provided with information about both the race and ecology of others, individuals’ inferences reflect the targets’ ecology rather than their race: black and white targets from desperate ecologies are stereotyped as equally fast life history strategists, whereas black and white targets from hopeful ecologies are stereotyped as equally slow life history strategists. These findings suggest that the content of several predominant race stereotypes may not reflect race, per se, but rather inferences about how one’s ecology influences behavior. PMID:26712013
Full Text Available Human beings do not passively perceive important social features about others such as race and age in social interactions. Instead, it is proposed that humans might continuously generate predictions about these social features based on prior similar experiences. Pre-awareness of racial information conveyed by others' faces enables individuals to act in "culturally appropriate" ways, which is useful for interpersonal relations in different ethnicity groups. However, little is known about the effects of prediction on the perception for own-race and other-race faces. Here, we addressed this issue using high temporal resolution event-related potential techniques. In total, data from 24 participants (13 women and 11 men were analyzed. It was found that the N170 amplitudes elicited by other-race faces, but not own-race faces, were significantly smaller in the predictable condition compared to the unpredictable condition, reflecting a switch to holistic processing of other-race faces when those faces were predictable. In this respect, top-down prediction about face race might contribute to the elimination of the other-race effect (one face recognition impairment. Furthermore, smaller P300 amplitudes were observed for the predictable than for unpredictable conditions, which suggested that the prediction of race reduced the neural responses of human brains.
Denise G. Yull
Full Text Available Within school settings race continues to be one of the most formidable obstacles for Black children in the United States (US school system. This paper expands the discussions of race in education by exploring how the social links among race, space, and place provide a lens for understanding the persistence of racism in the educational experiences of Black children. This paper examines how differences in a rural versus urban geographical location influence a student’s experience with race, racism, and racial identity across four generations of Black people in the context of school and community. Implications for research and practice are discussed.
At the heart of the discussion in this special issue on race and affirmative action is the issue of whether race should be used as a category in admissions policies of South African universities. In my contribution I shall argue that there are no races. By race I mean the idea that skin colour (or other phenotypical features) ...
... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Activities relating to race horses. 780.122 Section 780.122... Activities relating to race horses. Employees engaged in the breeding, raising, and training of horses on... racetrack is not a farm. Where a farmer is engaged in both the raising and commercial racing of race horses...
Le Grange, L.
At the heart of the discussion in this special issue on race and affirmative action is the issue of whether race should be used as a category in admissions policies of South African universities. In my contribution I shall argue that there are no races. By race I mean the idea that skin colour (or other phenotypical features) associated with…
racepresent racism, the race of the racist figures as a term in her racist thinking; in own-race-absent racism it does not. While own-race-present racism might conform readily to commonsense understandings of racism, own-race-absent racism less clearly ...
Assari, Shervin; Lankarani, Maryam Moghani
Although stressful life events (SLEs) and depression are associated, we do not know if the intersection of race and gender modifies the magnitude of this link. Using a nationally representative sample of adults in the USA, we tested if the association between SLE and major depressive episode (MDE) depends on the intersection of race and gender. Data came from the National Survey of American Life (NSAL), 2003, a cross-sectional survey that enrolled 5899 adults including 5008 Blacks (African-Americans or Caribbean Blacks), and 891 Non-Hispanic Whites. Logistic regression was used for data analysis. Stressful life events (past 30 days) was the independent variable, 12-month MDE was the dependent variable, and age, educational level, marital status, employment, and region of country were controls. In the pooled sample, SLE was associated with MDE above and beyond all covariates, without the SLE × race interaction term being significant. Among men, the SLE × race interaction was significant, suggesting a stronger association between SLE and MDE among White men compared to Black men. Such interaction between SLE × race could not be found among women. The association between SLE and depression may be stronger for White men than Black men; however, this link does not differ between White and Black women. More research is needed to better understand the mechanism behind race by gender variation in the stress-depression link.
Rhodes, Gillian; Lie, Hanne C.; Ewing, Louise; Evangelista, Emma; Tanaka, James W.
Discrimination and recognition are often poorer for other-race than own-race faces. These other-race effects (OREs) have traditionally been attributed to reduced perceptual expertise, resulting from more limited experience, with other-race faces. However, recent findings suggest that sociocognitive factors, such as reduced motivation to…
If there is a region in the world where the 21. Century will be defined, it is Asia. When the rise of powers meets with old rivalries, competition for regional leadership and pending territorial disputes, the risk of conflict resurfaces and the balance of powers shifts. With changes come new trends, and with new trends come new dynamics. The nuclear realm is one of those where the changes are the most significant, the future the most uncertain, and where ongoing evolutions warrant the most scrutiny. What are these evolutions' main characteristics and what are their consequences for security, deterrence, non-proliferation and disarmament? Five major trends are currently shaping the strategic landscape and one of them has the potential for global ramifications: the advent of a regional arms race. (author)
Croisement de la race n'dama avec les races abondance et montbéliarde en zone tropicale humide de côte divoire : caractérisation phénotypique et analyse comparative des croisés pour leurs performances laitières en ferme.
Larkin, Douglas B.; Maloney, Tanya; Perry-Ryder, Gail M.
This study describes the experiences of two preservice science teachers as they progress through their respective teacher education programs and uses critical race theory to examine the manner in which conceptions about race and its pedagogical implications change over time. Using a longitudinal case study method, participants' conceptual…
Brooks, Jeffrey S.; Jean-Marie, Gaetane
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate how race and race relations influence school leadership practice. Design/methodology/approach: This ethnographic study was conducted in a high-poverty, high-minority, urban high school in the Southeastern USA. The authors utilized an anthropological conceptual framework called a moiety, through…
Fischer, Peter; Greitemeyer, Tobias; Morton, Thomas; Kastenmueller, Andreas; Postmes, Tom; Frey, Dieter; Kubitzki, Joerg; Odenwaelder, Joerg; Kastenmüller, A.; Odenwälder, J.
The present studies investigated why video racing games increase players' risk-taking inclinations. Four studies reveal that playing video racing games increases risk taking in a subsequent simulated road traffic situation, as well as risk-promoting cognitions and emotions, blood pressure, sensation
Investigates the effects of race of news subjects on student journalists' ethical reasoning. Explains that journalism students were presented with four ethical dilemmas that working journalists might encounter. Concludes that the race of the people in the ethical dilemmas presented had a significant impact on ethical reasoning. (PM)
Calogiuri, Giovanna; Rossi, Alessio; Formenti, Damiano; Weydahl, Andi
During the dog-sled race, the Finnmarkslop (FL), which lasts up to 7 days, participants get little sleep and what they get is fragmented; concerns have been raised about proper sleep recovery. The aim of this study was to examine awareness of sleep deprivation by FL participants and post-race sleep recovery after completion of the race. A total of 55 participants responded to an online survey 1 week and 1 month after the race; this measured the following factors: their awareness of sleep loss and possible strategies for recovery; their sleep-wake patterns using a Pittsburgh Sleep Questionnaire Index; and possible changes in respondents' sleep-wake patterns compared with their regular routines. During the FL, participants slept about 3-4 hours a day. Many were not aware of the accumulated sleep debt and did not engage in strategies to make up the loss. Insufficient levels of sleep and impoverished sleep quality were observed after the race, especially among those who were engaged in the FL for a longer period. Alertness levels were affected 1 week after the race. Among participants in the FL, the lack of awareness of sleep debt and insufficient sleep recovery could lead to health consequences. Those engaged in the race for longer should be more cautious during the recovery process because of possible sleep problems occurring after the race. Educational campaigns and easy access to professional support should be provided for participants in this type of sporting event.
Khanna, Nikki; Harris, Cherise A.
Teaching students about race remains a challenging task for instructors, made even more difficult in the context of a growing "post-racial" discourse. Given this challenge, it is important for instructors to find engaging ways to help students understand the continuing significance of race and racial/ethnic inequality. In this article,…
Thursday 1st June marked the traditional Relay Race at CERN, organised jointly by the Running Club and the CERN Staff Association. Once again, the Race lived up to the expectations and the number of participants came close to last year’s all-time high with no less than 715 entries across different categories! In total 116 teams of 6 runners and 19 walkers completed the course at the Meyrin site in bright sunshine. Congratulations to all of them! Our Director-General gave the starting signal for the Race, demonstrating the interest in this event at the highest level of the Organization. Thank you for this much appreciated commitment! Moreover, a number of very high-level runners came to spice up this 2017 edition. The 1000-meter race was a tight one between Alexandre Roche (top 5 in the “Tour du canton”) and Baptiste Fieux who tore up the race at 2’36 and 2’42 respectively. Baptiste passed the baton to Pierre Baqué, the winner of the 2015 Saint&a...
Benton, Christopher P; Skinner, Andrew L
It has long been known that a person's race can affect their decisions about people of another race; an observation that clearly taps into some deep societal issues. However, in order to behave differently in response to someone else's race, you must first categorise that person as other-race. The current study investigates the process of race-categorisation. Two groups of participants, Asian and Caucasian, rapidly classified facial images that varied from strongly Asian, through racially intermediate, to strongly Caucasian. In agreement with previous findings, there was a difference in category boundary between the two groups. Asian participants more frequently judged intermediate images as Caucasian and vice versa. We fitted a decision model, the Ratcliff diffusion model, to our two choice reaction time data. This model provides an account of the processes thought to underlie binary choice decisions. Within its architecture it has two components that could reasonably lead to a difference in race category boundary, these being evidence accumulation rate and a priori bias. The latter is the expectation or prior belief that a participant brings to the task, whilst the former indexes sensitivity to race-dependent perceptual cues. Whilst we find no good evidence for a difference in a priori bias between our two groups, we do find evidence for a difference in evidence accumulation rate. Our Asian participants were more sensitive to Caucasian cues within the images than were our Caucasian participants (and vice versa). These results support the idea that differences in perceptual sensitivity to race-defining visual characteristics drive differences in race categorisation. We propose that our findings fit with a wider view in which perceptual adaptation plays a central role in the visual processing of own and other race. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
The obligate root parasitic weed Striga gesnerioides poses a severe constraint to cowpea productivity in the dry savannahs of West and Central Africa, where cowpea is a major crop. At least seven races of S. gesnerioides have been identified within the cowpea-growing regions of West and Central Africa, based on
Dita Rodriguez, M.A.; Waalwijk, C.; Buddenhagen, I.W.; Souza, M.T.; Kema, G.H.J.
This study analysed genomic variation of the translation elongation factor 1a (TEF-1a) and the intergenic spacer region (IGS) of the nuclear ribosomal operon of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc) isolates, from different banana production areas, representing strains within the known races,
Sanderson, Jennifer M.; Desai, Mayur M.; White, Marney A.
Background: Overweight adolescents engage in risk behaviors at different rates than healthy-weight peers. Most extant research has focused on white or regional samples. Purpose: This article examined associations between weight and risk behaviors and determined whether associations differ by race/ethnicity. Methods: Youth Risk Behavior Survey data…
Dita Rodriguez, M.A.; Waalwijk, C.; Mutua, P.; Daly, A.; Chang, P.F.L.; Corcolon, B.M.; Paiva, L.; Souza, de M.; Kema, G.H.J.
Tropical race 4 (TR4) of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc) is a quarantine pathogen in many banana-producing regions of the world. Preventing further dissemination and precluding incursions into areas where it has not been observed is critical for maintaining local and commercial banana
Shreffler, Karina M.; McQuillan, Julia; Greil, Arthur L.; Johnson, David R.
Surgical sterilization is a relatively permanent form of contraception that has been disproportionately used by Black, Hispanic, and Native American women in the United States in the past. We use a nationally representative sample of 4,609 women ages 25 to 45 to determine whether sterilization continues to be more common and consequential by race for reproductive-age women. Results indicate that Native American and Black women are more likely to be sterilized than non-Hispanic White women, and Hispanic and Native American women are more likely than non-Hispanic White women to report that their sterilization surgeries prevent them from conceiving children they want. Reasons for sterilization differ significantly by race. These findings suggest that stratified reproduction has not ended in the United States and that the patterns and consequences of sterilization continue to vary by race. PMID:25592919
Shreffler, Karina M; McQuillan, Julia; Greil, Arthur L; Johnson, David R
Surgical sterilization is a relatively permanent form of contraception that has been disproportionately used by Black, Hispanic, and Native American women in the United States in the past. We use a nationally representative sample of 4592 women ages 25-45 to determine whether sterilization continues to be more common and consequential by race for reproductive-age women. Results indicate that Native American and Black women are more likely to be sterilized than non-Hispanic White women, and Hispanic and Native American women are more likely than non-Hispanic White women to report that their sterilization surgeries prevent them from conceiving children they want. Reasons for sterilization differ significantly by race. These findings suggest that stratified reproduction has not ended in the United States and that the patterns and consequences of sterilization continue to vary by race. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Limdi, Nita A; Brown, Todd M; Yan, Qi; Thigpen, Jonathan L; Shendre, Aditi; Liu, Nianjun; Hill, Charles E; Arnett, Donna K; Beasley, T Mark
Warfarin dosing algorithms adjust for race, assigning a fixed effect size to each predictor, thereby attenuating the differential effect by race. Attenuation likely occurs in both race groups but may be more pronounced in the less-represented race group. Therefore, we evaluated whether the effect of clinical (age, body surface area [BSA], chronic kidney disease [CKD], and amiodarone use) and genetic factors (CYP2C9*2, *3, *5, *6, *11, rs12777823, VKORC1, and CYP4F2) on warfarin dose differs by race using regression analyses among 1357 patients enrolled in a prospective cohort study and compared predictive ability of race-combined vs race-stratified models. Differential effect of predictors by race was assessed using predictor-race interactions in race-combined analyses. Warfarin dose was influenced by age, BSA, CKD, amiodarone use, and CYP2C9*3 and VKORC1 variants in both races, by CYP2C9*2 and CYP4F2 variants in European Americans, and by rs12777823 in African Americans. CYP2C9*2 was associated with a lower dose only among European Americans (20.6% vs 3.0%, P races, the proportional decrease was higher among European Americans (28.9% vs 19.9%, P = .003) compared with African Americans. Race-stratified analysis improved dose prediction in both race groups compared with race-combined analysis. We demonstrate that the effect of predictors on warfarin dose differs by race, which may explain divergent findings reported by recent warfarin pharmacogenetic trials. We recommend that warfarin dosing algorithms should be stratified by race rather than adjusted for race. © 2015 by The American Society of Hematology.
Vincent M. Sarich
Full Text Available Human populations would have been strongly encouraged, or forced, to move in response to the effects of glacial movements. Such movements would have resulted in markedly increased levels of gene flow, and, concomitantly, greatly reduced levels of interpopulational (racial variability. When the glaciers settled down, so did the people, and racial variability began to again increase. Given the date of the last glacial maximum − about 20 000 years ago − all this would mean that existing racial, cultural, and linguistic lineages are much too young to provide support for either the Garden of Eden or regional continuity models, and that there is little point in attempting to trace any of these lineages beyond the end of the last glacial cycle. The last Garden of Eden would then have been the home of the first Homo somewhere in Africa some 2 million years ago (and not that of Homo sapiens 100 000 years ago. By the same token, there would have been repeated periods of regional continuity, but their effects would have been obliterated each time there was a major glacial movement. The nature of the Upper Paleolithic fossil record, and the patterns and degrees of recent linguistic diversity, seem consistent with this scenario; but not with either the Garden of Eden or regional continuity models, nor with some combination of the two. Some serious rethinking of the scenario for recent human evolution would appear to be in order.
The CERN relay race will take place around the Meyrin site on Thursday, 24 May starting at 12.15. If possible, please avoid driving on the site during this 20-minute period. If you do meet runners while driving your car, please STOP until they have all passed. In addition, there will be a Nordic Walking event which will finish around 12.50. This should not block the roads, but please drive carefully during this time. Thank you for your cooperation. Details on how to register your team for the relay race can be found here.
White, Susan C.
In September, we looked at participation in high school physics by race and ethnicity, and we have provided two different views of physics in high school by socioeconomic status (SES). This month, we consider the proportion of seniors attending schools by race and SES. About half of the Hispanics and almost 45% of the African-Americans among high school seniors in 2013 attended a school where the students were determined to be "worse off" economically than their peers in the local area. The converse is true for Asians and Whites with the vast majority attending schools where students are seen as "better off" than their peers.
Carlos Antonio Costa Ribeiro
Full Text Available This article analyzes the differences in inter-generational social mobility and schooling between white, brown, and black men in Brazil. The main objective is to analyze inequality of opportunities for mobility and educational transitions. The results indicate that for individuals from lower social origins, inequality of opportunities is significantly marked by racial differences, and that for persons originating in the upper classes, racial inequality influences the odds of social mobility. The results suggest that theories of stratification by race and class in Brazil should be rethought, taking into account the observed interactions between race and class.
Rouffaer, L O; Adriaensen, C; De Boeck, C; Claerebout, E; Martel, A
Trichomonas gallinae , the cause of avian trichomonosis, is most commonly found in the order Columbiformes. Racing pigeons are often treated preventively with nitro-imidazoles, which could result in the emergence of resistant isolates, and these isolates can be a threat to wildlife when exchanges occur. The sequence type of 16 T. gallinae isolates obtained from racing pigeons and 15 isolates from wild pigeons was determined based on the ITS1/5.8S rRNA/ITS2 region sequence. In addition, the resistance profiles of these isolates against 5 different nitro-imidazoles (metronidazole, dimetridazole, ronidazole, tinidazole, and carnidazole) were determined. Two different Trichomonas sequence types were isolated. Sequence type A isolates were recovered from racing and wild pigeons, in contrast to sequence type B, which was only isolated from wild pigeons. Isolates with sequence type B were all susceptible to the tested nitro-imidazoles, except for tinidazole resistance in 3 isolates. Resistance to the nitro-imidazoles was observed more frequently in isolates obtained from racing pigeons than from wild pigeons, with most isolates belonging to sequence type A. A higher percentage of the sequence type A isolated from racing pigeons, in comparison with those isolated from the wild pigeons, were resistant to the nitro-imidazoles and displayed higher mean lethal concentration (MLC) values. Two isolates belonging to sequence type A, 1 recovered from a racing pigeon and 1 from a wild pigeon, displayed a similar resistance pattern, suggesting a potential exchange of resistant isolates between racing pigeons and wild pigeons.
Full Text Available We investigated whether the recent worldwide epidemics of wheat yellow rust were driven by races of few clonal lineage(s or populations of divergent races. Race phenotyping of 887 genetically diverse Puccinia striiformis isolates sampled in 35 countries during 2009–2015 revealed that these epidemics were often driven by races from few but highly divergent genetic lineages. PstS1 was predominant in North America; PstS2 in West Asia and North Africa; and both PstS1 and PstS2 in East Africa. PstS4 was prevalent in Northern Europe on triticale; PstS5 and PstS9 were prevalent in Central Asia; whereas PstS6 was prevalent in epidemics in East Africa. PstS7, PstS8 and PstS10 represented three genetic lineages prevalent in Europe. Races from other lineages were in low frequencies. Virulence to Yr9 and Yr27 was common in epidemics in Africa and Asia, while virulence to Yr17 and Yr32 were prevalent in Europe, corresponding to widely deployed resistance genes. The highest diversity was observed in South Asian populations, where frequent recombination has been reported, and no particular race was predominant in this area. The results are discussed in light of the role of invasions in shaping pathogen population across geographical regions. The results emphasized the lack of predictability of emergence of new races with high epidemic potential, which stresses the need for additional investments in population biology and surveillance activities of pathogens on global food crops, and assessments of disease vulnerability of host varieties prior to their deployment at larger scales.
Ali, Sajid; Rodriguez-Algaba, Julian; Thach, Tine; Sørensen, Chris K.; Hansen, Jens G.; Lassen, Poul; Nazari, Kumarse; Hodson, David P.; Justesen, Annemarie F.; Hovmøller, Mogens S.
We investigated whether the recent worldwide epidemics of wheat yellow rust were driven by races of few clonal lineage(s) or populations of divergent races. Race phenotyping of 887 genetically diverse Puccinia striiformis isolates sampled in 35 countries during 2009–2015 revealed that these epidemics were often driven by races from few but highly divergent genetic lineages. PstS1 was predominant in North America; PstS2 in West Asia and North Africa; and both PstS1 and PstS2 in East Africa. PstS4 was prevalent in Northern Europe on triticale; PstS5 and PstS9 were prevalent in Central Asia; whereas PstS6 was prevalent in epidemics in East Africa. PstS7, PstS8 and PstS10 represented three genetic lineages prevalent in Europe. Races from other lineages were in low frequencies. Virulence to Yr9 and Yr27 was common in epidemics in Africa and Asia, while virulence to Yr17 and Yr32 were prevalent in Europe, corresponding to widely deployed resistance genes. The highest diversity was observed in South Asian populations, where frequent recombination has been reported, and no particular race was predominant in this area. The results are discussed in light of the role of invasions in shaping pathogen population across geographical regions. The results emphasized the lack of predictability of emergence of new races with high epidemic potential, which stresses the need for additional investments in population biology and surveillance activities of pathogens on global food crops, and assessments of disease vulnerability of host varieties prior to their deployment at larger scales. PMID:28676811
Mehede Hassan Rubel
Full Text Available Black rot, caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc, is a seed borne disease of Brassicaceae. Eleven pathogenic races have been identified based on the phenotype interaction pattern of differential brassica cultivars inoculated with different strains. Race 1 and 4 are the two most frequent races found in Brassica oleracea crops. In this study, a PCR molecular diagnostic tool was developed for the identification of Xcc races 1 and 4 of this pathogen. Whole genomic sequences of races 1, 3, 4 and 9 and sequences of three other Xanthomonas pathovars/species (X. campestris pv. incanae (Xci, X. campestris pv. raphani (Xcr and X. euvesicatoria (Xev were aligned to identify variable regions among races. To develop specific markers for races 1 and 4, primers were developed from a region where sequences were dissimilar in other races. Sequence-characterized amplified regions (SCAR and insertion or deletion of bases (InDel were used to develop each specific set of primers. The specificity of the selected primers was confirmed by PCR tests using genomic DNA of seven different Xcc races, two strains of X. campestris pathovars and other species of bacteria. Bacterial samples of the races 1 and 4 isolates were collected from artificially inoculated cabbage leaves to conduct bio-PCR. Bio-PCR successfully detected the two Xcc isolates. By using our race-specific markers, a potential race 1 strain from the existing Korean Xcc collection was identified. The Xcc race 1 and 4-specific markers developed in this study are novel and can potentially be used for rapid detection of Xcc races through PCR.
Full Text Available Young infants are known to prefer own-race faces to other race faces and recognize own-race faces better than other-race faces. However, it is entirely unclear as to whether infants also attend to different parts of own- and other-race faces differently, which may provide an important clue as to how and why the own-race face recognition advantage emerges so early. The present study used eye tracking methodology to investigate whether 6- to 10-month-old Caucasian infants (N = 37 have differential scanning patterns for dynamically displayed own- and other-race faces. We found that even though infants spent a similar amount of time looking at own- and other-race faces, with increased age, infants increasingly looked longer at the eyes of own-race faces and less at the mouths of own-race faces. These findings suggest experience-based tuning of the infant's face processing system to optimally process own-race faces that are different in physiognomy from other-race faces. In addition, the present results, taken together with recent own- and other-race eye tracking findings with infants and adults, provide strong support for an enculturation hypothesis that East Asians and Westerners may be socialized to scan faces differently due to each culture's conventions regarding mutual gaze during interpersonal communication.
Dorceta E. Taylor
This paper examines the environmental experiences of middle and working class whites and people of color in the United States during the 19th and 20th centuries. It examines their activism and how their environmental experiences influenced the kinds of discourses they developed. The paper posits that race, class, and gender had profound effects on people's...
This paper discusses the history of discrimination in the United States and the length of time it took to abolish the legal support of racism. The paper then discusses the problems of diversity in the United States. Acknowledging and accepting U.S. diversity in terms of race, ethnicity, gender, religious background, and national origin would…
Pahl, Ron H.
Explains how the 19th- and 20th-century use of the word "race"--in the media, culture, and in classrooms--is one core element of the problem of racism that remains today. Further, it argues that teachers must critically analyze the words used in the classroom because they are primary active agents in formulating the subsequent actions…
Mustapha Bala Ruma
Full Text Available This paper examines the issue of race in Shakespeare’s Othello. It attempts to show that race is a very important issue raised by Shakespeare in the play in his eagerness to highlight the racial problems confronting Europe in the seventeenth century. In this play he attempts to expose the racial prejudice that exists in the Venetian society in particular and Europe in general. He also attempts to subvert the European feelings of racial superiority against the blacks in particular and people of other races in general. He sets out to do this by making a black man (Othello marry a white woman (Desdemona of an aristocratic extraction against the will and wish of her father. This inter-racial marriage may not in reality be possible in the seventeenth century, but all the same Shakespeare contrived it to be so, possibly as a way of foregrounding future change in European attitudes toward other races. The paper also looks at how individual citizens of a city-state like Venice can constitute themselves as threats to its social well being, by allowing their personal interests to override the national ethos. In this regard the activities of Othello, Iago and Roderigo are examined.
Thomas, David A.
A 3-year study of mentoring patterns at 3 corporations reveals that whites and minorities follow distinct patterns of advancement and should be mentored in very different ways. Cross-race mentoring must acknowledge issues of negative stereotypes, role modeling, peer resentment, skepticism about intimacy, and network management. (JOW)
With Seshadri- Crooks's reminder that race is “a practice of visibility rather than a scientific, anthropological or cultural theory” in mind, I speculate about the role visual culturecould play in giving shape to a non-racial society. I conclude by considering the work of South African artist Berni Searle which disavows the logic of ...
Ryan, James E.
Describes the legal definitions of race discrimination in education, demonstrating how they apply in various contexts; highlighting the role of social science evidence; offering suggestions for answering complex questions about what currently counts as racial discrimination in education; and highlighting the irony that, under the current…
van Sterkenburg, J.C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304841226
Due to its multi-ethnic character and popularity, television coverage of sport can contribute to people’s beliefs and ideas about race and ethnicity. This role of the sport media is however, often overlooked or downplayed by the general public, by policy makers and by many scholars. This research
Loewen, James W.
Teaches race relations to college students using visual materials. Uses three films, "Gone with the Wind,""Mississippi Burning," and "The White Dawn," to illustrate how films depict history inaccurately and to help students unlearn false images. Includes questions for classroom discussion of U.S. racist culture. (NL)
Snipp, C. Matthew
American Indian reservations, Mexican American colonias, and African American communities in the rural South are located in close proximity to historic institutions established for their exploitation, and represent a legacy from which much can be learned. Reviews studies of race and ethnicity in rural areas during three periods in the development…
Birkenbach, Anna M.; Kaczan, David J.; Smith, Martin D.
In fisheries, the tragedy of the commons manifests as a competitive race to fish that compresses fishing seasons, resulting in ecological damage, economic waste, and occupational hazards. Catch shares are hypothesized to halt the race by securing each individual’s right to a portion of the total catch, but there is evidence for this from selected examples only. Here we systematically analyse natural experiments to test whether catch shares reduce racing in 39 US fisheries. We compare each fishery treated with catch shares to an individually matched control before and after the policy change. We estimate an average policy treatment effect in a pooled model and in a meta-analysis that combines separate estimates for each treatment-control pair. Consistent with the theory that market-based management ends the race to fish, we find strong evidence that catch shares extend fishing seasons. This evidence informs the current debate over expanding the use of market-based regulation to other fisheries.
Leverenz, Carrie Shively
Shares a participant-observer's close look at small group experiences in a course called "American Experience" taught at an urban university. Considers the issue of how race can be discussed in the classroom when even collaborative approaches with emphasis on student contributions can be undone by the power of the dominant discourse. (TB)
... other race. Data for specified racial or ethnic populations other than white and black should be interpreted with caution. For more information, see the USCS technical notes. § Data are from the National Vital Statistics System (NVSS). Data for death rates cover 100% of the U.S. population. Use ...
... other race. Data for specified racial or ethnic populations other than white and black should be interpreted with caution. For more information, see the USCS technical notes. § Data are from the National Vital Statistics System (NVSS). Data for death rates cover 100% of the U.S. population. Use ...
... other race. Data for specified racial or ethnic populations other than white and black should be interpreted with caution. For more information, see the USCS technical notes. § Data are from the National Vital Statistics System (NVSS). Data for death rates cover 100% of the U.S. population. Use ...
On Thursday May 19, the traditional relay race was held at CERN, organised jointly by the Running Club and the CERN Staff Association. In spite of the less than optimal weather, the 127 registered teams were not discouraged. Warmed by their efforts on the roads of CERN, the participants were able to withstand the chilly May weather. The start signal for the race was given by our Director General, demonstrating the interest in this event at the highest level of the Organization. Thank you for this much appreciated commitment! Can we hope for next year to see a team from the Directorate in the race? The many spectators who had come to cheer on the runners could also visit the stalls staffed by a few clubs and some of Interfon’s commercial partners. Refreshment and food stands contributed to the friendly atmosphere. The organisation of such an event requires however a substantial investment in order to cover all aspects of logistics, from preparation before the race, to the actual establishment ...
Euteneuer, H.; Herminghaus, H.; Klein, R.
Several limitations of the benefits of the race track microtron (RTM) as an economic cw electron accelerator are discussed. For beam blowup some final results of our investigations for the Mainz Microtron are given. The other two effects presented more generally are beam diffusion by imperfections of the optical elements of a RTM and the deterioration of transverse phase space by synchrotron radiation
Finn, John C.; Mazzocca, Ann E.; Goetz, Evan; Gibson, Lisa
This article provides a brief overview of the March 2014 workshop that the authors organized with approximately thirty pre-and in-service teachers from around the state of Virginia. The authors' broad focus in this workshop was the connection between race and the cultural landscape in Virginia. The goals were relatively simple: to get teachers and…
Holyfield, Lori; Moltz, Matthew Ryan; Bradley, Mindy S.
Research reveals that racial hierarchies and "color-blind" racism is maintained through discourse. The current study utilizes exploratory data from focus groups in a predominantly white southern university in the United States to examine race talk, the Confederate Flag, and the construction of southern white identity. Drawing from…
... Seafair Unlimited Hydroplane Race AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of enforcement of regulation. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard will enforce the Seattle Seafair Unlimited Hydroplane Race Special Local... [[Page 39633
... 10, 2012 Substance Use during Pregnancy Varies by Race and Ethnicity When pregnant women use alcohol, tobacco, ... indicate that substance use during pregnancy varies by race and ethnicity and suggest that health care providers ...
... Is Doing Related Links Stay Informed Rates by Race and Ethnicity for Other Kinds of Cancer All ... Cancer Home HPV-Associated Oropharyngeal Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend ...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Population - Bridged-Race July 1st Estimates online databases report bridged-race population estimates of the July 1st resident population of the United States,...
Haskins, Natoya H.; Singh, Anneliese
Infusing critical race theory, the authors discuss specific pedagogical strategies to enhance educational experiences of counselor trainees. The authors then provide an evaluative checklist to facilitate and evaluate curricular integration of critical race theory.
Full Text Available Karyological study of 75 specimens of the common shrew, Sorex araneus Linnaeus, 1758, from 8 localities in the Berezina River basin (eastern Belarus was carried out. A wide hybrid zone (not less than 100 km between the northern West Dvina chromosome race (XX / XYY, af, bc, gm, hk, ip, jl, no, qr, tu and the southern Turov race (XX / XYY, af, bc, g, h/k, i, jl, m, n, o, p, q, r, tu was revealed in this region. Frequencies of fused-unfused arms comprising four diagnostic metacentrics of the West Dvina race (g/m, h/k, n/o, q/r were calculated in all capture sites. Taking into consideration the absence of metacentric ip in specimens from six northern localities, the Borisov (Bs race (XX / XYY, af, bc, g/m, h/k, i, jl, n/o, p, q/r, tu (Orlov, Borisov, 2009 was distinguished in these sites. Common shrews from two southern localities on the right and left banks of the Berezina River (Berezino vicinity were referred to the Turov race. The presence of four metacentrics descended from the West Dvina race in the Bs race testifies to the hypothesis expressed earlier that the polymorphic populations of the S. araneus between the Dnieper and Berezina Rivers originated as a result of the West Dvina race spreading from the north and of hybridization between this race and local populations with acrocentric chromosomes.
Full Text Available Background: Racial inequality in the U.S. is typically described in terms of stark categorical difference, as compared to the more gradational stratification based on skin color often said to prevail in parts of Latin America. However, nationally representative data with both types of measures have not been available to explicitly test this contrast. Objective: We use novel, recently released data from the U.S. and 18 Latin American countries to describe household income inequality across the region by perceived skin color and racial self-identification, and examine which measure better captures racial disparities in each national context. Results: We document color and racial hierarchies across the Americas, revealing some unexpected patterns. White advantage and indigenous disadvantage are fairly consistent features, whereas blacks at times have higher mean incomes than other racial populations. Income inequality can best be understood in some countries using racial categories alone, in others using skin color; in a few countries, including the U.S., a combination of skin color and self-identified race best explains income variation. Conclusions: These results complicate theoretical debates about U.S. racial exceptionalism and methodological debates about how best to measure race. Rather than supporting one measure over another, our cross-national analysis underscores race‟s multidimensionality. The variation in patterns of inequality also defies common comparisons between the U.S. on the one hand and a singular Latin America on the other.
Steffenson, B J; Jin, Y; Brueggeman, R S; Kleinhofs, A; Sun, Y
Race TTKSK (Ug99) of the wheat stem rust pathogen (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici) is a serious threat to both wheat and barley production worldwide because of its wide virulence on many cultivars and rapid spread from eastern Africa. Line Q21861 is one of the most resistant barleys known to this race. To elucidate the genetics of resistance in this line, we evaluated the Q21861/SM89010 (Q/SM) doubled-haploid population for reaction to race TTKSK at the seedling stage. Segregation for resistance:susceptibility in Q/SM doubled-haploid lines fit a 1:1 ratio (58:71 with chi2=1.31 and P=0.25), indicating that a single gene in Q21861 confers resistance to race TTKSK. In previous studies, a recessive gene (rpg4) and a partially dominant gene (Rpg5) were reported to control resistance to P. graminis f. sp. tritici race QCCJ and P. graminis f. sp. secalis isolate 92-MN-90, respectively, in Q21861. These resistance genes co-segregate with each other in the Q/SM population and were mapped to the long arm of chromosome 5H. Resistance to race TTKSK also co-segregated with resistance to both rusts, indicating that the gene conferring resistance to race TTKSK also lies at the rpg4/Rpg5 locus. This result was confirmed through the molecular analysis of recombinants previously used to characterize loci conferring resistance to race QCCJ and isolate 92-MN-90. The 70-kb region contains Rpg5 (a nucleotide-binding site leucine-rich repeat serine/threonine-protein kinase gene), rpg4 (an actin depolymerizing factor-like gene), and two other genes of unidentified function. Research is underway to resolve which of the genes are required for conferring resistance to race TTKSK. Regardless, the simple inheritance should make Q21861 a valuable source of TTKSK resistance in barley breeding programs.
Full Text Available Tan spot, caused by Pyrenophora tritici-repentis, is a foliar disease of wheat, responsible for high economic losses in several wheat growing areas in the world. There are eight known races of P. tritici-repentis based on ability to induce necrosis and/or chlorosis on a set of differential cultivars. Fifty five isolates of P. tritici-repentis originating from diverse wheat growing regions in Algeria were studied to determine which races are present and to identify new races. Races 1, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8 were found and a new virulence pattern was identified. Isolates with this pattern induced necrosis in durum wheat but failed to induce any disease in the common wheat genotypes in the differential set.
For a faculty member of East Asian ancestry, raised in Latin America, race became a salient part of the author's identity during adulthood while living and working in the southern United States. While the race-related experiences the author continues to have on and off campus are deeply personal, race became an academic undertaking, and centering…
Garcia, Nichole M.; López, Nancy; Vélez, Verónica N.
Critical race theory (CRT) in education centers, examines, and seeks to transform the relationship that undergirds race, racism, and power. CRT scholars have applied a critical race framework to advance research methodologies, namely qualitative interventions. Informed by this work, and 15 years later, this article reconsiders the possibilities of…
... hydroplane race. 100.1301 Section 100.1301 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... unlimited hydroplane race. (a) This section is in effect annually during the last week in July and the first... hydroplane race course and then to the northerly tip of Ohlers Island in Andrews Bay. The western zone is...
.... 75, No. 17 / Wednesday, January 27, 2010 / Notices#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION RIN 1810-AB07 Race... for the Race to the Top Fund (NIA). Included as Appendix B to the November 18 NIA was the Scoring... point values that peer reviewers will use to score applications from States under the Race to the Top...
Hemmings, Carrie; Evans, Amanda M.
This study investigated 106 counseling professionals' experiences with identifying and treating race-based trauma and the relationship between training and treatment. Competency was assessed with the Race-Based Trauma Survey for Counselors. Although most participants reported working with clients who had symptoms associated with race-based trauma,…
Williams, Linda Meyer
Scientific investigations of the relationship between race and rape have been flawed by the acceptance of official statistics and have been influenced by prevailing myths about rape and race. This paper proposes a theoretical framework for understanding rape and race. The thesis is presented that only the black victim of sexual assault is viewed…
In this article, I attempt to elucidate some key intersections between critical race theory (CRT) in synthesis with English language learning as a way to examine linguistic and racial identity in English language teaching. I ask: How does critical race theory apply to English language learners when language rather than race is fore-grounded? What…
Khanna, Nikki; Harris, Cherise A.
Teaching the social construction of race remains one of the most challenging tasks for instructors, yet understanding this concept is integral to student success in race and other inequality-themed courses. Instructors have access to an array of readings to help students understand race as a social construction, but few known inclass activities to…
This study sought to examine the relationship between race, family structure and gender on one hand, and food deprivation as a measure of poverty on the other hand in South Africa. Main effects were found for race, residence, presence of children and adults, while interaction effect was found for race and family structure.
Discusses the United Kingdom's Race Relations Amendment Act, which is intended to ensure equal education for all, noting that it does not recognize the role of cultural diversity in race relations. Examines how local education authorities, schools, and colleges can ensure that their race equality policies do not repeat and perpetuate the gaps and…
Lo, Celia C.; McCallum, Debra M.; Hughes, Michael; Smith, Gabrielle P. A.; McKnight, Utz
Guided by the principles of critical race theory, we sought to understand how race and racism help explain differences in White and Black students' assessments of race relations on a predominantly White college campus. The authors employed data from a campus-wide survey conducted in Spring 2013 at the University of Alabama; the sample numbered…
Maris, G.K.J.; Maris, E.
This paper introduces a nonparametric procedure for testing the race model explanation of the redundant signals effect. The null hypothesis is the race model inequality derived from the race model by Miller (Cognitive Psychol. 14 (1982) 247). The construction of a nonparametric test is made possible
... Seafair Unlimited Hydroplane Race AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of enforcement of regulation... Unlimited Hydroplane Race on Lake Washington, WA from 10 a.m. on August 5, 2010 through 6 p.m. on August 8, 2010 during hydroplane race times. This action is necessary to ensure public safety from the inherent...
... Maritime Week Tugboat Races, Seattle, WA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of enforcement of... Maritime Week Tugboat Races in Elliott Bay, WA from 12 p.m. until 4:30 p.m. on May 11, 2013. This action is... these types of races which includes large wakes. During the enforcement period, no person or vessel may...
... Unlimited Hydroplane Races; Kennewick, WA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of enforcement of... Hydroplane Races. This regulation which restricts navigation and anchorage on the Columbia River for six days... Annual Kennewick, Washington, Columbia Unlimited Hydroplane Races (Water Follies). During the enforcement...
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... Maritime Week Tugboat Races, Seattle, WA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of enforcement of... Maritime Week Tugboat Races in Elliott Bay, WA from 12 p.m. through 4:30 p.m. on May 14, 2011. This action... associated with these types of races which includes large wakes. During the enforcement period, no person or...
... Seafair Unlimited Hydroplane Race AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of enforcement of regulation. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard will enforce the Seattle Seafair Unlimited Hydroplane Race Special Local... during hydroplane race times. This action is necessary to ensure public safety from the inherent dangers...
... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Race to the Top--District AGENCY: Office of the Deputy Secretary, Department of Education. ACTION: Notice reopening the Race to the Top--District competition. Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance (CFDA) Number: 84.416. SUMMARY: The Secretary reopens the Race to the Top...
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... Maritime Week Tugboat Races, Seattle, WA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of enforcement of... Maritime Week Tugboat Races in Elliott Bay, WA from 12 p.m. through 4:30 p.m. on May 12, 2012. This action... associated with these types of races which includes large wakes. During the enforcement period, no person or...
...-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Annual Bayview Mackinac Race AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Final... safe control of vessel movement during the start of the Annual Bayview Mackinac Race, commonly known as the Port Huron to Mackinac Sail Race. This action is necessary to provide for the safety of the...
... Race to the Top Fund ACTION: Interim final requirements; request for comments. SUMMARY: The U.S. Secretary of Education (Secretary) amends the final requirements for the Race to the Top Fund to incorporate... INFORMATION CONTACT. Background: The Secretary published final requirements for the Race to the Top Fund in...
... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Race to the Top--District AGENCY: Office of the Deputy Secretary, Department of Education. ACTION: Notice extending the deadline of the fiscal year (FY) 2013 Race to the Top...) Number: 84.416. SUMMARY: The Secretary is extending the application deadline in the FY 2013 Race to the...
...-AA08 Columbia Unlimited Hydroplane Races; Kennewick, WA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of... Unlimited Hydroplane Races from Tuesday, July 24th through Sunday July 29th, 2012. This action is necessary... Unlimited Hydroplane Races (Water Follies). During the enforcement period, no vessel may operate in this...
... Maritime Week Tugboat Races, Seattle, WA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of enforcement of... Maritime Week Tugboat Races in Elliott Bay, WA on May 8, 2010. This action is necessary to ensure the safety of all participants and spectators from the inherent dangers associated with these types of races...
Nakagawa, Kathy; Arzubiaga, Angela E.
This article explores ways in which race pedagogy interrogates social media as a significant influence on racism and source for race understandings. Social media serves as a context in which to learn about, challenge, and address issues of race. We discuss how social media may be used to promote racial literacy and question and resist racism,…
Race as a variable in research ethics is investigated: to what extent is it morally appropriate to regard the race of research subjects as pivotal for research outcomes? The challenges it poses to deliberation in research ethics committees are considered, and it is concluded that race sometimes must be considered, subject to ...
South Africa's government requires information on apartheid race classification to implement and monitor racial redress. This has sparked resistance to race classification as a criterion for redress in higher education admissions. I argue that (1) jettisoning apartheid race categories now in favour of either class or "merit" would set…
McDonald, Kristina L.; Dashiell-Aje, Ebony; Menzer, Melissa M.; Rubin, Kenneth H.; Oh, Wonjung; Bowker, Julie C.
The current study examined how racial and sociobehavioral similarities were associated with friendship stability and friendship quality. Cross-race friends were not significantly similar to each other in peer-nominated shyness/withdrawal, victimization, exclusion, and popularity/sociability. Relative to same-race friends, cross-race friends were…
Full Text Available The current study explored the relationship between shyness and face scanning patterns for own- and other-race faces in adults. Participants completed a shyness inventory and a face recognition task in which their eye movements were recorded by a Tobii 1750 eye tracker. We found that: (1 Participants' shyness scores were negatively correlated with the fixation proportion on the eyes, regardless of the race of face they viewed. The shyer the participants were, the less time they spent fixating on the eye region; (2 High shyness participants tended to fixate significantly more than low shyness participants on the regions just below the eyes as if to avoid direct eye contact; (3 When participants were recognizing own-race faces, their shyness scores were positively correlated with the normalized criterion. The shyer they were, the more apt they were to judge the faces as novel, regardless of whether they were target or foil faces. The present results support an avoidance hypothesis of shyness, suggesting that shy individuals tend to avoid directly fixating on others' eyes, regardless of face race.
Wang, Qiandong; Hu, Chao; Short, Lindsey A; Fu, Genyue
The current study explored the relationship between shyness and face scanning patterns for own- and other-race faces in adults. Participants completed a shyness inventory and a face recognition task in which their eye movements were recorded by a Tobii 1750 eye tracker. We found that: (1) Participants' shyness scores were negatively correlated with the fixation proportion on the eyes, regardless of the race of face they viewed. The shyer the participants were, the less time they spent fixating on the eye region; (2) High shyness participants tended to fixate significantly more than low shyness participants on the regions just below the eyes as if to avoid direct eye contact; (3) When participants were recognizing own-race faces, their shyness scores were positively correlated with the normalized criterion. The shyer they were, the more apt they were to judge the faces as novel, regardless of whether they were target or foil faces. The present results support an avoidance hypothesis of shyness, suggesting that shy individuals tend to avoid directly fixating on others' eyes, regardless of face race.
Ginther, Donna K.; Schaffer, Walter T.; Schnell, Joshua; Masimore, Beth; Liu, Faye; Haak, Laurel L.; Kington, Raynard
We investigated the association between a U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) R01 applicant’s self-identified race or ethnicity and the probability of receiving an award by using data from the NIH IMPAC II grant database, the Thomson Reuters Web of Science, and other sources. Although proposals with strong priority scores were equally likely to be funded regardless of race, we find that Asians are 4 percentage points and black or African-American applicants are 13 percentage points less likely to receive NIH investigator-initiated research funding compared with whites. After controlling for the applicant’s educational background, country of origin, training, previous research awards, publication record, and employer characteristics, we find that black or African-American applicants remain 10 percentage points less likely than whites to be awarded NIH research funding. Our results suggest some leverage points for policy intervention. PMID:21852498
In this paper, I respond to four common semantic and metaphysical objections that philosophers of race have launched at scholars who interpret recent human genetic clustering results in population genetics as evidence for biological racial realism. I call these objections 'the discreteness objection', 'the visibility objection', 'the very important objection', and 'the objectively real objection.' After motivating each objection, I show that each one stems from implausible philosophical assumptions about the relevant meaning of 'race' or the nature of biological racial realism. In order to be constructive, I end by offering some advice for how we can productively critique attempts to defend biological racial realism based on recent human genetic clustering results. I also offer a clarification of the relevant human-population genetic research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
William I. Robinson
Full Text Available Scholars of world-systems and global political economy have wrestled for decades with the genesis of 'race' as a social construct and its historical significance for the system of world capitalism. Transformations in the world capitalist system pose a new challenge to Western theories of race. Older colonial structures may be giving way in the face of capitalist globalization. Racial or ethnic dimensions of the relations of exploitation in the capitalist world-system need to be reconceptualized. This symposium aims to generated debate and interchange among scholars on such a reconceptualization and to contribute to real world struggles against racial inequities.
CERN Medical Service
In anticipation of the CERN relay race, the Medical Service would like to remind all participants that preparing for this sporting activity is essential - even though it is a short event. Progressive and regular training. Adequate nutrition and hydration. Advice and information is available at the infirmary in Building 57. Everyone should adapt their physical activity to match their fitness levels, bearing in mind that the aim of this race is not necessarily to achieve great success but to participate in a collective sporting event. In the framework of the "Move! Eat better" campaign and for the third successive year, a 2.4 km route is open to walkers, both beginners and experts. Before, during and after this event, test yourself with a pedometer, available from the CERN infirmary!
Subhasish M. Chowdhury; Stephen Martin
The standard innovation race specification assumes a memoryless exponential distribution for the time to success of an R&D project. This specification implies that a project succeeds, eventually, with probability one. We introduce a positive probability that an R&D project fails. With this modified specification, we compare the non-cooperative and cooperative R&D in terms of innovation effort, consumer surplus, and net social welfare.
Informed by intersectionality theory, a tradition that theorizes intersecting power relations of racism, patriarchy, classism and heterosexism, this paper investigates the degree to which race, gender, class and sexuality manifest distinct and interconnected associations with self-reported hypertension in nationally-representative survey data from Canada. Binary logistic regression is used to model the main effects of, and interactions between, race, gender, education, household income and sexual orientation on hypertension, controlling for age, using data from the 2003 Canadian Community Health Survey (n = 90,310). From a main effects ('additive') perspective, Black respondents, respondents with less than high school and poorer respondents were significantly more likely than White respondents, university-educated Canadians and wealthier Canadians, respectively, to report hypertension. However, the interactive models indicate that the additive models were poor predictors of hypertension for wealthy Black men, wealthy South Asian women, women with less than a high school diploma and wealthy bisexual respondents, who were more likely than expected to report hypertension, and for poor Black men, poor South Asian women, poor South Asian men and women with a university degree, who were less likely than expected to report hypertension. It appears that, with regard to blood pressure at least, Canadians experience the health effects of education differently by their genders and the health effects of income differently by their identities defined at the intersection of race and gender. This study provides empirical support for the intersectional approach to cardiovascular health inequalities by demonstrating that race, gender, class and sexuality cannot be disentangled from one another as predictors of hypertension. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Williams, Keelah E. G.; Sng, Oliver; Neuberg, Steven L.
Ecological features shape people’s goals, strategies, and behaviors. Our research suggests that social perceivers possess a lay understanding of ecology’s influence on behavior, resulting in ecology-driven stereotypes. Moreover, because race is confounded with ecology in the United States, Americans’ stereotypes about racial groups may actually reflect their stereotypes about these groups’ presumed home ecologies. In a series of studies, we demonstrate that (i) individuals possess ecology-dri...
Arrieta Domínguez, Daniel
The recent trend of Dominican migration to the United States echoes previous patterns of Hispanic migration but with some characteristic aspects concerning race. As 75 % of this Dominican migrant population is mulatto, their classification as black people in the U.S. has affected the way they see themselves compared to people still living in the Dominican Republic; this classification has also determined the living conditions that they are offered in a racially dualized world such as the US....
Kristoffersen, M; Parkin, T D H; Singer, E R
Catastrophic biaxial proximal sesamoid bone fractures (PSBF) have not yet been described in detail in the UK racing population. To determine the incidence and relative risk (RR) of PSBF in different types of racing in the UK; and to describe horse-level characteristics and racing histories of horses sustaining these injuries. Distal limbs were collected from all racehorses suffering catastrophic fractures during racing at all 59 racecourses in the UK, in a prospective study from February 1999 to December 2004. Post mortem investigation identified the anatomical location and type of fracture. Horse, racing history, race and racecourse details were obtained. Characteristics of the horses that sustained PSBF were described. The incidence and RR of PSBF in the different types of racing in the UK were calculated. Thirty-one horses suffered PSBF during the study period. The incidence of PSBF in all types of race was 0.63 per 10,000 starts (31/494,744). The incidence was highest in flat races on all weather surfaces (1.63 per 10,000 starts: 12/73,467; RR = 4.4 when compared to turf flat racing). Affected horses had an average age of 5.6 years and had started a mean of 28 races at the time of fracture. There is a strong association between type of racing surface and PSBF. Horses competing in flat races on all weather surfaces have an increased risk of PSBF. These fractures appear to happen in experienced horses with several starts, with few fractures occurring within the first season of racing. Further research should focus on identification of underlying pathology of these fractures. Epidemiological studies aimed at the identification of risk factors for PSBF in the UK racing population would require a large number of cases acquired over many years given the relatively low incidence of PSBF.
de Oliveira, Bruno Luciano Carneiro Alves; Luiz, Ronir Raggio
The skin color/race and urbanity are structural determinants of health. The relationship between these variables produces structure of social stratification that defines inequalities in the experiences of life and death. Thus, this study describes the characteristics of the mortality indicators by skin color/race according level of urbanity and aggregation to the metropolitan region (MR) of 5565 cities in Brazil, controlling for gender and age. Descriptive study which included the calculation of measures relating to 1,050,546 deaths in the year survey of 2010 by skin color/race White, Black, and Brown according to both sexes, for five age groups and three levels of urbanity of cities in Brazil that were aggregated or not to the MR in the year of study. The risk of death was estimated by calculating premature mortality rate (PMR) at 65 years of age, per 100,000 and age adjusted. The structure of mortality by skin color/race Black and Brown reflects worse levels of health and excessive premature deaths, with worse situation for men. The Whites, especially women, tend to live longer and in better health than other racial groups. The age-adjusted PMR indicates distinct risk of death by skin color/race, this risk was higher in men than in women and in Blacks than in other racial groups of both sexes. There have been precarious levels of health in the urban space and the MR has intensified these inequalities. The research pointed out that the racial inequality in the mortality was characterized by interaction of race with other individual and contextual determinants of health. Those Blacks and Browns are the groups most vulnerable to the iniquities associated with occurrence of death, but these differences in the profile and the risk of death depend on the level of urbanity and aggregation MR of Brazilian cities in 2010.
Chakrabarti, Supriya; Mendillo, Christopher; Mukherjee, Sunip; Martel, Jason; Cook, Timothy; Polidan, Ronald S.; Rafanelli, Gerard L.; Spencer, Susan B.; Wolfe, Douglas w.
We present the design and expected performance of RACES, a suborbital mission concept to directly image exo-Jupiters with a rotatable non-circular aperture telescope. By using a high-aspect ratio elliptical or rectangular primary mirror (2.3m x 0.6m), this mission achieves the same angular resolution and inner working angle as a 2.3m dia telescope. Such an elliptical or rectangular system would fill the volume of a cylindrical launch vehicle more efficiently and by choosing the aspect ratio one can appropriately tailor its light gathering power. RACES can therefore serve as a pathfinder for future larger missions for exoplanetary explorations. For example, the system described here approaches the collecting area of the well studied EXO-C concept and exceeds its angular resolution. The mission concept, design studies, observation strategy and expected target yield for RACES will be presented, as well as simulations of the high contrast vector vortex coronagraph operating with an un-obscured elliptical aperture.
Foynes, Melissa Ming; Shipherd, Jillian C; Harrington, Ellen F
Although women of color have been hypothesized to experience double jeopardy in the form of chronic exposure to both race-based (RBD) and gender-based discrimination (GBD; Beal, 1970), few empirical investigations that examine both RBD and GBD in multiple comparison groups have been conducted. In addition to being one of the only simultaneous examinations of RBD and GBD in multiple comparison groups, the current study includes both self-report and objective behavioral data to examine the independent and interactive effects of both forms of discrimination. This study is also the first of its kind to examine these constructs in these ways and to explore their impact in a unique sample of ethnically diverse male and female Marine recruits (N = 1,516). As anticipated, both RBD and GBD had a strong and consistent negative impact on mental health symptoms (e.g., depression, anxiety), independent of the contributions of gender and race. Partial support was found for the hypothesis that people of color are able to maintain resiliency (as measured by physical fitness testing) in the face of low levels of RBD, but are less able to overcome the negative effects of discrimination at high levels. It is interesting to note that the interaction between race, gender, and levels of discrimination was only found with objective physical fitness test scores but not with self-report measures. These findings underscore the importance of including objective measures when assessing the impact of discrimination in order to understand these complex interrelationships.
Full Text Available [First paragraph] Coloring the Nation: Race and Ethnicity in the Dominican Republic. DAVID HOWARD. Oxford: Signal; Boulder: Lynne Rienner, 2001. x + 227 pp. (Paper US$ 19.95 Race and Politics in the Dominican Republic. ERNESTO SAGAS. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2000. xii + 161 pp. (Cloth US$ 49.95, Paper US$ 24.95 Peasants and Religion: A Socioeconomic Study of Dios Olivorio and the Palma Sola Movement in the Dominican Republic. JAN LUNDIUS & MATS LUNDAHL. London: Routledge, 2000. xxvi + 774 pp. (Cloth US$ 135.00 The social and political relations between the Dominican Republic and Haiti, and especially their racial and ethnic contents, are extremely difficult to approach in an even- handed and unbiased way. Much ink has been spilled over the conflictive relations between these two countries, and on race relations in the Dominican Republic. Much of what has been said must be considered unfounded or biased, not to mention sensationalist. The books under review try to pro vide new insights into the issue and at the same time to steer clear of these problems.
Heather J H Edgar
Full Text Available Health and socioeconomic disparities tend to be experienced along racial and ethnic lines, but investigators are not sure how individuals are assigned to groups, or how consistent this process is. To address these issues, 1,919 orthodontic patient records were examined by at least two observers who estimated each individual's race and the characteristics that influenced each estimate. Agreement regarding race is high for African and European Americans, but not as high for Asian, Hispanic, and Native Americans. The indicator observers most often agreed upon as important in estimating group membership is name, especially for Asian and Hispanic Americans. The observers, who were almost all European American, most often agreed that skin color is an important indicator of race only when they also agreed the subject was European American. This suggests that in a diverse community, light skin color is associated with a particular group, while a range of darker shades can be associated with members of any other group. This research supports comparable studies showing that race estimations in medical records are likely reliable for African and European Americans, but are less so for other groups. Further, these results show that skin color is not consistently the primary indicator of an individual's race, but that other characteristics such as facial features add significant information.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate variance components of racing ability in Thoroughbreds involved in steeplechase races. Race results were collected from steeplechase races in France (n=9041, in the United Kingdom and Ireland (n=8314 and contained the results of overall 106 020 runs from 1998 to 2003. Performance was measured by two criteria: earnings and ranks after mathematical transformation. The effects of year, sex, age, and race were considered as fixed, animal, permanent environment and maternal as random. Maternal environmental component for ranks were 0.021 in France and 0.000 in the United Kingdom and Ireland. Estimated heritabilities for the ranking criteria were 0.18 (repeatability 0.33 in France and 0.06 (repeatability 0.19 in the United Kingdom and Ireland. The high genetic correlation between the two traits (0.94 and 0.97 gives the opportunity to find out the most suitable criteria for breeding value estimation.
Hojin I Kim
Full Text Available People occupy multiple social categories simultaneously (e.g., a White female, and this complex intersectionality affects fundamental aspects of social perception. Here, we examined the possibility that infant face processing may be susceptible to effects of intersectionality of sex and race. Three- and 10-month-old infants were shown a series of computer-generated face pairs (5 s each that differed according to sex (F or M or race (Asian, Black, or White. All possible combinations of face pairs were tested, and preferences were recorded with an eye tracker. Infants showed preferences for more feminine faces only when they were White, but we found no evidence that White or Asian faces were preferred even though they are relatively more feminized. These findings challenge the notions that infants’ social categories are processed independently of one another and that infants’ preferences for sex or race can be explained from mere exposure.
Ultra-endurance challenges were once the stuff of legend isolated to the daring few who were driven to take on some of the greatest physical endurance challenges on the planet. With a growing fascination for major physical challenges during the nineteenth century, the end of the Victorian era witnessed probably the greatest ultra-endurance race of all time; Scott and Amundsen's ill-fated race to the South Pole. Ultra-endurance races continued through the twentieth century; however, these events were isolated to the elite few. In the twenty-first century, mass participation ultra-endurance races have grown in popularity. Endurance races once believed to be at the limit of human durability, i.e. marathon running, are now viewed as middle-distance races with the accolade of true endurance going to those willing to travel significantly further in a single effort or over multiple days. The recent series of papers in Extreme Physiology & Medicine highlights the burgeoning research data from mass participation ultra-endurance events. In support of a true 'mass participation' ethos Knetchtle et al. reported age-related changes in Triple and Deca Iron-ultra-triathlon with an upper age of 69 years! Unlike their shorter siblings, the ultra-endurance races appear to present larger gender differences in the region of 20% to 30% across distance and modality. It would appear that these gender differences remain for multi-day events including the 'Marathon des Sables'; however, this gap may be narrower in some events, particularly those that require less load bearing (i.e. swimming and cycling), as evidenced from the 'Ultraman Hawaii' and 'Swiss Cycling Marathon', and shorter (a term I used advisedly!) distances including the Ironman Triathlon where differences are similar to those of sprint and endurance distances i.e. c. 10%. The theme running through this series of papers is a continual rise in participation to the point where major events now require selection races to remain
Taksaudom, Noppon; Tongsiri, Natee; Potikul, Amarit; Leampriboon, Chawakorn; Tantraworasin, Apichat; Chaiyasri, Anong
Unique rough-terrain ultra-trail running races have increased in popularity. Concerns regarding the suitability of the candidates make it difficult for organizers to manage safety regulations. The purpose of this study was to identify possible race predictors and assess hemodynamic change after long endurance races. We studied 228 runners who competed in a 66 km-trail running race. A questionnaire and noninvasive hemodynamic flow assessment including blood pressure, heart rate, stroke volume, stroke volume variation, systemic vascular resistance, cardiac index, and oxygen saturation were used to determine physiologic alterations and to identify finish predictors. One hundred and thirty volunteers completed the questionnaire, 126 participants had a prerace hemodynamic assessment, and 33 of these participants completed a postrace assessment after crossing the finish line. The participants were divided into a finisher group and a nonfinisher group. The average age of all runners was 37 years (range of 24-56 years). Of the 228 runners, 163 (71.5%) were male. There were 189 (82.9%) finishers. Univariable analysis indicated that the finish predictors included male gender, longest distance ever run, faster running records, and lower diastolic pressure. Only a lower diastolic pressure was a significant predictor of race finishing (diastolic blood pressure 74-84 mmHg: adjusted odd ratio 3.81; 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.09-13.27 and diastolic blood pressure resistance and cardian index did not change significantly. The only race finishing predictor from the multivariable analysis was lower diastolic pressure. Finishers seem to have a hypovolemic physiologic response and a lower level of oxygen saturation.
Salim, Ali; Berry, Cherisse; Ley, Eric J; Schulman, Danielle; Desai, Chirag; Navarro, Sonia; Malinoski, Darren
Background The Organ Donation Breakthrough Collaborative began in 2003 to address and alleviate the shortage of organs available for transplantation. This study investigated the patterns of organ donation by race to determine if the Collaborative had an impact on donation rates amongst ethnic minorities. Study Design The following data from the Southern California regional organ procurement organization, were reviewed between 2004 and 2008: age, race (White, African American, Asian, Hispanic, and Other), the numbers of eligible referrals for organ donation and actual donors, types of donors, consent rates, conversion rates, organs procured per donor (OPPD), and organs transplanted per donor (OTPD). Logistic regression was utilized to determine independent predictors of ≥ 4 OTPD. Results There were 1776 actual donors out of 2760 eligible deaths (conversion rate 64%). Hispanics demonstrated a significantly lower conversion rate than Whites (64% vs. 77%, p0.05). Conclusions The conversion rates amongst all ethnic minorities were significantly lower than the rates observed in Whites. However, when controlling for other factors, race was not a significant risk factor for the number of organs transplanted per donor. The Collaborative has not had an identifiable effect on race conversion rates during the 5 years since its implementation. Further intervention is necessary to improve the conversion rate in ethnic minorities in Southern California. PMID:20829076
Ge, Jin; Roberts, John P; Lai, Jennifer C
United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) policies allow for ABO-nonidentical liver transplantation (LT) in candidates with Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) scores greater than 30. Previous studies showed ABO-nonidentical LT resulted in an 18% and 55% net gain in livers for B and AB candidates. These results suggested that the current liver ABO allocation policies may need refinement. There are, however, strong associations between ABO blood groups and race/ethnicity. We hypothesized that race/ethnicity is associated with ABO-nonidentical LT and that this is primarily influenced by recipient ABO status. We examined non-status 1 adult candidates registered between July 1, 2013, and December 31, 2015. There were 27 835 candidates (70% non-Hispanic White, 15% Hispanic, 9% Black, 4% Asian, 1% Other/Multiracial). A total of 11 369 underwent deceased donor LT: 93% ABO identical, 6% ABO compatible, and 1% ABO incompatible. Black and Asian race/ethnicity were associated with increased likelihoods of ABO-nonidentical LT. Adjustment for disease etiology, listing MELD, transplant center volume, and UNOS region did not alter this association. Stepwise inclusion of recipient ABO status did eliminate this significant association of race/ethnicity with ABO-nonidentical LT. Blacks and Asians may be advantaged by ABO-nonidentical LT, and we suspect that changes to the existing policies may disproportionately impact these groups. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Jackson, F L
For some time, biologists and anthropologists have overwhelmingly rejected the partitioning of modern humans into biological "races." An examination of recent human evolutionary history suggests that the zoological definition of race, based on significant genetic differences, cannot be legitimately applied to contemporary humans. Extensive past hybridization, plasticity of the human phenotype, the presence of ecotypes, the lack of extensive molecular information, and the lack of longitudinal multigenerational evaluations of diverse groups contribute to ambiguity in taxonomic assignment. Although biological aggregates do exist, they represent variation below the subspecies level, and, as such, are much more tenuous over evolutionary time. The persistent reference to quasibiological constructs such as ethnicity and race in the lay and scientific literatures requires that ethnicity be scrutinized for possible biological dimensions. The Diop model of ethnicity suggests that at least three components contribute to its formation: a historical factor, a linguistic factor, and a psychological factor, each of which can be examined for possible biological dimensions. Presumed biological affinities may allow certain groups to expand and extend their collective history and amplify their kin networks, possibly improving group biological fitness. Individual and group initial language of acquisition may influence brain physiology and organize the template for interpretation and behavior, creating greater consistency of response across otherwise divergent biological aggregates. Psychological continuity in particular behavioral traits, particularly repetitive multigenerational responses, may have an adaptive aspect at the group level. While ethnicity remains primarily a sociocultural category, it has biological precursors, parameters, and consequences for both individuals and groups. The genetic components of these biological dimensions remain to be identified and quantified.
Braun, Lundy; Hammonds, Evelynn
Much of the recent debate over race, genetics, and health has focused on the extent to which typological notions of race have biological meaning. Less attention, however, has been paid to the assumptions about the nature of "populations" that both inform contemporary biological and medical research and that underlie the concept of race. Focusing specifically on Africa in the 1930s and 1940s, this paper explores the history of how fluid societies were transformed into bounded units amenable to scientific analysis. In the so-called "Golden Age of Ethnography," university-trained social anthropologists, primarily from Britain and South Africa, took to the field to systematically study, organize, and order the world's diverse peoples. Intent on creating a scientific methodology of neutral observation, they replaced amateur travelers, traders, colonial administrators, and missionaries as authoritative knowledge producers about the customs, beliefs, and languages of indigenous peoples. At the same time, linguists were engaged in unifying African languages and mapping language onto primordial "tribal" territories. We argue that the notion of populations or "tribes" as discrete units suitable for scientific sampling and classification emerged in the 1930s and 1940s with the ethnographic turn in social anthropology and the professionalization and institutionalization of linguistics in Western and South African universities. Once named and entered into international atlases and databases by anthropologists in the U.S., the existence of populations as bounded entities became self-evident, thus setting the stage for their use in large-scale population genetic studies and the contemporary reinvigoration of broad claims of difference based on population identification.
Loiacono, Daniele; Lanzi, Pier Luca; Togelius, Julian
In this paper, we overview the 2009 Simulated Car Racing Championship-an event comprising three competitions held in association with the 2009 IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation (CEC), the 2009 ACM Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference (GECCO), and the 2009 IEEE Symposium...... on Computational Intelligence and Games (CIG). First, we describe the competition regulations and the software framework. Then, the five best teams describe the methods of computational intelligence they used to develop their drivers and the lessons they learned from the participation in the championship...
Sonia Maria Giacomini
Full Text Available Based on a research carried out with a group of black women enrolled in the II Course for Professional Formation of Mulatas, the article recovers and analyses the categories through which the students represent their condition of mulatta and their passing to the condition of professional mulata. The mulata, who represents and mediates a Brazilian way of being a woman, sensual and race-mixed, the professional mulata debates herself, permanently, between two poles which are both professional and moral: on the one hand, there is a positive pole, of being a dancer, on the other, there is a threatening and negative one, of being a prostitute.
Leguizamon, J Sebastian; Leguizamon, Susane; Howden, Wesley
Male unemployment may decrease the incidence of domestic violence, due to loss of economic power in the relationship, or increase the incidence of domestic violence, due to emotional outbursts fueled by increased stress. We hypothesize that Black men may face a greater loss of expected future earnings after an unemployment shock due to a more unfavorable labor market relative to White men. Consequently, we would expect that Black men would, on net, exhibit a greater reduction (or a smaller increase) in incidences of domestic violence following an employment shock. This study uses mass layoff events reported by the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) at the county level ( N = 3,377) for the years 2003-2008. Mass layoff events occur when a firm lays off at least 50 workers and are uncorrelated with individual-level characteristics ( N = 28,939 events, affecting N = 5,337,481 individuals). Domestic violence data are taken from the National Archive of Criminal Justice and defined as occurring when an accused perpetrator is charged, but not necessarily convicted. We use a multivariate regression model to estimate how differences in the change in reported incidences of domestic violence by race correlate with changes in mass layoffs by race. We control for the poverty rate, real per capita income, percent Black, percent women, and percent of females laid off. The standard errors are clustered at the county level and include county and time dummies to account for regional and time specific trends. We observe that an increase in the number of Blacks subject to a mass layoff event do exert a negative associated influence on domestic violence while layoffs of White men exert a positive influence. Our results shed light on how the influence of economic uncertainty on incidences of domestic violence has been found to be positive in some previous research but negative in other research.
This study weighs up the different strategic approaches that Europe may adopt in the industrial race for electrical batteries, taking into account the demand potential for e-mobility and stationary storage, the global competitive landscape and the policy support for local players in Asia and the U.S. The future looks bright for battery storage technologies. They could be the answer to the grid constraints that come with the rise of intermittent renewable electricity, while opening the door to the electrification of the transport sector and a reduction of its carbon footprint. Significant improvements in terms of performance and manufacturing costs have been achieved in recent years, thanks to the development of portable electronic devices and the push for lithium-ion solutions. The prospect of widening the client base to the automobile and energy industries is now triggering a massive wave of investment in battery manufacturing capacities. Economies of scale and increasing pressure on margins should make battery technologies even more affordable, and facilitate their adoption beyond public support schemes. A true industrial race is launched, but it takes place primarily in Asia, and to a lesser extent in North America. In these regions, public authorities are already proactive in promoting local industrial players on a global market that is buoyant but still highly risky. Unless the European Union reacts swiftly, it could see its internal demand being primarily covered by non-European manufacturers. While the EU has strong academic and industrial assets in the battery field, it risks being left behind the new mass markets if it proves unable to support the European battery industry with concerted efforts. The challenge is twofold: seizing a major opportunity in terms of growth and job creation, while preventing the emergence of major technology dependence
Colonius, Hans; Wolff, Felix Hermann; Diederich, Adele
The race model inequality has become an important testing tool for the analysis of redundant signals tasks. In crossmodal reaction time experiments, the strength of violation of the inequality is taken as measure of multisensory integration occurring beyond probability summation. Here we extend previous results on trimodal race model inequalities and specify the underlying context invariance assumptions required for their validity. Some simulation results comparing the race model and the supe...
Richard Thalheimer; Mukhtar M. Ali
There has been a long history of patron participation in parimutuel horse race wagering and attendance, which are major recreational products in consumer budgets. In this paper, the demand for parimutuel horse race wagering and attendance has been specified and estimated for both Thoroughbred and Standardbred racetracks in a multistate market area. The data are annual over the period 1960--1987. It is found that demand is price elastic in every case. Racing quality, personal income, the numbe...
Johnson, Lamar L.
Stemming from my personal encounter with what I consider a racial affliction imposed by a White female teacher, I provide a glimpse of my racial narrative as a young Black male to illustrate a reference point for thinking through how racism functions in homes and schools. It touches on the importance of race-based conversations within school and…
Mueller, Jennifer C.
The "millennial" historical moment presents fresh dilemmas for race-critical instructors. In addition to being well-versed in colorblind racial discourse, millennial students are socialized in a pop-cultural milieu that implies a more integrated, racially egalitarian world than exists in reality and includes claims that U.S. society is now…
On this foundation, the article moves on to consider the recommendations adduced by Leonardo and Porter (2010:147) and Sue (2013:666-669) as to how dialogues around race and racism can be enhanced. The article begins by contextualising its argument, followed by an overview of the guiding principles of CRT, ...
There has been much debate around the extent to which post-structuralist theory can be applied to critical research. In this article, it is argued that aspects of the two approaches can be combined, resulting in productive tensions that point towards a possible new framework for researching race and racism in education in the UK. The article…
Sachs Collopy, Peter
In 1962, anthropologist Carleton Coon argued in The Origin of Races that some human races had evolved further than others. Among his most vocal critics were geneticist Theodosius Dobzhansky and anthropologist Ashley Montagu, each of whom had known Coon for decades. I use this episode, and the long relationships between scientists that preceded it, to argue that scientific research on race was intertwined not only with political projects to conserve or reform race relations, but also with the relationships scientists shared as colleagues. Demarcation between science and pseudoscience, between legitimate research and scientific racism, involved emotional as well as intellectual labor. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Federolf, Peter Andreas
Alpine ski racing is a popular sport in many countries and a lot of research has gone into optimising athlete performance. Two factors influence athlete performance in a ski race: speed and the chosen path between the gates. However, to date there is no objective, quantitative method to determine instantaneous skiing performance that takes both of these factors into account. The purpose of this short communication was to define a variable quantifying instantaneous skiing performance and to study how this variable depended on the skiers' speed and on their chosen path. Instantaneous skiing performance was defined as time loss per elevation difference dt/dz, which depends on the skier's speed v(z), and the distance travelled per elevation difference ds/dz. Using kinematic data collected in an earlier study, it was evaluated how these variables can be used to assess the individual performance of six ski racers in two slalom turns. The performance analysis conducted in this study might be a useful tool not only for athletes and coaches preparing for competition, but also for sports scientists investigating skiing techniques or engineers developing and testing skiing equipment.
Schindelwig, K; Reichl, W; Kaps, P; Mössner, M; Nachbauer, W
The influence of important parameters on the flight trajectory for jumps in downhill World Cup races was investigated. To quantify the impact injury risk at landing, the parameter equivalent landing height (ELH) was introduced, which considered a variable slope inclination during the landing movement. Altogether, 145 runs at four different jumps in World Cup races and trainings were recorded and analyzed. A simulation model was developed to predict the flight phase of the skier. Drag and lift areas were selected by parameter identification to fit the simulation trajectory to the two-dimensional data from the video analysis. The maximum values of the ELH which can be absorbed with muscle force was taken from the study of Minetti et al. for elite female and male ski racers. A sensitivity analysis based on the four jumps showed that ELH is mainly influenced by takeoff angle, takeoff speed, and the steepness of the landing surface. With the help of the developed simulation software, it should be possible to predict the ELH for jumps in advance. In case of an excessive ELH, improvements can be made by changing the takeoff inclination or the approach speed. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
CERN has a more sporting spirit than ever before. This is not the result of any survey, but the impression you got as soon as you saw the 62 teams of six runners each speeding around the laboratory in the 32nd annual relay race. This year 11 more teams competed than in 2001. First changeover: Hervé Cornet takes over from Camille Ruiz Llamas for The Shabbys, and Sebastian Dorthe from Daniel Matteazzi for Charmilles Technologies. Jérôme Bendotti (EP/TA1) just holding off the team from the WHO at the finish. A total of 372 people ran together last Wednesday in this year's relay race, making for a record participation. It also seems that women are becoming more and more attracted by this competition, since this year there were eight ladies teams, also a new record. The first team were The Shabbys in a time of 10 minutes 45 seconds, finishing almost before the second team had started its last 300 metre leg. The 6 runners in each team cover distances of 1000, 800, 800,...
Potato brown rot, caused by Ralstonia solanacearum race 3 biovar 2 (Phylovar II, sequevar 1), is a serious endemic disease in the Nile Delta of Egypt. It is a quarantine disease in the EU, and export of potatoes from
Melo, Enirtes Caetano Prates; de Oliveira, Evangelina Xavier Gouveia; Chor, Dóra; Carvalho, Marilia Sá; Pinheiro, Rejane Sobrino
Access to mammograms, in common with other diagnostic procedures, is strongly conditioned by socioeconomic disparities. Which aspects of inequality affect the odds of undergoing a mammogram, and whether they are the same in different localities, are relevant issues related to the success of health policies. This study analyzed data from the 2008 PNAD - Brazilian National Household Sample Survey (11.607 million women 40 years of age or older), on having had at least one mammogram over life for women 40 years of age or older in each of Brazil's nine Metropolitan Regions (MR), according to socioeconomic position. The effects of income, schooling, health insurance and race in the different regions were investigated using multivariate logistical regression for each region individually, and for all MRs combined. The age-adjusted odds of a woman having had a mammogram according to race and stratified by two income strata (and two schooling strata) were also analyzed. Having a higher income increases four to seven times a woman's odds of having had at least one mammogram in all MRs except Curitiba. For schooling, the gradient, though less steep, is favorable to women with more years of study. Having health insurance increases two to three times the odds in all MRs. Multivariate analysis did not show differences due to race (except for the Fortaleza MR), but the stratified analysis by income and schooling shows effects of race in most MRs, with greater differences for women with higher socioeconomic status. This study confirms that income and schooling, as well as having health insurance, are still important determinants of inequality in health service use in Brazil. Additionally, race also contributes to the odds of having had a mammogram. The point is not to isolate the effect of each factor, but to evaluate how their interrelations may exacerbate differences, generating patterns of cumulative adversity, a theme that is still little explored in Brazil. This is much more
Full Text Available Other-race-effect (ORE refers to the observation that we can recognize own-race faces better than other-race faces (Meissner & Brigham, 2001. Yet, whether featural or configural face processing might contribute to other-race effect is still unclear. In the present study, we tested Taiwanese adults with faces of four ethnic groups (Taiwanese, Philippine, Caucasian, African and each with four levels of discriminability: Easy (change configuration and component: change identity, Medium (change component: change eyes, Hard-I (change configuration: widen eye spacing, and Hard-II (change configuration: mouth moved up. We adopted the visual paired-comparison task with two-alternative-forced-choice (2AFC procedure. The overall results showed that accuracy decreased and response time increased as the stimulus difficulty increased for each race. The accuracy was highest and the response time was lowest for the Taiwanese easy condition, which suggests an own-race advantage. In addition, the pattern of response time for Philippine faces was similar to that of Taiwanese faces and was shorter than Caucasian faces in the medium and Hard-I conditions. In conclusion, our study had two main findings. First, Philippine faces were seen as more like own-race faces rather than other-race faces. Second, both featural and configural face processing contribute to the other-race-effect.
Coles-Ritchie, Marilee; Smith, Robin Renee
Developing public education where every child has the right to learn requires that teachers pay attention to and engage in race talk--open discussion about race, social construction of race, and racism. While it is clear that children engage and reflect critically about these aspects of race even at a young age, teachers rarely engage in race talk…
Adventure racing is a multidisciplinary endurance test completed in teams. There seem to be many benefits in using an adventure race as part of a physical education curriculum. The races can also be linked to many national physical education standards. Adventure Racing C.O.R.E. uses the basic ideas of adventure racing and can be done at any school…
Andrews, Naomi J
This article is a close reading of Gustave D'Eichthal and Ishmayl Urbain's Lettres sur la race noire et la race blanche (1839), written during the decade prior to the "second" French emancipation in 1848. The article argues that the hierarchical gendering of race described in the letters is reflective of metropolitan concerns about potential for social disorder accompanying slave emancipation in the French colonies. In arguing for social reconciliation through interracial marriage and its offspring, the symbolically charged figure of the mulatto, the authors deployed gendered and familial language to describe a stable post-emancipation society.
M'charek, A.; Schramm, K.; Skinner, D.
In many European countries, the explicit discussion of race as a biological phenomenon has long been avoided. This has not meant that race has become obsolete or irrelevant all together. Rather, it is a slippery object that keeps shifting and changing. To understand its slippery nature, we suggest
Thomsen, Christen Kold
'Race' bliver i dansk jazzkritik, især fra 50erne og frem, ignoreret som et ydre 'sociologisk' faktum, i modsætning til kulturradiklisternes idealisering før 2. verdenskrig af musikernes 'race' . Men faktisk fortsætter begrebet med at spille en uerkendt rolle, ofte som kvalitets- og stilmarkør i...
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Great Kennebec River Whatever Race. 100.108 Section 100.108 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Whatever Race. (a) Regulated Area. That portion of the Kennebec River, extending bank to bank, between the...
Buchanan, Lisa Brown
The impetus for this study began during an elementary teacher education course meeting, where preservice teachers discussed whether or not it was appropriate to discuss controversial topics--including race--with young children. Preservice teachers disclosed their "uncomfortableness" with race at large, and emphasized that discussions…
Today, even though "social justice" programs exist as a virtual growth industry on US campuses and many universities have incorporated classes on race and racism into their curricula, everyone continues to be faced with the perception that race is a "controversial" topic that has to be broached with care due to its "sensitive nature". This is even…
Waegenaere, Anja M.B.; Sansing, R.C.; Wielhouwer, J.L.
We investigate the economic effects of capitalizing development costs during a race between two firms to discover and develop a new technology. Winning the race requires success in the research stage and success in the development stage. Development costs are expensed in some settings, but
De Waegenaere, A.; Sansing, R.C.; Wielhouwer, J.L.
We investigate the economic effects of capitalizing development costs during a race between two firms to discover and develop a new technology. Winning the race requires success in the research stage and success in the development stage. Development costs are expensed in some settings, but
Wickrama, K. A. Thulitha; Wickrama, K. A. S.; Bryant, Chalandra M.
Using a sample of 20,000 adolescents (Add Health data), this study examined the influences of community poverty and race/ethnicity on adolescent obesity. Multilevel analyses revealed strong evidence for the unique influences of community poverty and race/ethnicity on adolescent obesity net of family characteristics. The prevalence of obesity is…
Ossorio, Pilar; Duster, Troy
Among biomedical scientists, there is a great deal of controversy over the nature of race, the relevance of racial categories for research, and the proper methods of using racial variables. This article argues that researchers and scholars should avoid a binary-type argument, in which the question is whether to use race always or never.…
Rietveld, A.; Bakkes, S.; Roijers, D.
In this paper, we propose a novel approach to challenge balancing in racing games: circuit-adaptive challenge balancing. We propose to automatically adapt the actual racing circuit - while it is being played - such that the performed circuit adaptations intelligently balance the challenge for all
Carpenter, Bradley W.; Diem, Sarah
In the field of education, critical conversations focusing on race and race relations are of primary importance given the continued inequities within our society. Statistically, public schools continue to be racially and socioeconomically separate and unequal. In our continued efforts to address such inequities, this study examines the ways in…
... Skin Uterine Cancer Rates by Race/Ethnicity and Sex Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... and ethnicity. Incidence Rates by Race/Ethnicity and Sex “Incidence rate” means how many people out of ...
Stock car racing has seen tremendous growth in popularity in recent years. We introduce two datasets containing results from all Winston Cup races between 1975 and 2003, inclusive. Students can use any number of statistical methods and applications of basic probability on the data to answer a wide range of practical questions. Instructors and…
Pappers, Stephanie Maria
A host race is a population which is partially reproductively isolated as a direct consequence of adaptation to a certain host. For host race formation to occur five conditions should be met. First of all, the populations should occur in sympatry, which means that they co-occur within the normal
Jonathan B Freeman
Full Text Available It is commonly believed that race is perceived through another's facial features, such as skin color. In the present research, we demonstrate that cues to social status that often surround a face systematically change the perception of its race. Participants categorized the race of faces that varied along White-Black morph continua and that were presented with high-status or low-status attire. Low-status attire increased the likelihood of categorization as Black, whereas high-status attire increased the likelihood of categorization as White; and this influence grew stronger as race became more ambiguous (Experiment 1. When faces with high-status attire were categorized as Black or faces with low-status attire were categorized as White, participants' hand movements nevertheless revealed a simultaneous attraction to select the other race-category response (stereotypically tied to the status cue before arriving at a final categorization. Further, this attraction effect grew as race became more ambiguous (Experiment 2. Computational simulations then demonstrated that these effects may be accounted for by a neurally plausible person categorization system, in which contextual cues come to trigger stereotypes that in turn influence race perception. Together, the findings show how stereotypes interact with physical cues to shape person categorization, and suggest that social and contextual factors guide the perception of race.
Freeman, Jonathan B; Penner, Andrew M; Saperstein, Aliya; Scheutz, Matthias; Ambady, Nalini
It is commonly believed that race is perceived through another's facial features, such as skin color. In the present research, we demonstrate that cues to social status that often surround a face systematically change the perception of its race. Participants categorized the race of faces that varied along White-Black morph continua and that were presented with high-status or low-status attire. Low-status attire increased the likelihood of categorization as Black, whereas high-status attire increased the likelihood of categorization as White; and this influence grew stronger as race became more ambiguous (Experiment 1). When faces with high-status attire were categorized as Black or faces with low-status attire were categorized as White, participants' hand movements nevertheless revealed a simultaneous attraction to select the other race-category response (stereotypically tied to the status cue) before arriving at a final categorization. Further, this attraction effect grew as race became more ambiguous (Experiment 2). Computational simulations then demonstrated that these effects may be accounted for by a neurally plausible person categorization system, in which contextual cues come to trigger stereotypes that in turn influence race perception. Together, the findings show how stereotypes interact with physical cues to shape person categorization, and suggest that social and contextual factors guide the perception of race.
Li, David Leiwei
Approaches the categorical construction of "Asian American" through an interdisciplinary examination of its contemporary literary emergence. Investigates the ways with which race, gender, and class are embedded within or absent from an evolving Asian American critical and cultural discourse, and reflects on the interplay among race,…
Goldweber, Asha; Waasdorp, Tracy Evian; Bradshaw, Catherine P.
Research on the role of race and urbanicity in bullying involvement has been limited. The present study examined bullying involvement subgroups that relate to race, urbanicity, and the perceived reason for the bullying. Self-report data were collected from 10,254 middle school youth (49.8% female; 62.4% Caucasian, 19.0% African American, and 5.6%…
... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Overview Information Race to the Top Fund Assessment Program Catalog of... (High School Course Assessment Programs grants). AGENCY: Office of Elementary and Secondary Education... 18171) a notice inviting applications for new awards for FY 2010 (NIA) for the Race to the Top Fund...
Simpson, Grant J.; García-López, Víctor; Petermeier, Philipp; Grill, Leonhard; Tour, James M.
The first NanoCar Race was an opportunity to see how far we have come in manipulating single molecules. As the team with the fastest molecule in this race, we share the synthetic challenges to building a fast nanocar and the experimental approach needed for rapid translation across a surface.
Roberts, Rosemarie A.; Bell, Lee A.; Murphy, Brett
In this article, we examine how youth in one urban high school talked about race and racism while participating in a curriculum that introduced the analytic lens of story types (stock stories, concealed stories, resistance stories, and counterstories) to look at race and racism and engage these issues through storytelling and the arts. We draw on…
Shelton, Kimber L.; Delgado-Romero, Edward A.; Wells, Eliza M.
Extending previous research (E. A. Delgado-Romero, N. Galvan, P. Maschino, & M. Rowland, 2005) regarding race and ethnicity in counseling and counseling psychology, this article examined how race and ethnicity were reported and used in empirical studies published in diversity-focused journals from 1990 to 2007. The results are discussed and…
Living the future now: `Race' and challenges of transformation in higher education. ZE Erasmus. Abstract. Drawing on research among medical students at the University of Cape Town's Faculty of Health Sciences, this article explores two questions: How do students and staff work with `race' in their relations to one another?
To develop high yielding Fusarium wilt resistant varieties, it is essential to identify new sources of resistance that can withstand multiple races of the pathogen. The aim of this study was to identify [Fusarium udum (L.) Millsp.] races occurring in the study fields, determine reaction of pigeon pea hybrids to the different isolates ...
In the aftermath of Western domination is the trivialization of skin color as significant issue among peoples of African descent. Regrettably, research by psychologists the world over emphasize race in the study of human social conditions. Despite the fact that race is increasingly irrelevant Western psychologists continually ...
Race-specific resistance genes represent essential genetic sources in crop breeding. Map-based cloning of the wheat Stb6 gene against Zymoseptoria tritici identified a wall-associated receptor kinase-like protein as a novel player in race-specific disease resistance.
From 1995 to 2007, flat racing data was collected for Thoroughbred and Arabian horses in Algeria. Non-genetic factors affecting racing performances have been identified and quantified using linear models. Performances are represented through the earnings and the rankings. Three traits were used: two earnings traits [the ...
National Alliance for Public Charter Schools, 2012
This "Details from the Dashboard" report examines race/ethnicity breakouts for public charter schools and traditional public schools at the state and the school district level. The data in this report indicate that in the large majority of states, the race/ethnicity student demographics of charter schools are almost identical to those of the…
Esteve, Albert; López, Luis Ángel
We use census microdata to assess the levels of educational homogamy in six Latin American countries: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica, Ecuador and Mexico. This paper contributes to the literature on homogamy in three ways. First, by conducting a comparative analysis between countries belonging to the still little-studied region of Latin America, which is still undergoing intense and varied processes of demographic, economic, social, and political modernization. Second, by simultaneously including variables of structural and individual nature. Finally, by making progress with respect to the interactions between educational homogamy and other important variables associated with high levels of social inequality in the region: race, ethnicity and birthplace.
Castilla, Emilio J
This study helps to fill a significant gap in the literature on organizations and inequality by investigating the central role of merit-based reward systems in shaping gender and racial disparities in wages and promotions. The author develops and tests a set of propositions isolating processes of performance-reward bias, whereby women and minorities receive less compensation than white men with equal scores on performance evaluations. Using personnel data from a large service organization, the author empirically establishes the existence of this bias and shows that gender, race, and nationality differences continue to affect salary growth after performance ratings are taken into account, ceteris paribus. This finding demonstrates a critical challenge faced by the many contemporary employers who adopt merit-based practices and policies. Although these policies are often adopted in the hope of motivating employees and ensuring meritocracy, policies with limited transparency and accountability can actually increase ascriptive bias and reduce equity in the workplace.
Full Text Available It is known that faces are rapidly and even unconsciously categorized into social groups (black vs. white, male vs. female. Here, I test whether preferences for specific social groups guide attention, using a visual search paradigm. In Experiment 1 participants searched displays of neutral faces for an angry or frightened target face. Black target faces were detected more efficiently than white targets, indicating that black faces attracted more attention. Experiment 2 showed that attention differences between black and white faces were correlated with individual differences in automatic race preference. In Experiment 3, using happy target faces, the attentional preference for black over white faces was eliminated. Taken together, these results suggest that automatic preferences for social groups guide attention to individuals from negatively valenced groups, when people are searching for a negative emotion such as anger or fear.
Full Text Available Mark M Smith,1 Steven H Rose,1 Darrell R Schroeder,2 Timothy R Long1 1Department of Anesthesiology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, MN, USA; 2Division of Biomedical Statistics and Informatics, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, MN, USA Purpose: Increasing the diversity of the United States (US physician workforce to better represent the general population has received considerable attention. The purpose of this study was to compare medical student race data to that of the US general population. We hypothesized that race demographics of medical school matriculants would reflect that of the general population. Patients and methods: Published race data from the United States Census Bureau (USCB 2010 census and the 2011 Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC allopathic medical school application and enrollment by race and ethnicity survey were analyzed and compared. Race data of enrolled medical students was compared to race data of the general population within geographic regions and subregions. Additionally, race data of medical school applicants and matriculants were compared to race data of the overall general population. Results: Race distribution within US medical schools was significantly different than race distribution for the overall, regional, and subregional populations of the US (P<0.001. Additionally, the overall race distribution of medical school applicants differed significantly to the race distribution of the general population (P<0.001. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that race demographics of US medical school applicants and matriculants are significantly different from that of the general population, and may be resultant of societal quandaries present early in formal education. Initiatives targeting underrepresented minorities at an early stage to enhance health care career interest and provide academic support and mentorship will be required to address the racial disparity that exists in US
Sharma, Malika; Kuper, Ayelet
The deaths of black men and women while in police custody, rising anti-immigrant sentiment and rhetoric in high-income countries, and the continued health disparities experienced by Indigenous communities globally have brought race and racism to the forefront of public discourse in recent years. In a context where academic health science centres are increasingly called to be "socially accountable," ignoring the larger social context of race and racism is something that medical education institutions can little afford to do. However, many such institutions have largely remained silent on the issue of race and racism, both within and outside of healthcare. Most medical education continues to emphasize a primarily biological understanding of race. We argue that a different approach is needed. Highlighting the social construction of race is an essential starting point for educators and trainees to tackle racialized health disparities in our clinics and to challenge racism in our classrooms, educational and research institutions, and communities.
Zhang, Tiantian; Georgiopoulos, Michael; Anagnostopoulos, Georgios C
In machine learning, the notion of multi-objective model selection (MOMS) refers to the problem of identifying the set of Pareto-optimal models that optimize by compromising more than one predefined objectives simultaneously. This paper introduces SPRINT-Race, the first multi-objective racing algorithm in a fixed-confidence setting, which is based on the sequential probability ratio with indifference zone test. SPRINT-Race addresses the problem of MOMS with multiple stochastic optimization objectives in the proper Pareto-optimality sense. In SPRINT-Race, a pairwise dominance or non-dominance relationship is statistically inferred via a non-parametric, ternary-decision, dual-sequential probability ratio test. The overall probability of falsely eliminating any Pareto-optimal models or mistakenly returning any clearly dominated models is strictly controlled by a sequential Holm's step-down family-wise error rate control method. As a fixed-confidence model selection algorithm, the objective of SPRINT-Race is to minimize the computational effort required to achieve a prescribed confidence level about the quality of the returned models. The performance of SPRINT-Race is first examined via an artificially constructed MOMS problem with known ground truth. Subsequently, SPRINT-Race is applied on two real-world applications: 1) hybrid recommender system design and 2) multi-criteria stock selection. The experimental results verify that SPRINT-Race is an effective and efficient tool for such MOMS problems. code of SPRINT-Race is available at https://github.com/watera427/SPRINT-Race.
Full Text Available Abstract:Background: Despite the well-established literature on the protective effects of socioeconomic status (SES against mortality, these effects may vary based on contextual factors such as race and place. Using 25-year follow up data of a nationally representative sample of adults in the U.S., this study had two aims: 1 to explore separate, additive, and multiplicative effects of race and place (urbanity on mortality, and 2 to test the effects of education and income against all-cause mortality based on race and place.Methods: The Americans’ Changing Lives (ACL Study followed Whites and Blacks 25 years and older adults from 1986 until 2011. The focal predictors were baseline SES (education and income collected in 1986. The main outcome was time to death due to all causes from 1986 until 2011. Age, gender, and behaviors (smoking and exercise and health (chronic medical conditions, self-rated health and depressive symptoms were potential confounders. A series of survey Cox proportional hazard models were used to test protective effects of education and income on mortality based on race and urbanity. Results: While race and place had separate effects on mortality, the additive and multiplicative effects of race and place were not significant. Higher education and income were protective against all-cause mortality in the pooled sample. While the protective effects of education was explained by baseline health, the effect of income remained significant beyond health. Race and urbanity significantly interacted with baseline education but not income on all-cause mortality, suggesting that protective effects of education but not income depend on race and place. Conclusion: The survival gain associated with education in the United States depends on race and place. These findings suggest that populations differently benefit from SES resources, particularly education. Differential effect of education on employment and health care may explain
Norizan, A.; Rahman, M. T. A.; Amin, N. A. M.; Basha, M. H.; Ismail, M. H. N.; Hamid, A. F. A.
This paper describes the design differences between the intake manifold and restrictor used in racing cars that participate in the Formula Student (FSAE) competition. To fulfil the criteria of rules and regulation of the race, each race car must have a restriction device that has a maximum diameter of 20 mm installed between the throttle body and intake manifold. To overcome these problems, a restrictor has been designed and analysed using the steady state analysis, to reduce the loss of pressure in the restrictor. Design of the restrictor has a fixed parameter of the maximum diameter of 20mm. There are some differences that have been taken to make the comparison between the design of the restrictor, the diameter of the inlet and outlet, the curvature of the surface, convergence and divergence angle and length of the restrictor. Intake manifold was designed based on the design of the chassis, which shall not exceed the envelope defined by the FSAE competition. A good intake manifold design will affect the performance of the engine. Each design have made an analysis designed to ensure that each cylinder engine gets its air evenly. To verify the design, steady state analysis was made for a total mass flow rate and the velocity of air leaving a runner in each engine. Data such as the engine MAP reading was recorded by using Haltech ECU Management Software as reference purposes.
Parappilly, Maria; Hassam, Christopher; Woodman, Richard J.
Laboratories using LEGO race cars were developed for students in an introductory physics topic with a high early drop-out rate. In a 2014 pilot study, the labs were offered to improve students' confidence with experiments and laboratory skills, especially uncertainty propagation. This intervention was extended into the intro level physics topic the next year, for comparison and evaluation. Considering the pilot study, we subsequently adapted the delivery of the LEGO labs for a large Engineering Mechanics cohort. A qualitative survey of the students was taken to gain insight into their perception of the incorporation of LEGO race cars into physics labs. For Engineering, the findings show that LEGO physics was instrumental in teaching students the measurement and uncertainty, improving their lab reporting skills, and was a key factor in reducing the early attrition rate. This paper briefly recalls the results of the pilot study, and how variations in the delivery yielded better learning outcomes. A novel method is proposed for how LEGO race cars in a physics lab can help students increase their understanding of uncertainty and motivate them towards physics practicals.
Full Text Available Colletotrichum lentis is a fungal pathogen of lentil in Canada but rarely reported elsewhere. Two races, Ct0 and Ct1, have been identified using differential lines. Our objective was to develop a PCR-probe differentiating these races. Sequences of the translation elongation factor 1α (tef1α, RNA polymerase II subunit B2 (rpb2, ATP citrate lyase subunit A (acla, and internal transcribed spacer (ITS regions were monomorphic, while the intergenic spacer (IGS region showed length polymorphisms at two minisatellites of 23 and 39 nucleotides (nt. A PCR-probe (39F/R amplifying the 39 nt minisatellite was developed which subsequently revealed 1-5 minisatellites with 1-12 repeats in C. lentis. The probe differentiated race Ct1 isolates having 7, 9 or 7+9 repeats from race Ct0 having primarily 2 or 4 repeats, occasionally 5, 6, or 8, but never 7 or 9 repeats. These isolates were collected between 1991 and 1999. In a 2012 survey isolates with 2 and 4 repeats increased from 34% to 67%, while isolated with 7 or 9 repeats decreased from 40 to 4%, likely because Ct1 resistant lentil varieties had been grown. The 39 nt repeat was identified in C. gloeosporioides, C. trifolii, Ascochyta lentis, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Botrytis cinerea. Thus, the 39F/R PCR probe is not species specific, but can differentiate isolates based on repeat number. The 23 nt minisatellite in C. lentis exists as three length variants with ten sequence variations differentiating race Ct0 having 14 or 19 repeats from race Ct1 having 17 repeats, except for one isolate. RNA-translation of 23 nt repeats forms hairpins and has the appropriate length to suggest that IGS could be a site of small RNA synthesis, a hypothesis that warrants further investigation. Small RNA from fungal plant pathogens able to silence genes either in the host or pathogen thereby aiding infection have been reported.
Wegner, Gregory P.
Discusses racist teaching charts which accompanied a Nazi German teacher's textbook on race biology. Examines the significance of the work of Alfred Vogel within the context of Nazi race education. Warns that school curriculum can easily be used to pervert science and advance racism when under control of a racist state. (DK)
Johnston-Guerrero, Marc P.
Given the historical legacies of racial exclusion and disparities within U.S. higher education and contemporary manifestations of racial tensions on college campuses, this study explores the meanings college students make of race within a sociopolitical context often claimed to be "postracial" (i.e., one where race no longer matters).…
Outlines how the Race Relations Amendment Act should contribute to addressing issues of underachievement and low expectations in London and throughout the United Kingdom, describing the responsibility of schools to prepare and maintain written race equality policies; assess and monitor the impact of policies on diverse staff, students, and…
Samuels, Amy J.
Despite exposure of educational disparities for students of color, as well as the notion that educational training rarely discusses race and racism, there continues to be a lack of discourse on race, racism, and anti-racism in educational leadership. Subsequently, it is important to challenge deficit thinking and encourage further examination of…
Full Text Available This paper explores the rough, emergent and partial public culture of race-activist hashtags through the discourses of #RaceFail, a critical race quarrel that started in the sci-fi and fantasy blogosphere, and expanded from there into a broader, sustained discussion over social media; and #Ferguson, a recent race-activist hashtag raising issues around censorship, filtering and ‘gated discourse’. It ends with a discussion of how the frictions between the neoliberal desire to reduce hashtag publics to product publicity, and the activist desire to use hashtags to further public sphere awareness of political issues, is exemplified in the controversy over Facebook’s ‘algorithmic filtering’ of #Ferguson, and how, nevertheless, critical race hashtags are tapping into a developing tradition of vocal social media–supported dissent.
Erena A. Edae
Full Text Available Stem rust of wheat caused by the fungal pathogen Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici historically caused major yield losses of wheat worldwide. To understand the genetic basis of stem rust resistance in contemporary North American spring wheat, genome-wide association analysis (GWAS was conducted on an association mapping panel comprised of 250 elite lines. The lines were evaluated in separate nurseries each inoculated with a different P. graminis f. sp. tritici race for 3 years (2013, 2015, and 2016 at Rosemount, Minnesota allowing the evaluation of race-specificity separate from the effect of environment. The lines were also challenged with the same four races at the seedling stage in a greenhouse facility at the USDA-ARS Cereal Disease Laboratory. A total of 22,310 high-quality SNPs obtained from the Infinium 90,000 SNPs chip were used to perform association analysis. We observed often negative and sometimes weak correlations between responses to different races that highlighted the abundance of race-specific resistance and the inability to predict the response of the lines across races. Markers strongly associated with resistance to the four races at seedling and field environments were identified. At the seedling stage, the most significant marker-trait associations were detected in the regions of known major genes (Sr6, Sr7a, and Sr9b except for race QFCSC where a strong association was detected on chromosome arm 1AL. We postulated the presence of Sr2, Sr6, Sr7a, Sr8a, Sr9b, Sr11, Sr12, Sr24, Sr25, Sr31, and Sr57 (Lr34 in this germplasm based on phenotypic and marker data. We found over half of the panel possessed three or more Sr genes, and most commonly included various combinations of Sr6, Sr7a, Sr8a, Sr9b, Sr11, Sr12, and Sr57. Most of these genes confer resistance to specific P. graminis f. sp. tritici races accounting for the prevalent stem rust resistance in North American spring wheat.
Edae, Erena A; Pumphrey, Michael O; Rouse, Matthew N
Stem rust of wheat caused by the fungal pathogen Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici historically caused major yield losses of wheat worldwide. To understand the genetic basis of stem rust resistance in contemporary North American spring wheat, genome-wide association analysis (GWAS) was conducted on an association mapping panel comprised of 250 elite lines. The lines were evaluated in separate nurseries each inoculated with a different P. graminis f. sp. tritici race for 3 years (2013, 2015, and 2016) at Rosemount, Minnesota allowing the evaluation of race-specificity separate from the effect of environment. The lines were also challenged with the same four races at the seedling stage in a greenhouse facility at the USDA-ARS Cereal Disease Laboratory. A total of 22,310 high-quality SNPs obtained from the Infinium 90,000 SNPs chip were used to perform association analysis. We observed often negative and sometimes weak correlations between responses to different races that highlighted the abundance of race-specific resistance and the inability to predict the response of the lines across races. Markers strongly associated with resistance to the four races at seedling and field environments were identified. At the seedling stage, the most significant marker-trait associations were detected in the regions of known major genes ( Sr6, Sr7a , and Sr9b ) except for race QFCSC where a strong association was detected on chromosome arm 1AL. We postulated the presence of Sr2, Sr6, Sr7a, Sr8a, Sr9b, Sr11, Sr12, Sr24, Sr25, Sr31 , and Sr57 ( Lr34 ) in this germplasm based on phenotypic and marker data. We found over half of the panel possessed three or more Sr genes, and most commonly included various combinations of Sr6, Sr7a, Sr8a, Sr9b, Sr11, Sr12 , and Sr57 . Most of these genes confer resistance to specific P. graminis f. sp. tritici races accounting for the prevalent stem rust resistance in North American spring wheat.
Senholzi, Keith B.; Depue, Brendan E.; Correll, Joshua; Banich, Marie T.; Ito, Tiffany A.
The current study examined blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal underlying racial differences in threat detection. During fMRI, participants determined whether pictures of Black or White individuals held weapons. They were instructed to make shoot responses when the picture showed armed individuals but don’t shoot responses to unarmed individuals, with the cost of not shooting armed individuals being greater than that of shooting unarmed individuals. Participants were faster to shoot armed Blacks than Whites, but faster in making don’t shoot responses to unarmed Whites than Blacks. Brain activity differed to armed versus unarmed targets depending on target race, suggesting different mechanisms underlying threat versus safety decisions. Anterior cingulate cortex was preferentially engaged for unarmed Whites than Blacks. Parietal and visual cortical regions exhibited greater activity for armed Blacks than Whites. Seed-based functional connectivity of the amygdala revealed greater coherence with parietal and visual cortices for armed Blacks than Whites. Furthermore, greater implicit Black-danger associations were associated with increased amygdala activation to armed Blacks, compared to armed Whites. Our results suggest that different neural mechanisms may underlie racial differences in responses to armed versus unarmed targets. PMID:26357911
Paqué, F; Musch, U; Hülsmann, M
apical region (Fisher's exact test, P = 0.0392). Two roots lost working length with RaCe instruments, whilst ProTaper preparation resulted in two roots loosing working length and one fractured instrument. Mean working time was shorter for ProTaper (90.9 s) than for RaCe (137.6 s); the difference was significant (Wilcoxon's test, P = 0.011). Both systems respected original root canal curvature well and were safe to use. Cleanliness was not satisfactory for both systems.
Holloway, Steven; Ellis, Mark
Gender asymmetry in mixed-race heterosexual partnerships and marriages is common. For instance, black men marry or partner with white women at a far higher rate than white men marry or partner with black women. This article asks if such gender asymmetries relate to the racial character of the neighborhoods in which households headed by mixed-race couples live. Gendered power imbalances within households generally play into decisions about where to live or where to move (i.e., men typically benefit more than women), and we find the same in mixed-race couple arrangements and residential attainment. Gender interacts with race to produce a measurable race-by-gender effect. Specifically, we report a positive relationship between the percentage white in a neighborhood and the presence of households headed by mixed-race couples with a white male partner. The opposite holds for households headed by white-blacks and white-Latinos if the female partner is white; they are drawn to predominantly nonwhite neighborhoods. The results have implications for investigations of residential location attainment, neighborhood segregation analysis, and mixed-race studies. PMID:23073752
Fernanda M. GAMBA
Full Text Available The virulence of 135 single-spore isolates of Pyrenophora tritici-repentis, collected from durum wheat fields representing most of the major agro-ecological zones of Morocco from 2013 to 2015, was assessed on six international differential wheat genotypes under controlled conditions. Races 1, 5, 6 and 7 were identified with races 5 and 6 being most frequent, representing 47% and 44% of isolates tested, respectively. Only eight isolates (6% collected at two research stations and a farm field near a station in 2014 and 2015 were race 1, while three isolates collected in 2014 in a farm field in north-eastern Morocco were race 7. The uniform race structure in farm fields may be due to overreliance on a limited and narrow genetic base for durum wheat crops in Morocco. However, the identification of four races is significant since P. tritici-repentis can generate new combinations of virulence, thereby increasing race diversity. Combined with the low wheat diversity this may lead to future severe disease epidemics.
Gravlee, Clarence C
The current debate over racial inequalities in health is arguably the most important venue for advancing both scientific and public understanding of race, racism, and human biological variation. In the United States and elsewhere, there are well-defined inequalities between racially defined groups for a range of biological outcomes-cardiovascular disease, diabetes, stroke, certain cancers, low birth weight, preterm delivery, and others. Among biomedical researchers, these patterns are often taken as evidence of fundamental genetic differences between alleged races. However, a growing body of evidence establishes the primacy of social inequalities in the origin and persistence of racial health disparities. Here, I summarize this evidence and argue that the debate over racial inequalities in health presents an opportunity to refine the critique of race in three ways: 1) to reiterate why the race concept is inconsistent with patterns of global human genetic diversity; 2) to refocus attention on the complex, environmental influences on human biology at multiple levels of analysis and across the lifecourse; and 3) to revise the claim that race is a cultural construct and expand research on the sociocultural reality of race and racism. Drawing on recent developments in neighboring disciplines, I present a model for explaining how racial inequality becomes embodied-literally-in the biological well-being of racialized groups and individuals. This model requires a shift in the way we articulate the critique of race as bad biology. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Full Text Available It is well established that individuals show an other-race effect (ORE in face recognition: they recognize own-race faces better than other-race faces. The present study tested the hypothesis that individuals would also scan own- and other-race faces differently. We asked Chinese participants to remember Chinese and Caucasian faces and we tested their memory of the faces over five testing blocks. The participants' eye movements were recorded with the use of an eye tracker. The data were analyzed with an Area of Interest approach using the key AOIs of a face (eyes, nose, and mouth. Also, we used the iMap toolbox to analyze the raw data of participants' fixation on each pixel of the entire face. Results from both types of analyses strongly supported the hypothesis. When viewing target Chinese or Caucasian faces, Chinese participants spent a significantly greater proportion of fixation time on the eyes of other-race Caucasian faces than the eyes of own-race Chinese faces. In contrast, they spent a significantly greater proportion of fixation time on the nose and mouth of Chinese faces than the nose and mouth of Caucasian faces. This pattern of differential fixation, for own- and other-race eyes and nose in particular, was consistent even as participants became increasingly familiar with the target faces of both races. The results could not be explained by the perceptual salience of the Chinese nose or Caucasian eyes because these features were not differentially salient across the races. Our results are discussed in terms of the facial morphological differences between Chinese and Caucasian faces and the enculturation of mutual gaze norms in East Asian cultures.
de Jongh, B E; Paul, D A; Hoffman, M; Locke, R
To investigate the association between maternal pre-pregnancy obesity, race/ethnicity and prematurity. Retrospective cohort study of maternal deliveries at a single regional center from 2009 to 2010 time period (n = 11,711). Generalized linear models were used for the analysis to estimate an adjusted odds ratio with 95% confidence interval of the association between maternal pre-pregnancy obesity, race/ethnicity and prematurity. Analysis controlled for diabetes, chronic hypertension, previous preterm birth, smoking and insurance status. The demographics of the study population were as follows, race/ethnicity had predominance in the White/Non-Hispanic population with 60.1%, followed by the Black/Non-Hispanic population 24.2%, the Hispanic population with 10.3% and the Asian population with 5.4%. Maternal pre-pregnancy weight showed that the population with a normal body mass index (BMI) was 49.4%, followed by the population being overweight with 26.2%, and last, the population which was obese with 24.4%. Maternal obesity increased the odds of prematurity in the White/Non-Hispanic, Hispanic and Asian population (aOR 1.40, CI 1.12-1.75; aOR 2.20, CI 1.23-3.95; aOR 3.07, CI 1.16-8.13, respectively). Although the Black/Non-Hispanic population prematurity rate remains higher than the other race/ethnicity populations, the Black/Non-Hispanic population did not have an increased odds of prematurity in obese mothers (OR 0.87; CI 0.68-1.19). Unlike White/Non-Hispanic, Asian and Hispanic mothers, normal pre-pregnancy BMI in Black/Non-Hispanic mothers was not associated with lower odds for prematurity. The odds for mothers of the White/Non-Hispanic, Hispanic and Asian populations, for delivering a premature infant, were significantly increased when obese. Analysis controlled for chronic hypertension, diabetes, insurance status, prior preterm birth and smoking. Obesity is a risk factor for prematurity in the White/Non-Hispanic, Asian and Hispanic population, but not for the
Yanturali, Sedat; Canacik, Omer; Karsli, Emre; Suner, Selim
Although road bicycle races have been held for more than a century, injury and illness patterns during multi-day bicycle events have not been widely studied. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of injury and illness among riders and describe the medical care interventions provided to participants of cycling road races. A prospective observational study was conducted on the Presidential Cycling Tour of Turkey, which was held between April 26 and May 3, 2015. The race lasted 8 days and covered 1258 km of road. There were 166 elite cycling athletes representing 21 teams from various countries. Data collected pertaining to incidents involving injury or illness included the following: type of injury; anatomical location of injury; details of the medical encounter; location of the intervention; treatment provided; medication administered and disposition of the rider. An injury was defined as a physical complaint or observable damage to the body produced by the transfer of energy of the rider. An illness was defined as a physical complaint or presentation not related to injury. The overall incidence (injury and illness) was 5.83 per 1000 cycling hours. (Injury incidence was 2.82 vs illness incidence of 3.01 per 1000 hours cycling). A total of 31 incidents occurred. Of these, 15 were injuries, while 16 were complaints of a non-traumatic nature. A total of 43 interventions were made in the 15 cases of injury. The most commonly injured body regions were limbs; the majority of injuries involved the skin and soft tissue. The most common medical intervention was wound care (64% of all interventions). Two riders had to withdraw from the race, and one was hospitalized due to a traumatic pneumothorax. None of the non-traumatic cases resulted in withdrawal from the race. A broad spectrum of illness and injury occurs during elite multi-day road races, ranging from simple skin injuries to serious injuries requiring hospital admission. Most injuries and illnesses are
Volkova, L. I.; Palei, F. A.
In the operation of a universal joint bearing at low velocities of the reciprocating motion of rolling bodies (needle rollers) the near has the form of contact gripping of the metal of the bodies in contact. This is accompanied by continuous plastic deformation of the surface layers of races. Therefore, it is important to create a structural state in the working layers of a race that provides resistance to plastic deformation, namely, martensite of high hardness 62-65 HRC e. Special features of the chemicothermal treatment (CTT) of races of universal joint bearings of 15G I steel produced by the cold squeezing method are described.
Ge, Liezhong; Zhang, Hongchuan; Wang, Zhe; Quinn, Paul C; Pascalis, Olivier; Kelly, David; Slater, Alan; Tian, Jie; Lee, Kang
The other-race effect is a collection of phenomena whereby faces of one's own race are processed differently from those of other races. Previous studies have revealed a paradoxical mirror pattern of an own-race advantage in face recognition and an other-race advantage in race-based categorisation. With a well-controlled design, we compared recognition and categorisation of own-race and other-race faces in both Caucasian and Chinese participants. Compared with own-race faces, other-race faces were less accurately and more slowly recognised, whereas they were more rapidly categorised by race. The mirror pattern was confirmed by a unique negative correlation between the two effects in terms of reaction time with a hierarchical regression analysis. This finding suggests an antagonistic interaction between the processing of face identity and that of face category, and a common underlying processing mechanism.
Susan B. Hansen
Full Text Available Racial resentment has been shown to have a significant impact on voting by whites in recent presidential elections, and a much larger impact than the traditional gender-gap measure based on the male-female dichotomy. This analysis will use data from the American National Election Studies [ANES] to compare broader indicators of race and gender applicable to the Democratic and Republican parties as well as to respondents’ opinions of appropriate roles for women. Since the 1980s the parties have diverged considerably on abortion and women’s issues, and voters now view the Democrats as more supportive than Republicans of equality for women and reproductive rights. Perceptions of party differences on women’s issues strongly influenced vote choice, 1988–2008, and in 2008 had greater impact on whites’ votes than opinions on aid to blacks, abortion, gay marriage, or the economy. Although racial resentment was a strong predictor of the white vote in 2012 as in previous years, presidential voting was also significantly influenced by respondent sex as well as opinions on gender roles. Voters regarded the Democratic Party as “better for the interests of women,” and this proved to be a highly effective wedge issue for the Democrats in 2012.
Although the American literature on "war neuroses" expanded during World War II, psychiatrists remained more interested in dramatic instances of "combat fatigue" than in the problems of soldiers who broke down far from the field of battle. This bias in the medical literature shaped both diagnosis and treatment. It had an especially powerful effect on African American soldiers who, in the "Jim Crow" army of World War II, were assigned in disproportionate numbers to service units. When military neuropsychiatrists did write about troubled young African Americans, many revealed a racial conservatism that was surprising given the liberal environmentalist paradigm of the day. (Here, a particularly useful source is the two-volume history of Neuropsychiatry in World War II, produced by the Medical Department of the U.S. Army.) The major challenge to such views came from the National Medical Association (NMA). Despite its many criticisms of military medicine, the NMA argued that African American soldiers and veterans needed more, not fewer, psychiatric services. NMA members also joined their white counterparts in the campaign to diminish the stigma of mental illness, especially among the families of soldiers returning home. We need more investigation of the subsequent history of race and psychiatry, especially within the Veterans Administration.
Brenda L. Hughes
Full Text Available Carter suggests the concept of a “comfort zone” to explain the inability of dramatic African American programs to be successful on television. He argues that a workable formula has been developed for successful African American series, “portray black people in a way that would be acceptable to the millions of potential purchasers (whites of advertised products. That is, non-threatening and willing to ‘stay in their place.’”. Using a data set constructed from television ratings and shares, this study examines “black-centeredness” within the context of program success and failure. The comfort zone concept argues Black-centered television series are only successful in a comedic genre because White audiences, who have the majority of the ratings power, will only watch Black-centered series with which they are comfortable. The findings suggest that, in general, race, that is Black-centeredness, did not negatively influence program ratings or shares.
Alger, George; Santiago, S. Scott (Technical Monitor)
The next Space Race will be in the economic applications from space and science technology. As NASA science and technology has global application; IT is global, economics is global; surely there are great untapped potentials in finding the IT links of commonality among these three. The Economics of IT will continue to depend upon solution providers creating new methods that capitalize on linking information and information centers with the applications community for business and economic functions.. New and innovative IT vendors whose increased efforts to apply evolving technologies and principles that power the e-business revolution are now seeing the business of government being transformed in a similar fashion. NASA will be a prime example of IT transformation. Potential benefits of e-government are identical to the benefits of e-commerce, which start from value derived from capabilities and assets. The capability and asset wealth of NASA technology and data mass scattered through hundreds of archives will one day provide incredible economic benefit across international and corporate boundaries. Yet the ability to economically benefit from bridging the gap between capability to billable service has yet to find it's first major market. Ultimately the role of government, science, and technology linking to the business world will find greater dependence from this increasingly common ground of IT solutions and technologies. Therefore the future role of the IT industry may be as much administrative as technical, ultimately of critical importance furthering the role of science into application.
Abdullah, M. A.; Mansur, M. R.; Tamaldin, N.; Thanaraj, K.
Three chassis designs have been developed using commercial computer aided design (CAD) software. The design is based on the specifications of UTeM Formula VarsityTM 2012 (FV2012). The selection of the design is derived from weighted matrix which consists of reliability, cost, time consumption and weight. The score of the matrix is formulated based on relative weighted factor among the selections. All three designs are then fabricated using selected materials available. The actual cost, time consumption and weight of the chassis's are compared with the theoretical weighted scores. Standard processes of cuttings, fittings and welding are performed in chassis mock up and fabrication. The chassis is later assembled together with suspension systems, steering linkages, brake systems, engine system, and drive shaft systems. Once the chassis is assembled, the studies of driver's ergonomic and part accessibility are performed. The completion in final fittings and assembly of the race car and its reliability demonstrate an outstanding design for manufacturing (DFM) practices of the chassis.
Andy Butterworth, CERN Running Club
On Thursday 23 May, the 43rd CERN Relay Race took place, with 108 teams on the starting line, the largest participation ever! The DG was present at the start and said a few words to encourage the runners. At 12:15, the Solar Club and handbike racers, led by Jean-Yves Le Meur, were the first to set off. And as last year, the relay runners were accompanied by an enthusiastic group of Nordic walkers. The first team across the finish line was "Velo City", in a very fast time of 10'31". New this year was a prize category for the best fancy dress, which was won by Les Schtroumpfs from the BE Department. The challenge for the best represented department was won for the third year in a row by FP, but second and third were HR and IT, up from 6th and 9th places last year. To see all the pictures of the event, click here.
Zhou, Xiaomei; Mondloch, Catherine J; Emrich, Stephen M
Other-race faces are discriminated and recognized less accurately than own-race faces. Despite a wealth of research characterizing this other-race effect (ORE), little is known about the nature of the representations of own-race versus other-race faces. This is because traditional measures of this ORE provide a binary measure of discrimination or recognition (correct/incorrect), failing to capture potential variation in the quality of face representations. We applied a novel continuous-response paradigm to independently measure the number of own-race and other-race face representations stored in visual working memory (VWM) and the precision with which they are stored. Participants reported target own-race or other-race faces on a circular face space that smoothly varied along the dimension of identity. Using probabilistic mixture modeling, we found that following ample encoding time, the ORE is attributable to differences in the probability of a face being maintained in VWM. Reducing encoding time, a manipulation that is more sensitive to encoding limitations, caused a loss of precision or an increase in variability of VWM for other-race but not own-race faces. These results suggest that the ORE is driven by the inefficiency with which other-race faces are rapidly encoded in VWM and provide novel insights about how perceptual experience influences the representation of own-race and other-race faces in VWM.
Salehi-Ashtiani, Kourosh; Lin, Chenwei; Hao, Tong; Shen, Yun; Szeto, David; Yang, Xinping; Ghamsari, Lila; Lee, HanJoo; Fan, Changyu; Murray, Ryan R; Milstein, Stuart; Svrzikapa, Nenad; Cusick, Michael E; Roth, Frederick P; Hill, David E; Vidal, Marc
Although a highly accurate sequence of the Caenorhabditis elegans genome has been available for 10 years, the exact transcript structures of many of its protein-coding genes remain unsettled. Approximately two-thirds of the ORFeome has been verified reactively by amplifying and cloning computationally predicted transcript models; still a full third of the ORFeome remains experimentally unverified. To fully identify the protein-coding potential of the worm genome including transcripts that may not satisfy existing heuristics for gene prediction, we developed a computational and experimental platform adapting rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) for large-scale structural transcript annotation. We interrogated 2000 unverified protein-coding genes using this platform. We obtained RACE data for approximately two-thirds of the examined transcripts and reconstructed ORF and transcript models for close to 1000 of these. We defined untranslated regions, identified new exons, and redefined previously annotated exons. Our results show that as much as 20% of the C. elegans genome may be incorrectly annotated. Many annotation errors could be corrected proactively with our large-scale RACE platform.
Full Text Available Noppon Taksaudom,1 Natee Tongsiri,2 Amarit Potikul,1 Chawakorn Leampriboon,1 Apichat Tantraworasin,1 Anong Chaiyasri,1 1Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery Unit, Department of Surgery, Chiang Mai University Hospital, 2Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand Objective: Unique rough-terrain ultra-trail running races have increased in popularity. Concerns regarding the suitability of the candidates make it difficult for organizers to manage safety regulations. The purpose of this study was to identify possible race predictors and assess hemodynamic change after long endurance races.Methods: We studied 228 runners who competed in a 66 km-trail running race. A questionnaire and noninvasive hemodynamic flow assessment including blood pressure, heart rate, stroke volume, stroke volume variation, systemic vascular resistance, cardiac index, and oxygen saturation were used to determine physiologic alterations and to identify finish predictors. One hundred and thirty volunteers completed the questionnaire, 126 participants had a prerace hemodynamic assessment, and 33 of these participants completed a postrace assessment after crossing the finish line. The participants were divided into a finisher group and a nonfinisher group.Results: The average age of all runners was 37 years (range of 24–56 years. Of the 228 runners, 163 (71.5% were male. There were 189 (82.9% finishers. Univariable analysis indicated that the finish predictors included male gender, longest distance ever run, faster running records, and lower diastolic pressure. Only a lower diastolic pressure was a significant predictor of race finishing (diastolic blood pressure 74–84 mmHg: adjusted odd ratio 3.81; 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.09–13.27 and diastolic blood pressure <74 mmHg: adjusted odd ratio 7.74; 95% CI =1.57–38.21 using the figure from the multivariable analysis. Among the finisher group, hemodynamic parameters
Full Text Available Three races of Pseudomonas syringaepv. tabaciTox+ (wildfire (races 0, 1 and 2 and two races of Tox- (angular leaf spot (races 1 and 2 have been confirmed on tobacco in Zimbabwe (Zim. Very few cultivars with no resistance to Ps. syringaepv. tabaci are grown commercially and race 0 has not been isolated since 1996. Because we no longer have a viable culture of race 0, we obtained an isolate of race 0 from Kentucky (0 KY, USA in January 2000. We included this isolate in race tests on standard indicator cultivars K E1 (susceptible to all races, KM 10 (resistance to race 0 derived from Nicotianalongiflora, WZ (resistance to races 0 and 1 derived from N. rustica and a hybrid, K 35 (resistance to races 0 and 0 and 1 derived from N. longiflora and N. rustica respectively. Two leaves on 10-week-old seedlings were inoculated with a bacterial suspension (106 colony forming units [cfu] per mL by spraying selected areas until just watersoaked and incubating the plants at 28 C and 70% RH for 10 d. The reaction to race 0, measured as lesion diameter, was different from that previously obtained with race 0 (Zim. Races 0 and 1 (Zim are avirulent on WZ but race 0 (KY was virulent. Further isolates of race 0 were received from Maryland (MD and Tennessee (TN. The TN isolates overcame resistance derived from N. longiflora and N. rustica, except where both sets of genes were present in the same cultivar. Reactions have been variable with the race 0 (MD isolate suggesting it is a mixed culture. We conclude that there are at least four races of Ps. syringaepv. tabaciTox+ worldwide and race 0 (KY should be designated race 3. On all cultivars, race 2 consistently caused the largest lesions.
Barchenger, Derek W; Sheu, Zong-Ming; Kumar, Sanjeet; Lin, Shih-Wen; Burlakoti, Rishi R; Bosland, Paul W
Peppers (Capsicum sp.) are an increasingly important crop because of their use as a vegetable, spice, and food colorant. The oomycete Phytophthora capsici is one of the most devastating pathogens to pepper production worldwide, causing more than $100 million in losses annually. Developing cultivars resistant to P. capsici is challenging because of the many physiological races that exist and new races that are continuously evolving. This problem is confounded by the lack of a universal system of race characterization. As a basis to develop a global anticipatory breeding program, New Mexico Recombinant Inbred Lines (NMRILs) functioned as a host differential for Phytophthora root rot to characterize the race structure of P. capsici populations in Taiwan. Using the NMRILs, 24 new races were identified, illustrating the utility and usefulness of the NMRILs for anticipatory breeding. Virulence of P. capsici was observed to be geographically specific and in two virulence clusters. Interestingly, all but two isolates collected in 2016 were the A2 mating type, which is a shift from the predominantly A1 mating type isolates collected prior to 2008. The NMRILs host differential provides an approach for scientists to work together on a global scale when breeding for resistance as well as on a local level for regional gene deployment. Additionally, we propose that the current race numbering system, which has no biological meaning, be supplemented with the virulence phenotype, based on the susceptible NMRILs to a given isolate. This work provides insights into the population dynamics of P. capsici and interactions within the highly complex Capsicum-Phytophthora pathosystem, and offers a basis for similar research in other crops.
Full Text Available Wheat leaf rust, caused by the basidiomycete Puccinia triticina, can cause yield losses of up to 20% in wheat producing regions. During infection, the fungus forms haustoria that secrete proteins into the plant cell and effect changes in plant transcription, metabolism and defense. It is hypothesized that new races emerge as a result of overcoming plant resistance via changes in the secreted effector proteins. To understand gene expression during infection and find genetic differences associated with races, RNA from wheat leaves infected with six different rust races, at six days post inoculation, was sequenced using Illumina. As P. triticina is an obligate biotroph, RNA from both the host and fungi were present and separated by alignment to the P. triticina genome and a wheat EST reference. A total of 222,571 rust contigs were assembled from 165 million reads. An examination of the resulting contigs revealed 532 predicted secreted proteins among the transcripts. Of these, 456 were found in all races. Fifteen genes were found with amino acid changes, corresponding to putative avirulence effectors potentially recognized by 11 different leaf rust resistance (Lr genes. Thirteen of the potential avirulence effectors have no homology to known genes. One gene had significant similarity to cerato-platanin, a known fungal elicitor, and another showed similarity to fungal tyrosinase, an enzyme involved in melanin synthesis. Temporal expression profiles were developed for these genes by qRT-PCR and show that the 15 genes share similar expression patterns from infection initiation to just prior to spore eruption.
... requests only required State staff to make strategic decisions about where Race to the Top funds were most... the Federal Register and the Code of Federal Regulations is available via the Federal Digital System...
Jordan, Matthew J; Aagaard, Per; Herzog, Walter
The purpose of the present review was to: 1) provide an overview of the current understanding on the epidemiology, etiology, risk factors, and prevention methods for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury in alpine ski racing; and 2) provide an overview of what is known pertaining to ACL reinjury...... and return to sport after ACL injury in alpine ski racing. Given that most of the scientific studies on ACL injuries in alpine ski racing have been descriptive, and that very few studies contributed higher level scientific evidence, a nonsystematic narrative review was employed. Three scholarly databases...... were searched for articles on ACL injury or knee injury in alpine ski racing. Studies were classified according to their relevance in relation to epidemiology, etiology, risk factors, and return to sport/reinjury prevention. Alpine ski racers (skiers) were found to be at high risk for knee injuries...
Full Text Available Breeding goal and selection measures in breeding of trotter horses are subjected to horses production with the fastest possible speed in trotting. Evaluation of racing horses’ performances is important because of horse impact on horse industry. More valuable horses and larger prizing fond result in a higher attendance of hippodromes and more money paid in betting offices. Race horse industry notes a large number of data used in predictions during breeding of horses with better racing performances every year. Racing performances are affected by a large number of genetic and environmental (non-genetic factors caused by different environmental effects. Therefore, they are more variable. The major genetic and environmental parameters used in the models of breeding values racehorses in this case trotters are reviewed in this paper.
Full Text Available This chapter begins with a brief tour of South Africa's justice and political systems, demographics and discourses of race. The brief narrative, which will also allude to situations in Apartheid South Africa, is meant to aid understanding...
Brown, R. Khari; Kaiser, Angela; Jackson, James S.
The current study relies upon the 2004 National Politics Study to examine the association between exposure to race-based messages within places of worship and White race-based policy attitudes. The present study challenges the notion that, for White Americans, religiosity inevitably leads to racial prejudice. Rather, we argue, as others have, that religion exists on a continuum that spans from reinforcing to challenging the status quo of social inequality. Our findings suggests that the extent to which Whites discuss race along with the potential need for public policy solutions to address racial inequality within worship spaces, worship attendance contributes to support for public policies aimed at reducing racial inequality. On the other hand, apolitical and non-structural racial discussions within worship settings do seemingly little to move many Whites to challenge dominant idealistic perceptions of race that eschews public policy interventions as solutions to racial inequality. PMID:25324579
Park, Julie J.; Dizon, Jude Paul Matias
This chapter describes how race, ethnicity, religion, and spirituality uniquely interact for Asian American college students, including a discussion of the diverse religious and spiritual backgrounds of this population.
Loo, C M
This article presents a conceptual framework by which to understand race-related post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) for the Asian American Vietnam veteran. The framework draws from cognitive schema theory, social behaviorism, the notion of cumulative racism as trauma, and the assumption that bifurcation and negation of one's bicultural identity is injurious. Classifications of race-related stress or trauma that may be experienced by Asian American Vietnam veterans, with exemplifying clinical case material, are presented. These types of stressors include being mistaken for Vietnamese, verbal and physical assaults that are race-related, death and near-death experiences that are race-related, racial stigmatization, dissociation from one's Asian identity, and marginalization. As studies of combat trauma and sexual assault forced the psychological stresses attendant to war and sexist oppression into public consciousness, so this article addresses psychological stress and trauma attendant to racism.
Rodgerson, Dwayne H.; Hunt, Robert J.; Spirito, Michael A.; Thorpe, Paul E.; Tessman, Ron K.
Abstract Olecranon fracture is a common orthopedic problem in juvenile horses. Prognosis for complete fracture healing when various methods of internal fixation are used is good; however, the impact of olecranon fracture stabilization on the likelihood that foals will start on a racecourse is unknown. Medical records of foals undergoing internal fixation for an olecranon fracture were reviewed. The dam’s foaling records were obtained and lifetime racing records were then retrieved for both the affected foals and 1 of their siblings. Twenty-two of 24 repaired fractures healed completely, subsequently, 16 of the foals started in at least 1 race. Statistical calculations suggest that when compared with their siblings, the occurrence of olecranon factures requiring internal fixation in juvenile racehorses will not significantly reduce the likelihood that they will race; however, the siblings had significantly more lifetime race starts and higher career earnings. PMID:16604980
Copping, Kristine E.; Kurtz-Costes, Beth; Rowley, Stephanie J.; Wood, Dana
Age and race differences in race stereotype awareness and endorsement were examined in 382 Black and White fourth, sixth, and eighth graders. Youth reported their own beliefs and their perceptions of adults’ beliefs about racial differences in ability in two domains: academics and sports. Children’s own endorsement of race stereotypes was highly correlated with their perceptions of adults’ race stereotypes. Blacks reported stronger traditional sports stereotypes than Whites, and fourth- and sixth-grade Blacks reported roughly egalitarian academic stereotypes. At every grade level, Whites reported academic stereotypes that favored Whites, and sixth and eighth grade Whites reported sports stereotypes that favored Blacks. Results support the tenets of status theory and have implications for identity development and achievement motivation in adolescents. PMID:23729837
National Council on Teacher Quality, 2010
Early last week the U.S. Department of Education announced an unexpected 16 finalists for the first round of Race to the Top (RTT) funding--a veritable traffic jam in the Race to the Top. The finalists have requested a total of $6.5 billion in funds, but only $4.3 billion is up for grabs, and that needs to be spread over two rounds of competition.…
Angela M. Cirucci
This study investigates social network site affordances and their implications for perceptions of marginalized communities. I employ Facebook as a case study and speak with young adult users to comprehend how socially marginalized groups are perceived through Facebook’s affordances. In particular, I consider: How familiar are users with Facebook’s tools and functionalities? How are issues of gender and race represented through the site’s interface? How do users conceive of gender and race? Th...
Gondan, Matthias; Minakata, Katsumi
When participants respond in the same way to stimuli of two categories, responses are often observed to be faster when both stimuli are presented together (redundant signals) relative to the response time obtained when they are presented separately. This effect is known as the redundant signals effect. Several models have been proposed to explain this effect, including race models and coactivation models of information processing. In race models, the two stimulus components are processed in s...
Ribeiro, Teresa Veronica Catonho; Ferreira, Luzitano Brandão
Over recent years, the terms race and ethnicity have been used to ascertain inequities in public health. However, this use depends on the quality of the data available. This study aimed to investigate the description of color/race in Brazilian scientific journals within the field of biomedicine. Descriptive study with systematic search for scientific articles in the SciELO Brazil database. A wide-ranging systematic search for original articles involving humans, published in 32 Brazilian biomedical scientific journals in the SciELO Brazil database between January and December 2008, was performed. Articles in which the race/ethnicity of the participants was identified were analyzed. In total, 1,180 articles were analyzed. The terms for describing race or ethnicity were often ambiguous and vague. Descriptions of race or ethnicity occurred in 159 articles (13.4%), but only in 42 (26.4%) was there a description of how individuals were identified. In these, race and ethnicity were used almost interchangeably and definition was according to skin color (71.4%), ancestry (19.0%) and self-definition (9.6%). Twenty-two races or ethnicities were cited, and the most common were white (37.3%), black (19.7%), mixed (12.9%), nonwhite (8.1%) and yellow (8.1%). The absence of descriptions of parameters for defining race, as well as the use of vague and ambiguous terms, may hamper and even prevent comparisons between human groups and the use of these data to ascertain inequities in healthcare.
Garvican-Lewis, Laura A; Clark, Bradley; Martin, David T; Schumacher, Yorck Olaf; McDonald, Warren; Stephens, Brian; Ma, Fuhai; Thompson, Kevin G; Gore, Christopher J; Menaspà, Paolo
The purpose of this study was to quantify the effects of moderate-high altitude on power output, cadence, speed and heart rate during a multi-day cycling tour. Power output, heart rate, speed and cadence were collected from elite male road cyclists during maximal efforts of 5, 15, 30, 60, 240 and 600 s. The efforts were completed in a laboratory power-profile assessment, and spontaneously during a cycling race simulation near sea-level and an international cycling race at moderate-high altitude. Matched data from the laboratory power-profile and the highest maximal mean power output (MMP) and corresponding speed and heart rate recorded during the cycling race simulation and cycling race at moderate-high altitude were compared using paired t-tests. Additionally, all MMP and corresponding speeds and heart rates were binned per 1000 m (3000 m) according to the average altitude of each ride. Mixed linear modelling was used to compare cycling performance data from each altitude bin. Power output was similar between the laboratory power-profile and the race simulation, however MMPs for 5-600 s and 15, 60, 240 and 600 s were lower (p ≤ 0.005) during the race at altitude compared with the laboratory power-profile and race simulation, respectively. Furthermore, peak power output and all MMPs were lower (≥ 11.7%, p ≤ 0.001) while racing >3000 m compared with rides completed near sea-level. However, speed associated with MMP 60 and 240 s was greater (p cycling power output during competition. Decrement in cycling power output at altitude does not seem to affect speed which tended to be greater at higher altitudes.
Kim, Linda Jin
This dissertation combines insights from feminist and critical race theory to understand the social significance of Sex and the City (SATC) and its popularity among U.S. fans. I argue that popular consumption of SATC helps to illuminate current discourses and controversies surrounding changing gender roles and feminism in contemporary society. It also explores how responses to the series and film are shaped by fans' gender, race, and sexual orientation. My research is based on 42 in-depth int...
For the last race of the season, CERN runners distinguished themselves by notching up third place in the inter-entreprises category of the Escalade, Geneva’s famous running race across the city. Some of the runners from the CERN team. On Friday 30 November and Saturday 1 December, 35 runners from CERN braved the chilly Geneva weather to take part in the 35th Escalade race. With 81 teams competing in the race, the group representing the Laboratory took third place in the inter-entreprises category, behind the Hôpitaux Universitaires de Genève and the Panards Migros teams. CERN’s Helenka Przysiezniak, Steffen Doebert and Camille Ruiz Llamas also distinguished themselves individually by finishing eighth, sixth and fourth in their respective categories and Patrick Villeton achieved a very good ranking in the DUC race on Friday evening and in the classic race on Saturday. Congratulations to everyone who participated and see you next ...
Acosta, David; Ackerman-Barger, Kupiri
Recent events in the United States have catalyzed the need for all educators to begin paying attention to and discovering ways to dialogue about race. No longer can health professions (HP) educators ignore or avoid these difficult conversations. HP students are now demanding them. Cultural sensitivity and unconscious bias training are not enough. Good will and good intentions are not enough. Current faculty development paradigms are no longer sufficient to meet the educational challenges of delving into issues of race, power, privilege, identity, and social justice.Engaging in such conversations, however, can be overwhelmingly stressful for untrained faculty. The authors argue that before any curriculum on race and racism can be developed for HP students, and before faculty members can begin facilitating conversations about race and racism, faculty must receive proper training through intense and introspective faculty development. Training should cover how best to engage in, sustain, and deepen interracial dialogue on difficult topics such as race and racism within academic health centers (AHCs). If such faculty development training-in how to conduct interracial dialogues on race, racism, oppression, and the invisibility of privilege-is made standard at all AHCs, HP educators might be poised to actualize the real benefits of open dialogue and change.
What is biological race and how is it made relevant by specific practices? How do we address the materiality of biological race without pigeonholing it? And how do we write about it without reifying race as a singular object? This article engages with biological race not by debunking or trivializing
Alemán, Sonya M.; Alemán, Enrique, Jr.
This article maps out two critical race media projects -- a documentary and a Chicana/o-centric student newspaper--developed by Chicana/o scholars seeking to fulfilll the promise of praxis hailed by critical race theorists. Fortified and guided by the quintessential tenets of critical race theory and Latino critical race theory, these critical…
Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) production on the Coastal California is threatened by Verticillium wilt, a soil borne fungal disease caused by Verticillium dahliae that diminishes yield and quality. Two races of V. dahliae were identified on lettuce, race 1 and race 2. Complete resistance to race 1 is c...
Anzures, Gizelle; Pascalis, Olivier; Quinn, Paul C.; Slater, Alan M.; Lee, Kang
An abundance of experience with own-race faces and limited to no experience with other-race faces has been associated with better recognition memory for own-race faces in infants, children, and adults. This study investigated the developmental origins of this other-race effect (ORE) by examining the role of a salient perceptual property of…
...-AA00 Safety Zone; Race on the Lake, Onondaga Lake, Syracuse, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION... Race on the Lake powerboat races. This temporary safety zone is necessary to protect participants, spectators, and vessels from the hazards associated with hydroplane and powerboat races. DATES: This rule is...
...-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Charleston Race Week, Charleston Harbor, Charleston, SC AGENCY: Coast... regulations on the waters of Charleston Harbor in Charleston, South Carolina during Charleston Race Week, a series of sailboat races. The races are scheduled to take place on Friday, April 20, 2012, through Sunday...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — All birth data by race before 1980 are based on race of the child; starting in 1980, birth data by race are based on race of the mother. Birth data are used to...
Shields, C L; Kaliki, S; Cohen, M N; Shields, P W; Furuta, M; Shields, J A
A retrospective, nonrandomized, interventional case series of 8100 patients with uveal melanoma were evaluated for melanoma-related metastasis based on patient race. The patient race was Caucasian (n=7918, 98%), Hispanic (n=105, 1%), Asian (n=44, melanoma based on race. In summary, uveal melanoma showed similar prognosis for all races. PMID:26248525
Aphanomyces root rot, caused by Aphanomyces euteiches, is one of the most important diseases of alfalfa in the United States. Two races of the pathogen are recognized and although most cultivars are resistant to race 1, fewer have resistance to race 2, the predominant race in North America. Molecula...
... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Augusta Southern Nationals Drag Boat Race... during the Augusta Southern Nationals Drag Boat Race. The Augusta Southern Nationals Drag Boat Race will..., 2011 Augusta Southern Nationals, Inc. is hosting the Augusta Southern Nationals Drag Boat Race, a...
Nearly fifty years ago, the American Academy organized a conference and two issues of its journal "Daedalus" on the topic of "The Negro American." The project engaged top intellectuals and policy-makers around the conflicts and limitations of mid-1960s liberalism in dealing with race. Specifically, they grappled with the persistent question of how to integrate a forced-worker population that had been needed but that was socially undesirable once its original purpose no longer existed. Today, racism has been discredited as an idea and legally sanctioned segregation belongs to the past, yet the question the conference participants explored -- in essence, how to make the unwanted wanted -- still remains. Recent political developments and anticipated demographic shifts, however, have recast the terms of the debate. Gerald Early, guest editor for the present volume, uses Barack Obama's election to the presidency as a pretext for returning to the central question of "The Negro American" project and, in turn, asking how white liberalism will fare in the context of a growing minority population in the United States. Placing his observations alongside those made by John Hope Franklin in 1965, Early positions his essay, and this issue overall, as a meditation on how far we have come in America to reach "the age of Obama" and at the same time how far we have to go before we can overcome "the two worlds of race."
Nikolajski, Cara; Miller, Elizabeth; McCauley, Heather L; Akers, Aletha; Schwarz, Eleanor Bimla; Freedman, Lori; Steinberg, Julia; Ibrahim, Said; Borrero, Sonya
Unintended pregnancy is common and disproportionately occurs among low-income and African-American (AA) women. Male partners may influence women's risk of unintended pregnancy through reproductive coercion, although studies have not assessed whether racial differences in reproductive coercion impact AA women's disparate risk for unintended pregnancy. We sought to describe women's experiences with pregnancy-promoting behaviors by male partners and explore differences in such experiences by race. Semistructured interviews were conducted with low-income, AA and White women aged 18 to 45 years recruited from reproductive health clinics in Western Pennsylvania to explore contextual factors that shape women's contraceptive behaviors. Narratives were analyzed using content analysis and the constant comparison method. Among the 66 participants (36 AA and 30 White), 25 (38%) described experiences with male partner reproductive coercion. Narratives provided accounts of contraceptive sabotage, verbal pressure to promote pregnancy and specific pregnancy outcomes, and potential motives behind these behaviors. AA women in the sample reported experiences of reproductive coercion more often than White women (53% and 20%, respectively). AA women were also more likely than White women to attribute a current or prior pregnancy to reproductive coercion. AA women identified relationship transiency and impending incarceration as potential motivations for men to secure a connection with a female partner via pregnancy. Our findings suggest that reproductive coercion may be a factor contributing to disparities in unintended pregnancy. More research, including population-level studies, is needed to determine the impact of reproductive coercion on unintended pregnancy and to understand the social and structural factors associated with pregnancy-promoting behaviors. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Bokharaei, Hanieh; Raz, Abbasali; Zakeri, Sedigheh; Djadid, Navid Dinparast
Because of the lack of an effective and economical control strategy against malaria (the most devastating infectious disease in developing countries) Transmission-Blocking Vaccines (TBVs) concept has been raised in recent years, promising a more efficient way to malaria control. TBVs aim at interfering and/or blocking pathogen development within the vector, halting transmission to non-infected vertebrate host. Aminopeptidase N (APN) is one of the most potent proteins in parasite development in Anopheles malaria vectors, which is strongly co-localized with human malaria parasites in the mosquito midgut epithelium. Therefore, Aminopeptidase N is one of the best choices for a new TBV. In this study for the first time we used 3'-RACE to amplify APN gene in Anopheles stephensi (An.stephensi), a major malaria vector in Iran, Indian subcontinent up to China by using different sets of primers including exon junction, conserved and specific region primers. Full length of APN was sequenced stepwise, which could be applied in designing a new regional TBV and act as an essential component of malaria elimination program in An.stephensi distribution areas. Primers design and method modification should be set up exactly in approach based amplifications. From results we came to this conclusion that that 3'-RACE could be applied to amplified key regions which are beyond reach.
Gottlieb-Vedi, M.; Pipper, Christian Bressen
Falls in National Hunt races is a tragic part of the sport. The present study focuses on the relation between racing track conditions and the number of falls in Swedish jump racing. The assumption was that more horses fell on heavy or soft going than on good or firm going. Results from all jump...... races at Täby Racecourse (1992-2001) were recorded. Parameters registered were: type and number of races, racing surface and condition, total time to finish the race, number of starting horses and number of falls. In this period 212 races, corresponding to 1,556 horse starts, were registered. Falls were...... registered in 42 races and in total 61 horses fell. The fall frequency on horse level was significantly higher in steeplechases than in hurdle races (odds ratio =3.69; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.99-6.85). For the steeplechases recorded in this study, significantly more falls were seen in long distance...
McNicholl, Jane; Howarth, Gordon S; Hazel, Susan J
Heat strain is a potential risk factor for racing greyhounds in hot climates. However, there have been limited studies into the incidence of heat strain (when excess heat causes physiological or pathological effects) in racing greyhounds. The aim of this study was to determine if heat strain occurs in racing greyhounds, and, if so, whether environmental factors (e.g., ambient temperature and relative humidity) or dog-related factors (e.g., sex, bodyweight, color) are associated with the risk of heat strain. A total of 229 greyhounds were included in over 46 race meetings and seven different race venues in South Australia, Australia. Rectal temperatures of dogs were measured pre- and postrace and urine samples collected for analysis of myoglobinuria. Ambient temperature at race times ranged between 11.0 and 40.8°C and relative humidity ranged from 17 to 92%. There was a mean increase in greyhound rectal temperature of 2.1°C (range 1.1-3.1°C). A small but significant association was present between ambient temperature and increase in rectal temperature (r (2) = 0.033, P = 0.007). The mean ambient temperature at race time, of dogs with postrace rectal temperature of or exceeding 41.5°C, was significantly greater than at race time of dogs with a postrace rectal temperature ≤41.5°C (31.2 vs. 27.3°C, respectively, P = 0.004). When the ambient temperature reached 38(o)C, over one-third (39%) of dogs had a rectal temperature >41.5°C. Over half of postrace urine samples were positive by Dipstick reading for hemoglobin/myoglobin, and of 77 urine samples positive for Dipstick readings, 95% were positive for myoglobin. However, urinary myoglobin levels were not associated with ambient temperature or postrace rectal temperatures. The mean increase in rectal temperature was greater in dark (black, blue, brindle) than light (fawn and white) colored greyhounds. The results suggest heat strain occurs in racing greyhounds, evidenced by postrace rectal
Bobrek, K; Urbanowicz, J; Chorbiński, P; Gaweł, A
The aim of the study was the molecular analysis of ITS1/5.8S rRNA/ITS2 region of Trichomonas gallinae isolates from racing pigeon lofts in Upper Silesia, Poland. The analysed region is very useful for the taxonomy of the Trichomonadidae family and indicates the possible existence of different genotypes or species within the T. gallinae. A comparison of the complete ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of obtained sequences revealed two different sequences. Twenty-three of the isolates (62%) showed the first sequence (KU954106) while fourteen isolates (38%) showed the second sequence type (KU954107), which were homologous with sequences from Genbank. The phylogenetic analysis showed that the two T. gallinae genotypes which occurred in the pigeons from Upper Silesia are widespread among European countries.
Bajgain, P; Rouse, M N; Bulli, P; Bhavani, S; Gordon, T; Wanyera, R; Njau, P N; Legesse, W; Anderson, J A; Pumphrey, M O
The recently identified Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici (Pgt) race TTKSK (Ug99) poses a severe threat to global wheat production because of its broad virulence on several widely deployed resistance genes. Additional virulences have been detected in the Ug99 group of races, and the spread of this race group has been documented across wheat growing regions in Africa, the Middle East (Yemen), and West Asia (Iran). Other broadly virulent Pgt races, such as TRTTF and TKTTF, present further difficulties in maintaining abundant genetic resistance for their effective use in wheat breeding against this destructive fungal disease of wheat. In an effort to identify loci conferring resistance to these races, a genome-wide association study was carried out on a panel of 250 spring wheat breeding lines from the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT), six wheat breeding programs in the United States and three wheat breeding programs in Canada. The lines included in this study were grouped into two major clusters, based on the results of principal component analysis using 23,976 SNP markers. Upon screening for adult plant resistance (APR) to Ug99 during 2013 and 2014 in artificial stem rust screening nurseries at Njoro, Kenya and at Debre Zeit, Ethiopia, several wheat lines were found to exhibit APR. The lines were also screened for resistance at the seedling stage against races TTKSK, TRTTF, and TKTTF at USDA-ARS Cereal Disease Laboratory in St. Paul, Minnesota; and only 9 of the 250 lines displayed seedling resistance to all the races. Using a mixed linear model, 27 SNP markers associated with APR against Ug99 were detected, including markers linked with the known APR gene Sr2. Using the same model, 23, 86, and 111 SNP markers associated with seedling resistance against races TTKSK, TRTTF, and TKTTF were identified, respectively. These included markers linked to the genes Sr8a and Sr11 providing seedling resistance to races TRTTF and TKTTF, respectively. We
Pololi, Linda; Cooper, Lisa A; Carr, Phyllis
Despite compelling reasons to draw on the contributions of under-represented minority (URM) faculty members, US medical schools lack these faculty, particularly in leadership and senior roles. The study's purpose was to document URM faculty perceptions and experience of the culture of academic medicine in the US and to raise awareness of obstacles to achieving the goal of having people of color in positions of leadership in academic medicine. The authors conducted a qualitative interview study in 2006-2007 of faculty in five US medical schools chosen for their diverse regional and organizational attributes. Using purposeful sampling of medical faculty, 96 faculty were interviewed from four different career stages (early, plateaued, leaders and left academic medicine) and diverse specialties with an oversampling of URM faculty. We identified patterns and themes emergent in the coded data. Analysis was inductive and data driven. Predominant themes underscored during analyses regarding the experience of URM faculty were: difficulty of cross-cultural relationships; isolation and feeling invisible; lack of mentoring, role models and social capital; disrespect, overt and covert bias/discrimination; different performance expectations related to race/ethnicity; devaluing of research on community health care and health disparities; the unfair burden of being identified with affirmative action and responsibility for diversity efforts; leadership's role in diversity goals; and financial hardship. Achieving an inclusive culture for diverse medical school faculty would help meet the mission of academic medicine to train a physician and research workforce that meets the disparate needs of our multicultural society. Medical school leaders need to value the inclusion of URM faculty. Failure to fully engage the skills and insights of URM faculty impairs our ability to provide the best science, education or medical care.
Cooper, Lisa A.; Carr, Phyllis
ABSTRACT Background Despite compelling reasons to draw on the contributions of under-represented minority (URM) faculty members, US medical schools lack these faculty, particularly in leadership and senior roles. Objective The study’s purpose was to document URM faculty perceptions and experience of the culture of academic medicine in the US and to raise awareness of obstacles to achieving the goal of having people of color in positions of leadership in academic medicine. Design The authors conducted a qualitative interview study in 2006–2007 of faculty in five US medical schools chosen for their diverse regional and organizational attributes. Participants Using purposeful sampling of medical faculty, 96 faculty were interviewed from four different career stages (early, plateaued, leaders and left academic medicine) and diverse specialties with an oversampling of URM faculty. Approach We identified patterns and themes emergent in the coded data. Analysis was inductive and data driven. Results Predominant themes underscored during analyses regarding the experience of URM faculty were: difficulty of cross-cultural relationships; isolation and feeling invisible; lack of mentoring, role models and social capital; disrespect, overt and covert bias/discrimination; different performance expectations related to race/ethnicity; devaluing of research on community health care and health disparities; the unfair burden of being identified with affirmative action and responsibility for diversity efforts; leadership’s role in diversity goals; and financial hardship. Conclusions Achieving an inclusive culture for diverse medical school faculty would help meet the mission of academic medicine to train a physician and research workforce that meets the disparate needs of our multicultural society. Medical school leaders need to value the inclusion of URM faculty. Failure to fully engage the skills and insights of URM faculty impairs our ability to provide the best science
Larson, Paloma Miya
Turn on any action film or drive past a highway billboard, mixed race bodies frequent the media that Americans readily consume. Nevertheless, few scholars investigate the social impact of mixed race representation on such mediums as television. Ignoring multiracial presence in the media allows producers of television programs to shape and construct expectations that are projected onto the mixed race community. My paper contributes to mixed race scholarship by evaluating these projected expect...
At the end of the 1960s, the United States military was rocked by race-related violence and riots. Growing fears of black “militancy” eventually compelled the military’s largely white leadership to implement policies aimed at ameliorating racial disparities. One of the most significant changes was the establishment of the Defense Race Relations Institute (DRRI) and the requirement that all troops partake in race relations education. Largely overlooked in histories of military race relations a...
Smid, Marcela C; Lee, Jong Hyung; Grant, Jacqueline H; Miles, Gandarvaka; Stoddard, Gregory J; Chapman, Derek A; Manuck, Tracy A
Preterm birth is a complex disorder with a heritable genetic component. Studies of primarily White women born preterm show that they have an increased risk of subsequently delivering preterm. This risk of intergenerational preterm birth is poorly defined among Black women. Our objective was to evaluate and compare intergenerational preterm birth risk among non-Hispanic Black and non-Hispanic White mothers. This was a population-based retrospective cohort study, using the Virginia Intergenerational Linked Birth File. All non-Hispanic Black and non-Hispanic White mothers born in Virginia 1960 through 1996 who delivered their first live-born, nonanomalous, singleton infant ≥20 weeks from 2005 through 2009 were included. We assessed the overall gestational age distribution between non-Hispanic Black and White mothers born term and preterm (preterm (preterm birth, 34-36 weeks; and early preterm birth, preterm birth among all eligible births; and (2) suspected spontaneous preterm birth among births to women with medical complications (eg, diabetes, hypertension, preeclampsia and thus higher risk for a medically indicated preterm birth). Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate odds of preterm birth and spontaneous preterm birth by maternal race and maternal gestational age after adjusting for confounders including maternal education, maternal age, smoking, drug/alcohol use, and infant gender. Of 173,822 deliveries captured in the intergenerational birth cohort, 71,676 (41.2%) women met inclusion criteria for this study. Of the entire cohort, 30.0% (n = 21,467) were non-Hispanic Black and 70.0% were non-Hispanic White mothers. Compared to non-Hispanic White mothers, non-Hispanic Black mothers were more likely to have been born late preterm (6.8% vs 3.7%) or early preterm (2.8 vs 1.0%), P preterm were not at an increased risk of early or late preterm delivery compared to non-Hispanic White mothers born term. The risk of early preterm birth was most
Villenas, Sofia A.; Angeles, Sophia L.
This article examines how a progressive, rural/small city community in the USA wrestles with race, racism, and school equity in the public arena of print media. It inquires into the tensions, limitations, and possibilities for race-conscious discourse in the face of both explicit racist hate speech and benevolent liberal race talk. Based on…
Azmeer, M.; Basha, M. H.; Hamid, M. F.; Rahman, M. T. A.; Hashim, M. S. M.
In an automobile, the rear upright are used to provide a physical mounting and links the suspension arms to the hub and wheel assembly. In this work, static structural and shape optimization analysis for rear upright for UniMAP’s Formula SAE racing car had been done using ANSYS software with the objective to reduce weight while maintaining the structural strength of the vehicle upright. During the shape optimization process, the component undergoes 25%, 50% and 75 % weight reduction in order to find the best optimal shape of the upright. The final design of the upright is developed considering the weight reduction, structural integrity and the manufacturability. The final design achieved 21 % weight reduction and is able to withstand several loads.
On May 17, the Annual CERN relay race took place for the 36th time. This is a fun relay race where a team of six runners runs around the CERN site in Meyrin, up and down many hills, to cover the following distances: the first runner runs 1000 m, the second and third runners cover 800 m each, the fourth and fifth runners each have 500 m and finally, the sixth runner covers the last 300 m all the way to the finish line. Each year, serious and occasionnal runners who take this opportunity to make it their only running moment of the year, give it their best to run the 3.9 km loop in times ranging from a mere 10:39.9 for the best team this year to 18:14.3 for the last of the 65 teams that completed the race. Nobody was wasting time at the starting line of the CERN Annual Relay Race. ATLAS was better represented than ever with a record of eight ATLAS teams participating in this race organized by the CERN running club. The names of the ATLAS participants, as well as the team official times are given in the t...
Chen, Lei; Zhang, Yu-Hang; Huang, Tao; Cai, Yu-Dong
The gut microbiome is shaped and modified by the polymorphisms of microorganisms in the intestinal tract. Its composition shows strong individual specificity and may play a crucial role in the human digestive system and metabolism. Several factors can affect the composition of the gut microbiome, such as eating habits, living environment, and antibiotic usage. Thus, various races are characterized by different gut microbiome characteristics. In this present study, we studied the gut microbiomes of three different races, including individuals of Asian, European and American races. The gut microbiome and the expression levels of gut microbiome genes were analyzed in these individuals. Advanced feature selection methods (minimum redundancy maximum relevance and incremental feature selection) and four machine-learning algorithms (random forest, nearest neighbor algorithm, sequential minimal optimization, Dagging) were employed to capture key differentially expressed genes. As a result, sequential minimal optimization was found to yield the best performance using the 454 genes, which could effectively distinguish the gut microbiomes of different races. Our analyses of extracted genes support the widely accepted hypotheses that eating habits, living environments and metabolic levels in different races can influence the characteristics of the gut microbiome.
Chan, Marcia A; Ciaccio, Christina E; Gigliotti, Nicole M; Rezaiekhaligh, Mo; Siedlik, Jacob A; Kennedy, Kevin; Barnes, Charles S
Asthma is a common chronic childhood disease worldwide. Socioeconomic status, genetic predisposition and environmental factors contribute to its incidence and severity. A disproportionate number of children with asthma are economically disadvantaged and live in substandard housing with potential indoor environmental exposures such as cockroaches, dust mites, rodents and molds. These exposures may manifest through epigenetic mechanisms that can lead to changes in relevant gene expression. We examined the association of global DNA methylation levels with socioeconomic status, asthma severity and race/ethnicity. We measured global DNA methylation in peripheral blood of children with asthma enrolled in the Kansas City Safe and Healthy Homes Program. Inclusion criteria included residing in the same home for a minimum of 4 days per week and total family income of less than 80% of the Kansas City median family income. DNA methylation levels were quantified by an immunoassay that assessed the percentage of 5-methylcytosine. Our results indicate that overall, African American children had higher levels of global DNA methylation than children of other races/ethnicities (p = 0.029). This difference was more pronounced when socioeconomic status and asthma severity were coupled with race/ethnicity (p = 0.042) where low-income, African American children with persistent asthma had significantly elevated methylation levels relative to other races/ethnicities in the same context (p = 0.006, Hedges g = 1.14). Our study demonstrates a significant interaction effect among global DNA methylation levels, asthma severity, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status.
Full Text Available Modern optimization algorithms typically require the setting of a large number of parameters to optimize their performance. The immediate goal of automatic algorithm configuration is to find, automatically, the best parameter settings of an optimizer. Ultimately, automatic algorithm configuration has the potential to lead to new design paradigms for optimization software. The irace package is a software package that implements a number of automatic configuration procedures. In particular, it offers iterated racing procedures, which have been used successfully to automatically configure various state-of-the-art algorithms. The iterated racing procedures implemented in irace include the iterated F-race algorithm and several extensions and improvements over it. In this paper, we describe the rationale underlying the iterated racing procedures and introduce a number of recent extensions. Among these, we introduce a restart mechanism to avoid premature convergence, the use of truncated sampling distributions to handle correctly parameter bounds, and an elitist racing procedure for ensuring that the best configurations returned are also those evaluated in the highest number of training instances. We experimentally evaluate the most recent version of irace and demonstrate with a number of example applications the use and potential of irace, in particular, and automatic algorithm configuration, in general.
Phillippi, Kathryn; Hoeltzel, Mark; Byun Robinson, Angela; Kim, Susan
To determine the relationships among race, income, and disease outcomes in children with juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM). Data from 438 subjects with JDM enrolled in the Childhood Arthritis and Rheumatology Research Alliance (CARRA) Legacy Registry were analyzed. Demographic data included age, sex, race, annual family income, and insurance status. Clinical outcomes included muscle strength, presence of rash, calcinosis, weakness, physical function, and quality of life measures. Disease outcomes were compared based on race and income. Minority subjects were significantly more likely to have low annual family income and significantly worse scores on measures of physical function, disease activity, and quality of life measures. Subjects with lower annual family income had worse scores on measures of physical function, disease activity, and quality of life scores, as well as weakness. Black subjects were more likely to have calcinosis. Despite these differences in outcome measures, there were no significant differences among the racial groups in time to diagnosis or duration of disease. Using calcinosis as a marker of disease morbidity, black race, annual family income 12 months were associated with calcinosis. Minority race and lower family income are associated with worse morbidity and outcomes in subjects with JDM. Calcinosis was more common in black subjects. Further studies are needed to examine these associations in more detail, to support efforts to address health disparities in subjects with JDM and improve disease outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Tribute is paid to David Dallman, 20 times the organiser of the CERN Relay Race, who is now retiring.Solve the following mathematical problem for athletes: take the first and third-placed teams in the 2006 CERN Relay Race, randomly mix the runners to form two new teams, and what is the result? Answer: first place and fifth place. In short, the team which has reigned supreme in first place since 2001, the "Shabbys", decided to spice up the race this year by merging with their arch rivals, the "Latinos Volantes", themselves no strangers to the podium. And at the winning line, it was the hybrid formation, "Shabbys Volantes", which took the honours (no surprises there!). Sadly, they were unable to beat the Shabbys’ previous record nor get anywhere near the all-time race record of 10 minutes and 13 seconds for the 3.9-km course, held for a quarter of a century by the "UA1 Strollers". One of the members of that legendary team and race organiser 20 times, David Dallman, mar...
The head of KEK expressed his dismay that SLAC has entered into a collaboration with 3 other US labs and proposes to build the next linear collider at Fermilab, Ilinois. KEK wants the next accelerator to be built somewhere in the Asian Pacific region (1 page).
Sala, Margarita; Reyes-Rodríguez, Mae Lynn; Bulik, Cynthia M; Bardone-Cone, Anna
We investigated racial/ethnic stereotyping in the recognition and referral of eating disorders with 663 university students. We explored responses to problem and eating disorder recognition and health care referrals after subjects read a vignette concerning a patient of a different race/ethnic background presenting with eating disorders. A series of three 4 × 3 ANOVAs revealed significant main effects for eating disorders across all three outcome variables. There were no significant main effects across the four different race/ethnicity conditions and no significant race by condition interactions. Lack of general eating disorder recognition and health care referrals by student participants were found. [Supplemental files are available for this article. Go to the publishers's online edition of Eating Disorders for the following free supplemental resource: online appendix containing vignettes 1-3, as described in the "Methods" section].
Kent, Michael; Wade, Peter
This article analyses interrelations between genetic ancestry research, political conflict and social identity. It focuses on the debate on race-based affirmative action policies, which have been implemented in Brazil since the turn of the century. Genetic evidence of high levels of admixture in the Brazilian population has become a key element of arguments that question the validity of the category of race for the development of public policies. In response, members of Brazil's black movement have dismissed the relevance of genetics by arguing, first, that in Brazil race functions as a social--rather than a biological--category, and, second, that racial classification and discrimination in this country are based on appearance, rather than on genotype. This article highlights the importance of power relations and political interests in shaping public engagements with genetic research and their social consequences.
Ball, Mary M; Perkins, Molly M; Hollingsworth, Carole; Whittington, Frank J; King, Sharon V
This article examines how race and class influence decisions to move to assisted living facilities. Qualitative methods were used to study moving decisions of residents in 10 assisted living facilities varying in size and location, as well as race and socioeconomic status of residents. Data were derived from in-depth interviews with 60 residents, 43 family members and friends, and 12 administrators. Grounded theory analysis identified three types of residents based on their decision-making control: proactive, compliant, and passive/resistant. Only proactive residents (less than a quarter of residents) had primary control. Findings show that control of decision making for elders who are moving to assisted living is influenced by class, though not directly by race. The impact of class primarily related to assisted-living placement options and strategies available to forestall moves. Factors influencing the decision-making process were similar for Black and White elders of comparable socioeconomic status.
The expansion of biomedical research into countries outside the United States and Western Europe is positing new biological links between populations based on race. This expansion includes six international projects occurring in Barbados, premised on the idea that the population is genetically representative of other black people. Based on ethnographic research tracking one such study, a genetics of asthma project, this article explores the ways Caribbean meanings of ethnicity and illness are reworked as Barbadian state medical practitioners become involved in facilitating the international genetics research on race and disease. As the state attempts to participate in an imagined future of genetic medicine, the hyperspecificity of genetic technologies create new medical meanings of race and disease. These changes rely on a paradoxical response by medical practitioners toward the high technology American genetic research as both authoritative and inapplicable, creating unexpected etiologies of illness and ethnicity.
Full Text Available The life of Abraham Lincoln coincided with dramatic societal transformations that shaped the future of the United States. In the center of these developments stood the question whether that nation could continue to grow with the system of slavery or not. Inherently linked to that issue—that almost dissolved the nation—was the problem of racism and the future of race relations after emancipation. To examine Lincoln’s attitudes on slavery and race opens a window for us to look at his own struggles concerning these issues, but at the same time at the political and cultural contentions at large of a nation that he helped to save as President during the American Civil War. His legacy as the "Great Emancipator,” liberating over four millions slaves, has generated a controversial debate on Lincoln’s position towards race and racism.
Kent, Michael; Wade, Peter
This article analyses interrelations between genetic ancestry research, political conflict and social identity. It focuses on the debate on race-based affirmative action policies, which have been implemented in Brazil since the turn of the century. Genetic evidence of high levels of admixture in the Brazilian population has become a key element of arguments that question the validity of the category of race for the development of public policies. In response, members of Brazil’s black movement have dismissed the relevance of genetics by arguing, first, that in Brazil race functions as a social – rather than a biological – category, and, second, that racial classification and discrimination in this country are based on appearance, rather than on genotype. This article highlights the importance of power relations and political interests in shaping public engagements with genetic research and their social consequences. PMID:27479998
of such experiments is whether the observed redundancy gains can be explained by parallel processing of the two stimuli in a race-like fashion. To test the parallel processing model, Miller derived the well-known race model inequality which has become a routine test for behavioral data in experiments with redundant...... signals. Several statistical procedures have been used for testing the race model inequality. However, the commonly employed procedure does not control the Type I error. In this article a permutation test is described that keeps the Type I error at the desired level. Simulations show that the power...... of the test is reasonable even for small samples. The scripts discussed in this article may be downloaded as supplemental materials from http://brm.psychonomic-journals.org/content/supplemental....
Dawson, Beverly Araujo; Williams, David R.
We examined 22 articles to compare Black Latinos/as’ with White Latinos/as’ health and highlight findings and limitations in the literature. We searched 1153 abstracts, from the earliest on record to those available in 2016. We organized the articles into domains grounded on a framework that incorporates the effects of race on Latinos/as’ health and well-being: health and well-being, immigration, psychosocial factors, and contextual factors. Most studies in this area are limited by self-reported measures of health status, inconsistent use of race and skin color measures, and omission of a wider range of immigration-related and contextual factors. We give recommendations for future research to explain the complexity in the Latino/a population regarding race, and we provide insight into Black Latinos/as experiences. PMID:27736206
Pauker, Kristin; Ambady, Nalini; Apfelbaum, Evan P.
The authors explored the emergence and antecedents of racial stereotyping in 89 children ages 3–10 years. Children completed a number of matching and sorting tasks, including a measure designed to assess their knowledge and application of both positive and negative in-group and out-group stereotypes. Results indicate that children start to apply stereotypes to the out-group starting around 6 years of age. Controlling for a number of factors, two predictors contributed significantly towards uniquely explaining the use of these stereotypes: race salience (i.e., seeing and organizing by race) and essentialist thinking (i.e., believing that race cannot change). These results provide insight into how and when real-world interventions aimed at altering the acquisition of racial stereotypes may be implemented. PMID:21077865
Full Text Available Background. We examined the association between insufficient rest/sleep and cardiovascular disease or diabetes mellitus separately among non-Hispanic whites, non-Hispanic blacks, Hispanic Americans, and other races in a contemporary sample of US adults. Methods. Multiethnic, nationally representative, cross-sectional survey (2008 BRFSS participants who were >20 years of age (n=369, 217; 50% women. Self-reported insufficient rest/sleep in the previous month was categorized into: zero, 1–13, 14–29, and all 30 days. Outcomes were: (1 any CVD, (2 coronary artery disease (CHD, (3 stroke, and (4 diabetes mellitus. Results. Insufficient rest/sleep was found to be positively associated with (1 any CVD, (2 CHD, and (3 stroke among all race-ethnicities. In contrast, insufficient rest/sleep was positively associated with diabetes mellitus in all race-ethnicities except non-Hispanic blacks. The odds ratio of diabetes association with insufficient rest/sleep for all 30 days was 1.37 (1.26–1.48 among non-Hispanic whites, 1.11 (0.90–1.36 among non-Hispanic blacks, 1.88 (1.46–2.42 among Hispanic Americans, and 1.48 (1.10–2.00 among other race/ethnicities. Conclusion. In a multiethnic sample of US adults, perceived insufficient rest/sleep was associated with CVD, among all race-ethnicities. However, the association between insufficient rest/sleep and diabetes mellitus was present among all race-ethnicities except non-Hispanic blacks.
Fischer, Jacob; Falsted, Nikolaj; Vielwerth, Mathias
might play well, and how it can be modified to achieve this. In this paper, we investigate the application of MCTS to simulated car racing, in particular the open-source racing game TORCS. The presented approach is based on the development of an efficient forward model and the discretization......Monte Carlo Tree Search (MCTS) has recently seen considerable success in playing certain types of games, most of which are discrete, fully observable zero-sum games. Consequently there is currently considerable interest within the research community in investigating what other games this algorithm...
RaceAbout on Helsingin ammattikorkeakoulu Stadian (nykyisin Metropolia Ammattikorkeakoulu) vuonna 2000 valmistunut kaksipaikkainen avoauto. Autoon on tehty vuosien saatossa lukuisia parannuksia. Autossa on alumiinimonokokki sekä edessä ja takana teräsputkesta valmistetut apurungot. RaceAboutissa käytetään Saabin turbomoottoria, joka on sijoitettu taakse. Tämän insinöörityön tavoitteena oli suunnitella takapyöränripustukset ja alustageometria Saab 9-3 Aeron pulttikiinnitteiselle navalle so...
Full Text Available Race and ethnicity, typically defined as how individuals self-identify, are complex social constructs. Self-identified racial/ethnic minorities are less likely to receive preventive care and more likely to report healthcare discrimination than self-identified non-Hispanic whites. However, beyond self-identification, these outcomes may vary depending on whether racial/ethnic minorities are perceived by others as being minority or white; this perception is referred to as socially-assigned race.To examine the associations between socially-assigned race and healthcare discrimination and receipt of selected preventive services.Cross-sectional analysis of the 2004 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System "Reactions to Race" module. Respondents from seven states and the District of Columbia were categorized into 3 groups, defined by a composite of self-identified race/socially-assigned race: Minority/Minority (M/M, n = 6,837, Minority/White (M/W, n = 929, and White/White (W/W, n = 25,913. Respondents were 18 years or older, with 61.7% under age 60; 51.8% of respondents were female. Measures included reported healthcare discrimination and receipt of vaccinations and cancer screenings.Racial/ethnic minorities who reported being socially-assigned as minority (M/M were more likely to report healthcare discrimination compared with those who reported being socially-assigned as white (M/W (8.9% vs. 5.0%, p = 0.002. Those reporting being socially-assigned as white (M/W and W/W had similar rates for past-year influenza (73.1% vs. 74.3% and pneumococcal (69.3% vs. 58.6% vaccinations; however, rates were significantly lower among M/M respondents (56.2% and 47.6%, respectively, p-values<0.05. There were no significant differences between the M/M and M/W groups in the receipt of cancer screenings.Racial/ethnic minorities who reported being socially-assigned as white are more likely to receive preventive vaccinations and less likely to report
Bergman, Mindy E; Drasgow, Fritz
L. F. Fitzgerald, C. L. Hulin, and F. Drasgow (1995) proposed that victim characteristics, such as race, might moderate the relationships between sexual harassment and its job, psychological, and health status outcomes. This study describes 2 theoretical positions, tokenism and double jeopardy, that could account for this possible moderation by race, as well as the alternative view that no moderating effects exist. The effects of race are empirically examined through simultaneous path analysis. Results indicate that whereas mean levels of harassment differ across race, the phenomenon of sexual harassment unfolds similarly across races; race is not a moderator of the relationships between sexual harassment and the variables proposed as its antecedents and outcomes.
Ali, Sajid; Rodriguez Algaba, Julian; Thach, Tine
We investigated whether the recent worldwide epidemics of wheat yellow rust were driven by races of few clonal lineage(s) or populations of divergent races. Race phenotyping of 887 genetically diverse Puccinia striiformis isolates sampled in 35 countries during 2009–2015 revealed that these epide......We investigated whether the recent worldwide epidemics of wheat yellow rust were driven by races of few clonal lineage(s) or populations of divergent races. Race phenotyping of 887 genetically diverse Puccinia striiformis isolates sampled in 35 countries during 2009–2015 revealed...
Salz, R O; Ahern, B J; Boston, R; Begg, L M
To determine the variation of tracheal mucus scores, tracheal blood scores and transendoscopic tracheal wash (TW) cytology in a population of Thoroughbred (TB) racehorses and assess their association with racing performance. A total of 220 endoscopic examinations were performed and TWs obtained from 155 TB racehorses. Samples were collected 60-120 min following gallop work. Tracheal mucus score, tracheal blood score and TW cytology were analysed and their association with racing performance assessed. Of the total examinations and samples, 194 from 135 horses fitted the criteria for inclusion. The overall prevalence of visible tracheal mucus was 2.5% (5/194) and of increased tracheal mucus was 0%. The prevalence of visible tracheal blood was 8.8% (17/194) and of increased tracheal blood was 4.6% (9/194). A total of 36% (70/194) of TWs contained elevated percentages of neutrophils and of these, 96% (67/70) occurred in the absence of any visible tracheal mucus. There was no significant association between tracheal mucus score or TW cytology and subsequent racing performance. There was a statistically significant association (P = 0.004) between increased tracheal blood scores and poor racing performance. Visible tracheal blood seen after strenuous exercise in clinically normal TB racehorses was a risk factor for poor racing performance, but the presence of airway neutrophilia was not. No horses in this study were found to have increased tracheal mucus, so the association of increased tracheal mucus with racing performance could not be assessed. © 2016 Australian Veterinary Association.
Full Text Available The objective was to describe the incidence of failure to finish a race in flat-racing Thoroughbreds in New Zealand as these are summary indicators of falls, injuries and poor performance. Retrospective data on six complete flat racing seasons (n = 188,615 race starts of all Thoroughbred flat race starts from 1 August 2005 to 31 July 2011 were obtained. The incidence of failure to finish events and binomial exact 95% confidence intervals were calculated per 1000 horse starts. The association between horse-, rider- and race-level variables with the outcomes failure to finish, pulled-up/fell and lost rider were examined with a mixed effects Poisson regression model. A total of 544 horses failed to finish in 188,615 race starts with an overall incidence of 2.88 per 1000 horse starts (95% CI 2.64–3.12. The incidence of failure to finish horses across each race year showed little variability. In the univariable analysis race distance, larger field size, season, and ratings bands showed association with failing to finish a race. The overall failure to finish outcome was associated with season, race distance and ratings bands (horse experience and success ranking criteria. In the multivariable analysis, race distance and ratings bands were associated with horses that pulled-up/fell; season, apprentice allowances and ratings bands were associated with the outcome lost rider. The failure to finish rate was lower than international figures for race day catastrophic injury. Racing and environmental variables were associated with failure to finish a race highlighting the multifactorial nature of race-day events. Further investigation of risk factors for failure to finish is required to better understand the reasons for a low failure to finish rate in Thoroughbred flat races in New Zealand.
Kloth, Nadine; Shields, Susannah E; Rhodes, Gillian
The term "own-race bias" refers to the phenomenon that humans are typically better at recognizing faces from their own than a different race. The perceptual expertise account assumes that our face perception system has adapted to the faces we are typically exposed to, equipping it poorly for the processing of other-race faces. Sociocognitive theories assume that other-race faces are initially categorized as out-group, decreasing motivation to individuate them. Supporting sociocognitive accounts, a recent study has reported improved recognition for other-race faces when these were categorized as belonging to the participants' in-group on a second social dimension, i.e., their university affiliation. Faces were studied in groups, containing both own-race and other-race faces, half of each labeled as in-group and out-group, respectively. When study faces were spatially grouped by race, participants showed a clear own-race bias. When faces were grouped by university affiliation, recognition of other-race faces from the social in-group was indistinguishable from own-race face recognition. The present study aimed at extending this singular finding to other races of faces and participants. Forty Asian and 40 European Australian participants studied Asian and European faces for a recognition test. Faces were presented in groups, containing an equal number of own-university and other-university Asian and European faces. Between participants, faces were grouped either according to race or university affiliation. Eye tracking was used to study the distribution of spatial attention to individual faces in the display. The race of the study faces significantly affected participants' memory, with better recognition of own-race than other-race faces. However, memory was unaffected by the university affiliation of the faces and by the criterion for their spatial grouping on the display. Eye tracking revealed strong looking biases towards both own-race and own-university faces
Tavares, Jane L; Burr, Jeffrey A; Mutchler, Jan E
This study investigated race differences in the relationship between formal volunteering and hypertension prevalence among middle-aged and older adults. Using data from the 2004 and 2006 Health and Retirement Study (N = 5,666; 677 African Americans and 4,989 whites), we examined regression models stratified by race to estimate relationships among hypertension prevalence, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and volunteer status and hours spent volunteering among persons aged 51 years old and older. White volunteers had a lower risk of hypertension than white nonvolunteers. A threshold effect was also present; compared with nonvolunteers, volunteering a moderate number of hours was associated with lowest risk of hypertension for whites. Results for hypertension were consistent with results from alternative models of systolic and diastolic blood pressure. We found no statistically significant relationship between volunteering activity and hypertension/blood pressure for African Americans. There may be unmeasured cultural differences related to the meaning of volunteering and contextual differences in volunteering that account for the race differences we observed. Research is needed to determine the pathways through which volunteering is related to hypertension risk and that may help explain race differences identified here.
..., suitable for copying and electronic filing. If you submit comments by mail and would like to know that they... within the regulated area will be operated at a no wake speed and in a manner that will not endanger... regulated area must operate at a no wake speed and in a manner that will not endanger race participants or...
González-Espada, Wilson J.; Carrasquillo, Rosa E.
It was a pleasant surprise to see Gary White's call for papers on race and physics teaching. We definitely think that the physics teaching and learning of students from diverse and minority backgrounds is an important issue to discuss, especially given the fact that bias and discrimination are common experiences in the lives of many Latinx, including school-age children and college students.
REFLECTIONS The Matrices of Race, Class and Gender: how they. Nova Smith. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/safere.v3i1.23950 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians ...
Mikan, Vladimir; And Others
Measured important biochemical parameters in a group of orienteers two hours before beginning and immediately after an orienteering marathon. Found levels of dehydration. Suggests a drinking regimen which is designed for orienteering races. Concludes that no runner having kidney or liver abnormalities or changes in the urine should be allowed to…
Fuller, Gerald B.; Friedrich, Douglas
Rural Black and White children of variant academic achievement were tested on the Minnesota Percepto-Diagnostic Test, which consists of six gestalt designs for the subject to copy. Analyses resulted only in a significant achievement effect; when intellectual level was statistically controlled, race was not a significant variable. (Editor/SJL)
In the run up to South Africa's three national elections both academia and the media advocated that electoral behaviour would be informed by the race census thesis. This article challenges this dominant thesis by using evidence from postapartheid South Africa's three general elections which suggests that the racial census ...
As with many science fiction works, the "Star Trek" franchise uses allegory to address contemporary social issues. Taking a liberal humanistic stance, it addresses race and racism using aliens as allegorical stand-ins for humanity. However, the producers of the "Star Trek" franchise were inadvertently perpetuating the racism they were advocating…
Klaus Hanke for the CERN Running Club
The 2016 edition of the annual CERN Road Race will be held on Wednesday 28 September at 18:15. The 5.5 km race takes place over 3 laps of a 1.8 km circuit in the West Area of the Meyrin site and is open to everyone working at CERN and their families. There are runners of all speeds, with times ranging from under 17 to over 34 minutes, and the race is run on a handicap basis, by staggering the starting times so that (in theory) all runners finish together. Children (< 15 years) have their own race over 1 lap of 1.8 km. As usual, there will be a “best family” challenge (judged on best parent + best child). Trophies are awarded in the usual men’s, women’s and veterans’ categories, and there is a challenge for the best age/performance. Every adult will receive a souvenir prize, financed by a registration fee of 10 CHF. Children enter free (each child will receive a medal). More information and the online entry form can be found here.
In 2011, an urban school district that had been cited for excessive and disproportionate suspension by race and disability sought to establish guidelines for Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) as a remedy. District leaders held a PBIS planning meeting that included a broad collection of stakeholders. As they discussed…
Gaskin, Darrell J; Thorpe, Roland J; McGinty, Emma E; Bower, Kelly; Rohde, Charles; Young, J Hunter; LaVeist, Thomas A; Dubay, Lisa
We sought to determine the role of neighborhood poverty and racial composition on race disparities in diabetes prevalence. We used data from the 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and 2000 US Census to estimate the impact of individual race and poverty and neighborhood racial composition and poverty concentration on the odds of having diabetes. We found a race-poverty-place gradient for diabetes prevalence for Blacks and poor Whites. The odds of having diabetes were higher for Blacks than for Whites. Individual poverty increased the odds of having diabetes for both Whites and Blacks. Living in a poor neighborhood increased the odds of having diabetes for Blacks and poor Whites. To address race disparities in diabetes, policymakers should address problems created by concentrated poverty (e.g., lack of access to reasonably priced fruits and vegetables, recreational facilities, and health care services; high crime rates; and greater exposures to environmental toxins). Housing and development policies in urban areas should avoid creating high-poverty neighborhoods.
... medical need differ by race and ethnicity for young adults? Summary Definitions Data source and methods About the authors References ... 21%) young adults. This report shows that among young adults aged 20–29 years, there are ... related to health insurance Health insurance coverage: ...
Lim, Shirley Geok-lin
Although Asian American literature has usually been presented from the point of view of race, critics are beginning to take explicit account of gender positions in Asian American writing. Issues of incorporating sexuality into interpretations of Asian American literature are explored, and a bibliography of 41 works is presented. (SLD)
De Lissovoy, Noah
Starting from the contemporary critical-theoretical notion of an "objective violence" that organizes social reality in capitalism, including processes of systemic racism, as well as from phenomenological inquiries into processes of race and identity, this article explores the relationship between racism and reasonableness in education…
In this paper I suggest a technique which uses the familiar Parker Brother's game "Monopoly" to introduce core concepts of race and ethnic relations. I offer anecdotes from my classes where an abbreviated version of the game is used as an analog to highlight the sociological concepts of direct institutional discrimination, the legacy of…
Maxwell, William; Shammas, Diane
Considerable research has been conducted in the past two decades on race and ethnic relations among community college students. The atheoretical underpinnings of this research have led to vague and conflicting findings regarding such concepts as campus climate, discrimination, and the benefits of campus diversity. This article briefly reviews…
Diane J. Austin-Broos
Full Text Available Argues that Jamaican notions of 'race' and 'class' can be rendered as a discourse of heritable biological and environmental identity. There has been a movement in the meaning of colour categories from an emphasis on biology, to a greater emphasis on environment. This transition has been encouraged by the emergence of class as a 20th-c. idiom.
Lecturing to class each meeting is misuse of widely available instructional resources. Describes how to randomly assign a racial and ethnic identity to each student and how to use the community to invigorate an undergraduate race relations class. Concludes that colleges have been too cognitively oriented and that much can be gained by providing…
Davis, Richard A.
Examined data from state of North Carolina to test assumption that inordinately high Black teenage pregnancy rate accounts for difference between Black and White infant mortality rates. Results suggest that poverty, not race, plays crucial role in infant mortality. (Author/NB)
Drawing on research among medical students at the University of Cape Town's Faculty of Health Sciences, this article explores two questions: How do students and staff work with `race' in their relations to one another? What challenges do these relations pose for transformation? Data was gathered using in-depth ...
Sehgal, Priya; Jeffries, Julia; Rappaport, Nancy
In a time marked by racial divides, the authors of this article argue that teachers are on the front lines of identifying and responding to race-related stress in the classroom. They provide suggestions for how teachers can educate themselves about students' racialized experiences and respond appropriately to support students' mental health.
This research is situated in second-wave White Teacher Identity studies and investigates the ways context structures a high school English teacher's white identity, practices, and race-consciousness. Working with detailed data and vignettes from a single case study, the author highlights the teaching of a unit on the Holocaust. Using the required…
Krause, James S.; Saunders, Lee; Staten, David
The objective of this article was to identify the relationship between race-ethnicity and employment after spinal cord injury (SCI), while evaluating interrelationships with gender, injury severity, and education. The authors used a cohort design using the most current status from a post-injury interview from the National SCI Statistical Center.…
The current political economic crisis in the United States places in sharp relief the tensions and contradictions of racial capitalism as it manifests materially in health care and in knowledge-producing practices. Despite nearly two decades of investment in research on racial inequality in disease, inequality persists. While the reasons for persistence of inequality are manifold, little attention has been directed to the role of medical education. Importantly, medical education has failed to foster critical theorizing on race and racism to illuminate the often-invisible ways in which race and racism shape biomedical knowledge and clinical practice. Medical students across the nation are advocating for more critical anti-racist education that centers the perspectives and knowledge of marginalized communities. This Article examines the contemporary resurgence in explicit forms of white supremacy in light of growing student activism and research that privileges notions of innate differences between races. It calls for a theoretical framework that draws on Critical Race Theory and the Black Radical Tradition to interrogate epistemological practices and advocacy initiatives in medical education.
Proposes that there are in the Western Hemisphere at least three examples of societies where the problems of race, color, and prejudice have essentially been solved through the operation of social mechanisms of three different types: Brazil, Jamaica, and Mexico. (Author/JM)
This study was performed on two races of purslane; agronomic purslane and wild one. All the explants were cultured on MS basal medium supplement with 30 g/l sucrose, 8 g/l agar and different plant growth regulator. Petioles, shoot tips and leaves of wild purslane and also leaves of agronomic purslane were cultured in ...
Collier, B.J.; Smith, Willy Demarcell
This study of the interactive effects of race and sex on crime reaffirms previous conclusions that Black males are disproportionately and adversely affected by crime and the administration of criminal law. Interpretations of statistical data on victimization and imprisonment rates are presented. (JCD)
Curtis, Andy, Ed.; Romney, Mary, Ed.
The unique contribution of this book is to bring together Critical Race Theory and narrative inquiry and apply them specifically to a largely overlooked area of experience within the field of TESOL: What does it mean to be a TESOL professional of color? To address this question, TESOL professionals of color from all over the world, representing a…
Edelman, Marian Wright; Jones, James M.
Fifty years ago, the Supreme Court ruled in "Brown v. Board of Education" that: "Segregation of white and Negro children in the public schools of a State solely on the basis of race, pursuant to state laws permitting or requiring such segregation, denies to Negro children the equal protection of the laws guaranteed by the Fourteenth…
Black feminist literary theory offers tools that teachers can use to initiate discussions on the issues of race, gender and class to analyze the works of adolescent literature. This feminist theory helps in reading and teaching literature about parallel cultures, like African-Americans and their love for self and community and their recognition of…
Kubota, Ryuko; Lin, Angel
The field of teaching English to speakers of other languages (TESOL) brings people from various racialized backgrounds together in teaching, learning, and research. The idea of race, racialization, and racism are inescapable topics that arise in the contact zones created by teaching English worldwide and thus are valid topics to explore in the…
Wamsted, John O.
Applying the Deluzoguattarian concept of the trace, this article explores interactions between a White teacher and his Black students and the way race is coconstructed therein. Using a short story by the Argentine mystery writer Jorge Luis Borges as a frame, the author connects the poststructural philosophy of the trace to current notions of…
Lora E Vess
Full Text Available The rise of black consciousness through “Black Lives Matter” protests and recent events regarding police shootings of unarmed people of color have triggered a national dialogue on race, privilege, and discrimination. I structured my 400-level Race and Ethnicity course to build on the momentum of these conversations by incorporating a student-led race-centric research project whereby students learn and apply in-depth interview skills. Through this qualitative group project, students interviewed 31 members of the university community to investigate colorblindness, racial identity, privilege, racialized experiences, and institutional racism on their campus. In this article, I describe the project, and consider its strengths and limitations as a means of student learning about race, privilege, and discrimination in the U.S. today. I include student quotations gathered through final reflection papers to give voice to their experiences as well as a self-reflection of my experiences as part of this project, particularly as a white woman.
Sharma, Malika; Kuper, Ayelet
The deaths of black men and women while in police custody, rising anti-immigrant sentiment and rhetoric in high-income countries, and the continued health disparities experienced by Indigenous communities globally have brought race and racism to the forefront of public discourse in recent years. In a context where academic health science centres…
Grandner, Michael A.; Williams, Natasha J.; Knutson, Kristen L.; Roberts, Dorothy; Jean-Louis, Girardin
Sleep represents a set of biological functions necessary for the maintenance of life. Performing these functions, though, requires that an individual engage in behaviors, which are affected by social and environmental factors. Race/ethnicity and socioeconomic position represent categories of factors that likely play a role in the experience of sleep in the community. Previous studies have suggested that racial/ethnic minorities and the socioeconomically disadvantaged may be more likely to experience sleep patterns that are associated with adverse health outcomes. It is possible that disparities in sleep represent a pathway by which larger disparities in health emerge. This review (1) contextualizes the concept of race/ethnicity in biomedical research, (2) summarizes previous studies that describe patterns of sleep attainment across race/ethnicity groups, (3) discusses several pathways by which race/ethnicity may be associated with sleep, (4) introduces the potential role of socioeconomic position in the patterning of sleep, and (5) proposes future research directions to address this issue. PMID:26431755
The aim was to determine the effect of optimum plant population Density of sweet potato land races under improved ... Key words: optimum plant density sweet potato landraces and yield. INTRODUCTION. Sweet potato (1pomoea balatas ... The soil was classified as sandy clay loam . Root Yield. In 2007 results showed that ...
Squires, Robert H; Balint, Jane; Horslen, Simon; Wales, Paul W; Soden, Jason; Duggan, Christopher; Li, Ruosha; Belle, Steven H
Intestinal failure (IF) is a rare, devastating condition associated with significant morbidity and mortality. We sought to determine whether ethnic and racial differences were associated with patient survival and likelihood of receiving an intestinal transplant in a contemporary cohort of children with IF. This was an analysis of a multicenter cohort study with data collected from chart review conducted by the Pediatric Intestinal Failure Consortium. Entry criteria included infants ≤ 12 months receiving parenteral nutrition (PN) for ≥ 60 continuous days and studied for at least 2 years. Outcomes included death and intestinal transplantation (ITx). Race and ethnicity were recorded as they were in the medical record. For purposes of statistical comparisons and regression modeling, categories of race were consolidated into "white" and "nonwhite" children. Of 272 subjects enrolled, 204 white and 46 nonwhite children were available for analysis. The 48-month cumulative incidence probability of death without ITx was 0.40 for nonwhite and 0.16 for white children (P < 0.001); the cumulative incidence probability of ITx was 0.07 for nonwhite versus 0.31 for white children (P = 0.003). The associations between race and outcomes remained after accounting for low birth weight, diagnosis, and being seen at a transplant center. Race is associated with death and receiving an ITx in a large cohort of children with IF. This study highlights the need to investigate reasons for this apparent racial disparity in outcome among children with IF.
This is a case study of an elementary teacher's decision to add multicultural children's books to her curriculum and an analysis of how her ideologies about race shaped the classroom discourse. Although the teacher's stated purpose was to teach the pitfalls of racial stereotypes by encouraging conversations about prejudice, often the classroom…
Radovanovic, Dragan; Ponorac, N; Ignjatovic, A; Stojiljkovic, N; Popovic, T; Rakovic, A
Race walking is the technical and athletic expression of fast walking and it can be considered as a type of endurance performance. The purpose of this study was to examine whether 12 weeks of a specially designed training program results in the further training enhancement of endurance performance and the related physiological parameters in already well-trained race walkers competing at the national and international level. The investigation protocol consisted of determining the maximal oxygen uptake (VO2peak) and related gas exchange values using an automated cardiopulmonary exercise system and of determining blood lactate variables (aerobic threshold - LTAer and the maximal lactate steady state - MLSS) during walking with proper technique at 8, 10, 12 and 14 km·h-1 for 4 minutes without rest in between. Thereafter, the speed on the treadmill was increased by 0.5 km·h-1 every two minutes until exhaustion to determine VO2peak. After 12 weeks of a specially designed endurance training, statistically significant increases in VO2peak (61.8±8.5 mL·kg-1·min-1 pre vs. 66.9±9.5 mL·kg-1·min-1 post training; pprogram can improve endurance and race performance in previously well trained race walkers.
Dotterer, Aryn M.; Iruka, Iheoma U.; Pungello, Elizabeth
This study examined the link between socioeconomic status (SES) and school readiness, testing whether parenting (maternal sensitivity and negative behavior/intrusiveness) and financial stress mediated this association and if race moderated these paths. Participants included 164 mother-child dyads from African American and European American…
Clarke, Neil D; Richardson, Darren L; Thie, James; Taylor, Richard
Caffeine, often in the form of coffee, is frequently supplemented by athletes in an attempt to facilitate improved performance during exercise. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effectiveness of coffee ingestion as an ergogenic aid prior to a one-mile (1609 m) race. In a double-blind, randomised, crossover, placebo-controlled design 13 trained male runners completed a one-mile race 60 minutes following the ingestion of 0.09 g·kg -1 coffee (COF), 0.09 g·kg -1 decaffeinated coffee (DEC), or a placebo (PLA). All trials were dissolved in 300 ml of hot water. The race completion time was 1.3% faster following the ingestion of COF (04:35:37 ± 00:10:51 mm·ss) compared with DEC (04:39:14 ± 00:11:21 mm·ss; P=0.018; 95%CI: -0.11, -0.01; d=0.32) and 1.9% faster compared with PLA (04:41:00 ± 00:09:57 mm:ss; P=0.006; 95%CI: -0.15, -0.03; d=0.51). A large trial and time interaction for salivary caffeine concentration was observed (Pcaffeinated coffee one-mile race performance was enhanced by 1.9% and 1.3% compared with placebo and decaffeinated coffee respectively, in trained male runners.
It is submitted that the punishment of these offenders raised all sorts of ideological problems for the colonists, since the offenders in question were members of the white "master race". The following central themes within the colonial penal discourse of the time are discussed: first, the role that "shame" and "degradation" were ...
McArthur, Laura H.; Raedeke, Thomas D.
Objectives: To assess sex/race differences on psychosocial correlates of physical activity among college students. Methods: Survey research protocol. Results: Students (n = 636) exercised an average of 3.5 days per week, with black females being the least active. Across subgroups, health/fitness was rated as the most important motive for exercise,…
Beatty, Robert F.; Mcvey, Scott E.
Coating with suitable grease found to inhibit stress-corrosion cracking in bore of inner race of ball-bearing assembly operating in liquid oxygen. Protects bore and its corner radii from corrosion-initiating and -accelerating substances like moisture and contaminants, which enter during assembly. Operating life extended at low cost, and involves very little extra assembly time.
Brown, Lovisa; Gutierrez, Caren; Okmin, Janine; McCullough, Susan
Recent years have witnessed a surge in field-wide discussion about how to talk openly about race and culture within museum education. This article provides an analysis, using case studies from three culturally specific museums to explore how these identity-driven institutions navigate challenging, and often controversial, approaches to discussing…
Fossett, Judith Jackson, Ed.; Tucker, Jeffrey A., Ed.
This collection of essays represents new scholarship in African American studies, drawing lessons from the past and providing insights into current intellectual trends. Topics such as the culture of America as a culture of race, legacies of slavery and colonialism, crime and welfare politics, and African American cultural studies are addressed.…
Previous studies have suggested that adult African patients have a lower incidence of postoperative nausea and ... patients in a South African hospital and their association with preoperative agitation and patient race. Methods: A ... Watcha behavioural scale was used to assess pre- and postoperative agitation. A Watcha ...
Three of the most emotionally charged terms in this era are "race," "racism," and "White privilege." Definitions for these terms vary by individual experiences, beliefs, opinions, and perceptions. K-20 students are rarely exposed to a detailed coverage and critical analysis of the part of U.S. history that includes genocide, territorial…
Filho, Edson; Di Fronso, Selenia; Mazzoni, Caterina; Robazza, Claudio; Bortoli, Laura; Bertollo, Maurizio
Our purpose was to test the multi-action plan model assumptions in which athletes' psychophysiological patterns differ among optimal and suboptimal performance experiences. Nine professional drivers competing in premier race categories (e.g. Formula 3, Porsche GT3 Cup Challenge) completed the study. Data collection involved monitoring the drivers' perceived hedonic tone, accuracy on core components of action, posture, skin temperature, respiration rate and heart rate responses during a 40-lap simulated race. Time marks, gathered at three standardised sectors, served as the performance variable. The A1GP racing simulator (Allinsport, Modena) established a realistic race platform. Specifically, the Barcelona track was chosen because of its inherently difficult nature characterised by intermittent deceleration points. Idiosyncratic analyses showed large individual differences in the drivers' psychophysiological profile, as well as distinct patterns in regards to optimal and suboptimal performance experiences. Limitations and future research avenues are discussed. Action- (e.g. attentional control) and emotion (e.g. biofeedback training)-centred applied sport psychology implications are advanced.
Dec 8, 2010 ... formations and their modalities of structural orientation and social agency we need to think of racism within the complex of a state-race-class nexus. In sum then, the argument that we make vis-à-vis the differentiated racialised orders is that we need to embed ourselves within our national, South African, and ...
Fiolhais, Miguel C. N.; Amor dos Santos, Susana
The technique of bump drafting, also known as two-car drafting in motorsports, is analysed in the framework of Newtonian mechanics and simple aerodynamic drag forces. As an apparent unnatural effect that often pleases the enthusiasts of car racing, bump drafting provides a unique pedagogical opportunity for students to gain insights into the…
Long before most people had seen an automobile, thrill-seekers across the globe were driving cars competitively. The speed of racecars has accelerated steadily, as has the popularity of the sport. In public opinion polls of sports popularity, in fact, auto racing consistently finishes near the top. Racecar drivers may be the star of their event,…
Pérez Huber, Lindsay; Solorzano, Daniel G.
This conceptual article utilizes critical race theory (CRT) to explain how everyday forms of racism--racial microaggressions--emerge in the everyday experiences of People of Color. We provide a framework for understanding and analyzing racial microaggressions that demonstrates how everyday racist events are systemically mediated by…
O'Brien, Jason L.; Sears, Christine E.
Set during the Cold War and space race, this historical role-play focuses on Wernher von Braun's involvement in and culpability for the use of slave laborers to produce V-2 rockets for Nazi Germany. Students will grapple with two central questions. Should von Braun have been allowed to emigrate to the United States given his affiliation with the…
Although faculty across the curriculum are often faced with issues of racial identity in the teaching of writing, WAC has offered little support for addressing race in assignment design, classroom interactions, and assessment. Through examples from teaching workshops, I offer specific ways that we can engage discussions about teaching writing and…
Eagan, M. Kevin, Jr.; Garvey, Jason C.
This study uses multilevel modeling to analyze data from a national sample of full-time, undergraduate faculty at four-year institutions to examine the connections among race, gender, sources of stress, and productivity in the areas of research, teaching, and service. We find that stress due to discrimination has particular negative salience for…
Moving Mountains, the Race to Treat Global AIDS provides a lucid account of global efforts to scale up treatment for HIV/AIDS.As shown in the book, these efforts confront a number of critical challenges at a political, social, cultural and economic level.The book attempts to provide accounts of these challenges by looking at ...
Chen, Yan; Sang, Yingying; Ballew, Shoshana H; Tin, Adrienne; Chang, Alex R; Matsushita, Kunihiro; Coresh, Josef; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Molnar, Miklos Z; Grams, Morgan E
Recent studies suggest that potassium levels may differ by race. The basis for these differences and whether associations between potassium levels and adverse outcomes differ by race are unknown. Observational study. Associations between race and potassium level and the interaction of race and potassium level with outcomes were investigated in the Racial and Cardiovascular Risk Anomalies in Chronic Kidney Disease (RCAV) Study, a cohort of US veterans (N=2,662,462). Associations between African ancestry and potassium level were investigated in African Americans in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study (N=3,450). Race (African American vs non-African American and percent African ancestry) for cross-sectional analysis; serum potassium level for longitudinal analysis. Potassium level for cross-sectional analysis; mortality and end-stage renal disease for longitudinal analysis. The RCAV cohort was 18% African American (N=470,985). Potassium levels on average were 0.162mmol/L lower in African Americans compared with non-African Americans, with differences persisting after adjustment for demographics, comorbid conditions, and potassium-altering medication use. In the ARIC Study, higher African ancestry was related to lower potassium levels (-0.027mmol/L per each 10% African ancestry). In both race groups, higher and lower potassium levels were associated with mortality. Compared to potassium level of 4.2mmol/L, mortality risk associated with lower potassium levels was lower in African Americans versus non-African Americans, whereas mortality risk associated with higher levels was slightly greater. Risk relationships between potassium and end-stage renal disease were weaker, with no difference by race. No data for potassium intake. African Americans had slightly lower serum potassium levels than non-African Americans. Consistent associations between potassium levels and percent African ancestry may suggest a genetic component to these differences. Higher and
Udry, J Richard; Li, Rose Maria; Hendrickson-Smith, Janet
This study compared the health and risk status of adolescents who identify with 1 race with those identifying with more than 1 race. Data are derived from self-reports of race, using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), which provides a large representative national sample of adolescents in grades 7 through 12. Respondents could report more than 1 race. Mixed-race adolescents showed higher risk when compared with single-race adolescents on general health questions, school experience, smoking and drinking, and other risk variables. Adolescents who self-identify as more than 1 race are at higher health and behavior risks. The findings are compatible with interpreting the elevated risk of mixed race as associated with stress.
Elizabeth F.S. Roberts
Full Text Available This article considers the early period of development of IVF in Ecuador, focusing on factors that shaped the decade after the nation's first successful IVF birth (1992–2002. It describes how a poorly resourced public healthcare sector compelled Ecuadorians towards private-sector medicine, which included assisted reproduction treatment, and how IVF clinics drew patients through the pervasive racial inequalities that characterise post-colonial Ecuadorian society. More generally, the development of assisted reproduction treatment in Ecuador exemplifies themes in 20th century healthcare provisioning and inequality in Latin America, making it essential to understand this larger picture when considering Ecuador’s IVF industry both within the region and also internationally.
Background Sponsorship of Formula One (F1) motor racing, which has been used as an indirect medium of tobacco advertising for several decades, was prohibited by the 2005 European Union Tobacco Advertising Directive. Most F1 tobacco sponsorship of motor racing in the EU has since ceased, with the exception of the Scuderia Ferrari team, which continues to be funded by Philip Morris. In 2007, the Marlboro logo on Ferrari cars and other race regalia was replaced by an evolving ‘barcode’ design, which Ferrari later claimed was part of the livery of the car, and not a Marlboro advertisement. Objective To determine whether the ‘barcode’ graphics used by Ferrari represent ‘alibi’ Marlboro advertising. Methods Academic and grey literature, and online tobacco industry document archives, were searched using terms relevant to tobacco marketing and motorsport. Results Tobacco sponsorship of F1 motor racing began in 1968, and Philip Morris has sponsored F1 teams since 1972. Phillip Morris first used a ‘barcode’ design, comprising red vertical parallel lines below the word Marlboro on the British Racing Motors F1 car in 1972. Vertical or horizontal ‘barcode’ designs have been used in this way, latterly without the word Marlboro, ever since. The modern ‘barcode’ logos occupied the same position on cars and drivers' clothing as conventional Marlboro logos in the past. The shared use of red colour by Marlboro and Ferrari is also recognised by Philip Morris as a means of promoting brand association between Marlboro and Ferrari. Conclusion The Ferrari ‘barcode’ designs are alibi Marlboro logos and hence constitute advertising prohibited by the 2005 EU Tobacco Advertising Directive. PMID:21821820
Grant-Braham, Bruce; Britton, John
Sponsorship of Formula One (F1) motor racing, which has been used as an indirect medium of tobacco advertising for several decades, was prohibited by the 2005 European Union Tobacco Advertising Directive. Most F1 tobacco sponsorship of motor racing in the EU has since ceased, with the exception of the Scuderia Ferrari team, which continues to be funded by Philip Morris. In 2007, the Marlboro logo on Ferrari cars and other race regalia was replaced by an evolving 'barcode' design, which Ferrari later claimed was part of the livery of the car, and not a Marlboro advertisement. To determine whether the 'barcode' graphics used by Ferrari represent 'alibi' Marlboro advertising. Academic and grey literature, and online tobacco industry document archives, were searched using terms relevant to tobacco marketing and motorsport. Tobacco sponsorship of F1 motor racing began in 1968, and Philip Morris has sponsored F1 teams since 1972. Phillip Morris first used a 'barcode' design, comprising red vertical parallel lines below the word Marlboro on the British Racing Motors F1 car in 1972. Vertical or horizontal 'barcode' designs have been used in this way, latterly without the word Marlboro, ever since. The modern 'barcode' logos occupied the same position on cars and drivers' clothing as conventional Marlboro logos in the past. The shared use of red colour by Marlboro and Ferrari is also recognised by Philip Morris as a means of promoting brand association between Marlboro and Ferrari. The Ferrari 'barcode' designs are alibi Marlboro logos and hence constitute advertising prohibited by the 2005 EU Tobacco Advertising Directive.
Salinero, Juan J; Soriano, María L; Lara, Beatriz; Gallo-Salazar, César; Areces, Francisco; Ruiz-Vicente, Diana; Abián-Vicén, Javier; González-Millán, Cristina; Del Coso, Juan
The aim of the study was to analyze the relationship between anthropometry, training characteristics, muscular strength and effort-related cardiovascular response and marathon race time in male amateur runners. A total of 84 male amateur marathon runners aged between 23 and 70 years took part in this study (41.0±9.5 years). All of them competed in the 2013 edition of the Madrid Marathon with a finish time between 169.8 and 316 minutes (226.0±28.5 minutes). Age, running experience, number of marathon races finished, mean kilometers run weekly in the last three months, and previous personal best time in the 10 km, half marathon and marathon were recorded. Moreover, anthropometric characteristics, and the results from the Ruffier Test and a whole-body isometric force test were measured. After the marathon, the race time was registered. Training volume (r=-0.479; P=0.001), previous running milestones (marathon r=0.756; half-marathon r=0.812; 10-km r=0.732; P0.50. The best, including body fat percentage, heart rate change during the recovery after the Ruffier Test and the half-marathon race time, was strongly correlated with real marathon performance (r=0.77; P<0.001). A second regression model was proposed replacing the half-marathon performance with the 10-km race time, reducing the correlation to 0.73 (P<0.001). Marathon performance could be partially predicted by two different equations, including body fat percentage, recovery heart rate in the Ruffier Test and a half-marathon or 10-km performance.
Lee, Catherine; Skrentny, John D
Despite the lack of consensus regarding the meaning or significance of race or ethnicity amongst scientists and the lay public, there are legal requirements and guidelines that dictate the collection of racial and ethnic data across a range of institutions. Legal regulations are typically created through a political process and then face varying kinds of resistance when the state tries to implement them. We explore the nature of this opposition by comparing responses from businesses, scientists, and science-oriented businesses (pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies) to U.S. state regulations that used politically derived racial categorizations, originally created to pursue civil rights goals. We argue that insights from cultural sociology regarding institutional and cultural boundaries can aid understanding of the nature of resistance to regulation. The Food and Drug Administration's guidelines for research by pharmaceutical companies imposed race categories on science-based businesses, leading to objections that emphasized the autonomy and validity of science. In contrast, similar race categories regulating first business by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) and later scientific research sponsored by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) encountered little challenge. We argue that pharmaceutical companies had the motive (profit) that NIH-supported scientists lacked and a legitimate discourse (boundary work of science) that businesses regulated by the EEOC did not have. The study suggests the utility of a comparative cultural sociology of the politics of legal regulation, particularly when understanding race-related regulation and the importance of examining legal regulations for exploring how the meaning of race or ethnicity are contested and constructed in law.
Race, Community and Conflict by John Rex and Robert Moore was published in 1967 and had a considerable public impact through press and TV. Forty four years later it is still widely cited in research on British urban society and 'race relations'. It is used in teaching research methods, theory, urban sociology and 'race relations' to undergrad-uates. This article describes and explains the immediate impact of the book and its more lasting contribution to sociology. Race, Community and Conflict...
Because the dynamics of race are wrongly ignored in a current shroud of post-racialism (i.e. re-election of Barack Obama as president of the USA, shifting racial demographics in the USA, etc.), there are still communities in the USA and throughout the world that experience the damaging effects of racism entangled with the realities of class. Many…
Brown, Keffrelyn D.
The rapidly changing landscape of 21st-century education has sparked intense conversations around the need for a more racially and ethnically diverse PK-12 teacher population. Drawing from critical race theory and racial formation, I describe findings from a qualitative case study that examined how a group of black millennial preservice teachers…
Recognition of social forces (racism, privilege, power) to the extent that is required by critical race theory (CRT) results in a paradigm shift in the way that we theorize and research student development, specifically self-authorship. This paradigm shift moves the center of analysis from individual, to the individual in relation to her…
... Sail Race AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard will establish a temporary special local regulation for the annual Port Huron to Mackinac Island Sail Race. This action is necessary to safely control vessel movements in the vicinity of the race's starting point and...
Aviles de Bradley, Ann
A qualitative research study conducted in two public high schools in an urban area of the Midwest sought to explore the issue of race as it pertains to educational policy implementation for unaccompanied homeless youth of color. Critical Race Theory (CRT) served as the guiding frame and method, uncovering the underlying theme of race in school…
The desire to ignore race in favor of a "colorblind" approach has so permeated the cultural ethos of the US, that many whites, teachers included, fear that talking about race in any capacity leaves them open to accusations of racism. As a result, race has become a taboo subject in many US classrooms. This article explores the…
... collection comments requested Race and National Origin Identification ACTION: 60-Day Notice. The Department... a currently approved collection. (2) Title of the Form/Collection: Race and National Origin... or households. Other: None. Need for Collection The information collection is used to maintain Race...
... Collection Comments Requested Race and National Origin Identification ACTION: 30-Day notice. The Department... Information Collection: Extension of a currently approved collection. (2) Title of the Form/Collection: Race... information collection is used to maintain Race and National Origin data on all employees and new hires to...
... Mackinac Race AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of enforcement of regulation. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard will enforce the special local regulation for the annual Bayview Mackinac Race, from 9 a.m. to 5 p... in the vicinity of the race and provide for the safety of the general boating public and commercial...
... Championship Race, Gulf of Mexico; Clearwater, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule... the vicinity of Clearwater, Florida during the Clearwater Super Boat National Championship Race. The race is scheduled to take place from 9:30 a.m. to 4 p.m. on September 29, 2013. Approximately 35 boats...
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Race Point, MA, to Watch Hill, RI... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Atlantic Coast § 80.145 Race Point, MA, to Watch Hill... and Rhode Island from Race Point to Watch Hill. (b) A line drawn from Nobska Point Light to Tarpaulin...
... school and LEA turnaround measures, as described in section E of the State's Race to the Top Phase 2... Applications for New Awards; Race to the Top Fund Phase 3 AGENCY: Office of the Deputy Secretary, Department of Education ACTION: Notice. Overview Information Race to the Top Fund Phase 3 Notice inviting applications for...
Grissom, Jason A.; Keiser, Lael R.
Studies of race representation in public organizations illustrate the importance of bureaucrat race in determining client-level outcomes. Building "upward" from this research, this study examines how supervisor race impacts outcomes for street-level bureaucrats using data from a nationally representative sample of public schools. Employing…
Bertram, John E. A.; Prebeau-Menezes, Leif; Szarko, Matthew J.
We analyzed gait and function of the supporting limb in participants of a marathon race at three stages: prerace, midrace (18 km), and near the end of the race (36 km). We confirmed that the most successful runners were able to maintain running speed for the duration of the race with little change in speed or gait. Speed slowed progressively…
Full Text Available The soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines, is an important pest of soybeans. Although resistance is available against this nematode, selection for virulent races can occur, allowing the nematode to overcome the resistance of cultivars. There are abundant field populations, however, little is known about their genetic diversity. In order to elucidate the differences between races, we investigated the transcriptional diversity within race 3 and race 4 inbred lines during their compatible interactions with the soybean host Zhonghuang 13. Six different race-enriched cDNA libraries were constructed with limited nematode samples collected from the three sedentary stages, parasitic J2, J3 and J4 female, respectively. Among 689 putative race-enriched genes isolated from the six libraries with functional annotations, 92 were validated by quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR, including eight putative effector encoding genes. Further race-enriched genes were validated within race 3 and race 4 during development in soybean roots. Gene Ontology (GO analysis of all the race-enriched genes at J3 and J4 female stages showed that most of them functioned in metabolic processes. Relative transcript level analysis of 13 selected race-enriched genes at four developmental stages showed that the differences in their expression abundance took place at either one or more developmental stages. This is the first investigation into the transcript diversity of H. glycines races throughout their sedentary stages, increasing the understanding of the genetic diversity of H. glycines.
... of race, color, religion, age, or disability. 1300.106 Section 1300.106 Conservation of Power and... AUTHORITY § 1300.106 Harassment on the basis of race, color, religion, age, or disability. It is TVA policy... basis of race, color, religion, age, or disability. Accordingly, all employees must avoid any action or...
This paper examines the usage of "race" in high school physical education textbooks in Australia. In particular, it examines the concept of biological "race" in connection with human performance in sport. DNA studies do not indicate that separate classifiable subspecies (races) exist within modern humans. A content analysis of…
Liu, Shaoying; Xiao, Wen Sara; Xiao, Naiqi G.; Quinn, Paul C.; Zhang, Yueyan; Chen, Hui; Ge, Liezhong; Pascalis, Olivier; Lee, Kang
Previous research has shown that 3-month-olds prefer own- over other-race faces. The current study used eye-tracking methodology to examine how this visual preference develops with age beyond 3 months and how infants differentially scan between own- and other-race faces when presented simultaneously. We showed own- versus other-race face pairs to…
...-AA08 Special Local Regulation; Frogtown Race Regatta; Maumee River, Toledo, OH AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... Regulation on the Maumee River, Toledo, Ohio. This Special Local Regulation is necessary to protect race... from a portion of the Maumee River during the annual Frogtown Race Regatta. DATES: This rule is...
... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Race and National Origin... INFORMATION: OMB Number: 1505-0195. Type of Review: Revision of a currently approved collection. Title: Race...Connector, is used to capture race and national origin information electronically from an applicant. The...
...-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Charleston Race Week, Charleston Harbor; Charleston, SC AGENCY: Coast... regulation on the waters of Charleston Harbor in Charleston, South Carolina during Charleston Race Week, a series of sailboat races. From Thursday, April 18, 2013, until Sunday, April 21, 2013, approximately 300...
...-AA00 Safety Zone; CLS Fall Championship Hydroplane Race, Lake Sammamish, WA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... Race. This action is necessary to ensure public safety from the intrinsic dangers associated with high- speed races while ensuring unencumbered access for rescue personnel in the event of an emergency. During...
... Harbor Days Tug Boat Races, Budd Inlet, WA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of enforcement of... Races, Budd Inlet, WA from 12 p.m. through 8 p.m. on September 2, 2012. This action is necessary to restrict vessel movement within the specified race area immediately prior to, during, and immediately after...
... Local Regulations; Seattle Seafair Hydroplane Race, Lake Washington, WA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION... Hydroplane Race Special Local Regulation on Lake Washington, WA from 8 a.m. on August 2, 2013, through 11:59 p.m. on August 4, 2013, during hydroplane race times. This action is necessary to ensure public...
... Local Regulation: Hydroplane Races in Lake Sammamish, WA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of... Races within the Captain of the Port Puget Sound Area of Responsibility for the 2012 Fall Championship... September 30, 2012. This action is necessary to restrict vessel movement in the vicinity of the race courses...
... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION RIN 1894-AA01 Race to the Top Fund Phase 3; Correction AGENCY: Department... Phase 3 of the Race to the Top program (RTT-Phase 3 NPR) (76 FR 56183). The RTT-Phase 3 NPR was... Race to the Top Phase 3 award process proposed in this notice, eligible applicants'' by replacing it...
... Local Regulation, Hydroplane Races, Lake Sammamish, WA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of... Races within the Captain of the Port Puget Sound Area of Responsibility for the 2011 Fall Championship..., 2011. This action is necessary to restrict vessel movement in the vicinity of the race courses thereby...
Van Der Jagt, Hans
This article aims to discuss neo-Calvinist perspectives on race in the Dutch Colonial Empire. How did the colonial racial practice affect the Dutch neo-Calvinist perspectives on race? This article is based on new research: an analysis of a race-debate among neo-Calvinist church leaders in the
van der Jagt, J.W.
This article aims to discuss neo-Calvinist perspectives on race in the Dutch Colonial Empire. How did the colonial racial practice affect the Dutch neo-Calvinist perspectives on race? This article is based on new research: an analysis of a race-debate among neo-Calvinist church leaders in the
This paper reviews the existing literature to discuss how critical race theory has been applied as a theoretical framework to higher educational research in the United States and what its contributions are. To provide necessary context, I will discuss race and racism in the United States, the background of US higher education in relation to race,…
Smith, William A.; Yosso, Tara J.; Solorzano, Daniel G.
Background: Racial primes are an outgrowth and inculcation of a well-structured, highly developed, racially conservative, "race-neutral" or "color-blind" racial socialization process in which children learn race-specific stereotypes about African Americans and other race/ethnic groups. As they get older, they continue to receive--both involuntary…
...-AA00 Safety Zone; Annual Kennewick, WA, Columbia Unlimited Hydroplane Races, Kennewick, WA AGENCY..., Columbia Unlimited Hydroplane Races'' also known as the Tri-City Water Follies Hydroplane Races. The safety... power and responsibilities between the Federal Government and Indian tribes. Energy Effects We have...
Rufus Bullock, reconstruction, Georgia, United States history, African American, race relations, Gilded age......Rufus Bullock, reconstruction, Georgia, United States history, African American, race relations, Gilded age...
Knechtle, Beat; Wirth, Andrea; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald
Ultra-endurance performance is of increasing popularity. We investigated the associations between anthropometry, training and support during racing, with race performance in 67 male recreational ultra-endurance cyclists participating in the 'Swiss Cycling Marathon' over 600 kilometres, an official qualifier for the cycling ultra-marathon 'Paris-Brest-Paris'. The 54 finishers showed no differences in anthropometry and did not train differently compared to the 13 non-finishers. During the race, the finishers were significantly more frequently racing alone than being followed by a support crew. After bivariate analysis, percent body fat (r = 0.43), the cycling distance per training unit (r = -0.36), the duration per training unit (r = -0.31) and the sleep time during the race (r = 0.50) were related to overall race time. The 23 non-sleepers in the finisher group completed the race within (mean and IQR) 1,567 (1,453-1,606) min, highly significantly faster than the 31 sleepers with 1,934 (1,615-2,033) min (P = 0.0003). No variable of support during the race was associated with race time. After multivariate analysis, percent body fat (P = 0.026) and duration per training unit (P = 0.005) remained predictor variables for race time. To summarize, for a successful finish in a cycling ultra-marathon over 600 kilometres such as the 'Swiss Cycling Marathon', percent body fat and duration per training unit were related to race time whereas equipment and support during the race showed no association. Athletes with naps were highly significantly slower than athletes without naps.
Ian M. Lahart; Andrew M. Lane; Andrew Hulton; Karen Williams; Richard Godfrey; Charles Pedlar; Mathew G. Wilson; Gregory P. Whyte
Multiday ultra-endurance races present athletes with a significant number of physiological and psychological challenges. We examined emotions, the perceived functionality (optimal-dysfunctional) of emotions, strategies to regulate emotions, sleep quality, and energy intake-expenditure in a four-man team participating in the Race Across AMerica (RAAM); a 4856km continuous cycle race. Cyclists reported experiencing an optimal emotional state for less than 50% of total competition, with emotiona...
DeLozier, Sarah; Rhodes, Matthew G
Learners demonstrate superior recognition of faces of their own race or ethnicity, compared to faces of other races or ethnicities; a finding termed the own-race bias. Accounts of the own-race bias differ on whether the effect reflects acquired expertise with own-race faces or enhanced motivation to individuate own-race faces. Learners have previously been motivated to demonstrate increased recall for highly important items through a value-based paradigm, in which item importance is designated using high (vs. low) point values. Learners receive point values by correctly recalling the corresponding items at test, and are given the goal of achieving a high total point score. In two experiments we examined whether a value-based paradigm can motivate learners to differentiate between other-race faces, reducing or eliminating the own-race bias. In Experiment 1, participants studied own- and other-race faces paired with high or low point values. High point values (12-point) indicated that face was highly important to learn, whereas low point values (1-point) indicated that face was less important to learn. Participants demonstrated increased recognition for high-value own-race (but not other-race) faces, suggesting that motivation alone is not enough to reduce the own-race bias. In Experiment 2, we examined whether participants could use value to enhance recognition when permitted to self-pace their study. Recognition did not differ between high-value own- and other-race faces, reducing the own-race bias. Such data suggest that motivation can influence the own-race bias when participants can control encoding. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Reardon, Richard J M; Boden, Lisa A; Mellor, Dominic J; Love, Sandy; Newton, Richard J; Stirk, Anthony J; Parkin, Timothy D
The aim of this study was to evaluate risk factors associated with developing epistaxis in jump racing in Great Britain (GB). A retrospective analysis of records from horses running in all hurdle and steeplechase races in GB between 2001 and 2009 identified diagnoses of epistaxis whilst still at the racecourse. Data were used from 603 starts resulting in epistaxis (event) and 169,065 starts resulting in no epistaxis (non-event) in hurdle racing, and from 550 event starts and 102,344 non-event starts in steeplechase racing. Two multivariable logistic regression models to evaluate risk factors associated with epistaxis were produced. The potential effect of clustering of data (within horse, horse dam, horse sire, trainer, jockey, course, race and race meet) on the associations between risk factors and epistaxis was examined using mixed-effects models. Multiple factors associated with increased risk of epistaxis were identified. Those identified in both types of jump racing included running on firmer ground; horses with >75% of career starts in flat racing and a previous episode of epistaxis recorded during racing. Risk factors identified only in hurdle racing included racing in the spring and increased age at first race; and those identified only in steeplechase racing included running in a claiming race and more starts in the previous 3-6 months. The risk factors identified provide important information about the risk of developing epistaxis. Multiple avenues for further investigation are highlighted, including unmeasured variables at the level of the racecourse. The results of this study can be used to guide the development of interventions to minimise the risk of epistaxis in jump racing. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.