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Sample records for fish oreochromis niloticus

  1. EXTRACTION AND DETERMINATION OF COLLAGEN PEPTIDE AND ITS CLINICAL IMPORTANCE FROM TILAPIA FISH SCALES (OREOCHROMIS NILOTICUS)

    OpenAIRE

    M. Hemanth kumar; V. Spandana; Tiwari Poonam

    2011-01-01

    Tilapia are one of the most widely introduced fish globally that has clearly emerged as a very promising group in aquaculture. Oreochromis mossambicus was the first tilapia species to be taken up for large scale aquaculture, followed by Oreochromis niloticus, Oreochromis aureus and Tilapia rendalli. Today O. niloticus contributes more than 80% of tilapia aquaculture production globally. O. mossambicus was introduced in India as early as 1952 with a view to filling some unoccupied ecological n...

  2. Identification of SNARE proteins in fish-Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Xiaohang; LAM Patrick P L; LIN Xuezheng; LIU Chenlin; BIAN Ji; GAISANO Herbert

    2007-01-01

    SNARE proteins are a group of membrane-associated proteins involved in exocytosis, secretion and membrane trafficking events in eukaryotic cells. Research on SNARE protein biology has become a more attractive field in recent years, which is applied to marine biology specifically to the fish Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Plasma membrane fractions of different tissues of Tilapia, including brain, liver-pancreas, intestine, skin and muscle, were extracted, and immuno-decorated with isoform-specific antibodies to the SNARE families and associated proteins. The presence of Syntaxins -1A, 2 and 3, SNAP-23 and SNAP-25, VAMP-2, Munc-18-1 and Munc-13 in the brain was identified, which were differentially distributed in the other organ tissues of the fish Tilapia. The distinct distribution of SNARE and associated proteins will serve as the basis for further investigation into their special secretory function in these tissues of the fish.

  3. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE BODY WEIGHT CHARACTERISTICS AND EFFECT OF DRYING ON CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF THREE NILE FISH SPECIES (Oreochromis Niloticus, Labeo Niloticus AND Clarias Spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan M. YAGOUB ADAM

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to compare the body weights of three different Nile fish species (Oreochromis niloticus, Labeo niloticus and Clarias spp., and the impact of direct sun drying on their chemical composition.36 samples were collected (12 samples/ species. Averages of total length, standard length (cm and gross body weight (gm were determined and the findings were as follows: 36.5, 29.75 and 930 for Oreochromis niloticus, 49, 39.5 and 1210 for Labeo niloticus and 49, 45 and 977.5 for Clarias spp. It was noticed that clarias spp. has the highest edible meat percentage 46.75% followed by Labeo niloticus 38.82% and Oreochromis niloticus 33.39%, and there were significant differences (P < 0.05 among the three species. Chemical analysis for the samples was done to determine (protein, fat, ash and moisture contents. The results of protein contents examined were 62%, 61.5% and 61.5% for Oreochromis niloticus, Labeo niloticus and Clarias spp. respectively. Fat contents were 7.41%, 8.27% and 7.32% for Oreochromis niloticus, Labeo niloticus and Clarias spp. respectively. Moisture contents were 6.7%, 7.5% and 7.5% for Oreochromis niloticus, Labeo niloticus and Clarias spp. respectively. Ash contents were 5.90%, 6.05% and 6.85% for Oreochromis niloticus, Labeo niloticus and Clarias spp. respectively.

  4. Fishborne trematodes in cultured Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and wild-caught fish from Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiriya, Benjamaporn; Clausen, Jesper Hedegaard; Inpankaew, Tawin;

    2013-01-01

    Fish-borne zoonotic trematode (FZT) infections affect the health of more than 18 million people around the world, particularly in Asian countries. Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) is a white meat fish that has an increasing national and international market. The objective of this study...

  5. Optimizing fish meal-free commercial diets for Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus

    Science.gov (United States)

    A feeding trial was conducted in a closed recirculating aquaculture system with Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus juveniles (mean weight, 6.81 g) to examine the response to a practical diet containing protein primarily from menhaden fish meal (FM) and soybean meal (SBM) (control, Diet 1) or to diet...

  6. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE BODY WEIGHT CHARACTERISTICS AND EFFECT OF DRYING ON CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF THREE NILE FISH SPECIES (Oreochromis Niloticus, Labeo Niloticus AND Clarias Spp.)

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan M. YAGOUB ADAM; Ahmed Mohamed MUSA AHMED; Abdelwahab M ADAM IBRAHIM; Fathi MIRGHANI YOUSIF

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to compare the body weights of three different Nile fish species (Oreochromis niloticus, Labeo niloticus and Clarias spp.), and the impact of direct sun drying on their chemical composition.36 samples were collected (12 samples/ species). Averages of total length, standard length (cm) and gross body weight (gm) were determined and the findings were as follows: 36.5, 29.75 and 930 for Oreochromis niloticus, 49, 39.5 and 1210 for Labeo niloticus and 49, 45 and 977.5 f...

  7. EXTRACTION AND DETERMINATION OF COLLAGEN PEPTIDE AND ITS CLINICAL IMPORTANCE FROM TILAPIA FISH SCALES (OREOCHROMIS NILOTICUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Hemanth kumar

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Tilapia are one of the most widely introduced fish globally that has clearly emerged as a very promising group in aquaculture. Oreochromis mossambicus was the first tilapia species to be taken up for large scale aquaculture, followed by Oreochromis niloticus, Oreochromis aureus and Tilapia rendalli. Today O. niloticus contributes more than 80% of tilapia aquaculture production globally. O. mossambicus was introduced in India as early as 1952 with a view to filling some unoccupied ecological niches, mainly pond aquaculture and reservoir fisheries. Tilapia fish scales found to have more percentage of Type I collagen. Fish collagen is complex structural protein that helps to maintain the strength and flexibility of skin, ligaments, bones, joints, muscles, tendons, gums, eyes, blood vessels, nails and hair. Collagen can be obtained from fish scales, fish skins by advanced enzymatic digestion methods in biotechnology. The Protein content of the above is more than 90% and having 18 kinds of amino acids out of which 7 are essential for human consumption. These products are easily absorbable and having high biological value promoting the absorption of vitamins and minerals. The enzymatic digestion technology process releases a lot of peptides in molecular collagen that helps humans in many physiological functions. Collagen has been used in biomedical pharmaceutical, food and cosmetic industries. In this paper we have determined the collagen extracted from Tilapia fish scales and also its clinical importance.

  8. PERFORMANCE OF NILE TILAPIA (OREOCHROMIS NILOTICUS FED FISH MEAL AND POULTRY BY-PRODUCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.M. ADAM SULIEMAN

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted at the Department of Fisheries and Wild life Science, College of Science and Technology of Animal Production, Sudan University of Science and Technology, to determine the feed efficiency of two locally formulated diets (A and B on performance of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus. Two iso-caloric iso-nitrogenus diets were formulated by adding 60% wheat bran, 30% cotton seed cake and 10% poultry by-product (offal+intestine, while the diet (B contained 60% wheat bran, 30% cotton seed cake and 10% fish meal. The fish were fed twice a day at affixed feeding rate of 5% body weight of fish per day for 90 days. The total body weight, total length and standard length were measured every 10 days throughout the experimental period. The growth response and performance data of the studied fish (Oreochromis niloticus fed with diet (B containing fishmeal recorded a better growth response than that fish fed poultry by- product meal (diet A. The final weight increment, specific growth rate (SGR, feed conversion ratio (FCR and protein efficiency ratio (PER over the experimental period showed lowest value for the group fed the diet with poultry by-product (Diet A compared to those fed with the fishmeal (Diet B. Except the apparent protein utilization (APU was recorded higher for those fed with Diet A (23.31 than Diet B (11.99. The groups fed diet (A attained SGR 0.24, FCR 1.9, PER 0.75, APU 23.31, while it recorded in group (B, SGR 0.34, FCR 1.2, PER 1.06, APU 11.99. Therefore, fish meal is better as compared to poultry by-products for Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus nutrition.

  9. Cloning and characterization of type III iodothyronine deiodinase from the fish Oreochromis niloticus

    OpenAIRE

    Sanders, J.P.; Van Der Geyten, S; Kaptein, Ellen; Darras, Veerle; Kuhn, E.R.; Leonard, J L; Visser, Ton

    1999-01-01

    textabstractType III iodothyronine deiodinase (D3) catalyzes the inner ring deiodination (IRD) of T4 and T3 to the inactive metabolites rT3 and 3,3'-diiodothyronine (3,3'-T2), respectively. Here we describe the cloning and characterization of complementary DNA (cDNA) coding for D3 in fish (Oreochromis niloticus, tilapia). This cDNA contains 1478 nucleotides and codes for a protein of 267 amino acids, including a putative selenocysteine (Sec) residue, encoded by a TGA triplet, at position 131....

  10. Growth performance of exotic Oreochromis niloticus, exotic Oreochromis niloticus fed with pelleted feeds in flow-through system

    OpenAIRE

    Eyo, A.A.; Okoye, F.C.; Sebiola, D.

    1999-01-01

    Local, exotic and hybrid tilapia fingerlings were fed 45% crude protein diet containing 18% fish meal in a flow through system in triplicate and their growth and food utilization observed for 14 weeks. At the end of the study, the hybrid (Exotic Oreochromis niloticus male x Exotic Oreochromis aureus female) fingerlings had higher growth rate and food conversion ratio (FCR) than the other treatments. This was followed by Exotic Oreochromis niloticus fingerlings. The exotic Oreochromis niloticu...

  11. Feeding ecology and population characteristics of Oreochromis niloticus (L.) and trophic interactions in the fish community of Nyanza Gulf, Lake Victoria, Kenya.

    OpenAIRE

    Njiru, M.

    1999-01-01

    The diet of Oreochromis niloticus (L.) is now more diverse than earlier reported. Oreochromis niloticus was considered to be a herbivore feeding mostly on algae and plant material. The diet now consists of insects, fish, algae and plant material. The shift in diet may be due to ecological changes in the lake. Water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms, which harbours insects in its root balls, now has extensive coverage of the lake. The native species which preyed on insects (e.g. hap...

  12. Toxicological effects of the herbicide oxyfluorfen on acetylcholinesterase in two fish species: Oreochromis niloticus and Gambusia affinis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanein, Hamdy M A

    2002-01-01

    The alterations of the AChE activity in the brains of two fresh water fishes; Oreochromis niloticus and Gambusia affinis were measured after exposure to acute, sub-acute and chronic concentrations from the widely used herbicide; oxyfluorfen. Bioassays were conducted under controlled laboratory conditions. The used concentrations were acute: LC50 for 6 days, sub-acute 1/3 LC50 for 15 days and chronic 1/10 LC50 for 30 days. The obtained results showed marked inhibitory effects of the herbicide on the activity of AChE in both fishes. However, these effects were more pronounced in O. niloticus where the decline in the enzyme activity ranged from 19.7 to 81.28% while in case of G. affinis it ranged from 5.7 to 36.7%. These findings demonstrate that G. affinis is most tolerant to oxyfluorfen toxicity compared with O. niloticus. PMID:12046652

  13. Effect of grilling and baking on physicochemical and textural properties of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fish burger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bainy, Eduarda Molardi; Bertan, Larissa Canhadas; Corazza, Marcos Lucio; Lenzi, Marcelo Kaminski

    2015-08-01

    The influence of two common cooking methods, grilling and baking, on chemical composition, water retention, fat retention, cooking yield, diameter reduction, expressible water, color and mechanical texture of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fish burgers was investigated. Texture analyses were performed using a Warner-Bratzler test. The fish burger had a softer texture with a lower shear force than other meat products reported in the literature. There were no significant differences in proximate composition, diameter reduction, fat retention and expressible water between the grilled and oven-baked fish burgers. Cooking methods did not affect the cooking times and cooking rates. Warner-Bratzler parameters and color were significantly influenced by the cooking method. Grilling contributed to a shear force and work of shearing increase due to the lower cooking yield and water retention. Raw burgers had the highest L* (69.13 ± 0.96) and lowest b* (17.50 ± 0.75) values. Results indicated that baking yielded a product with better cooking characteristics, such as a desired softer texture with lower shear values (4.01 ± 0.54) and increased water retention (95.82 ± 0.77). Additionally, the baked fish burgers were lighter (higher L*) and less red (lower a*) than the grilled ones. PMID:26243932

  14. Gill monogeneans of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and red hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis spp.) from the wild and fish farms in Perak, Malaysia: infection dynamics and spatial distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Shen-Yin; Ooi, Ai-Lin; Wong, Wey-Lim

    2016-01-01

    Tilapia is one of the commercially important fish in Malaysia as well as in other parts of the world. An understanding of monogenean infection dynamics in tilapia fish may assist us in searching for some intervention measures in reducing the loss of fish caused by parasitic diseases. The present study aimed (1) to compare infection level of monogeneans between the wild and cultured Oreochromis niloticus, and between the cultured O. niloticus and cultured red hybrid tilapia, and (2) to examine the spatial distribution of monogenean species over the gills of the different host species. From a total of 75 fish specimens, six species of monogeneans from two genera: Cichlidogyrus (C. halli, C. mbirizei, C. sclerosus, C. thurstonae, C. tilapiae) and Scutogyrus (S. longicornis) were identified. Data showed that the infection level of cultured O. niloticus was higher than that of the wild O. niloticus, however, the former was lower than that of the cultured red hybrid tilapia. Higher species richness of monogeneans was observed in the cultured red hybrid tilapia as compared to the others. Results for spatial distribution showed that the monogeneans have no preference on the left or right sides of the gills. However, C. halli, C. mbirizei, and C. tilapiae showed preferences on specific gill arches in the cultured O. niloticus and red hybrid tilapia. In general, the gill arch IV harboured the least number of monogeneans. The susceptibility of monogenean infection between the different types of tilapia is discussed.

  15. Gill monogeneans of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and red hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis spp.) from the wild and fish farms in Perak, Malaysia: infection dynamics and spatial distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Shen-Yin; Ooi, Ai-Lin; Wong, Wey-Lim

    2016-01-01

    Tilapia is one of the commercially important fish in Malaysia as well as in other parts of the world. An understanding of monogenean infection dynamics in tilapia fish may assist us in searching for some intervention measures in reducing the loss of fish caused by parasitic diseases. The present study aimed (1) to compare infection level of monogeneans between the wild and cultured Oreochromis niloticus, and between the cultured O. niloticus and cultured red hybrid tilapia, and (2) to examine the spatial distribution of monogenean species over the gills of the different host species. From a total of 75 fish specimens, six species of monogeneans from two genera: Cichlidogyrus (C. halli, C. mbirizei, C. sclerosus, C. thurstonae, C. tilapiae) and Scutogyrus (S. longicornis) were identified. Data showed that the infection level of cultured O. niloticus was higher than that of the wild O. niloticus, however, the former was lower than that of the cultured red hybrid tilapia. Higher species richness of monogeneans was observed in the cultured red hybrid tilapia as compared to the others. Results for spatial distribution showed that the monogeneans have no preference on the left or right sides of the gills. However, C. halli, C. mbirizei, and C. tilapiae showed preferences on specific gill arches in the cultured O. niloticus and red hybrid tilapia. In general, the gill arch IV harboured the least number of monogeneans. The susceptibility of monogenean infection between the different types of tilapia is discussed. PMID:27652182

  16. Effects of diazinon on the lymphocytic cholinergic system of Nile tilapia fish (Oreochromis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo-Ibarra, G A; Díaz-Resendiz, K J G; Pavón-Romero, L; Rojas-García, A E; Medina-Díaz, I M; Girón-Pérez, M I

    2016-08-01

    Fish rearing under intensive farming conditions can be easily disturbed by pesticides, substances that have immunotoxic properties and may predispose to infections. Organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) are widely used in agricultural activities; however, the mechanism of immunotoxicity of these substances is unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of diazinon pesticides (OPs) on the cholinergic system of immune cells as a possible target of OP immunotoxicity. We evaluated ACh levels and cholinergic (nicotinic and muscarinic) receptor concentration. Additionally, AChE activity was evaluated in mononuclear cells of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), a freshwater fish mostly cultivated in tropical regions around the world. The obtained results indicate that acute exposure to diazinon induces an increase in ACh concentration and a decrease in nAChR and mAChR concentrations and AChE activity in fish immune cells, This suggests that the non-neuronal lymphocytic cholinergic system may be the main target in the mechanism of OP immunotoxicity. This study contributes to the understanding of the mechanisms of immunotoxicity of pollutants and may help to take actions for animal health improvement. PMID:27260186

  17. Induction of hsp70 by the herbicide oxyfluorfen (Goal) in the Egyptian Nile fish, Oreochromis niloticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanein, H M; Banhawy, M A; Soliman, F M; Abdel-Rehim, S A; Müller, W E; Schröder, H C

    1999-07-01

    This paper deals with the expression of the biomarker hsp70 in the liver and kidney of the freshwater fish Oreochromis niloticus following exposure to the herbicide oxyfluorfen (Goal). Fishes were exposed to three concentrations, the 96-h LC50 (3 mg/L), the 96-h (1/2)LC50 (1.5 mg/L), and the 96-h (1/4)LC50 (0.75 mg/L) of oxyfluorfen for 6, 15, and 24 days, respectively, and samples were taken at three different time periods for each concentration. The livers responded to the herbicide by an induction of the expression of both the constitutive (hsp75; Mr 75 kDa) and the inducible (hsp73; Mr 73 kDa) hsp70 proteins. In kidney, the herbicide induced a time-dependent increase in the expression of the constitutive hsp70 (hsp75) as well, but the inducible hsp70 (hsp73) required much longer incubation periods to reach maximal levels (15 and 24 days). Our results suggest that expression of hsp70 in fish is a sensitive indicator of cellular responses to herbicide exposure in the aquatic environment. PMID:10341045

  18. Effects of substituting fish meal with Azolla pinnata in practical diets for fingerling and adult Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.)

    OpenAIRE

    EL-SAYED, A.-F. M.

    1992-01-01

    Dry and fresh Azolla pinnata were evaluated as feed ingredients for fingerling and adult Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.). Dry Azolla was incorporated into practical diets containing approximately 30% crude protein and 360�400kcal/lOOg of GE lo replace 25,50,75 and 100% of the fish meal (FM) protein in the control diet. Fresh Azolla was also tested as a total diet for these fish. Formulated diets were fed to duplicate groups of fingerling (2�54g � 0093) and adult (4033g � 103) fish at...

  19. Heavy Metal Accumulation in Lake Sediments, Fish (Oreochromis niloticus and Serranochromis thumbergi), and Crayfish (Cherax quadricarinatus) in Lake Itezhi-tezhi and Lake Kariba, Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Nakayama, Shouta M. M.; IKENAKA, Yoshinori; Muzandu, Kaampwe; Choongo, Kennedy; Oroszlany, Balazs; Teraoka, Hiroki; Mizuno, Naoharu; Ishizuka, Mayumi

    2010-01-01

    We measured the level of heavy metal accumulation in lake sediments, herbivorous (Oreochromis niloticus) and carnivorous (Serranochromis thumbergi) fish, and crayfish (Cherax quadricarinatus) from Lake Itezhi-tezhi (ITT) and Lake Kariba. We used atomic absorption spectrophotometry to quantify the levels of seven heavy metals (Cr, Co, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, and Ni). The sediment and the herbivorous fish O. niloticus accumulated a very high concentration of Cu in Lake ITT, most likely due to the disc...

  20. Prebiotic (Mannanoligosaccharide- MOS in fish nutrition: effects on nile-tilapia Oreochromis niloticus performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Endrigo Cechim

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available World fish production are growing about 10% a year and Brazil presents potential to be the first one in fish production until 2030. However, intensification of aquaculture production systems expose fish to numerous stressors such as poor water quality, crowding, handling and transport which may negatively affect their growth and and limit profitability of aquaculture systems. This current setup favors the use of dietary prebiotics for management of farmed fish as environmentally friendly practice. This study was set out to determine de effects of increasing levels of mannanoligosccharides (MOS on growth of juvenile Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus. Fish (12.62 ± 0.38 were randomly distributed into 16 cages (0.25m3 polyvinyl chloride; 20 fish per cage, inside four 5m3 net-cage at Salto Caxias Hydroeletric water reservoir (Boa Vista da Aparecida, PR. Fish were fed during 60 days with a commercial diet (32%CP supplemented with 0.0 (control; 0.2; 0.4 and 0.8% dietary MOS (n=4. Water quality parameters (temperature, pH and dissolved oxygen were monitored during trial. After 60 days feeding trial, fish were fasted for 24 hours and sedated for biometrical parameters to evaluate growth parameters. It was observed no influence (p>0.05 of MOS supplementation on Nile tilapia growth parameters (weight gain, feed conversion rate, specific growth rate as well as for hepatosomatic index. Fish fed 0.4% dietary MOS showed increased (p<0.05 feed consumption (76.74 ± 3.98 when compared to fish fed control (unsupplemented diet (69.31 ± 1.11. MOS are indigestible glucomannoproteins, which provide mannose substrate upon which pathogenic gut bacteria selectively attach and prevents formation of mixed colonies leading to better gut health by increasing regularity, height and integrity of the gut villi and consequent better utilization and absorption of nutrients. Several authors found positive effects of MOS supplementation on fish growth and at same time, others

  1. PERFORMANCE OF NILE TILAPIA (OREOCHROMIS NILOTICUS) FED FISH MEAL AND POULTRY BY-PRODUCT

    OpenAIRE

    H.M. ADAM SULIEMAN; F.I. KHAMIS AHMED

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted at the Department of Fisheries and Wild life Science, College of Science and Technology of Animal Production, Sudan University of Science and Technology, to determine the feed efficiency of two locally formulated diets (A and B) on performance of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Two iso-caloric iso-nitrogenus diets were formulated by adding 60% wheat bran, 30% cotton seed cake and 10% poultry by-product (offal+intestine), while the diet (B) contained 60% wheat br...

  2. Low water conductivity increases the effects of copper on the serum parameters in fish (Oreochromis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canli, Esin G; Canli, Mustafa

    2015-03-01

    The conductivity is largely determined by ion levels in water, predominant ion being Ca(2+) in the freshwaters. For this reason, the effects of copper were evaluated as a matter of conductivity of exposure media in the present study. Thus, freshwater fish Oreochromis niloticus were exposed to copper in differing conductivities (77, 163 and 330 μS/cm), using acute (0.3 μM, 3 d) and chronic (0.03 μM, 30 d) exposure protocols. Following the exposure serum parameters of fish were measured. Data showed that there was no significant alteration (P>0.05) in serum parameters of control fish. However, activities of ALP, ALT and AST decreased significantly at the lower conductivities in chronic copper exposure, but not in acute ones. Protein levels did not differ significantly in any of the exposure conditions. However, Cu exposure at the lowest conductivity sharply increased the levels of glucose in the acute exposure, while there was no significant difference in the chronic exposure. Cholesterol levels decreased only at the lower conductivities in chronic exposure, but increased in acute exposure. Similarly, triglyceride levels increased in acute exposures and decreased in chronic exposures at the lowest conductivity. There was no change in Na(+) levels, while there was an increase in K(+) levels and a decrease in Ca(2+) level at the lowest conductivity of acute exposures. However, Cl(-) levels generally decreased at the higher conductivities of chronic exposures. There was a strong negative relationship between significant altered serum parameters and water conductivity. In conclusion, this study showed that copper exposure of fish at lower conductivities caused more toxicities, indicating the protective effect of calcium ions against copper toxicity. Data suggest that conductivity of water may be used in the evaluation of metal data from different waters with different chemical characteristics.

  3. Prevalence and diversity of fish-borne zoonotic trematodes in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) culture in Guangdong, China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Kang; Murrell, Kenneth Darwin; Clausen, Jesper Hedegaard;

    The fishborne zoonotic trematode parasites (FZT) which cause liver and intestinal infections in humans are widespread in fish in Southeast Asia. Guangdong Province is the most important region for tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) culture in China, but it is also an endemic region for FZT. To assess......), and Carassius auratus (4).The FZT species recovered were mainly Haplorchis taichui, and H. pumilio along with some unknown species whose identifications are still being determined. Subsequently a cross-sectional survey for the prevalence and diversity of FZT in tilapia culture systems was conducted in Guangdong...

  4. Manganese Neurotoxicity in Oreochromis niloticus

    OpenAIRE

    Annabelle Herrera; Elena Catap

    1992-01-01

    Manganese is not an acutely hazardous environmental contaminant at low levels, but increased dose produces serious degenerative disorders in Oreochromis niloticus. Sublethal exposure of fry to 2000 mg/L manganese chloride for eight days displays evidences of poisoning, and hard hit is the brain. Light microscopy shows appearance of gaps between brain layers and cell destruction. Electron microscopy shows damage to subcellular structures.

  5. Copper toxicity in gills of the teleost fish, Oreochromis niloticus: Effects in apoptosis induction and cell proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteiro, Sandra Mariza, E-mail: smonteir@utad.pt [Department of Biology and Environment-CITAB, University of Tras-os-Montes and Alto Douro, Apartado 1013, 5001-801 Vila Real (Portugal); Santos, Nuno M.S. dos [Institute for Molecular and Cell Biology, University of Porto (Portugal); Calejo, Margarida [Lab Cell Biology - ICBAS, University of Porto (Portugal); Fontainhas-Fernandes, Antonio [Department of Biology and Environment-CITAB, University of Tras-os-Montes and Alto Douro, Apartado 1013, 5001-801 Vila Real (Portugal); Sousa, Mario [Lab Cell Biology - ICBAS, University of Porto (Portugal); Centre for Reproductive Genetics Alberto Barros, Porto (Portugal)

    2009-09-14

    Recent in vitro studies have demonstrated that copper may induce apoptosis triggering the activation of caspase-3, a central effector of apoptotic cell death. However, the precise mechanism of copper-induced apoptosis is still unclear, even less so in Oreochromis niloticus where no caspase genes have been reported so far. This study aimed to assess the in vivo role of copper in apoptosis induction on O. niloticus gill, simultaneously contributing to elucidate the mechanism of copper-induced apoptosis. Caspase-3 gene was partially sequenced and, after in vivo exposures to 40 and 400 {mu}g L{sup -1} of copper, its mRNA expression was evaluated by real-time PCR. Apoptosis was also evaluated by TUNEL assay and cell proliferation identified using an antibody against proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). The copper concentrations used did not induce the upregulation of caspase-3 gene in O. niloticus gill. In addition, in the gills of fish exposed to copper there was no increase in the estimated relative volume of apoptotic cells, indicating that neither the caspase-3-dependent or caspase-independent apoptotic pathways were induced. On the other hand, the increase in the volumetric density of epithelial proliferating cells suggests a concentration-dependent repair response.

  6. Copper toxicity in gills of the teleost fish, Oreochromis niloticus: Effects in apoptosis induction and cell proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent in vitro studies have demonstrated that copper may induce apoptosis triggering the activation of caspase-3, a central effector of apoptotic cell death. However, the precise mechanism of copper-induced apoptosis is still unclear, even less so in Oreochromis niloticus where no caspase genes have been reported so far. This study aimed to assess the in vivo role of copper in apoptosis induction on O. niloticus gill, simultaneously contributing to elucidate the mechanism of copper-induced apoptosis. Caspase-3 gene was partially sequenced and, after in vivo exposures to 40 and 400 μg L-1 of copper, its mRNA expression was evaluated by real-time PCR. Apoptosis was also evaluated by TUNEL assay and cell proliferation identified using an antibody against proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). The copper concentrations used did not induce the upregulation of caspase-3 gene in O. niloticus gill. In addition, in the gills of fish exposed to copper there was no increase in the estimated relative volume of apoptotic cells, indicating that neither the caspase-3-dependent or caspase-independent apoptotic pathways were induced. On the other hand, the increase in the volumetric density of epithelial proliferating cells suggests a concentration-dependent repair response.

  7. Feeding ecology and population characteristics of Oreochromis niloticus (L.) and trophic interactions in the fish community of Nyanza Gulf, Lake Victoria, Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Njiru, M.

    1999-01-01

    Oreochromis niloticus (L.) were caught by beach seining, hook and line and trawling from Nyanza Gulf, lake Victoria (Kenya) in order to study their feeding ecology and population characteristics. Collected fish were weighed and TL measured immediately after capture. Fish were dissected and sexed. Stomach contents were removed and preserved in 4% buffered formalin for laboratory analysis. In the laboratory items were sorted into categories such as three quarters, half and quarter and awarded 2...

  8. Human Streptococcus agalactiae Isolate in Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, Joyce J.; Klesius, Phillip H.; Pasnik, David J.; Bohnsack, John F.

    2009-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae, the Lancefield group B streptococcus (GBS) long recognized as a mammalian pathogen, is an emerging concern with regard to fish. We show that a GBS serotype Ia multilocus sequence type ST-7 isolate from a clinical case of human neonatal meningitis caused disease and death in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

  9. Effect of lead nitrate on the liver of the cichlid fish (Oreochromis niloticus): a light microscope study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khidr, Bothaina M; Mekkawy, Imam A A; Harabawy, Ahmed S A; Ohaida, Abdel Salam M I

    2012-09-15

    The adverse impacts of heavy metals on fish liver were evident with great variability among organs and species. The present study deals with the histological changes of the hepatocytes of the Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, following exposure to 2.5, 5, 10 ppm of lead nitrate for 1, 2, 3, 4 weeks. The present results revealed that lead nitrate exerts some histological effects on the hepatic tissue after exposure to the first concentration in the form of dilatation and congestion of the blood vessels, vacuolation of hepatic cells, proliferation of connective tissue and hepatic necrosis. Leucocyte aggregation-mostly lymphatic in nature-was seen infiltrating hepatic tissue. These alterations became more pronounced in liver of fishes exposed to second concentrations indicating more progressive signs of necrosis. The presence of eosinophilic oedematous areas surrounding some blood vessels was also observed. Finally, at the third concentration, in addition to the above alterations, melanomacrophages, which store lipofuscin at the site of necrosis, were observed. These histological results imply that the fish liver may serve as a target organ for the toxicity of sublethal concentrations of lead nitrate.

  10. A comparative study on biologically and chemically synthesized silver nanoparticles induced Heat Shock Proteins on fresh water fish Oreochromis niloticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girilal, M; Krishnakumar, V; Poornima, Paramasivan; Mohammed Fayaz, A; Kalaichelvan, P T

    2015-11-01

    The wide applicability of silver nanoparticles in medicine and pharmaceutical industries leads to its over exploitation and thus contaminating our environment. Majority of these nanoscale dimension particles finally accumulates in fresh water and marine ecosystem. As the nanoparticles behave entirely different from its corresponding bulk material, a better understanding of their environmental impacts in aquatic ecosystems is inevitable. The study was focused on a comparative stress physiology analysis of chemically synthesized silver nanoparticles and biogenic silver nanoparticles. Half maximal inhibitory concentration of biologically synthesized and chemically synthesized nanoparticles was found out (30μg/mL and 20μg/mL respectively). The Heat Shock Protein (HSP70) secretion was analysed in the fresh water fish Oreochromis niloticus after exposing to different concentrations of biologically and chemically synthesized silver nanoparticles along with the silver in its ionic form. The intense immune-histochemical staining of fish tissues (muscle, kidney and liver) analyzed proportionately reflected the stress created. The colour intensity was directly proportional to the stress created or the stress protein released. High level of HSP70 expression was observed in all of the fish tissues exposed to silver ions and chemically synthesized silver nanoparticles, when compared to that of biologically synthesized. The results revealed the significance of comparatively safe and less toxic biogenic nanoparticles compared to the chemically synthesized.

  11. Effect of lead nitrate on the liver of the cichlid fish (Oreochromis niloticus): a light microscope study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khidr, Bothaina M; Mekkawy, Imam A A; Harabawy, Ahmed S A; Ohaida, Abdel Salam M I

    2012-09-15

    The adverse impacts of heavy metals on fish liver were evident with great variability among organs and species. The present study deals with the histological changes of the hepatocytes of the Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, following exposure to 2.5, 5, 10 ppm of lead nitrate for 1, 2, 3, 4 weeks. The present results revealed that lead nitrate exerts some histological effects on the hepatic tissue after exposure to the first concentration in the form of dilatation and congestion of the blood vessels, vacuolation of hepatic cells, proliferation of connective tissue and hepatic necrosis. Leucocyte aggregation-mostly lymphatic in nature-was seen infiltrating hepatic tissue. These alterations became more pronounced in liver of fishes exposed to second concentrations indicating more progressive signs of necrosis. The presence of eosinophilic oedematous areas surrounding some blood vessels was also observed. Finally, at the third concentration, in addition to the above alterations, melanomacrophages, which store lipofuscin at the site of necrosis, were observed. These histological results imply that the fish liver may serve as a target organ for the toxicity of sublethal concentrations of lead nitrate. PMID:24205754

  12. Elaboration of fish bouillon cubes using pirambeba (Serrasalmus brandtii and tilapia (Oreochromis niloticusElaboração de caldo de peixe em cubos compactados utilizando pirambeba (Serrasalmus brandtii e tilápia (Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Lumi Fukushima

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Broth cubes are packed spices highly prized for their low cost and for the flavor given to dishes, usually carbohydrate-based. The objective of this work was to establish compressed broth cubes, exploiting the nutritional characteristics of pirambeba (Serrasalmus brandtii and tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, seeking a new product to the spice market, and contribute to a proper waste disposal of the fishing industry. A formulation of this pattern was prepared, where 30% was replaced by different forms of processing of the species used, resulting in different fish broth, to which analysis of interest were performed. From the analysis, it was concluded that the fish broth using ground tilapia presented the best characteristics when compared to commercial broth. Chemical composition of fish bouillon cubes with species and tilapia pirambeba showed no major differences, which proves that other waste of fish or the fishing industry may also contribute to the production of broths. The broth commercial was less variety of polyunsaturated fatty acids, and low contents of calcium and phosphorus minerals, and more lipids compared to fish broth prepared. Caldos em cubos compactados são temperos muito apreciados por seu baixo custo e por conferir sabor a pratos geralmente à base de carboidratos. Objetivou-se elaborar caldos em cubos compactados, explorando as características nutricionais da pirambeba (Serrasalmus brandtii e tilápia (Oreochromis niloticus, visando um novo produto para o mercado de temperos, além de contribuir para um correto destino de resíduos da indústria pesqueira. Foi elaborada uma formulação padrão onde 30% desta foi substituída pelas diferentes formas de processamento das espécies utilizadas, resultando em diferentes caldos de peixe, para os quais foram realizadas as análises de interesse. A composição centesimal dos temperos contendo espécies tilápia e pirambeba não apresentaram grandes diferenças, o que comprova que

  13. Heavy metal accumulation in lake sediments, fish (Oreochromis niloticus and Serranochromis thumbergi), and crayfish (Cherax quadricarinatus) in Lake Itezhi-tezhi and Lake Kariba, Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Shouta M M; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Muzandu, Kaampwe; Choongo, Kennedy; Oroszlany, Balazs; Teraoka, Hiroki; Mizuno, Naoharu; Ishizuka, Mayumi

    2010-08-01

    We measured the level of heavy metal accumulation in lake sediments, herbivorous (Oreochromis niloticus) and carnivorous (Serranochromis thumbergi) fish, and crayfish (Cherax quadricarinatus) from Lake Itezhi-tezhi (ITT) and Lake Kariba. We used atomic absorption spectrophotometry to quantify the levels of seven heavy metals (Cr, Co, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, and Ni). The sediment and the herbivorous fish O. niloticus accumulated a very high concentration of Cu in Lake ITT, most likely due to the discharge of Cu waste from a mining area 450 km upstream. The aquatic species we sampled in Lake Kariba had higher concentrations of Cr, Ni, and Pb relative to those in Lake ITT. This is most likely due to anthropogenic activities, such as the use of leaded petrol and antifouling agents in marine paints. Interestingly, we observed a negative correlation between the coefficient of condition (K) and Ni concentration in the crayfish hepatopancreas. Both O. niloticus and the crayfish had much higher biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAF) for Cu, Zn, and Cd relative to Cr, Co, Pb, and Ni. The rank of BSAF values for O. niloticus (Cu>Cd>Zn) and C. quadricarinatus (Zn>Cd>Cu) differed from the expected ranks based on the general order of affinity of metals (Cd>Zn>Cu). PMID:20162262

  14. Differential pathogenicity of five Streptococcus agalactiae isolates of diverse geographic origin in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streptococcus agalactiae is an emerging pathogen of fish and has caused significant morbidity amd mortality worldwide. The work in this study assessed whether pathogenic differences exist among isolates from different geographic locations. Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) were administered an...

  15. Organic matter sedimentation and resuspension in Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fish ponds during a growing cycle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jimenez-Montealegre, R.; Verdegem, M.C.J.; Zamora, J.E.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2002-01-01

    The rates of sedimentation and resuspension of organic carbon and total nitrogen were measured in earthen fishponds, based on nutrient input, water quality parameters and fish size and biomass. Material collected in sediment traps and soil samples were analyzed for organic carbon, total nitrogen, ir

  16. Growth rates of alien Oreochromis niloticus and indigenous Oreochromis mortimeri in Lake Kariba, Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chifamba, P. C.; Videler, J. J.

    2014-01-01

    Growth rates of indigenous Oreochromis mortimeri and alien Oreochromis niloticus from Lake Kariba were estimated from samples collected in 1997-2000, 2003-2005 and 2010-2011. Growth zones on scales and otoliths of O. niloticus and on the otoliths and opercula of O. mortimeri were deposited annually.

  17. Genotype by production environment interaction in the GIFT strain of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khaw, H.L.; Ponzonia, R.W.; Hamzah, A.; Abu-Bakara, K.R.; Bijma, P.

    2012-01-01

    Three discrete generations of GIFT fish (Nile tilapia strain, Oreochromis niloticus; a total of 10,065 fish with pedigree and phenotypic information) were tested in pond and cage culture environments to determine genotype by production environment interaction between both environments in Malaysia. L

  18. Gill monogeneans of Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) and Oreochromis leucostictus (Trewavas, 1933) in Lake Naivasha, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rindoria, Nehemiah Mogoi; Mungai, Lewis Kamau; Yasindi, Andrew Wamalwa; Otachi, Elick Onyango

    2016-04-01

    An investigation of gill monogeneans from the Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus and the blue spotted tilapia Oreochromis leucostictus (50 individuals per species) was done between the months of November 2014 to February 2015 in Lake Naivasha, Kenya. Standard parasitological procedures were used to examine fish gills for the presence of monogeneans. The observed monogeneans were collected, preliminarily identified using identification keys, quantified and fixed in 4 % formalin for morphological studies and absolute ethanol for molecular studies. Four parasite species comprising of three species of the genus Cichlidogyrus and one species of the genus Scutogyrus were recovered. Cichlidogyrus sclerosus and Cichlidogyrus tilapiae infested both fish species but the C. sclerosus was most prevalent in O. leucostictus (Prevalence (P) = 100 %, Mean intensity (MI) = 3.4) and C. tilapiae in O. niloticus (P = 8 %, MI = 4). Cichlidogyrus tilapiae had a P = 12 % and MI = 5.0 and a P = 6 % and MI = 3.0 in O. niloticus and O. leucostictus, respectively. Cichlidogyrus halli (P = 4 %, MI = 15.5) and Scutogyrus gravivaginus (P = 2 %, MI = 1.0) were only found in O. leucostictus. This is the first time that these monogeneans have been identified from Lake Naivasha, Kenya, presenting new geographical records. It was concluded that Ancyrocephalids (Cichilidogyrus spp.) dominated the two cichlid fish species in Lake Naivasha, Kenya.

  19. Gill monogeneans of Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) and Oreochromis leucostictus (Trewavas, 1933) in Lake Naivasha, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rindoria, Nehemiah Mogoi; Mungai, Lewis Kamau; Yasindi, Andrew Wamalwa; Otachi, Elick Onyango

    2016-04-01

    An investigation of gill monogeneans from the Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus and the blue spotted tilapia Oreochromis leucostictus (50 individuals per species) was done between the months of November 2014 to February 2015 in Lake Naivasha, Kenya. Standard parasitological procedures were used to examine fish gills for the presence of monogeneans. The observed monogeneans were collected, preliminarily identified using identification keys, quantified and fixed in 4 % formalin for morphological studies and absolute ethanol for molecular studies. Four parasite species comprising of three species of the genus Cichlidogyrus and one species of the genus Scutogyrus were recovered. Cichlidogyrus sclerosus and Cichlidogyrus tilapiae infested both fish species but the C. sclerosus was most prevalent in O. leucostictus (Prevalence (P) = 100 %, Mean intensity (MI) = 3.4) and C. tilapiae in O. niloticus (P = 8 %, MI = 4). Cichlidogyrus tilapiae had a P = 12 % and MI = 5.0 and a P = 6 % and MI = 3.0 in O. niloticus and O. leucostictus, respectively. Cichlidogyrus halli (P = 4 %, MI = 15.5) and Scutogyrus gravivaginus (P = 2 %, MI = 1.0) were only found in O. leucostictus. This is the first time that these monogeneans have been identified from Lake Naivasha, Kenya, presenting new geographical records. It was concluded that Ancyrocephalids (Cichilidogyrus spp.) dominated the two cichlid fish species in Lake Naivasha, Kenya. PMID:26691859

  20. Kinematics of mouthbrooding in Oreochromis niloticus (Cichlidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wassenbergh, Sam; Joris, Iris; Desclée, Mathieu; Liew, Hon Jung; De Boeck, Gudrun; Adriaens, Dominique; Aerts, Peter

    2016-05-15

    Many species from several different families of fishes perform mouthbrooding, where one of the sexes protects and ventilates the eggs inside the mouth cavity. This ventilation behaviour differs from gill ventilation outside the brooding period, as the normal, small-amplitude suction-pump respiration cycles are alternated with actions including near-simultaneous closed-mouth protrusions and high-amplitude depressions of the hyoid. The latter is called churning, referring to its hypothetical function in moving around and repositioning the eggs by a presumed hydrodynamic effect of the marked shifts in volume along the mouth cavity. We tested the hypothesis that churning causes the eggs located posteriorly in the mouth cavity to move anteriorly away from the gill entrance. This would prevent or clear accumulations of brood at the branchial basket, which would otherwise hinder breathing by the parent. Dual-view videos of female Nile tilapias (Oreochromis niloticus) during mouthbrooding showed that churning involves a posterior-to-anterior wave of expansion and compression of the head volume. Flow visualisation with polyethylene microspheres revealed a significant inflow of water entering the gill slits at the zone above the pectoral fin base, followed by a predominantly ventral outflow passing the ventrolaterally flapping branchiostegal membranes. X-ray videos indicated that particularly the brood located close to the gills is moved anteriorly during churning. These data suggest that, in addition to mixing of the brood to aid its oxygenation, an important function of the anterior flow through the gills and buccal cavity during churning is to prevent clogging of the eggs near the gills. PMID:27207955

  1. The biology, ecology, population parameters and the fishery of the Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L)

    OpenAIRE

    Balirwa, J.S.

    1994-01-01

    Oreochromis niloticus (the Nile tilapia) and three other ti1apine species: Oreochromis leucostictus, Tilapia zi11ii and T. rendallii were introduced into Lakes Victoria, Kyoga and Nabugabo in 1950s and 1960s. The source and foci of the stockings are given by Welcomme (1966) but the origin of the stocked species was Lake Albert. The Nile tilapia was introduced as a management measure to relieve fishing pressure on the endemic tiapiines and, since it grows to a bigger size, to...

  2. Azolla pinnata as a possible replacement of palm kernel cake in the diet of oreochromis niloticus.

    OpenAIRE

    Abioye, O.M.; Adeyemo, A.A.; Ayinla, O.A.; Bekibele, D.O.

    1993-01-01

    Azolla pinnata as a possible replacement of the palm kernel cake in the diet of Oreochromis niloticus. Compounded diets from a control with palm kernel cake replaced at varying levels of 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100% with the aquatic fern (oven dried Azolla pinnata) were fed to Oreochromis niloticus for twelve weeks to determine the acceptability and utilization of the fern in the diet, verify the nutritional influence of the fern on the performance of the fish and possible optimum palm kernel ...

  3. Bacterial distribution and tissue targets following experimental Edwardsiella ictaluri infection in nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwardsiella ictaluri, a Gram-negative enteric bacterium, is the known etiological agent of enteric septicemia of catfish. In the last few years, different strains have been implicated as the causative agent of mortality events in cultured fish, including Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus L. Due to...

  4. Susceptibility of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fed dietary sodium chloride to nitrite toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvenile Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) were fed diets supplemented with 0 or 6% NaCl for 10 weeks. Tilapia were exposed to approximately 21 mg/l nitrite-N after five and ten weeks of feeding to determine the effect of dietary NaCl supplementation on resistance to nitrite toxicity. Fish were...

  5. Apparent digestibility coefficient of duckweed (Lemna minor), fresh and dry for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El-Shafai, S.A.A.M.; El-Gohary, F.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Schrama, J.W.; Gijzen, H.J.

    2004-01-01

    Dry matter (DMD), protein (PD), ash (AD), fat (FD), gross energy (ED) and phosphorus (PhD) digestibility coefficients were determined for five different iso-N fish diets fed to Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The control diet contained fishmeal (35%), corn (29%), wheat (20%), wheat bran (10%),

  6. Aggression and mortality among Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) maintained in the laboratory at different densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Because Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) density may affect stress levels, metabolism, and survival among tilapia in experimental studies and thus may affect experimental results, tilapia were held in a commonly-used commercial tank system to assess the relationship between fish density and beha...

  7. Efficacy of an experimentally inactivated Streptococcus agalactiae vaccine in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) reared in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilapia aquaculture is one of the fastest growing segments of fish production in Brazil. Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) is largely cultivated in the state of Parana, where Streptococcus agalactiae is the cause of severe disease outbreaks. The objective of this paper was to evaluate an inactiva...

  8. Nutritional aspects of nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) silage Aspectos nutricionais da silagem de tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus)

    OpenAIRE

    Lia Ferraz de Arruda; Ricardo Borghesi; Aelson Brum; Marisa Regitano D'Arce; Marília Oetterer

    2006-01-01

    One third of the world's fishing produce is not directly used for human consumption. Instead, it is used for making animal food or is wasted as residue. It would be ideal to use the raw material thoroughly and to recover by-products, preventing the generation of residues. With the objectives of increasing the income and the production of the industry, as well as minimizing environmental and health problems from fish residue, chemical silage from Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) processing resi...

  9. Metacercarial Infection of Wild Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) from Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Hudson A.; Mati, Vitor L. T.; Melo, Alan L.

    2014-01-01

    Fingerlings of Oreochromis niloticus collected in an artificial urban lake from Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, were evaluated for natural infection with trematodes. Morphological taxonomic identification of four fluke species was performed in O. niloticus examined, and the total prevalence of metacercariae was 60.7% (37/61). Centrocestus formosanus, a heterophyid found in the gills, was the species with the highest prevalence and mean intensity of infection (31.1% and 3.42 (1–42), resp.), followed by the diplostomid Austrodiplostomum compactum (29.5% and 1.27 (1-2)) recovered from the eyes. Metacercariae of Drepanocephalus sp. and Ribeiroia sp., both found in the oral cavity of the fish, were verified at low prevalences (8.2% and 1.6%, resp.) and intensities of infection (only one metacercaria of each of these species per fish). These species of trematodes are reported for the first time in O. niloticus from South America. The potential of occurrence of these parasites in tilapia farming and the control strategies are briefly discussed. PMID:25485302

  10. Active biomonitoring of trace heavy metals using fish ( Oreochromis niloticus) as bioindicator species. The case of Nakivubo wetland along Lake Victoria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birungi, Z.; Masola, B.; Zaranyika, M. F.; Naigaga, I.; Marshall, B.

    The Nakivubo wetland in Uganda, which feeds Lake Victoria at Murchison bay, has become severely degraded over recent years and is particularly threatened by the expansion of industry, settlement and cultivation on its fertile fringes. The aim of this study was to actively biomonitor selected trace heavy metals using Nile tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus). Nile tilapia was set in cages at six sampling sites in Murchison bay for a period of six weeks, and sampling was done every 2 weeks for active biomonitoring and weekly for physico-chemical variables. The control (site 7) was at the Aquaculture Research and Development centre, Uganda. Fish tissue was dissected and gills, liver and muscle removed for heavy metal analysis. Water samples and fish tissue from each site were analysed using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) to determine metal concentrations of zinc, copper, chromium and manganese. Site 4 had the highest average NH 4-N of 14.28 ± 12.73 mg/l which was above effluent standards for Uganda. From the findings, there were significantly higher concentrations of heavy metals in fish than in water ( p > 0.01). Fish kills were recorded highest for sites 4 (55%), 5 (77.5%) and 6 (60%) in less than six weeks indicating high levels of pollution. Gills showed the highest accumulation of copper after a period of six weeks as compared to other metals with a mean ± SE of 11.7 μg/mg wet weight. In general, the order of accumulation of metals in tissue after six weeks was in order; copper > zinc > chromium > manganese and gills > liver > muscle. In conclusion, active biomonitoring was found to be a good tool for monitoring water quality as it integrates responses to combinations of all contaminants thereby indicating overall effects in a water body. To improve the study, there is need to incorporate post mortem studies and biomarker analysis since the later can give early warning of pollution before fish kills are observed.

  11. The radiosensitivity of nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fingerlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), a very popular fish commercially in the Philippines, was studied to determine its radiosensitivity and to see its potential as a biological indicator in aquatic ecosystems. Nile tilapia was seen to be radiosensitive. The fish were exposed to gamma-irradiation and chromosomal aberrations were induced. The various types of aberrations seen were chromatid gaps, chromosome gaps, chromatid fragments, dicentric rings, fusions, despiralizations and translocations. Among the aberrations observed, dicentric rings, fusions and chromosome gaps were strongly correlated with dosage, with only the dicentric rings increasing steadily with increasing dosage. In the course of the study, the lethal dosage50 for nile tilapia with 18 days was determined and it was observed at 2.0 krad. The modal chromosome number was also established at 2n=44 with a karyotype exhibiting 22 pairs of acrocentric chromosomes with 2 pairs of marker chromosomes present. (Author)

  12. Megalocytivirus infection in cultured Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Kuttichantran; Gotesman, Michael; Smith, Charlie E; Steckler, Natalie K; Kelley, Karen L; Groff, Joseph M; Waltzek, Thomas B

    2016-05-26

    Megalocytiviruses, such as infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (ISKNV), induce lethal systemic diseases in both ornamental and food fish species. In this study, we investigated an epizootic affecting Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus cultured in the US Midwest. Diseased fish displayed lethargy, gill pallor, and distension of the coelomic cavity due to ascites. Histopathological examination revealed a severe systemic abundance of intravascular megalocytes that were especially prominent in the gills, kidney, spleen, liver, and intestinal submucosa. Transmission electron microscopic examination revealed abundant intracytoplasmic polygonal virions consistent with iridovirus infection. Comparison of the full-length major capsid protein nucleotide sequences from a recent outbreak with a remarkably similar case that occurred at the same facility many years earlier revealed that both epizootics were caused by ISKNV. A comparison of this case with previous reports suggests that ISKNV may represent a greater threat to tilapia aquaculture than previously realized. PMID:27225209

  13. Protective Effect of Punica granatum on Ferric Nitrilotriacetate-Induced Toxicity in Oreochromis niloticus

    OpenAIRE

    Piya KOSAI; Wipaphorn JAIKUA; Jiraungkoorskul, Kanitta; Wannee JIRAUNGKOORSKUL

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluates the efficiency of a dietary supplement of Punica granatum in reducing the toxicity of ferric nitrilotriacetate in Oreochromis niloticus, with emphasis on histopathological analysis. Fish were given a dietary supplement in doses of 0 (groups 1 and 2) and 60 mg g-1 of P. granatum (groups 3 and 4) for 28 days. After a time, fish in groups 2 and 4 received intraperitoneal injections of 9 mg kg-1 of ferric nitrilotriacetate. 24 hours after injection, histopathological lesions ...

  14. Changes in feeding biology of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.), after invasion of water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms, in Lake Victoria, Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Njiru, M.

    1999-01-01

    Oreochrimis niloticus (L.) was introduced to Lake victoria in the 1950s. It remained relatively uncommon in catches until 1965, when the numbers began to increase dramatically. It is now the third most important commercial fish species after the Nile perch, Lates niloticus (L.) and Rastrineobola argentea (Pellegrin). Oreochromis niloticus is considered a herbivore, feeding mostly on algae and plant material. The diet now appears to be more diversified , with insects, fish, algae and plant mat...

  15. Complete mitochondrial genome of the hybrid of Oreochromis niloticus (♀) × Oreochromis aureus (♂).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xin; Yi, Tan; Chen, Tao; Bin, Shi-Yu

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, the complete mitochondrial genome of the hybrid of Oreochromis niloticus (♀) × Oreochromis aureus (♂) was determined using PCR-based method. The mitogenome was 16,663 bp in length, containing the same gene order and an identical number of genes or regions with the other Cichlid fishes, including 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and 1 putative control region. The overall composition of the mitogenome was 30.92% C, 27.98% A, 25.54% T, 15.56% G, with a slight AT bias of 53.52% occurs in the hybrid mitogenome. All the protein-coding genes were initiated by typical ATG codon, except for COX1 gene with the initiation codon GTG. Eight genes end with the complete stop codon TAA or TAG, while the COX2, COX3, ND3, ND4 and Cytb genes terminated with an incomplete stop codon T. The complete mitochondrial genome of Oreochromis niloticus (♀) × Oreochromis aureus (♂) may provide important DNA molecular data for further elucidation of evolutionary mechanisms in the hybrid fish of Cichlidae.

  16. Heritability of cold tolerance in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, juveniles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charo-Karisa, H.; Rezk, M.A.; Bovenhuis, H.; Komen, J.

    2005-01-01

    The inability of tilapia to tolerate low temperatures is of major economic concern as it reduces their growing season and leads to over winter mortality. In this study, cold tolerance of juvenile Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, was investigated and heritability estimates obtained. A total of 80

  17. ISOLATION AND DETERMINATION OF TYPE I COLLAGEN FROM TILAPIA (Oreochromis niloticus) WASTE

    OpenAIRE

    S.Sujithra; N.Kiruthiga; M.J. Prabhu; R.Kumeresan

    2013-01-01

    Tilapia are one of the most widely introduced fish globally that has clearly emerged as a promising group in aquaculture. Oreochromis niloticus was the first Tilapia species to be taken up for large Scaleaquaculture. It is consumed widely due to its deliciousness and rich source of protein. During its processing, the scales, Fins, Skins etc are expelled out as waste Acid solubilized collagen (ASC) and Pepsin Solubilizedcollagen (PSC) were extracted from these processing wastes. Initial extrac...

  18. Lake Victoria wetlands and the ecology of the Nile tilapia, oreochromis niloticus linn,.

    OpenAIRE

    Balirwa, J.S.

    1998-01-01

    An ecological study of wetlands was undertaken in northern Lake Victoria (East Africa) between 1993 and 1996 with a major aim of characterising shallow vegetation-dominated interface habitats, and evaluating their importance for fish, in particular, for the stocked and socio-economically important Oreochromis niloticus LINNÉ (the Nile tilapia). From field and laboratory experiments, five major habitat types could be defined by the type of the dominant emergent macrophyte at the shore from the...

  19. First Occurrence Of The Tilapia Oreochromis Niloticus Niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758 In Lesina Lagoon (Eastern Italian Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. SCORDELLA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Individuals of the tilapia species Oreochromis niloticus niloticus(Linnaeus, 1758 were caught in Lesina Lagoon during experimental sampling for the shrimp Penaeus kerathurus using fyke net traps from December 1999 to September 2000. The species O. niloticusis not native in Italian coastal waters, although attempts of tilapia culture in land-based aquaculture farms were occasionally carried out in the past. The number of individuals captured in the samples suggests a colonization of the area of Lesina lagoon. The highest catches were observed during July. In July, the individuals caught represented the 22.3±4.1 % of the total catch weight. Such colonization of a marine environment byO. niloticusniloticus is the first case reported for Italy. The occurrence of the species in Lesina lagoon is attributed to fish which escaped from fish farms in the area and entered the lagoon through the numerous streams and irrigation-drainage channels that outflow along the south coastline.

  20. Innate immune defenses exhibit circadian rhythmicity and differential temporal sensitivity to a bacterial endotoxin in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazado, Carlo Cabacang; Skov, Peter Vilhelm; Pedersen, Per Bovbjerg

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the daily dynamics of humoral immune defenses and the temporal influence in the sensitivity of these responses to a bacterial endotoxin in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The first experiment subjected the fish to two photoperiod conditions, 12L:12D (LD) and 0L...

  1. Salinity Tolerance and Preference of Hatchery Reared Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linneaus 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.O. Lawson

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted in fisheries laboratory of Department of Fisheries, Lagos State University, Nigeria on salinity tolerance and preference of hatchery reared Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, (Linneaus, 1758. Tilapias are important candidate species for aquaculture and are increasingly cultured in polyculture system with shrimp. Thus creating a demand for Tilapia genotypes well suited to elevated salinities. O. niloticus is a member of the Family Cichlidae and one of most cultured fish species in Nigeria. It is known for its high prolific rate of breeding and multiplication. Six hundred and sixty (660 fingerlings of the fish measuring between 53-140 mm TL and weighing 8.96 to 21.56 g BW were subjected to salinity regimes of 0-10‰ for 28 days. All the fish survived in 0-7‰, and 100% death was recorded in 9 and 10‰. Different levels of behavioural responses to threat and feeding were observed among the fish. Salinities 0-7‰ were tolerated by the fish, however the most preferred salinity was 1‰. The present study as demonstrated in the laboratory therefore, suggests the possibility of culturing Nile tilapia, O. niloticus in both fresh and low brackish water environments and as added data to the existed reviews on this economically valued fish species. The salinity regimes well that were tolerated and preferred for optimal survival, growth and behavioural performances of O. niloticus are therefore investigated.

  2. Population dynamics of Piscicola Geometra (Hirudinea:Rhynchobdellida) on Oreochromis Niloticus (Cichlidae) cultured in a rainforest fish pond, South Eastern Nigeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The distribution, abundance and intensity of the annelidworm, Piscicola geometra(leeches) infecting Oreochromis niloticuscultured in a rainforest fish pond, South Eastern Nigeria wasstudied over a 12 months period. Three hundred fish were examinedof which 48.3% were infected. Infection occurred throughout theyear, with a peak in February. Female fish had a significantlyhigher intensity of infection(P<0.05) than males. There was aclear seasonal periodicity in the degree of infection and thedistribution of the parasite exhibited an aggregated or contagiousmodel of dispersion. There was a significant positive correlationbetween the size of the fish and worm burden.

  3. Thermal preference predicts animal personality in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerqueira, Marco; Rey, Sonia; Silva, Tome; Featherstone, Zoe; Crumlish, Margaret; MacKenzie, Simon

    2016-09-01

    Environmental temperature gradients provide habitat structure in which fish orientate and individual thermal choice may reflect an essential integrated response to the environment. The use of subtle thermal gradients likely impacts upon specific physiological and behavioural processes reflected as a suite of traits described by animal personality. In this study, we examine the relationship between thermal choice, animal personality and the impact of infection upon this interaction. We predicted that thermal choice in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus reflects distinct personality traits and that under a challenge individuals exhibit differential thermal distribution. Nile tilapia were screened following two different protocols: 1) a suite of individual behavioural tests to screen for personality and 2) thermal choice in a custom-built tank with a thermal gradient (TCH tank) ranging from 21 to 33 °C. A first set of fish were screened for behaviour and then thermal preference, and a second set were tested in the opposite fashion: thermal then behaviour. The final thermal distribution of the fish after 48 h was assessed reflecting final thermal preferendum. Additionally, fish were then challenged using a bacterial Streptococcus iniae model infection to assess the behavioural fever response of proactive and reactive fish. Results showed that individuals with preference for higher temperatures were also classified as proactive with behavioural tests and reactive contemporaries chose significantly lower water temperatures. All groups exhibited behavioural fever recovering personality-specific thermal preferences after 5 days. Our results show that thermal preference can be used as a proxy to assess personality traits in Nile tilapia and it is a central factor to understand the adaptive meaning of animal personality within a population. Importantly, response to infection by expressing behavioural fever overrides personality-related thermal choice. PMID:27219014

  4. Skin and subcutaneous mycoses in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) caused by Fusarium oxysporum in coinfection with Aeromonas hydrophila

    OpenAIRE

    Cutuli, M. Teresa; Gibello, Alicia; Rodriguez-Bertos, Antonio; Blanco, M. Mar; Villarroel, Morris; Giraldo, Alejandra; Guarro, Josep

    2015-01-01

    Subcutaneous mycoses in freshwater fish are rare infections usually caused by oomycetes of the genus Saprolegnia and some filamentous fungi. To date, Fusarium infections in farmed fish have only been described in marine fish. Here, we report the presence of Fusarium oxysporum in subcutaneous lesions of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Histopathologic evaluation revealed granuloma formation with fungal structures, and the identity of the etiological agent was demonstrated by morphological...

  5. Skin and subcutaneous mycoses in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) caused by fusarium oxyspoum in coinfection with Aeromonas hydrophila

    OpenAIRE

    Cutuli, Teresa M.; Gibello, Alicia; Rodríguez Bertos, Antonio; Blanco, Mar M.; Villarroel Robinson, Morris; Giraldo, Alejandra; Guarro, Josep

    2015-01-01

    Subcutaneous mycoses in freshwater fish are rare infections usually caused by oomycetes of the genus Saprolegnia and some filamentous fungi. To date, Fusarium infections in farmed fish have only been described in marine fish. Here, we report the presence of Fusarium oxysporum in subcutaneous lesions of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Histopathologic evaluation revealed granuloma formation with fungal structures, and the identity of the etiological agent was demonstrated by morphological...

  6. A comparative study on growth, composition and sensory quality between farmed and wild Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    OpenAIRE

    Mary N. Muchiri; Jackin N. Nanua; David Liti

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted at Moi University, Kenya, to investigate the effect of fish diets on growth, chemical composition and organoleptic quality of farmed Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), and compared with wild tilapia from Lake Victoria. Fish were grown for six months in triplicates using three feeds: (i) maize bran, (ii) formulated diet containing maize bran, freshwater shrimp, soya bean and cotton seed cake and (iii) control without supplemental feed. Fish were weighed fortnightly,...

  7. Mercury exposure in the freshwater tilapia Oreochromis niloticus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Rui [Department of Biology, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (HKUST), Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Wong Minghung [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University (Hong Kong); Wang Wenxiong, E-mail: wwang@ust.h [Department of Biology, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (HKUST), Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2010-08-15

    Mercury (Hg) can be strongly accumulated and biomagnified along aquatic food chain, but the exposure pathway remains little studied. In this study, we quantified the uptake and elimination of both inorganic mercury [as Hg(II)] and methylmercury (as MeHg) in an important farmed freshwater fish, the tilapia Oreochromis niloticus, using {sup 203}Hg radiotracer technique. The dissolved uptake rates of both mercury species increased linearly with Hg concentration (tested at ng/L levels), and the uptake rate constant of MeHg was 4 times higher than that of Hg(II). Dissolved uptake of mercury was highly dependent on the water pH and dissolved organic carbon concentration. The dietborne assimilation efficiency of MeHg was 3.7-7.2 times higher than that of Hg(II), while the efflux rate constant of MeHg was 7.1 times lower. The biokinetic modeling results showed that MeHg was the greater contributor to the overall mercury bioaccumulation and dietary exposure was the predominant pathway. - Trophic transfer was the predominant pathway for mercury accumulation in tilapia, and methylmercury was more important in contributing to Hg accumulation than Hg(II).

  8. Genotoxic responses of juvenile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) exposed to florfenicol and oxytetracycline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botelho, R G; Christofoletti, C A; Correia, J E; Ansoar, Y; Olinda, R A; Tornisielo, V L

    2015-08-01

    Florfenicol (FLC) and oxytetracycline (OTC) are the two most commonly used antibiotics for bacterial treatment in fish farming in Brazil, and because of their intensive use, the potential harmful effects on aquatic organisms are of great concern. This study evaluated the effects of environmental concentrations of FLC and OTC on the genetic material of juvenile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) erythrocytes by using the comet assay and the occurrence of micronuclei (MN) and other erythrocytic nuclear abnormalities (ENAs) after exposure to 96hour. The comet assay showed that fish erythrocytes exhibited significantly higher DNA damage after exposure to environmental concentrations of FLC and OTC. Although MN was not observed, ENAs were significantly higher after exposure to FLC, indicating that ENAs are a better biomarker for FLC than MN. The results showed that environmental concentrations of FLC and OTC were genotoxic to erythrocytes of O. niloticus; however, future studies on DNA damage recovery are needed. PMID:25898970

  9. Effects of Garlic (Alliumsativum) and chloramphenicol on growth performance, physiological parameters and survival of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    OpenAIRE

    Shalaby, A. M.; Y. A. Khattab; Abdel Rahman, A. M. [امينة عبد الرحمن

    2006-01-01

    We studied and compared the effects of chloramphenicol antibiotic and garlic (Allium sativum), used as immunostimulants and growth promoters, on some physiological parameters, growth performance, survival rate, and bacteriological characteristics of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Fish (7±1g/fish) were assigned to eight treatments, with three replicates each. Treatment groups had a different level of Allium sativum (10, 20, 30, and 40g/kg diet) and chloramphenicol (15, 30, and 45mg/kg d...

  10. Pesticide residues in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and Nile perch (Lates niloticus) from Southern Lake Victoria, Tanzania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry, L. [Chemistry Department, University of Dar es Salaam. PO Box 35061, Dar es Salaam (Tanzania); Kishimba, M.A. [Chemistry Department, University of Dar es Salaam. PO Box 35061, Dar es Salaam (Tanzania)]. E-mail: kishimba@chem.udsm.ac.tz

    2006-03-15

    Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and Nile perch (Lates niloticus) samples were collected from fish landing stations in nine riparian districts on the Tanzanian side of Lake Victoria and screened for residues of 64 organochlorine, organophosphorus, carbamate, and pyrethroid pesticides. The residue levels in the fish fillet were up to 0.003, 0.03 and 0.2 mg/kg fresh weight (0.7, 3.8 and 42 mg/kg lipid weight) of fenitrothion, DDT and endosulfan, respectively. Mean levels within sites were up to 0.002, 0.02 and 0.1 mg/kg fresh weight (0.5, 0.5 and 16 mg/kg lipid weight), respectively. The detection of higher levels of p,p'-DDT than the degradation products (p,p'-DDD and p,p'-DDE), and higher levels of endosulfan isomers ({alpha} and {beta}) than the sulphate, in fish samples, implied recent exposure of fish to DDT and endosulfan, respectively. Generally, most of the fish samples had residue levels above the average method detection limits (MDLs), but were within the calculated ADI. - Fish from Lake Victoria had relatively low pesticide levels.

  11. The use of lactic acid bacteria isolated from intestinal tract of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, as growth promoters in fish fed low protein diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurilio Lara-Flores

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect as growth promoter of five lactic acid strains (Enterococcus faecium, E. durans, Leuconostoc sp., Streptococcus sp. I and Streptococcus sp. II, isolated from intestinal tract of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, was evaluated. Eight isocaloric diets were formulated: one containing 40% of protein as positive control, and seven with 27% protein. Five diets with 27% protein were supplemented with one of the isolated lactic acid bacteria in a concentration of 2.5x10(6 cfu g-1 of diet. A commercial probiotic based on S. faecium and Lactobacillus acidophilus was added at the same concentration to one 27% protein diet as a comparative diet, and the last diet was not supplemented with bacteria (negative control. Tilapia fry (280 mg basal weight stocked in 15 L aquaria at a density of two per liter were fed for 12 weeks with experimental diets. Results showed that fry fed with native bacteria supplemented diets presented significantly higher growth and feeding performance than those fed with control diet. Treatment with Streptococcus sp. I isolated from the intestine of Tilapia produced the best growth and feeding efficiency, suggesting that this bacteria is an appropriate native growth promoter.

  12. Broad Niche Overlap between Invasive Nile Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus and Indigenous Congenerics in Southern Africa: Should We be Concerned?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsungai A. Zengeya

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study developed niche models for the native ranges of Oreochromis andersonii, O. mortimeri, and O. mossambicus, and assessed how much of their range is climatically suitable for the establishment of O. niloticus, and then reviewed the conservation implications for indigenous congenerics as a result of overlap with O. niloticus based on documented congeneric interactions. The predicted potential geographical range of O. niloticus reveals a broad climatic suitability over most of southern Africa and overlaps with all the endemic congenerics. This is of major conservation concern because six of the eight river systems predicted to be suitable for O. niloticus have already been invaded and now support established populations. Oreochromis niloticus has been implicated in reducing the abundance of indigenous species through competitive exclusion and hybridisation. Despite these well-documented adverse ecological effects, O. niloticus remains one of the most widely cultured and propagated fish species in aquaculture and stock enhancements in the southern Africa sub-region. Aquaculture is perceived as a means of protein security, poverty alleviation, and economic development and, as such, any future decisions on its introduction will be based on the trade-off between socio-economic benefits and potential adverse ecological effects.

  13. Lack of association between Flavobacterium columnare genomovar and virulence in hybrid tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (L.)×Oreochromis aureus (Steindachner).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, C A; LaFrentz, B R

    2015-05-01

    Columnaris disease can be problematic in tilapia (Oreochromis spp.) production. An understanding of the pathogenesis and virulence of Flavobacterium columnare is needed to develop prevention strategies. The objective of this study was to determine the virulence of genetically defined isolates of F. columnare in sex-reversed hybrid tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.)×O. aureus (Steindachner). A series of immersion challenge trials were performed using isolates of the five established genomovars of F. columnare: I, II, II-B, III and I/II. The mean per cent mortality of fish challenged with genomovar I, II and III isolates ranged from 0 to 100, 3.3-78 and 3.3-75%, respectively. The mean per cent mortality of fish challenged with genomovar II-B ranged from 35 to 96.7%, and the only genomovar I/II isolate tested caused no mortality. Contrary to previous work in other fish species, there did not appear to be an association between F. columnare genomovar and virulence in tilapia. The challenge model used resulted in acute mortality. An alternative challenge model was tested by cohabitating healthy fish with dead fish infected with F. columnare. This method resulted in rapid appearance of clinical signs and mortality, suggesting the potential for F. columnare to increase in virulence upon growth on/in a fish host. PMID:24909885

  14. Effect of isoproteinous feed on growth and survival of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fry

    OpenAIRE

    Siddika, I.; Das, M.; Sumi, K.R.

    2012-01-01

    A four week experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of isoproteinous (35%) feed prepared named diet 1, 2, 3 and 4 respectively by substituting 0%, 50% , 75% and 100% fish meal with meat and bone meal in view of preparing a cost effective tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fry feed. The four experimental diets (diet 1 to 4) each were randomly assigned to twelve hapas with three replications. Tilapia fry (0.011g) were randomly stocked in 100 fry/9ft² hapa and fed five times a day up to the...

  15. Sublethal ammonia exposure of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.): effects on gill, liver and kidney histology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benli, Aysel Cağlan Karasu; Köksal, Gülten; Ozkul, Ayhan

    2008-07-01

    The effects of exposures to sublethal ammonia concentrations on Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) were determined with respect to histology. The experiments were conducted for six weeks and with four different ammonia concentrations (control, 1, 2, 5, 10 mg l(-1) TA-N). Fish exposed to different ammonia concentrations displayed histopathologic alterations in the gills, liver and kidney. Gill tissues displayed hyperemia, chloride cell proliferation, fusion in secondary lamella, telangiectasis. Liver tissue revealed cloudy swelling and hydropic degeneration, whereas in kidney tissues hyperemia and glomerulonephritis were observed.

  16. Influence of moderate hypoxia on vaccine efficacy against Vibrio anguillarum in Oreochromis niloticus (Nile tilapia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallage, Sanchala; Katagiri, Takayuki; Endo, Makoto; Futami, Kunihiko; Endo, Masato; Maita, Masashi

    2016-04-01

    Hypoxia is known as a potential immunomodulator in fish. This study therefore assesses the impact of chronic, moderate hypoxia on vaccine efficacy in Oreochromis niloticus. Serum antibody titer was used as a surrogate marker to detect vaccine efficacy. The fish were acclimatized to either moderate hypoxia (55 ± 5% DO) or normoxia (85 ± 5%DO) and immunized with formalin inactivated Vibrio anguillarum. Significantly, a higher antibody titer was found in normoxic fish than in moderate hypoxia. The normoxic group titer peaked at 14th dpv (days post vaccination) while the moderate hypoxic group peaked at 21st or 28th dpv. The absolute blood lymphocyte counts and serum bactericidal activities against V. anguillarum were significantly higher in normoxic fish. Serum killing of V. anguillarum appeared to be mainly via antibody-dependent classical complement pathway. Furthermore, the first week following vaccination appears critical for antibody production. This view was further supported by results obtained from gene expression assay, where the transcription level of all the detected immune related genes (IgM, IL-1 β, TCR-β, MHC-II β), except B cell activating factor, were significantly suppressed following exposure to moderate hypoxia. The overall results highlight that even though moderate hypoxia is not easily detectable in Oreochromis niloticus, it negatively affects antibody production by suppressing and delaying antibody response, ultimately affecting vaccine efficacy.

  17. Influence of moderate hypoxia on vaccine efficacy against Vibrio anguillarum in Oreochromis niloticus (Nile tilapia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallage, Sanchala; Katagiri, Takayuki; Endo, Makoto; Futami, Kunihiko; Endo, Masato; Maita, Masashi

    2016-04-01

    Hypoxia is known as a potential immunomodulator in fish. This study therefore assesses the impact of chronic, moderate hypoxia on vaccine efficacy in Oreochromis niloticus. Serum antibody titer was used as a surrogate marker to detect vaccine efficacy. The fish were acclimatized to either moderate hypoxia (55 ± 5% DO) or normoxia (85 ± 5%DO) and immunized with formalin inactivated Vibrio anguillarum. Significantly, a higher antibody titer was found in normoxic fish than in moderate hypoxia. The normoxic group titer peaked at 14th dpv (days post vaccination) while the moderate hypoxic group peaked at 21st or 28th dpv. The absolute blood lymphocyte counts and serum bactericidal activities against V. anguillarum were significantly higher in normoxic fish. Serum killing of V. anguillarum appeared to be mainly via antibody-dependent classical complement pathway. Furthermore, the first week following vaccination appears critical for antibody production. This view was further supported by results obtained from gene expression assay, where the transcription level of all the detected immune related genes (IgM, IL-1 β, TCR-β, MHC-II β), except B cell activating factor, were significantly suppressed following exposure to moderate hypoxia. The overall results highlight that even though moderate hypoxia is not easily detectable in Oreochromis niloticus, it negatively affects antibody production by suppressing and delaying antibody response, ultimately affecting vaccine efficacy. PMID:26915308

  18. Characterization of the microbiota of the skin and oral cavity of Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmar Maciel Lima Junior

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fish are usually exposed to higher microbial loads than land or air animals. The microbiota of fish mostly consists of Pseudomonas spp., Aeromonas spp., Shewanella putrefasciens, Acinetobacter spp. and Moraxella spp. Objective: to analyze the oral cavity, and skin tissue microbiota on the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, a fish species raised commercially in Brazil. Methods: Samples were collected from the oral cavity and skin of 20 Nile tilapia specimens (Oreochromis niloticus, each weighing approximately 1,000 grams. The samples were cultures for quantitative analysis on sheep blood agar (SBA and chromID™ CPS® agar (CPS. Results: Eleven different bacterial species were identified on CPS and SBA plates. Gram-negative species were the most prevalent, while gram-positive Globicatella spp, Streptococcus spp and Enterococcus faecalis were also found. Pseudomonas aeruginosa species were isolated from all samples. Gram-positive Enterococcus faecalis was found in 70 and 60% of the skin and oral samples, respectively. Conclusion: For all samples studied, the microbial load was less than 100,000 colony-forming units - CFU/g of tissue. This value is a cutoff standardized for the American Society of Microbiology to differentiate the causal agent from the colonizers. In light of this result and considering the absence of infectious signs in the fish samples, we conclude that the CFU values found in this study reflect a normal, non-infectious colonization/microbiota.

  19. Supplemental effects of mixed ingredients and rice bran on the growth performance, survival and yield of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus reared in fertilized earthen ponds

    OpenAIRE

    Limbu, S. M.; Shoko, A P; Lamtane, H. A.; Kishe-Machumu, M. A.; Joram, M. C.; Mbonde, A. S.; Mgana, H. F.; Mgaya, Y.D.

    2016-01-01

    Unaffordability of commercial feeds to semi-intensive Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus farmers has led to reliance on supplemental feeding and fertilization for nutrition of their fish without a scientific basis. This study compared the growth, survival, condition factor and yield performance of O. niloticus fed on mixed ingredients (MI) and rice bran alone (RB) diets reared in fertilized earthen ponds in small scale farmers’ ponds. The study also determined phytoplankton composition, biom...

  20. Organochlorine Pesticides and Biomarker Responses in Two Fishes Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) and Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus (Lacepede, 1803) and an Invertebrate, Macrobrachium vollenhovenii (Herklot, 1857), from the Lake Taabo (Cote d`Ivoire)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Helene; Tidou, Abiba; Persic, Ana

    The concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were determined in muscle samples of two species of fish, tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and the catfish (Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus) and the prawn (Macrobrachium vollenhovenii) found in Lake Taabo (Cote d`Ivoire). Simultaneous measurements of enzymatic biomarkers were made to evaluate the ecotoxicological risk in this hydroelectric reservoir. Lindane and endosulfan were the dominant contaminants, suggesting their current use in neighboring agricultural areas. Other organochlorine (OC) compounds were detected, including some currently banned substances. Ranked in an order of descending concentrations, we found: DDT and its metabolites (17.8-57.2 ng g-1 dry weight), endrin (7.17-25.0 ng g-1 dry weight) and heptachlor (7.36-23.6 ng g-1 dry weight), as well as traces of isomers of chlordane, aldrin and fipronil. The hepatic Glutathione S-Transferase (GST) activity measured in fishes was not correlated with pesticide contamination; whereas the antioxidant biomarkers demonstrated some significant associations, especially hepatic catalase with lindane (R = 0.83) and Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx) with heptachlor epoxide (R = 0.84) and with pp`DDT (R = 0.81). In the prawns, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity showed significant negative correlations with DDT and its metabolites (R = -0.91). The results of this study emphasize the urgent need for overall environmental risk assessment studies in the region of Taabo and other developing areas.

  1. Hematological characterization of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, Linnaeus, 1758 reared intensively in a recirculating aquaculture system in relation to water temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Ciortan Mirea

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to obtain a basic knowledge of the hematological response of Oreochromis niloticus mantained in different tchnological condition induced by different temperatures. Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, Linnaeus, 1758 with average weight of 33,5±1,0 g, they were stocked in 12 rearing units at 20, 24,30 and 280C (control water temperature for 30 days. Diet of 41 % protein was offered as feed, 3 times daily. The sampling of Oreochromis niloticus blood from the four variants before and after the experimental trial allowed determination of hematological indices. Red blood cel count (RBCc, hematocrit values (Hct, hemoglobin concentration (Hb, mean corpuscular volume (MCV, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH, mean corpuscular concentration (MCHC, glucose and protein from blood were measured and analysed, with routine methods udes in fish hematology.

  2. 尼罗罗非鱼生理雌鱼的实验研究%Experiments on the physiological female of Oreochromis niloticus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨永铨; 张海明; 陈远生

    2012-01-01

    Sex undifferentiated zygote of Oreochromis niloticus can be conversed to physiological female by treating YY gene type of 0. niloticus larva which was newly hatched with female hormone. The ovarian development of this fish was normal and with reproductive performance. Application of matching technique ( YY △ ♀ × YY ♂ ) offered guarantee of variety resource formass production of supermale O. niloticus.%采用雌性激素处理刚孵化出膜的尼罗罗非鱼(Oreochromis niloticus)YY基因型鱼苗,可使性别未分化的合子全部转化为生理雌鱼.该YY型生理雌鱼的卵巢发育正常,具有繁殖机能,可为采用二系配套(YY△♀×YY♂)技术大量生产尼罗超雄鱼提供种源保证.

  3. Use of biofuel by-product from the green algae Desmochloris sp. and diatom Nanofrustulum sp. meal in diets for nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algal by-product meals from the Hawaiian biofuels industry were evaluated as protein ingredients in diets for juveniles of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Four experimental diets were formulated to contain 40% protein and were made with fish meal, soybean meal, whole diatom (Nanofrustulum sp.)...

  4. A new and fast technique to generate offspring after germ cells transplantation in adult fish: the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samyra M S N Lacerda

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Germ cell transplantation results in fertile recipients and is the only available approach to functionally investigate the spermatogonial stem cell biology in mammals and probably in other vertebrates. In the current study, we describe a novel non-surgical methodology for efficient spermatogonial transplantation into the testes of adult tilapia (O. niloticus, in which endogenous spermatogenesis had been depleted with the cytostatic drug busulfan. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using two different tilapia strains, the production of fertile spermatozoa with donor characteristics was demonstrated in adult recipient, which also sired progeny with the donor genotype. Also, after cryopreservation tilapia spermatogonial cells were able to differentiate to spermatozoa in the testes of recipient fishes. These findings indicate that injecting germ cells directly into adult testis facilitates and enable fast generation of donor spermatogenesis and offspring compared to previously described methods. CONCLUSION: Therefore, a new suitable methodology for biotechnological investigations in aquaculture was established, with a high potential to improve the production of commercially valuable fish, generate transgenic animals and preserve endangered fish species.

  5. Estimation of growth and financial analysis through the application of Ipil ipil (Leucaena leucocephala) leaf meal as supplements to soybean and fish meal in the diet of juvenile monosex tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    OpenAIRE

    Zamal, Hossain; Barua, Prabal; Uddin, Belal

    2009-01-01

    Among plant protein ingredients,ipil ipil (Leucaena leucocephala) leafmeal (ILLM) is considered the most nutritive plant protein source after soybean meal in aquatic feeds. That was proven in a 21-day experiment conducted to assess the response of juvenile Monosex Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus with four iso-nitrogenous formulated diets: One control diet was formulated based on fishmeal, one on soybean meal and one on rice bran, ipil ipil leafmeal was also included in experimental d...

  6. Genotoxicity and mutagenicity of water contaminated with tannery effluents, as evaluated by the micronucleus test and comet assay using the fish Oreochromis niloticus and chromosome aberrations in onion root-tips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Tamie Matsumoto

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytotoxicity of metals is important because some metals are potential mutagens able to induce tumors in humans and experimental animals. Chromium can damage DNA in several ways, including DNA double strand breaks (DSBs which generate chromosomal aberrations, micronucleus formation, sister chromatid exchange, formation of DNA adducts and alterations in DNA replication and transcription. In our study, water samples from three sites in the Córrego dos Bagres stream in the Franca municipality of the Brazilian state of São Paulo were subjected to the comet assay and micronucleus test using erythrocytes from the fish Oreochromis niloticus. Nuclear abnormalities of the erythrocytes included blebbed, notched and lobed nuclei, probably due to genotoxic chromium compounds. The greatest comet assay damage occurred with water from a chromium-containing tannery effluent discharge site, supporting the hypothesis that chromium residues can be genotoxic. The mutagenicity of the water samples was assessed using the onion root-tip cell assay, the most frequent chromosomal abnormalities observed being: c-metaphases, stick chromosome, chromosome breaks and losses, bridged anaphases, multipolar anaphases, and micronucleated and binucleated cells. Onion root-tip cell mutagenicity was highest for water samples containing the highest levels of chromium.

  7. Ectoparasites of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in cage farming in a hydroelectric reservoir in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zago, Aline Cristina; Franceschini, Lidiane; Garcia, Fabiana; Schalch, Sérgio Henrique Canello; Gozi, Kátia Suemi; Silva, Reinaldo José da

    2014-01-01

    For this study, we performed a parasitological analysis of cage-cultured Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) from the Água Vermelha Reservoir, Southeastern Brazil, and verified relationships with limnological data, seasonality, and fish growth phase. From March 2010 to March 2011, sixty-three specimens of O. niloticus in three growth phases (i.e., initial, intermediate, and final) were collected. All fish specimens were infested with at least one ectoparasite species (prevalence = 100%). Five species of protozoans (Trichodina compacta, Trichodina magna, Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, Piscinoodinium pillulare, and Epistylis sp.) and five species of monogenoids (Cichlidogyrus halli, Cichlidogyrus thurstonae, Cichlidogyrus sp. 1, Scutogyrus longicornis, and Gyrodactylus sp.) were observed. The abundance of Trichodina spp. and the prevalence of Epistylis sp. were higher in the dry season, and the prevalence of C. halli was higher in the rainy season. For the majority of ectoparasites found in this study, fish in the intermediate and final phases had higher parasitism rates than those in the initial phase. The data presented may help fish farmers to understand the parasite dynamics of the fish species studied in cage-farming systems. PMID:25054495

  8. Skin and subcutaneous mycoses in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) caused by Fusarium oxysporum in coinfection with Aeromonas hydrophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutuli, M Teresa; Gibello, Alicia; Rodriguez-Bertos, Antonio; Blanco, M Mar; Villarroel, Morris; Giraldo, Alejandra; Guarro, Josep

    2015-09-01

    Subcutaneous mycoses in freshwater fish are rare infections usually caused by oomycetes of the genus Saprolegnia and some filamentous fungi. To date, Fusarium infections in farmed fish have only been described in marine fish. Here, we report the presence of Fusarium oxysporum in subcutaneous lesions of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Histopathologic evaluation revealed granuloma formation with fungal structures, and the identity of the etiological agent was demonstrated by morphological and molecular analyses. Some of the animals died as a result of systemic coinfection with Aeromonas hydrophila. PMID:26155462

  9. Performance of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus fingerlings in a hyper-intensive recirculating aquaculture system with low water exchange

    OpenAIRE

    M Gullian-Klanian; C Arámburu-Adame

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper was evaluate the performance of Nile tilapia fingerlings (Oreochromis niloticus) raised at hyper intensive stocking density in a recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) with minimum water replacing. The experimental system was performed in a single-batch nursery system to obtain 50 g fish size in 60 days. Fish (2.07 ± 0.04 g) were stocked in triplicate at 400 (T1), 500 (T2) and 600 (T3) fish m-3 (0.84, 1.05, 1.22 kg m-3). RAS functioned with 12,000 L of recirculating wate...

  10. Biosécurité et productivité du tilapia du Nil Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1958 élevé en zone rurale ivoirienne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kone, M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Biosecurity and Productivity of Nile Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1958 Bred in Ivoirian's Rural Zone. Fingerlings of tilapia Oreochromis niloticus were bred in three types of fish farming of rural zone in Ivory Coast to determine impacts of the compliance of biosecurity measures on zootechnical parameters of these bred fishes. Fish farming were shared out in three types of farming based on the value of biosecurity measures compliance, which were 5%, 55%, and 83%. No significant differences were observed between mean values of physic and chemical parameters of ponds water from three types of fish farming. Concerning mean values of zootechnical parameters, the fish breeding with 83% of rate compliance of biosecurity measures had registered better values of zoo technical performance with significant differences compared with others types of fish farming.

  11. Streptococcus agalactiae infection in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus

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    Suanyuk, N.

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus agalactiae was isolated from cultured tilapia in Surat Thani province. Isolates were Gram-positive cocci, catalase negative, alpha-haemolytic and serogroup B. Streptococcal-infected fish showed various swimming abnormalities such as swimming on their side, erratic surface or bottom swimming including serpentine movement, exophthalmia and opacity. Internally, splenomegaly, ascites as well as pale liver discoloration were observed. Fish experimentally infected by peritoneal injection using 101 -108 CFU/ fish showed 20-90% mortality within 10 days and the LD50 was 3.60x101 - 1.72x107 CFU. Haematocrit, haemoglobin, plasma protein and blood cell values of infected and moribund fish were significantly decreased. Histopathological findings included the occurrence of inflammation, cells necrosis, infiltration of lymphocytes and the formation of granulomas in the infected organs.

  12. APPARENT DIGESTIBILTY EXPERIMENT WITH NILE TILAPIA (OREOCHROMIS NILOTICUS FED DIETS CONTAINING CITRULLUS LANATUS SEEDMEAL

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    Wasiu Adeyemi JIMOH

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Apparent digestibility coefficients of nutrients in Citrullus lanatus based diets were determined for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus using AIA as marker or indicator. 150 tilapia fingerlings of average weight 6.12±0.05g were acclimatized for a week, weighed and allotted into five dietary treatments; CTR, DT2, DT3, DT4 and DT5 containing 0, 15, 30, 45 and 60% Citrullus lanatus respectively. The diets were isonitrogenous, isocaloric and isolipidic. Each treatment was replicated three times with ten fish per replicate. Fish were fed 5% body weight on two equal proportions per day. The results from the study indicated that there was no significant variation (p>0.05 in the apparent organic matter and gross energy digestibility coefficients of the diets; that there was significant (p0.05 in the apparent digestibility coefficients of nutrients (protein, energy, lipid and carbohydrates between the diets up to 30% replacement levels for tilapia.

  13. Relação parasito-hospedeiro em peixes de pisciculturas da região de Assis, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. 1. Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1757 - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v29i2.594 Host-parasite relationship in fish from fish farms in the Assis region, São Paulo State, Brazil. 1. Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1757

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Tavares Ranzani-Paiva

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Um total de 90 espécimes de Oreochromis niloticus foi coletado bimestralmente entre os meses de fevereiro a dezembro de 2004, em três pisciculturas do Estado de São Paulo. Do total, 82,2% estavam parasitados por pelo menos uma espécie de parasito. Os parâmetros físicos e químicos da água foram utilizados para caracterizar a qualidade da água em cada propriedade. Sete espécies de ectoparasitos foram registradas. Foi possível observar que as pisciculturas apresentam a mesma parasitofauna, porém cada propriedade apresenta uma estrutura da comunidade peculiar. Cichlidogyrus sclerosus e Cichlidogyrus sp. 1 apresentaram correlação negativa significativa da abundância com o comprimento padrão do hospedeiro somente em Palmital. A espécie Cichlidogyrus sp. 2 e o copépode Lamproglena sp. apresentaram correlação positiva significativa da abundância com o comprimento padrão nas pisciculturas de Tarumã e Cândido Mota, respectivamente. Em relação ao fator de condição relativo, somente a espécie Cichlidogyrus sp. 1 apresentou correlação significativa negativa com a abundância de parasitismo. Lamproglena sp. apresentou correlação positiva significativa com a relação hepatossomática (RHS das tilápias em Palmital, e o ergasilídeo apresentou correlação significativa negativa da abundância de parasitismo e a relação esplenossomática (RES dos hospedeiros em Cândido Mota.A total of ninety specimens of Oreochromis niloticus were collected every other month between February and December of 2004 at three fish farms in São Paulo State. 82.2% were parasitized by at least one species of parasite. Physical and chemical water parameters were used to characterize water quality in each fish farm. Seven species of ectoparasites were registered. It was possible to observe that all fish farms presented the same parasite fauna; however, each farm featured its own peculiar community structure. Cichlidogyrus sclerosus and Cichlidogyrus

  14. Resistência a antimicrobianos de bactérias oriundas de ambiente de criação e filés de tilápias do nilo (Oreochromis niloticus Antibacterial resistance in bacteria from fish pond and Nile tilapia fillets (Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rejeana Márcia Santos Lima

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available A resistência de bactérias a antimicrobianos foi determinada em uma piscicultura de tilápias (Oreochromis niloticus em tanques de terra, sem utilização de antibióticos para profilaxia ou controle de doenças. Foi selecionado um tanque, capturados peixes e coletadas amostras de conteúdo intestinal e superfície dos peixes, água de abastecimento e do tanque, ração, filés de tilápias frescos e congelados. Colônias representativas foram selecionadas e analisadas pelos testes de Gram, catalase, oxidase e oxidaçãofermentação. Foram selecionadas 89 amostras e submetidas a antibiograma, utilizando vários antimicrobianos. A maioria das bactérias pertenceu às famílias Enterobacteriaceae e Vibrionaceae. Tanto no ambiente de criação como nos filés de tilápias observou-se que os isolados bacterianos apresentaramse resistentes principalmente a ampicilina e eritromicina. O índice de múltipla resistência a antimicrobianos (MAR foi calculado, sendo que do total de 89 isolados analisados 74 (83%, apresentaram MAR ³ 0,2, ou seja apresentaram-se resistentes a dois ou mais antimicrobianos. As freqüências de índice MAR foram altas e maiores na ração.This study was conducted in a freshwater tilapia farm that has not used any antibiotic. It was selected one pond, caught 15 fishes and collected samples of intestinal content and mucus surface, water influent and pond water, ration, fresh tilapia fillets and frozen fillets.. Phenotypical characteristics, Gram stain, oxidase production, oxidative-fermentative utilization of glucose (O-F were determined of representative colony. Were selected 89 strains and submitted for antimicrobial sensitivy test using several antibiotics. The major identified bacterial families were belonged Enterobacteriaceae and Vibrionaceae. The most isolates showed resistance to ampicilin and eritromicin. From the 89 isolates evaluated 74 (83% showed a multiple antibiotic resistance index (MAR ³ 0.2, that mean

  15. Hematology of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus subjected to anesthesia and anticoagulation protocols

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    Nadia Cristine Weinert

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Clinical hematology facilitates the diagnosis of disease and can act as a prognostic indicator of pathological conditions in fish. The aim of the present study was to evaluate hematological parameters of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus subjected to different anesthetics and anticoagulants. Thirty apparently healthy fishes (average weight of 473 ± 35. 50 g and mean total length of 29. 33 ± 0. 37 cm, were selected from the local commercial fish farm in the Lages municipality (Santa Catarina, Brazil. The animals were randomly divided into three groups of 10. In two groups, anesthesia was induced with eugenol (70 mg·L- 1 (EG and Benzocaine hydrochloride (100 mg·L-1 (BG, respectively. Anesthesia was not administered to fish of the third group (CG/control group. Blood samples were obtained by venipuncture of the caudal vessels and placed into microtubes containing sodium heparin or Na2EDTA for further analysis. The results were analyzed by Sigma Stat for Windows, the paired t-test for significant differences between anticoagulants of the same group, and analysis of variance followed by the Tukey test for comparison of means between groups (p ? 0. 05. Most of the observed changes in the erythrogram were significantly higher for the anticoagulant heparin and benzocaine group in comparison to the control group. However, the values obtained for the leukogram were significantly higher for all groups subjected to the Na2EDTA anticoagulant, suggesting that heparin may cause cell clumping. The results suggest that the anesthetics under investigation effectively minimizes the effects of stress caused by handling and invasive procedures, and that the anticoagulant heparin causes less hemolysis in comparison to Na2EDTA for Nile tilapia. Thus, the hematological variations attributed to different anesthetic protocols and/or different anticoagulants should be considered for the species Oreochromis niloticus.

  16. Effects of dietary genistein on GH/IGF-I axis of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dong; Wang, Wei; Ru, Shaoguo

    2016-09-01

    There is considerable concern that isoflavones, such as genistein in fish feed composed of soybean protein, aff ects somatic growth in fish. Our previous works demonstrated that 30 and 300 μg/g dietary genistein had no significant eff ect on growth performance in Nile tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus), but the higher level of genistein (3 000 μg/g) significantly depressed growth. This study was conducted to further examine the eff ects of dietary genistein on the endocrine disruption on growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-I (GH/IGF-I) axis in Nile tilapia ( O. niloticus). Juvenile fish were fed by hand twice daily to satiation with one of four isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets, each containing either 0, 30, 300 or 3 000 μg/g genistein. Following an 8-week feeding period, plasma GH and IGF-I levels were investigated by radioimmunoassay and gene expression levels of gh, ghrelin, gnrhs, ghr, npy, npyrs, pacap, ghrs, i gf-I, igf-Ir, and igfbp3 were examined by real-time PCR. The results show that no significant change in plasma GH and IGF-I levels in fish fed with diets containing 30 μg/g and 300 μg/g genistein. mRNA expression of genes along the GH/IGF-I axis remained unaff ected, except for igf-Ir, which was stimulated by the 300 μg/g genistein diet. While in fish fed the 3 000 μg/g genistein diet, the plasma GH and IGF-I levels decreased, and mRNA expression of gh, ghr2, npyr1, igf-I, and igf-Ir were also significantly depressed. In contrast, npy and igfbp3 mRNA expression were enhanced. This study provides convincing evidence for growth impediment by genistein by disturbing the GH/IGF-I axis in Nile tilapia O. niloticus.

  17. Isolation and characterization of bacteria with antibacterial properties from Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etyemez, Miray; Balcazar, Jose Luis

    2016-04-01

    One hundred and twenty bacterial isolates were obtained from the intestinal mucus of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and screened for antagonistic activity and adherence abilities. Based on in vitro antagonism against two pathogens (Streptococcus iniae and Edwardsiella piscicida), five isolates were selected and identified by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. All antagonistic isolates were affiliated to the genus Bacillus, which showed inhibitory activity against S. iniae. Only the isolate B191 (closely related to Bacillus mojavensis) inhibited the growth of both pathogens. Moreover, isolate B191 adhered significantly better to fish intestinal mucus than other antagonistic isolates. According to our results, these bacterial isolates, particularly isolate B191, should be further studied to explore their probiotic effects under in vivo conditions. PMID:27033910

  18. 罗非鱼低鱼粉饲料中脱酚棉籽蛋白替代鱼粉的研究%Replacement of Fish Meal with Degossypolled Cottonseed Protein in Low Fish Meal Diets for Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林仕梅; 毛述宏; 关勇; 潘瑜; 罗琳; 罗莉

    2011-01-01

    In order to study the feasibility of replacement of fish meal with degossypolled cottonseed protein in low fish meal diets for tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus) , three isonitrogenous and isoenergetic experimental diets were formulated by replacing 0, 50% and 100% fish meal with degossypolled cottonseed protein on basis of a practical diet (fish meal content was 6. 0% and crude protein content in fish meal was 64. 5% ), respectively. A total of 270 male genetically improved farmed tilapia (GIFT) with an average body weight of 50 g were randomly divided into 3 groups with 3 replicates per group and 30 fish per replicate, and the fish in the control group were fed the experimental diet containing 0 degossypolled cottonseed protein. The experiment lasted for 8 weeks. The results showed as follows; the final weight of tilapia in the 50% replacement level group was significantly higher than that in the control group (P 0. 05). No significant differences were found in special growth rate, protein efficiency ratio, feed efficiency and feeding rate of tilapia among all groups (P >0. 05). With increasing replacement level of degossypolled cottonseed protein, the viscerosomatic index of tilapia was significantly increased (P 0. 05). The replacement level of degossypolled cottonseed protein could significantly affect the hepatopancreas digestive enzyme activities of tilapia (P <0. 05) , and the highest values of trypsinase and amylase activities were found in the 50% replacement level group and 100% replacement level group, respectively. With increasing replacement level of degossypolled cottonseed protein, the total antioxidant capacity, activities of su-peroxide dismutase, glutamic pyruvic transaminase and glutamic oxaolacetic transaminase, and liver glycogen content in hepatopancreas of tilapia were significantly increased ( P <0. 05) , while the malondialdehyde content was significantly decreased (P <0. 05). In conclusion, the suitable replacement levels of fish meal with

  19. Blockage of progestin physiology disrupts ovarian differentiation in XX Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Linyan; Luo, Feng; Fang, Xuelian; Charkraborty, Tapas; Wu, Limin; Wei, Jing; Wang, Deshou

    2016-04-22

    Previous studies indicated that maturation inducing hormone, 17α, 20β-Dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (DHP), probably through nuclear progestin receptor (Pgr), might be involved in spermatogenesis and oogenesis in fish. To further elucidate DHP actions in teleostean ovarian differentiation, we analyzed the expression of pgr in the ovary of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), and performed RU486 (a synthetic Pgr antagonist) treatment in XX fish from 5 days after hatching (dah) to 120 dah. Tilapia Pgr was abundantly expressed in the follicular cells surrounding oocytes at 30 and 90 dah. Continuous RU486 treatment led to the blockage of oogenesis and masculinization of somatic cells in XX fish. Termination of RU486 treatment and maintenance in normal condition resulted in testicular differentiation, and estrogen compensation in RU486-treated XX fish successfully restored oogenesis. In RU486-treated XX fish, transcript levels of female dominant genes were significantly reduced, while male-biased genes were evidently augmented. Meanwhile, both germ cell mitotic and meiotic markers were substantially reduced. Consistently, estrogen production levels were significantly declined in RU486-treated XX fish. Taken together, our data further proved that DHP, possibly through Pgr, might be essential in the ovarian differentiation and estrogen production in fish. PMID:26993165

  20. EFFECT OF DIETARY LIPID SOURCE ON THE GROWTH PERFORMANCE AND BODY COMPOSITION OF Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanat Ali, Sulieman M. AI-Ogaily, Nasser A. AI-Asgah1l and Sakhawat Ali2

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available The study evaluated the growth performance and body composition of Oreochromis niloticus fed isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets containing different types of lipids (corn oil, olive oil, cod liver oil and beef tallow at 14% level for a period of 65 days. Significant (P< 0.05 differences were observed in the body weight gain, specific growth rate (SGR, condition factor, feed conversion ratio (FCR, protein efficiency ratio (PER, net protein retention (NPR, apparent net energy retention (ANER and hepatosomatic index (HSI values. The diet containing a mixture of all the 4 dietary lipids in equal proportions (3.5g of each lipid per 100g of diet produced the best results (SGR, I. 73%; condition factor, 2.95; FCR, 1.27; PER, 2.06; NPR, 29.30% and ANER, 20.21% whereas the diet containing beef tallow showed the poorest performance (SGR, 1.50%; condition factor, 2.76; FCR, 1.53; PER, 1.73; NPR, 26.26% and ANER, 18.53%. The growth performance of fish fed on diet containing beef tallow was however, significantly (P< 0.05 better than that of lipid free diet. The diets containing corn oil, olive oil, and cod liver oil did not show any significant difference in the growth performance of fish. The hepatosomatic index (HSI value increased in fish fed diets containing lipids (maximum 1.55% in case of corn oil as compared to those fed lipid free diet ( 1.31 %. No significant differences were observed in the feed consumption of fish fed different diets. The type of dietary lipid significantly affected the body composition of fish. The data on the body composition of fish is very much correlated with the growth performance data. The fish fed on diets containing lipids showed higher body fat and crude protein but lower moisture and gross energy contents as compared to those fed lipid free diet. The fish fed on diet containing beef tallow however showed similar body protein and ash contents as those fed lipid free diet. The results of the present study suggest that

  1. Use of tuna industry waste in diets for Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, fingerlings: effect on digestibility and growth performance

    OpenAIRE

    Crisantema Hernández; Miguel A. Olvera-Novoa; Domenico Voltolina; Hardy, Ronald W.; Blanca González-Rodriguez; Patricia Dominguez-Jimenez; Martin Valverde-Romero; Samuel Agramon-Romero

    2013-01-01

    During the tuna canning process, about 52~54% of the total weight of the fish is discarded as waste, which can be processed in order to obtain tuna byproducts meal (TBM), or stabilized as tuna silage hydrolysates (TSH). Both products were tested as replacements of soybean meal (SBM), in diets for fingerling male Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. Seven test diets were isonitrogenous (35% CP) and isoenergetic (19 kJ g-1): a basal diet contained SBM as main protein source (TSH0); four experime...

  2. Accumulation of heavy metals in the fish, Oreochromis niloticus and Poecilia latipinna and their concentration in water and sediment of dam lake of Wadi Namar, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Zubair; Al-Ghanim, Khalid A; Al-Balawi, Hmoud F Al-Kahem; Al-Misned, Fahad; Maboob, Shahid; Suliman, El-Amin M

    2015-01-01

    The present study reports the accumulation of heavy metals like Cu, Hg, Cd, Pb and Cr in different tissues viz. liver, kidney, gills and muscles of Oreochromisniloticus and Poecilia latipinna from two sites in dam lake of Wadi Namar. Water and sediment samples were also collected from two sites for heavy metal analysis. Metal concentration in water and sediment samples of both the sites were observed in the following order: Cu>Cr>Pb>Cd>Hg; however, their concentration was found to be more at site 2 as compared to site 1. The order of metal accumulation in different tissues of O. niloticus and P. latipinna was in the following order: Cu>Cr>Pb>Cd>Hg at both the sites, while liver accumulated maximum amounts of metals followed by kidney, gills and muscles. The results showed the site 2 was more polluted by metals than Site 1 and O. niloticus accumulated greater amount of metals than P. latipinna.

  3. Masculinization of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) by immersion in androgens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, W.L.; Fitzpatrick, M.S.; Lucero, M.; Contreras-Sanchez, W.M.; Schreck, C. B.

    1999-01-01

    The use of all-male populations increases the efficiency and feasibility of tilapia aquaculture. The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of a short-term immersion procedure for masculinizing Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Two synthetic androgens were evaluated: 17α-methyldihydrotestosterone (MDHT) and 17α-methyltestosterone (MT). Exposure (3 h) on 10 and again on 13 days post-fertilization to MDHT at 500 μg/1 successfully masculinized fry in all experiments, resulting in 100, 94 and 83 ± 2% males in Experiments 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Immersions in MDHT or MT at 100 μg/1 resulted in significantly skewed sex ratios in Experiments 1 and 3 (MT resulted in 73 and 83 ± 3% males; and MDHT resulted in 72 and 91 ± 1% males) but not in Experiment 2. Immersion in MT at 500 μg/1 only caused masculinization in Experiment 3. Although further research and refinement is needed, immersion of Nile tilapia in MDHT may provide a practical alternative to the use of steroid-treated feed. Furthermore, when compared with current techniques for steroid-induced sex inversion of tilapia, short-term immersion reduces the period of time that workers are exposed to anabolic steroids.

  4. Antioxidant activities of red tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) protein hydrolysates as influenced by thermolysin and alcalase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daud, Nur'Aliah; Babji, Abdul Salam; Yusop, Salma Mohamad

    2013-11-01

    The hydrolysis process was performed on fish meat from Red Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) by enzymes thermolysin and alcalase under optimum conditions. The hydrolysis was performed from 0 - 4 hours at 37°C. Hydrolysates after 2 hours incubation with thermolysin and alcalase had degree of hydrolysis of 76.29 % and 63.49 %, respectively. The freeze dried protein hydrolysate was tested for peptide content and characterized with respect to amino acid composition. The result of increased peptide content in Red Tilapia (O. Niloticus) hydrolysates obtained was directly proportional to the increase activities of different proteolytic enzymes. The result of amino acid composition showed that the sample used contained abundant Gly, Ala, Asp, Glu, Lys and Leu in residues or peptide sequences. Both enzymatic hydrolysates were tested for anti-oxidant activity with DPPH and ABTS assay. Alcalase yielded higher anti-oxidative activity than Thermolysin hydrolysates after 1 hour incubation, but both enzymes hydrolysates showed a significant decrease of anti-oxidant activity after 2 hours of incubation. Hydrolysates from Red Tilapia may contribute as a health promoting ingredient in functional foods to reduce oxidation stress caused by accumulated free radicals.

  5. Estrogenic activities of diuron metabolites in female Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Thiago Scremin Boscolo; Boscolo, Camila Nomura Pereira; Felício, Andreia Arantes; Batlouni, Sergio Ricardo; Schlenk, Daniel; de Almeida, Eduardo Alves

    2016-03-01

    Some endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) can alter the estrogenic activities of the organism by directly interacting with estrogen receptors (ER) or indirectly through the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis. Recent studies in male Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) indicated that diuron may have anti-androgenic activity augmented by biotransformation. In this study, the effects of diuron and three of its metabolites were evaluated in female tilapia. Sexually mature female fish were exposed for 25 days to diuron, as well as to its metabolites 3,4-dichloroaniline (DCA), 3,4-dichlorophenylurea (DCPU) and 3,4-dichlorophenyl-N-methylurea (DCPMU), at concentrations of 100 ng/L. Diuron metabolites caused increases in E2 plasma levels, gonadosomatic indices and in the percentage of final vitellogenic oocytes. Moreover, diuron and its metabolites caused a decrease in germinative cells. Significant differences in plasma concentrations of the estrogen precursor and gonadal regulator17α-hydroxyprogesterone (17α-OHP) were not observed. These results show that diuron metabolites had estrogenic effects potentially mediated through enhanced estradiol biosynthesis and accelerated the ovarian development of O. niloticus females.

  6. The effect of garlic (Allium sativum) on growth and immune responses of hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus x Oreochromis aureus)

    OpenAIRE

    Fall, J.; Ndong, D.

    2007-01-01

    Juvenile hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus x O.aureus) were held in 1000 l fiberglass tanks at 27 ºC supplied with a filter and an aeration system. Garlic (Allium sativum) was incorporated into diets (0 %, 0.5 % and 1 %) of juvenile hybrid tilapia, O. niloticus x O. aureus (25.5 ± 1.0 g). Non-specific cellular and humoral responses were evaluated at the beginning and after 2-4 weeks. Total leucocyte count, respiratory burst, phagyctic activity, phagocytic index and lysozyme activity were ...

  7. Humoral antibody response of the tilapia Oreochromis niloticus against Cichlidogyrus spp. (Monogenea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval-Gío, Juan José; Rodríguez-Canul, Rossanna; Vidal-Martínez, Víctor Manuel

    2008-04-01

    The humoral immune response of the tilapia Oreochromis niloticus was evaluated using a direct ELISA. Serum was tested from fish infected with Cichlidogyrus spp. (Monogenea) and from fish injected intraperitoneally with the Cichlidogyrus spp. antigenic extract, i.e., 150 microl of the Cichlidogyrus spp. saline extract diluted in Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) (1:1) were inoculated intraperitoneally at day 0, followed by 2 dosages of 50 microl of the same Cichlidogyrus spp. saline extract diluted in Freund's incomplete adjuvant (FIA) (1:1) at weeks 2 and 4, respectively. The humoral response was also evaluated by the double immunodiffusion test (DID) and by serum protein and total immunoglobulin (Ig) determinations. The IgM OD values in the hyperimmune fish were significantly higher than in the infected and uninfected fish groups. In the DID test, a precipitation (antigen-antibody) band was observed between the Cichlidogyrus spp. saline extract and hyperimmune sera, but not with the other groups. Increases in serum protein concentration and total Igs were observed in the immunized fish at weeks 2 and 10 postinjection. Results from this study suggest that tilapia is capable of producing an induced humoral immune response against an antigenic extract of Cichlidogyrus spp. PMID:18564741

  8. Transmission and pathology of Streptococcus inane in monosex Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus in aquaculture of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Mer Mosharraf Hossain

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus iniae is a major fish pathogen, recently emergent outbreaks were recorded in commercially cultured monosex Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus result in significant losses termed “streptococcosis”-causes unusual appearances with multi-focal pin-point haemorrhages, abscesses, necrosis and ascites in skin, fin, muscle, liver, spleen, kidney, blood, interstitial fluid specially in central nervous system and brain. This disease was more prevalent (>26% at summer when the water temperature was approximately >25oC, percentage of mortality was higher >41% during the overcrowding and improper water chemistry. Raised levels of glucose and ammonium in blood serum causes reduced number of free blood cells released into the haemolymph to stomach and gut, result in refrain from eating in diseased tilapia. Stocking density (200 fish/decimal; class IV had significant effect (P<0.01 on the total production (5,000 to 5,500 kg/ha. S. iniae in the circulating blood cells, extra-tubular haemal spaces containing blood vessels, fixed phagocytes in the hepatopancreas (gastrointestinal tract, bacteria-like particles in the brain tissue, vacuum and necrosis in hepatocytes revealed with histopathology. In vitro study revealed that cohabitation of dead or infected fish with healthy fish resulted infection (horizontal transmission mechanism to the healthy fish.

  9. Simulation of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus niloticus L.) culture in ponds, through individual-based modelling, using a population dynamic approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, de G.J.; Dekker, P.J.; Huisman, E.A.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2005-01-01

    A simulation model for the production of the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus niloticus L.) for mixed- or mono-sex culture and for poly-culture with the African catfish (Clarias gariepinus Burchell 1822) or African snakehead (Parachanna obscura Günther 1861) is presented. The model is based on an

  10. Gill histopathological alterations in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus exposed to treated sewage Water

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    António Fontaínhas-Fernandes

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Adult Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, of both sexes were exposed in wastewater from a sewage treatment plant for a period of 4 days. Gill samples were collected after 24, 48, 72 and 96 h and histopathological changes were analyzed by light and scanning electronic microscopy. Gill epithelium of control O. niloticus (freshwater group was similar to that of other teleosts, while histopathological lesions were observed in exposed fishes. The main histopathological changes were edema, lifting of lamellar and filamentar epithelia and lamellar fusion. Cell proliferation with consequent thickening of the filament epithelium was also found in fishes exposed to the treated sewage water. The severity of the lesions increased with the time of exposure, namely the hyperplasia of the epithelial cells with proliferation of filamentar epithelium and fusion of lamellae observed at 96 h. Additionally, several histopathological results obtained by light microscopy were confirmed through scanning microscopy.Tilápias adultas, Oreochromis niloticus, de ambos os sexos foram expostas em águas residuais de uma estação de tratamento de esgoto durante 4 dias. Amostras de brânquia foram recolhidas após 24, 48, 72 e 96 h e as alterações histopatológicas foram analisadas por microscopia óptica e eletrônica de varredura. O epitélio da brânquia do grupo controle apresentou uma morfologia similar à de outros peixes teleosteos, enquanto foram observadas lesões nos peixes expostos. As principais alterações histopatológicas foram edema, destacamento dos epitélios lamelar e filamentar e fusão lamelar. Os peixes expostos às águas residuais mostraram também proliferação celular com consequente aumento da espessura do filamento branquial. A severidade das lesões aumentou com o tempo de exposição, nomeadamente a hiperplasia das células epiteliais com proliferação do epitélio filamentar e fusão das lamelas observadas preferencialmente às 96 h

  11. Infection dynamics of Cichlidogyrus tilapiae and C. sclerosus (Monogenea, Ancyrocephalinae) in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) from Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akoll, P; Fioravanti, M L; Konecny, R; Schiemer, F

    2012-09-01

    The infection dynamics of the gill monogeneans Cichlidogyrus tilapiae and C. sclerosus on Oreochromis niloticus with respect to habitat type (reservoir, stream, ponds and cages), host sex, size and seasons was determined between January and November 2008. During the study period, 45.2% of the 650 fish examined were infected with Cichlidogyrus spp. The infected hosts harboured an average of 8.6 ± 3.4 parasites/fish. Across habitat types, the proportion of infected fish was not statistically different. In contrast, the number of parasites recorded on infected fish from different habitat types differed significantly. The highest parasite number was recorded in reservoir-dwelling fish and lowest in stream-dwelling hosts. Concerning sex, more female O. niloticus were infected and harboured a high number of parasites than male and sexually undifferentiated fish. A weak negative relationship was found between rainfall and monthly parasite infections. However, a higher number of parasites and proportion of infected hosts were found during dry than in wet seasons, except in ponds. Results of this study show that differential exposure due to changes in fish behaviour associated with habitat modification and sex may account for the infection difference across the sampled sites. Meanwhile, rainfall and the associated hydrological events are important factors regulating monogenean infections in tropical aquatic environments. The continuous presence of Cichlidogyrus spp. in fish provides evidence of possible parasite outbreaks, indicating the application of biosecurity measures as crucial for the success of intensive fish farming. PMID:21791155

  12. Genetic parameters for reproductive traits in female Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus): II. Fecundity and fertility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trong, T.Q.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Komen, J.

    2013-01-01

    Harvest weight is the main trait in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) breeding programmes. The effects of selection for harvest weight on female reproductive traits are unknown. In this paper we estimate genetic parameters for reproductive traits and their correlation with harvest weight using fe

  13. Natural mating in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) : implications for reproductive success, inbreeding and cannibalism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fessehaye, Y.

    2006-01-01

    Niletilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus L.) is one of the most important species among the commercially farmed tilapias. Both small-scale and commercial production of tilapia is rapidly expanding in many countries of the world because t

  14. Fecal strings Associated with Streptococcus agalactiae Infection in Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) were experimentally-infected with Streptococcus agalactiae for several infectivity and vaccine studies. Some of the S. agalactiae-infected tilapia produced considerably longer (up to 20 cm in length) fecal waste strings than historically observed from tilapia at...

  15. Influence of Tricaine Methanesulfonate on Streptococcus agalactiae vaccination of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Experiments were conducted to study the influence of tricaine methanesulfonate (MS-222) on blood glucose levels and percent cumulative survival of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) challenged with Streptococcus agalactiae 30 days post-vaccination with S. agalactiae vaccine or sham-vaccination wit...

  16. First records of Ambiphrya and Vorticella spp. (Protozoa, Ciliophora) in cultured Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in the central region of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Baki, Abdel-Azeem S; Gewik, Mohamed M; Al-Quraishy, Saleh

    2014-12-01

    The present study was carried out as part of an ongoing general survey seeking to uncover protozoan parasites infecting cultured tilapia in the central region of Saudi Arabia. In the sample of 400 specimens of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) 30 were infested with Ambiphrya ameiuri simultaneously with Vorticella sp. Morphometric criteria were used to describe and identify these species and this study presents the first records of these species among cultured fish in Saudi Arabia. PMID:25473359

  17. Effects of Dietary Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisia Supplementation in Practical Diets of Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José E. P. Cyrino

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 51-day feeding trial was carried out to determine the effects of various dietary levels of brewer’s yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in the growth performance, body composition and nutrient utilization in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, juveniles. Fish (7.6 ± 0.3 g were stocked into eighteen 1,000-L tanks (100 fish per tank; n = 3 and fed to apparent satiation six isonitrogenous (27% crude protein and isoenergetic (19 kJ/g diets, formulated to contain different dried yeast levels (0%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 30% or 40% diet in substitution to fishmeal. Body weight tripled at the end of the feeding trial for fish fed up to 20% dietary yeast incorporation. Daily growth coefficient (DGC, % body weight/day decreased with increasing dietary yeast level (P < 0.0001. Voluntary feed intake (VFI, %BW/day did not vary significantly with increasing yeast level. Fish fed 40% yeast showed significant reduction in protein efficiency rate, protein retention and nitrogen gain. Increasing levels of dietary yeast did not significantly affect protein or lipid digestibility. Dietary dried yeast was seemingly palatable to tilapia juveniles and was suitable up to 15% inclusion to promote growth and efficient diet utilization, without affecting body composition.

  18. Pertumbuhan dan rasio konversi pakan ikan nila (Oreochromis niloticus dengan penambahan prebiotik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NITA ARDITA

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Ardita N, Budiharjo A, Sari SLA. 2015. Growth and feed conversion ratio of tilapia fish (Oreochromis niloticus with addition of probiotics. Bioteknologi 12: 16-21. The problems of tilapia farming are the high feed costs and long cultivation time. Feed costs is in the ranges 60-70% from the total cost. Probiotics in the digestive tract will improve the digestion and absorbtion of nutrients. This study was aimed to determine the effect of probiotics on tilapia growth and feed conversion ratio (FCR. This study used a completely randomized design with 4 treatments i.e. 0%, 3%, 4%, and 5% (v/w of probiotic in feed. Probiotics was sprayed into comercial pellets. Tilapia were cultivated for 2 months given by commercial pellets with different proportion of probiotics. The parameters measured were the growth of fish (fish length and fish weight, Survival Rate (SR and FCR. Data was analyzed by ANOVA. The results showed that the addition of probiotics dose 0%, 3%, 4%, and 5% (v/w did not affect significantly to the growth and feed conversion ratio for 8 weeks.

  19. Coupling of methylmercury uptake with respiration and water pumping in freshwater tilapia Oreochromis niloticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Wong, Ming-Hung; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2011-09-01

    The relationships among the uptake of toxic methylmercury (MeHg) and two important fish physiological processes-respiration and water pumping--in the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) were explored in the present study. Coupled radiotracer and respirometric techniques were applied to measure simultaneously the uptake rates of MeHg, water, and oxygen under various environmental conditions (temperature, dissolved oxygen level, and water flow). A higher temperature enhanced MeHg influx and the oxygen consumption rate but had no effect on the water uptake, indicating the influence of metabolism on MeHg uptake. The fish showed a high tolerance to hypoxia, and the oxygen consumption rate was not affected until the dissolved oxygen concentration decreased to extremely low levels (below 1 mg/L). The MeHg and water uptake rates increased simultaneously as the dissolved oxygen level decreased, suggesting the coupling of water flux and MeHg uptake. The influence of fish swimming performance on MeHg uptake was also investigated for the first time. Rapidly swimming fish showed significantly higher uptake rates of MeHg, water, and oxygen, confirming the coupling relationships among respiration, water pumping, and metal uptake. Moreover, these results support that MeHg uptake is a rate-limiting process involving energy. Our study demonstrates the importance of physiological processes in understanding mercury bioaccumulation in fluctuating aquatic environments.

  20. Uncaria tomentosa increases growth and immune activity in Oreochromis niloticus challenged with Streptococcus agalactiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunis-Aguinaga, Jefferson; Claudiano, Gustavo S; Marcusso, Paulo F; Manrique, Wilson Gómez; de Moraes, Julieta R Engrácia; de Moraes, Flávio R; Fernandes, João B K

    2015-11-01

    Cat's claw (Uncaria tomentosa) is an Amazon herb using in native cultures in Peru. In mammals, it has been described several effects of this herb. However, this is the first report of its use on the diet of fish. The aim of this study was to determinate the effect of this plant on the growth and immune activity in Oreochromis niloticus. Nile tilapia (81.3 ± 4.5 g) were distributed into 5 groups and supplemented with 0 (non-supplement fish), 75, 150, 300, and 450 mg of U. tomentosa.kg(-1) of diet for a period of 28 days. Fish were inoculated in the swim bladder with inactivated Streptococcus agalactiae and samples were taken at 6, 24, and 48 h post inoculation (HPI). Dose dependent increases were noted in some of the evaluated times of thrombocytes and white blood cells counts (WBC) in blood and exudate, burst respiratory activity, lysozyme activity, melanomacrophage centers count (MMCs), villi length, IgM by immunohistochemistry in splenic tissue, and unexpectedly on growth parameters. However, dietary supplementation of this herb did not affect red blood cells count (RBC), hemoglobin, and there were no observed histological lesions in gills, intestine, spleen, and liver. The current results demonstrate for the first time that U. tomentosa can stimulate fish immunity and improve growth performance in Nile tilapia.

  1. Uncaria tomentosa increases growth and immune activity in Oreochromis niloticus challenged with Streptococcus agalactiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunis-Aguinaga, Jefferson; Claudiano, Gustavo S; Marcusso, Paulo F; Manrique, Wilson Gómez; de Moraes, Julieta R Engrácia; de Moraes, Flávio R; Fernandes, João B K

    2015-11-01

    Cat's claw (Uncaria tomentosa) is an Amazon herb using in native cultures in Peru. In mammals, it has been described several effects of this herb. However, this is the first report of its use on the diet of fish. The aim of this study was to determinate the effect of this plant on the growth and immune activity in Oreochromis niloticus. Nile tilapia (81.3 ± 4.5 g) were distributed into 5 groups and supplemented with 0 (non-supplement fish), 75, 150, 300, and 450 mg of U. tomentosa.kg(-1) of diet for a period of 28 days. Fish were inoculated in the swim bladder with inactivated Streptococcus agalactiae and samples were taken at 6, 24, and 48 h post inoculation (HPI). Dose dependent increases were noted in some of the evaluated times of thrombocytes and white blood cells counts (WBC) in blood and exudate, burst respiratory activity, lysozyme activity, melanomacrophage centers count (MMCs), villi length, IgM by immunohistochemistry in splenic tissue, and unexpectedly on growth parameters. However, dietary supplementation of this herb did not affect red blood cells count (RBC), hemoglobin, and there were no observed histological lesions in gills, intestine, spleen, and liver. The current results demonstrate for the first time that U. tomentosa can stimulate fish immunity and improve growth performance in Nile tilapia. PMID:26434713

  2. Histopathological biomarkers in gills and liver of Oreochromis niloticus from polluted wetland environments, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Moneim, Ashraf M; Al-Kahtani, Mohamed A; Elmenshawy, Omar M

    2012-08-01

    Fish live in direct contact with their immediate external environment and, therefore, are highly vulnerable to aquatic pollutants. In this study, Oreochromis niloticus were caught at three different sites in Al-Hassa irrigation channels, namely Al-Jawhariya, Um-Sabah and Al-Khadoud. The histological changes in gills and liver were detected microscopically and evaluated with semi-quantitative analyses. Also, heavy metals have been determined in the water samples in these sites. Results showed that all sites were polluted by different kinds of heavy metals. Cd and Pb were mostly detected at concentrations above the WHO reference values. Meanwhile, various histopathological abnormalities were observed in gills and liver of fish specimens. In the gill filaments, cell proliferation, lamellar cell hyperplasia, lamellar fusion, lifting of the respiratory epithelium, and the presence of aneurysmal areas were observed. In the liver, there was vacuolization of the hepatocytes, sinusoidal congestion, necrosis of the parenchyma tissue, nuclear pyknosis, eosinophilic hepatocellular degeneration, pigment accumulation, an increase in the number and size of melanomacrophage centers. Liver tumors with severe chronic inflammation were occasionally found in fish at Al-Khadoud area (first-time report). The histological lesions were comparatively most severe in the liver. Despite heavy metals assessment did not show marked differences among sites, histopathological biomarkers indicated that the surveyed fish are living under stressful environmental conditions. So, we suggest use those biomarkers in future monitoring of aquatic systems. PMID:22546634

  3. Isolation of Streptococcus spp from nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and quality of water in hapas nets in North Region of Parana State, Brazil/
    Isolamento de Streptococcus spp de tilápias do nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) e qualidade da água de tanques rede na Região Norte do Estado do Paraná, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksey Machado Moreno; Júlio César de Freitas; Juliana Alves Dias; Luciene Garcia Pretto-Giordano; Júlio Hermann Leonhardt; Ernst Eckehardt Müller; Rogério Salvador

    2003-01-01

    This study evaluated 12 intensive breed of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in four properties localized in the north of Parana State, Brazil. In the period of 13 months, 71 fishes were collected and analyzed of hapas nets that presenting morbidity and mortality of tilapias. Parallel, to evaluate the quality of the water of these hapas nets, there was measured the temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, alkalinity, nitrite and ammonia. Of the 71 fishes, were collected 220 biological samples. 1...

  4. Supplemental effects of mixed ingredients and rice bran on the growth performance, survival and yield of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus reared in fertilized earthen ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limbu, S M; Shoko, A P; Lamtane, H A; Kishe-Machumu, M A; Joram, M C; Mbonde, A S; Mgana, H F; Mgaya, Y D

    2016-01-01

    Unaffordability of commercial feeds to semi-intensive Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus farmers has led to reliance on supplemental feeding and fertilization for nutrition of their fish without a scientific basis. This study compared the growth, survival, condition factor and yield performance of O. niloticus fed on mixed ingredients (MI) and rice bran alone (RB) diets reared in fertilized earthen ponds in small scale farmers' ponds. The study also determined phytoplankton composition, biomass and abundance in the experimental ponds. Quadruplicate ponds were stocked with O. niloticus and African sharptooth catfish, Clarias gariepinus at a stocking ratio of 1:3. The initial mean weights of O. niloticus and C. gariepinus were 14.62 ± 0.61 and 20.34 ± 1.44 g respectively. The fish were fed on MI and RB diets with protein content of 184.74 and 126.06 g kg(-1) respectively for 270 days. The results showed that growth performance, survival rate and condition factor of O. niloticus were not affected by either feeding with MI or RB diet (p > 0.05). Moreover, there were no significant differences obtained in phytoplankton biomass and abundance in O. niloticus ponds fed on the two diets (p > 0.05). Furthermore, feeding O. niloticus either on MI or RB diet did not affect the net and gross fish yields (p > 0.05). The study revealed that the use of either MI or RB diet does not significantly affect the performance of O. niloticus cultured in semi-intensive earthen ponds where natural food organisms are an integral part of the culture system. Rice bran could be used for semi-intensive culture of O. niloticus in fertilized ponds to boost the production based on its availability and low cost.

  5. Supplemental effects of mixed ingredients and rice bran on the growth performance, survival and yield of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus reared in fertilized earthen ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limbu, S M; Shoko, A P; Lamtane, H A; Kishe-Machumu, M A; Joram, M C; Mbonde, A S; Mgana, H F; Mgaya, Y D

    2016-01-01

    Unaffordability of commercial feeds to semi-intensive Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus farmers has led to reliance on supplemental feeding and fertilization for nutrition of their fish without a scientific basis. This study compared the growth, survival, condition factor and yield performance of O. niloticus fed on mixed ingredients (MI) and rice bran alone (RB) diets reared in fertilized earthen ponds in small scale farmers' ponds. The study also determined phytoplankton composition, biomass and abundance in the experimental ponds. Quadruplicate ponds were stocked with O. niloticus and African sharptooth catfish, Clarias gariepinus at a stocking ratio of 1:3. The initial mean weights of O. niloticus and C. gariepinus were 14.62 ± 0.61 and 20.34 ± 1.44 g respectively. The fish were fed on MI and RB diets with protein content of 184.74 and 126.06 g kg(-1) respectively for 270 days. The results showed that growth performance, survival rate and condition factor of O. niloticus were not affected by either feeding with MI or RB diet (p > 0.05). Moreover, there were no significant differences obtained in phytoplankton biomass and abundance in O. niloticus ponds fed on the two diets (p > 0.05). Furthermore, feeding O. niloticus either on MI or RB diet did not affect the net and gross fish yields (p > 0.05). The study revealed that the use of either MI or RB diet does not significantly affect the performance of O. niloticus cultured in semi-intensive earthen ponds where natural food organisms are an integral part of the culture system. Rice bran could be used for semi-intensive culture of O. niloticus in fertilized ponds to boost the production based on its availability and low cost. PMID:26759744

  6. Cholinesterase inhibition and behavioral toxicity of carbofuran on Oreochromis niloticus early life stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessoa, P C; Luchmann, K H; Ribeiro, A B; Veras, M M; Correa, J R M B; Nogueira, A J; Bainy, A C D; Carvalho, P S M

    2011-10-01

    Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus at 9 days post-hatch were exposed in semi-static experiments to the carbamate insecticide carbofuran, which is applied in agricultural systems in Brazil. Although the molecular mechanism of carbofuran toxicity is well known, a detailed understanding of the ecological mechanisms through which carbofuran effects can propagate towards higher levels of biological organization in fish is incomplete. Mortality rates were quantified for larvae exposed for 96 h to 8.3, 40.6, 69.9, 140, 297 and 397 μg/L carbofuran, and the LC(50) 96 h was 214.7 μg/L. In addition, the biochemical biomarker cholinesterase inhibition and behavioral biomarkers related to vision, swimming, prey capture and predator avoidance were quantified in individual larvae, as well as their growth in weight. The behavioral parameters were quantified by analysis of digitally recorded videos of individual larvae within appropriate experimental setups. The activity of the enzyme cholinesterase decreased after exposure to carbofuran with a lowest observed effects concentration (LOEC) of 69.9 μg/L. Visual acuity deficits were detected after carbofuran exposure with a LOEC of 40.6 μg/L. Swimming speed decreased with carbofuran exposure, with a LOEC of 397.6 μg/L. The number of attacks to prey (Daphnia magna nauplii) decreased in larvae exposed to carbofuran, with a LOEC of 397.6 μg/L. Growth in weight was significantly reduced in a dose dependent manner, and all carbofuran groups exhibited a statistically significant decrease in growth when compared to controls (pcarbofuran, and the LOEC was 69.9 μg/L. These results show that exposure of sensitive early life stages of tilapia O. niloticus to sublethal concentrations of carbofuran can affect fundamental aspects of fish larval ecology that are relevant to recruitment of fish populations, and that can be better understood by the application of behavioral biomarkers.

  7. Behavioral response of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) to acute ammonia stress monitored by computer vision

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Jian-yu; MIAO Xiang-wen; LIU Ying; CUI Shao-rong

    2005-01-01

    The behavioral responses of a tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) school to low (0.13 mg/L), moderate (0.79 mg/L) and high (2.65 mg/L) levels of unionized ammonia (UIA) concentration were monitored using a computer vision system. The swimming activity and geometrical parameters such as location of the gravity center and distribution of the fish school were calculated continuously. These behavioral parameters of tilapia school responded sensitively to moderate and high UIA concentration. Under high UIA concentration the fish activity showed a significant increase (P<0.05), exhibiting an avoidance reaction to high ammonia condition, and then decreased gradually. Under moderate and high UIA concentration the school's vertical location had significantly large fluctuation (P<0.05) with the school moving up to the water surface then down to the bottom of the aquarium alternately and tending to crowd together. After several hours' exposure to high UIA level, the school finally stayed at the aquarium bottom. These observations indicate that alterations in fish behavior under acute stress can provide important information useful in predicting the stress.

  8. PERTUMBUHAN, HISTOPATOLOGI OVARIUM DAN FEKUNDITAS IKAN NILA MERAH (OREOCHROMIS NILOTICUS SETELAH PAPARAN PESTISIDA ORGANOFOSFAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IRIANI SETYAWATI

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Fish cultures in rice fields or areas that use water from a pesticide-polluted irrigation or river, are particularly vulnerable to the negative impact of pesticides. This study aims to assess the effect of organophosphates on growth, ovarian histopathology and fecundity of red tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus. After acclimatization, 160 fishes (fingerlink stage were kept in four ponds sized 2x1,5x0,8 m each. This study used a complete randomized block design and organophosphate administration through the feed. The study used four groups: control, and variations in dose of 2 ml (D1, 6 ml (D2, and 10 ml (D3 of pesticide per 100 grams of pellet, which is given in the morning (treatment and in the evening (regular feed. Data were taken at week 3, 6, and 9, then the organophosphate treatments were stopped, and the last data were taken at week-18. Statistical analysis was performed by Anova and Duncan's Multiple Range Test. The results showed that the organophosphate pesticide inhibits the growth by reducing fish length and weight, reducing ovarian weight, increasing the number of oocyte atresia, damaging structure of the ovarian histology, and decreasing fecundity by reducing the number of egg production in the ovarian of red tilapia.

  9. Francisella sp., an emerging pathogen of tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.), in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, E; Hawke, J P; Fernandez, D; Morales, J A

    2009-08-01

    Francisella sp. is an emergent bacterial pathogen that causes acute to chronic disease in warm and cold water cultured and wild fish species. During the past 3 years, the bacterium has been detected in tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, cultured in Costa Rica. Infected fish presented non-specific clinical signs, such as erratic swimming, anorexia, anaemia, exophthalmia and high mortality. Upon macroscopic and microscopic examination, several internal organs (mainly spleen and kidney) were enlarged and contained white nodules. Histological examination revealed the presence of multifocal granulomatous lesions, with the presence of numerous small, pleomorphic, cocco-bacilli. The bacteria were isolated from infected tilapia on selective media and grown on several media with and without antibiotics. Specific PCR primers to the Francisella genus were used to confirm the preliminary diagnoses. In comparison with several bacterial 16S rRNA sequences, our isolate was found to share 99% identity with other Fransicella spp. isolated from fish, and more than 97% identity to the human pathogen Francisella tularensis. Koch's postulates were fulfilled after experimental intraperitoneal and gill exposure challenges. PMID:19515205

  10. Optimisation of the pond rearing of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.). The impact of stunting processes and recruitment control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, de G.J.

    2004-01-01

    Stunting is often considered as a major bottleneck for the pond rearing ofNiletilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus niloticus L.) and was a major topic in this study. Neonteny: the earlier breeding of tilapia in ponds takes place, but

  11. Growth, body fatty acid composition, immune response and resistance to Streptococcus iniae of hybrid tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus X O. aureus, fed diets containing various levels of linoleic and linolenic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of dietary linoleic (LA) and linolenic acids (LN) on growth and immunity of all-male hybrid tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus × O. aureus, were evaluated for 10 weeks. Fish fed 0.12% LA + 0% LN had the lowest weight gain (WG) but was not significantly different from diets containing 0.5% LA...

  12. Transcriptome Profiling and Molecular Pathway Analysis of Genes in Association with Salinity Adaptation in Nile Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhixin Xu

    Full Text Available Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus is a freshwater fish but can tolerate a wide range of salinities. The mechanism of salinity adaptation at the molecular level was studied using RNA-Seq to explore the molecular pathways in fish exposed to 0, 8, or 16 (practical salinity unit, psu. Based on the change of gene expressions, the differential genes unions from freshwater to saline water were classified into three categories. In the constant change category (1, steroid biosynthesis, steroid hormone biosynthesis, fat digestion and absorption, complement and coagulation cascades were significantly affected by salinity indicating the pivotal roles of sterol-related pathways in response to salinity stress. In the change-then-stable category (2, ribosomes, oxidative phosphorylation, signaling pathways for peroxisome proliferator activated receptors, and fat digestion and absorption changed significantly with increasing salinity, showing sensitivity to salinity variation in the environment and a responding threshold to salinity change. In the stable-then-change category (3, protein export, protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum, tight junction, thyroid hormone synthesis, antigen processing and presentation, glycolysis/gluconeogenesis and glycosaminoglycan biosynthesis-keratan sulfate were the significantly changed pathways, suggesting that these pathways were less sensitive to salinity variation. This study reveals fundamental mechanism of the molecular response to salinity adaptation in O. niloticus, and provides a general guidance to understand saline acclimation in O. niloticus.

  13. Aqueous extract ofOcimum tenuiflorum decreases levels of blood glucose in induced hyperglycemic tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amilcar Arenal; Leonardo Martn; Nestor M Castillo; Dainier de la Torre; Ubaldo Torres; Reinaldo Gonzlez

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate, in hyperglycemic tilapia [Oreochromis niloticus (O. niloticus)], the effect of this aqueous extract on blood glucose levels.Methods:The hyperglycemia inO. niloticus was induced by adding glucose to fish pond water.An aqueous extract ofOcimum tenuiflorum (O. tenuiflorum) was prepared by boiling fresh leaves and the doses of0,40,80,200 and400 mg per liter of pond water were tested.Results:The blood sugar concentration for tilapia with hyperglycemic induced was an average of50% higher than the control group.The blood glucose levels in tilapia after the induction of hyperglycemia were higher than the control group for 90 min after the treatment.The treatment with the aqueous extract ofO. tenuiflorum dropped the serum glucose level of hyperglycemic tilapia until it was similar to that of the control group and was dose dependent.Conclusions:The results indicated that O. tenuiflorum was endowed with anti-hyperglycemic activity.To our knowledge, this is the first report on the use of fish as a diabetes model to test natural extracts from plants.

  14. Effects of Dietary Exposure to Sulfamethazine on the Hematological Parameters and Hepatic Oxidative Stress Biomarkers in Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Fernanda Garcia; Carra, Maria Lídia; Jonsson, Claudio Martin; Gonçalves, Vitoria Teodoro; Dal'Bo, Genoefa; Nunes, Kátia Santos Damacena; Valim, José Henrique; Dallago, Bruno Stéfano Lima; do Nascimento de Queiroz, Sonia Claudia; Reyes, Felix Guillermo Reyes

    2016-10-01

    Sulfamethazine (SMZ) is one of the most commonly used sulfonamide compounds in fish farming, and its physiological effects on fish are unknown. SMZ was administered to juvenile Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) at a dose level of 422 mg kg(-1) body weight, for a period of 11 days, via medicated feed. Fish were divided into two groups, the control group (CG) and the group fed with SMZ in feed. The administration of SMZ did not alter the erythrograms and leukograms of the Nile tilapia. The SMZ-fed group showed the same hepatic lipid peroxidation (LPO) concentration as the CG. Nonetheless, the oral administration of SMZ raised the hepatic catalase (CAT) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities, the increase probably being sufficient to prevent hepatic LPO production. The oral administration of SMZ affects the hepatic GST and CAT activities of Nile tilapia.

  15. Effects of Dietary Exposure to Sulfamethazine on the Hematological Parameters and Hepatic Oxidative Stress Biomarkers in Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Fernanda Garcia; Carra, Maria Lídia; Jonsson, Claudio Martin; Gonçalves, Vitoria Teodoro; Dal'Bo, Genoefa; Nunes, Kátia Santos Damacena; Valim, José Henrique; Dallago, Bruno Stéfano Lima; do Nascimento de Queiroz, Sonia Claudia; Reyes, Felix Guillermo Reyes

    2016-10-01

    Sulfamethazine (SMZ) is one of the most commonly used sulfonamide compounds in fish farming, and its physiological effects on fish are unknown. SMZ was administered to juvenile Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) at a dose level of 422 mg kg(-1) body weight, for a period of 11 days, via medicated feed. Fish were divided into two groups, the control group (CG) and the group fed with SMZ in feed. The administration of SMZ did not alter the erythrograms and leukograms of the Nile tilapia. The SMZ-fed group showed the same hepatic lipid peroxidation (LPO) concentration as the CG. Nonetheless, the oral administration of SMZ raised the hepatic catalase (CAT) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities, the increase probably being sufficient to prevent hepatic LPO production. The oral administration of SMZ affects the hepatic GST and CAT activities of Nile tilapia. PMID:27225508

  16. The Effects of Some Phytobiotics on Biochemical Composition of Oreochromis Niloticus Meat Reared in a Recirculating Aquaculture System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Antache

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this experiment is the evaluation of biochemical composition of Nile tilapia meat by administrating  several phytobiotics in feed. Oreochromis niloticus, with an initial average weight of 125.41±34.33 g/exemplar, were reared, during six weeks in a recirculating aquaculture system. The phytobiotics from this experiment were administered in feed in a concentration of 1%/kg feed and consist in: thyme (Thymus vulgaris, fenugreek (Trigonela foenum graecum, neem (Azadirachta indica. Thus, the experimental variants were: V1-control, V2-thyme, V3-fenugreek and V4-neem. Fish were fed with SOPROFISH pelleted feed with 38% crude protein and 7% crude fat. During the experiment, the physico-chemical parameters of technological water were situated in normal range for optimal growth. At the end of the experiment, significant differences (p<0.05 were recorded between the experimental variants, regarding to moisture, protein content, fat content and dry matter; unsignificant differences were recorded regarding the percentage of ash (p>0.05; p=0.68. The highest value of moisture (87.25% was registered in V2; the lowest value of fat content (0.05% was recorded in V4 and the lowest protein content (10.79% in V2. In conclusion, thyme, fenugreek and neem administration, in concentration of 1%/kg feed, influenced significantly the biochemical composition of Oreochromis niloticus.

  17. An outbreak of disease caused by Francisella sp. in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus at a recirculation fish farm in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, Keith R; Stone, David; Feist, Stephen W; Verner-Jeffreys, David W

    2010-09-01

    This study details the first diagnosis of Francisella sp. in tilapia in the United Kingdom. Losses of tilapia fry at a recirculation fish farm in England were investigated, giving a presumptive positive diagnosis of infection with Francisella sp. by histopathological examination. Most fish sampled showed moderate to marked pathology of the major organs, with lesions being present in most tissues. The most obvious host response was granuloma formulation. A subsequent follow-up visit provided further evidence for the presence of a Francisella species. PCR amplicons were obtained using Francisella spp.-specific primers that shared 100% sequence identity with the 16S rRNA gene of the type strain of the species F. asiatica previously described as the cause of disease in tilapia in Southeast Asia and Central America. This outbreak and the subsequent investigation emphasise the importance of strict biosecurity at fish farms and the care that needs to be taken when using a new supplier of fish. PMID:21387995

  18. Towards Sustainable Aquafeeds: Complete Substitution of Fish Oil with Marine Microalga Schizochytrium sp. Improves Growth and Fatty Acid Deposition in Juvenile Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarker, Pallab K.; Kapuscinski, Anne R.; Lanois, Alison J.; Livesey, Erin D.; Bernhard, Katie P.; Coley, Mariah L.

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a 84-day nutritional feeding experiment with dried whole cells of DHA-rich marine microalga Schizochytrium sp. (Sc) to determine the optimum level of fish-oil substitution (partial or complete) for maximum growth of Nile tilapia. When we fully replaced fish oil with Schizochytrium (Sc100 diet), we found significantly higher weight gain and protein efficiency ratio (PER), and lower (improved) feed conversion ratio (FCR) and feed intake compared to a control diet containing fish oil (Sc0); and no significant change in SGR and survival rate among all diets. The Sc100 diet had the highest contents of 22:6n3 DHA, led to the highest DHA content in fillets, and consequently led to the highest DHA:EPA ratios in tilapia fillets. Schizochytrium sp. is a high quality candidate for complete substitution of fish oil in juvenile Nile tilapia feeds, providing an innovative means to formulate and optimize the composition of tilapia juvenile feed while simultaneously raising feed efficiency of tilapia aquaculture and to further develop environmentally and socially sustainable aquafeeds. Results show that replacing fish oil with DHA-rich marine Sc improves the deposition of n3 LC PUFA levels in tilapia fillet. These results support further studies to lower Schizochytrium production costs and to combine different marine microalgae to replace fish oil and fishmeal into aquafeeds. PMID:27258552

  19. Towards Sustainable Aquafeeds: Complete Substitution of Fish Oil with Marine Microalga Schizochytrium sp. Improves Growth and Fatty Acid Deposition in Juvenile Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarker, Pallab K; Kapuscinski, Anne R; Lanois, Alison J; Livesey, Erin D; Bernhard, Katie P; Coley, Mariah L

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a 84-day nutritional feeding experiment with dried whole cells of DHA-rich marine microalga Schizochytrium sp. (Sc) to determine the optimum level of fish-oil substitution (partial or complete) for maximum growth of Nile tilapia. When we fully replaced fish oil with Schizochytrium (Sc100 diet), we found significantly higher weight gain and protein efficiency ratio (PER), and lower (improved) feed conversion ratio (FCR) and feed intake compared to a control diet containing fish oil (Sc0); and no significant change in SGR and survival rate among all diets. The Sc100 diet had the highest contents of 22:6n3 DHA, led to the highest DHA content in fillets, and consequently led to the highest DHA:EPA ratios in tilapia fillets. Schizochytrium sp. is a high quality candidate for complete substitution of fish oil in juvenile Nile tilapia feeds, providing an innovative means to formulate and optimize the composition of tilapia juvenile feed while simultaneously raising feed efficiency of tilapia aquaculture and to further develop environmentally and socially sustainable aquafeeds. Results show that replacing fish oil with DHA-rich marine Sc improves the deposition of n3 LC PUFA levels in tilapia fillet. These results support further studies to lower Schizochytrium production costs and to combine different marine microalgae to replace fish oil and fishmeal into aquafeeds. PMID:27258552

  20. Identities among actin-encoding cDNAs of the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus and other eukaryote species revealed by nucleotide and amino acid sequence analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia B. Poletto

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Actin-encoding cDNAs of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus were isolated by RT-PCR using total RNA samples of different tissues and further characterized by nucleotide sequencing and in silico amino acid (aa sequence analysis. Comparisons among the actin gene sequences of O. niloticus and those of other species evidenced that the isolated genes present a high similarity to other fish and other vertebrate actin genes. The highest nucleotide resemblance was observed between O. niloticus and O. mossambicus a-actin and b-actin genes. Analysis of the predicted aa sequences revealed two distinct types of cytoplasmic actins, one cardiac muscle actin type and one skeletal muscle actin type that were expressed in different tissues of Nile tilapia. The evolutionary relationships between the Nile tilapia actin genes and diverse other organisms is discussed.

  1. Assessment and control of an invasive aquaculture species: An update on Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in coastal Mississippi after Hurricane Katrina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Pamela J.; Slack, W. Todd; Peterson, Mark S.; Gregoire, Denise R.

    2007-01-01

    We provide information about the effects of Hurricane Katrina on populations of an invasive fish, the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in southern Mississippi. By resampling areas surveyed before the storm, we attempted to determine whether the species expanded its range by moving with storm-related floods. Additionally, we used rotenone to eradicate individuals of this species at a hurricane-damaged aquaculture facility on the Mississippi coast. Although our survey was limited geographically, we did not find the species to occur beyond the aquaculture facility, other than in an adjacent bayou. Our rotenone treatment of the facility appeared effective with only a single O. niloticus being collected six weeks after the treatment. To reduce the spread of O. niloticus in the southeastern U.S., it is important to continue to control feral populations, work to eliminate vectors for dispersal, and continue monitoring their distribution.

  2. Assessment of heavy metals in tilapia fish (Oreochromis niloticus) from the Langat River and Engineering Lake in Bangi, Malaysia, and evaluation of the health risk from tilapia consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taweel, Abdulali; Shuhaimi-Othman, M; Ahmad, A K

    2013-07-01

    Concentrations of the heavy metals copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb) and nickel (Ni) were determined in the liver, gills and muscles of tilapia fish from the Langat River and Engineering Lake, Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia. There were differences in the concentrations of the studied heavy metals between different organs and between sites. In the liver samples, Cu>Zn>Ni>Pb>Cd, and in the gills and muscle, Zn>Ni>Cu>Pb>Cd. Levels of Cu, Cd, Zn and Pb in the liver samples from Engineering Lake were higher than in those from the Langat River, whereas the Ni levels in the liver samples from the Langat River were greater than in those from Engineering Lake. Cd levels in the fish muscle from Engineering Lake were lower than in that from the Langat River. Meanwhile, the Cd, Zn and Pb levels in the fish muscle from the Langat River were lower than in that from Engineering Lake, and the Ni levels were almost the same in the fish muscle samples from the two sites. The health risks associated with Cu, Cd, Zn, Pb and Ni were assessed based on the target hazard quotients. In the Langat River, the risk from Cu is minimal compared to the other studied elements, and the concentrations of Pb and Ni were determined to pose the greatest risk. The maximum allowable fish consumption rates (kg/d) based on Cu in Engineering Lake and the Langat River were 2.27 and 1.51 in December and 2.53 and 1.75 in February, respectively. The Cu concentrations resulted in the highest maximum allowable fish consumption rates compared with the other studied heavy metals, whereas those based on Pb were the lowest. A health risk analysis of the heavy metals measured in the fish muscle samples indicated that the fish can be classified at one of the safest levels for the general population and that there are no possible risks pertaining to tilapia fish consumption.

  3. Control of voluntary feed intake in fish: a role for dietary oxygen demand in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fed diets with different macronutrient profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanan, S; Geurden, I; Figueiredo-Silva, A C; Kaushik, S J; Haidar, M N; Verreth, J A J; Schrama, J W

    2012-10-28

    It has been hypothesised that, at non-limiting water oxygen conditions, voluntary feed intake (FI) in fish is limited by the maximal physiological capacity of oxygen use (i.e. an 'oxystatic control of FI in fish'). This implies that fish will adjust FI when fed diets differing in oxygen demand, resulting in identical oxygen consumption. Therefore, FI, digestible energy (DE) intake, energy balance and oxygen consumption were monitored at non-limiting water oxygen conditions in Nile tilapia fed diets with contrasting macronutrient composition. Diets were formulated in a 2 × 2 factorial design in order to create contrasts in oxygen demand: two ratios of digestible protein (DP):DE ('high' v. 'low'); and a contrast in the type of non-protein energy source ('starch' v. 'fat'). Triplicate groups of tilapia were fed each diet twice daily to satiation for 48 d. FI (g DM/kg(0·8) per d) was significantly lower (9·5%) in tilapia fed the starch diets relative to the fat diets. The DP:DE ratio affected DE intakes (P demand of these diets. Indeed, DE intakes of fish showed an inverse linear relationship with dietary oxygen demand (DOD; R 2 0·81, P theory), oxygen consumption of fish was identical among three out of the four diets. Altogether, these results demonstrate the involvement of metabolic oxygen use and DOD in the control of FI in tilapia.

  4. Influence of low temperature on structure and dynamics of spermatogenesis during culture of Oreochromis niloticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Rafael M C; Ribeiro, Yves M; Luz, Ronald K; Bazzoli, Nilo; Rizzo, Elizete

    2016-09-01

    Understanding the influence of different temperature conditions on the spermatogenesis is important for improvement of the fish aquaculture. This study evaluated the influence of low temperature on structural and quantitative dynamics of the spermatogenesis in Oreochromis niloticus. Adult males were cultivated with room temperature water (20.28-22.46°C) and testes were collected for histological, ultrastructural and morphometric analyses. This species has unrestricted lobular testis with cystic spermatogenesis and type I spermiogenesis that results in a single anacrosomal aquasperm. Seminiferous lobules and spermatogenic cells had a radial arrangement toward the spermatic duct. Superior and central portions of testes had a greater lobular area than the inferior portion in all samplings. Spermatogonia (9.3%) were distributed in the inferior portion of testes, spermatocytes (25.3%) and spermatids (34.4%) in the central portion, while spermatozoids (39.4%) and secretory cells (4.6%) in the superior portion. Throughout the study, correlation between water temperature and lobular area characteristics was significant only in the inferior portion of testes (r(2)=0.95), although the lobular area in the other testicular portions increased when the water temperature increased by 2°C. Correlation between the water temperature and spermatogenic cells was significant for undifferentiated spermatogonia (r(2)=0.54) and number of spermatids (r(2)=0.67). It is concluded that low cultivation temperatures may positively influence the generation of primary spermatogonia in the inferior periphery of O. niloticus testes. In addition, males maintain reservoirs of germ cells at low temperatures and the radial zonation of spermatogenesis has an important role in the renewal and production of germ cells. PMID:27477114

  5. Influence of low temperature on structure and dynamics of spermatogenesis during culture of Oreochromis niloticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Rafael M C; Ribeiro, Yves M; Luz, Ronald K; Bazzoli, Nilo; Rizzo, Elizete

    2016-09-01

    Understanding the influence of different temperature conditions on the spermatogenesis is important for improvement of the fish aquaculture. This study evaluated the influence of low temperature on structural and quantitative dynamics of the spermatogenesis in Oreochromis niloticus. Adult males were cultivated with room temperature water (20.28-22.46°C) and testes were collected for histological, ultrastructural and morphometric analyses. This species has unrestricted lobular testis with cystic spermatogenesis and type I spermiogenesis that results in a single anacrosomal aquasperm. Seminiferous lobules and spermatogenic cells had a radial arrangement toward the spermatic duct. Superior and central portions of testes had a greater lobular area than the inferior portion in all samplings. Spermatogonia (9.3%) were distributed in the inferior portion of testes, spermatocytes (25.3%) and spermatids (34.4%) in the central portion, while spermatozoids (39.4%) and secretory cells (4.6%) in the superior portion. Throughout the study, correlation between water temperature and lobular area characteristics was significant only in the inferior portion of testes (r(2)=0.95), although the lobular area in the other testicular portions increased when the water temperature increased by 2°C. Correlation between the water temperature and spermatogenic cells was significant for undifferentiated spermatogonia (r(2)=0.54) and number of spermatids (r(2)=0.67). It is concluded that low cultivation temperatures may positively influence the generation of primary spermatogonia in the inferior periphery of O. niloticus testes. In addition, males maintain reservoirs of germ cells at low temperatures and the radial zonation of spermatogenesis has an important role in the renewal and production of germ cells.

  6. TOXICOLOGICAL STUDY OF SINGLE ACTION OF ZINC ON TILAPIA SPECIES (Oreochromis Niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.D EZEONYEJIAKU

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Lethal effects of zinc sulphate (ZnSO4.H2O, a widespread environmental pollutant was evaluated following exposure at different concentrations of the toxicant to Tilapia species, Oreochromis niloticus based on toxicity index of 96 hrs LC50 values. The obtained results were analyzed by the Finney’s Probit Analysis LC50 Method and 96 hrs LC50 value for Oreochromis niloticus was found to be 72.431 mg/l. The work further documented the lower and upper confidence limits for the LC50 to be 77.288 mg/l and 67.682 mg/l, respectively. The research showed zinc to be lethal to the test organism and recommends proactive control measures to be put in place to avert possible disaster of zinc poisoning.

  7. Selectivity of three aquatic weeds as diet for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    OpenAIRE

    Agbede, S.A.; Akinyemi, O.; A. E. Falaye; Atsanda, N. N.; Adeyemo, A.O.; Adesina, A. A.

    2001-01-01

    A total of sixty juvenile Oreochromis niloticus (Nile tilapia) were fed three species of aquatic weed, namely Azolla filiculoides (water fern), Elodea sp. and Pistia stratiotes (water lettuce) to determine which of the weeds will be selectively consumed, and preferred of all. A control group of twenty Nile tilapia was fed compounded feed. The selectivity of the weeds was observed based on their utilization as food source, and Azolla filiculoides was found to be highly utilized, followed by El...

  8. Functionality and Antioxidant Properties of Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) as Influenced by the Degree of Hydrolysis

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Tabita Kamara; Wenshui Xia; Betty Mabel Foh; Issoufou Amadou; Mohamed Beva Kelfala Foh

    2010-01-01

    Freeze dried protein powders (Fresh minced meat, FMM and Hot water dip, HWD) from tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) were hydrolyzed by Alcalase 2.4 L (Alc), Flavourzyme (Flav) and Neutrase (Neut), and investigated for antioxidant activity and their functional properties. FMM and HWD hydrolysed by Alc, exhibiting superior antioxidant activity, had estimated degrees of hydrolysis (DH) of 23.40% and 25.43%, respectively. The maximum values of the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2-azino-bis...

  9. Selection for growth of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) in low-input environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charo-Karisa, H.

    2006-01-01

    Nile tilapia,Oreochromis niloticus,is one of the most important species farmed in the world and is the mainstay of many res

  10. EFFECT OF DIETARY LIPID SOURCE ON THE GROWTH PERFORMANCE AND BODY COMPOSITION OF Oreochromis niloticus

    OpenAIRE

    Amanat Ali, Sulieman M. AI-Ogaily, Nasser A. AI-Asgah1l and Sakhawat Ali2

    2000-01-01

    The study evaluated the growth performance and body composition of Oreochromis niloticus fed isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets containing different types of lipids (corn oil, olive oil, cod liver oil and beef tallow) at 14% level for a period of 65 days. Significant (P< 0.05) differences were observed in the body weight gain, specific growth rate (SGR), condition factor, feed conversion ratio (FCR), protein efficiency ratio (PER), net protein retention (NPR), apparent net energy retention (...

  11. Response of AMP-activated protein kinase and energy metabolism to acute nitrite exposure in the Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhixin; Li, Erchao; Xu, Chang; Gan, Lei; Qin, Jian G; Chen, Liqiao

    2016-08-01

    Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a prevalent mammalian energy metabolism sensor, but little is known about its role as an energy sensor in fish experiencing stress. We aimed to study AMPK in Oreochromis niloticus on both the molecular and the physical level. We found that the cDNAs encoding the AMPKα1 and AMPKα2 variants of the O. niloticus catalytic α subunit were 1753bp and 2563 bp long and encoded 571 and 557 amino acids, respectively. Both the AMPKα1 and the AMPKα2 isoform possess structural features similar to mammalian AMPKα, including a phosphorylation site at Thr172 in the N-terminus, and exhibit high homology with other fish and vertebrate AMPKα sequences (81.3%-98.1%). mRNA encoding the AMPKα isoforms was widely expressed in various tissues with distinctive patterns. AMPKα1 and AMPKα2 were primarily expressed in the intestines and brain, respectively. Under acute nitrite challenge, the mRNA encoding the AMPKα isoforms, as well as AMPK activity, changed over time. Its recovery period in freshwater, combined with the fact that it is highly conserved, suggests that fish AMPK, like its mammalian orthologues, acts as an energy metabolism sensor. Furthermore, subsequent decreases in AMPK mRNA levels and activity suggested that its action was transient but efficient. Physically, glucose, lactic acid and TGs in plasma, as well as energy materials in the hepatopancreas and muscle, were significantly altered over time, indicating changes in energy metabolism during the experimental period. These data have enabled us to characterize energy utilization in O. niloticus and further illustrate the role of fish AMPK as an energy sensor. This study provides new insight into energy metabolism and sensing by AMPK in teleost and necessitates further study of the multiple physiologic roles of AMPK in fish.

  12. Response of AMP-activated protein kinase and energy metabolism to acute nitrite exposure in the Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhixin; Li, Erchao; Xu, Chang; Gan, Lei; Qin, Jian G; Chen, Liqiao

    2016-08-01

    Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a prevalent mammalian energy metabolism sensor, but little is known about its role as an energy sensor in fish experiencing stress. We aimed to study AMPK in Oreochromis niloticus on both the molecular and the physical level. We found that the cDNAs encoding the AMPKα1 and AMPKα2 variants of the O. niloticus catalytic α subunit were 1753bp and 2563 bp long and encoded 571 and 557 amino acids, respectively. Both the AMPKα1 and the AMPKα2 isoform possess structural features similar to mammalian AMPKα, including a phosphorylation site at Thr172 in the N-terminus, and exhibit high homology with other fish and vertebrate AMPKα sequences (81.3%-98.1%). mRNA encoding the AMPKα isoforms was widely expressed in various tissues with distinctive patterns. AMPKα1 and AMPKα2 were primarily expressed in the intestines and brain, respectively. Under acute nitrite challenge, the mRNA encoding the AMPKα isoforms, as well as AMPK activity, changed over time. Its recovery period in freshwater, combined with the fact that it is highly conserved, suggests that fish AMPK, like its mammalian orthologues, acts as an energy metabolism sensor. Furthermore, subsequent decreases in AMPK mRNA levels and activity suggested that its action was transient but efficient. Physically, glucose, lactic acid and TGs in plasma, as well as energy materials in the hepatopancreas and muscle, were significantly altered over time, indicating changes in energy metabolism during the experimental period. These data have enabled us to characterize energy utilization in O. niloticus and further illustrate the role of fish AMPK as an energy sensor. This study provides new insight into energy metabolism and sensing by AMPK in teleost and necessitates further study of the multiple physiologic roles of AMPK in fish. PMID:27262938

  13. Efficiency of eugenol as anesthetic for the early life stages of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Paula A P; Miranda-Filho, Kleber C; Melo, Daniela C de; Luz, Ronald K

    2015-03-01

    In aquaculture, activities with anesthetic compounds are usually used in order to ensure the welfare of farmed fish, allowing handling out of water with decreased trauma by stress. Presently, there is no information about anesthetic action of eugenol in early life stages of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The objective of this study was to evaluate different concentrations of eugenol for larvae and juveniles of Nile tilapia. Sixty animals were used for each group of weight, group I = 0.02 g; group II = 0.08 g; group III = 0.22 g; group IV = 2.62 g; and group V = 11.64 g. The eugenol concentrations tested were 50, 75, 100, 125, 150 and 175 mg L-1. No mortality was reported during the tests with eugenol. Tilapia larvae with 0.02 g and juveniles around 11.64 g can be anesthetized with eugenol concentrations between 150 and 175 mg L-1, since they determine the shortest sedation time (23 and 72 seconds, for the group of lowest and highest weights, respectively).

  14. Productive performance of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus fed at different frequencies and periods with automatic dispenser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.M.R. Sousa

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The performance of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus raised in cages furnished with an automatic dispenser, supplied at different frequencies (once per hour and once every two hours and periods (daytime, nighttime and both was evaluated. Eighteen 1.0m³ cages were placed into a 2000m² pond, two meters deep with a 5% water exchange. One hundred and seventy tilapias, with initial weight of 16.0±4.9g, were dispersed into each 1m³ cage and the feed ration was adjusted every 21 days with biometry. Data was collected from March to July (autumn and winter. Significant difference to final weight (P<0.05 among treatments was observed. The increase in feeding frequency improves the productive performance of Nile tilapias in cages and permitted better management of the food. The better feed conversion rate for high feeding frequency (24 times day-1 can result in saving up to 360kg of food for each ton of fish produced, increasing the economic sustenance for tilapia culture and suggesting less environmental pollution.

  15. Oxidative damage in gills and liver in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) exposed to diazinon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo-Ibarra, G A; Díaz Resendiz, K J G; Ventura-Ramón, G H; González-Jaime, F; Vega-López, A; Becerril-Villanueva, E; Pavón, L; Girón-Pérez, M I

    2016-10-01

    Agricultural activity demands the use of pesticides for plague control and extermination. In that matter, diazinon is one of the most widely used organophosphorus pesticides (OPs). Despite its benefits, the use of OPs in agricultural activities can also have negative effects since the excessive use of these substances can represent a major contamination problem for water bodies and organisms that inhabit them. The aim of this paper was to evaluate oxidative damage in lipids and proteins of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) exposed acutely to diazinon (0.97, 1.95 and 3.95ppm) for 12 or 24h. The evaluation of oxidative damage was determined by quantifying lipid hydroperoxides (Fox method) and oxidized proteins (DNPH method). The data from this study suggest that diazinon induces a concentration-dependent oxidative damage in proteins, but not lipids, of the liver and gills of Nile tilapia. Furthermore, the treatment leads to a decrease in the concentration of total proteins, which can have serious consequences in cell physiology and fish development.

  16. Oxidative damage in gills and liver in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) exposed to diazinon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo-Ibarra, G A; Díaz Resendiz, K J G; Ventura-Ramón, G H; González-Jaime, F; Vega-López, A; Becerril-Villanueva, E; Pavón, L; Girón-Pérez, M I

    2016-10-01

    Agricultural activity demands the use of pesticides for plague control and extermination. In that matter, diazinon is one of the most widely used organophosphorus pesticides (OPs). Despite its benefits, the use of OPs in agricultural activities can also have negative effects since the excessive use of these substances can represent a major contamination problem for water bodies and organisms that inhabit them. The aim of this paper was to evaluate oxidative damage in lipids and proteins of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) exposed acutely to diazinon (0.97, 1.95 and 3.95ppm) for 12 or 24h. The evaluation of oxidative damage was determined by quantifying lipid hydroperoxides (Fox method) and oxidized proteins (DNPH method). The data from this study suggest that diazinon induces a concentration-dependent oxidative damage in proteins, but not lipids, of the liver and gills of Nile tilapia. Furthermore, the treatment leads to a decrease in the concentration of total proteins, which can have serious consequences in cell physiology and fish development. PMID:27174646

  17. [Bacteriological evaluation of fresh tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) coming from the northern region of Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Graciela; Blanco, Laura; Arias, María Laura; Chaves, Carolina

    2004-12-01

    The following work presents an evaluation of the normal and pathogenic flora associated to tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), since there are no previous national studies referred to the microbiological quality of this product. The total aerobic plate count, lactic bacteria, Enterococcus sp and Aeromonas sp and fecal and total coliform count, and the presence of Listeria sp and Salmonella spp from the external surface of tilapias were evaluated. A total of 50 samples, coming from San Carlos and Cañas zones were transported in ice to the Food and Water Microbiology Laboratory, Universidad de Costa Rica, where the laboratory analysis were performed, according to the methodology presented by de American Public Health Association, 1998. The results obtained confirm the microbiological freshness of the product when the analysis was performed, although coliform levels were unacceptable. Listeria sp was not found, but the isolation of Salmonella spp. confirms the fecal contamination of water where the tilapia is grown, aside of the Public Health concern. Also, it was found a high number of Aeromonas sp, as part of its normal flora, so we recommend including this genus in the quality standards for fresh fish. According to the data obtained, there was no significant difference (95% confidence) between the total plate count, fecal and total coliforms, Enterococcus sp. and Aeromonas sp. from the samples coming from the zones of San Carlos and Cañas. PMID:15969269

  18. Genotoxicity in Oreochromis niloticus (Cichlidae) induced by Microcystis spp bloom extract containing microcystins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, R R Pavan; Pires, O R; Grisolia, C K

    2011-09-01

    Studies of genotoxicity in fish caused by cyanobacterial extracts containing microcystins (MCs) can be useful in determining their carcinogenic risk due to a genotoxic mechanism. An extract of cyanobacterial Microcystis ssp, containing MC-LR and -LA from a bloom collected in a eutrophic lake, showed genotoxicity to Oreochromis niloticus. DNA damage (comet assay) was significantly induced in peripheral erythrocytes with both tested concentrations of 6.90 μg kg(-1) bw and 13.80 μg kg(-1) bw through intraperitoneal injection (ip). There was no micronucleus induction after ip injection at concentrations of 6.90 μg kg(-1) bw and 13.80 μg kg(-1) bw. Body exposure resulted in micronucleus induction and DNA damage only at the highest tested concentrations of 103.72 μg L(-1). Thus, comet assay and ip injection revealed the highest levels of the genotoxicity of MCs. Apoptosis-necrosis test carried out at concentrations of 6.90 μg kg(-1) bw and 13.80 μg kg(-1) bw revealed that at low concentrations more apoptosis than necrosis occurred. At higher concentrations more necrosis than apoptosis occurred. PMID:21704053

  19. ISOLATION AND DETERMINATION OF TYPE I COLLAGEN FROM TILAPIA (Oreochromis niloticus WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Sujithra

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Tilapia are one of the most widely introduced fish globally that has clearly emerged as a promising group in aquaculture. Oreochromis niloticus was the first Tilapia species to be taken up for large Scaleaquaculture. It is consumed widely due to its deliciousness and rich source of protein. During its processing, the scales, Fins, Skins etc are expelled out as waste Acid solubilized collagen (ASC and Pepsin Solubilizedcollagen (PSC were extracted from these processing wastes. Initial extraction by acid yielded 22% of collagen and subsequent digestion with pepsin yielded 56% on dry weight basis. The total protein of ASC and PSC was determined by Bradford method which contains 68.34mg/ml,23.24 mg/ml respectively. The FT-IR Spectrumshowed that ASC and PSC are helpful in prediction and confirmation of Secondary structure of proteins. The denaturation temperature of ASC was 32⁰C while for PSC it is 29⁰C.SEM micrograph showed the fibrousnature of Collagen. This report indicates that Tilapia waste might be useful as a new source of collagen apart from usual bovine and pig skin.

  20. Trace metal concentrations in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in three catchments, Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allinson, G; Salzman, S A; Turoczy, N; Nishikawa, M; Amarasinghe, U S; Nirbadha, K G S; De Silva, S S

    2009-03-01

    Samples of the muscle and liver of the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) were obtained from a single reservoir in each of three Sri Lankan catchments (Kaudulla, Rajanganaya, and Udawalawe reservoirs in the Mahaweli, Kala Oya, and Walawe Ganga river basins, respectively) in 2002. The concentrations of 12 elements were consistently detected in the tilapia muscle and liver (Ca, Cd, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P, Sr and Zn). However, a three factorial principal components analysis suggested that there were no differences in the metal profiles (range of elements and concentration) of the fish obtained from any of the three reservoirs, although the chemistries of each tissue (muscle and liver) were different. Metal concentrations were below WHO and Food Standards Australia and New Zealand guideline values, and substantial quantities of tilapia would need to be consumed each week on a regular basis to exceed intake limits (e.g. more than 1.5 kg to exceed intake lits for Cu), suggesting consumption of tilapia from these reservoirs poses little risk to human health. PMID:18949439

  1. Effects of irradiation and refrigeration on the nutrients and shelf-life of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study is to enhance the shelf-life of processed fish, combining ionizing radiation and refrigeration with minimal processing. The physical, chemical, nutritional and microbiological characteristics of the specie Tilapia nilotica (Oreochromis niloticus) were studied in eviscerated samples and in commercial cuts. The fish were separated into samples irradiated with 1.0, 2.2 and 5 kGy and non-irradiated samples. They were stored at temperatures ranging from 0.5 deg C to -2 deg C for 20 and 30 days. During storage, the level of moisture in the non-irradiated samples decreased and the levels of protein and lipid increased while the irradiated samples remained stable. The levels of pH, TVB-N and NPN increased in the non-irradiated samples but tended to remain stable in the irradiated fish samples. During storage, microbiological analyses for the presence of coliforms proved the efficiency of the irradiation process. The irradiated samples had a microbiological content below the levels established by the Brazilian seafood legislation, whereas the non-irradiated samples had a higher microbiological content and were not in conformity with the officially permitted levels. Salmonella spp. and Staphylococcus aureus were not detected. The levels of amino acids in muscles and fatty acids in oil remained stable in the irradiated fish stored samples but decreased in the non-irradiated ones. Lipid-oxidation, measured by the TBARS test, showed a tendency to increase when the dose of irradiation increased. The storage products after 30 days showed good acceptability for sensorial parameters, appearance, odour, color and texture, so it is possible to increase the shelf life of a minimally processed tilapia using combined irradiation and refrigeration. (author)

  2. A comparative study on growth, composition and sensory quality between farmed and wild Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary N. Muchiri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted at Moi University, Kenya, to investigate the effect of fish diets on growth, chemical composition and organoleptic quality of farmed Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, and compared with wild tilapia from Lake Victoria. Fish were grown for six months in triplicates using three feeds: (i maize bran, (ii formulated diet containing maize bran, freshwater shrimp, soya bean and cotton seed cake and (iii control without supplemental feed. Fish were weighed fortnightly, chemical composition was done monthly and sensory quality was carried out at the end of the experiment. There was significant difference (P < 0.05 in growth between fish fed on different diets. Fish fed on formulated diet recording the highest weight, while control fish had lowest weight. Diet had significant effect (P < 0.05 on the lipid content but no effect on the other constituents. Taste and texture of the cooked meat were significantly affected by diet type (P < 0.05, with wild tilapia being most preferred and maize bran fed fish being least preferred. This study shows that with proper diet formulation, acceptable composition quality, sensory characteristics and growth rate of farmed tilapia can be achieved without using expensive commercial feeds. Cheap, locally available fish feed is likely to increase uptake of fish farming, thus increasing protein sources for rural communities living far from fish sources such as lakes and seas.

  3. Effects of low molecular weight sodium alginate on growth performance, immunity, and disease resistance of tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Doan, Hien; Tapingkae, Wanaporn; Moonmanee, Tossapol; Seepai, Apichart

    2016-08-01

    Present study was carried out to evaluate the effects of low molecular weight sodium alginate (LMWSA) as potential prebiotic source on growth performance, innate immunity and disease resistance of tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. Three hundred twenty fish were divided into four treatments and fed following diets 0 (T1- Control), 10 (T2), 20 (T3) and 30 (T4) g kg(-1) LMWSA for period of 60 days. A Completely Randomized Design with four replications was applied. At the end of experiment, fish in each replication were weighed and specific growth rate (SGR) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were calculated. Five randomly selected fish were used for innate immune response measurement. Another ten fish were randomly selected for challenge test against Streptococcus agalactiae for a period of 18 days. The lysozyme, complement, phagocytosis, and respiratory burst activities were detected after 60 days of feeding trial and after challenge test. The results indicated that fish fed diet 10 g kg(-1) LMWSA significantly improved SGR and FCR after 60 days of feeding trial. The lysozyme, phagocytosis, respiratory burst, and complement activities were significantly higher in fish fed LMWSA diets compared to control. Fish fed 10 g kg(-1) LMWSA had greatest values compared to fish fed 20 and 30 g kg(-1) LMWSA. The survival rate of O. niloticus was significantly improved in fish fed LMWSA diets after challenge with S. agalactiae for 18 days. However, no significant difference in survival rate was observed among LMWSA supplemented diets. It is indicated that fish fed 10, 20 and 30 g kg(-1) LMWSA diets can stimulate growth performance, innate immunity and disease resistance in tilapia against S. agalactiae.

  4. Effects of low molecular weight sodium alginate on growth performance, immunity, and disease resistance of tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Doan, Hien; Tapingkae, Wanaporn; Moonmanee, Tossapol; Seepai, Apichart

    2016-08-01

    Present study was carried out to evaluate the effects of low molecular weight sodium alginate (LMWSA) as potential prebiotic source on growth performance, innate immunity and disease resistance of tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. Three hundred twenty fish were divided into four treatments and fed following diets 0 (T1- Control), 10 (T2), 20 (T3) and 30 (T4) g kg(-1) LMWSA for period of 60 days. A Completely Randomized Design with four replications was applied. At the end of experiment, fish in each replication were weighed and specific growth rate (SGR) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were calculated. Five randomly selected fish were used for innate immune response measurement. Another ten fish were randomly selected for challenge test against Streptococcus agalactiae for a period of 18 days. The lysozyme, complement, phagocytosis, and respiratory burst activities were detected after 60 days of feeding trial and after challenge test. The results indicated that fish fed diet 10 g kg(-1) LMWSA significantly improved SGR and FCR after 60 days of feeding trial. The lysozyme, phagocytosis, respiratory burst, and complement activities were significantly higher in fish fed LMWSA diets compared to control. Fish fed 10 g kg(-1) LMWSA had greatest values compared to fish fed 20 and 30 g kg(-1) LMWSA. The survival rate of O. niloticus was significantly improved in fish fed LMWSA diets after challenge with S. agalactiae for 18 days. However, no significant difference in survival rate was observed among LMWSA supplemented diets. It is indicated that fish fed 10, 20 and 30 g kg(-1) LMWSA diets can stimulate growth performance, innate immunity and disease resistance in tilapia against S. agalactiae. PMID:27238426

  5. Hydroyeast Aquaculture® as a reproductive enhancer agent for the adult Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus, 1758).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrim, Ahmed I; Khalil, Fathy F; Hassan, Montaha E

    2015-04-01

    Tilapias are becoming increasingly popular culture fish because of their superior culture adaptability. In recent years, there has been a great interest in the use of probiotics in fish aquaculture. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the effect of dietary graded levels (0, 5, 10, and 15 g/kg commercial diet, referred to treatments numbers T1, T2, T3, and T4, for males and T5, T6, T7, and T8 treatments for females) of a new probiotic Hydroyeast Aquaculture(®) on hematological and biochemical parameters, serum sex hormones, and the reproductive efficiency parameters of the adult Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus for 8 weeks. Results revealed that high levels of probiotics diet, 15 g (T4, ♂) and 10 g (T7, ♀) probiotic/kg diet, significantly (P ≤ 0.05) enhanced the physiological responses (hematological as well as serum biochemical parameters) together with, reproductive performances (sex hormones, testes and sperm quality parameters, absolute and relative fecundity, and ovarian measurements). Therefore, it could be conclude that Hydroyeast Aquaculture(®) is useful at levels of 15 g (T4) and 10 g (T7)/kg diet in improving the reproductive efficiency of adult O. niloticus males and females, respectively. Thus, the use of Hydroyeast Aquaculture(®) may be economically important for fish hatcheries.

  6. Alterações histológicas em brânquias de tilápia nilotica Oreochromis niloticus causadas pelo cádmio Histological alterations in gills of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus caused by cadmium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Garcia-Santos

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Os efeitos histopatológicos do cádmio nas brânquias de tilápia Oreochromis niloticus foram estudados por microscopia óptica, usando 25mgl-1 de CdCl2 durante quatro dias, com o objetivo de identificar seus efeitos agudos na estrutura das brânquias. A morfologia geral das brânquias de O. niloticus é idêntica à de outros teleósteos, apresentando quatro pares de arcos branquiais com filamentos bem desenvolvidos. Situadas lateralmente, encontram-se as lamelas provenientes do eixo central dos filamentos. No epitélio filamentar foi possível identificar células de cloro, pavimentosas e mucosas. Os peixes expostos ao cádmio mostraram sinais de lesões epiteliais; edema intersticial, vasodilatação das lamelas, destacamento do epitélio lamelar e proliferação do epitélio filamentar. As alterações observadas também incluíram fusão nas lamelas como resultado de hiperplasia e hipertrofia epitelial, ruptura do sistema de células pilar, aneurismas e necroses.The histopathogical effects of cadmium on the gills of tilapia Oreochromis niloticus were studied by light microscopy, using 25mgl-1 of CdCl2 during four days to identified the effects of short-term exposure on gills structure. The general morphology of O. niloticus gills is similar to the other teleostean fishes, showing four pairs of gills arches with well developed filaments. Bilaterally situated, secondary lamellae branches are found from the central axis of the filaments. The filamentar epithelium showed the chloride cells, the pavement cells and mucous cells. Fish exposed to cadmium showed signs of epithelial lesion, namely the interstitial edema, swollen of the lamellae, lifting and cellular proliferation of the filamentar epithelium. The changes of the gills also included lamellar fusion as a result of epithelial hyperplasia and hypertrophy, the breakdown of pillar cell system, and aneurisms with some ruptures and necrosis, especially in the filamentar epithelium.

  7. Effects of replacing fish meal with silkworm pupae on muscle nutrients of GIFT (Oreochromis niloticus)%蚕蛹替代鱼粉对吉富罗非鱼肌肉营养成分的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王淑雯; 罗莉; 黄先智; 陈拥军; 朱旺明; 黄旺; 林肯

    2016-01-01

    An 8-week feeding experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of replacing fish meal (FM) with silk-worm pupae(SP) on muscle nutrients of GIFT (Orecochromis niloticus).Five isonitrogenous (crude protein 32%) and isolipidic (ether extract 5.5%) diets (based diet contained 8% fish meal )were formulated by replacing 0%(control), 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% FM with SP, they were named as SP0, SP25, SP50, SP75 and SP100 respectively. Each diet was fed to triplicate groups of 20 fish with an initial body weight of (44.40 ±0.41)g.The results showed that:crude protein (CP), ash, total amino acids, essential amino acids contents of muscle of GIFT decreased significantly with dietary SP increasing, while muscle ether extract (EE) content had no significant difference ; Total amino acids, essential amino acids contents of muscle in SP100 group decreased by 3.99% and 3.46% compared with SP0 group.As dietary SP levels increased, fatty acid C18∶3n-3 and C20∶5n-3 in muscle of GIFT increased gradually and C18∶2n-6 declined.Com-paring with SP0 group, C18∶3n-3, C20∶5n-3 contents in muscle of SP100 group improved 105.33% and 132.72% re-spectively.In conclusion, replacement of fish meal with silkworm pupae can significantly improve C 18∶3n-3 and C20∶5n-3 contents of muscle, which is helpful to produce fish meat rich in n -3PUFA.%试验以300尾初始体重为(44.40±0.41)g 的吉富罗非鱼(GIFT, Oreochromis niloticus)为研究对象,分别饲喂用蚕蛹(SP)替代0、25%、50%、75%和100%鱼粉(FM)的5种等氮(32%)等脂(5.5%)的饲料(分别命名SP0、 SP25、 SP50、 SP75和 SP100,基础饲料中含8%的鱼粉),每组3重复,每重复20尾鱼,在室内循环水养殖系统进行为期8周的生长试验,旨在探讨蚕蛹替代鱼粉对吉富罗非鱼肌肉营养成分的影响。结果表明:随蚕蛹替代水平上升,吉富罗非鱼肌肉粗蛋白、灰分、总氨基酸、必需氨基酸显著下

  8. Nutritional aspects of nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus silage Aspectos nutricionais da silagem de tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia Ferraz de Arruda

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available One third of the world's fishing produce is not directly used for human consumption. Instead, it is used for making animal food or is wasted as residue. It would be ideal to use the raw material thoroughly and to recover by-products, preventing the generation of residues. With the objectives of increasing the income and the production of the industry, as well as minimizing environmental and health problems from fish residue, chemical silage from Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus processing residues was developed after homogenization and acidification of the biomass with 3% formic acid: propionic, 1:1, addition of antioxidant BHT and maintenance of pH at approximately 4.0. Analyses to determine the moisture, protein, lipids and ash were carried out. The amino acids were examined in an auto analyzer after acid hydrolysis, except for the tryptophan which was determined through colorimetry. The tilapia silage presented contents that were similar to or higher than the FAO standards for all essential amino acids, except for the tryptophan. The highest values found were for glutamic acid, lysine and leucine. The results indicate a potential use of the silage prepared from the Nile tilapia processing residue as a protein source in the manufacturing of fish food.Um terço da captura mundial de pescado não é empregada para o consumo direto na alimentação humana, segue para elaboração de rações ou é desperdiçada como resíduo. O ideal seria utilizar a matéria-prima em toda a sua extensão e recuperar os subprodutos, evitando a própria formação do resíduo. Com os objetivos de aumentar a receita e a eficiência de produção da indústria e, conseqüentemente, minimizar os problemas ambientais e de sanidade, provenientes do resíduo de pescado, procedeu-se à elaboração da silagem química do resíduo de beneficiamento de Tilápia-do-Nilo (Oreocrhromis niloticus após homogeneização e acidificação da biomassa com 3% de ácido f

  9. Recycling of sewage sludge: Feeding Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linn.), with irradiated and dried sludge from beer industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recycling of sewage sludge from wastewater treatment plant of beer industry as supplemental feed for fish was conducted. Industrial biosludge from wastewater treatment plant of beer industry was irradiated at 3.32 kGy gamma irradiator, carrier type, model JS 8900, 60Co activity at 187,088.121 Ci on 6 June 1995. For fish production study, it is needed to change the wet sludge to dry powder form by Rotadics dryer, type Stord TST 3.4 C, Stord (Thailand) Co. Ltd., at the maximum capacity of 15 T/24 h. The moisture content of finished product is at 8-10%. Fish control diet was then replaced at 60% by weight with irradiated and dried sludge to become as test diet. Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linn.), fingerlings averaging 0.67 g. in body weight was stocked into earthern ponds of 400 square meters at the density of 5 fishes per square metre. Fish were fed with two diets, control diet and test diet, for 154 days. There are no statistical differences in specific growth rate, quality of the fish flesh (Cd and Pb concentration, edible portion and off flavour) and pond water quality. Survival rate and feed conversion efficiency of the fish fed test diet are higher than control diet (P<0.05). Replacement of irradiated sludge can decrease the cost of fish production and results in better benefit than that of control diet

  10. Induction of micronuclei and nuclear abnormalities in Oreochromis niloticus following exposure to petroleum refinery and chromium processing plant effluents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavas, Tolga [Mersin University, Faculty of Sciences and Letters, Department of Biology, 33342 Mersin (Turkey)]. E-mail: tcavas@mersin.edu.tr; Ergene-Goezuekara, Serap [Mersin University, Faculty of Sciences and Letters, Department of Biology, 33342 Mersin (Turkey)

    2005-09-10

    The genotoxic effects of effluents from a petroleum refinery and a chromium processing plant were evaluated in Oreochromis niloticus (Pisces: Perciformes) using the micronucleus test. Fish were exposed to different concentrations (5, 10 and 20%, v/v) of the effluents for 3, 6 and 9 days. Micronucleus analyses were carried out on gill epithelial cells and peripheral blood erythrocytes. Nuclear abnormalities other than micronuclei, considered as genetic damage indicators, were also evaluated on erythrocytes. Cyclophosphamide at a single dose of 4 mg/L was used as a positive control. The results of this study showed that both effluents had genotoxic potential. On the other hand, the level of genetic damage induced by petroleum refinery effluent was considerably higher than that of chromium processing plant effluent. Our results further indicate that nuclear abnormalities other than micronuclei, such as blebbed and lobed nuclei, may also be used as indicators of genotoxic damage.

  11. Pathological manifestations and immune responses of serotypes Ia and III Streptococcus agalactiae infections in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atchariya Suwannasang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus, GBS infections cause serious worldwide damage to fish farming. Here, we evaluated the pathological manifestations and immune responses of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus infected with GBS serotype Ia (GBS-Ia and GBS serotypes III (GBS-III. Experimental infection of fish with GBS by intraperitoneal injection indicated the severity of GBS-Ia infection as shown by the LD50 of GBS-Ia and GBS-III, being 1.58106 CFU/fish and 2.10108 CFU/fish, respectively. The onset of disease and clinical observation revealed notable differences between the GBS-Ia and GBS-III infections. Histological findings showed severe changes of the liver, pancreas, kidney and brain of fish infected with GBS. In addition, significantly different haemato-immunological parameters were observed between GBS-Ia and GBS-III infected fish. Differences in the pathological manifestations and immune responses of GBS-Ia and GBS-III infections in tilapia are of practical use for fish pathologists who monitor tilapia mortality resulting from GBS infections.

  12. Acanthocephalan Parasites (Acanthogyrus sp.) of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) as Biosink of Lead (Pb) Contamination in a Philippine Freshwater Lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paller, Vachel Gay V; Resurreccion, Dan Jacob B; de la Cruz, Christian Paul P; Bandal, Modesto Z

    2016-06-01

    The potential use of acanthocephalans as bioindicators of Lead (Pb) pollution in Sampaloc Lake, Laguna, Philippines was investigated. Nile tilapias (Oreochromis niloticus) were collected and Pb concentrations were determined in fish tissues and in their acanthocephalan parasites, Acanthogyrus sp. Significantly higher levels of Pb were detected in the parasites relative to the fish host tissues (p = 0.001). Bioaccumulation capacity of the parasites against fish tissues were 102, 119, and 147 times higher than the fish intestine, liver, and muscles, respectively. Pb sensitivity of the parasites was quantified by exact logistic analysis showing higher odds of Pb detection ranging from 18 to 45 folds (p = 0.001-0.009). Interestingly, infected fish showed significantly lower Pb concentration in their tissues compared to uninfected fish (p = 0.001), suggesting parasites were able to sequester Pb and served as active biosinks. The Pb levels in the parasites were also hundred folds higher (988 times) relative to the ambient waters, indicating a potential role of fish parasites as metal biosinks in aquatic ecosystems. PMID:27052033

  13. Accumulation of metals and histopathology in Oreochromis niloticus exposed to treated NNPC Kaduna (Nigeria) petroleum refinery effluent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onwumere, B.G.; Oladimeji, A.A. (Ahmadu Bello Univ., Zaria (Nigeria))

    1990-04-01

    Accumulation of heavy metals and histopathology were observed in Oreochromis niloticus exposed to treated petroleum refinery effluent from the Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation, Kaduna. Analysis of fish metal burden showed that the fish concentrated trace metals a thousand times above the levels existing in the exposure medium. Some metals were preferentially accumulated more than others and the accumulation was, in decreasing order, Pb, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, Cr, Ni, and Cd. Whole fish metal burden was lower in fish from which the gill, liver, and kidney had been removed, suggesting that these organs accumulated the metals more than other tissues. Hemorrhaging of fins was observed in all treatment concentrations except that of the control, and fish exposed to 40 and 50% effluent were most affected. Erosion of the caudal fin was also observed in fish exposed to 40 and 50% effluent. Examination of the organs for histopathology revealed damages to the gills. Gills with edematous fused lamellae congested with blood were observed. No histopathological damage was observed in the liver and kidney. The extent of metal accumulation and histopathological damage were directly related to the effluent concentrations.

  14. Evaluation of Rice Bran and Wheat Bran as Supplemental Feed Compared to a Commercial Feed for Monoculture of GIFT Strain of Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Hossain, Md. Sakhawat; HOSSAIN Md. Arshad; MAMUN Md. Abdullah-Al; ALI Md. Zulfikar; BULBUL Mahbuba; Koshio, Shunsuke; Kader, Md. Abdul; コシオ, シュンスケ; 越塩, 俊介

    2011-01-01

    A feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of rice bran and wheat bran as supplementary feed in comparison to a commercial feed for monoculture of GIFT strain of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Four experimental diets such as commercial tilapia diet, rice bran, wheat bran, and a mixture of rice bran and wheat bran (50:50) were assigned to four treatments designated as T1, T2, T3 and T4 respectively. Triplicate groups of fish (initial mean weight 2.80 g) were delivered the test diet...

  15. Five different piscidins from Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus: analysis of their expressions and biological functions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuan-Chieh Peng

    Full Text Available Piscidins are antimicrobial peptides (AMPs that play important roles in helping fish resist pathogenic infections. Through comparisons of tilapia EST clones, the coding sequences of five piscidin-like AMPs (named TP1∼5 of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, were determined. The complete piscidin coding sequences of TP1, -2, -3, -4, and -5 were respectively composed of 207, 234, 231, 270, and 195 bases, and each contained a translated region of 68, 77, 76, 89, and 64 amino acids. The tissue-specific, Vibrio vulnificus stimulation-specific, and Streptococcus agalactiae stimulation-specific expressions of TP2, -3, and -4 mRNA were determined by a comparative RT-PCR. Results of the tissue distribution analysis revealed high expression levels of TP2 mRNA in the skin, head kidneys, liver, and spleen. To study bacterial stimulation, S. agalactiae (SA47 was injected, and the TP4 transcript was upregulated by >13-fold (compared to the wild-type (WT control, without injection and was 60-fold upregulated (compared to the WT control, without injection 24 h after the S. agalactiae (SA47 injection in the spleen and gills. Synthesized TP3 and TP4 peptides showed antimicrobial activities against several bacteria in this study, while the synthesized TP1, -2, and -5 peptides did not. The synthesized TP2, -3, and -4 peptides showed hemolytic activities and synthesized TP3 and TP4 peptides inhibited tilapia ovary cell proliferation with a dose-dependent effect. In summary, the amphiphilic α-helical cationic peptides of TP3 and TP4 may represent novel and potential antimicrobial agents for further peptide drug development.

  16. First evidence for family-specific QTL for temperature-dependent sex reversal in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lühmann, L M; Knorr, C; Hörstgen-Schwark, G; Wessels, S

    2012-01-01

    This study for the first time screens microsatellite markers for associations with the temperature-dependent sex of Oreochromis niloticus. Previous studies revealed markers on linkage groups (LG) 1, 3, and 23 to be linked to the phenotypic sex of Oreochromis spp. at normal rearing temperatures. Moreover, candidate genes for sex determination and differentiation have been mapped to these linkage groups. Here, 6 families of a temperature-treated genetically all-female (XX) F(1)-population were genotyped for 21 microsatellites on the 3 LGs. No population-wide QTL (quantitative trait loci) or marker trait associations could be detected. However, family-specific QTL were found on LG 1 flanked by UNH995 and UNH104, on LG 3 at the position of GM213, and on LG 23 next to GM283. Moreover, family-specific single marker associations for UNH995 and UNH104 on LG 1, GM213 on LG 3, as well as for UNH898 and GM283 on LG 23 were detected. Yet, marker trait associations could not explain the temperature-dependent sex of all fish in the respective families. The molecular cue for the temperature-dependent sex in Nile tilapia might partially coincide with allelic variants at major and minor genetic sex determining factors. Moreover, additional QTL contributing to variable liabilities towards temperature might persist on other LGs. PMID:22797471

  17. Beneficial effects of vitamin E supplementation against the oxidative stress on Cylindrospermopsin-exposed tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán-Guillén, Remedios; Prieto Ortega, Ana I; Martín-Caméan, Ana; Cameán, Ana M

    2015-09-15

    Cylindrospermopsin (CYN) is known to produce changes in some oxidative stress biomarkers in fish acutely and subchronically exposed to the toxin. The present study investigated the effects of vitamin E supplementation against the oxidative stress induced by pure CYN in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Fish were pretreated with 700 mg vitamin E/kg fish body weight (bw)/day for 7 days by oral route, and on day seven, they received a single oral dose of 400 μg pure CYN/kg fish bw, and were killed after 24 h. The biomarkers evaluated included lipid peroxidation (LPO), protein and DNA oxidation, glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and γ-glutamyl-cysteine synthetase (γ-GCS) activities, and ratio of reduced glutathione-oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG). This is the first study showing that vitamin E supplementation is effective at reducing the toxicity induced by CYN, recovering the biomarkers assayed to basal levels. Therefore, vitamin E can be considered a useful chemoprotectant that reduces hepatic and renal oxidative stress and can be used in the prophylaxis and treatment of CYN-related intoxication in fish.

  18. The effect of tryptophan supplemented diets on brain serotonergic activity and plasma cortisol under undisturbed and stressed conditions in grouped-housed Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, C.I.M.; Silva, P.I.M.; Costas, B.;

    2013-01-01

    a reduction in stress response, aggression and stress-induced anorexia. In land farmed animals, TRP supplemented diets have also been shown to improve meat quality as a result of reduced stress during slaughter while in fish no data is currently available. This study aims at investigating whether short......-term supplementation with TRP supplemented diets changes brain serotonergic activity and the stress response associated with slaughter handling in grouped-housed Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. Adult fish (n. =. 108, 490.6. ±. 4.0. g, 12 individuals per tank) were exposed to one of the three treatments......Tryptophan (TRP) supplemented diets have been shown to have therapeutic effects in farmed animals including fish by modulating the activity of the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT). The effects reported in fish have been obtained using individually-housed fish and include...

  19. Large -scale breeding production and application of super male Oreochromis niloticus%尼罗超雄鱼的规模化制种与生产应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨永铨; 张海明; 陈远生

    2012-01-01

    In order to product super male Oreochromis niloticus, the original breeding method is simplified. The key technology is the female conversion of YY genotype fry by using estrogen (FH) , without damage of the fries' reproductive function. By using this new breeding method, YY(δ) /YY △ ♀ germplasm bank has been constructed, nearly 200 000 super male fish and 10 000 YY genotype female fish have been reserved, nearly 300 million XY genotype male fish have been produced. The product has been applicated in Fujian, Hainan and Guangdong provinces.%为大量繁殖尼罗罗非鱼(Oreochromis niloticus)超雄鱼,利用雌性激素处理刚孵化出膜的YY型鱼苗可使其转化为雌鱼,且具有生殖功能这一关键技术,使原先的“三系配套”技术简化为两系配套,并运用于实际生产.使用该技术建立了YY♂/YY△♀种质库,储备超雄鱼近20万尾,YY型生理雌鱼近万尾,生产XY型全雄鱼近3亿尾,现已应用于福建、海南和广东等省区.

  20. Changes in the quality of fishburger produced from Tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus ) during frozen storage (-18 degrees C)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tokur, B.; Polat, A.; Beklevik, G.;

    2004-01-01

    In this study, the chemical and sensory qualities of fishburger produced from tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) were investigated during frozen storage (-18 degreesC) over 8 months. The ratios of crude protein, lipid, moisture, crude ash, and polyunsaturated fatty acids in tilapiaburger were found...

  1. Digestibility and postprandial ammonia excretion in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fed diets containing different oilseed by-products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obirikorang, Kwasi Adu; Amisah, Stephen; Fialor, Simon Cudjoe;

    2015-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the potential for using oilseed by-products (soybean, copra and palm kernel meals) as partial replacements of fishmeal in feeds for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Nutrient digestibility and postprandial ammonia excretion rates were examined...

  2. Genetic and environmental factors affecting growth of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) juveniles: modelling spatial correlations between hapas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charo-Karisa, H.; Komen, J.; Rezk, M.A.; Reynolds, S.; Ponzoni, R.W.; Bovenhuis, H.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the environmental and genetic effects on early growth of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, in hapa-in-earthen pond systems. In a pilot study, we grew swim-up fry with or without supplementary feed in hapas suspended in fertilized ponds at 5, 10, 15, and 20 fr

  3. Genotype by environment interaction for harvest weight, growth rate and shape between monosex and mixed sex Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Omasaki, S.K.; Charo-Karisa, H.; Kahi, A.K.; Komen, H.

    2016-01-01

    In Kenya, Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) is mostly grown in ponds. To avoid excessive reproduction and stunted growth, fingerlings are treated with methyl-testosterone to make all-male populations (monosex). For a national breeding programme that aims to provide genetically improved broodst

  4. Development and efficacy of a noviobiocin-resistant Streptococcus iniae as a novel vaccine in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A novel attenuated Streptococcus iniae vaccine was developed from a virulent strain of Streptococcus iniae (ISET0901) through selection for novobiocin resistance (therefore named ISNO). The safety of ISNO was then evaluated in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) through intraperitoneal (IP) injecti...

  5. Development and efficacy of a novobiocin-resistant Streptococcus iniae as a novel vaccine in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A novel attenuated Streptococcus iniae vaccine was developed from a virulent strain of Streptococcus iniae through selection for novobiocin resistance. The safety of the novel vaccine (named ISNO) was then evaluated in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) through intraperitoneal (IP) injection. When...

  6. Effects of dietary starch and energy levels on maximum feed intake, growth and metabolism of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran Duy, A.; Smit, B.; Dam, van A.A.; Schrama, J.W.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to gain insight into how Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) regulate feed and energy intake in response to diets low and high in starch and cellulose. It was hypothesized that high-starch diets would reduce feed intake due to the effect of high blood glucose level, and th

  7. Individual protein balance strongly influences δ15N and δ13C values in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaye-Siessegger, Julia; Focken, Ulfert; Abel, Hansjörg; Becker, Klaus

    Although stable isotope ratios in animals have often been used as indicators of the trophic level and for the back-calculation of diets, few experiments have been done under standardized laboratory conditions to investigate factors influencing δ15N and δ13C values. An experiment using Nile tilapia [Oreochromis niloticus (L.)] was therefore carried out to test the effect of different dietary protein contents (35.4, 42.3, and 50.9%) on δ15N and δ13C values of the whole tilapia. The fish were fed the isoenergetic and isolipidic semi-synthetic diets at a relatively low level. δ15N and δ13C values of the lipid-free body did not differ between the fish fed the diets with different protein contents, but the trophic shift for N and C isotopes decreased with increasing protein accretion in the individual fish, for N from 6.5‰ to 4‰ and for C in the lipid-free body from 4‰ to 2.5‰. This is the first study showing the strong influence of the individual protein balance to the degree to which the isotopic signature of dietary protein was modified in tissue protein of fish. The extrapolation of the trophic level or the reconstruction of the diet of an animal from stable isotope ratios without knowledge of the individual physiological condition and the feeding rate may lead to erroneous results.

  8. Individual protein balance strongly influences delta15N and delta13C values in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaye-Siessegger, Julia; Focken, Ulfert; Abel, Hansjörg; Becker, Klaus

    2004-02-01

    Although stable isotope ratios in animals have often been used as indicators of the trophic level and for the back-calculation of diets, few experiments have been done under standardized laboratory conditions to investigate factors influencing delta(15)N and delta(13)C values. An experiment using Nile tilapia [ Oreochromis niloticus (L.)] was therefore carried out to test the effect of different dietary protein contents (35.4, 42.3, and 50.9%) on delta(15)N and delta(13)C values of the whole tilapia. The fish were fed the isoenergetic and isolipidic semi-synthetic diets at a relatively low level. delta(15)N and delta(13)C values of the lipid-free body did not differ between the fish fed the diets with different protein contents, but the trophic shift for N and C isotopes decreased with increasing protein accretion in the individual fish, for N from 6.5 per thousand to 4 per thousand and for C in the lipid-free body from 4 per thousand to 2.5 per thousand. This is the first study showing the strong influence of the individual protein balance to the degree to which the isotopic signature of dietary protein was modified in tissue protein of fish. The extrapolation of the trophic level or the reconstruction of the diet of an animal from stable isotope ratios without knowledge of the individual physiological condition and the feeding rate may lead to erroneous results.

  9. Experimental model of microcystin accumulation in the liver of Oreochromis niloticus exposed subchronically to a toxic bloom of Microcystis sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deblois, Charles P; Giani, Alessandra; Bird, David F

    2011-05-01

    Although accumulation of the liver toxin microcystin in phytoplanktivorous fish has been demonstrated in captive fish and in natural ecosystems, the relation between microcystin in ingested algae and the pattern of buildup of microcystin in fish is poorly known. In this month-long study performed at a Brazilian fish farm, 45 mature Oreochromis niloticus were fed daily with fresh seston periodically dominated by toxic Microcystis sp. Microcystin was measured daily in the food and every 5 days in liver and muscle samples. Control fish received a diet of seston that was low in toxic cyanobacteria. Initially, in treatment ponds, microcystin available for fish increased from 6.5 to 66.9 ng microcystin fish(-1)day(-1), which was accompanied by an increase from 5.5 to 35.4 ng microcysting liver(-1). Microcystin in muscle was below our detection limit of 4 ng g tissue(-1) for the entire study. In the bloom phase, available microcystin reached its highest concentration (4450 ng MC fish(-1)day(-1)) then decreased to 910 ng microcystin fish(-1)day(-1) on day 31. During this period, microcystin reached its highest concentration of 81.6 ng MC g liver(-1) and stayed high until the end of the experiment. A model based on rapid uptake, saturation, and exponential loss was built with these experimental results, and verified with data from the literature. Our model showed that accumulation was up to 50% of ingestion at low doses, but at intermediate doses, the onset of elimination led to a decline of liver burden. Although the accumulation rate confirms the high contamination potential of microcystin, it was balanced by a high depuration rate and this efficient systemic elimination may explain the tolerance of these fish to toxic blooms in the wild. PMID:21392496

  10. Technical evaluation of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) monoculture and tilapia-prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) polyculture in earthen ponds with or without substrates for periphyton development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uddin, S.; Farzana, A.; Fatema, M.K.; Azim, M.E.; Wahab, M.A.; Verdegem, M.C.J.

    2007-01-01

    The effects of periphyton grown on bamboo substrate, on growth and production of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Genetically Improved Farmed Tilapia strain) in monoculture and polyculture with the freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) were studied and economically evaluated. The experime

  11. Effects of substrate addition and supplemental feeding on plankton composition and production in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) polyculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uddin, M.S.; Azim, M.E.; Wahab, M.A.; Verdegem, M.C.J.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of substrates and supplemental feeding on growth and production of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) in a polyculture system. On actual farms, four treatments were evaluated in triplicate: substrate plus feed (herein

  12. Carbohydrate utilization and digestibility by tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus x O. aureus, are affected by chromic oxide inclusion in the diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiau, S Y; Liang, H S

    1995-04-01

    A 12-wk feeding trial was conducted to study the influence of chromic oxide (Cr2O3) on carbohydrate utilization and digestibility by tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus x O. aureus. Two levels of chromic oxide (0.5 and 2%) were each incorporated into diets containing glucose or starch. Chromic oxide was added at 0 or 8 wk. The diets were fed to triplicate groups of fish weighing 1.11 +/- 0.05 g. Fish fed the starch diet had greater (P protein efficiency ratio, protein deposition and digestibility of protein, lipid, carbohydrate and dry matter than fish fed the glucose diet irrespective of the time and level of chromic oxide supplementation. Fish fed the glucose diet with 0.5% chromic oxide had higher weight gain, feed efficiency ratio, protein efficiency ratio and protein deposition than fish fed the glucose diet with 2% chromic oxide. The ingredient digestibility estimated using 0.5% chromic oxide as the marker was greater than that estimated with 2% chromic oxide. Higher phosphofructokinase and lower glucose-6-phosphatase activity was found in fish fed the starch diet than in fish fed the glucose diet regardless of the time and level of chromic oxide inclusion. Fish fed the glucose diet with 0.5% chromic oxide had higher phosphofructokinase activity and lower tissue chromium concentration than fish fed the glucose diet with 2% chromic oxide irrespective of chromic oxide inclusion time. These data suggest that the level of chromic oxide in the diet alters glucose utilization by tilapia and affects nutrient digestibility by tilapia. The time of chromic oxide inclusion had no effect on carbohydrate utilization and digestibility.

  13. Antibiotic resistence of Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887 and Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758 Resistência de Aeromonas hydrophila isolada de Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887 e Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758 a antibióticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Belém-Costa

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important problems involving treatments with antibiotics against Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from fishes is that antibiotic resistance develops readily. The antimicrobial activity of chemotherapeutants in isolates from pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887 and tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758 was tested by the Kirby-Bauer disk method, over Mueller-Hinton surface agar previously inoculated with 100 µL of bacterial suspensions. After regular incubation, isolates from tilapia and pacu were uniformly resistant to amoxicillin, ampicillin, lincomycin, novobiocin, oxacillin, penicillin, and trimetoprim+sulfametoxazole. The A. hydrophila type strain presented resistance to the same antimicrobial substances and also against rifampicin; the bacterial isolate from pacu were the only strain resistant to tetracyclin. Isolates from both pacu and tilapia had intermediate reaction with erytromycin. The use of drugs in commercial fish farms in Brazil can favor the development of resistant bacterial strains in native fish species as already observed for exotic species, commercially produced for longer time.Um dos maiores problemas envolvendo o tratamento com antibióticos contra Aeromonas hydrophila isolada de peixes confinados é a rápida resistência ao antibiótico desenvolvida pela bactéria. A atividade antimicrobiana de quimioterapêuticos em isolados a partir de pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887 e tilápia Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758 foi verificada pelo método de difusão de antibiótico em discos de Kirby-Bauer, sobre uma superfície de Agar Mueller-Hinton previamente inoculada com 100 µL de suspensão bacteriana. Após o período de incubação, os isolados de tilápia e pacu foram uniformemente resistentes a amoxicilina, ampicilina, lincomicina, novobiocina, oxacilina, penicilina e trimetoprim+sulfametoxazol. A cepa tipo para A. hydrophila apresentou resistência às mesmas subst

  14. Successful xenogeneic germ cell transplantation from Jundia catfish (Rhamdia quelen) into adult Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) testes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, M A; Costa, G M J; Lacerda, S M S N; Brandão-Dias, P F P; Kalapothakis, E; Silva Júnior, A F; Alvarenga, E R; França, L R

    2016-05-01

    Fish germ cell transplantation presents several important potential applications for aquaculture, including the preservation of germplasm from endangered fish species with high genetic and commercial values. Using this technique in studies developed in our laboratory with adult male Nile tilapias (Oreochromis niloticus), all the necessary procedures were successfully established, allowing the production of functional sperm and healthy progeny approximately 2months after allogeneic transplantation. In the present study, we evaluated the viability of the adult Nile tilapia testis to generate sperm after xenogeneic transplant of germ cells from sexually mature Jundia catfish (Rhamdia quelen) that belong to a different taxonomic order. Therefore, in order to investigate at different time-periods post-transplantation, the presence and development of donor PKH26 labeled catfish germ cells were followed in the tilapia seminiferous tubules. From 7 to 20days post-transplantation, only PKH26 labeled spermatogonia were observed, whereas spermatocytes at different stages of development were found at 70days. Germ cell transplantation success and progression of spermatogenesis were indicated by the presence of labeled PKH26 spermatids and sperm on days 90 and 120 post-transplantation, respectively. Confirming the presence of the catfish genetic material in the tilapia testis, all recipient tilapias evaluated (n=8) showed the genetic markers evaluated. Therefore, we demonstrated for the first time that the adult Nile tilapia testis offers the functional conditions for development of spermatogenesis with sperm production from a fish species belonging to a different order, which provides an important new venue for aquaculture advancement.

  15. Successful xenogeneic germ cell transplantation from Jundia catfish (Rhamdia quelen) into adult Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) testes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, M A; Costa, G M J; Lacerda, S M S N; Brandão-Dias, P F P; Kalapothakis, E; Silva Júnior, A F; Alvarenga, E R; França, L R

    2016-05-01

    Fish germ cell transplantation presents several important potential applications for aquaculture, including the preservation of germplasm from endangered fish species with high genetic and commercial values. Using this technique in studies developed in our laboratory with adult male Nile tilapias (Oreochromis niloticus), all the necessary procedures were successfully established, allowing the production of functional sperm and healthy progeny approximately 2months after allogeneic transplantation. In the present study, we evaluated the viability of the adult Nile tilapia testis to generate sperm after xenogeneic transplant of germ cells from sexually mature Jundia catfish (Rhamdia quelen) that belong to a different taxonomic order. Therefore, in order to investigate at different time-periods post-transplantation, the presence and development of donor PKH26 labeled catfish germ cells were followed in the tilapia seminiferous tubules. From 7 to 20days post-transplantation, only PKH26 labeled spermatogonia were observed, whereas spermatocytes at different stages of development were found at 70days. Germ cell transplantation success and progression of spermatogenesis were indicated by the presence of labeled PKH26 spermatids and sperm on days 90 and 120 post-transplantation, respectively. Confirming the presence of the catfish genetic material in the tilapia testis, all recipient tilapias evaluated (n=8) showed the genetic markers evaluated. Therefore, we demonstrated for the first time that the adult Nile tilapia testis offers the functional conditions for development of spermatogenesis with sperm production from a fish species belonging to a different order, which provides an important new venue for aquaculture advancement. PMID:26972155

  16. Modulation of the intestinal microbiota and morphology of tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, following the application of a multi-species probiotic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standen, B T; Rodiles, A; Peggs, D L; Davies, S J; Santos, G A; Merrifield, D L

    2015-10-01

    The intestinal microbiota and morphology of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) were investigated after the application of a multi-species probiotic containing Lactobacillus reuteri, Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecium and Pediococcus acidilactici (AquaStar(®) Growout). Tilapia (55.03 ± 0.44 g) were fed either a control diet or a probiotic diet (control diet supplemented with AquaStar(®) Growout at 5 g kg(-1)). After four and eight weeks, culture-dependent analysis showed higher levels of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), enterococci and Bacillus spp. in the mucosa and digesta of fish fed AquaStar(®) Growout. At week four, polymerase chain reaction denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) revealed a higher similarity within the probiotic fed replicates than replicates of the control group; after eight weeks, the compositional dissimilarity of the microbiome profiles between the groups was greater than the dissimilarities within each group (P 99 % of reads). Bacillus, Cetobacterium and Mycobacterium were the dominant genera in the digesta of control fish whereas Bacillus, Enterococcus and Pediococcus were the largest constituents in probiotic-fed fish. The addition of AquaStar(®) Growout to tilapia diets led to increased populations of intraepithelial leucocytes, a higher absorptive surface area index and higher microvilli density in the intestine. These data suggest that AquaStar(®) Growout can modulate both the intestinal microbiota and morphology of tilapia. PMID:26115752

  17. Use of Cassia alata aqueous extract as a bath treatment to control Pseudomonas anguilliseptica infection in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phumkhachorn Parichat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aqueous extracts of six plants, Andrographis paniculata, Cassia alata, Centella asiatica, Garcinia mangostana, Punica granatum and Psidium guajava, were investigated for their antimicrobial activity and mode of action against Pseudomonas anguilliseptica, an important fish pathogenic bacterium, which is responsible for economic losses in aquaculture worldwide. Among the tested plant extracts, the C. alata aqueous extract had the strongest inhibitory effect and exhibited a bactericidal mode of action against the pathogenic bacterium. When an infection of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus with P. anguilliseptica was induced by intraperitoneal, the median lethal dose (LD50 was determined to be 1.59 x 105 CFU/ml. For the in vivo trial, four different concentrations (25, 50, 75 and 100 ppm of C. alata aqueous extract were used as bath treatment to remedy the infection. The effect of the extract on the infection was dose-dependent and an extract with the concentration of 100 ppm eliminated mortality of the infected fish without producing any adverse effects on the animals. This study suggests that C. alata aqueous extract has the potential to control fish disease caused by P. anguilliseptica.

  18. EVALUATION OF FERMENTED MANGO (Mangifera indica SEED MEAL IN THE PRACTICAL DIET OF NILE TILAPIA, (Oreochromis niloticus FINGERLINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Olubodun Obasa

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the use of fermented mango (Mangifera indica seed meal (FMS to substitute yellow maize in the practical diet for Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus fingerlings (4.76±0.32 g. Five iso-nitrogeneous (35% crude protein and approximately iso-energetic (3400 ME Kcal/kg dietsin which yellow maize was replaced by FMSat 0% (FMS0/Control diet, 25% (FMS25, 50% (FMS50, 75% (FMS75 and 100% (FMS100 levels were formulated. The fish were fed on the diets at 5% body weight for 84 days. Alkaloids were highest (2.32% among the anti-nutritional factors analyzed in FMS, while oxalate (0.84% was lowest. Potassium was highest (8.91 mg/g among the minerals, while copper was lowest (0.01 mg/g. Weight gain, specific growth rate and feed conversion ratio were similar (p>0.05 in fish fed diets FMS0 and FMS50. The fish fed diet FMS0 had the highest protein efficiency ratio (1.88. Protein digestibility decreased (p<0.05 as dietary FMS increased, while carbohydrate digestibility gave an inverse relationship. Results obtained show that FMS could replace yellow maize at 50% level without affecting growth, nutrient utilization and apparent protein digestibility in diets for Nile tilapia fingerlings.

  19. Ceftiofur pharmacokinetics in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus after intracardiac and intramuscular administrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Waleed F; Shaheen, Hazem M; Abdou, Rania H

    2016-08-31

    Ceftiofur is a broad-spectrum third generation cephalosporin, which acts by inhibiting bacterial cell wall synthesis. It is active against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria such as Aeromonas hydrophila and β-lactamase-producing strains, which are common pathogens in freshwater fish. Ceftiofur pharmacokinetics in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus were studied following single intracardiac (i.c.) or intramuscular (i.m.) administration of ceftiofur sodium (NAXCEL®) in a dose of 5 mg ceftiofur kg-1 body weight. After i.c. injection, ceftiofur plasma concentrations decreased biexponentially, suggesting a 2-compartmental open model. Distribution and elimination half-lives (t0.5(α) and t0.5(β)) were 0.61 ± 0.22 and 0.14 ± 0.03 h mean ±SD, respectively. Elimination constant (Kel) and total body clearances (Cltot) were 3.22 ± 0.48 h-1 and 1.64 ± 0.47 l h-1 kg-1, respectively. Volume of distribution (Vss) and areas under curves (AUC) were 0.12 ± 0.03 l kg-1 and 24.18 ± 8.81 µg ml-1 h, respectively. Following i.m. injection of ceftiofur, plasma concentrations were best described by a 1-compartment open model with a first order absorption; bioavailability was quite high (96.85 ± 23.74%). Plasma maximum concentration (Cmax) was 12.32 ± 6.53 µg ml-1; achieved at time of maximum concentration (Tmax) of 0.74 ± 0.04 h. Absorption and elimination half-lives (t0.5ab and t0.5β) were 0.49 ± 0.06 and 0.53 ± 0.03 h, respectively. In conclusion, i.m. injection of ceftiofur sodium produced extremely high bioavailability with high plasma concentrations that persisted up to 6 h post injection, which may make ceftiofur a useful alternative antibiotic for treatment of brood stock or important ornamental fishes. PMID:27596857

  20. EFEKTIVITAS IKAN NILA MERAH (OREOCHROMIS NILOTICUS SEBAGAI PEMAKAN JENTIK NYAMUK

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    M. Sudomo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Ikan nila merah (Oreachromis niloticus merupakan ikan yang berasal dari luar negeri yang sudah dibudidayakan secara meluas di Indonesia. Ikan tersebut mempunyai arti ekonomis penting karena harganya mahal. Dalam percobaan laboratorium, ikan nila merah memakan jentik nyamuk dan ganggang Enteromorpha, yaitu ganggang yang dipakai untuk bertelur nyamuk Anopheles sundaicus. Dalam suatu percobaan, efektivitas ikan nila merah sebagai agen biologi untuk mengendalikan jentik nyamuk vektor malaria, telah dilakukan dengan membuat kolam-kolam percobaan sebanyak 12 kolam yang diisi dengan, ikan nila merah, ikan nila merah, dan ikan nila merah dan ikan mas, serta kolam kosong sebagai kontrol. Hasilnya menunjukkan bahwa dalam kolam yang diisi dengan ikan nila merah dan ikan mas jentik nyamuknya lebih sedikit. Hal ini berbeda nyata dengan kolam yang diisi ikan mas saja dan kolam kontrol.

  1. An important natural genetic resource of Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758 threatened by aquaculture activities in Loboi drainage, Kenya.

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    Titus Chemandwa Ndiwa

    Full Text Available The need to improve food security in Africa through culture of tilapias has led to transfer of different species from their natural ranges causing negative impacts on wild fish genetic resources. Loboi swamp in Kenya is fed by three hot springs: Lake Bogoria Hotel, Chelaba and Turtle Springs, hosting natural populations of Oreochromis niloticus. The present study aimed at better genetic characterization of these threatened populations. Partial mtDNA sequences of the D-loop region and variations at 16 microsatellite loci were assessed in the three hot spring populations and compared with three other natural populations of O. niloticus in the region. Results obtained indicated that the hot spring populations had mitochondrial and nuclear genetic variability similar to or higher than the large closely related populations. This may be attributed to the perennial nature of the hot springs, which do not depend on rainfall but rather receive permanent water supply from deep aquifers. The study also revealed that gene flow between the three different hot spring populations was sufficiently low thus allowing their differentiation. This differentiation was unexpected considering the very close proximity of the springs to each other. It is possible that the swamp creates a barrier to free movement of fish from one spring to the other thereby diminishing gene flow. Finally, the most surprising and worrying results were that the three hot spring populations are introgressed by mtDNA genes of O. leucostictus, while microsatellite analysis suggested that some nuclear genes may also have crossed the species barrier. It is very likely that the recent intensification of aquaculture activities in the Loboi drainage may be responsible for these introgressions. Taking into account the importance of these new genetic resources, protection and management actions of the Loboi swamp should be accorded top priority to prevent the loss of these spring populations.

  2. Trials for the control of trichodinosis and gyrodactylosis in hatchery reared Oreochromis niloticus fries by using garlic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Galil, Mohamed A A; Aboelhadid, Shawky M

    2012-04-30

    The present work was designed to study the prevalence of trichodinosis and gyrodactylosis in Oreochromis niloticus fries, and to test the therapeutic efficacy and preventive efficacy of garlic oil and crushed garlic cloves. Trichodinosis and gyrodactylosis are ectoparasitic diseases that affect most warm freshwater fish, especially fries and fingerlings. In a private O. niloticus fish hatchery, the prevalence of trichodinosis in 5-, 15- and 30-day-old-fries was 37%, 23% and 40.5%, respectively. The highest infection intensity was detected in 30-day-old-fries. The gyrodactylosis was reported only in combination with trichodinosis. In addition, we found that its prevalence in 5-, 15- and 30-day-old-fries was 17%, 19.5% and 29%, respectively. Mortality rate of fry in the first month of life was 53% as a result of injury to these two types of parasites. The garlic oil and crushed garlic cloves were tested in both in vitro and earthen ponds of the hatchery. Using 2-, 2.5- and 3-ppt (parts per thousand) garlic oil for 4h in vitro water bath treatment resulted in 100% recovery, while 1 and 1.5 ppt garlic oil, respectively, needed 24 and 16 h to treat the infected fries. The treatment by 3 ppt garlic oil as a water bath for 1h treated the two diseases in 55% in 7 days from application in the hatchery earthen pond. In the mean time, 300 mg L(-1) crushed garlic cloves as an indefinite bath in the hatchery earthen pond eliminated 68% of the diseases. The same protocol for preventing the two diseases resulted in obtaining 65% and 75% of parasite free fries, for garlic oil and crushed garlic cloves, respectively, compared to 53% of the control fries. PMID:22137346

  3. Eficácia do mentol como anestésico para juvenis de tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus Menthol efficiency as anesthetic for juveniles Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus

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    L.N. Simões

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Em três experimentos, testou-se a eficiência do mentol como anestésico para a tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus, por meio da avaliação de eventos comportamentais, da verificação da margem de segurança do anestésico e das respostas de estresse. No primeiro experimento, foram testadas seis diferentes concentrações de mentol para avaliar o tempo de indução à anestesia. No segundo, foram realizados dois testes com o objetivo de verificar a margem de segurança do anestésico. No terceiro, avaliou-se o efeito estressante do anestésico. A concentração 250mg L-1 de mentol foi a mais adequada para indução de anestesia cirúrgica. Para anestesia voltada para biometria e breve inspeção visual do animal, a concentração mais adequada foi 150-200mg L-1. O dobro da concentração ideal (500mg L-1 não acarretou a morte nos indivíduos, indicando boa margem de segurança para o uso desse anestésico. O mentol, mesmo em sua concentração adequada, induziu ao aumento na glicose sanguínea, caracterizando estresse no peixe. Conclui-se que o mentol não é um anestésico eficaz para juvenis de tilápia durante procedimentos de rotina na piscicultura.This work tested the effectiveness of menthol as anesthetic for Nile tilápia (Oreochromis niloticus by the evaluation of behavioral events, the safety margin of the anesthetic, and stress response. On first experiment, six different anesthetic concentrations were tested to evaluate the induction time to anesthesia. On second experiment, two tests were carried out to verify the safety margin of the anesthetic. On third experiment, stress responses were evaluated. The safe concentration to induce a surgical anesthesia was 250mg L-1. To a brief handling and visual inspection, the appropriated concentration was 150-200mg L-1. There was no mortality after exposure to 500mg L-1, indicating a good safety margin for this anesthetic. Menthol even in its adequate dosage induced a rise in glucose

  4. Performance of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus fingerlings in a hyper-intensive recirculating aquaculture system with low water exchange

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    M Gullian-Klanian

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was evaluate the performance of Nile tilapia fingerlings (Oreochromis niloticus raised at hyper intensive stocking density in a recirculating aquaculture system (RAS with minimum water replacing. The experimental system was performed in a single-batch nursery system to obtain 50 g fish size in 60 days. Fish (2.07 ± 0.04 g were stocked in triplicate at 400 (T1, 500 (T2 and 600 (T3 fish m-3 (0.84, 1.05, 1.22 kg m-3. RAS functioned with 12,000 L of recirculating water and 252 L day-1of water replacing (2.1% daily. The efficiency of the biofilter for removing the total ammonia nitrogen (TAN was 48 ± 12.5 mg L-1. Stocking density did not affect significantly the survival (89.5 to 93.6%. The growth rate of T1 (0.96 g day-1; 5.01% day-1 and T2 (0.92 g day-1; 4.95 % day-1 was significantly higher than T3 (0.83 g day-1; 4.80% day-1. The specific growth rate (SGR of T1 was 41% influenced by temperature. For T2 and T3 the SGR were influenced by the variation of dissolved oxygen (DO that explained 47 and 44% of the fish weight variation, respectively. The SGR from T3 was also affected by the concentration of ammonia nitrogen (31%. The high stocking density affected the overall size of fish and the size homogeneity, but had no negative effect on the length-weight relationship (L-W. Data support the conclusion that fingerling stocked at 400 and 500 fish m-3 shows high performance during 9-weeks when the biomass not exceed 37 kg m-3. At this time fish have reached the desired final nursery weight (50 g for transfer to grow-out facilities.

  5. Fibra bruta para alevinos de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus, L Crude fiber for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, L fingerlings

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    Fábio Meurer

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Este experimento objetivou avaliar diferentes níveis de fibra bruta no desempenho e no tempo de retenção do bolo alimentar em alevinos de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus, L. Foram utilizados 125 alevinos (1,39 ± 0,03 g distribuídos em 25 aquários de 54 L, em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com cinco tratamentos e cinco repetições. Foram formuladas cinco rações isoenergéticas (3000 kcal/kg de energia digestível e isoprotéicas (30% de proteína bruta, diferindo quanto aos níveis de fibra bruta (3,65; 4,75; 6,00; 7,25 e 8,50%. O período experimental foi de 64 dias a uma temperatura média de 26,5ºC ± 0,8 de manhã e 27,5ºC ± 0,7 à tarde. Não foram observadas diferenças quanto ao desempenho dos alevinos, entretanto houve decréscimo linear para o tempo de retenção do bolo alimentar com o aumento da fibra.This work aimed to evaluate different crude fiber levels on reverted Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, L fingerlings performance and time of retention of food. One hundred and twenty-five fingerlings of Thai strain, 1.39 ± 0.03 g of initial weight were allotted to twenty-five 54 L aquarium, at five treatments and five replications on completely randomized design. Five isoenergy (3000 kcal/kg of digestible energy and isoprotein (30% of crude protein diets were formulated with five different crude fiber levels (3.65, 4.75, 6.00, 7.25 and 8.50%, for ranging cellulose and inert material addition. The experimental period was 64 days with 26.5ºC ± 0.8 in the morning and 27.5ºC ± 0.7 in the afternoon temperatures. No difference was observed to fingerlings performance (food conversion, final weight, weight gain, but a linear decrease to time of retention of food with crude fiber addition.

  6. Effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles on bioaccumulation and oxidative stress in different organs of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Hasan; Aydın, Fatih; Gürkan, Mert; Yılmaz, Sevdan; Ates, Mehmet; Demir, Veysel; Arslan, Zikri

    2015-11-01

    Nano-size zinc oxide particles (ZnO NPs) are used in diverse industrial and commercial fields. However, the information from existing studies is not sufficient in evaluating the potential toxic effects of ZnO NPs. In this study, tilapia fish (Oreochromis niloticus) were exposed to different concentrations of small and large ZnO NPs in vivo. Accumulation in various organs/tissues (liver, gill, intestine, kidney, brain and muscle) and possible oxidative stress mechanisms were investigated comparatively. Fish were exposed to 1 and 10mg/L concentrations of small (10-30 nm) and large (100 nm) ZnO NPs semi-statically for 14 days. Both small and large ZnO NPs accumulated substantially in the tissues. Accumulation for the small ZnO NPs was significantly higher compared to larger NPs under same exposure regimes. Significant fluctuations were observed in antioxidant defense system biomarkers, including Superoxide dismutase (SOD), Catalase (CAT) and Glutathione (GSH) levels depending on particle size, exposure time and concentration. Lipid peroxidation measured with TBARS levels were higher in groups exposed to the suspensions of small ZnO NPs than that of large ZnO NPs and controls. These results imply that colloidal suspensions of small ZnO NPs induce elevated oxidative stress and toxic effects on tilapia compared to the larger NPs.

  7. Branchial O(2) chemoreceptors in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus: Control of cardiorespiratory function in response to hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeraik, Vivian M; Belão, Thiago C; Florindo, Luiz Henrique; Kalinin, Ana L; Rantin, F Tadeu

    2013-09-01

    This study examined the distribution and orientation of gill O(2) chemoreceptors in Oreochromis niloticus and their role in cardiorespiratory responses to graded hypoxia. Intact fish, and a group with the first gill arch excised (operated), were submitted to graded hypoxia and their cardiorespiratory responses (oxygen uptake - V˙O(2) , breathing frequency - fR, ventilatory stroke volume - VT, gill ventilation - V˙G, O(2) extraction from the ventilatory current - EO(2) , and heart rate - fH) were compared. Their responses to bolus injections of NaCN into the bloodstream (internal) or ventilatory water stream (external) were also determined. The V˙O(2) of operated fish was significantly lower at the deepest levels of hypoxia. Neither reflex bradycardia nor ventilatory responses were completely abolished by bilateral excision of the first gill arch. EO(2) of the operated group was consistently lower than the intact group. The responses to internal and external NaCN included transient decreases in fH and increases in fR and Vamp (ventilation amplitude). These cardiorespiratory responses were attenuated but not abolished in the operated group, indicating that chemoreceptors are not restricted to the first gill arch, and are sensitive to oxygen levels in both blood and water.

  8. Use of tuna industry waste in diets for Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, fingerlings: effect on digestibility and growth performance

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    Crisantema Hernández

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available During the tuna canning process, about 52~54% of the total weight of the fish is discarded as waste, which can be processed in order to obtain tuna byproducts meal (TBM, or stabilized as tuna silage hydrolysates (TSH. Both products were tested as replacements of soybean meal (SBM, in diets for fingerling male Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. Seven test diets were isonitrogenous (35% CP and isoenergetic (19 kJ g-1: a basal diet contained SBM as main protein source (TSH0; four experimental diets had increasing inclusion levels of TSH replacing 25, 50, 75 and 100% of the SBM protein. The sixth diet contained TBM as sole protein source, and a commercial feed for tilapia was used as reference diet (RD. The diets were fed for eight weeks to triplicate tanks, each with 15 fry tilapia (initial weight of 0.89 ± 0.29 g. Tilapia fed the TBM diet had greater weight gain and feed intake, and lower feed conversion ratios than those fed diets containing with TSH. The RD, TSH25 and TSH50 diets gave the similar growth response. Fish fed diets TSH0, TSH75% and TSH100% showed reduced growth performance.

  9. Efficacy of florfenicol for control of mortality associated with Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, E; Kidd, S; Gaunt, P S; Endris, R

    2013-04-01

    Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis (Fno) (syn. F. asiatica) is an emergent Gram-negative facultative intracellular bacterium. Although it is considered one of the most pathogenic bacteria in fish, there are no commercially available treatments or vaccines. The objective of this project was to determine the most efficacious concentration of florfenicol (FFC) [10, 15 or 20 mg FFC kg(-1) body weight (bw) per days for 10 days] administered in feed to control experimentally induced infections of Fno in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.), reared in a recirculating aquaculture system. The cumulative mortality of fish that received 0, 10, 15 or 20 mg FFC kg(-1)  bw per day was 60, 37, 14 and 16%, respectively. Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis genome equivalents were detected in water from all challenged groups with slight reduction in the concentration in the florfenicol-treated groups 4 days after treatment. The mean LOG of CFU Fno mg(-1) spleen was 3-5 and was present in all challenged groups at necropsy 11 days after treatment (21 days after challenge). Results show that florfenicol administered at doses of 15 and 20 mg FFC kg(-1)  bw per days for 10 days significantly reduced mortality associated with francisellosis in Nile tilapia. PMID:23134104

  10. Functionality and antioxidant properties of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) as influenced by the degree of hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foh, Mohamed Beva Kelfala; Amadou, Issoufou; Foh, Betty Mabel; Kamara, Mohamed Tabita; Xia, Wenshui

    2010-01-01

    Freeze dried protein powders (Fresh minced meat, FMM and Hot water dip, HWD) from tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) were hydrolyzed by Alcalase 2.4 L (Alc), Flavourzyme (Flav) and Neutrase (Neut), and investigated for antioxidant activity and their functional properties. FMM and HWD hydrolysed by Alc, exhibiting superior antioxidant activity, had estimated degrees of hydrolysis (DH) of 23.40% and 25.43%, respectively. The maximum values of the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS), 3-(2-pyridyl) 5,6-bis(4-phenyl-sulphonic acid)-1,2,4-triazine (ferrozine), radical scavenging activities and metal chelating properties were 86.67%, 91.27% and 82.57%, and 84.67%, 92.60% and 78.00% for FMM and HWD, respectively, with a significant difference (P 8,000 Da. At pH 2, FMM and HWD hydrolysates have varying solubilities above 85% (Alc FMM; 91.33%, Flav FMM; 79.5%, Neut FMM; 83.8% and Alc HWD; 90.45%, Flav HWD; 83.5%, and Neut HWD; 85.8%). They have 'U' shaped solubility curves, water holding capacity was in the range of 2.77 and 1.77 mL/g, while oil holding capacity ranged between 3.13 and 2.23 mL/g. FMM and HWD have the highest bulk density of 0.53 and 0.53 for Neutrase and Alcalase 2.4 L, respectively. Foam capacity and stability ranged from 125.5 to 61.4, 138.5 to 45.2, 130.0 to 62.5, and 124.5 to 55.0, 137.5 to 53.3, 129.6 to 62.7 for FMM and HWD hydrolyzed with Alcalase 2.4 L, Flavourzyme and Neutrase, respectively. Tilapia fish protein hydrolysates are thus potential functional food ingredients. PMID:20480046

  11. Functionality and Antioxidant Properties of Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus as Influenced by the Degree of Hydrolysis

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    Mohamed Tabita Kamara

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Freeze dried protein powders (Fresh minced meat, FMM and Hot water dip, HWD from tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus were hydrolyzed by Alcalase 2.4 L (Alc, Flavourzyme (Flav and Neutrase (Neut, and investigated for antioxidant activity and their functional properties. FMM and HWD hydrolysed by Alc, exhibiting superior antioxidant activity, had estimated degrees of hydrolysis (DH of 23.40% and 25.43%, respectively. The maximum values of the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, 2,2-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid diammonium salt (ABTS, 3-(2-pyridyl 5,6-bis(4-phenyl-sulphonic acid-1,2,4-triazine (ferrozine, radical scavenging activities and metal chelating properties were 86.67%, 91.27% and 82.57%, and 84.67%, 92.60% and 78.00% for FMM and HWD, respectively, with a significant difference (P < 0.05 between the samples. Essential amino acids were above the amounts recommended by the Food and Agricultural Organization/World Health Organization (FAO/WHO/UNU for humans. Lower molecular weight sizes 8,000 Da. At pH 2, FMM and HWD hydrolysates have varying solubilities above 85% (Alc FMM; 91.33%, Flav FMM; 79.5%, Neut FMM; 83.8% and Alc HWD; 90.45%, Flav HWD; 83.5%, and Neut HWD; 85.8%. They have ‘U’ shaped solubility curves, water holding capacity was in the range of 2.77 and 1.77 mL/g, while oil holding capacity ranged between 3.13 and 2.23 mL/g. FMM and HWD have the highest bulk density of 0.53 and 0.53 for Neutrase and Alcalase 2.4 L, respectively. Foam capacity and stability ranged from 125.5 to 61.4, 138.5 to 45.2, 130.0 to 62.5, and 124.5 to 55.0, 137.5 to 53.3, 129.6 to 62.7 for FMM and HWD hydrolyzed with Alcalase 2.4 L, Flavourzyme and Neutrase, respectively. Tilapia fish protein hydrolysates are thus potential functional food ingredients.

  12. Morphological and immunohistochemical characterization of angiogenic and apoptotic factors and the expression of thyroid receptors in the ovary of tilapia Oreochromis niloticus in captivity

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    Fernanda C. Santos

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Morphological and immunohistochemical characterization of angiogenic and apoptotic factors and the expression of thyroid receptors in the ovary of tilapia Oreochromis niloticus in captivity were studied. The morphological evaluation of the ovaries was performed by histological paraffin embedded and stained with HE. The immunohistochemical expressions of CDC47, VEGF, Flk-1, angiopoietin, Tie-2 and thyroid receptor (TRα were performed by the technique of streptavidein-biotin-peroxidase. Apoptosis was assessed using the TUNEL kit. The relative expression of thyroid hormone receptors (TRα and TRβ was assessed by RT-PCR real time. The nuclear expression of CDC47 increased with the stage of maturation of the oocyte and was observed in the follicle cells. Apoptotic bodies were observed in the follicular cells of atretic follicles and postovulatory follicles from the ovaries of 150g and 350g fish. Expression of VEGF and its receptor Flk-1 was also observed in the follicular cells, and the expression of both increased with the maturity of the oocyte, with a higher intensity observed in the full-grown follicle. The expression of angiopoietin and of its receptor (Tie 2 was discrete and moderate respectively. TRα expression was independent of follicular development. However, the 350 g tilapia exhibited higher expression of TRβ compared with the 50 g tilapia. We conclude that the proliferative activity and the expression of VEGF and its receptor increase with follicular maturation and that the TRs expression increases with ovarian maturity in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus.

  13. Digestibilidade aparente da energia e nutrientes do farelo de canola pela tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus Apparent nutrient and energy digestibility of canola meal for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus

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    Wilson Massamitu Furuya

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi realizado para determinar a energia digestível e a digestibilidade aparente de nutrientes do farelo de canola pela tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus. O óxido de crômio (0,1% foi utilizado como indicador inerte em dieta semi-purificada, com coleta de fezes pelo sistema Guelph. Os peixes foram alimentados até saciedade aparente. O farelo de canola apresentou valores de energia e nutrientes digestíveis de: 77,84; 71,99; 86,92; 88,19; 67,16 e 29,86% para a matéria seca, energia, proteína, lipídios, cálcio e fósforo, respectivamente, correspondendo a 2969,98 (kcal/kg; 69,97; 32,6; 1,2; 0,41 e 0,28%, de energia digestível, matéria seca, proteína e lipídios digestíveis e cálcio e fósforo disponíveis, respectivamente. Os resultados obtidos neste trabalho evidenciam que a tilápia do Nilo pode utilizar eficientemente o farelo de canola.This study was carried out to determine the digestible energy and apparent nutrient digestibility of canola meal for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus. The chromic oxide (0.1% was used as an inert indicador in the semi-purified diet and faeces were collected by Guelph system. Fish were fed to apparent satiation. The apparent nutrient and energy digestibility of canola meal were: 77.84, 71.99, 86.92, 88.19, 67.16, and 29.86% for dry matter, energy, protein, lipids, calcium and phosphorus, respectively, corresponding to 2969,98 (kcal/kg; 69.97, 32.6, 1.2, 0.41, and 0.28% of, digestible energy, dry matter, protein and lipids and available calcium and phosphorus, respectively. The results obtained in this experiment evidence that Nile tilapia may be able to utilize canola meal eficiently.

  14. Hematological and biochemical investigations on the effect of vitamin E and C on Oreochromis niloticus exposed to zinc oxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkaladi, Ali; El-Deen, Nasr A M Nasr; Afifi, Mohamed; Zinadah, Osama A Abu

    2015-09-01

    This study was carried out to determine the LC50 of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) on Oreochromis niloticus and to investigate the effect of vitamin E and C on hematological and biochemical alterations induced by two sublethal concentrations (1 and 2 mg/L) of ZnONPs. One hundred and eighty fish were used for studying the lethal concentrations of ZnONPs. For sublethal study two hundred and twenty-five males of O. niloticus were equally divided into five groups, control, the second and the third were treated with 1 and 2 mg/L ZnONPs respectively. The fourth and fifth were exposed to the same concentrations of ZnONPs plus vitamins E and C. The results revealed that the 96 h LC50 of ZnONPs was 3.1 ± 0.4 mg/L. The sublethal study revealed the presence of normocytic normochromic anemia in groups (2, 3 and 5) along the experiment period. The 4th group showed normocytic normochromic anemia at the 7th day and microcytic hypochromic anemia at the 15th day. Leukocytosis, heterophilia, lymphopenia and monocytopenia were recorded at the 7th day in all treated groups compared with the normal control. At the 15th day heteropenia, lymphopenia and monocytopenia were reported in all treated groups. A significant increase in the serum levels of alkaline phosphatase, aminotransferases, urea, creatinine and erythrocytic nuclear and morphological abnormalities along the experimental periods in all treated groups compared with the normal control. Serum total protein and albumin levels were significantly decreased at the same period in the same groups. Addition of vitamin E and C to the diet (groups 4 and 5) significantly improved all measured parameters compared with groups (2 and 3) which treated with ZnONPs only.

  15. Hematological and biochemical investigations on the effect of vitamin E and C on Oreochromis niloticus exposed to zinc oxide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkaladi, Ali; El-Deen, Nasr A.M. Nasr; Afifi, Mohamed; Zinadah, Osama A. Abu

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the LC50 of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) on Oreochromis niloticus and to investigate the effect of vitamin E and C on hematological and biochemical alterations induced by two sublethal concentrations (1 and 2 mg/L) of ZnONPs. One hundred and eighty fish were used for studying the lethal concentrations of ZnONPs. For sublethal study two hundred and twenty-five males of O. niloticus were equally divided into five groups, control, the second and the third were treated with 1 and 2 mg/L ZnONPs respectively. The fourth and fifth were exposed to the same concentrations of ZnONPs plus vitamins E and C. The results revealed that the 96 h LC50 of ZnONPs was 3.1 ± 0.4 mg/L. The sublethal study revealed the presence of normocytic normochromic anemia in groups (2, 3 and 5) along the experiment period. The 4th group showed normocytic normochromic anemia at the 7th day and microcytic hypochromic anemia at the 15th day. Leukocytosis, heterophilia, lymphopenia and monocytopenia were recorded at the 7th day in all treated groups compared with the normal control. At the 15th day heteropenia, lymphopenia and monocytopenia were reported in all treated groups. A significant increase in the serum levels of alkaline phosphatase, aminotransferases, urea, creatinine and erythrocytic nuclear and morphological abnormalities along the experimental periods in all treated groups compared with the normal control. Serum total protein and albumin levels were significantly decreased at the same period in the same groups. Addition of vitamin E and C to the diet (groups 4 and 5) significantly improved all measured parameters compared with groups (2 and 3) which treated with ZnONPs only. PMID:26288558

  16. Sublethal concentrations of di-n-butyl phthalate promote biochemical changes and DNA damage in juvenile Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Samah R; Abd Elhakim, Yasser; El-Murr, Abd Elhakeem

    2016-02-01

    Increase in consumption of consumer items such as plasticizers have resulted in a sharp rise in the presence of xenobiotics like phthalic acid esters (PEs) in freshwater and marine environments due to contaminated runoff and improper release of effluents. The sublethal toxicity of Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) was investigated in juvenile Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, in an attempt to determine the biological effect of exposure to 1/2 and 1/3 median lethal concentration (96-h LC50) which, in our study was experimentally determined to be 11.8 mg/l. Following four days of exposure, indices of the oxidative potential [Malondialdehyde content (MDA)], antioxidant parameters [superoxide dismutase activity (SOD) and reduced glutathione level (GSH)] and DNA damage were evaluated by single-cell gel electrophoresis (Comet assay). Hepato-renal markers [alanine aminotransferase activity (ALT), creatinine and urea level] and cortisol levels were also quantified in serum. Additionally, histopathological investigations of liver, kidney and gill tissues were conducted. Comparative results between the 1/2 96-h LC50 group and the 1/3 96-h LC50 group clearly showed that there was a significant elevation in MDA levels and a marked increase in DNA damage in addition to inhibition of antioxidant barriers as represented by attenuation of SOD activity and GSH level in the group that was exposed to higher concentration of DBP (1/2 96-h LC50). The hepatorenal markers and cortisol levels were also observed to be elevated. Histopathological examination of the liver, kidney and gills showed pathological alterations that could be correlated with changes in the biochemical profile of the exposed fish. Additionally, anomalous clinical signs were noted. Based on these findings, we conclude from our study that exposure of juvenile O. niloticus to DBP has the potential to induce biochemical as well as tissue morphological alterations associated with oxidative injury and DNA damage. PMID:27348890

  17. Hematological and biochemical investigations on the effect of vitamin E and C on Oreochromis niloticus exposed to zinc oxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkaladi, Ali; El-Deen, Nasr A M Nasr; Afifi, Mohamed; Zinadah, Osama A Abu

    2015-09-01

    This study was carried out to determine the LC50 of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) on Oreochromis niloticus and to investigate the effect of vitamin E and C on hematological and biochemical alterations induced by two sublethal concentrations (1 and 2 mg/L) of ZnONPs. One hundred and eighty fish were used for studying the lethal concentrations of ZnONPs. For sublethal study two hundred and twenty-five males of O. niloticus were equally divided into five groups, control, the second and the third were treated with 1 and 2 mg/L ZnONPs respectively. The fourth and fifth were exposed to the same concentrations of ZnONPs plus vitamins E and C. The results revealed that the 96 h LC50 of ZnONPs was 3.1 ± 0.4 mg/L. The sublethal study revealed the presence of normocytic normochromic anemia in groups (2, 3 and 5) along the experiment period. The 4th group showed normocytic normochromic anemia at the 7th day and microcytic hypochromic anemia at the 15th day. Leukocytosis, heterophilia, lymphopenia and monocytopenia were recorded at the 7th day in all treated groups compared with the normal control. At the 15th day heteropenia, lymphopenia and monocytopenia were reported in all treated groups. A significant increase in the serum levels of alkaline phosphatase, aminotransferases, urea, creatinine and erythrocytic nuclear and morphological abnormalities along the experimental periods in all treated groups compared with the normal control. Serum total protein and albumin levels were significantly decreased at the same period in the same groups. Addition of vitamin E and C to the diet (groups 4 and 5) significantly improved all measured parameters compared with groups (2 and 3) which treated with ZnONPs only. PMID:26288558

  18. Toxicity evaluation of copper oxide bulk and nanoparticles in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, using hematological, bioaccumulation and histological biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Khalek, Amr A; Badran, Shereen R; Marie, Mohamed-Assem S

    2016-08-01

    The increased industrial applications of nanoparticles (NPs) augment the possibility of their deposition into aquatic ecosystems and threatening the aquatic life. So, this study aimed to provide a comparable toxicological effects of nano-CuO and bulk CuO on a common freshwater fish, Oreochromis niloticus. Fish were exposed to two selected doses (1/10 and 1/20 of the LC50/96 h) of both nano-/bulk CuO for 30 days. Based on the studied hematological parameters (RBCs count, hemoglobin content and hematocrit%), the two selected concentrations of CuO in their nano- and bulk sizes were found to induce significant decrease in all studied parameters. But, nano-CuO-treated fish showed the maximum decrease in all recorded parameters among the all studied groups especially at the low concentration of 1/20 LC50/96 h. Hematological status was also confirmed using the calculated blood indices (MCV, MHC and MCHC). In case of bulk CuO-treated groups, the significant decrease in the studied hematological parameters was not followed by any change in MCV and MCH (normocytic anemia), while fish that exposed to NPs showed a significant increase in all calculated blood parameters reflecting erythrocytes swelling which is related to the intracellular osmotic disorders (macrocytic anemia). Regarding metal bioaccumulation factor, the results showed that CuO NPs had more efficiency to internalize fish tissues (liver, kidneys, gills, skin and muscle). The accumulation pattern of Cu metal was ensured by histopathological investigation of liver, kidneys and gills. The histopathological analysis revealed various alterations that varied between adaptation responses and permanent tissue damage.

  19. Toxicity evaluation of copper oxide bulk and nanoparticles in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, using hematological, bioaccumulation and histological biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Khalek, Amr A; Badran, Shereen R; Marie, Mohamed-Assem S

    2016-08-01

    The increased industrial applications of nanoparticles (NPs) augment the possibility of their deposition into aquatic ecosystems and threatening the aquatic life. So, this study aimed to provide a comparable toxicological effects of nano-CuO and bulk CuO on a common freshwater fish, Oreochromis niloticus. Fish were exposed to two selected doses (1/10 and 1/20 of the LC50/96 h) of both nano-/bulk CuO for 30 days. Based on the studied hematological parameters (RBCs count, hemoglobin content and hematocrit%), the two selected concentrations of CuO in their nano- and bulk sizes were found to induce significant decrease in all studied parameters. But, nano-CuO-treated fish showed the maximum decrease in all recorded parameters among the all studied groups especially at the low concentration of 1/20 LC50/96 h. Hematological status was also confirmed using the calculated blood indices (MCV, MHC and MCHC). In case of bulk CuO-treated groups, the significant decrease in the studied hematological parameters was not followed by any change in MCV and MCH (normocytic anemia), while fish that exposed to NPs showed a significant increase in all calculated blood parameters reflecting erythrocytes swelling which is related to the intracellular osmotic disorders (macrocytic anemia). Regarding metal bioaccumulation factor, the results showed that CuO NPs had more efficiency to internalize fish tissues (liver, kidneys, gills, skin and muscle). The accumulation pattern of Cu metal was ensured by histopathological investigation of liver, kidneys and gills. The histopathological analysis revealed various alterations that varied between adaptation responses and permanent tissue damage. PMID:26947705

  20. Mechanical and thermal properties of irradiated films based on Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabato, S.F. [Radiation Technology Center, IPEN-CNEN/SP, Av. Lineu Prestes 2242, 05508 900 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: sfsabato@ipen.br; Nakamurakare, N.; Sobral, P.J.A. [Food Engineering Department, ZEA/FZEA/USP, Av. Duque de Caxias Norte 225, 13635 900 Pirassununga, SP (Brazil)

    2007-11-15

    Proteins are considered potential material in natural films as alternative to traditional packaging. When gamma radiation is applied to protein film forming solution it resulted in an improvement in mechanical properties of whey protein films. The objective of this work was the characterization of mechanical and thermal properties of irradiated films based on muscle proteins from Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The films were prepared according to a casting technique with two levels of plasticizer: 25% and 45% glycerol and irradiated in electron accelerator type Radiation Dynamics, 0.550 MeV at dose range from 0 to 200 kGy. Thermal properties and mechanical properties were determined using a differential scanning calorimeter and a texture analyzer, respectively. Radiation from electron beam caused a slightly increase on its tensile strength characteristic at 100 kGy, while elongation value at this dose had no reduction.

  1. Mechanical and thermal properties of irradiated films based on Tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus) proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabato, S. F.; Nakamurakare, N.; Sobral, P. J. A.

    2007-11-01

    Proteins are considered potential material in natural films as alternative to traditional packaging. When gamma radiation is applied to protein film forming solution it resulted in an improvement in mechanical properties of whey protein films. The objective of this work was the characterization of mechanical and thermal properties of irradiated films based on muscle proteins from Nile Tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus). The films were prepared according to a casting technique with two levels of plasticizer: 25% and 45% glycerol and irradiated in electron accelerator type Radiation Dynamics, 0.550 MeV at dose range from 0 to 200 kGy. Thermal properties and mechanical properties were determined using a differential scanning calorimeter and a texture analyzer, respectively. Radiation from electron beam caused a slightly increase on its tensile strength characteristic at 100 kGy, while elongation value at this dose had no reduction.

  2. Phosphorous digestibility and activity of intestinal phytase in hybrid tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus X O. aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Vorgna, M.W.; Hafez, Y.; Hughes, S.G.; Handwerker, T.

    2003-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine the degree to which phytate-bound phosphorus from plant protein sources could be used by hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus X O. aureus). Utilizing an inert marker technique with chromic oxide, hybrid tilapia in our study were effective at utilizing both inorganic and phytate phosphorus as evidenced by average apparent digestibility values of 93.2% and 90.0% for total and phytate phosphorus, respectively. Analysis of the intestinal brush border membrane of the tilapia revealed enzyme activity that was capable of hydrolyzing phytic acid. The presence of phytic acid hydrolyzing enzyme activity in the intestinal brush border provides a probable mechanism by which these hybrid tilapia are able to utilize phytate phosphorus effectively. ?? 2003 by The Haworth Press, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Mechanical and thermal properties of irradiated films based on Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proteins are considered potential material in natural films as alternative to traditional packaging. When gamma radiation is applied to protein film forming solution it resulted in an improvement in mechanical properties of whey protein films. The objective of this work was the characterization of mechanical and thermal properties of irradiated films based on muscle proteins from Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The films were prepared according to a casting technique with two levels of plasticizer: 25% and 45% glycerol and irradiated in electron accelerator type Radiation Dynamics, 0.550 MeV at dose range from 0 to 200 kGy. Thermal properties and mechanical properties were determined using a differential scanning calorimeter and a texture analyzer, respectively. Radiation from electron beam caused a slightly increase on its tensile strength characteristic at 100 kGy, while elongation value at this dose had no reduction

  4. Depletion of florfenicol amine, marker residue of florfenicol, from the edible fillet of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus x O. niloticus and O. niloticus x O. aureus) following florfenicol administration in feed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaikowski, M.P.; Mushtaq, M.; Cassidy, P.; Meinertz, J.R.; Schleis, S.M.; Sweeney, D.; Endris, R.G.

    2010-01-01

    Aquaflor??, a 50% feed premix containing the broad spectrum antibacterial agent florfenicol is available globally to control mortality associated with economically significant systemic bacterial diseases of fish. Florfenicol (FFC) is effective in controlling mortality associated with Streptococcus iniae in tilapia Oreochromis sp. when administered in medicated feed at a dose of 15 mg/kg bodyweight (BW)/d for 10 consecutive days. Our objective was to characterize the depletion of the FFC marker residue, florfenicol amine (FFA), from the edible tissue of market-weight Nile tilapia O. niloticus x O. niloticus and hybrid tilapia O. niloticus x O. aureus offered feed medicated with FFC at a nominal dose rate of 15 mg/kg BW/d for 12 days. Near market-weight tilapia were obtained from a commercial tilapia farm, distributed to 2 single pass (one for Nile tilapia and one for hybrid tilapia), flow-through systems and maintained at 27 ??C under a 15 h light:9 h dark photoperiod over a 41-d pre-dosing period. During the dosing period, tilapia were offered feed medicated with FFC at a concentration of 1.479 g/kg at 1% BW daily divided in three equal offerings. The initial 10-d dosing period was extended to 12 d because one tank did not consume > 75% of the feed offered during the first two dosing days. The total dose consumed by fish in each of the 2 tanks ranged from 147 to 167 mg/kg. Once during the pre-dose period and on days 1, 2, 4, 7, 14, 21, and 28 of the post-dose period, groups of fish were indiscriminately removed from each tank, measured for weight and length, scaled, filleted, and the skin-on fillets stored at <-70 ??C. Frozen fillets were individually homogenized, extracted, and FFA concentration was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection. Florfenicol amine is rapidly eliminated from tilapia fillet after withdrawal from medication and depletion followed first-order kinetics with an estimated half-life of 2.32 d. The FFA tolerance

  5. Two Myxobolus spp. infecting the kidney of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in the River Nile at Beni-Suef governorate, Egypt, and the associated renal changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Baki, Abdel-Azeem S; Abdel-Haleem, Heba M; Sakran, Thabet; Zayed, Eman; Ibrahim, Khalid E; Al-Quraishy, Saleh

    2015-03-01

    Two Myxobolus spp. are described from the kidney of the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) collected from the River Nile, Egypt. The prevalence of infection was 61 % (47/77), with the infected fish in each case parasitized by the two Myxobolus species simultaneously. The infection was exhibited as free spores in Bowman capsules and renal glomeruli, which makes their original structures difficult to discern. In some cases, the infection appeared as a fibrous plasmodia-like structure containing degenerated developmental stages and spores in the interstitium. The paper identifies each species based on the morphological characteristics of its spores and identifies the histological impacts of Myxobolus infection in this species of fish. PMID:25566769

  6. Effects of irradiation and refrigeration on the nutrients and shelf-life of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus);Efeitos da irradiacao e refrigeracao na qualidade e no valor nutritivo da tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siqueira, Alessandra Aparecida Zilio Cozzo de

    2001-07-01

    The objective of this study is to enhance the shelf-life of processed fish, combining ionizing radiation and refrigeration with minimal processing. The physical, chemical, nutritional and microbiological characteristics of the specie Tilapia nilotica (Oreochromis niloticus) were studied in eviscerated samples and in commercial cuts. The fish were separated into samples irradiated with 1.0, 2.2 and 5 kGy and non-irradiated samples. They were stored at temperatures ranging from 0.5 deg C to -2 deg C for 20 and 30 days. During storage, the level of moisture in the non-irradiated samples decreased and the levels of protein and lipid increased while the irradiated samples remained stable. The levels of pH, TVB-N and NPN increased in the non-irradiated samples but tended to remain stable in the irradiated fish samples. During storage, microbiological analyses for the presence of coliforms proved the efficiency of the irradiation process. The irradiated samples had a microbiological content below the levels established by the Brazilian seafood legislation, whereas the non-irradiated samples had a higher microbiological content and were not in conformity with the officially permitted levels. Salmonella spp. and Staphylococcus aureus were not detected. The levels of amino acids in muscles and fatty acids in oil remained stable in the irradiated fish stored samples but decreased in the non-irradiated ones. Lipid-oxidation, measured by the TBARS test, showed a tendency to increase when the dose of irradiation increased. The storage products after 30 days showed good acceptability for sensorial parameters, appearance, odour, color and texture, so it is possible to increase the shelf life of a minimally processed tilapia using combined irradiation and refrigeration. (author)

  7. Molecular structure, distribution, and immunology function of TNFSF13B (BAFF) in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongzhen; Zhang, Jiaxin; Li, Jianfeng; Song, Jinyun; Zhang, Shuangquan

    2016-04-01

    B cell-activating factor (BAFF)is a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family and plays roles in B cell survival and maturation. In this study, the full-length cDNA of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) BAFF (tBAFF) was amplified from the spleen by reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR). The open reading frame of this cDNA encodes a protein of 261 amino acids containing a predicted transmembrane domain and a furin protease cleavage site, similar to mammalian, avian, and reptile BAFF. Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis revealed that tBAFF is present in various tissues and is predominantly expressed in the spleen. The predicted three-dimensional (3D) structure of the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) soluble BAFF (tsBAFF) monomer was determined by (3D) structure modeling monomeranalyzed by (3D) structure mouse counterpart. Both tsBAFF and EGFP/tsBAFF were efficiently expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3), as confirmed by SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis. After purification, the EGFP/tsBAFF fusion protein showed a fluorescence spectrum similar to that of EGFP. Laser scanning confocal microscopy showed that EGFP/tsBAFF bound to its receptor. In vitro, tsBAFF promoted the proliferation of Nile tilapia and mouse splenic B cells together with/without a priming agent (Staphylococcus aureus Cowan 1, SAC) or anti-mouse IgM. Furthermore, tsBAFF showed a similar proliferation-stimulating effect on mouse B cells compared to msBAFF. These findings indicate that tsBAFF plays an important role in the proliferation of Nile tilapia B cells and has functional cross-reactivity among Nile tilapia and mammals. Therefore, BAFF may represent a useful factor for enhancing immunological efficacy in animals.

  8. Molecular structure, distribution, and immunology function of TNFSF13B (BAFF) in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongzhen; Zhang, Jiaxin; Li, Jianfeng; Song, Jinyun; Zhang, Shuangquan

    2016-04-01

    B cell-activating factor (BAFF)is a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family and plays roles in B cell survival and maturation. In this study, the full-length cDNA of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) BAFF (tBAFF) was amplified from the spleen by reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR). The open reading frame of this cDNA encodes a protein of 261 amino acids containing a predicted transmembrane domain and a furin protease cleavage site, similar to mammalian, avian, and reptile BAFF. Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis revealed that tBAFF is present in various tissues and is predominantly expressed in the spleen. The predicted three-dimensional (3D) structure of the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) soluble BAFF (tsBAFF) monomer was determined by (3D) structure modeling monomeranalyzed by (3D) structure mouse counterpart. Both tsBAFF and EGFP/tsBAFF were efficiently expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3), as confirmed by SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis. After purification, the EGFP/tsBAFF fusion protein showed a fluorescence spectrum similar to that of EGFP. Laser scanning confocal microscopy showed that EGFP/tsBAFF bound to its receptor. In vitro, tsBAFF promoted the proliferation of Nile tilapia and mouse splenic B cells together with/without a priming agent (Staphylococcus aureus Cowan 1, SAC) or anti-mouse IgM. Furthermore, tsBAFF showed a similar proliferation-stimulating effect on mouse B cells compared to msBAFF. These findings indicate that tsBAFF plays an important role in the proliferation of Nile tilapia B cells and has functional cross-reactivity among Nile tilapia and mammals. Therefore, BAFF may represent a useful factor for enhancing immunological efficacy in animals. PMID:26915306

  9. The Effects of Some Phytobiotics on Biochemical Composition of Oreochromis Niloticus Meat Reared in a Recirculating Aquaculture System

    OpenAIRE

    Alina Antache; Cristea Victor; Grecu Iulia; Dediu Lorena; Mocanu (Cretu) Mirela; Ion (Placinta) Sandita; Petrea Stefan Mihai

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment is the evaluation of biochemical composition of Nile tilapia meat by administrating  several phytobiotics in feed. Oreochromis niloticus, with an initial average weight of 125.41±34.33 g/exemplar, were reared, during six weeks in a recirculating aquaculture system. The phytobiotics from this experiment were administered in feed in a concentration of 1%/kg feed and consist in: thyme (Thymus vulgaris), fenugreek (Trigonela foenum graecum), neem (Azadirachta indica...

  10. Human Streptococcus agalactiae isolate in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streptococcus agalactiae, the Lancefield group B Streptococcus (GBS), long recognized as a mammalian pathogen, is an emerging pathogen to fish. We show that a GBS serotype Ia, multilocus sequence type ST-7 isolate from a human neonatal meningitis clinical case causes disease signs and mortality in N...

  11. Parasite community of wild and cultured Oreochromis niloticus from Lake Manzalah, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mohamed M; Soliman, Maha F M

    2011-12-01

    A total of 323 O. niloticus (168 wild fishes and 155 cultured fishes) were collected from Lake Manzala, Egypt from July to September 2010. The fish samples were examined for both ectoparasites and endoparasites. The parasite community of wild and cultured, O. niloticus consisted of ten parasitic species, one protozoon (Trichodina spp.), six monogenea (Cichlidogyrus sclerosus, C. thurstonae, C. halli typicus, C. tilapiae, C. ergensi, C. tiberianus), one acanthocephalan (Acanthogyrus (Acanthosentis) tilapiae) and two crustacean species (Lernaea cyprinacea and Ergasilus sp.). Mean parasite species richness significantly differed between wild (4.9 +/- 0.3) and cultured (6.6 +/- 0.8). The overall prevalence of infection in cultured O. niloticus (54.84%) was significantly higher as compared to that in wild fish (39.9%). The most prevalent parasite was C. thurstonae (37.46%) and C. sclerosus (35.91%) while the less prevalent one was Ergasilus sp. (14.55%). Host sex and host body size significantly affect parasitism in most parasite species. PMID:22435161

  12. 罗非鱼饲料中花生粕和发酵花生粕替代鱼粉的效果研究%Replacement of fish meal with peanut meal and fermented peanut meal in diets of tilapia Oreochromis niloticus × O. aureus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李百安; 冷向军; 李小勤; 姚文祥; 蔡国林; 陆健

    2016-01-01

    为探究花生粕在罗非鱼饲料中的合理应用,分别以花生粕、发酵花生粕替代基础饲料(6%鱼粉,对照组)中鱼粉用量的1/3、2/3和3/3,制成7组饲料,在网箱(2.50 m×1.25 m×1.20 m)中饲养体质量为(68.0±0.4) g的奥尼罗非鱼Oreochromis niloticus×O. aureus 8周,考察其对鱼体生长性能、肌肉常规成分、氨基酸组成和消化道蛋白酶活性的影响。结果表明:当花生粕替代1/3鱼粉,发酵花生粕替代1/3、2/3鱼粉用量时,对鱼体增重率和饲料系数无显著影响( P>0.05);当花生粕替代2/3、3/3鱼粉,发酵花生粕替代3/3鱼粉用量时,鱼体增重率显著下降(P0.05);当花生粕替代2/3和3/3鱼粉用量时,鱼体胃蛋白酶活性显著降低(P0.05),各处理组罗非鱼的肠蛋白酶活性无显著性差异(P>0.05)。研究表明,在鱼粉含量为6%的奥尼罗非鱼饲料中,花生粕可替代鱼粉用量的1/3,发酵花生粕可替代鱼粉用量的2/3。%A 8-week feeding trial was conducted to investigate the influence of replacing fish meal by peanut meal and fermented peanut meal in diets on the growth performance, muscle composition ( including amino acid composi-tion) and protease activity in tilapia Oreochromis niloticus×O. aureus. The tilapia with body weight of 68. 0 g were reared in net cages (2. 50 m×1. 25 m×1. 20 m) disposed in tanks (5. 0 m×3. 0 m×1. 20 m) and fed seven isoni-trogenous diets,one control diet containing 6% fish meal, and six fish meal substituted diets in which fish meal was substituted by peanut meal and fermented peanut meal at a rate of 1/3 , 2/3 , and 3/3 . The results showed that there were no significant differences in weight gain ( WG) and feed conversion ratio ( FCR) in the fish fed the diets replacement of 1/3 fish meal by peanut meal, or the replacement of 1/3 and 2/3 fish meal by fermented peanut meal (P>0. 05). However, the tilapia fed the diets replacement of 2/3 and 3/3 fish meal by peanut meal, or the replacement

  13. Use of fish processing waste as protein source in diet for Nile tilapia (Orechromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chotipuntu, P.

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Five diets were prepared using fish processing waste meal (FMFP to replace fish meal (FM at inclusion levels of 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100%. Frog diet was used as a control diet. Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus were reared in laboratory conditions for 8 weeks. It was found that substitution levels of protein from FMFP in the tested diets reduced growth and feed efficiency of tilapia (p<0.05. However, the differences looks like significant trend especially that between the 100% substitution level and the frog diet. Substitution of FM by FMFD at 75% reduced cost of feed by 15.35%. It was concluded that up to 75% inclusion of FMFD in the diet of tilapia could support normal growth of Nile tilapia with the potential for substitution of FM.

  14. The impact of gillnet mesh sizes on Oreochromis niloticus: a proposed management strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Kamanyi, J.R.; Okaronon, J.O.

    1986-01-01

    Gillnets are popularly used in commercial fishing on both Lake kioga and lake Victoria. On Lake kioga the legal mesh size is from 4½ (114) upwards while on Lake Victoria, a multifishery lake, various mesh sizes are in operation. However, the fishermen on these lakes still use the smaller meshes to be able to harvest certain categories of fish especially Oreochromis species group whose catch rates are already on the decline due to either use of small mesh size nets, high fishing pressure and t...

  15. Biochemical biomarkers in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) after short-term exposure to diesel oil, pure biodiesel and biodiesel blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Lílian; Sanches, Ana Letícia Madeira; da Silva, Danilo Grünig Humberto; Ferrizi, Vítor Cid; Moreira, Altair Benedito; de Almeida, Eduardo Alves

    2011-09-01

    Fossil fuels such as diesel are being gradually replaced by biodiesel, a renewable energy source, cheaper and less polluting. However, little is known about the toxic effects of this new energy source on aquatic organisms. Thus, we evaluated biochemical biomarkers related to oxidative stress in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) after two and seven exposure days to diesel and pure biodiesel (B100) and blends B5 and B20 at concentrations of 0.01 and 0.1 mL L(-1). The hepatic ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity was highly induced in all groups, except for those animals exposed to B100. There was an increase in lipid peroxidation in liver and gills in the group exposed to the higher concentration of B5. All treatments caused a significant increase in the levels of 1-hydroxypyrene excreted in the bile after 2 and 7d, except for those fish exposed to B100. The hepatic glutathione-S-transferase increased after 7d in animals exposed to the higher concentration of diesel and in the gill of fish exposed to the higher concentration of pure diesel and B5, but decreased for the two tested concentrations of B100. Superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase also presented significant changes according to the treatments for all groups, including B100. Biodiesel B20 in the conditions tested had fewer adverse effects than diesel and B5 for the Nile tilapia, and can be suggested as a less harmful fuel in substitution to diesel. However, even B100 could activate biochemical responses in fish, at the experimental conditions tested, indicating that this fuel can also represent a risk to the aquatic biota. PMID:21683976

  16. Effect of the establishment of dominance relationships on cortisol and other metabolic parameters in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus

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    Corrêa S.A.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to investigate the influence of the establishment of dominance relationships and social stress on plasma cortisol and metabolite levels in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus. During the 30-day experiment, the fish weighing 236 ± 29 g were kept in individual aquaria, except for two pairings lasting 6 h each. Blood samples were taken from the animals before and after pairing. Display, approach, attack, rebuff, chase flight, and coloration were carried out on days 16 and 30. Activities and behaviors characteristic of the establishment of dominance relationships were described. It was possible to classify all experimental fish (N = 30 as dominant or subordinate. No differences were detected between dominant (N = 15 and subordinate (N = 15 fish during isolation or after pairing in cortisol (isolated: 5.76 ± 0.98 vs 5.42 ± 0.63; paired: 10.94 ± 1.62 vs 11.21 ± 2.45 µg/dl, glucose (isolated: 60.02 ± 4.9 vs 67.85 ± 16.16; paired: 110.44 ± 15.72 vs 136.26 ± 22.46 mg/dl, triglyceride (isolated: 167.87 ± 5.06 vs 185.68 ± 7.24; paired: 210.85 ± 13.40 vs 221.82 ± 12.70 mg/dl or total protein levels (isolated: 7.01 ± 0.42 vs 6.69 ± 0.59; paired: 9.21 ± 0.62 vs 9.51 ± 0.66 g/dl. However, when isolated (N = 30 and paired (N = 30 tilapia were compared, there were significant differences in cortisol and metabolite levels. The similar response presented by dominant and subordinate tilapia indicates that establishment of dominance relationships was a stressor for both groups.

  17. Characterization of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) gonadotropins by modeling and immunoneutralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizen, Joseph; Kowalsman, Noga; Niv, Masha Y; Levavi-Sivan, Berta

    2014-10-01

    In fish, both follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) play important roles in reproduction. Here we explored the structure and differential specificity of tilapia (t) gonadotropins (GTHs) to delineate their physiological relevance and the nature of their regulation. We generated structural models of tGTHs and GTH receptors (R) that enabled us to better understand the hormone-receptor interacting region. In tilapia, FSH release is under the control of the hypothalamic decapeptide GnRH, an effect that was abolished by specific bioneutralizing antisera [anti-recombinant (r) tFSHβ]. These antisera also reduced the basal secretion and delayed GnRH-stimulated production of 11-ketotestosterone (11KT), and dramatically reduced LH levels. Immunoneutralization of tLH using anti-rtLHβ significantly reduced its GnRH-stimulated levels. Basal 11KT and FSH levels were also reduced. Taken together, these results suggest a feedback mechanism between FSH and LH release in tilapia. PMID:24954479

  18. Comprehensive identification and profiling of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) microRNAs response to Streptococcus agalactiae infection through high-throughput sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bei; Gan, Zhen; Cai, Shuanghu; Wang, Zhongliang; Yu, Dapeng; Lin, Ziwei; Lu, Yishan; Wu, Zaohe; Jian, Jichang

    2016-07-01

    MicroRNAs are a kind of small non-coding RNAs that participate in various biological processes. Deregulated microRNA expression is associated with several types of diseases. Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) is an important commercial fish species in China. To identify miRNAs and investigate immune-related miRNAs of O. niloticus, we applied high-throughput sequencing technology to identify and analyze miRNAs from tilapia infected with Streptococcus agalactiae at a timescale of 72 h divided into six different time points. The results showed that a total of 3009 tilapia miRNAs were identified, including in 1121 miRNAs which have homologues in the currently available databases and 1878 novel miRNAs. The expression levels of 218 tilapia miRNAs were significantly altered at 6 h-72 h post-bacterial infection (pi), and these miRNAs were therefore classified as differentially expressed tilapia miRNAs. For the 1121 differentially expressed tilapia miRNAs target 41961 genes. GO and KEGG enrichment analysis revealed that some target genes of tilapia miRNAs were grouped mainly into the categories of apoptotic process, signal pathway, and immune response. This is the first report of comprehensive identification of O. niloticus miRNAs being differentially regulated in spleen in normal conditions relating to S. agalactiae infection. This work provides an opportunity for further understanding of the molecular mechanisms of miRNA regulation in O. niloticus host-pathogen interactions.

  19. Comprehensive identification and profiling of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) microRNAs response to Streptococcus agalactiae infection through high-throughput sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bei; Gan, Zhen; Cai, Shuanghu; Wang, Zhongliang; Yu, Dapeng; Lin, Ziwei; Lu, Yishan; Wu, Zaohe; Jian, Jichang

    2016-07-01

    MicroRNAs are a kind of small non-coding RNAs that participate in various biological processes. Deregulated microRNA expression is associated with several types of diseases. Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) is an important commercial fish species in China. To identify miRNAs and investigate immune-related miRNAs of O. niloticus, we applied high-throughput sequencing technology to identify and analyze miRNAs from tilapia infected with Streptococcus agalactiae at a timescale of 72 h divided into six different time points. The results showed that a total of 3009 tilapia miRNAs were identified, including in 1121 miRNAs which have homologues in the currently available databases and 1878 novel miRNAs. The expression levels of 218 tilapia miRNAs were significantly altered at 6 h-72 h post-bacterial infection (pi), and these miRNAs were therefore classified as differentially expressed tilapia miRNAs. For the 1121 differentially expressed tilapia miRNAs target 41961 genes. GO and KEGG enrichment analysis revealed that some target genes of tilapia miRNAs were grouped mainly into the categories of apoptotic process, signal pathway, and immune response. This is the first report of comprehensive identification of O. niloticus miRNAs being differentially regulated in spleen in normal conditions relating to S. agalactiae infection. This work provides an opportunity for further understanding of the molecular mechanisms of miRNA regulation in O. niloticus host-pathogen interactions. PMID:27050313

  20. Identification of bioactive peptide from Oreochromis niloticus skin gelatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choonpicharn, Sadabpong; Tateing, Suriya; Jaturasitha, Sanchai; Rakariyatham, Nuansri; Suree, Nuttee; Niamsup, Hataichanoke

    2016-02-01

    Fish skin, one type of wastes generated from Nile tilapia processing, is still a good source of collagen and gelatin. Bioactive peptides can be obtained from Nile tilapia skin gelatin by trypsin digestion. Trypsin hydrolysate was subsequently purified by gel filtration chromatography. Trypsin A fraction showed the greatest reducing power (5.138 ± 1.060 μM trolox/mg peptide) among all hydrolysate fractions, while trypsin B fraction from gel filtration column was found to exhibit the best radical scavenging and angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activities 8.16 ± 2.18 μg trolox/mg peptide and 59.32 ± 9.97 % inhibition, respectively. The most active fraction was subjected to MALDI-TOF/TOF MS/MS. After annotation by Mascot sequence matching software (Matrix Science) with Ludwig NR Database, two peptide sequences were identified; GPEGPAGAR (MW 810.87 Da) and GETGPAGPAGAAGPAGPR (MW 1490.61 Da). The docking analysis suggested that the shape of the shorter peptide may be slightly more proper, to fit into the binding cleft of the ACE. However, the binding affinities calculated from the docking showed no significant difference between the two peptides. In good agreement with the in silico data, results from the in vitro ACE inhibitory activity with synthetic peptides also showed no significant difference. Both peptides are thus interesting novel candidates suitable for further development as ACE inhibitory and antioxidant agents from the natural source. PMID:27162402

  1. Biochemical and cellularchanges in Oreochromis niloticus related to the water pollution of a degraded river - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v35i3.13207

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    Ary Gomes da Silva

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The effects of polluted water at three sites in the Marinho River, Brazil, on Oreochromis niloticus (Nile tilápia were investigated using histological, hematological and biochemical approaches. Fish exposed to the impacted water demonstrated that histological changes in gills were accompanied by nuclear and micronuclei abnormalities in cells. The activity of liver and plasma biomarkers (alkaline phosphatase (ALP, acid phosphatase (ACP, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST and liver glutathione S-transferase (GST showed an expressive change due to the. The results were also correlated with the highest levels of Cu+2, Zn+2 and Mn+2 in the water. The data of this study evidenced the importance of using a set of biomarkers to quantify pollution in lentic ecosystems. Additionally, histological analyses of gills and erythrocytes have proven to be an important instrument for signaling the impact of pollutants in rivers.  

  2. An outbreak of granulomatous inflammation associated with Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis in farmed tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus × O. aureus) in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qiang; Li, Ningqiu; Fu, Xiaozhe; Hu, Qiandong; Chang, Ouqin; Liu, Lihui; Zhang, Defeng; Wang, Guangjun; San, Guibao; Wu, Shuqin

    2016-05-01

    In 2013, a novel disease was detected in tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus × O. aureus) in Guangzhou, South China. To identify the causative pathogen, we conducted histological examination, bacteria isolation, and purification, and sequenced the 16S rRNA gene of isolates. Infected fish had a large number of white granulomas in the kidney, liver, heart, and spleen. The head kidney and spleen were markedly swollen. A bacterium strain designated as gz201301 was recovered from the spleen of infected tilapia. The 16S rRNA sequence of gz201301 revealed that it was highly similar to F. noatunensis subsp. orientalis. This is the first report of a Francisella-like infection in farmed tilapia in China.

  3. Comportamento alimentar da tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus frente a diferentes ingredientes alimentares Alimentary ingredients and the feeding behavior of Nile tilápia (Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elyara Maria Pereira-da-Silva

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliadas as respostas comportamentais da tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus frente a 14 ingredientes utilizados na alimentação de peixes: farinhas de carne, de peixe, de crisálidas, de camarão, de girassol, de algodão e de mandioca, ovo integral liofilizado, levedura de cana-de-açúcar, farelos de soja e de trigo, glúten de milho, fubá de milho e raspa de mandioca. O método utilizado foi de dupla escolha, comparando-se cada ingrediente peletizado a uma ração denominada controle. Foram empregados quatro aquários (750 litros, contendo, cada um, três alevinos e dois comedouros instalados nos cantos direito e esquerdo, sendo registradas as respostas dos animais para cada ingrediente, separadamente. Concluiu-se que as respostas comportamentais da tilápia variam de acordo com o ingrediente oferecido e que parece existir uma correlação positiva entre o grau de atrato-palatabilidade de um ingrediente e a ocorrência de confrontos agonísticos entre os indivíduos. Sugere-se que ingredientes classificados como de alta atrato-palatabilidade (farinhas de crisálidas, de peixe, de carne, de camarão e ovo liofilizado integral sejam adicionados às dietas especiais para peixes, visando ao aumento da ingestão alimentar nos períodos pré-invernais, situações de estresse ou estados patológicos.Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus responses to attractivity and taste of fourteen food ingredients, here classified as animal sources (shrimp, fish, silkworm and meat meal, integral lyophilized egg and sugar-cane-yeast, vegetable protein sources (maize gluten, soybean bran, sunflower meal and cotton bran and energetics (maize flour, manioc scraping, manioc bran and wheat bran were investigated. These ingredients were compared to a control diet, using a two-choice method. Four 750 liters aquaria stocked with three fries each and two feeders installed respectively at the right and left corner where used to register the responses of the

  4. Pharmacokinetic study of enrofloxacin in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) after a single oral administration in medicated feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teles, J A; Castello Branco, L C; Del Bianchi, M; Pilarski, F; Reyes, F G R

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the disposition kinetics of enrofloxacin (ENR) in the plasma and its distribution in the muscle tissue of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) after a single oral dose of 10 mg/kg body weight via medicated feed. The fish were kept at a temperature between 28 and 30 °C. The collection period was between 30 min and 120 h after administration of the drug. The samples were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography with a fluorescence detector (HPLC-FLD). The ENR was slowly absorbed and eliminated from the plasma (Cmax = 1.24 ± 0.37 μg/mL; Tmax = 8 h; T1/2Ke  = 19.36 h). ENR was efficiently distributed in the muscle tissue and reached maximum values (2.17 ± 0.74 μg/g) after 8 h. Its metabolite, ciprofloxacin (CIP), was detected and quantified in the plasma (0.004 ± 0.005 μg/mL) and muscle (0.01 ± 0.011 μg/g) for up to 48 h. After oral administration, the mean concentration of ENR in the plasma was well above the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC50 ) for most bacteria already isolated from fish except for Streptococcus spp. This way the dose used in this study allowed for concentrations in the blood to treat the diseases of tilapia. PMID:26270353

  5. EVALUATION OF TWO PRODUCES FROM BYPRODUCT OF TILAPIA AS REPLACEMENTS OF PERU FISH MEAL IN PRACTICAL DIETS OF JUVENILE TILAPIA (OREOCHROMIS NILOTICUS×O.AUREUS)%2种罗非鱼加工下脚料产物替代秘鲁鱼粉养殖奥尼罗非鱼(Oreochromis niloticus×O.aureus)稚鱼效果评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭淇; 王斐; 吴彬; 杨丽萍; 张雨晴; 冯健

    2014-01-01

    采用传统养殖试验方法进行了评价罗非鱼加工下脚料制备的2种产物替代秘鲁鱼粉在奥尼罗非鱼(Oreochromis niloticus×O.auFeuS)稚鱼实用日粮中的效果研究.实验设计了3种等蛋白质(33.8%)、等能量(16.50MJ/kg)左右的实用实验日粮,对照组与试验组1、2日粮中分别添加秘鲁鱼粉、罗非鱼加工下脚料产物制备的酶解小肽和鱼粉.实验结果表明,实验期间(63d)各实验组鱼均无死亡;添加罗非鱼鱼粉组鱼的特定生长率和饲料效益均显著性低于秘鲁鱼粉组(P<0.05),而添加罗非鱼酶解小肽组鱼的特定生长率和饲料效益均高于秘鲁鱼粉组,但2组间无显著性差异(P>0.05);实验各组鱼的肝体比和肠脂比,鱼体水分、粗蛋白质、粗脂肪、粗灰分、氨基酸比例与脂肪酸比例均无显著性差异(P>0.05).本实验认为,在奥尼罗非鱼幼鱼罗非鱼实用日粮中罗非鱼酶解小肽可以替代秘鲁鱼粉,但罗非鱼鱼粉养殖效果较秘鲁鱼粉差.

  6. Desempenho produtivo e digestibilidade pela tilápia do NILO (Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus, 1758 alimentada com dietas suplementadas com níveis crescentes de silagem ácida de pescado Yielo and digestibility performance by the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus, 1758 fed with diets with increasing levels of acid silage of fishing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Emília de Sousa Gomes Pimenta

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Conduziram-se estes experimentos para avaliar os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente dos nutrientes e da energia bruta da silagem ácida de resíduos da filetagem de tilápias e o desempenho produtivo da tilápia alimentada com dietas contendo (0, 10, 20, 30 e 40% da silagem ácida em substituição à farinha de peixe. Na digestibilidade foram utilizados 200 alevinos revertidos sexualmente, com peso médio de 5,0 g e acondicionados em aquários de 40 litros. A coleta de fezes foi feita por metodologia indireta, utilizando-se 1,0% de Cr2O3 como indicador, incorporado à ração. No desempenho foram utilizados 2000 alevinos de tilápia nilótica, com peso médio inicial de 0,525g, acondicionados em hapas de 1m², dispostos em 1 viveiro escavado. As variáveis analisadas foram: ganho de peso final (GPF, consumo de ração total (CRT, conversão alimentar aparente (CAA e acréscimo em comprimento (AC. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições. Os valores de digestibilidade encontrados foram: coeficiente de digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca (CDA, 95,5%; CDA da proteína bruta, 96,7%; CDA do extrato etéreo, 97,2% e CDA da energia bruta, 95,4%. Não houve diferença significativa no consumo de ração total. Observou-se efeito quadrático para ganho de peso final, conversão alimentar aparente e acréscimo em comprimento. Conclui-se que este alimento pode ser eficientemente utilizado pela tilápia nilótica.The experiments were carried out in order to evaluate the apparent digestibility coefficients of the nutrients and gross energy of acid silage of filetage residues of the Nile tilapia. The treatments were based on the increasing levels (0, 10, 20, 30, 40% of the acid silage by substitution of fish meal in the diets. In the digestibility assay a total of 200 sexually inverted juveniles were used. The average weight was 2.0 g and were kept in 40 liter aquariums. Feces collect

  7. Diurnal dynamic of inorganic carbon and oxygen dissolved in a Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus, 1758 fish pond, São Paulo, Brasil Dinâmica diurna das formas de carbono inorgânico e oxigênio dissolvido em viveiro de tilápias do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus, 1758, São Paulo, Brasil

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    Claudinei José Rodrigues

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Natural waters may play the role of sinks or carbon dioxide (CO2 emitters, depending on the physicochemical characteristics of the system (diffusion and reaction of this gas into water as well as on the pH, and the primary production of micro-organisms as a result of the consumption of such compounds. Evidence suggests that the CO2 concentrations in ponds are mainly governed by the aquatic metabolism, i.e. by the balance between respiration and photosynthesis; AIM: The purpose of this study was to describe aspects of the metabolism of tilapia cultivation based on the dynamic and balance of the oxygen concentrations (DO and forms of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC: carbon dioxide (CO2 and bicarbonate (HCO3-. Other variables analyzed are: total phosphorus, water transparency, total alkalinity, water temperature, pH, underwater radiation and quantitative analysis of phytoplankton community; METHODS: Sampling was collected infor 5 consecutive days from 6:00 AM to 8:00 PM (December/2006 every 2 hours; RESULTS: During the test it was observed periodicity in the fluctuations of the DIC concentrations, being CO2 and HCO3- the predominant fractions. The values of DIC were strongly influenced by the fraction of CO2 and it was observed a predominance of the fraction HCO3- in the afternoon. CO2 concentrations ranged from 0.48 µM through 138.94 µM, reaching a daily average of 18.04 µM. The flow of CO2 in the interface atmosphere/water showed variations during the day. In the afternoon (from 12:00 PM until 6:00 PM the variation pointed to the flow atmosphere/fish pond; however, the balance was 577 µmol.m-2.h-1 in the flow fish pond/atmosphere; CONCLUSIONS: The observed dynamics indicated that under the conditions of this study, the metabolism of aquatic organisms was the main driving force of this system, a fact corroborated by the intense process of euthrophication in the pond.As águas naturais podem se comportar como sumidouros ou emissores de di

  8. Ecological Risk Assessment of Metal Pollution along Greater Cairo Sector of the River Nile, Egypt, Using Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, as Bioindicator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wael A. Omar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work aims to evaluate seasonal metal pollution along Greater Cairo sector of the River Nile, Egypt, using wild Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, as bioindicator and to conduct a risk assessment for human consumers. Greater Cairo is the largest populated area along the whole course of River Nile with a wide range of anthropogenic activities. Effects of metal pollution on fish body indices were studied using condition factor (CF and scaled mass index (SMI. Metal pollution index (MPI showed that the total metal load in fish organs followed the follwoing order: kidney > liver > gill > muscle which gives a better idea about the target organs for metal accumulation. Metal concentrations in fish muscle (edible tissue showed the following arrangement: Fe > Zn > Cu > Mn > Pb > Cd. Metal’s bioaccumulation factor (BAF in fish muscle showed the following arrangement: Zn > Cu > Fe > Mn > Cd and Pb. The hazard index (HI as an indicator of human health risks associated with fish consumption showed that adverse health effects are not expected to occur in most cases. However, the metals’ cumulative risk effects gave an alarming sign specifically at high fish consumption rates.

  9. Comportamento alimentar da tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) frente a diferentes ingredientes alimentares Alimentary ingredients and the feeding behavior of Nile tilápia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    OpenAIRE

    Elyara Maria Pereira-da-Silva; Luiz Edivaldo Pezzato

    1999-01-01

    Foram avaliadas as respostas comportamentais da tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) frente a 14 ingredientes utilizados na alimentação de peixes: farinhas de carne, de peixe, de crisálidas, de camarão, de girassol, de algodão e de mandioca, ovo integral liofilizado, levedura de cana-de-açúcar, farelos de soja e de trigo, glúten de milho, fubá de milho e raspa de mandioca. O método utilizado foi de dupla escolha, comparando-se cada ingrediente peletizado a uma ração denominada controle. Fo...

  10. Induction of triploidy and tetraploidy in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Gamal, A.-R.A.; Davis, K.B.; Jenkins, J.A.; Les, Torrans E.

    1999-01-01

    Induction of triploidy and tetraploidy in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, was investigated by heat shock, cold shock, hydrostatic pressure, and/ or chemicals (cytochalasin A, B, and D). Additionally, efficacy of combined protocols was determined. Heat shock 10 min after fertilization induced triploidy when incubation temperature was 24 C but not when incubation temperature was 31 C. Heat shock of 40-41 C at 4-6 min after fertilization was effective in inducing up to 100% triploidy with hatchability similar to controls. Cold shock at 13 C for 45 min five min after fertilization induced 85-100% triploids. Heat shock and multiple heat shocking were the most effective treatments for the induction of tetraploidy. Two heat treatments of 41 C applied at 65 and 80 min after fertilization for 5 min each produced approximately 80% tetraploidy in hatched fry. Immersion of fertilized eggs in cytochalasin A, B, or D at concentrations up to 10 ??g/L applied at various times and durations was ineffective in inducing triploidy or tetraploidy.

  11. Influence of Ultrafiltration on Antioxidant Activity of Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Protein Hydrolysate

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    Mohamed Beva Kelfala Foh

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The production of hot w ater dip hydrolysate (HWDH from tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus with DH of 25.43% improved its bioactivity. A pressure-driven ultrafiltration (UF membrane separated HWDH based on molecular weight cut-offs (MWCO of 1000, 3000, and 5,000 Da, to produce fractions F1-k, F3-k, F5-k respectively and 5k-R (retentate of 5,000 Da with antioxidative activity. The UF produced permeates with smaller Mw distribution (177-3015 Da, with F1-k portraying lowest molecular weight range (180-2008 Da, whilst the retentate fraction ranged higher 179-8130 Da. The antioxidant efficacy of fractions with ABTS, DPPH, inhibition of linoleic acid autoxidation, Metal-chelating ability, and reducing power exhibited antioxidant activity (82.30% for F1-k, within range of "-tocopherol (87.04% and BHT (89.71% in linoleic acid oxidation system. Furthermore, F1-k exhibited higher ABTS, DPPH and M etal-chelating activity with a significant difference (p<0.05. The correlation between the smaller Mw size and antioxidant activity is superiorly exhibited in the F1-k fraction.

  12. Genotoxicity of sub-lethal di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benli, Aysel Çağlan Karasu; Erkmen, Belda; Erkoç, Figen

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to assess genotoxicity in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) erythrocytes after exposure to a sub-lethal concentration of 10 mg L(-1) di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) for 24 and 96 h. The results showed that mean MN frequencies in both DBP and ethyl methane-sulfonate (EMS, positive control for MN bioassay) groups were significantly different (p<0.01) with respect to control and solvent control groups, in both exposure scenarios. When analysing nuclear abnormalities, the frequency of notched nuclei was significantly different (p<0.05) but the frequencies of other subtypes did not change. The 96-h exposure led to an increase in the mean frequencies of notched nuclei, and also caused significant differences between MN frequencies in all groups (p<0.01). Our findings indicate that sub-lethal DBP concentrations when tested in controlled laboratory conditions have genotoxic potential towards Nile tilapia. Further detailed studies should be done for the determination of the environmental risk assessment for aquatic life since DBP is a high risk contaminant of freshwater and marine ecosystems. PMID:27092636

  13. Integrated cytogenetics and genomics analysis of transposable elements in the Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Guilherme; Kocher, Thomas; Eickbush, Thomas; Simões, Rafael P; Martins, Cesar

    2016-06-01

    Integration of cytogenetics and genomics has become essential to a better view of architecture and function of genomes. Although the advances on genomic sequencing have contributed to study genes and genomes, the repetitive DNA fraction of the genome is still enigmatic and poorly understood. Among repeated DNAs, transposable elements (TEs) are major components of eukaryotic chromatin and their investigation has been hindered even after the availability of whole sequenced genomes. The cytogenetic mapping of TEs in chromosomes has proved to be of high value to integrate information from the micro level of nucleotide sequence to a cytological view of chromosomes. Different TEs have been cytogenetically mapped in cichlids; however, neither details about their genomic arrangement nor appropriated copy number are well defined by these approaches. The current study integrates TEs distribution in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus genome based on cytogenetic and genomics/bioinformatics approach. The results showed that some elements are not randomly distributed and that some are genomic dependent on each other. Moreover, we found extensive overlap between genomics and cytogenetics data and that tandem duplication may be the major mechanism responsible for the genomic dynamics of TEs here analyzed. This paper provides insights in the genomic organization of TEs under an integrated view based on cytogenetics and genomics. PMID:26860923

  14. Species diversity defends against the invasion of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gu Dang E.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus is one of the most widely cultured species globally and has successfully colonized much of the world. Despite numerous studies of this exotic species, how differences in native communities mitigate the consequences of Nile tilapia invasion is unknown. Theory predicts that communities that are more diverse should be more resistant to exotic species, an effect that is referred to as “biotic resistance”, but these effects are spatially dependent and organism-specific. Field surveys and laboratory experiments were conducted to test the theory of “biotic resistance” and ascertain the relationship between native species richness and the invasion of Nile tilapia. In the field, we found that as native species richness increased, the biomass of Nile tilapia was significantly reduced. Consistent with results from the field, our manipulative experiment indicated that the growth of Nile tilapia was negatively related to native species richness. Thus, our study supports the theory of “biotic resistance” and suggests that species biodiversity represents an important defense against the invasion of Nile tilapia.

  15. Identification of (L)-fucose-binding proteins from the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argayosa, Anacleto M; Lee, Yuan C

    2009-09-01

    Lectins are carbohydrate-binding proteins with many biological functions including cellular recognition and innate immunity. In this study, a major l-fucose-binding lectin from the serum of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.), designated as TFBP, was isolated by l-fucose-BSA Sepharose CL6B affinity chromatography. The SDS-PAGE (10%) analysis of TFBP revealed a major band of approximately 23 kDa with an N-terminal amino acid sequence of DQTETAGQQSXPQDIHAVLREL which did not give significant similarities to the protein databases using BLASTp searches. Ruthenium red staining indicate positive calcium-binding property of TFBP. The purified TFBP agglutinated human type O erythrocytes but not the type A and B fresh erythrocytes. Live Aeromonas hydrophila and Enterococcus faecalis cells were also agglutinated by the lectin. The fucose-binding proteins were detected in the soluble protein extracts from the gills, gut, head kidneys, liver, serum and spleen using a fucose-binding protein probe (l-fucose-BSA-horseradish peroxidase). The binding of TFBP with the l-fucose-BSA probe was inhibited by l-fucose but not by alpha-methyl-d-mannose.

  16. Growth and Survival Rate of Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Larvae Fed by Daphnia magna Cultured With Organic Fertilizer Resulted From Probiotic Bacteria Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivi Endar Herawati

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Daphnia magna is a potential feed for fish. The aim of this research was to find the best treatment and effect of D. magna culture addition from fermented organic fertilizer, to growth and survival rate of Oreochromis niloticus larvae. There were five treatments, each with three repetitions used in the study. All treatments used chicken dung, and different combinations of rice bran, coconut oilcake waste and tilapia larvae. Feeding on tilapia was given by ad libitum method for five times a day until 14 days. Water quality during the research was maintained at temperature 28–29°C, DO 0.3 ppm and pH 8.1–8.2. Observed variables include relative growth rate, survival rate, food consumption rate and water quality. Our results showed that D. magna cultured by fermented organic fertilizer for tilapia larvae (O. niloticus had high significant effect (p < 0.01 on the relative growth rate and survival rate. Treatment of D. magna cultured by 1.2 g/L chicken manure, 0.9 g/L rice bran and 0.3 g/L coconut oilcake showed the highest value on the relative growth rate (10.86%; survival rate (98.46% and food consumption at first week (106.43% and second week (152.76%.

  17. Effect of dietary probiotic dose and duration on immune and oxidative stress parameters in juvenile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Amélia Ramos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics, “living organisms, which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit to the host”, can contribute to a more sustainable aquaculture. Their administration through the diet or raising water can modulate the host immune status, improving their resistance towards infection. The antioxidant defence system of the organism is strongly related to immune system and previous studies reported enhancement in antioxidant status of shrimps and fish after probiotic administration, contributing to enhanced resistance towards infections. Nevertheless the information on oxidative stress parameters after probiotic administration in fish is still limited. The present work evaluates the effects of dietary probiotics supplementation on innate immune and oxidative stress parameters in juvenile Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus. A standard diet (27.5% CP, 8.2% CL, 19.6MJ.kg-1 DM was supplemented with a commercial multi-species probiotic (Bacillus sp., Pedicoccus sp., Enterococcus sp., Lactobacillus sp. at two concentrations: A1 (3 g.kg-1; 9 × 105 CFU.g-1 and A2 (6 g.kg-1; 2 × 106 CFU.g-1 and tested against an unsupplemented diet (A0. Fish (12.8 g were hand-fed the experimental diets (3 tanks/treatment; 20 animals per tank, 3 times a day, until visual satiation for 8 weeks. Animals were reared at 24ºC in a closed recirculating freshwater system. During the experiment, at 2, 4 and 8 weeks, blood, head-kidney and liver were sampled to study the following immunological and oxidative stress parameters: plasma lysozyme and alternative complement pathway activity (expressed as ACH50, respiratory burst activity and nitric oxide production of head-kidney leucocytes and liver lipid peroxidation (LPO, catalase (CAT, total glutathione (TG, glutathione peroxidase (GPX, and glutathione reductase (GR activities. Respiratory burst activity and nitric oxide production in head-kidney leucocytes were not significantly affected by probiotic treatment

  18. Molecular characterization of Galectin-8 from Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Linn.) and its response to bacterial infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unajak, Sasimanas; Pholmanee, Nutthida; Songtawee, Napat; Srikulnath, Kornsorn; Srisapoome, Prapansak; Kiataramkul, Asama; Kondo, Hidehiro; Hirono, Ikuo; Areechon, Nontawith

    2015-12-01

    Galectins belong to the family of galactoside-binding proteins and play a major role in the immune and inflammatory responses of vertebrates and invertebrates. The galectin family is divided into three subtypes based on molecular structure; prototypes, chimera types, and tandem-repeated types. We isolated and characterized the cDNA of galectin-8 (OnGal-8) in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). OnGal-8 consisted of a 966 bp open reading frame (ORF) that encoded a 321 amino acid protein (43.47 kDa). Homology and phylogenetic tree analysis suggested the protein was clustered with galectin-8s from other animal species and shared at least 56.8% identity with salmon galectin-8. Structurally, the amino acid sequence included two distinct N- and C- terminus carbohydrate recognition domains (CRDs) of 135 and 133 amino acids, respectively, that were connected by a 39 amino acid polypeptide linker. The N- and C-CRDs contained two conserved WG-E-I and WG-E-T motifs, suggesting they have an important role in mediating the specific interactions between OnGal-8 and saccharide moieties such as β-galactoside. The structure of OnGal-8 was characterized by a two-fold symmetric pattern of 10-and 12-stranded antiparallel ß-sheets of both N- and C-CRDs, and the peptide linker presumably formed a random coil similar to the characteristic tandem-repeat type galectin. The expression of OnGal-8 in healthy fish was highest in the skin, intestine, and brain. Experimental challenge of Nile tilapia with S. agalactiae resulted in significant up-regulation of OnGal-8in the spleen after 5 d. Our results suggest that OnGal-8 is involved in the immune response to bacterial infection.

  19. Colina e betaína em rações purificadas na nutrição da tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus Choline and betaine in purified diets for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Vieira

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Problemas metabólicos observados em produções intensivas de tilápias do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus têm sido relacionados à deficiência de colina nas rações. Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da suplementação dietética da colina na nutrição da espécie, rações purificadas contendo 0; 375; 750; 1.125; 1.500 ou 1.875 mg de cloreto de colina por kg, foram administradas ad libitum por 42 dias a tilápias do Nilo (5,09 ± 0,14 g, estocados em gaiolas de PVC atóxico (volume = 60 L, alojadas em caixas de polipropileno de 1000 L, em ambiente com condições controladas de temperatura e luminosidade, num delineamento experimental em blocos incompletos casualizados, com três parcelas por bloco (n=5. O ganho de peso (GDP e o índice de conversão alimentar (ICA de todos os tratamentos foram superiores ao controle. Não foram observadas diferenças para a quantidade de lipídios no fígado e tecido corporal, e sobrevivência (S%. Num segundo experimento, os peixes foram alimentados com rações suplementadas com 1.250 ou 2.500 mg de cloreto de colina por kg; ou 1.000; 2.000 ou 3.000 mg de betaína por kg. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas para S% e acúmulo de lipídeos hepáticos ou corporais; o ICA e GDP dos tratamentos suplementados com colina foram superiores aos dos tratamentos suplementados com betaína, mas não diferiram entre si. Níveis de suplementação superiores a 375 mg de cloreto de colina por kg de alimento melhoram o ICA e o GDP da tilápia do Nilo, mas a betaína não substitui efetivamente a colina em rações para a espécie.Metabolic problems detected in intensively raised Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus are credited to possible sub-supplementation of coline in commercial feeds. To investigate the utilization of choline and betaine as feed supplement for the Nile tilapia, groups of 10 fingerlings (5.09 ± 0.14 g stocked in 30 PVC cages (60 L, kept under controlled environmental conditions inside

  20. Survival, growth and reproduction of non-indigenous Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus 1758). I. Physiological capabilities in various temperatures and salinities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Pamela J.; Peterson, Mark S.; Lowe, Michael R.; Brown-Peterson, Nancy J.; Slack, William T.

    2011-01-01

    The physiological tolerances of non-native fishes is an integral component of assessing potential invasive risk. Salinity and temperature are environmental variables that limit the spread of many non-native fishes. We hypothesised that combinations of temperature and salinity will interact to affect survival, growth, and reproduction of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, introduced into Mississippi, USA. Tilapia withstood acute transfer from fresh water up to a salinity of 20 and survived gradual transfer up to 60 at typical summertime (30°C) temperatures. However, cold temperature (14°C) reduced survival of fish in saline waters ≥10 and increased the incidence of disease in freshwater controls. Although fish were able to equilibrate to saline waters in warm temperatures, reproductive parameters were reduced at salinities ≥30. These integrated responses suggest that Nile tilapia can invade coastal areas beyond their point of introduction. However, successful invasion is subject to two caveats: (1) wintertime survival depends on finding thermal refugia, and (2) reproduction is hampered in regions where salinities are ≥30. These data are vital to predicting the invasion of non-native fishes into coastal watersheds. This is particularly important given the predicted changes in coastal landscapes due to global climate change and sea-level rise.

  1. NUTRITIONAL EFFECTIVENESS OF WATER HYACINTH LEAVES COMBINED WITH WHEAT BRAN AND COTTON SEED CAKE ON THE PERFORMANCE OF NILE TILAPIA (OREOCHROMIS NILOTICUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.M. ADAM SULIEMAN

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study to evaluate the different levels of water hyacinth plant leaves in the diet of Nile Tilapia and their effect on growth performance so as to eliminate the water hyacinth plant from the Nile and provide a cheap food for fish. In this experiment the dried water hyacinth leaves (Eicchornia crassipse, wheat bran and cotton seed cake were used in different ratio to formulate two experimental diets (A and B. Diet (A contains 70% wheat bran, 20% cotton seed cake and 10% water hyacinth leaves, while diet (B contains 65%, 20% cottons seed cake and 15% water hyacinth leaves. These diets were fed to studied fish with 5% per their body weight for 105 days. The results of this study revealed that the diet (A has higher growth performance on studied fish than those fed on diet (B. The results of food conversion ratio (FCR, 4.04 in diet (A and food conversion ratio (FCR, 5.73 in diet (B, and the increment of growth rate in fish fed with diet (A more efficient on the growth performance of studied fish than diet (B except in the case of protein efficiency rate (PER it's found to be more in diet (A than diet (B. It was concluded that the diet (A had better growth performance than diet (B on the feeding regime of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus.

  2. Shelf life of air and modified atmosphere-packaged fresh tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fillets stored under chilled and superchilled conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Cyprian, Odoli; Lauzon, Hélène L; Jóhannsson, Ragnar; Sveinsdóttir, Kolbrún; Arason, Sigurjón; Martinsdóttir, Emilía

    2012-01-01

    Optimal packaging and storage conditions for fresh tilapia fillets were established by evaluating sensory and microbiological changes, as well as monitoring physicochemical properties. Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) farmed in recirculation aquaculture system was filleted, deskinned, and packaged in air and 50% CO2/50% N2 prior to chilling and superchilling storage at 1°C and −1°C. Sensory analysis of cooked samples revealed a shelf life of 13–15 days for air-packaged fillets during stor...

  3. Molecular Cloning and Expression Analysis of IgD in Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in Response to Streptococcus agalactiae Stimulus

    OpenAIRE

    Bei Wang; Pei Wang; Zao-He Wu; Yi-Shan Lu; Zhong-Liang Wang; Ji-Chang Jian

    2016-01-01

    IgD is considered to be a recently-evolved Ig and a puzzling molecule, being previously found in all vertebrate taxa, except for birds. Although IgD likely plays an important role in vertebrate immune responses, the function of IgD in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) is virtually unknown. In the present study, a membrane form of IgD (mIgD) heavy chains were cloned from the GIFT strain of Nile tilapia (designated On-mIgD). The On-mIgD heavy chain’s cDNA is composed of 3347 bp with a 31 bp ...

  4. Innate immune defenses exhibit circadian rhythmicity and differential temporal sensitivity to a bacterial endotoxin in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazado, Carlo C; Skov, Peter Vilhelm; Pedersen, Per Bovbjerg

    2016-08-01

    The present study investigated the daily dynamics of humoral immune defenses and the temporal influence in the sensitivity of these responses to a bacterial endotoxin in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The first experiment subjected the fish to two photoperiod conditions, 12L:12D (LD) and 0L:24D (DD), for 20 days to characterize the rhythms of humoral immunity. Serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lysozyme (LYZ), peroxidase (PER) and protease (PRO) exhibited significant rhythmicity under LD but not in DD. No significant rhythms were observed in esterase (ESA) and anti-protease (ANTI) in both photoperiod conditions. Fish reared under LD were subsequently subjected to DD while the group previously under DD was exposed to LD, and this carried on for 3 days before another set of samples was collected. Results revealed that the rhythms of LYZ, PER and PRO but not ALP persisted when photoperiod was changed from LD to DD. Nonetheless, immune parameters remained arrhythmic in the group subjected from DD to LD. Cluster analysis of the humoral immune responses under various light conditions revealed that each photic environment had distinct daily immunological profile. In the second experiment, fish were injected with bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) either at ZT3 (day) or at ZT15 (night) to evaluate the temporal sensitivity of humoral immunity to a pathogen-associated molecular pattern. The results demonstrated that responses to LPS were gated by the time of day. LPS significantly modulated serum ALP and ANTI activities but only when the endotoxin was administered at ZT3. Serum LYZ and PER were stimulated at both injection times but with differing response profiles. Modulated LYZ activity was persistent when injected at ZT3 but transient when LPS was applied at ZT15. The magnitude of LPS-induced PER activity was higher when the endotoxin was delivered at ZT3 versus ZT15. It was further shown that plasma cortisol was significantly elevated but only when LPS

  5. Innate immune defenses exhibit circadian rhythmicity and differential temporal sensitivity to a bacterial endotoxin in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazado, Carlo C; Skov, Peter Vilhelm; Pedersen, Per Bovbjerg

    2016-08-01

    The present study investigated the daily dynamics of humoral immune defenses and the temporal influence in the sensitivity of these responses to a bacterial endotoxin in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The first experiment subjected the fish to two photoperiod conditions, 12L:12D (LD) and 0L:24D (DD), for 20 days to characterize the rhythms of humoral immunity. Serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lysozyme (LYZ), peroxidase (PER) and protease (PRO) exhibited significant rhythmicity under LD but not in DD. No significant rhythms were observed in esterase (ESA) and anti-protease (ANTI) in both photoperiod conditions. Fish reared under LD were subsequently subjected to DD while the group previously under DD was exposed to LD, and this carried on for 3 days before another set of samples was collected. Results revealed that the rhythms of LYZ, PER and PRO but not ALP persisted when photoperiod was changed from LD to DD. Nonetheless, immune parameters remained arrhythmic in the group subjected from DD to LD. Cluster analysis of the humoral immune responses under various light conditions revealed that each photic environment had distinct daily immunological profile. In the second experiment, fish were injected with bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) either at ZT3 (day) or at ZT15 (night) to evaluate the temporal sensitivity of humoral immunity to a pathogen-associated molecular pattern. The results demonstrated that responses to LPS were gated by the time of day. LPS significantly modulated serum ALP and ANTI activities but only when the endotoxin was administered at ZT3. Serum LYZ and PER were stimulated at both injection times but with differing response profiles. Modulated LYZ activity was persistent when injected at ZT3 but transient when LPS was applied at ZT15. The magnitude of LPS-induced PER activity was higher when the endotoxin was delivered at ZT3 versus ZT15. It was further shown that plasma cortisol was significantly elevated but only when LPS

  6. Complete Genome Sequence of Streptococcus agalactiae ZQ0910, a Pathogen Causing Meningoencephalitis in the GIFT Strain of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Bei; Jian, Jichang; Lu, Yishan; Cai, Shuanghu; Huang, Yuchong; Tang, Jufen; Wu, Zaohe

    2012-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus [GBS]) is a pathogen that causes meningoencephalitis in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Here, we reported the complete genome sequence of S. agalactiae strain ZQ0910, which was isolated from the GIFT strain of Nile tilapia in Guangdong, China.

  7. The potential of mixed culture of genetically improved farmed tilapia (GIFT, Oreochromis niloticus) and freshwater giant prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) in periphyton-based systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uddin, S.; Azim, M.E.; Wahab, M.A.; Verdegem, M.C.J.

    2006-01-01

    The production performance of genetically improved farmed tilapia (GIFT, Oreochromis niloticus) and freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) in periphyton-based systems were studied in farmers' ponds at Mymensingh, Bangladesh. Fifteen ponds (200-300 m2 area and 1.0-1.5 m in depth) were used to c

  8. Effects of stocking density on production and economics of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) polyculture in periphyton-based systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uddin, S.; Rahman, S.M.S.; Azim, M.E.; Wahab, M.A.; Verdegem, M.C.J.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2007-01-01

    The present research investigated the effect of stocking density on pond (75 m2, depth 1.2 m) production of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) stocked at a fixed 3:1 tilapia:prawn ratio. Three stocking densities were tried in triplicate: 20 000 ha¿1

  9. Effects of dietary inclusions of oilseed meals on physical characteristics and feed intake of diets for the Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obirikorang, Kwasi Adu; Amisah, Stephen; Fialor, Simon Cudjoe;

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of the inclusion of three oilseed by-products (soybean, copra and palm kernel meals) on some physical characteristics of pelletized feeds as well as on voluntary feed intake and faecal matter production by the Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus...

  10. Effects of dietary levels of vitamin A on growth, hematology, immune response and resistance of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) to Streptococcus iniae

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of supplemental levels of vitamin A (0, 2,500, 5,000, 10,000, and 20,000 IU/kg diet) on the growth performance, hematology, immune response and resistance of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus to Streptococcus iniae challenge. Each diet was fed to Nil...

  11. Evaluation of distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS) from different grain sources as dietary protein for hybrid tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus x O. Aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS) from different sources on growth performance, hematology, and immunity of hybrid tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus x O. aureus, were evaluated. Sex-reversed, all-male hybrid tilapia (3.72 ± 0.08 g initial weight) were fed diets in which 30% o...

  12. The effect of NovaSil dietary supplementation on the growth and health performance of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fed aflatoxin-B1 contaminated feed

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the ability of NovaSil (NS) clay to sorb and mitigate the toxic effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Growth performance, specific innate immunological function, intestinal microbial community, and histology were evaluate...

  13. Phenotype and genetic parameters for body measurements, reproductive traits and gut lenght of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) selected for growth in low-input earthen ponds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charo-Karisa, H.; Bovenhuis, H.; Rezk, M.A.; Ponzoni, R.W.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Komen, J.

    2007-01-01

    In this study we present estimates of phenotypic and genetic parameters for body size measurements, reproductive traits, and gut length for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) selected for growth in fertilized earthen ponds for two generations. Throughout the experiment, ponds were fertilized daily

  14. Production algale et consommation par le Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus L., au Lac Muhazi (Rwanda. Résumé de thèse de doctorat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukankomeje, R.

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Algal production and consumption by the Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus L., in Lake Muhazi (Rwanda. The article describes shortly the objectives of a Food Early Warning System (FEWS project, as well as its organisation. The specifie case of Somalia, where the project had to evolve in increasingly difficult situations, and the solutions used so as to preserve the output, are described.

  15. Phenological and liver antioxidant profiles of adult Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) exposed to toxic live cyanobacterium (Microcystis aeruginosa Kützing) cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairy, Hanan M; Ibrahim, Marwa A; Ibrahem, Mai D

    2012-01-01

    Blue-green algae (cyanobacteria) constitute the greater part of the phytoplankton. Microcystis aeruginosa is amongst the most ubiquitously distributed cyanobacterial species, and almost invariably produces cyclic heptapeptide toxins called microcystins (MCs). The present study was designed to investigate the phenological and liver antioxidant profiles of the Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus chronically exposed to toxic live M. aeruginosa cells. Fish were grown in the absence and presence of M. aeruginosa in three different concentrations for seven days, and subsequently reared for another 30 days in the absence of the cyanobacteria. While cyanobacteria did not cause any fish mortality, there was a progressive development of yellowish discolouration in the livers of exposed fish. In the livers, the activities and levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), glutathione (GSH), and lipid peroxidation products like malondialdehyde (MDA) were elevated in response to the concentration of M. aeruginosa. Moreover, DNA fragmentation and DNA-protein crosslinks were measured. These parameters can thus be considered potential biomarkers for the fish exposure to M. aeruginosa. The present study sheds light on cyanobacterial blooms like health, environmental, and economic problem, respectively. PMID:23413757

  16. Ameliorative effects of Rosmarinus officinalis leaf extract and Vitamin C on cadmium-induced oxidative stress in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Anazi, Marim Saleh; Virk, Promy; Elobeid, Mai; Siddiqui, Muzammil Iqbal

    2015-11-01

    The present studywas undertaken to assess the bioaccumulation potential of cadmium in liver, kidney, gills and muscles of freshwater fish, Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus and the changes in oxidative stress indices in liver and kidney with or without simultaneous treatment with waterborne vitamin C and rosemary leaf extract. Adult tilapia were divided into seven groups. Six groups were exposed to sublethal concentrations of Cd, three groups to 5 ppm, while other three to 10 ppm. Two groups from each of the Cd exposed groups were treated with Vitamin C (5ppm) and rosemary leaf extract (2.5 ppm) for a period of 21 days. Cadmium concentration in liver, kidneys and gills was significantly higher in the cadmium exposed groups being invariably high in the groups exposed to 10 ppm CdCl2.H2O.Treatment with Vitamin C and rosemary leaf extract significantly reduced cadmium concentration in comparison to non-treated Cd exposed groups. Treatment with Vitamin C and rosemary leaf extract significantly reduced oxidative stress in Cd exposed fish as evidenced from lower concentration of lipid peroxides and reduced activity of catalase and higher activity of superoxide dismutase in liver and kidney as compared to control fish. Reduction in Cd induced oxidative stress and bioaccumulation was comparable between the two antioxidant treatments, Vitamin C and rosemary leaf extract. The key findings suggest that both the antioxidants used showed ameliorative potential to reduce tissue accumulation of Cd and associated oxidative stress in fresh water fish, Nile tilapia. PMID:26688980

  17. Histopathological alterations in the liver and intestine of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus exposed to long-term sublethal concentrations of cadmium chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younis, Elsayed; Abdel-Warith, Abdel-Wahab; Al-Asgah, Nasser; Ebaid, Hossam

    2015-07-01

    Fingerlings of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus were exposed to 1.68, 3.36, and 5.04 mg/L cadmium (as CdCl2), which represent 10%, 20%, and 30% of their previously determined 96-h LC50. After exposure for 20 days, sections of the liver and intestine of treated fish were examined histologically. Histopathological changes varied from slight to severe structural modification, depending on the exposure concentration. The hepatic tissues of fish exposed to 10% LC50 showed markedly increased vacuolation of the hepatocytes and coarse granulation of their cytoplasm. Abundant erythrocytic infiltration among the hepatocytes was observed in fish exposed to 20% LC50. In the intestinal tissues of fish exposed to all doses, goblet cells proliferated and were greatly increased in size, the longitudinal muscularis mucosa was disturbed and, in the crypts of the sub-mucosal layer, apoptosis increased, indicated by large numbers of degenerated nuclei. Large numbers of inflammatory cells and dilated blood vessels were observed in the intestine of the group treated with 30% LC50.

  18. The Influence of Some Phytobiotics on Haematological and Some Biochemical Indices at Oreochromis Niloticus – Linnaeus, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Antache

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to evaluated the influence of some phytobiotics on haematological profile, leukocyte reaction and some biochemical indices at Oreochromis niloticus species, reared in a recirculating aquaculture system. This experiment was conducted six weeks. The experimental variants were: V1 – control; V2 – 1% Rosmarinus officinalis / kg feed; V3 – 1% Hippophae rhamnoides / kg feed and V4 – 1% Zingiber officinale / kg feed. Blood was analyzed using standard techniques. At the end of the experiment the following parameters were determined: RBCc (x106cells/µL, Hb (g/dL, PVC (%, MCV (µm3, MCH (pg, MCHC (g/dL, TP (g/dL, GLU (mg/dL, cortisol (ng/mL, lysozyme activity (U/mL, absolute number of blood cells (x103 cells/µL and leukogram (%. The results showed that the administration in feed of some phytobiotics lead to signifiant differences (p<0.05 of following parameters: RBCc (x106cells/µL, MCV (µm3, glucose (mg/dL, lysozyme activity (U/mL, monocyte (% and in absolute number of leukocytes, lymphocytes and monocytes. In conclusion, due to decreasing of RBCc, PVC, Hb, MCHC, cortisol, GLU and due to normal concentration of TP, we can say that the administration of sea buckthorn and ginger, but even rosemary administration, in diet improves the physiological status at Oreochromis niloticus species.

  19. The effects of Natucin C-Natucin P mixture on blood biochemical parameters, antioxidant activity and non-specific immune responses in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Bin; Hu, Juan; Lyu, Qing-Ji; Liu, Li-Jie; Wen, Liu-Fa; Yang, Xian-Kuan; Zhao, Hui-Hong

    2016-08-01

    Natucin C (NC) and Natucin P (NP) are two kinds of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). In the present study, the effects of NC-NP mixture on a tilapia species (Oreochromis niloticus) were examined. Animals were fed with either a control diet or one of five AMP-supplemented diets for eight weeks. AMP-supplemented diets contained five increasing levels of NP from G1 to G5 and one level of NC (200 mg/kg). Results showed that fish in the G3, G4 and G5 groups had significantly higher levels of total protein (TP), albumin (ALB) and globulin (GLO) in serum than fish in the control group. Fish fed with G4 and G5 diets exhibited significantly higher high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels compared to the control fish. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) levels in all AMP-supplemented groups were significantly lower than the control. In addition, the total antioxidant capacity (TAOC) and lysozyme (LZM) activities were significantly increased in fish fed with the G3 and G4 diets, respectively compared to the control. The serum malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in fish fed with AMP-supplemented diets were significantly decreased compared to those not supplemented with AMPs. Furthermore, the mRNA expressions of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1-beta (IL-1β), gamma interferon (IFN-γ) and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) in the hepatopancreas, spleen, kidney and gill were measured. Overall, the expression levels were enhanced in an NP dose-dependent and tissue-specific manner. The expressions of four genes in four organs (except IL-1β in spleen, and TNF-α and HSP70 in gill) were significantly upregulated in fish fed with the G5 diet. Fish fed with the G4 diet had increased expression levels of IL-1β in spleen and IFN-γ in kidney. The relative expression levels of TNF-α, IL-1β and HSP70 in the hepatopancreas in fish fed with the G3 diet were significantly upregulated compared to the control. Transcriptional levels of IL-1β and HSP70 in the hepatopancreas, IFN

  20. The effects of Natucin C-Natucin P mixture on blood biochemical parameters, antioxidant activity and non-specific immune responses in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Bin; Hu, Juan; Lyu, Qing-Ji; Liu, Li-Jie; Wen, Liu-Fa; Yang, Xian-Kuan; Zhao, Hui-Hong

    2016-08-01

    Natucin C (NC) and Natucin P (NP) are two kinds of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). In the present study, the effects of NC-NP mixture on a tilapia species (Oreochromis niloticus) were examined. Animals were fed with either a control diet or one of five AMP-supplemented diets for eight weeks. AMP-supplemented diets contained five increasing levels of NP from G1 to G5 and one level of NC (200 mg/kg). Results showed that fish in the G3, G4 and G5 groups had significantly higher levels of total protein (TP), albumin (ALB) and globulin (GLO) in serum than fish in the control group. Fish fed with G4 and G5 diets exhibited significantly higher high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels compared to the control fish. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) levels in all AMP-supplemented groups were significantly lower than the control. In addition, the total antioxidant capacity (TAOC) and lysozyme (LZM) activities were significantly increased in fish fed with the G3 and G4 diets, respectively compared to the control. The serum malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in fish fed with AMP-supplemented diets were significantly decreased compared to those not supplemented with AMPs. Furthermore, the mRNA expressions of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1-beta (IL-1β), gamma interferon (IFN-γ) and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) in the hepatopancreas, spleen, kidney and gill were measured. Overall, the expression levels were enhanced in an NP dose-dependent and tissue-specific manner. The expressions of four genes in four organs (except IL-1β in spleen, and TNF-α and HSP70 in gill) were significantly upregulated in fish fed with the G5 diet. Fish fed with the G4 diet had increased expression levels of IL-1β in spleen and IFN-γ in kidney. The relative expression levels of TNF-α, IL-1β and HSP70 in the hepatopancreas in fish fed with the G3 diet were significantly upregulated compared to the control. Transcriptional levels of IL-1β and HSP70 in the hepatopancreas, IFN

  1. Caracterização da mitocôndria isolada de fígado de tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus e alterações da bioenergética mitocondrial causadas pela exposição herbicida oxifluorfena Characterization of liver mitochondria from Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus and mitochondrial bioenergetics alterations caused by exposure to oxyfluorfen herbicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.P. Peixoto

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Descreve-se um método de isolamento de mitocôndrias acopladas de tilápia-do-nilo Oreochromis niloticus, isoladas de células hepáticas de peixes adultos. As mitocôndrias estavam metabolicamente ativas, sendo capazes de realizarem fosforilação oxidativa, de acordo com os valores do quociente de controle respiratório. Os valores de controle respiratório obtidos com malato/piruvato (complexo I e com succinato (complexo II foram de 5,8±0,8 e 3,38±0,4, respectivamente. O potencial de membrana exibiu o valor de 197±4mV, quer se utilizasse malato/piruvato ou succinato como substrato. O procedimento de isolamento de mitocôndrias de O. niloticus permite o estudo do efeito de xenobióticos na bioenergética mitocondrial, tendo sido avaliada a ação da oxifluorfena (0,6mgL-1 na bioenergética mitocondrial. Os resultados demonstram que o tratamento com oxifluorfena influencia a capacidade fosforilativa dos peixes, interferindo na sua carga energética, o que poderá levar à sua morte.A method for isolation of coupled mitochondria isolated from the liver of adult Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus is described for the first time. They were metabolically active, able to sustain oxidative phosphorylation, as shown by respiratory control ratio values, which were about 5.8±0.8 and 3.3±0.4 when respiring on malate/piruvate (complex I or succinate (complex II, respectively, as substrate. Membrane potential exhibited a value of approximately 197±4mV for malate/piruvate or succinate. The procedure now described for the isolation of O. niloticus mitochondria is an important new tool, allowing the study about the effect of xenobiotics on mitochondrial bioenergetic, being evaluated the effect of oxyfluorfen (0.6mgL-1 in the liver mitocondrial bioenergetic. These results showed that phosphorylation was significantly affected by oxyfluorfen which contributed to the decrease on the liver cell energy charge and consequently led to the fish dead.

  2. Isolation and characterization of Streptococcus spp. group B in Nile tilapias (Oreochromis niloticus reared in hapas nets and earth nurseries in the northern region of Parana State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Rogério

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to isolate and characterize Streptococcus spp. in Nile tilapias (Oreochromis niloticus reared in net-pens and earth nurseries. Eight intensive tilapia-rearing farms were investigated in north Paraná, Brazil from April 1st 2001 to April 30th 2002. The fish were reared in a system of hapas nets on four farms and in earth nurseries on other four farms. A total of 370 samples were analyzed of material collected from 120 fish (brain, liver, kidney, skin scrapes, ascites liquid and eye that were sown on BHI agar (Brain Heart Infusion supplemented with 1% yeast extract and sheep blood. Streptococcus spp. was isolated in 36 of the samples (18 brain, eight liver, eight kidney and two ascites liquid from 25 fish. Streptococci were isolated in both systems, almost in the same proportion. First the streptococci were characterized by the catalase and esculin test, growth in methylene blue and sodium chloride at 6.5%. They were classified in groups by the Slidex Strepto-Kit (BioMerieux, France. The phenotypic characteristics were determined by the Api 20 Strep microtest system (BioMerieux, France. The 36 Streptococcus spp. samples did not present hemolysis and were classified as Lancefield group B. Further 16 samples were identified as Streptococcus agalactiae and 20 were not identified by the Api 20 Strep, but presented the same biochemical profile described for the reference strain of Streptococcus difficile (ND-2-22.

  3. Comparing the Toxicity of Water-Soluble Fractions of Biodiesel, Diesel and 5% Biodiesel/Diesel Blend on Oreochromis niloticus Using Histological Biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Maria Bernadete Neiva Lemos; da Cruz, André Luís; Rodrigues, Luiz Erlon Araújo; Yamashita, Sayuri Rocha; Carqueija, César Roberto Goes; Nascimento, Iracema Andrade

    2015-11-01

    This study estimated end compared the potential toxic effects of the water-soluble fractions (WSF) of biodiesel (B100), diesel and the commercial biodiesel (B5) on Oreochromis niloticus. After a 24 h-exposition to WSF-0% (control) and WSF-serial concentrations of 4.6%, 10%, 22%, 46% and 100%, samples of gill and liver of the exposed fishes were fixed in Bouin's solution, processed, stained using hematoxylin/eosin and analyzed by light-microscopy. WSF-hydrocarbons and methanol contents, analyzed by gas chromatography, were checked against the occurrence of abnormal histopathological alterations. These were not found in the control and WSF-4.6% exposed fishes, while exposures to or above 10%-WSF resulted in histopathological alterations whose severity increased in a dose-dependent manner, being higher in fishes exposed to WSF-diesel, or WSF-B5 when compared to biodiesel. These results, which were corroborated by the chemical analyses, highlighted the histological technique as an appropriate diagnostic tool that can be used for the preservation of water bodies' quality.

  4. EFEITO DO LACTOBACILLUS PLANTARUM NO TRATO INTESTINAL DE ALEVINOS DE OREOCHROMIS NILOTICUS

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    José Luís Pedreira Mouriño

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate alterations in the intestinal tract microbiota and growth performance of Nile tilapia (Orechromis niloticus fed diets supplemented with Lactobacillus plantarum. One hundred and twenty sexually reversed fingerlings were stocked in six aquaria and divided into two treatments, in triplicate: fingerlings fed diet supplement with L. plantarum and fingerlings fed control diet. After 42 days, tilapia fed the diet supplemented with L. plantarum had higher amount of lactic acid bacteria, 3,5x104 CFU and 1,1x102 CFU per g tract, and lower total bacteria, 5,8x106 CFU and 5,2x107 CFU per g tract, than the fish fed the control diet. Furthermore, probiotics increased 3,9% the weekly weight gain, 15,6% final biomass and 15,5% feed efficiency. The use of probiotics in tilapia hatcheries boosts productivity.

  5. Qualidade do sêmen em tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus, alimentadas com dietas contendo diferentes níveis de vitamina C = Semen quality in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, fed with diets containing different vitamin C levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Mataveli

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A vitamina C atua na proteção de danos celulares provocados pelos radicais livres, sendo a suplementação considerada essencial para a maioria das espécies de peixes, uma vez que não a sintetizam em função da ausência da enzima L-gulonolactona oxidase. Assim, avaliou-se o efeito da suplementação de 0, 75, 150 e 225 mg de vitamina C kg-1 de ração na qualidade do sêmen em tilápias do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus. Os parâmetros quali-quantitativos do sêmen não foram influenciados pela suplementação de vitamina C, exceto a motilidade progressiva que aumentou linearmente com adição de vitamina C. Conclui-se que os reprodutores de tilápias do Nilo devem ser suplementados com 225 mg de vitamina C kg-1 de ração.Vitamin C acts as cellular protection from damage by free radicals, and vitamin C supplementation is considered essential for most fish species, as they do not synthesize it due to the absence of enzyme L-gulonolactone oxidase. Thus, the effect of supplementation with 0, 75, 150 and 225 mg of vitamin C kg-1 of ration was evaluated in the semen quality in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus. Seminal parameters were not influenced by vitamin C supplementation except progressive motility, which increased linearly with the addition of vitamin C. It was concluded that Nile tilapia reproducers should be supplemented with 225 mg vitamin C kg-1 ration.

  6. Salmon testes meal as a functional feed additive in fish meal and plant-protein based diets for rainbow trout(Oncorhynchus mykiss walbaum)and nile tilapia(Oreochromis niloticus L.) fry

    Science.gov (United States)

    We report that salmon testes meal (TM) produced from Alaskan seafood processing byproducts is a potential protein source for aquafeed formulations. A series of feeding trials was conducted using three different fish species; including Nile tilapia, rainbow trout, and white sturgeon at their early gr...

  7. Effects on growth and body composition in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, fry fed organic diets containing yeast extract and soybean meal as total replacement of fish meal without amino acid supplementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish meal (FM) is the main protein source in numerous aquaculture diets due to its palatability and quality. Quantities of FM have remained constant for the past several decades; however, demand has dramatically increased due to its inclusion in diets used for the global aquaculture industry. Ther...

  8. Effect of acute exposure to nonylphenol on biochemical, hormonal, and hematological parameters and muscle tissues residues of Nile tilapia; Oreochromis niloticus

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    Hager Tarek H. Ismail

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study is aimed to evaluate some biochemical, hormonal, hematological, and histopathological changes in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, after acute exposure to nonylphenol (NP. In addition to detection of NP residues in the fish, muscle tissues for human health concern. Materials and Methods: A total of 90 apparently healthy Nile tilapia, O. niloticus, were randomly divided into three equal groups; each containing 30 fish (three replicates. Groups 1 and 2 kept as a control and solvent control (acetone, respectively, and Group 3 exposed to NP at a dose level of 500 μg/L water for 7 successive days. Blood and tissue samples were collected 2 times randomly from each group after 7 days from fish exposure to NP and 10 days from exposure stopping. Results: Fish exposed to NP Group 3 showed anorexia, sluggish movement, erythema of the skin, areas of scales loss, and hemorrhagic ulcers in some areas of body region leading to exposing the viscera. Biochemical results revealed a significant increase in serum total proteins and globulins levels, a highly significant increase in serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities, triglycerides, cholesterol, and creatinine levels, insignificant increase in serum uric acid level, and a highly significant decrease in serum testosterone and estradiol-β17 levels in Group 3 in compare with the control group. Histopathological finding confirms these results. While hematological results of the same group revealed a significant increase in red blood cells count and packed cell volume value, insignificant increase in hemoglobin concentration, leukopenia, lymphopenia, and monocytopenia in compared with the control group. All of these changes appeared after 7 days from fish exposure to NP. Most of these alterations returned toward the normal level after 10 days from stopping exposure to NP. NP residues detected in fish muscle tissues of Group 3 during exposure and after stopping

  9. The Effect of Substituting Fishmeal Diets with Varying Quantities of Ensiled Parboiled Beniseed (Sesamum indicum and Raw African Locust Bean (Parkia biglobosa on the Growth Responses and Food Utilization of the Nile Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus

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    S.A. Binga

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A mixture of ensiled parboiled beniseed (Sesamum indicum and raw African locust bean (Parkia biglobosa replaced fishmeal in the diet of Oreochromis niloticus at 0, 30, 70 and 100% test materials inclusion levels. Each dietary treatment was randomly duplicated in tanks stocked with twenty fingerlings (2.71 0.003 g and fed three times (08:00, 14:00 and 18:00 h to satiation for 56 days. The result revealed best live weight gain and feed utilization in the fish fed diet D4 followed by diet D1 and D3 with the least value recorded in fish fed diet D2 level. Generally, there was significant increase (p4 and control. The result supports the suggestion that tilapia can be fed with mixture of ensiled parboiled beniseed and raw African locust bean which is hoped will reduce tremendously the over dependence on fishmeal protein and human utilization of the very scarce fish meal.

  10. RNA/DNA ratio and LPL and MyoD mRNA expressions in muscle of Oreochromis niloticus fed with elevated levels of palm oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayisi, Christian Larbi; Zhao, Jinliang

    2016-02-01

    Palm oil is of great potential as one of the sustainable alternatives to fish oil (FO) in aquafeeds. In this present study, five isonitrogenous diets (32% crude protein) with elevated palm oil levels of 0%, 2%, 4%, 6% and 8% were used during an 8-week feeding trial to evaluate its effects on RNA/DNA ratio and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and MyoD mRNA expressions in muscle of Oreochromis niloticus. The results showed that RNA, DNA content as well as ratio of RNA to DNA were significantly affected ( P palm oil level. There was a strong positive correlation between nucleic acid concentration (RNA concentration and RNA: DNA ratio) and specific growth rate (SGR), protein efficiency ratio (PER), while a negative correlation existed between nucleic acid concentration (RNA concentration and RNA: DNA ratio) and feed conversion ratio (FCR). The mRNA expressions of LPL and MyoD in muscle were not significantly affected by the different palm oil levels, although the highest expression was observed in fish fed with 6% palm oil level. There also existed a strong positive correlation between the mRNA expression of LPL, MyoD and SGR, PER, while their correlation with FCR was negative. In conclusion, elevated palm oil affected the RNA, DNA concentration as well as RNA/DNA ratio significantly, although the mRNA expression of LPL and MyoD were not affected significantly by elevated palm oil levels.

  11. Molecular characterization, functional analysis, and defense mechanisms of two CC chemokines in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in response to severely pathogenic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakharuthai, Chatsirin; Areechon, Nontawith; Srisapoome, Prapansak

    2016-06-01

    Two full-length cDNAs encoding CC chemokine genes in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) (On-CC1 and On-CC2) were cloned and characterized. On-CC1 and On-CC2 showed signature cysteine motifs consisting of four cysteines. The expression levels of On-CC1 and On-CC2 were analyzed by RT-PCR, which showed that low expression of these two genes was only observed in the peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) and spleen of normal fish. Expression levels of these two molecules were quantified in 13 tissues of fish infected with virulent strains of Streptococcus agalactiae and Flavobacterium columnare. Most tissues, especially PBLs, the spleen and the liver, expressed significantly higher mRNA levels than the controls, particularly at 12 and 24 h after infection (P < 0.05). The current study strongly indicates that CC chemokine genes in Nile tilapia are crucially involved in the early immune responses to pathogens. Functional analyses clearly demonstrated that 10 and 100 μg/ml of recombinant rOn-CC1 and rOn-CC2 proteins efficiently enhanced the phagocytic activity (in vitro) of Nile tilapia phagocytes. Finally, Southern blot analysis and searching in Ensembl databases demonstrated that two different functional CC chemokine genes and other pseudogene fragments were discovered in the Nile tilapia genome. PMID:26853931

  12. Cloning and molecular characterization of complement component 1 inhibitor (C1INH) and complement component 8β (C8β) in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Anyuan; Yang, Jie; Tang, Shoujie; Wang, Chenghui

    2013-09-01

    Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), one of the most important groups of food fishes in the world, has frequently suffered from serious challenge from pathogens in recent years. Immune responses of Nile tilapia should be understood to protect the aquaculture industry of this fish. The complement system has an important function in recognizing bacteria, opsonizing these pathogens by phagocytes, or killing them by direct lysis. In this study, two Nile tilapia complement component genes, complement component 1 inhibitor (C1INH) and complement component 8β subunit (C8β), were cloned and their expression characteristics were analyzed. C1INH cDNA was found containing a 1791 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a putative protein with 597 amino acids, a 101 bp 5'-untranslated region (UTR) and a 236 bp 3'-UTR. The predicted protein structure for this gene consisted of two Ig-like domains and glycosyl hydrolase family-9 active site signature 2. The C8β cDNA consisted of a 1761 bp ORF encoding 587 amino acids, a 15 bp 5'-UTR and a 170 bp 3'-UTR. The predicted protein of C8β contained three motifs, thrombospondin type-1 repeat, membrane attack complex/perforin domain, and LDL-receptor class A. Expression analysis revealed that these two complement genes were highly expressed in the liver, however, were weakly expressed in the gill, heart, brain, kidney, intestine, spleen and dorsal muscle tissues. The present study provided insights into the complement system and immune functions of Nile tilapia.

  13. Effects of dietary acidifiers on growth, hematology, immune response and disease resistance of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reda, Rasha M; Mahmoud, Rania; Selim, Khaled M; El-Araby, Iman E

    2016-03-01

    Organic acids or their salts can be used as feed additives in aquaculture. This study was conducted to evaluate the use of a mixture of formic acid, propionic acid and calcium propionate compared with oxytetracycline (OTC). A total of 720 apparently healthy Oreochromis niloticus fingerlings with an average body weight of 28.8 ± 0.14 g (mean ± SE) were randomly divided into four equal groups (G1, G2, G3and G4). G1 was fed a basal diet with no additive as the control group, while G2 and G3 were fed a formic and propionic acid/salt mixture in 1 and 2 g/kg, respectively. G4 was fed OTC (0.5 g/kg). Each group was subdivided into tow subgroups A and B (30 fish/subgroup) in triplicate. The first subgroup was used to evaluate growth performance, hematology and body composition for 60 d. The second subgroup was used to examine immunity, gut microbiota and resistance to infection for 30 d. At the end of the feeding period (60 d), G3 had significant improvements in final body weight (FBW), weight gain (WG), specific growth rate (SGR) and food conversion ratio (FCR) compared with other groups. The total erythrocyte count, hemoglobin content, platelet count, hematocrit, mean corpuscular hemoglobin and total leukocyte count were significantly increased in G3 and G2 compared with G1 and G4. Mean corpuscular volum, lymphocyte and neutrophil percentages had the highest significant improvement in G3. There were no significant differences among the groups in mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration and monocyte percentage. The protein and fat contents of the whole body were the highest in G3. The widest inhibition zones against Aeromonas sobria were at the 30, 40 and 50% concentrations of acidifiers, which were equivalent to OTC (30 μg). G3 showed the lowest total gastrointestinal bacterial counts, followed by G2. After 15 and 30 d, G3 had the highest serum killing, lysozyme and nitric oxide activities. Serum lysozyme activity and nitric oxide assay had no significant difference

  14. Effects of dietary acidifiers on growth, hematology, immune response and disease resistance of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reda, Rasha M; Mahmoud, Rania; Selim, Khaled M; El-Araby, Iman E

    2016-03-01

    Organic acids or their salts can be used as feed additives in aquaculture. This study was conducted to evaluate the use of a mixture of formic acid, propionic acid and calcium propionate compared with oxytetracycline (OTC). A total of 720 apparently healthy Oreochromis niloticus fingerlings with an average body weight of 28.8 ± 0.14 g (mean ± SE) were randomly divided into four equal groups (G1, G2, G3and G4). G1 was fed a basal diet with no additive as the control group, while G2 and G3 were fed a formic and propionic acid/salt mixture in 1 and 2 g/kg, respectively. G4 was fed OTC (0.5 g/kg). Each group was subdivided into tow subgroups A and B (30 fish/subgroup) in triplicate. The first subgroup was used to evaluate growth performance, hematology and body composition for 60 d. The second subgroup was used to examine immunity, gut microbiota and resistance to infection for 30 d. At the end of the feeding period (60 d), G3 had significant improvements in final body weight (FBW), weight gain (WG), specific growth rate (SGR) and food conversion ratio (FCR) compared with other groups. The total erythrocyte count, hemoglobin content, platelet count, hematocrit, mean corpuscular hemoglobin and total leukocyte count were significantly increased in G3 and G2 compared with G1 and G4. Mean corpuscular volum, lymphocyte and neutrophil percentages had the highest significant improvement in G3. There were no significant differences among the groups in mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration and monocyte percentage. The protein and fat contents of the whole body were the highest in G3. The widest inhibition zones against Aeromonas sobria were at the 30, 40 and 50% concentrations of acidifiers, which were equivalent to OTC (30 μg). G3 showed the lowest total gastrointestinal bacterial counts, followed by G2. After 15 and 30 d, G3 had the highest serum killing, lysozyme and nitric oxide activities. Serum lysozyme activity and nitric oxide assay had no significant difference

  15. Análisis técnico de producción de tilapia Oreochromis niloticus y lechuga acrópolis Lactuca sativa en acuaponia

    OpenAIRE

    Rubio Cabrera, Sheila Guadalupe

    2014-01-01

    Se evaluó la producción de tilapia Oreochromis niloticus y lechuga romana acropolis Lactuca sativa en sistemas acuapónicos utilizando dos sistemas: recirculación de agua sin recambio (utilizando biofiltración) y sistema sin recirculación con recambio parcial de agua. El cultivo se realizó en 4 etapas. En la primera se colocaron 800 alevines de O. niloticus de 0.2 g de peso inicial en tinas plásticas de 800 L (1600 organismos/m3de agua) durante 39 días. La segunda etapa con u...

  16. Processing yield of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus: head cut types and two weight classes Rendimento do processamento da tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus: tipos de corte da cabeça em duas categorias de peso

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    Maria Luiza Rodrigues de Souza

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the best type of head cut of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus resulting in better fillet processing yields. The experiment was carried out at the Pisciculture Station of UEM/Codapar, Maringá, Paraná, Brazil. One hundred and twenty specimens were slaughtered, head cut, eviscerated, and had their fin, skin and fillet removed. The fillet processing was undertaken by a single person. Plotting was completely randomized by a 2x3 factorial scheme. Treatments consisted of two weight categories ( W1=250-400g and W2=401-550g and three types of head cut (C1=oblique, OB; C2=Contour, CO, and C3=strainght, ST, with 20 replicates. Each fish was considered an experimental unit. Mean values of yield were expressed in relation to fish body weight. There was an influence of head cut types and weight categories on the dressed out and fillet yield. The yields in W2 (OB=50.42%, 35.27%; CO=50.70%, 35.18% and ST=48.50%, 33.82% were higher (p O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar o melhor tipo de corte de cabeça para decapitação da tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus, que resulte em melhores rendimentos de filetagem. O experimento foi conduzido na Estação de Piscicultura da UEM/Codapar, Maringá, PR. Foram abatidos 120 exemplares cortadas as cabeças, eviscerados, removidas as nadadeiras, pele e filés. O processo de filetagem foi realizado por uma única pessoa. O delineamento foi inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 2x3. Os tratamentos foram: duas categorias de peso (P1= 250-400 g e P2= 401-550 g e três tipos de corte de cabeça (C1=oblíquo, OB; C2=contornado, CO e C3=reto, RE, com 20 repetições. Cada peixe foi considerado a unidade experimental. Os valores médios de rendimento foram expressos em relação ao peso corporal do peixe. Houve influência do tipo de corte e categoria de peso sobre o rendimento do tronco limpo e filé. Os rendimentos em P2 (OB=50,42%, 35,27%; CO=50,70%, 35,18% e RE=48

  17. 甲磺隆在尼罗罗非鱼体内蓄积的研究%Accumulation of metsulfuron- methyl residues in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢殿楼; 王华; 王丽; 王伟; 雷衍之

    2011-01-01

    在室外人工水生生态试验装置中,采用放射性同位素示踪技术研究了14C标记的甲磺隆在尼罗罗非鱼Oreochromis niloticus体内的蓄积过程.结果表明:尼罗罗非鱼不同组织器官对甲磺隆的蓄积量存在一定差异,虽然鱼体肌肉中的放射性比活度在各器官中最低,但肌肉对放射性标记物的蓄积量最高;甲磺隆在鱼体不同组织器官内的蓄积与排出达到动态平衡所需的时间不同,鱼内脏中达到平衡时所需时间最短,而鱼躯干部所需时间最长,鱼内脏对甲磺隆表现为清除排出,而鱼头部和躯干部对甲磺隆均表现为先吸收蓄积,然后再逐渐转化为清除排出.%Accumulation of metsulfuron - methyl residues in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus was studied under simulated pond conditions by 14C isotopic tracer technique. The quantity of metsulfuron - methyl residues were found different in the fish tissues. Compared with other tissues of fish, the maximal amount of accumulated metsulfuron - methyl was observed in the flesh, even though the minimal concentration of metsulfuron - methyl residues in the same tissue. The dynamic of metsulfuron - methyl residues in the fish tissues demonstrated that the duration for reaching the balance between the accumulation and elimination was found different. The less required duration was found in the fish viscera and more required duration in the truck for the balance. The tendency of metsulfuron methyl residues in fish viscera was expressed as elimination, whereas the fish head and truck showed accumulation at the initial stages of the experiment, and then it gradually changed to elimination.

  18. Dietary administration of a commercial mixed-species probiotic improves growth performance and modulates the intestinal immunity of tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standen, B T; Peggs, D L; Rawling, M D; Foey, A; Davies, S J; Santos, G A; Merrifield, D L

    2016-02-01

    The growth performance, immunological status, intestinal morphology and microbiology of tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, were investigated after dietary administration of the commercial probiotic AquaStar(®) Growout. Tilapia (29.02 ± 0.33 g) were split into five treatments; control (CON), 1.5 g kg(-1) probiotic (PRO-1.5), 3 g kg(-1) probiotic (PRO-3), pulsed probiotic feeding (PRO-PULSE) or an initial probiotic feed followed by control feeding (PRO-INI). After six weeks of experimental feeding, fish fed PRO-3 displayed significantly higher final weight, weight gain and SGR compared to the CON or PRO-INI treatments. Supplementation of the probiotic at this dose induced an up-regulation of intestinal caspase-3, PCNA and HSP70 mRNA levels compared to the CON fed fish. Immuno-modulatory pathways were also affected; significantly higher expression of TLR2, pro-inflammatory genes TNFα and IL-1β, and anti-inflammatory genes IL-10 and TGFβ suggest that the probiotic may potentiate a higher state of mucosal tolerance and immuno-readiness. Histological appraisal revealed significantly higher numbers of intraepithelial leucocytes in the intestine of PRO-3 fed fish compared with treatments CON, PRO-PULSE and PRO-INI but not PRO-1.5. Additionally, fish receiving PRO-3 had a significantly higher abundance of goblet cells in their mid-intestine when compared with fish from all other treatments. Together, these data suggest that continuous provision of AquaStar(®) Growout at 3 g kg(-1) can improve tilapia growth and elevate the intestinal immunological status of the host. PMID:26672904

  19. Lack of association between Flavobacterium columnare genomovar and virulence in hybrid tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (L.) x Oreochromis aureus (Steindachner)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Columnaris disease can be problematic in tilapia (Oreochromis spp.) production. An understanding of the pathogenesis and virulence of F. columnare is needed for the development of prevention strategies. The objective of this study was to determine the virulence of genetically defined isolates of Fl...

  20. Hematologia de Oreochromis niloticus (Cichlidae e Cyprinus carpio (Cyprinidae mantidos em diferentes condições de manejo e alimentação no Estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil = Haematology of Oreochromis niloticus (Cichlidae and Cyprinus carpio (Cyprinidae maintained in different conditions of handling and feeding from the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Ghiraldelli

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo analisou o quadro hematológico de Oreochromis niloticus (tilápia do Nilo e Cyprinus carpio (carpa comum capturados em diferentes propriedades de Blumenau, Joinville e Ituporanga, Estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil. Os resultados foram relacionados às condições de manejo e alimentação a que os animais estavam expostos. Além de ração, as propriedades A e C de Blumenau alimentavam seus peixes com vísceras de peixes, arroz cozido, sobras de alimento do restaurante e ração artesanal. A e C de Ituporanga eram caracterizadas pela consorciação com suínos como principal fonte de alimento alimento e em Joinville as propriedades caracterizavam-se pelo fornecimento de ração comercial como o único alimento aos peixes. O percentual de hematócrito e o número de eritrócitos nastilápias da região de Joinville foram maiores do que nas demais. Nas propriedades A e C de Blumenau e nas de Ituporanga foram observados os maiores valores na contagem total de leucócitos. As tilápias expostas a dejetos de suínos apresentaram também maior número delinfócitos. Os valores hematológicos de carpas não apresentaram variações significativas que pudessem ser relacionadas com o ambiente.This work evaluated the haematological parameters in Oreochromis niloticus (Nile tilapia and Cyprinus carpio (carp captured from the different owners in the cities of Blumenau, Joinville and Ituporanga, State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. The results were related to handling and feeding that the fish were exposed. Not only the ration, but also entrails, cooked rice, restaurant scraps and ration made in fish farm were used in the feeding of fish in the facilities A and C of Blumenau. However, A and C in Ituporanga were characterized by pigmanure as the main source of feeding. In Joinville the diet was characterized by ration as the main source of food. Hematocrit and the erythrocyte number were higher in fish from Joinville than the others. The highest

  1. Eutrophization process in a system used for rearing the nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, São Paulo State, Brazil Processo de eutrofização em um sistema utilizado para a criação da tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus, São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeniffer Sati Pereira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Aquaculture is composed of various themes of interest, particularly does eutrophization due to feeding have direct effects on fish ponds and the whole aquatic system. This study focused on the study of the water quality of an aquatic system related to Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus rearing. Sampling was done at six sites during one rearing cycle (six months, taking water from the source of water supply, the fish pond itself, the effluent of the fish pond and the mixed waters. A principal component analysis revealed that, among all the environmental variables analyzed, chlorophyll-a, total nitrogen and phosphorus and organic matter were responsible for the variations observed during the rearing cycle. Other sources of variability extrinsic to the fish pond make it evident that the assessment must take the entire aquatic system related to the rearing into consideration, minimizing negative effects.Dos vários aspectos inerentes à aquicultura, a eutrofização devido ao manejo alimentar tem efeitos diretos no viveiro e no sistema aquático no qual ele está inserido. Neste contexto, o presente estudo objetivou analisar a qualidade da água do sistema aquático de um viveiro. Em uma criação de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus, foram realizadas coletas de água em seis pontos do sistema aquático, durante um ciclo de engorda (seis meses, compreendendo a água de abastecimento, o viveiro, o efluente e sua mistura com as águas do sistema. Das variáveis ambientais analisadas nas amostras, a aplicação de uma análise de componentes principais revelou que as concentrações de clorofila-a, nitrogênio e fósforo total e o teor de matéria orgânica foram responsáveis pelas variações observadas no sistema durante o cultivo. Variações extrínsecas ao viveiro de cultivo deixaram evidente que o manejo deve ser aplicado a todo o sistema aquático, minimizando efeitos ambientais negativos.

  2. Efektivitas Ekstrak Daun Sirih (Piper betle), Daun Pepaya (Carica papaya) dan Bawang Putih (Allium sativum) terhadap Penyerangan Ektoparasit pada Ikan Nila (Oreochromis niloticus)

    OpenAIRE

    Ginting, Desita Sari Br

    2014-01-01

    The aimed of this research is to know effectiveness of use extract from garlic (Allium sativum ), betel leaf (Piper betle), and leaves pepaya (Carica papaya) against infection ectoparasite on tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and to know immunity from some ectoparasite against each treatment. Parameters water quality observed are temperature and degrees acidity ( ph ). Research is done in the 45 day. Analysis of variance calculations used to determine the effect of ectoparasites plants against ...

  3. Some aspects of the reproductive biology of the Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (L) in the Nyanza Gulf of Lake Victoria, Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Lung'ayia, H.B.O.

    1994-01-01

    Some aspects of the reproductive biology of the Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus population in the Nyanza Gulf of lake Victoria, Kenya were investigated from March to August 1991. The overall sex ratio was 2.08:1 in favour of males. A variation in sex ratio was observed with females predominating over males in lengths between 37.5 and 41.0 cm total length. Fecundity ranged from 864 to 6316 eggs with an average of 2141. The relationship between fecu...

  4. Farinha de vísceras de aves em rações para alevinos de tilápia do Nilo,Oreochromis niloticus (L. Poultry by-product meal in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus fingerlings diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Christina Esper Amaro de Faria

    2002-04-01

    digestibility of Nile tilapia fingerlings (Oreochromis niloticus fed diets with increasing levels of poultry by-product meal (PM were evaluated. Three hundred fingerlings with average initial weight of 0.35±0.01 g were placed in thirty 120 L net ponds in five cement 1000 L tanks. Six levels of PM inclusion (0.00, 4.00, 8.00, 12.00, 16.00 and 20.00% were used in the diets, in an experimental randomized blocks desing with six treatments and three replicates. An experiment of diet digestibility was undertaken with 0.00 and 20.00% PM diets on fish of average weight 47.81±9.97 g. A linear improvement was observed at PM inclusion levels with regard to final weight, percentage of weight gain, protein efficiency rate, nitrogen retention and quadratic effect for food conversion, ether extract retention and percentages of crude protein and carcass ethereal extract. Concerning to the digestibility experiment, the 20.00% PM diet showed lower coefficients of apparent digestibility for dry matter, crude protein, crude energy and higher coefficients for ether extract. However, higher values of digestible ether extract and energy were obtained with 20.00% PM diet, even though digestible protein was lower than the 0.00% PP diet. Apparent digestibility coefficients of the ether extract, crude protein and crude energy of PM for the Nile tilapia were 70.45, 63.93 and 55.89% respectively. Thus, the inclusion of 20.00% PM in diet improved performance, however increased ether extract content and decreased crude protein levels in carcass and dry matter, crude protein and energy digestibility coefficients of the diets.

  5. Genome-Wide Identification and Transcriptome-Based Expression Profiling of the Sox Gene Family in the Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Ling; Yang, Chao; Tao, Wenjing; Wang, Deshou

    2016-01-01

    The Sox transcription factor family is characterized with the presence of a Sry-related high-mobility group (HMG) box and plays important roles in various biological processes in animals, including sex determination and differentiation, and the development of multiple organs. In this study, 27 Sox genes were identified in the genome of the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), and were classified into seven groups. The members of each group of the tilapia Sox genes exhibited a relatively conserved exon-intron structure. Comparative analysis showed that the Sox gene family has undergone an expansion in tilapia and other teleost fishes following their whole genome duplication, and group K only exists in teleosts. Transcriptome-based analysis demonstrated that most of the tilapia Sox genes presented stage-specific and/or sex-dimorphic expressions during gonadal development, and six of the group B Sox genes were specifically expressed in the adult brain. Our results provide a better understanding of gene structure and spatio-temporal expression of the Sox gene family in tilapia, and will be useful for further deciphering the roles of the Sox genes during sex determination and gonadal development in teleosts. PMID:26907269

  6. Determination of presence and quantification of cadmium, lead and copper in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus fillets obtained from three cold storage plants in the state of Parana, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Nobuhiro Tajiri

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Pisciculture is an economic activity that is steadily growing in the state of Parana, Brazil, and Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus is one of the widely cultivated species in this state. Tilapia is not only a very nutritious food, but also an important indicator of environmental contamination. This study aimed to verify contamination by cadmium, copper and lead in tilapia fillets, and to compare the found values to international legislations. Were collected 135 samples of tilapia fillets, between July 2006 and May 2007, in three fish stores located in regions west and north of Paraná State. Samples of tilapia fillet were analyzed in relation to the presence of cadmiun, lead and copper, using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Lead has not been detected in the analyses. Cadmium has been detected in three samples, on concentrations of 0.012 µg.g-1, 0.011 µg.g-1 and 0.014 µg.g-1. Copper has been detected in all fillets, and the average concentration of each cold storage plant was of 0.122 µg.g-1, 0.106 µg.g-1 and 0.153 µg.g-1. The concentrations found in this study are within the limits allowed by both the European and the Australian legislations.

  7. Protein-sparing effect with high energy levels and obtaining the optimum digestible energy/digestible protein ratio in growth diets to Oreochromis niloticus(L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Walter Gutierrez

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The sparing effect of the dietary protein using diets with high energy levels was evaluated. A factorial design was used to examine the interaction of two levels of protein (30 and 35% and two levels of digestible energy (3.3 and 3.7 kcal/g on the weight gain (WG, food conversion FC, retained protein (PR, retained energy (ER and protein efficiency ratio (PER in “sex reversal Nile tilapia” (Oreochromis niloticus. Diets contained anchovy and soybean meal as protein sources and yellow corn and wheat bran as energy sources. The fish oil was used to adjust the energy levels. There were highly significant interactions (P<0.01 between the experimental diets. In diets with 30% proteins, the increase of digestible energy significantly enhances WG, FC, PR, ER and PER, where the level of 3.7 kcal/g had the best performance. With 35% protein, the increase of digestible energy had not significant influence on the GP, CA, PR, ER and PER, however the growth of sex reversal Nile Tilapia was improved with the level of 3.3 kcal/g. When were compared both diets, were not find significant differences. Considering the protein cost, it can be concluded that best response was obtained with a diet containing 30 % of protein and 3.7 kcal/g of digestible energy and optimum digestible energy/ digestible protein ratio of 13.75 kcal/g protein.

  8. Replacement of Fishmeal by Single Cell Protein Derived from Yeast Grown on Date (Phoenix dactylifera) Industry Waste in the Diet of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) Fingerlings

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Hafedh, Yousef S.

    2013-10-02

    Isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets (32% protein, 4.3 Kcal/g) were formulated to replace fishmeal by single cell protein (SCP) from two yeasts, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida utilis, grown on date (Phoenix dactylifera) processing waste in diets for two size groups (avg 15.39 g and 25.14 g) of juvenile Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). A control diet (T1) with fishmeal and six experimental diets (S1, S2, and S3 with S. cerevisiae, and C1, C2, and C3 with C. utilis) each containing 11.6%, 23.2%, and 34.2% yeast as SCP were prepared to replace 25%, 50%, and 75% of fishmeal, respectively. Tilapia fed on the control and experimental diets (S1, S2, C1, C2) with 25% and 50% replacement of fishmeal showed better growth and feed utilization. Fish fed on diets S3 and C3 (75% fishmeal replacement) had significantly (p < 0.05) poorer growth suggesting that yeast SCP can replace up to 50% of fishmeal in juvenile tilapia diets. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

  9. Non-lethal detection of DNA from Cichlidogyrus spp. (Monogenea, Ancyrocephalinae) in gill mucus of the Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ek-Huchim, Juan Pablo; Jimenez-Garcia, Isabel; Pérez-Vega, Juan Antonio; Rodríguez-Canul, Rossanna

    2012-03-20

    Infection of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus by monogeneans of the genus Cichlidogyrus is harmful. Currently, diagnosis of this infection is based on invasive techniques and the identification of isolated parasites by their morphology. To facilitate diagnosis, we have developed a non-lethal polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test for detection of Cichlidogyrus spp. DNA in the gill mucus of O. niloticus, using 5 pairs of specific primers based on Cichlidogyrus sclerosus 28S rRNA (Cicly 1 to Cicly 5) which generate fragments of approximately 188, 180, 150, 159 and 189 bp, respectively. PCR specificity was tested using genomic DNA extracted individually from 175 isolated Cichlidogyrus spp., 75 Gyrodactylus cichlidarum and 75 endopararasitic Enterogyrus spp., as well as from 75 protozoans Trichodina spp. The Cicly primers were used to detect Cichlidogyrus spp. DNA in mucus from the gills of 23 Nile tilapia confirmed to be infected with the parasite. Negative controls consisted of 45 uninfected Nile tilapia. The limit of sensitivity of the assay was 1.2 ng of purified parasite DNA. The Cicly primers did not amplify DNA from the mucus of non-infected Nile tilapia, G. cichlidarum, Trichodina spp. or Enterogyrus spp. In all cases, the sensitivity and specificity of the test were 100%. The sequences of all the amplified fragments showed a high similarity to that of the 28S rRNA region of C. sclerosus (93 to 100% identical to GenBank Accession No. DQ157660.1). We provide evidence for a safe and non-invasive DNA-based diagnostic method for the presence of Cichlidogyrus in the gill mucus of O. niloticus. PMID:22436463

  10. Effects of dietary grape seed proanthocyanidins on growth performance, some serum biochemical parameters and body composition of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus fingerlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao Wei Zhai

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study was performed with tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus to evaluate the effects of diet supplementation with grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPs on fish growth performance, some serum parameters and body composition. Three hundred tilapia fingerlings with the initial average body weight of 9.50±1.25 g were randomly divided into five treatment groups with four replicates in each group and 15 fish in each replicate. The dietary GSPs levels of five treatment groups were 0 (control group, 200, 400, 600, and 800 mg/kg, respectively. The trial period was 49 days. Growth performance parameters were significantly improved by GSPs supplementation (P<0.05, while survival rates were similar among all groups (P>0.05. Serum parameter results showed that activities of aminotransferase aspartate in 200 and 400 mg/kg GSPs groups and alanine aminotransferase in 400 mg/kg GSPs group were lowered significantly (P<0.05. Levels of triglyceride and total cholesterol (except 200 mg/kg GSPs group were significantly lowered, while lysozyme activity and albumin level were significantly higher in fish of GSPs supplemented groups, independently from the level of supplementation. The highest crude protein level and lowest crude lipid level were found in fish of all GSPs supplemented groups, while levels of moisture and ash in fish of all groups were similar (P>0.05. The results indicated that dietary 200 mg/kg GSPs could exert beneficial effects on growth and body composition of tilapia fingerlings, and ameliorate serum biochemistry parameters related to health status.

  11. The use of nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) cultivation wastewater for the production of romaine lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. longifolia) in water recirculation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effendi, Hefni; Wahyuningsih, Sri; Wardiatno, Yusli

    2016-05-01

    In the recirculation aquaponic system (RAS), fish farming waste was utilized as a nutrient for plant, minimizing the water need, reducing the waste disposal into the environment, and producing the fish and plant as well. The study aimed to examine the growth of romaine lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. Longifolia) in aquaponic system without the addition of artificial nutrient. The nutrient relies solely on wastewater of nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) cultivation circulated continuously on the aquaponic system. The results showed that tilapia weight reached 48.49 ± 3.92 g of T3 (tilapia, romaine lettuce, and inoculated bacteria), followed by T2 (tilapia and romaine lettuce) and T1 (tilapia) of 47.80 ± 1.97 and 45.89 ± 1.10 g after 35 days of experiment. Tilapia best performance in terms of growth and production occurred at T3 of 3.96 ± 0.44 g/day, 12.10 ± 0.63 %/day, 96.11 ± 1.44 % and 1.60 ± 0.07 for GR, SGR, SR, and FCR, respectively. It is also indicated by better water quality characteristic in this treatment. Romaine lettuce harvests of T2 and T3 showed no significant difference, with the final weight of 61.87 ± 5.59 and 57.74 ± 4.35 g. Overall, the integration of tilapia fish farming and romaine lettuce is potentially a promising aquaponic system for sustainable fish and horticulture plant production.

  12. Amino acid requirement studies in Oreochromis niloticus by application of principles of the diet dilution technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebert, F

    2009-12-01

    Data analysis utilized four growth experiments with mixed diets limiting in lysine, in threonine, and in methionine respectively. All male juvenile Orechromis niloticus [12 g average body weight instead of average (BW) at start, four repetition tanks per diet, 56 days experimental period] provided the database for application of an exponential N-utilization model. Imposing amino acid efficiency data were utilized for modelling of amino acid requirements depending on the level of daily protein deposition. According to the observed average dietary amino acid efficiency of the amino acids under study, 16.3 g/kg of lysine, 8.3 g/kg of threonine and 7.3 g/kg of methionine were established as required in feed content for 187 mg daily protein deposition (50 g BW, feed intake at 3% of BW). Further modelling by use of graded dietary amino acid efficiency yielded strong evidence for the significance of this dietary factor of influence. Current data analysis has led to conclusion, that the applied non-linear modelling of amino acid requirements is an advantageous approach because of its quantitative reflection of graded dietary amino acid efficiency corresponding to protein deposition data. The procedure has the potential to contribute to alternate approaches for improved reliability of recommended quantitative amino acid supply in fish nutrition.

  13. Influence of water temperature and waterborne cadmium toxicity on growth performance and metallothionein-cadmium distribution in different organs of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Tawwab, Mohsen; Wafeek, Mohammed

    2014-10-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is believed to be one of the most abundant and ubiquitously distributed toxins in the aquatic system. This metal is released to the aquatic environment from both anthropogenic sources, such as industrial, agricultural and urban effluents as well as natural sources, such as rocks and soils. Otherwise, the temperature increase of water bodies, which has been observed due to global climatic changes, has been shown to increase Cd toxicity for several aquatic animal species including fish. In the present study, Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.), (26.0 ± 0.38 g) were reared at 20, 24, 28, or 32 °C and exposed to 0.0 or 0.5mg Cd/L for 8 weeks to investigate effects of water temperature, Cd toxicity and their interaction on fish performance as well as metallothionein (MT) and Cd distribution in different fish organs. It was found that fish reared in Cd-free group at 28 °C showed the optimum growth and feed intake, while Cd-exposed fish showed low growth and feed intake irrespective to water temperature. A synergetic relationship between water temperature and Cd toxicity was observed where Cd toxicity increased as water temperature increased and the worse growth was obtained in Cd-exposed fish reared at 32 °C. Additionally, the highest Cd residues in different fish organs were detected in Cd-exposed fish reared at 32 °C. Similarly, MT concentrations in different fish organs increased as water temperature increased especially in Cd-exposed fish groups. A high positive correlation between MT and Cd concentrations in fish organs was detected. The distribution of MT and Cd levels was in the order of liver>kidney>gills>muscles. The present study revealed that the optimum water temperature suitable for Nile tilapia growth is 28 °C. Additionally, Cd exposure had a deteriorate effect on the growth and health of Nile tilapia. This hazardous effect increased as water temperature increased. Further, liver and kidney were the prime sites of Cd accumulation

  14. The potential effects of Spirulina platensis (Arthrospira platensis on tissue protection of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus through estimation of P53 level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mai D. Ibrahem

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study was designed to investigate the potential effect of Spirulina platensis, Arthrospira platensis, (SP on tissue protection of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus through estimation of P53 level. Five isonitrogenous and isocaloric rations containing graded levels of dried SP 5, 7.5,10, 15, and 20 g/kg diet were fed separately to five equal groups of O. niloticus fingerlings, additional control group was assigned for 3 months. Liver samples were separately collected from each group by the end of each month. The expression level of P53 showed a substantial decrease among the treated groups in a time-dependent manner. It is therefore advisable to incorporate SP in diets for tissue protection and antioxidant effects in cultured O. niloticus.

  15. 尼罗罗非鱼超雄鱼的生物学研究%Biological study on supermale Oreochromis niloticus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨永铨; 张海明; 梁宏伟; 邹桂伟

    2013-01-01

    综合系列观察研究,简要描述了尼罗罗非鱼(Orechromis niloticus)超雄鱼的形态构造、生长发育和繁殖功能、染色体组型以及DNA检测等方面的基本特征,说明尼罗超雄鱼的生物学特征与原系尼罗罗非鱼基本相同,一样具有较强的适应环境的能力.%Basic characteristics of supermale Oreochromis niloticus including morphological structure, growth and development , reproduction function, karyotype and DNA detection were briefly described by summarizing series of observation and studies. It indicated that supermale 0. Niloticus had basically similar biological characteristics to the original stock, and had strong ability of environment adaption.

  16. Histopathological changes in liver and gill epithelium of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, exposed to waterborne copper Alterações histopatológicas no epitélio hepático e branquial da Tilápia do Nilo, Oreochromis niloticus, exposta a diferentes concentrações de cobre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António Figueiredo-Fernandes

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, of both sexes were reared in freshwater and exposed to 0.5, 1.0 and 2.5mg L-1 of waterborne copper for a period of 21 days. Liver and gill samples were collected after 21 days of exposure to copper and lesions were analyzed by light microscopy. The main histopathological changes observed in gills exposed to the highest concentration were edema, lifting of lamellar epithelia and an intense vasodilatation of the lamellar vascular axis. Although less frequent, lamellar fusion caused by the filamentar epithelium proliferation and some lamellar aneurisms were also found. The liver of control group exhibited a quite normal architecture, while the fish exposed to copper showed vacuolation and necrosis. These hepatic alterations were more evident in fish exposed to 1.0 and 2.5mg L-1 copper concentrations. The number of hepatocytes nucleus per mm² of hepatic tissue decreased with the increase of copper concentration. In contrast, the hepatic somatic index was high in fish exposed at 2.5mg L-1 of copper. In short, this work advance new knowledge as influence of copper in the gill and liver histology of O. niloticus and demonstrated that their effects could be observed at different concentrations.Tilápia do Nilo, Oreochromis niloticus, de ambos os sexos foram mantidas em água doce e expostas a concentrações de 0.5, 1.0 e 2.5mg L-1 de sulfato de cobre durante um período de 21 dias. Amostras de fígado e de brânquia foram coletadas após o tempo de exposição e as lesões foram analisadas por microscopia óptica. As principais alterações histopatológicas observadas nas brânquias foram edema, "lifting" do epitélio lamelar e uma intensa vasodilatação do eixo lamelar. Embora menos freqüentes, a fusão lamelar causada pela proliferação do epitélio filamentar e alguns aneurismas lamelares também foram observadas. O fígado do grupo controle exibiu uma arquitetura normal, enquanto os dos peixes expostos ao

  17. Effect of N-acetyl cysteine and glycine supplementation on growth performance, glutathione synthesis, anti-oxidative and immune ability of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Shiwei; Zhou, Weiwen; Tian, Lixia; Niu, Jin; Liu, Yongjian

    2016-08-01

    An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) and glycine supplementation on growth performance, glutathione (GSH) synthesis, anti-oxidative and immune ability of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. Four practical diets were formulated, control, control +0.2% NAC, control +0.5% glycine, control +0.2% NAC +0.5% glycine. Each diet was randomly assigned to quadruplicate groups of 30 fish (approximately 9.5 g). The weight gain and specific growth rate were significantly increased with the supplementation of NAC and glycine. While they had no effect on feed efficiency feed intake and survival. Glutathion peroxidase (GPx) was increased by NAC and γ-glutamine cysteine synthase (γ-GCS) in plasma were increased by glycine. After the feeding trail, fish were challenged by Streptococcus iniae, fish fed the diet supplemented with NAC obtained significantly higher survival rate after 72 h challenge test. NAC also decreased malonaldehyde (MDA) in liver, increased glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity in plasma, up-regulated mRNA expression of Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and GPx in liver and headkidney. Dietary supplementation of glycine increased the anti-oxidative ability of tilapia through increase anti-oxidative enzyme activity (SOD, glutathione reductase, myeloperoxidase) and up-regulate anti-oxidative gene expression (SOD). Immune ability only enhanced by the supplementation of NAC through increased interleukin-1β (IL-1β) mRNA expression. These results clearly indicated that the supplementation of NAC and glycine can significantly improve the growth performance of tilapia, and NAC also enhance the anti-oxidative and immune capacity of tilapia, glycine could only enhance the anti-oxidative ability.

  18. Effect of N-acetyl cysteine and glycine supplementation on growth performance, glutathione synthesis, anti-oxidative and immune ability of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Shiwei; Zhou, Weiwen; Tian, Lixia; Niu, Jin; Liu, Yongjian

    2016-08-01

    An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) and glycine supplementation on growth performance, glutathione (GSH) synthesis, anti-oxidative and immune ability of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. Four practical diets were formulated, control, control +0.2% NAC, control +0.5% glycine, control +0.2% NAC +0.5% glycine. Each diet was randomly assigned to quadruplicate groups of 30 fish (approximately 9.5 g). The weight gain and specific growth rate were significantly increased with the supplementation of NAC and glycine. While they had no effect on feed efficiency feed intake and survival. Glutathion peroxidase (GPx) was increased by NAC and γ-glutamine cysteine synthase (γ-GCS) in plasma were increased by glycine. After the feeding trail, fish were challenged by Streptococcus iniae, fish fed the diet supplemented with NAC obtained significantly higher survival rate after 72 h challenge test. NAC also decreased malonaldehyde (MDA) in liver, increased glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity in plasma, up-regulated mRNA expression of Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and GPx in liver and headkidney. Dietary supplementation of glycine increased the anti-oxidative ability of tilapia through increase anti-oxidative enzyme activity (SOD, glutathione reductase, myeloperoxidase) and up-regulate anti-oxidative gene expression (SOD). Immune ability only enhanced by the supplementation of NAC through increased interleukin-1β (IL-1β) mRNA expression. These results clearly indicated that the supplementation of NAC and glycine can significantly improve the growth performance of tilapia, and NAC also enhance the anti-oxidative and immune capacity of tilapia, glycine could only enhance the anti-oxidative ability. PMID:27235905

  19. Coeficientes de digestibilidade e valores de aminoácidos digestíveis de alguns ingredientes para tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus Digestibility coefficients and digestible amino acids values of some ingredients for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Massamitu Furuya

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar o coeficiente de digestibilidade aparente (CDA dos aminoácidos do milho, farelo de trigo, farelo de soja e da farinha de peixe. Empregaram-se juvenis de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus (25,24 ± 3,88 g alimentados com ração referência peletizada contendo 0,10% de óxido de crômio (indicador e 33,78% de proteína bruta. O CDA médio dos aminoácidos foi de: 88,31; 77,40; 91,78 e 82,58% para o milho, farelo de trigo, farelo de soja e farinha de peixe, respectivamente. Ainda que os resultados sugiram que o CDA da proteína possa ser indicativo do CDA dos aminoácidos, seus valores individuais variaram dentre e entre os ingredientes avaliados. Os resultados obtidos demonstram que os valores de aminoácidos digestíveis devem ser usados na formulação de rações completas (precisas e econômicas.This study was carried out to determine the apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC of amino acids for corn, wheat bran, soybean meal and fish meal in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, juveniles (25.24 ± 3.88 g, fed purified pelletized reference diet containing 33.78% crude protein and 0.10% of chromic oxide (indicator. The average ADC of amino acids were: 88.31; 77.40; 91.78 and 82.58% for corn, wheat meal, soybean meal and fish meal, respectively. Althought results suggest that the protein ADC value is indicative of amino acids ADC, there was variability in individual amino acid digestibility within and among the tested feeds. The results suggest that use of digestible values of amino acids should be use for more accurate and economical feed formulation.

  20. Glutathione and its related enzymes in the gonad of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamed, R R; Saleh, N S M; Shokeer, A; Guneidy, R A; Abdel-Ghany, S S

    2016-02-01

    Glutathione (GSH) concentration, the activity of its metabolizing enzymes, glutathione transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), and the antioxidant enzyme catalase (CAT) in O. niloticus ovary and testis were examined. GSH concentration of O. niloticus testis exhibited high concentration (129 ± 21 nmol/g tissue) compared with GSH concentration (49.2 ± 8.3 nmol/g tissue) in the ovary. GST, GPx, GR, and CAT activities of O. niloticus testis exhibited high values compared with their corresponding values in ovary homogenates. However, protein concentration in ovary homogenates exhibited higher values (175 ± 40.6 mg) compared with testis homogenates (27.1 ± 3.7 mg). O. niloticus ovary was less effective in excretion of xenobiotices compared with the testis, where its function is mainly in increasing the protein content of the eggs; however, in O. niloticus testis, the glutathione cycle operated in accelerated way in the direction of reduced GSH production in order to protect the maturation stages in a save way. A simple reproducible procedure for the purification of GST from O. niloticus ovary was established. The enzymes proved to be homogenous as judged by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), and its molecular weight was calculated to be 25.1 kDa. GST of O. niloticus ovary exhibited maximum activity at pH 7.5. The Michaelis-Menten constant (K(m)) of the purified ovary GST for GSH and CDNB was 0.076 mM and 1.0 mM, respectively. Cibacron blue was the most potent inhibitor of ovary GST activity (IC50 value, concentration of inhibitor that will give 50% inhibition, equal 0.002 μM). The specific activity of GST toward different electrophilic substrates was determined. GST activity toward benzyl isothiocyanate was the highest compared with phenethyl isothiocyanate and allyl isothiocyanate.

  1. Comparison of the growth of males and females of tilapia Oreochromis Niloticus cultured in cages

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    Carlos Alvarado-Ruiz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the purpose of evaluating productive performance and potential weight gain capacity of snapper O. Niloticus without reversing, we evaluated the growth of males and females raised in floating cages in captivity grouped by gender. The experiment was conducted for a term of 150 days.  We used a simple 4 836 alevins of 26.2±19.7g, fish that were nourished until they visibly reached sexual differentiation to 119.3±56.5 g to be separated by sex and nourished in floating cages to a final average weight of 387.0±128.9g (harvestto determine differences in growth. The weight distribution of the undefined gender sample showed a decrease in the coefficient of variation (CV of 75.13% to 31.49 and 30.22 for males and females respectively. This indicates that the distribution of sizes of the samples tended to become normal during the cycle of harvest. Significant differences (P=0.05 for the weight of harvest 429.2±135.1g and 339.65±102.64 g.   For the growth rate 2.74±0.86g day y 2.18±0.68 g day were determined between males and females respectively. The standard error of the estimation of the difference of average weight between males and females was 89.62±7.23g for an accuracy level of 95%. Males displayed  better growth rate and weight gain for harvest.

  2. Abundance, food habits, and breeding season of exotic T ilapia zillii and native O reochromis niloticus L. fish species in Lake Zwai , Ethiopia

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    Padanillay C. Prabu

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Relative abundance, diet and breeding season overlap in the reproduction of exotic Tilapia zillii and native Oreochromis niloticus in Lake Zwai were studied from samples collected over 12 months. Younger fish of both species collected were also evaluated for food composition.Food items from stomachs of both species were collected and analysed using the frequency of occurrence method. In terms of number, T. zillii dominated O. niloticus at the sampling sites. In both species, macrophytes, detritus, blue green algae, diatoms, green algae, Ceratium, Euglena,and Phacus constituted foods of plant origin, whereas chironomid larvae, Copepoda, Cladocera,Rotifera, Nematoda, fish eggs, and fish scales constituted foods of animal origin. Foods of the latter type such as Ephemeroptera and mollusks were also noted in the diet of adult T. zillii.Despite the extensive overlap in food habits of the two species, however, the food items were found in the diet of the species with different average percentage frequencies of occurrence. The level of gonad maturation and gonadosomatic index (GSI values showed that in Lake Zwai breeding was year-round for both T. zillii and O. niloticus, with a peak during April-September and February-August respectively, indicating extended breeding season overlap in reproduction. The two species were always found together in the catches from the sampling sites, which indicated some niche overlap between them.

  3. Densidade de estocagem no desempenho de larvas de tilápia-do-Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus L., durante a reversão sexual Stocking density effect on Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L. fry performance during sex reversal

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    Luís Eduardo Ferrari Sanches

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available Para estudar os efeitos da densidade de estocagem no desempenho de larvas de tilápia-do-Nilo, Oreochromis niloticus, durante a fase de reversão sexual em águas verdes, foram estocadas 1.500 larvas com peso médio de 12,41mg e comprimento total médio de 9,38mm em tanques-rede de 12,5 litros, nas densidades de 2, 4, 6, 8 e 10 larvas/litro, em delineamento totalmente aleatório com 4 repetições. Essas foram tratadas com ração comercial fina com 43% de PB, contendo 60mg de metiltestosterona/kg, 6 vezes por dia, durante 28 dias. O aumento da densidade resultou em menor peso e comprimento médios finais, definidos por modelos de regressão. O efeito da densidade sobre a diminuição do crescimento se evidenciou a partir da terceira semana de criação. A biomassa total e a conversão alimentar mostraram-se incrementadas com o aumento da densidade. A sobrevivência, o fator de condição e o coeficiente de variação foram independentes da densidade. Conclui-se que 2 larvas/litro devem ser usadas, quando se objetiva produção de alevinos maiores; mas densidades maiores podem ser utilizadas, obtendo-se alevinos menores, porém incrementando a biomassa total.To study the effects of stocking density on the performance of newborn fries of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus, during sex reversal stage in green waters, 1500 fries were stocked with 12.41mg of average weight and 9.38mm of total average length in hapas of 12,5 litres, at densities of 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 fries/litre, in a completely randomized design with 4 replications. They were fed with a fine commercial diet containing 43% CP, and 60mg of methyltestosterone/kg, six times a day, during 28 days. The density increase resulted in lower final average weight and length defined by regression models. The effect of density on the growth decrease started to be significative on the second week of rearing, while the total biomass and feed conversion were increased with the density increase

  4. Conservação de filés de tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus em salga seca e salga úmida Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus preservation by means of dry salting and saturated brine

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    F.S. Aiura

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Acompanhou-se o desenvolvimento dos processos da salga em salmoura saturada (salga úmida e salga seca de filés de tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus e avaliaram-se algumas características indicativas de qualidade do produto durante a estocagem. Os processos foram acompanhados por 156 horas na salga úmida e por 96 horas na salga seca, e os filés salgados foram estocados, respectivamente, por 60 e 45 dias à temperatura ambiente. Os teores máximos de cloreto nos filés (14% foram atingidos com 72 horas na salga úmida e com 36 horas na salga seca. Os filés de tilápia salgados em salmoura mantiveram as características próprias do produto por um período de 45 dias, e os submetidos à salga seca apresentaram baixo teor de umidade (6% e alta concentração de extrato etéreo (4,6%. Recomenda-se somente o processo de salga em salmoura saturada como forma de conservação dos filés de tilápia-do-nilo.The processes of salting of Nile tilapia fillets (Oreochromis niloticus submitted to saturated brine and dry salting were observed, and some characteristics that indicate the quality of the product during the storage were evaluated. The brine saturated process was followed up to 156 hours and the dry salting was followed up to 96 hours. When the salting finished, fillets were stored for 45 (dry salting and 60 days (saturated brine, respectively. The highest values for chloride in fillets (14% were reached within 72 hours in brine salting and 36 hours in dry salting. The tilapia fillets salted in brine kept the proper characteristics of the product for a period of 45 days and the fillets submitted to dry salting showed low moisture ratios (6% and a high concentration of lipids (4.6%. Thereby, it is only recommended the salting process in saturated brine to be used as a mean of conservation for Nile tilapia fillets.

  5. Effects of dietary antibiotic growth promoter and Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product on production, intestinal bacterial community, and nonspecific immunity of hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus female x Oreochromis aureus male).

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, S; Zhou, Z; Meng, K; Zhao, H; Yao, B; Ringø, E; Yoon, I

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the effects of a dietary antibiotic growth promoter (florfenicol) and a Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product (DVAQUA) on growth, G:F, daily feed intake, intestinal bacterial community, and nonspecific immunity of hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus ♀ × Oreochromis aureus ♂), a 16-wk feeding trial was conducted in a recirculating aquaculture system. Four feeding regimens were evaluated: control, dietary florenicol (0.02 g/kg; 16 wk), dietary DVAQUA (0.5 g/kg; 16 wk), and sequential use of florenicol (0.02 g/kg; 8 wk), and DVAQUA (0.5 g/kg; 8 wk). Each regimen had 4 replicate tanks (0.5 × 0.5 × 0.5 m) and each tank contained 12 fish (initial BW: 46.88 ± 0.38 g). Dietary florfenicol improved growth (P = 0.089), G:F (P = 0.036), and serum complement component concentrations (P < 0.001) of hybrid tilapia. However, the compound decreased the estimated intestinal bacterial count estimated by rpoB quantitative PCR (P < 0.001) and bacterial diversity (visual band numbers, Shannon diversity index, and Shannon equitability index based on 16S rDNA V3 denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis fingerprints) compared with the control. Although sequential use of florfenicol and DVAQUA improved growth and G:F numerically to a similar extent as dietary florfenicol, and increased intestinal bacterial count to normal quantities, the sequential use of florenicol and DVAQUA decreased intestinal bacterial diversity (visual band numbers, Shannon diversity index, and Shannon equitability index) as well as serum complement component concentrations (P < 0.001) compared with their respective use and the control. These findings might be negatively related to disease control and host defense, and the sequential use of florenicol and DVAQUA should be practiced with caution. Feeding DAVQUA to the fish improved nonspecific immunity and increased intestinal bacterial count and bacterial diversity, but further research, including challenge studies, should be conducted

  6. Hematological parameters in Nile Tilápia, Oreochromis niloticus exposed to sub-letal concentrations of mercury

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    Nilton Massuo Ishikawa

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Mercury toxicity in tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, (Linnaeus, 1758 was investigated by the hematological parameters after long-term (14 days exposure to various Hg concentrations (0.02, 0.002, 0.0002mg/L Hg. Test groups were set up with three replicates for each concentration, plus the control group. Blood samples were collected from six individuals for each concentration at 0, 3, 7, 10 and 14 days of exposure. The hematological parameters analyzed were: total red blood cell count (RBC, hemoglobin concentration (Hb, hematocrit (Ht, mean corpuscular volume (MCV, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC, total white blood cell count (WBC and differential leukocyte counts and total thrombocyte count (Tr. There were no significant differences among the mean hematological values at the different Hg concentrations indicating that Hg at the concentrations studied was not toxic to tilapia.A toxicidade do mercúrio foi avaliada em tilápia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaues, 1758 através da análise dos parâmetros hematológicos após exposição a diferentes concentrações sub-letais, durante um período de 14 dias. O bioensaio foi conduzido no laboratório de toxicologia do Instituto de Pesca, SP. Foram utilizados alevinos (12.44 ± 0.84 cm, e 27.13 ± 4.67 g e aquários com capacidade para 50 litros e preenchidos com água declorada e mais a quantidade de solução de mercúrio (HgCl2 correspondendo as seguintes concentrações: 0,02; 0,002; 0.0002 mg.L-1 Hg. Foram utilizadas 3 repetições de cada concentração e grupo controle. Amostras de sangue foram coletadas de seis animais de cada concentração nos tempos 0, 3, 7, 10 e 14 dias de exposição. Foram avaliados: a contagem de eritrócitos (RBC, concentração de hemoglobina (Hb, hematócrito (Ht, volume corpuscular médio (VCM, hemoglobina corpuscular média (HCM e concentração de hemoglobina corpuscular média (CHCM, trombócitos totais (Tr, contagem

  7. A comparative toxicity study between small and large size zinc oxide nanoparticles in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus): Organ pathologies, osmoregulatory responses and immunological parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Hasan; Aydın, Fatih; Gürkan, Mert; Yılmaz, Sevdan; Ates, Mehmet; Demir, Veysel; Arslan, Zikri

    2016-02-01

    Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) was exposed to different sizes of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) to evaluate their organ pathologies (kidney, liver, gill, and intestine), osmoregulatory responses and immunological parameters. Sub-chronic exposure was conducted in fresh water with 1 and 10 mg/L concentrations of the small (10-30 nm) and large-size ZnO (100 nm) particles for 7 and 14 days. In this study, it is found that small and large forms of ZnO-NPs cause various pathologic findings in the target organs at all concentrations. These findings are increased of melanomacrophage aggregates, tubular deformations, necrosis and cytoplasmic vacuolations in the kidney, oedema, mononuclear cell infiltrations, fatty changes, pyknotic nuclei and hepatocellular vacuolations in the liver, hyperplasia, aneurysms, and epithelial liftings in the gills, and hyperplasia, swelled of goblet cells, villus deformations in the intestine. Results showed that respiratory burst and potential killing activity at the small-size ZnO concentration significantly increased compared to the control group (p < 0.05) but significant reductions of these parameters at the large-size ZnO concentrations compared to control (p < 0.05) were measured. These findings demonstrate the potential of each particle size to cause significant damage to the immune system. Moreover, because ZnO NPs inhibit the Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity at all concentrations and increase serum Ca(2+) and Cl(-) levels especially in gill, these particles are osmoregulatory and toxicant for tilapia fish. As a summary, both sizes of the particles have led to organ damage, osmoregulatory changes and immune disorder in tilapia fish.

  8. Growth performance and metabolic efficiency in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) fed on a diet containing Jatropha platyphylla kernel meal as a protein source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, V; Akinleye, A O; Makkar, H P S; Angulo-Escalante, M A; Becker, K

    2012-02-01

    Jatropha platyphylla is available on the pacific coast from Sinaloa to Michoacán including the Nayarit and Jalisco states in Mexico. The seeds of J. platyphylla are rich in oil and protein, and the kernel meal (JPKM) prepared after oil extraction contains 70-75% crude protein (CP). Contents of essential amino acids (except lysine) are higher in JPKM than in soybean meal (SBM). Phorbol-esters, the main toxin present in most Jatropha species is absent in J. platyphylla. Heat-treated JPKM (H-JPKM) was evaluated as a protein supplement in tilapia feed and compared with that of SBM and fish meal (FM). Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) fingerlings (15 fish; av. body mass 13.9 ± 0.17 g) were randomly distributed in three groups with five replicates each. A 12-week experiment was conducted in a respirometer system to evaluate the growth performance, nutrient utilization and energy budget. Nile tilapia fingerlings were fed three iso-nitrogenous diets (36% CP): Control containing FM, and Jatropha and Soybean diets in which 62.5% of FM protein was replaced by H-JPKM and SBM respectively. The growth performance, feed conversion ratio, protein efficiency ratio, apparent lipid conversion and energy retention did not differ significantly among the three groups. Higher protein productive value was observed in plant protein fed groups. Average metabolic rate, energy expenditure per g protein fed and retained in the body did not differ significantly among the three groups. Conclusively, Nile tilapia fed plant protein (heated JPKM and SBM) and FM protein-based diets exhibited equal average metabolic rate which indicate that JPKM can be used as a protein source in aqua feed.

  9. Isolation of Streptococcus spp from nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus and quality of water in hapas nets in North Region of Parana State, Brazil/ Isolamento de Streptococcus spp de tilápias do nilo (Oreochromis niloticus e qualidade da água de tanques rede na Região Norte do Estado do Paraná, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksey Machado Moreno

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated 12 intensive breed of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus in four properties localized in the north of Parana State, Brazil. In the period of 13 months, 71 fishes were collected and analyzed of hapas nets that presenting morbidity and mortality of tilapias. Parallel, to evaluate the quality of the water of these hapas nets, there was measured the temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, alkalinity, nitrite and ammonia. Of the 71 fishes, were collected 220 biological samples. 17 (23.94% fishes were positive for Streptococcus spp. Of the 53 biological samples from 17 fishes, in 24 (45.28% were isolated streptococci. The main clinical signs and macroscopic lesions in the fishes with isolation of Streptococcus spp. were hepatomegaly and splenomegaly, skin lesion and base of the fins and exoftalmia with cornea opacity. The higher incidence of infections caused by streptococci happened in the months with higher temperatures, mainly in the transition period winter for spring. The values of dissolved oxygen, pH, alkalinity, nitrite and ammonia of the water were normal.Foram estudados doze tanques-rede de quatro propriedades de criação intensiva de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochomis niloticus da região Norte do Paraná, Brasil. No período de 13 meses foram analisados 71 peixes provenientes de tanques apresentando morbidade e mortalidade de tilápias. Paralelamente, para avaliar a qualidade da água destes tanques, foi medida a temperatura, oxigênio dissolvido, pH, alcalinidade, nitrito e amônia. Dos 71 peixes, foram coletadas 220 materiais biológicos. Em 17 (23.94% peixes foram isolados Streptococcus spp e dos 53 materiais biológicos provenientes destes peixes, 24 (45.28% apresentaram Streptococcus spp. Os principais sinais clínicos e lesões macroscópicas nos peixes com isolamento de Streptococcus spp foram hepatomegalia e esplenomegalia, lesão de pele e base das nadadeiras e exoftalmia com opacidade de córnea. O maior número de

  10. Effects of inbreeding on survival, body weight and fluctuating asymmetry (FA) in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fessehaye, Y.; Komen, J.; Rezk, M.A.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Bovenhuis, H.

    2007-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of different levels of inbreeding on survival, growth, body weight and fluctuating asymmetry (FA) in O. niloticus. We mated 20 sires and 35 dams in a full-sib/half-sib mating design to produce 35 full-sib families with expected level of inbreeding (F%.) of

  11. Estimation of organochlorine pesticides and heavy metal residues in two species of mostly consumed fish in Sharkia Governorate, Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed, Amany Abdel-Rahman; Tharwat, Ahmed El-Sayed; Khalifa, Hesham A.

    2016-01-01

    The current study aimed to afford baseline information on the level of twenty one organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and four heavy metals in muscles of Oreochromis niloticus and Mugil cephallus. This will help elucidating the present status as chemical contaminants in the fish species. A total number of thirty fish from each species were collected to set up this study. Nile tilapia (Oreochromis.niloticus), was noticed to contain higher levels of most estimated types of Σ HCH in (40% of Tilapia...

  12. First description of the adult stage of Clinostomum cutaneum Paperna, 1964 (Digenea: Clinostomidae) from grey herons Ardea cinerea L. and a redescription of the metacercaria from the Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus niloticus (L.) in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustinelli, Andrea; Caffara, Monica; Florio, Daniela; Otachi, Elick O; Wathuta, Euty M; Fioravanti, Maria L

    2010-05-01

    The combined use of morphological and molecular studies allowed for the first time the recognition and description of the adult stage of Clinostomum cutaneum Paperna, 1964 from the grey heron Ardea cinerea L. in Kenya. A redescription of the metacercaria that infect Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus niloticus (L.) from the same aquatic environment is also presented. C. cutaneum differs from all other species of Clinostomum Leidy, 1856 in the shape of its uterus. Sequencing the rRNA confirmed the morphological similarity between adults from the grey heron and the metacercarial stage from tilapia, and a level of genetic similarity with the other previously sequenced Clinostomum spp. was observed. The need for a reorganisation of Clinostomum using both morphological and molecular methods is highlighted. PMID:20401577

  13. Shelf life of air and modified atmosphere-packaged fresh tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fillets stored under chilled and superchilled conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyprian, Odoli; Lauzon, Hélène L; Jóhannsson, Ragnar; Sveinsdóttir, Kolbrún; Arason, Sigurjón; Martinsdóttir, Emilía

    2013-03-01

    Optimal packaging and storage conditions for fresh tilapia fillets were established by evaluating sensory and microbiological changes, as well as monitoring physicochemical properties. Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) farmed in recirculation aquaculture system was filleted, deskinned, and packaged in air and 50% CO2/50% N2 prior to chilling and superchilling storage at 1°C and -1°C. Sensory analysis of cooked samples revealed a shelf life of 13-15 days for air-packaged fillets during storage at 1°C and 20 days at -1°C. At the end of shelf life in air-packaged fillets, total viable counts (TVC) and pseudomonads counts reached log 8 colony-forming units (CFU) g(-1). In 50% CO2/50% N2-packaged fillets, the lag phase and generation time of bacteria were extended and recorded counts were below the limit for consumption (not good indicators of spoilage of tilapia fillets in this study. PMID:24804022

  14. Effects of phenanthrene on hepatic enzymatic activities in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus ♀ × O.aureus ♂)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Wenju; LI Yuanyou; WU Qingyang; WANG Shuqi; ZHENG Huaiping; LIU Wenhua

    2009-01-01

    The effects of phenanthrene (Phe) on hepatosomatic index (HSI) and hepatic enzymatic activities in hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus ♀× O.aureus ♂) were investigated via the static freshwater exposure at dosage of 50,100 or 400 μg/L for 4-14 d.Compared with the control group,HSI was significantly decreased (P<0.05) at 400 μg/L at day 14.Increased enzymatic activities (P<0.05) were observed for catalase (CAT),glutathione peroxidase μgPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) at either 100 or 400 μg/L at day 8 and 14,as well as for CAT at 50 μg/L at day 14,except for GPx at 400 μg/L at day 8.Ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity was significantly increased (P<0.05) at all dosage at day 4 as well as at 50 μg/L at day 8,but significantly decreased at either 100 or 400 μg/L at day 14 (P<0.05).Glutathione-S-transferase μgST) activity was not affected.The results suggest that CAT,GPx,SOD and EROD,as well as HSI in tilapia may be used as the biomarkers or indexes for evaluating or monitoring the pollution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) such as Phe.

  15. Molecular characterization and expression of CD2 in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in response to Streptococcus agalactiae stimulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Zhen; Wang, Bei; Tang, Jufen; Lu, Yishan; Jian, JiChang; Wu, Zaohe; Nie, Pin

    2016-03-01

    The cluster of differentiation 2 (CD2), functioning as a cell adhesion and costimulatory molecule, plays a crucial role in T-cell activation. In this paper, the CD2 gene of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (designated as On-CD2) was cloned and its expression pattern under the stimulation of Streptococcus agalactiae was investigated. Sequence analysis showed On-CD2 protein consists of two extracellular Ig-like domains, a transmembrane region, and a long proline-rich cytoplasmic tail, which is a hallmark of CD2, and several important structural characteristics required for T-cell activation were detected in the deduced amino acid sequence of On-CD2. In healthy tilapia, the On-CD2 transcripts were mainly detected in the head kidney, spleen, blood and thymus. Moreover, there was a clear time-dependent expression pattern of On-CD2 after immunized by formalin-inactivated S. agalactiae and the expression reached the highest level at 12 h in the brain and head kidney, 48 h in the spleen, and 72 h in the thymus, respectively. This is the first report on the expression of CD2 induced by bacteria vaccination in teleosts. These findings indicated that On-CD2 may play an important role in the immune response to intracellular bacteria in Nile tilapia.

  16. Molecular Cloning and Expression Analysis of IgD in Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in Response to Streptococcus agalactiae Stimulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bei; Wang, Pei; Wu, Zao-He; Lu, Yi-Shan; Wang, Zhong-Liang; Jian, Ji-Chang

    2016-01-01

    IgD is considered to be a recently-evolved Ig and a puzzling molecule, being previously found in all vertebrate taxa, except for birds. Although IgD likely plays an important role in vertebrate immune responses, the function of IgD in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) is virtually unknown. In the present study, a membrane form of IgD (mIgD) heavy chains were cloned from the GIFT strain of Nile tilapia (designated On-mIgD). The On-mIgD heavy chain's cDNA is composed of 3347 bp with a 31 bp of 5'-UTR, 3015 bp open reading frame (ORF) and 301 bp 3'-UTR, encoding a polypeptide of 1004 amino acids (GenBank accession no: KF530821). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that On-mIgD heavy chains showed the highest similarity to Siniperca chuatsi. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis showed that On-mIgD expression occurred predominately in head kidney, thymus, spleen, and kidney. After Streptococcus agalactiae infection, transcripts of On-mIgD increased and reached its peak at 48 h in the head kidney and thymus, and 72 h in the spleen, respectively. Taken together, these results collectively indicated that IgD could possibly have a key role to play in the immune response when bacterial infections in Nile tilapia.

  17. Kaftas prepared with V-shaped filleting chips of the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus exposed to smoking techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luiza Rodrigues de Souza

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Kaftas with V-shaped filleting chips of the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus were developed and the effects of the smoking technique on the characteristics of chemical composition, microbiological, sensory and benzo(apyrene were investigated. The filleting chips were ground and filleting included condiments and bacon. Kaftas were molded, frozen and distributed in a completely randomized design with three treatments (T 1 = baked in a grid; T 2 = smoked by friction and T 3 = smoked by liquid smoke with 10 replications. The kaftas subjected to hot smoke had lower moisture content (13.97%, whereas the no-smoking kaftas had the highest content (20.49%. Kaftas with liquid smoke had high crude protein content (48.06% and ash (9.49%, whereas the ash content was different only from no-smoking kaftas (8.79%. There was no significant difference in sensory parameters, except for flavor; smoked kaftas with liquid smoke were more accepted by the judges and the worst kaftas were no-smoked kaftas. Microbiological analysis showed that kaftas developed were appropriate to feed human beings within the required standards. Chips filleting is an alternative for the development of kaftas and those subjected to liquid smoke were considered the best.

  18. Molecular Cloning and Expression Analysis of IgD in Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in Response to Streptococcus agalactiae Stimulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bei; Wang, Pei; Wu, Zao-He; Lu, Yi-Shan; Wang, Zhong-Liang; Jian, Ji-Chang

    2016-01-01

    IgD is considered to be a recently-evolved Ig and a puzzling molecule, being previously found in all vertebrate taxa, except for birds. Although IgD likely plays an important role in vertebrate immune responses, the function of IgD in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) is virtually unknown. In the present study, a membrane form of IgD (mIgD) heavy chains were cloned from the GIFT strain of Nile tilapia (designated On-mIgD). The On-mIgD heavy chain's cDNA is composed of 3347 bp with a 31 bp of 5'-UTR, 3015 bp open reading frame (ORF) and 301 bp 3'-UTR, encoding a polypeptide of 1004 amino acids (GenBank accession no: KF530821). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that On-mIgD heavy chains showed the highest similarity to Siniperca chuatsi. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis showed that On-mIgD expression occurred predominately in head kidney, thymus, spleen, and kidney. After Streptococcus agalactiae infection, transcripts of On-mIgD increased and reached its peak at 48 h in the head kidney and thymus, and 72 h in the spleen, respectively. Taken together, these results collectively indicated that IgD could possibly have a key role to play in the immune response when bacterial infections in Nile tilapia. PMID:27005611

  19. Quantitative and qualitative analyses of the bacterial microbiota of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) cultured in earthen ponds in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakingking, Rolando; Palma, Peter; Usero, Roselyn

    2015-02-01

    The quantity and composition of the bacterial microbiota in the rearing water, sediment, gills and intestines of tilapia Oreochromis niloticus collected every 2 weeks from Day 30 to Day 120 after stocking for grow-out culture in 6 earthen brackish water ponds in the Philippines were examined. The total heterotrophic aerobic bacterial counts obtained in the water, sediment, gills and intestines of tilapia ranged from 10(3) to 10(4) c.f.u. ml(-1), 10(3)-10(5), 10(5)-10(7) and 10(4)-10(7) c.f.u. g(-1), respectively. In terms of composition, a total of 20 bacterial genera and 31 species were identified with the preponderance of gram-negative bacteria constituting 84 % of all bacterial isolates examined. Aeromonas hydrophila, Bacillus spp., Plesiomonas shigelloides, Shewanella putrefaciens, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Staphylococcus spp. and Vibrio cholerae were the dominant bacteria identified in the gills and intestine of tilapia. These bacteria also dominated in the pond sediment and rearing water, except for the nil isolation of S. putrefaciens and V. cholerae in the water samples examined, indicating that resident bacteria in the pond water and sediment congruently typify the composition of bacterial microbiota in the gills and intestine of tilapia which under stressful conditions may propel the ascendance of disease epizootics. PMID:25555375

  20. Molecular Cloning and Expression Analysis of IgD in Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus in Response to Streptococcus agalactiae Stimulus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bei Wang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available IgD is considered to be a recently-evolved Ig and a puzzling molecule, being previously found in all vertebrate taxa, except for birds. Although IgD likely plays an important role in vertebrate immune responses, the function of IgD in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus is virtually unknown. In the present study, a membrane form of IgD (mIgD heavy chains were cloned from the GIFT strain of Nile tilapia (designated On-mIgD. The On-mIgD heavy chain’s cDNA is composed of 3347 bp with a 31 bp of 5′-UTR, 3015 bp open reading frame (ORF and 301 bp 3′-UTR, encoding a polypeptide of 1004 amino acids (GenBank accession no: KF530821. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that On-mIgD heavy chains showed the highest similarity to Siniperca chuatsi. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR analysis showed that On-mIgD expression occurred predominately in head kidney, thymus, spleen, and kidney. After Streptococcus agalactiae infection, transcripts of On-mIgD increased and reached its peak at 48 h in the head kidney and thymus, and 72 h in the spleen, respectively. Taken together, these results collectively indicated that IgD could possibly have a key role to play in the immune response when bacterial infections in Nile tilapia.

  1. Molecular characterization and expression of CD2 in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in response to Streptococcus agalactiae stimulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Zhen; Wang, Bei; Tang, Jufen; Lu, Yishan; Jian, JiChang; Wu, Zaohe; Nie, Pin

    2016-03-01

    The cluster of differentiation 2 (CD2), functioning as a cell adhesion and costimulatory molecule, plays a crucial role in T-cell activation. In this paper, the CD2 gene of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (designated as On-CD2) was cloned and its expression pattern under the stimulation of Streptococcus agalactiae was investigated. Sequence analysis showed On-CD2 protein consists of two extracellular Ig-like domains, a transmembrane region, and a long proline-rich cytoplasmic tail, which is a hallmark of CD2, and several important structural characteristics required for T-cell activation were detected in the deduced amino acid sequence of On-CD2. In healthy tilapia, the On-CD2 transcripts were mainly detected in the head kidney, spleen, blood and thymus. Moreover, there was a clear time-dependent expression pattern of On-CD2 after immunized by formalin-inactivated S. agalactiae and the expression reached the highest level at 12 h in the brain and head kidney, 48 h in the spleen, and 72 h in the thymus, respectively. This is the first report on the expression of CD2 induced by bacteria vaccination in teleosts. These findings indicated that On-CD2 may play an important role in the immune response to intracellular bacteria in Nile tilapia. PMID:26804651

  2. Combination of physico-chemical analysis, Allium cepa test system and Oreochromis niloticus erythrocyte based comet assay/nuclear abnormalities tests for cyto-genotoxicity assessments of treated effluents discharged from textile industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemachandra, Chamini K; Pathiratne, Asoka

    2016-09-01

    Bioassays for cyto-genotoxicity assessments are generally not required in current textile industry effluent discharge management regulations. The present study applied in vivo plant and fish based toxicity tests viz. Allium cepa test system and Oreochromis niloticus erythrocyte based comet assay and nuclear abnormalities tests in combination with physico-chemical analysis for assessing potential cytotoxic/genotoxic impacts of treated textile industry effluents reaching a major river (Kelani River) in Sri Lanka. Of the treated effluents tested from two textile industries, color in the Textile industry 1 effluents occasionally and color, biochemical oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand in the Textile industry 2 effluents frequently exceeded the specified Sri Lankan tolerance limits for discharge of industrial effluents into inland surface waters. Exposure of A. cepa bulbs to 100% and 12.5% treated effluents from both industries resulted in statistically significant root growth retardation, mito-depression, and induction of chromosomal abnormalities in root meristematic cells in comparison to the dilution water in all cases demonstrating cyto-genotoxicity associated with the treated effluents. Exposure of O. niloticus to the 100% and 12.5% effluents, resulted in erythrocytic genetic damage as shown by elevated total comet scores and induction of nuclear abnormalities confirming the genotoxicity of the treated effluents even with 1:8 dilution. The results provide strong scientific evidence for the crucial necessity of incorporating cyto-genotoxicity impact assessment tools in textile industry effluent management regulations considering human health and ecological health of the receiving water course under chronic exposure.

  3. Discovery and expression of 3 siglecs-like in Oreochromis niloticus neutrophil, and their interaction with group B streptococcal sialylated capsular polysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Junjian; Wei, Yuanzheng; Ye, Xing; Sun, Chengfei; Tian, Yuanyuan; Lu, Maixin; Du, Juanjuan; Chen, Zhihang

    2016-05-01

    Sialic acid - binding immunoglobulin - like lectins (Siglecs) are members of the largest superfamily of immune receptors; they recognize sialic acid and are mainly expressed in immune cells. Studies on mammals indicate that Streptococcus agalactiae (GBS) evade immune reactions by interacting with the host immune cells via the sialic acid of sialylated capsular polysaccharides. However, it is currently unknown if fish-derived GBS can interact with Siglecs to evade host immunity. In this study, we examined the binding of FITC-GBS with neutrophils to determine the presence of receptors that binds with GBS. Furthermore, 3 Siglec-like genes, (OnSiglec-1-like/-4b-like/-14-like) from the neutrophils cDNA were screened by PCR. All the genes had specific domains (immunostimulation and immunosuppression domains), conserved amino acid residues, and sialic acid polysaccharide binding sites that are found in mammalian Siglecs. Flow cytometry of Siglecs-like/COS-7 cells and ELISA of Siglecs/Ex-Fc fusion proteins confirmed that 3 Siglecs-like have high binding activity with GBS. Erythrocytes adhesion assays and sialylated glycans binding assay confirmed that 3 Siglecs-like bind to sialic acid polysaccharides. Siglecs-like had high expression levels in the spleen, gill, and kidney in Oreochromis niloticus by qPCR. After experimental infection, Siglec-1-like/-14-like showed a significant upregulated initially and later downregulated in liver, spleen, kidney, and gill. However, Siglec-4b-like was downregulated in most tissues, except that in liver. The results indicate that 3 OnSiglecs-like may recognize GBS sialylated capsular polysaccharides. GBS infections led to significant changes in Siglecs-like expression in immune-related tissues. However, immunostimulation or immunosuppression via the recognition of GBS by different Siglecs-like molecules requires additional studies.

  4. Molecular characterization and immune response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of the suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS)-1, 2 and 3 genes in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cai-Zhi; He, An-Yuan; Chen, Li-Qiao; Limbu, Samwel Mchele; Wang, Ya-Wen; Zhang, Mei-Ling; Du, Zhen-Yu

    2016-03-01

    Suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins are inverse feedback regulators of cytokine and hormone signaling mediated by the Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK/STAT) signaling pathway that are involved in immunity, growth and development of organisms. In the present study, three SOCS genes, SOCS-1, SOCS-2 and SOCS-3, were identified in an economically important fish, Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) referred to as NtSOCS-1, NtSOCS-2 and NtSOCS-3. Multiple alignments showed that, the three SOCS molecules share highly conserved functional domains, including the SRC homology 2 (SH2) domain, the extended SH2 subdomain (ESS) and the SOCS box with others vertebrate counterparts. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that NtSOCS-1, 2 and 3 belong to the SOCS type II subfamily. Whereas NtSOCS-1 and 3 showed close evolutionary relationship with Perciformes, NtSOCS-2 was more related to Salmoniformes. Tissue specific expression results showed that, NtSOCS-1, 2 and 3 were constitutively expressed in all nine tissues examined. NtSOCS-1 and 3 were highly expressed in immune-related tissues, such as gills, foregut and head kidney. However, NtSOCS-2 was superlatively expressed in liver, brain and heart. In vivo, NtSOCS-1 and 3 mRNA levels were up-regulated after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge while NtSOCS-2 was down-regulated. In vitro, LPS stimulation increased NtSOCS-3 mRNA expression, however it inhibited the transcription of NtSOCS-1 and 2. Collectively, our findings suggest that, the NtSOCS-1 and 3 might play significant role(s) in innate immune response, while NtSOCS-2 may be more involved in metabolic regulation.

  5. Evaluation of reference genes for quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis of gene expression in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chang Geng; Wang, Xian Li; Tian, Juan; Liu, Wei; Wu, Fan; Jiang, Ming; Wen, Hua

    2013-09-15

    Quantitative real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) has been used frequently to study gene expression related to fish immunology. In such studies, a stable reference gene should be selected to correct the expression of the target gene. In this study, seven candidate reference genes (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GADPH), ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (UBCE), 18S ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA), beta-2-microglobulin (B2M), elongation factor 1 alpha (EF1A), tubulin alpha chain-like (TUBA) and beta actin (ACTB)), were selected to analyze their stability and normalization in seven tissues (liver, spleen, kidney, brain, heart, muscle and intestine) of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) challenged with Streptococcus agalactiae or Streptococcus iniae, respectively. The results showed that all the candidate reference genes exhibited tissue-dependent transcriptional variations. With PBS injection as a control, UBCE was the most stable and suitable single reference gene in the intestine, liver, brain, kidney, and spleen after S. iniae infection, and in the liver, kidney, and spleen after S. agalactiae infection. EF1A was the most suitable in heart and muscle after S. iniae or S. agalactiae infection. GADPH was the most suitable gene in intestine and brain after S. agalactiae infection. In normal conditions, UBCE and 18S rRNA were the most stably expressed genes across the various tissues. These results showed that for RT-qPCR analysis of tilapia, selecting two or more reference genes may be more suitable for cross-tissue analysis of gene expression.

  6. R-spondin1 signaling pathway is required for both the ovarian and testicular development in a teleosts, Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Limin; Yang, Peng; Luo, Feng; Wang, Deshou; Zhou, Linyan

    2016-05-01

    The furin-domain-containing peptide R-spondin 1 (RSPO1) has recently emerged as an important regulator of ovarian development, upregulating the WNT/β-catenin pathway to oppose testis formation in mammals. However, little information has been reported on the Rspo1 signaling pathway in teleosts. In this study, Rspo1 was isolated from the gonads of the Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. An in situ hybridization analysis demonstrated that Rspo1 is expressed in the germ cells of the ovary and the testis. An ontogenic analysis demonstrated that Rspo1 expression is upregulated just before meiotic initiation in both the ovary and testis during the early developmental stages of the tilapia. The expression pattern is sexually dimorphic from 20days after hatching, with higher expression in the ovary. The reduction of Rspo1 expression by transcription activator-like (TAL) effector nuclease (TALEN) caused retarded ovarian development, the ectopic expression of male-dominant genes, and increased serum 11-ketotestosterone. Intriguingly, a deficiency of Rspo1 in XY fish caused a delay in spermatogenesis, the inhibition of igf3 and amh expression and a reduction in serum 11-ketotestosterone. Furthermore, incubation with FH535, an inhibitor of the Rspo1/Wnt pathway, decreased β-catenin, while increased cyp11c1 and dmrt1 expression in the in vitro cultured ovaries; decreased cyp11c1, amh and igf3 expression in the in vitro cultured testes. Taken together, our data suggest that the Rspo1 signaling pathway might be involved in both ovarian and testicular development in the tilapia. PMID:27044511

  7. Molecular characterization and immune response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of the suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS)-1, 2 and 3 genes in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cai-Zhi; He, An-Yuan; Chen, Li-Qiao; Limbu, Samwel Mchele; Wang, Ya-Wen; Zhang, Mei-Ling; Du, Zhen-Yu

    2016-03-01

    Suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins are inverse feedback regulators of cytokine and hormone signaling mediated by the Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK/STAT) signaling pathway that are involved in immunity, growth and development of organisms. In the present study, three SOCS genes, SOCS-1, SOCS-2 and SOCS-3, were identified in an economically important fish, Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) referred to as NtSOCS-1, NtSOCS-2 and NtSOCS-3. Multiple alignments showed that, the three SOCS molecules share highly conserved functional domains, including the SRC homology 2 (SH2) domain, the extended SH2 subdomain (ESS) and the SOCS box with others vertebrate counterparts. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that NtSOCS-1, 2 and 3 belong to the SOCS type II subfamily. Whereas NtSOCS-1 and 3 showed close evolutionary relationship with Perciformes, NtSOCS-2 was more related to Salmoniformes. Tissue specific expression results showed that, NtSOCS-1, 2 and 3 were constitutively expressed in all nine tissues examined. NtSOCS-1 and 3 were highly expressed in immune-related tissues, such as gills, foregut and head kidney. However, NtSOCS-2 was superlatively expressed in liver, brain and heart. In vivo, NtSOCS-1 and 3 mRNA levels were up-regulated after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge while NtSOCS-2 was down-regulated. In vitro, LPS stimulation increased NtSOCS-3 mRNA expression, however it inhibited the transcription of NtSOCS-1 and 2. Collectively, our findings suggest that, the NtSOCS-1 and 3 might play significant role(s) in innate immune response, while NtSOCS-2 may be more involved in metabolic regulation. PMID:26820103

  8. Discovery and expression of 3 siglecs-like in Oreochromis niloticus neutrophil, and their interaction with group B streptococcal sialylated capsular polysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Junjian; Wei, Yuanzheng; Ye, Xing; Sun, Chengfei; Tian, Yuanyuan; Lu, Maixin; Du, Juanjuan; Chen, Zhihang

    2016-05-01

    Sialic acid - binding immunoglobulin - like lectins (Siglecs) are members of the largest superfamily of immune receptors; they recognize sialic acid and are mainly expressed in immune cells. Studies on mammals indicate that Streptococcus agalactiae (GBS) evade immune reactions by interacting with the host immune cells via the sialic acid of sialylated capsular polysaccharides. However, it is currently unknown if fish-derived GBS can interact with Siglecs to evade host immunity. In this study, we examined the binding of FITC-GBS with neutrophils to determine the presence of receptors that binds with GBS. Furthermore, 3 Siglec-like genes, (OnSiglec-1-like/-4b-like/-14-like) from the neutrophils cDNA were screened by PCR. All the genes had specific domains (immunostimulation and immunosuppression domains), conserved amino acid residues, and sialic acid polysaccharide binding sites that are found in mammalian Siglecs. Flow cytometry of Siglecs-like/COS-7 cells and ELISA of Siglecs/Ex-Fc fusion proteins confirmed that 3 Siglecs-like have high binding activity with GBS. Erythrocytes adhesion assays and sialylated glycans binding assay confirmed that 3 Siglecs-like bind to sialic acid polysaccharides. Siglecs-like had high expression levels in the spleen, gill, and kidney in Oreochromis niloticus by qPCR. After experimental infection, Siglec-1-like/-14-like showed a significant upregulated initially and later downregulated in liver, spleen, kidney, and gill. However, Siglec-4b-like was downregulated in most tissues, except that in liver. The results indicate that 3 OnSiglecs-like may recognize GBS sialylated capsular polysaccharides. GBS infections led to significant changes in Siglecs-like expression in immune-related tissues. However, immunostimulation or immunosuppression via the recognition of GBS by different Siglecs-like molecules requires additional studies. PMID:26847490

  9. EFECTO DE TILAPIA Oreochromis niloticus SOBRE LA PRODUCCIÓN PESQUERA DEL EMBALSE EL GUÁJARO ATLÁNTICO - COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Caraballo G, M.Sc.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar el efecto de tilapia Oreochromis niloticus sobre la producción pesquera en el embalse de El Guájaro, departamento del Atlántico, Colombia. Materiales y métodos. El embalse tiene un área aproximada de 14.000 ha y allí pescan diariamente 2.500 pescadores provenientes de ocho municipios que rodean el ecosistema. Por medio de evaluaciones mensuales del desembarco durante 48 horas en todos los puertos, fue evaluada la composición y abundancia de las capturas en 1988 y 2002. Los resultados de la evaluación hecha en 2002 fueron comparados con los obtenidos en 1988. Resultados. 38 especies de peces, perteneciendo a 14 familias fueron identificadas. Sólo las dos especies que dominan las capturas, presentaron una variación en su participación global. La producción durante 2002 fue de 431 ton/mes, superior a las 84 ton/mes evaluadas en el año 1988. Durante 2002, las capturas fueron dominadas por tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (53% y arenca Triportheus magdalenae (36% lo que representa una variación en la composición de las capturas que, durante 1988 fueron respectivamente de 13% y 73%. Esta variación no afectó la proporción de herbívoros y carnívoros que se mantuvo en 90-10%. Conclusiones. La variación en la composición y abundancia de la producción total implica el desplazamiento de una especie nativa (Triportheus magdalenae por una exótica (Oreochromis niloticus, hecho que viene siendo observado en toda la cuenca del Magdalena en esta década.

  10. Effect of synbiotics between Bacillus licheniformis and yeast extract on growth, hematological and biochemical indices of the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    OpenAIRE

    M.S. Hassaan; M.A. Soltan; M.M.R. Ghonemy

    2014-01-01

    Twelve practical diets were formulated to contain four levels of Bacillus licheniformis (0.0, 0.24 × 106, 0.48 × 106 and 0.96 × 106 CFU g−1), respectively, with three yeast extract levels (0%, 0.5% and 1%), respectively. Each diet was randomly assigned to duplicate groups of 50 Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) (5.99 ± 0.03 g) in 24 concrete ponds (0.5 m3 and 1.25 m depth) for 12 weeks. Increasing dietary B. licheniformis levels in O. niloticus and yeast extract levels significantly (P ...

  11. Qualidade do sêmen em tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus, alimentadas com dietas contendo diferentes níveis de vitamina C - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v32i3.7836 Semen quality in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, fed with diets containing different vitamin C levels - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v32i3.7836

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gentil Vanini de Moraes

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A vitamina C atua na proteção de danos celulares provocados pelos radicais livres, sendo a suplementação considerada essencial para a maioria das espécies de peixes, uma vez que não a sintetizam em função da ausência da enzima L-gulonolactona oxidase. Assim, avaliou-se o efeito da suplementação de 0, 75, 150 e 225 mg de vitamina C kg-1 de ração na qualidade do sêmen em tilápias do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus. Os parâmetros quali-quantitativos do sêmen não foram influenciados pela suplementação de vitamina C, exceto a motilidade progressiva que aumentou linearmente com adição de vitamina C. Conclui-se que os reprodutores de tilápias do Nilo devem ser suplementados com 225 mg de vitamina C kg-1 de ração.Vitamin C acts as cellular protection from damage by free radicals, and vitamin C supplementation is considered essential for most fish species, as they do not synthesize it due to the absence of enzyme L-gulonolactone oxidase. Thus, the effect of supplementation with 0, 75, 150 and 225 mg of vitamin C kg-1 of ration was evaluated in the semen quality in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus. Seminal parameters were not influenced by vitamin C supplementation except progressive motility, which increased linearly with the addition of vitamin C. It was concluded that Nile tilapia reproducers should be supplemented with 225 mg vitamin C kg-1 ration.

  12. Efeito da lavagem e da adição de aditivos sobre a estabilidade de carne mecanicamente separada de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus durante estocagem a -18 ºC Effect of washing and increase of additives on minced stability of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus during storage under -18 ºC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Gaberz Kirschnik

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a influência da lavagem e da adição de eritorbato de sódio e tripolifosfato de sódio na estabilidade de Carne Mecanicamente Separada (CMS de tilápia de Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus durante 6 meses de armazenamento a -18 ºC. A CMS obtida por meio de máquina separadora de carne e ossos foi dividida em quatro tratamentos (CMS lavada com e sem aditivos, e CMS não lavada com e sem aditivos e mantida sob congelamento a -18 ºC, por 180 dias. A estabilidade foi avaliada por meio de análises microbiológicas e determinações de nitrogênio não proteico (NNP, bases nitrogenadas voláteis (BNV, substâncias reativas ao ácido tiobarbitúrico (TBARS, pH e drip (perda de água no descongelamento. O processo de lavagem causou redução de aproximadamente 41, 44 e 66% nos teores de proteína bruta, lipídios e cinzas, respectivamente, reduzindo também os valores iniciais de NNP, BNV e TBARS. Durante o armazenamento, foram observados aumentos (p 0,05 os teores de TBARS. Os parâmetros microbiológicos avaliados não ultrapassaram os limites permitidos pela legislação. As CMS permaneceram estáveis e em boas condições de utilização, independentemente da inclusão de aditivo, sendo viável sua estocagem a -18 ºC por 180 dias.This study evaluates the influence of washing and adding sodium erythorbate and sodium tripolyphosphate on the stability of minced Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus during 6 months of storage under -18 ºC. The minced fish was obtained using a meat bone separator and was divided into four treatments (washed minced fish with or without additives and non-washed minced fish with or without additives and kept at -18 ºC for 180 days. The stability of the minced fish was evaluated by microbiological analyses and the following parameters non-proteic nitrogen (NNP, total nitrogen volatile bases (BNV, Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances (TBARS, pH, and Drip (loss of water in thaw

  13. Prediction of B Cell Epitope of DMRT Protein in Oreochromis niloticus%尼罗罗非鱼DMRT蛋白 B细胞表位的预测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨东; 刘红艳; 张繁荣; 余来宁

    2008-01-01

    [Objective] The research aimed to predict the B cell epitope of DMRT protein in Oreochromis niloticus. [Method] The secondary structure of amino acid sequence of DMRT protein was revealed by Garnier-Robson, Chou-Fasman and Karplus-Schulz methods. The hydrophilicity plot, surface probability and antigenic index were obtained by Kyte-Doolittle, Emini and Jameson-Wolf methods, respectively. Based on the above results, the B cell epitopes for DMRT were predicted. [Result] Both the prediction results from Garnier-Robson, Chou-Fasman methods indicated that the α-helix centers of DMRT protein in O. niloticus were in the N terminal No. 31-56, 68-75, 110-116, 209-211 and 239-243; the β-sheet centers of DMRT protein in O. niloticus were in the N terminal No. 95-99, 177-183, 225-234 and 251-254. With the assistant of Kyte-Doolittle, Emini and Jameson-Wolf methods, the B cell epitopes for DMRT were located in or nearby the N terminal No. 13-16, 35-38, 47-54,84-93, 101-109, 127-156, 166-177 and 198-201. [Conclusion] These results are helpful for preparing the antibody of DMRT protein and revealing the sex determination mechanism of O. niloticus.

  14. Cambios en el perfil de ácidos grasos de filete de tilapia nilótica Oreochromis niloticus en respuesta a diferentes fuentes lipídicas

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno Poveda, Jenny Marcela

    2013-01-01

    Con el objetivo de modificar el perfil de ácidos grasos (AG) en el filete de tilapia nilótica (Oreochromis niloticus), se fabricaron cuatro dietas con: aceite de pescado (AP), aceite de palma (APL), semilla de chía (SC) o semilla de lino (SL). El experimento fue realizado durante 45 días en la represa de Betania (Huila), en 20 jaulas flotantes, cada una con 504 peces de 557±16,87g, distribuidos bajo un diseño completamente al azar. Al finalizar el periodo experimental fueron muestreados 21 pe...

  15. Efecto de prebióticos y microorganismos con potencial probiótico en el crecimiento y supervivencia de la tilapia Oreochromis niloticus, cultivada en condiciones experimentales

    OpenAIRE

    Cota Gastélum, Luis Abraham

    2014-01-01

    Se determinó el efecto de la inulina, el ácido fúlvico, bacterias ácido lácticas (BAL) y levaduras en el crecimiento y supervivencia de la tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. Las BAL y las levaduras se aislaron del intestino de la tilapia. Se utilizó inulina de agave tequilero y ácido fúlvico de Fertichem. Se realizó una caracterización (tinción de Gram, morfología, arreglo celular, actividad hemolítica, antagonismo, crecimiento, hidrofobicidad, actividad enzimática extracelular, co...

  16. Results regarding growth performance of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, Linnaeus, 1758) fed with an additive feed, vitamin C, in a recirculating aquaculture system.

    OpenAIRE

    Catalina Ciortan Mirea

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the vitamin C status on growth performance, survival rate and biochimical parameters from tissue of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, Linnaeus, 1758) with average weight of 93±1,0 g were fed with different dietary vitamin C rations and reared in a recirculating aquaculture system (RAS). Growth performance , survival rate and biochimical parameters from tissue of Nile tilapia were measured in groups fed diets supplemented with 100, 750, 2000 mg.kg-1L-a...

  17. Efecto Genotóxico del Dicromato de Potasio EnEritrocitos de sangre periférica de OreochromisNiloticus (Tilapia)

    OpenAIRE

    Zulita Prieto; Julio León-Incio; Carlos Quijano-Jara; Radigud Fernández; Edgardo Polo-Benites; Roger Vallejo-Rodríguez; Luis Villegas-Sanchez

    2008-01-01

    Existen múltiples reportes del efecto genotóxico y cancerígeno del cromo VI, los seres humanos tenemos una permanente exposición a este elemento. Objetivos. Evidencias la genotoxicidad del dicromato de potasio utilizando como sistema biológico a Oreochromis niloticus "tilapia", mediante el test de micronúcleos y la cuantificación de nuclear buds, en eritrocitos de sangre periférica. Materiales y métodos. Los individuos fueron expuestos a concentraciones crecientes (0,0, 0,2, 0,4 y 0,8 ppm) de...

  18. Análise tecidual e celular das brânquias de Oreochromis niloticus L. tratadas com extrato etanólico bruto e frações das folhas da pitanga (Eugenia uniflora L. - Myrtaceae Tissue and cell analysis of Oreochromis niloticus L. gill treated with crude ethanol extract and fractions from pitanga (Eugenia uniflora L. leaves Myrtaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.S. Fiuza

    2011-01-01

    have revealed in vitro antimicrobial activity of E. uniflora. Considering its popular use, this study aimed to assess possible systemic cellular and tissue activities of the crude extract and the fractions from the leaves of this plant on Oreochromis niloticus L. (Nile tilapia gill. Thus, ethanol extract and fractions from the leaves of this plant were orally administered to the fish in their rations. After 24 hours, the fish were sacrificed and the second gill arch of each fish was dissected, fixed in neutral formalin, dehydrated, embedded in paraffin and sectioned. Masson's trichome and hematoxylin and eosin (HE were used in the histological analyses. Qualitative analyses using a light microscope led to the conclusion that the crude ethanol extract and the fractions from E. uniflora leaves presented systemic effect on Nile tilapias, affecting the gills. Toxic actions such as respiratory epithelium detachment and lifting, and hyperplasia of interlamellar epithelial cells were more pronounced in the tilapias that ingested higher concentrations. This study helped to identify the vasodilator effect of this plant and contributed to the definition of the Nile tilapia as a model system for testing plant active principles. These tests are expected to make feasible not only the use of plants as fish medication but also the maintenance of the health of animals in intensive and extensive cultures through the possible use of alternatives to synthetic medication.

  19. Toxicidade aguda e efeitos histopatológicos do herbicida diquat na brânquia e no fígado da tilápia nilótica (Oreochromis niloticus = Acute toxicity and histopathologic effects of diquat herbicide on the gill and liver of nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Nicolino Peixoto Henares

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A concentração letal 50% e os efeitos histopatológicos do herbicida diquat para a tilápia nilótica (Oreochromis niloticus foram avaliados em três experimentos. Os peixes foram expostos às concentrações de 0; 25; 30; 35; 40; 45; 50; 55; e 60 mg de diquat L-1 e a histologia da brânquia e do fígado foi avaliada nos peixes sobreviventes. A CL (I 50-96h do diquat estimada foi de 37,28 mg L-1, com limite inferior de 33,12 mg L-1 e superior de 41,44mg L-1. No tratamento com 30, 35 e 40 mg L-1, ocorreram início de fusão apical das lamelas secundárias; com 45 e 50 mg L-1 ocorreram congestão nas lamelas primárias e no tratamento com 55 mg L-1, ocorreu congestão sangüínea nas lamelas secundárias. O fígado dos peixes dos tratamentos controle, 30 e 35 mg L-1 estavam com organização cordonal dos hepatócitos. Nos tratamentos com 40 e 45 mg L-1, ocorreram hipertrofia dos hepatócitos; com 50 e 55 mg L-1 ocorreram fusão celular e presença de vacúolos. O diquat apresentoubaixo risco de intoxicação à tilápia nilótica e as alterações histopatológicas mais severas ocorreram somente nas concentrações mais elevadas.The lethal concentration of 50% (LC (I 50-96h and the histopathologic effects of diquat herbicide on Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus fish were evaluated in three experiments. The fishes were exposed to concentrations of 0, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55 and 60 mg diquat L-1, and gill and liver histology were evaluated in the surviving fishes. The estimated LC (I (50-96h of diquat was37.28 mg L-1, with lower limits of 33.12 mg L-1 and upper limits of 41.44 mg L-1. In the treatment with 30, 35 and 40 mg L-1, signs of apical fusion of the secondary lamellae were observed; with 45 and 50 mg L-1, congestion of the primary lamellae was observed; in thetreatment with 55 mg L-1, congestion of blood vessels on secondary lamellae took place. The livers of fishes in treatments with 0, 25, 30 and 35 mg L-1 showed cordonal

  20. Comparison of nutritional quality in fish maw product of croaker Protonibea diacanthus and perch Lates niloticus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Jing; Zeng, Ling; Chen, Ziming; Xu, Youhou

    2016-08-01

    Fish maw (the dried swimbladders of fish) is ranked in the list of the four sea treasures in Chinese cuisine. Fish maw is mainly produced from croaker, which is the most highly priced. However, some of the fish maw being sold as croaker maw are in fact not from croaker, but from the Nile perch Lates niloticus. The present work determined and compared the proximate composition, amino acid and fatty acid composition of croaker Protonibea diacanthus maw and perch L. niloticus maw. The results indicated that both maws were high protein sources and low in fat content. The dominant amino acids in both maws were glycine, proline, glutamic acid, alanine and arginine. These amino acids constituted 66.2% and 66.4% of the total amino acids in P. diacanthus and L. niloticus, respectively. The ratio of FAA: TAA (functional amino acids: total amino acids) in both maws were 0.69. This is a good explanation for why fish maws have been widely utilized as a traditional tonic and remedy in Asia. Except valine and histidine, all the essential amino acid contents in P. diacanthus were higher than in L. niloticus. Moreover, croaker P. diacanthus maw contained more AA and DHA than perch L. niloticus maw, showing a higher ratio of n-3 / n-6, which is more desirable.

  1. Substituição do milho pela silagem de sorgo com alto e baixo teor de tanino em dietas para juvenis de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v25i2.1989 Replacement of corn by sorghum silage with low and high tannin contents in diets for juvenile Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus- DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v25i2.1989

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Ribeiro Neves

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado para avaliar a substituição do milho pela silagem de sorgo como fonte de energia para juvenis de tilápia do Nilo, Oreochromis niloticus L. (Cichlidae. Foram formuladas 3 dietas práticas isocalóricas (3000kcal de energia digestível e isoprotéica (28% de proteína bruta. O farelo de milho foi substituído pela silagem de sorgo de baixo (0,44% (SSBT e alto (1,14% (SSAT teor de tanino. Os peixes (55,09 ± 0,94g foram distribuídos em tanques de fibro-cimento (1000L e alimentados com dietas experimentais até à saciedade 3 vezes ao dia, durante 67 dias. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas sobre a conversão alimentar, eficiência protéica, índice hepato-somático, gordura visceral e taxa de sobrevivência. O ganho de peso dos peixes alimentados com SSBT foi significativamente maior que os alimentados com dietas contendo milho e SSAT. Os peixes alimentados com dietas contendo SSBT consumiram mais ração do que os peixes alimentados com a dieta com SSAT. Os resultados indicaram que a inclusão de 44% de silagem de sorgo nas dietas podem suportar normal crescimento nos juvenis de tilápia do Nilo, com potencial para substituir o milho.This work was carried out to evaluate the replacement of corn by sorghum silage as an energy source for juvenile Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus L. (Cichlidae. Three isocaloric (3000kcal of digestible energy and isoproteic (28% of crude protein practical diets were formulated. Corn meal was totally substituted by low (0.44% (LTSS and high (1.14% (HTSS tannin contents silage sorghum. Fish (55.09 ± 0.94g were reared in fiberglass tanks (1000L and hand-fed with experimental diets until reach they satiation, three times a day during 67 days. Feed conversion, protein efficiency ratio, hepatosomatic index, visceral fat and survival ratio of fish fed with the diets were not significantly different. Weight gain of fish fed with LTSS diet was significantly higher than those

  2. Chronic exposure of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) to iron oxide nanoparticles: Effects of particle morphology on accumulation, elimination, hematology and immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ates, Mehmet; Demir, Veysel; Arslan, Zikri; Kaya, Hasan; Yılmaz, Sevdan; Camas, Mustafa

    2016-08-01

    Effects of chronic exposure to alpha and gamma iron oxide nanoparticles (α-Fe2O3 and γ-Fe2O3 NPs) were investigated through exposure of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) to 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0mg/L (9.2×10(-4), 4.6×10(-3) and 9.2×10(-3)mM) aqueous suspensions for 60days. Fish were then transferred to NP-free freshwater and allowed to eliminate ingested NPs for 30days. The organs, including gills, liver, kidney, intestine, brain, spleen, and muscle tissue of the fish were analyzed to determine the accumulation, physiological distribution and elimination of the Fe2O3 NPs. Largest accumulation occurred in spleen followed by intestine, kidney, liver, gills, brain and muscle tissue. Fish exposed to γ-Fe2O3 NPs possessed significantly higher Fe in all organs. Accumulation in spleen was fast and independent of NP concentration reaching to maximum levels by the end of the first sampling period (30th day). Dissolved Fe levels in water were very negligible ranging at 4-6μg/L for α-Fe2O3 and 17-21μg/L for γ-Fe2O3 NPs (for 1mg/L suspensions). Despite that, Fe levels in gills and brain reflect more dissolved Fe accumulation from metastable γ-Fe2O3 polymorph. Ingested NPs cleared from the organs completely within 30-day elimination period, except the liver and spleen. Liver contained about 31% of α- and 46% of γ-Fe2O3, while spleen retained about 62% of α- and 35% of the γ-polymorph. No significant disturbances were observed in hematological parameters, including hemoglobin, hematocrit, red blood cell and white blood cell counts (p>0.05). Serum glucose (GLU) levels decreased in treatments exposed to 1.0mg/L of γ-Fe2O3 NPs at day 30 (p0.05), but increased significantly within elimination period due to mobilization of ingested NPs from liver and spleen to blood. Though respiratory burst activity was not affected (p>0.05), lysozyme activity (LA) was suppressed suggesting an immunosuppressive effects from both Fe2O3 NPs (pniloticus under chronic exposure.

  3. Chronic exposure of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) to iron oxide nanoparticles: Effects of particle morphology on accumulation, elimination, hematology and immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ates, Mehmet; Demir, Veysel; Arslan, Zikri; Kaya, Hasan; Yılmaz, Sevdan; Camas, Mustafa

    2016-08-01

    Effects of chronic exposure to alpha and gamma iron oxide nanoparticles (α-Fe2O3 and γ-Fe2O3 NPs) were investigated through exposure of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) to 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0mg/L (9.2×10(-4), 4.6×10(-3) and 9.2×10(-3)mM) aqueous suspensions for 60days. Fish were then transferred to NP-free freshwater and allowed to eliminate ingested NPs for 30days. The organs, including gills, liver, kidney, intestine, brain, spleen, and muscle tissue of the fish were analyzed to determine the accumulation, physiological distribution and elimination of the Fe2O3 NPs. Largest accumulation occurred in spleen followed by intestine, kidney, liver, gills, brain and muscle tissue. Fish exposed to γ-Fe2O3 NPs possessed significantly higher Fe in all organs. Accumulation in spleen was fast and independent of NP concentration reaching to maximum levels by the end of the first sampling period (30th day). Dissolved Fe levels in water were very negligible ranging at 4-6μg/L for α-Fe2O3 and 17-21μg/L for γ-Fe2O3 NPs (for 1mg/L suspensions). Despite that, Fe levels in gills and brain reflect more dissolved Fe accumulation from metastable γ-Fe2O3 polymorph. Ingested NPs cleared from the organs completely within 30-day elimination period, except the liver and spleen. Liver contained about 31% of α- and 46% of γ-Fe2O3, while spleen retained about 62% of α- and 35% of the γ-polymorph. No significant disturbances were observed in hematological parameters, including hemoglobin, hematocrit, red blood cell and white blood cell counts (p>0.05). Serum glucose (GLU) levels decreased in treatments exposed to 1.0mg/L of γ-Fe2O3 NPs at day 30 (p0.05), but increased significantly within elimination period due to mobilization of ingested NPs from liver and spleen to blood. Though respiratory burst activity was not affected (p>0.05), lysozyme activity (LA) was suppressed suggesting an immunosuppressive effects from both Fe2O3 NPs (pniloticus under chronic exposure. PMID:27232508

  4. 高水温下不同投饲率对吉富罗非鱼摄食、生长的影响%Effects of different feeding rates on feeding and growth of Oreochromis niloticus at high temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭忠宝; 郭恩彦; 尤宏争; 李德鹏; 肖俊; 严欣; 罗永巨

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effect of different feeding rates on growth and ingestion of Oreochromis niloticus (79. 35 ±0. 50) g under different feeding rates (1% , 1. 5% , 2% , 2. 5% offish body weight) with the same di et (30% crude protein) at 33 ℃. After 45 d growth experiment, the result showed that feeding rates had significant influ ence on the feeding ratio ( FR) , specific growth rate (SGR) , weight gain ratio ( WGR) , and feed efficiency ( FE) on 0. Niloticw strain Nile tilapia (P<0. 05). With the feeding rate increasing, SGR, WGR, FR of O. Niloticus strain Nile tilapia showed subsequently increasing trend at first and remained steadily, while FE showed increasing trend at first and decreased. In terms of maximum WGR and maximum FE, the optimal feeding rate was 2% of fish body weight at 33 ℃.%实验在高水温(33±0.1)℃室内循环水养殖系统中设置4个投饲率水平,分别为鱼体重的1%、1.5%、2%、2.5%,采用同一种饲料(饲料粗蛋白含量为30%)投喂,实验周期45 d.研究不同投饲率对初始体重为(79.35±0.50)g的吉富罗非鱼(Oreochromis niloticus)的摄食、生长相关指标的影响.研究结果表明:投饲率对摄食率、特定生长率、相对增重率、饲料效率影响显著(P<0.05).特定生长率、相对增重率和摄食率随着投饲率的增加呈先上升后平稳的趋势,饲料效率随着投饲率的升高呈先上升再下降的趋势.根据最大相对增重率和最大饲料效率,确定吉富罗非鱼在水温33℃时适宜投饲率为2.0%.

  5. Digestibilidade Aparente de Ingredientes pela Tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus Apparent Digestibility of Feedstuffs by Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Edivaldo Pezzato

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a digestibilidade aparente do milho, amido de milho, milho extrusado, germe de milho, sorgo, farelo de trigo, farelo de arroz, glúten 21, glúten 60, farelo de soja, farelo de canola, farelo de algodão, farinha de peixe, farinha de carne, farinha de vísceras de aves, farinha de sangue e farinha de penas. Confeccionaram-se 18 rações, marcadas com 0,10% de óxido de crômio III, uma delas, basal purificada, e as demais, contendo os ingredientes. Os peixes, 100 juvenis com 100±10 g, foram alojados em cinco tanques-rede para facilitar o manejo de alimentação e a coleta de fezes e permaneceram, durante o dia, em cinco aquários (250 L de alimentação, recebendo refeições à vontade das 8 às 17h30. Após, foram transferidos para cinco aquários (300 L de coleta de fezes, onde permaneceram até a manhã do dia subseqüente. O coeficiente de digestibilidade aparente dos ingredientes foi calculado com base no teor de óxido crômio da ração e das fezes. Com base nos resultados, concluiu-se que, entre os ingredientes energéticos, o milho apresentou o melhor coeficiente de digestibilidade aparente, seguindo-se o milho extrusado, o farelo de trigo e o farelo de arroz; dos ingredientes protéicos - vegetal, o glúten 60 e o glúten 21, seguidos do farelo de canola, apresentou os melhores coeficientes e dos protéicos - animal, destacou-se a farinha de vísceras de aves, seguida da farinha de peixes, enquanto os piores coeficientes foram proporcionados pela farinha de penas e farinha de sangue.Apparent digestibility of corn, corn-starch, extruded corn, corn-germ, sorghum, wheat middlings, rice meal, corn gluten meal, gluten 60, soybean meal, canola meal, cottonseed meal, fish meal, meat and bone meal, poultry by-product meal, blood meal and poultry feathers hydrolyzed meal were determined for Nile tilapia juveniles (100±10 g fed purified diet and 0.10% chromic oxide. Fish were maintained in 5 aquaria (250 L at a density of 20 fish

  6. Genetic studies on sex determination and colouration in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karayuecel, I

    1999-05-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate colour and sex determination mechanisms through the application of androgenesis, gynogenesis and controlled breeding programme with the objective of producing all red males in O. niloticus. The highest yield of androgenetic haploid to pigmentation stage was 24.6{+-}3.5% (relative to controls) with optimal UV irradiation dose of 450JM{sup -2} for 5 minutes. The highest survival rate of diploid androgens was 0.07{+-}0.07% (relative to controls) to yolk sac stage using a heat shock of 42.5 deg. C for 3 minutes 30 seconds applied at 25 minutes after fertilisation. All paternal inheritance of diploid androgenetic tilapia was verified using DNA fingerprinting. The mean recombination frequency of the red skin colour gene in meiotic gynogens was 0.12{+-}0.04. All maternal inheritance of meiotic gynogens was verified using the isozyme locus ADA*. Analyses of sex ratios of meiotic gynogens suggested that male progenies were produced by an epistatic sex determining locus (SDL-2 with two alleles SR and sr) causing female to male sex reversal in the homozygous phase (srsr) but with limited penetrance. A close linkage was found between a sex determining locus (SDL-2) and the red gene. No significant difference was found between colour genotypes (namely homozygous red, heterozygous red and wild type) in terms of total fecundity, ISI (inter spawning interval), egg size and survival rate. Overall mean ISI was 26.3{+-}1.0 days. Mean total fecundity was 1096 eggs. Fecundity varied over successive spawns but this variation did not appear to be related to spawning periodicity. Hormonal and thermal feminization were compared on all YY male progeny of O. niloticus. While similar female percentages of 32.0{+-}5.2 and 33.8{+-}1.5% were produced, significantly higher intersex percentages of 18.5{+-}2.5 and 1.6{+-}0.8 were observed in heat and DES treated groups, respectively. Heat treatment groups showed the lowest survival rate of 62

  7. Genetic studies on sex determination and colouration in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was undertaken to investigate colour and sex determination mechanisms through the application of androgenesis, gynogenesis and controlled breeding programme with the objective of producing all red males in O. niloticus. The highest yield of androgenetic haploid to pigmentation stage was 24.6±3.5% (relative to controls) with optimal UV irradiation dose of 450JM-2 for 5 minutes. The highest survival rate of diploid androgens was 0.07±0.07% (relative to controls) to yolk sac stage using a heat shock of 42.5 deg. C for 3 minutes 30 seconds applied at 25 minutes after fertilisation. All paternal inheritance of diploid androgenetic tilapia was verified using DNA fingerprinting. The mean recombination frequency of the red skin colour gene in meiotic gynogens was 0.12±0.04. All maternal inheritance of meiotic gynogens was verified using the isozyme locus ADA*. Analyses of sex ratios of meiotic gynogens suggested that male progenies were produced by an epistatic sex determining locus (SDL-2 with two alleles SR and sr) causing female to male sex reversal in the homozygous phase (srsr) but with limited penetrance. A close linkage was found between a sex determining locus (SDL-2) and the red gene. No significant difference was found between colour genotypes (namely homozygous red, heterozygous red and wild type) in terms of total fecundity, ISI (inter spawning interval), egg size and survival rate. Overall mean ISI was 26.3±1.0 days. Mean total fecundity was 1096 eggs. Fecundity varied over successive spawns but this variation did not appear to be related to spawning periodicity. Hormonal and thermal feminization were compared on all YY male progeny of O. niloticus. While similar female percentages of 32.0±5.2 and 33.8±1.5% were produced, significantly higher intersex percentages of 18.5±2.5 and 1.6±0.8 were observed in heat and DES treated groups, respectively. Heat treatment groups showed the lowest survival rate of 62.6±9.8% compared to the

  8. Study on the breeding of Oreochromis niloticus new variety "Luxiong 1"%尼罗罗非鱼新品种“鹭雄1号”的制种研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨永铨; 张海明; 陈远生; 陈国华

    2013-01-01

    A new variety breeding system of XX♀ / YY ♂ Oreochromis niloticus was formed by using directional selected 0. niloticus as female parent and supermale 0. niloticus as male parent to realize large scale reproduction of new variety all - male 0. niloticus " Luxiong 1" . The remarkable aspect of " Luxiong 1" was that the genetic male rate was high, which could reach 99% and was twice higher than the other 0. niloticus strains. Meanwhile, it has excellent properties of rapid growth and high meat percentage.%采用多年定向选育的尼罗罗非鱼(Oreochromis niloticus)雌鱼做母本,采用由性别二系配套技术繁殖的尼罗罗非鱼超雄鱼做父本,构成XX♀/YY ♂尼罗罗非鱼新品种繁育体系,可规模化繁育全雄性尼罗罗非鱼新品种“鹭雄1号”.“鹭雄1号”的突出特点是遗传雄性率高,达到99.00%以上,较其它所有尼罗罗非鱼品系的雄性率高出1倍左右,同时具有生长迅速和出肉率高的优良性状.

  9. Effect of dietary genistein on growth performance, digestive enzyme activity, and body composition of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dong; Wang, Wei; Ru, Shaoguo

    2015-01-01

    An 8-week feeding experiment was performed to evaluate the effect of dietary genistein on growth performance, body composition, and digestive enzymes activity of juvenile Nile tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus). Four isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets were formulated containing four graded supplements of genistein: 0, 30, 300, and 3 000 μg/g. Each diet was randomly assigned in triplicate to tanks stocked with 15 juvenile tilapia (10.47±1.24 g). The results show that 30 and 300 μg/g dietary genistein had no significant effect on growth performance of Nile tilapia, but the higher level of genistein (3 000 μg/g) significantly depressed the final body weight and specific growth rate. There was no significant difference in survival rate, feed intake, feed efficiency ratio or whole body composition among all dietary treatments. An assay of digestive enzymes showed that the diet containing 3 000 μg/ggenistein decreased stomach and hepatopancreas protease activity, and amylase activity in the liver and intestine, while a dietary level of 300 μg/g genistein depressed stomach protease and intestine amylase activities. However, no significant difference in stomach amylase activity was found among dietary treatments. Overall, the results of the present study indicate that a high level of dietary genistein (3 000 μg/g, or above) would significantly reduce the growth of Nile tilapia, partly because of its inhibitory effect on the activity of major digestive enzymes. Accordingly, the detrimental effects of genistein, as found in soybean products, should not be ignored when applied as an alternative ingredient source in aquaculture.

  10. Major surfome and secretome profile of Streptococcus agalactiae from Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus): Insight into vaccine development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Wang, Hai-Qing; He, Run-Zhen; Li, Yan-Wei; Su, You-Lu; Li, An-Xing

    2016-08-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae is a major piscine pathogen that is responsible for huge economic losses to the aquaculture industry. Safe recombinant vaccines, based on a small number of antigenic proteins, are emerging as the most attractive, cost-effective solution against S. agalactiae. The proteins of S. agalactiae exposed to the environment, including surface proteins and secretory proteins, are important targets for the immune system and they are likely to be good vaccine candidates. To obtain a precise profile of its surface proteins, S. agalactiae strain THN0901, which was isolated from tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), was treated with proteinase K to cleave surface-exposed proteins, which were identified by liquid chromatography-tandem spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Forty surface-associated proteins were identified, including ten proteins containing cell wall-anchoring motifs, eight lipoproteins, eleven membrane proteins, seven secretory proteins, three cytoplasmic proteins, and one unknown protein. In addition, culture supernatant proteins of S. agalactiae were separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and all of the Coomassie-stained bands were subsequently identified by LC-MS/MS. A total of twenty-six extracellular proteins were identified, including eleven secretory proteins, seven cell wall proteins, three membrane proteins, two cytoplasmic proteins and three unknown proteins. Of these, six highly expressed surface-associated and secretory proteins are putative to be vaccine candidate of piscine S. agalactiae. Moreover, immunogenic secreted protein, a highly expressed protein screened from the secretome in the present study, was demonstrated to induce high antibody titer in tilapia, and it conferred protection against S. agalactiae, as evidenced by the relative percent survival (RPS) 48.61± 8.45%. The data reported here narrow the scope of screening protective antigens, and provide guidance in the development of a novel

  11. Tingkat Penggunaan Azolla Pinnata Pada Pakan Terhadap Pertumbuhan Ikan Nila (Oreochromis niloticus).

    OpenAIRE

    Sinaga, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Nila fish is economic valuable fish, consumer demand increasing, but has not been followed by intensive cultivation and optimal. One of attempt to overcome these problems by substituting commercial feed with fish meat meal Azolla pinnata for growth nila fish. The tested fish are nila fish size 6 cm which maintained in an pain diameter 50 cm by 12 unit. With completely randomized design. With treatment commercial pakan 100% without added azolla flour, commercial pakan 94 % added 10 % azolla f...

  12. Hematologia de Oreochromis niloticus (Cichlidae e Cyprinus carpio (Cyprinidae mantidos em diferentes condições de manejo e alimentação no Estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v28i4.162 Haematology of Oreochromis niloticus (Cichlidae and Cyprinus carpio (Cyprinidae maintained in different conditions of handling and feeding from the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil- DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.162

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Maia Yamashita

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo analisou o quadro hematológico de Oreochromis niloticus (tilápia do Nilo e Cyprinus carpio (carpa comum capturados em diferentes propriedades de Blumenau, Joinville e Ituporanga, Estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil. Os resultados foram relacionados às condições de manejo e alimentação a que os animais estavam expostos. Além de ração, as propriedades A e C de Blumenau alimentavam seus peixes com vísceras de peixes, arroz cozido, sobras de alimento do restaurante e ração artesanal. A e C de Ituporanga eram caracterizadas pela consorciação com suínos como principal fonte de alimento alimento e em Joinville as propriedades caracterizavam-se pelo fornecimento de ração comercial como o único alimento aos peixes. O percentual de hematócrito e o número de eritrócitos nas tilápias da região de Joinville foram maiores do que nas demais. Nas propriedades A e C de Blumenau e nas de Ituporanga foram observados os maiores valores na contagem total de leucócitos. As tilápias expostas a dejetos de suínos apresentaram também maior número de linfócitos. Os valores hematológicos de carpas não apresentaram variações significativas que pudessem ser relacionadas com o ambiente.This work evaluated the haematological parameters in Oreochromis niloticus (Nile tilapia and Cyprinus carpio (carp captured from the different owners in the cities of Blumenau, Joinville and Ituporanga, State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. The results were related to handling and feeding that the fish were exposed. Not only the ration, but also entrails, cooked rice, restaurant scraps and ration made in fish farm were used in the feeding of fish in the facilities A and C of Blumenau. However, A and C in Ituporanga were characterized by pig manure as the main source of feeding. In Joinville the diet was characterized by ration as the main source of food. Hematocrit and the erythrocyte number were higher in fish from Joinville than the others. The highest

  13. Aplikasi madu untuk pengarahan jenis kelamin pada ikan nila (Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayu Adhita Damayanti

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui konsentrasi madu yang efektif menghasilkan ikan nila (O. niloticus kelamin jantan yang paling tinggi. Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL non faktorial digunakan dalam penelitian ini, faktor yang diuji adalah perbedaan konsentrasi madu, yaitu 0 %(kontrol, 0,05 %, 0,1 %, 0,15 % dan 0,2% ppt selama 24 jam perendaman. Hasil uji ANOVA menunjukkan bahwa perbedaan konsentrasi madu berpengaruh nyata terhiadap persentase nila jantan yang dihasilkan (P0,05. Secara umum terlihat persentase kelamin jantan meningkat seiring dengan peningkatan konsentrasi madu dalam larutan perendam. Uji lanjut menggunakan BNJ memperlihatkan bahwa persentase nila jantan tertinggi dijumpai pada konsentrasi 0,2% (81,43%±0,23, nilai ini berbeda nyata dengan perlakuan lainnya. Dengan demikian dapat disimpulkan bahwa konsentrasi madu 0,2% sesuai dan efektif untuk pengarahan jenis kelamin jantan pada ikan nila.

  14. Oxidative stress and hypermethylation induced by exposure of Oreochromis niloticus to complex environmental mixtures of river water from Cubatão do Sul, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuzinatto, Cristiane Funghetto; Flohr, Letícia; Melegari, Sílvia Pedroso; Matias, William Gerson

    2015-04-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of oxidative stress and hypermethylation through lipid peroxidation and DNA methylation, respectively, in erythrocytes of Oreochromis niloticus exposed to environmental complex mixture of water from Cubatão do Sul River throughout the year. This river is the source of drinking water for the region of Florianópolis, the capital of Santa Catarina State, Brazil. Lipid peroxidation was quantified by the rate of malondialdehyde (MDA) formation, and DNA methylation was quantified by the rate of 5-methyldeoxycytosine (m(5)dC) formation. In all studied sites, the river water samples caused metabolic changes in O. niloticus. MDA formation rates were significantly different when compared to the negative control (except for samples from Site 1 during spring 2010, summer 2011 and fall 2011). All samples (except Site 1, spring 2010) induced increases in the m(5)dC formation rates, and at the end of the study, the values were near the values found in the positive control (potassium dichromate 2.5mg/L). The results showed that samples of environmental complex mixtures of water from Cubatão do Sul River are capable of inducing high levels of oxidative damage and hypermethylation in O. niloticus.

  15. Preliminary study on immune effect of Streptococcus iniae inactivated vaccine in Oreochromis niloticus%海豚链球菌灭活疫苗对罗非鱼免疫效果的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张俊; 黄木珍; 李安兴

    2011-01-01

    Formalin killed vaccines with/without white oil adjuvant were prepared with TBY-1 strain of Streptococcus iniae isolated from freshwater fish. The efficacy of the vaccines were determined in Oreochromis niloticus by bath immersion and intraperitoneal (IP) injection successively. The relative percent survival (RPS) of each immune group was statisticsed. Moreover, the length and weight of the tilapias were measured and analyzed by SPSS. The results showed that the RPS of the fish immuned with bath immersion and then immunized intraperitoneally once with none-adjuvant vaccine and white oil adjuvant were 50. 50% and 71. 10% respectively, and the antibody agglutination titer were 1:4. 8 and 1: 128 respectively. The RPS of fish immuned with bath immersion and then immunized intraperitoneally twice with none-adjuvant vaccine and white oil adjuvant were 82. 50% and 58. 80% respectively, and the antibody agglutination titer were 1∶6.4 and 1∶27.4 re spectively.%将海豚链球菌(Streptococcus iniae)淡水分离株TBY-1菌株灭活后制备成无佐剂和添加白油佐剂的疫苗,利用浸泡和腹腔注射复合免疫方式对罗非鱼(Oreochromis niloticus)进行免疫,比较其相对保护率及血清中抗体凝集效价,以评价佐剂的存在与否及免疫次数对海豚链球菌灭活疫苗的免疫效果的影响,同时还对实验前后罗非鱼的体长体重进行测量和统计,并用SPSS软件进行分析.结果显示,用无佐剂疫苗进行首次浸泡免疫后,再分别用无佐剂疫苗及白油佐剂疫苗注射免疫1次的相对保护率分别为50.50%和71.10%,血清中抗体凝集效价分别为1∶4.8和1∶128;而注射免疫2次的相对保护率分别为82.50%和58.80%,其血清凝集效价分别为1∶6.4和1∶27.4.

  16. Efeito do tanino na digestibilidade dos nutrientes da ração pela tilápia do Nilo, Oreochromis niloticus - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v26i2.1863 Effect of tannin on apparent digestibility of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v26i2.1863

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edma Carvalho de Miranda

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito do tanino de barbatimão (Dimorphandra mollis, Benth adicionado a rações balanceadas para peixes. Foi avaliada a digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca, proteína bruta e extrato etéreo em juvenis de tilápia do Nilo, Oreochromis niloticus L.. Empregaram-se 80 peixes distribuídos em 5 grupos, os quais receberam rações contendo 0,0%; 0,23%; 0,46%; 0,69%; 0,92%; 1,37% e 1,82% de taninos totais, a partir do extrato de barbatimão. Após o período de aclimação de 3 dias, foram colhidas amostras representativas das fezes produzidas diariamente até completar 5 repetições de cada tratamento. A partir das análises químicas das rações e das fezes e utilizando-se óxido de crômio como marcador inerte, foram calculados os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca, proteína bruta e extrato etéreo. Através dos resultados obtidos pode-se concluir que, para tilápia do Nilo na fase juvenil, a presença de tanino em concentração igual ou maior que 0,46% na ração interfere na digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca e proteína bruta, e que os taninos prejudicam significativamente a digestibilidade aparente do extrato etéreo de ração, quando presentes a partir de 0,23%.This study was carried out in order to evaluate the effect of tannin (Dimorphandra mollis, Benth on the apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC of fish diets. It was analyzed the apparent digestibility of dry matter, crude protein and ether extract by Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus L.. It were utilized 80 fish distributed in 5 groups, which were fed diets containing 0.0%; 0.23%; 0.46%; 0.69%; 0.92%; 1.37% and 1.82% of total tannin. After a acclimatization period of three days, representative samples of feces were obtained daily until reach five replicates each treatment. The ADC was calculated based on chemical analysis of diets and feces to determine chemical composition and chromic oxide. It was

  17. Análise parasitológica e hematológica em tilápia do Nilo, Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus, 1757, da represa de Guarapiranga, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v27i3.1334 Parasitological and hematological analysis of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus, 1757 from Guarapiranga reservoir, São Paulo State, Brazil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v27i3.1334

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilza Nunes Felizardo

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Foram coletadas na represa de Guarapiranga, São Paulo, entre agosto de 1996 e abril de1998, 206 tilápias, Oreochromis niloticus, com o objetivo de relacionar a condição de saúde desses animais à ocorrência de parasitos. Foram analisados: hematócrito e contagem diferencial de leucócitos. Foram feitos raspados de pele e brânquias, sendo estas removidas e fixadas para a identificação de Monogenoidea. Nas brânquias, foram encontrados: Trichodina Ehrenberg, 1838, Ichthyophtirius multifiliis (Fouquet, 1876, Cryptobia, amebas e Monogenoidea (Cichlidogyrus sp., e na pele: Trichodina sp., Cryptobia sp. e Henneguya sp. A prevalência de alguns parasitos parece estar associada à temperatura e ao nível de oxigênio dissolvido da água. O hematócrito e a porcentagem dos leucócitos apresentaram pouca variação. Apenas basófilos demonstram diferença significativa entre os valores médios mensais. A porcentagem de eosinófilos foi mais alta nos peixes parasitados por I. multifiliis e Cichlidogyrus sp. e nos não parasitados. Durante esse período, não houve mortalidade de peixes. Conclui-se que os peixes estavam em boas condições de saúde, embora as condições da água da represa não estivessem ideaisA total of 206 adult specimens of tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, were collected from the Guarapiranga Reservoir, Sao Paulo, from August 1996 to April 1998, to relate their health condition with parasite infestation. Hematocrits and the differential leukocyte counts were analyzed. Scrapings of skin and gills were performed and this last removed and fixed for the identification of monogeneans. In the gills, Trichodina, Ichthyophtirius multifiliis, Cryptobia, amoebas and monogeneans (Cichlidogyrus sp. were found, and in the skin, Trichodina, Cryptobia and Henneguya. The prevalence of some parasites seemed to be associated with water temperature and the level of dissolved oxygen. The hematocrit and leukocyte cells percentage showed little

  18. Reduced growth in hybrid tilapia ( Oreochromis mossambicus ×O. Niloticus) at intermediate stocking density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Cui, Yi-Bo; Yang, Yun-Xia; Cai, Fa-Sheng

    2002-12-01

    Hybrid tilapia were reared at densities of 1, 5 or 10 fish per tank for four weeks. Mortality was 0 at 1 and 10 fish per tank, but was 25% at 5 fish per tank. Specific growth rate was highest at 1 fish per tank, and lowest at 5 fish per tank. The lower growth rate at the intermediate stocking density was associated with reduced feed efficiency, but there was no reduction in feed intake or digestibility. The results suggested increased metabolic cost caused by aggressive behaviour at intermediate stocking density, which can be suppressed by a further increase in density.

  19. REDUCED GROWTH IN HYBRID TILAPIA (OREOCHROMIS MOSSAMBICUS×O. NILOTICUS) AT INTERMEDIATE STOCKING DENSITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王岩; 崔奕波; 杨云霞; 蔡发盛

    2002-01-01

    Hybrid tilapia were reared at densities of 1, 5 or 10 fish per tank for four weeks. Mortality was 0 at 1 and 10 fish per tank, but was 25% at 5 fish per tank. Specific growth rate was highest at 1 fish per tank, and lowest at 5 fish per tank. The lower growth rate at the intermediate stocking density was associated with reduced feed efficiency, but there was no reduction in feed intake or digestibility. The results suggested increased metabolic cost caused by aggressive behaviour at intermediate stocking density, which can be suppressed by a further increase in density.

  20. Parâmetros hematológicos e bioquímicos da tilápia-do-Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus L.) sob estresse por exposição ao ar Hematological parameters of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) under air exposure stress

    OpenAIRE

    Roberta Dias da Silva; Laudicéia Oliveira Rocha; Bruno Duarte Alves Fortes; Dirson Vieira; Maria Clorinda Soares Fioravanti

    2012-01-01

    No presente trabalho avaliaram-se os parâmetros hematológicos e bioquímicos de exemplares adultos de tilápias (Oreochromis niloticus) sob a influência do fator estresse fisiológico em animais submetidos à exposição ao ar durante a engorda em sistema raceway. Foram analisados o eritrograma, teor de hemoglobina, volume globular, o volume corpuscular médio (VCM), a hemoglobina corpuscular média (HCM), a concentração de hemoglobina corpuscular média (CHCM), o leucograma, contagem diferencial de l...

  1. Caracterização da mitocôndria isolada de fígado de tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) e alterações da bioenergética mitocondrial causadas pela exposição herbicida oxifluorfena Characterization of liver mitochondria from Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and mitochondrial bioenergetics alterations caused by exposure to oxyfluorfen herbicide

    OpenAIRE

    F.P. Peixoto; Santos, D. L.; Vilela, S.; A. Fontaínhas-Fernandes

    2009-01-01

    Descreve-se um método de isolamento de mitocôndrias acopladas de tilápia-do-nilo Oreochromis niloticus, isoladas de células hepáticas de peixes adultos. As mitocôndrias estavam metabolicamente ativas, sendo capazes de realizarem fosforilação oxidativa, de acordo com os valores do quociente de controle respiratório. Os valores de controle respiratório obtidos com malato/piruvato (complexo I) e com succinato (complexo II) foram de 5,8±0,8 e 3,38±0,4, respectivamente. O potencial de membrana exi...

  2. Validade comercial de filés de Tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus resfriados embalados em atmosfera modificada e irradiados Shelf life of refrigerated tilapia fillets (Oreochromis niloticus packed in modified atmosphere and irradiated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lúcia Guerra Monteiro

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar os efeitos dos processos de irradiação (com dose de 1,5kGy e embalagem em atmosfera modificada (60% N2 e 40% CO2, aplicados isoladamente ou combinados, na extensão da validade comercial de filés de Tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus resfriados. Nos experimentos, foram utilizados 120 filés separados em lotes, de acordo com o tratamento: (T1 embalagem em ar (controle, (T2 embalagem em atmosfera modificada, (T3 embalagem em ar e irradiação, (T4 embalagem em atmosfera modificada e irradiação. Foram realizadas análises físico-químicas (BVT, TMA, pH, amônia e TBARS, bacteriológicas (contagem de bactérias heterotróficas, aeróbias, mesófilas e psicrotróficas e avaliação sensorial. Os resultados consistentemente indicaram uma redução progressiva da qualidade do produto com o tempo de armazenamento, a qual foi significativamente mais rápida nas amostras controle do que naquelas submetidas aos demais tratamentos, tendo sido observada uma extensão na validade comercial dos filés embalados em atmosfera modificada e/ou irradiados de 4 dias para aproximadamente duas semanas.This paper investigated the effects of modified atmosphere packing (60% N2 and 40% CO2 and irradiation (with a 1.5kGy dose either used alone or combined on the shelf life of fillets of refrigerated Nile Tilapia. A total of 120 fillets were used in the experiments in order to test four different treatments and included samples: packed in air (control, packed in modified atmosphere, packed in air and irradiated, and finally, packed in modified atmosphere and irradiated. Regular monitoring of physicochemical parameters (TVB, pH, ammonia and TBARS, bacteriological conditions (heterotrophic aerobic mesophilic and psychrotrophic bacteria and sensory acceptance were performed. The results consistently indicated an increasing deterioration of the fillets with time, however those treated with irradiation, modified atmosphere or

  3. Custos de produção de tilápias (Oreochromis niloticus em um modelo de propriedade da região oeste do Estado do Paraná, Brasil Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus production costs in a farm model of the west region of the State of Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Luiz Barboza de Andrade

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi analisar os custos de produção da piscicultura praticada na região oeste do Paraná. Os custos são apurados mensalmente pela equipe do GEPEC/Piscicultura. Em linhas gerais, os custos referem-se à exploração comercial de uma área de 24.000m², em oito tanques, o que proporciona a produção de 14,4t de tilápia (Oreochromis niloticus por ciclo de produção, com o peso unitário médio de 0,4kg. Para o custo total de implantação, a taxa de crescimento foi de 0,47% am (ao mês e para os custos de terraplanagem, 0,63% am, sendo que o último representa em torno de 70% dos investimentos iniciais. Os custos fixos apresentaram uma taxa de crescimento de 0,032% am, o custo variável representou 70,18% do custo total de produção e uma taxa de crescimento de 0,32% am, o que exige a necessidade de se verificar alternativas para diminuir esses custos, que são bastante sensíveis às variações nos preços das matérias-primas. Ficou evidenciada a necessidade do estabelecimento de um agente responsável pela governança da cadeia, para garantir sua sobrevivência.The objective of this research was to analyze the production cost of fish production in the western region of Paraná, Brazil. The costs were obtained monthly by the GEPEC/Pisciculture group. In general, the costs refer to the commercial exploration of a 24,000m² area, in eight tanks, which enable the production of 14.4t of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus per production cycle, with an average unit weight of 0.4kg. For the total cost of the implantation, the growth rate was of 0.47% pm (per month and for the earthwork costs, 0.63% pm, representing around 70% of the initial investments. The fixed costs represented a growth rate of 0.032% pm, the variable cost represented 70.18% of the total production cost and a growth rate of 0.32% pm which demands the necessity of verifying alternatives to decrease these costs, which are very sensitive to the variation of

  4. Desempenho de diferentes linhagens de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus na fase de reversão sexual - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v26i3.1794 Performance of different Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus strains, during sex reversal phase - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v26i3.1794

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarida Maria Barros

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available O experimento utilizou 4 linhagens de tilápias do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus chamadas de CESP, Pernambuco, Santa Catarina e Tailandesa. O objetivo do projeto foi comparar o desempenho e a sobrevivência dessas diferentes linhagens de tilápia do Nilo na fase de reversão sexual. As pós-larvas foram estocadas em aquários de 4,5L em sistema de recirculação e com temperatura constante. Os peixes foram alimentados com ração contendo 60mg/kg de 17 alfa-metiltestosterona, fornecida 6 vezes ao dia, por período de 30 dias. O delineamento foi inteiramente casualizado com 4 tratamentos (linhagens e 7 repetições. Os parâmetros avaliados foram: comprimento total, ganho de peso, taxa de crescimento específico, taxa de sobrevivência e eficiência de reversão sexual. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância e as médias comparadas pelo teste de Tukey. A análise de reversão foi submetida ao teste de qui-quadrado. O resultado demonstra que houve maior eficiência na taxa de reversão sexual nas linhagens Santa Catarina e Pernambuco quando comparados com a CESP e a Tailandesa. As linhagens Tailandesa e Santa Catarina obtiveram maior taxa de sobrevivência e desempenho satisfatório durante a fase de reversão sexual, portanto, apresentam-se como as mais propícias para a criação em sistema de recirculação na fase de reversão sexual.This experiment aimed at comparing growth performance and survival of four Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus strains called CESP, Pernambuco, Santa Catarina and Thailand in sex reversal phase. Thirty Nile tilapia fries were stocked in 4.5L aquaria (6.66 fries/L with recirculation system and water temperature control. The fishes were fed with ration containing 60mg/kg of 17 alpha-methyltestosterone, six times a day during 30 days. The experimental design was randomized with four treatments (strains and seven replications. Total length, weight gain, specific growth rate, survival rate and sexual

  5. Técnicas de controle de qualidade utilizadas na criação de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v20i0.4471 Quality control techniques used in the breeding of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v20i0.4471

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio Hermann Leonhardt

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizados 240 alevinos de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus, de 45 dias, sexualmente revertidos com peso médio inicial de 1,25 ± 0,14g, distribuídos num delineamento inteiramente casualizado, durante 180 dias. Foram avaliados os efeitos da substituição de 10%, 20% e 30% da ração por levedura de destilaria alcooleira. Os resultados médios obtidos para os parâmetros limnológicos no controle da qualidade da água através de análises físico-químicas e gráficos de controle foram normais durante todo o período experimental. Os valores da temperatura média mensal revelaram estar “fora de controle estatístico”, e mostraram, através da aplicação dos índices de capacidade (Cp e Cpk, que 35,20% estão abaixo do limite inferior de especificação (LIE. A análise dos resultados obtidos, através da aplicação das técnicas de Pareto e Problema da Mochila, evidenciou a solução ótima para resolver os problemas de predadores, biometrias e doenças com a função objetivo Z* maximizada. A utilização das técnicas de controle de qualidade permite um aumento da taxa de estocagem nos tanques sem redução da taxa de crescimento individual e com obtenção de altas produções de peixes de boa qualidade.Two hundred and forty Nile tilapia fry (Oreochromis niloticus, 45 days old, sexually reverted, with initial average weight of 1.25 ± 0.14g, distributed in a totally randomized design during 180 days, were used in this experiment. Effects of substitutions of 10%, 20% and 30% of the rations by yeast obtained from alcohol distillery were evaluated. Average results obtained for the limnological parameters in water quality control by means of chemical analyses and control graphs were considered normal during the entire experimental period. Values of monthly average temperature were statistically out of control and by the application of the capacity rates (Cp and Cpk showed that 35.20% were below the lowest specification limit

  6. Physiological and haematological response of Oreochromis niloticus (Osteichthyes: Cichlidae exposed to single and consecutive stress of capture - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v26i4.1719 Resposta fisiológica e hematológica de Oreochromis niloticus (Osteichthyes: Cichlidae exposto ao estresse único e consecutivo de captura - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v26i4.1719

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Ribeiro

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available This work is a sequence of studies on tropical fish of economic importance that evaluated the effects of two different stress of handling on the physiology and haematology of Oreochromis niloticus L. acclimated for 10 days before the essay. The stress consisted in net capture of all fish from each aquarium for 30s emersion. Fish exposed to single stress (SS the samples were collected in the times 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 120, 180, 240 and 300min. after stress. In the consecutive stress (CS the samples were collected in the times 0; 15min. after the first stress; 15min. after the second stress; 15min. after the third stress and 15, 30, 45, 60, 120, 180 e 240min. after the fourth stress totalizing four stimuli every 60min. Fish exposed to SS showed increased cortisol and glucose concentrations at 60min. as well as in the leucocytes number and hematocrit at 50min. after stress. Cortisol did not alter in fish exposed to CS, but glucose increased 15min. after the third stress. On the other hand, CS provoked reduction in the leucocytes number and later hematocrit increasing. Neutrophilia and lymphopenia were related to SS and CS.Este trabalho é seqüência de estudos com peixes tropicais de importância econômica avaliando os efeitos de dois tipos de estresse sobre a fisiologia e hematologia de O. niloticus L, aclimatados durante 10 dias antes do experimento. O estresse consistiu na captura de todos os peixes do aquário com rede e emersão por 30 s. Nos animais submetidos ao estímulo único de captura (EU as amostras foram coletadas nos tempos 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 120, 180, 240 e 300min. após o estresse. No estímulo consecutivo (EC as amostras foram coletadas nos tempos 0; 15min. após o primeiro estresse; 15min. após o segundo estresse; 15min. após o terceiro estresse e 15, 30, 45, 60, 120, 180 e 240min. após o quarto estresse totalizando quatro estímulos a cada 60min. Os peixes expostos ao EU apresentaram aumento nas concentra

  7. Digestibilidade e desempenho de alevinos de tilápia do nilo (Oreochromis Niloticus alimentados com dietas contendo diferentes níveis de silagem ácida de pescado Digestibility and performance of nile tilapia (Oreochromis Niloticus fed diets with different levels of acid silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinez Moraes de Oliveira

    2006-12-01

    to Nile tilapia juvenile and their performance was taken. The treatments were based on the increasing levels (0, 10, 20, 30, 40% of the acid silage by substitution of fish meal in the diets. In the digestibility assay a total of 200 sexually inverted juveniles were used. The average weight was 2.0 g and were kept in 40 liter aquariums. Feces collection was made during 7 subsequent days and the apparent digestibility coefficients and apparent metabolizable energy were determined by indirect method, 1% of Cr(20(3 was used as an indicator . In the performance assay a total of 2000 sexually inverted juveniles were used. The average weight of 0.45g, they also were kept in 1m² "hapas" in a fish crawl. The analyzed variables were: final weight (FWG, total feed intake (TFE, apparent feed conversion (AFC, height increase (HI and length increase (LI. The randomized design was used with 5 treatments and 4 repetitions. The values for apparent digestibility coefficients were: dry matter, 95.49; gross protein, 96.66; ethereal extract, 97.18; gross energy, 95.44; and apparent digestible energy (kcal/kg was 2880.02. No significant difference (P>0.05 were found for final weight gain, total feed intake, feed conversion and height increase. A linear increase (P<0.01 was observed in length. It was concluded that the acid silage of filetage residues from Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus should be efficiently used by tilapia Nile juvenile.

  8. Dietary carbohydrate and faecal waste in the Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amirkolaie, A.K.

    2005-01-01

    Public concerns about environmental pollution are putting increasing pressure on fish farms to treat their wastewater before release. The wastewater produced by the fish can also deteriorate water quality within the system. Aquaculture waste can be divided into solid waste and dissolved waste.

  9. Distillers dried grains with solubles as alternative protein sources in diets of tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research efforts by nutritionist to reduce feed costs have resulted in increased use of lower cost alternative plant proteins in fish feed formulations as replacements of fish meal and other more expensive protein sources. Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), a dried residue that remains af...

  10. Combination of physico-chemical analysis, Allium cepa test system and Oreochromis niloticus erythrocyte based comet assay/nuclear abnormalities tests for cyto-genotoxicity assessments of treated effluents discharged from textile industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemachandra, Chamini K; Pathiratne, Asoka

    2016-09-01

    Bioassays for cyto-genotoxicity assessments are generally not required in current textile industry effluent discharge management regulations. The present study applied in vivo plant and fish based toxicity tests viz. Allium cepa test system and Oreochromis niloticus erythrocyte based comet assay and nuclear abnormalities tests in combination with physico-chemical analysis for assessing potential cytotoxic/genotoxic impacts of treated textile industry effluents reaching a major river (Kelani River) in Sri Lanka. Of the treated effluents tested from two textile industries, color in the Textile industry 1 effluents occasionally and color, biochemical oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand in the Textile industry 2 effluents frequently exceeded the specified Sri Lankan tolerance limits for discharge of industrial effluents into inland surface waters. Exposure of A. cepa bulbs to 100% and 12.5% treated effluents from both industries resulted in statistically significant root growth retardation, mito-depression, and induction of chromosomal abnormalities in root meristematic cells in comparison to the dilution water in all cases demonstrating cyto-genotoxicity associated with the treated effluents. Exposure of O. niloticus to the 100% and 12.5% effluents, resulted in erythrocytic genetic damage as shown by elevated total comet scores and induction of nuclear abnormalities confirming the genotoxicity of the treated effluents even with 1:8 dilution. The results provide strong scientific evidence for the crucial necessity of incorporating cyto-genotoxicity impact assessment tools in textile industry effluent management regulations considering human health and ecological health of the receiving water course under chronic exposure. PMID:27209118

  11. Experiment on Poly-culture Silurus asotus in Oreochromis niloticus Pond%池塘主养罗非鱼套养鲶鱼试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高德; 闫有利; 郑亘林

    2001-01-01

    在0.2 hm2池塘进行主养罗非鱼(Oreochromis niloticus)并套养鲶(Silurus asotus)试验.共放养罗非鱼3 900尾,平均体重75 g;鲶210尾,平均体重75 g.罗非鱼饲养95 d,产量1 760 kg,平均体重531 g,成活率85%;鲶饲养150 d,产量118 kg,平均体重750 g,成活率75%.总投入13 784元,产值24 290元,投入产出比1:1.76.

  12. Introduction and research advances of Oreochromis niloticus in China Mainland%中国大陆尼罗罗非鱼引进及其研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李家乐; 李思发

    2001-01-01

    罗非鱼是联合国粮农组织向全世界推广的优良养殖鱼类,已成为世界笥的主要养殖对象之一,我国大陆罗非鱼养殖产量在淡水养殖产量中居第六位,在世界罗非鱼养殖产量中居第一位,罗非鱼类中的主要养殖种类为尼罗罗非鱼(Oreochromis niloticus),引入我国已二十余年,这是我国大陆引进鱼关中养殖最成功者。

  13. Haploinsufficiency of SF-1 Causes Female to Male Sex Reversal in Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qing-Ping; He, Xue; Sui, Yi-Ning; Chen, Li-Li; Sun, Li-Na; Wang, De-Shou

    2016-06-01

    Steroidogenic factor-1 (Sf-1) (officially designated nuclear receptor subfamily 5 group A member 1 [NR5A1]) is a master regulator of steroidogenesis and reproduction in mammals. However, its function remains unclear in nonmammalian vertebrates. In the present study, we used immunohistochemistry to detect expression of Sf-1 in the steroidogenic cells, the interstitial, granulosa, and theca cells of the ovary, and the Leydig cells of the testis, in Nile tilapia. Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR associated protein 9 (Cas9) cleavage of sf-1 resulted in a high mutation rate in the F0 generation and a phenotype of gonadal dysgenesis and reduced steroidogenic cells in XX and XY fish. Sf-1 deficiency also resulted in decreased cytochrome P450, family 19, subfamily A, polypeptide 1a, forkhead box L2 expression, and serum estradiol-17β in XX fish. In XY fish, Sf-1 deficiency increased cytochrome P450, family 19, subfamily A, polypeptide 1a and forkhead box L2 expression but decreased cytochrome P450, family 11, subfamily B, polypeptide 2 expression and serum 11-ketotestosterone levels. 17α-methyltestosterone treatment successfully rescued the gonadal phenotype of Sf-1-deficient XY fish, as demonstrated by normal spermatogenesis and production of F1 mutants. In contrast, estradiol-17β treatment only partially rescued the gonadal phenotype of Sf-1-deficient XX fish, as demonstrated by the appearance of phase II oocytes. Furthermore, both sf-1(+/-) F1 XX and XY mutants developed as fertile males, although spermatogenesis was delayed and efferent duct formation was disordered. Our data suggest that Sf-1 is a major regulator of steroidogenesis and reproduction in fish, as it is in mammals. Sf-1 deficiency resulted in gonadal dysgenesis and feminization of XY gonads. However, unlike in mammals, Sf-1 deficiency also resulted in female to male sex reversal in 8.1% of F0 and 92.1% of sf-1(+/-) F1 in XX fish.

  14. Haploinsufficiency of SF-1 Causes Female to Male Sex Reversal in Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qing-Ping; He, Xue; Sui, Yi-Ning; Chen, Li-Li; Sun, Li-Na; Wang, De-Shou

    2016-06-01

    Steroidogenic factor-1 (Sf-1) (officially designated nuclear receptor subfamily 5 group A member 1 [NR5A1]) is a master regulator of steroidogenesis and reproduction in mammals. However, its function remains unclear in nonmammalian vertebrates. In the present study, we used immunohistochemistry to detect expression of Sf-1 in the steroidogenic cells, the interstitial, granulosa, and theca cells of the ovary, and the Leydig cells of the testis, in Nile tilapia. Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR associated protein 9 (Cas9) cleavage of sf-1 resulted in a high mutation rate in the F0 generation and a phenotype of gonadal dysgenesis and reduced steroidogenic cells in XX and XY fish. Sf-1 deficiency also resulted in decreased cytochrome P450, family 19, subfamily A, polypeptide 1a, forkhead box L2 expression, and serum estradiol-17β in XX fish. In XY fish, Sf-1 deficiency increased cytochrome P450, family 19, subfamily A, polypeptide 1a and forkhead box L2 expression but decreased cytochrome P450, family 11, subfamily B, polypeptide 2 expression and serum 11-ketotestosterone levels. 17α-methyltestosterone treatment successfully rescued the gonadal phenotype of Sf-1-deficient XY fish, as demonstrated by normal spermatogenesis and production of F1 mutants. In contrast, estradiol-17β treatment only partially rescued the gonadal phenotype of Sf-1-deficient XX fish, as demonstrated by the appearance of phase II oocytes. Furthermore, both sf-1(+/-) F1 XX and XY mutants developed as fertile males, although spermatogenesis was delayed and efferent duct formation was disordered. Our data suggest that Sf-1 is a major regulator of steroidogenesis and reproduction in fish, as it is in mammals. Sf-1 deficiency resulted in gonadal dysgenesis and feminization of XY gonads. However, unlike in mammals, Sf-1 deficiency also resulted in female to male sex reversal in 8.1% of F0 and 92.1% of sf-1(+/-) F1 in XX fish. PMID:27046435

  15. Dietary threonine requirement of GIFT Oreochromis niloticus%吉富罗非鱼对饲料中苏氨酸的需要量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周兴华; 向枭; 罗莉; 文华; 赵海鹏

    2014-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the dietary threonine requirement for GIFT Oreochromis niloticus by formulating six isonitrogenous diets ( 32.13% protein ) containing threonine with increasing levels of 0.49%, 0.88%, 1.27%, 1.67%, 2.06%and 2.46%, respectively.Casein-gelatin-zein meal and crystalline amino acid mixture were used as dietary protein source.The dietary amino acid pattern , except for threonine , was applied to the amino acid pattern of the muscle of GIFT Oreochromis niloticus.Each experimental diet was fed to triplicate groups of 20 GIFT O.niloticus with initial body weight (67.08 ±0.22) g in cement pool (2.5 m ×1.4 m ×1.5 m) for 60 days.The result showed that with the increase of dietary threonine levels , the survival rates of feed test groups had no significant difference.The weight gain ratios (WGR), specific growth rates (SGR) and protein efficiency ratios (PER) increased significantly, and reached their peaks in 1.67%group; whereas the feed conversion ratios ( FCR) decreased significantly , and reached its troughs in the same group.As the dietary threonine levels increased further , the above indicators showed no significant difference.The hepatosomatic index ( HIS) and viscerosomatic index ( VSI) of GIFT Oreochromis niloticus first decreased with increasing dietary threonine levels but then increased , but the condition factor ( CF) were no significant differences.Appropriate thre-onine level (0.49%~1.67%) could make GIFT Oreochromis niloticus muscle moisture content decreased significantly , increased protein , and had no significant effect on fat and ash content.As the threonine level reached 1.67%, the muscle threonine content and total amino acids were maximum , higher than other groups.The second-order polynomial regression analysis of WGRs , SGRs, FCRs and PERs.Optimal requirement of dietary threonine for GIFT Oreochromis niloticus was 1.62%~1.72%(of diet with 32.13%protein) or 5.04%~5.35%of diet protein

  16. Oxidative stress in tissues of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) from a polluted site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bainy, A.C.D. [UFSC, Florianopolis (Brazil); Carvalho, P.S.M. [CETESB, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Saito, E.; Leitao, M.A.S.; Junqueira, V.B.C. [IQUSP, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    1995-12-31

    Pro and antioxidant parameters were compared in the erythrocytes, gill, liver and kidney of Nile Tilapia from a fish farm (Reference group) and from a polluted site at Billings Reservoir (Reservoir group). The erythrocyte oxidative stress was characterized by the increased oxygen uptake and decreased time induction (induced by t-butyl hydroperoxide, t-BHP) evidencing a higher susceptibility to oxidative damage. Moreover, a decrease in both catalase (CAT) activity and total glutathione content (GSH) in erythrocytes of Reservoir fish were observed. The higher gill cytochrome b{sub 5} levels is probably related to the enhanced oxyradical production. This fact associated to the diminished CAT and G6PDH activities establish a gill oxidative stress of Reservoir fish. The liver pro-oxidant parameters were greatly increased in the Reservoir fish. These results together with the increase in SOD activity and decrease in CAT, glutathione reductase (GR) and G6PDH activities indicate a liver oxidative stress condition. The observed increase in kidney NADH cytochrome c reductase and in both P-450 and b{sub 5} contents did not reflect in enhanced oxyradical production. The decrease in GSH observed in this tissue is probably associated to the conjugation reactions for ulterior excretion. These results furnish useful data for prospections of polluted aquatic sites in order to correlate the presence of pollutants to associated biological effects.

  17. VACCINES TO PREVENT Streptococcus iniae AND S. agalactiae DISEASE IN NILE TILAPIA Oreochromis niloticus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minimizing the effects of disease is crucial to prevent mortality, morbidity, and to promote optimal growth and feed conversion in sustained culture of warm-water fish in fresh, estuarine and marine waters. The control of diseases has been dependent on the use of therapeutics since the inception of...

  18. Lake Victoria wetlands and the ecology of the Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis Niloticus Linné

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balirwa, J.S.

    1998-01-01

    The importance of Lalfish species were ide

  19. Genetic parameters for fillet traits and body measurements in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, M.J.M.; Bovenhuis, H.; Komen, J.

    2005-01-01

    Fillet weight is an economically important trait in Nile tilapia production for the European market which asks for fish with average body weights of at least 700 g. Genetic parameters to design or optimize breeding programs for these body weights are lacking. In an earlier study we showed that high

  20. Alteration in gene expression in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) juveniles submitted to fasting and refeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    One of the most important biological processes in living organisms that are affected by environmental fluctuations is growth, and the skeletal muscle growth in fish is dependent on proliferation and differentiation of myogenic precursor cells that are activated by Myogenic Regulatory Factors or inhi...

  1. A Comparative Study of Karyotypes of Oreochromis niloticus ×O.aureus and Oreochromis sp.%奥尼罗非鱼与星洲银罗非鱼染色体组型的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘皓; 董秋芬; 黄吉佳; 林晓坤; 刘楚吾

    2008-01-01

    以奥尼罗非鱼(Oreochromis niloticus ×O.aureus)和星洲银罗非鱼(Oreochromis sp.)为材料,胸腔注射PHA及秋水仙素溶液,取头肾细胞经空气干燥法制片.经核型分析,奥尼罗非鱼核型公式为2n=44,6sm+28st+10t,NF=50,星洲银罗非鱼核型公式为2n=44,10sm+20st+14t,NF=54.这两种鱼都具有1对特大的染色体,染色体对的相时长度范围也相似,但未发现中部着丝粒染色体对和异型染色体,它们的核型与已报道的亲代相似.

  2. Dietary levels of Mannanoligosaccharide (MOS for nile-tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus: Intestinal Morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio Endrigo Cechim

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Intensification of aquaculture production systems exposes fish to numerous stressors, which may negatively affect their growth and limit profitability of aquaculture systems. In addition, fish farmers are now obliged to conform to Best Management Practices (BPMs regulations. This current setup favors the use of dietary prebiotics for management of farmed fish as environmentally friendly practice. Mannanoligosaccharides (MOS are complex carbohydrates derived from yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell walls. This study was set out to evaluate the effects of increasing levels of dietary MOS on intestinal morphology of Nile-tilapia. Fish (12.62 ± 0.38 were randomly distributed into 16 cages (0.25m3 polyvinyl chloride; 20 fish per cage, inside four 5m3 net-cage at Salto Caxias Hydroeletric water reservoir (Boa Vista da Aparecida, PR and fed diets containing increasing levels of MOS (0.0; 0.2; 0.4 and 0.8% during 30 days (n=4. The proximal intestine fragment of two specimens from each replicate was taken for histological observations. The histological sections (5 μm were stained with haematoxylin and eosin (H & E and documented photographically with a digital camera (DCM 130E digital camera for microscope 1.3 pixels, CMOS chip Software Scopephoto connected to a light microscope (EDUTEC 502 AC. The images were analyzed by using (BEL Eurisko software for intestinal villi measures. Water quality parameters (temperature, pH and dissolved oxygen were monitored during trial. It was observed influence (p<0.05 of MOS supplementation on Nile tilapia intestinal morphology. Fish fed diet containing 0.4% MOS supplementation showed increased (p<0.05 villi height (436.98±66.81 μm when compared to fish fed unsupplemented control diet (401.01±70.73 μm, 0.2% (364.59±61.68 μm and 0.8% (404.08±61.62 μm. Mannanoligosaccharides (MOS are complex carbohydrates derived from yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell walls and present mannose as primary carbohydrate

  3. Desempenho de tilápias nilóticas (Oreochromis niloticus L. alimentadas com diferentes níveis de proteínas de levedura de destilaria em tanques-rede - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v27i2.1225 Growth of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus L. fed diets with different levels of proteins of yeast in tank-net- DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v27i2.1225

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldir Medri

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizados 120 juvenis de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus L., sexualmente revertidos com peso médio inicial de 116,65 ± 0,85 g, distribuídos em 12 tanques-rede de 1.000 L para avaliar os efeitos da inclusão de levedura como fonte protéica na dieta. Os peixes foram distribuídos em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com quatro tratamentos (0%; 20%; 40%; e 60% de proteína de levedura em substituição à proteína de fontes tradicionais com três repetições. Não foram observados efeitos dos tratamentos (p > 0,05 sobre o comprimento e a conversão alimentar. Com relação à sobrevivência, notou-se que os tratamentos (20%; 40% e 60% foram estatisticamente superiores (p The experiment was based on observations of 120 juveniles of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L., sexually reverted with an initial mean weight of 116.65 ± 0.85 g, distributed in 12 tank-net of 1000-liter to evaluate the effects of the yeast inclusion as source proteins in the diet. The fish were distributed in a completely randomized design with four treatments (0; 20; 40; and 60% of yeast protein in substitution to the protein of traditional sources with three repetitions. Effects of the treatments were not observed (p > 0.05 on the length and to food conversion. With relationship to the survival was noticed that the treatments (20; 40 and 60% it was superior estatisticamente (p < 0.01 to the treatment 0%. A quadratic effect over weight gain (Y = 183.581 + 0.971X – 0.0172X2. It was concluded the best level of yeast inclusion as source proteins in the diet for reverted Nile tilapia juvenile is 28,23%

  4. Effects of CaCO3 liming on water quality and growth performance of fingerlings of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus = Efeitos da calagem com CaCO3 na qualidade da água e desempenho produtivo de alevinos de tilápia do Nilo, Oreochromis niloticus

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    Davi de Holanda Cavalcante

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out for 6 week with Nile tilapia, Oreochomis niloticus, fingerlings (0.77 ± 0.04 g to assess the effects of moderate CaCO3 liming on water pH, total alkalinity, calcium hardness, free CO2 and total ammonia, as well as on fish finalbody weight, final body length, survival and FCR. Eighteen 25-L polyethylene aquaria were used to hold the experimental fish (15 fish per aquarium. Nine aquaria were set in the lab’s indoor room and nine aquaria in its outdoor area. Two types of water (clear or green and three different water quality managements (none, HCl acidification and CaCO3 liming were evaluated simultaneously in a 3 x 2 factorial design. The application of analytical calcium carbonate at 1 g 10 L-1 in the clear or green waters has produced superior Niletilapia fingerlings’ final body weight and length. The best set of limnological conditions that improved Nile tilapia fingerlings growth was the following: pH: 7.4-8.2; total alkalinity > 50 mg L-1; calcium hardness > 140 mg L-1; free CO2 0.05.O presente estudo foi realizado por seis semanas, com alevinos de tilápia do Nilo, Oreochromis niloticus (0,77 ± 0,04 g, para se avaliar os efeitos da calagem moderada da água com CaCO3 no pH, alcalinidade total, dureza cálcica, concentrações de CO2 livre e amônia total da água, assim como peso final, comprimento total final, sobrevivência e FCA dos peixes cultivados. Dezoito aquários de polietileno de 25 L foram utilizados para se manter os peixes experimentais (15 peixes por aquário. Nove aquários foram instalados na sala interna do laboratório e nove, na sua área externa. Dois tipos de águas (claras ou verdes e três diferentes manejos de qualidade de água (nenhum, acidificação com HCl ou calagem com CaCO3 foram avaliados simultaneamente em delineamento fatorial 3 x 2. A aplicação de CaCO3 p.a. em 1 g 10 L-1 em águas claras ou verdes resultou em peso final e comprimento total significativamente

  5. Efecto Genotóxico del Dicromato de Potasio EnEritrocitos de sangre periférica de OreochromisNiloticus (Tilapia

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    Zulita Prieto

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Existen múltiples reportes del efecto genotóxico y cancerígeno del cromo VI, los seres humanos tenemos una permanente exposición a este elemento. Objetivos. Evidencias la genotoxicidad del dicromato de potasio utilizando como sistema biológico a Oreochromis niloticus "tilapia", mediante el test de micronúcleos y la cuantificación de nuclear buds, en eritrocitos de sangre periférica. Materiales y métodos. Los individuos fueron expuestos a concentraciones crecientes (0,0, 0,2, 0,4 y 0,8 ppm de dicromato de potasio. Se obtuvieron muestras de sangre periférica, del arco branquial de cada individuo (cuatro por grupo, a los tres y siete días de tratamiento, las cuales fueron procesadas y coloreadas con Giemsa 5% y se cuantificaron eritrocitos con micronúcleos y nuclear buds en sangre periférica. Resultados. Se encontró un incremento significativo de las frecuencias de micronúcleos y nuclear buds directamente proporcional a la concentración del dicromato de potasio en los individuos expuestos (p<0,05. Conclusiones. El dicromato de potasio produce daño genético en los eritrocitos de O. niloticus.

  6. Electrotransfer of the tilapia piscidin 3 and tilapia piscidin 4 genes into skeletal muscle enhances the antibacterial and immunomodulatory functions of Oreochromis niloticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wen-Chun; Chang, Hsiao-Yun; Chen, Jyh-Yih

    2016-03-01

    Tilapia piscidin 3 (TP3) and tilapia piscidin 4 (TP4) are antimicrobial peptides recently isolated from Oreochromis niloticus. We previously showed that synthetic TP3 and TP4 possessed antimicrobial activities. Here, we analyzed the bactericidal abilities and immunomodulatory properties of these AMPs following the electroporation of pCMV-GFP-TP3 or pCMV-GFP-TP4 plasmid into tilapia (O. niloticus) muscle and subsequent infection with Vibrio vulnificus or Streptococcus agalactiae. Prior overexpression of TP3 or TP4 in tilapia muscle tissues efficiently reduced bacterial numbers at 24 and 48 h after V. vulnificus infection and reduced bacterial numbers at 24 h after S. agalactiae infection compared to numbers in controls expressing pCMV-GFP (EGFP). Electroporation of pCMV-EGFP-TP3 (TP3) or pCMV-EGFP-TP4 (TP4) significantly increased expression of several immune-related genes in muscle (IL-1β (12 h, TP3), IL-8 (12 h, TP3), TGFβ (3 h, TP4), and IκB (48 h, TP3, TP4)) and decreased the expression of TLR5 (12 h and 24 h, TP3) after V. vulnificus infection. Following S. agalactiae infection, expression of the following genes was significantly decreased in muscle: IL-1β (12 h, TP3), IL-8 (12 h, TP3, TP4), TLR5 (3 h-24 h, TP3, TP4), TGFβ (3 h, TP4; 24 h, TP3, TP4), and IκB (3 h, TP3). These data suggest that TP3 and TP4 exert antimicrobial effects after overexpression in the O. niloticus muscle, and also play important roles in the regulation of immune-related gene expression.

  7. Effect of synbiotics between Bacillus licheniformis and yeast extract on growth, hematological and biochemical indices of the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus

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    M.S. Hassaan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Twelve practical diets were formulated to contain four levels of Bacillus licheniformis (0.0, 0.24 × 106, 0.48 × 106 and 0.96 × 106 CFU g−1, respectively, with three yeast extract levels (0%, 0.5% and 1%, respectively. Each diet was randomly assigned to duplicate groups of 50 Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus (5.99 ± 0.03 g in 24 concrete ponds (0.5 m3 and 1.25 m depth for 12 weeks. Increasing dietary B. licheniformis levels in O. niloticus and yeast extract levels significantly (P < 0.01 improved growth performance and nutrient utilization. Supplementation of the experimental diets with, 0.48 × 106 CFU/g−1 and 1.0% yeast extract showed the best nutrient utilization compared to other treatments. All probiotic levels significantly (P < 0.01 increased chemical composition (P < 0.05 compared to the control group, while increasing yeast extract did not significantly alter chemical composition. Hematological indices, total protein and albumin of O. niloticus significantly increased while aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase significantly (P < 0.01 decreased with an increase in B. licheniformis level up to 0.48 × 106 CFU g−1. Increasing levels of yeast extract had no effect on hematological parameters and the diets supplemented with 0.48 × 106 CFU g−1 and 0.5% yeast extract showed the highest hematological values.

  8. Electrotransfer of the tilapia piscidin 3 and tilapia piscidin 4 genes into skeletal muscle enhances the antibacterial and immunomodulatory functions of Oreochromis niloticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wen-Chun; Chang, Hsiao-Yun; Chen, Jyh-Yih

    2016-03-01

    Tilapia piscidin 3 (TP3) and tilapia piscidin 4 (TP4) are antimicrobial peptides recently isolated from Oreochromis niloticus. We previously showed that synthetic TP3 and TP4 possessed antimicrobial activities. Here, we analyzed the bactericidal abilities and immunomodulatory properties of these AMPs following the electroporation of pCMV-GFP-TP3 or pCMV-GFP-TP4 plasmid into tilapia (O. niloticus) muscle and subsequent infection with Vibrio vulnificus or Streptococcus agalactiae. Prior overexpression of TP3 or TP4 in tilapia muscle tissues efficiently reduced bacterial numbers at 24 and 48 h after V. vulnificus infection and reduced bacterial numbers at 24 h after S. agalactiae infection compared to numbers in controls expressing pCMV-GFP (EGFP). Electroporation of pCMV-EGFP-TP3 (TP3) or pCMV-EGFP-TP4 (TP4) significantly increased expression of several immune-related genes in muscle (IL-1β (12 h, TP3), IL-8 (12 h, TP3), TGFβ (3 h, TP4), and IκB (48 h, TP3, TP4)) and decreased the expression of TLR5 (12 h and 24 h, TP3) after V. vulnificus infection. Following S. agalactiae infection, expression of the following genes was significantly decreased in muscle: IL-1β (12 h, TP3), IL-8 (12 h, TP3, TP4), TLR5 (3 h-24 h, TP3, TP4), TGFβ (3 h, TP4; 24 h, TP3, TP4), and IκB (3 h, TP3). These data suggest that TP3 and TP4 exert antimicrobial effects after overexpression in the O. niloticus muscle, and also play important roles in the regulation of immune-related gene expression. PMID:26828260

  9. Verification of contamination by dimetoato and aldicarb in liver of Nile tilapias (Oreochromis niloticus collected in two cold-storages in the State of Paraná / Verificação da contaminação por dimetoato e aldicarb em fígado de tilápias do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus coletados em dois frigoríficos do Estado do Paraná

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    Alexandre Nabuhiro Tajiri

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The importance of fish as a protein source in food is unquestionable, but its role as an indicator of environmental contamination is also very important. This study aimed to analysis the livers of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, collected from commercial cold-storages in two municipal districts in the State of Parana, for investigation of contamination by organophosphorus compounds and carbamates. It was collected 30 samples of Nile tilapias (O. niloticus liver in the cold-storage A and 45 samples in the cold-storage B, totaling 75 samples. At each location were three visits, and at random, collected the samples from July 2006 to May 2007. For extraction and analysis of samples it was used the qualitative methodology of Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC. Patterns of organophosphate and carbamate used in the analysis of the TLC were respectively Dimethoate and Aldicarb. Of the samples tested were found cabarmate in seven samples, one of the samples collected in the cold-storage A and six collected in the cold-storage B. The organophosphate compound was found in fifteen samples from 75 samples, seven of the cold-storage A and eight samples from the cold-storage B. The results infer the possibility of contamination of the tanks in the creation of farms and the need for constant monitoring for the presence of residues of pesticides in this important food matrix.A importância dos peixes como fonte protéica na alimentação humana é indiscutível, porém seu papel como indicador de contaminação ambiental também é muito relevante. O presente trabalho objetivou a análise de fígados de Tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus, coletados em frigoríficos comerciais de dois municípios do Estado do Paraná para averiguação de contaminação pelos compostos organofosforados e carbamatos. Coletou-se 30 amostras de fígado de Tilápia do Nilo (O. niloticus no frigorífico A e 45 amostras no frigorífico B, totalizando 75 amostras analisadas. Em

  10. Hematology and productive performance of nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus naturally infected with Flavobacterium columnare

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    F. A Sebastião

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Columnaris disease is one of the main causes of mortality in tilapia rearing and is responsible for large economic losses worldwide. Hematology is a tool that makes it possible to study organisms' physiological responses to pathogens. It may assist in making diagnoses and prognoses on diseases in fish populations. The hematological variables of nile tilapia were studied in specimens with a clinical diagnosis of columnaris disease and in specimens that were disease-free. The total erythrocyte count, hemoglobin rate, hematocrit percentage, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC, mean corpuscular volume (MCV, organic defense blood cell percentages (leukocytes and thrombocytes and hepatosomatic and splenosomatic index were determined. The results showed that there were changes in the erythrocytic series and in organic defense blood cells, in the fish infected with the bacterium, with reductions in erythrocytic variables and significant increases in the numbers of circulating lymphocytes and neutrophils.

  11. Mechanisms and metabolic regulation of PPARα activation in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Li-Jun; He, An-Yuan; Li, Jia-Min; Lu, Dong-Liang; Jiao, Jian-Gang; Li, Ling-Yu; Li, Dong-Liang; Zhang, Mei-Ling; Chen, Li-Qiao; Du, Zhen-Yu

    2016-09-01

    Although the key metabolic regulatory functions of mammalian peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) have been thoroughly studied, the molecular mechanisms and metabolic regulation of PPARα activation in fish are less known. In the first part of the present study, Nile tilapia (Nt)PPARα was cloned and identified, and high mRNA expression levels were detected in the brain, liver, and heart. NtPPARα was activated by an agonist (fenofibrate) and by fasting and was verified in primary hepatocytes and living fish by decreased phosphorylation of NtPPARα and/or increased NtPPARα mRNA and protein expression. In the second part of the present work, fenofibrate was fed to fish or fish were fasted for 4weeks to investigate the metabolic regulatory effects of NtPPARα. A transcriptomic study was also performed. The results indicated that fenofibrate decreased hepatic triglyceride and 18C-series fatty acid contents but increased the catabolic rate of intraperitoneally injected [1-(14)C] palmitate in vivo, hepatic mitochondrial β-oxidation efficiency, the quantity of cytochrome b DNA, and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1a mRNA expression. Fenofibrate also increased serum glucose, insulin, and lactate concentrations. Fasting had stronger hypolipidemic and gene regulatory effects than those of fenofibrate. Taken together, we conclude that: 1) liver is one of the main target tissues of the metabolic regulation of NtPPARα activation; 2) dephosphorylation is the basal NtPPARα activation mechanism rather than enhanced mRNA and protein expression; 3) activated NtPPARα has a hypolipidemic effect by increasing activity and the number of hepatic mitochondria; and 4) PPARα activation affects carbohydrate metabolism by altering energy homeostasis among nutrients. PMID:27320014

  12. Developmental Biology of the Supermale YY Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus: Histogenesis of the Reproductive System

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    Annabelle Herrera

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Histogenesis of the reproductive system of supermale (YY tilapia and XY tilapia reared at the Central Luzon State University was analyzed with the use of paraffin sections. In the course of development, the primordial germ cells appeared at the same age in YY and XY males, i.e., at 8 days posthatch. These cells which were larger in the YY (1.85 µm than in the XY male (0.9 µm later established themselves in the gonadal anlage by days 9-22. The lobules appeared earlier in the YY at day 15. Blastema of the reproductive duct appeared in the YY at day 23 and in the XY at day 27. By day 79, meiotically active cells were abundant in both groups. By day 95, the YY fish showed mature sperm cells in the fully differentiated testis while it was at day 105 in the XY fish. The supermale consistently demonstrated bigger testis, with thicker somantic tissues, more spermatogenic cells, and more advanced developmental stage than XY fish of the same age. Germ cell and nuclear size in the YY and XY fish were not statistically significantly different, although the general trend was that spermatogenic cells were bigger in the supermale tilapia. A NOVA (a = 05 showed significant difference in size of the testis, spermatocysts, and vas deferens. The study showed that with the same rearing conditions and same age, the larger supermale tilapia has superior reproductive capacity with its larger testis and ducts, faster histogenesis and spermatogenesis, and higher gonadosomatic index (GSI.

  13. Composicao quimica, perfil de acidos graxos e quantificacao dos acidos ƒ¿-linolenico, eicosapentaenoico e docosahexaenoico em visceras de tilapias (Oreochromis niloticus = Percentual composition, fatty acids and quantification of the LNA (Alfa-Linolenic, EPA (Eicosapentaenoic and DHA (Docosahexaenoic acids in visceras of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus

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    Nilson Evelázio de Souza

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliada a composição química de vísceras de tilápias (Oreochromis niloticus criadas em cativeiro Os teores de umidade, cinza, proteína bruta e lipídios totais foram de 64,4%; 1,3%; 6,3% e 18,0%, respectivamente, caracterizando alta concentração de lipídiostotais em relação a outros resíduos de peixes. Foram identificados 49 ácidos graxos, sendo majoritários os ácidos: oléico, (32,8%, seguido do palmítico, (19,9% e linoléico, (18,2%. As razões entre n-6/n-3 e ácidos poliinsaturados/saturados foram de 5,5 e 0,9, respectivamente. As quantificações dos ácidos graxos alfa-linolênico, eicosapentaenóico e docosahexaenóico, em mg/g de lipídios totais, foram de 10,4, 1,4 e 9,3, respectivamente. O elevado teor de lipídios totais das vísceras contribuiu significativamente para as quantidadesde ácidos graxos n-3. Todos os parâmetros analisados foram satisfatórios sob o ponto de vista nutricional e neste sentido as vísceras de tilápias poderão ser utilizadaa para alimentar peixes ou outros animais.The chemical composition was evaluated in visceras of tilapias raised in captivity. The moisture, ash, crude protein and total lipids contents were 64.4%; 1.3%; 6.3% and 18.0%, respectively, characterizing high total lipids concentration in relation other residues of fish. Forty nine fatty acids were detected, the major fatty acids were oleic (32.8%, palmitic (19.9% and linoleic-1 (18.2% and oleic (9.4%. The ratio n-6/n-3 and polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acids, showed the values 5.5 and 0.9, respectively. The quantifications of alfa-linolenic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids (in mg/g of total lipids, were 10.4, 1.4 and 0.3, respectively. The higher contents of total lipids in visceras contributed significantly for amounts of n-3 fatty acids. All the parameters analyzed were shown nutritional value satisfactory in this sense visceras of tilapias can be used in the feed of fish and other animal.

  14. Comparative physical maps derived from BAC end sequences of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus

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    Lindblad-Toh Kerstin

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Nile tilapia is the second most important fish in aquaculture. It is an excellent laboratory model, and is closely related to the African lake cichlids famous for their rapid rates of speciation. A suite of genomic resources has been developed for this species, including genetic maps and ESTs. Here we analyze BAC end-sequences to develop comparative physical maps, and estimate the number of genome rearrangements, between tilapia and other model fish species. Results We obtained sequence from one or both ends of 106,259 tilapia BACs. BLAST analysis against the genome assemblies of stickleback, medaka and pufferfish allowed identification of homologies for approximately 25,000 BACs for each species. We calculate that rearrangement breakpoints between tilapia and these species occur about every 3 Mb across the genome. Analysis of 35,000 clones previously assembled into contigs by restriction fingerprints allowed identification of longer-range syntenies. Conclusions Our data suggest that chromosomal evolution in recent teleosts is dominated by alternate loss of gene duplicates, and by intra-chromosomal rearrangements (~one per million years. These physical maps are a useful resource for comparative positional cloning of traits in cichlid fishes. The paired BAC end sequences from these clones will be an important resource for scaffolding forthcoming shotgun sequence assemblies of the tilapia genome.

  15. Reproductive biology of Oreochromis niloticus (Perciformes: Cichlidae) at Emiliano Zapata dam, Morelos, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    B. Peña-Mendoza; J.L. Gómez-Márquez; I.H. Salgado-Ugarte; D. Ramírez-Noguera

    2005-01-01

    The reproductive season of tilapia was studied by monthly samplings at Emiliano Zapata dam, Morelos State, Mexico. From February 1999 through February 2000 a sample of 50 fish was taken from the commercial catch (castnet, 6.5 cm of mesh size). The observed sex ratio was 1:1.29 (females:males) ( #61687; #61472;²=10.26; p0.05). The tilapia reached maturity at 151.3 mm (females) and 152.0 mm (males) of total length. Rainy (August) and dry (February) seasons were determined as the breeding period...

  16. Determination of the optimal dose of benzocaine hydrochloride in anesthesia of tilápia (Oreochromis niloticusDeterminação da dose ótima de cloridrato de benzocaína na anestesia de tilápias (Oreochromis niloticus

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    Marco Antonio da Rocha

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Fish anesthesia is indicated for several management procedures such as capturing, biometry, tagging, transporting, physical examination, reproductive management and surgical procedures. In this study the dose of benzocaine hydrochloride necessary for tilápia (Oreochromis niloticus anesthesia was determined through six phases with 240 fish. In each phase 40 fish were evaluated. The interval between phases was two months. Mean values for weight and (allometric condition factor, in each phase, were 25.64 (2.56, 167.58 (2.88, 286.12 (2.57, 388.24 (2.50, 518.19 (2.89, 592.71 (2.67, respectively. The values for allometric condition factors showed that the animals included in the experiments were in good body conditions (P > 0.05. In each phase, fishes were captured and kept in four containers with five liters of water and benzocaine hydrochloride diluted in 20 mL of ethanol, in concentrations of 100, 140, 180, and 220 mg/liter of water. The time of induction in seconds (TI was registered for each fish, and after the anesthetic induction the biometric analysis was conducted at fixed time of 10 minutes. After, the fishes were transferred to containers with 20 liters of water under constant flow, in order to evaluate the recovering time in seconds (TR. At each phase the minimum dose of benzocaine hydrochloride concentration was calculated using LRP (Linear Response Plateau. The model included the dose of benzocaine (mg/L and the time of induction in seconds. The values of LRP were, respectively, 146.60 and 67.45, 155.95 and 76.33, 160.45 and 87.42, 167.00 and 108.14, 165.87 and 174.03, 164.00 and 139.80. The optimum dose was related to the mean weight in each phase, resulting in the equation: Dose = 149.65 + 0.03183 x weigh (r2 = 0.73. This equation showed that an increase of 1g in the body weight corresponded to an increase of 0.032 mg/L in the dose of benzocaine hydrochloride.A anestesia em peixes é indicada para auxiliar a realização de diversos

  17. Effect of Feeding Frequency on the Growth of Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus in Earthen Ponds

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    Pouomogne, V.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Duplicate groups of Nile tilapia fingerlings (30.9 g were fed at three different frequencies, i. e. 2, 3 and 6 meals a day, in six 400 m2 earthen ponds. Fish stocked at 22.4 g/m2 (about 60 ind./are was thus fed an experimental diet containing 25 % protein from vegetal origin. The feed was daily distributed, by hand, at equal time intervals between 8 a. m. and 3 p. m. After fifteen weeks trials, significantly (p <0.05 best growth was obtained in the 6 times a day treatment (daily growth rate 1.3 g/day as compared to 0.9 g/day for each of the two other treatments. It could be noticed that increase in the feeding frequency was associated with increase in growth rate and decrease in FGR (from 1.6 to 1.3. In term of fish production, there was an estimated extra tilapia production of 8.7 kg/are/year with the 6 times a day frequency, comparatively to the two other treatments. In an environment where labour is not actually limiting, the study suggests that Nile tilapia in production ponds should be fed six times a day.

  18. Growth performance of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, fingerlings reared in Na2CO3 limed waters = Desempenho produtivo de alevinos de tilápia nilótica, Oreochromis niloticus, em aquários submetidos à calagem com Na2CO3

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    Davi de Holanda Cavalcante

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Current experiment was undertaken during 6 weeks with Nile tilapia,Oreochomis niloticus, fingerlings (1.28 . 0.03 g to assess the effects of moderate Na2CO3 liming on water quality and fish growth performance. Twenty-four 25 L-aquaria, with 15 fish per aquarium, were used, of which twelve aquaria were placed in the lab’s indoor room and twelve in the outdoor area. Two types of water (clear or green and three different water-quality managements (none, HCl acidification and Na2CO3 liming were simultaneously evaluated in a 3 x 2 factorial design. Total ammonia, calcium hardness, pH and total alkalinity in the green water aquaria were significantly higher than rates in the clear water aquaria. Slight liming acid water with Na2CO3 did not produce any significant effect on its water calcium hardness. No significant differences between controls and theexperimental group were observed for any growth variables. Lime rearing water with Na2CO3 has no significant effect on tilapia growth performance if the initial total alkalinity of water is higher than 20 mg CaCO3 L-1.O presente estudo foi realizado por seis semanas com alevinos de tilápia do Nilo, Oreochromis niloticus (1,28 . 0,03 g, para avaliar os efeitos da calagem moderada da água de cultivo com Na2CO3 naqualidade da água e no desempenho produtivo dos peixes cultivados. Vinte e quatro aquários de polietileno de 25 L foram utilizados para manter os peixes experimentais (15 peixes por aquário. Doze aquários foram instalados na sala interna do laboratório e 12 aquários na área externa. Dois tipos de águas (claras, sem fitoplâncton ou verdes,ricas em fitoplâncton e três diferentes manejos de qualidade de água (nenhum, acidificação com HCl ou calagem com Na2CO3 foram avaliados simultaneamente em delineamento fatorial 3 x 2. A concentração de amônia total, dureza cálcica, pH e alcalinidade total das águas verdes foram significativamente maiores que para as águas claras. A calagem

  19. First report of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from cage-cultured tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atyah, M A S; Zamri-Saad, M; Siti-Zahrah, A

    2010-08-26

    Swabs from the brain, eyes and kidneys of tilapia from 11 farms were collected for a period of 2 years. They were grown on blood agar before cultures of suspected Staphylococcus aureus were subjected to ABI STAPH Detection Kit and PCR for identification. They were then grown on oxacillin resistance screening agar base (ORSAB) and subjected to PCR using the MRSA 17 kb forward and reverse primers to identify the methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). A total of 559 isolates of Staphylococcus spp. were obtained, from which 198 (35%) isolates were identified as S. aureus. Of the 198 S. aureus isolated from tilapias, 98 (50%) were identified as methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Since global spread of multi-drug-resistant bacteria has increased in the past decade, this new finding in fish should be of concern. PMID:20189324

  20. Evaluation of tamoxifen citrate efficiency on sexual inversion of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus

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    Marco Antonio Zanoni

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted to evaluate the influence of tamoxifen on sexual inversion of Nile tilapia larvae from two days of life, the experimental desing was compounded of five treatments and three replicates, and fish were fed diets with different amounts of tamoxifen: 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 mg kg-1 of feed. After 28 days of treatment, larvae were counted and transferred to water tanks of 500 liters and then which were fed with a diet containing 28% crude protein for more 60 days. After this period the fry were sexed by the “squash”. The survival 75.5 ± 5.74, 73 ± 4.76, 66 ± 11.19, 76.5 ± 4.12, 75 ± 3.46 and average percentage of male individuals 62.5 ± 5, 70 ± 8.1, 60 ± 8.2, 70 ± 0.0, 62.5 ± 9.5 for treatments 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 mg of tamoxifenkg-1 diet, respectively, showed no statistically significant differences (p<0,05. The number of gonads in each fish experienced a significant reduction in the treatments with 75 and 100 mg of tamoxifen (89.3 and 79.3 ± 0.527 ± 0.378 when compared with treatments 0, 25 and 50 mg of tamoxifen (98, 9 ± 1.0, 97.6 ± 1.0 and 94.5 ± 1.0, respectively, the histological structure of female gonads did not differ and ovaries in all treatments showed well-defined and oocytes at several stages of maturation.

  1. Body composition and compensatory growth in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus under different feeding intervals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yang; Wang, Ziwei; Hur, Jun-wook; Lee, Jeong-Yeol

    2015-07-01

    We investigated the growth and body composition of Nile tilapia under five different feeding regimes. A control group was fed to satiation twice daily for 185 days; four treatment groups were fed at intervals of 2, 3, 4 or 7 days (dietary `restricted' period, days 0-80) and then fed to satiation (`refeeding' period, days 80-185). Compensatory growth in weight and length of the feed-restricted groups was observed during the refeeding period. However, the growth of none of the restricted groups caught up with that of the control group over the experimental period. Feed intake upon refeeding increased with the duration of deprivation. There were no significant differences in feed efficiency between the restricted and control groups during the refeeding stage, suggesting that hyperphagia was the mechanism responsible for the increased growth rates during this period. Tilapia preferentially used n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and nonessential amino acids during the restricted-feeding period. Higher production was achieved by higher feed consumption. We suggest that if attainment of market size in minimum time is required, fish should be consistently fed to satiation, while taking care to avoid the possible negative consequences of overfeeding.

  2. Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus as a food source in advanced life support systems: Initial considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, John M.; Brown, Paul B.

    2006-01-01

    Maintenance of crew health is of paramount importance for long duration space missions. Weight loss, bone and calcium loss, increased exposure to radiation and oxidative stress are critical concerns that need to be alleviated. Tilapia are currently under evaluation as a source of food and their contribution to reducing waste in advanced life support systems (ALSS). The nutritional composition of tilapia whole bodies, fillet, and carcass residues were quantitatively determined. Carbon and nitrogen free-extract percentages were similar among whole body (53.76% and 6.96%, respectively), fillets (47.06% and 6.75%, respectively), and carcass (56.36% and 7.04%, respectively) whereas percentages of N, S, and protein were highest in fillet (13.34, 1.34, and 83.37%, respectively) than whole body (9.27, 0.62, and 57.97%, respectively) and carcass (7.70, 0.39, and 48.15%, respectively). Whole body and fillet meet and/or exceeded current nutritional recommendations for protein, vitamin D, ascorbic acid, and selenium for international space station missions. Whole body appears to be a better source of lipids and n-3 fatty acids, calcium, and phosphorous than fillet. Consuming whole fish appears to optimize equivalent system mass compared to consumption of fillets. Additional research is needed to determine nutritional composition of tilapia whole body, fillet, and carcass when fed waste residues possibly encountered in an ALSS.

  3. Feeding motivation as a personality trait in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus): role of serotonergic neurotransmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Patricia I M; Martins, Catarina I M; Höglund, Erik; Gjøen, Hans Magnus; Øverli, Øyvind

    2014-10-01

    Consistent individual variation in behaviour and physiology (i.e. animal personality or coping style) has emerged as a central topic in many biological disciplines. Yet, underlying mechanisms of crucial personality traits like feeding behaviour in novel environments remain unclear. Comparative studies, however, reveal a strong degree of evolutionary conservation of neural mechanisms controlling such behaviours throughout the vertebrate lineage. Previous studies have indicated duration of stress-induced anorexia as a consistent individual characteristic in teleost fishes. This study aims to determine to what degree brain 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, serotonin) activity pertains to this aspect of animal personality, as a correlate to feed anticipatory behaviour and recovery of feed intake after transfer to a novel environment. Crucial to the definition of animal personality, a strong degree of individual consistency in different measures of feeding behaviour (feeding latency and feeding score), was demonstrated. Furthermore, low serotonergic activity in the hypothalamus was highly correlated with a personality characterized by high feeding motivation, with feeding motivation represented as an overall measure incorporating several behavioural parameters in a Principle Component Analyses (PCA). This study thus confirms individual variation in brain 5-HT neurotransmission as a correlate to complex behavioural syndromes related to feeding motivation. PMID:24858238

  4. Genomic identification, rapid evolution, and expression of Argonaute genes in the tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Wenjing; Sun, Lina; Chen, Jinlin; Shi, Hongjuan; Wang, Deshou

    2016-09-01

    Argonaute proteins are key components of the small RNA-induced silencing complex and have multiple roles in RNA-directed regulatory pathways. Argonaute genes can be divided into two subfamilies: the Ago (interacting with microRNA/small interfering RNA) and Piwi subfamilies (interacting with piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs)). In the present study, genome-wide analyses firstly yielded the identification of different members of Agos and Piwis in the tilapia, coelacanth, spotted gar, and elephant shark. The additional teleost Ago3b was generated following the fish-specific genome duplication event. Selective pressure analysis on Agos and Piwis between cichlids and other teleosts showed an accelerated evolution of Piwil1 in the cichlid lineages, and the positive selected sites were located in the region of PIWI domain, suggesting that these amino acid substitutions are adapt to targeted cleavage of messenger RNA (mRNA) in cichlids. Ago1 and Ago4 were detected at higher levels at 5 days after hatching (dah) in both ovaries and testes compared with other stages, supporting the previously reported requirement of Ago-mediated pathways to clear the maternal mRNAs during the early embryogenesis. The Piwis were abundantly expressed in tilapia testes, indicating their essential roles in male germline, especially in spermatogenesis. Notable expression of Piwis was also detected in skeletal muscle, indicating that piRNA pathway may not only be confined to development and maintenance of the germline but may also play important roles in somatic tissues. The expression of Piwil1 and Piwil2 was examined by quantitative PCR (qPCR) and in situ hybridization (ISH) to validate the spatial and temporal expression profiles. Taken together, these results present a thorough overview of tilapia Argonaute family and provide a new perspective on the evolution and function of this family in teleosts. PMID:27491892

  5. Multiplex PCR for simultaneous detection of Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus iniae and Lactococcus garvieae: a case of S. agalactiae infection in cultured Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and red tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus x Oreochromis mossambicus)

    OpenAIRE

    Chutima Tantikitti; Naraid Suanyuk; Akkarawit Itsaro

    2012-01-01

    A multiplex PCR (m-PCR) technique was developed for simultaneous detection of the causative agents responsible forstreptococcosis of cultured fish in Thailand i.e., Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus iniae, and Lactococcus garvieae.The study on the sensitivity of the technique indicated that the minimum detected DNA concentration was 9.76, 39.06, and19.53 pg for S. agalactiae, S. iniae and L. garvieae, respectively. Detection of streptococcosis in healthy and diseased Niletilapia (Oreoch...

  6. Reproductive biology of Orechromis niloticus (L.) (Pisces: Cichlidae) in the Nyanza Gulf of Lake Victoria

    OpenAIRE

    Ojuok, J.E.

    1999-01-01

    Fish samples were collected using seine and trawl nets in Nyanza Gulf, Lake Victoria (Kenya) in order to study the reproductive and gonadal patterns of Oreochromis niloticus; samples were collected from June 1998 to February 1999. The variation in relative condition factor and monthly variation in gonad weight showed spawning took place between June and July. Most ripe fish were recovered between November and February, while a slight drop in GSI for males was noted between November and Januar...

  7. 冷藏鲤鱼和罗非鱼优势腐败菌腐败能力分析%Analysis of Spoilage Ability of Dominant Spoilage Bacteria from Stored Chilled Cyprinus carpio and Oreochromis niloticus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许振伟; 李学英; 杨宪时; 郭全友; 姜朝军

    2012-01-01

    10^-9mg TVBN/CFU and 1.81 ×10^-8mg TVBN/CFU. The post-inoculation shelf-lives of sterile Oreochromis niloticus tissue blocks inoculated with Pseudomonasfluorescens and Shewanella putrefaciens were 132 h and 144 h, respectively, the TVBNs 23.46 mg/100 g and 24.30 mg/100 g, the bacterial counts 8.83 Ig(CFU/g) and 9.12 lg(CFU/g) and the YTVBN/CFU values 1.67 × 10^-8 mg TVBN/CFU and 9.10 × 10^-9 rng TVBN/CFU. Based on the microflora changes and the role of the spoilage bacteria during chilled storage of the two species of cultured fish, it can be preliminarily concluded that the special spoilage organisms of stored chilled Oreochromis niloticus and Cyprinus carpio was Pseudomonas spp and that the spoilage ability of Pseudomonas spp and Shewanella putrefaciens is strong.

  8. Influência das densidades de estocagem e sistemas de aeração sobre o peso e características de carcaça da tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus, 1757 Influence of stocking densities and aeration systems on Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, 1757

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newton Castagnolli

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido em nove tanques (38m2, durante 252 dias, com Oreochromis niloticus, revertidas para macho, pesando em média 16,3g, alimentadas com ração comercial (29,5% PB. Comparou-se a eficiência dos sistemas de aeração (A1=controle-sem aeração; A2=compressor radial e A3=chafariz, em três densidades de estocagem (D1=3 peixes/m3; D2=6 peixes/m3 e D3=9 peixes/m3, avaliadas através do peso final (PF dos peixes, peso de carcaça (PC, filé (PFI, pele (PP, gordura visceral (PGV e rendimentos de carcaça (RC e filé (RFI. O delineamento foi inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 3x3, com 30 repetições, sendo o peixe considerado a unidade experimental. O maior PF (530,27g e PC (431,22 foram obtidos na D1. O compressor radial (A2 foi significativamente mais eficiente do que os demais sistemas, para PF e PC, porém para PFI, somente foi significativamente mais eficiente na D2 (162,67g. O maior PGV (37,36g e PP (38,13g foram observados na D1 respectivamente, com A2 e A3. Para RC, não houve diferença entre as densidades e o A3 proporcionou o maior resultado, apesar de não diferir de A1. O RFI variou de 31,73% (A2D1 a 37,14% (A1D1 entre os tratamentos.A 252-day experiment was carried out in nine fish ponds with male sex-reversed Nile tilapia with 16.3g average weight and fed on commercial ration (29.5% crude protein. The efficiency of aeration systems (A1=non-aeration control; A2=radial compressor and A3=sprinkler was compared in three stocking densities (D1=3 fish/m3; D2=6 fish/m3 and D3=9 fish/m3, through the evaluation on their final weight (FW, carcass weight (CW, fillet weight (FIW, skin weight (SWO, visceral fat weight (VFW, carcass yield (CY and fillet yield (FIY. Plotting was completely randomized through a 3x3 factorial scheme, with 30 replications, and each fish was considered as an experimental unit. The heaviest FW (530.27g and CW (431.22g were obtained in D1. The radial compressor system was significantly

  9. Optimum Water Temperature for Growth of GIFT, Oreochromis niloticus%吉富罗非鱼最适生长水温研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭恩彦; 郭忠宝; 罗永巨

    2011-01-01

    The effects of different water temperatures on the growth and ingestion of GIFT (Oreochromis niloticus ) were studied to gain the optimum water temperature for growth so as to improve the economic efficiency. After GIFT being cultured at the water temperature gradient of 28 C、30C、 32C、 34C for a period of 45 days, the result showed that GIFT (Oreochromis niloticus ) cultured at different water temperatures presented different growth characters which had the highest growth rate at 30C compared with other experiment treatments. The specific growth rate(SGR), daily weight gain (AGR), food conversion rate(FCR) and feeding ration(FR) were influenced significantly by water temperature(P<0.05).The correlation between these parameters and water temperature could be described by quadratic curve models: rSGR =- 19.255 + 1.3794 T- 0.0235 T2; rFR =-22.175 + 1.5901 T 0.026 6 T2; rFCR=34.041-2.2256T +0.0382 T2; The conclusion is that the optimum water temperature for SGR、 FR and FCR of GIFT (Oreochromis niloticus ) were 29.3 C、 29.9C and 29.1 C respectively.%为研究不同养殖水温对吉富罗非鱼摄食和生长的影响,了解吉富罗非鱼的最适生长水温,实验设计28℃、30℃、32℃、34℃ 4个不同温度梯度,周期45d.结果表明:不同水温环境下吉富罗非鱼表现出不同的生长特性,养殖在30℃水体中的罗非鱼生长速度明显高于其他温度组;水温对吉富罗非鱼的特定生长率、绝对增重率、饲料转化率、摄食率有显著影响(P<0.05),之间的相关关系可以用二次回归曲线来描述,特定生长率(SGR)与水温的关系式为rSGR=-19.255+1.3794T-0.0235T2,摄食率(FR)与水温的关系式为rFR=-22.175+1.5901T-0.0266 T2,饲料转化率(FCR)与水温的关系式为rFCR=34.041-2.2256T+0.0382T2;吉富罗非鱼的最适生长水温为29.3℃,最大摄食率的水温为29.9℃,最高食物转化率水温为29.1℃.

  10. Effect of two anesthetics on oxygen-carrying related hematological parameters of Oreochromis niloticus%两种麻醉剂对罗非鱼携氧相关血液指标的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤保贵; 杨思楷; 郑素碧; 倪芙镕; 周星星; 徐月容; 谢伟莹

    2015-01-01

    Oreochromis niloticus with body weight of (6.0500 ±1.7103 ) g was exposed to MS-222 and benzocaine for 6 hrs in 3 concentration gradients ( with water temperature of 30.7~32.3 ℃) , and blood from caudal vein was abstracted to determine the hematological parameters .The results showed that , the erythrocyte count ( Er) increased while exposed to MS-222 in high concentrations (25 mg/L and 40 mg/L), however, decreased dramatically while exposed to benzocaine . The mean corpuscular hemoglobin contents ( MCH) of fish exposed to anesthetics did not changed significantly comparing with the control group, so did the hemoglobin concentration (Hb) of fish exposed to MS-222.However, benzocaine gen-erated marked drop in Hb , furthermore, the drop became greater with the increasing of the anesthetic concentration .%分别用3个浓度梯度的MS-222和苯唑卡因对尼罗罗非鱼(Oreochromis niloticus)(6.0500±1.7103) g进行6 h浸泡式麻醉(水温30.7~32.3℃),然后抽取尾部静脉血,测定血液生理生化指标。重点分析了与生物携氧功能密切相关的6个指标的变化,结果显示:(1)较高浓度(25 mg/L、40 mg/L) MS-222导致红细胞数目( Er)升高,而苯唑卡因导致该值大幅下降;(2)两种麻醉剂对红细胞平均血红蛋白含量(MCH)都无显著影响,且MS-222处理后,血液的血红蛋白浓度( Hb)也无明显变化,但经苯唑卡因麻醉处理后, Hb显著下降,且降幅随药物浓度升高而显著增大。

  11. Effects of astragalus polysaccharides (APS) injection on the expression of heat stress proteins 70 (hsp70) gene in Oreochromis niloticus%注射黄芪多糖对吉富罗非鱼热应激蛋白基因表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤菊芬; 吴灶和; 简纪常; 鲁义善; 王蓓

    2011-01-01

    将黄芪多糖(APS)用无菌生理盐水配制成2 mg/mL(低剂量)、20 mg/ mL(高剂量)两种针剂,腹腔注射吉富罗非鱼(Oreochromis niloticus).分别在注射后0h、24h、48 h、72 h和96 h采样提取吉富罗非鱼鳃、头肾、肝脏和脾脏组织中的总RNA,并反转录成cDNA,利用Real-time PCR方法对不同组织中的热应激蛋白(hsp70)基因表达进行定量分析.结果显示,在24h时,高剂量组吉富罗非鱼鳃、头肾和肝脏三个组织中hsp70基因的表达量显著高于同期对照组(P<0.05),之后表达量快速降低,低剂量组hsp70基因表达量仅在脾脏中有上调.实验表明,APS可通过诱导吉富罗非鱼hsp70基因表达来保护免疫细胞免受应激损伤,从而增强鱼体抵抗病原菌的能力.%Astragalus polysaccharides (APS) was dissolved in sterile saline at the doses of 2 mg/mL (low dose), 20 mg/mL (high dose) to inject Oreochromis niloticus intraperitoneally, and the effects of APS on gene expression of hsp70 in gill, head kidney, liver and spleen of 0. Niloticus were determined using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reac tion at 24 h, 48 h, 72 h and 96 h after intraperitoneal injection. The results revealed that the gene expression level of hsp70 in gill, head kidney and liver of high dose group increased significantly than those of control group (P <0. 05) at 24 h, but decreased quickly afterwards. The gene expression of hsplO was up-regulated only in the spleen in low dose group (P <0.05) at 24 h. These results indicated that APS could protect immune cell from heat injury and enhance the fish immunity against infection of bacterial pathogen by inducing the expression of hsp70 of 0. Niloticus.

  12. Polyculture of fresh water shrimp Macrobrachium amazonicum (Heller, 1862 wifh Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus feeding with ration pelleted and mashed / Policultivo do camarão de água doce Macrobrachium amazonicum (Heller, 1862 com a Tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus alimentadas com rações peletizada e farelada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Bohnenberger

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of fresh water shrimp Macrobrachium amazonicum (Heller, 1862 in performance of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus cultivated in polyculture system and feeding with ration pelleted and mashed. The work was realized in Centro de Pesquisa em Aqüicultura Ambiental-CPAA/IAP – Toledo/PR during 37 days. Were utilized like experimental unit 16 ponds excavated, covered with concrete but with bottom of soil with dimension the 4 x 3 m and useful volume the 3,5 m3. Were utilized 30 tilapias e 150 shrimps for experimental unit distributed at an entirely randomized design with 4 treatments and 4 replications, where TF: tilapia feeding with ration mashed; TCF: tilapia and shrimp feeding with ration mashed; TP: tilapia feeding with ration pelleted; TCP: tilapia and shrimp feeding with ration pelleted. The density used were the 2,6 fishes/m2 with medium initial weight the 5,58 ± 0,10 g and initial length the 5,56 cm, and the density of shrimp was the 13 shrimps/m2 with initial length the 1,04 cm. The temperature was gauged daily, while the variables dissolved oxygen, pH and electrical conductivity, weekly. The quantity of ration supplied was the 10% of total biomass of fishes, with feed frequency the 4 times a day, being corrected weekly in function of the biometry. During the experimental period the medium values of temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH and electrical conductivity of the ponds water were 23,42 ± 0,83ºC, 5,32 ± 0,52 mg/L, 7,02 ± 0,39, e 100,96 ± 1,81 µS/ cm respectively. Won´t registering any influence of shrimp during the cultivation and the ration pelleted provide the better conversion alimentary and performance of tilapias.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência do camarão de água doce Macrobrachium amazonicum (Heller, 1862 no desempenho da Tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus cultivada no sistema de policultivo e alimentada com rações peletizadas e fareladas

  13. Blue tilapia (Oreochromis aureus) predation on fishes in the Muddy River system, Clark County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scoppettone, G.G.; Salgado, J.A.; Nielsen, M.B.

    2005-01-01

    Blue tilapia (Oreochromis aureus), native to North Africa and the Middle East (Courtenay and Robins 1973, Fuller et al. 1999), has been introduced around the world as a human food source, for vegetation control, and as a game fish (Costa-Pierce and Riedel 2000). Blue tilapia has been particularly successful in establishing and spreading in North American waters where it has been reported to change fish community structure and cause native fish decline (Courtenay and Robins 1973, Fuller et al. 1999). Because of these detrimental effects, it is now generally considered an unwelcome introduction into North American waters (Dill and Cordone 1997, Fuller et al. 1999).

  14. BIOENERGETICS OF HYBRID TILAPIA (OREOCHROMIS NILOTICUS × O.AUREUS) REARED IN SEAWATER,IN RELATION TO COMPENSATORY GROWTH%海水养殖罗非鱼补偿生长的生物能量学机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王岩

    2001-01-01

    Compensatory growth of hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus × O.aureus) reared in seawater,following a period of feed deprivation or ration restriction,were studied at Nan'ao Marine Biology Station,Shantou,China,between April and July,1997,respectively. Bioenergetic mechanism of hybrid tilapia in relation to compensatory growth is discussed in this paper. Energy budget of excessively fed hybrid tilapia can be expressed as 100C=32.8G+50.8R+15.3F+1.1U. During the recovery period,energy intake and metabolism energy are higher in the control fish than those in the deprived or restricted fish. However,the ratio of energy intake,metabolism energy, growth energy,fecal energy,and excretion energy,to body weight at the start of the recovery period are lower in the control fish than those in the deprived or restricted fish which exhibited compensatory growth. There are no significant differences in energy budget between the control fish and the deprived or restricted fish.%1998年4月28日—6月24日和5月20日—7月14日分别在汕头大学南澳海洋生物实验站研究了杂交罗非鱼停喂(简称绝食)或限量投喂(简称限食)后的补偿生长,探讨了杂交罗非鱼补偿生长的生物能量学机制。结果表明,海水养殖杂交罗非鱼在饱食状态下的能量收支为100C=32.8G+50.8R+15.3F+1.1U。在恢复生长期间,对照鱼的食物能和代谢能高于绝食鱼或限食鱼,但其单位体重的食物能、代谢能、生长能、粪能和排泄能均明显低于补偿生长的绝食鱼或限食鱼,绝食或限食后海水养殖杂交罗非鱼的能量收支模式未发生明显变化。

  15. Avaliação de diferentes posições de marcação externa em juvenis de tilápia Oreochromis niloticus (Cichlidae - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v25i2.2001 Evaluation of different external marking positions in juveniles of tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (Cichlidae - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v25i2.2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Pereira Ribeiro

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados, neste trabalho, o efeito e a eficácia de uma técnica de marcação externa em tilápia, Oreochromis niloticus L. (Cichlidae. Com o auxílio de uma agulha nº 9, um fio sintético flexível (0,20mm contendo 3 miçangas coloridas, foi fixado à musculatura dos peixes em 3 posições: na musculatura de inserção da nadadeira dorsal (D e na musculatura de inserção da nadadeira caudal nas posições dorsal (C e ventral (V. Um total de 120 animais, com peso de 11,5g e 8,2cm de comprimento total, foram marcados e distribuídos em 2 tanques-rede na densidade de 30 peixes/m3. Em cada tanque-rede foram estocados 60 indivíduos, classificados em 4 grupos, sendo 3 com marcações do tipo D, C e V e um controle sem marcação (SM, com 15 peixes por tratamento. Após 60 dias, verificou-se melhor eficácia da marcação C, sendo observados 5 animais com perda da marcação D, 2 da C e 3 da V em cada tanque. Os valores médios de desempenho variaram de 40,8g a 55,7g, sendo os maiores valores atingidos pelos peixes marcados em comparação aos não-marcados (pThe effect of marking techniques on the development of tilapia juveniles, Oreochromis niloticus L. (Cichlidae and their efficiency were evaluated. By means of a n. 9 needle, a flexible synthetic string (0.20mm containing synthetic colored beads was fixed on the fish muscle in three positions: anterior part of the dorsal fin (D, insertion muscle of the dorsal (C and ventral (V fins. One hundred and twenty specimens, weight 11.5g and length 8.2cm, were marked and distributed into two net tanks, with stocking density of 30 fish.m-3. Sixty fish were stocked in each tank (three groups marked D, C and V, and one control group with no mark at all, SM, with 15 specimens per treatment. Results show that after 60 days C position was the most efficient; 5 specimens lost D marking, 2 lost C marking and 3 V marking, in each tank. Mean performance rates ranged from 40.8 to 55.7g; highest rates were

  16. 吉富罗非鱼对饲料中锌的需要量%Dietary zinc requirement of genetically improved farmed tilapia (GIFT, Oreochromis niloticus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴凡; 蒋明; 文华; 刘伟; 田娟; 杨长庚; 黄凤

    2015-01-01

    为考察吉富罗非鱼( GIFT, Oreochromis niloticus)对饲料中锌的需要量,以蛋氨酸锌为锌源,配制锌添加水平分别为0,10,20,40,80,160 mg/kg的6组等氮等脂饲料(实测值分别为9.98,21.47,33.75,56.03,88.16,172.54 mg/kg),饲喂初始体质量为(84.44±3.04) g的吉富罗非鱼,试验鱼分为6组,每组3个重复,每个重复20尾鱼,养殖周期为10周。结果显示,随着饲料中锌含量的增加,吉富罗非鱼的增重率、特定生长率先显著升高,在锌含量达到33.75 mg/kg后趋于稳定,添加锌显著降低了饲料系数,提高了成活率。饲料锌含量对全鱼水分、粗蛋白及灰分含量无显著影响,显著降低了全鱼粗脂肪含量。饲料中添加锌对血清总胆固醇含量无影响,显著提高了血清碱性磷酸酶的活性,碱性磷酸酶活性在锌含量达到33.75 mg/kg后趋于稳定,血清甘油三酯含量,乳酸脱氢酶、谷草转氨酶和谷丙转氨酶活性则呈下降趋势。饲料锌含量显著影响脊椎骨、全鱼和肝脏锌的含量,脊椎骨和全鱼锌含量先线性上升,在锌含量达到56.03 mg/kg后趋于稳定,各组的肌肉锌含量无显著差异。以增重率、骨骼锌和全鱼锌含量为评价指标,根据折线回归分析得出,以蛋氨酸锌为添加锌源,吉富罗非鱼对饲料中锌的需要量分别为32.37、55.67和56.13 mg/kg。%A feeding experiment was conducted to estimate the optimum requirement of dietary zinc for genetically improved farmed tilapia ( GIFT, Oreochromis niloticus) .The six experimental diets were formulated to contain the graded levels of zinc (0, 10, 20, 40, 80, 160 mg/kg, respectively) supplied as methionine zinc, providing the actual dietary zinc val-ues of 9.98(control), 21.47, 33.75, 56.03, 88.16, 172.54 mg/kg diet, respectively.Each diet was assigned to three replicate groups of GIFT ( mean initial body weight: 84.44 ±3

  17. 壬基酚对奥尼罗非鱼(Oreochromis niloticus×O.aureus)的急性毒性研究%NONYLPHENOL: A TOXICANT TO HYBRID TILAPIA(OREOCHROMIS NILOTICUS×O.AUREUS)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄长江; 董巧香; 马茹飞

    2006-01-01

    采用换水式毒性试验法研究了壬基酚(nonylphenol)对奥尼罗非鱼(Oreochromis niloticus×O.aureus)的急性毒性、遗传毒性效应和对鱼体的器官损伤.结果表明,壬基酚对奥尼罗非鱼的24、48、72和96h的半致死浓度(LC50)分别为413.4、351.5、311.2和264.6μg/L,属剧毒物质.与空白对照相比,奥尼罗非鱼血红细胞的核异常率在最低处理浓度(150.0μg/L)下有显著意义的增加,微核率在≥337.5μg/L时也开始具有显著意义的增加.不同的暴露时间和剂量对血细胞微核率和总核异常率具有不同程度的影响.壬基酚对奥尼罗非鱼的鳃、肾脏、脾、肝均造成不同程度的病理损伤.

  18. Hybridization effects of different combinations of Oreochromis niloticus and Oreochromis aureus%不同群体尼罗罗非鱼×奥利亚罗非鱼组合的杂交效果比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍勇; 简伟业; 秦谷雨; 罗明坤; 魏继海; 唐首杰; 赵金良

    2014-01-01

    为评估不同群体尼罗罗非鱼(Oreochromis niloticus,♀)×奥利亚罗非鱼(O.aureus,♂)组合的杂交效果,分别选择了尼罗罗非鱼新吉富、苏丹群体和奥利亚罗非鱼茂名、以色列群体为亲本,在小土池中开展二元组合杂交试验,并以新吉富群体自繁作为对照组,统计各杂交组合出苗量和后代雄性率差异.结果表明,尼罗罗非鱼种内配组的出苗量显著高于尼奥杂交组合,杂交组合内以新吉富♀×以色列♂组合的尾日均出苗量最高;尼奥杂交组合后代的雄性率显著高于尼罗罗非鱼种内配组,杂交组合内以新吉富♀×茂名♂组合杂交后代的雄性率最高.

  19. Determination of hydroxyproline in the skin of Oreochromis niloticus by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography after microwave-assisted acid hydrolysis of protein%微波辅助蛋白质水解-反相高效液相色谱法测定罗非鱼皮中的羟脯氨酸

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵艳; 宋军; 杨发树; 张艳红; 张凤枰; 刘耀敏; 范秀丽

    2016-01-01

    为测定罗非鱼( Oreochromis niloticus)皮中羟脯氨酸含量,建立了微波辅助蛋白质水解-反相高效液相色谱法。实验采用9-芴基甲氧基羰酰氯( FMOC-Cl)为衍生试剂,应用ZORBAX SB-C18色谱柱,以0.05 mol/L的醋酸钠溶液和甲醇为流动相进行梯度洗脱, DAD检测器在262 nm处进行检测,外标法定量。结果显示,羟脯氨酸线性关系良好,相关系数为0.9999,回收率92.00%~103.25%,相对标准偏差2.53%~3.61%,检出限为0.2 mg/g。%A method was established for the determination of hydroxyproline in the skin of tilapia( Oreochromis niloticus) by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography after microwave-assisted acid hydrolysis of protein. After derivat-ization by 9-fluorenylmethyl chloroformate ( FMOC-Cl) , separation and quantification was achieved on a ZORBAX SB-C18 column by gradient elution with methanol and 0. 05 mol/L sodium acetate buffer. The detection was carried out with diode array detector (DAD) by absorbance at 262 nm. The external standard calibration curves were used for quantification. There were good linear correlations for hydroxyproline ( r =0. 999 9 ) . Average spike recovery of hydroxyproline was 92. 00% ~103. 25%, with relative standard devitations 2. 53% ~3. 61%, and the limit of detection for hydroxyproline was 0. 2 mg/g. This method is simple, sensitive, reproducible and suitable for the determination of hydroxyproline in fish skin.

  20. Molecular and functional characterization of peptidoglycan-recognition protein SC2 (PGRP-SC2) from Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) involved in the immune response to Streptococcus agalactiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Zhen; Chen, Shannan; Hou, Jing; Huo, Huijun; Zhang, Xiaolin; Ruan, Baiye; Laghari, Zubair Ahmed; Li, Li; Lu, Yishan; Nie, Pin

    2016-07-01

    PGRP-SC2, the member of PGRP family, plays an important role in regulation of innate immune response. In this paper, a PGRP-SC2 gene of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (designated as On-PGRP-SC2) was cloned and its expression pattern under the infection of Streptococcus agalactiae was investigated. Sequence analysis showed main structural features required for amidase activity were detected in the deduced amino acid sequence of On-PGRP-SC2. In healthy tilapia, the On-PGRP-SC2 transcripts could be detected in all the examined tissues, with the most abundant expression in the muscle. When infected with S. agalactiae, there was a clear time-dependent expression pattern of On-PGRP-SC2 in the spleen, head kidney and brain. The assays for the amidase activity suggested that recombinant On-PGRP-SC2 protein had a Zn(2+)-dependent PGN-degrading activity. Moreover, our works showed that recombinant On-PGRP-SC2 protein could significantly reduce bacterial load in target organs attacked by S. agalactiae. These findings indicated that On-PGRP-SC2 may play important roles in the immune response to S. agalactiae in Nile tilapia.

  1. 尼罗罗非鱼淀粉酶性质的初步研究%Primary Study on Properties of Amylase from Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢进金; 蒋娜红; 洪绿萍; 蔡炳炎

    2007-01-01

    研究了尼罗罗非鱼(Oreochromis niloticus)肝脏淀粉酶的基本性质及金属离子对该鱼淀粉酶活性的影响.结果表明:罗非鱼淀粉酶活力的最适pH是6.5,最适底物浓度是2%.研究金属离子对该鱼淀粉酶活力影响,一价金属离子K+、Li+、Na+对酶活力影响较小;二价金属离子Cu2+对酶活力具有抑制作用,Zn2+对酶活力无明显影响;三价金属离子Al3+对酶活力具有抑制作用,但效果不是很强烈,Fe3+对酶活力具有明显的激活作用;碱土金属Mg2+、Ca2+对淀粉酶活性有激活作用,而Ba2+ 对酶具有抑制作用;重金属离子Cd2+、Pb2+有明显的抑制作用.

  2. P-glycoprotein and CYP1A protein expression patterns in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) tissues after waterborne exposure to benzo(a)pyrene (BaP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Joana; Reis-Henriques, Maria Armanda; Wilson, Jonathan M; Ferreira, Marta

    2013-09-01

    The protein levels and tissue distribution patterns of P-glycoprotein (Pgp) and cytochrome P450 (CYP1A) were investigated in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) after waterborne exposure to different benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) concentrations, using immunochemical approaches. The Pgp mammalian monoclonal antibody (mAb) C219 cross reacted with a ∼170kDa protein, almost exclusively localized to the bile canaliculi, while probing with the Pgp mammalian mAb C494, resulted in a positive reaction in liver, gills and intestine of Nile tilapia and covered a wider set of cell types. Levels of Pgp expression were not altered after in vivo exposure to BaP. CYP1A, detected with the mAb C10-7, reacted positively in liver, gills and intestine and followed a BaP dose-dependent fold induction. Taken together, these results indicate that CYP1A is involved in BaP metabolism in liver, gills and intestine, however, further studies are needed to elucidate the possible interaction of the efflux protein Pgp with BaP and/or its metabolites.

  3. Molecular and functional characterization of peptidoglycan-recognition protein SC2 (PGRP-SC2) from Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) involved in the immune response to Streptococcus agalactiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Zhen; Chen, Shannan; Hou, Jing; Huo, Huijun; Zhang, Xiaolin; Ruan, Baiye; Laghari, Zubair Ahmed; Li, Li; Lu, Yishan; Nie, Pin

    2016-07-01

    PGRP-SC2, the member of PGRP family, plays an important role in regulation of innate immune response. In this paper, a PGRP-SC2 gene of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (designated as On-PGRP-SC2) was cloned and its expression pattern under the infection of Streptococcus agalactiae was investigated. Sequence analysis showed main structural features required for amidase activity were detected in the deduced amino acid sequence of On-PGRP-SC2. In healthy tilapia, the On-PGRP-SC2 transcripts could be detected in all the examined tissues, with the most abundant expression in the muscle. When infected with S. agalactiae, there was a clear time-dependent expression pattern of On-PGRP-SC2 in the spleen, head kidney and brain. The assays for the amidase activity suggested that recombinant On-PGRP-SC2 protein had a Zn(2+)-dependent PGN-degrading activity. Moreover, our works showed that recombinant On-PGRP-SC2 protein could significantly reduce bacterial load in target organs attacked by S. agalactiae. These findings indicated that On-PGRP-SC2 may play important roles in the immune response to S. agalactiae in Nile tilapia. PMID:27033804

  4. Results regarding growth performance of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, Linnaeus, 1758 fed with an additive feed, vitamin C, in a recirculating aquaculture system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Ciortan Mirea

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the vitamin C status on growth performance, survival rate and biochimical parameters from tissue of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, Linnaeus, 1758 with average weight of 93±1,0 g were fed with different dietary vitamin C rations and reared in a recirculating aquaculture system (RAS. Growth performance , survival rate and biochimical parameters from tissue of Nile tilapia were measured in groups fed diets supplemented with 100, 750, 2000 mg.kg-1L-ascorbic acid (AA and almost ascorbate free diet (Total AA> 5 mg.kg-1 as a control. They were stocked in 12 rearing units at 28 oC water temperature for 30 days. Diet of 33 % protein was offered as feed, 3 times daily. Growth measurements of tilapia were recorded on beginning and at the end of the experiment. Results showed that growth performance for Nile tilapia had not significantly (p>0.05 differences between the control and the tretments . Survival rate was the same for al the treatments. The feed conversio ratio (FCR was not significant (p>0.05 between the control and the treatments. Resuls showed that the feed impoved with AA had no significant differences between treatments and control regarding the  optimum growth performance and survival rate at Nile tilapia.  

  5. Increasing of temperature induces pathogenicity of Streptococcus agalactiae and the up-regulation of inflammatory related genes in infected Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayansamruaj, Pattanapon; Pirarat, Nopadon; Hirono, Ikuo; Rodkhum, Channarong

    2014-08-01

    Temperature strongly affects the health of aquatic poikilotherms. In Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), elevated water temperatures increase the severity of streptococcosis. Here we investigated the effects of temperature on the vulnerability and inflammatory response of Nile tilapia to Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B streptococci; GBS). At 35 and 28 °C, GBS took 4 and 7h, respectively to reach the log-phase and, when incubated with tilapia whole blood, experienced survival rates of 97% and 2%, respectively. The hemolysis activity of GBS grown at 35 °C was five times higher than that of GBS grown at 28 °C. GBS expressed cylE (β-hemolysin/cytolysin), cfb (CAMP factor) and PI-2b (pili-backbone) much more strongly at 35 °C than at 28 °C. Challenging Nile tilapia reared at 35 and 28 °C with GBS resulted in accumulated mortalities of about 85% and 45%, respectively. At 35 °C, infected tilapia exhibited tremendous inflammatory responses due to a dramatic up-regulation (30-40-fold) of inflammatory-related genes (cyclooxygenase-2, IL-1β and TNF-α) between 6 and 96 h-post infection. These results suggest that the increase of GBS pathogenicity to Nile tilapia induced by elevated temperature is associated with massive inflammatory responses, which may lead to acute mortality. PMID:24856132

  6. The Evaluation of Synergistic Effect of Hippophae rhamnoides and Vitamin E on Growth Performance and Oxidative Stress at Oreochromis niloticus - Linnaeus, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Antache

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to evaluate the influence of sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides and vitamin E on growth performance indicators and oxidative stress at Nile tilapia juvenile, reared in a recirculating aquaculture system. The experiment was conducted six weeks, in triplicate. The experimental variants were: V1 – control, V2 – 1% sea buckthorn / kg feed, V3 – 500mg vitamin E / kg feed and V4 – 1% sea buckthorn supplemented with 500 mg vitamin E / kg feed. During the experiment was performed an intermediary biometric measurement. Oxidative stress analysis consisted in determination of lipid peroxidation (MDA-malondialdehide and total antioxidant capacity (TAC from liver, tissue and gut. Results showed a good evolution of GR, FCR and SGR, during the experiment, in V4 – in which feed was supplemented with sea buckthorn and vitamin E. Based on the results obtained in variant V4, in liver and tissue, the oxidative stress was reduced. Regarding MDA and TAC, between experimental variants, were registered significant differences (p<0.05 at the level of tissue and gut. In conclusion, the research shows that sea buckthorn (1%/kg feed in combination with Vitamin E (500mg/kg feed has a synergistic effect on growth performance indicators and oxidative stress, at Oreochromis niloticus juvenile.

  7. Ectoparasitos de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus, das linhagens Chitralada e GIFT, em diferentes densidades e alimentadas com dois níveis de proteína - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v29i4.1015 Ectoparasites in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus from Chitralada and GIFT strains, in different densities, fed with two protein levels - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v29i4.1015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de los Angeles Peres Lizama

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Foi verificada a infestação por ectoparasitos em tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus, nas linhagens Chitralada e GIFT, em tanques e viveiros, utilizando-se ração com dois níveis de proteína. Durante o ensaio, foram analisados a temperatura, o pH, o oxigênio dissolvido e a condutividade elétrica. Foram realizadas amostras de raspados de tegumento e brânquias de machos pós-revertidos, em duas fases do experimento. A primeira, em 240 alevinos provenientes de 18 caixas de fibra de vidro de 500 L em três densidades. A prevalência total de parasitos na linhagem Chitralada (densidades de 30, 40 e 50 peixes m-3 foi 72,2, 83,3 e 59,5%, com predominância de Trichodina (38,9, 63,3 e 26,2%, respectivamente. Para a linhagem GIFT, nas mesmas densidades, foram observados 83,3, 73,3 e 80,9%, com maior predominância também de Trichodina (33,3, 73,3 e 45,2%, respectivamente. Na segunda fase, foram analisados 90 peixes de cada linhagem, de dois viveiros (140 m2 e duas dietas com 25 e 30% de proteína bruta. A prevalência total, para as linhagens Chitralada e GIFT com 25% PB foi 86,7 e 76,7%, respectivamente, e para 30% PB foi 60,0%, para ambas as linhagens. O nível de 30% PB, independentemente da linhagem, apresentou a menor prevalência parasitária.Ectoparasites infestation in Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus was observed in Chitralada and GIFT strains cultivated in cages and ponds, using rations with two protein levels. During the assay, temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen and electric conductivity were analyzed. Tegument scraping and gill samples from reverted males were evaluated, in two experiment phases. The first phase was carried out with 240 fingerlings from 18 500 L fiberglass boxes using three stocking densities. Total prevalence of parasites in the Chitralada strain (stocking density of 30, 40 and 50 fish m-3 was 72.2, 83.3 and 59.5%, with Trichodina predominance (38.9, 63.3 and 26.2%, respectively. For the GIFT strain, at the

  8. Expression and Immunogenicity Analysis of Hemolysin Gene in Streptococcus agalactiae Isolated from Oreochromis niloticus%罗非鱼源无乳链球菌溶血素基因体外表达及其免疫原性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王蓓; 李桂欢; 王培; 汤菊芬; 鲁义善; 吴灶和; 简纪常

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus is a genus of spherical gram-positive bacteria that can infect a wide range of hosts. Streptococcal diseases of cultured fish caused by Streptococcus agalactiae have been frequently reported in South China, which incurred catastrophic economic losses. Vaccine is one of effective ways to control and eradicate infectious diseases, and so far no effective subunit vaccine for S. agalactiae diseases has been developed. To test whether Hemolysin (Hly) is a potential candidate for vaccine development of Oreochromis niloticus, we cloned hly gene based on bioinformatics analysis and constructed and expressed it. The open reading frame of hly gene contains 1335 bp that encodes 444 amino acid residues. Alignment analysis indicated that the Hly protein was highly homologous to Hly proteins from other Streptococcus(99%). SDS-PAGE confirmed the expression of Hly (51.7 kD) in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3). Then, the recombinant Hly protein was purified by affinity chromatography, which was used for vaccination in Tilapia, O. niloticus. Immunogenicity was confirmed by subsequent western blotting. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) analysis demonstrated that Hly produced an observable antibody response in all vaccinated fish, and the maximum antibody titers in the sera reached 1:4096. The RPS value for the Sip vaccine was 70. Tilapia vaccinated with Hly was highly resistant to the infection of the contaminant S. agalactiae. These results indicate that Hly is an effective vaccine candidate against S. agalactiae for tilapia, O. niloticus.%为研究罗非鱼源无乳链球菌溶血素(Hemolysin, Hly)对鱼体的免疫保护作用,根据已获得的无乳链球菌ZQ0910全基因组序列设计引物扩增hly基因,定向克隆于原核表达载体pET-28a中,构建原核重组质粒pET-28a-hly,经IPTG诱导表达后,制成亚单位疫苗免疫吉富罗非鱼,并分析疫苗的免疫保护力。结果显示,hly基因产物大小1335 bp,编码444个氨

  9. Pesquisa de comparação entre a taxa de crescimento do Acará Geophagus brasiliensis e a Tilápia Oreochromis niloticus em condições de monocultivo intensivo utilizando ração e alimento vivo - Research to compare the growth rate between the Acara Geophagus brasiliensis and Tilapia Oreochromis nioticus in conditions of intensive monoculture utilizing ration and live food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilton Amaral Junior

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available SummaryThe state of Santa Catarina, because of its climate conditions and lack of alternative native species with commercial interest, does its pisciculture mainly of exotics species. It is one of the main localities for the culture of Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus, (Linnaeus, 1758 and also where it will find many regions with favorable conditions for its growth. To those conditions, we have to add an excellent acceptance of this species by the market ofcompanies that process fish, and also by the consumer in general. Acara or Cara is the generic name assigned to various fishes of the family of Ciclideos, same family that the Tilapia belongs. The most common species of fresh water fish in Brazil is Geophagus brasiliensis (QUOY & GAIMARD, 1824, which can grow up to 25cm long and adapts very well to hot and cold regions. The objective of this research is to evaluate the reproductive potential, growth rate and adaptability of the Geophagus brasiliensis to offer the isciculturist an alternative of native species of commercial cultivation.ResumoO Estado de Santa Catarina, em função das condições climáticas e da falta de alternativas de espécies nativas de interesse comercial, faz sua piscicultura com a maioria de espécies exóticas. É um dos locais onde mais se cultiva a Tilápia Oreochromis niloticus, (Linnaeus, 1758 e também onde ela encontra muitas regiões em condições favoráveis para o seu crescimento. A estas condições, deveremos incorporar a excelente aceitação desta espécie, pelo mercado das empresas de manipulação e beneficiamento do pescado, bem pelo consumidor em geral. O Acará ou cará é o nome genérico atribuído a diversos peixes da família dos Ciclídeos, mesma família a que pertence a Tilápia.

  10. Efeito de técnicas de recurtimento sobre a resistência do couro da tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus L.) - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v27i4.1185 Effect of retanning techniques on the resistance of the Nile tilapia leather (Oreochromis niloticus L.) - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v27i4.1185

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Luiza de Rodrigues de Souza; Leocília Oliveira da Silva

    2005-01-01

    O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a resistência do couro de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus L.) curtido com sais de cromo e diferentes técnicas de recurtimento. As peles foram distribuídas em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 4x2, sendo quatro técnicas de recutimento (T1= 4% de sais de cromo; T2= 4% taninos vegetais; T3 = 4% taninos sintéticos e T4= 2% taninos sintéticos e 2% vegetais) e dois sentidos do couro (S1=Longitudinal; S2=Transversal), com 6 repetiçõe...

  11. Pig-duck-fish-azolla integration in La Union, Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Gavina, L.D.

    1994-01-01

    Three studies on pig-duck-fish-azolla integration were conducted simultaneously in La Union, Philippines. Growth performance of pigs and ducks as affected by different levels of azolla meal in their feed, and that of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) under varying stocking rates are presented and discussed.

  12. Quality improvement and shelf-life extension of refrigerated Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fillets using natural herbs

    OpenAIRE

    Fathy A. Khalafalla; Fatma H.M. Ali; Abdel-Rahim H.A. Hassan

    2015-01-01

    The present study was preformed to evaluate the effect of dip treatments by thyme (Thymus vulgaris) extract (0.5%) and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) extract (1.5%) on the quality and shelf life of Nile tilapia (Orechromis niloticus) fillets during refrigerated storage at 2 ± 1 °C. The control (untreated) and treated groups were examined periodically at day zero and every 3 days (0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, ....) during refrigeration until apparent decomposition of each group, with sensory, ph...

  13. Finding an adequate Tilapia feed for rural fish farmers in Mombasa.[Internship Report

    OpenAIRE

    Furrer, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Seven different possible fish feeds for tilapia (a hybrid from Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus crossed with Sabaki tilapia, Oreochromis spilurus) were carried out on an internship on Mtopanga farm at Bao-bab Trust, Bamburi. The ingredients tested should be easily available to local farmers in Mombasa and should take into account that valuable nutrients produced on a farm should not be fed to livestock as these are urgently needed in local communities. As a valuable animal protein which ca...

  14. Estimativa da variabilidade genética em linhagens de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus com a técnica de RAPD - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v27i1.1236 Genetic variability estimation of Nile tilapia strains (Oreochromis niloticus using the RAPD technique - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v27i1.1236

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauro Vargas

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available A variabilidade genética é essencial para que se possa obter melhoramento genético e, portanto, é de grande importância a sua estimação. Desta forma, o objetivo do presente experimento foi estimar, pela técnica Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD, a divergência e a variabilidade genética nas linhagens de tilápias do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus Bouaké e Chitralada em duas gerações de reprodutores do rio Nilo. Foram utilizados 20 animais de cada linhagem. A matriz de coeficientes de similaridade de Jaccard entre indivíduos foi utilizada para a construção de um dendrograma e para a determinação, com o teste de Mantel, da divergência genética entre linhagens. A variabilidade genética foi estimada pelo índice de Shannon e pela porcentagem de loci polimórficos. As linhagens Bouaké e Chitralada formaram grupos distintos. A primeira apresentou menor divergência e variabilidade genética em relação à segunda. A variabilidade genética foi semelhante entre as duas gerações de reprodutores em ambas as linhagensGenetic variability estimation is highly important in order to achieve genetic improvement. The present experiment aims at estimating the genetic divergence and variability of the Nile tilapia strains (Oreochromis niloticus, Bouaké and Chitralada, in two breeders offsprings, using the Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD. Twenty animals from each strain were used. The Jaccard similarity coefficients matrix was used for both designing a dendrogram and determining the genetic divergence of the strains, using Mantel’s test. The genetic variability was estimated by Shannon’s index and the percentage of polymorphic loci. Bouaké and Chitralada’s strains formed different groups. The former strain showed lower genetic divergence and variability in relation to the latter one. The two breeders offsprings had similar genetic variability in both strains

  15. Quality index method (QIM application on shef life estimation of skinned fillets of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus kept in iceAplicação do método do índice de qualidade (MIQ para o estudo da vida útil de filés de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus sem pele, armazenados em gelo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karoline Mikaelle de Paiva Soares

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to develop the Quality Index Method (QIM for skinned fillets from farmed Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, and apply it in the establishment of its shelf life. The skinned fillets (120 g in average were kept in boxes with ice in the proportion of 1:1 (fillet:ice under average temperature of 0°C and stored at refrigeration chamber (4°C during 18 days. To evaluate the freshness during storage time sensory analysis (QIM and physicochemical (pH and TVB-N were performed every 72 hours from time zero, in triplicate. The maximum life of the Nile tilapia fillet in ice was estimated at 15 days. The MIQ was considered effective in evaluating the freshness of the Nile tilapia, since the sensory rejection by MIQ was determinant in the shelf life establishment. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi desenvolver o Método do Índice de Qualidade (MIQ para filé sem pele de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus, cultivada, e aplicá-lo no estabelecimento da sua vida útil. Os filés (média de 120 g cada foram mantidos em caixas com gelo na proporção de 1:1 (filé:gelo na temperatura média de 0°C e armazenados em câmaras de refrigeração (4°C por 18 dias. Para avaliar o frescor durante o armazenamento, realizaram-se análises sensoriais (MIQ e físico-químicas (pH e Nitrogênio das Bases Voláteis Totais a cada 72 horas, a partir do tempo zero, em triplicata. A vida útil máxima do filé sem pele de tilápia do Nilo, em gelo, foi estimada em 15 dias. O MIQ foi considerado eficiente na avaliação do frescor da tilápia do Nilo, já que a rejeição sensorial pelo MIQ foi determinante no estabelecimento da vida de prateleira.

  16. Histologia das brânquias de larvas da tilápia do Nilo, Oreochromis niloticus (L., de origem tailandesa, submetidas a diferentes níveis de vitamina C Histology of branchiae of larvae of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L. from Thailand, with different levels of vitamin C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Raquel Marçal Natali

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo, foi avaliado o efeito da vitamina C sobre a integridade histológica branquial e morfologia das células mucosas, em larvas de tilápia do Nilo, Oreochromis niloticus (Perciformes, cichlidae de origem tailandesa, durante a fase de reversão sexual, em Maringá, Estado do Paraná. Larvas foram submetidas a três diferentes dietas sendo: T1- isenta de vitamina C, T2- 1.000 mg de vitamina C e T3- 2.000 mg por quilo de ração. As alterações histológicas foram classificadas por graus de severidade, numa escala de 1 a 3 unidades de Valor Médio de Alteração (V.M.A., tais como: elevação epitelial, hiperplasia de células dos filamentos, telangectasia e fusão lamelar, que foram significativamente mais freqüentes no T1 em relação ao T2 e T3. As análises morfométricas demonstraram significativo aumento no tamanho médio das células no T1, em relação às do T2 e do T3, (p The effect of vitamin C (ascorbic acid on the histological integrity and the morphology of mucous cells from gill structure of larvae of the Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Perciformes, cichlidae, from Thailand, during sex reversion process was evaluated. Assay was performed during 28 days in Maringá PR Brazil. Three diets were given to the larvae: vitamin C-free diet; and two diets with monophosphated vitamin C, or rather, T1 (0; T2 (1,000; T3 (2,000 mg of vitamin C per kilo of diet respectively. Histological changes were classified according to severity levels in a scale ranging from 1 to 3 unities of Mean Assessment Value (MAV. These were epithelial lifting, hyperplasia of filament cells, telangectasy, and lamellar fusion, significantly more frequent in T1 than in T2 and T3. Morphometrical analyses showed an increase in average size of cells in T1 when compared to those of T2 or T3 (p < 0.05. Number of mucous cells showed a higher significant frequency of cells in T1 filaments as a contrast to those of T2 and T3. Results indicate that best inclusion

  17. Determinación y prevalencia de Mycobacterium spp., en tilapia nilótica (Oreochromis niloticus cultivada en Campeche, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurilio Lara-Flores

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Determinar la presencia y prevalencia de Mycobacterium spp., en granjas de tilapia nilótica (Oreochromis niloticus en el Municipio de Champotón, Campeche, México. Materiales y métodos. La colecta de organismos se realizó en tres granjas de cultivo de tilapia nilótica del municipio de Champotón, Campeche, México. Los organismos se examinaron externa e internamente y se tomó una muestra de riñón la cual fue sembrada en forma de estría en medios de cultivo: Löwesntein-Jensen, TCBS, KF y en TSA; las placas fueron incubadas a 35°C de 24 a 48 horas, los órganos fueron fijados en formalina tamponada al 10% para ser procesados para histología de rutina para análisis posteriores. Asimismo, muestras de cultivo bacteriológico y de tejido fueron teñidas con la técnica de Ziel-Neelsen con el fin de observar la presencia de bacilos ácido-alcohol resistentes. Resultados. Los resultados obtenidos sugieren que la presencia de Mycobacterium spp., es constante y en alta prevalencia y puede ser un factor que este mermando la rentabilidad del cultivo. Conclusiones. La presencia de Mycobacterium spp., representa un riesgo para el cultivo de tilapia en el municipio de Champotón, por ser una enfermedad muy persistente y difícil de erradicar una vez ocurrido e brote de infección, por lo cual es importante llevar estudios más detallados de la presencia de este género bacteriano, así como, medidas de prevención y dispersión de este patógeno en los cultivos adyacentes.

  18. ESTAFILOCOCOS COAGULASE POSITIVOS EM FILÉS DE TILÁPIA (Oreochromis niloticus COMERCIALIZADOS NO MERCADO MODELO NERIVAL ARAÚJO, CURRAIS NOVOS/RN.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Angelo Gurgel da Rocha

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O peixe está entre os produtos de origem animal mais susceptíveis à proliferação microbiana, devido ao pH próximo a neutralidade, à elevada Atividade de Água nos tecidos e à alta disponibilidade de nutrientes. A baixa qualidade sanitária da matéria-prima ou condições inadequadas de higiene em fases da cadeia produtiva podem introduzir microrganismos indesejados. Na Região Seridó do Rio Grande do Norte, o pescado e seus derivados têm ampla aceitação pelo consumidor. Objetivamos quantificar a presença de estafilococos coagulase positivos em filés de Tilápia (Oreochromis niloticus comercializados no município citado. Foram analisadas 15 amostras obtidas no Mercado Modelo Nerival Araújo. Utilizou-se a Contagem Direta em Placa, com semeadura em superfície (ágar Manitol Salgado, 35°C/24-48h. A confirmação bioquímica dos microrganismos detectados foi realizada através dos testes de atividade termonuclease e coagulase. Em 100% das amostras, foram detectadas populações de S. aureus, sendo que em 73,3% dos casos, acima do padrão estabelecido pela legislação vigente. As altas contagens verificadas evidenciam a inadequação sanitária do material analisado, denunciando as baixas condições de higiene em sua produção e comercialização.

  19. Evaluation of plant and animal protein sources as partial or total replacement of fish meal in diets for juvenile Nile tilapia

    Science.gov (United States)

    A feeding trial was conducted in a closed system with Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) juveniles (mean weight, 2.84 g) to examine the effects of total replacement of fish meal (FM), with and without supplementation of DL-methionine (Met) and L-lysine (Lys), by plant protein sources. Fish were f...

  20. Risk estimates for children and pregnant women exposed to mercury-contaminated Oreochromis niloticus and Lates niloticus in Lake Albert Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Tamale; Francis, Ejobi; Charles, Muyanja; Irene, Naigaga; Jesca, Nakavuma; Ocaido, Micheal; Drago, Kato; Celsus, Sente; Deborah, Amulen; Rumbeiha, Wilson

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Exposure to mercury contaminated fish predisposes populations particularly children and pregnant women to various health hazards including neurotoxicity, reproductive abnormalities and cognitive disorders. Earlier studies in the Lake Albert community have demonstrated the presence of mercury in Nile tilapia and Nile perch. However, the risk estimates for vulnerable groups such as Children and pregnant women is not well documented. Secondary data-set from previous studies were employed comprising family household size and fish consumption history, fish consumption quantity and frequency and mercury levels in fish species in comparison with FAO/WHO guidelines. Data collected was used to establish the hazard quotients (HQs) for the vulnerable group and the general population. A risk model was developed using iRISK to demonstrate the Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) for eating different parts of the fish (muscle and bellyfat). HQ values (HQ = 2.05) above one for the vulnerable group were realized especially with Nile perch muscle. The highest DALYs (0.111) was obtained with tilapia muscle consumption. The study outcome reveals that vulnerable populations are at risk of non-carcinogenic complications. Therefore, there is a need for sensitization of the community especially the vulnerable groups about risks associated with consuming mercury-contaminated fish.

  1. Quality improvement and shelf-life extension of refrigerated Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus fillets using natural herbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathy A. Khalafalla

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was preformed to evaluate the effect of dip treatments by thyme (Thymus vulgaris extract (0.5% and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis extract (1.5% on the quality and shelf life of Nile tilapia (Orechromis niloticus fillets during refrigerated storage at 2 ± 1 °C. The control (untreated and treated groups were examined periodically at day zero and every 3 days (0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, .... during refrigeration until apparent decomposition of each group, with sensory, physicochemical and microbiological methods. The obtained results showed that thyme extract has strong antimicrobial and antioxidant activity and can maintain the quality parameters and extend the shelf life of refrigerated Nile tilapia fillets for 9 days longer than control one, while rosemary extract had efficient antioxidant activity with weak antimicrobial action.

  2. Farelo de canola para juvenis de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus, linhagem Chitralada - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v26i1.1896 Canola meal for juvenile Nile tilapia, Chitralada strain - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v26i1.1896

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Romano Fernandes

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar os efeitos da inclusão de diferentes níveis de farelo de canola em rações, sobre o desempenho e composição de carcaça de juvenis de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus L., linhagem Chitralada. Foram utilizadas 15 caixas de polipropileno com capacidade para 310L, com dez peixes por unidade. Os peixes foram alimentados à saciação com cinco rações isoprotéicas (28% e isocalóricas (2900 Kcal ED/Kg, duas vezes ao dia, durante seis meses. O farelo de canola foi utilizado em quatro níveis (TT=0%, T1=8%, T2=16%, T3=24%, e T4=32%/dieta, em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com cinco tratamentos e três repetições. Os valores obtidos foram submetidos à análise de variância (ANOVA e as médias comparadas pelo teste de Tukey (p0,1 sobre a composição corporal dos peixes, sendo que os níveis de 16% e 24% de farelo de canola proporcionaram os melhores ganhos de peso. Conclui-se que a utilização do farelo de canola é viável quando incluído em até 24% na ração para a tilápia do Nilo, linhagem Chitralada.This work evaluated the inclusion of several levels of canola meal in ration used in the development and carcass compositions of juvenile Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L., Chitralada strain. Were used 15 polypropylene boxes, with 310 liters (10 fish each. The fish were fed with five isonitrogenous (28% and isocaloric ration (2900 Kcal EM/kg, twice a day for six months. The canola meal was used in four levels (TT = 0%, T1 = 8%, T2 = 16%, T3 = 24% and T4 = 32% / diet, in a completely randomized design, with 5 treatments and three repetitions each. The data obtained were submitted to variance analysis (ANOVA and the averages compared by the Tukey test (p0,1 on fishes body composition, however had best body weight gain with canola meal on levels 16% and 24%. These values seem to show that for the Nile Tilapia, Chilatrada strain, the use of canola meal is viable when included in up

  3. Detoxification and antioxidant effects of garlic and curcumin in Oreochromis niloticus injected with aflatoxin B₁ with reference to gene expression of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) by RT-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Barbary, Manal I

    2016-04-01

    The present study aims to investigate the effects of both garlic and curcumin through evaluating their therapeutic properties as antioxidants on liver and kidney functions, hepatic antioxidants and GPx gene expression against aflatoxicosis of O. niloticus. In total, 180 of tilapia were divided into ten groups; T1 represented the negative control fed on a basal diet, and T2 was injected with a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) dose of AFB1 (6 mg/kg b.w.). Fish in T3-T6 were fed on a basal diet supplemented with both garlic (T3 and T4) and curcumin (T5 and T6) at the two concentrations of 10 and 20 g/kg diet, respectively. Fish in T7-T10 groups were injected with AFB1 and fed on the garlic (T7 and T8) and curcumin (T9 and T10) dietaries. The results showed that AFB1 has significant potency for increasing the activity of plasma AST, ALT, creatinine and uric acid values, and hepatic MDA as well as for reducing the concentrations of plasma TP, AL, GL and hepatic activity of TAC, while AFB1 led to up-regulated GPx gene expression when compared to the control (T1). These harmful effects of AFB1 were alleviated due to the garlic and curcumin dietaries in some studied parameters. Garlic reflected the highest induction of gene expression (T7); however, curcumin showed significant down-regulated (T9). These results concluded that the effects of garlic were better than curcumin at the two concentrations and the low concentration of them is more beneficial than the high concentration when it used against AFB1 in O. niloticus.

  4. Protective role of adjuvant and potassium permanganate on oxidative stress response of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) challenged with Saprolegnia ferax

    OpenAIRE

    Zahran, Eman; Risha, Engy

    2013-01-01

    Saprolegniosis are one of the most important oomycetes affecting freshwater fish worldwide. It leads to huge losses in fish farms due to their massive destruction to the fish epidermis leading to sever heamodilution and death, yet little literature studied the oxidative stress response regarding the saprolegniosis. Nile tilapia fish were subcutaneously abraded and divided into four groups: control group, abraded but not challenged, infected group, challenged with Saprolegnia. ferax (S. ferax)...

  5. The effects of periphyton substrate and fish stocking density on water quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Azim, M.E.; Verdegem, M.C.J.; Singh, M.; Dam, van A.A.; Beveridge, M.C.M.

    2003-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine how periphyton and phytoplankton biomass vary with grazing pressure by tilapia Oreochromis niloticus, to evaluate the growth performance of fish when substrate is introduced and to calculate the efficiency of nitrogen utilization in substrate and non-su

  6. Advancement on Breeding of Oreochromis niloticus%尼罗罗非鱼育种学研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵金良; 李思发

    2005-01-01

    罗非鱼(Tilapias)具有繁殖力强、生长快、抗病力强等优点,成为世界性养殖种类。目前,罗非鱼在世界养殖鱼类总产量中位居第5位。为进一步提高罗非鱼的养殖性能,国内外学者采用各种育种学手段,广泛开展了罗非鱼的育种研究和试验。限于篇幅,本文仅以在罗非鱼养殖中具有重要地位和代表性的尼罗罗非鱼(Oreochromis niloticus)为对象,概述其育种研究的进展和应用情况,并分析了各种育种手段的特点。

  7. 不同铁源对吉富罗非鱼生长及表观消化率的影响%Effects of different iron sources on the growth of and apparent digestibility Oreochromis niloticus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王进; 刘恒见; 黄峰; 韩金林

    2014-01-01

    为观察不同铁源对吉富罗非鱼( Oreochromis niloticus)生长及表观消化率的影响,试验以初重6.79 g左右的吉富罗非鱼为饲养对象,采用酪蛋白、糊精为主要原料制成半精制日粮,分别添加铁含量相等(100 mg/kg饲料)的硫酸亚铁、氯化铁、氯化亚铁、柠檬酸亚铁、卟啉铁,饲喂吉富罗非鱼70 d。结果显示,在铁含量相等(100 mg/kg饲料)的半精制日粮中添加氯化亚铁,吉富罗非鱼的增重率显著( P<0.05)高于其它四种铁源。以增重率为指标,吉富罗非鱼日粮中适宜以氯化亚铁作为添加铁源。%In order to study the effects of diets with different iron sources on the growth performance and apparent digesti -bility in Oreochromis niloticus, the O.niloticus with approximate initial weight of 6.79 g were fed with daily diets varied of 5 iron sources for 70 days under water circulating system .The daily diets were mainly formulating by casein and dextrin with the same Fe amount level (100 mg/kg) from different iron sources, ferrisulphas (FeSO4· 7H2O), ferric chloride (FeCl3· 6H2O), ferrous chloride (FeCl2· 4H2O), ferrous citrate(Fe3(C6H3O7)2· 6H2O) and ferroporphyrin (C34H32 ClFeN4O4) respectively.The results indicated that the weight gain rate (WGR) of O.niloticus fed under the daily diet with ferrous chloride was significantly higher than that under the other four groups (P<0.05).Considered WGR as a mainly indicator , the ferrous chloride should be the most suitable iron source added to daily diet for O.niloticus.

  8. Effects of oxygen concentration and body weight on maximum feed intake, growth and hematological parameters of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran Duy, A.; Schrama, J.W.; Dam, van A.A.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2008-01-01

    Feed intake and satiation in fish are regulated by a number of factors, of which dissolved oxygen concentration (DO) is important. Since fish take up oxygen through the limited gill surface area, all processes that need energy, including food processing, depend on their maximum oxygen uptake capacit

  9. Viabilidad y crecimiento de poblaciones diploides y triploides de tilapia nilotica, oreochromis niloticus, línea Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celis M. Cesar

    1995-11-01

    Full Text Available The principal aim of this research was to produce triploid offspring of O. niloticus, applying warm thermic shocks (41A-42 oC to eggs during 3,5-4 min., 3,5 mino after fertilization, or cold shocks (10,8-11,3 oC to oocytes during one hour, 5 min after their fertilization. The best tissue to confirm triploids was kidney and brain of larvae and alevines. Then, the survival of fertilized eggs and growth rate were determined. The results show that the warm and cold shocks are efficient to produce 100% triploids, with different rates of survival. Also, that 25,5% oftspring was deformed when cold shocks were applyed, and 32,5% deformities with warm shocks. There were not significant difterences in growth between triploid and diploid populations
    after three months of age.La triploidía se obtuvo aplicando choques térmicos calientes (41.4 - 42 OC a oocitos durante 3.5 - 4 minutos, 3.5 min. después de la fertilización, y choques térmicos fríos (10.8 - 11.3 oC a oocitos durante una hora, 5 minutos de su fertilización. La triploidía se comprobó por análisis cromosomal en larvas y alevinos. Luego se monitoreó la tasa de crecimiento y sobrevivencia de los huevos fertilizados. Los resultados indican que los choques calientes y fríos fueron eficientes para producir ciento por ciento de triploidía, con tasas variables de sobrevivencia. Se observaron deformidades de peces trioloides (25.5% con choques frfos, y 32.5% con choques calientes. No se encontraron diferencias significativas en el crecimiento entre poblaciones triploides y diploides luego de tres meses de cultivo.

  10. 氨氮胁迫下罗非鱼(GIFT Oreochromis niloticus)机体免疫力的变化及其对海豚链球菌易感性的影响%The immune response of GIFT Oreochromis niloticus and its susceptibility to Streptococcus iniae under stress in different ammonia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈家长; 臧学磊; 胡庚东; 瞿建宏; 范立民; 宋超

    2011-01-01

    研究了不同作用时间(0、24、48、96和120 h)下不同质量浓度氨氮(对照组、1、3、5和10 mg·L-1)对罗非鱼(GIFT Oreochromis niloticus)血清SOD、AKP、溶菌酶和补体C3活性的影响,以及不同质量浓度氨氮(对照组、1、3、5和10 mg·L-1)胁迫下罗非鱼对海豚链球菌的易感性.结果显示:在1.0 mg·L-1氨氮质量浓度下,罗非鱼血清SOD活性在24 h受到诱导;在3.0、5.0和10.0 mg·L-1氨氮质量浓度下,罗非鱼血清SOD活性均受到抑制,最大抑制率分别达18.85%、23.47%和38.46%.在1.0 mg·L-1氨氮质量浓度下,罗非鱼血清AKP活性在0~96 h呈先降低后恢复的趋势;5.0和10.0 mg·L-1实验组的血清AKP活性在24~120 h则一直受到抑制.1.0 mg·L-1实验组的罗非鱼血清溶菌酶活性在24~120 h一直无显著变化,3.0、5.0和10.0mg·L-1实验组的血清溶菌酶活性随着氨氮质量浓度的升高而降低.1.0 mg·L-1实验组的罗非鱼血清补体C3活性在各个采样时间下均大于对照组,而5.0和10.0 mg·L-1实验组补体C3活性始终受到抑制.罗非鱼对海豚链球菌的易感性实验研究显示,置于3.0、5.0和10.0 mg-L-1的罗非鱼的累积死亡率分别为43.33%、46.67%和63.33%,显著高于对照组和1.0 mg·L-1实验组,表明氨氮质量浓度超过3.0 mg·L-1能够增加罗非鱼对海豚链球菌的易感性.本实验认为,超过3 mg·L-1的氨氮质量浓度胁迫能够显著降低罗非鱼的免疫力,增加对海豚链球菌的易感性.因此在罗非鱼健康养殖中,调控并降低氨氮质量浓度非常重要.%The experiment, including the susceptible test of tilapia exposed to Streptococcus iniae and the test on effect of immune-related enzymes (superoxide dismutaso, SOD; lysozyme; alkaline phosphates, AKP and supplement C3) to tilapia under different ammonia, was carried out to reveal the relationship between ammonia and its stress effect on the susceptible to tilapia and the immunity to fish exposed to

  11. 尼罗罗非鱼幼鱼饲料的适宜脂肪需要量%Optimal dietary lipid requirement of advanced juvenile Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    涂玮; 田娟; 文华; 蒋明; 吴凡; 刘伟; 张明明; 孙立威

    2012-01-01

    , and reduces environmental pollution from the feed and its metabolites. However, little is known about the dietary lipid requirements of juvenile Oreochromis niloticus. Our objective was to determine the optimal dietary lipid requirement of advanced juvenile O. Niloticus. We randomly assigned fish (n= 360) with average initial body weight of (46.14±4.67) g into 6 groups consisting of 4 replicates (n=15 fish/replicate). Each group was fed a diet containing either 0 (control group), 3%, 6, 9%, 12%, or 15% fish oil for 8 weeks (actual lipid level was 0.20%, 2.70%, 6.11%, 8.04%, 11.13%, and 14.85%, respectively). We measured growth, lipid deposition, serum biochemical indexes, and lipid metabolism enzyme activities at the end of the trial. Weight gain rate (WGR), specific growth rate (SGR), and protein efficiency ratio (PER) initially increased with increasing lipid concentrations but then decreased. Conversely, the feed conversation ratio (FCR) first decreased then increased. Using second order regression analysis, we estimated that the optimal level of dietary lipid to promote WGR, FCR, and PER was 8.86%, 9.75% and 9.40%, respectively. An increase in dietary lipid levels was associated with a significant increase in the hepatosomatic index (HIS) and crude fat content in both the whole body and muscle (P<0.05). Serum total cholesterol (TCHO) and triglyceride (TG) levels first increased then decreased as the level of dietary lipid increased. High density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) content first increased then plateaued as levels of dietary lipid increased. Broken-line regression analysis of the HDL-C content against dietary lipid level indicated that the dietary lipid requirement for optimal HDL-C content was 8.30%. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity were highest in the group fed 11.13% dietary lipid and lowest in the group fed 6.11% dietary lipid. Intestine lipase, lipoprotein lipase (LPL), hepatic lipase (HL) and total

  12. Redução da proteína da dieta com base no conceito de proteína ideal para tilápias-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus criadas em tanques-rede Dietary protein reduction based on ideal protein concept for Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus cultured in net pens

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    Daniele Botaro

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o desempenho de tilápias-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus criadas em tanques-rede e alimentadas com dietas contendo 27,0 (controle; 25,2; 24,3 e 22,7% de proteína digestível. Aminoácidos cristalinos (L-lisina, DL-metionina e L-treonina foram adicionados à dieta considerando o conceito de proteína ideal e simulando o perfil de aminoácidos da dieta controle. Os peixes (34,63±19 g foram alimentados manualmente com dietas isoenergéticas (3.075 kcal de energia digestível/kg de dieta até saciedade aparente, três vezes ao dia, durante 91 dias. Utilizou-se um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro tratamentos, três repetições e 25 peixes/unidade experimental. Não foram observados efeitos dos níveis de proteína digestível sobre o ganho de peso, a conversão alimentar, a taxa de eficiência protéica, o peso da carcaça eviscerada, o rendimento de carcaça, o peso e o rendimento de filé, a sobrevivência e o hematócrito. Houve efeito quadrático dos níveis de proteína digestível sobre o consumo; o maior valor foi estimado para a dieta contendo 24,41% de proteína digestível e excreção de nitrogênio, na qual o melhor resultado estimado foi obtido com peixes que receberam a dieta contendo 24,92% de PD. Com a redução nos níveis de proteína digestível, observou-se aumento linear na retenção de nitrogênio. É possível reduzir o nível de proteína digestível, de 27 (29,1% de PB para 24,3% (26,6% de PB, em dietas para tilápias-do-nilo criadas em tanques-rede. Essa redução deve ser feita por meio da suplementação de aminoácidos (com base no conceito de proteína ideal, considerando o desempenho e o custo da dieta/kg ganho em filé.This study was carried out to evaluate the performance of Nile tilapia, cultured in net pens, and fed diets containing 27.0 (control, 25.2, 24.3, and 22.7% of digestible protein. Crystalline amino acids (L-lysine, DL-methionine and L-threonine were added to keep amino acid

  13. Cloning and characterization of type III iodothyronine deiodinase from the fish Oreochromis niloticus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.P. Sanders; S. van der Geyten; E. Kaptein (Ellen); V.M. Darras (Veerle); E.R. Kuhn; J.L. Leonard; T.J. Visser (Ton)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractType III iodothyronine deiodinase (D3) catalyzes the inner ring deiodination (IRD) of T4 and T3 to the inactive metabolites rT3 and 3,3'-diiodothyronine (3,3'-T2), respectively. Here we describe the cloning and characterization of complementary DNA (cDNA) co

  14. Flora bacteriana de tilápia do Nilo, Oreochromis niloticus, cultivada em sistema semi-intensivo - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v25i2.2007 Bacterial microflora in the gastrointestinal tract of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, cultured in a semi-intensive system- DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v25i2.2007

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    Benetido Prado Dias Filho

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available A flora bacteriana de diferentes partes do trato gastrintestinal de tilápia Oreochomis niloticus L. (Cichlidae foi determinada. O número médio de bactérias foi maior no intestino anterior e posterior quando comparado ao estômago. A porcentagem total de espécies bacterianas isoladas e a porcentagem de espécies isoladas em uma espécie particular variaram significativamente entre as regiões do trato gastrintestinal. Aeromonas hydrophila, Aeromonas veronii, Burkholderia cepacia, Chromobacterium violaceum, Citrobacter freundii, Escherichia coli, Flavimonas oryzihabitans e Plesiomonas shigelloides foram os bacilos Gram-negativos encontrados com maior freqüência. Destas espécies, somente Plesiomonas shigelloides esteve presente em cada região do trato gastrintestinal, apresentando maior número no intestino posterior (76%, quando comparado com o intestino anterior (4.8% e o estômago (0.6%. Aeromonas hydrophila (0.6%, Escherichia coli (7.4%, e Flavimonas oryzihabitans foram isoladas somente do estômago, e Citrobacter freundii e Burkholderia cepacia foram encontradas somente no intestino posterior. Chromobacterium violaceum foi a espécie dominante isolada do estômago e do intestino anterior com 90% e 55%, respectivamente. Organismos não identificados compreendem 0 – 39.3% da microbiota gastrintestinalThis experiment measured total bacterial numbers in the gastrointestinal regions of semi-intensively cultured tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus L. (Cichlidae. Mean bacterial numbers were higher in both anterior and posterior gut than in stomach. The percentage of isolated species and the percentage of isolates from any particular species varied significantly among gastrointestinal tract regions. Aeromonas hydrophila, Aeromonas veronii, Burkholderia cepacia, Chromobacterium violaceum, Citrobacter freundii, Escherichia coli, Flavimonas oryzihabitans and Plesiomonas shigelloides were the most frequently isolated Gram-negative bacilli. From

  15. Dietary choline requirements of adult GIFT tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)%吉富罗非鱼成鱼胆碱的最适需要量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵辉; 文华; 刘伟; 蒋明; 吴凡; 田娟; 黄凤

    2013-01-01

    选用初始体质量为(220.00±8.34) g的吉富罗非鱼(Oreochromis niloticus)360尾,随机分成6组,每组3重复(每重复20尾),于1 m×1 m×1.5 m池塘网箱中饲养。分别饲喂胆碱含量为97.80(对照组)、375.04、565.74、974.27、1409.81、1824.35 mg/kg的半纯化饲料10周,研究胆碱对吉富罗非鱼成鱼生长、饲料利用、鱼体营养组成、胆碱蓄积量及部分血液生化指标的影响。结果显示,经过10周的饲喂,饲料中添加胆碱可显著提高鱼体增重率、特定生长率和饲料效率(P<0.05);降低肝脂肪含量(P<0.05),提高肌肉脂肪含量(P<0.05);显著升高肝胆碱蓄积量(P<0.05);胆碱添加组血清甘油三酯(TG)和总胆固醇(T-CHO)显著高于对照组(P<0.05),并随饲料胆碱含量增加呈现升高的趋势;肝甘油三酯(TG)和总胆固醇(T-CHO)随着胆碱含量的增加而显著降低(P<0.05);血清谷草转氨酶(ALT)、谷丙转氨酶(AST)和碱性磷酸酶(ALP)均随着饲料胆碱含量的增大而显著降低(P<0.05)。结果表明,饲料中添加适量的胆碱可以改善吉富罗非鱼成鱼的生长性能,提高饲料利用效率,降低肝脂肪含量,促进肝脂肪转运;对特定生长率进行回归分析,得出吉富罗非鱼成鱼对饲料中胆碱的最低需要量为506.43 mg/kg,而对肝胆碱蓄积量回归分析得出的需要量为981.38 mg/kg。%A10-week feeding trial was conducted to study the effect of dietary choline chloride supplementation on the growth performance, lipid metabolism, feed utilization, body composition, serum biochemical indices, liver lipid content, and muscle and liver choline content of adult GIFT tilapia(Oreochromis niloticus). The basal diet contained 27.60%crude protein and 6.45%crude lipid. The basal diet was supplemented with choline chloride (0, 300, 600, 1200, 1 800, and 2 400 mg choline per kg food) to formulate six semi-purified diets containing choline of 97.80(control group), 375.04, 565.74, 974.27, 1409

  16. The use of crude extracts from traditional medicinal plants to eliminate Trichodina sp. in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus fingerlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanagun Chitmanat

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The treatment for ectoparasitic diseases in freshwater fish with formalin seems at present to be ineffective. For this reason it is evidently a useless cost. In addition, formalin possibly leaves toxic residues in fish flesh and in the environment which are eventually harmful to consumers. The alternative way to solve this problem is to use traditional medicinal plants instead. The purpose of this research is to determine the possibility of using garlic (Allium sativum and Indian almond (Terminalia catappa as optional chemicals to treat fish ectoparasites, Trichodina sp. The results showed that crude extracts of either garlic or Indian almond at 800 mg/l significantly (P < 0.05 eliminated Trichodina sp. infections in tilapia (average weight 3.62±0.06 g each. To evaluate the acute toxicity of these products to the host fish, groups of 20 tilapia (same size as abovewere exposed to 3 concentrations of each product for 96 h. Mortality was then determined. The 2 h LC50 for tilapia exposed to crude extract of garlic was 2,259.44 mg/L while the 16 h LC50 for tilapia exposed to Indian almond extract was 46,665.94 mg/L. This information is the beneficial and fundamental knowledge to develop guidelines to reduce the use of chemicals and antibiotics in freshwater fish culture businesses. The research is underway to determine the long-term effect of Indian almond and garlic to tilapia, if any.

  17. Parâmetros hematológicos e bioquímicos da tilápia-do-Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus L. sob estresse por exposição ao ar Hematological parameters of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L. under air exposure stress

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    Roberta Dias da Silva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho avaliaram-se os parâmetros hematológicos e bioquímicos de exemplares adultos de tilápias (Oreochromis niloticus sob a influência do fator estresse fisiológico em animais submetidos à exposição ao ar durante a engorda em sistema raceway. Foram analisados o eritrograma, teor de hemoglobina, volume globular, o volume corpuscular médio (VCM, a hemoglobina corpuscular média (HCM, a concentração de hemoglobina corpuscular média (CHCM, o leucograma, contagem diferencial de leucócitos, o plaquetograma, a glicose, a proteína total, o colesterol, o triglicerídeo e os eletrólitos (cálcio, cloretos, sódio e potássio. Os resultados revelaram que houve uma homogeneidade de distribuição para hemácias, volume globular, hemoglobina, índices hemantimétricos, proteína total, glicose, colesterol, e íons séricos, indicados pelos valores relativamente baixos do coeficiente de variação. Houve correlação positiva somente para leucócitos totais, células de defesa orgânica (neutrófilos e linfócitos, glicose, colesterol, sódio e cálcio. Quanto ao leucograma, à medida que os animais foram expostos ao ar, o número de leucócitos diminuiu gradativamente (leucopenia, ocorrendo simultaneamente neutrofilia e linfopenia. O índice glicêmico constituiu um bom indicador de estresse fisiológico, devido à hiperglicemia (82,0±20,88mg/dL demonstrada nos tratamentos. A exposição ao ar constituiu um fator de desequilíbrio na homeostase iônica, e na síntese de colesterol endógeno. Entretanto, o tempo de recuperação não ocasionou a completa reabilitação fisiológica frente ao desafio imposto.The present study evaluated the hematological and biochemical parameters of adult tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus under the influence of the physiological stress factor in animals submitted to air exposure during fattening in raceway system. Blood cell count, hemoglobin, hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume (MCV, mean

  18. Efeito da vitamina C sobre o hematócrito e glicemia de alevinos de tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus em transporte simulado Effect of vitamin C over the haematocrit and glycemia of nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus alevins in simulated transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Okamura

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito do ascorbato sobre o hematócrito e glicemia em alevinos de tilápia nilótica (Oreochromis niloticus submetidos à simulação de práticas relacionadas ao transporte. Foram utilizadas três dietas experimentais com diferentes níveis de vitamina C (16, 500 e 1000mg de vitamina C/kg, fornecidas durante os 14 dias anteriores à simulação do transporte que se estendeu por 14 horas. O tratamento que continha 16mg de vitamina C/kg foi o que apresentou a glicemia mais elevada logo após a simulação, 108,5mg/dl imediatamente após a simulação e 91mg/dl 12 horas após a simulação. A concentração de 1000mg de vitamina C/kg foi a mais eficiente no controle do aumento da glicemia, 94,6mg/dl imediatamente após a simulação e 74,4mg/dl 12 horas após a simulação. Para a concentração de 500mg de vitamina C/kg foram observados os níveis de 91,4mg/dl imediatamente após a simulação e 103,8mg/dl 12 horas após a simulação. Os valores do hematócrito não apresentaram variação significativa (P>0,05. A suplementação com 1000mg de vitamina C/kg por 14 dias anteriores ao transporte pode ser utilizada de forma profilática em alevinos de tilápia nilótica para amenizar o aumento da glicemia relacionado ao estresse.The effects of ascorbate on the haematocrit and blood glucose level were evaluated in Nile tilapia alevins (Oreochromis niloticus submitted to a transport simulation. Three experimental diets with different levels of vitamin C (16, 500 and 1000mg/kg were given for 14 days before the simulation of the transport. The treatment containing 16mg of vitamin C showed the highest level of glucose after the simulation (108.5mg/dl immediately after the transport and 91mg/dl 12 hours after the transport. The vitamin C concentration of 1000mg/kg was the most efficient treatment to control glycemia increases (94.6mg/dl immediately after the simulation and 74.4mg/dl 12 hour after simulation. In the 500mg/kg treatment, the

  19. Morphological characteristics of ovarian development of two Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus strains in mixed-culture systems Características morfológicas do desenvolvimento ovariano de duas linhagens de tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus, em sistemas de cultivo misto

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    P.R. Neves

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to morphologically characterize and classify the stages of gonad development in different Nile tilapia strains (Oreochromis niloticus. Eighty-four and ninety-two ovaries from Bouaké and Chitralada strains, respectively, were evaluated at different ovarian developmental phases: initial (104 days of culture, intermediate (152 days of culture, and the final (279 days of culture. The ovaries were microscopically evaluated and submitted to histological processing and hematoxylin-eosin staining to determine their characteristics and be classified. No morphological differences in ovaries between strains were observed during the initial phase (stage A - immature. During the intermediate growing phase, higher gonad development was observed for Chitralada strain (stage B - maturation in comparison with Bouaké strain (stage A - immature. During the final growing phase, no differences between strains were observed for morphological characteristics (stage C - mature. Despite the similarities in reproductive behavior of the Bouaké and Chitralada females at the end of the final growing phase (gain weight phase, differences for macroscopic and microscopic aspects and oocytes during the initial and intermediate growing phases of the strains were observed.Este trabalho teve como objetivo caracterizar morfologicamente e classificar os estádios de desenvolvimento gonadal de tilápias do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus de linhagens distintas. Foram avaliados 84 ovários da linhagem Bouaké e 92 da linhagem Chitralada, em diferentes fases de desenvolvimento: inicial (imatura - 104 dias de cultivo, intermediária (crescimento - 152 dias de cultivo e final (ganho de peso - 279 dias de cultivo. Os ovários foram analisados macroscopicamente e submetidos a procedimento histológico, corados com hematoxilina-eosina, para determinação das características microscópicas e subsequente classificação. Não foram observadas diferenças morfol

  20. Effect of core homeopathic homeopatila 100® in productive efficiency of fingerlings reverted from nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Efeito do núcleo homeopático homeopatila 100® na eficiência produtiva em alevinos revertidos de tilápia do nilo (Oreochromis niloticus

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    Ricardo Pereira Ribeiro

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available It was researched the effect of Core Homeopathic Homeopatila 100® on the integrity branchial histological, weight, final length, survival, feed conversion and apparent index hepatossomátic in fingerlings from Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus. We used in the control treatment (T1 with 20mL/kg water-alcohol solution (alcohol 30 GL and three treatments with 20mL/kg (T2, 40mL/kg (T3 e 60mL/kg (T4 of core homeopathic Homeopatila 100® in fingerlings male reversed, with initial weight and initial length the 1,05 ± 0,32g and 4,15 ± 0,42cm respectively. It was distributed a total of 832 fingerlings in 16 polyethylene water tanks with individual capacity of 2000 liters, contends 1000 liters each one, where they ha remained during 61 days. At the end of experiment, was not observed statistic difference between the different treatments in histological changes examined in gills: epithelial lifting, hyperplasia, telangectasy and lamellar fusion. The fingerlings which received 40mL/kg of Homeopatila 100® (T3 showed a higher rate of survival and also lower rate than the other hepatossomátic the fingerlings in control group (T1.Foi pesquisado o efeito do Núcleo Homeopático Homeopatila 100® na integridade histológica branquial, na sobrevivência, peso, comprimento final, conversão alimentar aparente e índice hepatossomático em alevinos de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus. Foi utilizado um tratamento controle (T1 com 20mL de solução hidroalcólica (álcool 30° GL a cada kg de ração e três tratamentos com 20mL/kg (T2, 40mL/kg (T3 e 60mL/kg (T4 do Núcleo Homeopático Homeopatila 100®, em alevinos machos revertidos, com peso e comprimento médio inicial de 1,05 ± 0,32g e 4,15 ± 0,42cm respectivamente. Foi distribuído um total de 832 alevinos em 16 caixas d´agua com capacidade individual de 2000 litros, contendo 1000 litros cada uma, onde permaneceram durante 61 dias. No final do experimento, não foi observada diferença estat

  1. Growth and production performance of monosex tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fed with homemade feed in earthen mini ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, G U; Sultana, N; Shamsuddin, M; Hossain, M Belal

    2013-12-01

    Field experiment was conducted to evaluate the growth performance of monosex tilapia using homemade feed with Peninsula Group fish meal and commercially available feed with local fish meal in earthen mini ponds from June-September 2010. Three ponds (T1) were supplied with prepared feed and the other three ponds (T2) with commercially available fish feed. Fish were fed at the rate of 10% of their body weight for the first thirty days then gradually reduced to 6% for the next ten days, 2% for the next ten days and 3% for remaining days. The temperature were ranged from 31.5-33.0 degrees C, DO from 5.5-15 mg L(-1) in T1 and 6.5-14 mg L(-1) in T2, pH from 7.1-8.0 in T1 and 7.1-7.7 in T2, alkalinity from 105-160 mg L(-1) inT1 and 100-145 mg L(-1) in T2, nitrate was 0.06 mg L(-1) in both treatments and ammonia from 0.02 and 0.04 mg L(-1) in T1 and T2, respectively. The results of the present study showed that the best weight gain was observed as 123.48 g in T1 than T2 (111.82 g). The Specific Growth Rate (SGR) was recorded 3.09 and 2.97 and the Food Conversion Ratio (FCR) was 1.51 and 1.40 in T1 and T2, respectively. There was significant (p < 0.05) variation among the survival rate (%) of fishes which were 75.55 and 90.37% in T1 and T2, respectively. The fish productions were 19076 and 16312.11 kg ha(-1) in T1 and T2. The highest net profit (Taka/ha/70 days) of Tk. 15, 83,213 was obtained with T1 So, the prepared feed showed better performance with monosex tilapia in compared with commercial fish feed with local fish meal. PMID:24506048

  2. Efficacy of florfenicol for control of mortality with Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis in Nile tilapia, oreochromis niloticus (L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis (Fno) (syn. F. asiatica) is an emergent Gram-negative facultative intracellular bacterium. Although it is considered one of the most pathogenic bacteria in fish, there are no commercially available treatments of vaccines. The objective of this project was ...

  3. Consistency of individual variation in feeding behaviour and its relationship with performance traits in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martins, C.I.; Conceição, L.E.C.; Schrama, J.W.

    2011-01-01

    Feed intake is commonly used as one of the most important performance indicators in fish. However, very little is known about the behavioural processes involved in ingesting food such as meal duration, feeding frequency and latency to start eating. This study aims at the characterization of feeding

  4. Growth Performance and Resistance to Streptococcus iniae of Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus Fed Various Dietary Levels of Thiamin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiamin or vitamin B1 functions in all cells as the coenzyme thiamin pyrophosphate that involves in the oxidative decarboxylation of an alpha-keto acids and the transketolase reactions in the pentose phosphate pathway. Thiamin has been demonstrated to be essential in diets of fish, and quantitative ...